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1

Adjusting the tasseled cap brightness and greenness factors for atmospheric path radiance and absorption on a pixel by pixel basis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A radiative transfer model was used to convert ground measured reflectances into the radiance at the top of the atmosphere, for several levels of atmospheric path radiance. The radiance in MSS7 (0.8 to 1.1 m) was multiplied by the transmission fraction for atmospheres having different levels of precipitable water. The radiance values were converted to simulated LANDSAT digital counts for four path radiance levels and four levels of precipitable water. These values were used to calculate the Kauth-Thomas brightness, greenness, yellowness, and nonsuch factors. Brightness was affected by surface conditions and path radiance. Greenness was affected by surface conditions, path radiance, and precipitable water. Yellowness was affected by path radiance and nonsuch by precipitable water, and both factors changed only slightly with surface conditions. Yellowness and nonsuch were used to adjust brightness and greenness to produce factors that were affected only by surface conditions such as soils and vegetation, and not by path radiance and precipitable water.

Jackson, R. D.; Slater, P. N.; Pinter, P. J. (principal investigators)

1982-01-01

2

Factors Affecting Photosynthesis!  

E-print Network

Factors Affecting Photosynthesis! Temperature Eppley (1972) Light Sverdrup's Critical Depth-493, but the general concept is still valid! ! #12;PB opt & Temperature! #12;Photosynthesis & Temperature! Remember: in the laboratory, we can measure photosynthesis versus irradiance (PvsE) and calculate Ek, Pmax, and alpha

Kudela, Raphael M.

3

Factors Affecting Wound Healing  

PubMed Central

Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds. PMID:20139336

Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

2010-01-01

4

Estimates of absolute flux and radiance factor of localized regions on Mars in the 2-4 micron wavelength region  

Microsoft Academic Search

IRTF spectrophotometric observations of Mars obtained during the 1986 opposition are the bases for the present estimates of 2.0-4.15 micron absolute flux and radiance factor values. The bright\\/dark ratios obtained show a wavelength dependence similar to that observed by Bell and Crisp (1991) in 1990, but the spectral contrast for 1986 is lower than in those observations; this difference could

Ted L. Roush; Eileen A. Roush; Robert B. Singer; Paul G. Lucey

1992-01-01

5

Factors Affecting Option Premium Values  

E-print Network

Factors Affecting Option Premium Values Jason Johnson, Jackie Smith, Kevin Dhuyvetter and Mark Waller* Put Options Hedging in the futures market with options is much like buying an insurance policy to protect commodity sellers against declining...

Johnson, Jason; Smith, Jackie; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C.; Waller, Mark L.

1999-06-23

6

Factors Affecting Willingness to Mentor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents a survey among 300 employees in Northern Italy to assess the willingness to mentor and identify the factors that affect it. Men and respondents with previous mentoring experience indicate a higher willingness to be a mentor. Willingness is affected by personal characteristics that are perceived as necessary for a mentor and the…

Ghislieri, Chiara; Gatti, Paola; Quaglino, Gian Piero

2009-01-01

7

Factors affecting sorghum protein digestibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the semi-arid tropics worldwide, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is cultivated by farmers on a subsistence level and consumed as food by humans. A nutritional limitation to its use is the poor digestibility of sorghum protein when wet cooked. The factors affecting wet cooked sorghum protein digestibility may be categorised into two main groups: exogenous factors (grain organisational structure,

K. G Duodu; J. R. N Taylor; P. S Belton; B. R Hamaker

2003-01-01

8

Factors Affecting Survival and Satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article consists of four parts. First, the authors review the literature on factors that affect job satisfaction and longevity among various professional groups. Second, they report the results of a pilot survey of 27 master's level oncology social workers in Michigan designed to explore the perceived impact of variables identified in the literature-personal history, patient-related factors, organizational dynamics, social

Linda Supple-Diaz; Debbie Mattison

1992-01-01

9

The Impact of Assimilating Precipitation-affected Radiance on Cloud and Precipitation in Goddard WRF-EDAS Analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-frequency TMI and AMSR-E radiances, which are sensitive to precipitation over land, are assimilated into the Goddard Weather Research and Forecasting Model- Ensemble Data Assimilation System (WRF-EDAS) for a few heavy rain events over the continental US. Independent observations from surface rainfall, satellite IR brightness temperatures, as well as ground-radar reflectivity profiles are used to evaluate the impact of assimilating rain-sensitive radiances on cloud and precipitation within WRF-EDAS. The evaluations go beyond comparisons of forecast skills and domain-mean statistics, and focus on studying the cloud and precipitation features in the jointed rainradiance and rain-cloud space, with particular attentions on vertical distributions of height-dependent cloud types and collective effect of cloud hydrometers. Such a methodology is very helpful to understand limitations and sources of errors in rainaffected radiance assimilations. It is found that the assimilation of rain-sensitive radiances can reduce the mismatch between model analyses and observations by reasonably enhancing/reducing convective intensity over areas where the observation indicates precipitation, and suppressing convection over areas where the model forecast indicates rain but the observation does not. It is also noted that instead of generating sufficient low-level warmrain clouds as in observations, the model analysis tends to produce many spurious upperlevel clouds containing small amount of ice water content. This discrepancy is associated with insufficient information in ice-water-sensitive radiances to address the vertical distribution of clouds with small amount of ice water content. Such a problem will likely be mitigated when multi-channel multi-frequency radiances/reflectivity are assimilated over land along with sufficiently accurate surface emissivity information to better constrain the vertical distribution of cloud hydrometers.

Lin, Xin; Zhang, Sara Q.; Zupanski, M.; Hou, Arthur Y.; Zhang, J.

2015-01-01

10

Factors Affecting Illegal Hacking Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The damage caused by illegal hacking has become one of the serious problems facing society. Based on general deterrence theory, social bond theory and social learning theory, the paper proposes a model which examines the factors affecting the likelihood an individual will engage in illegal hacking behavior. Data was gathered from a survey of 127 individuals who attended a hacker’s

Randall Young; Lingling Zhang

2005-01-01

11

Psychological Factors Affecting Cardiologic Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are substantial data supporting a strong relationship between cardiovascular diseases and psychological conditions. However, the criteria for scientific validation of the entities currently subsumed under the DSM-IV category of ’Psychological factors affecting a medical condition’ have never been clearly enumerated and the terms ’psychological symptoms’ and ’personality traits’ that do not satisfy traditional psychiatric criteria are not well defined;

C. Rafanelli; R. Roncuzzi; F. Ottolini; M. Rigatelli

2007-01-01

12

Factors affecting reciprocating compressor performance  

SciTech Connect

A reciprocating compressor is a positive displacement machine and, in principal, its capacity and horsepower can be calculated very easily. In practice, however, several loss mechanisms act to decrease capacity and increase horsepower from the ideal predicted values. Many of these effects are quite difficult to predict accurately and the only effective way of developing reciprocating compressor performance prediction methods is to run a large number of tests on different compressors under different operating conditions. Combined with an understanding of the physics controlling the losses, experimental results allow good empirical models of losses to be developed. However, without the benefit of a good understanding of the physics of the loss mechanisms, it is impossible to interpret test results. Some factors affecting the magnitude of losses are compressor design, compressor speed, suction and discharge pressure and temperature, gas composition, suction and discharge piping design, and valve design. Losses that are important in some applications may be negligible in others so it is essential that a wide range of compressor designs, valve designs, gas molecular weight and operating conditions be tested when developing a performance prediction model. The paper discusses the effects of clearance and pressure ratio; the primary losses affecting capacity and power, including valve and port pressure loss, valve springing, valve inertia, piston ring leakage, packing leakage, discharge valve leakage, suction valve leakage, pulsations, heat transfer in the suction passage, and heat transfer in the cylinder; heat transfer in compressor cylinders; performance prediction methods; and compressor diagnosis.

Woollatt, D. (Dresser-Rand Co., Painted Post, NY (United States))

1993-06-01

13

Factors affecting ostrich egg hatchability.  

PubMed

Ostrich eggs often have low hatchability (HATCH) rates because they do not lose sufficient weight during incubation. Because egg size, eggshell porosity and thickness (THICK), and length of preincubation egg storage are known to affect egg weight loss during incubation (EWL) and HATCH of chicken eggs, these factors were examined using ostrich eggs. The effects of eggshell porosity (number of large pores per cm2 of shell; LP); and THICK on EWL and HATCH were assessed by categorizing the eggs as having either low, intermediate, or high LP or low, intermediate, or high THICK. Mean EWL was higher (P<0.05) in eggs of the high LP group when compared with eggs in either the low or intermediate LP groups that lost similar amounts of weight during incubation. Mean HATCH was also higher (more than 25%; P<0.10) in eggs with high LP when compared with the HATCH found in eggs having low LP. Eggs from the intermediate LP group had an intermediate HATCH response. Moreover, numbers of LP were positively correlated to both EWL (r2 = 0.64; P<0.0001) and HATCH (r2 = 0.25; P<0.03). Inverse relationships existed between THICK and EWL and between THICK and HATCH according to the order (P< 0.05): eggs of low THICK, highest mean EWL and HATCH > eggs of intermediate THICK, intermediate mean EWL and HATCH > eggs of highest THICK, lowest mean EWL and HATCH. Shell thickness was not correlated to either EWL or HATCH. The influence of egg size on mean LP, THICK, EWL, HATCH, and chick weight (CWT) was assessed. Although THICK was unaffected by egg size, higher LP (P<0.10), EWL (P<0.05), and HATCH (P<0.10) were found in medium-sized eggs when compared with either small or large eggs. The CWT was associated with egg size (P<0.05) according to the order: large eggs, highest CWT > medium eggs, intermediate CWT > small eggs, lowest CWT. Neither EWL nor HATCH was affected by length of preincubation egg storage. Collectively, our findings suggest that 1) ostrich eggs that possess low LP and increased THICK hatched poorly, 2) intermediate-sized eggs hatch best, 3) large eggs produced large chicks, and 4) ostrich eggs can be stored under conditions typically used in the poultry industry for a minimum of 10 d without negatively impacting HATCH. PMID:10515354

Gonzalez, A; Satterlee, D G; Moharer, F; Cadd, G G

1999-09-01

14

Factors affecting the lipase activity of milk  

E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING THE LIPASE ACTIVITY OF MILK A Thesis By PAUL THOMAS TALLAMY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1969 Major... Subject: Food Technology FACTORS AFFECTING THE LIPASE ACTIVITY OF MILK A Thesis By PAUL THOMAS TALLAMY Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Commi tee fg M ber Head f Depar tmen Mem er Member January 1969 ABSTRACT Factors Affecting...

Tallamy, Paul Thomas

1969-01-01

15

Ecological Factors Affecting Community Invasibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

What makes a community invasible? For over a century ecologists have sought to understand the relative importance of biotic\\u000a and abiotic factors that determine community composition. The fact that we are still exploring this topic today hints at both\\u000a its importance and complexity. As the impacts from harmful non-native species accumulate, it has become increasingly urgent\\u000a to find answers to

Suzanne V. Olyarnik; Matthew E. S. Bracken; Jarrett E. Byrnes; A. Randall Hughes; Kristin M. Hultgren; John J. Stachowicz

16

External Factors Affecting Fusion Energy Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of external factors affecting the pace and direction of fusion energy development are reviewed and discussed. These include the changing electric utility marketplace environment, the availability of fossil fuels, competing power sources, and environmental issues.

Dean, Stephen O.

1999-06-01

17

External Factors Affecting Fusion Energy Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of external factors affecting the pace and direction of fusion energy development are reviewed and discussed. These include the changing electric utility marketplace environment, the availability of fossil fuels, competing power sources, and environmental issues.

Stephen O. Dean

1999-01-01

18

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer Susceptibility Suzanne. E. Fenton US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

19

Factors affecting the nutritive value of bermudagrasses  

E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING THE NUTRITIVE VALUE OF BERMUDAGRASSES A Thesis by Nilliam Aylmer Rainwater Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December..., 1975 Major Subject: Animal Nutrition FACTORS AFFECTING THE NUTRITIVE VALUE OF BERMUDAGRASSES A Thesis by WILLIAM AYLMER RAINWATER Approved as to style and content by: , ~A; (' v'~ (Chairman of Committee) t-c-+ (Head of Departm t) d. ~ c . D...

Rainwater, William Aylmer

1975-01-01

20

Economic and Cultural Factors Affecting University Excellence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The ranking of top universities in the world has generated increased interest in the factors that enhance university performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify economic and cultural factors that affect the number of top ranking universities in each country. Design/methodology/approach: This paper first identifies the number of…

Jabnoun, Naceur

2009-01-01

21

Micropropagation Factors affecting adventitious root formation  

E-print Network

Micropropagation Factors affecting adventitious root formation in microcuttings of Malus GJ De, la vitrification, la durée du cycle final de micropropagation et la concentration en acide indolebuty or by micropropagation. In the vegetative propagation of many crops, rooting of (micro)cuttings is the most crucial step

Boyer, Edmond

22

INTERNATIONAL DIFFERENCES IN FACTORS AFFECTING LABOUR MOBILITY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE GEOGRAPHICAL, OCCUPATIONAL, AND INTERFIRM MOBILITY, AND THE FACTORS AFFECTING THESE MOVEMENTS FOR WORKERS IN FRANCE, ITALY, GERMANY, AND SWEDEN IN THE PERIOD SINCE THE SECOND WORLD WAR ARE STUDIED. DATA OBTAINED FROM INDUSTRIAL SURVEYS AND GENERAL CENSUSES WERE USED TO COMPARE THE FOUR COUNTRIES WITH EACH OTHER AND WITH THE UNITED STATES.…

SELLIER, F.; ZARKA, C.

23

Factors Affecting Faculty Web Portal Usability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated the factors that might significantly affect web portal usability. Results of the study were intended to serve as inputs for faculty web portal development of the University of the East-Manila. Descriptive statistics utilized questionnaire data from 82 faculty members. The data showed that most of the respondents were…

Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.

2011-01-01

24

Research Article Factors Affecting Detectability of River  

E-print Network

Research Article Factors Affecting Detectability of River Otters During Sign Surveys MACKENZIE R for false absences. Multiple observers surveyed for river otter (Lontra canadensis) scat and tracks along, survey lengths, and near access points. We estimated detection probabilities (p) of river otters using

Sandercock, Brett K.

25

Factors Affecting Sea Lamprey Egg Survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors that affect recruitment of sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus are not well understood; for example, the majority (85%) of sea lamprey eggs are washed out of the nest, and the survival rate of these eggs is unknown. We examined the role of predation and substrate on egg survival in the laboratory and egg predation and dispersion of eggs outside the

Stephen J. Smith; J. Ellen Marsden

2009-01-01

26

Factors affecting mother-child play  

E-print Network

) Jennifer Colleen Welch, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Timothy A. Cavell This study examined the effects of various maternal life stressors in relation to their effects on maternal directiveness during mother-child play...FACTORS AFFECTING MOTHER-CHILD PLAY A Thesis by JENNIFER COLLEEN WELCH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1993 Major Subject...

Welch, Jennifer Colleen

1993-01-01

27

Factors affecting small axial cooling fan performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many factors such as outer diameter, hub ratio, blade numbers, shape and stagger angle affect the performance of small cooling\\u000a fans. A small cooling fan was simulated using CFD software for three blade stagger angles (30.5°, 37.5°, 44.5°)and obtained\\u000a the internal flow field and the static characteristics. Research indicated that the stagger angle has an obvious effect on\\u000a the static

Lihong Wang; Yingzi Jin; Baoling Cui; Yuzhen Jin; Jin Lin; Yanping Wang; Chuanyu Wu

2010-01-01

28

Factors affecting growth factor activity in goat milk.  

PubMed

Growth factors that are present in goat milk may be responsible for its beneficial effects on the digestive system as described in ancient Chinese medical texts. To develop a nutraceutical product rich in growth factors for promoting gastrointestinal health, it is essential to collect milk with consistently high growth factor activity. Therefore, we investigated the factors affecting growth factor activity in goat milk. Among the 5 breeds of dairy goats tested, milk from Nubian goats had the highest growth factor activity. Tight-junction leakage induced by a 24-h milking interval did not increase growth factor activity in the milk. Milk collected from pregnant does had a significantly higher growth factor activity than milk collected postpartum. Growth factor activity decreased during the first 8 wk of lactation, fluctuated thereafter, and then increased dramatically after natural mating. During wk 1 to 8, growth factor activity was inversely correlated with milk yield and week of lactation. No correlation was observed during wk 9 to 29. After natural mating of the goats, the growth factor activity in the milk correlated significantly with somatic cell count and conductivity (a measure of membrane permeability), and correlated inversely with milk yield. Based on the above data, goat milk with higher growth factor activity could be selectively collected from Nubian pregnant does. PMID:16702258

Wu, F Y; Tsao, P H; Wang, D C; Lin, S; Wu, J S; Cheng, Y K

2006-06-01

29

Factors Affecting Intensive Care Units Nursing Workload  

PubMed Central

Background: The nursing workload has a close and strong association with the quality of services provided for the patients. Therefore, paying careful attention to the factors affecting nursing workload, especially those working in the intensive care units (ICUs), is very important. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the factors affecting nursing workload in the ICUs of the hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional and analytical-descriptive study that has done in Iran. All nurses (n = 400) who was working in the ICUs of the hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2014 were selected and studied using census method. The required data were collected using a researcher–made questionnaire which its validity and reliability were confirmed through getting the opinions of experts and using composite reliability and internal consistency (? = 0.89). The collected data were analyzed through exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and using SPSS 18.0 and AMOS 18.0. Results: Twenty-five factors were divided into three major categories through EFA, including structure, process, and activity. The following factors among the structure, process and activity components had the greatest importance: lack of clear responsibilities and authorities and performing unnecessary tasks (by a coefficient of 0.709), mismatch between the capacity of wards and the number of patients (by a coefficient of 0.639), and helping the students and newly employed staff (by a coefficient of 0.589). Conclusions: The nursing workload is influenced by many factors. The clear responsibilities and authorities of nurses, patients' admission according to the capacity of wards, use of the new technologies and equipment, and providing basic training for new nurses can decrease the workload of nurses. PMID:25389493

Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ravangard, Ramin; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Mosavi, Seyed Masod; Gholami Fesharaki, Mohammad; Mehrabian, Fardin

2014-01-01

30

Factors affecting the determination of cerebrovascular reactivity  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), measures the ability of the cerebrovasculature to respond to vasoactive stimuli such as CO2. CVR is often expressed as the ratio of cerebral blood flow change to CO2 change. We examine several factors affecting this measurement: blood pressure, stimulus pattern, response analysis and subject position. Methods Step and ramp increases in CO2 were implemented in nine subjects, seated and supine. Middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were determined breath-by-breath. Cerebrovascular conductance (MCAc) was estimated as MCAv/MAP. CVR was calculated from both the relative and absolute measures of MCAc and MCAv responses. Results MAP increased with CO2 in some subjects so that relative CVR calculated from conductance responses were less than those calculated from CVR calculated from velocity responses. CVR measured from step responses were affected by the response dynamics, and were less than those calculated from CVR measured from ramp responses. Subject position did not affect CVR. Conclusions (1) MAP increases with CO2 and acts as a confounding factor for CVR measurement; (2) CVR depends on the stimulus pattern used; (3) CVR did not differ from the sitting versus supine in these experiments; (4) CVR calculated from absolute changes of MCAv was less than that calculated from relative changes. PMID:25328852

Regan, Rosemary E; Fisher, Joseph A; Duffin, James

2014-01-01

31

Tree canopy radiance measurement system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system is described for obtaining both an estimate of the spatial mean bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) for a tree canopy (displaying a horizontally heterogeneous foliage distribution) and the statistical significance of that estimate. The system includes a manlift supporting a horizontal beam 7 m long on which are mounted four radiometers. These radiometers may be pointed, and radiance data acquired, in any of 11 view directions in the principal plane of the sun. A total of 80 data points, acquired in 3 min, were used to estimate the BRF of a walnut orchard 5 m tall and detect true differences of 12 percent of the mean approximately 90 percent of the time.

Caldwell, William; Vanderbilt, V. C.

1989-01-01

32

Factors affecting sporoplasm release in Kudoa septempunctata.  

PubMed

The myxosporean parasite Kudoa septempunctata has been isolated from cultured olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and was recently identified as a cause of food poisoning in humans. Since the sporoplasm plays an important role in causing diarrhea by invading intestinal cells, the specific factors affecting the release of sporoplasm from spores should be determined. Thus, we investigated the effect of digestive and serum enzymes, fetal bovine serum (FBS), temperature, and the role of glucose in cell culture media on the release of sporoplasm. Sporoplasm release was observed in the groups treated with FBS and media containing glucose. In addition, 1,10-phenanthroline inhibited the release of sporoplasm in the FBS medium. These results indicate that K. septempunctata uses glucose for releasing its sporoplasm and that zinc or metalloprotease is related to the release mechanism. The present study provides important information for the development of agents to prevent sporoplasm release and the consequent food poisoning caused by K. septempunctata. PMID:25563617

Shin, Sang Phil; Zenke, Kosuke; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Yoshinaga, Tomoyoshi

2015-02-01

33

Factors affecting the quality of bottled water.  

PubMed

The ever-increasing popularity of bottled water means that it is important to analyze not only its mineral content but also, above all, its content of possible contaminants, especially the organic ones. In this respect, bottled waters are a special case, because apart from organic chemical contaminants derived from the well from which they were acquired, their secondary contamination is always possible, during treatment or storage or transport in unsuitable conditions (sunlight and elevated temperature). This paper describes how various factors, from the area around the well, and the method of drawing and treating water, to the manner in which the finished product is stored and transported may affect the quality of bottled waters. It also summarizes literature information on the levels of organic contaminants in various kinds of bottled water samples. PMID:23093103

Diduch, Malwina; Polkowska, ?aneta; Namie?nik, Jacek

2013-03-01

34

Wavelet Basis Functions for Precomputed Radiance Transfer  

E-print Network

Precomputed Radiance Transfer (PRT) aims at computing global illu- mination effects such as soft shadows. Several basis function have been proposed for PRT. Recently, Haar wavelets have been employed which functions Fi() -- the lighting, the BRDF and the n dynamic occlusion fields. For PRT, these factors

Toronto, University of

35

Snow Radiance Assimilation Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passive microwave-based retrievals of terrestrial snow parameters from satellite observations form a 30-year global record which will continue for the forseeable future. So far, these snow retrievals have been generated primarily by regression-based empirical “inversion” methods based on snapshots in time, and are limited to footprints around 25 km in diameter. Assimilation of microwave radiances into physical land surface models may be used to create a retrieval framework that is inherently self-consistent with respect to model physics as well as a more physically-based approach vs. legacy retrieval/inversion methods. This radiance assimilation approach has been used for years for atmospheric parameters by the operational weather forecasting community with great success, and represents one motivation for our work. A radiance assimilation scheme for snow requires a snowpack land surface model (LSM) coupled to a radiative transfer model (RTM). In previous local-scale studies, Durand, Kim, & Margulis (2008) explored the requirements on LSM model fidelity (i.e., snowpack state information) required in order for the RTM to produce brightness temperatures suitable for radiance assimilation purposes at a local scale, using the well-known Microwave Emission Model for Layered Snowpacks (MEMLS) as the RTM and a combination of Simple SIB (SSiB) and Snow Atmosphere (SAST) as the LSM. They also demonstrated improvement of simulated snow depth through the use of an ensemble Kalman filter scheme at this local scale (2009). This modeling framework reflects another motivation—namely, possibilities for downscaling. Our focus at this stage has been at the local scale where high-quality ground truth data is available in order to evaluate radiance assimilation under a “best case scenario.” The quantitative results then form a benchmark for future assessment of effects such as sparse forcing data, upscaling/downscaling, forest attenuation, and model details. Field data from the NASA Cold Land Processes Experiment-1 (CLPX-1) from February, 2003 in Colorado, USA, were used. Specifically, we used radiance observations from the University of Tokyo’s Ground Based Microwave Radiometer (GBMR-7) system along with detailed snow pit measurements and meteorological forcings. In this paper, we review the SSB-SAST-MEMLS work to provide context, and also describe a new study, using a much more detailed LSM, the CROCUS snowpack model, in order to better assess the requirements on the snowpack LSM for radiance assimilation purposes. We examine the effects of the layering scheme within CROCUS and its impact on coupling to the MEMLS emission model, the sensitvity to ice crust density and how it is linked to the polarized microwave emission at 18 and 37 GHz, the soil-snow interface, and the relationship between snow grain size vs. correlation length representations. We will describe the LSM performance using CROCUS, comparing it to the previous studies, and discuss the implications for radiance assimilation.

Kim, E. J.; Durand, M. T.; Toure, A.; Margulis, S. A.; Goita, K.; Royer, A.; Lu, H.

2009-12-01

36

Mechanical factors affecting hemostasis and thrombosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both physical and chemical factors can influence the activity of platelets and coagulation factors responsible for the formation of thrombotic and hemostatic masses in the vicinity of an injured vessel wall. Studies performed in controlled shear devices (viscometers) have indicated that physical factors alone can induce platelet aggregation, even in the absence of exogenous chemical factors. The physical considerations which

Vincent T. Turitto; Connie L. Hall

1998-01-01

37

Factors affecting the process performance of biofiltration  

SciTech Connect

Biofiltration is an emerging biological treatment technology for the removal of airborne VOCs from industrial process waste streams. Removal of air-phase VOCs by biofiltration is accomplished by contacting a process airstream with an active microbial biofilm attached to a solid phase packing. VOCs that partition into the biofilm are aerobically oxidized to the endproducts of water, carbon dioxide and salts. A multiple reactor biofiltration pilot plant test program has been in progress at the University of Minnesota Environmental Engineering Laboratories since 1992. The primary goal of the program is to study factors that affect biofiltration process performance. Initial results of this test program were reported in a previous conference paper and master`s thesis. This paper presents the results of more recent studies that focus on the effects of: (1) biofilm accumulation (which in turn causes a decrease in biofilter bed porosity and packing bed surface area), (2) rates of nutrient addition, and (3) chemical properties of the target contaminant, on biofiltration removal performance. Removal performance was evaluated by determining biofilter removal capacities and efficiencies for various substrate feeds. The performance parameters were measured under constant contaminant inlet concentrations and under constant temperature. Three VOCs were selected for study and they are: MEK, (methyl ethyl ketone), xylene, and hexane. MEK, xylene, and hexane were chosen because they are representative of widely used industrial solvents and they have significantly different Henry`s law constants relative to each other (the MEK value < Xylene value < Hexane value). Henry`s law constants quantify the partitioning of a chemical between the air and water-biofilm phase and therefore can be used to correlate the effect of chemical properties on biofilter removal capacities. This paper also introduces a new model for the biofiltration process.

Kopchynski, D.M.; Farmer, R.W.; Maier, W.J. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1996-11-01

38

An Activity on Factors Affecting Blood Flow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to explore the relationship between pressure and vessel diameter and to create a model that represents how high blood pressure may affect weakened vessels. A collaborative work of Melvin Flores, Larie Laudato and Glenn Soltes

Glenn Soltes

2012-06-28

39

Rh Factor: How It Can Affect Your Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... not carried to term? • How does Rh sensitization affect the fetus during pregnancy? • How can I find ... positive? • Glossary The Rh Factor: How It Can Affect Your Pregnancy How does Rh sensitization occur during ...

40

Factors Affecting Retention in Online Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to expand what is known regarding the factors that relate to successful completion of online, undergraduate college courses. It addressed 13 student factors available through archival data at Northern Kentucky University based on 1,493 students enrolled in fully online courses in fall 2008. It included programmatic…

Berling, Victoria L.

2010-01-01

41

How Student Satisfaction Factors Affect Perceived Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from students in two sections of a general education course offered at a research university in spring 2009 were used to explore whether student satisfaction factors are associated with perceived learning as rated by students. A list of 22 elements in the learning environment was explored. The 22 were used in creating 3 satisfaction factors

Lo, Celia C.

2010-01-01

42

Aptitude in American Alligators: ecological factors affecting cognition and behavior.  

E-print Network

??American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) possess flexible cognitive abilities. Given these cognitive abilities, we hypothesized the capacity for flexible learning is significantly affected by ecological factors… (more)

Yowell, Jennifer Lauren

2011-01-01

43

Factors Affecting Student Choices of Instructional Methodologies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To identify factors that caused the majority of students at Los Angeles City College to prefer the traditional lecture-discussion approach to the media approach, questionnaires were administered to students in three courses--three media and two traditional. Over 200 usable questionnaires were returned. Because of scheduling variations and other…

Gold, Ben K.

44

Factors Affecting Residents' Decisions to Moonlight.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since moonlighting by residents in addition to their demanding residency work schedule might jeopardize patient care, decisions to moonlight are examined. The results indicate that the main motivating factor behind their moonlighting is economic, and residents with higher levels of indebtedness were more likely to moonlight. (Author/MLW)

Bazzoli, Gloria J.; Culler, Steven D.

1986-01-01

45

Factors Affecting Thermally Induced Furan Formation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Furan, a potential carcinogen, can be induced by heat from sugars and fatty acids. However, factors that contribute to its formation in foods are unclear. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of pH, presence of phosphate, heating time and heating temperature on furan forma...

46

Factors affecting alum-protein interactions.  

PubMed

Alum (or aluminum-containing) adjuvants are key components of many vaccines currently on the market. The immuno-potentiation effect of alum adjuvants is presumably due to their interaction with antigens, leading to adsorption on the alum particle surface. Understanding the mechanism of antigen adsorption/desorption and its influencing factors could provide guidance on formulation design and ensure proper in-vivo immuno-potentiation effect. In this paper, surface adsorption of several model proteins on two types of aluminum adjuvants (Alhydrogel(®) and Adjuphos(®)) are investigated to understand the underlying adsorption mechanisms, capacities, and potential influencing factors. It was found that electrostatic interactions are the major driving force for surface adsorption of all the model proteins except ovalbumin. Alhydrogel has a significantly higher adsorption capacity than Adjuphos. Several factors significantly change the adsorption capacity of both Alhydrogel and Adjuphos, including molecular weight of protein antigens, sodium chloride, phosphate buffer, denaturing agents, and size of aluminum particles. These important factors need to be carefully considered in the design of an effective protein antigen-based vaccine. PMID:24607202

Huang, Min; Wang, Wei

2014-05-15

47

Factors Affecting Information Literacy Perception and Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information literacy, defined as, "the set of skills needed to find, retrieve, analyze, and use information" (American Library Association, 2003, paragraph 1), is necessary for success in life. The present study will examine whether the factors of gender, race, and/or socioeconomic status impact information literacy performance and information…

Zehner, Drusilla Charlene Beecher

2009-01-01

48

Factors Affecting Attitudes toward Juvenile Sex Offenders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment…

Sahlstrom, Kimberly J.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

2008-01-01

49

Human element factors affecting reliability and safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many system reliability predictive methods are based solely on equipment failures neglecting the human component of man-machine systems. These methods do not consider the identification of the root causes of human errors. The reliability and safety of industrial and commercial power systems and processes are dependent upon human characteristics and many dependent and dynamic interactive factors. The consequences of human

D. O. Koval

1997-01-01

50

Human element factors affecting reliability and safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many system reliability prediction methods are based solely on equipment failures, neglecting the human component of man-machine systems (MMS). These methods do not consider the identification of the root causes of human errors. The reliability and safety of industrial and commercial power systems and processes (i.e., MMS) are dependent upon human characteristics and many dependent and dynamic interactive factors. The

Don O. Koval; H. Landis Floyd

1998-01-01

51

Factors Affecting Patients' Compliance With Doctors' Advice  

PubMed Central

To what extent, and with what success, are family physicians advising patients to diet, exercise and reduce smoking? A study of 24 family physicians in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick and 66 patients with cardiovascular problems showed that two-thirds of the patients received some such advice during the audiotaped visit. Of those who did receive such advice, 29% reported at a home interview ten days later that they remembered the advice. The doctor's behavior in the interaction was found to influence the patient's memory of the advice. However, the patient's attitudes and problems were the only variables shown to affect whether or not he followed the advice. PMID:21286512

Stewart, Moira

1982-01-01

52

Political and institutional factors affecting systems engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

External groups have a significant impact on NASA's programs. Ten groups affecting NASA are identified, and examples are given for some of the them. Methods of dealing with these external inputs are discussed, the most important being good and open two way communications and an objective attitude on the part of the NASA participants. The importance of planning ahead, of developing rapport with these groups, and of effective use of NASA contractors is covered. The need for an overall strategic plan for the U.S. space program is stressed.

Yardley, John F.

1993-01-01

53

Factors Affecting Learners' Discourse Participation in a Computer Conferencing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examined what factors affect learners' discourse participation in a Web-conferencing environment operated in a graduate course. Subjects were nine master's degree students, majoring in Educational Technology at a women's university in Seoul, Korea. Results suggest seven factors that affect students' discourse in the following ways:…

Lee, In-Sook

54

FACTORS AFFECTING EXVESSEL PRICES OF SKIPJACK TUNA IN HAWAII  

E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING EXVESSEL PRICES OF SKIPJACK TUNA IN HAWAII Yung C . Shang The skipj ack -tuna to overfishing. On the other hand, the cost-revenue analysis indicates that, given the past input and tuna prices objective of this paper is to exam- ine the factors affecting the prices of skipj ack tuna. Skipjack

55

Factors which affect fatigue strength of fasteners  

SciTech Connect

Axial load cycling fatigue tests of threaded fasteners are useful in determining fastener fatigue failure or design properties. By using appropriate design factors between the failure and design fatigue strengths, such tests are used to establish fatigue failure and design parameters of fasteners for axial and bending cyclic load conditions. This paper reviews the factors which influence the fatigue strength of low Alloy steel threaded fasteners, identifies those most significant to fatigue strength, and provides design guidelines based on the direct evaluation of fatigue tests of threaded fasteners. Influences on fatigue strength of thread manufacturing process (machining and rolling of threads), effect of fastener membrane and bending stresses, thread root radii, fastener sizes, fastener tensile strength, stress relaxation, mean stress, and test temperature are discussed.

Skochko, G.W.; Herrmann, T.P.

1992-11-01

56

Factors which affect fatigue strength of fasteners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Axial load cycling fatigue tests of threaded fasteners are useful in determining fastener fatigue failure or design properties. By using appropriate design factors between the failure and design fatigue strengths, such tests are used to establish fatigue failure and design parameters of fasteners for axial and bending cyclic load conditions. This paper reviews the factors which influence the fatigue strength of low alloy steel threaded fasteners, identifies those most significant to fatigue strength, and provides design guidelines based on the direct evaluation of fatigue tests of threaded fasteners. Influences on fatigue strength of thread manufacturing process (machining and rolling of threads), effect of fastener membrane and bending stresses, thread root radii, fastener sizes, fastener tensile strength, stress relaxation, mean stress, and test temperature are discussed.

Skochko, G. W.; Herrmann, T. P.

1992-11-01

57

Factors affecting quality of informed consent  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To examine the factors influencing quality of informed consent. DESIGN--Prospective study comprising interviews with patients and patients' completing standard questionnaires. SETTING--Academic surgical unit of large teaching hospital. PATIENTS--265 patients undergoing intrathoracic, intraperitoneal, and vascular surgical procedures. Of these patients, 192 have been followed up for six months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Patients' recall of information at various points in the study; this

C Lavelle-Jones; D J Byrne; P Rice; A Cuschieri

1993-01-01

58

Factors affecting hispanic student transfer behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies examine transfer of nontraditional-age Hispanic community college students to four-year institutions. The present study examined attitudes, cognitive and noncognitive experiences, and transfer-related behaviors of students (N=277) who graduated from one two-year institution, in order to determine factors associated with successful transfer and make appropriate policy recommendations. An undergraduate survey based on Tinto's (1975, 1987) conceptual framework and Cabrera,

Barbara A. Kraemer

1995-01-01

59

Environmental factors affecting corrosion of munitions  

SciTech Connect

Spent small arms munitions have accumulated for years at outdoor firing ranges operated by the DoD and other groups. Used bullets are often subjected to moisture sources. There is increasing concern that accumulations of lead-based munitions represent potential sources of water and soil pollution. To understand both the severity of and solutions to this problem, it is necessary to measure how rapidly bullets corrode and to determine the soil variables affecting the process. In this study M16 bullets were buried in samples of soil taken from Louisiana army firing ranges. Four environmental conditions were simulated; rain water, acid rain, sea water, and 50% sea water/50% acid rain. The three electrode technique was used to measure the bullet corrosion. Graphite rods served as counter electrodes. A saturated calomel reference electrode was used along with a specially constructed salt bridge. Electrochemical measurements were conducted using a computer-controlled potentiostat to determine corrosion potential, soil resistance, and corrosion current. The rate of corrosion was found to markedly increase with decreasing soil pH and increasing chloride and moisture contents, with the chloride content being the most influential variable. High soil resistance and noble corrosion potential were found to be associated with low corrosion rates. This is important since both parameters can be readily measured in the field.

Bundy, K. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States); Bricka, M.; Morales, A. [Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS (United States)

1995-12-31

60

An overview of surface radiance and biology studies in FIFE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of satellite data to study and to understand energy and mass exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere requires information about various biological processes and how various reflected or emitted spectral radiances are influenced by or manifested in these processes. To obtain such information, studies were conducted by the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) surface radiances and biology (SRB) group using surface, near-surface, helicopter, and aircraft measurements. The two primary objectives of this group were to relate radiative fluxes to biophysical parameters and physiological processes and to assess how various management treatments affect important biological processes. This overview paper summarizes the results obtained by various SRB teams working in nine different areas: (1) measurements of bidirectional reflectance and estimation of hemispherical albedo; (2) evaluation of spatial and seasonal variability reflectance and vegetation indices; (3) determination of surface and radiational factors and their effects on vegetation indices and photosynthetically active radiation relationships; (4) use of surface temperatures to estimate sensible heat flux; (5) controls over photosynthesis and respiration at small scales; (6) soil surface CO2 fluxes and grassland carbon budget; (7) landscape variations in controls over gas exchange and energy partitioning; (8) radiometric response of prairie to management and topography; and (9) determination of nitrogen gas exchanges in a tallgrass prairie.

Blad, B. L.; Schimel, D. S.

1992-01-01

61

Evaluation of Factors Affecting Earth Pressures on Buried Box Culverts.  

E-print Network

??Factors affecting the earth pressures acting on buried box culverts under deep embankments were evaluated by field instrumentation and numerical analyses. Two instrumented cast-in-place concrete… (more)

Yang, Michael Zhiqiang

2000-01-01

62

Factors Affecting the Quality of Southern Short Cure Cheddar Cheese.  

E-print Network

TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR, College Station, Texas BULLETIN NO. 646 FEBRUARY 1944 FACTORS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF SOUTHERN SHORT CURE CHEDDAR CHEESE F. E. HANSON, W. S. ARBUCKLE and C. N. SHEPARDSON... contains the results of an investigation made to determine the factors which affect the quality of short cure ched- dar cheese. Studies have been made concerning the effect of ri- pening temperature, amount of rennet extract used and manufac- turing...

Shepardson, C. N. (Charles Noah); Arbuckle, W. S. (Wendel Sherwood); Hanson, F. E. (Frank Edwin)

1944-01-01

63

Factors affecting weaning weights of Santa Gertrudis calves  

E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING WEANING WEIGHTS OF SANTA GERTRUDIS CALVES A Thesis by JAMES WILLIS FARRIS Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1972 Ma)or Sub)ect: Animal Breeding FACTORS AFFECTING WEANING WEIGHTS OF SANTA GERTRUDIS CALVES A Thesis by JAMES WILLIS FARRIS Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head of Department) (Member) August 1972 ABSTRACT...

Farris, James Willis

2012-06-07

64

Original article Factors affecting the distribution of clinical mastitis  

E-print Network

Original article Factors affecting the distribution of clinical mastitis among udder quarters of clinical bovine mastitis between rear and front quar- ters were studied using data from a 4 year survey of commercial dairy herds in western France. The study involved 844 mastitis cases affecting 597 lactations

Boyer, Edmond

65

Factors Affecting Click-Through Behavior in Aggregated Search Interfaces  

E-print Network

affecting users click-through behav- ior on aggregated search interfaces. We tested two aggre- gated search interfaces are now a common paradigm for search result presentation. An aggregated search inter- faceFactors Affecting Click-Through Behavior in Aggregated Search Interfaces Shanu Sushmita University

Lalmas, Mounia

66

Factors affecting the pharmacokinetics of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  There is significant inter-patient variability in the pharmacokinetics of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD). Identification\\u000a of factors affecting the pharmacokinetics of PLD would enable personalization of therapy. We previously reported that age,\\u000a gender, body composition, and monocytes affect the clearance of other liposomal agents. Therefore, we evaluated how these\\u000a factors affect the pharmacokinetics of PLD.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Pharmacokinetic studies of PLD were performed

Ninh M. La-Beck; Beth A. Zamboni; Alberto Gabizon; Hilary Schmeeda; Michael Amantea; Paola A. Gehrig; William C. Zamboni

67

FACTORS ADVERSELY AFFECTING AMPHIBIAN POPULATIONS IN THE US  

EPA Science Inventory

Factors known or suspected to be adversely affecting native amphibian populations in the US were identified using information from species accounts written in a standardized format by multiple authors in a forthcoming book. Specific adverse factors were identified for 53 (58%) of...

68

Exploring Factors that Affect Purchase Intention of Athletic Team Merchandise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to test a structural model to determine which psychosocial constructs affected the purchase intention of athletic team merchandise (ATM). Results from the analyses indicated that the twelve-factor ATM model fit the data from collegiate athletic events well, explaining the various impact factors that lead to purchase…

Lee, Donghun; Trail, Galen T.; Lee, Cindy; Schoenstedt, Linda J.

2013-01-01

69

Environmental Factors Affecting Tropical Cyclone Power Dissipation KERRY EMANUEL  

E-print Network

Environmental Factors Affecting Tropical Cyclone Power Dissipation KERRY EMANUEL Program by tropical cyclones in the Atlantic and western North Pacific are presented. These show considerable of the three factors are quantified, and implications for future trends and variability of tropical cyclone

Emanuel, Kerry A.

70

FACTORS AFFECTING CONSUMER NEGATIVE PERCEPTIONS ABOUT BEEF IRRADIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has identified several important factors affecting consumer negative perceptions about beef irradiation. The effects of these factors boil down to two main points: lack of trust in the adequacy and enforcement effectiveness of food safety regulations and consumer ignorance about the irradiation process. This implies dissemination of information about food irradiation and enhancement of consumer trust in the

Senhui He; Stanley M. Fletcher; Arbindra Rimal

2004-01-01

71

Factors affecting food decisions made by individual consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food decisions made by individuals affect the healthfulness of their food intakes and influence the success or failure of food products in the consumer-oriented food marketplace of today. Because consumers develop their own systems of deciding what to eat and how to follow the Food Guide Pyramid, it is difficult to know which factors or combinations of factors that influence

Elaine H. Asp

1999-01-01

72

Exploring the Factors Affecting Hotel Outsourcing in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies were conducted to examine factors affecting hotel outsourcing in Taiwan. In study 1, interviews with senior hotel managers were analyzed to explore the factors determining a hotel's outsourcing of different services. The results of the questionnaire survey used in study 2 indicated that the current and desired percentages of outsourcing for international tourist hotels in Taiwan were very

Chin-Sheng Wan; Allan Yen-Lun Su

2010-01-01

73

FACTORS AFFECTING ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTICANCER PROPERTIES OF BERRY FRUITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Berry fruits have been shown to contain high levels of antioxidant compounds such as carotenoids, vitamins, phenols, flavonoids, dietary glutathionine, and endogenous metabolites. Many factors affect antioxidant levels in berry fruits. These factors include genotype variation and maturity, pre-har...

74

Methods of Combinatorial Optimization to Reveal Factors Affecting Gene Length  

PubMed Central

In this paper we present a novel method for genome ranking according to gene lengths. The main outcomes described in this paper are the following: the formulation of the genome ranking problem, presentation of relevant approaches to solve it, and the demonstration of preliminary results from prokaryotic genomes ordering. Using a subset of prokaryotic genomes, we attempted to uncover factors affecting gene length. We have demonstrated that hyperthermophilic species have shorter genes as compared with mesophilic organisms, which probably means that environmental factors affect gene length. Moreover, these preliminary results show that environmental factors group together in ranking evolutionary distant species. PMID:23300345

Bolshoy, Alexander; Tatarinova, Tatiana

2012-01-01

75

Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sze Yan, Ng; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Jusoh, Ahmad

2013-06-01

76

Measuring spectral and spatial variations of UVA and UVB sky radiance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectral sky radiance measurements have been obtained with a double monochromator using a 1.5° field of view under varying atmospheric conditions at selected sites in Europe. Spatial variations of the intensity of the sky radiance up to a factor of 10 are observed in the UVA, which decrease to a factor of 2 in the UVB. A distinct minimum of

M. Blumthaler; J. Gröbner; M. Huber; W. Ambach

1996-01-01

77

Modelling TOVS radiances of synoptic systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two operational analysis models, produced by ECMWF and NMC, are compared against observed satellite radiances by converting the analyzed variables into synthetic radiances using a radiative transfer model (RTM). Observed TOVS satellite radiances are used as a ground truth, since they are the only source of continuous, synoptic-scale resolution observations available over the data-sparse tropical Pacific Ocean. It is assumed that if the analysis models correctly simulate atmospheric conditions, the observed and modelled radiance fields will have similar patterns and magnitudes. In each of seven TOVS channels examined, the mean temperature difference between the models was small, but the differences between the models and the observations were large. The mean temperature difference within each channel was larger than the standard deviation in most cases. The moisture channels of the RTM were sensitive to changes in moisture content, but none of the channels were significantly affected by changes in temperature. Single-day modelled radiance analyses contain synoptic information similar to the satellite observations. ECMWF is often too noisy, producing features not verified by the satellite; NMC is often too smooth. NMC more closely resembles the TOVS contours. Modelled water vapor channel analyses resemble observed monthly and composited observations well, but do not accurately reproduce the highly-variable single-day fields. ECMWF generally has more accurate gradients. Neither model simulates the tropics well. The water vapor channels, especially channel eleven (weighted at 700 mb), most closely resembled the tropical plume composite described by McGuirk and Ulsh. The only plume evidence found in the thermal or microwave channels, in either the observations or the models, was a composite trough situated in the correct location, extending from the mid-latitudes into the subtropics. This feature was not readily discernable until the definition and mature stages. Additional information besides the modelled temperatures would be required to produce an accurate forecast for the tropics. Model patterns more closely resembled the observations in the quiescent atmosphere, though the magnitudes were not any closer. ECMWF simulates the TOVS quiescent state better than NMC. The moisture channels continue to present the most realistic patterns. The models contained more detail in the tropics than was verified by the satellite observations, apparently trying to force an active ITCZ. Lag correlations showed TOVS to be more persistent than the models. TOVS also showed a smoother lag trend, but all products appeared to have adequate ability to react to changes in the atmosphere over time.

Coe, Thomas Eddy

1992-01-01

78

Ranking factors affecting emissions of GHG from incubated agricultural soils.  

PubMed

Agriculture significantly contributes to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and there is a need to develop effective mitigation strategies. The efficacy of methods to reduce GHG fluxes from agricultural soils can be affected by a range of interacting management and environmental factors. Uniquely, we used the Taguchi experimental design methodology to rank the relative importance of six factors known to affect the emission of GHG from soil: nitrate (NO3 (-)) addition, carbon quality (labile and non-labile C), soil temperature, water-filled pore space (WFPS) and extent of soil compaction. Grassland soil was incubated in jars where selected factors, considered at two or three amounts within the experimental range, were combined in an orthogonal array to determine the importance and interactions between factors with a L16 design, comprising 16 experimental units. Within this L16 design, 216 combinations of the full factorial experimental design were represented. Headspace nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were measured and used to calculate fluxes. Results found for the relative influence of factors (WFPS and NO3 (-) addition were the main factors affecting N2O fluxes, whilst glucose, NO3 (-) and soil temperature were the main factors affecting CO2 and CH4 fluxes) were consistent with those already well documented. Interactions between factors were also studied and results showed that factors with little individual influence became more influential in combination. The proposed methodology offers new possibilities for GHG researchers to study interactions between influential factors and address the optimized sets of conditions to reduce GHG emissions in agro-ecosystems, while reducing the number of experimental units required compared with conventional experimental procedures that adjust one variable at a time. PMID:25177207

García-Marco, S; Ravella, S R; Chadwick, D; Vallejo, A; Gregory, A S; Cárdenas, L M

2014-07-01

79

Developing Worksheet Based on Science Process Skills: Factors Affecting Solubility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST) to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS). The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at…

Karsli, Fethiye; Sahin, Cigdem

2009-01-01

80

Factors Affecting Active Participation in Sport by the Working Class  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey consisting of 585 structured, personal interviews was undertaken in the Republic of Ireland. The survey population was comprised of individuals deemed to be of a particular sub-culture within Irish society — namely the work ing class. The purpose of the study was to ascertain the factors affecting active participation in sport by the interviewees. Of the total sample

Mike Sleap; Pat Duffy

1982-01-01

81

FACTORS AFFECTING SECONDARY KILL OF THE GERMAN COCKROACH (DICTYOPTERA  

E-print Network

153 FACTORS AFFECTING SECONDARY KILL OF THE GERMAN COCKROACH (DICTYOPTERA: BLATTELLIDAE) BY GEL of Forestry, Nanning, Guangxi 530022, China Abstract Secondary kill of the German cockroach, Blattella of four cockroach gel baits against various developmental stages of a laboratory (Jwax) and a field (Dorie

Wang, Changlu

82

Factors affecting the activation of pulps with laccase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activation of fibres by radical formation is the first step when aiming at oxidative coupling of new functional groups on the fibre bound lignin. In this work, factors affecting the amount of phenoxy radicals created to unbleached TMP, CTMP, softwood kraft and hardwood kraft pulp fibres in the laccase catalysed oxidation were determined by EPR. Laccase was able to catalyse

A. Suurnäkki; T. Oksanen; M. Orlandi; L. Zoia; C. Canevali; L. Viikari

2010-01-01

83

Factors Affecting Teen Involvement in Pennsylvania 4-H Programming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study reported here determined the factors that affect teen involvement in 4-H programming. The design of the study was descriptive and correlational in nature. Using a purposive sampling procedure, a survey questionnaire was distributed to all (N=214) 4-H members attending the 4-H State Leadership Conference. The major findings of the study…

Gill, Bart E.; Ewing, John C.; Bruce, Jacklyn A.

2010-01-01

84

Factors affecting the protein quality of pigeonpea ( Cajanus cajan L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pigeonpea occupies an important place in human nutrition as a source of dietary proteins in several countries. Some of the important factors that affect the protein quality of pigeonpea have been reviewed and summarised in this paper. Among important food legumes, pigeonpea contained the lowest amount of limiting sulphur amino acids, methionine and cystine implicating the importance of these amino

U. SINGtt; B. O. Eggum

1984-01-01

85

ILLINOIS -RAILROAD ENGINEERING A Quantitative Analysis of Factors Affecting  

E-print Network

Slide 1 ILLINOIS - RAILROAD ENGINEERING A Quantitative Analysis of Factors Affecting Broken Rails Darwin H. Schafer II & Christopher P.L. Barkan May 9th, 2008 The William W. Hay Railroad Engineering Seminar Series University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign #12;Slide 2 ILLINOIS - RAILROAD ENGINEERING

Barkan, Christopher P.L.

86

Students' Views on Factors Affecting Empathy in Medical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Empathy is a prominent goal of medical education that is too often underachieved. Using concept mapping, the authors constructed a student-generated conceptual model of factors viewed as affecting empathy during medical education. Methods: During the 2005-2006 academic year, 293 medical students and interns answered a brainstorming…

Winseman, Jeffrey; Malik, Abid; Morison, Julie; Balkoski, Victoria

2009-01-01

87

Newly Diagnosed with High Blood Pressure? 3 Factors Affect Prognosis  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Newly Diagnosed With High Blood Pressure? 3 Factors Affect Prognosis Systolic reading of 150 ... February 5, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Stroke THURSDAY, Feb. 5, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Prompt ...

88

Factors Affecting Fatty Acid Composition in Forage and Milk  

E-print Network

Factors Affecting Fatty Acid Composition in Forage and Milk Katarina Arvidsson Faculty of Natural in Forage and Milk Abstract The aims of the studies underlying this thesis were to evaluate variations on the FA contents of the milk. Initially, samples of timothy (Phleum pratense L.) were subjected

89

Factors Affecting Performance in an Introductory Sociology Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines factors affecting students' performances in an Introductory Sociology course over five semesters. Employing simple and ordered logit regression models, the author explains final grades by focusing on individual demographic and educational characteristics that students bring into the classroom. The results show that a student's…

Kwenda, Maxwell

2011-01-01

90

Research on Factors Affecting Customer's Interactions with Online Bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing number of people are processing transactions online and the numbers are likely to increase rapidly in the near future. This research focuses on the major considerations interacting with online bank and systematically measures factors affecting customer's interactions with online bank services. The results showed that trusting beliefs had the strongest relationship for users' intention to process transaction online.

Guozheng Zhang; Faming Zhou; Xi Wang; Ya Zhang

2008-01-01

91

Exploring the Factors that Affect Reading Comprehension of EAP Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As far as academic reading comprehension is concerned, a network of linguistic skills and strategies operate in a complex and integrated matter. Since it is impossible to examine all the factors affecting reading comprehension all at once, it is more reasonable to compare and contrast the predictive effects of specific variables against each other…

Nergis, Aysegul

2013-01-01

92

Propagation and Perception of Bioluminescence: Factors Affecting Counterillumination  

E-print Network

Propagation and Perception of Bioluminescence: Factors Affecting Counterillumination as a Cryptic be able to detect any mismatch between the spectrum of the bioluminescence and that of the background: coastal water at a depth of 5 m and oceanic water at 5, 210, and 800 m. The appearance

Johnsen, Sönke

93

Factors affecting infection of citrus with Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri (Xac) causes citrus canker and is now considered endemic in Florida. Factors affecting dispersal and infection of the bacteria need to be understood to help optimize disease management strategies. Wind (0-18 m/sec) was simulated outdoors using a fan to study infection...

94

Factors Affecting the Acceptability of Microforms as a Reading Medium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on visits to representative microform users and an extensive survey of relevant literature, a study was undertaken to assess the relative importance of factors affecting the acceptability of microforms as reading mediums. The following variables were considered: (1) microform characteristics; (2) equipment design; (3) work station design;…

Spencer, Herbert; Reynolds, Linda

95

REVIEW PAPER Factors and processes affecting plant biodiversity  

E-print Network

REVIEW PAPER Factors and processes affecting plant biodiversity in permanent grasslands. A review delivered convincing findings on the effect of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning and humankind. Indeed evaluation of biodiversity benefits remains challenging. This issue is due to valuation methods, subjective

Boyer, Edmond

96

Factors Affecting the Relative Efficiency of General Acid Catalysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple framework for evaluating experimental kinetic data to provide support for Specific Acid Catalysis (SAC) and General Acid Catalysis (GAC) is described based on the factors affecting their relative efficiency. Observations reveal that increasing the SAC-to-GAC rate constant ratio reduces the effective pH range for GAC.

Kwan, Eugene E.

2005-01-01

97

Factors Affecting Recruitment into Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors studied the factors affecting the recruitment into child and adolescent psychiatry training in the United States. Methods: Medical students (n = 154) and general and child and adolescent psychiatry residents (n = 111) completed a questionnaire to evaluate career choice in child psychiatry (n = 265). Results: Compared with…

Shaw, Jon A.; Lewis, John E.; Katyal, Shalini

2010-01-01

98

Factors Affecting Stall Use for Different Freestall Bases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to compare stall use (stall occupancy and cow position) by barn side for fac- tors affecting stall use. A closed circuit television sys- tem recorded stall use four times per day for a 9-mo period starting May 9, 2001. Six factors were analyzed: stall base, distance to water, stall location within stall basesection,stalllocationwithinbarn,insidebarntem- perature,

A. M. Wagner-Storch; R. W. Palmer; D. W. Kammel

2003-01-01

99

Factors affecting the online travel buying decision: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on theories affecting consumers' online purchase intention of travel products. It seeks to explore the literature on the theoretical foundation of factors influencing customers' online purchase intentions in general and in the travel industry specifically. It also suggests areas for further research on online travel buying decisions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach

Ivan Wen

2009-01-01

100

Genetic and environmental factors that affect gestation length  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic and environmental factors that might affect gestation length (GL) were investigated so that more accurate predictions of calving dates could be provided to dairy producers. Data from >8 million calvings from 1999 through 2005 for 5 dairy breeds were assembled from lactation, reproduction, an...

101

Factors Affecting Educational Innovation with in Class Electronic Response Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the use of Rogers' diffusion of innovation perspective to understand the factors affecting educational innovation decisions, specifically in regard to in class electronic response systems. Despite decreasing costs and four decades of research showing strong student support, academic adoption is limited. Using data collected from…

Freeman, Mark; Bell, Amani; Comerton-Forde, Carole; Pickering, Joanne; Blayney, Paul

2007-01-01

102

Factors Affecting Environmental Knowledge and Attitudes among Lebanese College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study aimed at assessing the variables that would positively affect the knowledge and attitude of a group of Lebanese college students regarding the environment, namely such factors as gender, age, previous hiking experience and living abroad. A purposeful sample of students attending the Lebanese American University, was asked to…

Oweini, Ahmad; Houri, Ahmad

2006-01-01

103

Research Article A Review of Environmental Factors Affecting Elk  

E-print Network

, these affect the harvesting costs and nutritional benefits of a given diet, among the potential diets defined by extrinsic factors. When using terms such as `diet' and `nutrition,' confusion can arise if it is not clear to the botanical composition of the forages selected; we use nutrition to refer to the nutrients of a given diet

Creel, Scott

104

Teaching the Factors Affecting Resistance Using Pencil Leads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this paper is to provide a way of teaching the factors that affect resistance using mechanical pencil leads and the brightness of the light given out by a light bulb connected to an electrical circuit. The resistance of a conductor is directly proportional to its length (L) and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area (A).…

Küçüközer, Asuman

2015-01-01

105

UNCORRECTED 2 Factors affecting land reconversion plans following a payment  

E-print Network

UNCORRECTED PROOF 1 2 Factors affecting land reconversion plans following a payment 3 for ecosystem a Center for Systems Integration and Sustainability, 1405 S. Harrison Road, Suite 115, Many Miles Building 2008 14 Received in revised form 5 March 2009 15 Accepted 8 March 2009 16 Available online xxxx 17

Lupi, Frank

106

Factors Affecting the Technology Readiness of Health Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Federal government policies are promoting diffusion of technologies into the healthcare system. If health professionals reject the new technologies planned for the healthcare system, it could result in costly failures, delays, and workforce problems. There is a lack of knowledge about factors that affect technology readiness (TR), defined as the…

Myers, Stephanie E.

2010-01-01

107

ORIGINAL PAPER Factors affecting otter (Lutra lutra) abundance and breeding  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Factors affecting otter (Lutra lutra) abundance and breeding success in freshwater online: 19 February 2011 # Springer-Verlag 2011 Abstract Otters are elusive semi-aquatic mammals tributaries of the Ebro River, with the aims to understand spatial and temporal changes in otter abundance

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

108

The Impact of CLIL on Affective Factors and Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary…

Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David

2015-01-01

109

FACTORS AFFECTING SPECIES DISTRIBUTION PREDICTIONS: A SIMULATION MODELING EXPERIMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, Colorado 80526 USA Abstract. Geospatial species sample data (e.g., records with location information from natural history museums or annual surveys) are rarely collected optimally, yet are increas- ingly used for decisions concerning our biological heritage. Using computer simulations, we examined factors that could affect the performance of autologistic regression (ALR)

Gordon C. Reese; Kenneth R. Wilson; Jennifer A. Hoeting; Curtis H. Flather

2005-01-01

110

Factors affecting butterfly use of filter strips in Midwestern USA  

E-print Network

Factors affecting butterfly use of filter strips in Midwestern USA Kathleen F. Reeder, Diane M between agricultural fields and streams. In 2002 and 2003, the butterfly community in filter strips butterfly abundance and diversity and measured vegetative variables in conjunction with each butterfly

Debinski, Diane M.

111

Arsenic in Drinking Water in Bangladesh: Factors Affecting Child Health  

PubMed Central

The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people’s individuals’ time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children’s health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854

Aziz, Sonia N.; Aziz, Khwaja M. S.; Boyle, Kevin J.

2014-01-01

112

76 FR 35912 - Business Jet Aircraft Industry: Structure and Factors Affecting Competitiveness; Institution of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...332-526] Business Jet Aircraft Industry: Structure and Factors Affecting Competitiveness...332-526, Business Jet Aircraft Industry: Structure and Factors Affecting Competitiveness...investigation and prepare a report on the structure and factors affecting the...

2011-06-20

113

Are Affective Factors a Good Predictor of Science Achievement? Examining the Role of Affective Factors Based on PISA 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated how affective factors like attitude and motivation contribute to science achievement in PISA 2006 using linear structural modeling. The data set of PISA 2006 collected from 4942 fifteen-year-old Turkish students (2290 females, 2652 males) was used for the statistical analyses. A total of 42 selected items on a four point…

Ozel, Murat; Caglak, Serdar; Erdogan, Mehmet

2013-01-01

114

An Examination of Factors Affecting Mathematics Enrollment at Broward Community College, South Campus: Societal Factors Affecting Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Factors affecting mathematics enrollment at Broward Community College, South Campus (Florida) were examined. An analysis of demographic data reflects a huge population growth for the South Campus area. Increasing numbers of elderly, young professionals, Hispanics, and other minorities will move here primarily from the northeast and Dade County…

Martel, Henry J., Jr.; Mehallis, George

115

A Review of Affecting Factors on Sexual Satisfaction in Women  

PubMed Central

Background: Sex is a complex, important and sensitive issue in human being and interwoven with the whole of human existence. Given the serious changes in attitude, function and behavior in sex, the need to address sexual function, especially sexual satisfaction, is felt completely. Sexual satisfaction has a very important role in creating marital satisfaction and any defect in sexual satisfaction is significantly associated with risky sexual behaviors, serious mental illness, social crimes and ultimately divorce. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore affecting factors on sexual satisfaction in women based on an overview in scientific database. Methods: In this narrative review the researchers searched MEDLINE database, Google Scholar and Science Direct as well as Persian database like Scientific Information Database with search terms of sexual satisfaction and sexual function, restricted to English/ Persian language, during the 20 years ago. Then those articles written by renowned experts were selected. In this regard, 57 articles have been reviewed, which 30 articles related to this research have been extracted. Results: The findings were divided in to four categories including: Demographic factors, Pathophysiological factors, Psychological factors and Sociocultural factors. Conclusions: Sexuality, especially sexual intimacy is sophisticated and yet elegant affair that the other persons has different definitions and different functions. Discrepancies in the results of the studies show that analysis of factors affecting sexual satisfaction regardless of the women’s’ sociocultural context, religious beliefs, and personal attitudes is undoubtedly inefficient, unscientific and irrational.

Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Gardeshi, Zeinab Hamzeh; Pourasghar, Mehdi; Salehi, Fariba

2014-01-01

116

Factors affecting corticosteroid concentrations in yellow-bellied marmots.  

PubMed

1. Bound and total corticosteroid concentrations of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) were lowest in May after emergence from hibernation and peaked in August prior to immergence. 2. Total corticosteroids were affected by age but not by sex or reproductive status. 3. There was no consistent relationship between measures of population density and concentrations of corticosteroids; when a significant relationship occurred, only 22-34% of the variation was explained. 4. Social status and social behavior were the major factors affecting corticosteroid concentrations. PMID:1673377

Armitage, K B

1991-01-01

117

Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens  

SciTech Connect

The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

Daniel P. Molloy

2004-02-24

118

Factors affecting the development of adverse drug reactions (Review article)  

PubMed Central

Objectives To discuss the effect of certain factors on the occurrence of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs). Data Sources A systematic review of the literature in the period between 1991 and 2012 was made based on PubMed, the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, EMBASE and IDIS. Key words used were: medication error, adverse drug reaction, iatrogenic disease factors, ambulatory care, primary health care, side effects and treatment hazards. Summary Many factors play a crucial role in the occurrence of ADRs, some of these are patient related, drug related or socially related factors. Age for instance has a very critical impact on the occurrence of ADRs, both very young and very old patients are more vulnerable to these reactions than other age groups. Alcohol intake also has a crucial impact on ADRs. Other factors are gender, race, pregnancy, breast feeding, kidney problems, liver function, drug dose and frequency and many other factors. The effect of these factors on ADRs is well documented in the medical literature. Taking these factors into consideration during medical evaluation enables medical practitioners to choose the best drug regimen. Conclusion Many factors affect the occurrence of ADRs. Some of these factors can be changed like smoking or alcohol intake others cannot be changed like age, presence of other diseases or genetic factors. Understanding the different effects of these factors on ADRs enables healthcare professionals to choose the most appropriate medication for that particular patient. It also helps the healthcare professionals to give the best advice to patients. Pharmacogenomics is the most recent science which emphasizes the genetic predisposition of ADRs. This innovative science provides a new perspective in dealing with the decision making process of drug selection. PMID:24648818

Alomar, Muaed Jamal

2013-01-01

119

Factors affecting water quality in the releases from hydropower reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Typical water quality concerns with releases from hydropower reservoirs include low dissolved oxygen, inappropriate temperature for downstream uses, supersaturation of total dissolved gases, and water quality constituents associated with low dissolved oxygen. Except for supersaturation of total dissolved gases, which is usually caused by by-passing turbines and spilling water, all of these concerns are related to the limnology of the upstream reservoir. Various limnological factors affect water quality, particularly dissolved oxygen (DO) in turbine releases. This paper describes three groups of reservoirs, thermal stratification characteristics for each group, DO effects for each group, the main factors that affect DO in TVA turbine releases, and other water quality constituents that are related to low DO.

Ruane, R.J.; Hauser, G.E. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States))

1990-01-01

120

Factors affecting the locus of control of the university students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the research is to analyze and compare the factors affecting locus of control of the university students. It is found out that male students have more inner control than female students (t=4.890, p<.001). Students with high income level have more inner control than students with low and middle income level (F=5.171, p<.01). Students staying with their families

Nerguz Bulut Serin; O?uz Serin; F. Sülen ?ahin

2010-01-01

121

Factors Affecting Liquid-Metal Embrittlement in C-103  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a study of weld cracks on Space Shuttle control thrustors point toward better understanding of cracking problem in columbium metal, which has also plagued nonaerospace users. Although liquid-metal embrittlement is known to be cause of problem, factors affecting growth and severity of cracks are not well understood. New results tie crack growth to type of contaminants present, grain size and level of stress present while welding is done.

Mclemore, R.; Lampson, F. K.

1982-01-01

122

Factors Affecting Exhalation of Radon From a Gravelly Sandy Loam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of radon exhalation from a gravely sandy loam have been made in a semi-arid climate by using a combination of closed accumulation, flow-through accumulation, and 222Rn and 2Xøpb soil profiles. The meteorological factors that most affected the instantaneous value of exhalation of 222Rn were atmospheric pressure and rain. Effects due to other parameters such as wind or temperature were

S. D. Schery; D. H. Gaeddert; M. H. Wilkening

1984-01-01

123

Recovering high dynamic range radiance maps from photographs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method of recovering high dynamic range radiance maps from photographs taken with conventional imaging equip- ment. In our method, multiple photographs of the scene are taken with different amounts of exposure. Our algorithm uses these dif- ferently exposed photographs to recover the response function of the imaging process, up to factor of scale, using the assumption of

Paul E. Debevec; Jitendra Malik

1997-01-01

124

Factors affecting sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target to reduce the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by the year 2015 has been met as of 2010, but huge disparities exist. Some regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa are lagging behind it is also in this region where up to 30% of the rural schemes are not functional at any given time. There is need for more studies on factors affecting sustainability and necessary measures which when implemented will improve the sustainability of rural water schemes. The main objective of this study was to assess the main factors affecting the sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland using a Multi-Criteria Analysis Approach. The main factors considered were: financial, social, technical, environmental and institutional. The study was done in Lubombo region. Fifteen functional water schemes in 11 communities were studied. Data was collected using questionnaires, checklist and focused group discussion guide. A total of 174 heads of households were interviewed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data and to calculate sustainability scores for water schemes. SPSS was also used to classify sustainability scores according to sustainability categories: sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable. The averages of the ratings for the different sub-factors studied and the results on the sustainability scores for the sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable schemes were then computed and compared to establish the main factors influencing sustainability of the water schemes. The results indicated technical and social factors as most critical while financial and institutional, although important, played a lesser role. Factors which contributed to the sustainability of water schemes were: functionality; design flow; water fetching time; ability to meet additional demand; use by population; equity; participation in decision making on operation and maintenance; existence of fund for operation and maintenance; willingness to contribute money; existence of a user’s committee; participation in the initial planning and design of the water scheme; and coordination between the local leaders and user’s committee. The main factors which made the schemes unsustainable were: long fetching time; non-involvement in decision making; lack of willingness to contribute funds; absence of users committee; and lack of cooperation between local leaders and the users committee. Water service providers should address the technical, social, financial and institutional factors identified affecting sustainability in their planning and implementation of rural water schemes.

Peter, Graciana; Nkambule, Sizwe E.

125

Factors Affecting Perceived Stigma in Leprosy Affected Persons in Western Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background There are various factors which construct the perception of stigma in both leprosy affected persons and unaffected persons. The main purpose of this study was to determine the level of perceived stigma and the risk factors contributing to it among leprosy affected person attending the Green Pastures Hospital, Pokhara municipality of western Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 135 people affected by leprosy at Green Pastures Hospital and Rehabilitation Centre. Persons above the age of 18 were interviewed using a set of questionnaire form and Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC). In addition, two sets of focused group discussions each containing 10 participants from the ward were conducted with the objectives of answering the frequently affected EMIC items. Results Among 135 leprosy affected persons, the median score of perceived stigma was 10 while it ranged from 0–34. Higher perceived stigma score was found in illiterate persons (p?=?0.008), participants whose incomes were self-described as inadequate (p?=?0.014) and who had changed their occupation due to leprosy (p?=?0.018). Patients who lacked information on leprosy (p?=?0.025), knowledge about the causes (p?=?0.02) and transmission of leprosy (p?=?0.046) and those who had perception that leprosy is a severe disease (p<0.001) and is difficult to treat (p<0.001) had higher perceived stigma score. Participants with disfigurement or deformities (p?=?0.014), ulcers (p?=?0.022) and odorous ulcers (p?=?0.043) had higher perceived stigma score. Conclusion The factors associated with higher stigma were illiteracy, perceived economical inadequacy, change of occupation due to leprosy, lack of knowledge about leprosy, perception of leprosy as a severe disease and difficult to treat. Similarly, visible deformities and ulcers were associated with higher stigma. There is an urgent need of stigma reduction strategies focused on health education and health awareness programs in addition to the necessary rehabilitation support. PMID:24901307

Adhikari, Bipin; Kaehler, Nils; Chapman, Robert S.; Raut, Shristi; Roche, Paul

2014-01-01

126

Factors affecting the reproductive success of dominant male meerkats.  

PubMed

Identifying traits that affect the reproductive success of individuals is fundamental for our understanding of evolutionary processes. In cooperative breeders, a dominant male typically restricts mating access to the dominant female for extended periods, resulting in pronounced variation in reproductive success among males. This may result in strong selection for traits that increase the likelihood of dominance acquisition, dominance retention and reproductive rates while dominant. However, despite considerable research on reproductive skew, few studies have explored the factors that influence these three processes among males in cooperative species. Here we use genetic, behavioural and demographic data to investigate the factors affecting reproductive success in dominant male meerkats (Suricata suricatta). Our data show that dominant males sire the majority of all offspring surviving to 1 year. A male's likelihood of becoming dominant is strongly influenced by age, but not by weight. Tenure length and reproductive rate, both important components of dominant male reproductive success, are largely affected by group size and composition, rather than individual traits. Dominant males in large groups have longer tenures, but after this effect is controlled, male tenure length also correlates negatively to the number of adult females in the group. Male reproductive rate also declines as the number of intra- and extra-group competitors increases. As the time spent in the dominant position and reproductive rate while dominant explain > 80% of the total variance in reproductive success, group composition thus has major implications for male reproductive success. PMID:18410290

Spong, Göran F; Hodge, Sarah J; Young, Andrew J; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

2008-05-01

127

Factors affecting the prescribing patterns of antibiotics and injections.  

PubMed

There are serious problems concerning the inadequate prescription of antibiotics and overuse of injections in primary care. However, the determinants of prescription patterns in Korea are not well-documented. To examine the area characteristics affecting the prescription of antibiotics and injections in primary care practices in the treatment of respiratory tract infections (RTIs), a nationwide cross-sectional study was performed in all 250 administrative districts of Korea. The outcome was modeled as a binary variable: over-prescription or not compared with the nation-wide average. Over-prescription of antibiotics was associated with the ratio of specialists to general physicians and over-prescription in previous years in the area (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-14.8; and aOR, 12.0; 95% CI 5.5-25.9, respectively). Over-use of injections was associated with younger population, urban living and the number of hospital beds in the area (aOR, 0.2; 95% CI 0.1-0.4; aOR, 0.3; 95% CI 0.1-0.8; and aOR, 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.9; respectively). There were differences in the prescribing patterns in different districts; prescription patterns were affected more by supply factors than by demand factors. Highly competitive medical environment associated with supply factors is a significant determinant of prescription patterns in Korea. PMID:22323857

Choi, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Sang-Min; Lee, Ju-Hyun; Kwon, Soonman

2012-02-01

128

Recruitment and retention: factors that affect pericyte migration  

PubMed Central

Pericytes are critical for vascular morphogenesis and contribute to several pathologies, including cancer development and progression. The mechanisms governing pericyte migration and differentiation are complex and have not been fully established. Current literature suggests that platelet-derived growth factor/platelet-derived growth factor receptor-?, sphingosine 1-phosphate/endothelial differentiation gene-1, angiopoietin-1/tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 2, angiopoietin-2/tyros-ine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 2, transforming growth factor ?/activin receptor-like kinase 1, transforming growth factor ?/activin receptor-like kinase 5, Semaphorin-3A/Neuropilin, and matrix metalloproteinase activity regulate the recruitment of pericytes to nascent vessels. Interestingly, many of these pathways are directly affected by secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC). Here, we summarize the function of these factors in pericyte migration and discuss if and how SPARC might infuence these activities and thus provide an additional layer of control for the recruitment of vascular support cells. Additionally, the consequences of targeted inhibition of pericytes in tumors and the current understanding of pericyte recruitment in pathological environments are discussed. PMID:23912898

Aguilera, Kristina Y.

2013-01-01

129

Factors affecting quality of dried low-rank coals  

SciTech Connect

The chemical and physical properties of coal are strongly affected by the upgrading process employed. For high-moisture coals, upgrading involves thermal dehydration to improve the calorific value of the coal on mass basis. This study evaluates the feasibility of upgrading a low-rank/grade coal using the oven drying method. The objective of this research work is to study the drying characteristics of low-rank coals and to understand the factors affecting the quality of dried low-rank coals. This article describes laboratory experiments conducted on the characterization of the low-rank coals before and after the drying process. The results on drying kinetics, re-absorption of coal samples, and proximate analysis of coal samples before and after drying are discussed. It was found that the upgrading process produced coal with better heating value and combustion characteristics than those of the raw coal samples.

Karthikeyan, M.; Kuma, J.V.M.; Hoe, C.S.; Ngo, D.L.Y. [National University of Singapore, (Singapore)

2007-07-01

130

Teaching the Factors Affecting Resistance Using Pencil Leads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to provide a way of teaching the factors that affect resistance using mechanical pencil leads and the brightness of the light given out by a light bulb connected to an electrical circuit. The resistance of a conductor is directly proportional to its length (L) and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area (A). Additionally, the resistance depends on the type of conductor. Resistance R can be thus be expressed as R = ?L/A, where ? is the resistivity of the conductor.

Küçüközer, Asuman

2015-01-01

131

Factors affecting the degradation of amoxicillin in composting toilet.  

PubMed

The biological and non-biological factors that affect the degradation of amoxicillin in the composting process of feces have been investigated. The effect of living bacteria and the enzyme (beta-lactamase) on amoxicillin decay was examined, and our results indicated that the biological effects are likely to be negligible. Consequently, the effect of phosphate, ammonia and pH level as non-biological factors was investigated by monitoring the reduction rate of amoxicillin in phosphate and ammonia buffer solutions with several pH levels. Each reduction rate constant was integrated by a simulation model, and the each calculated amoxicillin reduction profile was compared to the reduction profiles of amoxicillin in the composting process of feces. The calculated results corresponded almost exactly to the experimental profiles. We therefore concluded that the degradation of amoxicillin in a toilet matrix was dependent on the concentration of ammonia, phosphate and hydroxyl ion. PMID:17109929

Kakimoto, Takashi; Funamizu, Naoyuki

2007-02-01

132

Factors Affecting the Sensitivity of Permafrost to Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Permafrost aggradation and degradation are affected by numerous geomorphological and ecological properties of the landscape that confound our ability to accurately predict the response of permafrost to climate change. Permafrost can persist at mean annual air temperatures (MAAT) of +2 °C and can degrade at MAAT of -15 °C with the help of surface water. Permafrost is decoupled from the atmosphere by the active layer, thus, its thermal regime is mediated by numerous factors such as topography, soil texture, organic-matter accumulation, vegetation, snow, surface water, groundwater movement, and disturbance. Topography affects the amount of solar radiation to the soil surface, causing permafrost in the discontinuous zone to occur generally on north-facing slopes that receive less direct radiation and on flat, low- lying areas where vegetation and organic soils have a greater insulating effect and where air temperatures tend to be colder during winter inversions. Soil texture affects soil moisture and thermal properties. For instance, gravelly soils tend to be well-drained with little difference between thermal conductivities when frozen or thawed. In contrast, surface organic soils, as well as clayey and silty soils, in lowland areas tend to be poorly drained and have much higher thermal conductivities when frozen in winter than unfrozen in summer. In well- drained upland sites, however, organic soils typically are well below saturation. Differences in frozen and unfrozen thermal conductivities lead to more rapid heat loss in winter, depending on snow, and slower heat penetration in summer. Vegetation has important effects through interception of solar radiation, growth of mosses, accumulation of organic matter, and interception of snow by trees and shrubs. Snow protects soil from cooling in winter. Thus, the seasonality (e.g., timing of snowfall in early winter) and depth of snow are very important. Surface water provides an important positive feedback that enhances degradation when water is impounded in sinking depressions. Thus, the amount of ground ice and potential thaw settlement greatly affects permafrost sensitivity. Water bodies (lakes, ponds, rivers) have a warming effect on permafrost and often create thawing zones for which their geometry is defined by water depth, sediment texture, and climate. Convective heat transfer associated with groundwater movement can create an unfrozen zone on top or within permafrost. Surface and groundwater flow, and surface impoundment, in turn are affected by topography and soil texture. Because permafrost is greatly affected by these ecological components, permafrost properties evolve along with the successional patterns of ecosystem development, which in turn affects the sensitivity of permafrost to degradation. We explore the relative effects of these factors through modeling and comparison of field measurements. Because there is no single model available that can include all these disparate factors, we evaluate factors separately and use differences in mean annual ground temperatures at the surface and at 2-m depth to compare the magnitude of each effect.

Jorgenson, T.; Romanovsky, V.; Harden, J.; Shur, Y.; Hinzman, L.; Marchenko, S.; Bolton, R.; O'Donnell, J.

2009-05-01

133

The Factors that Affect Science Teachers' Participation in Professional Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific literacy for our students and the possibilities for careers available in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) areas are important topics for economic growth as well as global competitiveness. The achievement of students in science learning is dependent upon the science teachers' effectiveness and experienced science teachers depend upon relevant professional development experiences to support their learning. In order to understand how to improve student learning in science, the learning of science teachers must also be understood. Previous research studies on teacher professional development have been conducted in other states, but Minnesota science teachers comprised a new and different population from those previously studied. The purpose of this two-phase mixed methods study was to identify the current types of professional development in which experienced, Minnesota secondary science teachers participated and the factors that affect their participation in professional development activities. The mixed-methods approach s utilized an initial online survey followed by qualitative interviews with five survey respondents. The results of the quantitative survey and the qualitative interviews indicated the quality of professional development experiences and the factors which affected the science teachers' participation in professional development activities. The supporting and inhibiting factors involved the availability of resources such as time and money, external relationships with school administrators, teacher colleagues, and family members, and personal intrinsic attributes such as desires to learn and help students. This study also describes implications for science teachers, school administrators, policymakers, and professional development providers. Recommendations for future research include the following areas: relationships between and among intrinsic and extrinsic factors, science-related professional development activities within local school districts, the use of formal and informal professional development, and the needs of rural science teachers compared to urban and suburban teachers.

Roux, Judi Ann

134

A review of factors affecting vaccine preventable disease in Japan.  

PubMed

Japan is well known as a country with a strong health record. However its incidence rates of vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) such as hepatitis B, measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella remain higher than other developed countries. This article reviews the factors that contribute to the high rates of VPD in Japan. These include historical and political factors that delayed the introduction of several important vaccines until recently. Access has also been affected by vaccines being divided into government-funded "routine" (eg, polio, pertussis) and self-pay "voluntary" groups (eg, hepatitis A and B). Routine vaccines have higher rates of administration than voluntary vaccines. Administration factors include differences in well child care schedules, the approach to simultaneous vaccination, vaccination contraindication due to fever, and vaccination spacing. Parental factors include low intention to fully vaccinate their children and misperceptions about side effects and efficacy. There are also provider knowledge gaps regarding indications, adverse effects, interval, and simultaneous vaccination. These multifactorial issues combine to produce lower population immunization rates and a higher incidence of VPD than other developed countries. This article will provide insight into the current situation of Japanese vaccinations, the issues to be addressed and suggestions for public health promotion. PMID:25628969

Kuwabara, Norimitsu; Ching, Michael Sl

2014-12-01

135

A Review of Factors Affecting Vaccine Preventable Disease in Japan  

PubMed Central

Japan is well known as a country with a strong health record. However its incidence rates of vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) such as hepatitis B, measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella remain higher than other developed countries. This article reviews the factors that contribute to the high rates of VPD in Japan. These include historical and political factors that delayed the introduction of several important vaccines until recently. Access has also been affected by vaccines being divided into government-funded “routine” (eg, polio, pertussis) and self-pay “voluntary” groups (eg, hepatitis A and B). Routine vaccines have higher rates of administration than voluntary vaccines. Administration factors include differences in well child care schedules, the approach to simultaneous vaccination, vaccination contraindication due to fever, and vaccination spacing. Parental factors include low intention to fully vaccinate their children and misperceptions about side effects and efficacy. There are also provider knowledge gaps regarding indications, adverse effects, interval, and simultaneous vaccination. These multifactorial issues combine to produce lower population immunization rates and a higher incidence of VPD than other developed countries. This article will provide insight into the current situation of Japanese vaccinations, the issues to be addressed and suggestions for public health promotion.

Ching, Michael SL

2014-01-01

136

Factors affecting sequestration and bioavailability of phenanthrene in soils  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to determine factors affecting the sequestration and changes in bioavailability as phenanthrene persists in soils. Phenanthrene became sequestered in seven soils differing appreciably in organic matter and clay content as measured by earthworm uptake, bacterial mineralization, or extractability. Phenanthrene also became sequestered as it aged in soil aggregates of various sizes as measured by decline in availability to a bacterium, a mild extractant, or both. Wetting and drying a soil during aging reduced the amount of phenanthrene recovered by a mild extractant and the rate and extent of bacterial mineralization of the hydrocarbon. After biodegradation of phenanthrene added to the soil, more of the compound remained if it had been aged than if it had not been aged. Wetting and drying the soil during aging further increased the amount of phenanthrene remaining after biodegradation. The rate and extent of bacterial mineralization of phenanthrene were less in leached than in unleached soil. Aging/sequestration is thus markedly affected by soil properties and environmental factors.

White, J.C.; Kelsey, J.W.; Hatzinger, P.B.; Alexander, M. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

1997-10-01

137

Study of factors affecting the appearance of colors under microscopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variation of colors in microscopy systems can be quite critical for some users. To address this problem, a study is conducted to analyze how different factors such as size of the sample, intensity of the microscope's light source and the characteristics of the material like chroma and saturation can affect the color appearance through the eyepiece of the microscope. To study the changes in colors considering these factors, the spectral reflectance of 24 colors of GretagMacbeth Classic ColorChecker® and Mini ColorChecker® which are placed under a Nikon ECLIPSE MA200 microscope®2 using dark filed and bright field illuminations which result in different intensity levels, is measured using a spectroradiometer®3 which was placed in front of the eyepiece of the microscope. The results are compared with the original data from N. Ohta1. The evaluation is done by observing the shift in colors in the CIE 1931 Chromaticity Diagram and the CIELAB space, also by applying a wide set of color-difference formulas, namely: CIELAB, CMC, BFD, CIE94, CIEDE2000, DIN99d and DIN99b. Furthermore, to emphasize on the color regions in which the highest difference is observed, the authors have obtained the results from another microscope; Olympus SZX10®4, which in this case the measurement is done by mounting the spectroradiometer to the camera port of the microscope. The experiment leads to some interesting results, among which is the consistency in the highest difference observed considering different factors or how the change in saturation of the samples of the same hue can affect the results.

Zakizadeh, Roshanak; Martinez-Garcia, Juan; Raja, Kiran B.; Siakidis, Christos

2013-11-01

138

Environmental Factors Affecting Indole Production in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

A variety of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria produce large quantities of indole as an intracellular signal in microbial communities. Biosynthesis of indole is well-studied, and while carbon sources and amino acids are important environmental cues for indole production in Escherichia coli, other environmental factors affecting indole production for this strain are less clear. This study demonstrates that the environmental cue pH is an important factor for indole production that further controls biofilm formation of E. coli. Moreover, E. coli produced a higher level of extracellular indole in the presence of the antibiotics ampicillin and kanamycin, and the increased indole enhanced cell survival during antibiotic stress. Additionally, we found here that temperature is another important factor for indole production; E. coli produces and accumulates a large amount of indole at 50°C, even at low cell densities. Overall, our results suggest that indole is a stable biological compound, and E. coli may utilize indole to protect itself against other microorganisms. PMID:21145393

Han, Thi Hiep; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Cho, Moo Hwan; Wood, Thomas K.; Lee, Jintae

2011-01-01

139

Factors affecting the measurement of fatigue crack stress intensity factors using photoelastic coatings  

SciTech Connect

Photoelastic procedures to determine the stress intensity factors at the tip of a fatigue crack during dynamic and cyclic loading are described. To illustrate the techniques, tests were performed on a centered-cracked tensile panel under cyclic load. The measured SIFs were found to agree to within about 5% of an elastic solution. Finally, factors affecting the application of the procedures to more complex structures are considered.

Nurse, A.D. [Loughborough Univ. of Technology (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Patterson, E.A. [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical and Process Engineering

1995-12-31

140

Modeling directional thermal radiance from a forest canopy  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an extension of an existing thermal vegetation canopy radiance model which has been modified to partially account for the geometrically rough structure of a forest canopy. Fourier series expansion of a canopy height profile is used to calculate view factors which partially account for the directional variations in canopy thermal radiance transfer. A modification of a previously developed thermal vegetation canopy model is presented, along with the measurements used to drive and verify the model. The evidence indicates that thermal radiance from a forest canopy depends on sensor viewing angle, solar position, and the degree of geometric roughness of the canopy surface. For the above canopy, hand-held IRT`s were not useful for investigating the nadir angle variations due to the averaging technique used. These data did show some azimuthal variations, but it is difficult to precisely interpret the trends because of the averaging employed. Comparisons were made between the ORIG and ROUGH thermal models. The data analysis and model comparisons suggest that thermal radiance from a forest canopy does depend on sensor view angle and that the variation can be partially explained by the position of the sun and the geometrically rough structure of the canopy surface.

McGuire, M.J.; Balick, L.K.; Smith, J.A.; Hutchinson, B.A.

1989-12-31

141

Potential factors affecting accumulation of unsupported 210Pb in soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne 210Pb, daughter of 222Rn, is frequently used as a tracer in different studies concerning atmospheric transport, sedimentation, soil erosion, dating, etc. Concentration of 210Pb was measured in 40 soil samples collected in urban and industrial areas in order to get evidence of possible influence of some factors on accumulation of airborne 210Pb in soil. Different soil properties such as the content of organic matter, free CaCO3, and available phosphorus (P2O5) were measured to explore their possible correlation with the amount of 210Pb. Special attention was given to the correlation between 210Pb and stable lead accumulated in the soil. Several samples were taken near a battery manufacturer to check if extremely high concentrations of lead can affect the uptake of the airborne 210Pb in soil. Soil samples were also taken at different depths to investigate the penetration of lead through the soil.

Mihailovi?, Aleksandra; Vu?ini? Vasi?, Milica; Todorovi?, Nataša; Hansman, Jan; Vasin, Jovica; Krmar, Miodrag

2014-06-01

142

Multilevel Factors Affecting Quality: Examples From the Cancer Care Continuum  

PubMed Central

The complex environmental context must be considered as we move forward to improve cancer care and, ultimately, patient and population outcomes. The cancer care continuum represents several care types, each of which includes multiple technical and communication steps and interfaces among patients, providers, and organizations. We use two case scenarios to 1) illustrate the variability, diversity, and interaction of factors from multiple levels that affect care quality and 2) discuss research implications and provide hypothetical examples of multilevel interventions. Each scenario includes a targeted literature review to illustrate contextual influences upon care and sets the stage for theory-informed interventions. The screening case highlights access issues in older women, and the survivorship case illustrates the multiple transition challenges faced by patients, families, and organizations. Example interventions show the potential gains of implementing intervention strategies that work synergistically at multiple levels. While research examining multilevel intervention is a priority, it presents numerous study design, measurement, and analytic challenges. PMID:22623591

Taplin, Stephen H.; Ganz, Patricia; Grunfeld, Eva; Sterba, Katherine

2012-01-01

143

Factors affecting white cell content in platelet concentrates.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the factors affecting white cell content in platelet concentrates. White cell yields can be reduced 50 percent by stopping platelet-rich plasma expression when the interface is 1 cm from the top of the blood bag as compared to stopping expression when the interface reaches the top of the bag. Further reductions can be achieved by careful handling during transfer of units from the centrifuge cups to expressors (after the first spin) and by carefully balancing units against each other to ensure proper rotor balance during the first spin. Following these suggestions, blood banks should be able to produce platelet concentrates with white cell yields between 2 and 6 X 10(7) and with platelet yields between 7.5 and 8 X 10(10). Transfusion of this product may reduce febrile reactions and lower the incidence of alloimmunizations. PMID:4024231

Champion, A B; Carmen, R A

1985-01-01

144

[Early mother-infant interaction and factors negatively affecting parenting].  

PubMed

The social information-processing model contributes to identifying the psychological processes underlying the construct "sensitivity" in early mother-child interaction. Negative emotional states associated with inadequate self-regulation in coping with stressors affect the mother's attention skills and the processing of the baby's signals. This leads to less synchronous parental practices, particularly unsatisfactory when the baby is unhappy, or crying because the required self-regulation is not provided. This micro-social research studies the sequential profile of maternal reactions to the baby's positive/neutral vs. difficult behaviours and compares them in two groups of dyads, one with mothers who reported high levels of distress and other negative factors for parenting and another group with low levels. The unfavourable circumstances of the high stress group and their negative effects on interaction were observed in some indiscriminate maternal responses and particularly as they reacted to their baby's difficult behaviour, when the mother's regulatory role is more necessary. PMID:17296085

Cerezo, María Angeles; Trenado, Rosa María; Pons-Salvador, Gemma

2006-08-01

145

Factors affecting use of industrial onsite gas storage  

SciTech Connect

Retention of the industrial market is critical to the growth of the gas industry, and competitive costs and supply reliability are the keys. Many industrial gas consumers use onsite gas storage or standby fuel storage to assure low cost and good reliability. The technological, economic and institutional factors that will affect the use of onsite storage for gas are examined. The natural gas storage methods that are now used, and new methods that may find use, are evaluated. The industrial gas consumers' requirements for onsite gas storage are defined, and the research needed to meet these requirements is identified. The R and D program of the Gas Research Institute is reviewed. 12 references, 10 figures.

Joyce, T.J.; Biederman, N.P.; Shikari, Y.A.

1986-01-01

146

Factors Affecting on Serum Lactate After Cardiac Surgery  

PubMed Central

Background: The relation between elevated blood lactate level and mortality and morbidity rates after coronary bypass surgery is a proven subject. One of the factors that seems to affect directly the blood lactate level is the storage duration of packed red blood cells. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of storage duration of transfused blood on serum lactate during cardiac surgery and up to 24 hours after that in the ICU. Patients and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 228 patients referred to three hospitals of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences for open cardiac surgery, was enrolled using systematic random sampling method. Immediately after accessing arterial line, the first sample of arterial blood gas (ABG) was obtained. For evaluation of lactate levels, the next samples were obtained at the end of surgery and after 24 hours of staying ICU. Results: Among 5 factors which affected lactate level during surgery, diabetes and higher ejection fraction (EF) reduced changes of the lactate level. On the other hand, the number of infused blood units, duration of on-pump time, and the mean storage duration of blood units were associated with elevated serum lactate during surgery. A significant relationship was found between blood storage duration and serum lactate levels 24 hours after surgery. Conclusions: Comparing the serum lactate level before operation and 24 hours after the operation showed that the number of received blood units had a significant effect on serum lactate. We found no significant effect for blood storage duration; however, the number of given blood units was more significant.

Joudi, Marjan; Fathi, Mehdi; Soltani, Ghasem; Izanloo, Azra

2014-01-01

147

Factors affecting the adsorption of trichloroethylene onto activated carbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, an experimental study aimed at the assessment of the factors affecting the adsorption of trichloroethylene (TCE) from water solutions onto activated carbons is presented. The influence of sorbent properties, such as B.E.T. surface area, micropore volume, chemical composition and acid/basic surface functional groups on TCE adsorption capacity is experimentally assessed by testing a set of 12 sorbents. Moreover, the effect of the presence of other species in solution, such as sodium acetate and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), is studied through parametric TCE adsorption isotherms realization. The experimental results show that the TCE adsorption capacity is promoted by a high B.E.T. surface area, micropore volume and C content and it is significantly affected by the presence of a non-ionic compound of similar structure (PCE), however it does not depend on the presence of an organic salt (sodium acetate). These results confirm that neither TCE-carbon ionic interaction nor sorbent ionization phenomena are involved in the TCE adsorption, since its mechanism is based on dispersion forces (London-Van Der Walls interaction). A thorough analysis of the experimental data set suggests that, in consideration of the TCE adsorption mechanism, the maximization of basal plane extent (as the B.E.T. surface area) and its effective fraction (as the C content) is a valid criterion to select or synthesize a new suitable sorbent for TCE adsorption from waters.

Erto, A.; Andreozzi, R.; Lancia, A.; Musmarra, D.

2010-06-01

148

Investigation of factors affecting asphalt pavement recycling and asphalt compatibility  

SciTech Connect

Both economic and environmental factors dictate that asphalt pavement be recycled. Many recycling projects have been completed using a variety of recycling additives, but little work has been done on the physiochemical aspects of pavement recycling. The present exploratory study was undertaken to better define the physiochemical variables of recycling. Objectives of the present study include: (1) to determine if molecular structuring in the asphalt binder could be observed in oxidized (air-aged) asphalt-aggregate briquets, and if so, how was structuring affected during briquits, and if so, how was structuring affected during briquet recycling and (2) to determine if recycling agents penetrate the strongly adsorbed asphalt layer on the aggregate surface. Differences were seen in asphalt component compatibility as judged by the state of peptization parameters. In extreme cases the values of the parameters correlated with properties of asphalts of known compatibility; however, a relationship between the parameters determined on a series of asphalts in pavements was not established. The parameters might be useful in evaluating additives for pavement recycling; however, more systems need to be studied to fully assess their potential usefulness. Finally, the parameters need to be correlated with performance-related measurements such as asphalt rheological and mix properties. Examination of the parameters and their changes on asphalt oxidative aging may also be informative with regard to asphalt durability inasmuch as oxidation-induced changes are a major cause of asphalt pavement failure.

Venable, R.L.; Petersen, J.C.; Robertson, R.E.; Plancher, H.

1983-03-01

149

Factors affecting the valve movements in freshwater unionids  

SciTech Connect

In order to avoid harmful conditions, freshwater unionids are able to close their valves and to resist extended long periods of complete anoxia. Xenobiotics and diverse abiotic and biotic factors can change the rhythm of valve movements and thus affect the accumulation of heavy metals in these bivalves. When bivalves are used a bioindicators in the field and when the accumulation of toxicants are studied under the laboratory conditions, the effects of valve movements and shell closure have to be involved. In this study, the authors have recorded valve movements of two different unionid species (Anodonta anatina, Unio tumidus) in the field and in the laboratory using a digital monitoring system. Several experimental arrangements were compared (caged mussels vs. sediment dwelling mussels, flow-through vials vs. static aquaria with and without sediment). Some parameters of the mussel hemolymph, such as electrolytes, gases and acid base status, were compared with the results on the valve activity (time with valves open, number of adductions). The natural valve activity of the two unionid species differed clearly. In the field, effects of transfer and caging were found, and in the laboratory, sediment and water flow changed their behavior. The level of the blood oxygen was most affected, whereas, the acid-base status and the concentrations of electrolytes were effectively regulated by the unionids. The correlation between valve movements and the hemolymph parameters was weaker than expected.

Pynnoenen, K.S.; Englund, V.P.M. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)

1994-12-31

150

Institutional factors affecting DOE waste management and environmental restoration planning  

SciTech Connect

The magnitude and impact of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) waste management and environmental restoration program requires a drastic change in DOE's culture to include the participation of all levels of government, public forum representatives, and the public. Early in the process of developing a new, comprehensive five-year plan for environmental restoration and waste management, Secretary Watkins invited affected States, Indian Nations, and organizations of elected officials to form the State and Tribal Government Working Group to comment on two formulative drafts of the plan. Management Systems Laboratories of Virginia Tech was asked to help plan and facilitate two review sessions in the spring and summer of 1989, based on perception of impartiality, experience with similar groups, and active affiliations with State governments. A third session in the fall was devoted to reviewing the draft applied R D plan and guiding institutional factors affecting DOE's future: the need for ongoing, pervasive culture change; the need to display this change through truly cooperative planning; and the need to involve the regulatory community in the process of technology development so innovative solutions can be applied with the least possible delay.

Walker, J. A.; Middleman, L. I.

1990-01-01

151

Radiance Data Products at the GES DAAC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Goddard Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive Center (GES DAAC) has been archiving and distributing Radiance data, and serving science and application users of these data, for over 10 years now. The user-focused stewardship of the Radiance data from the AIRS, AVHRR, MODIS, SeaWiFS, SORCE, TOMS, TOVS, TRMM, and UARS instruments exemplifies the GES DAAC tradition and experience. Radiance data include raw radiance counts, onboard calibration data, geolocation products, radiometric calibrated and geolocated-calibrated radiance/reflectance. The number of science products archived at the GES DAAC is steadily increasing, as a result of more sophisticated sensors and new science algorithms. Thus, the main challenge for the GES DAAC is to guide users through the variety of Radiance data sets, provide tools to visualize and reduce the volume of the data, and provide uninterrupted access to the data. This presentation will describe the effort at the GES DAAC to build a bridge between multi-sensor data and the effective scientific use of the data, with an emphasis on the heritage of the science products. The intent is to inform users of the existence of this large collection of Radiance data; suggest starting points for cross-platform science projects and data mining activities; provide data services and tools information; and to give expert help in the science data formats and applications. More information about the GES DAAC Radiance data products, tools, and services can be found at http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov.

Savtchenko, A.; Ouzounov, D.; Acker, J.; Johnson, J.; Leptoukh, G.; Qin, J.; Rui, H.; Smith, P.; Teng, W.

2004-12-01

152

Spatial factors affecting statistical power in testing marine fauna displacement.  

PubMed

Impacts of offshore wind farms on marine fauna are largely unknown. Therefore, one commonly adheres to the precautionary principle, which states that one shall take action to avoid potentially damaging impacts on marine ecosystems, even when full scientific certainty is lacking. We implement this principle by means of a statistical power analysis including spatial factors. Implementation is based on geostatistical simulations, accommodating for zero-inflation in species data. We investigate scenarios in which an impact assessment still has to be carried out. Our results show that the environmental conditions at the time of the survey is the most influential factor on power. This is followed by survey effort and species abundance in the reference situation. Spatial dependence in species numbers at local scales affects power, but its effect is smaller for the scenarios investigated. Our findings can be used to improve effectiveness of the economical investment for monitoring surveys. In addition, unnecessary extra survey effort, and related costs, can be avoided when spatial dependence in species abundance is present and no improvement on power is achieved. PMID:22073657

Pérez Lapeña, B; Wijnberg, K M; Stein, A; Hulscher, S J M H

2011-10-01

153

Major factors affecting severity of obstructive sleep apnea.  

PubMed

Computed tomography (CT) has become a common method for evaluating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between CT parameters and clinical parameters in OSA patients to determine major factors affecting the severity of OSA. The records of 128 consecutive snoring patients (98 males, 30 females) diagnosed with OSA were retrospectively reviewed. Polysomnography was performed for each patient. On CT scans, airway areas were measured at the level of the hard palate, the soft palate, and the base of the tongue. Polysomnographic parameters were compared by gender and age using the Mann-Whitney U test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to analyze relationships between variables and the AHI in each age group. The women were significantly older than the men (p < 0.01). The AHI and apnea index were significantly higher in men than in women. Stage 1 sleep and rapid eye movement sleep were more frequent in men than in women. The area at the base of the tongue was significantly smaller in women than in men (p = 0.027). In the 50-60 age group, the AHI was significantly higher in men (41.47 ± 19.67) than in women (17.14 ± 15.63) (p = 0.001). OSA severity varies with age, gender, and upper airway area. The OSA prognosis could be improved by evaluating the major factors and treating OSA patients according to epidemiological characteristics and anatomical structures. PMID:25621265

Kim, Sung Won; Kim, Boo-Young; Han, Jung Ju; Hwang, Jae Hyung; Jung, Kihwan; Kim, Min; Kim, Soo Whan

2015-03-01

154

Factors Affecting Mortality in Elderly Patients Hospitalized for Nonmalignant Reasons  

PubMed Central

Elderly population is hospitalized more frequently than young people, and they suffer from more severe diseases that are difficult to diagnose and treat. The present study aimed to investigate the factors affecting mortality in elderly patients hospitalized for nonmalignant reasons. Demographic data, reason for hospitalization, comorbidities, duration of hospital stay, and results of routine blood testing at the time of first hospitalization were obtained from the hospital records of the patients, who were over 65 years of age and hospitalized primarily for nonmalignant reasons. The mean age of 1012 patients included in the study was 77.8 ± 7.6. The most common reason for hospitalization was diabetes mellitus (18.3%). Of the patients, 90.3% had at least a single comorbidity. Whilst 927 (91.6%) of the hospitalized patients were discharged, 85 (8.4%) died. Comparison of the characteristics of the discharged and dead groups revealed that the dead group was older and had higher rates of poor general status and comorbidity. Differences were observed between the discharged and dead groups in most of the laboratory parameters. Hypoalbuminemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypopotassemia, hypernatremia, hyperuricemia, and high TSH level were the predictors of mortality. In order to meet the health necessities of the elderly population, it is necessary to well define the patient profiles and to identify the risk factors. PMID:25147737

Ayaz, Teslime; Rak?c?, Halil

2014-01-01

155

Factors affecting outdoor exposure in winter: population-based study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extent of outdoor exposure during winter and factors affecting it were examined in a cross-sectional population study in Finland. Men and women aged 25-74 years from the National FINRISK 2002 sub-study ( n=6,591) were queried about their average weekly occupational, leisure-time and total cold exposure during the past winter. The effects of gender, age, area of residence, occupation, ambient temperature, self-rated health, physical activity and education on cold exposure were analysed. The self-reported median total cold exposure time was 7 h/week (8 h men, 6 h women),<1 h/week (2 h men, 0 h women) at work, 4 h/week (5 h men, 4 h women) during leisure time and 1 h/week (1 h men, 1.5 h women) while commuting to work. Factors associated with increased occupational cold exposure among men were: being employed in agriculture, forestry and industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being less educated and being aged 55-64 years. Factors associated with increased leisure-time cold exposure among men were: employment in industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being a pensioner or unemployed, reporting at least average health, being physically active and having college or vocational education. Among women, being a housewife, pensioner or unemployed and engaged in physical activity increased leisure-time cold exposure, and young women were more exposed than older ones. Self-rated health was positively associated with leisure time cold exposure in men and only to a minor extent in women. In conclusion, the subjects reported spending 4% of their total time under cold exposure, most of it (71%) during leisure time. Both occupational and leisure-time cold exposure is greater among men than women.

Mäkinen, Tiina M.; Raatikka, Veli-Pekka; Rytkönen, Mika; Jokelainen, Jari; Rintamäki, Hannu; Ruuhela, Reija; Näyhä, Simo; Hassi, Juhani

2006-09-01

156

Factors affecting detection of burrowing owl nests during standardized surveys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Identifying causes of declines and evaluating effects of management practices on persistence of local populations of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) requires accurate estimates of abundance and population trends. Moreover, regulatory agencies in the United States and Canada typically require surveys to detect nest burrows prior to approving developments or other activities in areas that are potentially suitable for nesting burrowing owls. In general, guidelines on timing of surveys have been lacking and surveys have been conducted at different times of day and in different stages of the nesting cycle. We used logistic regression to evaluate 7 factors that could potentially affect probability of a surveyor detecting a burrowing owl nest. We conducted 1,444 detection trials at 323 burrowing owl nests within 3 study areas in Washington and Wyoming, USA, between February and August 2000-2002. Detection probability was highest during the nestling period and increased with ambient temperature. The other 5 factors that we examined (i.e., study area, time of day, timing within the breeding season, wind speed, % cloud cover) interacted with another factor to influence detection probability. Use of call-broadcast surveys increased detection probability, even during daylight hours when we detected >95% of owls visually. Optimal timing of surveys will vary due to differences in breeding phenology and differences in nesting behavior across populations. Nevertheless, we recommend ???3 surveys per year: one that coincides with the laying and incubation period, another that coincides with the early nestling period, and a third that coincides with the late nestling period. In northern latitudes, surveys can be conducted throughout the day.

Conway, C.J.; Garcia, V.; Smith, M.D.; Hughes, K.

2008-01-01

157

Geographical factors affecting variability of precipitation regime in Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study compares the precipitation regimes by using harmonic analysis during the last four decades (1965-2004). We used the measured precipitation data from 428 rain-gauge sites and weather stations distributed across Iran by applying 15 × 15 km spatial grids to generate the interpolated data. Data validations were carried out by statistical tests. In this study, first three harmonics of precipitation variances were evaluated. Variability of precipitation regime was explored by using three harmonic analysis methods. In addition, the effect of geographical factors (GF) (site elevation, latitude, and longitude) affecting the precipitation regime (P) was verified by multivariate regression method. The resulted regression equation between P and GF for spring showed the highest correlation coefficient (r = 0.79). For other seasons, r was lower than for spring and varied between 0.26 (summer) to 0.58 (autumn). Analysis of the first harmonic proved that the main precipitation regime in Iran tends to concentrate in one specific season (winter) as a result of large-scale Mediterranean systems passing over the country. In other words, the first harmonic is able to explain most of the precipitation variations which are caused by large-scale atmospheric circulation. For all the three harmonics, variances of precipitation were mainly a function of the geographical factors. This effect was more evident in the third harmonic; in such a way that increasing the latitudes caused higher precipitation variance. This means that the precipitation regime in northern sites is more sensitive to the local factors than those of southern sites. The results of this research can be used for reliable estimation of precipitation in ungauged sites.

Sabziparvar, A. A.; Movahedi, S.; Asakereh, H.; Maryanaji, Z.; Masoodian, S. A.

2014-05-01

158

Undergraduate nursing students' perceptions regarding factors that affect math abilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of the nursing literature reveals many undergraduate nursing students lack proficiency with basic mathematical skills, those necessary for safe medication preparation and administration. Few studies exploring the phenomenon from the undergraduate nursing student perspective are reported in the nursing literature. The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of math abilities, factors that affect math abilities, the use of math in nursing, and the extent to which specific math skills were addressed throughout a nursing curriculum. Polya’s Model for Problem Solving and the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Affective Domain served as the theoretical background for the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to obtain data from a purposive sample of undergraduate nursing students from a private university in western Pennsylvania. Participants were selected based on the proficiency level with math skills, as determined by a score on the Elsevier’s HESI™ Admission Assessment (A2) Exam, Math Portion. Ten students from the “Excellent” benchmark group and eleven students from the “Needing Additional Assistance or Improvement” benchmark group participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, and completed a 25-item, 4-point Likert scale survey that rated confidence levels with specific math skills and the extent to which these skills were perceived to be addressed in the nursing curriculum. Responses from the two benchmark groups were compared and contrasted. Eight themes emerged from the qualitative data. Findings related to mathematical approach and confidence levels with specific math skills were determined to be statistically significant.

Pyo, Katrina A.

2011-07-01

159

Elimination of error factors, affecting EM and seismic inversions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EM or seismic data inversions are affected by many factors, which may conceal the responses from target objects. We address here the contributions from the following effects: 1) Pre-survey spectral sensitivity factor. Preliminary information about a target layer can be used for a pre-survey estimation of the required frequency domain and signal level. A universal approach allows making such estimations in real time, helping the survey crew to optimize an acquisition process. 2) Preliminary velocities' identification and their dispersions for all the seismic waves, arising in a stratified media became a fast working tool, based on the exact analytical solution. 3) Vertical gradients effect. For most layers the log data scatter, requiring an averaging pattern. A linear gradient within each representative layer is a reasonable compromise between required inversion accuracy and forward modeling complexity. 4) An effect from the seismic source's radial component becomes comparable with vertical part for explosive sources. If this effect is not taken into account, a serious modeling error takes place. This problem has an algorithmic solution. 5) Seismic modeling is often based on different representations for a source formulated either for a force or to a potential. The wave amplitudes depend on the formulation, making an inversion result sensitive to it. 6) Asymmetrical seismic waves (modified Rayleigh) in symmetrical geometry around liquid fracture come from S-wave and merge with the modified Krauklis wave at high frequencies. A detail analysis of this feature allows a spectral range optimization for the proper wave's extraction. 7) An ultrasonic experiment was conducted to show different waves appearance for a super-thin water-saturated fracture between two Plexiglas plates, being confirmed by comparison with theoretical computations. 8) A 'sandwich effect' was detected by comparison with averaged layer's effect. This opens an opportunity of the shale gas direct identification from the surface measurements.

Magomedov, M.; Zuev, M. A.; Korneev, V. A.; Goloshubin, G.; Zuev, J.; Brovman, Y.

2013-12-01

160

Identification of factors affecting birth rate in Czech Republic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article is concerned with identifying economic factors primarily that affect birth rates in Czech Republic. To find the relationship between the magnitudes, we used the multivariate regression analysis and for modeling, we used a time series of annual values (1994-2011) both economic indicators and indicators related to demographics. Due to potential problems with apparent dependence we first cleansed all series obtained from the Czech Statistical Office using first differences. It is clear from the final model that meets all assumptions that there is a positive correlation between birth rates and the financial situation of households. We described the financial situation of households by GDP per capita, gross wages and consumer price index. As expected a positive correlation was proved for GDP per capita and gross wages and negative dependence was proved for the consumer price index. In addition to these economic variables in the model there were used also demographic characteristics of the workforce and the number of employed people. It can be stated that if the Czech Republic wants to support an increase in the birth rate, it is necessary to consider the financial support for households with small children.

Zámková, Martina; Blašková, Veronika

2013-10-01

161

Hydrologic and geologic factors affecting land subsidence near Eloy, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At an extensometer site near Eloy, Arizona, 1.09 m of land subsidence caused by groundwater withdrawal were measured by leveling in 1965-83. The extensometer, which partially penetrates the compressible sediments, recorded 0.82 m of compaction during the same period. By use of a one-dimensional model, cumulative daily compaction values were simulated to within an average of 0.0038 m of the actual values. Land subsidence was simulated to within an average of 0.011 m using the same model in conjunction with geohydrologic data of the sediments below the extensometer. A highly compressible clay layer that is 24.38 m thick was partially penetrated by the extensometer. The simulation indicated that the layer was driving compaction and land subsidence linearly with respect to time, despite the presence of other compacting layers. Because of its thickness and compressibility, this layer can be expected to continue to compact after applied vertical stresses have stopped increasing and other layers have stopped compacting. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the compressibility of fine-grained sediments (expressed as specific storage) is one of the factors to which compact is most sensitive. Preconsolidation stress and hydraulic conductivity also affect land subsidence near Eloy, Arizona. (Author 's abstract)

Epstein, V.J.

1987-01-01

162

Factors affecting the success of influenza laboratory diagnosis.  

PubMed

Influenza is one of the most common human infectious diseases, and has profound health and economic consequences. The laboratory diag- nosis of influenza virus infections plays an important role in the global surveillance of influenza. Therefore, there is a growing demand for highly sensitive and rapid methods for detecting influenza. The performance of particular diagnostic methods is affected by various factors. In this study, we assess the effects of patients' age and time to diagnosis on the probability of detecting influenza using four diagnostic methods (virus isolation, rapid test, RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR). We examined 3,546 samples from central and eastern Slovakia during the influenza seasons from 2005-2006 to 2010-2011. In general, the probability of influenza detection significantly decreased with the time from onset of illness to sample collection (T1) as well as with patients' age (AGE). On the contrary, time from sample collection to delivery (T2) did not play a role in the prob- ability of influenza detection. As judged by odds ratios, the virus isolation method was most sensitive to T1, followed by the rapid test and RT-PCR methods. For the effect of AGE, the rapid test and virus isolation methods were more sensitive than PCR-based methods. The effects of T1 and AGE were independent of each other. Laboratories which participate in inifluenza surveillance should use several methods to enable rapid and accurate influenza A and B virus detection. PMID:25438393

Kissová, Renáta; Svitok, Marek; Klement, Cyril; Mad'arová, Lucia

2014-09-01

163

Non-auditory factors affecting urban soundscape evaluation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to characterize urban spaces, which combine landscape, acoustics, and lighting, and to investigate people's perceptions of urban soundscapes through quantitative and qualitative analyses. A general questionnaire survey and soundwalk were performed to investigate soundscape perception in urban spaces. Non-auditory factors (visual image, day lighting, and olfactory perceptions), as well as acoustic comfort, were selected as the main contexts that affect soundscape perception, and context preferences and overall impressions were evaluated using an 11-point numerical scale. For qualitative analysis, a semantic differential test was performed in the form of a social survey, and subjects were also asked to describe their impressions during a soundwalk. The results showed that urban soundscapes can be characterized by soundmarks, and soundscape perceptions are dominated by acoustic comfort, visual images, and day lighting, whereas reverberance in urban spaces does not yield consistent preference judgments. It is posited that the subjective evaluation of reverberance can be replaced by physical measurements. The categories extracted from the qualitative analysis revealed that spatial impressions such as openness and density emerged as some of the contexts of soundscape perception. PMID:22225033

Jeon, Jin Yong; Lee, Pyoung Jik; Hong, Joo Young; Cabrera, Densil

2011-12-01

164

Chronotype and personality factors of predisposition to seasonal affective disorder.  

PubMed

The study aimed to recognize the personality factors of a predisposition to seasonal mood fluctuations in a non-clinical sample. A group of 101 subjects (57 women, 44 men; mean age 26.4?±?6.5 years) completed a battery of tests comprising a Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ), Chronotype Questionnaire (ChQ), a NEO-Five Factor Inventory and a Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS). A smaller sample (n?=?44) completed a Winter Blues Scale (WBS). Women scored significantly higher than men in seasonality (p?=?0.014), neuroticism (p?=?0.049), agreeableness (p?=?0.010), and avoidance-oriented coping style (p?=?0.041). Subjects with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) (n?=?41) or sub-SAD (n?=?33), as diagnosed with SPAQ, exhibited higher levels of neuroticism (p?=?0.017) and openness (p?=?0.016) in comparison to non-SAD individuals. The latter declared a less frequent avoidance coping style. Both measures of seasonality, i.e. the SPAQ Global Seasonality Score and WBS, correlated significantly (r?=?0.28 and 0.44, respectively) with the subjective amplitude of the circadian rhythm, as described with the "distinctness" scale of ChQ. Female gender, neuroticism and openness were confirmed as factors linked to seasonal mood variability. Additionally, the study revealed an association between susceptibility to mild winter depression and an avoidance-oriented coping style. The avoidance coping style was correlated positively with all the aspects of seasonality described by SPAQ (correlation coefficients from 0.21 to 0.34). Both sub-types of avoidance-oriented style, i.e. distraction and social diversion, were associated with marked subjective seasonal changes in sleep length, mood and the energy level. While the subjective amplitude of circadian rhythm proved to be connected with seasonality, the subjective acrophase of the rhythm (morningness-eveningness preference) did not. It may be hypothesized that sensitivity to natural environmental conditions/synchronizers is a separate individual trait shaping the subject's proneness to energy and mood changes both in diurnal and year scale, i.e. circadian and seasonal mood variations. PMID:24397301

Oginska, Halszka; Oginska-Bruchal, Katarzyna

2014-05-01

165

Factors Affecting the Habitability of Earth-like Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Habitability is a measure of an environment's potential to support life. For exoplanets, the concept of habitability can be used broadly - to inform our calculations of the possibility and distribution of life elsewhere - or as a practical tool to inform mission designs and to prioritize specific targets in the search for extrasolar life. Although a planet's habitability does depend critically on the effect of stellar type and planetary semi-major axis on climate balance, work in the interdisciplinary field of astrobiology has identified many additional factors that can affect a planet's environment and its potential ability to support life. Life requires material for metabolism and structures, a liquid medium for chemical transport, and an energy source to drive metabolism and other life processes. Whether a planet's surface or sub-surface can provide these requirements is the result of numerous planetary and astrophysical processes that affect the planet's formation and evolution. Many of these factors are interdependent, and fall into three main categories: stellar effects, planetary effects and planetary system effects. Key abiotic processes affecting the resultant planetary environment include photochemistry (e.g. Segura et al., 2003; 2005), stellar effects on climate balance (e.g. Joshii et al., 2012; Shields et al., 2013), atmospheric loss (e.g. Lopez and Fortney, 2013), and gravitational interactions with the star (e.g. Barnes et al., 2013). In many cases, the effect of these processes is strongly dependent on a specific planet's existing environmental properties. Examples include the resultant UV flux at a planetary surface as a product of stellar activity and the strength of a planet's atmospheric UV shield (Segura et al., 2010); and the amount of tidal energy available to a planet to drive plate tectonics and heat the surface (Barnes et al., 2009), which is in turn due to a combination of stellar mass, planetary mass and composition, planetary orbital parameters and the gravitational influence of other planets in the system. A thorough assessment of a planet's environment and its potential habitability is a necessary first step in the search for biosignatures. Targeted environmental characteristics include surface temperature and pressure (e.g. Misra et al., 2013), a census of bulk and trace atmospheric gases, and whether there are signs of liquid water on the planetary surface (e.g. Robinson et al., 2010). The robustness of a planetary biosignature is dependent on being able to characterize the environment sufficiently well, and to understand likely star-planet interactions, to preclude formation of a biosignature gas via abiotic processes such as photochemistry (e.g. Segura et al., 2007; Domagal-Goldman et al., 2011; Grenfell et al., 2012). Here we also discuss potential false positives for O2 and O3, which, in large quantities, are often considered robust biosignatures for oxygenic photosynthesis. There is clearly significant future work required to better identify and understand the key environmental processes and interactions that allow a planet to support life, and to distinguish life's global impact on an environment from the environment itself.

Meadows, Victoria; NAI-Virtual Planetary Laboratory Team

2014-03-01

166

Urban vs. rural factors that affect adult asthma.  

PubMed

In this review, our aim was to examine the influence of geographic variations on asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults, which is important for improving our understanding, identifying the burden, and for developing and implementing interventions aimed at reducing asthma morbidity. Asthma is a complex inflammatory disease of multifactorial origin, and is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The disparities in asthma prevalence and morbidity among the world's geographic locations are more likely to be associated with environmental exposures than genetic differences. In writing this article, we found that the indoor factors most consistently associated with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in adults included fuel combustion, mold growth, and environmental tobacco smoke in both urban and rural areas. Asthma and asthma-related symptoms occurred more frequently in urban than in rural areas, and that difference correlated with environmental risk exposures, SES, and healthcare access. Environmental risk factors to which urban adults were more frequently exposed than rural adults were dust mites,high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle.Exposure to indoor biological contaminants in the urban environment is common.The main risk factors for developing asthma in urban areas are atopy and allergy to house dust mites, followed by allergens from animal dander. House dust mite exposure may potentially explain differences in diagnosis of asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults in urban vs. rural areas. In addition, the prevalence of asthma morbidity increases with urbanization. High levels of vehicle emissions,Western lifestyles and degree of urbanization itself, may affect outdoor and thereby indoor air quality. In urban areas, biomass fuels have been widely replaced by cleaner energy sources at home, such as gas and electricity, but in most developing countries, coal is still a major source of fuel for cooking and heating, particularly in winter. Moreover, exposure to ETS is common at home or at work in urban areas.There is evidence that asthma prevalence and morbidity is less common in rural than in urban areas. The possible reasons are that rural residents are exposed early in life to stables and to farm milk production, and such exposures are protective against developing asthma morbidity. Even so, asthma morbidity is disproportionately high among poor inner-city residents and in rural populations. A higher proportion of adult residents of nonmetropolitan areas were characterized as follows:aged 55 years or older, no previous college admission, low household income, no health insurance coverage, and could not see a doctor due to healthcare service availability, etc. In rural areas, biomass fuels meet more than 70% of the rural energy needs. Progress in adopting modern energy sources in rural areas has been slow. The most direct health impact comes from household energy use among the poor, who depend almost entirely on burning biomass fuels in simple cooking devices that are placed in inadequately ventilated spaces. Prospective studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of biomass smoke on lung health among adults in rural areas.Geographic differences in asthma susceptibility exist around the world. The reason for the differences in asthma prevalence in rural and urban areas may be due to the fact that populations have different lifestyles and cultures, as well as different environmental exposures and different genetic backgrounds. Identifying geographic disparities in asthma hospitalizations is critical to implementing prevention strategies,reducing morbidity, and improving healthcare financing for clinical asthma treatment. Although evidence shows that differences in the prevalence of asthma do exist between urban and rural dwellers in many parts of the world, including in developed countries, data are inadequate to evaluate the extent to which different pollutant exposures contribute to asthma morbidity and severity of asthma between urban and rural areas. PMID:23625129

Jie, Yu; Isa, Zaleha Md; Jie, Xu; Ju, Zhang Long; Ismail, Noor Hassim

2013-01-01

167

Evaluation of Factors Affecting Powdered Drug Reconstitution in Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Owing to the high cost of transporting mass into space, and the small volume available for equipment in the Space Shuttle Orbiter and the International Space Station, refrigeration space is extremely limited. For this reason, there exists strong motivation for transporting certain drugs in powdered form so that they do not require refrigeration. When needed, the powdered drug will be mixed with saline to obtain a liquid form that may be injected intravenously. While this is a relatively simple task in a 1-G environment, there are some difficulties that may be encountered in 0-G. In non-accelerated spaceflight, gravitational and inertial forces are eliminated allowing other smaller forces, such as capillary forces and surface tension, to dominate the behavior of fluids. For instance, water slowly ejected from a straw will tend to form a sphere, while fluid in a container will tend to wet the inside surface forming a highly rounded meniscus. Initial attempts at mixing powdered drugs with saline in microgravity have shown a tendency toward forming foamy emulsions instead of the desired homogeneous solution. The predominance of adhesive forces between the drug particles and the interface tensions at the gas/liquid and solid/liquid interfaces drastically reduce the rate of deaggregation of the drug powder and also reduce the rate of absorption of saline by the powder mass. In addition, the capillary forces cause the saline to wet the inside of the container, thus trapping air bubbles within the liquid. The rate of dissolution of a powder drug is directly proportional to the amount of surface area of the solid that is exposed to liquid solvent. The surface area of drug that is in contact with the liquid is greatly reduced in microgravity and, as a result, the dissolution rate is reduced as well. The KC-135 research described here was aimed at evaluating the extent to which it is possible to perform drug reconstitution in the weightlessness of parabolic flight using standard pharmacological supplies. The experiment included a parametric assessment of possible factors affecting the reconstitution process. The specific questions that we wished to answer were: (1) Is it possible to reconstitute powdered drugs in weightlessness using standard pharmacological equipment? (2) What are the differences between drug reconstitution in a 1-G and a 0-G environment? (3) What techniques of mixing the drug powder and diluent are more successful? (4) What physical and chemical factors play a role in determining the success of mixing and dissolution? (5) Is it necessary to employ crewmember and equipment restraints during the reconstitution process?

Schaffner, Grant; Johnston, Smith; Marshburn, Tom

1999-01-01

168

Factors affecting stall use for different freestall bases.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare stall use (stall occupancy and cow position) by barn side for factors affecting stall use. A closed circuit television system recorded stall use four times per day for a 9-mo period starting May 9, 2001. Six factors were analyzed: stall base, distance to water, stall location within stall base section, stall location within barn, inside barn temperature, and length of time cows were exposed to stall bases. Two barn sides with different stocking densities were analyzed: low (66%), with cows milked by robotic milker; and high (100%), with cows milked 2X in parlor. Six stall base types were tested: two mattresses, a waterbed, a rubber mat, concrete, and sand (high side only). The base types were grouped 3 to 7 stalls/section and randomly placed in each row. Cows spent more time in mattress-based stalls, but the highest percentage lying was in sand-based stalls. The following significant stall occupancy percentages were found: sand had the highest percentage of cows lying on the high stocking density side (69%), followed by mattress type 1 (65%) > mattress type 2 (57%) > waterbed (45%) > rubber mat (33%) > concrete (23%). Mattress type 1 had the highest percentage stalls occupied (88%), followed by mattress type 2 (84%) > sand (79%) > soft rubber mat (65%) > waterbed (62%) > concrete (39%). On the low stocking rate side, mattress type 1 had the highest percentage cows lying (45%) and occupied (59.6%), followed by mattress type 2 > waterbed > soft rubber mat > concrete. Cow lying and stalls occupied percentages were highest for stalls 1) not at the end of a section, and 2) on the outside row, and varied by base type for time cows exposed to stalls and inside barn temperature. Lying and occupied percentages were different for different mattress types. The percentage of stalls with cows standing was higher for mat and mattress-based stalls. Results show mattress type 1 and sand to be superior and rubber mats and concrete inferior stall bases. PMID:12836963

Wagner-Storch, A M; Palmer, R W; Kammel, D W

2003-06-01

169

Prognostic Factors Affecting Visual Outcome in Acanthamoeba Keratitis  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify clinical and demographic factors associated with a worse visual outcome in Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). Design Retrospective, case control study. Participants A total of 72 eyes of 65 patients with AK who were diagnosed at the University of Illinois Eye and Ear Infirmary between May of 2003 and May of 2007 with treatment complete by October of 2007. The first affected eye was analyzed in bilateral disease. Methods Patient demographic, clinical characteristics, treatment methods, and final visual outcome data were collected through medical record reviews for all patients diagnosed with AK. Cases were defined as patients with AK with a visual outcome worse than 20/25 or those requiring penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). Controls were defined as patients with AK with a visual outcome of 20/25 or better. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) identifying prognostic factors associated with a worse visual outcome. Main Outcome Measures Final visual outcome worse than 20/25. Results AK was confirmed through microbiologic evidence in 48 of 65 eyes (73.8%) or with confocal microscopy in 62 of 65 eyes (95.4%). Final visual acuity data were available in 61 of 65 eyes (93.8%); of these 61 eyes, 40 (65.6%) achieved a final visual acuity of 20/25 or better. In multivariable analysis, deep stromal involvement or the presence of a ring infiltrate at presentation was independently associated with worse visual outcomes (OR, 10.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.91–36.17). Symptom duration before diagnosis was statistically predictive of disease stage at presentation (OR, 4.43; 95% CI, 0.99–19.83; multivariable analysis) but not final visual outcome (OR, 2.55; 95% CI, 0.83–7.88; univariate analysis). PKP was performed in 11 of 12 eyes with active disease. Conclusions Corneal disease staging at presentation with slit-lamp examination was highly predictive of worse outcomes, allowing the identification of patients who might benefit from more aggressive medical or surgical intervention. Unlike in previous reports, patient-reported duration of symptoms before treatment was not reliable in predicting the final visual result in our series. PMID:18571729

Tu, Elmer Y.; Joslin, Charlotte E.; Sugar, Joel; Shoff, Megan E.; Booton, Gregory C.

2013-01-01

170

Factors Affecting Perceptual Threshold in Argus II Retinal Prosthesis Subjects  

PubMed Central

Purpose The Argus II epiretinal prosthesis has been developed to provide partial restoration of vision to subjects blinded from outer retinal degenerative disease. Participants were surgically implanted with the system in the United States and Europe in a single arm, prospective, multicenter clinical trial. The purpose of this investigation was to determine which factors affect electrical thresholds in order to inform surgical placement of the device. Methods Electrode–retina and electrode–fovea distances were determined using SD-OCT and fundus photography, respectively. Perceptual threshold to electrical stimulation of electrodes was measured using custom developed software, in which current amplitude was varied until the threshold was found. Full field stimulus light threshold was measured using the Espion D-FST test. Relationships between electrical threshold and these three explanatory variables (electrode–retina distance, electrode–fovea distance, and monocular light threshold) were quantified using regression. Results Regression analysis showed a significant correlation between electrical threshold and electrode–retina distance (R2 = 0.50, P = 0.0002; n = 703 electrodes). 90.3% of electrodes in contact with the macula (n = 207) elicited percepts at charge densities less than 1 mC/cm2/phase. These threshold data also correlated well with ganglion cell density profile (P = 0.03). A weaker, but still significant, inverse correlation was found between light threshold and electrical threshold (R2 < 0.52, P = 0.01). Multivariate modeling indicated that electrode–retina distance and light threshold are highly predictive of electrode threshold (R2 = 0.87; P < 0.0005). Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that while light threshold should be used to inform patient selection, macular contact of the array is paramount. Translational Relevance Reported Argus II clinical study results are in good agreement with prior in vitro and in vivo studies, and support the development of higher-density systems that employ smaller diameter electrodes. (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00407602) PMID:24049718

Ahuja, A. K.; Yeoh, J.; Dorn, J. D.; Caspi, A.; Wuyyuru, V.; McMahon, M. J.; Humayun, M. S.; Greenberg, R. J.; daCruz, L.

2013-01-01

171

Factors affecting a climber's ability to ascend Mont Blanc.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine the factors affecting a climber's ability to ascend Mont Blanc using a number of variables collected at the Gouter Hut (3,817 m) before and after an attempted ascent on the Mont Blanc summit. Subjects (n=285) were tested at 3,817 m prior to their ascent of Mont Blanc. Maximum height ascended in the last 14 days was recorded. End tidal CO2, arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), heart rate and respiratory rate were measured using a Capnograph (Nellcor Patrick NPB75). Acute mountain sickness (AMS) was assessed using the Lake Louise scoring system. Summit information is available for 216 subjects. None of the subjects who attained 4,000 m in the previous 14 days failed to reach the summit (P=0.04). Previous recent exposure to an altitude of 4,000 m resulted in faster ascent times to the summit than those who had not been above 3,000 m in the previous 14 days (4.02+/-0.6 vs. 4.46+/-0.8 h, P=0.009), higher SaO2 on arrival at the Gouter Hut on day 1 (88.6+/-5 vs. 86.3+/-6%, P=0.004) and lower AMS scores upon arrival at the Gouter Hut after the attempted ascent to the summit 2.5+/-1.8 versus 4.7+/-2.5 U (P=0.001), respectively. It is concluded that recent exposure to 4,000 m confers an advantage to those who wish to ascend a 4,800 m peak. PMID:16235066

Tsianos, G; Woolrich-Burt, L; Aitchison, T; Peacock, A; Watt, M; Montgomery, H; Watt, I; Grant, S

2006-01-01

172

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Calibrated Radiance  

E-print Network

Visible, Infrared, and Water Vapor Images· SAFARI 2000: Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer Data, Southern and Terrain Radiances data· Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO

173

FACTORS AFFECTING THE PHOTOCHEMICAL TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The photochemical treatment of hazardous waste can be optimized by taking into account several factors that influence the rates of photochemical reactions. Physical factors that facilitate photochemical treatment include: (1) maximizing the irradiated surface to volume ratio of t...

174

FACTORS AFFECTING THE PHOTOCHEMICAL TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The photochemical treatment of hazardous waste can be optimized by taking into account various factors that influence the rates of photochemical reactions. Physical factors that facilitate photochemical treatment include: (1) maximizing the irradiated surface to volume ratio of t...

175

Factors affecting superovulation in heifers treated with PMSG  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we determined 1) if the immunoneutralization of PMSG affected the ovulatory response, the number of large follicles and embryo yield compared with that of PMSG alone or pFSH, and 2) whether the stage of the estrous cycle at which PMSG was injected affected the ovulatory response and yield of embryos in superovulated heifers. Estrus was synchronized in

D. Goulding; D. H. Williams; J. F. Roche; M. P. Boland

1996-01-01

176

Modeling and Assimilating Ocean Color Radiances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiances are the source of information from ocean color sensors to produce estimates of biological and geochemical constituents. They potentially provide information on various other aspects of global biological and chemical systems, and there is considerable work involved in deriving new information from these signals. Each derived product, however, contains errors that are derived from the application of the radiances, above and beyond the radiance errors. A global biogeochemical model with an explicit spectral radiative transfer model is used to investigate the potential of assimilating radiances. The results indicate gaps in our understanding of radiative processes in the oceans and their relationships with biogeochemical variables. Most important, detritus optical properties are not well characterized and produce important effects of the simulated radiances. Specifically, there does not appear to be a relationship between detrital biomass and its optical properties, as there is for chlorophyll. Approximations are necessary to get beyond this problem. In this reprt we will discuss the challenges in modeling and assimilation water-leaving radiances and the prospects for improving our understanding of biogeochemical process by utilizing these signals.

Gregg, Watson

2012-01-01

177

Environmental and genetic factors affecting cow survival of Israeli Holsteins.  

PubMed

The objectives were to investigate the effects of various environmental factors that may affect herd-life of Israeli Holsteins, including first-calving age and season, calving ease, number of progeny born, and service sire for first calving in complete and truncated records; and to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations between herd-life and the other traits included in the Israeli breeding index. The basic data set consisted of 590,869 cows in milk recording herds with first freshening day between 1985 and at least 8 yr before the cut-off date of September 15, 2013. Herd-life was measured as days from first calving to culling. The phenotypic and genetic trends for herd-life were 5.7 and 16.8d/yr. The genetic trend was almost linear, whereas the phenotypic trend showed 4 peaks and 3 valleys. Cows born in February and March had the shortest herd-life, whereas cows born in September had the longest herd-life. Herd-life was maximal with calving age of 23mo, which is 1mo less than the mean calving age, and minimal at 19 and 31mo of calving age. Dystocia and twinning on first-parity calving reduced herd-life by approximately180 and 120d, but the interaction effect increased herd-life by 140d. Heritability for herd-life was 0.14. Despite the fact that the service sire effect was significant in the fixed model analysis, service sire effect accounted for <0.05% of the total variance. In the analysis of 1,431,938 truncated records, the effects of dystocia and twinning rate were very similar but less than 50% of the effects found in the analysis of complete records. Pregnancy at the truncation date increased expected herd-life by 432d. The correlation between actual herd-life and predicted herd-life based on truncated records was 0.44. Genetic correlations between the truncated records and actual herd-life were 0.75 for records truncated after 6mo but approached unity for records truncated after 3 yr. The genetic correlations of herd-life with first-parity milk, fat, and protein production, somatic cell score (SCS), and female fertility were all positive, except for SCS, in which negative values are economically favorable. The highest correlations with herd-life in absolute value were with female fertility and SCS. PMID:25468704

Weller, J I; Ezra, E

2015-01-01

178

A study of some factors affecting reproductive performance in gilts  

E-print Network

data on age at puberty are not available for Texas conditions. Improvement of reproductive performance in swine has been rel? atively slow in this country. For the period 1928 to 19U8, sow productivity rose from 5 RI to 6.U pigs raised per litter... in which nutrition affects the fertility of farm animals. At present, practically nothing is known about how nutrition affects reproductive phenomena such as attainment of puberty, ovulation rates, fertilization rates, and embryonic death rates...

Fowler, Stewart Hampton

2013-10-04

179

Factors affecting the adoption of fertilizers by rice farmers in Côte d'Ivoire  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzed the factors that affect the adoption of chemical fertilizers by rice farmers in Côte d'Ivoire using a Tobit model. The results show that the major factors that positively influence farmers' use of fertilizers in rice fields are cultivation of lowlands, use of mechanization, farm size, land pressure and availability of non-farm income. Factors found to negatively affect

Akinwumi A. Adesina

1996-01-01

180

Risk Factors for Alcoholism Among Women Religious: Affect Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk factors for addiction have received extensive empirical attention. Specific risk factors for women Religious (nuns),\\u000a however, are not well known. This report examines risk factors for alcoholism in a retrospective study of 148 chemically dependent\\u000a women Religious in treatment. Negative emotionality, a personality measure, was the only significant predictor of alcoholism\\u000a severity in a joint multiple regression with childhood

Elizabeth M. Hill

181

ACCURACY OF PESTICIDE REFERENCE STANDARD SOLUTIONS. PART I. FACTORS AFFECTING ORGANIC SOLVENT EVAPORATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A gravimetric experiment was undertaken to identify the factors affecting solvent evaporation from analytical reference standard solutions and to establish the magnitude of the resultant solvent evaporation. The evaporation of organic solvent from standard solutions is affected b...

182

Factors Affecting Teachers' Student-Centered Classroom Computer Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aims at investigating which factors are relevant to induce teachers' student-centered classroom computer use. Survey data were collected from 361 teachers at comprehensive schools. Based on a systemic view of technology use in schools, different individual teacher characteristics and school contextual factors were examined.…

Friedrich, Helmut Felix; Hron, Aemilian

2011-01-01

183

Cognitive Factors Affecting Student Understanding of Geologic Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a model that describes how students reconstruct geological transformations over time. Defines the critical factors influencing reconstructive thinking: (1) the transformation scheme, which influences the other diachronic schemes; (2) knowledge of geological processes; and (3) extracognitive factors. (Author/KHR)

Dodick, Jeff; Orion, Nir

2003-01-01

184

Factors affecting the transfer of organochlorine pesticide residues to breastmilk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing studies monitoring organochlorine pesticide residues in breastmilk were examined to identify whether common factors determine the extent of transfer of these residues. A structured review of the English language literature was conducted. Papers were reviewed and assessed using a structured protocol. A total of 77 papers were initially identified, 46 of which contained conclusions relating to the factors which

Caroline A. Harris; Michael W. Woolridge; Alastair W. M. Hay

2001-01-01

185

An evaluation of factors affecting duration of orthodontic treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the first questions asked by new orthodontic patients is: How long will I need to wear my braces? A multitude of factors have the potential to influence the answer to this question. The purpose of this retrospective study was to identify some of the primary factors that influence orthodontic treatment duration. Few studies have attempted to evaluate these

F. Richard Beckwith; Richard J. Ackerman; Charles M Cobb; Daniel E. Tira

1999-01-01

186

Factors Affecting Survival of Bacteriophage on Tomato Leaf Surfaces  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ability of bacteriophage to persist in the phyllosphere for extended periods is limited by many factors, including sunlight irradiation, especially in the UV zone, temperature, desiccation, and exposure to copper bactericides. The effects of these factors on persistence of phage and formulated p...

187

Factors Affecting EWS-FLI1 Activity in Ewing's Sarcoma  

PubMed Central

Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFT) are characterized by specific chromosomal translocations, which give rise to EWS-ETS chimeric proteins. These aberrant transcription factors are the main pathogenic drivers of ESFT. Elucidation of the factors influencing EWS-ETS expression and/or activity will guide the development of novel therapeutic agents against this fatal disease. PMID:22135504

Herrero-Martin, David; Fourtouna, Argyro; Niedan, Stephan; Riedmann, Lucia T.; Schwentner, Raphaela; Aryee, Dave N. T.

2011-01-01

188

Modeling the night-sky radiances and inversion of multi-angle and multi-spectral radiance data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information on a city's emission pattern is crucial for any reasonable predictions of night sky radiances. Unfortunately, the bulk radiant intensity distribution as a function of zenith angle is scarcely available for any city throughout the world. Even if the spatial arrangements of urban light fixtures and lamp specifications are known, the cumulative effect on upwardly directed beams is difficult to determine; due to heterogeneity of the ambient environment, reflectance from ground surfaces, arbitrarily scattered obstacles, orography of terrain and many other site specific factors. The present paper develops a theoretical model and a numerical technique applicable to the retrieval of a City Emission Function (CEF) from the spectral sky radiances measured under clear sky conditions. Mathematically it is an inverse problem that is solved using a regularization algorithm in which the minimization routines penalize non-smooth solutions and the radiant intensity pattern is found subject to regularizing constraints. When spectral sky radiances are measured at a set of discrete wavelengths or at a set of discrete distances from the monitored light source, both the aerosol optical properties and the CEF can be determined concurrently. One great advantage of this approach is that no a-priori assumptions need to be made concerning aerosol properties, such as aerosol optical depth. The numerical experiment on synthetically generated city emissions' patterns has proven the functionality of the method presented.

Kocifaj, Miroslav

2014-05-01

189

Hemolymph factors affecting respiratory pumping in Aplysia californica  

E-print Network

for triggering RPS is a hemolymph-borne factor(s). Biochemical analysis of hemolymph showed: 1) the potential triggering factor in the hemolymph was not adsorbed to a C18 silica (SepPak) cartridge; 2) there was no significant difference between amino acid...C and the supernate was lyophilized for approximately 12 hours at 20oC. The residue was then resuspended in sterile saline and run through the C18 SepPak as described above (see Research Protocol 2a). The samples were then lyophilized, and again resuspended in 1...

Tigert, Susan Jill

1991-01-01

190

Factors Affecting Students' Self-Efficacy in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers working in educational settings are increasingly paying attention to the role students' thoughts and beliefs play in the learning process. Self-efficacy, a key element of social cognitive theory, appears to be an important variable because it affects students' motivation and learning. This article investigates empirical literature…

van Dinther, Mart; Dochy, Filip; Segers, Mien

2011-01-01

191

Light and Temperature: Key Factors Affecting Walleye Abundance and Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used published information to determine optimum light and temperature conditions for walleye Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum) and then applied this simple niche definition to predict how water clarity, temperature, and bathymetry affect walleye habitat availability. Our model calculated thermal–optical habitat area (TOHA), the benthic area of a lake that supplies optimum light, and temperature conditions for walleye during

Nigel P. Lester; Alan J. Dextrase; Robert S. Kushneriuk; Michael R. Rawson; Phil A. Ryan

2004-01-01

192

Factors Affecting Sea Lamprey Egg Survival STEPHEN J. SMITH  

E-print Network

is a nuisance parasitic fish in Lake Champlain that negatively affects important sport fish populations lamprey abundance (Marsden et al. 2003). Lake Champlain is 193 km long, has a maximum width of 19 km nontarget mortality in regularly treated tributaries. A population model of sea lampreys in Lake Champlain

Marsden, Ellen

193

Institutional Factors Affecting Biophysical Outcomes in Forest Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although there is considerable interest in the impact of diverse policies affecting the biophysical outcomes in forests, gaining a substantial sample over time of forests under different institutional arrangements has been difficult. This article analyzes data from 46 forests located in six countries over time. In forests where policies have been…

Coleman, Eric A.

2009-01-01

194

Factors, Correlates, Emotional Barriers Affecting Career Decisions of College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The correlates of career choice and the problem areas affecting career decisions are important to counseling psychologists. They are important to understanding the complexities of vocational behavior, facilitating differential treatment in counseling, and developing preventive career programs for men, women, and special groups. The effects of the…

O'Neil, James M.; And Others

195

Factors affecting bleedthrough of phenolic resin adhesive in hardwood plywood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some variables affecting the bleedthrough of phenolic resin adhesives in hardwood plywood were studied quantitatively. Variables included resin age, age of adhesive mix, extender\\/water ratio, amount of glue spread, aseembly time, veneer moisture content, species differences, grain angle, platen pressure, pressure cycle, platen temperature and rate of temperature rise.

Ben S. Bryant; Jose M. Ramos Garcia

1967-01-01

196

ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING METHANE GAS RECOVERY FROM SIX LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a pilot study of six U.S. landfills that have methane (CH4) gas recovery systems. NOTE: The study was a first step in developing a field testing program to gather data to identify key variables that affect CH4 generation and to develop an empirical mod...

197

Factors Affecting Science Teaching Efficacy of Preservice Elementary Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preservice elementary teachers entering the specialized coursework designed to prepare them for science teaching responsibilities have a broad range of efficacy beliefs about their success as future science teachers. As they progress through science methods and practicum courses, and on to complete their student teaching, their efficacy beliefs may change. Knowing the variables that affect the development of positive efficacy

Pamela Cantrell; Suzanne Young; Alan Moore

2003-01-01

198

Environmental factors affecting flowering of rice flower ( Ozothamnus diosmifolius, Vent.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice flower (Ozothamnus diosmifolius, Vent.), native to east Australia, is a spring flowering perennial shrub. It is a new cut flower plant, recently introduced into cultivation in Australia and in Israel. Its response to environmental conditions, which affect growth and flowering, are not yet known. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of growth temperature, photoperiod

Abraham H. Halevy; Eitan Shlomo; Michal Shvartz

2001-01-01

199

Factors that affect the fatigue strength of power transmission shafting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A long standing objective in the design of power transmission shafting is to eliminate excess shaft material without compromising operational reliability. A shaft design method is presented which accounts for variable amplitude loading histories and their influence on limited life designs. The effects of combined bending and torsional loading are considered along with a number of application factors known to influence the fatigue strength of shafting materials. Among the factors examined are surface condition, size, stress concentration, residual stress and corrosion fatigue.

Loewenthal, S. H.

1984-01-01

200

Radiance modelling using the P3 approximation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light dosimetry is an essential component of effective photodynamic therapy (PDT) of tumours. Present PDT light dosimetry techniques rely on fluence-based models and measurements. However, in a previous paper by Barajas et al, radiance-based light dosimetry was explored as an alternative approach. Although successful in demonstrating the use of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of radiance in tissue optical characterization, the MC proved time consuming and impractical for clinical applications. It was proposed that an analytical solution to the transport equation for radiance would be desirable as this would facilitate and increase the speed of tissue characterization. It has been found that the P3 approximation is one such potential solution. Radiance and fluence expressions based on the P3 approximation were used to optically characterize an Intralipid-based tissue phantom of varying concentration of scatterer (Intralipid) and absorber (methylene blue) using a plane wave illuminated, semi-infinite medium geometry. The results obtained compare favourably with the Grosjean approximation of fluence (a modified diffusion theory) using the same optical parameters . The results illustrate that radiance-based light dosimetry is a viable alternative approach to tissue characterization and dosimetry. It is potentially useful for clinical applications because of the limited number of invasive measurements needed and the speed at which the tissue can be characterized.

Dickey, Dwayne; Barajas, Oscar; Brown, Kevin; Tulip, John; Moore, Ronald B.

1998-12-01

201

FACTORS AFFECTING SENSITIVITY OF CHEMICAL AND ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF MARINE EMBAYMEMTS TO NITROGEN LOADING  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper summarizes an ongoing examination of the primary factors that affect sensitivity of marine embayment responses to nitrogen loading. Included is a discussion of two methods for using these factors: classification of embayments into discrete sensitivity classes and norma...

202

Factors affecting engorgement behavior in the salt marsh horse fly, Tabanus nigrovittatus Macquart (Diptera: Tabanidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Female Tabanus nigrovittatus were field collected and used in laboratory experimentation to further elucidate the physiological and behavioral factors that affect engorgement. Previous studies have shown that sulfakinins are feeding satiety factors in invertebrates. This study demonstrates that sulf...

203

Metallurgical factors affecting fracture toughness of aluminum alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crack extension in commercial aluminum alloys proceeds by the “ductile” or fibrous mode. The process involves the large, ~1\\u000a ?m to ~10?m, Fe-, Si-, and Cu-bearing inclusions which break easily, and the growth of voids at the cracked particles. The\\u000a linking-up of the voids is accomplished by the rupture of the intervening ligaments, and this is affected by the fine,

G. T. Hahn; A. R. Rosenfield

1975-01-01

204

Rotating biological contactors: a review on main factors affecting performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rotating biological contactors (RBCs) constitute a very unique and superior alternative for biodegradable matter and nitrogen\\u000a removal on account of their feasibility, simplicity of design and operation, short start-up, low land area requirement, low\\u000a energy consumption, low operating and maintenance cost and treatment efficiency. The present review of RBCs focus on parameters\\u000a that affect performance like rotational speed, organic and

S. Cortez; P. Teixeira; R. Oliveira; M. Mota

2008-01-01

205

Factors affecting the energy consumption of two refrigerator-freezers  

SciTech Connect

Two refrigerator-freezers, one with a top-mounted freezer and one with side-by-side doors, were tested in the laboratory to determine the sensitivity of their energy consumption to various operational factors. Room temperature, room humidity, door openings, and the setting of the anti-sweat heater switch were the factors examined. The results indicated that the room temperature and door openings had a significantly greater effect on energy consumption than the other two factors. More detailed tests were then performed under different room temperature and door-opening combinations. The relationship of door openings and the equivalent test room temperature was established. Finally, the effect on energy of different temperature settings was studied. Test results are presented and discussed.

Kao, J.Y.; Kelley, G.E. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Building and Fire Research Lab.

1996-12-31

206

Factors Affecting Technology Uses in Schools: An Ecological Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why is technology not used more in schools? Many researchers have tried to solve this persistent puzzle. The authors of this article report on their study of technology uses in 19 schools. They suggest an ecological metaphor, using the example of the introduction of the zebra mussel into the Great Lakes, to integrate and organize sets of factors

Zhao, Yong; Frank, Kenneth A.

2003-01-01

207

Caregiver Support Groups: Factors Affecting Use of Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined effects of factors on support group attendance among family caregivers to frail elderly relatives. Found that attendance by primary caregivers was greater for those who were older, who had secondary informal caregiver involved in providing care, or who had significant health problems. Attendance was greater for those caring for…

Monahan, Deborah J.; And Others

1992-01-01

208

Factors Affecting the Shape of Current-Potential Curves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Voltammetry, the fundamental electrochemical experiment, is the measurement of the current which flows at an electrode as a function of the potential applied to the electrode. Such an experiment is discussed, focusing on factors which influence the shape of the current potential curve. (JN)

Maloy, J. T.

1983-01-01

209

Factors Affecting Zinc Content of Bovine Hair1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten experiments were conducted to study the effects of potentially important factors on the zinc content of cattle hair. In Holsteins the order of descending amounts of zinc in hair were white tail, black body, and white body. Jersey fawn had slightly more zinc than black Holstein hair. The distal and proxinml ends of the hair contained the same amounts.

W. J. Miller; G. W. Powell; W. J. Pitts; H. F. Perkins

1965-01-01

210

Individual Differences: Factors Affecting Employee Utilization of Flexible Work Arrangements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated individual and organizational factors that predict an individual's choice to use flexible work arrangements (FWAs). Survey data was collected from 144 employees in two different organizations. The results revealed several significant predictors of FWAs: tenure, hours worked per week, supervisory responsibilities,…

Lambert, Alysa D.; Marler, Janet H.; Gueutal, Hal G.

2008-01-01

211

School-Related Factors Affecting High School Seniors' Methamphetamine Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from the 2005 Monitoring the Future survey were used to examine relationships between school-related factors and high school seniors' lifetime methamphetamine use. The study applied logistic regression techniques to evaluate effects of social bonding variables and social learning variables on likelihood of lifetime methamphetamine use. The…

Stanley, Jarrod M.; Lo, Celia C.

2009-01-01

212

Factors Affecting Hypocalcaemia Following Total Thyroidectomy: A Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

Objective: After thyroidectomy hypocalcaemia is the most significant complication for clinicians. In this study, we investigated the factors associated with development of hypocalcaemia after thyroidectomy. Materials and Methods: We investigated the patients prospectively for age, gender, preoperative diagnosis, hormonal status, operative time, operating surgeon, existence of parathyroid gland injury at the operation, parathyroid gland auto-transplantation, preoperative use of anti-thyroid drugs and amount of bleeding at the operation. After operation in 1 and 2 days, serum calcium and phosphor, and in the 1 day parathyroid hormone values were evaluated. The chi-square test was applied in the analysis of categorical variables. Logistic regression model was used to determine the risk of hypocalcaemia in the univariate analysis. Results: Hypocalcaemia developed in 47 of 196 patients. Female gender, preoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancer and toxic nodular goitre, <3cm nodule size, parathyroid injury and auto-transplantation and low vitamin D levels were factors found to be associated with hypocalcaemia in the Logistic regression analysis. Conclusion: The factors associated with hypocalcaemia were defined to be “gender, preoperative diagnosis, parathyroid gland injury, nodule size and vitamin D deficiency”, it is a multifactorial problem and it would not be proper to define a few etiological factors. PMID:25610288

Ozogul, Bunyami; Akcay, Mufide Nuran; Akcay, Gungor; Bulut, Ozgur Hakan

2014-01-01

213

Investigating Factors that Affect Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes activities that demonstrate the effects of factors such as wind velocity, water temperature, convection currents, intensity of light, rate of photosynthesis, atmospheric pressure, humidity, numbers of decomposers, presence of oxidizable ions, and respiration by plants and animals on the dissolved oxygen concentration in water. (MA)

Jantzen, Paul G.

1978-01-01

214

Historic Factors Affecting Educational Administration in Korean Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An official of the Korean Education Department Institute analyzes the effect of historic factors on current educational administration in Korea. He suggests that Confucianism, Shinto-Confucianism, Christianity, and Western ideas mainly dominate current Korean educational administration's organizational structure, culture, and leadership, while…

Lee, Jeong-Kyu

1999-01-01

215

Factors Affecting Junior High School Students' Interest in Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report the results of a study on students' interest in physics at the end of their compulsory schooling in Israel carried out in the framework of the ROSE Project. Factors studied were their opinions about science classes, their out-of-school experiences in physics, and their attitudes toward science and technology. Students' overall interest…

Trumper, Ricardo

2006-01-01

216

FACTORS AFFECTING DISINFECTION AND STABILIZATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Effective disinfection and stabilization of sewage sludge prior to land application is essential to not only protect human health, but also to convince the public of its benefits and safety. A basic understanding of the key factors involved in producing a stable biosolid product ...

217

Factors affecting lake whitefish recruitment in the Laurentian Great Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent ecological changes in the upper Laurentian Great Lakes have led to reduced growth and condition of several lake whitefish stocks. These changes have raised concerns over age estimate reliability and the role of intrinsic biotic factors in reproduction and subsequent recruitment. To address these issues, I: (1) examined variation and efficacy of three age estimation methods for the Bailey's

Andrew M Muir

2008-01-01

218

Meteorological factors affecting ozone profiles over the western North Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ozone measurements taken with an aircraft over the western North Ariantie in the summer of 1992 revealed numerous profiles that consisted of two principal layers with different, nearly constant mixing ratios in each layer. The lower layer was char- acterized by relatively low mixing ratios (< 25-30 parts per billion by volume), while the upper layer had values a factor

J. C. Doran; S. Zhong; C. M. Berkowitz

1996-01-01

219

Meteorological factors affecting ozone profiles over the western North Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ozone measurements taken with an aircraft over the western North Atlantic in the summer of 1992 revealed numerous profiles that consisted of two principal layers with different, nearly constant mixing ratios in each layer. The lower layer was characterized by relatively low mixing ratios (<25-30 parts per billion by volume), while the upper layer had values a factor of 2

J. C. Doran; S. Zhong; C. M. Berkowitz

1996-01-01

220

Factors That Affect Initial Enrollment of Working Adult, Graduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What factors lead working adults to initially enroll in graduate programs? Is the undergraduate degree no longer enough to sustain a rewarding career? Little is known as to why this segment of graduate students are building careers and pursuing advanced degrees simultaneously. Traditional institutions of higher learning have primarily focused on…

Adrignola, Matt Nolan

2010-01-01

221

Factors Affecting Principal Turnover: A Study of Three Midwestern Cities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose. This dissertation addresses the problem of principal turnover. Using state and city level administrative data, a study of principals and their schools in greater Kansas City, Missouri, St. Louis, Missouri, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, was conducted with the goal of discovering themes that emerge regarding the factors associated with turnover…

Belt, Charles M.

2009-01-01

222

FACTORS AFFECTING PREDATION AT SONGBIRD NESTS IN OLD FIELDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the effects of microhabitat, year, weather, time of season, stage of the nesting cycle, and brood parasitism on nest predation from a 7-year dataset on field sparrows (Spizella pusilla) and indigo buntings (Passerina cyanea) in-central Missouri, USA. Year, site, and the interaction of species and 2-week interval of the sea- son were important factors explaining nest predation. The

DIRK E. BURHANS; DONALD DEARBORN; FRANK R. THOMPSON; JOHN FAABORG

223

Sociological Factors Affecting Agricultural Price Risk Management in Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The highly volatile auction system in Australia accounts for 85 percent of ex-farm wool sales, with the remainder sold by forward contract, futures, and other hedging methods. In this article, against the background of an extensive literature on price risk strategies, we investigate the behavioral factors associated with producers' adoption of…

Jackson, Elizabeth; Quaddus, Mohammed; Islam, Nazrul; Stanton, John

2009-01-01

224

Factors Affecting Diurnal Activity of Fishers in North-Central British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mustelids, with their long, thin bodies and poor fat storage capabilities, perform an energetic balancing act when making decisions about energy expenditure. Activity rates provide vital insights into the factors that may affect these energy balances. Using radiotelemetry, we examined factors that affected the likelihood of diurnal activity of fishers (Martes pennanti) in north-central British Columbia, Canada. We assessed the

Richard D. Weir; Fraser B. Corbould

2007-01-01

225

The Internal Structure of Positive and Negative Affect: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the PANAS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested five confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) models of the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) to provide validity evidence based on its internal structure. A sample of 223 club sport athletes indicated their emotions during the past week. Results revealed that an orthogonal two-factor CFA model, specifying error…

Tuccitto, Daniel E.; Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.; Leite, Walter L.

2010-01-01

226

Factors Affecting the Tunneling Behavior of the Western Subterranean Termite, Reticulitermes hesperus Banks1  

E-print Network

Factors Affecting the Tunneling Behavior of the Western Subterranean Termite, Reticulitermes factors that affect the tunneling behavior of the western subterranean termite (Reticulitermes hesperus. Termites did not tunnel in soils treated with as little as 1 ppm bifenthrin or cypermethrin. Exposure

Standiford, Richard B.

227

FACTORS AFFECTING THE VOCAL BEHAVIOUR OF EAGLE OWLS BUBO BUBO: EFFECTS OF SEX AND TERRITORIAL STATUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY.—Factors affecting the vocal behaviour of Eagle Owls Bubo bubo: effects of sex and territo- rial status. We performed a playback experiment in order to assess the efficiency of two methods for detec- ting Eagle Owls Bubo bubo and to assess factors affecting detection rates. On each experimental visit we re- corded the number and sex of the responding owls,

José Antonio M ARTÍNEZ; Iñigo ZUBEROGOITIA

228

Management and Conservation Article Factors Affecting Daily Nest Survival of Burrowing Owls  

E-print Network

Management and Conservation Article Factors Affecting Daily Nest Survival of Burrowing Owls Within survival for a migratory population of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) breeding in black-tailed prairie also examined whether 8 intrinsic and extrinsic factors affected daily nest survival in burrowing owls

Conway, Courtney J.

229

29 CFR 784.118 - The exemption is intended for work affected by natural factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for work affected by natural factors. 784.118 Section 784.118 Labor...Character and Scope of the Section 13(a)(5) Exemption...for work affected by natural factors. As indicated...the purpose of the section 13(a)(5)...

2010-07-01

230

29 CFR 784.118 - The exemption is intended for work affected by natural factors.  

...for work affected by natural factors. 784.118 Section 784.118 Labor...Character and Scope of the Section 13(a)(5) Exemption...for work affected by natural factors. As indicated...the purpose of the section 13(a)(5)...

2014-07-01

231

29 CFR 784.118 - The exemption is intended for work affected by natural factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for work affected by natural factors. 784.118 Section 784.118 Labor...Character and Scope of the Section 13(a)(5) Exemption...for work affected by natural factors. As indicated...the purpose of the section 13(a)(5)...

2012-07-01

232

29 CFR 784.118 - The exemption is intended for work affected by natural factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for work affected by natural factors. 784.118 Section 784.118 Labor...Character and Scope of the Section 13(a)(5) Exemption...for work affected by natural factors. As indicated...the purpose of the section 13(a)(5)...

2013-07-01

233

29 CFR 784.118 - The exemption is intended for work affected by natural factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for work affected by natural factors. 784.118 Section 784.118 Labor...Character and Scope of the Section 13(a)(5) Exemption...for work affected by natural factors. As indicated...the purpose of the section 13(a)(5)...

2011-07-01

234

FACTORS AFFECTING MACROPHYTE AND FISH DISTRIBUTION IN COASTAL WETLANDS OF GEORGIAN BAY  

E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING MACROPHYTE AND FISH DISTRIBUTION IN COASTAL WETLANDS OF GEORGIAN BAY #12;FACTORS AFFECTING MACROPHYTE AND FISH DISTRIBUTION IN COASTAL WETLANDS OF GEORGIAN BAY By MAJA CVETKOVIC, B and fish distribution in coastal wetlands of Georgian Bay AUTHOR: Maja Cvetkovic, B.Sc. (Mc

McMaster University

235

Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs  

SciTech Connect

A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students ``dropouts`` whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

Pelham, J.

1991-12-31

236

Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs  

SciTech Connect

A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students dropouts'' whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

Pelham, J.

1991-01-01

237

Factors that affect adolescents' adherence to diabetes treatment.  

PubMed

There is strong evidence suggesting young people with type 1 diabetes experience difficulties adhering to their treatment regimens. The purpose of this literature review is to identify reasons for a lack of compliance in adolescents to allow nurses to develop knowledge to help improve treatment adherence. A literature search was undertaken by searching databases using key terms and inclusion criteria identified. The three themes are: parental influence, peer influence and depression. Findings indicate parental influence may be the main contributing factor towards non-compliance; however, associations between themes imply non-compliance is a result of a combination of factors. Limitations have been highlighted from the articles reviewed and provide opportunity for future research. PMID:25671752

Cox, Laura; Hunt, Jane

2015-02-01

238

Environmental factors affecting song control and song perception in songbirds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In songbirds, the differentiation of song and the song control system in the brain is mediated by the action of gonadal steroid\\u000a hormones that are influenced by environmental factors such as day length, food availability, and social relationships. In\\u000a particular, the Canary (Serinus canaria) and the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata) have become widely used animal models to study these brain

Stefan Leitner

2007-01-01

239

Factors Affecting the Toxicity of Methylmercury Injected into Eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a standardized protocol for comparing the sensitivities of the embryos of different bird species to methylmercury\\u000a when methylmercury was injected into their eggs. During the course of developing this protocol, we investigated the effects\\u000a of various factors on the toxicity of the injected methylmercury. Most of our experiments were done with chicken (Gallus domesticus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and

G. H. Heinz; D. J. Hoffman; S. L. Kondrad; C. A. Erwin

2006-01-01

240

Factors affecting attitudinal patterns toward education in the Dominican Republic  

E-print Network

to maintain some form of equilibrium. In order to effectively change the norms that may impede organized change, the attitudes toward these norms must be understood and taken into account. This thesis was concerned with one small aspecr of rhe total... The general objective of this thesis was to determine the attitude toward education of people in the Dominican Republic. Subsequent objectives included establishing the effect the following factors might have in relation to attitude toward education: age...

Carpenter, Edwin Hugh

1968-01-01

241

Factors affecting statistical power in the detection of genetic association  

PubMed Central

The mapping of disease genes to specific loci has received a great deal of attention in the last decade, and many advances in therapeutics have resulted. Here we review family-based and population-based methods for association analysis. We define the factors that determine statistical power and show how study design and analysis should be designed to maximize the probability of localizing disease genes. PMID:15931375

Gordon, Derek; Finch, Stephen J.

2005-01-01

242

An exploratory investigation into factors affecting visual balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the history of art more attention has been given to pictorial balance than to any other principle of visual composition.\\u000a When examining pictorial balance, the visual weights of significant elements within a given field must be taken into consideration.\\u000a This study, by means of ocular photography and the analysis of eye fixations, examined factors that have an effect upon

Walter Niekamp

1981-01-01

243

Israeli women entrepreneurs: An examination of factors affecting performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines individual factors influencing performance of 200 Israeli women-owned businesses. Whereas research on women entrepreneurs is extensive in developed countries, especially in the United States and Europe, there are comparatively few studies of performance of women-owned businesses in non-OECD countries. There is evidence that social structures (work, family, and organized social life) vary among developed and developing countries

Robert Hisrich; Candida Brush

1997-01-01

244

What Are Some Factors That Affect Seasonal Patterns?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to have students use GLOBE data and graphing tools to compare the influence of latitude, elevation, and geography on seasonal patterns. Students analyze the graph of the past year's maximum and minimum temperatures at their site. They compare this graph to similar graphs for two other sites and list which factors that might cause the patterns to be different and investigate one in depth.

The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

2003-08-01

245

Factors Affecting Dynamic Populations (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan teaches students that populations are dynamic with identifiable characteristics and measurable growth patterns. Factors of population survival that are taught include immigration and emigration, environmental resistance, carrying capacity, and homeostasis. The lesson plan provides objectives, skills, time needed, a content outline, materials, and significant terms. The overarching goal is for students to develop an understanding of the interdependence of all organisms and the need for conserving natural resources.

246

Factors Affecting HIV Contraceptive Decision-Making Among Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined contraceptive decision-making among African American, Latina, and European American women ages 18–50 years. Logistic regressions examined relationships between demographic and religious factors, unintended pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), reasons for sex, and contraceptive decision-making. Women who were older, single, African American, used pregnancy prevention, and had histories of STDs and unintended pregnancies made contraceptive decisions alone. Older and

Gail E. Wyatt; JenniferVargas Carmona; TamraBurns Loeb; Donald Guthrie; Dorothy Chin; Gwen Gordon

2000-01-01

247

Factors affecting hexavalent chromium reduction in pure cultures of bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on the rate of Cr(VI) reduction by two organisms, Bacillus sp. (a new isolate), and Pseudomonas fluorescens LB 300. Both organisms utilized glucose for Cr(VI) reduction under aerobic conditions. Higher Cr(VI) reduction rates were obtained with higher initial cell concentrations, but the specific rate (normalized against initial cell concentration),

Yi-Tin Wang; Changsong Xiao

1995-01-01

248

Factors affecting the morphology of isocitrate lyase crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Isocitrate lyase crystals have been grown by the hanging drop vapor equilibration method in both 1-g and microgravity and by vapor equilibrium in small capillaries. The crystal morphologies obtained have ranged from dendritic to 'octagonal' prisms. Theoretical evaporation models have been applied to these growth regimes. The results of these analyses along with other experimental results, indicate the factors which must be controlled to produce good growth morphologies.

Demattei, Robert C.; Feigelson, Robert S.; Weber, Patricia C.

1992-01-01

249

Hydrostatic factors affect the gravity responses of algae and roots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hypothesis of Wayne et al. (1990) that plant cells perceive gravity by sensing a pressure differential between the top and the bottom of the cell was tested by subjecting rice roots and cells of Caracean algae to external solutions of various densities. It was found that increasing the density of the external medium had a profound effect on the polar ratio (PR, the ratio between velocities of the downwardly and upwardly streaming cytoplasm) of the Caracean algae cells. When these cells were placed in solutions of denser compound, the PR decreased to less than 1, as the density of the external medium became higher than that of the cell; thus, the normal gravity-induced polarity was reversed, indicating that the osmotic pressure of the medium affects the cell's ability to respond to gravity. In rice roots, an increase of the density of the solution inhibited the rate of gravitropism. These results agree with predictions of a hydrostatic model for graviperception.

Staves, Mark P.; Wayne, Randy; Leopold, A. C.

1991-01-01

250

Environmental factors affecting pregnancy: Endocrine disrupters, nutrients and metabolic pathways.  

PubMed

Uterine adenogenesis, a unique post-natal event in mammals, is vulnerable to endocrine disruption by estrogens and progestins resulting in infertility or reduced prolificacy. The absence of uterine glands results in insufficient transport of nutrients into the uterine lumen to support conceptus development. Arginine, a component of histotroph, is substrate for production of nitric oxide, polyamines and agmatine and, with secreted phosphoprotein 1, it affects cytoskeletal organization of trophectoderm. Arginine is critical for development of the conceptus, pregnancy recognition signaling, implantation and placentation. Conceptuses of ungulates and cetaceans convert glucose to fructose which is metabolized via multiple pathways to support growth and development. However, high fructose corn syrup in soft drinks and foods may increase risks for metabolic disorders and increase insulin resistance in adults. Understanding endocrine disrupters and dietary substances, and novel pathways for nutrient metabolism during pregnancy can improve survival and growth, and prevent chronic metabolic diseases in offspring. PMID:25224489

Bazer, Fuller W; Wu, Guoyao; Johnson, Gregory A; Wang, Xiaoqiu

2014-12-01

251

Factors affecting the retirement of commercial transport jet aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The historical background of the technology and economics of aircraft replacement and retirement in the prejet era is reviewed in order to determine whether useful insights can be obtained applicable to the jet era. Significant differences between the two periods are noted. New factors are identified and examined. Topics discussed include concern over current policies regarding deregulation, regulatory reform, and retroactive noise regulations; financing and compliance legislation; aging; economic environment and inflation; technological progress; fuel efficiency and cost; and a financial perspective of replacement decisions.

Spencer, F. A.

1979-01-01

252

Factors Affecting Long-term Abstinence from Substances Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The purpose of this study is to explore the attitudes of abstainers from drug use that relate to the factors leading to long-term\\u000a abstinence.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods  Cross-sectional study was carried out in Al-Amal Hospital to examine, which attitudes of abstainers related to long-term abstinence.\\u000a A random survey was conducted on 62 subjects from extended care units. All participants were male

Salah Elgaily Elsheikh

2008-01-01

253

Factors Affecting the Detection Rate of Human Papillomavirus  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Maximizing the accuracy of human papillomavirus (HPV) detection from a single sample is important for clinical and research purposes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether cyclic hormonal variation, recent sexual intercourse, interval between samplings, and the technique used to sample affect the detection of HPV. METHODS This study was a prospective, longitudinal, randomized controlled trial. Three techniques for self-sampling (2 consecutive synthetic polyester fiber [Dacron] swabs, a single Dacron swab, and a tampon) were repeated at 3 different sampling times during a period of 4 to 6 weeks in addition to 1 clinician-directed sampling of the ectocervix and endocervix at the first sampling time. All self-samplings were taken in a proscribed randomized order. Women (aged 18 to 68 years) attending a colposcopy clinic for abnormal cytology or abnormal cervical appearance participated in the study. The outcome measure was the detection of HPV by polymerase chain reaction amplification. RESULTS The 103 participants provided 1,189 cervicovaginal samplings. Logistic regression indicated that intercourse within 48 hours of sampling did not result in a greater detection of high-risk or any HPV type (odds ratio [OR] = 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65–1.69; OR = 1.08, 95% CI, 0.73–1.60, respectively). Among those women who have regular menstrual cycles, there was no cyclic effect on HPV detection for high-risk and any HPV types. Time from previous sampling did not affect HPV detection. Among the self-sampling techniques, using a single self-swab and the tampon resulted in the detection of HPV between 10% and 35% less often than using 2 consecutive swabs (P < .025). Self-sampling with 2 swabs was not significantly different from clinician sampling for detecting high-risk HPV types (OR for self-sampling = 0.87 (95% CI, 0.66–1.13)). CONCLUSIONS HPV detection is not dependent on menstrual cycle timings, the recency of intercourse, or the time between samplings, but it is dependent on the sampling technique. PMID:15055412

Harper, Diane M.; Longacre, Meghan R.; Noll, Walter W.; Belloni, Dorothy R.; Cole, Bernard F.

2003-01-01

254

Ecological Factors Affecting Efficiency and Health in Warships*  

PubMed Central

The environment of those who live and work in warships is closely related to the way the ships are built and employed. In stating the requirements for the atmosphere between decks the emphasis has swung during the past 50 years from the need for controlling the chemical constituents to the control of the factors which comprise the thermal environment, and now, with the advent of the nuclear-powered submarine, to the need for achieving, as nearly as possible, complete physical, chemical, and microbiological control. Between 1944 and 1953 the thermal factors between decks were investigated in a series of studies carried out in H.M. Ships. The average effective temperatures on the mess decks and in the work places of 11 ships in the Eastern Fleet in 1944 exceeded 84°F. (28·9°C.). In compartments where radiant heat was an added factor the average corrected effective temperature levels were 1° or 2°F. (0·55-1·1°C.) higher than the corresponding effective temperatures. The effects of climatic conditions on naval personnel were investigated by psychological studies to determine the levels of warmth at which performance deteriorated; by physiological experiments to show the levels of warmth at which the collapse of men working at different work rates might be expected; by comfort surveys in ships and on shore to determine the levels of warmth at which the majority enjoyed optimum comfort; and by relating the monthly incidence of the common causes of ill-health to the average monthly upper-deck temperature as recorded at noon each day in order to determine the temperature level above which sickness increased. It was concluded that the upper desirable level of warmth to consider when designing ships for hot climates was an effective temperature of 78°F. (25·5°C.). As it is usually impracticable in many compartments to achieve temperatures below 78°F. (25·5°C.) in the tropics without the generous application of air cooling, attention was then directed to the associated effects on the chemical and bacterial constituents of restricting air supplies, an unavoidable feature of most air conditioning systems, and to defining the permissible lower limits for fresh air requirements. The nuclear submarine with its capacity for remaining submerged for very long periods raises new problems relating to life in a confined space and involving very prolonged exposure to the submarine environment. These problems have still to be investigated. PMID:13726470

Ellis, F. P.

1960-01-01

255

Factors affecting the rheology and processability of highly filled suspensions.  

PubMed

Suspensions filled with rigid particles at volume-loading levels that approach their maximum packing fraction are widely encountered, especially in the energetics, ceramics, pharmaceutical, magnetics, composites, food, and personal care industries. Highly filled suspensions, regardless of industrial application, exhibit a number of common rheological and processability traits, including viscoplasticity and wall slip, that necessitate special rheometers and appropriate characterization and numerical simulation methods. Furthermore, various factors, including the dispersion and distribution of the particles and their agglomerates, the entrainment of air, the filtration-based migration of the binder phase, and the shear-induced migration of particles, play important roles and must be considered in the design and optimization of manufacturing operations for processing of highly filled suspensions. PMID:24910916

Kalyon, Dilhan M; Akta?, Seda

2014-01-01

256

Factors affecting oral feeding with severe traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Safe and adequate nutrition, vital to the recovery from a traumatic brain injury, can be severely compromised by the presence of dysphagia. This study identified injury severity and swallowing factors that were associated with impaired oral intake in patients with severe brain injury. An admitting Glasgow Coma Scale (GSC) 3-5; a Rancho Los Amigos Scale of Cognitive Functioning (RLA) Level II; a computed tomography (CT) scan exhibiting midline shift, brainstem involvement, or brain pathology requiring emergent operative procedures; or ventilation time >/=15 days identified patients at highest risk for abnormal swallowing, aspiration, and delay in initiation of oral feeding and achievement of total oral feeding. When combined in multivariate models, RLA Level, CT scan, ventilation time and aspiration emerged as significant independent predictors of impaired oral intake. PMID:10653939

Mackay, L E; Morgan, A S; Bernstein, B A

1999-10-01

257

Factors affecting the regulation of pacing: current perspectives  

PubMed Central

During prolonged dynamic and rhythmic exercise, muscular pain and discomfort arises as a result of an increased concentration of deleterious metabolites. Sensed by peripheral nociceptors and transmitted via afferent feedback to the brain, this provides important information regarding the physiological state of the muscle. These sensations ultimately contribute to what is termed “exercise-induced pain”. Despite being well recognized by athletes and coaches, and suggested to be integral to exercise performance, this construct has largely escaped attention in experimental work. This perspective article highlights the current understanding of pacing in endurance performance, and the causes of exercise-induced pain. A new perspective is described, which proposes how exercise-induced pain may be a contributing factor in helping individuals to regulate their work rate during exercise and thus provides an important construct in pacing. PMID:25228823

Mauger, Alexis R

2014-01-01

258

Factors affecting age of walking by children with mental retardation.  

PubMed

The relationship between age of walking and two factors of severity of intellectual disability and clinical types (autism, Down syndrome, epilepsy, and "residual") in children with mental retardation was investigated. Subjects were 118 children whose disabilities ranged from severe to mild. Measures by clinical type were significant, and the differences of any two clinical types except between children with epilepsy and the "residual" group were significant, but severity of intellectual disability was not significant. Most children with autism (27 subjects, 93%) walked by the normal time limit of 18 months. Only 3 children (11%) with Down syndrome began to walk within that limit, and 9 of them (33%) walked after 2 years of age. In the "residual" group (including children with epilepsy), 37 children (60%) walked within the normal limit but 15 (25%) only after 2 years of age. PMID:7675588

Kokubun, M; Haishi, K; Okuzumi, H; Hosobuchi, T

1995-04-01

259

Factors affecting the academic progression of associate degree graduates.  

PubMed

The Oregon Consortium for Nursing Education (OCNE) is a coalition of community colleges and the campuses of the Oregon Health & Sciences University (OHSU), created to share a competency-based curriculum by which associate degree graduates from an OCNE campus are eligible to complete requirements for the bachelor's degree after 1 year of additional full-time study. Since 2006, three graduating classes from consortium community college programs have graduated 760 students eligible for direct transfer to OHSU; however, only 228 (30%) have actually transferred. This study aimed to explore the factors that influenced the 208 graduates in the class of 2010 not to transfer. The primary reasons for discontinuing their nursing education, in ranked order, were financial concerns, conflict with time and energy for work, and conflict with time and energy for family. This study has implications for achieving the academic progression goals recommended in the Institute of Medicine's The Future of Nursing report. PMID:22356360

Munkvold, Julia; Tanner, Christine A; Herinckx, Heidi

2012-04-01

260

Factors Affecting Time-to-Contact Calculations During Quiet Standing.  

PubMed

Time-to-contact (TtC) is an alternative measure of postural stability to center of pressure (CoP) velocity. TtC is based on both spatial and temporal aspects of CoP displacement, definition of the boundary shape and quantity of minima analyzed. Three boundary shapes and three minima selection methods were used to compute TtC during bipedal quiet standing. The results suggest that there is a strong positive correlation between TtC values obtained using each of the calculation methods (r ? 0.73) and mean CoP velocity (r ? -0.70). TtC was significantly affected by boundary shape and minima selection method. This limits the ability to compare absolute values, but relative levels of stability computed using TtC can be compared due to strong correlations. Given the task parameters studied, mean CoP velocity may even be adequate to assess levels of stability. Future studies are needed to examine the generalizability of these findings for different groups and task parameters. PMID:24718897

Didomenico, Angela; McGorry, Raymond W; Banks, Jacob J

2014-04-01

261

Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the groundwater quality in Serbia.  

PubMed

Various chemometric techniques were used to analyze the quality of groundwater data sets. Seventeen water quality parameters: the cations Na, K, Ca, Mg, the anions Cl, SO4, NO3, HCO3 and nine trace elements Pb, As, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cd, Fe, Zn and Cr were measured at 66 different key sampling sites in ten representative areas (low land-Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina and central Serbia) for the summer period of 2009. HCA grouped the sample sites into four clusters based on the similarities of the characteristics of the groundwater quality. DA showed two parameters, HCO3 and Zn, affording more than 90% correct assignments in the spatial analysis of four/three different regions in Serbia. Factor analysis was applied on the log-transformed data sets and allowed the identification of a reduced number of factors with hydrochemical meaning. The results showed severe pollution with Mn, As, NO3, Ni, Pb whereby anthropogenic origin of these contaminants was indicated. The pollution comes from both scattered point sources (industrial and urban effluent) and diffuse source agricultural activity. These samples may not be suitable for human consumption; the water quality belongs to class III/IV (contaminated). The Fe anomalies (7.1mg/L) in the water from the Vetrnica site can be attributed to natural sources, such as the dissolution of rock masses and rock fragments. The serious groundwater contamination with As (25.7-137.8 ?g/L) in the area of Banat (Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina) and a sample No. 9 at the Great Morava River requires urgent attention. PMID:24080418

Devic, Gordana; Djordjevic, Dragana; Sakan, Sanja

2014-01-15

262

Factors affecting the healing of the perineum following surgery  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of this study was to establish patient and procedural factors associated with the development of an unhealed perineum in patients undergoing a proctectomy or excision of an ileoanal pouch. Methods A review of 194 case notes for procedures performed between 1997 and 2009 was carried out. All patients had at least 12 months’ follow-up. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed in 16 parameters. For those patients who developed an unhealed perineum, Cox regression analysis was performed to establish healing over a 12-month period. Results Two hundred patients were included in the study, of which six had unknown wound status and were subsequently excluded. This left 194 study patients. Of these, 86 (44%) achieved primary wound healing with a fully healed perineum and 108 (56%) experienced primary wound failure. With reference to the latter, 63 (58%) healed by 12 months. Comparing patients with an initially intact perineum with those with initial wound failure showed pre-existing sepsis was highly relevant (odds ratio: 4.32, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.16–8.62, p<0.001). In patients who had an unhealed perineum initially, perineal sepsis and surgical treatment were both significantly associated with time to healing (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.31–0.93, p=0.03; and HR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.21–0.84, p=0.01). Conclusions The presence of pre-existing perineal sepsis is associated with an unhealed perineum following proctectomy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and non-IBD surgery. Further studies are indicated to establish perineal sepsis as a causative factor. PMID:23676808

Jones, M; Bassett, P; Phillips, R

2013-01-01

263

Temperature can interact with landscape factors to affect songbird productivity.  

PubMed

Increased temperatures and more extreme weather patterns associated with global climate change can interact with other factors that regulate animal populations, but many climate change studies do not incorporate other threats to wildlife in their analyses. We used 20 years of nest-monitoring data from study sites across a gradient of habitat fragmentation in Missouri, USA, to investigate the relative influence of weather variables (temperature and precipitation) and landscape factors (forest cover and edge density) on the number of young produced per nest attempt (i.e., productivity) for three species of songbirds. We detected a strong forest cover × temperature interaction for the Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) on productivity. Greater forest cover resulted in greater productivity because of reduced brood parasitism and increased nest survival, whereas greater temperatures reduced productivity in highly forested landscapes because of increased nest predation but had no effect in less forested landscapes. The Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) exhibited a similar pattern, albeit with a marginal forest cover × temperature interaction. By contrast, productivity of the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) was not influenced by landscape effects or temperature. Our results highlight a potential difficulty of managing wildlife in response to global change such as habitat fragmentation and climate warming, as the habitat associated with the greatest productivity for flycatchers was also that most negatively influenced by high temperatures. The influence of high temperatures on nest predation (and therefore, nest predators) underscores the need to acknowledge the potential complexity of species' responses to climate change by incorporating a more thorough consideration of community ecology in the development of models of climate impacts on wildlife. PMID:23504884

Cox, W Andrew; Thompson, Frank R; Reidy, Jennifer L; Faaborg, John

2013-04-01

264

A Gentle Introduction to Precomputed Radiance Transfer  

E-print Network

with the support of modern graphics hardware. Precomputed Radiance Transfer (PRT) is a new graphics technique surfaces. Due to the quality of its results, PRT has attracted the attention of many computer graphics researchers and practitioners. However, understanding and implementing PRT requires familiarity with concepts

Oliveira, Manuel M.

265

TEXTURED HIERARCHICAL PRECOMPUTED RADIANCE TRANSFER Presented to  

E-print Network

-reflections. In contrast, Precomputed Radiance Transfer (PRT) is a real-time computer graphics technique which pre-reflections. In this thesis, we show that by calculating PRT lighting coefficients densely over a surface as texture data introduces Hierarchical PRT, which extends some sur- face effects, such as soft shadows, between objects

Wood, Zoë J.

266

Radiance Measurement for Low Density Mars Entry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report measurements of radiance behind a shock wave in Martian simulant (96% CO2, 4% N2) atmosphere at conditions relevant for aerodynamic decelerators. Shock waves are generated in the NASA Ames Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) facility at velocities from 6-8 km/s and freestream densities from 1.2-5.9 x 10(exp -4) kilograms per cubic meter (0.05-0.25 Torr, corresponding to 35-50 km altitude). Absolute radiance is measured as a function of wavelength and position in the shock. Radiance measurements extend from the vacuum ultraviolet to near infrared (120-1650 nm). As at higher density/velocity, radiation is dominate by CO 4th positive radiation in the vacuum ultraviolet, though CN contribution is also significant. At most low density conditions, the shock does not relax to equilibrium over several centimeters. A small number of measurements in the mid-infrared were performed to quantify radiation from the fundamental vibrational transition in CO, and this is found to be a minor contributor to the overall radiance at these speeds. Efforts to extend test time and reliability in the 60 cm (24) shock tube will be discussed in the full paper.

Cruden, Brett A.

2012-01-01

267

Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI) measures the absolute infrared (IR) spectral radiance (watts per square meter per steradian per wavenumber) of the sky directly above the instrument. The spectral measurement range of the instrument is 3300 to 520 wavenumbers (cm-1) or 3-19.2 microns for the normal-range instruments and 3300 to 400 cm-1 or 3-25 microns, for the extended-range polar instruments. Spectral resolution is 1.0 cm-1. Instrument field-of-view is 1.3 degrees. A calibrated sky radiance spectrum is produced every 8 minutes in normal mode and every minute in rapid sampling mode. The actual sample scan time is 20-30 sec in rapid sampling mode with periodic gaps when the instrument is looking at the blackbodies. Rapid sampling will become available in all AERIs. Rapid sampling time will eventually be reduced to data every 20 seconds. The AERI data can be used for 1) evaluating line-by-line radiative transport codes, 2) detecting/quantifying cloud effects on ground-based measurements of infrared spectral radiance (and hence is valuable for cloud property retrievals), and 3) calculating vertical atmospheric profiles of temperature and water vapor and the detection of trace gases.

Demirgian, J; Dedecker, R

2005-01-01

268

Factors affecting outcomes of corneal collagen crosslinking treatment  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess the effects of preoperative patient characteristics on clinical outcomes of corneal crosslinking (CXL) treatment in patients with progressive keratoconus. Methods This retrospective study comprised 96 eyes of 96 patients who had unilateral CXL treatment for progressive keratoconus. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmological examination and corneal topography at baseline and 1 year. Subgroup analyses were performed according to the age (<30 and?30 years), gender, preoperative corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, <0.3 and ?0.3 logMAR (log of the minimum angle of resolution)), preoperative maximum keratometry (K, <54 and ?54?D), baseline topographic cone location (central, paracentral, and peripheral), and preoperative thinnest pachymetry (<450 and ?450??m) to determine the associations between preoperative patient characteristics and outcomes (changes in visual acuity and maximum keratometry) of CXL treatment. Results In the entire study population, mean CDVA and maximum K significantly improved after CXL treatment (P<0.001). Patients with a preoperative CDVA of 20/40 Snellen equivalent or worse (?0.3 logMAR) experienced more visual improvement after CXL treatment (P<0.001). However, an age ?30 years and a baseline thinnest pachymetry less than 450??m were found significantly associated with more flattening in maximum keratometry (P=0.024, P=0.005 respectively). Gender, preoperative maximum K, and baseline topographic cone location did not show significant effect on postoperative visual acuity and maximum keratometry (P>0.05). Conclusions In patients with progressive keratoconus, age, baseline visual acuity, and baseline thinnest pachymetry seem to affect the success of the CXL treatment. PMID:24136568

Toprak, I; Yaylal?, V; Yildirim, C

2014-01-01

269

An Analysis of Factors Affecting Community College Students' Expectations on E-Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many factors that affect the e-learning process. Instructor, assessment and evaluation, communication, and technical support are among the leading factors. It is obvious that these factors influence the effectiveness of e-learning and may be related to different expectations of e-learners. Therefore, this study focuses on examining the…

Kilic-Cakmak, Ebru; Karatas, Sercin; Ocak, Mehmet Akif

2009-01-01

270

Factors Affecting Teachers' Perceived Readiness for Online Collaborative Learning: A Case Study in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates factors affecting the perceived readiness for online collaborative learning (OCL) of a sample of 86 mathematics teachers from 12 secondary schools. Descriptive analysis, factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structure equation modeling were used to analyze the data. A moderately fit model was generated and able to inform that time constraint and insufficient access to technology such

Ah-choo Koo

2008-01-01

271

Factors Affecting Teachers' Perceived Readiness for Online Collaborative Learning: A Case Study in Malaysia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates factors affecting the perceived readiness for online collaborative learning (OCL) of a sample of 86 mathematics teachers from 12 secondary schools. Descriptive analysis, factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structure equation modeling were used to analyze the data. A moderately fit model was generated and able…

Koo, Ah-Choo

2008-01-01

272

Factors Affecting the Intensity of Solar Energetic Particle Events  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper updates the influence of environmental and source factors of shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that are likely to influence the solar energetic particle (SEP) events. The intensity variation due to CME interaction reported that is confirmed by expanding the investigation to all the large SEP events of solar cycle 23. The large SEP events are separated into two groups, one associated with CMEs running into other CMEs, and the other with CMEs running into the ambient solar wind. SEP events with CME interaction generally have a higher intensity. New possibilities such as the influence of coronal holes on the SEP intensity are also discussed. For example, the presence of a large coronal hole between a well-connected eruption and the solar disk center may render the shock poorly connected because of the interaction between the CME and the coronal hole. This point is illustrated using the 2004 December 3 SEP event delayed by about 12 hours from the onset of the associated CME. There is no other event at the Sun that can be associated with the SEP onset. This event is consistent with the possibility that the coronal hole interaction influences the connectivity of the CMEs that produce SEPs, and hence the intensity of the SEP event.

Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

2011-01-01

273

Environmental Factors Affecting the Occurrence of Mycobacteria in Brook Waters  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of environmental mycobacteria, viable counts of mycobacteria were measured in samples of brook water collected from 53 drainage areas located in a linear belt crossing Finland at 63° north latitude. The numbers of mycobacteria were correlated with characteristics of the drainage area, climatic parameters, chemical and physical characteristics of the water, and counts of other heterotrophic bacteria in the water. The numbers of mycobacteria in the water ranged from 10 to 2,200 CFU/liter. The counts correlated positively (P < 0.001) with the presence of peatlands, precipitation data, chemical oxygen demand, water color, and concentrations of Fe, Al, Cu, Co, and Cr. The mycobacterial counts correlated negatively (P < 0.001) with water pH, whereas other heterotrophic bacterial counts lacked any correlation with pH. A linear regression model with four independent variables (i.e., peatlands in the drainage area, chemical oxygen demand, concentration of potassium, and pH) explained 83% of the variation in mycobacterial counts in brook waters. Our results suggest that acidification may enhance the growth of environmental mycobacteria. PMID:16348866

Iivanainen, E. K.; Martikainen, P. J.; Väänänen, P. K.; Katila, M.-L.

1993-01-01

274

Factors affecting static stratification of thermal water storage  

SciTech Connect

The thermal shortage is a key component of any successful solar thermal system. A good thermal storage should allow minimum thermal energy losses while permitting the highest possible extraction efficiency of the stored thermal energy. Despite the many available examples of successful designs of solar thermal storage tanks, the static behavior of the solar thermal storage is not fully understood. Among the many factors influencing such behavior are heat losses, tank geometry, dead zones, and tank wall material. In this study, laboratory-scale models with different geometries were built for the purpose of examining thermal behavior during the period after charging. During this period, called the thermal diffusion period, the extraction efficiency was temporarily decreased until natural stratification was achieved. After the thermal period, the extraction efficiency decreased primarily as a result of thermal losses to the environment and thermal degradation caused by the storage tank walls. Increasing the ratio of length to diameter up to 3 or 4 significantly increases the extraction efficiency. Storages with length-to-diameter ratios larger than 4 are not desirable because the added cost does not result in improvement of the thermal extraction efficiency.

AlMarafie, A. (Mechanical Engineering Dept., Kuwait Univ., Kuwait City (KW)); Moustafa, S.M. (Mechanical Engineering Dept., California Polytechnic State Univ., San Luis Obispo, CA (US)); Al-Kandarie, A. (Energy Dept., Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Kuwait City (KW))

1989-01-01

275

Experimental and environmental factors affect spurious detection of ecological thresholds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Threshold detection methods are increasingly popular for assessing nonlinear responses to environmental change, but their statistical performance remains poorly understood. We simulated linear change in stream benthic macroinvertebrate communities and evaluated the performance of commonly used threshold detection methods based on model fitting (piecewise quantile regression [PQR]), data partitioning (nonparametric change point analysis [NCPA]), and a hybrid approach (significant zero crossings [SiZer]). We demonstrated that false detection of ecological thresholds (type I errors) and inferences on threshold locations are influenced by sample size, rate of linear change, and frequency of observations across the environmental gradient (i.e., sample-environment distribution, SED). However, the relative importance of these factors varied among statistical methods and between inference types. False detection rates were influenced primarily by user-selected parameters for PQR (?) and SiZer (bandwidth) and secondarily by sample size (for PQR) and SED (for SiZer). In contrast, the location of reported thresholds was influenced primarily by SED. Bootstrapped confidence intervals for NCPA threshold locations revealed strong correspondence to SED. We conclude that the choice of statistical methods for threshold detection should be matched to experimental and environmental constraints to minimize false detection rates and avoid spurious inferences regarding threshold location.

Daily, Jonathan P.; Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Smith, David R.; Snyder, Craig D.

2012-01-01

276

A review of factors affecting fat absorption in hot chips.  

PubMed

Consumption of hot chips is a convenience food in most countries. Unfortunately, these are high in fat and contribute to fat-related diseases in societies with a high fat consumption. There is substantial scope through best-practice deep-frying techniques for producing lower fat, high-quality chips. From a review of the literature, the main factors associated with a lower-fat content of chips are thick (>12 mm), straight cut chips; cryogenic freezing methods; low moisture content of potatoes (specific gravity >1.1); frying fat: chip volume ratio of 6:1; frying at optimal temperature (180 to 185 degrees C) during cooking and turning the temperature down (approximately 140 degrees C) and covering the vats during slack periods; vigorously shaking the basket and hanging it over the deep fryer to drain after frying; maintaining the quality of the frying fat by regularly skimming the cracklings, filtering the fat, and topping up the fryer with fresh fat; keeping the fat turnover <5 days; regular cleaning of frying equipment. It is important that all deep frying operators are adequately trained in these techniques. It is also important that the frying medium is low in saturated and trans fatty acids (<20%) because of their effects on blood lipids and low in linolenic acid (<3%) because it is readily degraded. The widespread implementation of best-practice deep-frying would reduce fat content of hot chips and thus lower overall fat consumption. PMID:11214763

Mehta, U; Swinburn, B

2001-01-01

277

Oxytocin and Psychological Factors Affecting Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of oxytocin with trait and state psychological factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods. OXT and psychological variables were analyzed from 86 controlled diabetic patients (glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) < 7%) from 45 uncontrolled diabetic patients (HbA1c ? 7). Psychological characteristics were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), while state psychological characteristics were measured with the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL 90-R). Blood samples were taken for measuring oxytocin in both subgroups during the initial phase of the study. One year later, the uncontrolled diabetic patients were reevaluated with the use of the same psychometric instruments. Results. During the first evaluation of the uncontrolled diabetic patients, a statistically significant positive relationship between the levels of OXT and psychoticism in EPQ rating scale (P < 0.013) was observed. For controlled diabetic patients, a statistically significant negative relationship between oxytocin and somatization (P < 0.030), as well as obsessive-compulsive scores (P < 0.047) in SCL-90 rating scale, was observed. During the second assessment, the values of OXT decreased when the patients managed to control their metabolic profile. Conclusions. The OXT is in association with psychoticism, somatization, and obsessionality may be implicated in T2DM. PMID:22997507

Kontoangelos, K.; Raptis, A. E.; Papageorgiou, C. C.; Tsiotra, P. C.; Papadimitriou, G. N.; Rabavilas, A. D.; Dimitriadis, G.; Raptis, S. A.

2012-01-01

278

Extracorporeal model for study of factors affecting thrombus formation.  

PubMed

Factors determining thrombus formation on a foreign surface were studied with the use of plastic flow chambers introduced into extracorporeal shunts. Silicone rubber shunts, joining the carotid artery and jugular vein, were implanted in dogs and remained patent for several weeks. The flow chamber geometry consisted of a 4.8 mm diameter straight tube having a 3.2 X 3.2 mm circumferential cavity in the wall. Chambers were introduced sequentially into the shunts for exposure times of 10 to 30 minutes and regulated blood flow rates of 100 to 400 ml/min. The dry weight of thrombus accumulated in the chamber (5 to 50 mg) was found to increase with exposure time up to 20 minutes and to decrease with increasing flow rate. Various components of the process of thrombus formation were altered by the administration of acetylsalicylic acid, heparin and lysozyme, used alone and in pairs. Heparin was found to be the most effective antithrombotic agent, dry weights of accumulated thrombus being on the order of 50 percent lower when compared to control values. The efficacy of heparin was found to be unaffected by the presence of aspirin and lysozyme, which themselves were not effective antithrombotic agents under the conditions of these experiments. The technique described here may provide a useful animal model for studying the influence of blood flow and different biomaterials on thrombus formation. PMID:1103356

Benis, A M; Nossel, H L; Aledort, L M; Koffsky, R M; Stevenson, J F; Leonard, E F; Shiang, H; Litwak, R S

1975-09-30

279

Intrinsic factors affecting apoptosis in bovine in vitro produced embryos.  

PubMed

The main purpose for human assisted reproductive technologies (ART) is clearly to bypass reproductive failures. This purpose is totally different from the aims in animal ART, being genetic improvement and more recently conservation of endangered species. Apoptosis or programmed cell death has been detected before implantation in in vivo as well as in vitro embryos and might contribute to lower developmental competence and embryonic losses of in vitro embryos. In vitro embryo quality is clearly jeopardized by quality of the gametes (oocytes and spermatozoa) and suboptimal culture condition, but there is no consensus on which factor is most important in the incidence of apoptosis during early embryo development. The objective of the present study was to unravel the contribution of both male and female gamete quality to the incidence of apoptosis of bovine embryos produced in vitro. In vivo bull fertility expressed a very low correlation with cleavage rate and blastocyst yield. In contrast, developmental kinetics and oocyte diameter are important markers of embryo developmental potential and embryo quality in terms of the appearance of apoptosis, indicating a significant maternal effect on embryo quality. PMID:22276397

Vandaele, L; Van Soom, A

2011-01-01

280

"Receptivity": an important factor affecting supportive care provision.  

PubMed

The research on psychosocial need provides the foundation informing the drive for the provision of supportive care services for patients and their families. The work on patient access, barriers to participation, and service evaluation are providing some insights that can help guide practitioners in their efforts to ensure that services designed to meet psychosocial need reach and involve the appropriate individuals. However, this direction is presently in its infancy leaving many questions unanswered. This article makes a contribution to advancing and strengthening this line of research through a fresh perspective on the topic provided by consumer research with individuals diagnosed with a hematological malignancy. The research was initiated and funded by the Leukaemia Foundation of Queensland (LFQ) with the aim of exploring the experience of survivorship for individuals diagnosed with a hematological malignancy to inform supportive care service provision and development. The findings from the research posit the notion of "receptivity" as an important new concept that can contribute to the deepening of our understanding of the myriad of factors associated with effectively engaging with individuals in supportive care service provision. PMID:23311970

McGrath, Pamela

2013-01-01

281

Factors Affecting the Musculoskeletal Symptoms of Korean Police Officers  

PubMed Central

] This study was conducted to investigate efficient, systematic management of the Korean police and to examine the status and prevention of musculoskeletal disorders in Korean police officers. [Subjects and Methods] A survey of police officers (353 subjects) who visited the National Police Hospital from March 2013 to May 2013 was conducted using a structured questionnaire. [Results] The incidence of pain was 44.2% in the shoulder, 41.4% in the waist, 31.2% in the neck, 26.1% in the legs/foot, 16.7% in the hand/wrist/finger, and 14.7% in the arm/elbow. The comparative risk of the relevant part factors was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. The shoulder had a 4.87 times higher risk in police lieutenants compared with those under the rank of corporal and a 1.78 times higher risk in people with chronic diseases than those without chronic diseases. The arm/elbow had a 2.37 times higher risk in people who exercised than those who did not exercise and a 1.78 times higher risk in people with a chronic disease than those without chronic diseases. Generally, people with a chronic disease showed a higher risk than those without chronic diseases. [Conclusion] The results of this study could be useful as basic data for improvement of police welfare, specialized treatment for the health safety of the police, and efficient management of police resources. PMID:25013298

Cho, Taek-Sang; Jeon, Woo-Jin; Lee, Jin-Gu; Seok, Jong-Min; Cho, Jae-Hwan

2014-01-01

282

Assimilation of the Microwave Limb Sounder Radiances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been shown that the assimilation of limb-sounder data can significantly improve the representation of ozone in NASA's GEOS Data Assimilation Systems (GEOS-DAS), particularly in the stratosphere. The studies conducted so far utilized retrieved data from the MIPAS, POAM, ILAS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS MLS) instruments. Direct assimilation of the radiance data can be seen as the natural next step to those studies. The motivation behind working with radiances is twofold. First, retrieval algorithms use a priori data which are either climatological or are obtained from previous analyses. This introduces additional uncertainty and, in some cases, may lead to "self-contamination"- when the a priori is taken from the same assimilation system in which subsequently ingests the retrieved observations. Second, radiances can be available in near real time thus providing an opportunity for operational assimilation, which could help improve the use of infrared radiance instruments from operational satellite instruments. In this presentation we summarize our ongoing work on an implementation of the assimilation of EOS MLS radiances into the GEOS-5 DAS. This work focuses on assimilation of band 7 brightness temperatures which are sensitive to ozone. Our implementation uses the MLS Callable Forward Model developed by the MLS team at NASA JPL as the observation operator. We will describe our approach and recent results which are not yet final. In particular, we will demonstrate that this approach has a potential to improve the vertical structure of ozone in the lower tropical stratosphere as compared with the retrieved MLS product. We will discuss the computational efficiency of this implementation.

Wargan, K.; Read, W.; Livesey, N.; Wagner, P.; Nguyen. H.; Pawson, S.

2012-01-01

283

Factors affecting ovarian compensation after unilateral ovariectomy in gilts.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to identify the temporal limits of an ovarian compensatory response after unilateral ovariectomy (ULO) in gilts and to examine ovarian and hormonal factors that might be related to this response. In the first study, all eight gilts that were unilaterally ovariectomized on d 12, 14 or 16 of an estrous cycle and two of four ULO on d 18 had a significant compensatory increase in ovulation rate per ovary compared with controls. Ovulatory compensation failed to occur, however, in two of four and four of four gilts ULO on d 18 or 19 of an estrous cycle, respectively. In the second study, blood samples were collected from 26 gilts beginning on d 14 of an estrous cycle, and animals were assigned to sham-surgery or ULO on d 17, 18 or 19. Ovarian compensation occurred after ULO on all 3 d of surgery in the second study, but most follicles failed to ovulate and formed large luteinized cysts. The ability to compensate was related positively to the number of medium-sized follicles on the intact ovary at the time of ULO, to an increase in concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone 12 to 18 h after ULO and to the interval from ULO to the preovulatory surge of luteinizing hormone. In a third experiment, interruption of the ovulatory mechanism and development of cystic follicles similar to those observed in the second study were induced simply by physical manipulation of the d 19 preovulatory ovary while contralateral untouched ovaries ovulated normally. PMID:6430861

Coleman, D A; Fleming, M W; Dailey, R A

1984-07-01

284

Factors affecting levels of genetic diversity in natural populations.  

PubMed Central

Genetic variability is the clay of evolution, providing the base material on which adaptation and speciation depend. It is often assumed that most interspecific differences in variability are due primarily to population size effects, with bottlenecked populations carrying less variability than those of stable size. However, we show that population bottlenecks are unlikely to be the only factor, even in classic case studies such as the northern elephant seal and the cheetah, where genetic polymorphism is virtually absent. Instead, we suggest that the low levels of variability observed in endangered populations are more likely to result from a combination of publication biases, which tend to inflate the level of variability which is considered 'normal', and inbreeding effects, which may hasten loss of variability due to drift. To account for species with large population sizes but low variability we advance three hypotheses. First, it is known that certain metapopulation structures can result in effective population sizes far below the census size. Second, there is increasing evidence that heterozygous sites mutate more frequently than equivalent homozygous sites, plausibly because mismatch repair between homologous chromosomes during meiosis provides extra opportunities to mutate. Such a mechanism would undermine the simple relationship between heterozygosity and effective population size. Third, the fact that related species that differ greatly in variability implies that large amounts of variability can be gained or lost rapidly. We argue that such cases are best explained by rapid loss through a genome-wide selective sweep, and suggest a mechanism by which this could come about, based on forced changes to a control gene inducing coevolution in the genes it controls. Our model, based on meiotic drive in mammals, but easily extended to other systems, would tend to facilitate population isolation by generating molecular incompatabilities. Circumstances can even be envisioned in which the process could provide intrinsic impetus to speciation. PMID:9533122

Amos, W; Harwood, J

1998-01-01

285

Factors affecting motion characteristics of frozen-thawed stallion spermatozoa.  

PubMed

Five experiments were conducted to evaluate damage incurred in each processing step for cryopreservation of stallion spermatozoa. In Experiment 1, semen was centrifuged for 9 centrifugation times and the percentage of spermatozoa recovered after each treatment was calculated and spermatozoal motion characteristics analysed. Recovery of spermatozoa was > or = 80% when spermatozoa were centrifuged for > or = 10 min. Experiment 2 evaluated spermatozoa cryopreserved at 5 different concentrations in each of 2 extenders (skim milk-egg yolk-glycerol, SM-EYG; and lactose-EDTA, LAC). In SM-EYG, TMOT and PMOT were higher at spermatozoal concentrations of 20, 200 and 400 x 10(6)/ml (51%/41%, 52%/44%, 50%/43%, respectively) than for samples frozen at > or = 800 x 10(6) spermatozoa/ml (41%/35%, 32%/27%; P < 0.05). Spermatozoa frozen in LAC at a concentration of 20 x 10(6)/ml resulted in the highest TMOT and PMOT (43% and 30%, respectively, P < 0.05). The effect of freezing rate on motion characteristics of spermatozoa was evaluated in Experiment 3. The VCL of spermatozoa frozen in SM-EYG was the only parameter affected by freezing rate (P < 0.05). Experiment 4 evaluated motion characteristics after cryopreservation of spermatozoa in different sized straws (0.5 or 2.5 ml) in each of 2 extenders (SM-EYG and LAC). In SM-EYG, PMOT (38%) and VCL (109 microns/s) were highest when spermatozoa were frozen in 0.5 ml straws (P < 0.05). In Experiment 5, spermatozoa thawed immediately after cryopreservation or thawed after storage in liquid nitrogen for 24-48 h were evaluated. There was no effect of length of storage in liquid nitrogen on spermatozoal motion characteristics (P < 0.05). Experiment 6 evaluated the effects of cooling time to 5 degrees C (0, 2.5 and 5 h) on motion characteristics of spermatozoa cryopreserved in 2 extenders (SM-EYG and LAC). TMOT and PMOT were effected by cooling time, and there was a cooling-time-by-extender interaction (P < 0.05). In SM-EYG, TMOT and PMOT were higher if spermatozoa were cooled to 5 degrees C prior to initiation of freezing than if freezing was initiated at 20 degrees C (P < 0.05). A suggested protocol for cryopreservation of stallion spermatozoa would include: 1) centrifugation at 400 g for 14 to 16 min; 2) extension at 23 degrees C with SM-EYG to 400 x 10(6) spermatozoa/ml; 3) cool to 5 degrees C for 2.5 h; 4) package in 0.5 ml straws at 5 degrees C; 5) freeze in liquid nitrogen vapour at -160 degrees C; and 6) thaw for 30 s in 37 degrees C water. PMID:8565953

Heitland, A V; Jasko, D J; Squires, E L; Graham, J K; Pickett, B W; Hamilton, C

1996-01-01

286

Factors affecting the toxicity of methylmercury injected into eggs.  

PubMed

We developed a standardized protocol for comparing the sensitivities of the embryos of different bird species to methylmercury when methylmercury was injected into their eggs. During the course of developing this protocol, we investigated the effects of various factors on the toxicity of the injected methylmercury. Most of our experiments were done with chicken (Gallus domesticus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) eggs, all of which were purchased in large numbers from game farms. A smaller amount of work was done with double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs collected from the wild. Several solvents were tested, and corn oil at a rate of 1 microl/g egg contents was selected for the final standardized protocol because it had minimal toxicity to embryos and because methylmercury dissolved in corn oil yielded a dose-response curve in a range of egg concentrations that was similar to the range that causes reproductive impairment when the mother deposits methylmercury into her own eggs. The embryonic stage at which eggs were injected with corn oil altered mercury toxicity; at early stages, the corn oil itself was toxic. Therefore, in the final protocol we standardized the time of injection to occur when each species reached the morphologic equivalent of a 3-day-old chicken embryo. Although solvents can be injected directly into the albumen of an egg, high embryo mortality can occur in the solvent controls because of the formation of air bubbles in the albumen. Our final protocol used corn oil injections into the air cell, which are easier and safer than albumen injections. Most of the methylmercury, when dissolved in corn oil, injected into the air cell passes through the inner shell membrane and into the egg albumen. Most commercial incubators incubate eggs in trays with the air cell end of the egg pointing upward, but we discovered that mercury-induced mortality was too great when eggs were held in this orientation. In addition, some species of bird eggs require incubation on their sides with the eggs being rolled 180 degrees for them to develop normally. Therefore, we adopted a procedure of incubating the eggs of all species on their sides and rolling them 180 degrees every hour. Little has been published about the conditions of temperature, humidity, and the movements to which eggs of wild birds need to be subjected for them to hatch optimally under artificial incubation. Not unexpectedly, hatching success in an artificial incubator is generally less than what natural incubation by the parents can achieve. However, the survival of control embryos of most wild bird species was good (generally > or = 80%) up to within 1 or 2 days of hatching when we incubated the eggs at 37.5 degrees C (or 37.6 degrees C for gallinaceous species) at a relative humidity that resulted in an approximate 15% to 16% loss in egg weight by the end of incubation and by incubating the eggs on their sides and rolling them 180 degrees /h. To improve statistical comparisons, we used survival through 90% of incubation as our measurement to compare survival of controls with survival of eggs injected with graded concentrations of mercury. PMID:16307214

Heinz, G H; Hoffman, D J; Kondrad, S L; Erwin, C A

2006-02-01

287

Effect of forest canopy closure on incoming solar radiance  

SciTech Connect

In order to better understand the physical processes involved in defoliation assessment from remotely sensed data, a field study was designed to investigate the effect of forest canopy closure and other environmental variables on incoming solar radiation. Diffuse radiation measurements were recorded in red, infrared, and middle infrared wavelengths using the Mark 2 three band field radiometer. Results to date indicate that the percent canopy closure is the single most important variable affecting incoming solar radiation. In the visible and near infrared regions, interaction between time of day and date (defined later as solar zenith angle) also affect radiometric response. Aspect has only limited influence on radiance response. These same variables do not influence middle infrared response, however. Uniformity of the forest canopy appears to be more important. These results are compared to LANDSAT MSS classification results of gypsy moth defoliation.

Dottavio, C.L.

1981-04-01

288

Effect of forest canopy closure on incoming solar radiance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to better understand the physical processes involved in defoliation assessment from remotely sensed data, a field study was designed to investigate the effect of forest canopy closure and other environmental variables on incoming solar radiation. Diffuse radiation measurements were recorded in red, infrared, and middle infrared wavelengths using the Mark 2 three band field radiometer. Results to date indicate that the percent canopy closure is the single most important variable affecting incoming solar radiation. In the visible and near infrared regions, interaction between time of day and date (defined later as solar zenith angle) also affect radiometric response. Aspect has only limited influence on radiance response. These same variables do not influence middle infrared response, however. Uniformity of the forest canopy appears to be more important. These results are compared to LANDSAT MSS classification results of gypsy moth defoliation.

Dottavio, C. L. (principal investigator)

1981-01-01

289

41 CFR 101-27.304-2 - Factors affecting the economic retention limit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.3-Maximizing Use of Inventories § 101-27.304-2 Factors affecting the economic...

2013-07-01

290

41 CFR 101-27.304-2 - Factors affecting the economic retention limit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.3-Maximizing Use of Inventories § 101-27.304-2 Factors affecting the economic...

2012-07-01

291

41 CFR 101-27.304-2 - Factors affecting the economic retention limit.  

...Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.3-Maximizing Use of Inventories § 101-27.304-2 Factors affecting the economic...

2014-07-01

292

Management and Conservation Article Factors Affecting Detection of Burrowing Owl Nests  

E-print Network

Management and Conservation Article Factors Affecting Detection of Burrowing Owl Nests During practices on persistence of local populations of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) requires accurate in areas that are potentially suitable for nesting burrowing owls. In general, guidelines on timing

Conway, Courtney J.

293

Factors Affecting the Reactvity of Granular Iron in contact with Chlorinated Solvents  

E-print Network

This study investigates, at various scales, the factors that affect the reactivity of granular iron (GI) toward chlorinated solvents and link these scale-specific processes with each other. The Kinetic Iron Model (KIM), ...

Firdous, Rubina

2013-12-31

294

Measured radiance and temperature interaction in turbulent pool fires  

SciTech Connect

The fires above moderate sized pools of ethanol and isopropanol have been studied to determine how the fluctuating temperatures and concentrations of radiating species affect the radiant intensity leaving the flame. The experimental facility consists of a 12 meter diameter pool which is instrumented for radiance and soot concentration measurements. Temperature is determined from a thermocouple rake, permitting correlation of the temperature at eleven positions along the fire diameter. High speed movies and digitized time-lapse photographs enhance the understanding of the visible radiation in the fire. In both the ethanol and propanol fires, the peak average temperature is 1275 K, the standard deviation of temperature is close to 300 K, and the dominant flickering frequency is near 2 Hz. Significant differences in the two fuels also exist: the thermal output of the isopropanol is 141 kW, double the ethanol fire; the peak radiance from the isopropanol is 22 kWm/sup 2/-sr, also double the ethanol the value; the absorption coefficient in the propanol fire exceeds 15 m/sup -1/, three times that of ethanol; and the measured soot levels and visible radiation from burning propanol exceed by five times those found from burning ethanol.

Grosshandler, W.L.; Fischer, S.J.; Hardouin-Duparc, B.

1987-01-01

295

Factors affecting total alkaloid and nitrate levels in pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke)  

E-print Network

for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1981 Major Subject: Agronomy FACTORS AFFECTING TOTAL ALKALOID AND NITRATE LEVELS IN PEARL MILLET (PENNISETUM AMERICANUM (L. ) LEEKE) A Thesis by BEVERLY BLOHOWIAK KREJSA Approved as to style and content by...: (Co-chairman of Committee) ( o-chsi an Committee) J (Member) C~?. (Member) Head of e ment) y" December 1981 ABSTRACT Factors Affecting Total Alkaloid and Nitrate Levels in Pearl Millet (P' t *(L)Lk) Beverly Blohowiak Krejsa, B. S. , Texas A...

Krejsa, Beverly Blohowiak

1981-01-01

296

Factors affecting the recovery of petroleum in projects involving the injection of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG)  

E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING THE RECOVERY OF PETROLEUM IN PROJECTS INVOLVING THE INJECTION OF LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GASES (LPG) A Thesis By GERRY A. GRAHAM Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, 1961 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering GERRY A. GRAHAM FACTORS AFFECTING THE RECOVERY OF PETROLEUM IN PROJECTS INVOLVING THE INJECTION OF LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GASES (LPG) A...

Graham, Gerry A

2012-06-07

297

A New Hybrid Approach for Analysis of Factors Affecting Crude Oil Price  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new hybrid approach is presented to analyze factors affecting crude oil price using rough set and wavelet\\u000a neural network. Related factors that affect crude oil price are found using text mining technique and Brent oil price is chosen\\u000a as the decision price because it plays an important role in world crude oil markets. The relevant subsets

Wei Xu; Jue Wang; Xun Zhang; Wen Zhang; Shouyang Wang

2007-01-01

298

Factors affecting the within-river spawning migration of Atlantic salmon, with emphasis on human impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review factors affecting the within-river spawning migration of Atlantic salmon. With populations declining across the\\u000a entire distribution range, it is important that spawners survive in the last phase of the spawning migration. Knowledge on\\u000a the factors affecting migration is essential for the protection of populations, and to increase the success of reintroduction\\u000a programmes. A number of studies have documented

Eva B. Thorstad; Finn Økland; Kim Aarestrup; Tor G. Heggberget

2008-01-01

299

Examining factors affecting the safety performance and design of exclusive truck facilities  

E-print Network

EXAMINING POTENTIAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE SAFETY PERFORMANCE AND DESIGN OF EXCLUSIVE TRUCK FACILITIES A Thesis by VICHIKA IRAGAVARAPU Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2007 Major Subject: Civil Engineering EXAMINING POTENTIAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE SAFETY PERFORMANCE AND DESIGN OF EXCLUSIVE TRUCK FACILITIES A Thesis...

Iragavarapu, Vichika

2008-10-10

300

Distribution of practice as a factor affecting learning and/or performance.  

PubMed

Earlier studies considering distribution of practice as a factor affecting learning and/or performance have employed a transfer design and consequently have failed to provide the means for refuting the contention that postrest performance was the manifestation of extended practice, a temporary performance variation, or some form of the "Hawthorne effect" rather than the result of the independent variable. The present experiment provided adequate control, and results indicated that distribution of practice was a factor affecting performance rather than learning. PMID:23961934

Dunham, P

1976-12-01

301

An analysis of selected factors controlling or affecting the hydraulic conductivity of compacted soil liners  

E-print Network

AN ANALYSIS OF SELECTED FACTORS CONTROLLING OR AFFECTING THE HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF COMPACTED SOIL LINERS A Thesis by ROBERT CARY SPEAKE, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 19B6 Major Subject: Civil Engineering AM ANALYSIS OF SELECTED FACTORS CONTROLLING OR AFFECTING THE HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF COMPACTED SOIL LINERS A Thesis by ROBERT CARY SPEAKE, JR. Approved...

Speake, Robert Cary

1986-01-01

302

Factors affecting the relationship between calving interval of cows and weaning weights of calves  

E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING THE R'LATIONSHIP BETWEEN CALVING INTERVAL OF COWS AND WEANING WEIGHTS OF CALVES A Thesis PHILIP ERICH DOREN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1982 Major Subject: Animal Breeding FACTORS AFFECTING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CALVING INTERVAL OF COWS AND WEANING WEIGHTS OF CALVES A Thesis by PHILIP ERICH DOREN Approved as to style and content by: (C airman...

Doren, Philip Erich

2012-06-07

303

Factors affecting weaning weights of calves produced in Hereford and rotational crossbred herds  

E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING WEANING WEIGHTS OF CALVES PRODUCED IN HEREFORD AND ROTATIONAL CROSSBRED HERDS A Thesis By jORGE TOVAR R. Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1965 Major Subject: Animal Production FACTORS AFFECTING WEANING WEIGHTS OF CALVES PRODUCED IN HEREFORD AND ROTATIONAL CROSSBRED HERDS A Thesis By JORGE TOVAR R. Approved as to style an content by: ( ' an of Committee...

Tovar-Rodriguez, Jorge

2012-06-07

304

Ecological Factors Affecting Hispanic Urban Middle School and High School Adolescents’ College and Career Aspirations  

E-print Network

ECOLOGICAL FACTORS AFFECTING HISPANIC URBAN MIDDLE SCHOOL AND HIGH SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS? COLLEGE AND CAREER ASPIRATIONS A Dissertation by JUDY ANN HOSTRUP Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2011 Major Subject: Curriculum and Instruction ECOLOGICAL FACTORS AFFECTING HISPANIC URBAN MIDDLE SCHOOL AND HIGH SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS? COLLEGE...

Hostrup, Judy Ann

2011-08-08

305

Extraction of Profile Information from Cloud Contaminated Radiances. Appendixes 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clouds act to reduce the signal level and may produce noise dependence on the complexity of the cloud properties and the manner in which they are treated in the profile retrieval process. There are essentially three ways to extract profile information from cloud contaminated radiances: (1) cloud-clearing using spatially adjacent cloud contaminated radiance measurements, (2) retrieval based upon the assumption of opaque cloud conditions, and (3) retrieval or radiance assimilation using a physically correct cloud radiative transfer model which accounts for the absorption and scattering of the radiance observed. Cloud clearing extracts the radiance arising from the clear air portion of partly clouded fields of view permitting soundings to the surface or the assimilation of radiances as in the clear field of view case. However, the accuracy of the clear air radiance signal depends upon the cloud height and optical property uniformity across the two fields of view used in the cloud clearing process. The assumption of opaque clouds within the field of view permits relatively accurate profiles to be retrieved down to near cloud top levels, the accuracy near the cloud top level being dependent upon the actual microphysical properties of the cloud. The use of a physically correct cloud radiative transfer model enables accurate retrievals down to cloud top levels and below semi-transparent cloud layers (e.g., cirrus). It should also be possible to assimilate cloudy radiances directly into the model given a physically correct cloud radiative transfer model using geometric and microphysical cloud parameters retrieved from the radiance spectra as initial cloud variables in the radiance assimilation process. This presentation reviews the above three ways to extract profile information from cloud contaminated radiances. NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed-Interferometer radiance spectra and Aqua satellite AIRS radiance spectra are used to illustrate how cloudy radiances can be used in the profile retrieval process.

Smith, W. L.; Zhou, D. K.; Huang, H.-L.; Li, Jun; Liu, X.; Larar, A. M.

2003-01-01

306

Estimation of evapotranspiration using satellite TOA radiances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ET (Evapotranspiration) is an important variable in the water and energy balance on the Earth's surface. Accurate estimation of the temporal and spatial pattern of ET is of great significance for hydrological, agricultural and meteorological studies. A simplified single-source energy balance parameterization scheme, known as the LST/NDVI (Land Surface Temperature/Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) feature space method, has been applied successfully to estimate clear sky ET in many studies. Based on the LST/NDVI feature space method, a new method is proposed in this study to estimate ET directly using the TOA (Top of Atmosphere) radiances without performing atmospheric correction and associated complex processes. Firstly, the feasibility and uncertainties in estimating NDTI (Normalized Difference Temperature Index, a key parameter in EF (evaporative fraction) estimation) from TOA radiances are investigated. Through a physical understanding of the Planck radiation law and radiative transfer equation, together with a detailed sensitivity analysis of NDTI on surface and atmosphere variability, it is found that the NDTI can be estimated from TOA radiances with an accuracy of 90% if the spatial variabilities of atmospheric parameters (water vapor, effective atmospheric temperature) and surface emissivity are below 10%, 4 K, and 0.05, respectively. Then the applicability and robustness of the MODIS TOA radiances based EF estimation scheme are investigated using FLUXNET (a global network of eddy covariance stations) observations. From direct comparison with measured EF at different FLUXNET sites, the estimated EF from TOA radiances perform mostly well across a wide variety of climate and biome types. The accuracy level is also comparable with published results in the literature. Furthermore, the FLUXNET measurements are used to examine the assumption of EF self preservation, and the conditions under which it can hold. It is found that the instantaneous EF can represent daytime EF under clear sky conditions especially between 11:00 h LT (local time) and 14:00 h LT for all stations, and the midday (12:00 h LT to 13:00 h LT) EF is closest to daytime EF. However, the EF is more variable during cloudy skies so that an increase in cloud cover results in an increase in the variability of the EF during daytime. Finally, a new parameterization scheme to estimate daytime ET directly using TOA radiances is proposed and evaluated over a regional scale. The instantaneous EF and net radiation are derived respectively based entirely on MODIS TOA radiances. Then daytime ET maps are estimated from these EF and net radiation maps by using a sinusoidal temporal interpolation model. To evaluate the performance of the TOA radiances based estimates, the estimated EF, net radiation and ET are compared with field observations and MODIS products based estimates. The results indicate comparable accuracy to results of other current widely used satellite-based methods. Overall, the proposed algorithm requires fewer assumptions and can avoid complex atmospheric corrections associated with the satellite derived products. It provides a useful alternative for determining ET and relevant applications as well.

Peng, J.; Loew, A.

2013-12-01

307

Spectral Dimensionality and Scale of Urban Radiance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Characterization of urban radiance and reflectance is important for understanding the effects of solar energy flux on the urban environment as well as for satellite mapping of urban settlement patterns. Spectral mixture analyses of Landsat and Ikonos imagery suggest that the urban radiance field can very often be described with combinations of three or four spectral endmembers. Dimensionality estimates of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) radiance measurements of urban areas reveal the existence of 30 to 60 spectral dimensions. The extent to which broadband imagery collected by operational satellites can represent the higher dimensional mixing space is a function of both the spatial and spectral resolution of the sensor. AVIRIS imagery offers the spatial and spectral resolution necessary to investigate the scale dependence of the spectral dimensionality. Dimensionality estimates derived from Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) eigenvalue distributions show a distinct scale dependence for AVIRIS radiance measurements of Milpitas, California. Apparent dimensionality diminishes from almost 40 to less than 10 spectral dimensions between scales of 8000 m and 300 m. The 10 to 30 m scale of most features in urban mosaics results in substantial spectral mixing at the 20 m scale of high altitude AVIRIS pixels. Much of the variance at pixel scales is therefore likely to result from actual differences in surface reflectance at pixel scales. Spatial smoothing and spectral subsampling of AVIRIS spectra both result in substantial loss of information and reduction of apparent dimensionality, but the primary spectral endmembers in all cases are analogous to those found in global analyses of Landsat and Ikonos imagery of other urban areas.

Small, Christopher

2001-01-01

308

Cloud altitude determination from infrared spectral radiances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The CO2 slicing method is generally recognized as the most accurate means of inferring cloud altitude from passive infrared radiance observations. The method is applicable to semi-transparent and broken clouds. During the cirrus FIRE and COHMEX field experiments, CO2 channel radiance data suitable for cloud altitude specification were achieved from moderate spectral resolution satellite sounders (NOAA-TOVS and GOES-VAS) and from a High spectral resolution Interferometer Spectrometer (HIS) flown on the NASA U2/ER2 aircraft. Also aboard the ER2 was a down-looking active lidar unit capable of providing cloud top pressure verifications with high accuracy. A third instrument, the Multispectral Atmospheric Mapping Sensor (MAMS) provided 50 meter resolution infrared window data which is used wtih radiosonde data to verify the heights of middle and low level clouds. Comparisons of lidar and MAMS/radiosonde ground truth cloud heights are made with those determined from: high resolution (0.5/cm) HIS spectra, HIS spectra degraded to the moderate resolution (15/cm) of the VAS/TOVS instruments, and spectrally averaged HIS radiances for individual pairs of VAS spectral channels. The results show that the best results are achieved from high resolution spectra; the RMS difference with the ground truth is 23 mb. The RMS differences between the infrared radiance determination and ground truth increase by 35 percent when the spectral resolution is degraded to the moderate spectral resolution of the VAS/TOVS instruments and by 52 to 183 percent, depending upon channel combinations, when only two spectral channels at VAS/TOVS spectral resolution are used.

Smith, William L.; Frey, Richard

1990-01-01

309

One Moon, many measurements 1: Radiance values  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several modern optical instruments orbited the Moon during 2008 and 2009 onboard the SELENE and Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft and provided a welcomed feast of spectroscopic data to be used for scientific analyses. The different spatial and spectral resolutions of these sensors along with diverse illumination geometry during data acquisition make each set of data unique, and each instrument contributes special value to integrated science analyses. In order to provide the maximum science benefit, we have undertaken a careful cross-validation of radiance data among these orbital instruments and also a set of systematic data acquired using Earth-based telescopes. Most radiance values at 750 nm fall between 0 and 100 W/(m2 ?m sr), but a small important fraction can be up to ×2 to ×3 that value, with the largest values occurring at the highest spatial resolution. All instruments are in agreement about overall spectral properties of lunar materials, but small systematic differences are documented between instruments. Lunar radiance values measured with remote sensors for landing sites are all not as high as that estimated from laboratory measurements of returned soil. This is largely because laboratory measurements of lunar soils cannot retain or duplicate the fine structure of lunar regolith found in the natural space environment.

Pieters, C. M.; Boardman, J. W.; Ohtake, M.; Matsunaga, T.; Haruyama, J.; Green, R. O.; Mall, U.; Staid, M. I.; Isaacson, P. J.; Yokota, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Besse, S.; Sunshine, J. M.

2013-09-01

310

Chadwick et al TRB 12-4396 1 Analysis of Factors Affecting Train Derailments2  

E-print Network

consequences for the public and the railroads alike, especially28 in the form of train derailments. The goalChadwick et al TRB 12-4396 1 1 Analysis of Factors Affecting Train Derailments2 at Highway of this research is to identify and understand the factors29 leading to these derailments. This paper focuses

Barkan, Christopher P.L.

311

Ageing Human Bone: Factors Affecting its Biomechanical Properties and the Role of Collagen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of fractures increases with age. This is partly due to extraosseous factors and partly to the increased fragility of the bone material itself. Ageing adversely affects the “quality” of human bone material, its elastic and ultimate properties. The hypothesis here is that these effects are caused by factors such as architectural changes, compositional changes, physicochemical changes, changes at

P. Zioupos

2001-01-01

312

Factors Affecting Career Decision Making of Mexican and Mexican-American Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to identify the self-reported factors affecting the career decision making of Mexican and Mexican-American students. It was hypothesized that the factor clusters would differ between the two sample populations, Mexican and Mexican-American. It was also hypothesized that these clusters would differ from six clusters…

Newlon, Betty J.; Borboa, Roman

313

A MULTI-YEAR STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING FRUIT PRODUCTION IN ARISTOLOCHIA PAUCINERVIS  

E-print Network

A MULTI-YEAR STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING FRUIT PRODUCTION IN ARISTOLOCHIA PAUCINERVIS limitation, resource limitation, fruit abortion, and predation have all been proposed as factors explaining low fruit set in hermaphroditic plants. We conducted a 5-year study combining field observations

Herrera, Carlos M.

314

A Quantitative Study of Factors Affecting Learner Acceptance of a Computer-Based Training Support Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study identifies and empirically tests factors that may influence learners' use of a computer-based training support system (TSS). The areas of research and theory were drawn from human-computer interaction, information and business management, and adult education. The factors suggested in the literature that may affect learner's use of a TSS…

Wagner, G. Dale; Flannery, Daniele D.

2004-01-01

315

Factors Affecting the Supply of Recent College Graduates in New England. Policy Brief 09-1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This policy brief investigates factors affecting New England's supply of recent college graduates and how those factors have changed over time, and suggests steps that states might take to expand this source of skilled labor. (Contains 3 figures.) [This brief summarizes analysis in NEPPC research report 08-1: "The Future of the Skilled Labor Force…

Sasser, Alicia

2009-01-01

316

A Review of Foreign Researches on Influential Factors Affecting Students' Engagement in English Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' active engagement constitutes the core of the process of learning and teaching in the student-oriented classroom. The paper centers on a review of foreign researches on influential factors affecting students' engagement in English classroom. It is expected to figure out the relevant factors in order to promote students' active engagement.

Zhou, Chun-hong

2010-01-01

317

Factors affecting ammonium uptake in streams an inter-biome perspective  

E-print Network

Factors affecting ammonium uptake in streams ­ an inter-biome perspective JACKSON R. WEBSTER Nitrogen eXperiment (LINX) was a coordinated study of the relationships between North American biomes and factors governing ammonium uptake in streams. Our objective was to relate inter-biome variability

Webster, Jackson R.

318

76 FR 30195 - Brazil: Competitive Factors in Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-524] Brazil: Competitive Factors in Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales...Commission) instituted investigation No. 332-524, Brazil: Competitive Factors in Brazil Affecting...

2011-05-24

319

77 FR 18862 - Brazil: Competitive Factors Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected Third...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-524] Brazil: Competitive Factors Affecting U.S. and Brazilian...the Committee in investigation No. 332-524, Brazil: Competitive Factors In Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural...

2012-03-28

320

[Advances in the endocrine factors affecting the development of gubernaculum testis].  

PubMed

The testicular gubernaculum plays an important role in testicular descent and development. Its differentiation and development are affected by many factors. Androgens, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3), Müllerian inhibiting substance (MIS), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and environmental estrogens (EEs) are involved in gubernacular development. The effect of CGRP, INSL3 and especially EEs on genital system has been attracted more attention. PMID:16755880

Deng, Wang-Dong; Jiang, Xue-Wu

2006-05-01

321

Factors That Affect Suicidal Attempt Risk Among Korean Elderly Adults: A Path Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Among the Korean elderly (those 65 years of age and older), the suicide rate is 80.3/100 000 people, which is ten times higher than the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development average. Because South Korea is rapidly becoming an aging population, this high elderly suicidal rate will only get worse. Although the size of the elderly suicide problem is quite large, previous research in South Korea has surveyed restricted areas and not the entire country. Even though the factors that affect elderly suicide are complicated, there has been little research into these influencing factors. Thus, this research uses the national survey data (Community Health Survey) that was obtained in 2009. Additionally, we analyze factors affecting elderly suicidal ideation and attempts as well as the paths of these effects. Methods: Community Health Survey data obtained by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2009 was used for this study. We additionally examined the factors that affect suicide with chi-squared tests, t-tests, Pearson’s correlation test, and path analysis. Results: Depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation are the only factors that directly affect suicidal attempts. Demographic, behavioral, and physical activity factors have indirect effects on suicidal attempts. Conclusions: Depression has the strongest influence on suicidal ideation and attempts. Demographic, behavioral, and physical activity factors affect suicidal attempts mostly through depressive symptoms. In addition, there is a path that suggests that demographic, behavioral, and physical activity factors affect suicidal attempts not through depression symptoms but only through suicidal ideation. This means that the elderly who do not have depression symptoms attempt suicide according to their own situations and characteristics. PMID:25652708

Ro, Junsoo; Park, Jongheon; Lee, Jinsuk; Jung, Hyemin

2015-01-01

322

Factors affecting the chemistry of precipitation and river water in an upland catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemistry of precipitation and river water was studied for one year in Glendye, a 41 km 2 moorland catchment in northeast Scotland. The precipitation was very dilute, weakly acidic, and highly variable in composition. River water was much less dilute, neutral, and less variable. Factor analysis was used to investigate the controls on water chemistry. This suggested three main processes affecting precipitation: aerosols of oceanic spray, which affected sodium, magnesium, chloride and total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations; emission of gaseous sulphur and nitrogen oxides from industrial processes and the burning of fossil fuels, which affected pH; wind-blown terrestrial dust. The factors affecting river water are quite different. The first factor represents cation-exchange and weathering reactions in the soil and affects calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate and silicon concentrations. The second factor affects the concentrations of iron, TOC, manganese and aluminium and represents the translocation of these elements down the soil profile and into the river at times of high discharge. The third factor affects the concentrations of ammonium and nitrate and reflects nitrogen demand and mineralisation in the soil. Phosphate, sulphate, potassium and chloride appear to vary independently, but all show low variability in river water compared with precipitation. The chemistry of river water from the catchment was also investigated during two storm events, and the results support the grouping of variables produced by factor analysis. The chemistry of the river water is thus controlled by processes in the soil, suggesting that nearly all the river water originates within the soil, and that direct surface runoff is of minor importance.

Reid, J. M.; MacLeod, D. A.; Cresser, M. S.

323

Nurses' Experiences of Nonpatient Factors That Affect Nursing Workload: A Study of the PAONCIL Instrument's Nonpatient Factors  

PubMed Central

In the RAFAELA patient classification system, the professional assessment of optimal nursing care intensity level (PAONCIL) instrument is used to assess the optimal nursing intensity level per unit. The PAONCIL instrument contains an overall assessment of the actual nursing intensity level and an additional list of central nonpatient factors that may increase or decrease the total nursing workload (NWL). The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess and determine which nonpatient factors affect nurses' experiences of their total NWL in both outpatient settings and hospitals, as captured through the PAONCIL instrument. The data material consisted of PAONCIL questionnaires from 38 units and 37 outpatient clinics at 11 strategically selected hospitals in Finland, and included nurses' answers (n = 1307) to the question of which factors, other than nursing intensity, affect total NWL. The methods for data analyses were qualitative content analyses. The nonpatient factors that affected nurses' experiences of total NWL are “organization of work,” “working conditions,” “self-control,” and “cooperation.” The actual list of nonpatient factors in the PAONCIL instrument is to a reasonable extent relevant, but the list should be improved to include nurses' actual working conditions and self-control. PMID:25050179

Fagerström, Lisbeth; Vainikainen, Paula

2014-01-01

324

Some genetic and environmental factors affecting weaning weight in Santa Gertrudis range cattle  

E-print Network

SOME GENE TIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL FAC T0RS AFFECTING WEANING WEIGHT IN SANTA GERTRUDIS RANGE CATTLE A Thesis by ALVARO CASTRO H. Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A!4M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1968 Major Subject: Animal Science SOME GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING WEANING WEIGHT IN SANTA GERTRUDIS RANGE CATTLE A Thesis by ALVARO CASTRO H. Approved as to style and content by: (Cha rman...

Castro-Hernandez, Alvaro

2012-06-07

325

Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium limb radiance near 10 ?m as measured by UARS CLAES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations have been made of non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) limb radiance at 923 cm-1 (10.83 ?m) using the Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) aboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). We study the relative contributions from CO2 and O3 in three CLAES channels and examine the correlation with solar zenith angle. The moderate spectral resolution of CLAES allows us to discriminate the individual radiance contributions of the CO2 isotopic and O3 hot bands. The analysis shows good agreement between measured and calculated radiances and confirms our previous theoretical modeling of the non-LTE populations of these states. The diurnal variation of the measured emission points to solar dependent mechanisms selectively populating molecular vibrational levels in CO2 and O3. These processes are shown to affect the limb radiance for limb view tangent heights above about 38 km at the frequencies studied here. The measurements also show further experimental evidence for the excitation of the CO2 (?3) mode by the energy transfer from electronically excited O(1D) through N2(1). This study is intended as a precursor to the inclusion of these effects in the operational CLAES data analysis.

Edwards, D. P.; Kumer, J. B.; López-Puertas, M.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Gopalan, A.; Gille, J. C.; Roche, A.

1996-11-01

326

Platform and Environmental Effects on Above- and In-Water Determinations of Water-Leaving Radiances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison of above- and in-water spectral measurements in Case-1 conditions showed the uncertainty in above-water determinations of water-leaving radiances depended on the pointing angle of the above-water instruments with respect to the side of the ship. Two above-water methods were used to create a diagnostic variable to quantify the presence of superstructure reflections which degraded the above-water intracomparisons of water-leaving radiances by 10.9-33.4% (for far-to-near viewing distances, respectively). The primary conclusions of the above- and in-water intercomparison of water-leaving radiances were as follows: a) the SeaWiFS 5% radiometric objective was achieved with the above-water approach, but reliably with only one method and only for about half the data; b) a decrease in water-leaving radiance values was seen in the presence of swell, although, wave crests were radiometrically brighter than the troughs; and c) standard band ratios used in ocean color algorithms remained severely affected, because of the relatively low signal and, thus, proportionally significant contamination at the 555nm wavelength.

Hooker, Stanford B.; Morel, Andre; McClain, Charles R. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

327

Investigation of factors affecting the six-minute walk test results in hemodialysis patients.  

PubMed

Renal anemia, uremic myopathy, and malnutrition are some of the factors that affect the results of the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) in hemodialysis patients. We hypothesized that skeletal muscle dysfunction caused by skeletal myolysis, protein hypercatabolism, and mitochondrial deficiency are strongly related factors. The purpose of this study was to clarify the factors that affect the 6MWT results in hemodialysis patients to assess their exercise tolerance. The study included 43 outpatients from the hemodialysis unit. The 6MWT was performed, and knee extension strength, 1-leg standing time, and grip were measured. In addition, the subjects' characteristics such as age, preexisting coronary artery disease, hemoglobin level, total iron binding capacity, serum albumin level, creatinine generation rate, and normalized protein catabolic rate were investigated. A stepwise multiple regression model was used to examine the factors affecting the 6MWT results. Multiple regression analysis revealed that knee extension strength (?=0.446, P=0.001), total iron binding capacity (?=-0.299, P=0.021), and preexisting coronary artery disease (?=-0.272, P=0.035) significantly affected the 6MWT results (R=0.66, R(2)=0.44). The 6MWT in hemodialysis patients was strongly affected by muscle strength, iron deficiency anemia, and preexisting coronary artery disease, suggesting that resistance training is important for improving 6MWT results. Our findings indicate that iron deficiency and cardiac function should be assessed before exercising or undergoing an exercise tolerance test. PMID:24674327

Kono, Kenichi; Nishida, Yusuke; Moriyama, Yoshihumi; Yabe, Hiroki; Taoka, Masahiro; Sato, Takashi

2014-12-01

328

Elimination of environmental effects from Landsat radiance data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A critical problem involved in quantitative multi-temporal sensing of the physical processes with Landsat is the fact that variations in the spectral signatures for a given target of interest result from a combined effect of target properties and the environmental factors such as sun angles, atmospheric conditions, etc. at the time of an overpass. In an attempt to solve the problem, a transformation procedure is developed to remove the environmental effects from the MSS radiance data. Mathematical derivation of the transformation procedure is elaborated and an example of testing the procedure is illustrated using suspended sediments reflectance data obtained by Landsat MSS during four different overpasses over the lower Mississippi River valley.

Kim, S. T.; Smith, D. W.

1979-01-01

329

Modelling TOVS radiances of synoptic systems  

E-print Network

), rmst closely resembled the tropical plume ccarpcsite described by ~k and UIsh (1990) . 'Ihe only plume evidence found in the thermal or micro- wave channels, in either the observations or the mcdels, was a cuprite ~ situated in the correct location...IEIIC AND SATELLITE RADIANCE COMPARISON 18 A. Overall Bias and Sensitivity B. RIM Experiments C. Brightness ~ature Fields D. Summary VI TROPICAL PLUMES 1B 25 29 60 64 A. Plume Definition and Background B. The Four Stages of Plume Evolution C. Tropical...

Coe, Thomas Eddy

2012-06-07

330

[Application effect, affecting factors, and evaluation of nitrification inhibitor: a review].  

PubMed

The agronomic, environmental, and ecological significances of applying nitrification inhibitor (NI) have been demonstrated by many researches, but the efficiency of NI application was affected by many factors. In this paper, the effects of NI on soil N transformation, nitrate leaching and greenhouse gases emission, fertilizer N use efficiency, yield and quality of agricultural products, and availability of soil nutrients besides N were reviewed, and the factors affecting the efficiency of NI application as well as the evaluation criteria of NI were summarized. PMID:18839927

Sun, Zhi-Mei; Wu, Zhi-Jie; Chen, Li-Jun; Ma, Xing-Zhu

2008-07-01

331

A model assay to demonstrate how intrinsic factors affect diffusion of bacteriocins.  

PubMed

A rapid and simple method to elucidate how intrinsic factors in a given food product affect bacteriocin diffusion and efficacy is described. The basic idea of this assay is to help predict which bacteriocin or other inhibitory substance to select for a given product, where increased security towards specific microorganisms is wanted. In an agar plate model system the effect of five factors (number of indicator cells, pH and concentration of NaCl, agar and soy oil) on the diffusion of the bacteriocins sakacin A, sakacin P, pediocin PA-1, piscicolin 61 and nisin was studied. An experimental design permitting simultaneous evaluation of the effect of all factors was used. The results indicated that each bacteriocin has a characteristic intrinsic factor effect profile. However, pH and load of indicator cells affect all the bacteriocins. PMID:9506275

Blom, H; Katla, T; Hagen, B F; Axelsson, L

1997-09-16

332

Factors Associated with Substance Use Problem among Maryland Medicaid Enrollees Affected by Serious Mental Illness  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to identify long term factors associated with substance use problem among individuals affected by severe mental illness. Prospective data come from the 1994, 1998, and 2000 waves of the Maryland Mental Health Outcomes Survey conducted among a sub-cohort of adult Medicaid recipients affected by serious mental illness. We estimated factors associated with alcohol and drug problem, as well as a hierarchy of substance use problem severity constructed from the alcohol and drug problem outcomes. Drug problem was the strongest factor associated with alcohol problem, and vice versa. Conceptualizing alcohol and drug problem separately, and as a hierarchy of severity, revealed distinct profiles of significant factors. Further research is warranted to explore the utility of modeling substance use problem in terms of a hierarchy of severity. PMID:19487082

Schladweiler, Krista; Alexandre, Pierre K.; Steinwachs, Donald M.

2009-01-01

333

Analyzing the Factors Affecting the Success in University Entrance Examination through the use of Artificial Neural Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many factors that affect the success of students in university entrance examination. These factors can be mainly categorized as follows; social factors, environmental factors, economical factors etc. The main aim of this study is to find whether there is a relation between these factors and the success in the university entrance…

Agdelen, Zafer; Haydar, Ali; Kanani, Andisheh

2007-01-01

334

Developmental and environmental factors affecting level of self-incompatibility response in Brassica rapa L  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed artificial self-pollination throughout the period of sexual reproduction in six inbred lines of Brassica rapa, a plant with sporophytic self-incompatibility (SI). The level of SI changed between each pollination date in all lines,\\u000a suggesting the effects of both internal and external factors. To further investigate the potential factors affecting the changes\\u000a in the level of SI, multiple regression

Atsushi Horisaki; Satoshi Niikura

2008-01-01

335

Human factors with nonhumans - Factors that affect computer-task performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are two general strategies that may be employed for 'doing human factors research with nonhuman animals'. First, one may use the methods of traditional human factors investigations to examine the nonhuman animal-to-machine interface. Alternatively, one might use performance by nonhuman animals as a surrogate for or model of performance by a human operator. Each of these approaches is illustrated with data in the present review. Chronic ambient noise was found to have a significant but inconsequential effect on computer-task performance by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Additional data supported the generality of findings such as these to humans, showing that rhesus monkeys are appropriate models of human psychomotor performance. It is argued that ultimately the interface between comparative psychology and technology will depend on the coordinated use of both strategies of investigation.

Washburn, David A.

1992-01-01

336

Comparison of GUVI 135.6nm OI radiance observations with outputs from global atmospheric models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GUVI instrument on NASA's TIMED spacecraft records radiance data from 135.6nm OI emissions. This data obtained from GUVI's high altitude limb scans can be used to study the morphology of the Dayside Equatorial Anomaly as a function of various factors such as local time, longitudinal sectors, magnetic latitude, seasons and solar activity. This paper compares the GUVI observations with 135.6nm OI radiance values generated from global atmospheric models such as the TIGCM (Thermosphere Ionosphere General Circulation Model) and the GAIM (Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements). The models generate electron density profiles of the atmosphere from which the 135.6nm radiance data are constructed and compared with GUVI observations at corresponding magnetic latitude, longitudes and local time. The comparisons are done for data corresponding to quiet time periods of geomagnetic activity and at different conditions of solar flux and seasons. This comparison of the model outputs and the GUVI observations will give us valuable insight into how closely the models can predict the Dayside EA conditions. This paper presents the technique used to generate radiance data from the models as well as the results of the comparison of the data with GUVI observations.

Shankar, J.; Swenson, C. M.; Crowley, G.; Coakley, H.; Moon, T. K.; Paxton, L. J.; Christensen, A. B.

2006-12-01

337

Introduction How a corn crop develops is affected by many factors  

E-print Network

Introduction How a corn crop develops is affected by many factors: fertilization, rainfall, sunny to temperature in determining when a corn crop tassels or is ready to harvest. Many years of observation have schedules. This bulletin describes the temperature-driven stages of development through which corn plants

Liskiewicz, Maciej

338

vol. 171, no. 2 the american naturalist february 2008 Factors Affecting the Evolution of Bleaching  

E-print Network

of Bleaching Resistance in Corals Troy Day,1,2,* Laura Nagel,3, Madeleine J. H. van Oppen,3, and M. Julian understand factors affecting the potential evo- lution of bleaching resistance in corals in response-offs among fitness components, (ii) different proximate mechanisms of coral bleaching, (iii) the genetic

Day, Troy

339

FACTORS AFFECTING BLACK CRAPPIE RECRUITMENT IN FOUR WEST-CENTRAL MINNESOTA LAKES1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the factors affecting recruitment of black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus in four small lakes in west-central Minnesota. Recruitment to age 2+ was relatively consistent across years (1992-2001) in Brophy and Louise lakes, but was much more variable in Blackwell and Freeborn lakes. The only year with a very weak year class in all four lakes was 1992, which was

Bradford G. Parsons; Jeffrey R. Reed; Howard G. Fullhart; Vaughn A. Snook; Jodene K. Hirsch

340

Alternative Reproductive Tactics in Atlantic Salmon: Factors Affecting Mature Parr Success  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Atlantic salmon, as in most salmonids, males can mature early in the life cycle, as small freshwater fish, termed parr, and\\/or undergo a sea migration before maturing as full-size adults. The alternative life histories are contingent on environmental and social circumstances, such as growth rate, territory quality or any other factor that affects the individual's state. In order to

D. Thomaz; E. Beall; T. Burke

1997-01-01

341

Factors affecting ambulatory dispersal in the predaceous mite Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments conducted in the laboratory showed that different biotic and abiotic factors affected the ambulatory dispersal behaviour of Neoseiulus californicus. The experimental set-up comprised dwarf alfalfa (Medicago polymorpha) infested or unifested by Tetranychus urticae. Temperatures were measured with thermocouples. Trials were performed at three temperatures, three prey densities, three light intensities, two relative humidities (RHs) and two vegetative states of

Philippe Auger; Marie-Stéphane Tixier; Serge Kreiter; Guy Fauvel

1999-01-01

342

The Transcription Factor DBP Affects Circadian Sleep Consolidation and Rhythmic EEG Activity  

E-print Network

; non-REM sleep intensity; knock-out mice; clock-genes; EEG and circadian oscillations; simulationThe Transcription Factor DBP Affects Circadian Sleep Consolidation and Rhythmic EEG Activity Paul clock out- puts. We studied the role of DBP in the circadian and homeo- static aspects of sleep

Halazonetis, Thanos

343

FACTORS AFFECTING SOCIAL WORK STUDENTS' WILLINGNESS TO WORK WITH ELDERS WITH ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to determine factors that affect social work students' willingness to work with the growing number of elders with Alzheimer's disease. An in-class survey of 333 BSW and MSW students at three Florida universities throughout 1996 produced data on measures of the dependent variable (willingness to work with elders with Alzheimer's disease) and 16 independent variables (potential influences).

Michael N. Kane

1999-01-01

344

Factors affecting natural regeneration of Abies lasiocarpa and Picea engelmannii in a subalpine  

E-print Network

Factors affecting natural regeneration of Abies lasiocarpa and Picea engelmannii in a subalpine of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii Parry) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) in three stand) et du sapin subalpin (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.), dans trois types de structure du peuplement

Coxson, Darwyn

345

Factors affecting mito-nuclear codon usage interactions in the OXPHOS system of Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Codon usage bias varies considerably among genomes and even within the genes of the same genome. In eukaryotic organisms, energy production in the form of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is the only process under control of both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Although factors affecting codon usage in a single genome have been studied, this has not occurred when both interactional genomes

Zheng Sun; Liang Ma; Robert W. Murphy; Xiansheng Zhang; Dawei Huang

2008-01-01

346

Factors that Affect Emergent Literacy Development When Engaging with Electronic Books  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews extant literature with the purpose of identifying factors that affect the potential efficacy of electronic books to support literacy development during early childhood. Selection criteria include experimental, quasi-experimental, and observational studies from peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to 2013 with a target population…

Salmon, Lynda G.

2014-01-01

347

Factors Affecting Literacy Achievement of Eighth Grade Middle School Instrumental Music Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this pretest-posttest comparative efficacy study was to analyze factors affecting literacy achievement of eighth grade middle school instrumental music students (n = 38) including (a) socioeconomic status (SES), (b) gender, (c) grade point average (GPA), (d) music motivation, (e) music involvement, and (f) instrument section. The…

Kurt, Johnny T.

2010-01-01

348

Factors Affecting Mothers' Healthcare-Seeking Behaviour for Childhood Illnesses in a Rural Nigerian Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Appropriate healthcare-seeking behaviour could prevent a significant number of child deaths and complications due to ill health. Improving mothers' care-seeking behaviour could also contribute in reducing a large number of child morbidity and mortality in developing countries. This article aims to determine factors affecting healthcare-seeking…

Abdulraheem, I. S.; Parakoyi, D. B.

2009-01-01

349

Factors affecting survival and recruitment of unionid mussels in small midwestern streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to investigate natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the survival and recruitment of unionid mussels in small midwestern streams. Unionid mussels have been undergoing a decline in many places, and it is thought that the juvenile is the most sensitive life stage. Because most studies have focused on larger rivers, the status of mussels

Melody Lynn Myers-Kinzie

1998-01-01

350

Evaluation of factors affecting nitrous oxide emission and N transformation in a sandy loam soil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A better understanding of the complex factors affecting nitrous oxide (N2O) emission and potential mitigation practices will assist in developing strategies to improve the sustainability of agricultural production systems. Using surface soil collected from a pomegranate orchard, a series of laborato...

351

Personal Informatics and Context: Using Context to Reveal Factors That Affect Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Personal informatics systems help people collect and reflect on behavioral information to better understand their own behavior. Because most systems only show one type of behavioral information, finding factors that affect one's behavior is difficult. Supporting exploration of multiple types of contextual and behavioral information in a…

Li, Ian Anthony Rosas

2011-01-01

352

Statistical Analysis of Different Socio Economic Factors Affecting Education of N-W.F.P (Pakistan)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A data of students in the urban and rural area institutions of N-W.F.P (Pakistan) and control group was collected to examine the different socio-economic factor which affects our education system. The logistic regression was applied to analyze the data and to select a parsimonious model. The response variable for the study is literate (illiterate)…

Rahman, Atta Ur; Uddin, Salah

2009-01-01

353

Factors affecting the efficiency of embryo transfer in the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo)  

E-print Network

Factors affecting the efficiency of embryo transfer in the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo 19 July 2005; accepted 30 October 2005 Abstract Embryo transfer (ET) to recipient females of transferred embryo were investigated. Unilateral and bilateral transfer of zygotes or blastocysts

Engelhardt, John F.

354

Factors affecting the prevalence of mange-mite infestations in stray dogs of Yucatán, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to determine the factors affecting the prevalence of mange-mite infestations in stray dogs of Yucatán, Mexico. The study was carried out in 200 stray dogs of Mérida capital city of Yucatán, Mexico. Four samples (head, thoracic-abdominal area, extremities and ear) were taken from each animal by skin scraping and examined microscopically in 10%

R. I. Rodriguez-Vivas; A. Ortega-Pacheco; J. A. Rosado-Aguilar; G. M. E. Bolio

2003-01-01

355

Factors Affecting Business Students' Performance: The Case of Students in United Arab Emirates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors found that the most important factor that affected student performance was their competence in speaking English. The sample was a group of 864 business and economics students in United Arab Emirates. The authors used regression analysis for the study. The results of the study showed that students who participated in…

Harb, Nasri; El-Shaarawi, Ahmed

2007-01-01

356

Precalving factors affecting conception risk in Holstein dairy cows in tropical conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to identify precalving nutritional risk factors that may affect variation in first service conception risk in 21 commercial Holstein dairy herds in a tropical environment (Reunion Island). The data set included 473 lactation records in 404 cows. A multivariate logistic-regression model including herd as a random effect was used to analyse the relationship between

Emmanuel Tillard; Patrice Humblot; Bernard Faye; Philippe Lecomte; Ian Dohoo; François Bocquier

2007-01-01

357

Factors affecting attitude towards seeking professional help for mental illness: a UK Arab perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined various factors affecting attitude towards seeking professional psychological help (ATSPPH) in Arabs living in the UK: causal beliefs, shame-focused attitudes, confidentiality concerns, ethnic identity and demographic variables. Participants completed an online questionnaire and results indicated that Arabs showed significantly less positive ATSPPH and had stronger causal beliefs in supernatural and non-Western physiology than British Caucasians. Confidentiality concerns,

Aseel Hamid; Adrian Furnham

2012-01-01

358

UNCORRECTED 2 Large-scale stress factors affecting coral reefs: open ocean sea  

E-print Network

UNCORRECTED PROOF REPORT1 2 Large-scale stress factors affecting coral reefs: open ocean sea 3-Verlag 2011 8 Abstract One-third of the world's coral reefs have dis- 9 appeared over the last 30 years on coral reefs have been identified as changes 12 in sea surface temperature (SST) and changes in surface

Gupta, Alex Sen

359

Factors Affecting Individual Education Demand at the Entrance to University: Adnan Menderes University Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this research is to determine the factors affecting individual education demands at the entrance to university. The research is in survey model. The universe of the study consists of 1630 freshmen at the faculties and vocational schools of Adnan Menderes University, Aydin. 574 students from 7 schools were included in the sample. The…

Sarpkaya, Ruhi

2010-01-01

360

Identifying the Key Factors Affecting Warning Message Dissemination in VANET Real Urban Scenarios  

PubMed Central

In recent years, new architectures and technologies have been proposed for Vehicular Ad Hoc networks (VANETs). Due to the cost and complexity of deploying such networks, most of these proposals rely on simulation. However, we find that most of the experiments made to validate these proposals tend to overlook the most important and representative factors. Moreover, the scenarios simulated tend to be very simplistic (highways or Manhattan-based layouts), which could seriously affect the validity of the obtained results. In this paper, we present a statistical analysis based on the 2k factorial methodology to determine the most representative factors affecting traffic safety applications under real roadmaps. Our purpose is to determine which are the key factors affecting Warning Message Dissemination in order to concentrate research tests on such parameters, thus avoiding unnecessary simulations and reducing the amount of simulation time required. Simulation results show that the key factors affecting warning messages delivery are the density of vehicles and the roadmap used. Based on this statistical analysis, we consider that VANET researchers must evaluate the benefits of their proposals using different vehicle densities and city scenarios, to obtain a broad perspective on the effectiveness of their solution. Finally, since city maps can be quite heterogeneous, we propose a roadmap profile classification to further reduce the number of cities evaluated. PMID:23604026

Fogue, Manuel; Garrido, Piedad; Martinez, Francisco J.; Cano, Juan-Carlos; Calafate, Carlos T.; Manzoni, Pietro

2013-01-01

361

Factors Affecting Applications to Oxford and Cambridge--Repeat Survey. Executive Summary with Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research follows up a study conducted in 1998 by the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) to investigate teachers' and students' views on the factors affecting students' choices of whether or not to apply to Oxford and Cambridge universities. It identifies what has changed since 1998 and areas in which the universities could…

Ridley, Kate; White, Kerensa; Styles, Ben; Morrison, Jo

2005-01-01

362

Hormonal and follicular factors affecting maturation of sheep oocytes in vitro and their subsequent developmental capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Oocytes removed from, or retained within, non-atretic and atretic follicles of different sizes were cultured for 24 h in the presence of a variety of hormones in an attempt to identify the factors affecting oocyte maturation in vitro. Resumption of meiosis was assessed morphologically; the developmental capacity of oocytes after culture was determined by transfer to the oviducts of

R. M. Moor; A. O. Trounson

1977-01-01

363

FACTORS AFFECTING VOLUNTARY FOOD INTAKE BY SHEEP W.L. GROVUM  

E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING VOLUNTARY FOOD INTAKE BY SHEEP W.L. GROVUM Department of Biochemical Sciences act as signals of satiety and thus limit the amount of food that sheep would consume in a meal if the above treatment would suppress the intake of food by hungry sheep - sheep that had been deprived

Boyer, Edmond

364

Sociocultural and Motivational Factors Affecting Asian American Females Studying Physics and Engineering in High School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quantitative study investigated whether and to what extent the motivational and sociocultural factors affect female Asian American high school physics students' achievement, their intended major in college, and their planned career goals at work fields. A survey of 62 questions, extracted from subscales of AAMAS,STPQ and PSE, were…

Sha, Saliha L.

2012-01-01

365

FACTORS AFFECTING VARIABILITY IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF ELEPHANTS AT NAZINGA GAME RANCH (BURKINA FASO, WEST AFRICA)  

E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING VARIABILITY IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF ELEPHANTS AT NAZINGA GAME RANCH (BURKINA FASO VARIABILITY IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF ELEPHANTS AT NAZINGA GAME RANCH (BURKINA FASO, WEST AFRICA) This thesis IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF ELEPHANTS AT NAZINGA GAME RANCH (BURKINA FASO, WEST AFRICA) BERNARD M. HIEN December 2005

366

Factors affecting the emulsifying and rheological properties of gum acacia in beverage emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gum acacia, a natural hydrocolloid, is extensively used as an emulsifier\\/stabilizer in beverage emulsions. Factors that may affect emulsion formation, emulsion stability and viscosity of the emulsion concentrate were studied to assess their significance, including proximal composition of the gum (protein content and mineral content), gum processing prior to emulsion preparation (pasteurization and demineralization), and pH of the dilute emulsion.

R. A Buffo; G. A Reineccius; G. W Oehlert

2001-01-01

367

A Research on Economic Factors Affecting China's Tax Growth Based on Panel Error Correction Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses how various kinds of major economic factors affect China's tax growth. We apply the panel unit root testing, panel cointegration testing and panel-based error correction models to analyze the long-term stable relationship among tax growth, GDP growth, optimization of industrial structure and import for 30 provinces during 1994- 2008 periods. The empirical results show that in the

Sun Jian; Tong Jinzhi

2011-01-01

368

Factors Affecting Differential Sensitivity of Sweet Corn to HPPD-Inhibiting Herbicides  

E-print Network

Factors Affecting Differential Sensitivity of Sweet Corn to HPPD-Inhibiting Herbicides Martin M a common genetic basis for herbicide metabolism, genotypic classes of sweet corn hybrids did not have corn, Zea mays L. Key words: Cross-sensitivity, cytochrome P450, dose­response, herbicide tolerance

Sims, Gerald K.

369

Factors Affecting Retention of New Students in Their First Semester: Fall 1992 Cohort.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine factors affecting new students in their first semester, a study was conducted at Diablo Valley College, in California, to draw a profile and track 4,251 students who applied or were identified as new in fall 1992. Percentage distributions were calculated for the sample and for the sub-groups who applied only, completed testing only,…

Birdsall, Les

370

Analysis of Factors Affecting the Accuracy, Reproducibility, and Interpretation of Microbial Community Carbon Source Utilization Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined factors that affect responses of bacterial isolates and model bacterial communities to the 95 carbon substrates in Biolog microtiter plates. For isolates and communities of three to six bacterial strains, substrate oxidation rates were typically nonlinear and were delayed by dilution of the inoculum. When inoculum density was controlled, patterns of positive and negative responses exhibited by microbial

SHERIDAN KIDD HAACK; HELEN GARCHOW; MICHAEL J. KLUG

1995-01-01

371

Risk-Taking among Adolescents: Associations with Social and Affective Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research investigated the associations of social and affective factors with risk-taking in male and female adolescents. A sample of 269 Israeli adolescents completed questionnaires measuring frequency of involvement in risk-taking behaviours, relationships with parents, orientation towards peer group, depressive mood, and aggressive behaviour.…

Michael, Keren; Ben-Zur, Hasida

2007-01-01

372

Photoautotrophic symbiont and geography are major factors affecting highly structured and diverse  

E-print Network

Photoautotrophic symbiont and geography are major factors affecting highly structured and diverse that lichen thalli consistently host hyperdiverse fungi (other than the fungal partner forming the lichen thallus), which are more closely related to endophytic fungi found in healthy above ground tissues

Lutzoni, François M.

373

FACTORS AFFECTING THE PRESENCE OF NESTING BURROWING OWLS IN AN AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPE  

E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING THE PRESENCE OF NESTING BURROWING OWLS IN AN AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPE NICKOLAS D Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) along roadsides and irrigation water of roadside attributes and agricultural crops that were associated with the presence of nesting Burrowing Owls

Conway, Courtney J.

374

Dispositional Factors Affecting Motivation during Learning in Adult Basic and Secondary Education Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates that about a quarter of adult students separate from formal adult basic and secondary education (ABE/ASE) programs before completing one educational level. This retrospective study explores individual dispositional factors that affect motivation during learning, particularly students' goals, goal-directed thinking and action…

Mellard, Daryl F.; Krieshok, Thomas; Fall, Emily; Woods, Kari

2013-01-01

375

Should ecological factors affect the evolution of age at maturity in freshwater clams?  

E-print Network

Should ecological factors affect the evolution of age at maturity in freshwater clams? MIKKO HEINO in freshwater clams of the genus Anodonta in relation to their ecology. We analysed an age-structured density-dependent population dynamics model, which we developed for freshwater clams, using several different options

Heino, Mikko

376

Factors, Correlates, Problem Areas Affecting Career Decision Making of a Cross-Sectional Sample of Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to investigate the effects of the correlates and problem areas affecting career decision making and specifically to test the validity of the O'Neil, Meeker & Borgers' (1978) model. A cross-sectional sample of high school, undergraduate, and graduate students (N=1,436) responded to the Career Factor Checklist (CFC) and…

O'Neil, James M.; And Others

377

Factors affecting life and death in Serengeti cheetahs: environment, age, and sociality  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined environmental and social factors affecting reproductive success across a 20-year data set of individually known cheetahs on the Serengeti Plains of Tanzania. Because cheetahs are seen infrequently and are not amenable to mark--recapture techniques, we devised a model to estimate time of death for individuals that disappeared from our records. We found that males had markedly lower survival

Sarah M. Durant; Marcella Kelly; Tim M. Carob

2004-01-01

378

Factors Affecting Teachers' Adoption of Educational Computer Games: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even though computer games hold considerable potential for engaging and facilitating learning among today's children, the adoption of modern educational computer games is still meeting significant resistance in K-12 education. The purpose of this paper is to inform educators and instructional designers on factors affecting teachers' adoption of…

Kebritchi, Mansureh

2010-01-01

379

Factors affecting the recognition of mental health problems among adolescent offenders in custody  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescent offenders have high levels of mental health problems leading to poor short-term and long-term outcomes. However, many problems still go undetected despite recent screening initiatives, and little is known about the factors affecting recognition of their problems. A random sample of 115 detained boys was interviewed following reception into custody to compare the differences between those whose problems were

Paul Mitchell; Jenny Shaw

2011-01-01

380

Environmental Factors Affecting Computer Assisted Language Learning Success: A Complex Dynamic Systems Conceptual Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This conceptual, interdisciplinary inquiry explores Complex Dynamic Systems as the concept relates to the internal and external environmental factors affecting computer assisted language learning (CALL). Based on the results obtained by de Rosnay ["World Futures: The Journal of General Evolution", 67(4/5), 304-315 (2011)], who observed…

Marek, Michael W.; Wu, Wen-Chi Vivian

2014-01-01

381

Factors Affecting the Functional Properties of Whey Protein Products: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous why protein products (WPP) have been developed as excellent food ingredients with unique functional properties. However, the functional properties of WPP are affected by several compositional and processing factors. Recently, novel processing technologies such as high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound, extrusion and tribomechanical activation have been used to modify the functional properties of WPP. Also, WPP have been used as

M. H. Abd El-Salam; Safinaz El-Shibiny; Aida Salem

2009-01-01

382

Factors Affecting Student Retention in Online Courses: Overcoming This Critical Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine what a panel of 15 experts would identify as critical factors affecting student retention in online courses that will serve as implications for educational leaders to guide their student retention strategies, online organizational structures, institutional policies, and online instructional activities. A…

Gaytan, Jorge

2013-01-01

383

STATUS OF SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION IN THE UNITED STATES AND FACTORS AFFECTING ITS USE  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper reviews the status of using solidification/stabilization to treat hazardous waste and contaminated soil in the United States. echnical and regulatory factors affecting use of the technology are also discussed. Selected U.S. Environmental Protection Agency research proj...

384

Who Should Mark What? A Study of Factors Affecting Marking Accuracy in a Biology Examination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accurate marking is crucial to the reliability and validity of public examinations, in England and internationally. Factors contributing to accuracy have been conceptualised as affecting either marking task demands or markers' personal expertise. The aim of this empirical study was to develop this conceptualisation through investigating the…

Suto, Irenka; Nadas, Rita; Bell, John

2011-01-01

385

Factors Affecting the Management of Women Groups' Micro and Small Enterprises in Kakamega District, Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to highlight the main factors that affect the management of the WGs' Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in Kakamega District and Africa in general. Design/methodology/approach: The study adopted a descriptive research design. This is because the study was concerned about a univariate question in which the…

Wawire, Nelson H. W.; Nafukho, Fredrick M.

2010-01-01

386

Factors Affecting Ni and Zn Hydroxide Precipitate Formation in Soils. (S02-peltier222185-oral)  

E-print Network

Factors Affecting Ni and Zn Hydroxide Precipitate Formation in Soils. (S02-peltier222185-oral of polynuclear metal hydroxide complexes and surface precipitates can be an important mechanism for metal has been shown to result in the formation of mixed metal-Al hydroxide precipitates

Sparks, Donald L.

387

Factors Affecting Accent Acquisition: The Case of Russian Immigrants in Israel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A debate centers on whether the native accent is acquired early in life or whether it can be acquired at any time. This study investigated factors that may affect native accent acquisition in a second language. Participants in this study were 50 Russians who immigrated to Israel, 17 males and 33 females. Their age on arrival was 5 to 25 years.…

Abu-Rabia, Salim; Iliyan, Salman

2011-01-01

388

Factors affecting innovation in logistics technologies for logistics service providers in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – With the fast growth in China's economy and China's accession into WTO, the demand for logistics services has been growing significantly in China. China's logistics service providers need to pay more attention to adopt more efficient logistics technologies to provide better services for their customers. The purpose of this paper is to study the factors affecting the innovation

Chieh-Yu Lin

2007-01-01

389

Factors affecting land reconversion plans following a payment for ecosystem service program  

E-print Network

Factors affecting land reconversion plans following a payment for ecosystem service program Xiaodong Chen a,*, Frank Lupi b , Guangming He a , Zhiyun Ouyang c , Jianguo Liu a a Center for Systems in revised form 5 March 2009 Accepted 8 March 2009 Available online 7 April 2009 Keywords: China Grain

390

Scale-dependent Factors Affecting North American River Otter Distribution in the Midwest  

E-print Network

Scale-dependent Factors Affecting North American River Otter Distribution in the Midwest MACKENZIE American river otter (Lontra canadensis) is recovering from near extirpation throughout much of its range of river otters in the Midwest, little is known about how their distribution is influenced by local

Sandercock, Brett K.

391

Factors Affecting Students' Choice to Enroll at HCC: Implications for Marketing, Recruitment, and Advising.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to analyze the factors which affect students' decisions to enroll at Harford Community College (HCC), Harford County, Maryland. An entrant follow-up survey was sent in spring 1984 to all students who were enrolled in a Maryland community college for the first time in fall 1982. The survey sought to evaluate the extent to…

Quinley, John W.

392

FACTORS AFFECTING THE FORMATION OF ORGANIC BY-PRODUCTS DURING WATER CHLORINATION  

E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING THE FORMATION OF ORGANIC BY-PRODUCTS DURING WATER CHLORINATION: A BENCH 2004) Abstract. The formation of chlorination by-products (CBPs) was investigated through bench-scale chlorination experiments with river water. The compounds selected for analysis belonged to the groups

Arhonditsis, George B.

393

Euro Working Group on Transportation 2014 Isolating Different Factors Affecting Travel Time Reliability in an  

E-print Network

Euro Working Group on Transportation 2014 Isolating Different Factors Affecting Travel Time Newton 77447 Champs sur Marne France Abstract It is increasingly recognized that travel time reliability for average travel time (congestion) and for variability of that travel time (reliability). The impacts

Boyer, Edmond

394

Prognostic Factors Affecting the Clinical Outcome of Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Head and Neck  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is an uncommon tumor, constituting approxi- mately 10% of all head and neck tumors. Classically, ACC has been described as a tumor with indolent, but persistent and recurrent, growth and late onset of metastases, leading even- tually to death. This study assessed the prognostic factors affecting the clinical outcome in patients with ACC in the

Yoon Ho Ko; Myung Ah Lee; Yeong Seon Hong; Kyung Shik Lee; Chan-Kwon Jung; Yeon Sil Kim

395

Identifying the key factors affecting warning message dissemination in VANET real urban scenarios.  

PubMed

In recent years, new architectures and technologies have been proposed for Vehicular Ad Hoc networks (VANETs). Due to the cost and complexity of deploying such networks, most of these proposals rely on simulation. However, we find that most of the experiments made to validate these proposals tend to overlook the most important and representative factors. Moreover, the scenarios simulated tend to be very simplistic (highways or Manhattan-based layouts), which could seriously affect the validity of the obtained results. In this paper, we present a statistical analysis based on the 2k factorial methodology to determine the most representative factors affecting traffic safety applications under real roadmaps. Our purpose is to determine which are the key factors affecting Warning Message Dissemination in order to concentrate research tests on such parameters, thus avoiding unnecessary simulations and reducing the amount of simulation time required. Simulation results show that the key factors affecting warning messages delivery are the density of vehicles and the roadmap used. Based on this statistical analysis, we consider that VANET researchers must evaluate the benefits of their proposals using different vehicle densities and city scenarios, to obtain a broad perspective on the effectiveness of their solution. Finally, since city maps can be quite heterogeneous, we propose a roadmap profile classification to further reduce the number of cities evaluated. PMID:23604026

Fogue, Manuel; Garrido, Piedad; Martinez, Francisco J; Cano, Juan-Carlos; Calafate, Carlos T; Manzoni, Pietro

2013-01-01

396

The Fox News Factor: How the Spread of Fox News Affects Position Taking in Congress  

E-print Network

! ! The Fox News Factor: How the Spread of Fox News Affects Position Taking in Congress ! ! Joshua to the US House take more conservative positions once Fox News begins broadcasting in their congressional that the Fox News Channel was launched in October 1996 and it gradually spread across congressional districts

Bordenstein, Seth

397

High School 9th Grade Students' Understanding Level and Misconceptions about Temperature and Factors Affecting It  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to explore students' understanding levels and misconceptions about temperature and factors affecting it. The concept of the study was chosen from Geography National Curriculum. In this study, a questionnaire was developed after a pilot study with an aim to ascertain the students' understanding levels of temperature and…

Akbas, Yavuz

2012-01-01

398

Factors Affecting the Use of Prenatal Testing for Fetal Anomalities in a Traditional Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bedouin Arabs of the southern part of Israel are a community at increased risk for genetic diseases and congenital anomalies as a result of frequent consanguineous marriages and underutilization of prenatal tests to detect fetal anomalies. Objective: To investigate factors affecting the use of prenatal tests to detect fetal anomalies in a traditional non-western minority who is offered modern

Dahlia Weitzman; Ilana Shoham-Vardi; Khalil Elbedour; Ilana Belmaker; Yafa Siton; Rivka Carmi

2000-01-01

399

Affecting Factors and Outcome on Intermittent Internet Pulling Behavior in Taiwan's Undergraduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nowadays people's lives heavily rely on Internet facilities. Internet users generally have constant Internet connectivity and intermittently click on sites they want to access even amidst studying or working. In this study, we sought to examine the factors affecting intermittent Internet pulling behavior on undergraduate students. Furthermore, the…

Yang, Hui-Jen; Lay, Yun-Long

2011-01-01

400

Factors Affecting Infection of Precommercial Thinning Stumps by Heterobasidion annosum in Coastal British Columbia1  

E-print Network

Factors Affecting Infection of Precommercial Thinning Stumps by Heterobasidion annosum in Coastal, and amabilis fir were sampled in precommercially thinned stands to determine the percentage of stump require precommercial thinning at between 12 and 20 years of age to achieve optimum stocking

Standiford, Richard B.

401

Situation Model, Text Base and What Else? Factors Affecting Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies factors affecting problem solving strategies in the case of a multiplicative comparative situation involving three unknown quantities whose sum is known, and in which comparison relations between two pairs of the quantities are given. Proposes a model of the complexity of a word problem about such situation to analyze solution…

Nesher, Pearla; Hershkovitz, Sara; Novotna, Jarmila

2003-01-01

402

Environmental and stressful factors affecting the occurrence of kidney stones and the kidney colic.  

PubMed

The first renal disease described from Hippocrates is nephrolithiasis with renal colic, which is the pain of stone passage and is also a common renal problem with easily recognizable characteristics. There has been much written about dietary factors, which have unequivocally been proved to play an important role in the formation of kidney stones. In this regard, it is of interest that the contribution of factors such as stressful events, life style, or occupation in the formation of kidney stones has not been well studied. This review examines the clinical evidence of the stressful events and other environmental factors affecting the occurrence of kidney stones. PMID:24927933

Kalaitzidis, Rigas G; Damigos, Dimitrios; Siamopoulos, Kostas C

2014-09-01

403

View-angle-dependent AIRS Cloudiness and Radiance Variance: Analysis and Interpretation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Upper tropospheric clouds play an important role in the global energy budget and hydrological cycle. Significant view-angle asymmetry has been observed in upper-level tropical clouds derived from eight years of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) 15 um radiances. Here, we find that the asymmetry also exists in the extra-tropics. It is larger during day than that during night, more prominent near elevated terrain, and closely associated with deep convection and wind shear. The cloud radiance variance, a proxy for cloud inhomogeneity, has consistent characteristics of the asymmetry to those in the AIRS cloudiness. The leading causes of the view-dependent cloudiness asymmetry are the local time difference and small-scale organized cloud structures. The local time difference (1-1.5 hr) of upper-level (UL) clouds between two AIRS outermost views can create parts of the observed asymmetry. On the other hand, small-scale tilted and banded structures of the UL clouds can induce about half of the observed view-angle dependent differences in the AIRS cloud radiances and their variances. This estimate is inferred from analogous study using Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) radiances observed during the period of time when there were simultaneous measurements at two different view-angles from NOAA-18 and -19 satellites. The existence of tilted cloud structures and asymmetric 15 um and 6.7 um cloud radiances implies that cloud statistics would be view-angle dependent, and should be taken into account in radiative transfer calculations, measurement uncertainty evaluations and cloud climatology investigations. In addition, the momentum forcing in the upper troposphere from tilted clouds is also likely asymmetric, which can affect atmospheric circulation anisotropically.

Gong, Jie; Wu, Dong L.

2013-01-01

404

Factors, Correlates, and Problem Areas Affecting Career Decision Making of a Cross-Sectional Sample of Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the self-reported impact of factors affecting career decision making and tested the validity of the Career Factor Checklist (CFC) developed from O'Neil, Meeker, and Borgers' model. Results provide evidence of the factorial validity of the CFC, and support the O'Neil model and hypothesized factors affecting career decision making.…

O'Neil, James M.; And Others

1980-01-01

405

Variation of NEE and its affecting factors in a vineyard of arid region of northwest China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand the variation of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) in orchard ecosystem and it's affecting factors, carbon flux was measured using eddy covariance system in a wine vineyard in arid northwest China during 2008-2010. Results show that vineyard NEE was positive value at the early growth stage, higher negative value at the mid-growth stage, and lower negative value at the later growth stage. Diurnal variation of NEE was "W" shaped curve in sunny day, but "U" shaped curve in cloudy day. Irrigation and pruning did not affect diurnal variation shape of NEE, however, irrigation reduced the difference between maximal and minimal value of NEE and pruning reduced the carbon sink capacity. The main factors affecting hourly NEE were canopy conductance (gc) and net radiation (Rn). The hourly NEE increased with the increase of gc or Rn when gc was less than 0.02 m·s-1 or Rn was between 0 and 200 W·m-2. The main factors affecting both daily and seasonal NEE were gc, air temperature (Ta), atmospheric CO2 density, vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and soil moisture content.

Guo, W. H.; Kang, S. Z.; Li, F. S.; Li, S. E.

2014-02-01

406

Factors affecting the distribution pattern of wild plants with extremely small populations in Hainan Island, China.  

PubMed

Understanding which factors affect the distribution pattern of extremely small populations is essential to the protection and propagation of rare and endangered plant species. In this study, we established 108 plots covering the entire Hainan Island, and measured the appearance frequency and species richness of plant species with extremely small populations, as well as the ecological environments and human disturbances during 2012-2013. We explored how the ecological environments and human activities affected the distribution pattern of these extremely small populations. Results showed that the extremely small populations underwent human disturbances and threats, and they were often found in fragmental habitats. The leading factors changing the appearance frequency of extremely small populations differed among plant species, and the direct factors making them susceptible to extinction were human disturbances. The peak richness of extremely small populations always occurred at the medium level across environmental gradients, and their species richness always decreased with increasing human disturbances. However, the appearance frequencies of three orchid species increased with the increasing human disturbances. Our study thus indicate that knowledge on how the external factors, such as the ecological environment, land use type, roads, human activity, etc., affect the distribution of the extremely small populations should be taken for the better protecting them in the future. PMID:24830683

Chen, Yukai; Yang, Xiaobo; Yang, Qi; Li, Donghai; Long, Wenxing; Luo, Wenqi

2014-01-01

407

Factors Affecting the Distribution Pattern of Wild Plants with Extremely Small Populations in Hainan Island, China  

PubMed Central

Understanding which factors affect the distribution pattern of extremely small populations is essential to the protection and propagation of rare and endangered plant species. In this study, we established 108 plots covering the entire Hainan Island, and measured the appearance frequency and species richness of plant species with extremely small populations, as well as the ecological environments and human disturbances during 2012–2013. We explored how the ecological environments and human activities affected the distribution pattern of these extremely small populations. Results showed that the extremely small populations underwent human disturbances and threats, and they were often found in fragmental habitats. The leading factors changing the appearance frequency of extremely small populations differed among plant species, and the direct factors making them susceptible to extinction were human disturbances. The peak richness of extremely small populations always occurred at the medium level across environmental gradients, and their species richness always decreased with increasing human disturbances. However, the appearance frequencies of three orchid species increased with the increasing human disturbances. Our study thus indicate that knowledge on how the external factors, such as the ecological environment, land use type, roads, human activity, etc., affect the distribution of the extremely small populations should be taken for the better protecting them in the future. PMID:24830683

Chen, Yukai; Yang, Xiaobo; Yang, Qi; Li, Donghai; Long, Wenxing; Luo, Wenqi

2014-01-01

408

Statistical Analysis of Factors Affecting Landslides Triggered by the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake, Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large number of landslides were triggered by the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake (Mw 7.6) and subsequent aftershocks. They were mapped from SPOT images and recently checked by using aerial photo-pairs. Some omitted landslides due to the limitation of satellite images resolution were added to the dataset. Deposit area that previously recognized as landslide was also removed. The new dataset was then re-examined to sieve out some exceptional cases of landslide not intended in statistical analysis, for example, structural-controlled landslides of the Tsao-ling and the Jiou-Fen-Er-Shan. To better characterize the factors affecting earthquake triggered landslides, we divided the study area into several homogenous zones according to the geomorphologic and geologic characteristics. Finally, statistical analysis was performed on each zone. Results shows: (1) Closest distant to fault-rupture is the most important factor affecting landslides in the mountainous region. (2) PGA of E-W horizontal component presents good correlation to landslide-area to total-area ratio (landslide ratio). Most landslides concentrated in the region exceeding 250 gal. (3) Closest distance to ridge-crest also plays an important role in the occurrence of landslides. (4) Slope angle is the most important factor affecting landslides in each homogeneous zone. (5) Slope aspect also shows some correlations to landslide ratio in each homogeneous zone. (6) Goodness of correlation for each factor shows some differences among different homogeneous zones.

Liao, C.; Liao, H.; Lee, C.

2002-12-01

409

The Factors Affecting Recurrence of Symptoms after Infrainguinal Arterial Endovascular Angioplasty  

PubMed Central

Background This study reports the result of endovascular treatment for arterial occlusive disease limited to femoropopliteal lesions, focusing on the recurrence of symptoms instead of patency. Methods This was a retrospective, single-center study. From April 2007 to November 2011, 48 limbs in 38 patients underwent endovascular stenting or balloon angioplasty to treat femoropopliteal arterial occlusive disease. The factors affecting the recurrence of symptoms were analyzed. Results The mean age of the patients was 69.60±7.62 years. Among the baseline characteristics of the patients, initial hyperlipidemia was the most important factor affecting the recurrence of symptoms (relative risk=5.810, p=0.031). The presence of a dorsal arch was also a significant factor (relative risk=0.675, p=0.047). Conclusion The major factors that affect the recurrence of symptoms after endovascular treatment for femoropopliteal arterial occlusive lesions are hyperlipidemia and the presence of a dorsal arch. Therefore, the usage of lipid-lowering agents after endovascular treatment and taking the presence of a dorsal arch into consideration are important elements of managing the recurrence of symptoms.

Bae, Mi Ju; Lee, Jong Geun; Chung, Sung Woon; Lee, Chung Won; Kim, Chang Won

2014-01-01

410

Factors affecting adherence to a quality improvement checklist on an inpatient hepatology service  

PubMed Central

Given the increasing emphasis on measuring quality indicators such as adherence to practice guidelines, we sought to determine the factors and address the barriers affecting guideline adherence on an academic inpatient hepatology service. We performed a single-center, prospective observational study. Physicians were given a handheld checklist to complete daily. We first measured the adherence rate and studied factors affecting adherence by performing surveys. We then modified the program to address the factors affecting adherence and reassessed the adherence rate. There was a baseline 46% checklist adherence rate. Reasons given for nonadherence fell into two categories: ease of task and physician commitment from both attending physicians and housestaff. Specific reasons given were that the attending did not prompt (39%), the adherence sheet was not in the chart (35%), the individual forgot (12%), as well as lack of time, unclear protocol, “too difficult,” and “didn—t pay attention” (4% each). Each of these factors was addressed with a multimodal approach. Thereafter, the adherence rate rose from 46% to 83% (P < 0.001). Maintaining checklist adherence is time intensive and requires commitment from the whole medical team. PMID:24688186

Lai, Michelle

2014-01-01

411

Estimation of the sunglint radiance field from optical satellite imagery over open ocean: Multidirectional approach and polarization aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AbstractRadiometric satellite measurements over the ocean are greatly <span class="hlt">affected</span> by the contribution of the direct sunlight reflected on the ruffled ocean (so-called sunglint). Sunglint produces <span class="hlt">radiance</span> that can far exceed the <span class="hlt">radiance</span> scattered by both the atmosphere and ocean layers. Knowledge of the sunglint <span class="hlt">radiance</span> is required in many remote sensing applications using <span class="hlt">radiance</span> and polarization information (e.g., retrieval of aerosol or hydrosol optical properties, sensor calibration). The Cox and Munk model is currently used for estimating sunglint signal, but its accuracy is mainly limited by the mandatory use of wind speed data sets. An algorithm (so-called polarization-based atmospheric correction glint) was developed based on the original multidirectional and polarization radiometric measurements of the Polarization and Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences Coupled with Observations from a Lidar satellite mission. The method enables to accurately estimate the <span class="hlt">radiance</span> and the polarization terms of the sunglint signal. The strength of the algorithm is to quantify the sunglint radiation using the Polarization and Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences Coupled with Observations from a Lidar data without any a priori information on the actual sea state A relevant application of the algorithm is proposed to better detect the pixels influenced by clouds provided that ancillary data of wind speed are used.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harmel, Tristan; Chami, Malik</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4272843"> <span id="translatedtitle">Organizational <span class="hlt">Factors</span> that <span class="hlt">Affect</span> the Implementation of Information Technology: Perspectives of Middle Managers in Iran</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">ABSTRACT Objective: to examine the organizational <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the application of information technology in hospitals. Since the organizational <span class="hlt">factors</span> are one of the most important determinants of successful projects, by understanding their impact and identifying them it can help planning a systematic IT implementation. Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study 110 middle managers were chosen from teaching hospitals. Structured questionnaire was used for the data collection. Results: There was a significant relationship between organization resource, organizational knowledge, process, management structure and values and goals with implementation of information technology. Conclusion: Findings showed that organizational <span class="hlt">factors</span> had a considerable impact on implementation of information technology. Top managers must consider the important aspects of effective organizational <span class="hlt">factors</span>. PMID:25568582</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barzekar, Hosein; Karami, Mahtab</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22678592"> <span id="translatedtitle">Expression of dominant-negative mutants to study host <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> plant virus infections.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Our increasing understanding of virus-host interactions is revealing a complex role for host <span class="hlt">factors</span> during virus replication. Besides the role of some host proteins in defense against viruses, it is becoming clear that viruses also hijack several host functions to utilize them for their multiplication. Genome-wide screens using high-throughput methods are being conducted to identify most of the host <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> virus replication in a number of host-virus systems. For selected plant viruses, such as bromo- and tombusviruses, yeast has been developed as a model host, thus greatly accelerating genome-wide systematic approaches to identify critical host <span class="hlt">factors</span> of virus multiplication. In plants, gene knock out T-DNA libraries and virus-induced RNA silencing, among other strategies, can be utilized to identify and characterize host <span class="hlt">factors</span> involved in virus replication. An additional strategy to study the role of host <span class="hlt">factors</span> is the use of dominant-negative (DN) mutants, which are mutant versions of host proteins capable of interfering with the function of the wild-type protein without the need of knocking out the given gene from the chromosome. This method allows one to study the relevance of host <span class="hlt">factors</span> for virus replication in wild-type plants and may overcome some limitations of other methods. Here, we provide guidelines to the use of a DN mutant strategy for the study of host <span class="hlt">factors</span> and compare the advantages and limitations with other methods. The use of more diverse methods to study gene function in plants is increasing the probability of successfully identifying and characterizing host <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> virus replication in plant systems. PMID:22678592</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barajas, Daniel; Nagy, Peter D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3865993"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factors</span> <span class="hlt">Affecting</span> Regional Per-Capita Carbon Emissions in China Based on an LMDI <span class="hlt">Factor</span> Decomposition Model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">China is considered to be the main carbon producer in the world. The per-capita carbon emissions indicator is an important measure of the regional carbon emissions situation. This study used the LMDI <span class="hlt">factor</span> decomposition model–panel co-integration test two-step method to analyze the <span class="hlt">factors</span> that <span class="hlt">affect</span> per-capita carbon emissions. The main results are as follows. (1) During 1997, Eastern China, Central China, and Western China ranked first, second, and third in the per-capita carbon emissions, while in 2009 the pecking order changed to Eastern China, Western China, and Central China. (2) According to the LMDI decomposition results, the key driver boosting the per-capita carbon emissions in the three economic regions of China between 1997 and 2009 was economic development, and the energy efficiency was much greater than the energy structure after considering their effect on restraining increased per-capita carbon emissions. (3) Based on the decomposition, the <span class="hlt">factors</span> that <span class="hlt">affected</span> per-capita carbon emissions in the panel co-integration test showed that Central China had the best energy structure elasticity in its regional per-capita carbon emissions. Thus, Central China was ranked first for energy efficiency elasticity, while Western China was ranked first for economic development elasticity. PMID:24353753</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dong, Feng; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong; Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Qingliang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21046234"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> waste generation: a study in a waste management program in Dhaka City, Bangladesh.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Information on waste generation, socioeconomic characteristics, and willingness of the households to separate waste was obtained from interviews with 402 respondents in Dhaka city. Ordinary least square regression was used to determine the dominant <span class="hlt">factors</span> that might influence the waste generation of the households. The results showed that the waste generation of the households in Dhaka city was significantly <span class="hlt">affected</span> by household size, income, concern about the environment, and willingness to separate the waste. These <span class="hlt">factors</span> are necessary to effectively improve waste management, growth and performance, as well as to reduce the environmental degradation of the household waste. PMID:21046234</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Afroz, Rafia; Hanaki, Keisuke; Tudin, Rabaah</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4219988"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factors</span> <span class="hlt">Affecting</span> the Development of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos in Cattle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nuclear transfer is a complex multistep procedure that includes oocyte maturation, cell cycle synchronization of donor cells, enucleation, cell fusion, oocyte activation and embryo culture. Therefore, many <span class="hlt">factors</span> are believed to contribute to the success of embryo development following nuclear transfer. Numerous attempts to improve cloning efficiency have been conducted since the birth of the first sheep by somatic cell nuclear transfer. However, the efficiency of somatic cell cloning has remained low, and applications have been limited. In this review, we discuss some of the <span class="hlt">factors</span> that <span class="hlt">affect</span> the developmental ability of somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in cattle. PMID:25341701</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">AKAGI, Satoshi; MATSUKAWA, Kazutsugu; TAKAHASHI, Seiya</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018065"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> herbicide yields in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, June 1994</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Median concentrations and instantaneous yields of alachlor, metolachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and simazine were generally highest at sites in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin and in agricultural subbasins. Instantaneous herbicide yields are related to land use, hydrogeologic setting, streamflow yield, and agricultural row cropping practices. The significance of these relations may be <span class="hlt">affected</span> by the interdependence of the <span class="hlt">factors</span>. The percentage of basin area planted in corn is the most influential <span class="hlt">factor</span> in the prediction of herbicide yield. Instantaneous yields of all five herbicides measured in June 1994 related poorly to averaged 199094 herbicide use. Annually averaged herbicide-use data are too general to use as a predictor for short-term herbicide yields. An evaluation of <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> herbicide yields could be refined with more-current land use and land cover information and a more accurate estimate of the percentage of basin area planted in corn. <span class="hlt">Factors</span> related to herbicide yields can be used to predict herbicide yields in other basins within the Chesapeake Bay watershed and to develop an estimate of herbicide loads to Chesapeake Bay.Median concentrations and instantaneous yields of alachlor, metolachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and simazine were generally highest at sites in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin and in agricultural subbasins. Instantaneous herbicide yields are related to land use, hydrogeologic setting, streamflow yield, and agricultural row cropping practices. The significance of these relations may be <span class="hlt">affected</span> by the interdependence of the <span class="hlt">factors</span>. The percentage of basin area planted in corn is the most influential <span class="hlt">factor</span> in the prediction of herbicide yield. Instantaneous yields of all five herbicides measured in June 1994 related poorly to averaged 1990-94 herbicide use. Annually averaged herbicide-use data are too general to use as a predictor for short-term herbicide yields. An evaluation of <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> herbicide yields could be refined with more-current land use and land cover information and a more accurate estimate of the percentage of basin area planted in corn. <span class="hlt">Factors</span> related to herbicide yields can be used to predict herbicide yields in other basins within the Chesapeake Bay watershed and to develop an estimate of herbicide loads to Chesapeake Bay.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hainly, R.A.; Kahn, J.M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23393815"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Clinical and biological prognostic <span class="hlt">factors</span> in 135 patients <span class="hlt">affected</span> by sinonasal carcinoma treated in Piedmont].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Clinical and biological prognostic <span class="hlt">factors</span> in 135 patients <span class="hlt">affected</span> by sinonasal carcinoma treated in Piedmont. Long-term survival of patients with sinonasal carcinoma remains disappointing in spite of aggressive treatment. The aim of the study is the assessment of overall survival in a group of patients treated with a fixed protocol and the positivity of proliferation and neoangiogenesis markers (Ki-67 and VEGF). From our data it comes out that staging, histological type and treatment are the most important clinical and pathological prognostic <span class="hlt">factors</span>, moreover surgery +/- radiotherapy is the first line treatment for these tumors. Proliferation index and neoangiogenesis plays a pivotal role in the natural history of such neoplasms. PMID:23393815</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Raimondo, L; Garzaro, M; Naqe, N; Zanardi, F; Lauria, A; Pecorari, G; Giordano, C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MS%26E...71a2053M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the use of modern methods and materials in construction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sustainability of construction attracts much attention in construction industry. One of the <span class="hlt">factors</span> driving this requirement is application of materials and components through modern methods and technologies. Modern methods of construction can be the way to obtain buildings assisting in minimizing the negative impact of construction industry on the environment. Article defines the <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the use of these modern methods and materials of construction. At the same time it defines modern construction methods and materials that can be considered progressive in the construction process.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mesároš, P.; Mandi?ák, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1635..316H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> satisfaction level on problem based learning approach using structural equation modeling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nowadays, in the job market demand, graduates are expected not only to have higher performance in academic but they must also be excellent in soft skill. Problem-Based Learning (PBL) has a number of distinct advantages as a learning method as it can deliver graduates that will be highly prized by industry. This study attempts to determine the satisfaction level of engineering students on the PBL Approach and to evaluate their determinant <span class="hlt">factors</span>. The Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to investigate how the <span class="hlt">factors</span> of Good Teaching Scale, Clear Goals, Student Assessment and Levels of Workload <span class="hlt">affected</span> the student satisfaction towards PBL approach.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hussain, Nur Farahin Mee; Zahid, Zalina</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4147228"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factors</span> <span class="hlt">Affecting</span> Hospital Employees' Knowledge Sharing Intention and Behavior, and Innovation Behavior</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objectives To investigate the <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> employees' knowledge sharing intention, knowledge sharing behavior, and innovation behavior of the four top-ranked university hospitals in South Korea. Methods Data were collected from employees at three university hospitals in Seoul, Korea and one university hospital in Gyeonggi-Do, Korea through self-administered questionnaires. The survey was conducted from May 29, 2013 to July 17, 2013. A total of 779 questionnaires were analyzed by SPSS version 18.0 and AMOS version 18.0. Results <span class="hlt">Factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> hospital employees' knowledge sharing intention, knowledge sharing behavior, and innovation behavior are reciprocity, behavioral control, and trust. Conclusion It is important to select employees who have a propensity for innovation and continuously educate them about knowledge management based on trust. PMID:25180147</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, Hyun Sook; Hong, Seong Ae</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1282105"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of equatorial x-ray diffraction patterns from muscle fibers: <span class="hlt">factors</span> that <span class="hlt">affect</span> the intensities.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Previously we have shown that cross-bridge attachment to actin and the radial position of the myosin heads surrounding the thick filament backbone <span class="hlt">affect</span> the equatorial x-ray diffraction intensities in different ways (Yu, 1989). In the present study, other <span class="hlt">factors</span> frequently encountered experimentally are analyzed by a simple model of the filament lattice. It is shown that the ordering/disordering of filaments, lattice spacing changes, the azimuthal redistributions of cross-bridges, and variations in the ordered/disordered population of cross-bridges surrounding the thick filaments can distinctly <span class="hlt">affect</span> the equatorial intensities. Consideration of Fourier transforms of individual components of the unit cell can provide qualitative explanations for the equatorial intensity changes. Criteria are suggested that can be used to distinguish the influence of some <span class="hlt">factors</span> from others. PMID:7612844</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Malinchik, S; Yu, L C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37890611"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> N 2 fixation by the cyanobacterium Trichodesmium sp. GBRTRLI101</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Various <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> N2 fixation of a cultured strain of Trichodesmium sp. (GBRTRLI101) from the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon were investigated. The diurnal pattern of N2 fixation demonstrated that it was primarily light-induced although fixation continued to occur for at least 1 h in the dark in samples that had been actively fixing N2. N2 fixation was dependent on the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fei-Xue Fu; P. R. F Bell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">424</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://physicsed.buffalostate.edu/pubs/JSET/LiuMacIsaacJSET14(1)Mar05.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Investigation of <span class="hlt">Factors</span> <span class="hlt">Affecting</span> the Degree of Naïve Impetus Theory Application</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study investigates <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the degree of novice physics students’ application of the naïve impetus theory. Six hundred and fourteen first-year university engineering physics students answered the Force Concept Inventory as a pre-test for their calculus-based course. We examined the degree to which students consistently applied the naïve impetus theory across different items. We used a 2-way repeated measures</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xiufeng Liu; Dan MacIsaac</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">425</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42386597"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factors</span> <span class="hlt">Affecting</span> the Severity of Injuries Among Young Motorcyclists—A Swedish Nationwide Cohort Study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objectives. To determine <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the severity of motorcycle injuries, considering variables related to the individual, the environment, the vehicle, and the crash.Methods. This is a register-based retrospective cohort study. All individuals born in 1970–1972 (n = 334,070) were extracted from the Swedish Population and Housing Census of 1985 and followed up from 1988 to 2000, when aged 16–30. All</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Francesco Zambon; Marie Hasselberg</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">426</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://repository.tamu.edu/handle/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-1991-THESIS-C624"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pearl millet: parboiling methods and <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the process and cooked product</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">(Chairman of Committee) alph D. Waniska (Member) Ronald L. Richter (Member) Ronald L. Richter (Chair, Faculty of Food Science) Edward C A Rung (Head of Department) August 1991 ABSTRACT Pearl Millet: Parboiling Methods and <span class="hlt">Factors</span> <span class="hlt">Affecting</span>... cm deep), and dried by various methods described later. TABLE 2. 1 Physical Properties of the Control Pearl Millet Samples. Kernel Size' (WxL ) Endosperm Kernel Sample Texture Appearance 1, 000-Kernel Test Weight Moisture Density Weight (SS...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Clegg, Chally Joel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">427</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/7656771q57880644.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> overwinter survival of the American burying beetle, Nicrophorus americanus (Coleoptera: Silphidae)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The endangered American burying beetle (Nicrophorus americanus) is relatively abundant at Fort Chaffee Maneuver Training Center in northwestern Arkansas. There is a paucity of basic life-history\\u000a information available, particularly with respect to <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> overwintering success. In a field experiment we: (1)\\u000a captured beetles at Fort Chaffee; (2) bred them in captivity; (3) in the fall on Fort Chaffee placed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gary D. Schnell; Ana E. Hiott; J. Curtis Creighton; Victoria L. Smyth; April Komendat</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">428</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://repository.tamu.edu/handle/1969.1/86281"> <span id="translatedtitle">Some <span class="hlt">Factors</span> <span class="hlt">Affecting</span> the Utilization of Phosphoric Acid in Soils by Plants in Pot Experiments.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, Director College Station, Texas BULLETIN NO. 647 APRIL, 1944 SOME <span class="hlt">FACTORS</span> <span class="hlt">AFFECTING</span> THE UTILIZATION OF PHOSPHORIC ACID IN SOILS BY PLANTS IN POT EXPERIMENTS G. S. FRAPS and J. F. FUDGE...] The relations between the quantities of phosphoric acid re- moved by corn and milo or kafir and the composition and other characteristics of Texas soils was ascertained from the data of 375 pot experiments. acid acid crol nhn! =---, Wit pho; tota DL...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fudge, J. F. (Joseph Franklin); Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1944-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">429</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48424977"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> seed germination of Eleocharis cellulosa and Rhyncospora tracyi from the northern Everglades</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The re-establishment of native plant communities, in particular the re-creation of ridge (sawgrass dominated; Cladium jamaicense) and slough (Eleocharis spp. and Nymphaea odorata) habitat, is a significant component of Everglades restoration. Two wetland species indicative of pristine slough habitats\\u000a are Eleocharis cellulosa and Rhynchospora tracyi. This study conducted controlled experiments to examine three <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> seed germination of native slough</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jennifer A. Leeds; Susan Newman; Stephen M. Smith</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">430</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30532314"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factors</span> <span class="hlt">Affecting</span> the Outcome of Arthroscopy in Medial-Compartment Osteoarthritis of the Knee</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: This study was designed to obtain information on <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the medium-term efficacy of arthroscopy (debridement or microfracturing of chondral defects) in patients with unicompartmental osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Methods: A total of 156 patients (71 men and 85 women; mean age, 51.6 8.7 years (range, 37 to 69 years)) with isolated Kellgren-Lawrence grade 2 medial-compartment knee OA</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gunter Spahn; Thomas Mückley; Enrico Kahl; Gunther O. Hofmann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">431</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/10/21/up-up-and-away-testing-factors-that-affect-helium-balloon-lift/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Up, Up and Away: Testing <span class="hlt">Factors</span> that <span class="hlt">Affect</span> Helium Balloon Lift</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">What <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affect</span> the amount of weight a helium balloon is able to lift? Was there enough helium in the balloon that drifted over Colorado last week to lift a 6-year-old boy? In this lesson, students conduct experiments to test the relationship between volume of helium balloons and their âlifting power.â They then apply their learning to the Heene case.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hutchings, Catherine; Ojalvo, Holly E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">432</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22053937"> <span id="translatedtitle">Absolute spectral <span class="hlt">radiance</span> responsivity calibration of sun photometers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sun photometers are designed to measure direct solar irradiance and diffused sky <span class="hlt">radiance</span> for the purpose of atmospheric parameters characterization. A sun photometer is usually calibrated by using a lamp-illuminated integrating sphere source for its band-averaged <span class="hlt">radiance</span> responsivity, which normally has an uncertainty of 3%-5% at present. Considering the calibration coefficients may also change with time, a regular high precision calibration is important to maintain data quality. In this paper, a tunable-laser-based facility for spectral <span class="hlt">radiance</span> responsivity calibration has been developed at the Key Laboratory of Optical Calibration and Characterization, Chinese Academy of Sciences. A reference standard <span class="hlt">radiance</span> radiometer, calibrated against cryogenic radiometer, is used to determine the <span class="hlt">radiance</span> from a laser-illuminated integrating sphere source. Spectral <span class="hlt">radiance</span> responsivity of CIMEL CE318-2 sun photometer is calibrated using this new calibration system with a combined standard uncertainty of about 0.8%. As a validation, the derived band-averaged <span class="hlt">radiance</span> responsivity are compared to that from a Goddard Space Flight Center lamp-based sphere calibration and good agreements (difference <1.4%) are found from 675 to 1020 nm bands.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xu Qiuyun; Zheng Xiaobing; Zhang Wei; Wang Xianhua; Li Jianjun; Li Xin [Key Laboratory of Optical Calibration and Characterization, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Li Zhengqiang [Laboratoire d'Optique Atmospherique, Universite Lille 1, Villeneuve d'Ascq 59655 (France) and State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Institute of Remote Sensing Applications, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">433</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3247918"> <span id="translatedtitle">Physician, Patient and Contextual <span class="hlt">Factors</span> <span class="hlt">Affecting</span> Treatment Decisions in Older Adults with Cancer: A Literature Review</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose/Objectives To review physician, patient, and contextual <span class="hlt">factors</span> that <span class="hlt">affect</span> treatment decision-making in older adults diagnosed with cancer and relate these <span class="hlt">factors</span> to theoretical models of decision-making. Data Sources PubMed (1966-April 2010), PsycINFO (1967-April 2010) and CINAHL (1982-April 2010) databases were searched to access relevant medical, psychological and nursing literature. Data Synthesis Physician <span class="hlt">factors</span> in treatment decisions include physician personal beliefs and values, expertise, practice type, perception of lowered life expectancy, medical <span class="hlt">factors</span>, power, and communication style. Patient <span class="hlt">factors</span> include personal beliefs and values, ethnicity, decisional control preferences, previous health-related experience, perception of the decision-making process, and personal <span class="hlt">factors</span>. Contextual <span class="hlt">factors</span> include availability of caregiver, lack of insurance, poor financial status, and geographical barrier. The interplay of physician, patient, and contextual <span class="hlt">factors</span> are not well understood. Existing models of decision-making are not sufficient to explicate TDM process in older adults diagnosed with cancer. Conclusions Clinical studies in older adult patient population using a longitudinal and prospective design are needed to examine real-time interplay of patient, physician, and contextual <span class="hlt">factors</span> and to better understand how these divergent <span class="hlt">factors</span> influenced actual treatment decisions. Implications for Nursing Oncology nurses can advocate for a patient’s autonomy during TDM by coaching them to seek evidence-based discussion of various treatment options, benefits and risks assessments, and truthful discussion of the probability of success for each treatment option from their physicians. Oncology nurses must promote an informed treatment decisions that are consistent with a patient’s personal preference and values within the limits of the patient’s personal contexts. PMID:22201670</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tariman, J. D.; Berry, D. L.; Cochrane, B.; Doorenbos, A.; Schepp, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">434</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3114445"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sociodemographic <span class="hlt">factors</span> contribute to the depressive <span class="hlt">affect</span> among African Americans with chronic kidney disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Depression is common in end-stage renal disease and is associated with poor quality of life and higher mortality; however, little is known about depressive <span class="hlt">affect</span> in earlier stages of chronic kidney disease. To measure this in a risk group burdened with hypertension and kidney disease, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of individuals at enrollment in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension Cohort Study. Depressive <span class="hlt">affect</span> was assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory II and quality of life by the Medical Outcomes Study-Short Form and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Beck Depression scores over 14 were deemed consistent with an increased depressive <span class="hlt">affect</span> and linear regression analysis was used to identify <span class="hlt">factors</span> associated with these scores. Among 628 subjects, 166 had scores over 14 but only 34 were prescribed antidepressants. The mean Beck Depression score of 11.0 varied with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from 10.7 (eGFR 50–60) to 16.0 (eGFR stage 5); however, there was no significant independent association between these. Unemployment, low income, and lower quality and satisfaction with life scale scores were independently and significantly associated with a higher Beck Depression score. Thus, our study shows that an increased depressive <span class="hlt">affect</span> is highly prevalent in African Americans with chronic kidney disease, is infrequently treated with antidepressants, and is associated with poorer quality of life. Sociodemographic <span class="hlt">factors</span> have especially strong associations with this increased depressive <span class="hlt">affect</span>. Because this study was conducted in an African-American cohort, its findings may not be generalized to other ethnic groups. PMID:20200503</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fischer, Michael J.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Greene, Tom; Gassman, Jennifer J.; Wang, Xuelei; Brooks, Deborah H.; Charleston, Jeanne; Dowie, Donna; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Cooper, Lisa A.; Bruce, Marino A.; Kusek, John W.; Norris, Keith C.; Lash, James P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">435</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1280410"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic <span class="hlt">Factors</span> That Can <span class="hlt">Affect</span> Sensitivity to Neurotoxic Sequelae in Elderly Individuals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Early-life exposure to agents that modulate neurologic function can have long-lasting effects well into the geriatric period. Many other <span class="hlt">factors</span> can <span class="hlt">affect</span> neurologic function and susceptibility to neurotoxicants in elderly individuals. In this review we highlight pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic <span class="hlt">factors</span> that may increase geriatric susceptibility to these agents. There is a decreasing trend in hepatic metabolizing capacity with advancing years that can <span class="hlt">affect</span> the ability to clear therapeutic drugs and environmental chemicals. This <span class="hlt">factor</span> combined with decreased renal clearance causes prolonged retention of numerous drugs in elderly individuals. A geriatric pharmacokinetic database was developed to analyze changes in drug clearance with advancing age. This analysis shows that the half-life of drugs processed by hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes or via renal elimination is typically 50–75% longer in those older than 65 than in young adults. Liver and kidney diseases are more common in elderly individuals and can further decrease the clearance function of these organs. Polypharmacy, the administration of numerous drugs to a single patient, is very common in elderly individuals and increases the risks for drug interaction and side effects. With advancing age the nervous system undergoes a variety of changes, including neuronal loss, altered neurotransmitter and receptor levels, and decreased adaptability to changes induced by xenobiotics. These changes in the central nervous system can make elderly individuals more susceptible to neurologic dysfunction when confronted with single pharmacologic agents, polypharmacy, or environmental toxicants. The many <span class="hlt">factors</span> that <span class="hlt">affect</span> elderly responses to neuroactive agents make environmental risk assessment for this age group a special concern and present a unique challenge. PMID:16140636</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ginsberg, Gary; Hattis, Dale; Russ, Abel; Sonawane, Babasaheb</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">436</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8433E..03N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thermal lensing characterization of a high-<span class="hlt">radiance</span> 946nm planar waveguide laser</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the characterization of the in-plane thermal lens in a quasi-four-level Nd:YAG planar waveguide (PW) laser configured for high-<span class="hlt">radiance</span> operation with an external stable-cavity. Our approach utilises the measurement of the laser's output irradiance distribution at the near- and far-field positions concurrently in order to obtain the "real time" beam propagation parameter and thus beam quality <span class="hlt">factor</span>, M2. Coupled with the knowledge of the intra-cavity-thermal-lens- dependent beam sizes at an intra-cavity beam waist, the power dependent effective thermal lens focal length was characterized. A thermal lens focal length of >450 mm was obtained at all incident pump powers up to the maximum level of 87 W. This characterization enabled the build of a 29 W 946 nm PW laser with a record output <span class="hlt">radiance</span> of 4.3 TWm-2sr-1.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ng, S. P.; Mackenzie, J. I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">437</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880051586&hterms=atmospheric+boundary+layer&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Datmospheric%2Bboundary%2Blayer"> <span id="translatedtitle">The profile of upwelling 11-micron <span class="hlt">radiance</span> through the atmospheric boundary layer overlying the ocean</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Measurements of the gradient of 11-micron <span class="hlt">radiance</span> from the ocean surface were made with spaceborne AVHRR and with radiometers carried on research vessels in California and east Florida waters. The results obtained for the <span class="hlt">radiance</span> gradient at a variety of atmospheric conditions are in good agreement with radiative transfer calculations, suggesting that there was no significant error in the water vapor absorption parameters used in the calculations. The results confirm earlier predictions that, for a typical viewing <span class="hlt">factor</span> (i.e., zenith angle 60 deg) and for mid-latitude standard water vapor conditions, the 11-micron radiant flux measured by a spaceborne sensor will be dominated by the atmospheric contribution to the total outgoing radiation in this 'window' region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hagen, Denise E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">438</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=studies&pg=4&id=EJ953319"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factors</span> <span class="hlt">Affecting</span> the Study Pace of First-Year Law Students: In Search of Study Counselling Tools</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study explores <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the study pace of law students during their first academic year. The participants comprised two student groups: those whose number of study credits were the lowest and highest. Altogether, 25 students (11 with a slow and 14 with a fast study pace) were interviewed. The <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> study pace mentioned by…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haarala-Muhonen, Anne; Ruohoniemi, Mirja; Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">439</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/sir20085021"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factors</span> <span class="hlt">Affecting</span> Nitrate Delivery to Streams from Shallow Ground Water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An analysis of data collected at five flow-path study sites between 1997 and 2006 was performed to identify the <span class="hlt">factors</span> needed to formulate a comprehensive program, with a focus on nitrogen, for protecting ground water and surface water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Water-quality protection in the Coastal Plain requires the identification of <span class="hlt">factors</span> that <span class="hlt">affect</span> the transport of nutrients from recharge areas to streams through the shallow ground-water system. Some basins process or retain nitrogen more readily than others, and the <span class="hlt">factors</span> that <span class="hlt">affect</span> nitrogen processing and retention were the focus of this investigation to improve nutrient management in Coastal Plain streams and to reduce nutrient loads to coastal waters. Nitrate reduction in ground water was observed at all five flow-path study sites in the North Carolina Coastal Plain, although the extent of reduction at each site was influenced by various environmental, hydrogeologic, and geochemical <span class="hlt">factors</span>. Denitrification was the most common <span class="hlt">factor</span> responsible for decreases in nitrate along the ground-water flow paths. Specific <span class="hlt">factors</span>, some of which <span class="hlt">affect</span> denitrification rates, that appeared to influence ground-water nitrate concentrations along the flow paths or in the streams include soil drainage, presence or absence of riparian buffers, evapotranspiration, fertilizer use, ground-water recharge rates and residence times, aquifer properties, subsurface tile drainage, sources and amounts of organic matter, and hyporheic processes. The study data indicate that the nitrate-reducing capacity of the buffer zone combined with that of the hyporheic zone can substantially lower the amount of ground-water nitrate discharged to streams in agricultural settings of the North Carolina Coastal Plain. At the watershed scale, the effects of ground-water discharge on surface-water quality appear to be greatly influenced by streamflow conditions and the presence of extensive riparian vegetation. Streamflow statistics that reflect base flow and the general hydrologic dynamics of a stream are important in understanding nutrient transport from a watershed and may be useful indicators of watersheds that are likely to have higher yields of nutrients and water. Combining streamflow statistics with information on such <span class="hlt">factors</span> as land use, soil drainage, extent of riparian vegetation, geochemical conditions, and subsurface tile drainage in the Coastal Plain can be useful in identifying watersheds that are most likely to export excessive nitrogen due to nonpoint-source loadings and watersheds that are effective in processing nitrogen.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harden, Stephen L.; Spruill, Timothy B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">440</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/649229"> <span id="translatedtitle">Plane parallel <span class="hlt">radiance</span> transport for global illumination in vegetation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper applies plane parallel <span class="hlt">radiance</span> transport techniques to scattering from vegetation. The leaves, stems, and branches are represented as a volume density of scattering surfaces, depending only on height and the vertical component of the surface normal. Ordinary differential equations are written for the multiply scattered <span class="hlt">radiance</span> as a function of the height above the ground, with the sky <span class="hlt">radiance</span> and ground reflectance as boundary conditions. They are solved using a two-pass integration scheme to unify the two-point boundary conditions, and Fourier series for the dependence on the azimuthal angle. The resulting <span class="hlt">radiance</span> distribution is used to precompute diffuse and specular `ambient` shading tables, as a function of height and surface normal, to be used in rendering, together with a z-buffer shadow algorithm for direct solar illumination.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Max, N.; Mobley, C.; Keating, B.; Wu, E.H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" 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<a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">441</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790019462&hterms=Correction+factor+seawater&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DCorrection%2Bfactor%2Bseawater"> <span id="translatedtitle">Theory of spectral <span class="hlt">radiance</span> of pollutants at sea, volume 1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Remote measurement of pollutants dumped in the sea, not oil slicks, but soluble pollutants that change the color of the water, is addressed. The sensor is a spectral radiometer that flies over the polluted area and compares its spectral <span class="hlt">radiance</span> (color) to that of surrounding clean seawater. The goal is to infer the concentration of pollutants using the measured <span class="hlt">radiance</span> of the sea compared to laboratory measurements of reflection and transmission spectra of the pollutants. The subject is treated in three steps: (1) the quantities involved are defined and means for measuring them are described; (2) the equations for remote sensing with a low-flying aircraft are derived, in which wase the absorption and <span class="hlt">radiance</span> of intervening air is negligible; and (3) high-flying aircraft and satellites are applied, in which case the <span class="hlt">radiance</span> of intervening air is the major problem.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">442</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790010306&hterms=Correction+factor+seawater&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DCorrection%2Bfactor%2Bseawater"> <span id="translatedtitle">Theory of spectral <span class="hlt">radiance</span> of pollutants at sea</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Remote measurement of soluble pollutants that change the color of the water in the sea is reported. The sensor is a spectral radiometer that flies over the polluted area and compares its spectral <span class="hlt">radiance</span> to that of surrounding clean seawater. A quantitative analysis of the concentration of pollutants using the measured <span class="hlt">radiance</span> of the sea compared to laboratory measurements of reflection and transmission spectra of the pollutants is presented. The quantities involved are defined and means for measuring them are described. The equations for remote sensing with a low-flying aircraft, in which case the absorption and <span class="hlt">radiance</span> of intervening air is negligible are derived. High-flying aircraft and satellites, in which case the <span class="hlt">radiance</span> of intervening air is the major problem are applied.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">443</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870057538&hterms=ratio+chlorophyll&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dratio%2Bchlorophyll"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Radiance</span>-ratio algorithm wavelengths for remote oceanic chlorophyll determination</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two-band <span class="hlt">radiance</span>-ratio in-water algorithms in the visible spectrum have been evaluated for remote oceanic chlorophyll determination. Airborne active-passive (laser-solar) data from coastal, shelf-slope, and blue-water regions were used to generate two-dimensional chlorophyll-fluorescence and <span class="hlt">radiance</span>-ratio statistical correlation matrices containing all possible two-band ratio combinations from the thirty-two available contiguous 11.25-nm passive bands. The principal finding was that closely spaced <span class="hlt">radiance</span>-ratio bands yield chlorophyll estimates which are highly correlated with laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence within several distinct regions of the ocean color spectrum. Band combinations in the yellow, orange-red, spectral regions showed considerable promise for satisfactory chlorophyll pigment estimation in near-coastal Case II waters. Pigment recovery in Case I waters was best accomplished using blue-green <span class="hlt">radiance</span> ratios in the 490/500-nm region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hoge, Frank E.; Wright, C. Wayne; Swift, Robert N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">444</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19268579"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the performance of membrane bioreactor for piggery wastewater treatment.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study was conducted to identify the <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the performance of membrane bioreactor (MBR) for piggery wastewater treatment. The change of organic and nitrogen concentrations in piggery wastewater was studied to investigate the treatment efficiency. The increase of COD, BOD and NH(3)-N from 1150 to 2050 mg/L, 683 to 1198 mg/L and 154 to 248 mg/L has led to the decrease of treatment efficiency. Removal efficiencies of COD, BOD and NH(3)-N have decreased from 96.0% to 92.0%, 97.0% to 92.7% and 93.2% to 69.5%, respectively. The effects of biomass characteristics on membrane fouling were determined based on Pearson's correlation coefficient (r(p)). It was found that MLSS had a negative correlation with permeate flux (r(p)=-0.745, at significant level of 0.05) while sludge floc size a positive correlation (r(p)=0.731, at significant level of 0.05). MLSS and sludge floc size were found to be the dominant <span class="hlt">factors</span> that controlled the membrane filterability while sludge viscosity, EPS, SMP and SV(30) have taken as the sub-<span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> membrane fouling. PMID:19268579</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kornboonraksa, Thipsuree; Lee, Seung Hwan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">445</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25170242"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factors</span> and Trends <span class="hlt">Affecting</span> the Identification of a Reliable Biomarker for Diesel Exhaust Exposure.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The monitoring of human exposures to diesel exhaust continues to be a vexing problem for specialists seeking information on the potential health effects of this ubiquitous combustion product. Exposure biomarkers have yielded a potential solution to this problem by providing a direct measure of an individual's contact with key components in the exhaust stream. Spurred by the advent of new, highly sensitive, analytical methods capable of detecting substances at very low levels, there have been numerous attempts at identifying a stable and specific biomarker. Despite these new techniques, there is currently no foolproof method for unambiguously separating diesel exhaust exposures from those arising from other combustion sources. Diesel exhaust is a highly complex mixture of solid, liquid, and gaseous components whose exact composition can be <span class="hlt">affected</span> by many variables, including engine technology, fuel composition, operating conditions, and photochemical aging. These <span class="hlt">factors</span> together with those related to exposure methodology, epidemiological necessity, and regulatory reform can have a decided impact on the success or failure of future research aimed at identifying a suitable biomarker of exposure. The objective of this review is to examine existing information on exposure biomarkers for diesel exhaust and to identify those <span class="hlt">factors</span> and trends that have had an impact on the successful identification of metrics for both occupational and community settings. The information will provide interested parties with a template for more thoroughly understanding those <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> diesel exhaust emissions and for identifying those substances and research approaches holding the greatest promise for future success. PMID:25170242</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morgott, David A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">446</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24409020"> <span id="translatedtitle">Determining the pain-<span class="hlt">affecting</span> <span class="hlt">factors</span> of university students with nonspecific low back pain.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">[Purpose] This study was conducted on university students with nonspecific low back pain in order to determine the independent variables that <span class="hlt">affect</span> their pain. [Methods] A total of 514 students were included in this study. Pain was evaluated using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). A special form was prepared in order to evaluate the following independent variables: gender, weight, height, Body Mass Index (BMI), working periods sitting straight (television, computer, seminar, etc.), working periods bending at a table (reading, writing, etc.), using lumbar support while sitting, the mean duration of pain within the last one year, type of pain, time of the pain, faculty, class, physical activity habits and smoking. The collected data were evaluated using the CHAID (Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection) analysis method. [Results] The working hours bending at a table, physical activity, height, weight, BMI and educational departments were found not to <span class="hlt">affect</span> the severity of the pain. The pain severity was <span class="hlt">affected</span> by the duration of pain complaints within the last one year, the duration of working staying upright, smoking, classes, usage of lumbar support and age variables. [Conclusions] The results of this study show that nonspecific low back pain of university students is <span class="hlt">affected</span> by many <span class="hlt">factors</span> such as smoking, class, age, using a computer and lumbar support. PMID:24409020</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Taspinar, Ferruh; Taspinar, Betul; Cavlak, Ugur; Celik, Erdal</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">447</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3885839"> <span id="translatedtitle">Determining the Pain-<span class="hlt">Affecting</span> <span class="hlt">Factors</span> of University Students with Nonspecific Low Back Pain</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">[Purpose] This study was conducted on university students with nonspecific low back pain in order to determine the independent variables that <span class="hlt">affect</span> their pain. [Methods] A total of 514 students were included in this study. Pain was evaluated using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). A special form was prepared in order to evaluate the following independent variables: gender, weight, height, Body Mass Index (BMI), working periods sitting straight (television, computer, seminar, etc.), working periods bending at a table (reading, writing, etc.), using lumbar support while sitting, the mean duration of pain within the last one year, type of pain, time of the pain, faculty, class, physical activity habits and smoking. The collected data were evaluated using the CHAID (Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection) analysis method. [Results] The working hours bending at a table, physical activity, height, weight, BMI and educational departments were found not to <span class="hlt">affect</span> the severity of the pain. The pain severity was <span class="hlt">affected</span> by the duration of pain complaints within the last one year, the duration of working staying upright, smoking, classes, usage of lumbar support and age variables. [Conclusions] The results of this study show that nonspecific low back pain of university students is <span class="hlt">affected</span> by many <span class="hlt">factors</span> such as smoking, class, age, using a computer and lumbar support. PMID:24409020</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Taspinar, Ferruh; Taspinar, Betul; Cavlak, Ugur; Celik, Erdal</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">448</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19847696"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> microwave-enhanced advanced oxidation process for sewage sludge treatment.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The microwave-enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP) was applied to sewage sludge for nutrient solubilization and solids' disintegration. Four <span class="hlt">factors</span>, temperature, hydrogen peroxide dosage, mixing, and solids concentration were chosen for a screening experiment, and were ranked according to their significance of influence on the process. In general, temperature and hydrogen peroxide dosage are the two significant <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the process, while mixing is the least significant <span class="hlt">factor</span>. Temperature was the most significant <span class="hlt">factor</span> for the release of orthophosphate, and hydrogen peroxide dosage was most important in ammonia release. Solids disintegration, in terms of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), was largely dependent on temperature and hydrogen peroxide dosage. For volatile fatty acids (VFA) release, mixing was the most significant <span class="hlt">factor</span>. At higher temperatures with mixing, more VFA was released into the headspace, resulting in less VFA retained in the solution. The best results of solids' disintegration and nutrient release were obtained at 120 degrees C, and 0.80 g H(2)O(2)/g dry sludge. PMID:19847696</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kenge, Anju A; Liao, Ping H; Lo, Kwang V</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">449</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4064437"> <span id="translatedtitle">Parathyroid nuclear scan. A focused review on the technical and biological <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> its outcome</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary Objective Technetium Parathyroid Scintigraphy (TS) is the most popular noninvasive localization procedure in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Awareness of various <span class="hlt">factors</span> involved in technetium uptake helps understand the outcome of TS. Methods We utilize a case of changing TS scans in a patient to review the literature on the various biological and technical <span class="hlt">factors</span> involved in technetium uptake by the abnormal parathyroid tissue. A 56 year female was diagnosed with PHPT and osteopenia. An initial scan using 99mTc-Tetrofosmin showed no definite areas of abnormal parathyroid tissue. Patient refused surgical exploration, was started on Bisphosponates and subsequently monitored. Five years later she suffered fracture of her right wrist. A repeat TS using 99mTc-Sestamibi revealed hypervascular parathyroid lesion in the right lower neck. She underwent successful removal of a right lower parathyroid adenoma. Results Technical <span class="hlt">factors</span> like the type of Tc isotope used, imaging techniques and biological <span class="hlt">factors</span> like biochemical parameters (calcium, vitamin D levels), adenoma size, content of oxyphilic cells, vascularity can <span class="hlt">affect</span> the outcome of the scan. Conclusion Clinicians should be aware of technical and biological <span class="hlt">factors</span> that could result in negative scan in parathyroid nuclear scintigraphy. PMID:25002876</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kannan, Subramanian; Milas, Mira; Neumann, Donald; Parikh, Rikesh T.; Siperstein, Alan; Licata, Angelo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">450</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020010574&hterms=spectrophotometer&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dspectrophotometer"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cross Calibration of TOMS, SBUV/2 and Sciamachy <span class="hlt">Radiances</span> from Ground Observations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Verification of a stratospheric ozone recovery remains a high priority for environmental research and policy definition. Models predict an ozone recovery at a much lower rate than the measured depletion rate observed to date. Therefore improved precision of the satellite and ground ozone observing systems are required over the long term to verify recovery. We have shown that validation of <span class="hlt">radiances</span> is the most effective means for correcting absolute accuracy and long term drifts of backscatter type satellite measurements. This method by-passes the algorithms used for both satellite and ground based measurements which are normally used to validate and correct the satellite data. Validation of <span class="hlt">radiances</span> will also improve all higher level data products derived from the satellite observations. Backscatter algorithms suffer from several errors such as unrepresentative a-priori data and air mass <span class="hlt">factor</span> corrections. <span class="hlt">Radiance</span> comparisons employ forward models but are inherently more accurate and than inverse (retrieval) algorithms. A new method for satellite validation is planned which will compliment measurements from the existing ground-based networks. This method will employ very accurate comparisons between ground based zenith sky <span class="hlt">radiances</span> and satellite nadir <span class="hlt">radiances</span>. These comparisons will rely heavily on the experience derived from the Shuttle SBUV (SSBUV) program which provided a reference standard of <span class="hlt">radiance</span> measurements for SBUV/2, TOMS, and GOME. This new measurement program, called "Skyrad", employs two well established capabilities at the Goddard Space Flight Center, 1) the SSBUV calibration facilities and 2) the radiative transfer codes used for the TOMS and SBUV/2 algorithms and their subsequent refinements. Radiative transfer calculations show that ground based zenith sky and satellite nadir backscatter ultraviolet comparisons can be made very accurately under certain viewing conditions. The Skyrad instruments (SSBUV, Brewer spectrophotometers, and possibly others) will be calibrated and maintained to a precision of a few tenths of a percent. Skyrad data will then enable long term calibration of upcoming satellite instruments such as QuickTOMS. SBUV/2s and SCIAMACHY with a high degree of precision. This technique can be further employed to monitor the performance of future instruments such as GOME-2, OMI, and OMPS. Initial ground observations taken from Goddard Space Flight Center compared with radiative transfer calculations has indicated the feasibility of this method.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hillsenrath, Ernest; Ahmad, Ziauddin; Bhartia, Pawan K. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">451</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.4075L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Decoupling atmospheric and oceanic <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> aerosol loading over a cluster of mesoscale North Atlantic eddies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">shipboard and satellite measurements we explore the environmental <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the number concentration of aerosols with diameter 100 < D < 1000 nm over a cluster of three mesoscale (~10-100 km) eddies in the North Atlantic. Strongest sensitivity to environmental conditions was found in the 400 < D < 1000 nm size range. In this size range particle concentrations were closely linked to the surface wind speed, indicating in situ production of sea spray aerosols by wind-driven processes. Particle concentrations were also <span class="hlt">affected</span> by mesoscale variability in oceanic conditions at the vicinity of an anticyclonic eddy. In addition, a distinct aerosol population possibly produced at a distance of ~1000-2000 km from the study area was identified. The results highlight the importance of oceanic and atmospheric mesoscale processes in determining the characteristics of aerosols over the marine environment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lehahn, Yoav; Koren, Ilan; Rudich, Yinon; Bidle, Kay D.; Trainic, Miri; Flores, Jorge Michel; Sharoni, Shlomit; Vardi, Assaf</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">452</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11939051"> <span id="translatedtitle">[The food habit and its <span class="hlt">affecting</span> <span class="hlt">factors</span> of preschool children in Guangzhou].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A survey of nutritional knowledge-attitude-practice was conducted among 1300 preschool children, their parents, 203 teachers and nurses in Kindergarten in 1997. Results showed that the food habit of preschool children was unsuitable. Most preschool children rejected eating animal liver, peanut product and animal blood, but often ate snacks. From statistic analysis among <span class="hlt">affecting</span> <span class="hlt">factors</span>, the mother's and teachers' nutritional knowledge and the food habit of parents had significant effect on food habit of preschool children. The family income did not significantly <span class="hlt">affect</span> food habit of preschool children. Moreover, there was little nutrition education involved in the preschool children courses in 4 kindergartens. The result suggested that the nutrition education plan should be done. PMID:11939051</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mei, J; Chen, Q; Sun, J; Xiong, R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-09-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">453</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19002674"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the haptic filled-space illusion for dynamic touch.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the haptic filled-space illusion for active dynamic touch, observers move their fingertip across an unfilled extent or an extent filled with intermediate stimulations. Previous researchers have reported lengths of filled extents to be overestimated, but the parameters <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the strength of the illusion are still largely unknown. In the current research, we show that the illusion persists when intermediate stimulations do not provide information about the extent's length. In addition, the results show that the strength of the illusion increases with the number of filler elements. In contrast with earlier research, we control for movement speed differences between filled and unfilled extents. The results suggest that the strength of the illusion is independent of the overall average movement speed. Insight into <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the strength of the illusion may provide a better understanding of the kinematic mechanisms underlying haptic length perception. PMID:19002674</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sanders, Abram F J; Kappers, Astrid M L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">454</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25592130"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the repeatability of gamma camera calibration for quantitative imaging applications using a sealed source.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several applications in nuclear medicine require absolute activity quantification of single photon emission computed tomography images. Obtaining a repeatable calibration <span class="hlt">factor</span> that converts voxel values to activity units is essential for these applications. Because source preparation and measurement of the source activity using a radionuclide activity meter are potential sources of variability, this work investigated instrumentation and acquisition <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> repeatability using planar acquisition of sealed sources. The calibration <span class="hlt">factor</span> was calculated for different acquisition and geometry conditions to evaluate the effect of the source size, lateral position of the source in the camera field-of-view (FOV), source-to-camera distance (SCD), and variability over time using sealed Ba-133 sources. A small region of interest (ROI) based on the source dimensions and collimator resolution was investigated to decrease the background effect. A statistical analysis with a mixed-effects model was used to evaluate quantitatively the effect of each variable on the global calibration <span class="hlt">factor</span> variability. A variation of 1?cm in the measurement of the SCD from the assumed distance of 17?cm led to a variation of 1-2% in the calibration <span class="hlt">factor</span> measurement using a small disc source (0.4?cm diameter) and less than 1% with a larger rod source (2.9?cm diameter). The lateral position of the source in the FOV and the variability over time had small impacts on calibration <span class="hlt">factor</span> variability. The residual error component was well estimated by Poisson noise. Repeatability of better than 1% in a calibration <span class="hlt">factor</span> measurement using a planar acquisition of a sealed source can be reasonably achieved. The best reproducibility was obtained with the largest source with a count rate much higher than the average background in the ROI, and when the SCD was positioned within 5?mm of the desired position. In this case, calibration source variability was limited by the quantum noise. PMID:25592130</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anizan, N; Wang, H; Zhou, X C; Wahl, R L; Frey, E C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">455</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PMB....60.1325A"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the repeatability of gamma camera calibration for quantitative imaging applications using a sealed source</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several applications in nuclear medicine require absolute activity quantification of single photon emission computed tomography images. Obtaining a repeatable calibration <span class="hlt">factor</span> that converts voxel values to activity units is essential for these applications. Because source preparation and measurement of the source activity using a radionuclide activity meter are potential sources of variability, this work investigated instrumentation and acquisition <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> repeatability using planar acquisition of sealed sources. The calibration <span class="hlt">factor</span> was calculated for different acquisition and geometry conditions to evaluate the effect of the source size, lateral position of the source in the camera field-of-view (FOV), source-to-camera distance (SCD), and variability over time using sealed Ba-133 sources. A small region of interest (ROI) based on the source dimensions and collimator resolution was investigated to decrease the background effect. A statistical analysis with a mixed-effects model was used to evaluate quantitatively the effect of each variable on the global calibration <span class="hlt">factor</span> variability. A variation of 1?cm in the measurement of the SCD from the assumed distance of 17?cm led to a variation of 1–2% in the calibration <span class="hlt">factor</span> measurement using a small disc source (0.4?cm diameter) and less than 1% with a larger rod source (2.9?cm diameter). The lateral position of the source in the FOV and the variability over time had small impacts on calibration <span class="hlt">factor</span> variability. The residual error component was well estimated by Poisson noise. Repeatability of better than 1% in a calibration <span class="hlt">factor</span> measurement using a planar acquisition of a sealed source can be reasonably achieved. The best reproducibility was obtained with the largest source with a count rate much higher than the average background in the ROI, and when the SCD was positioned within 5?mm of the desired position. In this case, calibration source variability was limited by the quantum noise.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anizan, N.; Wang, H.; Zhou, X. C.; Wahl, R. L.; Frey, E. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">456</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4034484"> <span id="translatedtitle">Plasmid Transfer of Plasminogen K1-5 Reduces Subcutaneous Hepatoma Growth by <span class="hlt">Affecting</span> Inflammatory <span class="hlt">Factors</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is evidence that plasminogen K1-5 (PlgK1-5) directly <span class="hlt">affects</span> tumour cells and inflammation. Therefore, we analysed if PlgK1-5 has immediate effects on hepatoma cells and inflammatory <span class="hlt">factors</span> in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, effects of plasmid encoding PlgK1-5 (pK1-5) on Hepa129, Hepa1-6, and HuH7 cell viability, apoptosis, and proliferation as well as VEGF and TNF-alpha expression and STAT3-phosphorylation were investigated. In vivo, tumour growth, proliferation, vessel density, and effects on vascular endothelial growth <span class="hlt">factor</span> (VEGF) and tumour necrosis <span class="hlt">factor</span> alpha (TNF-alpha) expression were examined following treatment with pK1-5. In vivo, pK1-5 halved cell viability; cell death was increased by up to 15% compared to the corresponding controls. Proliferation was not <span class="hlt">affected</span>. VEGF, TNF-alpha, and STAT3-phosphorylation were <span class="hlt">affected</span> following treatment with pK1-5. In vivo, ten days after treatment initiation, pK1-5 reduced subcutaneous tumour growth by 32% and mitosis by up to 77% compared to the controls. Vessel density was reduced by 50%. TNF-alpha levels in tumour and liver tissue were increased, whereas VEGF levels in tumours and livers were reduced after pK1-5 treatment. Taken together, plasmid gene transfer of PlgK1-5 inhibits hepatoma (cell) growth not only by reducing vessel density but also by inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, and triggering inflammation. PMID:24895598</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koch, Lea A.; Strassburg, Christian P.; Raskopf, Esther</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">457</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMOS43C..05H"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Statistics of Optical <span class="hlt">Radiance</span> in the Surf Zone</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The variability of optical <span class="hlt">radiance</span> associated with wave breaking in the surf zone is roughly ten times that due to other causes such as non-breaking waves and turbidity. Lambertian scattering from bubbles and aerosol is strong and omni-directional and completely obstructs visibility through the water surface except for occasional glimpses between wave groups. Knowledge of the statistics of these glimpses and it’s opposite, bubble-derived opacity, would help us understand the potential utility of overhead optical methods of water column observation. More intriguingly, if links could be derived between optical <span class="hlt">radiance</span> and geophysical variables such as breaking dissipation, <span class="hlt">radiance</span> measurements could be inverted to estimate dissipation, the key driver of radiation stress gradients, hence nearshore circulation. The Surf Zone Optics (SZO) experiment was conducted in September 2010, at Duck, NC with the dual purposes of developing a predictive understanding of glimpse statistics and an invertible relationship between <span class="hlt">radiance</span> and wave dissipation. Results will be presented on both comparisons of <span class="hlt">radiance</span> with local hydrodynamic measurements and the long-term statistics of <span class="hlt">radiance</span> over varying waves and bathymetry.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Holman, R. A.; Stanley, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">458</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0950069930150603"> <span id="translatedtitle">University Physics Students' Conceptualizations of <span class="hlt">Factors</span> <span class="hlt">Affecting</span> the Speed of Sound Propagation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report discusses university physics students' conceptualizations of the <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the speed of sound propagation. The data source consists of a set of detailed explanations which Canadian and South African physics graduates provided during the course of clinical-like interviews dealing with their understanding of sound. The analysis of the students' explanations was set in the phenomenographic tradition: their categorization led to the characterization of three qualitatively different conceptualizations. The conceptualizations are illustrated with dialogue excerpts taken from the student interviews. Implications for physics teaching are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Linder, Cedric J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-06-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">459</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090017886&hterms=allergies&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dallergies"> <span id="translatedtitle">Environmental <span class="hlt">Factors</span> <span class="hlt">Affecting</span> Asthma and Allergies: Predicting and Simulating Downwind Exposure to Airborne Pollen</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This slide presentation reviews the environmental <span class="hlt">factors</span> that <span class="hlt">affect</span> asthma and allergies and work to predict and simulate the downwind exposure to airborne pollen. Using a modification of Dust REgional Atmosphere Model (DREAM) that incorporates phenology (i.e. PREAM) the aim was to predict concentrations of pollen in time and space. The strategy for using the model to simulate downwind pollen dispersal, and evaluate the results. Using MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), to get seasonal sampling of Juniper, the pollen chosen for the study, land cover on a near daily basis. The results of the model are reviewed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Luvall, Jeffrey; Estes, Sue; Sprigg, William A.; Nickovic, Slobodan; Huete, Alfredo; Solano, Ramon; Ratana, Piyachat; Jiang, Zhangyan; Flowers, Len; Zelicoff, Alan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">460</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=locus&pg=7&id=EJ766765"> <span id="translatedtitle">Locus of Learning and <span class="hlt">Affective</span> Strategy Use: Two <span class="hlt">Factors</span> <span class="hlt">Affecting</span> Success in Self-Instructed Language Learning</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As distance learning and other nontraditional methods of language learning become more popular, it is important to understand the <span class="hlt">factors</span> that influence learners' ability to succeed in such environments. This paper reports on two <span class="hlt">factors</span> that have a significant impact on the student experience in a self-instructed language program: locus of…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bown, Jennifer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" 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id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">461</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992STIA...9588465R"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> measured aircraft sound levels in the vicinity of start-of-takeoff roll</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents the findings of a recently conducted measurement and analysis program of jet transport aircraft sound levels in the vicinity of the star-of-takeoff roll. The purpose of the program was two-fold: (1) to evaluate the computational accuracy of the Federal Aviation Administration's Integrated Noise Model (INM) in the vicinity of start-of-takeoff roll with a recently updated database (INM 3.10), and (2) to provide guidance for future model improvements. Focusing on the second of these two goals, this paper examines several <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> Sound Exposure Levels (SELs) in the hemicircular area behind the aircraft brake release point at the start-of-takeoff. In addition to the aircraft type itself, these <span class="hlt">factors</span> included the geometric relationship of the measurement site to the runway, the wind velocity (speed and direction), aircraft grow weight, and start-of-roll mode (static or rolling start).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Richard, Horonjeff; Fleming, Gregg G.; Rickley, Edward J.; Connor, Thomas L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">462</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3302048"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> response rates to mailed preoperative surveys among arthroplasty patients</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">AIM: To identify <span class="hlt">factors</span> that <span class="hlt">affect</span> patient response rates to preoperative functional surveys in hip and knee arthroplasty patients. METHODS: From May 2008 to March 2009, 247 patients were scheduled more than 4 wk in advance for hip or knee arthroplasty by one of two participating surgeons at our center. A personalized questionnaire comprised of the Short Form 12 (SF-12) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Index was mailed to patients at random time points ranging from 7 to 101 d prior to surgery. Nine independent <span class="hlt">factors</span> were documented prospectively, including age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, type of surgery, surgeon, days prior to surgery (DPS) of survey mailing, WOMAC score and SF-12 score. The date of the completed survey receipt was also documented. For non-responders, the surveys were completed with the research team at the hospital upon admission. Multivariate regression and ?2 analysis were performed with Statistical Analysis Software software. RESULTS: DPS was the only <span class="hlt">factor</span> that <span class="hlt">affected</span> patient response. Mailing surveys 26 d to 31 d prior to surgery dates led to a peak response rate of 80% that was significantly higher (P < 0.023) than response rates for patients who were mailed their surveys ? 16 d (62.5%), 17 d to 25 d (70%) or ? 32 d prior to surgery (55%). No other <span class="hlt">factors</span>, including preoperative WOMAC and SF-12 scores, significantly influenced response behavior. CONCLUSION: The DPS was independently the most significant predictor of response rates for pre-operative functional data among patients scheduled for hip and knee arthroplasty. PMID:22470843</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Wenbao; Geller, Jeffrey A; Kim, Abraham; Morrison, Todd A; Choi, Jung Keun; Macaulay, William</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">463</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870003653&hterms=ave+st+louis&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dave%2Bst%2Blouis"> <span id="translatedtitle">Statistical analysis and use of VAS <span class="hlt">radiance</span> data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Researchers goals are to describe the information content of Vertical Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) <span class="hlt">radiance</span> data, especially the 6.7 micrometers water vapor channel, to better interpret the atmosphere's water vapor structure from 6.7 micrometers imagery, and to investigate new analysis and forecasting techniques utilizing retrieved VAS soundings. Researchers made major progress toward these goals during FY-85. They are investigating 6.7 micrometer imagery on 6 to 7 March 1982, a day when special mesoscale ground truth data were collected during the 1982 atmospheric variability experiment/vertical amospheric sounder (AVE/VAS) field experiment. A dark (dry) image streak having mesoscale details was located over the special data region, and it provides the major focus of the case study. Mesoscale radiosonde-derived humidity data are found to verify fine scale features of the image that are not evident from the standard National Weather Service network. Thus, VAS imagery is a reliable detector of mesoscale moisture structure during this case. To investigate causes for the image streak, researchers are calculating water vapor budgets. Subsidence is found to be a <span class="hlt">factor</span> in the current case as well; however, patterns of descent are not related to the jet streak according to traditional conceptual models. Thus, it appears that more research into jet stream dynamics is needed in order to better interpret 6.7 micrometer imagery.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fuelberg, H. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">464</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140010394&hterms=distributed+generation+real+cases&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Ddistributed%2Bgeneration%2Breal%2Bcases"> <span id="translatedtitle">Equivalent Sensor <span class="hlt">Radiance</span> Generation and Remote Sensing from Model Parameters. Part 1; Equivalent Sensor <span class="hlt">Radiance</span> Formulation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper we describe a general procedure for calculating equivalent sensor <span class="hlt">radiances</span> from variables output from a global atmospheric forecast model. In order to take proper account of the discrepancies between model resolution and sensor footprint the algorithm takes explicit account of the model subgrid variability, in particular its description of the probably density function of total water (vapor and cloud condensate.) The equivalent sensor <span class="hlt">radiances</span> are then substituted into an operational remote sensing algorithm processing chain to produce a variety of remote sensing products that would normally be produced from actual sensor output. This output can then be used for a wide variety of purposes such as model parameter verification, remote sensing algorithm validation, testing of new retrieval methods and future sensor studies. We show a specific implementation using the GEOS-5 model, the MODIS instrument and the MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS) Data Collection 5.1 operational remote sensing cloud algorithm processing chain (including the cloud mask, cloud top properties and cloud optical and microphysical properties products.) We focus on clouds and cloud/aerosol interactions, because they are very important to model development and improvement.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wind, Galina; DaSilva, Arlindo M.; Norris, Peter M.; Platnick, Steven E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">465</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4173957"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> adherence to a gluten-free diet in children with celiac disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND: The treatment of celiac disease is a strict, life-long gluten-free (GF) diet. This diet is complex and can be challenging. <span class="hlt">Factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> adherence to the GF diet are important to identify for improving adherence. OBJECTIVE: To identify <span class="hlt">factors</span> that inhibit or improve adherence to a GF diet in children with celiac disease. METHODS: Patients (<18 years of age) with biopsy-confirmed celiac disease followed by the gastroenterology service at a tertiary care paediatric institution were surveyed using a mailed questionnaire. <span class="hlt">Factors</span> influencing adherence to a GF diet were scored from 1 to 10 based on how often they were problematic (1 = never, 10 = always). Parents of patients <13 years of age were instructed to complete the survey with their child. Adolescents ?13 years of age were asked to complete the survey themselves. RESULTS: Of 253 subjects, 126 completed the survey; the median age was 12 years (range two to 18 years). Forty percent were adolescents. Overall, participants reported good adherence at home and school, but lower adherence at social events. Adolescents reported lower adherence compared with parents. Availability of GF foods and cost were the most significant barriers. Other <span class="hlt">factors</span> identified to help with a GF diet included education for schools/restaurants and improved government support. CONCLUSIONS: Availability, cost and product labelling are major barriers to adherence to a GF diet. Better awareness, improved labelling and income support are needed to help patients. PMID:25332660</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">MacCulloch, Katherine; Rashid, Mohsin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">466</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24050960"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> community-agency trust before, during and after a wildfire: an Australian case study.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Trust has been identified as a critical relationship component in contexts of high uncertainty and complexity such as wildfire management, and as a primary <span class="hlt">factor</span> in public support for wildland fire management strategies. However, little attention has been paid to identifying and comparing <span class="hlt">factors</span> across fire management stages (i.e. before, during, after a fire) that may influence trust between community members and fire management agencies. This paper attempts to address this gap by exploring <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> community-agency trusting relationships before, during and after a wildfire event. We draw upon 26 semi-structured interviews with 38 residents of a community directly impacted by fires in December 2006 and January 2007 in Victoria, Australia. Communication, cooperation, trustworthiness, and integration of local concerns and knowledge influenced trust in more than one fire management stage. Institutional structures and reduction of uncertainty were particularly strong influences during a fire. After a fire, resolving negative outcomes and immediately meeting perceived needs arising from the fire were <span class="hlt">factors</span> unique to this stage. PMID:24050960</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sharp, Emily A; Thwaites, Rik; Curtis, Allan; Millar, Joanne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">467</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3616831"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fournier’s gangrene: our experience with 50 patients and analysis of <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> mortality</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction Fournier’s gangrene is a rare, rapidly progressive, necrotizing fasciitis of the external genitalia and perineum. Case series have shown a mortality rate of 20% to 40% with an incidence of as high as 88% in some reports. In this study we aimed to share our experience in the management of Fournier’s gangrene and to identify risk <span class="hlt">factors</span> that <span class="hlt">affect</span> mortality. Methods The medical records of 50 patients with Fournier’s gangrene who presented at the University Hospital Hassan II of Fez from January 2003 to December 2009 were reviewed retrospectively to analyze the outcome and identify the risk <span class="hlt">factors</span> and prognostic indicators of mortality. Results Ten males and five females were enrolled in the study. The mean age was 54?years (range 23–81). The most common predisposing <span class="hlt">factor</span> was diabetes mellitus (34%). E. coli was the most frequent bacterial organisms cultured. All patients were treated with a common approach of resuscitation, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and wide surgical excision. The mortality rate was 24%. The advanced age, renal failure on admission, extension of infection to the abdominal wall, occurrence of septic shock and need for postoperative mechanical ventilation are the main prognostic <span class="hlt">factors</span> of mortality. In multivariate analysis, none of these variables is an independent predictor of mortality. Conclusions Fournier’s gangrene is still a very severe disease with high mortality rates. Early recognition of infection associated with invasive and aggressive treatment is essential for attempting to reduce these prognostic indices. PMID:23547796</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">468</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4032487"> <span id="translatedtitle">Clinical <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> pathological fracture and healing of unicameral bone cysts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Unicameral bone cyst (UBC) is the most common benign lytic bone lesion seen in children. The aim of this study is to investigate clinical <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> pathological fracture and healing of UBC. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 155 UBC patients who consulted Nagoya musculoskeletal oncology group hospitals in Japan. Sixty of the 155 patients had pathological fracture at presentation. Of 141 patients with follow-up periods exceeding 6 months, 77 were followed conservatively and 64 treated by surgery. Results The fracture risk was significantly higher in the humerus than other bones. In multivariate analysis, ballooning of bone, cyst in long bone, male sex, thin cortical thickness and multilocular cyst were significant adverse prognostic <span class="hlt">factors</span> for pathological fractures at presentation. The healing rates were 30% and 83% with observation and surgery, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that fracture at presentation and history of biopsy were good prognostic <span class="hlt">factors</span> for healing of UBC in patients under observation. Conclusion The present results suggest that mechanical disruption of UBC such as fracture and biopsy promotes healing, and thus watchful waiting is indicated in these patients, whereas patients with poor prognostic <span class="hlt">factors</span> for fractures should be considered for surgery. PMID:24884661</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">469</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20430489"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of nursing students' attitudes towards seeking psychological help and <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> their attitudes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Psychological help-seeking means to benefit different sources of support system for the difficulties people have. It is important to find out help-seeking attitudes and <span class="hlt">factors</span> which <span class="hlt">affect</span> these attitudes, earlier to protect, and to advance mental health. The aim of this study was to investigate nursing students' attitudes towards seeking psychological help and <span class="hlt">factors</span> which <span class="hlt">affect</span> their attitudes. The study sample included 248 nursing students exposed to problem based learning at Dokuz Eylül University School of Nursing in the academic year of 2006-2007. Data were collected with Help-Seeking Scale. Obtained data were evaluated with variance analysis, t-test and Mann-Whitney U test. The third and fourth year students had more favorable mean scores for interpersonal openness, being forced and confidence in counselor than the first and second year students. In view of the obtained results, it can be recommended that first and second year students should be followed more carefully in terms of psychological problems and that a longitudinal study should be conducted on students' attitudes towards seeking psychological help throughout their study period. PMID:20430489</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cankaya, Pinar; Duman, Zekiye Cetinkaya</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">470</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21309213"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> ionizing radiation phytosanitary treatments, and implications for research and generic treatments.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments are promising measures to overcome quarantine barriers to trade and are currently used in several countries. Although PI has advantages compared with other treatments one disadvantage bedevils research, approval, and application: organisms may remain alive after importation. Although this does not preclude their use as a phytosanitary treatment, it does leave the treatment without an independent verification of efficacy and places a greater burden for assuring quarantine security on the research supporting the treatment. This article analyses several <span class="hlt">factors</span> that have been hypothesized to <span class="hlt">affect</span> PI efficacy: low oxygen, pest stage, host, dose rate, and temperature. Of these <span class="hlt">factors</span>, the first is known to <span class="hlt">affect</span> efficacy, whereas host and dose rate probably need more research. The International Plant Protection Convention considered several PI treatments for its international standard on phytosanitary treatments and did not approve some at first because of perceived problems with the research or the presence of live adults after irradiation. Based on these concerns recommendations for research and dealing with the issue of live adults postirradiation are given. Generic PI treatments are suggested. PMID:21309213</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hallman, Guy J; Levang-Brilz, Nichole M; Zettler, J Larry; Winborne, Ian C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">471</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24483084"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Sizes of soil macropores and related main <span class="hlt">affecting</span> <span class="hlt">factors</span> on a vegetated basalt slope].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The landslide on vegetated slopes caused by extreme weather has being increased steadily, and the preferential flow in soil macropores plays an important role in the landslide. By using water breakthrough curve and Poiseuille equation, this paper estimated the radius range, amount, and average volume of soil macropores on a vegetated basalt slope of Maka Mountain, Southwest China, and analyzed the distribution of the soil macropores and the main <span class="hlt">affecting</span> <span class="hlt">factors</span>. In the study area, the radius of soil macropores ranged from 0.3 to 1.8 mm, mainly between 0.5 and 1.2 mm. The large-radius macropores (1.4-1.8 mm) were lesser, while the small-radius macropores (< 1.4 mm) were more. With the development of soil profile, soil macropores were more in upper layers and lesser in deeper layers. The average volume of the macropores contributed 84.7% to the variance of steady effluent rate. Among the <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the average volume of the large macropores, vegetations root mass had a linear relationship, with the correlation coefficient being 0.70, and soil organic matter content also had a linear relationship, with the correlation coefficient being 0.64. PMID:24483084</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guan, Qi; Xu, Ze-Min; Tian, Lin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">472</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4265260"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factors</span> <span class="hlt">Affecting</span> Public-Supply Well Vulnerability in Two Karst Aquifers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Karst aquifers occur in a range of climatic and geologic settings. Nonetheless, they are commonly characterized by their vulnerability to water-quality impairment. Two karst aquifers, the Edwards aquifer in south-central Texas and the Upper Floridan aquifer in western Florida, were investigated to assess <span class="hlt">factors</span> that control the movement of contaminants to public-supply wells (PSWs). The geochemistry of samples from a selected PSW or wellfield in each aquifer was compared with that from nearby monitoring wells and regional PSWs. Geochemistry results were integrated with age tracers, flow modeling, and depth-dependent data to refine aquifer conceptual models and to identify <span class="hlt">factors</span> that <span class="hlt">affect</span> contaminant movement to PSWs. The oxic Edwards aquifer is vertically well mixed at the selected PSW/wellfield, although regionally the aquifer is geochemically variable downdip. The mostly anoxic Upper Floridan aquifer is <span class="hlt">affected</span> by denitrification and also is geochemically variable with depth. In spite of considerable differences in geology and hydrogeology, the two aquifers are similarly vulnerable to anthropogenic contamination. Vulnerability in studied PSWs in both aquifers is strongly influenced by rapid karst flowpaths and the dominance of young (<10 years) groundwater. Vulnerability was demonstrated by the frequent detection of similar constituents of concern in both aquifers (nitrate, atrazine, deethylatrazine, tetrachloroethene, and chloroform). Specific consideration of water-quality protection efforts, well construction and placement, and aquifer response times to land-use changes and contaminant loading are discussed, with implications for karst groundwater management. PMID:24841501</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Musgrove, MaryLynn; Katz, Brian G; Fahlquist, Lynne S; Crandall, Christy A; Lindgren, Richard J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">473</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24841501"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> public-supply well vulnerability in two karst aquifers.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Karst aquifers occur in a range of climatic and geologic settings. Nonetheless, they are commonly characterized by their vulnerability to water-quality impairment. Two karst aquifers, the Edwards aquifer in south-central Texas and the Upper Floridan aquifer in western Florida, were investigated to assess <span class="hlt">factors</span> that control the movement of contaminants to public-supply wells (PSWs). The geochemistry of samples from a selected PSW or wellfield in each aquifer was compared with that from nearby monitoring wells and regional PSWs. Geochemistry results were integrated with age tracers, flow modeling, and depth-dependent data to refine aquifer conceptual models and to identify <span class="hlt">factors</span> that <span class="hlt">affect</span> contaminant movement to PSWs. The oxic Edwards aquifer is vertically well mixed at the selected PSW/wellfield, although regionally the aquifer is geochemically variable downdip. The mostly anoxic Upper Floridan aquifer is <span class="hlt">affected</span> by denitrification and also is geochemically variable with depth. In spite of considerable differences in geology and hydrogeology, the two aquifers are similarly vulnerable to anthropogenic contamination. Vulnerability in studied PSWs in both aquifers is strongly influenced by rapid karst flowpaths and the dominance of young (<10 years) groundwater. Vulnerability was demonstrated by the frequent detection of similar constituents of concern in both aquifers (nitrate, atrazine, deethylatrazine, tetrachloroethene, and chloroform). Specific consideration of water-quality protection efforts, well construction and placement, and aquifer response times to land-use changes and contaminant loading are discussed, with implications for karst groundwater management. PMID:24841501</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Musgrove, MaryLynn; Katz, Brian G; Fahlquist, Lynne S; Crandall, Christy A; Lindgren, Richard J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">474</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5788901"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> industrial electricity demand. Final report (revision version)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In Chapter 2, we identify those <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the industrial product mix - taste, relative output prices, and relative input prices - and isolate several determinants which have not been adequately accounted for to date in industrial electricity demand forecasts. We discuss how the lower energy prices of foreign producers <span class="hlt">affect</span> domestic producers and how the growth in the number of substitutes for intermediate products such as steel and aluminum with plastics and composites <span class="hlt">affects</span> the composition of production and, hence, the demand for electricity. We also investigate how the changing age structure of the population brought on by the baby boom could change the mix of outputs produced by the industrial sector. In Chapter 3, we review the history of the 1970s with regard to changes in output mix and the manufacturing demand for electricity, and with regard to changes in the use of electricity vis-a-vis the other inputs in the production process. In Chapter 4, we generate forecasts using two models which control for efficiency changes, but in different ways. In this chapter we present the sensitivity of these projections using three sets of assumptions about product mix. The last chapter summarizes our results and draw from those results implications regarding public policy and industrial electricity demand. Two appendices present ISTUM2 results from selected electricity intensive industries, describes the ISTUM and ORIM models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">None</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">475</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25212973"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> uterine electrical activity during the active phase of labor prior to rupture of membranes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract Objective: Limited data exist regarding uterine contraction intensity prior to membrane rupture. Using a novel technique of electrical uterine myography (EUM) we aimed to determine which <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affect</span> myometrial activity during active phase of labor. Methods: EUM was prospectively measured in 37 women with singleton pregnancy at term during the active phase of labor until membranes' rupture. EUM was measured using non-invasive nine channels recorder with an EMG amplifier and three-dimensional position sensor. Uterine electrical activity was quantified with the EUM-index, defined as the mean electrical activity of the uterine muscle over a period of 10?min and measured in units of micro-Joule (microwatt per second [mW/s]). Results: The mean EUM-index at the first 10?min of the measurement was 3.3?±?0.6?mW/s. In a stepwise linear regression model accounting potential confounders EUM was significantly <span class="hlt">affected</span> by cervical dilatation (p?=?0.005), maternal age (p?=?0.04) and previous cesarean delivery status (p?=?0.02). In a repeated measurement assessment of non-parametric Fridman's test for all subjects who had at least 10 continuouss EUM measurements, there was a significant increase in electrical uterine activity as labor progressed (p?=?0.01). Conclusion: Electrical uterine activity during the active phase of labor prior to rupture of membranes is <span class="hlt">affected</span> by maternal age, previous cesarean delivery status and cervical dilatation. Moreover, electrical uterine activity is enhanced throughout labor. PMID:25212973</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hiersch, Liran; Salzer, Liat; Aviram, Amir; Ben-Haroush, Avi; Ashwal, Eran; Yogev, Yariv</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">476</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3598022"> <span id="translatedtitle">Risk <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the survival rate in patients with symptomatic pericardial effusion undergoing surgical intervention</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">OBJECTIVES The optimal management and treatment of pericardial effusion are still controversial. There is limited data related to the risk <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> survival in these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the risk <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the survival rate of patients with symptomatic pericardial effusion who underwent surgical interventions. METHODS From 2004 to 2011, we retrospectively analysed 153 patients who underwent subxiphoid pericardial window as their surgical intervention to drain pericardial effusions at the National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung diseases (NRITLD). To determine the effects of risk <span class="hlt">factors</span> on survival rate, demographic data, clinical records, echocardiographic data, computed tomographic and cytopathological findings and also operative information of patients were recorded. Patients were followed annually until the last clinical follow-up (August 2011). To determine the prognostic <span class="hlt">factors</span> <span class="hlt">affecting</span> survival, both univariate analysis and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model were utilized. RESULTS There were 89 men and 64 women with a mean age of 50.3 ± 15.5 years. The most prevalent symptom was dyspnoea. Concurrent malignancies were present in 66 patients. Lungs were the most prevalent primary site for malignancy. The median duration of follow-up was 15 (range 1–85 months). Six-month, 1-year and 18-month survival rates were 85.6, 61.4 and 36.6%, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, positive history of lung cancer (hazard ratio [HR] 2.894, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.362–6.147, P = 0.006) or other organ cancers (HR 2.315, 95% CI 1.009–50311, P = 0.048), presence of a mass in the computed tomography (HR 1.985, 95% CI 1.100–3.581, P = 0.023), and echocardiographic findings compatible with tamponade (HR 1.745, 95% CI 1.048–2.90 P = 0.032) were the three independent predictors of postoperative death. CONCLUSIONS In the surgical management of pericardial effusion, patients with underlying malignant disease, especially with lung cancer, patients with a detectable invasion of thorax in computed tomography and those with positive echocardiographic findings compatible with tamponade have a poor survival. Therefore, minimally invasive therapies could be considered as a more acceptable alternative for these high-risk patients. PMID:23250960</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mirhosseini, Seyed Mohsen; Fakhri, Mohammad; Mozaffary, Amirhossein; Lotfaliany, Mojtaba; Behzadnia, Neda; Ansari Aval, Zahra; Ghiasi, Seyed Mohammad Saeed; Boloursaz, Mohammad Reza; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">477</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3714304"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factors</span> <span class="hlt">Affecting</span> Harp Seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) Strandings in the Northwest Atlantic</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effects of climate change on high latitude regions are becoming increasingly evident, particularly in the rapid decline of sea ice cover in the Arctic. Many high latitude species dependent on sea ice are being forced to adapt to changing habitats. Harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus) are an indicator species for changing high-latitude ecosystems. This study analyzed multiple <span class="hlt">factors</span> including ice cover, demographics, and genetic diversity, which could <span class="hlt">affect</span> harp seal stranding rates along the eastern coast of the United States. Ice cover assessments were conducted for the month of February in the Gulf of St. Lawrence whelping region from 1991–2010 using remote sensing data, and harp seal stranding data were collected over the same time period. Genetic diversity, which may <span class="hlt">affect</span> how quickly species can adapt to changing climates, was assessed using ten microsatellite markers to determine mean d2 in a subset of stranded and by-caught (p