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A radiative transfer model was used to convert ground measured reflectances into the radiance at the top of the atmosphere, for several levels of atmospheric path radiance. The radiance in MSS7 (0.8 to 1.1 m) was multiplied by the transmission fraction for atmospheres having different levels of precipitable water. The radiance values were converted to simulated LANDSAT digital counts for four path radiance levels and four levels of precipitable water. These values were used to calculate the Kauth-Thomas brightness, greenness, yellowness, and nonsuch factors. Brightness was affected by surface conditions and path radiance. Greenness was affected by surface conditions, path radiance, and precipitable water. Yellowness was affected by path radiance and nonsuch by precipitable water, and both factors changed only slightly with surface conditions. Yellowness and nonsuch were used to adjust brightness and greenness to produce factors that were affected only by surface conditions such as soils and vegetation, and not by path radiance and precipitable water.
Jackson, R. D.; Slater, P. N.; Pinter, P. J. (principal investigators)
Shortwave spectral radiance models for use in the spectral correction algorithms for the ERBE Scanner Instrument are provided. The required data base was delivered to the ERBe Data Reduction Group in October 1984. It consisted of two sets of data files: (1) the spectral bidirectional angular models and (2) the spectral flux modes. The bidirectional models employ the angular characteristics of reflection by the Earth-atmosphere system and were derived from detailed radiance calculations using a finite difference model of the radiative transfer process. The spectral flux models were created through the use of a delta-Eddington model to economically simulate the effects of atmospheric variability. By combining these data sets, a wide range of radiances may be approximated for a number of scene types.
Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds.
A new fully spherical multiple scattering Monte Carlo radiative transfer model named NIMO (NIWA Monte Carlo model) is presented. The ray tracing algorithm is described in detail along with the treatment of scattering and absorption, and the simulation of backward adjoint trajectories. The primary application of NIMO is the calculation of box-air-mass factors (box-AMFs), which are used to convert slant column densities (SCDs) of trace gases, derived from UV-visible multiple axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurements, into vertical column densities (VCDs). Box-AMFs are also employed as weighting functions for optimal estimation retrievals of vertical trace gas profiles from SCDs. Monte Carlo models are well suited to AMF calculations at high solar zenith angles (SZA) and at low viewing elevation angles where multiple scattering is important. Additionally, the object-oriented structure of NIMO makes it easily extensible to new applications by plugging in objects for new absorbing or scattering species. Box-AMFs and radiances, calculated for various wavelengths, SZAs, viewing elevation and azimuth angles and aerosol scenarios, are compared with results from nine other models using a set of exercises from a recent radiative transfer model intercomparison. NIMO results for these simulations are well within the range of variability of the other models.
Hay, Timothy D.; Bodeker, Greg E.; Kreher, Karin; Schofield, Robyn; Liley, J. Ben; Scherer, Martin; McDonald, Adrian J.
The major factors influencing tanker safety are discussed. For the discussion information has been gleaned from maritime labour officials, industry experts and a recent United States Coast Guard study on tanker safety. Results of other tanker safety studies and\\/or accident reports are also utilized. Some of the factors analysed are the size and age of vessel, licence qualifications for mates
This Memorandum describes experiments which sought to identify the factors that contribute to coding errors. The experiments used code-stimulus materials: numeric codes, consisting only of numbers; alpha codes, consisting only of letters; alpha-numeric co...
In the gridpoint statistical interpolation (GSI) data assimilation algorithm, only thermal infrared measurements determined to be uncontaminated by clouds are assimilated. Using this approach, typically only 19-29% of footprints are deemed to have no cloud affects through the measured spectra. This study will discuss the efforts underway at the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, in conjunction with the Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation (JCSDA), to actively assimilate these morecomplicated observations by using a graybody assumption. In the GSI, cloud top pressure and effective cloud amount are retrieved concurrently using a minimum residual method. This study will address the limitations and advantages of the technique and the modifications underway to the assimilation system to incorporate those two parameters into the radiative transfer forward operators and TL/AD calculations. Furthermore, it will explain the efforts underway to incorporate these parameters into the control vector so that they can be altered variationally as part of the minimization.
A radiative transfer model was used to convert ground measured reflectances into the radiance at the top of the atmosphere, for several levels of atmospheric path radiance. The radiance in MSS7 (0.8 to 1.1 m) was multiplied by the transmission fraction fo...
The paper presents a survey among 300 employees in Northern Italy to assess the willingness to mentor and identify the factors that affect it. Men and respondents with previous mentoring experience indicate a higher willingness to be a mentor. Willingness is affected by personal characteristics that are perceived as necessary for a mentor and the…
Ghislieri, Chiara; Gatti, Paola; Quaglino, Gian Piero
In the semi-arid tropics worldwide, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is cultivated by farmers on a subsistence level and consumed as food by humans. A nutritional limitation to its use is the poor digestibility of sorghum protein when wet cooked. The factorsaffecting wet cooked sorghum protein digestibility may be categorised into two main groups: exogenous factors (grain organisational structure,
K. G Duodu; J. R. N Taylor; P. S Belton; B. R Hamaker
While many epidemiological studies have associated the consumption of polyphenols within fruits and vegetables with a decreased risk of developing several chronic diseases, intervention studies have generally not confirmed these beneficial effects. The reasons for this discrepancy are not fully understood but include potential differences in dosing, interaction with the food matrix, and differences in polyphenol bioavailability. In addition to endogenous factors such as microbiota and digestive enzymes, the food matrix can also considerably affect bioaccessibility, uptake, and further metabolism of polyphenols. While dietary fiber (such as hemicellulose), divalent minerals, and viscous and protein-rich meals are likely to cause detrimental effects on polyphenol bioaccessibility, digestible carbohydrates, dietary lipids (especially for hydrophobic polyphenols, e.g., curcumin), and additional antioxidants may enhance polyphenol availability. Following epithelial uptake, polyphenols such as flavonoids may reduce phase II metabolism and excretion, enhancing polyphenol bioavailability. Furthermore, polyphenols may act synergistically due to their influence on efflux transporters such as p-glycoprotein. In order to understand polyphenol bioactivity, increased knowledge of the factorsaffecting polyphenol bioavailability, including dietary factors, is paramount. PMID:24828476
For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.
This Classroom Connectors lesson plan discusses factorsaffecting the weather on Earth. Students learn about solar radiation, wind circulation, precipitation, and biomes that result from weather patterns. The site provides goals, objectives, an outline, time required, materials, activities, and closure ideas for the lesson. The Classroom Connectors address content with an activity approach while incorporating themes necessary to raise the activity to a higher cognition level. The major motivation is to employ instructional strategies that bring the students physically and mentally into touch with the science they are studying.
? Several studies have noted that increasing age is a significant factor for diminished rotator cuff healing, while biomechanical studies have suggested the reason for this may be an inferior healing environment in older patients.? Larger tears and fatty infiltration or atrophy negatively affect rotator cuff healing.? Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, double-row repairs, performing a concomitant acromioplasty, and the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) do not demonstrate an improvement in structural healing over mini-open rotator cuff repairs, single-row repairs, not performing an acromioplasty, or not using PRP.? There is conflicting evidence to support postoperative rehabilitation protocols using early motion over immobilization following rotator cuff repair. PMID:24806015
Mall, Nathan A; Tanaka, Miho J; Choi, Luke S; Paletta, George A
Specific demographic attributes that influence salary at institutions of higher education were studied through data from 420 faculty members at 9 institutions. Results suggested that experience, publication rates, time at the institution, and possession of a terminal degree affected salary levels. The presence of salary compression was noted. (SLD)
The simplest model of iron absorption must consider (1) the mucosal uptake of dietary iron and (2) the transfer of iron from intestinal cells into the body. It provides three anatomic locations for studying regulatory factors: (a) intraluminal, (b) duoden...
This study identifies the internal and external factors which differentiate women who enter male-traditional vocational training programs from those who enter female-traditional programs. Data were collected from 470 women enrolled in California vocational training programs. The sample was stratified on both social class and type of vocational…
Among many challenges to achieving and maintaining glycemic control, the impact of pharmacologic agents on glycemia is a significant,\\u000a but often overlooked factor. Numerous medications have been implicated in the development of drug-induced hyperglycemia and\\u000a type 2 diabetes mellitus. Of these, the atypical antipsychotics (for the management of depression and psychosis), the protease-inhibitor\\u000a anti retroviral agents (for the management of
Software faults that infrequently affect software's output are dangerous. When a software fault causes frequent software failures, testing is likely to reveal the fault before the software is releases; when the fault remains undetected during testing, it can cause disaster after the software is installed. A technique for predicting whether a particular piece of software is likely to reveal faults within itself during testing is found in [Voas91b]. A piece of software that is likely to reveal faults within itself during testing is said to have high testability. A piece of software that is not likely to reveal faults within itself during testing is said to have low testability. It is preferable to design software with higher testabilities from the outset, i.e., create software with as high of a degree of testability as possible to avoid the problems of having undetected faults that are associated with low testability. Information loss is a phenomenon that occurs during program execution that increases the likelihood that a fault will remain undetected. In this paper, I identify two brad classes of information loss, define them, and suggest ways of predicting the potential for information loss to occur. We do this in order to decrease the likelihood that faults will remain undetected during testing.
Data of the Pakistan Contraceptive Prevalence Survey of 1984-85 were used to determine whether there are any differentials in fertility levels by age at marriage, educational level, work status, region of residence (province), and place of residence (urban or rural) in Pakistan. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses examined the effects of these factors on fertility. The technique of Multiple Classification Analysis (MCA) was used to determine the net effect of each factor. Among the predictors, age at marriage was the most significant variable, followed by the husband's education, woman's education, husband's occupation, woman's work status, region, and place of residence. Among the demographic variables, age and age at marriage were the most important determinants of fertility. Among the socioeconomic variables, the educational level of both husband and wife were important determinants of cumulative fertility. Age at marriage was inversely related to fertility. The mean number of children ever born was 5.1 for those who married below age 16 vs. 4.1 for age at marriage 16-19, and 3.6 for 20-24. In the multivariate analysis the effect of age at marriage was the strongest as a predictor. Education had a negative effect on fertility. The mean number of children ever born to women with no education was 4.5; to women with primary education, 3.6; to women with secondary education, 3.2; and to women with tertiary education, 2.3. Women working as salaried employees had higher fertility (5.0) compared to women working in family business or at home (4.2). Women whose husbands worked as salaried employees had comparatively lower fertility than those whose husbands were working in their own business or in agriculture. The region of residence did not yield wide differentials. Furthermore, place of residence did not reveal any significant difference in fertility. The mean number of children was marginally higher among urban women (4.4) compared to their rural counterparts (4.2), indicating that the fertility transition has not started yet. PMID:12346202
A detectable extraterrestrial civilization can be modeled as a series of successive regimes over time each of which is detectable for a certain proportion of its lifecycle. This methodology can be utilized to produce an estimate for L. Potential components of L include quantity of fossil fuel reserves, solar energy potential, quantity of regimes over time, lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and downtime between regimes. Relationships between these components provide a means of calculating the lifetime of communicative species in a detectable state, L. An example of how these factors interact is provided, utilizing values that are reasonable given known astronomical data for components such as solar energy potential while existing knowledge about the terrestrial case is used as a baseline for other components including fossil fuel reserves, quantity of regimes over time, and lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and gaps of time between regimes due to recovery from catastrophic war or resource exhaustion. A range of values is calculated for L when parameters are established for each component so as to determine the lowest and highest values of L. roadmap for SETI research at the SETI Institute for the next few decades. Three different approaches were identified. 1) Continue the radio search: build an affordable array incorporating consumer market technologies, expand the search frequency, and increase the target list to 100,000 stars. This array will also serve as a technology demonstration and enable the international radio astronomy community to realize an array that is a hundred times larger and capable (among other things) of searching a million stars. 2) Begin searches for very fast optical pulses from a million stars. 3) As Moore's Law delivers increased computational capacity, build an omni-directional sky survey array capable of detecting strong, transient, radio signals from billions of stars. SETI could succeed tomorrow, or it may be an endeavor for multiple generations. We are a very young technology in a very old galaxy. While our own leakage radiation continues to outshine the Sun at many frequencies, we remain detectable to others. When our use of the spectrum becomes more efficient, it will be time to consider deliberate transmissions and the really tough questions: Who will speak for Earth? What will they say?
This article addresses the factors that affect students' retention at Kuwait University. Five hundred seventy students participated in the study. A survey of 22 retention factors was designed to measure student perceptions. Students presented their agreement on factors which included: achieving personal aspiration, getting jobs, free-of-charge…
This document, intended for pilot education and flight safety specialists, consists chiefly of a review of the literature on physiological factors that affect pilot education and an examination of environmental factors that should be scrutinized in order to improve the effectiveness of aviation learning facilities. The physiological factors…
Individual learners' affectivefactors are very important for foreign language learning. In China foreign language learning mainly happens in the classroom. Foreign language teachers are the organizers and carriers of language classes, and thus they inevitably influence the students' affection. This study explores how EFL teachers influence…
The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factorsaffecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…
Purpose: The ranking of top universities in the world has generated increased interest in the factors that enhance university performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify economic and cultural factors that affect the number of top ranking universities in each country. Design/methodology/approach: This paper first identifies the number of…
Factorsaffecting the synthesis of 48Ca in stellar environments are discussed. These factors include the entropy of the matter which is being processed and the neutron richness of the matter. The production of 48Ca depends highly on the entropy of the expanding matter. High entropy environments produce little 48Ca, while low entropy environments produce abundant 48Ca. This suggests that Type
Purpose - To explore the factors that affect the implementation of Internet technologies and to what extent the size of the company, as an organizational factor, influences that process. Design\\/methodology\\/approach - According to the innovation adoption theory, it was found that Internet adoption in firms is a process with different stages where a company is in one of a number
Fluorescein's property of fluorescence is reviewed. Of the many factors which affect its fluorescence, concentration is probably the most important and it best explains why leaking aqueous turns fluorescein bright green during Seidel's test. The intensity and pattern of fluorescein staining of corneal lesions is probably due to the concentration and distribution of fluorescein in the cornea. The concentration of fluorescein achieved in the retinal blood vessels during fluorescein angiography affects its fluorescence. PMID:7046118
Remote sensing of primary production in the euphotic zone has been based mostly on visible-band and water-leaving radiance measured with the coastal zone color scanner. There are some robust, simple relationships for calculating integral production based on surface measurements, but they also require knowledge for photoadaptive parameters such as maximum photosynthesis which currently cannot be obtained from spave. A 17,000-station data set is used to show that space-based estimates of maximum photosynthesis could improve predictions of psi, the water column light utiliztion index, which is an important term in many primary productivity models. Temperature is also examined as a factor for predicting hydrographic structure and primary production. A simple model is used to relate temperature and maximum photosynthesis; the model incorporates (1) the positive relationship between maximum photosynthesis and temperature and (2) the strongly negative relationship between temperature and nitrate in the ocean (which directly affects maximum growth rates via nitrogen limitation). Since these two factors relate to carbon and nitrogen, 'balanced carbon/nitrogen assimilation' was calculated using the Redfield ratio, It is expected that the relationship between maximum balanced carbon assimilation versus temperature is concave-down, with the peak dependent on nitrate uptake kinetics, temperature-nitrate relationships,a nd the carbon chlorophyll ration. These predictions were compared with the sea truth data. The minimum turnover time for nitrate was also calculated using this approach. Lastly, sea surface temperature gradients were used to predict the slope of isotherms (a proxy for the slope of isopycnals in many waters). Sea truth data show that at size scales of several hundred kilometers, surface temperature gradients can provide information on the slope of isotherms in the top 200 m of the water column. This is directly relevant to the supply of nutrients into the surface mixed layer, which is useful for predicting integral biomass and primary production.
A study of trainees (n=88) in a competency-based occupational safety and health training program found that environmental factors (opportunities to use skills, peer/supervisor support, and supervisor sanctions) were most influential on motivation to transfer training. Training attitudes may be affected by prior experiences when the use of training…
Seyler, Dian L.; Holton, Elwood F., III; Bates, Reid A.; Burnett, Michael F.; Carvalho, Manuel A.
The study investigated the factors that might significantly affect web portal usability. Results of the study were intended to serve as inputs for faculty web portal development of the University of the East-Manila. Descriptive statistics utilized questionnaire data from 82 faculty members. The data showed that most of the respondents were…
The present study investigated the influence of sex, handedness, level in second language (L2) and Faculty choice on the performance of phonological, syntactical and semantic tasks in L2. Level in L2 and sex were the most affectingfactors. Subjects who achieved higher scores on L2 tasks had strong second language aptitude skills since they were…
The present study investigated the influence of sex, handedness, level in second langua ge (L2) and Faculty choice on the performance of phonological, syntactical and semantic tasks in L2. Level in L2 and sex were the most affectingfactors. Subjects who achieved higher scores on L2 tasks had strong second language aptitude skills since they were those who had obtained
Factorsaffecting the free writing speed of 11-year-old students were investigated using the Group and Individual Assessment of Handwriting Speed. Intelligence, gender, legibility and whether the student has special educational needs or speaks English as an additional language were all found to impact on writing speed to a significant extent. In…
Ferrier, Jonathan; Horne, Joanna; Singleton, Chris
This study investigated what and how preschool children view children's television programs, with a focus on cultural and ecological factors which might affect their visual attention and the nature of their immediate recall of content. The secondary task method (in which an individual is required to perform two tasks simultaneously) was applied to…
The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research to identify, by satellite imagery, parameters of the environment affecting health on Earth. Thus, we suggest expanding the application of space technology to preventive medicine, as a new field in the peaceful uses of outer space. The scope of the study includes all parts of the environment, natural and man-made, and all kinds of protection of life: human, animal and vegetation health. The general objective is to consider and classify those factors, detectable from space, that affect or are relevant to health and may be found in the air, water, sea, soil, land, vegetation, as well as those linked to climate, industry, energy production, development works, irrigation systems, and human settlements. The special objective is the classification of environmental factors detectable from space, that are linked to communicable or chronic endemic diseases or health problems. The method of identifying the factorsaffecting health was the parallel study of environmental epidemiological and biological parameters. The role of environmental factors common to both human and animal populations is discussed. Conclusive findings are formulated and possible applications, both scientific and practical, in other sectors are also discussed.
In an era of spiraling health care costs and limited resources, policy makers and health care payers are concerned about the cost effectiveness of antibiotics. The aim of this study is to draw on published economic evaluations with a view to identify and illustrate the factorsaffecting the cost effectiveness of antibiotic treatment of bacterial infections. The findings indicate that the cost effectiveness of antibiotics is influenced by factors relating to the characteristics and the use of antibiotics (i.e., diagnosis, comparative costs and comparative effectiveness, resistance, patient compliance with treatment, and treatment failure) and by external factors (i.e., funding source, clinical pharmacy interventions, and guideline implementation interventions). Physicians need to take into account these factors when prescribing an antibiotic and assess whether a specific antibiotic treatment adds sufficient value to justify its costs.
In an era of spiraling health care costs and limited resources, policy makers and health care payers are concerned about the cost effectiveness of antibiotics. The aim of this study is to draw on published economic evaluations with a view to identify and illustrate the factorsaffecting the cost effectiveness of antibiotic treatment of bacterial infections. The findings indicate that the cost effectiveness of antibiotics is influenced by factors relating to the characteristics and the use of antibiotics (i.e., diagnosis, comparative costs and comparative effectiveness, resistance, patient compliance with treatment, and treatment failure) and by external factors (i.e., funding source, clinical pharmacy interventions, and guideline implementation interventions). Physicians need to take into account these factors when prescribing an antibiotic and assess whether a specific antibiotic treatment adds sufficient value to justify its costs. PMID:22312550
Effect factors on sky radiance were analyzed based on the transfer theory of light in the random medium. In fact, these factors mainly include: 1) absorbed and scattered extinction of solar radiance by atmosphere; 2) single scattering process of solar radiance by atmosphere along viewing direction; 3) multiple scattering process of solar radiance by atmosphere along viewing direction; 4) thermal radiation of atmosphere. The latter three ones among these factors increase sky radiance. After this analysis, derivative process of the Radiative Transfer Equation was studied thoroughly from the law of conservation of energy and the transmission of solar radiance in the earth-atmosphere system, and some methods of dealing with the multiple scattering are analyzed and used in calculating sky radiation. Finally, an approximate model was developed for sky radiance of sunshiny and cloudless sky to make full use of the RTE, an analytical express of sky radiance is gave out for single scattering and quasi-multiple scattering effects. Sky spectral radiance was calculated for some representative case of clear sky, and results have been compared with those of MODTRAN. The results show that the present model is efficient under the sunny and cloudless condition.
Yang, ChunPing; Wu, Jian; Han, Yong; He, XiuLan; Leng, Jie
The funds available for the health services at present are not sufficient. When assessing their desirable volume, we must consider a number of factors which influence the needs of financial means. This comprises direct and indirect action, in different spheres and direction and of different intensity. Different factors are not quantifiable to the same extent; some can be expressed only verbally. The resultant of their action which may have the same trend (then the effects add) or have an opposite trend (then the effects cancel out), is then the concrete pressure which in a concrete situation affects the concrete need of financial means. A team of specialists will have to study the identification of factors and assess the assumed forces of their action. PMID:2123749
This study investigated factors that affect student attrition for 151 students in a practical nursing program. The academic variables studied were scores on preadmission tests and grades in required prerequisite courses. The demographic variables included age, gender, and race. The analysis of the data obtained from student records revealed a statistically significant difference between the retention and attrition student groups for the variables of race, preadmission test scores, and prerequisite course grades. Recommendations for a retention program to reduce attrition were made based on the findings of this study. PMID:18792710
The aim of this study was to identify factors that interfere with the sleep quality of patients admitted to a university hospital in a city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. This was an exploratory, cross sectional study using non-probability sampling. Participants were 117 patients (59% men, mean age 48.0 years, standard deviation 16.9) hospitalized for at least 72 hours in stable clinical condition. The data were collected with an identification questionnaire and the FactorsAffecting Sleep Quality (FASQ) questionnaire. Data processing was performed with descriptive statistics; each item of the FASQ underwent a test and a retest. The factors most often reported were waking up early (55.6%), disrupted sleep (52.1%), excessive lighting (34.2%), receipt of care by nursing staff (33.3%) and organic disorders such as pain and fatigue (26.5%). It is suggested that nurses should plan interventions to modify factors that require intense noise and lighting at night in order to reduce disruption and, consequently, sleep deprivation among patients. PMID:23515802
A series of exploratory tests were conducted to investigate the effects of advanced display formats and display media on pilot scanning behavior using Langley's oculometer, a desktop flight simulator, a conventional electro-mechanical meter, and various digital displays. The primary task was for the test subject to maintain level flight, on a specific course heading, during moderate turbulence. A secondary task of manually controlling the readout of a display was used to examine the effects of the display format on a subject's scan behavior. Secondary task scan parameters that were evaluated were average dwell time, dwell time histograms, and number of dwells per meter change. The round dial meter demonstrated shorter dwell times and fewer dwells per meter change than the digital displays. The following factorsaffected digital display scanning behavior: (1) the number of digits; (2) the update rate of the digits; (3) the display media; and (4) the character font. The size of the digits used in these tests (0.28 to 0.50 inches) did not affect scan behavior measures.
Radiance is sensitive to the variations of tissue optical parameters, such as absorption coefficient ?a, scattering coefficient ?s, and anisotropy factor g. Therefore, similar to fluence, radiance can be used for tissue characterization. Compared with fluence, radiance has the advantage of offering the direction information of light intensity. Taking such advantage, the optical parameters can be determined by rotating the detector through 360 deg with only a single optode pair. Instead of the translation mode used in the fluence-based technologies, the Rotation mode has less invasiveness in the clinical diagnosis. This paper explores a new method to obtain the optical properties by measuring the distribution of light intensity in liquid phantom with only a single optode pair and the detector rotation through 360 deg. The angular radiance and distance-dependent radiance are verified by comparing experimental measurement data with Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for the short source-detector separations and diffusion approximation for the large source-detector separations. Detecting angular radiance with only a single optode pair under a certain source-detection separation will present a way for prostate diagnose and light dose calculation during the photon dynamic therapy (PDT).
Some critical comments are made on a paper entitled "FactorsAffecting Fertility in Pakistan." The 60-page paper is considered too long and taxing for the reader with 20 tables and 8 appendix tables. The extensive literature review needs to be updated to refer to the objective of the study. Only conventional sociodemographic variables were considered, omitting information on the supply side and contraceptive use. The results on work status and fertility were ambiguous, indicating that salaried employees with higher education had higher fertility than those with lower education engaged in family business. The statement that perhaps a trend of declining fertility started in Baluchistan based on the mean number of children was contradicted by the figure for children ever born standardized by age, which indicated a slightly higher number. No substantial difference was found in urban and rural fertility, yet the author kept referring to this marginal difference by age in a detailed table. The rationale of running four separate models for four dependent variables when mean desired and ideal number of children do not differ much from each other was questioned. It would be more useful to present the results of only one dependent variable. The variation explained by the independent variables was as low as 8% in the model on children ever born and between 25% and 50% in the other 3 models. This suggests that when there is little variation in fertility, the analysis of factors explaining fertility differentials is not of much value. The conclusion that fertility transition has not started yet in Pakistan is also debatable in view of some recent evidence of fertility decline in the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey of 1990-91 indicating that urban, educated groups of women are in the vanguard. A more precise discussion of the results would have made the study more meaningful. PMID:12346203
The aim of this study was to investigate factorsaffecting the wear and cutting ability of sonic files. A model system was used and the following variables evaluated, file type; Heliosonic, Rispisonic or Shaper, load; 25, 50 or 100 grams and length of time in use; new, 30 or 60 seconds. A 3(3) full factorial analysis with two replications into the effect of the above variables on the cutting ability of the Heliosonic, Rispisonic and Shaper files powered by the MM1500 sonic instrument was performed. A new file size 25 (Heliosonic and Shaper) or No 3 (Rispisonic) was used for each cut together with water irrigation and the substrate used was 1 mm thick sections of bovine bone. All variables had a significant effect on cutting (ANOVA. p < 0.001). However examination of the F values showed that the most significant variable was load, followed by file type, and time. The most significant interaction was between file type and load followed by time and file type. The interaction between time and load was not significant (p > 0.05). The Rispisonic file was most susceptible to wear during use especially at higher loads and the Heliosonic file cut least. It is suggested that the Shaper file is the better design of the three with respect to cutting ability and wear with use. PMID:9028184
Opening paragraph: Tidal and nontidal wetlands in the Chesapeake Bay watershed provide vital hydrologic, water-quality, and ecological functions. Situated at the interface of land and water, these valuable habitats are vulnerable to alteration and loss by human activities including direct conversion to non-wetland habitat by dredge-and-fill activities from land development, and to the effects of excessive nutrients, altered hydrology and runoff, contaminants, prescribed fire management, and invasive species. Processes such as sea-level rise and climate change also impact wetlands. Although local, State, and Federal regulations provide for protection of wetland resources, the conversion and loss of wetland habitats continue in the Bay watershed. Given the critical values of wetlands, the Chesapeake 2000 Agreement has a goal to achieve a net gain in wetlands by restoring 25,000 acres of tidal and nontidal wetlands by 2010. The USGS has synthesized findings on three topics: (1) sea-level rise and wetland loss, (2) wetland restoration, and (3) factorsaffecting wetland diversity.
Many factors such as outer diameter, hub ratio, blade numbers, shape and stagger angle affect the performance of small cooling fans. A small cooling fan was simulated using CFD software for three blade stagger angles (30.5°, 37.5°, 44.5°)and obtained the internal flow field and the static characteristics. Research indicated that the stagger angle has an obvious effect on the static characteristics of a fan. For flow rates below 0.0104 m3/s, total pressure is the greatest when the stagger angle is 37.5°; flow rates higher than 0.0104 m3/s, the total pressure is greatest when the stagger angle is 44.5° For the same flow rates, the velocity at inlet of pressure surface increases with increasing stagger angle, but the change of velocity on the suction surface is very small. For one model, vortices and the speed of revolution surfaces decrease with tip clearance increasing. But for other three models, increasing the stagger angle, the vortex intensity and speed of revolution surfaces at same height tip clearance increases, simultaneously, the position of vortex offset from the top of the rotor blade to the suction surface.
... Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors Past Issues / Summer ... learn more about the effects of sustained low-calorie diets in humans on factorsaffecting aging. This ...
Background. Studies demonstrate an inverse relationship between institution/surgeon procedural volumes and patient outcomes. Similar studies exist for liver resections, which recommend referral of patients for liver resections to ‘high-volume’ centers. These studies did not elucidate the factors that underlie such outcomes. We believe there exists a complex interaction of patient-related and perioperative factors that determine patient outcomes after liver resection. We sought to delineate these factors. Methods. Retrospective review of 114 liver resections by a single surgeon from 1993–2003: Records were reviewed for demographics; diagnosis; type/year of surgery; American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score; preoperative albumin, creatinine, and bilirubin; operative time; intraoperative blood transfusions; epidural use; and intraoperative hypotension. Main outcome measurements were postoperative morbidities, mortalities and length of stay (LOS). Data were analyzed using a multivariate linear regression model (SPSS v10.1 statistical analysis program). Results. Primary indications for resections were hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (N=57), metastatic colorectal cancer (N=25), and benign disease (N=18). There were no intraoperative mortalities and 4 perioperative (30-day) mortalities (3.5%). Mortality occurred in patients with malignancies who were older than 50 years. Morbidity was higher in malignant (15.6%) versus benign (5.5%) disease. Complications included bile leak/stricture (N=6), liver insufficiency (N=3), postoperative bleeding (N=2), myocardial infarction (N=2), aspiration pneumonia (N=1), renal insufficiency (N=1), and cancer implantation into the wound (N=1). Average LOS for all resections was 8.6 days. Longer operative time (p=0.04), lower albumin (p<0.001), higher ASA score (p<0.001), no epidural use (p=0.04), and higher creatinine (p<0.001) all correlated positively with longer LOS. ASA score and creatinine were the strongest predictors of LOS. LOS was not affected by patient age, sex, diagnosis, presence of malignancy, intraoperative transfusion requirements, intraoperative hypotension, preoperative bilirubin, case volume per year or year of surgery. Conclusions. Liver resections can be performed with low mortality/morbidity and with acceptable LOS by an experienced liver surgeon. Outcome as measured by LOS is most influenced by patient comorbidities entering into surgery. Annual case volume did not influence LOS and had no impact on patient safety. Length of stay may not reflect surgeon/institution performance, as LOS is multifactorial and likely related to patient population, patient selection and increased high-risk cases with a surgeon's experience.
Lorenzo, Cedric S. F.; Limm, Whitney M. L.; Lurie, Fedor
The factors influencing safety on construction sites are discussed. The impacts of the historical, economical, psychological, technical, procedural, organizational and the environmental issues are considered in terms of how these factors are linked with the level of site safety. The historical factor is assessed by the background and characteristics of the individual, such as age and experience. The economic factor
Both physical and chemical factors can influence the activity of platelets and coagulation factors responsible for the formation of thrombotic and hemostatic masses in the vicinity of an injured vessel wall. Studies performed in controlled shear devices (viscometers) have indicated that physical factors alone can induce platelet aggregation, even in the absence of exogenous chemical factors. The physical considerations which
The factors discussed in this section are building blocks to understanding arctic weather and climate. Each factor plays an important role alone and in interaction with other factors. The "Arctic Energy Budget" ties all the factors together in a description of the Arctic as a climate system. The different factors are given detailed explanations and examples, and include topics like latitude, land/see distributions, solar radiation, air temperature, Air pressure, winds, humidity, clouds, precipitations, and Arctic energy budgets.
To begin the validation process for the Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) in Thailand, research replicating Holton, Bates, and Ruona's study (2000) was conducted in Thailand. The LTSI was administered to 1,029 employees. Exploratory factor analysis and MANOVA were used to identify factors. A factor structure almost identical to that of…
Spectral Empirical Orhtogonal Functions (EOFs) derived from the covariance of satellite radiance spectra may be interpreted in terms of the vertical distribution of the covariance of temperature, water vapor, and clouds. The purpose of the investigation is to demonstrate the important constraints that resolved spectral radiances can place upon climate models.
This paper describes a new algorithm to compute radiance in a synthetic environment. Motivated by the success of wavelet meth- ods for radiosity computations we have applied multi wavelet bases to the computation of radiance in the presence of glossy reflectors. We have implemented this algorithm and report on some experiments performed with it. In particular we show that the
This lesson is designed to explore the relationship between pressure and vessel diameter and to create a model that represents how high blood pressure may affect weakened vessels. A collaborative work of Melvin Flores, Larie Laudato and Glenn Soltes
The purpose of this study was to expand what is known regarding the factors that relate to successful completion of online, undergraduate college courses. It addressed 13 student factors available through archival data at Northern Kentucky University based on 1,493 students enrolled in fully online courses in fall 2008. It included programmatic…
Data from students in two sections of a general education course offered at a research university in spring 2009 were used to explore whether student satisfaction factors are associated with perceived learning as rated by students. A list of 22 elements in the learning environment was explored. The 22 were used in creating 3 satisfaction factors…
Following past researches, student background, learning strategies, self-related cognitions in mathematics and school climate variables were important for achievement. The purpose of this study was to identify a number of factors that represent the relationship among sets of interrelated variables using principal component factor analysis and…
Axial load cycling fatigue tests of threaded fasteners are useful in determining fastener fatigue failure or design properties. By using appropriate design factors between the failure and design fatigue strengths, such tests are used to establish fatigue ...
The creation of the West African Library Association, library schools, the national library, the Ibadan University Library, and increase in employment opportunities due to the establishment of more libraries, are discussed as favorable factors in the development of librarianship. (MBR)
This project investigated factors relating to tether use and misuse. Volunteer testing was performed with 37 subjects on 16 different vehicles using 2 forward-facing child restraints (Britax Marathon 70 or the Evenflo Triumph), with each subject performin...
C. A. Flannagan K. D. Klinich L. A. Malik M. A. Manary N. R. Orton P. Narayanaswamy
Many factorsaffect the print quality and ink transfer. These are either machine factors, paper factors, or Ink factors. The aim of this work was to find out to what extent are the amount of ink transferred influenced by the previously mentioned factors. Atomic absorption was used for quantitatively measuring the amount of ink transferred. Copper phthalocyanine pigment was chosen.
Simultaneous measurements from the ground of the spectral optical thickness and the atmospheric path radiance from over 30 sites located in many parts of the world and affected by several different aerosol types are reported. These measurements are used to derive the relationship between the optical thickness and the path radiance for a single viewing and illumination geometry and to discuss its implications on remote sensing observations. It is shown that simple measurements performed from the ground can yield empirical relationships that can be used to check some of the common but not validated assumptions about the particle homogeneity, sphericity, composition, and size distribution used in remote sensing models and in estimates of the radiative effects of aerosol. The results are used to test concepts of atmospheric corrections and remote sensing of aerosol from space.
Some influencing factors on vertical drain behavior were investigated by laboratory tests as well as by back-analyses of test embankments on vertical drain improved subsoil at Saga Airport, Saga, Japan. Based on the results from this study, suggestions are made on determining the design parameters for vertical drain improvement. For the discharge capacity test of a prefabricated vertical drain, confining
A study of visiting patterns to an intensive care nursery over a 6-month period was undertaken. Data on visits were obtained from 167 admissions, 99 of which were from infants transferred from other towns. In addition, the parents were interviewed to determine factors precluding visiting. Inborn (Group A) and out-of-town (Group B) data were analyzed. For Group A, the mean
George P. Giacoia; Darnelle Rutledge; Kerstin West
Alum (or aluminum-containing) adjuvants are key components of many vaccines currently on the market. The immuno-potentiation effect of alum adjuvants is presumably due to their interaction with antigens, leading to adsorption on the alum particle surface. Understanding the mechanism of antigen adsorption/desorption and its influencing factors could provide guidance on formulation design and ensure proper in-vivo immuno-potentiation effect. In this paper, surface adsorption of several model proteins on two types of aluminum adjuvants (Alhydrogel(®) and Adjuphos(®)) are investigated to understand the underlying adsorption mechanisms, capacities, and potential influencing factors. It was found that electrostatic interactions are the major driving force for surface adsorption of all the model proteins except ovalbumin. Alhydrogel has a significantly higher adsorption capacity than Adjuphos. Several factors significantly change the adsorption capacity of both Alhydrogel and Adjuphos, including molecular weight of protein antigens, sodium chloride, phosphate buffer, denaturing agents, and size of aluminum particles. These important factors need to be carefully considered in the design of an effective protein antigen-based vaccine. PMID:24607202
This review surveys the chemical and biological factors that are correlated with the mutagenic activity of the aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Particular attention is given to the predicted quantum chemical properties of the parent amines and their metabolites. A number of chemical properties have been found to correlate well with measured mutagenic potency, including log P, the enrgies of the
Michael E. Colvin; Frederick T. Hatch; James S. Felton
This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment amenability were negative. No differences in attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders were found between those who had
Information literacy, defined as, "the set of skills needed to find, retrieve, analyze, and use information" (American Library Association, 2003, paragraph 1), is necessary for success in life. The present study will examine whether the factors of gender, race, and/or socioeconomic status impact information literacy performance and information…
Zinc availabilities can change with different cropping management practices. The objective of this study was to identify some of the caus- ative factors associated with previous crops contributing to Zn uptake differences in a subsequent crop. Field studies over 3 yr evaluated the Zn availability after four precropping treatments: bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), corn (Zea mays L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum
This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment…
This paper investigates the factorsaffecting the Loyal Use of a Knowledge Management System (KMS). Unlike most other types of information systems, the value from using a KMS is temporally disassociated from the instance of use. We developed a model of the factorsaffecting the Loyal Use of a KMS and used data gathered from 1013 users of a well-established
Vertebrate olfactory and gustatory receptors are necessarily exposed to the fluid which contains their relevant chemosensory environment. In terrestrial mammals, the nasal airways serve as protective accessory tissues for the olfactory receptors, but tastes receptors in all vertebrates and olfactory receptors in fish are directly exposed to the liquids which bring chemosensory stimuli to them. The differentiated epithelial cells which form taste buds and the specialized neurons which are the vertebrate olfactory receptors are constantly replaced in normal adult animals, suggesting that chemosensory function per se is damaging to the receptors. Organic and sulfur-containing air pollutants may be among those which adversely affect olfactory receptors, but adequate data are not available. Surfactants and heavy metals can produce physiological and/or morphological damage in gustatory receptors. Some heavy metals are concentrated in saliva, a liquid which interacts closely with taste receptors. A failure to evaluate human chemosensory function in relation to potential chemosensory toxicants accounts for the present inability to specify the incidence of the problem.
Linear increases in G tolerance with increases in anti-G suit (AGS) bladder inflation pressure occurred when relaxed subjects were exposed to acceleration plateaus while riding a centrifuge and were either seated upright, (15 degrees seat back angle or SBA) or supine (60 degrees SBA). Supine G tolerance with AGS bladder inflation decreased as G onset time was increased by factors of two and four. Changing the mode of operation of a new servo-controlled anti-G valve regulating AGS bladder pressure had no effect on G tolerance nor on AGS comfort scores. Comfort was unaffected by G onset time and reduced with high AGS bladder pressures. Results support the hypotheses that G protection provided by simultaneously applied anti-G techniques is additive and that the simple hydrostatic model of the circulatory system can adequately account for AGS bladder pressure changes required for G protection when body position is changed. PMID:3977799
Objective. This research was guided by a stress and support model to examine the effects of frontline workers' background characteristics, personal stressors, job-related stressors, and workplace support on satisfaction with supervision. Method. Survey data were collected from 644 workers in 49 long-term-care settings that employed them. Regression analysis were used to determine the effects of worker level and then Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) and organizational factors on the outcome. Results. Although all four variable categories made significant contributions to explaining satisfaction with supervision, the most powerful were personal stressors and job-related stressors. Results from HLM analysis showed frontline workers in nursing homes and those employed in for-profit organizations had lower levels of satisfaction with supervision. Discussion. Findings suggest organizational interventions to address workers' financial and health issues and management practices such as better training programs and peer mentoring could enhance workers' satisfaction with supervision. PMID:19144970
Noelker, Linda S; Ejaz, Farida K; Menne, Heather L; Bagaka's, Joshua G
Purpose Acuity measurement is a fundamental method to assess visual performance in the clinic. Little is known about how acuity measured in the presence of neighboring letters, as in the case of letter charts, changes with contrast and with non-foveal viewing. This information is crucial for acuity measurement using low-contrast charts and when patients cannot use their fovea. In this study, we evaluated how optotype acuity, with and without flankers, is affected by contrast and eccentricity. Methods Five young adults with normal vision identified the orientation of a Tumbling-E alone or in the presence of four flanking Tumbling-Es. Edge-to-edge letter spacing ranged from 1 to 20 bar widths. Stimuli were presented on a white background for 150 ms with Weber contrast ranging from ?2.5% to ?99%. Flankers had the same size and contrast as the target. Testings were performed at the fovea, 3, 5 and 10 degrees in the inferior visual field. Results When plotted as a function of letter spacing, acuity remains unaffected by the presence of flankers until the flankers are within the critical spacing, which averages an edge-to-edge spacing of 4.4 bar widths at the fovea, and approximately 16 bar widths at all three eccentricities. Critical spacing decreases with a reduction in contrast. When plotted as a function of contrast, acuity only worsens when the contrast falls below approximately 24% at the fovea and 17% in the periphery, for flanked and unflanked conditions alike. Conclusions The letter spacing on conventional letter charts exceeds the critical spacing for acuity measurement at the fovea, at all contrast levels. Thus these charts are appropriate for assessing foveal acuity. In the periphery, the critical spacing is larger than the letter spacing on conventional charts. Consequently, these charts may underestimate the acuity measured in the periphery due to the effects of crowding.
Coates, Daniel R.; Chin, Jeremy M.; Chung, Susana T. L.
High velocity forming methods successfully address problems faced in conventional forming techniques. They can be effectively used for forming metals with low formability like aluminum alloys and high strength steel. They can be instrumental is manufacturing of lighter vehicles with higher fuel efficiency. Electromagnetic forming (EMF) is an HVF method that is gaining wide acceptance due to its advantages and scope for commercialization. A number of experimental studies were carried out with EMF with the main goal of exploring fundamentals about material formability at high velocities, which can be used to establish practical design guidelines and to make models of high velocity formability. Thus the main factors that influence high velocity formability-inertia/size effects; changes in constitutive behavior; impact; and dynamic failure modes, were studied mainly with experiments. The role of changes in constitutive behavior in improving formability was studied from existing studies and new theoretical studies involving High velocity Forming Limit Diagram (FLD) and through solving an inverse problem of ring expansion. Tube free-expansion experiments were carried out to demonstrate enhanced metal formability even in the absence of die impact. To further establish the significance of inertia, electromagnetic ring free-expansion experiments with rings of different aspect ratios were carried out. A higher aspect ratio sample had better formability in terms of uniform and total elongation and also had fewer necks than a low aspect ratio (more slender) ring at the same velocity. The results clearly demonstrated the influence of sample aspect ratio (dimensions) and hence inertia on high velocity formability. Die impact experiments were carried out with tubes and rings to show the beneficial influence of die arrest of a moving sample. It was revealed that die impact in an appropriate range of velocities can significantly suppress failure and reduce the number of tears and fractures in the samples. Further a new mode of failure in die impacted samples, spall-like dynamic rupture was observed, which had characteristics similar to classic spall failure. Thus through all these studies, the important factors influencing high velocity formability was studied and it was shown that it can be more complex than quasi-static formability. Boundary conditions for each forming operation can play a more significant role and hence simple tools like FLDs might not be practical tools for studying high velocity formability.
A program to evaluate heat-flux sensors employed in thermal measurements of passive solar structures has been performed. A guarded hot box was designed and built in accordance with ASTM Standard C236-80 to generate known heat fluxes through a variety of structural materials. These fluxes were compared with those measured by a heat flux transducer calibrated by both by the manufacturer and an independent laboratory. The guarded hot plate method, ASTM C117-76, was used in the latter case. The three sets of values were often in substantial disagreement, the extent of which varied with the substrate to which the transducer was attached. An analysis of the data indicates that the cause of disagreement lies in a local distortion of the heat flux through the substrate caused by the presence of the transducer. Disturbance of the air flow over the transducer and mismatch of surface thermal emissivities of the transducer and substrate are contributing factors. This work has demonstrated a need for a standardized procedure for heat flux sensor calibration, and the ASTM guarded hot plate method is recommended for this purpose. An approximate method for correcting the heat flux indicated by a transducer calibrated in this manner to bring it in agreement with the measured by the guarded hot box is presented.
Fungal pathogens are the most important pathogens of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae), and epizootics, particularly those caused by Entomophthorales (Zygomycota), are frequently observed and often rapidly reduce aphid populations. Fungi in the Hypocreales (Ascomycota) are less commonly found infecting aphids but can be important. The transmission of aphid fungal pathogens is affected by many factors, including: host biology and structure, pathogen characteristics, host-plant characteristics, and environmental factors. This paper is an overview of selected factorsaffecting transmission of aphid pathogens. PMID:16780867
This study aimed to determine the factors that affect students' preferences regarding tutorial modes. A learning-habit inclinations questionnaire (LHIQ) was constructed and administered to 288 students. Factor analysis revealed four factors: "time management," "ease of access" to learning materials, "positive aspects of interaction," and "negative…
Spectral sky radiance measurements have been obtained with a double monochromator using a 1.5° field of view under varying atmospheric conditions at selected sites in Europe. Spatial variations of the intensity of the sky radiance up to a factor of 10 are observed in the UVA, which decrease to a factor of 2 in the UVB. A distinct minimum of the sky radiance is observed, the location depends on the solar zenith angle but not on wavelength. It is located at scattering angles between 90° and 75° for solar zenith angles between 80° and 26°. A comparison between measurements of the sky radiance and radiative transfer calculations with an aerosol free atmosphere shows a strong dependence of UVB sky radiance on aerosol particles in contrast to UVA sky radiance and possibly a dependence on tropospheric ozone as well.
Blumthaler, M.; Gröbner, J.; Huber, M.; Ambach, W.
Image reconstruction for positron emission mammography (PEM) with the breast positioned between two parallel, planar detectors is usually performed by backprojection to image planes. Three important factorsaffecting PEM image reconstruction by backprojec...
M. F. Smith S. Majewski A. G. Weisenberger D. A. Kieper R. R. Raylman
To establish what is currently known about factors that affect foreign language listening comprehension, with a focus on characteristics of the listener, passage, and testing conditions. Research on second language (L2) listening comprehension strongly su...
A. Blodgett A. Bloomfield E. Rhoades J. Linck S. C. Wayland
The factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact are considered. The nature of contaminated surfaces is described and the effect on the erosion rate (on non-active lead coupons) of varying jetting parameters is illustrated. Recommendations ...
Laboratory-scale batch experiments (semicontinuously fed) were conducted using a two-level factorial experimental design to investigate principal factors and interactions affecting microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of carbon (C) steel. Factors considered included the C source as chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate (SO[sup 2[minus
Laboratory-scale batch experiments (semicontinuously fed) were conducted using a two-level factorial experimental design to investigate principal factors and interactions affecting microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of carbon (C) steel. Factors considered included the C source as chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate (SO[sup 2[minus
Peng, C.G.; Park, J.K. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering)
The key risk factorsaffecting electrical safety in hazardous locations, with emphasis on human and environmental factors are discussed. The results of a survey that provides a user view of the reliability of area classification, product specification, installation, maintenance, documentation, and practice are presented and discussed
In this paper we present a novel method for genome ranking according to gene lengths. The main outcomes described in this paper are the following: the formulation of the genome ranking problem, presentation of relevant approaches to solve it, and the demonstration of preliminary results from prokaryotic genomes ordering. Using a subset of prokaryotic genomes, we attempted to uncover factorsaffecting gene length. We have demonstrated that hyperthermophilic species have shorter genes as compared with mesophilic organisms, which probably means that environmental factorsaffect gene length. Moreover, these preliminary results show that environmental factors group together in ranking evolutionary distant species.
Diarrhea is a worldwide problem facing both developing countries and developed countries, especially in pediatric population. Because of shortage of health facilities and lack of good food in developing countries, it is known fact that developing countries are facing this death taking problem more. The main purpose of this study was to examine the various factors which affect the recovery time of diarrhea. A multiple linear regression was applied to analyze the data and to select a model. The response variable for the study was the recovery time of diarrhea. The results of the analysis show that the Zinc is the main factor which affect the recovery time in Peshawar.
The effect of molecular anisotropy on backscattered UV (BUV) radiances is computed by accounting for it in both Rayleigh optical thickness and the scattering-phase matrix. If the effect of molecular anisotropy is included only in the optical thickness and not in the phase matrix, then for high sun ( theta 0 approximately 0 deg) the nadir radiance (I0 ) leaving the top of the atmosphere is approximately 1.8% higher than the radiance (I op) computed with the effect included in the phase matrix. For very low sun ( theta 0 greater than 80 deg) I0 is approximately 2.3% lower than Iop. For off-nadir radiances the relative increase (decrease) depends on both the local zenith angle as well as the azimuth angle. Also, an increase in the surface reflectivity decreases the effect of molecular anisotropy on the upwelling radiances. Exclusion of the anisotropy factor in the Rayleigh-phase matrix has very little effect ( less than 1%) on ozone retrieval from the BUV-type instruments. This is because of the ratio technique used in the retrieval algorithm, which practically cancels out the anisotropy effect.
The effect of different factorsaffecting the slip melting point of palm oil has been evaluated. The most important factor\\u000a appears to be the difference in tempering temperatures. The influence of different tempering temperatures on slip point values\\u000a is, however, dependent on the nature of the sample. For hydrogenated oils and for some high-melting palm stearins, tempering\\u000a has no effect.
The biological and non-biological factors that affect the degradation of amoxicillin in the composting process of feces have been investigated. The effect of living bacteria and the enzyme (beta-lactamase) on amoxicillin decay was examined, and our results indicated that the biological effects are likely to be negligible. Consequently, the effect of phosphate, ammonia and pH level as non-biological factors was
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors (farm, operator and household characteristics, along with farm type and regional location of the farm) affecting financial performance of new and beginning farmers and ranchers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Returns on assets (ROA), a measure of financial performance widely used in the farm management literature, is the ratio of net
The influence of various factors that may affect the outcome of root canal therapy was evaluated in 356 patients 8 to 10 yr after the treatment. The results of treatment were directly dependent on the preop- erative status of the pulp and periapical tissues. The rate of success for cases with vital or nonvital pulps but having no periapical radiolucency
Ulf Sjögren; Björn Hägglund; Göran Sundqvist; Kenneth Wing
Factorsaffecting a lower-bound estimate of internal consistency reliability, Cronbach's coefficient alpha, are explored. Theoretically, coefficient alpha is an estimate of the correlation between two tests drawn at random from a pool of items like the items in the test under consideration. As a practical matter, coefficient alpha can be an index…
Applies a variety of factor analytic approaches to data obtained from the Structured Pediatric Psychosocial Interview (SPPI), an instrument designed to gain information about children's social background and the process by which they relate affective distress. Subjects were independent samples of 500, 400, 519 and 1,000 pediatric patients and…
This study examines factorsaffecting students' performances in an Introductory Sociology course over five semesters. Employing simple and ordered logit regression models, the author explains final grades by focusing on individual demographic and educational characteristics that students bring into the classroom. The results show that a student's…
This dissertation contains three independently conducted studies on factors that affect the math achievement scores of preschool-aged children. The first study examined the associations between children's executive-functioning (EF) and math achievement scores at 54 months of age. Results suggest that EF is strongly associated with children's…
The ability to function independently in the later years has been defined as a combination of capability and support. To examine factorsaffecting older adults' use of services provided in an accommodating environment, 52 physically independent residents of an Arizona apartment complex for the elderly were surveyed. Time spent living in the…
Federal government policies are promoting diffusion of technologies into the healthcare system. If health professionals reject the new technologies planned for the healthcare system, it could result in costly failures, delays, and workforce problems. There is a lack of knowledge about factors that affect technology readiness (TR), defined as the…
This study examines the factorsaffecting Iran`s future by focusing on the demographic, economic, and military trends in Iran and their impact on the country`s national security objectives in the next decade. The paper also assesses the implications of an economic embargo on Iran and potential Iranian threats to regional and United States national interests.
Examined factorsaffecting attendance by elderly persons at 660 congregate meal sites. Results showed that measures of the quality of services provided (method of food preparation, type of building used, presence of other nutrition programs in the community) predicted attendance more than conventional demographic measures of need. (WAS)
This study investigated the perception of principals on how the factors of subject mastery, teaching methodology, personal characteristics, and attitude toward students affect the performance of teachers at higher secondary level in the Punjab. All principals of higher secondary level in the Punjab were part of the population of the study. From…
The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factorsaffecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST) to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS). The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at…
Fission foils are commonly used as dosimetry sensors. They play a very important role in neutron spectrum determinations. This paper provides a combination of experimental measurements and calculations to quantify the importance and synergy of several factors that affect the fission response of a dosimeter. Only when these effects are properly treated can fission dosimeters be used with sufficient fidelity.
The purpose of this study is to determine factorsaffecting role stress and burnout among practicing school counselors as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES) and the Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scale. The MBI-ES utilizes three subscales to measure burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal…
Fungal pathogens are the most important pathogens of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae), and epizootics, particularly those caused by Entomophthorales (Zygomycota), are frequently observed and often rapidly reduce aphid populations. Fungi in the Hypocreales (Ascomycota) are less commonly found infecting aphids but can be important. The transmission of aphid fungal pathogens is affected by many factors, including: host biology and structure, pathogen
Soil and rhizosphere microbial communities in agroecosystems may be affected by soil, climate, plant species, and management. The management and environmental factors controlling microbial biomass and community structure were identified in a three-year field experiment. The experiment consisted of a tomato production agroecosystem with the following nine treatments: bare soil, black polyethylene mulch, white polyethylene mulch, vetch cover crop, vetch
Jeffrey S. Buyer; John R. Teasdale; Daniel P. Roberts; Inga A. Zasada; Jude E. Maul
This study investigated factors that would affect a reader's understanding of the main idea at the global level and explicit and implicit main ideas at the local level. Fifty-seven first-year university students taking a college reading course took a comprehension test on an expository text. Statistical analyses revealed that text structure had a…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate international student recruitment from an institutional perspective and to consider institutional factors that may affect recruitment. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative study is undertaken in which education marketing practitioners are interviewed regarding aspects of international…
As the fit between job values and job rewards becomes more important to American workers, it is important to understand factors which may affect these values. Data from the combined General Social Surveys of 1974, 1976, 1977 and 1980 were used to investigate the influence of education, job prestige, earnings, age, sex, race, and family…
The authors describe and illustrate 6 factors that affect the size of a Pearson correlation: (a) the amount of variability in the data, (b) differences in the shapes of the 2 distributions, (c) lack of linearity, (d) the presence of 1 or more "outliers," (e) characteristics of the sample, and (f) measurement error. Also discussed are ways to…
A simple framework for evaluating experimental kinetic data to provide support for Specific Acid Catalysis (SAC) and General Acid Catalysis (GAC) is described based on the factorsaffecting their relative efficiency. Observations reveal that increasing the SAC-to-GAC rate constant ratio reduces the effective pH range for GAC.
As far as academic reading comprehension is concerned, a network of linguistic skills and strategies operate in a complex and integrated matter. Since it is impossible to examine all the factorsaffecting reading comprehension all at once, it is more reasonable to compare and contrast the predictive effects of specific variables against each other…
The purpose of this cross-sectional, correlational study was to describe the quality of life (QOL) in persons with end stage renal disease and explore factors that may affect QOL. Biological function, symptoms, function, general health perception, and characteristics of the individual and environment explained 61% of the variability in overall QOL. Only anxiety, depression, and general health perception significantly contributed
Objective: The authors studied the factorsaffecting the recruitment into child and adolescent psychiatry training in the United States. Methods: Medical students (n = 154) and general and child and adolescent psychiatry residents (n = 111) completed a questionnaire to evaluate career choice in child psychiatry (n = 265). Results: Compared with…
There is a large body of literature that focuses on technology and innovation adoption. Much of that deals with the factors that affect adoption at different stages. Some research deals with early adoption, such as that by Rogers (1995). Other research looks at innovations as they begin to penetrate the general population, such as Lin’s (1998) study of personal computer
Rick Busselle; Joey Reagan; Bruce Pinkleton; Kim Jackson
The study reported here determined the factors that affect teen involvement in 4-H programming. The design of the study was descriptive and correlational in nature. Using a purposive sampling procedure, a survey questionnaire was distributed to all (N=214) 4-H members attending the 4-H State Leadership Conference. The major findings of the study…
Presents conceptual framework for organization of factors (independent variables) affecting online bibliographic retrieval. Roles that variables play in research studies are described and examples considering various elements--setting, user, request, database, search system, searcher, search process, search outcome--are provided. Twenty-one…
Objective: Empathy is a prominent goal of medical education that is too often underachieved. Using concept mapping, the authors constructed a student-generated conceptual model of factors viewed as affecting empathy during medical education. Methods: During the 2005-2006 academic year, 293 medical students and interns answered a brainstorming…
Winseman, Jeffrey; Malik, Abid; Morison, Julie; Balkoski, Victoria
Potential factorsaffecting retention of pregnancy during weeks 5–9 of gestation were studied in dairy cows and heifers (N=211) on two farms. Cows were examined by ultrasonography for presence of a viable embryo, and sizes of the corpus luteum (CL) and of follicles ?5mm were recorded. Blood samples were taken at each examination and assayed for progesterone and estradiol. Overall
Melanie J Starbuck; Robert A Dailey; E. Keith Inskeep
The literature on affectivefactors in the learning of mathematics is difficult to interpret because of differences and inconsistencies in terminology and measurement. To advance research in this field of affect, I compare and clarify terminology, and reconcile scales for measurement by examining the factors and research instruments targeted by four research teams. The findings reveal two distinct broad primary
We present a method of recovering high dynamic range radiance maps from photographs taken with conventional imaging equip- ment. In our method, multiple photographs of the scene are taken with different amounts of exposure. Our algorithm uses these dif- ferently exposed photographs to recover the response function of the imaging process, up to factor of scale, using the assumption of
The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factorsaffecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people’s individuals’ time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children’s health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health.
Aziz, Sonia N.; Aziz, Khwaja M. S.; Boyle, Kevin J.
The factorsaffecting indoor radon properties in Hong Kong have been studied, including the radon concentration, the total potential alpha energy concentration of radon progeny, the equilibrium factor, and the fraction of unattached radon progeny. These factors fall into three categories, namely, (1) the building characteristics, including cooling method, age of the buildings, wall coverings and floor coverings; (2) the location of sites, including nearby environments, geological materials of the area, and the elevation of the sites; and (3) the meteorological parameters, including rainfall, relative humidity, pressure, temperature, and wind speeds. For category (1), only the ventilation is found to affect the indoor radon properties. For category (2), only the nearby environments have effects. For category (3), the rainfall and temperature are found to have significant effects. 15 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.
Yu, K.N.; Young, E.C.M.; Li, K.C. [City Univ. of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong)
This study investigated how affectivefactors like attitude and motivation contribute to science achievement in PISA 2006 using linear structural modeling. The data set of PISA 2006 collected from 4942 fifteen-year-old Turkish students (2290 females, 2652 males) was used for the statistical analyses. A total of 42 selected items on a four point…
Introduction The software industry has had significant progress in recent years. The entire life of software includes two phases: production and maintenance. Software maintenance cost is increasingly growing and estimates showed that about 90% of software life cost is related to its maintenance phase. Extraction and considering the factorsaffecting the software maintenance cost help to estimate the cost and reduce it by controlling the factors. Methods In this study, the factorsaffecting software maintenance cost were determined then were ranked based on their priority and after that effective ways to reduce the maintenance costs were presented. This paper is a research study. 15 software related to health care centers information systems in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and hospitals function were studied in the years 2010 to 2011. Results and discussion Among Medical software maintenance team members, 40 were selected as sample. After interviews with experts in this field, factorsaffecting maintenance cost were determined. In order to prioritize the factors derived by AHP, at first, measurement criteria (factors found) were appointed by members of the maintenance team and eventually were prioritized with the help of EC software. Based on the results of this study, 32 factors were obtained which were classified in six groups. “Project” was ranked the most effective feature in maintenance cost with the highest priority. By taking into account some major elements like careful feasibility of IT projects, full documentation and accompany the designers in the maintenance phase good results can be achieved to reduce maintenance costs and increase longevity of the software.
This article examines the determinants of men's early parental roles, distinguishing factors that affect being a father versus being childless, and factors that affect being a resident versus a nonresident father, in the context of having a partner or not. We also consider whether these patterns have changed between 1985 and 2004. The data come from the linked Child-Mother and Young Adult Samples of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79), which provide information on the children of the NLSY79 from birth until they enter young adulthood, and from the original youth sample of parallel ages. The results support previous research showing the importance of economic and educational disadvantages and nontraditional family structure on being a non-resident father. The effects of family structure appear to have attenuated between generations as determinants of men's early parental roles.
Typical water quality concerns with releases from hydropower reservoirs include low dissolved oxygen, inappropriate temperature for downstream uses, supersaturation of total dissolved gases, and water quality constituents associated with low dissolved oxygen. Except for supersaturation of total dissolved gases, which is usually caused by by-passing turbines and spilling water, all of these concerns are related to the limnology of the upstream reservoir. Various limnological factorsaffect water quality, particularly dissolved oxygen (DO) in turbine releases. This paper describes three groups of reservoirs, thermal stratification characteristics for each group, DO effects for each group, the main factors that affect DO in TVA turbine releases, and other water quality constituents that are related to low DO.
Background There are various factors which construct the perception of stigma in both leprosy affected persons and unaffected persons. The main purpose of this study was to determine the level of perceived stigma and the risk factors contributing to it among leprosy affected person attending the Green Pastures Hospital, Pokhara municipality of western Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 135 people affected by leprosy at Green Pastures Hospital and Rehabilitation Centre. Persons above the age of 18 were interviewed using a set of questionnaire form and Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC). In addition, two sets of focused group discussions each containing 10 participants from the ward were conducted with the objectives of answering the frequently affected EMIC items. Results Among 135 leprosy affected persons, the median score of perceived stigma was 10 while it ranged from 0–34. Higher perceived stigma score was found in illiterate persons (p?=?0.008), participants whose incomes were self-described as inadequate (p?=?0.014) and who had changed their occupation due to leprosy (p?=?0.018). Patients who lacked information on leprosy (p?=?0.025), knowledge about the causes (p?=?0.02) and transmission of leprosy (p?=?0.046) and those who had perception that leprosy is a severe disease (p<0.001) and is difficult to treat (p<0.001) had higher perceived stigma score. Participants with disfigurement or deformities (p?=?0.014), ulcers (p?=?0.022) and odorous ulcers (p?=?0.043) had higher perceived stigma score. Conclusion The factors associated with higher stigma were illiteracy, perceived economical inadequacy, change of occupation due to leprosy, lack of knowledge about leprosy, perception of leprosy as a severe disease and difficult to treat. Similarly, visible deformities and ulcers were associated with higher stigma. There is an urgent need of stigma reduction strategies focused on health education and health awareness programs in addition to the necessary rehabilitation support.
Adhikari, Bipin; Kaehler, Nils; Chapman, Robert S.; Raut, Shristi; Roche, Paul
This paper addresses the performance of force-reflecting interfaces (“haptic displays”). The authors suggest that an important measure of performance is the dynamic range of achievable impedances-“Z-Width”-and that an impedance is achievable if it satisfies a robustness property such as passivity. Several factorsaffecting Z-Width-sample-and-hold, inherent interface dynamics, displacement sensor quantization, and velocity filtering-are discussed. A set of experiments designed to
Non-specialist teachers in Canada are increasingly required to teach sexual health topics. However, research suggests that they do not always do so willingly. This study examined the associations between the characteristics of non-specialist elementary and middle school teachers (n = 294) in Canadian schools and their willingness to provide sexual health education (SHE) and their perceptions of factorsaffecting their willingness to
Jacqueline N. Cohen; E. Sandra Byers; Heather A. Sears
Non-specialist teachers in Canada are increasingly required to teach sexual health topics. However, research suggests that they do not always do so willingly. This study examined the associations between the characteristics of non-specialist elementary and middle school teachers (n = 294) in Canadian schools and their willingness to provide sexual health education (SHE) and their perceptions of factorsaffecting their willingness to
Jacqueline N. Cohen; E. Sandra Byers; Heather A. Sears
Factorsaffecting chromate reduction by cultures of Enterobacter cloacae HO1 were investigated. The reduction was sensitive to oxygen stress and E. cloacae strain HO1 could reduce chromate only under anaerobic conditions. Rates of reduction of chromate were proportional to cell number. The optimal pH was between 7.0 and 7.8, and the optimal temperature was 30°–37°C. High rates of reduction were
Measurements of radon exhalation from a gravely sandy loam have been made in a semi-arid climate by using a combination of closed accumulation, flow-through accumulation, and 222Rn and 2Xøpb soil profiles. The meteorological factors that most affected the instantaneous value of exhalation of 222Rn were atmospheric pressure and rain. Effects due to other parameters such as wind or temperature were
Background Multiple studies have reported that allografts are acceptable alternatives to autografts for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions. Our clinical practice allows patient involvement in graft decision-making. This study examined the patients' preference for graft selection and the factorsaffecting their decision. Methods Patients scheduled to undergo an ACL reconstruction surgery (n = 129) at a university medical center in Korea were enrolled in this study. Information leaflets with graft descriptions were provided prior to hospital admission, and the patients were allowed to choose one of two surgical graft types. The patients were asked to complete a questionnaire that reflected their decision-making processes, and the patients' trends and factorsaffecting their choice of graft were analyzed based on their responses. Results Most patients (54.3%) selected autografts for the ACL reconstruction. The surgeon's explanation was the most important factoraffecting the final patient decision followed by the information derived from Internet searches. Patients who derived the majority of their understanding of the graft types from the Internet chose allografts at significantly higher rates. Conclusions Patient graft selection is a reasonable way of designating the type of surgical procedure. Most patients selected autografts for their ACL reconstruction. However, patients who performed significant Internet-based research tended to prefer allografts.
Koh, Hae Seok; Kong, Chae-Gwan; Won, Ho-Yeon; Kim, Kun-Hyung; Lee, Jung-Han
The susceptibility or Alloy 22 (N06022) to crevice corrosion may depend on environmental or external factors and metallurgical or internal factors. Some of the most important environmental factors are chloride concentration, inhibitors, temperature and potential. The presence of a weld seam or second phase precipitation in the alloy are classified as internal factors. The localized corrosion resistance of Alloy 22 has been extensively investigated in the last five years, however not all affectingfactors were considered in the studies. This paper discusses the current findings regarding the effect of many of these variables on the susceptibility (or resistance) of Alloy 22 to crevice corrosion. The effect of variables such as temperature, chloride concentration and nitrate are rather well understood. However there are only limited or no data regarding effect of other factors such as pH, other inhibitive or deleterious species and type of crevicing material and crevice geometry. There are contradictory results regarding the effect of metallurgical factors such as solution heat treatment.
The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target to reduce the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by the year 2015 has been met as of 2010, but huge disparities exist. Some regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa are lagging behind it is also in this region where up to 30% of the rural schemes are not functional at any given time. There is need for more studies on factorsaffecting sustainability and necessary measures which when implemented will improve the sustainability of rural water schemes. The main objective of this study was to assess the main factorsaffecting the sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland using a Multi-Criteria Analysis Approach. The main factors considered were: financial, social, technical, environmental and institutional. The study was done in Lubombo region. Fifteen functional water schemes in 11 communities were studied. Data was collected using questionnaires, checklist and focused group discussion guide. A total of 174 heads of households were interviewed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data and to calculate sustainability scores for water schemes. SPSS was also used to classify sustainability scores according to sustainability categories: sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable. The averages of the ratings for the different sub-factors studied and the results on the sustainability scores for the sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable schemes were then computed and compared to establish the main factors influencing sustainability of the water schemes. The results indicated technical and social factors as most critical while financial and institutional, although important, played a lesser role. Factors which contributed to the sustainability of water schemes were: functionality; design flow; water fetching time; ability to meet additional demand; use by population; equity; participation in decision making on operation and maintenance; existence of fund for operation and maintenance; willingness to contribute money; existence of a user’s committee; participation in the initial planning and design of the water scheme; and coordination between the local leaders and user’s committee. The main factors which made the schemes unsustainable were: long fetching time; non-involvement in decision making; lack of willingness to contribute funds; absence of users committee; and lack of cooperation between local leaders and the users committee. Water service providers should address the technical, social, financial and institutional factors identified affecting sustainability in their planning and implementation of rural water schemes.
Oncological and functional prognostic factors for patients with foot sarcomas have yet to be clarified. This study was undertaken to identify the prognostic factors for oncological and functional outcomes and the significance of adjuvant radiotherapy in achieving local control in patients with foot sarcomas. We reviewed 31 consecutive patients with soft tissue (24), and bone (7) sarcomas arising in the foot and analyzed the impact of patient characteristics on the functional and oncological outcomes. There were seven cases with clear cell or epithelioid sarcomas. Two of the 31 cases experienced local recurrence despite the fact that only two cases received adjuvant radiotherapy. Sixteen out of 18 cases of soft tissue sarcomas with limb salvage surgery underwent reconstructive procedures for soft tissue defects. Amputation required as a surgical treatment (p=0.002) was a poor prognostic factor. Larger size (p=0.029) and bone reconstruction (p=0.018) were poor prognostic factors for local recurrence-free survival, and amputation (p=0.001) and bone reconstruction (p=0.008) for metastasis-free survival in patients with soft tissue sarcomas. No significant factors were derived in patients with bone sarcomas. Larger size (p=0.021), amputation (p=0.016) and bone reconstruction (p=0.03) were poor prognostic factorsaffecting function in patients with soft tissue sarcomas, and hindfoot site (p=0.028) and amputation (p=0.028) were poor prognostic factorsaffecting function in patients with bone sarcomas. Surgery with a negative operative margin and reconstructive procedures achieved good local control and function. Patients that had tumors with larger size, necessitating amputation or bone reconstruction, required novel multimodal treatment in order to improve their outcomes.
Background & objectives: Age adjusted incidence rate of lung cancer in India ranges from 7.4 to 13.1 per 100,000 among males and 3.9 to 5.8 per 100,000 among females. The factorsaffecting survival in lung cancer patients in India are not fully understood. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the factorsaffecting survival in patients diagnosed with lung cancer attending a tertiary care cancer institute in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Methods: Consecutive patients with primary lung cancer attending Bangalore Institute of Oncology, a tertiary care centre at Bangalore, between 2006 and 2009 were included. Demographic, clinical, radiological data were collected retrospectively from the medical records. Results: A total of 170 consecutive subjects (128 males, 42 females) diagnosed to have lung cancer; 151 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 19 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were included. A higher proportion of never-smokers (54.1%) were observed, mostly presenting below the age of 60 yr. Most subjects were in stage IV and III at the time of diagnosis. More than 50 per cent of patients presented with late stage lung cancer even though the duration of symptoms is less than 2 months. The 30-month overall survival rates for smokers and never-smokers were 32 and 49 per cent, respectively. No significant differences were observed in 30 month survival based on age at presentation, gender and type of lung cancer. Cox proportional hazards model identified never-smokers and duration of symptoms less than 1 month as factors adversely affecting survival. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that lung cancer in Indians involved younger subjects and associated with poorer survival as compared to other ethnic population. Studies on large sample need to be done to evaluate risk factors in lung cancer patients.
Pericytes are critical for vascular morphogenesis and contribute to several pathologies, including cancer development and progression. The mechanisms governing pericyte migration and differentiation are complex and have not been fully established. Current literature suggests that platelet-derived growth factor/platelet-derived growth factor receptor-?, sphingosine 1-phosphate/endothelial differentiation gene-1, angiopoietin-1/tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 2, angiopoietin-2/tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 2, transforming growth factor ?/activin receptor-like kinase 1, transforming growth factor ?/activin receptor-like kinase 5, Semaphorin-3A/Neuropilin, and matrix metalloproteinase activity regulate the recruitment of pericytes to nascent vessels. Interestingly, many of these pathways are directly affected by secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC). Here, we summarize the function of these factors in pericyte migration and discuss if and how SPARC might influence these activities and thus provide an additional layer of control for the recruitment of vascular support cells. Additionally, the consequences of targeted inhibition of pericytes in tumors and the current understanding of pericyte recruitment in pathological environments are discussed. PMID:23912898
Various factorsaffecting precision of trim and resistor stability were considered. The influence of machine operating parameters on resistor performance was examined and quantified through statistically designed experiments for a Q switched YAG laser system. Laser kerf quality was studied by scanning electron microscopy and related to kerf isolation resistance measurements. A relatively simple production oriented, quality control test is proposed for rapid determination of kerf electrical stability. In addition, the effect of cut design and extent of trim on precision and stability were discussed.
In monitoring arrhythmia, the quality of medical data from the ECG sensors may be enhanced by being based on everyday life situations. Hence, the development of wireless biomedical sensors is of growing interest, both to diagnose the heart patient, as well as to adjust the regimen. However, human factors such as emotional barriers and stigmatization, may affect the patient's behavior while wearing the equipment, which in turn may influence quality of data. The study of human factors and patient acceptance is important both in relation to the development of such equipment, as well as in evaluating the quality of data gathered from the individual patient. In this paper, we highlight some important aspects in patient acceptance by comparing results from a preliminary clinical trial with patients using a wireless ECG sensor for three days out-of-hospital service, to available published results from telehomecare projects, and discuss important aspects to be taken into account in future investigations.
The factors that influence the ultimate level of success or failure of systems development projects have received considerable attention in the academic literature. However, previous research has rarely targeted different instances of a common type of system within a homogeneous organisational sector. This paper presents the results of a survey of IM&T managers within Community Trusts to gain insights into the factorsaffecting the success of Community Information Systems. The results demonstrate that the most successful operational systems were thoroughly tested prior to implementation and enjoyed high levels of user and senior management commitment. Furthermore, it has been shown that there is a relationship between the level of organisational impact and systems success, with the most successful systems engendering changes to the host organisation's culture, level of empowerment and clinical working practices. In addition to being of academic interest, this research provides many important insights for practising IM&T managers. PMID:10747445
The biological and non-biological factors that affect the degradation of amoxicillin in the composting process of feces have been investigated. The effect of living bacteria and the enzyme (beta-lactamase) on amoxicillin decay was examined, and our results indicated that the biological effects are likely to be negligible. Consequently, the effect of phosphate, ammonia and pH level as non-biological factors was investigated by monitoring the reduction rate of amoxicillin in phosphate and ammonia buffer solutions with several pH levels. Each reduction rate constant was integrated by a simulation model, and the each calculated amoxicillin reduction profile was compared to the reduction profiles of amoxicillin in the composting process of feces. The calculated results corresponded almost exactly to the experimental profiles. We therefore concluded that the degradation of amoxicillin in a toilet matrix was dependent on the concentration of ammonia, phosphate and hydroxyl ion. PMID:17109929
The Goddard Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive Center (GES DAAC) has been archiving and distributing Radiance data, and serving science and application users of these data, for over 10 years now. The user-focused stewardship of the Radiance data from the AIRS, AVHRR, MODIS, SeaWiFS, SORCE, TOMS, TOVS, TRMM, and UARS instruments exemplifies the GES DAAC tradition and experience. Radiance data include raw radiance counts, onboard calibration data, geolocation products, radiometric calibrated and geolocated-calibrated radiance/reflectance. The number of science products archived at the GES DAAC is steadily increasing, as a result of more sophisticated sensors and new science algorithms. Thus, the main challenge for the GES DAAC is to guide users through the variety of Radiance data sets, provide tools to visualize and reduce the volume of the data, and provide uninterrupted access to the data. This presentation will describe the effort at the GES DAAC to build a bridge between multi-sensor data and the effective scientific use of the data, with an emphasis on the heritage of the science products. The intent is to inform users of the existence of this large collection of Radiance data; suggest starting points for cross-platform science projects and data mining activities; provide data services and tools information; and to give expert help in the science data formats and applications. More information about the GES DAAC Radiance data products, tools, and services can be found at http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov.
In this paper, we present a ray tracing-based method for accelerated global illumination computation in scenes with low- frequency glossy BRDFs. The method is based on sparse sampling, caching, and interpolating radiance on glossy surfaces. In particular, we extend the irradiance caching scheme proposed by Ward et al. (1) to cache and interpolate directional incoming radiance instead of irradiance. The
Jaroslav Krivánek; Pascal Gautron; Sumanta N. Pattanaik; Kadi Bouatouch
Scientific literacy for our students and the possibilities for careers available in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) areas are important topics for economic growth as well as global competitiveness. The achievement of students in science learning is dependent upon the science teachers' effectiveness and experienced science teachers depend upon relevant professional development experiences to support their learning. In order to understand how to improve student learning in science, the learning of science teachers must also be understood. Previous research studies on teacher professional development have been conducted in other states, but Minnesota science teachers comprised a new and different population from those previously studied. The purpose of this two-phase mixed methods study was to identify the current types of professional development in which experienced, Minnesota secondary science teachers participated and the factors that affect their participation in professional development activities. The mixed-methods approach s utilized an initial online survey followed by qualitative interviews with five survey respondents. The results of the quantitative survey and the qualitative interviews indicated the quality of professional development experiences and the factors which affected the science teachers' participation in professional development activities. The supporting and inhibiting factors involved the availability of resources such as time and money, external relationships with school administrators, teacher colleagues, and family members, and personal intrinsic attributes such as desires to learn and help students. This study also describes implications for science teachers, school administrators, policymakers, and professional development providers. Recommendations for future research include the following areas: relationships between and among intrinsic and extrinsic factors, science-related professional development activities within local school districts, the use of formal and informal professional development, and the needs of rural science teachers compared to urban and suburban teachers.
Night Vision Imaging Systems technology is advancing at a rapid pace. These advances can be broadly divided in two distinct categories; performance and data management. There is an encouraging trend towards higher sensitivity, better resolution, and lower power consuming devices. These improvements, coupled with the shift from analog to digital data output, promise to provide a powerful night vision device. Given a digital system, the data can be managed to enhance the pilot's view (image processing), overlay data from multiple sensors (image fusion), and send data to remote locations for analysis (image sharing). The US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) has an active program to introduce a helmet mounted digital imaging system that extends the detection range from the near infrared (NIR) band to the short-wave infrared (SWIR) band. Aside from the digital output, part of the motivation to develop a SWIR imaging system includes the desire to exploit the SWIR ambient night glow spectrum, see through some levels of fog and haze, and use a robust sensor technology suitable for 24 hours per day imaging. Integrating this advanced SWIR imaging system into a cockpit presents some human factor issues. Light emitted from illuminated instruments may hinder the performance of the imaging system, reducing the pilot's ability to detect lowvisible objects at night. The transmission of light through cockpit transparencies and through the atmosphere may also impact performance. In this paper we propose a model that establishes cockpit lighting SWIR radiance limits, much like MIL-STD-3009 specifies NVIS radiance limits for NVGs. This model is the culmination of a two year program sponsored by AFRL.
The quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products includes a combination of attributes, such as appearance, texture, and flavor, as well as nutritional and safety aspects that determine their value to the consumer. Nutritionally, fruit and vegetables represent a good source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber, and fresh-cut produce satisfies consumer demand for freshly prepared, convenient, healthy food. However, fresh-cut produce deteriorates faster than corresponding intact produce, as a result of damage caused by minimal processing, which accelerates many physiological changes that lead to a reduction in produce quality and shelf-life. The symptoms of produce deterioration include discoloration, increased oxidative browning at cut surfaces, flaccidity as a result of loss of water, and decreased nutritional value. Damaged plant tissues also represent a better substrate for growth of microorganisms, including spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens. The risk of pathogen contamination and growth is one of the main safety concerns associated with fresh-cut produce, as highlighted by the increasing number of produce-linked foodborne outbreaks in recent years. The pathogens of major concern in fresh-cut produce are Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli mainly O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. This article describes the quality of fresh-cut produce, factorsaffecting quality, and various techniques for evaluating quality. In addition, the microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and factorsaffecting pathogen survival and growth on fresh-cut produce are discussed in detail. PMID:22530712
Francis, G A; Gallone, A; Nychas, G J; Sofos, J N; Colelli, G; Amodio, M L; Spano, G
This study examines factorsaffecting the productive efficiency of primary care clinics. The empirical analysis uses a single-stage stochastic frontier regression model, in which factorsaffecting productive efficiency are specified as part of the inefficiency error component and estimated simultaneously with the production function. The study population includes primary care clinics in the US Military Health System from 1999 through 2003; the analytical data set is an unbalanced panel of 442 observations. The study's main results were that primary care clinics not associated with medical centres had significantly higher levels of productive efficiency than those associated with medical centres and that having proportionately more civilian staff (and thus less turnover) had a positive impact on productive efficiency. Due to their nature, these findings would be expected to also be applicable to the production of primary care in other settings. A key implication of the results is that improvements in productive efficiency should be a top priority, given the possibility for providing more primary care visits without increases in cost. PMID:18275665
Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for phenotypic and microevolutionary adaptations.
Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M.; Fiedler, Wolfgang
Identification of factorsaffecting platelet reactivity (PR) and high PR (HPR) or high platelet inhibition (HPI) rates while on prasugrel maintenance dose (MD) might be helpful in avoiding ischemic or bleeding complications. We retrospectively analyzed all patients (n=233) treated in our institution between April 2010 and November 2012 who had platelet function assessment pre-prasugrel and following prasugrel 10 mg MD for at least 5 days, using the Verify Now P2Y12 platelet function assay. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression models were applied to identify independent factorsaffecting post-prasugrel PR level, HPR and HPI status. The amount of variance in PR under prasugrel MD that could be explained by the model was 25.9% (adjusted R²), p<0.001. Pre-prasugrel treatment PR, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), prasugrel loading and smoking uniquely accounted for 10.8%, 1.3%, 3.5% and 1.2% of the observed variance, respectively. HPR and HPI were observed in 7.7% and 13.7% of the cases, respectively. On multivariate analysis, pre-prasugrel PR in the upper quartile (>313 PRU) was the only independent factor associated with HPR under prasugrel MD. In contrast, pre-prasugrel PR in the lower quartile (<242 PRU) and prasugrel loading emerged as the only independent predictors of HPI. In patients under different clinical settings receiving prasugrel 10 mg MD a significant amount of the PR variability in response to prasugrel may be explained by pre- treatment PR level, ACS, prasugrel loading and smoking status. A high pre- treatment PR is associated with HPR, while a low pre-treatment PR and prasugrel loading predict HPI. PMID:23651444
The authors explore factors that affect electricity trade between enterprises in the US and Canada and the US and Mexico. They look to those underlying policy and institutional factors that affect the relative costs of producing electricity in the three countries. In particular, they consider six factors that appear to have a significant impact on electricity trade in North America: differences in the types of economic regulation of power leading to differences in cost recovery for wholesale and retail power and wheeling charges; changing regulatory attitudes, placing more emphasis on demand-side management and environmental concerns; differences in energy and economic policies; differences in national and subnational environmental policies; changing organization of electric power industries which may foster uncertainty, change historical relationships, and provide other potentially important sources of power for distribution utilities; and differences in the ability of enterprises to gain access to electric power markets because of restrictions placed on transmission access. In Section 2, the authors discuss the regulation of electricity trade in North America and provide an overview of the recent trading experience for electricity between Canada and the US and between Mexico and the US, including the volume of that trade over the past decade and existing transmission capacity between regions of the three countries. In Section 3, they look at the benefits that accrue to trading counties and what those benefits are likely to be for the three countries. The discussion in Section 4 centers on the relevant provisions of the Canada Free Trade Agreement and the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement. In Section 5, they set the stage for the discussion of policy and institutional differences presented in Section 6 by outlining differences in the organization of the electric power sectors of Canada, the US, and Mexico. The study is synthesized in Section 7.
The variation of colors in microscopy systems can be quite critical for some users. To address this problem, a study is conducted to analyze how different factors such as size of the sample, intensity of the microscope's light source and the characteristics of the material like chroma and saturation can affect the color appearance through the eyepiece of the microscope. To study the changes in colors considering these factors, the spectral reflectance of 24 colors of GretagMacbeth Classic ColorChecker® and Mini ColorChecker® which are placed under a Nikon ECLIPSE MA200 microscope®2 using dark filed and bright field illuminations which result in different intensity levels, is measured using a spectroradiometer®3 which was placed in front of the eyepiece of the microscope. The results are compared with the original data from N. Ohta1. The evaluation is done by observing the shift in colors in the CIE 1931 Chromaticity Diagram and the CIELAB space, also by applying a wide set of color-difference formulas, namely: CIELAB, CMC, BFD, CIE94, CIEDE2000, DIN99d and DIN99b. Furthermore, to emphasize on the color regions in which the highest difference is observed, the authors have obtained the results from another microscope; Olympus SZX10®4, which in this case the measurement is done by mounting the spectroradiometer to the camera port of the microscope. The experiment leads to some interesting results, among which is the consistency in the highest difference observed considering different factors or how the change in saturation of the samples of the same hue can affect the results.
A generic model is introduced that represents the combined sewer infrastructure of a settlement quantitatively. A catchment area module first calculates the length and size distribution of the required sewer pipes on the basis of rain patterns, housing densities and area size. These results are fed into the sewer-cost module in order to estimate the combined sewer costs of the entire catchment area. A detailed analysis of the relevant input parameters for Swiss settlements is used to identify the influence of size on costs. The simulation results confirm that an economy of scale exists for combined sewer systems. This is the result of two main opposing cost factors: (i) increased construction costs for larger sewer systems due to larger pipes and increased rain runoff in larger settlements, and (ii) lower costs due to higher population and building densities in larger towns. In Switzerland, the more or less organically grown settlement structures and limited land availability emphasise the second factor to show an apparent economy of scale. This modelling approach proved to be a powerful tool for understanding the underlying factorsaffecting the cost structure for water infrastructures. PMID:20595751
The Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) is a critical component of the radiation energy budget at the top of the atmosphere. Its spectra carry rich information on radiatively active species at specific altitude levels, so that the OLR spectrum serves as a good indicator of the atmospheric and surface conditions. For the above reasons, satellite observed OLR spectra provide a rigorous test of state-of-art General Circulation Models (GCMs), with the discrepancy between simulated and observed radiances disclosing where the weakness of model lies. Over four years' Atmospheric Infrared Sound (AIRS) radiance data is now available. This data set provides a unique reference spectrum that can be used to assess GCM radiance simulations and thereby diagnose the characteristics of the present-day factors which influence the radiance. In this paper, we compare the statistics of satellite-observed and model-simulated OLR spectra on the diurnal and seasonal scales, and over both global and regional domains. For the satellite part, AIRS radiances are used. For the modeling part, a radiative transfer model with moderate spectral resolution (MODTRAN) is used to simulate outgoing radiances from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab (GFDL) global climate model. Assuming the observations are sound and the model-based radiances are calculated using an accurate radiation code, the discrepancy in radiances can be associated with the bias in the atmospheric states between model and reality through the "radiative Jacobians". One example of the application of this strategy is to pin down the cause(s) of the rather substantial clear-sky broadband OLR flux bias of GFDL model. With spectrally resolved radiances, the broadband flux bias may be attributed to different spectral regions that are sensitive to influential factors at particular altitude levels. Thus, insights are gained about the important physical variable(s) that may have caused the model bias. This establishes a complementary diagnosis to the comparison made at meteorological level.
Inhabitants of the Croatian islands of Brac, Hvar, Korcula, and the Peljesac Peninsula have been the subject of extensive previous studies of local population differentiation. Most of these studies used biological and ecological variables, but some also considered historical and sociological factors. In this study we use genetic, morphological, kinship, and language distance data, collected for individuals from 26 rural communities on the islands of Brac, Hvar, Korcula, and the Peljesac Peninsula in the Adriatic, to further explore the interaction of historical, sociological, and biological factors in small populations and to test the significance of some of these proposed causes. First, we use matrix correlation methods to evaluate the relationships among different types of distance measures. The specific measures of genetic distance used here do not correlate well with other measures of population distance, and it appears that for the studied genetic systems the populations are not strongly differentiated. As expected, kinship and language distances have a high degree of association. Morphological differences among populations seem to be more closely tied to kinship distances than to genetic distances. This may result from modification of some morphological features by environmental rather than genetic factors, or it may be attributed to extensive, selective, nonrandom emigration of the population during the first decade of the twentieth century. In the second part of our analysis we use matrix correlation methods to evaluate and possibly identify the external factors that have contributed to the population differences. Specifically, we use design matrices to test hypotheses that population differences can be explained by one of the following factors: geographic isolation on the islands and peninsula, distance from the mainland, geographic barriers within the islands and peninsula, and the historical factors that differentially affected the three islands and the peninsula. Most of these design matrices reflect geographic distances; although correlations between morphological variables and simple geographic distance between localities were not significant, correlations between these localities and a design matrix incorporating geographic distance along with geographic barriers, such as bodies of water and mountain ranges, are particularly important for explaining distances among kin. Design matrices provide an important tool for quantifying the relationship between historical and geographic factors, and measures of population distance. PMID:9780515
Background Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factorsaffecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to test the association between deciding a future specialty and students’ sociodemographic and academic factors. Results Of the 422 students approached, 387 (91.7%) decided to participate. A total of 144 (37.2%) students made a decision regarding their choice of future medical specialty. Pediatrics, general surgery, and cardiology were the most desired specialties – 18 (12.5%), 17 (11.8%), and 16 (11.1%) students requested these specialties, respectively. Only 61 (42.4%) of those who selected a future specialty received advice regarding their choice. Looking for a good treatment outcome for patients (66; 45.8%) and a challenging specialty (58; 40.3%) were the most influencing incentives when selecting a future specialty. Students in the clinical phase of their study were 3.014 (95% CI: 1.498–6.065) more likely to report on their decision regarding a future specialty compared to students in the basic medical sciences phase (p=0.002). Conclusion A variety of factors appeared to inspire medical students in Kuwait to choose a future medical specialty. When identified, these factors can be used by mentors of medical students and directors of residency training programs to motivate students to choose specialties that are limited in Kuwait.
The Goddard Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive Center (GES DAAC) has been archiving and distributing Radiance data, and serving science and application users of these data, for over 10 years now. The user-focused stewardship of the Radiance data from the AIRS, AVHRR, MODIS, SeaWiFS, SORCE, TOMS, TOVS, TRMM, and UARS instruments exemplifies the GES DAAC tradition and experience. Radiance data include raw radiance counts, onboard calibration data, geolocation products, radiometric calibrated and geolocated-calibrated radiance/reflectance. The number of science products archived at the GES DAAC is steadily increasing, as a result of more sophisticated sensors and new science algorithms. Thus, the main challenge for the GES DAAC is to guide users through the variety of Radiance data sets, provide tools to visualize and reduce the volume of the data, and provide uninterrupted access to the data. This presentation will describe the effort at the GES DAAC to build a bridge between multi-sensor data and the effective scientific use of the data, with an emphasis on the heritage of the science products. The intent is to inform users of the existence of this large collection of Radiance data; suggest starting points for cross-platform science projects and data mining activities; provide data services and tools information; and to give expert help in the science data formats and applications.
The complex environmental context must be considered as we move forward to improve cancer care and, ultimately, patient and population outcomes. The cancer care continuum represents several care types, each of which includes multiple technical and communication steps and interfaces among patients, providers, and organizations. We use two case scenarios to 1) illustrate the variability, diversity, and interaction of factors from multiple levels that affect care quality and 2) discuss research implications and provide hypothetical examples of multilevel interventions. Each scenario includes a targeted literature review to illustrate contextual influences upon care and sets the stage for theory-informed interventions. The screening case highlights access issues in older women, and the survivorship case illustrates the multiple transition challenges faced by patients, families, and organizations. Example interventions show the potential gains of implementing intervention strategies that work synergistically at multiple levels. While research examining multilevel intervention is a priority, it presents numerous study design, measurement, and analytic challenges.
Taplin, Stephen H.; Ganz, Patricia; Grunfeld, Eva; Sterba, Katherine
Though adoption in China is known to have increased as more girls were abandoned and became available for adoption following the introduction of the country's one-child policy in the 1980s, little is known about Chinese adoption practices. This paper investigates the factorsaffecting adoption in China in the period 1950-87 using data from the National Two-Per-Thousand Sample Survey on Fertility and Contraception of 1988. The results show that the national adoption rate was 2.3 per cent. Childless women were more likely than women with children to adopt and did not show a sex preference. Women with children by birth used adoption to secure a child of the 'missing' sex. Women who had experienced the death of a child were more likely to adopt than those who had not. Women with children may have used adoption as a strategy to circumvent the strict family planning policies. PMID:15204260
Airborne 210Pb, daughter of 222Rn, is frequently used as a tracer in different studies concerning atmospheric transport, sedimentation, soil erosion, dating, etc. Concentration of 210Pb was measured in 40 soil samples collected in urban and industrial areas in order to get evidence of possible influence of some factors on accumulation of airborne 210Pb in soil. Different soil properties such as the content of organic matter, free CaCO3, and available phosphorus (P2O5) were measured to explore their possible correlation with the amount of 210Pb. Special attention was given to the correlation between 210Pb and stable lead accumulated in the soil. Several samples were taken near a battery manufacturer to check if extremely high concentrations of lead can affect the uptake of the airborne 210Pb in soil. Soil samples were also taken at different depths to investigate the penetration of lead through the soil.
The rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose reaction is known to decrease significantly as the reaction proceeds. Factors such as reaction temperature, time, and surface area of substrate that affect cellulose conversion were analyzed relative to their role in a mechanistic model based on first order inactivation of adsorbed cellulases. The activation energies for the hydrolytic step and inactivation step were very close in magnitude: 16.3kcalmol(-1) for hydrolysis and 18.0kcalmol(-1) for inactivation, respectively. Therefore, increasing reaction temperature would cause a significant increase in the inactivation rate in addition to the catalytic reaction rate. Vmax,app was only 20% or less of the value at 72h compared to at 2h as a result of inactivation of adsorbed cellulases, suggesting prolonged hydrolysis is not an efficient way to improve cellulose hydrolysis. Hydrolysis rate increased with corresponding increases in available substrate surface binding area. PMID:25027809
Aerosol single scattering albedo (?o) is a primary factor dictating aerosol radiative effect. Ground-based remote sensing of ?o has been employed most widely using spectral sky radiance measurements made from a scanning Sun photometer. Reliable results can be achieved for high aerosol loadings and for solar zenith angle >50°. This study presents an alternative method using spectral direct radiance measurements
Potential factorsaffecting retention of pregnancy during weeks 5-9 of gestation were studied in dairy cows and heifers (N = 211) on two farms. Cows were examined by ultrasonography for presence of a viable embryo, and sizes of the corpus luteum (CL) and of follicles > or = 5mm were recorded. Blood samples were taken at each examination and assayed for progesterone and estradiol. Overall pregnancy loss was 11.4%. Cows with two CL did not have greater concentrations of progesterone than cows with one CL and they retained fewer pregnancies (P < 0.01; 73% versus 91%). Pregnancy retention was associated positively with concentrations of progesterone and estradiol during week 5 (P < 0.05). Embryos that were lost apparently died before CL regression. Retention of pregnancy declined in cows with high body condition and as age of the cow increased. Pregnancy retention was lower in cows bred to one of four frequently-used service sires (P < 0.05). Days postpartum, milk production, parity, service number, inseminator, synchronization of estrus, diameter of follicles and size of CL did not affect pregnancy retention. In conclusion, retention of pregnancy during placentation varied with concentrations of progesterone and estradiol, age of cow, body condition and service sire. PMID:15302385
Starbuck, Melanie J; Dailey, Robert A; Inskeep, E Keith
Recently a furfural nematicide Multiguard Protect EC was launched for use on turfgrasses in the United States. A series of greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the concentration and exposure time required for this formulation to irreversibly affect Belonolaimus longicaudatus, and to study factors that might affect the practicality of furfural use in turfgrass systems. One experiment exposed B. longicaudatus to increasing concentrations of furfural (0 to 990 ppm) in vitro for either 24 or 48 hr, followed by inoculation onto bermudagrass. A second experiment evaluated effects of exposure of B. longicaudatus to increasing concentrations of furfural in soil solution on bermudagrass with or without an organic thatch layer. A third experiment evaluated effects on B. longicaudatus of increasing concentrations of furfural applied as a spray treatment to creeping bentgrass. Results from the in vitro exposure experiment found decreasing numbers of B. longicaudatus with increasing furfural concentration beginning with the lowest concentration tested (270 ppm). Belonolaimus longicaudatus were virtually eliminated with furfural concentrations ? 720 ppm. Similarly, exposure to increasing concentration of furfural in soil solution resulted in increasing reduction in numbers of B. longicaudatus. Presence of thatch slightly reduced the population density of B. longicaudatus. Spray application of furfural only reduced numbers of B. longicaudatus at the two highest rates (3,600 and 4,950 ppm). PMID:24379484
According to our current understanding, galaxy shapes and morphologies should depend on various factors such as the local environment. Realistic image simulations for calibration of weak lensing analysis methods that use training samples from the Hubble Space Telescope can therefore be affected by these trends, due to the limited volume of the universe that has been surveyed by Hubble. I will show how redshift slices in a volume-limited subsample of COSMOS can be classified as overdense or underdense (or neither), and how the statistical properties of various morphological parameters such as ellipticity, Sersic n, bulge-to-total ratio and color differ in these bins. This study requires a careful distinction between environment effects from large-scale structure, which we do not wish to include in simulations, and general trends in the galaxy population with redshift. We conclude with some guidance for how upcoming surveys can use COSMOS data as the basis for weak lensing simulations without having their conclusions overly affected by cosmic variance.
Objective To use observational methods to objectively evaluate the organisation of triage and what issues may affect the effectiveness of the process. Design A two?phase study comprising observation of 16?h of triage in a London hospital emergency department and interviews with the triage staff to build a qualitative task analysis and study protocol for phase 2; observation and timing in triage for 1870?min including 257 patients and for 16 different members of the triage staff. Results No significant difference was found between grades of staff for the average triage time or the fraction of time absent from triage. In all, 67% of the time spent absent from triage was due to escorting patients into the department. The average time a patient waited in the reception before triage was 13?min 34?s; the average length of time to triage for a patient was 4?min 17?s. A significant increase in triage time was found when patients were triaged to a specialty, expected by a specialty, or were actively “seen and treated” in triage. Protocols to prioritise patients with potentially serious conditions to the front of the queue had a significantly positive effect on their waiting time. Supplementary tasks and distractions had varying effects on the timely assessment and triage of patients. Conclusions The human factors method is applicable to the triage process and can identify key factors that affect the throughput at triage. Referring a patient to a specialty at triage affects significantly the triage workload; hence, alternative methods or management should be suggested. The decision to offer active treatment at triage increases the time taken, and should be based on clinical criteria and the workload determined by staffing levels. The proportion of time absent from triage could be markedly improved by support from porters or other non?qualified staff, as well as by proceduralised handovers from triage to the main clinical area. Triage productivity could be improved by all staff by becoming aware of the effect of the number of interruptions on the throughput of patients.
Several standards for radiometric calibration were measured repeatedly with a spectroradiometer in order to understand how they compared in accuracy and stability. The tested radiance standards included a NIST 1000 W bulb and halon panel, two calibrated and stabilized integrating spheres, and a cavity blackbody. Results indicate good agreement between the blackbody and 1000 W bulb/spectralon panel, If these two radiance sources are assumed correct, then the integrating spheres did not conform. to their manufacturer-reported radiances in several regions of the spectrum. More detailed measurements am underway to investigate the discrepancy.
This review and orientation to strain gage technology presents the historical development of the bonded foil resistance strain gage as well as modern design and selection criteria for the successful use of strain gages in smart structure technology. Discovered in 1865 by Lord Kelvin, the principle of using resistance change in conductors to measure strain has existed in its present form of the foil strain gage since the late 1950s. Since then, advances in manufacturing and applications techniques have made the bonded foil resistance strain gage one of the most economical and easy to use sensors available for direct measurement and transducer applications alike. Millions are produced and use each year throughout the world. The factorsaffecting strain gage design and construction include of foil alloy, backing, pattern, and temperature characteristics. Over 250,000 unique strain gage constructions are possible, each particularly suited to a specific set of application conditions. The effect of each of these factors on smart structure performance is considered.
This study aimed to determine the factors that may affect the development of mortality in patients with stage 3b necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Between January 2005 and December 2012, patients with the diagnosis of stage 3b NEC who were surgically treated were enrolled in the study. Gestational age, birth weight, presence of hypoxemia history, major congenital heart diseases, enteral feeding, age at perforation, drainage type, operation, and laboratory findings were considered regarding their possible relationship with mortality. Thirty-one patients were enrolled in this study. Following treatment, 15 patients died, while 16 patients recovered and were discharged. Feeding type, high levels of prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), creatinine, and low platelet count, as well as need of inotropic support were associated with mortality. When the cut-off point of platelet level for mortality development in stage 3b NEC was calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the cut-off point for thrombocyte level was found to be 110,000/µL, with 93.3% sensitivity and 87.5% specificity. Despite the innovations in newborn intensive care, the mortality rate of stage 3b NEC remains very high. Breastfeeding has a significantly positive impact on the survival of patients with NEC. Thrombocytopenia is the most important risk factor of mortality in stage 3b NEC. PMID:24911845
Impacts of offshore wind farms on marine fauna are largely unknown. Therefore, one commonly adheres to the precautionary principle, which states that one shall take action to avoid potentially damaging impacts on marine ecosystems, even when full scientific certainty is lacking. We implement this principle by means of a statistical power analysis including spatial factors. Implementation is based on geostatistical simulations, accommodating for zero-inflation in species data. We investigate scenarios in which an impact assessment still has to be carried out. Our results show that the environmental conditions at the time of the survey is the most influential factor on power. This is followed by survey effort and species abundance in the reference situation. Spatial dependence in species numbers at local scales affects power, but its effect is smaller for the scenarios investigated. Our findings can be used to improve effectiveness of the economical investment for monitoring surveys. In addition, unnecessary extra survey effort, and related costs, can be avoided when spatial dependence in species abundance is present and no improvement on power is achieved. PMID:22073657
Pérez Lapeña, B; Wijnberg, K M; Stein, A; Hulscher, S J M H
Peripheral neuropathy in burn patients may be frequently missed in clinical settings. Although its incidence has been reported, little is known regarding the factors that cause burn-related peripheral neuropathy. A retrospective chart review of the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients admitted to a university hospital based burn center was conducted to explore the characteristics of burn-related neuropathy and factorsaffecting its types or extent. The variables collected were gender, age, length of hospital stay, site and surface area of burn, type of burn, and electrodiagnostic findings. We found that flame injuries, and third degree injuries were the most common in patients with peripheral neuropathy. Axonotmesis was more common than demyelinating injury and polyneuropathy was more common than mononeuropathy. Higher degree and larger area burns were more frequently associated with axonotmesis than with demyelination. Length of hospital stay was significantly longer in patients with axonotmesis. Overall, more severe burns showed a significant association with axonotmesis and a tendency to be related to polyneuropathy. PMID:18951702
The Chilean forestry industry is based on hundreds of thousands of hectares of Pinus radiata plantations that have been established in a variety of soil and climate conditions. This approach has resulted in highly variable plantation productivity even when the best available technology was used. Little information is known about the ecophysiology basis for this variability. We explored the spatial and temporal variation of stand growth in Chile using a network of permanent sample plots from Modelo Nacional de Simulacion de Pino radiata. We hypothesized that the climate would play an important role in the annual variations in productivity. To answer these questions we developed the following projects: (1) Determination of site resource availability from historical data from automatic weather stations (rainfall, temperatures) and a geophysical model for solar irradiation, (2) Determination of peak annual leaf area index (LAI) for selected permanent sample plots using remote sensing technologies, (3) Analysis of soil, climate, canopy and stand factorsaffecting the Pinus radiata plantation growth and the use efficiency of site resources. For project 1, we estimated solar irradiation using the r.sun , Hargreaves-Samani (HS), and Bristow-Campbell (BC) models and validated model estimates with observations from weather stations. Estimations from a calibrated r.sun model accounted for 94% of the variance (r2=0.94) in monthly mean measured values. The r.sun model performed quite well for a wide range of Chilean conditions when compared with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global irradiation may be improved with better estimates of cloudiness as they become available. Our model was able to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly and yearly solar irradiation. For project 2, we estimated the inter-annual variation of LAI (Leaf Area Index), using remote sensing technologies. We determined LAI using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering a 5 year period (2005--2009) for a network of permanent sample plots in Pinus radiata plantations in Chile. In 2009, we calculated LAI from ground measurements using LI-COR LAI-2000 and TRAC instruments on each one hectare plot. These values of LAI were regressed against Simple Ratio (SR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Reduced Simple Ratio (RSR), derived from the TM 2009 data. Linear relationships were strong with R2 values of 0.65 for SR, 0.61 for NDVI and 0.67 for RSR. Using the RSR relationship, LAI values were estimated for the network of permanent sample plots of Pinus radiata plantations over the whole period. For project 3, we examined environmental factorsaffecting growth rates of Pinus radiata in Chile. Water availability (as affected by precipitation, soil water holding capacity, and potential evapotranspiration) appeared to be the factor most limiting to leaf area and growth. Maximum growing season temperature also negatively affected growth. Sites with highest productivities had the lowest annual water deficits and the most productive sites used water and light more efficiently. Good sites produced 1.6 as compared to 0.49 kg of wood per m3 of evapotranspired water for less productive sites. In addition, productive stands produced 0.5 as compared to 0.31 g of wood per MJ for less productive sites.
The uncertainty of the radiometric calibration affects the accuracy of the earth observation (EO) radiance restored from the remote sensing digital number (DN) data. However, it has not been intensively analyzed whether they are equivalent to each other. The algorithm to deduce the uncertainty of the restored EO radiance in the solar-reflective spectral range (400-2500 nm) along the uncertainty propagation chain in the radiometric calibration process is proposed. It was validated compared with the traditional calibration uncertainty algorithm through an example of calibrating an imaging spectrometer. The interval about the real EO radiance and the corresponding level of confidence was reported as a result, which shows the possibility to accurately expressing the quality of the restored EO radiance following the rules used in the field of metrology. PMID:24787833
This study compares the precipitation regimes by using harmonic analysis during the last four decades (1965-2004). We used the measured precipitation data from 428 rain-gauge sites and weather stations distributed across Iran by applying 15 × 15 km spatial grids to generate the interpolated data. Data validations were carried out by statistical tests. In this study, first three harmonics of precipitation variances were evaluated. Variability of precipitation regime was explored by using three harmonic analysis methods. In addition, the effect of geographical factors (GF) (site elevation, latitude, and longitude) affecting the precipitation regime (P) was verified by multivariate regression method. The resulted regression equation between P and GF for spring showed the highest correlation coefficient (r = 0.79). For other seasons, r was lower than for spring and varied between 0.26 (summer) to 0.58 (autumn). Analysis of the first harmonic proved that the main precipitation regime in Iran tends to concentrate in one specific season (winter) as a result of large-scale Mediterranean systems passing over the country. In other words, the first harmonic is able to explain most of the precipitation variations which are caused by large-scale atmospheric circulation. For all the three harmonics, variances of precipitation were mainly a function of the geographical factors. This effect was more evident in the third harmonic; in such a way that increasing the latitudes caused higher precipitation variance. This means that the precipitation regime in northern sites is more sensitive to the local factors than those of southern sites. The results of this research can be used for reliable estimation of precipitation in ungauged sites.
Sabziparvar, A. A.; Movahedi, S.; Asakereh, H.; Maryanaji, Z.; Masoodian, S. A.
Identifying causes of declines and evaluating effects of management practices on persistence of local populations of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) requires accurate estimates of abundance and population trends. Moreover, regulatory agencies in the United States and Canada typically require surveys to detect nest burrows prior to approving developments or other activities in areas that are potentially suitable for nesting burrowing owls. In general, guidelines on timing of surveys have been lacking and surveys have been conducted at different times of day and in different stages of the nesting cycle. We used logistic regression to evaluate 7 factors that could potentially affect probability of a surveyor detecting a burrowing owl nest. We conducted 1,444 detection trials at 323 burrowing owl nests within 3 study areas in Washington and Wyoming, USA, between February and August 2000-2002. Detection probability was highest during the nestling period and increased with ambient temperature. The other 5 factors that we examined (i.e., study area, time of day, timing within the breeding season, wind speed, % cloud cover) interacted with another factor to influence detection probability. Use of call-broadcast surveys increased detection probability, even during daylight hours when we detected >95% of owls visually. Optimal timing of surveys will vary due to differences in breeding phenology and differences in nesting behavior across populations. Nevertheless, we recommend ???3 surveys per year: one that coincides with the laying and incubation period, another that coincides with the early nestling period, and a third that coincides with the late nestling period. In northern latitudes, surveys can be conducted throughout the day.
Conway, C. J.; Garcia, V.; Smith, M. D.; Hughes, K.
Human papilloma virus genital infection remains a treatment dilemma; there is still no gold standard therapy, treatment options are limited, expensive and often ineffective, and recurrence rates are relatively high. The primary objective of this study is to establish the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of cryotherapy in the treatment of these lesions. From 1999 to 2003, 100 consecutive patients with at least ten genital warts were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy using a cotton-tipped applicator and two freeze-thaw cycles at the outpatient dermatology clinic of Hazrat-e Rasool University Hospital. Treatment was repeated every 3 weeks until the disappearance of all visible lesions was achieved. Patients were followed up every 4 months for 18 months. Complete clinical cure (CCC) was defined as complete clearance of all lesions and no evidence of disease for a minimum of 18 months. The CCC and relapse rate were evaluated based on different demographic and clinical characteristics. Overall, 86 percent of the patients achieved CCC after an average of 3.31 treatment sessions. All of the failed cases were attributed to recurrence of warts in new sites. The cure rate increased in parallel with increasing treatment sessions until the 6th session, after which it remained constant. The cure rate was lower and the number of treatment sessions higher in older patients. The age of the patient and number of treatment sessions affect the cure rate. The recurrence rate was significantly higher for the married or multi-partner group than for unmarried patients. We concluded that cryotherapy is an effective method for treatment of anogenital warts. The age of the patient and size of the lesions affect the cure rate. However, the most important factor in relapse of the lesions is unprotected sexual contact during and after treatment. PMID:18318999
A review of the nursing literature reveals many undergraduate nursing students lack proficiency with basic mathematical skills, those necessary for safe medication preparation and administration. Few studies exploring the phenomenon from the undergraduate nursing student perspective are reported in the nursing literature. The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of math abilities, factors that affect math abilities, the use of math in nursing, and the extent to which specific math skills were addressed throughout a nursing curriculum. Polya’s Model for Problem Solving and the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Affective Domain served as the theoretical background for the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to obtain data from a purposive sample of undergraduate nursing students from a private university in western Pennsylvania. Participants were selected based on the proficiency level with math skills, as determined by a score on the Elsevier’s HESI™ Admission Assessment (A2) Exam, Math Portion. Ten students from the “Excellent” benchmark group and eleven students from the “Needing Additional Assistance or Improvement” benchmark group participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, and completed a 25-item, 4-point Likert scale survey that rated confidence levels with specific math skills and the extent to which these skills were perceived to be addressed in the nursing curriculum. Responses from the two benchmark groups were compared and contrasted. Eight themes emerged from the qualitative data. Findings related to mathematical approach and confidence levels with specific math skills were determined to be statistically significant.
Near-surface measurements of infrared (8 to 12 microns) horizon radiances are presented for 2 days with differing surface wind speed conditions and vertical profiles of meteorological parameters. A representative aerosol size distribution model for each d...
The overall goal of this work is to develop a predictive relationship between surf zone hydrodynamic properties and radiance measured from overhead EO sensors. The main focus is on the dynamics of strongly- reflective bubbles and aeration caused by breaki...
Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease which can cause many disabilities for the patient. Recent data suggests that MS patients have higher risk for osteoporosis. This study was performed to investigate if the osteoporosis prevalence is higher in MS patients and to determine the possible factorsaffecting bone mineral density (BMD). Methods 51 definite relapsing-remitting MS patients according to McDonald's criteria (45 females, 6 males aged between 20 and 50 years) participated in this study. The control group included 407 females aged from 20 to 49 years; they were healthy and had no history of the diseases affecting bone metabolism. Femoral and lumbar BMD were measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). The disability of MS patients was evaluated by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). The patient's quality of life was evaluated by the validated Persian version of multiple sclerosis impact scale (MSIS-29). Results Patients’ mean age was 36 ± 3.3 years and their mean disease duration was 8.7 ± 1.7 years. The mean EDSS score and the mean body mass index (BMI) of the patients were 3 ± 0.9 and 23.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2, respectively. 29% of the patients had never been treated by ß-interferon and 6% of them had not received glucocorticoids (GCs) pulses since their MS had been diagnosed. 26% of the patients had a history of fracture.18% of our patients were osteoporotic and 43% of them were osteopenic. Femoral BMD was significantly lower among MS patients than age matched controls (P < 0.001), but lumbar BMD showed no difference. There was no correlation between administration of GCs pulses, interferon and BMD; however, we found a significant correlation between EDSS score, quality of life (QoL), disease duration and BMD of both site. Conclusion As a result of this study, bone loss inevitably occurs in MS patients. The major factor of BMD loss is immobility. Osteoporosis should be managed as part of MS patients’ treatment protocols.
EM or seismic data inversions are affected by many factors, which may conceal the responses from target objects. We address here the contributions from the following effects: 1) Pre-survey spectral sensitivity factor. Preliminary information about a target layer can be used for a pre-survey estimation of the required frequency domain and signal level. A universal approach allows making such estimations in real time, helping the survey crew to optimize an acquisition process. 2) Preliminary velocities' identification and their dispersions for all the seismic waves, arising in a stratified media became a fast working tool, based on the exact analytical solution. 3) Vertical gradients effect. For most layers the log data scatter, requiring an averaging pattern. A linear gradient within each representative layer is a reasonable compromise between required inversion accuracy and forward modeling complexity. 4) An effect from the seismic source's radial component becomes comparable with vertical part for explosive sources. If this effect is not taken into account, a serious modeling error takes place. This problem has an algorithmic solution. 5) Seismic modeling is often based on different representations for a source formulated either for a force or to a potential. The wave amplitudes depend on the formulation, making an inversion result sensitive to it. 6) Asymmetrical seismic waves (modified Rayleigh) in symmetrical geometry around liquid fracture come from S-wave and merge with the modified Krauklis wave at high frequencies. A detail analysis of this feature allows a spectral range optimization for the proper wave's extraction. 7) An ultrasonic experiment was conducted to show different waves appearance for a super-thin water-saturated fracture between two Plexiglas plates, being confirmed by comparison with theoretical computations. 8) A 'sandwich effect' was detected by comparison with averaged layer's effect. This opens an opportunity of the shale gas direct identification from the surface measurements.
Magomedov, M.; Zuev, M. A.; Korneev, V. A.; Goloshubin, G.; Zuev, J.; Brovman, Y.
In this study, the major factorsaffecting sonolytic degradation of sulfamethazine (SMT), a typical pharmaceutically active compound, in water were evaluated. The factors tested included two operational parameters (i.e. initial SMT concentration and ultrasonic power), three dissolved gases (i.e. Ar, O2 and N2), five most frequently found anions in water (NO3(-),Cl(-),SO4(2-),HCO3(-)andBr(-)), ferrous ion (Fe(2+)), and four alcohols (methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, tert-butyl alcohol). Typically, the degradation rate was increased with the increasing initial SMT concentration and power. The degradation rate was accelerated in the presence of argon or oxygen, but inhibited by nitrogen. Effects of anions on the ultrasonic treatment were species-dependent. The SMT degradation rate was slightly inhibited by NO3(-),Cl(-),and,SO4(2-) but significantly improved by HCO3(-)andBr(-). The negative effects of alcohols acted as hydroxyl radicals scavengers with the following order: tert-butyl alcohol>isopropyl alcohol>ethanol>methanol. The synergetic effect of ferrous ion was mainly due to production of additional hydroxyl radicals (·OH) through Fenton chemistry. LC/MS/MS analysis indicated that the degradation of SMT by ultrasonic irradiation is mainly ascribed to ·OH oxidation. Of interest, although the SMT could be rapidly degraded by ultrasonic irradiation, the degradation products were rarely mineralized. For example, ~100% of 180 ?M SMT was decomposed, but only 8.31% TOC was reduced, within 2h at an irradiation frequency of 800 kHz and a power of 100 W. However, the products became much biodegradable (BOD5/COD was increased from 0.04 to 0.45). Therefore, an aerobic biological treatment may be an appropriate post-treatment to further decompose the SMT degradation products. PMID:23711347
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify factors that affect diffusion of usage of online end user literature searching. Fifteen factors clustered into three attribute sets (innovation attributes, organizational attributes, and marketing attributes) were measured to study their effect on the diffusion of online searching within institutions. METHODS: A random sample of sixty-seven academic health sciences centers was selected and then 1,335 library and informatics staff members at those institutions were surveyed by mail with electronic mail follow-up. Multiple regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: The survey yielded a 41% response rate with electronic mail follow-up being particularly effective. Two dependent variables, internal diffusion (spread of diffusion) and infusion (depth of diffusion), were measured. There was little correlation between them, indicating they measured different things. Fifteen independent variables clustered into three attribute sets were measured. The innovation attributes set was significant for both internal diffusion and infusion. Significant individual variables were visibility for internal diffusion and image enhancement effects (negative relation) as well as visibility for infusion (depth of diffusion). Organizational attributes were also significant predictors for both dependent variables. No individual variables were significant for internal diffusion. Communication, management support (negative relation), rewards, and existence of champions were significant for infusion. Marketing attributes were not significant predictors. CONCLUSIONS: Successful diffusion of online end user literature searching is dependent on the visibility of the systems, communication among, rewards to, and peers of possible users who promote use (champions). Personal image enhancement effects have a negative relation to infusion, possibly because the use of intermediaries is still seen as the more luxurious way to have searches done. Management support also has a negative relation to infusion, perhaps indicating that depth of diffusion can increase despite top-level management actions.
Radiances are the source of information from ocean color sensors to produce estimates of biological and geochemical constituents. They potentially provide information on various other aspects of global biological and chemical systems, and there is considerable work involved in deriving new information from these signals. Each derived product, however, contains errors that are derived from the application of the radiances, above and beyond the radiance errors. A global biogeochemical model with an explicit spectral radiative transfer model is used to investigate the potential of assimilating radiances. The results indicate gaps in our understanding of radiative processes in the oceans and their relationships with biogeochemical variables. Most important, detritus optical properties are not well characterized and produce important effects of the simulated radiances. Specifically, there does not appear to be a relationship between detrital biomass and its optical properties, as there is for chlorophyll. Approximations are necessary to get beyond this problem. In this reprt we will discuss the challenges in modeling and assimilation water-leaving radiances and the prospects for improving our understanding of biogeochemical process by utilizing these signals.
The phenotype of E-beta-thalassemia is affected by several genetic factors. The aim of this study was to analyze severity of E-beta-thalassemia and correlate with HbE, HbF, E/F ratios, beta-mutation and Xmn I polymorphism. Thirty cases of E-beta-thalassemia (23 with childhood onset) were studied. HbE levels were quantitated by HPLC. Xmn1 polymorphism and beta-mutations were studied by PCR-RFLP and ARMS respectively. Commonest features were pallor (100%), splenomegaly (74%), and hepatomegaly (65%), 43% (10/23) were on regular transfusions at diagnosis. One case presented with paraplegia. Patients heterozygous for Xmn I polymorphism (+/-) had later onset (>3 yrs) compared to homozygous (-/-) absence (0.5-2.8 yrs). Most (69.6%) showed beta-mutation IVS 1-5 (G-->C). Negative correlation was found between age of onset and HbE. Thus, presentation is similar to previously reported Thai cases. Heterozygosity of Xmn I polymorphism also delays disease onset. Early diagnosis facilitates appropriate management and prenatal diagnosis. PMID:15876597
Panigrahi, I; Agarwal, S; Gupta, T; Singhal, P; Pradhan, M
A pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading bacterium was isolated from PCP-contaminated soils and identified as Pseudomonas mendocina NSYSU (P. mendocina NSYSU). The main objectives of this study were to (1) clarify the factorsaffecting the ability and efficiency of PCP biodegradation by P. mendocina NSYSU, and (2) optimize the use of this bacterium in bioremediation of PCP. Microcosm experiments were conducted to fulfill the objectives. In batch cultures, P. mendocina NSYSU used PCP as its sole source of carbon and energy and was capable of completely degrading this compound. This was confirmed by the stoichiometric release of chloride ion. Moreover, P. mendocina NSYSU was able to mineralize a high concentration of PCP (150 mg/L). Results from the oxygen concentration experiment reveal that the growth of P. mendocina NSYSU was inhibited under low oxygen and anaerobic conditions. Results indicate that the optimal growth conditions for P. mendocina NSYSU include the following: slightly acidic (6
Kao, C M; Liu, J K; Chen, Y L; Chai, C T; Chen, S C
Factorsaffecting somatic embryogenesis from root explants of Prunus incisa Thunb. cv. February Pink were investigated. Using a medium containing Murashige and Skoog salts and vitamins supplemented with 10 microM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic (2,4-D), we evaluated the effects of light, growth regulators, amino acids, carbohydrate source, and root induction medium. Explants cultured under light or dark conditions both resulted in the formation of embryos. Embryogenesis was inhibited by the addition of 6-benzyladenine, thidiazuron, or gibberellic acid to the medium. Amino acids were not effective in promoting embryogenesis, with high levels of amino acids actually inhibiting it. Sucrose and glucose effectively induced embryogenesis, while sorbitol and mannitol completely inhibited it. Sucrose and glucose also promoted secondary embryogenesis. Embryos that formed in medium containing 4% or 5% sucrose were abnormally shaped and did not fully develop, while those that formed in medium with sucrose concentrations of 2% or 3% were much more vigorous. Root explants that were induced on medium containing 1.0 micro M indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) produced more somatic embryos than explants induced on medium without IBA. Approximately 50% of the roots induced on medium containing 1.0 microM IBA produced somatic embryos on medium containing 10 microM 2,4-D and 3% sucrose. PMID:15022015
Structural Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) have the potential for application in the hot sections of a variety of advanced propulsion and power systems. It is therefore necessary to have a general understanding of the key properties of CMC and Reinforcing Fibers. This need is complicated by the wide variety of application conditions and structural requirements for which CMC's will be used, and the proprietary concerns of the design engineers. CMC's, to be successful, must display properties which are competitive with the currently used high temperature structural materials: (i.e., Iron and Nickel based superalloys, tough monolithic ceramics, and carbon/carbon composites.) Structural CMC offers several areas of competition: (1) performance, (i.e., strength and strength retention, creep resistance, and thermal conductivity), (2) reliability (i.e., environmental durability, and damage tolerance) and (3) processing (i.e., capability for varying sizes and shapes, and cost effective fabrication). The presentation further discusses, and illustrates with fiber and CMC data the key fiber properties and processes which strongly affect each CMC area of competition. The presentation further discusses the current knowledge of the important factors which control the key fiber properties. A design guidelines for the optimum fiber characteristics is developed, and the currently available fibers are compared against those guidelines.
Mouse epididymal spermatozoa were frozen in solutions containing various compounds with different molecular weights, and the factorsaffecting the postthawing survival were examined. Monosaccharides (glucose, galactose) had almost no protective effect regardless of the concentration and the temperature of exposure. On the other hand, disaccharides (sucrose, trehalose) and trisaccharides (raffinose, melezitose) resulted in higher survival rates, especially at a concentration of around 0.35 mol/kg H(2)O (0.381-0.412 Osm/kg). Macromolecules, such as PVP10, Ficoll 70, bovine serum albumin, and skim milk had almost no effect, but compounds with a molecular weight of about 800, such as metrizamide and Nycodenz, had some protective effect. When a raffinose solution was supplemented with 10% metrizamide, resulting in an osmolality of approximately 0.400 Osm/kg, a high survival rate was obtained. Solutions at about 0.400 Osm/kg containing trehalose alone, trehalose + metrizamide, raffinose alone, and raffinose + metrizamide, were all effective for sperm freezing; frozen-thawed sperm could fertilize oocytes, and the resultant embryos could develop to live young after transfer. For freezing mouse spermatozoa, aqueous solutions at approximately 0.400 Osm/kg containing a disaccharide or a trisaccharide seem to be effective. PMID:10860623
An, T Z; Iwakiri, M; Edashige, K; Sakurai, T; Kasai, M
Based on the observation data from eddy covariance tower and meteorological gradient tower in Panjin reed wetland observation plot, and by the method combined eddy covariance with microclimate gradient observation, two fundamental aerodynamic parameters, i. e., zero-plane displacement (d) and roughness length (z0), were evaluated, with their affectingfactors analyzed. The results showed that the method adopted was suitable for estimating the aerodynamic parameters. There existed obvious seasonal variations in d and z0, with the maximum (1.85 and 0.24 m) in September and the minimum (0.02 and 0.03 m) in December, respectively. The seasonal variations were closely related to vegetation characteristics, plant height (h) and leaf area index (LAI). There was a close linear relationship between d and h, and a conic relationship between z0 and h. Both d/h and d/z0 had power relationships with LAI, and the R2 values were 0.99 and 0.78, respectively. PMID:18533513
Background/Aims High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) utilizes a targeted extracorporeal focused ultrasound beam to ablate neoplastic pancreatic tissue. We used an in vitro model to examine the effects of bone, metallic stents, plastic stents, metal plates, and cyst-like lesions on HIFU treatment. Methods HIFU was delivered to the phantom models implanted with foreign bodies, and the location, shape, and size of the ablated zones were evaluated. Results Bone and metallic plates reflected the ultrasound beam, shifting the ablation zone from the focal zone to the prefocal area. In the phantoms containing metal stent, plastic stent, and cyst, most of the ablative energy was reflected to the prefocal area by the surface, with the remainder penetrating through the phantom. The area of the ablated margins was significantly larger in size and volume than the intended focal ablation zone. Conclusions During HIFU therapy, artificial or anatomical barriers could affect the direction of the ultrasound beams, shifting the ablation zone from the focal area to a prefocal site with a larger than expected ablation zone. These factors should be considered prior to HIFU treatment for pancreatic tumors because they could limit ablation success, in addition to causing complications.
Hassanuddin, Aizan; Choi, Jun-Ho; Seo, Dong-Wan; Ryu, Choong Heon; Kim, Su-Hui; Park, Do Hyun; Lee, Sang Soo; Lee, Sung Koo; Kim, Myung-Hwan
The factorsaffecting patterns of benthic [seabed] biology and chemistry around 50 Scottish fish farms were investigated using linear mixed-effects models that account for inherent correlations between observations from the same farm. The abundance of benthic macrofauna and sediment concentrations of organic carbon were both influenced by a significant, albeit weak, interaction between farm size, defined as the maximum weight of fish permitted on site at any one time, and current speed. Above a farm size threshold of between 800 and 1000 t, the magnitude of effects at farms located in areas of elevated current speeds were greater than at equivalent farms located in more quiescent waters. Sediment concentrations of total organic matter were influenced by an interaction between distance and depth, indicating that wind-driven resuspension events may help reduce the accumulation of organic waste at farms located in shallow waters. The analyses presented here demonstrate that the production and subsequent fate of organic waste at fish farms is more complex than is often assumed; in isolation, current speed, water depth, and farr size are not necessarily good predictors of benthic impact. PMID:20178333
Mayor, Daniel J; Zuur, Alain F; Solan, Martin; Paton, Graeme I; Killham, Ken
This review evaluates three current theories--Standard Consolidation (Squire & Wixted, 2011), Overshadowing (Sutherland, Sparks, & Lehmann, 2010), and Multiple Trace-Transformation (Winocur, Moscovitch, & Bontempi, 2010)--in terms of their ability to account for the role of the hippocampus in recent and remote memory in animals. Evidence, based on consistent findings from tests of spatial memory and memory for acquired food preferences, favours the transformation account, but this conclusion is undermined by inconsistent results from studies that measured contextual fear memory, probably the most commonly used test of hippocampal involvement in anterograde and retrograde memory. Resolution of this issue may depend on exercising greater control over critical factors (e.g., contextual environment, amount of pre-exposure to the conditioning chamber, the number and distribution of foot-shocks) that can affect the representation of the memory shortly after learning and over the long-term. Research strategies aimed at characterizing the neural basis of long-term consolidation/transformation, as well as other outstanding issues are discussed. PMID:24120426
The aim of this study is to characterize urban spaces, which combine landscape, acoustics, and lighting, and to investigate people's perceptions of urban soundscapes through quantitative and qualitative analyses. A general questionnaire survey and soundwalk were performed to investigate soundscape perception in urban spaces. Non-auditory factors (visual image, day lighting, and olfactory perceptions), as well as acoustic comfort, were selected as the main contexts that affect soundscape perception, and context preferences and overall impressions were evaluated using an 11-point numerical scale. For qualitative analysis, a semantic differential test was performed in the form of a social survey, and subjects were also asked to describe their impressions during a soundwalk. The results showed that urban soundscapes can be characterized by soundmarks, and soundscape perceptions are dominated by acoustic comfort, visual images, and day lighting, whereas reverberance in urban spaces does not yield consistent preference judgments. It is posited that the subjective evaluation of reverberance can be replaced by physical measurements. The categories extracted from the qualitative analysis revealed that spatial impressions such as openness and density emerged as some of the contexts of soundscape perception. PMID:22225033
Objectives To identify those factors which adversely affected recruitment to a large multicentre palliative care study. Methods Patient accrual to a multicentre, observational, palliative care study was monitored at three critical junctures in the research process. (1) Eligibility—did the patient fulfil the study entry criteria? (2) Accessibility—was it possible to access the patient to be able to inform them about the study? (3) Consent—did the patient agree to participate in the study? The reasons why patients were ineligible, inaccessible or refused consent were recorded. Results 12?412 consecutive referrals to participating clinical services were screened for study inclusion of whom 5394 (43%) were deemed to be ineligible. Of the remaining patients 4617/7018 (66%) were inaccessible to the research team. The most common reasons being precipitous death, ‘gatekeeping’ by clinical staff or rapid discharge. Of the 2410 patients who were visited by the research team and asked to participate in the study 1378 (57%) declined. Overall 8.2% (1018/12?412) of patients screened participated in the study. There were significant differences in recruitment patterns between hospice inpatient units, hospital support and community palliative care teams. Conclusions Systematic monitoring and analysis of patient flows through the clinical trial accrual process provided valuable insights about the reasons for failure to recruit patients to a clinical trial and may help to improve recruitment in future studies.
Stone, Patrick C; Gwilliam, Bridget; Keeley, Vaughan; Todd, Chris; Kelly, Laura C; Barclay, Stephen
The motion imagery community would benefit from the availability of standard measures for assessing image interpretability. The National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale (NIIRS) has served as a community standard for still imagery, but no comparable scale exists for motion imagery. Several considerations unique to motion imagery indicate that the standard methodology employed in the past for NIIRS development may not be applicable or, at a minimum, require modifications. Traditional methods for NIIRS development rely on a close linkage between perceived image quality, as captured by specific image interpretation tasks, and the sensor parameters associated with image acquisition. The dynamic nature of motion imagery suggests that this type of linkage may not exist or may be modulated by other factors. An initial study was conducted to understand the effects target motion, camera motion, and scene complexity have on perceived image interpretability for motion imagery. This paper summarizes the findings from this evaluation. In addition, several issues emerged that require further investigation: - The effect of frame rate on the perceived interpretability of motion imagery - Interactions between color and target motion which could affect perceived interpretability - The relationships among resolution, viewing geometry, and image interpretability - The ability of an analyst to satisfy specific image exploitation tasks relative to different types of motion imagery clips Plans are being developed to address each of these issues through direct evaluations. This paper discusses each of these concerns, presents the plans for evaluations, and explores the implications for development of a motion imagery quality metric.
Irvine, John M.; Fenimore, Charles; Cannon, David; Roberts, John; Israel, Steven A.; Simon, Larry; Watts, Charles; Miller, James D.; Aviles, Ana I.; Tighe, Paul F.; Behrens, Richard J.; Haverkamp, Donna
The objective of this study was to identify factors that influence the decision whether or not to get the influenza (flu) vaccine among nurses in Israel by using the health belief model (HBM). A questionnaire distributed among 299 nurses in Israel in winter 2005/2006 included (1) socio-demographic information; (2) variables based on the HBM, including susceptibility, seriousness, benefits, barriers and cues to action; and (3) knowledge about influenza and the vaccine, and health motivation. A probit model was used to analyze the data. In Israel, the significant HBM categories affecting nurses' decision to get a flu shot are the perceived benefits from vaccination and cues to action. In addition, nurses who are vaccinated have higher levels of (1) knowledge regarding the vaccine and influenza, (2) perceived seriousness of the illness, (3) perceived susceptibility, and (4) health motivation than do those who do not get the vaccine. Immunization of healthcare workers may reduce the risk of flu outbreaks in all types of healthcare facilities and reduce morbidity and mortality among high-risk patients. In order to increase vaccination rates among nurses, efforts should be made to educate them regarding the benefits of vaccination and the potential health consequences of influenza for their patients, and themselves. PMID:18781347
The study aimed to recognize the personality factors of a predisposition to seasonal mood fluctuations in a non-clinical sample. A group of 101 subjects (57 women, 44 men; mean age 26.4?±?6.5 years) completed a battery of tests comprising a Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ), Chronotype Questionnaire (ChQ), a NEO-Five Factor Inventory and a Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS). A smaller sample (n?=?44) completed a Winter Blues Scale (WBS). Women scored significantly higher than men in seasonality (p?=?0.014), neuroticism (p?=?0.049), agreeableness (p?=?0.010), and avoidance-oriented coping style (p?=?0.041). Subjects with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) (n?=?41) or sub-SAD (n?=?33), as diagnosed with SPAQ, exhibited higher levels of neuroticism (p?=?0.017) and openness (p?=?0.016) in comparison to non-SAD individuals. The latter declared a less frequent avoidance coping style. Both measures of seasonality, i.e. the SPAQ Global Seasonality Score and WBS, correlated significantly (r?=?0.28 and 0.44, respectively) with the subjective amplitude of the circadian rhythm, as described with the "distinctness" scale of ChQ. Female gender, neuroticism and openness were confirmed as factors linked to seasonal mood variability. Additionally, the study revealed an association between susceptibility to mild winter depression and an avoidance-oriented coping style. The avoidance coping style was correlated positively with all the aspects of seasonality described by SPAQ (correlation coefficients from 0.21 to 0.34). Both sub-types of avoidance-oriented style, i.e. distraction and social diversion, were associated with marked subjective seasonal changes in sleep length, mood and the energy level. While the subjective amplitude of circadian rhythm proved to be connected with seasonality, the subjective acrophase of the rhythm (morningness-eveningness preference) did not. It may be hypothesized that sensitivity to natural environmental conditions/synchronizers is a separate individual trait shaping the subject's proneness to energy and mood changes both in diurnal and year scale, i.e. circadian and seasonal mood variations. PMID:24397301
Factors that influence the collection and measurement of atmospheric sulfate were investigated. Special emphasis was given to those factors that cause the formation of extraneous sulfate during the sampling process. The factors considered were filter type and composition, ambient...
Directional reflectance distributions spanning the entire existent hemisphere were measured in two field studies; one using a Mark III 3-band radiometer and one using the rapid scanning bidirectional field instrument called PARABOLA. Surfaces measured included corn, soybeans, bare soils, grass lawn, orchard grass, alfalfa, cotton row crops, plowed field, annual grassland, stipa grass, hard wheat, salt plain shrubland, and irrigated wheat. Analysis of field data showed unique reflectance distributions ranging from bare soil to complete vegetation canopies. Physical mechanisms causing these trends were proposed. A 3-D model was developed and is unique in that it predicts: (1) the directional spectral reflectance factors as a function of the sensor's azimuth and zenith angles and the sensor's position above the canopy; (2) the spectral absorption as a function of location within the scene; and (3) the directional spectral radiance as a function of the sensor's location within the scene. Initial verification of the model as applied to a soybean row crop showed that the simulated directional data corresponded relatively well in gross trends to the measured data. The model was expanded to include the anisotropic scattering properties of leaves as a function of the leaf orientation distribution in both the zenith and azimuth angle modes.
In this review, our aim was to examine the influence of geographic variations on asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults, which is important for improving our understanding, identifying the burden, and for developing and implementing interventions aimed at reducing asthma morbidity. Asthma is a complex inflammatory disease of multifactorial origin, and is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The disparities in asthma prevalence and morbidity among the world's geographic locations are more likely to be associated with environmental exposures than genetic differences. In writing this article, we found that the indoor factors most consistently associated with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in adults included fuel combustion, mold growth, and environmental tobacco smoke in both urban and rural areas. Asthma and asthma-related symptoms occurred more frequently in urban than in rural areas, and that difference correlated with environmental risk exposures, SES, and healthcare access. Environmental risk factors to which urban adults were more frequently exposed than rural adults were dust mites,high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle.Exposure to indoor biological contaminants in the urban environment is common.The main risk factors for developing asthma in urban areas are atopy and allergy to house dust mites, followed by allergens from animal dander. House dust mite exposure may potentially explain differences in diagnosis of asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults in urban vs. rural areas. In addition, the prevalence of asthma morbidity increases with urbanization. High levels of vehicle emissions,Western lifestyles and degree of urbanization itself, may affect outdoor and thereby indoor air quality. In urban areas, biomass fuels have been widely replaced by cleaner energy sources at home, such as gas and electricity, but in most developing countries, coal is still a major source of fuel for cooking and heating, particularly in winter. Moreover, exposure to ETS is common at home or at work in urban areas.There is evidence that asthma prevalence and morbidity is less common in rural than in urban areas. The possible reasons are that rural residents are exposed early in life to stables and to farm milk production, and such exposures are protective against developing asthma morbidity. Even so, asthma morbidity is disproportionately high among poor inner-city residents and in rural populations. A higher proportion of adult residents of nonmetropolitan areas were characterized as follows:aged 55 years or older, no previous college admission, low household income, no health insurance coverage, and could not see a doctor due to healthcare service availability, etc. In rural areas, biomass fuels meet more than 70% of the rural energy needs. Progress in adopting modern energy sources in rural areas has been slow. The most direct health impact comes from household energy use among the poor, who depend almost entirely on burning biomass fuels in simple cooking devices that are placed in inadequately ventilated spaces. Prospective studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of biomass smoke on lung health among adults in rural areas.Geographic differences in asthma susceptibility exist around the world. The reason for the differences in asthma prevalence in rural and urban areas may be due to the fact that populations have different lifestyles and cultures, as well as different environmental exposures and different genetic backgrounds. Identifying geographic disparities in asthma hospitalizations is critical to implementing prevention strategies,reducing morbidity, and improving healthcare financing for clinical asthma treatment. Although evidence shows that differences in the prevalence of asthma do exist between urban and rural dwellers in many parts of the world, including in developed countries, data are inadequate to evaluate the extent to which different pollutant exposures contribute to asthma morbidity and severity of asthma between urban and rural areas. PMID:23625129
Jie, Yu; Isa, Zaleha Md; Jie, Xu; Ju, Zhang Long; Ismail, Noor Hassim
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most devastating intestinal disease affecting preterm infants. In addition to being associated with short term mortality and morbidity, survivors are left with significant long term sequelae. The cost of caring for these infants is high. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that use of antibiotics and type of feeding may cause an intestinal dysbiosis important in the pathogenesis of NEC, but the contribution of specific infectious agents is poorly understood. Fecal samples from preterm infants ?32 weeks gestation were analyzed using 16S rRNA based methods at 2, 1, and 0 weeks, prior to diagnosis of NEC in 18 NEC cases and 35 controls. Environmental factors such as antibiotic usage, feeding type (human milk versus formula) and location of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) were also evaluated. Microbiota composition differed between the three neonatal units where we observed differences in antibiotic usage. In NEC cases we observed a higher proportion of Proteobacteria (61%) two weeks and of Actinobacteria (3%) 1 week before diagnosis of NEC compared to controls (19% and 0.4%, respectively) and lower numbers of Bifidobacteria counts and Bacteroidetes proportions in the weeks before NEC diagnosis. In the first fecal samples obtained during week one of life we detected a novel signature sequence, distinct from but matching closest to Klebsiella pneumoniae, that was strongly associated with NEC development later in life. Infants who develop NEC exhibit a different pattern of microbial colonization compared to controls. Antibiotic usage correlated with these differences and combined with type of feeding likely plays a critical role in the development of NEC.
Torrazza, Roberto Murgas; Ukhanova, Maria; Wang, Xiaoyu; Sharma, Renu; Hudak, Mark Lawrence; Neu, Josef; Mai, Volker
This paper investigates the nutritional status of a randomly selected cohort of school children and the factorsaffecting it. This random survey was conducted in the state of Selangor, involving 1,405 primary students (aged 9-10 years from 54 national primary schools). Physical examination was carried out on all the students. Information on the students was also obtained from the parents. Blood samples were taken by using the finger pricking technique. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of physical growth. The students were mainly from urban areas (82.9%). The mean age was 9.71 years and a higher proportion was females (51%). Malays constituted 83.6%, Indians 11.6% and Chinese 4.2% of the study population. The mean weight and height were 32.30 kg and 135.18 cm respectively. The mean BMI was 17.42 kg/m2, with 1.2% of the students underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight and 6.3% were obese. Nutritional status was significantly related to blood pressure, history of breast feeding, eating fast food, taking canned/bottled drinks, income and educational level of parents. Significant differences in nutritional status between sexes and locations (rural/urban) were also found. The prevalence of overweight and obese children was of concern. There is thus an urgent need for the School Health Program to periodically monitor the school children's eating habits and physical growth. Appropriate counselling on nutritional intake and physical activities should be given not only to schoolchildren but also to their teachers and parents or caregivers. PMID:16425649
Screws placed into cancellous bone in orthopedic surgical applications, such as fixation of fractures of the femoral neck or the lumbar spine, can be subjected to high loads. Screw pullout is a possibility, especially if low density osteoporotic bone is encountered. The overall goal of this study was to determine how screw thread geometry, tapping, and cannulation affect the holding power of screws in cancellous bone and determine whether current designs achieve maximum purchase strength. Twelve types of commercially available cannulated and noncannulated cancellous bone screws were tested for pullout strength in rigid unicellular polyurethane foams of apparent densities and shear strengths within the range reported for human cancellous bone. The experimentally derived pullout strength was compared to a predicted shear failure force of the internal threads formed in the polyurethane foam. Screws embedded in porous materials pullout by shearing the internal threads in the porous material. Experimental pullout force was highly correlated to the predicted shear failure force (slope = 1.05, R2 = 0.947) demonstrating that it is controlled by the major diameter of the screw, the length of engagement of the thread, the shear strength of the material into which the screw is embedded, and a thread shape factor (TSF) which accounts for screw thread depth and pitch. The average TSF for cannulated screws was 17 percent lower than that of noncannulated cancellous screws, and the pullout force was correspondingly less. Increasing the TSF, a result of decreasing thread pitch or increasing thread depth, increases screw purchase strength in porous materials. Tapping was found to reduce pullout force by an average of 8 percent compared with nontapped holes (p = 0.0001). Tapping in porous materials decreases screw pullout strength because the removal of material by the tap enlarges hole volume by an average of 27 percent, in effect decreasing the depth and shear area of the internal threads in the porous material. PMID:8872262
Chapman, J R; Harrington, R M; Lee, K M; Anderson, P A; Tencer, A F; Kowalski, D
Pharmaceuticals may be released to the soil environment through the application of biosolids to land. To understand those factorsaffecting the persistence of pharmaceuticals in the soil environment, the present study was performed to assess the effects of soil type, the presence of biosolids, and the impact of chemical mixture interactions on the degradation of three pharmaceuticals: naproxen, carbamazepine, and fluoxetine. Single-compound studies showed that naproxen degraded in a range of soils with half-lives ranging from 3.1 to 6.9 d and in biosolids with a half-life of 10.2 d. No relationships were observed between degradation rate and soil physicochemical properties and soil bioactivity. For naproxen, addition of biosolids to soils reduced the degradation rate observed in the soil-only studies, with half-lives in the soil-biosolid systems ranging from 3.9 to 15.1 d. Carbamazepine and fluoxetine were found to be persistent in soils, biosolids, and soil-biosolid mixtures. When degradation was assessed using a mixture of the three study compounds and the sulfonamide antibiotic sulfamethazine, the degradation behavior of fluoxetine and carbamazepine was similar to that observed in the single compound studies (i.e., no degradation). However, the degradation rate of naproxen in soils, biosolids, and soil-biosolid systems spiked with the mixture was significantly slower than in the single-compound studies. As degradation studies for risk assessment purposes are performed using single substances in soil-only studies, it is possible that current risk assessment procedures will underestimate environmental impacts. Further work is therefore warranted on a larger range of substances, soils, biosolid types, and chemical mixtures to better understand the fate of pharmaceuticals in terrestrial systems. PMID:19580336
An Iowa study examined whether increased medical knowledge affects medical students' interviewing skills in each or any year of medical school. Results suggest interviewing skills are not affected by increased knowledge about medical conditions but can be improved with technique training. (MSE)
This report contains the results of a literary review of cultural factors which could influence the validity of polygraph examinations. Five general cultural factors were selected for study. For the purpose of this review, culture is defined by geographic...
This paper analyzes the demanding affectingfactors for financial management business by using factor analysis model and logistic regression through the data obtained from the survey questionnaires. It is found that the main factors that affecting financial management business are the special life cycle stages the residents are in and the external information environment for residents to purchase financial products.
Light dosimetry is an essential component of effective photodynamic therapy (PDT) of tumours. Present PDT light dosimetry techniques rely on fluence-based models and measurements. However, in a previous paper by Barajas et al, radiance-based light dosimetry was explored as an alternative approach. Although successful in demonstrating the use of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of radiance in tissue optical characterization, the MC proved time consuming and impractical for clinical applications. It was proposed that an analytical solution to the transport equation for radiance would be desirable as this would facilitate and increase the speed of tissue characterization. It has been found that the P3 approximation is one such potential solution. Radiance and fluence expressions based on the P3 approximation were used to optically characterize an Intralipid-based tissue phantom of varying concentration of scatterer (Intralipid) and absorber (methylene blue) using a plane wave illuminated, semi-infinite medium geometry. The results obtained compare favourably with the Grosjean approximation of fluence (a modified diffusion theory) using the same optical parameters . The results illustrate that radiance-based light dosimetry is a viable alternative approach to tissue characterization and dosimetry. It is potentially useful for clinical applications because of the limited number of invasive measurements needed and the speed at which the tissue can be characterized.
Dickey, Dwayne; Barajas, Oscar; Brown, Kevin; Tulip, John; Moore, Ronald B.
The impact of ozone lines on Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-B (AMSU-B) radiances was investigated using a line-by-line radiative transfer model. The impact is found to be the largest for channel 18 (183.31 +/- 1.00 GHz), with a maximum up to about 0.5 K. The channels 17 (150 GHz) and 20 (183.31 +/- 7.00 GHz) are also marginally affected by the ozone lines. The magnitude of the impact shows an interesting dependence on the channel 18 brightness temperature which implies that the effect is not just an offset to the brightness temperature.
The goal of this research was to characterize the mist formation process. The salient machining and metalworking fluid parameters affecting the mist generation rate and size distribution of each mist formation mechanism were identified. Empirical equation...
A semianalytical radiance model is developed which predicts the upwelled spectral radiance at the sea surface as a function of the phytoplankton pigment concentration for Morel Case 1 waters. The model is in good agreement with experimental measurements carried out in waters which were not included in the data base used to derive it. It suggests that the observed variability in the radiance is due to variations in the backscattering of plankton and the associated detrital material. The model is extended to include other material in the water, such as dissolved organic material, referred to as yellow substances, and detached coccoliths from coccolithophorids, e.g., Emiliana huxleyi. Potential applications include an improved biooptical algorithm for the retrieval of pigment concentrations from satellite imagery in the presence of interference from detached coccoliths and an improved atmospheric correction for satellite imagery. The model also serves to identify and to interpret deviations from Case 1 waters.
Gordon, Howard R.; Brown, James W.; Brown, Otis B.; Evans, Robert H.; Smith, Raymond C.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with early child- hood caries (ECC) and to develop a profile of risk factors for Hispanic families affected by this condition. Methods: Sixty Hispanic families with at least 1 child affected by ECC and 60 Hispanic families without any affected children were included in the study. Data was collected
Noelle L. Huntington; Joon Kim; Christopher V. Hughes
While the existing models explain factors determining approaches to international staffing of multinational enterprises (MNEs) from developed countries, there is little known about MNEs of developing and transforming economies. This qualitative empirical research explores the factors determining international staffing in Chinese MNEs and argues that Western models are generally applicable to the Chinese context. However, the same categories of determining
Presents a model that describes how students reconstruct geological transformations over time. Defines the critical factors influencing reconstructive thinking: (1) the transformation scheme, which influences the other diachronic schemes; (2) knowledge of geological processes; and (3) extracognitive factors. (Author/KHR)
The present study aims at investigating which factors are relevant to induce teachers' student-centered classroom computer use. Survey data were collected from 361 teachers at comprehensive schools. Based on a systemic view of technology use in schools, different individual teacher characteristics and school contextual factors were examined.…
Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFT) are characterized by specific chromosomal translocations, which give rise to EWS-ETS chimeric proteins. These aberrant transcription factors are the main pathogenic drivers of ESFT. Elucidation of the factors influencing EWS-ETS expression and/or activity will guide the development of novel therapeutic agents against this fatal disease.
Herrero-Martin, David; Fourtouna, Argyro; Niedan, Stephan; Riedmann, Lucia T.; Schwentner, Raphaela; Aryee, Dave N. T.
The process of surge in a centrifugal compressor has been studied and found to be dependent on a number of complex and often interrelated factors. A major factor defining surge in high-speed, vaned diffuser designs appears to be the flow in the semivaneless space. By developing work initiated by others it has been possible to propose some explanation of previously
Daily variations in Cupressaceae pollen counts were analysed, together with climatic variables in the southwest of Spain, in order to understand the bioclimatic variables affecting Cupressaceae flowering in a Mediterranean climate. The study was carried out using the Spanish Aerobiology Network recommendations, using a Burkard Hirst-type spore trap. Regression analyses were applied to the pollen counts of the winter months of 13 consecutive years. The regression analysis applied to each year indicated that temperature is the most important variable to include in the model. Temperature affected the pollen counts differently according to the yearly climatic trend. During the coldest years, pollen counts depended on the minimum temperature, while in the warmest ones they were affected by higher temperatures. However, during the driest years, pollen counts depended more on the humidity level, while in the wettest years they depended more on the hours of sunshine.
Galán, C.; Fuillerat, M. Jose; Comtois, Paul; Dominguez-Vilches, Eugenio
Three experiments were conducted to investigate several of the variables that affect information processing in short-term memory as reflected by the strategies used by Ss in a visual search task. The first study investigated differences in strategy as a f...
Purpose: This paper reports on an empirical study exploring the way in which campus-based higher education institutions (HEIs) in the UK apply their internal quality assurance and enhancement (QA/QE) procedures to their e-learning courses. The purpose of this paper is to identify those characteristics of e-learning courses which affected the…
A study examined features of camps and camp staff that might affect the personal and social benefits of organized camping for children. Questionnaires were completed by 29 camp directors and 270 campers aged 8-14 from 33 residential camps across the United States. Results indicate that higher personal and social outcomes were associated with…
Polydimethylsiloxane composite membrane was employed for the separation of phenol and sodium chloride in synthetic wastewater. The major operational parameters affecting phenol transfer through this composite membrane were screened by the orthogonal array and range analysis. The results showed that the significance of parameters on the permeate flux followed the order of phenol concentration, membrane skin layer thickness, recirculation rate,
Purpose – The paper aims to analyze the influences of organizational context and information technology (IT) applications on employees' perceptions of knowledge acquisition and application capabilities in five public and five private sector organizations in South Korea. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper analyzes how employees' perceptions of organizational context and IT affect employee knowledge acquisition and application capabilities in five public
Ski skating technique choice can potentially influence economy of motion which in turn affects racing performance. Comparisons of skating techniques have demonstrated that uphill slope can influence the relative advantage of one technique versus another. On slopes greater than about 4 to 5 degrees, V1 technique may have physiological advantages over V2 technique. Mechanically this can be explained by positioning
Although there is considerable interest in the impact of diverse policies affecting the biophysical outcomes in forests, gaining a substantial sample over time of forests under different institutional arrangements has been difficult. This article analyzes data from 46 forests located in six countries over time. In forests where policies have been…
The magnetic properties of wound cores constructed from electrical steel strips have been found to be affected by their geometry, in particular the inner and outer diameters, the strip width and the build-up thickness of the toroids. Assessment of the effect of aspect ratio and winding ratio have been carried out in various sizes of toroid. An increase in aspect
The flocculation of coal preparation plant tailings is an established technology, and the scientific basis of flocculation is well understood, Nevertheless, conditions specific to the preparation plant affect the efficiency of the process. The sedimentation rate obtained with flocculated tailings depends on the molecular size of the polyacrylamide. Modern flocculants are very high molecular weight polymers and the size of
Reviews of the research literature have generally concluded that personality factors contribute little to pilot performance. One possible explanation for the failure to find stronger relationships may be due to the lack of appropriate taxonomies for both ...
It was concluded from the survey that safety officers and workers agreed on the top six factors, the first three being maintaining safe working conditions, establishing safety training and educating workers and supervisors.
This article presents a theoretical simulation and analysis of all possible factors due to transient overvoltages (TOVs) that could contribute to electrical failures of electric submersible pump (ESP) motors used in oil fields. A transient calculations software package PSCAD is used to simulate a single cable-fed, 3.3-kV induction motor including the mains of the 33-kV distribution system. The factors studied
A long standing objective in the design of power transmission shafting is to eliminate excess shaft material without compromising operational reliability. A shaft design method is presented which accounts for variable amplitude loading histories and their influence on limited life designs. The effects of combined bending and torsional loading are considered along with a number of application factors known to influence the fatigue strength of shafting materials. Among the factors examined are surface condition, size, stress concentration, residual stress and corrosion fatigue.
The paper documents the workshop discussion regarding the role of these factors in altering toxicity. For each factor, the nature, magnitude, and uncertainty of its empirical relation to the toxicity of various chemicals or chemical classes is discussed. Limitations in the empirical database regarding the variety of species and endpoints tested were addressed. Possible mechanisms underlying the empirical relations are identified. Finally, research needed to better understand these effects is identified.
Erickson, R. J.; Bills, T. D.; Clark, J. R.; Hansen, D. J.; Knezovich, J.
Context: Various studies have shown that quality of life in women after menopause undergoes radical changes. Several factors such as psycho-social factors are associated with the quality of life during menopausal period. Aims: The present study surveyed the factors associated with quality of life of postmenopausal women in Isfahan, based on Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted through stratified random sampling among 200 healthy postmenopausal women in Isfahan in 2011. Subjects and Methods: Data were collected by two valid and reliable questionnaires (one to assess the quality of life and the other to survey the factors associated with the Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model). Data analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 18) and analytical and descriptive statistics. Results: Pearson correlation indicated a positive and significant correlation between the quality of life and attitude toward menopause, perceived self-efficacy, and enabling and reinforcing factors, but there was no significant relationship between the quality of life and knowledge about menopause. Also, the quality of life in postmenopausal women had significant correlation with their age, education level, marital status, and employment status. Conclusion: Based on the present study, attitude, perceived self-efficacy, perceived social support, and enabling factors are associated with the quality of life in postmenopausal women. So, attention to these issues is essential for better health planning of women.
The field of view of EPIC Multitarget Radiance (radiometer) (EML) (radiance) instruments used for OSPREy applications, specified here in terms of the full view angle (FVA), must be optimized to accurately measure a variety of different radiometric sources...
C. R. Booth G. Bernhard J. H. Morrow R. N. Lind S. B. Hooker
Crack extension in commercial aluminum alloys proceeds by the “ductile” or fibrous mode. The process involves the large, ~1\\u000a ?m to ~10?m, Fe-, Si-, and Cu-bearing inclusions which break easily, and the growth of voids at the cracked particles. The\\u000a linking-up of the voids is accomplished by the rupture of the intervening ligaments, and this is affected by the fine,
This study determined which variables affected endotracheal tube“leak”pressures in 80 surgical patients, two weeks to 11 years\\u000a of age, intubated with uncuffed tracheal tubes. We defined “leak” pressure as the inspiratory pressure needed to cause an\\u000a audible escape of gas around the endotracheal tube.“Leak”pressure was measured after varying either head position, tracheal\\u000a tube depth within the trachea, fresh gas flow
David A. Finholt; Desmond B. Henry; Russell C. Raphaely
Crack extension in commercial aluminum alloys proceeds by the ``ductile'' or fibrous mode. The process involves the large, ~1 mum to ~10mum, Fe-, Si-, and Cu-bearing inclusions which break easily, and the growth of voids at the cracked particles. The linking-up of the voids is accomplished by the rupture of the intervening ligaments, and this is affected by the fine,
Water leakages are the general cause of moisture stress exceeding the moisture tolerances of constructions. Moisture stress\\u000a causes biodeterioration (mould, rot and insect damage) in wooden constructions. The degree of damage is affected by the severity\\u000a and duration of moisture exposure and temperature, together with the sensitivity of the wooden construction to environmental\\u000a stress. The growth of mould fungi on
During creep loading of IN-792, grain boundary morphology in conjunction with grain size strongly affected crack propagation.\\u000a Compositional variations and fabrication techniques showed no significant effect. A primary requirement for materials to be\\u000a used in gas turbine engine discs is satisfactory resistance to crack growth resistance in the 650 to 760?C range. Both conventional\\u000a smooth and machine notched stress-rupture samples
We present a method for noise reduction that is especially tailored to interactive progressive path tracing (PT). The idea is to exploit spatial coherence in the image and reuse information from neighboring pixels. However, in contrast to image filtering techniques (e.g. [Schwenk et al. 2012]), we do not simply filter pixel values or samples of outgoing radiance. Instead, we only
Realistic image synthesis is one of the most relevant subjects in computer graphics, and many algorithms have been developed to try to reproduce the visual complexity perceived in the real world. However, rendering realistic images in real time remains a challenge even with the support of modern graphics hardware. Precomputed Radiance Transfer (PRT) is a new graphics technique capable of
Marcos Paulo Berteli Slomp; Manuel M. Oliveira; Diego Inácio Patrício
The atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI) measures the absolute infrared (IR) spectral radiance (watts per square meter per steradian per wavenumber) of the sky directly above the instrument. The spectral measurement range of the instrument is 3300 to 520 wavenumbers (cm-1) or 3-19.2 microns for the normal-range instruments and 3300 to 400 cm-1 or 3-25 microns, for the extended-range polar instruments. Spectral resolution is 1.0 cm-1. Instrument field-of-view is 1.3 degrees. A calibrated sky radiance spectrum is produced every 8 minutes in normal mode and every minute in rapid sampling mode. The actual sample scan time is 20-30 sec in rapid sampling mode with periodic gaps when the instrument is looking at the blackbodies. Rapid sampling will become available in all AERIs. Rapid sampling time will eventually be reduced to data every 20 seconds. The AERI data can be used for 1) evaluating line-by-line radiative transport codes, 2) detecting/quantifying cloud effects on ground-based measurements of infrared spectral radiance (and hence is valuable for cloud property retrievals), and 3) calculating vertical atmospheric profiles of temperature and water vapor and the detection of trace gases.
We report measurements of radiance behind a shock wave in Martian simulant (96% CO2, 4% N2) atmosphere at conditions relevant for aerodynamic decelerators. Shock waves are generated in the NASA Ames Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) facility at velocities from 6-8 km/s and freestream densities from 1.2-5.9 x 10(exp -4) kilograms per cubic meter (0.05-0.25 Torr, corresponding to 35-50 km altitude). Absolute radiance is measured as a function of wavelength and position in the shock. Radiance measurements extend from the vacuum ultraviolet to near infrared (120-1650 nm). As at higher density/velocity, radiation is dominate by CO 4th positive radiation in the vacuum ultraviolet, though CN contribution is also significant. At most low density conditions, the shock does not relax to equilibrium over several centimeters. A small number of measurements in the mid-infrared were performed to quantify radiation from the fundamental vibrational transition in CO, and this is found to be a minor contributor to the overall radiance at these speeds. Efforts to extend test time and reliability in the 60 cm (24) shock tube will be discussed in the full paper.
The process of surge in a centrifugal compressor has been studied and found to be dependent on a number of complex and often interrelated factors. A major factor defining surge in high-speed, vaned diffuser designs appears to be the flow in the semivaneless space. By developing work initiated by others it has been possible to propose some explanation of previously presented apparently conflicting data. In addition, a more complex mathematical model capable of assessing additional factors is proposed. Using this model good agreement with experimental surge has been obtained. This model takes into consideration pressure losses in the impeller, diffuser, and collector, and by using this model it was possible to identify the stalling elements that are responsible for overall compressor instability.
AIMS: To examine factors influencing the density and contact inhibition of bovine corneal endothelial cells cultured in vitro. METHODS: Cell counts were performed on bovine corneal endothelial cells cultured for various times in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum, with or without varying concentrations of growth factors, 5% dextran T-500, or 2% chondroitin sulphate, at 32 degrees C or 37 degrees C, and after treatment with beta galactosidase. RESULTS: Both basic fibroblast growth factor (FGFb) and retinal crude extract (RCE), but neither epidermal growth factor (EGF) nor acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGFa), increased endothelial cell density in vitro (p < 0.05). Continuous exposure to RCE resulted in a higher cell density than did a 24 hour pulse (p < 0.01), and higher cell densities were achieved at 37 degrees C than at 32 degrees C (p < 0.0001). In the absence of RCE, dextran T-500 increased cell density modestly (p < 0.05); in the presence of RCE, the addition of dextran T-500 had no effect on final cell density, whereas chondroitin sulphate significantly decreased final cell density (p < 0.01). In the absence of exogenous growth factors, beta galactosidase treatment resulted in a 50% increase in final cell density compared with controls (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Bovine corneal endothelial cell growth can be augmented under conditions different from those used in corneal preservation systems. The final cell density in a confluent monolayer can be increased by treatment with beta galactosidase, suggesting that corneal endothelial cells may be contact inhibited through a beta galactosidase sensitive receptor system. Images
Johnstone, E W; Wong, H C; Coster, D J; Williams, K A
In recent years, the use of lytic bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents controlling pathogenic bacteria has appeared as a promising new alternative strategy in the face of growing antibiotic resistance which has caused problems in many fields including medicine, veterinary medicine, and aquaculture. The use of bacteriophages has numerous advantages over traditional antimicrobials. The effectiveness of phage applications in fighting against pathogenic bacteria depends on several factors such as the bacteriophages/target bacteria ratio, the mode and moment of treatment, environmental conditions (pH, temperature...), the neutralization of phage and accessibility to target bacteria, amongst others. This report presents these factors and the challenges involved in developing phage therapy applications.
Information on a city's emission pattern is crucial for any reasonable predictions of night sky radiances. Unfortunately, the bulk radiant intensity distribution as a function of zenith angle is scarcely available for any city throughout the world. Even if the spatial arrangements of urban light fixtures and lamp specifications are known, the cumulative effect on upwardly directed beams is difficult to determine; due to heterogeneity of the ambient environment, reflectance from ground surfaces, arbitrarily scattered obstacles, orography of terrain and many other site specific factors.
This paper presents the outcomes of a study of the factors that contribute to teaching team effectiveness in situations where team members rarely meet face to face. Academic faculty within a university Business School were asked to report the degrees to which they believed that the module teaching teams to which they belonged contained members who…
Green specifications constitute one of the important elements in green construction. New sustainability requirements and changing priorities in construction management have spurred the emerging green specifications to a faster pace of development. A cross-sectional survey has been conducted in Hong Kong in 2007 to identify principal factors leading to the success of preparing green specifications. Based on extensive construction management literature, 20 variables concerning sustainable construction were summarized. Using the Mann-Whitney U-test, the subtle differences between stakeholders in specifying construction work have been detected even with the high consistency of the responses among the groups. Moreover, five independent factors for successful specification of green construction have been categorized by factor analysis. They are related to (1) green technology and techniques, (2) reliability and quality of specification, (3) leadership and responsibility, (4) stakeholder involvement, and (5) guide and benchmarking systems. Whilst the first and fourth factors are generally more important, different stakeholder groups have different emphases. The results of the survey have been validated against established principles. PMID:19853367
Lam, Patrick T I; Chan, Edwin H W; Poon, C S; Chau, C K; Chun, K P
Agriculture has been recognized as one of the most hazardous occupations in the United States. In an industry where according to the 1997 Agricultural Census, an estimated 500,000 farm workers, 1\\/4 of all farm operators are 65 years of age or older, age becomes a serious factor when considering potential risk for injuries among this population. Because no mandatory retirement
Vitrification of bovine oocytes performed using the traditional, in straw system has not given satisfactory results. Although an alternative approach based on minimizing the volume of the vitrified sample has recently resulted in a much more promising survival rate of vitrified oocytes, we attempted to examine some additional factors influencing the survival and subsequent fertilization and development rates of bovine
Data from the 2005 Monitoring the Future survey were used to examine relationships between school-related factors and high school seniors' lifetime methamphetamine use. The study applied logistic regression techniques to evaluate effects of social bonding variables and social learning variables on likelihood of lifetime methamphetamine use. The…
Why is technology not used more in schools? Many researchers have tried to solve this persistent puzzle. The authors of this article report on their study of technology uses in 19 schools. They suggest an ecological metaphor, using the example of the introduction of the zebra mussel into the Great Lakes, to integrate and organize sets of factors…
The purpose of building predictive financial models is that find latent crisis advance the data. The researcher before study the predictive financial models usually use the statistics method, as factors analysis, cluster analysis, etc. They use those methods to reduce variable. Then the researcher building predictive financial model by university regression model, multivariate regression model, and neural networks. Will reducing
Describes activities that demonstrate the effects of factors such as wind velocity, water temperature, convection currents, intensity of light, rate of photosynthesis, atmospheric pressure, humidity, numbers of decomposers, presence of oxidizable ions, and respiration by plants and animals on the dissolved oxygen concentration in water. (MA)
A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and con...
What factors lead working adults to initially enroll in graduate programs? Is the undergraduate degree no longer enough to sustain a rewarding career? Little is known as to why this segment of graduate students are building careers and pursuing advanced degrees simultaneously. Traditional institutions of higher learning have primarily focused on…
Effective disinfection and stabilization of sewage sludge prior to land application is essential to not only protect human health, but also to convince the public of its benefits and safety. A basic understanding of the key factors involved in producing a stable biosolid product ...
Cereal Chem. 67(l):81-84 Viscometry of wheat flour extracts was used to study factors con- acid, and cysteine inhibited increases in viscosity. The mechanism of this tributing to oxidative gelation. Addition of hydrogen peroxide did not oxidative gelation appears to be complicated and influenced greatly by increase viscosity of dilute aqueous extracts of wheat flour but did increase the concentrations of
Judgments about people with pain are influenced by contextual factors that can lead to stigmatization of patients who present in certain ways. Misplaced staff perceptions of addiction may contribute to this, because certain pain behaviors superficially resemble symptoms of analgesic addiction. We used a vignette study to examine hospital staff judgments about patients with genuine symptoms of analgesic addiction and
James Elander; Malgorzata Marczewska; Roger Amos; Aldine Thomas; Sekayi Tangayi
One thousand periods of estrus of Hol- stein and Jersey cows and heifers of breeding age during 27 mo were used to evaluate environmental and management factors related to estrous behavior during twice-daily heat checks. Mounting activ- ity at the first observation of estrus was influenced by sire within genetic selection group fog milk yield, lactation number, primary housing location,
F. C. Gwazdauskas; J. A. Lineweaver; M. L. McGilliard
In the past, many researches of web interface were focused on usability and technical aspects. Instead, this research takes the visual communication-oriented approach to see how much the visual interface style adds to its rating. The main purpose of this study is to understand the design criteria and major factors that influenced different web visual interface styles. First of all,
Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the attitudes of abstainers from drug use that relate to the factors leading to long-term abstinence. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was carried out in Al-Amal Hospital to examine, which attitudes of abstainers related to long-term abstinence. A random survey was conducted on 62…
This study of 36 K-12 teachers focused on computer use for noninstructional activities and their perspectives on facilitating and impeding factors. Study revealed that computers were used 94% for preparing instructional materials and 58% for finding subject area information. Most common obstacle to computer use was not enough time to learn new…
Based on a statistical analysis of the database of the US National Transportation Safety Board, we show that space weather factors have no effect on aviation occurrences. We consider typical logical and methodological errors arising in this type of studies and bring facts to show the futility of further research regarding this problem.
This exploratory study examines the factors that college students perceive are important in helping them make good financial decisions about paying for a college education. The study categorizes and summarizes students' self-reported responses to an open-ended survey question about recommendations for changes in financial aid counseling practices.…
Porter, Julia Y.; Fossey, W. Richard; Davis, William E.; Burnett, Michael F.; Stuhlmann, Janice; Suchy, Patricia A.
This study explores barriers and success factors of Hmong students in American colleges by interviewing five Hmong graduate students from refugee families in the US. Emerging themes revolve around academic, cultural and financial barriers. Professors, advisors, classmates, academic support programmes, family, financial aid and their own…
Vocational training program females (N=470) completed a questionnaire assessing the role of personality and social support factors in nontraditional training enrollment. Results revealed differences in the amount of support and encouragement received from others, with nontraditional students receiving more support from female friends, family…
Examined relationship between social and demographic indicators and age-adjusted suicide mortality in 46 prefectures in Japan. Rural residence was the major factor for male mortality in 1970 and 1975. In 1970, home help for the elderly, depopulation by social mobility, and urban residence were positively associated with male mortality. In women,…
Research studies in the past decade have shown that computer technology is an effective means for widening educational opportunities, but most teachers neither use technology as an instructional delivery system nor integrate technology into their curriculum. Studies reveal a number of factors influencing teachers' decisions to use ICT in the…
Afshari, Mojgan; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Luan, Wong Su; Samah, Bahaman Abu; Fooi, Foo Say
It has been shown that the assimilation of limb-sounder data can significantly improve the representation of ozone in NASA's GEOS Data Assimilation Systems (GEOS-DAS), particularly in the stratosphere. The studies conducted so far utilized retrieved data from the MIPAS, POAM, ILAS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS MLS) instruments. Direct assimilation of the radiance data can be seen as the natural next step to those studies. The motivation behind working with radiances is twofold. First, retrieval algorithms use a priori data which are either climatological or are obtained from previous analyses. This introduces additional uncertainty and, in some cases, may lead to "self-contamination"- when the a priori is taken from the same assimilation system in which subsequently ingests the retrieved observations. Second, radiances can be available in near real time thus providing an opportunity for operational assimilation, which could help improve the use of infrared radiance instruments from operational satellite instruments. In this presentation we summarize our ongoing work on an implementation of the assimilation of EOS MLS radiances into the GEOS-5 DAS. This work focuses on assimilation of band 7 brightness temperatures which are sensitive to ozone. Our implementation uses the MLS Callable Forward Model developed by the MLS team at NASA JPL as the observation operator. We will describe our approach and recent results which are not yet final. In particular, we will demonstrate that this approach has a potential to improve the vertical structure of ozone in the lower tropical stratosphere as compared with the retrieved MLS product. We will discuss the computational efficiency of this implementation.
Verification of a stratospheric ozone recovery remains a high priority for environmental research and policy definition. Models predict an ozone recovery at a much lower rate than the measured depletion rate observed to date. Therefore improved precision of the satellite and ground ozone observing systems are required over the long term to verify its recovery. We show that validation of radiances from the ground can be a very effective means for correcting long term drifts of backscatter type satellite measurements and can be used to cross calibrate all BUV instruments in orbit (TOMS, SBUV/2, GOME, SCIAMACHY, OMI, GOME-2, OMPS). This method bypasses the retrieval algorithms used to derive ozone products from both satellite and ground based measurements that are normally used to validate the satellite data. Radiance comparisons employ forward models, but they are inherently more accurate than the retrieval This method employs very accurate comparisons between ground based zenith sicy radiances and satellite nadir radiances and employs two well established capabilities at the Goddard Space Flight Center, 1) the SSBUV calibration facilities and 2) the radiative transfer codes used for the TOMS and SBUV/2 algorithms and their subsequent refinements. The zenith sky observations are made by the SSBUV where its calibration is maintained to a high degree of accuracy and precision. Radiative transfer calculations show that ground based zenith sky and satellite nadir backscatter ultraviolet comparisons can be made very accurately under certain viewing conditions. Initial ground observations taken from Goddard Space Flight Center compared with radiative transfer calculations has indicated the feasibility of this method. The effect of aerosols and varying ozone amounts are considered in the model simulations and the theoretical comparisons. The radiative transfer simulations show that the ground and satellite radiance comparisons can be made with an uncertainty of less than l\\% without the knowledge of the amount ozone viewed by either instrument on ground or in space. algorithms.
Bojkov, B. R.; Kowalewski, M.; Wellemeyer, C.; Labow, G.; Hilsenrath, E.; Bhartia, P. K.; Ahmad, Z.
This paper summarizes an ongoing examination of the primary factors that affect sensitivity of marine embayment responses to nitrogen loading. Included is a discussion of two methods for using these factors: classification of embayments into discrete sensitivity classes and norma...
This review analyses rowing by linking the biological and mechanical systems that comprise the rowing system. Blade force was found to be the only propulsive force to counter the drag forces, consisting of both air drag and hydrodynamic drag, acting on the system. Vertical oscillations of the shell are shown to have minimal impact on system dynamics. The oar acts as the link between the force generated by the rower and the blade force and transmits this force to the rowing shell through the oarlock. Blade dynamics consist of both lift and drag mechanisms. The force on the oar handle is the result of a phased muscular activation of the rower. Oar handle force and movement are affected by the joint strength and torque-velocity characteristics of the rower. Maximising sustainable power requires a matching of the rigging setup and blade design to the rower's joint torque-velocity characteristics. Coordination and synchrony between rowers in a multiple rower shell affects overall system velocity. Force-time profiles should be better understood to identify specific components of a rower's biomechanics that can be modified to achieve greater force generation. PMID:12453833
Evidence suggests that social and economic factors are important determinants of health. Yet, despite higher poverty rates, less education, and worse access to health care, health outcomes of many Hispanics living in the United States today are equal to, or better than, those of non-Hispanic whites. This paradox is described in the literature as the epidemiological paradox or Hispanic health paradox. In this paper, the authors selectively review data and research supporting the existence of the epidemiological paradox. They find substantial support for the existence of the epidemiological paradox, particularly among Mexican Americans. Census undercounts of Hispanics, misclassification of Hispanic deaths, and emigration of Hispanics do not fully account for the epidemiological paradox. Identifying protective factors underlying the epidemiological paradox, while improving access to care and the economic conditions among Hispanics, are important research and policy implications of this review.
MORALES, LEO S.; LARA, MARIELENA; KINGTON, RAYNARD S.; VALDEZ, ROBERT O.; ESCARCE, JOSE J.
A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students dropouts'' whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.
A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students ``dropouts`` whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.
Data collected in a nationwide study on natural radiation exposure in UK dwellings (Wrixon et al. 1988) were re-analyzed to investigate the effects of rock type and various building and lifestyle characteristics, taken into account simultaneously, on indoor radon concentrations. A multiplicative model which takes into consideration the outdoor radon concentration is used. Indoor radon concentrations were found to be influenced by type of rock underlying the dwelling, double glazing, house type, floor level of rooms in which measurements were taken, window opening habits in the main bedroom, building materials used in the construction of the walls, floor type, and draught proofing. However, these eight factors together account for only 22% of the variation between dwellings. Estimates of the size of the effect associated with each factor are given. PMID:8416211
Gunby, J A; Darby, S C; Miles, J C; Green, B M; Cox, D R
Background. Sleeve lobectomy is a parenchyma-sparing procedure that is particularly valuable in patients with cardiac or pulmonary contraindications to pneumonectomy. The purpose of this study is to report our experience with sleeve lobectomy for bronchogenic cancer and to investigate factors associated with long-term survival.Methods. Between January 1981 and June 2001, 169 patients underwent sleeve lobectomy for non-small-cell lung cancer (n
Elie Fadel; Bedrettin Yildizeli; Alain R Chapelier; Isabelle Dicenta; Sacha Mussot; Philippe G Dartevelle
Displays commonly used for testing heading judgments in the presence of rotations are ambiguous to observers. They can be\\u000a interpreted equally well as motion in a straight line while rotating the eyes or as motion on a curved path. This has led\\u000a to conflicting results from studies that use these displays. In this study, we tested several factors that might
Constance S. Royden; James M. Cahill; Daniel M. Conti
We developed a standardized protocol for comparing the sensitivities of the embryos of different bird species to methylmercury\\u000a when methylmercury was injected into their eggs. During the course of developing this protocol, we investigated the effects\\u000a of various factors on the toxicity of the injected methylmercury. Most of our experiments were done with chicken (Gallus domesticus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and
G. H. Heinz; D. J. Hoffman; S. L. Kondrad; C. A. Erwin
Isocitrate lyase crystals have been grown by the hanging drop vapor equilibration method in both 1-g and microgravity and by vapor equilibrium in small capillaries. The crystal morphologies obtained have ranged from dendritic to 'octagonal' prisms. Theoretical evaporation models have been applied to these growth regimes. The results of these analyses along with other experimental results, indicate the factors which must be controlled to produce good growth morphologies.
Demattei, Robert C.; Feigelson, Robert S.; Weber, Patricia C.
An area of increasing concern and scientific scrutiny is the potential contamination of drug products by leachables entering the product during manufacturing and storage. These contaminants may either have a direct safety impact on the patients or act indirectly through the alteration of the physicochemical properties of the product. In the case of biotherapeutics, trace amounts of metal contaminants can arise from various sources, but mainly from contact with stainless steel (ss). The effect of the various factors, buffer species, solution fill volume per unit contact surface area, metal chelators, and pH, on metal leachables from contact with ss over time were investigated individually. Three major metal leachables, iron, chromium, and nickel, were monitored by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry because they are the major components of 316L ss. Iron was primarily used to evaluate the effect of each factor since it is the most abundant. It was observed that each studied factor exhibited its own effect on metal leachables from contact with ss. The effect of buffer species and pH exhibited temperature dependence over the studied temperature range. The metal leachables decreased with the increased fill volume (mL) per unit contact ss surface area (cm(2)) but a plateau was achieved at approximately 3 mL/cm(2). Metal chelators produced the strongest effect in facilitating metal leaching. In order to minimize the metal leachables and optimize biological product stability, each formulation factor must be evaluated for its impact, to balance its risk and benefit in achieving the target drug product shelf life. PMID:21360314
Zhou, Shuxia; Schöneich, Christian; Singh, Satish K
Purpose: To evaluate the role of age, Gleason score, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), PSA doubling time (PSADT), and PSA half-time (PSAT1\\/2) as prognostic factors in metastatic prostate cancer to predict long-term outcome. Patients and Methods: 412 patients with metastatic prostate cancer diagnosed after January 1995, with at least 6 months of follow-up, were enrolled. Serum PSA was determined at diagnosis and
The combustion efficiency of wood-fired spreader-stoker boilers is limited primarily by carry-over of unburned char from the furnace. This carry-over is caused by incomplete combustion of entrained fuel particles. Data from four experimental studies and one computer study of wood-particle entrainment and combustion are brought together to investigate the factors that cause char carry-over in these units. Single-particle data on
ObjectiveHealth information exchange (HIE) is the process of electronically sharing patient-level information between providers. However, where implemented, reports indicate HIE system usage is low. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with different types of HIE usage.DesignCross-sectional analysis of clinical data from emergency room encounters included in an operational HIE effort linked to system user logs
Joshua R Vest; Hongwei Zhao; Jon Jaspserson; Larry D Gamm; Robert L Ohsfeldt
Background.In longitudinal smoking prevention studies, a difficulty in evaluating treatment effects is understanding whether bias is associated with those who do not complete the study. This study presents the significant predictors of attrition and suggests how to reduce attrition bias in evaluating program effects.Methods.Survival analysis methods were used to assess factors associated with attrition at different time points of the
The purpose of this resource is to have students use GLOBE data and graphing tools to compare the influence of latitude, elevation, and geography on seasonal patterns. Students analyze the graph of the past year's maximum and minimum temperatures at their site. They compare this graph to similar graphs for two other sites and list which factors that might cause the patterns to be different and investigate one in depth.
The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)
Based on the 3D-GBSB (three-dimensional Geometrically Based Single-Bounce) model and MIMO channel capacity function, by geometric analysis, it is analyzed that transceiver antenna arrays, antenna spacing, antenna array angle, SNR and Rician K-factor and so on impact on the frequency-nonselective fading MIMO channel capacity. Monte Carlo method can be applied to stimulate the wireless fading channel and demonstrate Cumulative Distribution Function of above.
The use of elemental sulfur (S0) to alleviate widespread S deficiencies in agricultural soils is limited by the unpredictability of its oxidation to plant\\u000a available sulfate. Here we review the biological, fertilizer and soil-related factors that control S0 oxidation. Sulfur oxidation in soil is mediated primarily by microorganisms, and thus it is the size, composition and activity\\u000a of the microbial
Temperature is the best known variable affecting the distribution of the archaeal glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) in marine and freshwater systems. Other variables such as pH, ionic strength, or bicarbonate concentration may also affect archaeal GDGTs in terrestrial systems. Studies of pure cultures can help us pinpoint the specific effects these variables may have on archaeal lipid distribution in natural environments. In this study, three Sulfolobus species (HG4, HB5-2, HB9-6) isolated from Tengchong hot springs (pH 2-3, temperature 73-90°C) in China were used to investigate the effects of temperature, pH, substrate, and type of strain on the composition of GDGTs. Results showed that increase in temperature had negative effects on the relative contents of GDGT-0 (no cyclopentyl rings), GDGT-1 (one cyclopentyl ring), GDGT-2 and GDGT-3 but positive effects on GDGT-4, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5'. Increase in pH, on the other hand, had negative effects on GDGT-0, GDGT-1, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5', and positive effects on GDGT-3 and GDGT-4. GDGT-2 remained relatively constant with changing pH. When the HG4 was grown on different substrates, GDGT-5 was five time more abundant in sucrose-grown cultures than in yeast extract- or sulfur- grown cultures, suggesting that carbohydrates may stimulate the production of GDGT-5. For all three species, the ring index (average number of rings) of GDGTs correlated positively with incubation temperature. In HG4, ring index was much lower at optimal pH (3.5) than at other pH values. Ring index of HB5-2 or HB9-6 is higher than that of HG4, suggesting that speciation may affect the degree of cyclization of GDGT of the Sulfolobus. These results indicate that individual archaeal lipids respond differently to changes in environmental variables, which may be also species specific.
The shrinkage of fly ash geopolymers was studied in the present study. Fly ash was used as the source material for making the geopolymers. The effects of the concentration of NaOH, sodium silicate-to-NaOH ratio, liquid-to-ash ratio, curing temperature, and curing time on shrinkage were investigated. The geopolymers were cured at 25, 40, and 60°C, respectively. The results indicate that the shrinkage of geopolymers is strongly dependent on curing temperature and liquid-to-ash ratio. The increase in shrinkage is associated with the low strength development of geopolymers. It is also found that NaOH concentration and sodium silicate-to-NaOH ratio also affect the shrinkage of geopolymers but to a lesser extent.
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of several explanatory factors: anthropometry, buoyancy, passive underwater torque, drag and swimming technique on the energy cost of swimming front crawl in children and adults. Submaximal V(.)O(2) was measured in ten children (age 12) and 13 adults (age 21), as well as body length (BL), body mass, arm length, propelling size, active drag, hydrostatic lift, passive torque, intracyclic velocity fluctuation, hand slip, stroke length and body angle. The results show that body length ( r=0.74), body mass ( r=0.86) propelling size ( r=0.61), arm length ( r=0.66), distance between the center of mass and the center of volume (Delta d, r=0.74) and body angle during swimming ( r=-0.56) all showed significant linear relationships with the cost of swimming at 1.0 m x s(-1) (CS(1.0)). When normalizing the cost of swimming to body size (CS(1.0) x BL(-1)) there were no differences between the two groups. The conclusions of this study are that the combination of BL, body mass, active drag factor, passive torque, drag efficiency and hydrostatic lift were able to explain 97% of the variation in the cost of swimming for the whole group of swimmers. The size-independent factors of torque and floating abilities (density and Delta d in % of BL), together with swimming technique and active drag were found to explain 75% of the variations in CS(1.0) x BL(-1). The identical values for CS(1.0) x BL(-1) for children and adults are explained through the opposing effects of a better swimming technique in the adults, and a better passive torque in the children. PMID:15243747
Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Ingjer, Frank; Stallman, Robert Keig; Stray-Gundersen, James
Problems associated with aircraft operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from investigations conducted at the Langley Aircraft Landing Loads and Traction Facility and from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.
The historical background of the technology and economics of aircraft replacement and retirement in the prejet era is reviewed in order to determine whether useful insights can be obtained applicable to the jet era. Significant differences between the two periods are noted. New factors are identified and examined. Topics discussed include concern over current policies regarding deregulation, regulatory reform, and retroactive noise regulations; financing and compliance legislation; aging; economic environment and inflation; technological progress; fuel efficiency and cost; and a financial perspective of replacement decisions.
Many viruses are capable of infecting the human respiratory tract to cause disease. These viruses display various transmission patterns among humans; however, they all share the ability to transmit from person to person, and their human transmissibility is influenced by the environment in which pathogen and host meet. This review aims to summarize recent and significant observations regarding the impact of environmental factors such as weather and climate, humidity, temperature, and airflow on the transmission of human respiratory viruses. Where possible, knowledge gaps that require further scientific study will be identified.
Peripheral blood stem cells are widely used as stem cell source for allografting. Progenitor cells can be effectively mobilized into peripheral blood in majority of healthy donors with a brief administration of G-CSF. A mobilization course in 111 donors (median age 40years) was retrospectively studied and the factors influencing the efficacy of mobilization were analyzed. The median number of CD34+ cells per kg recipient weight 5.1x10(6) was obtained after a median of two aphereses. The target cell dose (4.0x10(6)/kg) was reached in 69% of donors. Circulating CD34+ count and CD34+ yield were negatively associated with donor's age. Other independent factors associated with superior yield were precollection platelet and WBC counts. In multivariate analysis only CD34+ precount predicted for CD34+ yield. G-CSF had an acceptable short-term safety profile. Our data confirm that apheresis is a safe procedure in healthy including aged donors and suggest that older donors could be poorer mobilizers than younger. PMID:16209935
Introduction Data availability has forced researchers to examine separately the role of alcohol among drivers who crashed and drivers who did not crash. Such a separation fails to account fully for the transition from impaired driving to an alcohol-related crash. Method In this study, we analyzed recent data to investigate how traffic-related environments, conditions, and drivers’ demographics shape the likelihood of a driver being either involved in a crash (alcohol impaired or not) or not involved in a crash (alcohol impaired or not). Our data, from a recent case–control study, included a comprehensive sampling of the drivers in nonfatal crashes and a matched set of comparison drivers in two U.S. locations. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to investigate the likelihood that a driver would crash or would not crash, either with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC)=.00 or with a BAC?.05. Conclusions To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine how different driver characteristics and environmental factors simultaneously contribute to alcohol use by crash-involved and non-crash-involved drivers. This effort calls attention to the need for research on the simultaneous roles played by all the factors that may contribute to motor vehicle crashes.
Romano, Eduardo O.; Peck, Raymond C.; Voas, Robert B.
The combustion efficiency of wood-fired spreader-stoker boilers is limited primarily by carry-over of unburned char from the furnace. This carry-over is caused by incomplete combustion of entrained fuel particles. Data from four experimental studies and one computer study of wood-particle entrainment and combustion are brought together to investigate the factors that cause char carry-over in these units. Single-particle data on entrainment and combustion are first presented, followed by data for multiple-particle combustion. This information is then used in a model of the processes occurring in a wood-fired furnace. It is shown that for typical fuel size distribution, the fraction of fuel entrained can be as little as 10% but is typically greater than 50%. The state of the largest particle entrained is that of dry wood. Under typical furnace conditions, the volatile fraction of the wood is approximately 90%, so that char will constitute only about 10% of the original dry wood mass. Devolatilization is very rapid for the entrained particles, so that the char combustion rate will be the most important factor in determining carry-over. Because particles smaller than about 1 mm usually burn out in the furnace, char carry-over is attributable to the fraction of the fuel that is initially larger than 1mm but smaller than the largest particle entrained. (Refs. 4).
Background The relative age effect (RAE) has been reported for a number of different activities. The RAE is the phenomena whereby players born in the first few months of a competition year are advantaged for selection to elite sports. Much of the literature has identified elite male athletics, such as the National Hockey League (NHL), as having consistently large RAEs. We propose that RAE may be lessened in the NHL since the last examination. Methods We examined demographic and selection factors to understand current NHL selection biases. Results We found that RAE was weak and was only evident when birth dates were broken into year halves. Players born in the first half of the year were relatively advantaged for entry into the NHL. We found that the RAE is smaller than reported in previous studies. Intraplayer comparisons for multiple factors, including place of birth, country of play, type of hockey played, height and weight, revealed no differences. Players who were not drafted (e.g., free agents) or who played university hockey in North America had no apparent RAE. Conclusion We found little evidence of an RAE in the current NHL player rosters. A larger study of all Canadian minor hockey intercity teams could help determine the existence of an RAE.
Parent-Harvey, Caroline I.; Desjardins, Christophe; Harvey, Edward J.
Fluoride is considered important for health because of its beneficial effect on the prevention of dental caries and on bone development in the child population. However, excessive intake has negative effects. The main pathway for exposure is oral, through consumption of drinking water, and some food products. Therefore its bioaccessibility (quantity of the element solubilized during the digestive process) is a parameter to be considered when estimating the risk/benefit associated with this element. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the digestion phase, gastrointestinal digestion factors (pH, pepsin and bile salt concentrations) and the presence of cations on the bioaccessibility of fluoride from seafood products. The results show that the solubilization of fluoride takes place entirely during the gastric phase. Its bioaccessibility is strongly influenced by conditions that favor the formation of insoluble complexes of fluoride with other elements present in the matrix. The factors that are most influential in reducing its bioaccessibility are the increase in pH in the gastric phase, the presence of cations, especially in the intestinal phase, and a low concentration of bile salts. PMID:23747712
Rocha, R A; de la Fuente, B; Clemente, M J; Ruiz, A; Vélez, D; Devesa, V
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations have been determined for sediments and associated pore waters collected at 2 sites (11 stations) in Puget Sound, Washington (northwest U.S.A.). These sediments have been contaminated to varying degrees by hydrocarbons from a creosote plant and from various combustion sources. PAH were not detected in pore waters of sediments whose PAH were primarily derived from combustion and natural sources, even though pore water concentrations predicted from sediment concentrations and two-phase equilibrium partitioning models were above detection limits from most PAH. Equilibrium partition coefficients calculated from field aqueous and solid phase data from an area contaminated with creosote agreed with laboratory-derived coefficients to within a factor of ± 4. Pore water concentrations of creosote-derived aliphatic hydrocarbons increase with increasing concentration in bulk sediments. However, pore water concentrations of natural and contaminant aliphatic hydrocarbons are much higher than predicted by solubility data, possibly due to association with nonfilterable dissolved organic matter and colloids. Other major factors controlling hydrocarbon pore water concentrations include differential hydrocarbon sources, specific particle associations and solubility.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations have been determined for sediments and associated pore waters collected at 2 sites (11 stations) in Puget Sound, Washington (northwest U.S.A.). These sediments have been contaminated to varying degrees by hydrocarbons from a creosote plant and from various combustion sources. PAH were not detected in pore waters of sediments whose PAH were primarily derived from combustion and natural sources, even though pore water concentrations predicted from sediment concentrations and two-phase equilibrium partitioning models were above detection limits from most PAH. Equilibrium partition coefficients calculated from field aqueous and solid phase data from an area contaminated with creosote agreed with laboratory-derived coefficients to within a factor of +/- 4. Pore water concentrations of creosote-derived aliphatic hydrocarbons increase with increasing concentration in bulk sediments. However, pore water concentrations of natural and contaminant aliphatic hydrocarbons are much higher than predicted by solubility data, possible due to association with nonfilterable dissolved organic matter and colloids. Other major factors controlling hydrocarbon pore water concentrations include differential hydrocarbon sources, specific particle associations and solubility.
This study tested five confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) models of the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) to provide validity evidence based on its internal structure. A sample of 223 club sport athletes indicated their emotions during the past week. Results revealed that an orthogonal two-factor CFA model, specifying error…
Tuccitto, Daniel E.; Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.; Leite, Walter L.
The variability of factorsaffecting landscape reflectance are of interest for remote sensing validation experiments, remote sensing parameter retrieval efforts, and plant canopy simulation studies among others. Leaf optical properties and foliage density, expressed as leaf area index (LAI) are significant factorsaffecting canopy reflectance. Canopy height can be important when using a 3-dimensional simulation model. Variations in these elements
C. L. Walthall; C. S. T. Daughtry; S. E. Loechel; W. P. Dulaney; D. Timlin
There are limited studies in the literature on the factors that affect the academic success of foreign students in the United States. This ex post facto mixed method study investigated the factors that affect the academic success of foreign students at Cardinal Stitch University (CSU), a medium size, private university located in the Midwestern…
The relationship between the temperature at which germination of 50% of the seeds is inhibited in the light (GT(50) Light) and secondary dormancy was investigated in three cultivars of Lactuca sativa L. Seeds were incubated for varying periods under non-germinating conditions and subsequent germination in response to red light (R) was determined over a wide range of temperatures. Dark incubation at 32 C reduced the GT(50) Light of cv. New York but did not affect germination at temperatures below 24 C. Dark, 32 C incubation had no effect on the GT(50) Light of cv. Great Lakes. In cv. Grand Rapids, dark incubation at 15, 24, 32, or 35 C initially reduced the GT(50) Light. However, longer incubations induced a secondary dormancy, i.e., the seeds became unable to germinate at all temperatures in response to R given after the high temperature incubation. A single exposure to R at the beginning of a 32 C incubation slowed the induction of secondary dormancy. Repeated exposures to R prevented the induction of secondary dormancy, but did not prevent a decline in the GT(50) Light. GA(3) mimicked the effect of repeated R.The differences in the germination behavior of the three cultivars suggest that there may be qualitative differences in the germination mechanism of these cultivars. This research demonstrates the significance of monitoring germination at a range of temperatures to avoid misinterpretation of the data. PMID:16661841
Snakebite is an important cause of mortality among rural dwellers in the savannah region of West Africa. We conducted a retrospective review of snakebite patients managed by experienced medical staff at Kaltungo in north-eastern Nigeria to determine the cause of death. During a 36 month period there were 94 deaths among 6687 victims (1.41%). Relative risk (RR) of mortality increased to 2.29 (95% CI 1.35-3.89) during a period when source of antivenom became unreliable. The increase was not due to seasonal variation. In a logistic regression model predictors of mortality were new central nervous system (CNS) features (Odds ratio (OR) = 24.61; 95% CI 6.93-87.41) and delay from bite to hospitalization (OR for every 1 h delay = 1.01; 95% CI 1.00-1.02). Treatment with antivenom was protective (OR = 0.17; 95% CI 0.03-0.96). Relationship of anaemia and shock to mortality were not maintained following adjustment. Effort should be made to provide regionally appropriate, affordable and effective antivenoms in addition to enforcement of continuous regulatory control measures. Antivenoms should be distributed to affected areas and treatment access points of care expanded to communities to diminish travel time. The populations at risk should be educated on avoiding unnecessary delays and on prevention of bites. PMID:24038050
The magnetic properties of wound cores constructed from electrical steel strips have been found to be affected by their geometry, in particular the inner and outer diameters, the strip width and the build-up thickness of the toroids. Assessment of the effect of aspect ratio and winding ratio have been carried out in various sizes of toroid. An increase in aspect ratio resulted in better magnetic performance, whereas increase in winding ratio degraded the original magnetic properties. However, when the inner and outer diameters are varied with constant build-up and strip width, better performance is obtained by increasing the winding ratio. The initial rate of rise of temperature technique using thermistors has been used to measured power loss on the inner and outer wraps of a wound toroid. The power loss of a 60 × 44 × 40mm toroid at 1.0 T before stress relief annealing was 0.88 and 0.52 W kg-1 at the inner and outer layers respectively. After stress relief annealing, the power loss fell to 0.44 and 0.43 W kg-1 at the inner and outer layers respectively. This indicates the higher stress produced by small diameter wrapping can be reduced by normal stress relief annealing.
An extended analytic model for atmospheric clutter radiance in absorption bands is developed. In this model, clutter radiance is mainly due to temperature and reflectance fluctuations of atmospheric, cloud and earth. A simplified line-of-sight (LOS) radiance model for short-wave infrared (SWIR) and mid-wave infrared (MWIR) absorption bands is introduced, based on the one-dimensional radiation transfer equation (RTE) and Young's semi-empirical model for diffuse reflectance of clouds. Under the assumption that atmospheric temperature fluctuations are isotropic horizontally, the relations between clutter radiance and temperature fluctuations as well as other factors are obtained. The clutter radiance characteristics are analyzed in 2.7?m and 4.3?m absorption bands, the long wavelength wing of 2.85?m and 4.35?m shows a much larger clutter contribution from earth and cloud. The models present here are efficient and reasonable by comparing the results of MODTRAN and data from SPIRIT-III radiometer.
A prospective study of postoperative wounds was carried out in West Dorset to determine the incidence of infection, describe the time distribution of presentation before and after discharge from hospital and identify possible contributory factors. There were 702 consecutive patients admitted to the study (600 in-patients and 102 day cases). Fifty one became infected (47 in-patients and 4 day cases), corresponding to an overall infection rate of 7.3%. Over 50% of infections presented during the first week after operation, and almost 90% were diagnosed within 2 weeks of surgery Twenty-eight (55%) wounds that became infected presented after hospital discharge. Of 23 specific aetiological variables studied, four (age, preoperative stay, shaving and the surgeon) were shown to have a statistically significant association with the development of wound infection. A strong association between the individual surgeon and the development of a wound infection was demonstrated and this supports the need for routine surgical audit. PMID:1979572
The aim was to determine experimentally the factors that increase the risk of venous occlusion by applying a standardised tightening force to isolated perfused umbilical cords tied in a true knot in vitro. Umbilical cords were collected from patients undergoing Caesarean section. Cords were clamped, isolated and studied within 15 min. The umbilical vein was cannulated, the cord tied in a true knot and traction was applied using standard weights. The umbilical vein was perfused with modified Krebs solution at a constant pressure of 40 mmHg and the attached weight increased until perfusion ceased. The cord mass index (weight/length), hydration index/100-[(dry weight/wet weight)x100], and coiling index (coils/length) were determined. Cord morphometric analysis was performed on 193 cords. Intra uterine growth restriction was associated with decreased cord mass index (p=0.002) and increased coiling index (p=0.002). Venous perfusion experiments were performed on 75 cords. Using multivariate regression analysis, cord morphometric factors that increased the risk of cord occlusion were decreased cord mass index (p=0.008), decreased cord hydration index (p=0.004), and low venous flow capacity (p=0.001). During experimental cord knotting with applied traction, the susceptibility to venous occlusion was increased with low cord mass index, low cord hydration index and low venous flow capacity. These cord characteristics were associated with low fetal body weight and intrauterine growth restriction. An increased susceptibility to cord occlusion may contribute to the higher perinatal morbidity and mortality in growth restricted pregnancies. PMID:16226125
Tuxen, A J; Permezel, M; Walker, S P; Georgiou, H M
In order to design more effective recruitment strategies, 419 junior students in 38 coordinated dietetics programs completed self-administered questionnaires to identify factors that attracted them to the profession. The majority (43.9%) first became interested in a dietetics career while in college; 24.9% became interested before or during secondary school; and 17.7% were making a career change. Factors that most frequently led to a career in dietetics were a course in nutrition (32.9%), a friend or relative other than parent (31.0%), and a dietitian (30.3%). Students rated the opportunity to help others (95.2%) and the relationship of nutrition to health (94.0%) as characteristics of the profession that had a highly positive influence on their decision. Interests in health, disease, and health care (70.5%); teaching and health promotion (42.7%); sports and fitness (40.7%); counseling and behavior change (35.6%); and food and cooking (35.4%) were most frequently cited as influencing the choice of a dietetics career. Students were most interested in practicing dietetics as a consultant or in private practice (37.5%) or as a clinical dietitian (34.8%). New and innovative recruitment strategies should target high school and college students and pay special attention to second-career students. Interests such as health, disease, and health care and health promotion and characteristics of the profession such as the opportunity to help others attracted present dietetics students and should be emphasized in recruiting. The best marketing tools may be the practicing dietitian and a course in nutrition. PMID:1640034
Increased temperatures and more extreme weather patterns associated with global climate change can interact with other factors that regulate animal populations, but many climate change studies do not incorporate other threats to wildlife in their analyses. We used 20 years of nest-monitoring data from study sites across a gradient of habitat fragmentation in Missouri, USA, to investigate the relative influence of weather variables (temperature and precipitation) and landscape factors (forest cover and edge density) on the number of young produced per nest attempt (i.e., productivity) for three species of songbirds. We detected a strong forest cover × temperature interaction for the Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) on productivity. Greater forest cover resulted in greater productivity because of reduced brood parasitism and increased nest survival, whereas greater temperatures reduced productivity in highly forested landscapes because of increased nest predation but had no effect in less forested landscapes. The Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) exhibited a similar pattern, albeit with a marginal forest cover × temperature interaction. By contrast, productivity of the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) was not influenced by landscape effects or temperature. Our results highlight a potential difficulty of managing wildlife in response to global change such as habitat fragmentation and climate warming, as the habitat associated with the greatest productivity for flycatchers was also that most negatively influenced by high temperatures. The influence of high temperatures on nest predation (and therefore, nest predators) underscores the need to acknowledge the potential complexity of species' responses to climate change by incorporating a more thorough consideration of community ecology in the development of models of climate impacts on wildlife. PMID:23504884
Cox, W Andrew; Thompson, Frank R; Reidy, Jennifer L; Faaborg, John
To expand the breeding flock of Poll Dorset sheep in China, multiple ovulation and embryo transfer breeding program was applied to the limited number of imported Australian Poll Dorset sheep. This study investigated the effects of FSH from three different manufacturers, parity (nulliparous vs multiparous), repeated superovulation, oestrus induction, corpus luteum regression and oestrus delay on Poll Dorset superovulation. The results showed that gonadotropin FSH from Canada Folltropin-V (Ca-FSH) was successfully used for superovulatory treatment with 160 mg-200 mg dosage per ewe and recovered 12.91 ± 7.80 embryos. Multiparous ewes for superovulation treatment were significantly better nulliparous ewes (p<0.05). The successive superovalution treatment reduced significantly embryo collection but did not affect transferable embryo number. Ewes with natural oestrus resulted in significantly higher number of embryos (13.83 ± 4.64) and of transferable embryos (12.00 ± 5.76) than ewes with induced oestrus (7.00 ± 4.92; 4.22 ± 3.42) and unknown oestrus cycle (5.94 ± 3.38; 3.19 ± 2.56, p<0.05). The delayed oestrus ewes at 24 h after superovulatory treatment produced significantly fewer embryos and transferable embryos (0.92 ± 1.51 vs 0.42 ± 0.90) than those with normal oestrus (p<0.01). Furthermore, the more transferable embryos were recovered from ewes with normal corpus luteum than those with corpus luteum regression (5.88 ± 5.09 vs 3.59 ± 4.30 and 8.83 ± 5.75 vs. 6.66 ± 5.41, p<0.01). These results suggest that in our farm practice, a comprehensive treatment method by using the Canadian FSH (Folltropin-V), plus choosing multiparous and natural oestrus ewes with normal corpus luteum might obtain an optimum embryo collection and embryos transfer in sheep. PMID:19968834
Quan, F; Zhang, Z; An, Z; Hua, S; Zhao, X; Zhang, Y
The aim of this study was to investigate the cutting ability of sonic files. A model system was developed and the following variables evaluated: file type. Heliosonic or Shaper; file length, 21 or 29 mm; power, air inlet ring opening of half or fully open; stroke length, 2 or 4 mm; stroke rate, one or two cycles per second; and load 50 or 100 g. A 2(6) full-factorial analysis with two replications into the effect of the above variables on the cutting ability of the MM1500 sonic instrument was performed. A new size 25 file was used for each cut, together with water irrigation, and the substrate used was 1-mm thick sections of bovine bone. The differences between the variables were significant (ANOVA, P < 0.001). However, examination of the F-values showed that the most significant variable to affect cutting was load, followed by power, file type, stroke length and stroke rate, with the least significant variable being file length. The most significant interaction was between rate and length of stroke. An increase in stroke rate from one to two cycles per second at a stroke length of 2 mm produced an increase in cutting for both the Heliosonic and Shaper files. However, at the longer stroke length of 4 mm, the same increase in rate resulted in a decrease in cutting for the Shaper files. Therefore, it is suggested that operators should press the file against the canal wall and move it slowly to maximise cutting. PMID:9206423
Lumley, P J; Harrington, E; Aspinwall, E; Blunt, L; Walmsley, A D; Marquis, P M
To evaluate the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of environmental mycobacteria, viable counts of mycobacteria were measured in samples of brook water collected from 53 drainage areas located in a linear belt crossing Finland at 63° north latitude. The numbers of mycobacteria were correlated with characteristics of the drainage area, climatic parameters, chemical and physical characteristics of the water, and counts of other heterotrophic bacteria in the water. The numbers of mycobacteria in the water ranged from 10 to 2,200 CFU/liter. The counts correlated positively (P < 0.001) with the presence of peatlands, precipitation data, chemical oxygen demand, water color, and concentrations of Fe, Al, Cu, Co, and Cr. The mycobacterial counts correlated negatively (P < 0.001) with water pH, whereas other heterotrophic bacterial counts lacked any correlation with pH. A linear regression model with four independent variables (i.e., peatlands in the drainage area, chemical oxygen demand, concentration of potassium, and pH) explained 83% of the variation in mycobacterial counts in brook waters. Our results suggest that acidification may enhance the growth of environmental mycobacteria.
Iivanainen, E. K.; Martikainen, P. J.; Vaananen, P. K.; Katila, M.-L.
Series of ternary glass systems namely, Na2O, B2O3, and RO (R=Ba or Mg) doped with TiO2 are synthesized. The present glasses are dictated by requirement for a small refractive index and a small nonlinear coefficient needed for waveguide and laser fabrication requirements. The effect of MgO and BaO as alkaline earth metals on the optical properties of the glass systems is investigated. The dependence of the refractive index and extinction coefficient dispersion curves on composition is carried out over a wavelength range of 0.3 2.5?m. Applying a genetic algorithm technique, the parameters of Sellmeier dispersion formula that fit index data to accuracy consistent well with the measurements are given. The zero material dispersion-wavelength (ZMDW) and group velocity are also determined using the refractive index data. The Fermi level is calculated exploiting the extinction coefficient dispersion curves. The absorption coefficient, both direct and indirect optical energy gaps, and Urbach energy are evaluated using the absorption edge calculations. The different factors that play a role for controlling the refractive indices such as coordination number, electronic polarizability, field strength of cations, bridging and nonbridging oxygen, and optical basicity are discussed in accordance with the obtained index data. IR spectroscopy is used as a structural probe of the nearest-neighbor environment in the glass network.
Abdel-Baki, Manal; Abdel-Wahab, F. A.; Radi, Amr; El-Diasty, Fouad
This experiment examines the relative contribution of two factors, intonation and articulation errors, on the perception of foreign accent in Korean-accented American English. Ten native speakers of Korean and ten native speakers of American English were asked to read ten English sentences. These sentences were then modified using high-quality speech resynthesis techniques [STRAIGHT Kawahara et al., Speech Commun. 27, 187-207 (1999)] to generate four sets of stimuli. In the first two sets of stimuli, the intonation patterns of the Korean speakers and American speakers were switched with one another. The articulatory errors for each speaker were not modified. In the final two sets, the sentences from the Korean and American speakers were resynthesized without any modifications. Fifteen listeners were asked to rate all the stimuli for the degree of foreign accent. Preliminary results show that, for native speakers of American English, articulation errors may play a greater role in the perception of foreign accent than errors in intonation patterns. [Work supported by KAIM.
Threshold detection methods are increasingly popular for assessing nonlinear responses to environmental change, but their statistical performance remains poorly understood. We simulated linear change in stream benthic macroinvertebrate communities and evaluated the performance of commonly used threshold detection methods based on model fitting (piecewise quantile regression [PQR]), data partitioning (nonparametric change point analysis [NCPA]), and a hybrid approach (significant zero crossings [SiZer]). We demonstrated that false detection of ecological thresholds (type I errors) and inferences on threshold locations are influenced by sample size, rate of linear change, and frequency of observations across the environmental gradient (i.e., sample-environment distribution, SED). However, the relative importance of these factors varied among statistical methods and between inference types. False detection rates were influenced primarily by user-selected parameters for PQR (tau) and SiZer (bandwidth) and secondarily by sample size (for PQR) and SED (for SiZer). In contrast, the location of reported thresholds was influenced primarily by SED. Bootstrapped confidence intervals for NCPA threshold locations revealed strong correspondence to SED. We conclude that the choice of statistical methods for threshold detection should be matched to experimental and environmental constraints to minimize false detection rates and avoid spurious inferences regarding threshold location. PMID:22486082
Daily, Jonathan P; Hitt, Nathaniel P; Smith, David R; Snyder, Craig D
Glucose monitoring has become an integral part of diabetes care but has some limitations in accuracy. Accuracy may be limited due to strip manufacturing variances, strip storage, and aging. They may also be due to limitations on the environment such as temperature or altitude or to patient factors such as improper coding, incorrect hand washing, altered hematocrit, or naturally occurring interfering substances. Finally, exogenous interfering substances may contribute errors to the system evaluation of blood glucose. In this review, I discuss the measurement of error in blood glucose, the sources of error, and their mechanism and potential solutions to improve accuracy in the hands of the patient. I also discuss the clinical measurement of system accuracy and methods of judging the suitability of clinical trials and finally some methods of overcoming the inaccuracies. I have included comments about additional information or education that could be done today by manufacturers in the appropriate sections. Areas that require additional work are discussed in the final section.
The interaction between human neutrophils and wild-type Bordetella pertussis or mutants expressing altered lipopolysaccharide or lacking virulence factors—pertussis toxin, adenylate cyclase toxin, dermonecrotic toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin, or BrkA—was examined. In the absence of antibodies, the wild-type strain and the mutants, with the exception of mutants lacking FHA, attached efficiently to neutrophils. The addition of opsonizing antibodies caused a significant reduction (approximately 50%) in attachment of the wild-type strain and most of the mutants expressing FHA, suggesting that bacterium-mediated attachment is more efficient than Fc-mediated attachment. Phagocytosis was also examined. In the absence of antibodies, about 12% of the wild-type bacteria were phagocytosed. Opsonization caused a statistically significant reduction in phagocytosis (to 3%), possibly a consequence of reduced attachment. Phagocytosis of most of the mutants was similar to that of the wild type, with the exception of the mutants lacking adenylate cyclase toxin. About 70% of the adenylate cyclase toxin mutants were phagocytosed, but only in the presence of opsonizing antibody, suggesting that Fc receptor-mediated signaling may be needed for phagocytosis. These studies indicate that FHA mediates attachment of B. pertussis to neutrophils, but adenylate cyclase toxin blocks phagocytosis.
Preimplantation stage mouse embryos have been used to examine the response of a simple multicellular system to cryopreservation by the complete vitrification of the suspension. Successful vitrification requires the use of a solution of cryoprotectants that is sufficiently concentrated to supercool and solidify into a glass at practicable cooling rates. Factors that influence the survival of embryos include the concentration and composition of the vitrification solution, the procedure used to equilibrate embryos in this solution, the cooling and warming conditions, and the procedure used to dilute embryos from the vitrification solution. High rates of survival are obtained when embryos are dehydrated prior to vitrification in solutions composed of saline plus multimolar concentrations of either mixtures of permeating cryoprotectants (e.g. dimethyl sulphoxide-acetamide-propylene glycol) or single permeating cryoprotectants (propylene glycol or glycerol). Full permeation of cryoprotectants into the cells is not necessary and may lead to chemical toxicity and osmotic injury. Partial permeation and osmotic shrinkage concentrates the endogenous cytoplasmic macromolecules and greatly increases the likelihood of intracellular vitrification. Vitrification is a practical approach for embryo cryopreservation and offers new opportunities to examine fundamental aspects of cryoprotection and cryoinjury in the absence of freezing. PMID:3652721
] This study was conducted to investigate efficient, systematic management of the Korean police and to examine the status and prevention of musculoskeletal disorders in Korean police officers. [Subjects and Methods] A survey of police officers (353 subjects) who visited the National Police Hospital from March 2013 to May 2013 was conducted using a structured questionnaire. [Results] The incidence of pain was 44.2% in the shoulder, 41.4% in the waist, 31.2% in the neck, 26.1% in the legs/foot, 16.7% in the hand/wrist/finger, and 14.7% in the arm/elbow. The comparative risk of the relevant part factors was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. The shoulder had a 4.87 times higher risk in police lieutenants compared with those under the rank of corporal and a 1.78 times higher risk in people with chronic diseases than those without chronic diseases. The arm/elbow had a 2.37 times higher risk in people who exercised than those who did not exercise and a 1.78 times higher risk in people with a chronic disease than those without chronic diseases. Generally, people with a chronic disease showed a higher risk than those without chronic diseases. [Conclusion] The results of this study could be useful as basic data for improvement of police welfare, specialized treatment for the health safety of the police, and efficient management of police resources.
This paper updates the influence of environmental and source factors of shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that are likely to influence the solar energetic particle (SEP) events. The intensity variation due to CME interaction reported that is confirmed by expanding the investigation to all the large SEP events of solar cycle 23. The large SEP events are separated into two groups, one associated with CMEs running into other CMEs, and the other with CMEs running into the ambient solar wind. SEP events with CME interaction generally have a higher intensity. New possibilities such as the influence of coronal holes on the SEP intensity are also discussed. For example, the presence of a large coronal hole between a well-connected eruption and the solar disk center may render the shock poorly connected because of the interaction between the CME and the coronal hole. This point is illustrated using the 2004 December 3 SEP event delayed by about 12 hours from the onset of the associated CME. There is no other event at the Sun that can be associated with the SEP onset. This event is consistent with the possibility that the coronal hole interaction influences the connectivity of the CMEs that produce SEPs, and hence the intensity of the SEP event.
The influence of physiological and environmental factors on the accumulation of oxindole during anaerobic indole metabolism was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Under methanogenic conditions, indole was temporarily converted to oxindole in stoichiometric amounts in media inoculated with three freshwater sediments and an organic soil. In media inoculated with methanogenic sewage sludge, the modest amounts of oxindole detected at 35 degrees C reached higher concentrations and persisted longer when the incubation temperature was decreased from 35 to 15 degrees C. Also, decreasing the concentration of sewage sludge used as an inoculum from 50 to 1% caused an increase in the accumulation of oxindole from 10 to 75% of the indole added. Under denitrifying conditions, regardless of the concentration or source of the inoculum, oxindole appeared in trace amounts but did not accumulate during indole metabolism. In addition, denitrifying consortia which previously metabolized indole degraded oxindole with no lag period. Our data suggest that oxindole accumulation under methanogenic, but not under denitrifying conditions is caused by differences between relative rates of oxindole production and destruction.
In our thalassemic (T) cohort, 45% of them had height standard deviation score (HtSDS) less than -2 and 56% of them had growth velocity standard deviation score (GVSDS) less than -1. Their mid-arm circumference and triceps skin-fold thickness were decreased versus normal controls. Their circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations were significantly lower than normal children. Growth hormone (GH) response to provocation with clonidine and glucagon was defective in half of the short T children (peak GH < 7 ng/dL). Some of the short T children, with normal GH response to provocation, had defective spontaneous nocturnal GH secretion. IGF-I generation after one GH injection was reduced in T children than those with GH deficiency (GHD) and constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP). GH therapy for a year significantly increased IGF-I concentrations, GV, and HtSDS in T children but to a lower level compared to those with GHD or CDGP, suggesting partial GH insensitivity. Pubertal induction with human chorionic gonadotropin in T adolescents was associated with increased IGF-I concentrations, GV, and HtSDS. PMID:20001614
Since the ACTD (Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrations) program was started in 1994, a wide range of products have been tested by technology experts and military operators in realistic settings-from unmanned aerial vehicles, to friend-or-foe detection systems, to biological agent detection systems, to advanced simulation technology designed to enhance joint training. Many of these have successfully delivered new technologies to users. Though the majority of the projects that were examined, transitioned technologies to users, there are factors that hamper the ACTD process. For example: Technology has been too immature to be tested in a realistic setting, leading to cancellation of the demonstration. Military services and defense agencies have been reluctant to fund acquisition of ACTD-proven technologies, especially those focusing on joint requirements, because of competing priorities. ACTD's military utility may not have been assessed consistently. Some of the barriers identified can be addressed through efforts DOD (Department of Defense) now has underway, including an evaluation of how the ACTD process can be improved; adoption of criteria to be used to ensure technology is sufficiently mature; and placing of more attention on the end phase of the ACTD process. Other barriers, however, will be much more difficult to address in view of cultural resistance to joint initiatives and the requirements of DOD's planning and funding process.
Threshold detection methods are increasingly popular for assessing nonlinear responses to environmental change, but their statistical performance remains poorly understood. We simulated linear change in stream benthic macroinvertebrate communities and evaluated the performance of commonly used threshold detection methods based on model fitting (piecewise quantile regression [PQR]), data partitioning (nonparametric change point analysis [NCPA]), and a hybrid approach (significant zero crossings [SiZer]). We demonstrated that false detection of ecological thresholds (type I errors) and inferences on threshold locations are influenced by sample size, rate of linear change, and frequency of observations across the environmental gradient (i.e., sample-environment distribution, SED). However, the relative importance of these factors varied among statistical methods and between inference types. False detection rates were influenced primarily by user-selected parameters for PQR (?) and SiZer (bandwidth) and secondarily by sample size (for PQR) and SED (for SiZer). In contrast, the location of reported thresholds was influenced primarily by SED. Bootstrapped confidence intervals for NCPA threshold locations revealed strong correspondence to SED. We conclude that the choice of statistical methods for threshold detection should be matched to experimental and environmental constraints to minimize false detection rates and avoid spurious inferences regarding threshold location.
Daily, Jonathan P.; Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Smith, David R.; Snyder, Craig D.
Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) is still the treatment of choice for most renal and upper ureteric stones; however the outcome depends on multiple factors. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of stone density, as measured by Hounsfield Units (H.U) by non-contrast Computerized Tomography (CT), stone size and stone location on ESWL treatment outcome of urinary calculi in Jordanian patients. 65 patients underwent clinical, biochemical and radiological assessments followed by ESWL treatment. Statistical analyses including chi-square, analysis of variance (ANOVA), correlation, regression were performed for statistical significance between ESWL treatment, stone fragmentation and stone density, size and location in the renal pelvis. ESWL success rate was high (94%) for low density stones (< 500 Hounsfield units). In general CT densities of 750 Hounsfield units or less were almost always successfully treated by ESWL. An inverse association between ESWL treatment outcome and stone size was also documented. CT stone density and stone size combined account for nearly 73% of the variation in the number of shock waves required to attain fragmentation. Stones located in lower calyceal area had less success rates. In conclusion, stones with higher density, large size and lower location may better be managed by percutaneous nephrolithotomy. PMID:20587869
Arthroscopic subacromial decompression was performed on 114 patients with rotator cuff impingement who had not responded to nonoperative measures. None of the patients had a full-thickness cuff tear. Patients with associated instability, symptomatic acromioclavicular joint disease, or ruptures of the long head of biceps were not included. Results were determined by questioning patients about their satisfaction with the outcome of surgery and by functional assessment of the shoulder with the parameters of pain, ability to perform daily activities, and range of motion according to the Constant scoring system. When reviewed at a mean interval of 19 months after surgery, 85 patients (75%) were satisfied with the outcome. Pain scores improved by an average of 8.6 points; "activities of daily living" scores improved by an average of 5.8 points; range-of-motion scores improved by an average of 3.6 points. The improvements in all 3 parameters scored were significant (P < .05). The following variables were statistically analyzed to assess their influence on final outcome: age, sex, occupation, duration of symptoms before surgery, dominance of the affected shoulder, outcome of the impingement test, state of the cuff, and experience of the surgeon performing the operation. The duration of symptoms before surgery was the most significant predictor of outcome. Symptoms of prolonged duration were associated with an unsatisfactory subjective results (P < .01) and with smaller improvements in the parameters of the Constant score (P < .001). Recovery after arthroscopic subacromial decompression and eventual outcome were related to the extent of cuff damage. Patients with partial thickness tears or fraying of the cuff had a delayed return to work (P < .001) and were found to have smaller increases in the pain and range-of-motion scores (P < .05). A satisfactory subjective result was most often associated with a positive impingement test (P < .05). Unsatisfactory outcomes were associated with a questionable diagnosis and lack of clear evidence of impingement at arthroscopy, inadequate decompression of the subacromial space, or the presence of calcium deposits in the rotator cuff. PMID:10389078
The rate of isolation of organisms resembling Haemophilus vaginalis (Corynebacterium vaginale) from vaginal specimens was not significantly affected by anaerobic versus carbon dioxide incubation atmospheres or whether specimens were inoculated on isolation media immediately after collection or after a delay of 6 h. Forty-one clinically isolated strains were provisionally divided into 30 H. vaginalis strains and 11 H. vaginalis-like (HVL) strains based on morphological and growth characteristics. The H. vaginalis strains were less reactive in API-20A identification test strips, (Analytab Products, Inc.) using Lombard-Dowell broth, than in a modified basal medium that contained proteose peptone no. 3 (Difco). The numbers and kinds of substrates fermented by 30 clinical and 2 reference strains of H. vaginalis varied among conventional, API, Minitek (Baltimore Biological Laboratory), and rapid buffered substrate fermentation systems. A greater number and variety of carbohydrates were fermented by the 11 HVL strains more consistently in all four test systems. Analysis of volatile and nonvolatile fermentation end products by gas-liquid chromatography did not reveal significant differences between the H. vaginalis and HVL strains. However, the latter group grew in peptone-yeast extract-glucose broth, whereas the H. vaginalis strains did not grow without the addition of starch to peptone-yeast extract-glucose. All of the reference and clinical strains were similar in their susceptibilities to a variety of antimicrobial compounds except sulfonamides, which inhibited the HVL strains and bifidobacteria but not the H. vaginalis strains. Sulfonamide susceptibility or resistance corresponded in part to the H. vaginalis and HVL-bifidobacteria strain reactions on selected conventional fermentation substrates. Susceptibility or resistance to sulfonamides and metronidazole in conjunction with fermentation tests is described to aid in the separation of H. vaginalis from other possibly unrecognized biotypes of H. vaginalis or other vaginal bacteria that presumptively resemble the organism. A human blood medium known as V agar was also of considerable value in distinguishing H. vaginalis from HVL strains, because only the H. vaginalis strains produced diffuse beta-hemolysis on V agar.
Bailey, Robert K.; Voss, Jack L.; Smith, Rodney F.
ET (Evapotranspiration) is an important variable in the water and energy balance on the Earth's surface. Accurate estimation of the temporal and spatial pattern of ET is of great significance for hydrological, agricultural and meteorological studies. A simplified single-source energy balance parameterization scheme, known as the LST/NDVI (Land Surface Temperature/Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) feature space method, has been applied successfully to estimate clear sky ET in many studies. Based on the LST/NDVI feature space method, a new method is proposed in this study to estimate ET directly using the TOA (Top of Atmosphere) radiances without performing atmospheric correction and associated complex processes. Firstly, the feasibility and uncertainties in estimating NDTI (Normalized Difference Temperature Index, a key parameter in EF (evaporative fraction) estimation) from TOA radiances are investigated. Through a physical understanding of the Planck radiation law and radiative transfer equation, together with a detailed sensitivity analysis of NDTI on surface and atmosphere variability, it is found that the NDTI can be estimated from TOA radiances with an accuracy of 90% if the spatial variabilities of atmospheric parameters (water vapor, effective atmospheric temperature) and surface emissivity are below 10%, 4 K, and 0.05, respectively. Then the applicability and robustness of the MODIS TOA radiances based EF estimation scheme are investigated using FLUXNET (a global network of eddy covariance stations) observations. From direct comparison with measured EF at different FLUXNET sites, the estimated EF from TOA radiances perform mostly well across a wide variety of climate and biome types. The accuracy level is also comparable with published results in the literature. Furthermore, the FLUXNET measurements are used to examine the assumption of EF self preservation, and the conditions under which it can hold. It is found that the instantaneous EF can represent daytime EF under clear sky conditions especially between 11:00 h LT (local time) and 14:00 h LT for all stations, and the midday (12:00 h LT to 13:00 h LT) EF is closest to daytime EF. However, the EF is more variable during cloudy skies so that an increase in cloud cover results in an increase in the variability of the EF during daytime. Finally, a new parameterization scheme to estimate daytime ET directly using TOA radiances is proposed and evaluated over a regional scale. The instantaneous EF and net radiation are derived respectively based entirely on MODIS TOA radiances. Then daytime ET maps are estimated from these EF and net radiation maps by using a sinusoidal temporal interpolation model. To evaluate the performance of the TOA radiances based estimates, the estimated EF, net radiation and ET are compared with field observations and MODIS products based estimates. The results indicate comparable accuracy to results of other current widely used satellite-based methods. Overall, the proposed algorithm requires fewer assumptions and can avoid complex atmospheric corrections associated with the satellite derived products. It provides a useful alternative for determining ET and relevant applications as well.
Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most frequent cause of peritonitis complicating continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. We studied factors that might influence the growth of S. epidermidis in commercially available peritoneal dialysis solution (PDS). Test strains were inoculated into PDS and incubated overnight at 37 degrees C. Samples were removed at appropriate intervals, bacterial counts were performed, and growth curves were constructed. We studied the effects of various osmolarities, the neutralization and acidification of fresh and spent PDS, and the effect of intraperitoneal dwell time on the ability PDS to support growth of S. epidermidis. In fresh PDS, numbers of bacteria remained constant after 24 h. No significant differences in growth were observed among PDS with 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, and 4.25% glucose. Neutralizing acidic fresh PDS had no effect on bacterial growth. However, growth did occur in spent PDS. PDS which was recovered after only 2 h in the peritoneal cavity supported growth to the same extent as did PDS recovered after 4 to 6 h. Mean log10 changes after 24 h of incubation were as follows: for fresh PDS, -1.3; after 2 h dwell time, 2.9; after 4 h dwell time, 1.9; and after 6 h dwell time, 1.3. Acidification of spent PDS to less than pH 6.35 produced less rapid growth; mean log10 increases after 24 h of incubation were 1.9 for pH 7.75, 1.6 for pH 6.35, 0.6 for pH 5.75, and 0.7 for pH 4.95. Fresh PDS of all available osmolarities neither supported the growth of S. epidermidis nor was bactericidal. Spent PDS supported bacterial growth, and this growth was partly independent of the neutralization which occurred during the dialysis.
Two first-order factors influencing the petroleum potential of large accretionary prisms are (1) their structural contact (backstop) with the margin's bedrock framework, and (2) that beneath a master decollement, the volume of the sediment that has underthrust the prism and passed through the petroleum-generation window (PGW). In the Aleutian prism, the backstop contact slopes landward because the accretionary body has underrun and elevated the seaward edge of the ridge's arc massif. Within the thickened landward part of the prism, the overlying lid of the underrun bedrock slab and its mantle of thick (2-4 km) forearc deposits has served to constrain vertical fluid movements and enhance the thermal environment and circumstances that favor the generation of hydrocarbons and their channelized migration toward higher structural levels. The thickness of the underthrusting or subdecollement section commonly is greater than 1.0 km. Most of this sequence of fine-grained sediment is transported below the landward-dipping slab or forearc basement to depths in excess of 8 km. A substantial mass is transported farther landward and deeper, and is subducted beneath the base of the arc massif. Deeply underthrust and subducted sedimentary deposits thus are transported through the PGW - a circumstance that should sustain the continuous generation of petroleum from deep within and below the accreted pile. During the past 5-6 m.y., more than 50% of the 1 to 3-m-thick sedimentary section entering the subduction zone (at roughly 80 km/m.y.) has been subducted and, therefore, passed through the PGW. Evidently, since the late Miocene, larger volumes of hydrocarbons have been produced and possibly entrapped in high-level structures within either the accretionary complex or the forearc section mantling the underthrust basement slab.
Scholl, D.W.; Stevenson, A.J. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA))
The primary purpose of this study was to identify the principal degradation products produced by Pu(IV) loading in 30% tributyl phosphate/dodecane (TBP-DD) solutions and to determine the formation rates of these species as a function of temperature. Experiments were also conducted to evaluate HNO/sub 3/ hydrolysis of TBP as a function of temperature and to compare the effects resulting from plutonium solvent loading with effects due to loading with uranium and zirconium. The results indicate that four factors are of particular significance: (1) dibutyl phosphate (DBP) is the principal plutonium-complexing species formed at temperatures of 50/sup 0/C or lower, while significant concentrations of monobutyl phosphate (MBP) are also formed at higher temperatures; (2) the TBP degradation rate due to alpha radiolysis or chemical hydrolysis is strongly dependent on temperature; (3) plutonium promotes TBP hydrolysis by two mechanisms, alpha radiolysis and metal-ion-induced hydrolysis, and, of these, metal-ion-induced hydrolysis can be the major effect; and (4) small amounts of an unidentified plutonium-complexing species are formed in experiments using plutonium of high specific activity (about 4 x 10/sup 8/ counts per minute per milligram (c/min dot mg)). This species cannot be removed from 30% TBP-DD by Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ washing or other solvent cleanup procedures. The TBP degradation rates (determined as grams of plutonium complexed by degradation products) increased from 0.125 mg Pu/L dot h at 25/sup 0/C to 47.9 mg Pu/L dot h at 80/sup 0/C in 30% TBP-DD solutions that contained only 0.68 M HNO/sub 3/. In solutions that additionally contained approx.20 g/L of plutonium (specific activity = 9 x 10/sup 7/ c/min dot mg) TBP degradation rates increased from 2.46 mg Pu/L dot h at 25/sup 0/C to 127.1 mg Pu/L dot h at 80/sup 0/C. 10 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.
Background In the developing countries millions of women in the reproductive age who don’t use contraceptives prefer to postpone or limit their birth. This indicates their failure to take necessary decision to prevent and avoid unwanted pregnancy. Methods A community-based cross sectional household survey was conducted to investigate unmet need for family planning and associated factors and total demand for family planning in Kassala, Eastern Sudan between 1st May and 31st July 2012. Results A total of 812 married women were enrolled in this study. Their mean age and parity was 31.8 (7.3) and 3.4 (1.8) respectively. Ever use of contraception was 25.4% (206/812) and 26.2% (213/812) were currently using contraception. Unmet need for spacing was 15.1% while unmet need for limiting was 0.7%. The pregnant and amenorrheic women whose the pregnancy or birth was unwanted and mistimed were 105 (13%) and 130 (16%) respectively. Using Westoff model the total unmet need was estimated as 44.8%. The total demand for family planning was 71%. In logistic regression model, while age, age at marriage, parity, residence and experience of child death were not associated with total unmet need for family planning, women education < secondary level (OR=7.8; CI=5.6-10.9; P=0.00), husband education < secondary level (OR=1.9; CI=1.3-2.6, P = 0.00) and woman’s occupation; housewife (OR=4.3; CI=2.5-7.2; P=0.00) were associated with the total unmet need. Conclusions Unmet need for family planning in Eastern Sudan was significantly higher among women with less than secondary education. Also; it is influenced by couple’s educational status and woman’s occupation. The results of this study necessitate the need for the programme managers to take into account the concept of reproductive health education.
Background The use of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) to treat calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) renal calculi gives excellent fragmentation results. However, the retention of post-ESWL fragments within the kidney remains an important health problem. This study examined the effect of various urinary conditions and crystallization inhibitors on the regrowth of spontaneously-passed post-ESWL COD calculi fragments. Methods Post-ESWL COD calculi fragments were incubated in chambers containing synthetic urine varying in pH and calcium concentration: pH = 5.5 normocalciuria (3.75 mM), pH = 5.5 hypercalciuria (6.25 mM), pH = 6.5 normocalciuria (3.75 mM) or pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria (6.25 mM). Fragment growth was evaluated by measuring increases in weight. Fragment growth was standardized by calculating the relative mass increase. Results Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals formed on COD renal calculi fragments under all conditions. Under pH = 5.5 normocalciuria conditions, only COM crystals formed (growth rate = 0.22 ± 0.04 ?g/mg·h). Under pH = 5.5 hypercalciuria and under pH = 6.5 normocalciuria conditions, COM crystals and a small number of new COD crystals formed (growth rate = 0.32 ± 0.03 ?g/mg·h and 0.35 ± 0.05 ?g/mg·h, respectively). Under pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria conditions, large amounts of COD, COM, hydroxyapatite and brushite crystals formed (growth rate = 3.87 ± 0. 34 ?g/mg·h). A study of three crystallization inhibitors demonstrated that phytate completely inhibited fragment growth (2.27 ?M at pH = 5.5 and 4.55 ?M at pH = 6.5, both under hypercalciuria conditions), while 69.0 ?M pyrophosphate caused an 87% reduction in mass under pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria conditions. In contrast, 5.29 mM citrate did not inhibit fragment mass increase under pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria conditions. Conclusion The growth rate of COD calculi fragments under pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria conditions was approximately ten times that observed under the other three conditions. This observation suggests COD calculi residual fragments in the kidneys together with hypercalciuria and high urinary pH values may be a risk factor for stone growth. The study also showed the effectiveness of specific crystallization inhibitors in slowing calculi fragment growth.
Costa-Bauza, A; Perello, J; Isern, B; Sanchis, P; Grases, F
Several modern optical instruments orbited the Moon during 2008 and 2009 onboard the SELENE and Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft and provided a welcomed feast of spectroscopic data to be used for scientific analyses. The different spatial and spectral resolutions of these sensors along with diverse illumination geometry during data acquisition make each set of data unique, and each instrument contributes special value to integrated science analyses. In order to provide the maximum science benefit, we have undertaken a careful cross-validation of radiance data among these orbital instruments and also a set of systematic data acquired using Earth-based telescopes. Most radiance values at 750 nm fall between 0 and 100 W/(m2 ?m sr), but a small important fraction can be up to ×2 to ×3 that value, with the largest values occurring at the highest spatial resolution. All instruments are in agreement about overall spectral properties of lunar materials, but small systematic differences are documented between instruments. Lunar radiance values measured with remote sensors for landing sites are all not as high as that estimated from laboratory measurements of returned soil. This is largely because laboratory measurements of lunar soils cannot retain or duplicate the fine structure of lunar regolith found in the natural space environment.
Pieters, C. M.; Boardman, J. W.; Ohtake, M.; Matsunaga, T.; Haruyama, J.; Green, R. O.; Mall, U.; Staid, M. I.; Isaacson, P. J.; Yokota, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Besse, S.; Sunshine, J. M.
An analysis of ocean color temperature scanner [(OCTS) on board the advanced earth observation satellite (ADEOS)] spectral radiance data was performed for retrieving global distributions of Angstrom factor and exponent, which represent the aerosol optical thickness at a reference wavelength (500 nm in the authors' study) and a spectral dependence of the optical thicknesses, respectively, over ocean. Determination of calibration
Teruyuki Nakajima; Akiko Higurashi; Kazuma Aoki; Tatsuo Endoh; Hajime Fukushima; Mitsuhiro Toratani; Yasushi Mitomi; B. Greg Mitchell; Robert Frouin
There are many factors that affect the e-learning process. Instructor, assessment and evaluation, communication, and technical support are among the leading factors. It is obvious that these factors influence the effectiveness of e-learning and may be related to different expectations of e-learners. Therefore, this study focuses on examining the…
Kilic-Cakmak, Ebru; Karatas, Sercin; Ocak, Mehmet Akif
A monosyllabic word test was administered to 114 postlingually-deaf adult cochlear implant (CI) recipients at numerous intervals from two weeks to two years post-initial CI activation. Biographic/audiologic information, electrode position, and cognitive ability were examined to determine factorsaffecting CI outcomes. Results revealed that Duration of Severe-to-Profound Hearing Loss, Age at Implantation, CI Sound-field Threshold Levels, Percentage of Electrodes in Scala Vestibuli, Medio-lateral Electrode Position, Insertion Depth, and Cognition were among the factors that affected performance. Knowledge of how factorsaffect performance can influence counseling, device fitting, and rehabilitation for patients and may contribute to improved device design.
Holden, Laura K.; Finley, Charles C.; Firszt, Jill B.; Holden, Timothy A.; Brenner, Christine; Potts, Lisa G.; Gotter, Brenda D.; Vanderhoof, Sallie S.; Mispagel, Karen; Heydebrand, Gitry; Skinner, Margaret W.
Background In esthetic surgery, understanding the factors that influence patient satisfaction is important for successful practice. We hypothesize that the factors that influence patient satisfaction include not only aesthetic and functional outcomes, but also personal factors such as the level of familiarity with factorsaffecting wound healing and expectations regarding aesthetic outcome. Methods One hundred patients who underwent esthetic closure after thyroidectomy were included in this study. In order to evaluate the individual characteristics of the patients, a preoperative survey was administered to the patients. We estimated the patient satisfaction six months postoperatively and assessed the aesthetic and functional outcomes using the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale. Results According to the results of correlation analysis, level of familiarity with wound healing factors had a positive correlation with satisfaction. High expectations, pain, itching, and high observer scale score had negative correlations with satisfaction. The factors that were correlated with satisfaction were included in the multiple regression analysis. Level of familiarity with wound healing factors was found to have a positive relationship with satisfaction, while itching and observer scale were found to have a negative relationship with satisfaction. After excluding 10 patients who had hypertrophic scars, only level of familiarity with wound healing factors and expectations affected satisfaction. Conclusions The level of familiarity with factorsaffecting wound healing and expectations were found to independently affect satisfaction. Improving patients' level of familiarity with wound healing factors and reducing their expectations by providing suitable preoperative education has the potential to improve patient satisfaction.
Kim, Hyo Young; Kim, Jung Won; Park, Jin Hyung; Kim, Jung Hun
This work considers factorsaffecting the design of an effective and versatile furniture calorimeter hood and exhaust system. The purpose of the furniture calorimeter, design functions, and inherent limitations of a particular design are discussed. The in...
In Chapter 2, we identify those factorsaffecting the industrial product mix - taste, relative output prices, and relative input prices - and isolate several determinants which have not been adequately accounted for to date in industrial electricity deman...
This research identifies major factors that affect the viability of rural hospitals by correlating net gain or loss on operations with a number of organizational, operating, and financial variables. Characteristics such as hospital size (number of license...
D. Stumbo M. J. D. Good B. J. Good D. Johnson F. Harland
This report details a metallurgical analysis which identifies the factorsaffecting the strength and toughness behavior of newly developed low carbon welding consumables. It was found that the 50% transformation temperature (T50) was a good indicator of t...
... Appendix B to Part 1215 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION TRACKING AND DATA RELAY SATELLITE SYSTEM (TDRSS) Pt. 1215, App. B Appendix B to Part 1215âFactorsAffecting Standard Charges Charges for...
A method is described in detail to allow prediction of infrared radiance from shock layers surrounding high altitude hypersonic endoatmospheric interceptors. Flowfield properties calculated with the EXTC code for a representative endoatmospheric interceptor forebody are shown, including thermal and chemical nonequilibrium effects for both clean air and atmospheric trace species. The SIRRM-II radiative transport code was used with a modified version of the NORSE infrared radiance database to predict radiance and transmission through the shock layer. A simple sensor model, including spectral target signatures, window thermal emission noise, and shock layer radiance is employed to illustrate the importance of the shock layer radiance effects. Shock layer radiance is found to increase with decreasing altitude, with significant broadening of spectral emission bands at lower altitudes.
Trolier, J.; Hudson, D.; Carlson, D.; Krawczyk, W.
High-radiance EUV source is needed for actinic mask inspection applications. LDP source for a lithography application was found to be also able to provide sufficient radiance for mask inspection purpose. Since the plasma size of LDP is properly larger than LPP, not only radiance but also power is suitable for mask inspection applications. Operating condition such as discharge pulse energy, discharge frequency and laser parameter have been tuned to maximize radiance. Introduction of new techniques and several modifications to LDP source have brought radiance level to 180 W/mm2/sr at plasma (or 130 W/mm2/sr as clean-photon radiance). The LDP source is operated at moderate power level in order to ensure sufficient component lifetime and reliability. The first lifetime test done at 10 kHz resulted in 6.5 Gpulse without failure. Debris mitigation system has been successfully installed showing optical transmission as high as 71 %.
We review factorsaffecting the within-river spawning migration of Atlantic salmon. With populations declining across the\\u000a entire distribution range, it is important that spawners survive in the last phase of the spawning migration. Knowledge on\\u000a the factorsaffecting migration is essential for the protection of populations, and to increase the success of reintroduction\\u000a programmes. A number of studies have documented
Eva B. Thorstad; Finn Økland; Kim Aarestrup; Tor G. Heggberget
ABSRACT: We determined the factorsaffecting trout production in the Black Sea Region, Turkey, on 55 trout farms. The factorsaffecting trout production were studied using the Cobb-Douglas production function. The explanatory variables in the model explained 99.4% of the variation in trout production. The partial percentage of the feed-use variable was 99%, whereas that of all other variables was
Science teachers often have two different curricula--the ideal framework on paper and the real, day-to-day instructional program that occurs in the classroom. A number of factors can affect how much of that ideal framework is accomplished. For example, how a facility is designed and how space is used can affect student achievement, classroom…
A comparison of above- and in-water spectral measurements in Case-1 conditions showed the uncertainty in above-water determinations of water-leaving radiances depended on the pointing angle of the above-water instruments with respect to the side of the ship. Two above-water methods were used to create a diagnostic variable to quantify the presence of superstructure reflections which degraded the above-water intracomparisons of water-leaving radiances by 10.9-33.4% (for far-to-near viewing distances, respectively). The primary conclusions of the above- and in-water intercomparison of water-leaving radiances were as follows: a) the SeaWiFS 5% radiometric objective was achieved with the above-water approach, but reliably with only one method and only for about half the data; b) a decrease in water-leaving radiance values was seen in the presence of swell, although, wave crests were radiometrically brighter than the troughs; and c) standard band ratios used in ocean color algorithms remained severely affected, because of the relatively low signal and, thus, proportionally significant contamination at the 555nm wavelength.
Hooker, Stanford B.; Morel, Andre; McClain, Charles R. (Technical Monitor)
Environmental factorsaffecting essential oils variability in Thymus piperella L. are studied. The relationship between the bioclimatics index and edaphic factors with three chemotypes is determined through the application of multivariate analysis (CANOCO) and other statistical processes to both ecological and the essential oil data set components. Chemotype p-cymene ?-terpinene carvacrol shows a positive relationship with the aridity index (Ia)
The bid\\/no bid decision requires an understanding of a company's assessment in relation to factorsaffecting the decision. Different companies might have different assessment values. The aim is to investigate how bid\\/no bid decisions are influenced by different characteristics of contractors. Various factors are identified and then analysed in order to investigate their influence and relative significance. A questionnaire survey
The present study was carried out to determine the motivating factors for enrolling in an engineering study programme in open and distance learning (ODL) and the factors that affect the students' performance. The study was conducted with two convenient samples of students following distance learning courses in engineering technology, conducted by…
This paper empirically investigates the factorsaffecting auditors in evaluating information technology (IT) control structures by employing the COBIT framework, a popular IT internal control with integrated platform, and examines the relationship between monitoring function and other COBIT dimensions. The results of our empirical analysis indicate that key factors of IT governance endorsed by certified public accountants (CPAs) in Taiwan
This study attempted to identify the important factors that affect the performance of a laboratory fume hood and the relationship between the factors and hood performance under various conditions by analyzing and generalizing the results from other studies that quantitatively investigated fume hood performance. A literature search identified 43 studies that were published from 1966 to 2006. For each of
Kwangseog Ahn; Susan Woskie; Louis DiBerardinis; Michael Ellenbecker
Purpose: To provide a general list of factors that affects and determines the full use of library information management systems (LIMS) by library staff. Design/methodology/approach: The factors, which were identified mainly during participation in the implementation of automation projects in Greece, are listed and briefly analysed in categories…
The main objective of this study was to study risk factorsaffecting metaphyseal irregularities (MI) in the distal radius and ulna of growing Newfound- land dogs. Risk factors studied included the genetic effects, effects of litters, BW, circumferences of the dis- tal radius and ulna (CDRU), and total serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentrations. The study included 118 Newfoundland dogs (60
C. Trangerud; T. Meuwissen; E. Ropstad; A. Indrebø; J. Grøndalen; L. Moe
Knowledge Management (KM) has become a critical component for maintaining competitive advantages. Most existing research looks at individual industries or general concepts; few studies have investigated KM use in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs). This research empirically investigates factorsaffecting the adoption of KM. Results indicate that important factors maturing of Information Technology (IT) applications, the complexity of management and
Risk-based decision making (RBDM) is critical in successful construction project management, in which decision makers’ attitudes towards risks play an important role. Most previous studies in construction project risk management have been focusing on the factors contributing to the success of risk management, but little attention was given to factors significantly affecting decision makers’ risk attitudes in construction projects. To
In this study, effort has been paid to determine the probability of smoking of individuals and demographic and social-economic factors that affect the size of expenditure on smoking. Cross- section data obtained from survey were used in this study. According to econometric estimation results; the factors that have significant impact on the probability of smoking are gender, graduation from higher
The propose of this research were to study of FactorsAffecting to Cylindrical Grinding of High Chromium Cast Iron grade Cr 2828. The factors studied were consisted of revolution speed of workpiece, depth of cut and feed rates. Dependent variables were by measuring surface roughness and roundness. The material used in the cylindrical grinding experiment was High Chromium Cast Iron
This study was undertaken to explore the factorsaffecting the safety performance of bus companies in Taiwan. A conceptual framework was developed based on the theory of organizational accidents. Environmental and organizational factors were assumed to determine the safety performance of bus companies. Since the deregulation of intercity passenger transportation in 1995 the bus transportation industry in Taiwan has been
The objective of this study was to determine factors that affect cisplatin concentrations in human kidney cortex. We used flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry to assay platinum in autopsy specimens of kidney cortex obtained from 83 cisplatin-treated patients. Concentrations were correlated with pretreatment factors and treatment conditions using univariate nonparametric statistics. Hierarchical stepwise multiple regression analyses of transformed (to normalize) data
David J. Stewart; Corinne Dulberg; J. Matshela Molepo; Nadia Z. Mikhael; Vital A. J. Montpetit; M. Deidre Redmond; Rakesh Goell
Reliable classification of affective mental states through processing of physiological response requires the use of appropriate machine learning techniques, and the analysis of how experimental factors influence the data recorded. While many studies have been conducted in this field, the effect of many of these factors is yet to be properly investigated and understood. This study investigates the relative effects
Much effort has been spent on examining the spatial variation of classification accuracy and associated factors on a per-pixel basis. In the past few years, object-based classification has attracted growing interest. This paper examines factorsaffecting the spatial varia- tion of classification uncertainty in an object-based vegetation mapping. We studied six categories of factors in an object-based classification: general membership,
Qian Yu; Peng Gong; Yong Q. Tian; Ruiliang Pu; Jun Yang
...TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-524] Brazil: Competitive FactorsAffecting U.S. and Brazilian...the Committee in investigation No. 332-524, Brazil: Competitive Factors In Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural...
The Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) [Weng et al., 2005], developed at U.S. Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation (JCSDA), has been used for the satellite radiance simulation and the radiance derivatives to the surface\\/atmospheric parameters in the physical retrieval [Boukabara et al., 2007], data assimilation [Le Marshall et al., 2006] and many others [Han et al., 2006; Liu and
In the RAFAELA patient classification system, the professional assessment of optimal nursing care intensity level (PAONCIL) instrument is used to assess the optimal nursing intensity level per unit. The PAONCIL instrument contains an overall assessment of the actual nursing intensity level and an additional list of central nonpatient factors that may increase or decrease the total nursing workload (NWL). The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess and determine which nonpatient factorsaffect nurses' experiences of their total NWL in both outpatient settings and hospitals, as captured through the PAONCIL instrument. The data material consisted of PAONCIL questionnaires from 38 units and 37 outpatient clinics at 11 strategically selected hospitals in Finland, and included nurses' answers (n = 1307) to the question of which factors, other than nursing intensity, affect total NWL. The methods for data analyses were qualitative content analyses. The nonpatient factors that affected nurses' experiences of total NWL are “organization of work,” “working conditions,” “self-control,” and “cooperation.” The actual list of nonpatient factors in the PAONCIL instrument is to a reasonable extent relevant, but the list should be improved to include nurses' actual working conditions and self-control.
The factors that affect reliability of nondestructive detection of flaws in structural ceramics by microfocus radiography and scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM) were investigated. Reliability of void detection in silicon nitride and silicon carbide by microfocus X-rays was affected by photon energy level, material chemistry in the immediate vicinity of the void, and the presence of loose powder aggregates inside the void cavity. The sensitivity of SLAM to voids was affected by material microstructure, the level of porosity, and the condition of the specimen surfaces. Statistical results are presented in the form of probability of detection as a function of void diameter for green compacts and sintered materials.
This paper illuminates the technology-transfer process by identifying the factorsaffecting the implementation decisions of\\u000a sponsor companies with regard to eight projects conducted at two industry\\/university cooperative-research centers. Telephone\\u000a interviews with corporate-sponsor representatives provided the data. The factors reported most often as influential in the\\u000a decision of whether or not to use research results were relevance of the project, researcher's
Female Tabanus nigrovittatus were field collected and used in laboratory experimentation to explore physiological and behavioral factors that affect engorgement.\\u000a Previous studies showed sulfakinins act as feeding satiety factors in insects. This study demonstrates that sulfakinins have\\u000a differing effects on engorgement that is dependent on the feeding technique used in the laboratory. The satiety effect of\\u000a sulfakinin on flies engorging
Methods for remote and ground-based sensing of soil water content often rely on determination of bulk dielectric permittivity which may be affected by factors other than water content, such as interfacial polarization (Maxwell-Wagner effect), phase configuration, and electrical conductivity. The complex interactions among these factors were modeled by the Maxwell-Wagner-Bruggeman-Hanai formalism on the basis of self-consistent differential effective medium approximation.
The factorsaffecting the sharing of the geostationary orbit by high power (primarily television) satellite systems having the same or adjacent coverage areas and by satellites occupying the same orbit segment are examined and examples using the results of computer computations are given. The factors considered include: required protection ratio, receiver antenna patterns, relative transmitter power, transmitter antenna patterns, satellite grouping, and coverage pattern overlap. The results presented indicate the limits of system characteristics and orbit deployment which can result from mixing systems.
There are two general strategies that may be employed for 'doing human factors research with nonhuman animals'. First, one may use the methods of traditional human factors investigations to examine the nonhuman animal-to-machine interface. Alternatively, one might use performance by nonhuman animals as a surrogate for or model of performance by a human operator. Each of these approaches is illustrated with data in the present review. Chronic ambient noise was found to have a significant but inconsequential effect on computer-task performance by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Additional data supported the generality of findings such as these to humans, showing that rhesus monkeys are appropriate models of human psychomotor performance. It is argued that ultimately the interface between comparative psychology and technology will depend on the coordinated use of both strategies of investigation.
There are many factors that affect the success of students in university entrance examination. These factors can be mainly categorized as follows; social factors, environmental factors, economical factors etc. The main aim of this study is to find whether there is a relation between these factors and the success in the university entrance…
The purpose of this study is to explore students' understanding levels and misconceptions about temperature and factorsaffecting it. The concept of the study was chosen from Geography National Curriculum. In this study, a questionnaire was developed after a pilot study with an aim to ascertain the students' understanding levels of temperature and…
The diffusion constant of Li in electrode materials is a key aspect of the rate capability of rechargeable Li batteries. The factors that affect Li mobility in layered lithium transition metal oxides are systematically studied in this paper by means of first-principles calculations. In close packed oxides octahedral ions diffuse by migrating through intermediate tetrahedral sites. Our results indicate that
Gum acacia, a natural hydrocolloid, is extensively used as an emulsifier\\/stabilizer in beverage emulsions. Factors that may affect emulsion formation, emulsion stability and viscosity of the emulsion concentrate were studied to assess their significance, including proximal composition of the gum (protein content and mineral content), gum processing prior to emulsion preparation (pasteurization and demineralization), and pH of the dilute emulsion.
Phytophthora root rot of soybeans caused by Phytophthora sojae has been one of the most important diseases throughout the soybean growing areas of the United States and Canada since the 1950's. Documenting the current physiological diversity of P. sojae and the role of factorsaffecting disease resistance are important in reducing yield losses due to this disease. Prevalence and distribution
After September 11, 2001, a so-called container security service (CSS) composed of auto-detection and radio frequency identification (RFID) technologies has been introduced and commercialized. The objective of this study is to identify the factorsaffecting intention to adopt the CSS. A novel research model was developed based on the technology acceptance model. Eight hypotheses derived from this model were empirically
The products from a series of pilot scale tests have been analysed for size and flakiness to evaluate some of the factorsaffecting the generation of flaky material in a cone crusher. Two different feed sources characterised in terms of resistance to crushing and tensile failure were used to evaluate the influence of crusher set, feed rate and of material
The purposes of this study were (1) to determine whether selected factorsaffect the job satisfaction of business teachers in public high schools in Ohio, and (2) to determine whether teachers in Ohio's block-time programs are more satisfied with their jobs than teachers in traditional business education programs. To gather needed data, a…
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify and rank the factors that affect the bid\\/no bid decision according to their relative importance from the perspective of the contracting parties operating in the Gaza Strip, Palestine. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The objectives of this research were investigated through a postal questionnaire, which covered a randomly selected sample of 63 contractors,
In this study, the authors found that the most important factor that affected student performance was their competence in speaking English. The sample was a group of 864 business and economics students in United Arab Emirates. The authors used regression analysis for the study. The results of the study showed that students who participated in…
The report describes the factorsaffecting the job satisfaction and retention of nurses at community and migrant health centers (C/MHCs), in light of the nursing shortage that existed at the time of the study. Literature reviews, the use of a questionnair...
The research investigated the associations of social and affectivefactors with risk-taking in male and female adolescents. A sample of 269 Israeli adolescents completed questionnaires measuring frequency of involvement in risk-taking behaviours, relationships with parents, orientation towards peer group, depressive mood, and aggressive behaviour.…
This research follows up a study conducted in 1998 by the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) to investigate teachers' and students' views on the factorsaffecting students' choices of whether or not to apply to Oxford and Cambridge universities. It identifies what has changed since 1998 and areas in which the universities could…
Ridley, Kate; White, Kerensa; Styles, Ben; Morrison, Jo
Comparisons of seven different individual assignment methods based on likelihood and distances were carried out with four different sets of data, which varied both in number of populations and genetic divergence. Based on 27 microsatellites genotyped in eight cattle breeds (Icelandic and seven Norwegian), 28 hybrid populations were simulated. Factorsaffecting individual assignment success, such as number and divergence of
Seblewengel B. Talle; Erling Fimland; Ola Syrstad; Theo Meuwissen; Helge Klungland
This study investigates factorsaffecting the degree of novice physics students application of the naive impetus theory. Six hundred and fourteen first-year university engineering physics students answered the Force Concept Inventory as a pre-test for their calculus-based course. We examined the degree to which students consistently applied the…
Our objective is to perform an empirical investigation on factorsaffecting software developer acceptance and utilization of electronic process guides (EPGs) and to discuss the implications of the findings. The potential benefits of EPGs can only be realized when key capabilities are not only adopted, but also infused across the organization. We conducted a survey of 97 software developers in
Embryo transfer (ET) to recipient females is a foundational strategy for a number of assisted reproductive technologies, including cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer. In an attempt to develop efficient ET in domestic ferrets, factorsaffecting development of transferred embryo were investigated. Unilateral and bilateral transfer of zygotes or blastocysts in the oviduct or uterus was evaluated in recipient nulliparous
Ziyi Li; Xingshen Sun; Juan Chen; Gregory H. Leno; John F. Engelhardt
Knowledge management and CSFs are important issues in today's organisational world. Knowledge is understood as one of the crucial driving forces for business success and competitiveness. This study points out a number of success factors that were determined to be critical and affect knowledge management in all organisations. This paper is particularly helpful for further research on knowledge management-related issues,
Measurements of suspended-solids concentration (SSC) were made at two depths at three sites in South San Francisco Bay (South Bay) to determine the factors that affect SSC. 'Ibenty-eight segments of reliable and continuous SSC time series data longer than 14 days were collected from late 1991 or 1992 through September 1993. Spectral analysis and singular spectrum analysis were used to
To determine factorsaffecting new students in their first semester, a study was conducted at Diablo Valley College, in California, to draw a profile and track 4,251 students who applied or were identified as new in fall 1992. Percentage distributions were calculated for the sample and for the sub-groups who applied only, completed testing only,…
This study sought to determine factors that affect social work students' willingness to work with the growing number of elders with Alzheimer's disease. An in-class survey of 333 BSW and MSW students at three Florida universities throughout 1996 produced data on measures of the dependent variable (willingness to work with elders with Alzheimer's disease) and 16 independent variables (potential influences).
This monograph provides complete citations and summaries of literature and studies on factorsaffecting faculty supply and demand. The monograph is divided into two sections: (1) annotations for approximately 85 articles, books, and reports; and (2) annotations for approximately 75 edited volumes. References include material on the state of the…
Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Boulder, CO.
Factors likely to affect the extent of hardwood use for pulping are reviewed. Following consideration of the distinguishing characteristics of hard- wood pulps, the current use in various products is outlined and the outlook for those products is reviewed. Emerging technology likely to have an impact on future hardwood use is discussed with reference to chemimechanical and chemi- thermomechanical pulping,
This study examined the factorsaffecting the four-year academic performance and outcomes of 1,249 underprepared students at Prince George's Community College (Maryland). The fall 1994 freshmen required remediation in reading, writing, or mathematics. Subjects were defined as achievers if, by summer 1998, they had earned a degree or certificate…
Objective: To determine whether there is regional variation in environmental (non- medical) factorsaffecting referral decisions of family physicians (FPs). Design: Cross-sectional interview survey. Setting: Nova Scotia. Participants: A random sample of 125 FPs grouped into 1 of 5 functionally defined geographic regions of Nova Scotia (25 in each group). Groupings were based on access to general hospital beds through
The citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillar- iidae), is an important world-wide pest of citrus. Larval mining within leaf flush impacts yield and predisposes trees to infection by citrus can- ker, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. The present series of studies sought to identify factorsaffecting male P. citrella catch in pheromone-baited traps with the intent of developing effective monitoring.
Factorsaffecting success in coalition or combined command were obtained by conducting historical research into the problems of three senior US general officers in World War II. The command problems of Generals Mark Clark, Jacob L. Devers, and Joseph W. S...
The purpose of this study is to identify school factors that affect students' achievements at the secondary and tertiary levels of education. The analysis included data of 9,894 students who studied in Auckland regional secondary schools in 2004. The results indicate that, although student demographic characteristics are associated with students'…
This study explores factorsaffecting the involvement of regular secondary school teachers in the whole-school approach to guidance and counselling by interviewing 12 secondary school teachers in Hong Kong. Emerging themes include teachers' ownership of their role in student guidance and counselling, the alignment of their disposition with…
Student motivation is influenced by instructional approach. Motivation is a function of initiating and sustaining goal-directed behavior. The objective of this study was to identify factors (positive and negative) that affect motivation in a junior-level dairy products elective course. Student attitudes were surveyed each year half-way through the…
The study concerns the interaction of an equalitarian norm and the wife's contribution of resources with her ability to affect the decision-making and the division of labor in the families of recent Cuban immigrants. The study points up the need to focus on sources of norms as influential factors. (Author)
The factors that affect strength and toughness often ultra-low carbon steel weld samples (HSLA-80 and HSLA-100), welded using the gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process and new ultra-low carbon consumable electrodes, were studied. The analysis was confined ...
The fundamental factorsaffecting the impact toughness of four gas metal arc welds (GMAW) made on HSLA-100 base plate using a newly developed steel weld wire were studied. The weld metal analysis included chemistry, mechanical testing (hardness, CVN/FATT)...
Background. Despite good contraceptive coverage rates, recent studies in Iran have shown an alarmingly high incidence of unplanned pregnancy. Objective. To determine factorsaffecting quality of family planning services, a cross-sectional study was performed from June to August 2006 on women visiting urban Primary Health Care clinics in a provincial capital in western Iran. The primary focus of the study
ALI SHAHIDZADEH-MAHANI; SEPIDEH OMIDVARI; HAMID-REZA BARADARAN; SEYYED-ALI AZIN
Environmental factorsaffecting egg development and survival in Locusta migratoria migratorioides (Reiche and Farimaire) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) were examined for four seasons in three soil habitats in the Chad basin outbreak area. During the early rainy season eggs survived in sandy habitats only; the survival rate was 29.2%. The fastest rate of egg development occurred in this season, as indicated by
Interviews were conducted with participants and dropouts of a male employee fitness program in order to investigate factorsaffecting involvement. A combination of items pertaining to reactions to the program, initial goals for joining, and social support for the program could effectively discriminate between participants and dropouts. (Author/MT)
In order to study the factorsaffecting the behaviour of reinforcement geogrids embedded in granular compacted soils, a large-scale pullout test apparatus has been designed. More than 40 pullout tests have been performed, at constant displacement rate, on three different HDPE extruded geogrids embedded in a compacted granular soil by varying the specimen lengths and the applied vertical effective pressures.
Accurate marking is crucial to the reliability and validity of public examinations, in England and internationally. Factors contributing to accuracy have been conceptualised as affecting either marking task demands or markers' personal expertise. The aim of this empirical study was to develop this conceptualisation through investigating the…
Appropriate healthcare-seeking behaviour could prevent a significant number of child deaths and complications due to ill health. Improving mothers' care-seeking behaviour could also contribute in reducing a large number of child morbidity and mortality in developing countries. This article aims to determine factorsaffecting healthcare-seeking…
Generating true learning dialogue as opposed to a collection of loosely affiliated posted messages on a class discussion board can be challenging. This paper presents the results of a cross-case analysis of nine naturalistic case studies of online classes, looking at how activity design and facilitation factorsaffected various dimensions of…
This study analyzed the factors that affect student participation in discussion forum under the two main purposes. The first purpose was to examine the relationship between the students' individual demographics and categories of students' participation level (inactive, moderate, and active) in discussion forum of an online course. The second…
A large body of previous literature has used a variety of count-data modeling techniques to study factors that affect the frequency of highway accidents over some time period on roadway segments of a specified length. An alternative approach to this problem views vehicle accident rates (accidents per mile driven) directly instead of their frequencies. Viewing the problem as continuous data
Panagiotis Ch. Anastasopoulos; Fred L. Mannering; Venky N. Shankar; John E. Haddock
This is a qualitative research aimed to find out the factors that affect on 7th grade students’ attitude towards mathematics course. The present study was conducted in a public elementary school in Ankara, Keçiören district. 24 (8 sucessful, 8 average, and 8 unsucessful) 7th grade students participated in this study. Math teacher helped us selecting students based on his opinion
Cellular and environmental factorsaffecting the synthesis of polygalacturonate lyase in batch and chemostat cultures ofBacillus subtilis were investigated. The lyase was produced constitutively during growth on a wide range of carbon sources in a defined minimal medium and in medium containing complex organic carbon and nitrogen sources. The highest activity was obtained during batch growth in minimal medium containing
The purpose of this study is to investigate some personal and familial factors that affect overall academic motivation levels of candidate preschool teachers. The study group of this research consists of 285 students (candidate teachers) attending the child development and preschool education department at Selcuk University Faculty of Vocational Education in the 2007-2008 academic year. General Academic Motivation Scale was
KEYWORDS Poultry. Productivity. Constraints. Household Food. Socio-economics ABSTRACT The study investigated factorsaffecting poultry farmers in Ejigbo Local Government area of Osun State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire were used in interviewing 80 poultry farmers randomly selected in the study area. Frequency distribution and Pearson correlation technique were used to analyse the data. The study revealed that a national support to strengthen
The study assessed treatment expectations (TE) of outpatients with substance use problems as well as factors that affect their TE. Participants were 200 outpatients presenting at three community based substance abuse treatment services. Results of general linear modelling analyses showed that outpatients with substance use problems have higher…
The availability of resources allows for the rapid and cost?effective delivery of a construction project. For rebuilding programmes after a disaster, the need for better understanding of factorsaffecting resource availability and their potential impacts on resourcing outcomes can be of crucial importance to effective reconstruction performance. Drawing on an empirical survey in China following the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, the
Yan Chang; Suzanne Wilkinson; Regan Potangaroa; Erica Seville
The broad objective of this study was to determine factorsaffecting job satisfaction among academic professionals in tertiary institutions of Zimbabwe against the backdrop of high brain drain in the sector. A total of eighty respondents were selected randomly from departmental lists and interviewed using structured questionnaires. Key informants such as administration personnel were also interviewed using semi-structured schedules. The
P. Chimanikire; E. Mutandwa; C. T. Gadzirayi; N. Muzondo; B. Mutandwa
This is a review of factorsaffecting carotenogenesis by the order Mucorales which includes Phycomyces blakesleeanus, Choanephora cucurbitarum and Blakeslea trispora. The Mucorales have opposite sex types and when mated, ß-carotene production is increased 15 to 20 times. Trisporic acids are the substances produced upon mating which stimulate carotenogenesis. Structural analogs have been shown to mimic the actions of the
Apparent plume attenuations of multiple chlorinated contaminants such as TCE, carbon tetrachloride, and its daughter products at an industrial complex, Wonju, Korea were examined through various hydraulic tests and six rounds of groundwater quality analyses. Aquifer media properties and hydrogeologic factorsaffecting the distribution and attenuation of multiple contaminants were investigated and key attributes were evaluated. The study area has
A survey is presented of factorsaffecting blunt leading-edge separation for swept and semi-slender wings. This class of separation often results in the onset and progression of separation-induced vortical flow over a slender or semi-slender wing. The ter...
Black-band disease affects many species of tropical reef-building corals, but it is unclear what factors contribute to the disease-susceptibility of individual corals or how the disease is transmitted between colonies. Studies have suggested that the ability of black-band disease...
The aim of this paper was to determine the factorsaffecting the development of canine babesiosis in Poland. The studies included 800 animals from 16 polish voivodeships-districts (50 from each voivodeship) with suspected piroplasmosis. Hematological and molecular tests confirmed infections in 158 animals. Analysis of the genetic material using the Real-Time Sybr Green HRM technique showed that 96 dogs were
?ukasz Adaszek; Alfonso Carbonero Martinez; Stanis?aw Winiarczyk
This article analyses factorsaffecting L2 learning, using Regression and Correlation Analysis. Some of the the results are in line with those reported in the literature: for example, the positive role of Reading and the negative role of L1 transfer. Other results, however, are surprising, such as the current use of Grammar Translation Methodology, the lack of significant influence of
Recent investigations of the structure of psychological distress have indicated that hierarchical models can accommodate both unitary and multifaceted conceptions of distress. The present study tested the hierarchical framework suggested by Zuckerman, Lubin, and Rinck (1983) for the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List (MAACL), a commonly used measure of psychological distress. One- and two-factor models were estimated using maximum-likelihood methods.
Factorsaffecting calculation and use of conversion equations were reviewed. Methods of expressing reliability of con- verted evaluations were surveyed. Of 16 countries responding, 6 did not calculate reliability for converted evaluations, 5 accepted reliability from the exporting country, and 5 assumed genetic correla- tions of .6 to 1.0 with the US. Genetic correlations between the US and 8 other
In this study, Turkish primary students' (sixth to eighth grade) motivation toward science learning was investigated and factorsaffecting this determined. The sample for the study consisted of 376 students from 5 different primary schools in Izmir. The data were collected through a Students' Motivation toward Science Learning (SMTSL)…
The aim of this research is to determine the factorsaffecting individual education demands at the entrance to university. The research is in survey model. The universe of the study consists of 1630 freshmen at the faculties and vocational schools of Adnan Menderes University, Aydin. 574 students from 7 schools were included in the sample. The…
Strategies for introducing or strengthening cervical cancer prevention programs must focus on ensuring that appropri- ate, cost-effective services are available and that women who most need the services will, in fact, use them. This article summarizes the experiences of research projects in Bolivia, Peru, Kenya, South Africa, and Mexico. Factors that affect participation rates in cervical cancer prevention programs are
This article reports on an exploratory, longitudinal study, which examined six teachers' views on the factors that affect technology use in classrooms. The research examined teachers of grades 4, 5, and 6--for three years, studying the teachers both as a group and as individual case studies. Three case studies were selected for analysis, with the…
The endogenous nature of the drug of abuse gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has caused various interpretative problems for toxicologists. In order to obtain data for the presence of endogenous GHB in humans and to investigate any factors that may affect this, a volunteer study was undertaken. The GHB concentrations in 119 urine specimens from GHB-free subjects and 25 urine specimens
Research indicates that about a quarter of adult students separate from formal adult basic and secondary education (ABE/ASE) programs before completing one educational level. This retrospective study explores individual dispositional factors that affect motivation during learning, particularly students' goals, goal-directed thinking and action…
Mellard, Daryl F.; Krieshok, Thomas; Fall, Emily; Woods, Kari
Forensic hospitals are responsible for both the custody and treatment of patients, including treatment that will minimize the risk of future violence to the community. This study examined factors that affected length of stay (LOS) in Maryland’s only maximum-security forensic hospital for mentally ill patients who were adjudicated not criminally responsible (NCR) for serious violent crimes. The current study focused
Marianne J. Moran; M. Richard Fragala; Beverly F. Wise; Tammy Lynn Novak
? Abstract----This thesis used the method of system dynamics to draw the affectingfactors archetype of network media use, determine three key variables of the cost of media use, education gap and the quality of information, propose the integrated management measurement including financial subsidies and computer skills training and media literacy education based on the analysis of the mechanisms of
School belonging, measured as a unidimensional construct, is an important predictor of negative affective problems in adolescents, including depression and anxiety symptoms. A recent study found that one such measure, the Psychological Sense of School Membership scale, actually comprises three factors: Caring Relations, Acceptance, and Rejection.…
Shochet, Ian M.; Smith, Coral L.; Furlong, Michael J.; Homel, Ross
In fall 1991, the Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology (SIAST), conducted a study to determine factorsaffecting retention and to identify students facing higher risk of non-completion. Specifically, the study sought to determine the effects of selected student characteristics and attitudes, as well as labor market conditions,…
Despite the Korean aviation system's reputation for aviation safety, in the case of military aircraft, there have been accidents involving jet fighters. As the results of investigations into the causes of the accidents revealed that maintenance errors made by mechanics contributed to some degree to the accidents, it is crucial to investigate factorsaffecting individual mechanic's maintenance errors and to
A prospective cohort study was undertaken to determine calf-level factors that affect performance (growth) between birth and 14 months of age in a convenience sample of approximately 3300 female Holstein calves born in 1991 on two large Florida dairy farms. Data collected on each calf at birth included farm of origin, birth date, weight, height at the pelvis, and serum
G. Arthur Donovan; Ian R Dohoo; David M Montgomery; Fred L Bennett
Factorsaffecting the immobilisation and subsequent growth of plant cells in reticulated polyurethane foam particles have been studied using three plant species. Polyurethane foam from a number of commercial sources has been screened and a foam having a low phytotoxicity and good retention of plant cells selected for use. Particles (8×8×8 mm) of the material were seeded with plant cells
Background Although general practitioners (GPs) and community pharmacists (CPs) are encouraged to collaborate, a true collaborative relationship does not exist between them. Our objective was to identify and analyze factorsaffecting GP-CP collaboration. Methods This was a descriptive-exploratory qualitative study carried out in two Spanish regions: Catalonia (Barcelona) and Balearic Islands (Mallorca). Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs and CPs from Barcelona and Mallorca (January 2010-February 2011). Analysis was conducted using Colaizzi’s method. Results Thirty-seven interviews were conducted. The factorsaffecting the relationship were different depending on timing: 1) Before collaboration had started (prior to collaboration) and 2) Once the collaboration had been initiated (during collaboration). Prior to collaboration, four key factors were found to affect it: the perception of usefulness; the Primary Care Health Center (PCHC) manager’s interest; the professionals’ attitude; and geography and legislation. These factors were affected by economic and organizational aspects (i.e. resources or PCHC management styles) and by professionals’ opinions and beliefs (i.e. perception of the existence of a public-private conflict). During collaboration, the achievement of objectives and the changes in the PCHC management were the key factors influencing continued collaboration. The most relevant differences between regions were due to the existence of privately-managed PCHCs in Barcelona that facilitated the implementation of collaboration. In comparison with the group with experience in collaboration, some professionals without experience reported a skeptical attitude towards it, reporting that it might not be necessary. Conclusions Factors related to economic issues, management and practitioners’ attitudes and perceptions might be crucial for triggering collaboration. Interventions and strategies derived from these identified factors could be applied to achieve multidisciplinary collaboration.
Suicide is an important clinical problem in psychiatric patients. The highest risk of suicide attempts is noted in affective disorders. The aim of the study was looking for suicide risk factors among personality dimensions and value system in patients with diagnosis of unipolar and bipolar affective disorder (n=189 patients, n=101 controls). To establish the diagnosis, we used SCID (Structured clinical interview for diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition) questionnaire, TCI (Temperament and Character Inventory) questionnaire and Value Survey--to assess the personality. The main limitations of the study are number of participants, lack of data about stressful life events and treatment with lithium. Novelty seeking and harm avoidance dimensions constituted suicide attempt risk factors in the group of patients with affective disorders. Protective role of cooperativeness was discovered. Patients with and without suicide attempt in lifetime history varied in self-esteem position in Value Survey. PMID:23352318
The factors relevant to SPS costing and selection of preferred SPS satellite configurations were studied. The issues discussed are: (1) consideration of economic factors in the SPS system that relate to selection of SPS satellite configuration; (2) analysis of the proper rate of interest for use in SPS system definition studies; and (3) the impacts of differential inflation on SPS system definition costing procedures. A cost-risk comparison of the SPS satellite configurations showed a significant difference in the levelized cost of power from them. It is concluded, that this difference is the result more of differences in the procedures for assessing costs rather than in the satellite technologies required or of any advantages of one satellite configuration over the other. Analysis of the proper rate of interest for use in SPS system is 4 percent. The major item of differential inflation to be expected over this period of time is the real cost of labor. This cost is likely to double between today and the period of SPS construction.
This research aims to explore the factors that affect the intention to use in Social Networking Sites (SNS). We apply the theory of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), intrinsic motivation, and trust properties to develop the theoretical framework for SNS users' intention. The results show that the important factors influencing SNS users' intention for general purpose and collaborative learning are task-oriented, pleasure-oriented, and familiarity-based trust. In marketing usage, dispositional trust and pleasure-oriented are two main factors that reflect intention to use in SNS.
In this study, we aimed to determine the influence of cooperative learning on student self-confidence and factorsaffecting learning physics. In order to reach specific goals, one month lasting pre-test and post-test controlled experimental work was carried out on 100 students all attended general physics course. Self-confidence of the students and importance of factors for the students were evaluated with a reliable Lykert Type Scale and t-test is applied to analyze. According to results, the experimental group enhanced their self-confidence and changed their ideas about importance of factors. However, no significant change is detected for control group.
A method for preparing metal for heating by infrared radiance to enable uniform and consistent heating. The surface of one or more metal parts, such as aluminum or aluminum alloy parts, is treated to alter the surface finish to affect the reflectivity of the surface. The surface reflectivity is evaluated, such as by taking measurements at one or more points on the surface, to determine if a desired reflectivity has been achieved. The treating and measuring are performed until the measuring indicates that the desired reflectivity has been achieved. Once the treating has altered the surface finish to achieve the desired reflectivity, the metal part may then be exposed to infrared radiance to heat the metal part to a desired temperature, and that heating will be substantially consistent throughout by virtue of the desired reflectivity.
Mayer, Howard Robinson (Cincinnati, OH) [Cincinnati, O