Science.gov

Sample records for factors affecting radiance

  1. Assimilation of precipitation-affected microwave radiances in a cloud-resolving WRF ensemble data assimilation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. Q.; Zupanski, M.; Hou, A. Y.; Lin, X.; Cheung, S.

    2010-12-01

    In the last decade the progress in satellite precipitation estimation and the advance in precipitation assimilation techniques proved to have positive impact on the quality of atmospheric analyses and forecasts. Direct assimilation of rain-affected radiances presents new challenge to optimal utilization of satellite precipitation observations in numeric weather and climate predictions. Current operational and research methodologies are generally limited to relatively coarse resolution models and prescribed static error statistics, and commonly require tangent linear model and adjoint model for the highly non-linear cloud and precipitation physics. To address some of these challenges, a WRF ensemble data assimilation system (Goddard-WRF-EDAS) at cloud-resolving scales has been developed jointly by NASA/GSFC and Colorado State University (CSU). The system employs the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with NASA Goddard microphysics schemes, and the Maximum Likelihood Ensemble Filter (MLEF). Precipitation affected radiances are assimilated with Goddard Satellite Data Simulator Unit (SDSU) as the observation operator. In addition to the boundary forcing constructed from operational global analysis, NCEP operational data stream is also assimilated to ensure realistic representation of dynamic circulation in the regional domains. Using the ensemble assimilation approach, the forecast error-statistics is updated by ensemble forecasts, and information is extracted from precipitation observations along with other types of data to produce dynamically consistent precipitation analyses and forecasts. We present experimental results of assimilating precipitation-affected microwave radiances over land in middle latitudes. The results demonstrate the data impact to the downscaled precipitation short term forecasts and information propagation from precipitation data to dynamic fields. The error statistics of microphysical control variables and their relationship to the observable innovations in radiance space are examined. The evaluation of background error covariance, in particular the cross-covariance between microphysical and dynamical variables will also be discussed.

  2. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds. PMID:20139336

  3. FACTORS AFFECTING PITCH DISCRIMINATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BERGAN, JOHN R.

    EFFECTS OF TONAL MEMORY OF TWO KINDS OF FACTORS WERE STUDIED. THE FACTORS WERE (1) THE CHARACTERISTICS OF STIMULI PRESENTED TO THE SUBJECT IN A PITCH IDENTIFICATION TASK, AND (2) THOSE EFFECTING THE RESPONSE THAT THE SUBJECT MAKES IN SUCH A TASK. FIVE HYPOTHESES WERE ADVANCED FOR STUDY. THE UNDERLYING ASSUMPTION WAS THAT THERE ARE IMPORTANT

  4. The Impact of Assimilating Precipitation-affected Radiance on Cloud and Precipitation in Goddard WRF-EDAS Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Xin; Zhang, Sara Q.; Zupanski, M.; Hou, Arthur Y.; Zhang, J.

    2015-01-01

    High-frequency TMI and AMSR-E radiances, which are sensitive to precipitation over land, are assimilated into the Goddard Weather Research and Forecasting Model- Ensemble Data Assimilation System (WRF-EDAS) for a few heavy rain events over the continental US. Independent observations from surface rainfall, satellite IR brightness temperatures, as well as ground-radar reflectivity profiles are used to evaluate the impact of assimilating rain-sensitive radiances on cloud and precipitation within WRF-EDAS. The evaluations go beyond comparisons of forecast skills and domain-mean statistics, and focus on studying the cloud and precipitation features in the jointed rainradiance and rain-cloud space, with particular attentions on vertical distributions of height-dependent cloud types and collective effect of cloud hydrometers. Such a methodology is very helpful to understand limitations and sources of errors in rainaffected radiance assimilations. It is found that the assimilation of rain-sensitive radiances can reduce the mismatch between model analyses and observations by reasonably enhancing/reducing convective intensity over areas where the observation indicates precipitation, and suppressing convection over areas where the model forecast indicates rain but the observation does not. It is also noted that instead of generating sufficient low-level warmrain clouds as in observations, the model analysis tends to produce many spurious upperlevel clouds containing small amount of ice water content. This discrepancy is associated with insufficient information in ice-water-sensitive radiances to address the vertical distribution of clouds with small amount of ice water content. Such a problem will likely be mitigated when multi-channel multi-frequency radiances/reflectivity are assimilated over land along with sufficiently accurate surface emissivity information to better constrain the vertical distribution of cloud hydrometers.

  5. Factors affecting running economy.

    PubMed

    Morgan, D W; Martin, P E; Krahenbuhl, G S

    1989-05-01

    Running economy, defined as the steady-state VO2 for a given running velocity, has been shown to account for a large and significant proportion of variation in distance-running performance among runners roughly comparable in VO2 max. Despite this recognition, relatively little is known regarding the potpourri of physiological, environmental, structural and mechanical factors potentially associated with a lower aerobic demand of running. Early attempts at quantifying the energy expenditure of exhaustive runs incorporated measurements of oxygen consumption before, during, and after exercise. The validity of this approach has been questioned, however, since recent evidence has demonstrated that only a moderate relationship exists between postexercise VO2 and anaerobic metabolism. The energy demands for submaximal running (i.e. running economy) can be quantified by calculating the steady-state VO2, expressed with respect to body mass and time, for a standardised, submaximal running speed. Since this variable represents the aerobic demand of running, the generation of energy must derive wholly from cell respiration and not from substantial protein catabolism. Research has indicated that at low to moderate work rates, the steady-state energy condition is attained in about 3 minutes. Trained individuals reach steady-state sooner than unfit subjects. While limited by methodological constraints, the existence of a steady-state has also been verified by the lack of blood lactate accumulation and the presence of a respiratory exchange ratio of less than 1.00. The ability of economy, either singly or in combination with VO2 max, to account for a substantial portion of performance variation among trained distance runners and untrained subjects of comparable ability and fitness level has been demonstrated in recent cross-sectional studies. Limited data from short and long term longitudinal research also suggests that endurance running success is linked to training and growth-related improvements in economy. Intraindividual variation in economy has been shown to vary between 2% and 11% for a given speed. Most of this variation can probably be attributed to biological error. While the majority of evidence does not support a gender difference in running economy, data from some studies suggest that males may be more economical than women. Prepubescent children are less economical than older children and adults, whereas older adults exhibit the same trend when compared to younger counterparts. Because of air and wind resistance, the aerobic demands of indoor treadmill running significantly underestimate the cost of overground running, especially at higher speeds.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2662320

  6. Factors Affecting Medical Service Quality

    PubMed Central

    MOSADEGHRAD, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background A better understanding of factors influencing quality of medical service can pinpoint better strategies for quality assurance in medical services. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the quality of medical services provided by Iranian physicians. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual interviews were conducted with sixty-four physicians working in various medical institutions in Iran. Results Individual, organizational and environmental factors enhance or inhibit the quality of medical services. Quality of medical services depends on the personal factors of the physician and patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare setting and the broader environment. Conclusion Differences in internal and external factors such as availability of resources, patient cooperation and collaboration among providers affect the quality of medical services and patient outcomes. Supportive leadership, proper planning, education and training and effective management of resources and processes improve the quality of medical services. This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework for understanding factors that influence medical services quality. PMID:26060745

  7. Factors affecting maximal acid secretion

    PubMed Central

    Desai, H. G.

    1969-01-01

    The mechanisms by which different factors affect the maximal acid secretion of the stomach are discussed with particular reference to nationality, sex, age, body weight or lean body mass, procedural details, mode of calculation, the nature, dose and route of administration of a stimulus, the synergistic action of another stimulus, drugs, hormones, electrolyte levels, anaemia or deficiency of the iron-dependent enzyme system, vagal continuity and parietal cell mass. PMID:4898322

  8. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective. PMID:23016987

  9. Psychological factors affecting cardiologic conditions.

    PubMed

    Rafanelli, Chiara; Roncuzzi, Renzo; Ottolini, Fedra; Rigatelli, Marco

    2007-01-01

    There are substantial data supporting a strong relationship between cardiovascular diseases and psychological conditions. However, the criteria for scientific validation of the entities currently subsumed under the DSM-IV category of 'Psychological factors affecting a medical condition' have never been clearly enumerated and the terms 'psychological symptoms' and 'personality traits' that do not satisfy traditional psychiatric criteria are not well defined; moreover, it is difficult to measure these subtypes of distress and there is always the need for a clinical judgment. In recent years psychosomatic research has focused increasing attention on these clinical and methodological issues. Psychosocial variables that were derived from psychosomatic research were then translated into operational tools, such as Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research; among these, demoralization, irritable mood, type A behavior are frequently detected in cardiac patients. The joint use of DSM-IV criteria and Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research allow then to identify psychological factors that seem to affect cardiologic condition. There remains the need to further investigate if treating both clinical and subsyndromal psychological conditions can improve quality of life and reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality in these patients. PMID:17684321

  10. Assimilation of Cloud- and Land-Affected TOVS/ATOVS Level 1B Radiances in DAO's Next Generation Finite-Volume Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joiner, J.; daSilva, A.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Physical-space/Finite-volume Data Assimilation System (fvDAS) is the next generation global atmospheric data assimilation system in development at the Data Assimilation Office (DAO) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. It is based on a new finite-volume general circulation model jointly developed by NASA and NCAR, and on the Physical-Space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS) developed at the DAO. In this talk we will focus on the assimilation of data from the (Advanced) TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (ATOVS), with emphasis on the impact of cloud- and land-affected level 1B radiances. Recently, it has been shown that the use of observations from satellite-borne microwave and infrared radiometers in data assimilation systems consistently increases forecast skill. Considerable effort has been expended over the past two decades, particularly with the (Advanced) TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (ATOVS), to achieve this result. The positive impact on forecast skill has resulted from improvements in quality control algorithms, systematic error correction schemes, and more sophisticated data assimilation algorithms. Despite these advances, there are still many issues regarding the use of satellite data in data assimilation systems that remain unresolved. In particular, most operational centers still do not assimilate cloud- and land-affected TOVS data. In this study, we evaluate the impact of assimilating cloud-and land-affected TOVS/ATOVS level 1B data in DAO's next generation fvDAS, using a 1D variational scheme. We will discuss the impact of these data on both tropospheric and stratospheric forecasts, as well as on the general aspects of the earth climate system.

  11. Psychosocial Factors Affecting Dissertation Completion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kathy E.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the psychosocial factors associated with doctoral dissertation completion or delay. Examines the effects of two factors, procrastination and perfectionism, in greater detail and reports on a study of 142 education doctoral students and 97 graduates. Notes that educators should consider the role of these psychosocial factors as they help…

  12. Demographic Factors Affecting Faculty Salary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Allen L.

    1995-01-01

    Specific demographic attributes that influence salary at institutions of higher education were studied through data from 420 faculty members at 9 institutions. Results suggested that experience, publication rates, time at the institution, and possession of a terminal degree affected salary levels. The presence of salary compression was noted. (SLD)

  13. Factors Affecting Nontraditional Vocational Enrollments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houser, Betsy Bosak; Garvey, Chris

    This study identifies the internal and external factors which differentiate women who enter male-traditional vocational training programs from those who enter female-traditional programs. Data were collected from 470 women enrolled in California vocational training programs. The sample was stratified on both social class and type of vocational…

  14. Factors affecting fertility in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hakim, A

    1994-01-01

    Data of the Pakistan Contraceptive Prevalence Survey of 1984-85 were used to determine whether there are any differentials in fertility levels by age at marriage, educational level, work status, region of residence (province), and place of residence (urban or rural) in Pakistan. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses examined the effects of these factors on fertility. The technique of Multiple Classification Analysis (MCA) was used to determine the net effect of each factor. Among the predictors, age at marriage was the most significant variable, followed by the husband's education, woman's education, husband's occupation, woman's work status, region, and place of residence. Among the demographic variables, age and age at marriage were the most important determinants of fertility. Among the socioeconomic variables, the educational level of both husband and wife were important determinants of cumulative fertility. Age at marriage was inversely related to fertility. The mean number of children ever born was 5.1 for those who married below age 16 vs. 4.1 for age at marriage 16-19, and 3.6 for 20-24. In the multivariate analysis the effect of age at marriage was the strongest as a predictor. Education had a negative effect on fertility. The mean number of children ever born to women with no education was 4.5; to women with primary education, 3.6; to women with secondary education, 3.2; and to women with tertiary education, 2.3. Women working as salaried employees had higher fertility (5.0) compared to women working in family business or at home (4.2). Women whose husbands worked as salaried employees had comparatively lower fertility than those whose husbands were working in their own business or in agriculture. The region of residence did not yield wide differentials. Furthermore, place of residence did not reveal any significant difference in fertility. The mean number of children was marginally higher among urban women (4.4) compared to their rural counterparts (4.2), indicating that the fertility transition has not started yet. PMID:12346202

  15. Intracranial ependymoma: factors affecting outcome.

    PubMed

    Massimino, Maura; Buttarelli, Francesca R; Antonelli, Manila; Gandola, Lorenza; Modena, Piergiorgio; Giangaspero, Felice

    2009-03-01

    Ependymomas account for 2-9% of all neuroepithelial tumors, amounting to 6-12% of all intracranial tumors in children and up to 30% of those in children younger than 3 years. Recent findings provide evidence that intracranial and spinal ependymomas share similar molecular profiles with the radial glia of their corresponding locations. The management of intracranial ependymoma is still not optimal. The 5-year progression-free survival for children with ependymoma ranges between 30 and 50% with a worse prognosis for patients with residual disease after surgery. The prognostic relevance of most factors are still being debated. Recent studies, in which the current WHO classification criteria were applied, reported the relationship between histological grade and outcome. Biomolecular studies have identified that gain of 1q25 and EGFR overexpression correlate to poor prognosis, whereas low expression of nucleolin correlated with a favorable outcome. Ependymomas have been considered a 'surgical disease', where completeness of excision can be reached in approximately half of the cases. At present the standard treatment is radiation therapy for all patients after gross-total or near-total resection. For high-risk patients, with residual tumor, an interesting, although experimental, approach could be chemotherapy followed by secondary surgery and postoperative conformal irradiation. PMID:19284379

  16. Factors Affecting Hurricane Evacuation Intentions.

    PubMed

    Lazo, Jeffrey K; Bostrom, Ann; Morss, Rebecca E; Demuth, Julie L; Lazrus, Heather

    2015-10-01

    Protective actions for hurricane threats are a function of the environmental and information context; individual and household characteristics, including cultural worldviews, past hurricane experiences, and risk perceptions; and motivations and barriers to actions. Using survey data from the Miami-Dade and Houston-Galveston areas, we regress individuals' stated evacuation intentions on these factors in two information conditions: (1) seeing a forecast that a hurricane will hit one's area, and (2) receiving an evacuation order. In both information conditions having an evacuation plan, wanting to keep one's family safe, and viewing one's home as vulnerable to wind damage predict increased evacuation intentions. Some predictors of evacuation intentions differ between locations; for example, Florida respondents with more egalitarian worldviews are more likely to evacuate under both information conditions, and Florida respondents with more individualist worldviews are less likely to evacuate under an evacuation order, but worldview was not significantly associated with evacuation intention for Texas respondents. Differences by information condition also emerge, including: (1) evacuation intentions decrease with age in the evacuation order condition but increase with age in the saw forecast condition, and (2) evacuation intention in the evacuation order condition increases among those who rely on public sources of information on hurricane threats, whereas in the saw forecast condition evacuation intention increases among those who rely on personal sources. Results reinforce the value of focusing hurricane information efforts on evacuation plans and residential vulnerability and suggest avenues for future research on how hurricane contexts shape decision making. PMID:26299597

  17. Factors affecting calculation of L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciotola, Mark P.

    2001-08-01

    A detectable extraterrestrial civilization can be modeled as a series of successive regimes over time each of which is detectable for a certain proportion of its lifecycle. This methodology can be utilized to produce an estimate for L. Potential components of L include quantity of fossil fuel reserves, solar energy potential, quantity of regimes over time, lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and downtime between regimes. Relationships between these components provide a means of calculating the lifetime of communicative species in a detectable state, L. An example of how these factors interact is provided, utilizing values that are reasonable given known astronomical data for components such as solar energy potential while existing knowledge about the terrestrial case is used as a baseline for other components including fossil fuel reserves, quantity of regimes over time, and lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and gaps of time between regimes due to recovery from catastrophic war or resource exhaustion. A range of values is calculated for L when parameters are established for each component so as to determine the lowest and highest values of L. roadmap for SETI research at the SETI Institute for the next few decades. Three different approaches were identified. 1) Continue the radio search: build an affordable array incorporating consumer market technologies, expand the search frequency, and increase the target list to 100,000 stars. This array will also serve as a technology demonstration and enable the international radio astronomy community to realize an array that is a hundred times larger and capable (among other things) of searching a million stars. 2) Begin searches for very fast optical pulses from a million stars. 3) As Moore's Law delivers increased computational capacity, build an omni-directional sky survey array capable of detecting strong, transient, radio signals from billions of stars. SETI could succeed tomorrow, or it may be an endeavor for multiple generations. We are a very young technology in a very old galaxy. While our own leakage radiation continues to outshine the Sun at many frequencies, we remain detectable to others. When our use of the spectrum becomes more efficient, it will be time to consider deliberate transmissions and the really tough questions: Who will speak for Earth? What will they say?

  18. An absolute detector-based spectral radiance source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Steven W.; Saunders, Robert D.; Li, Zhigang; Fein, Abra; Barnes, Robert A.

    2010-09-01

    We describe an absolute, spectrally tunable, detector-based broad-band radiometric calibration source whose uncertainties in spectral radiance may approach those of reference detectors, on the order of 0.1 % (k=1). This uncertainty in the spectral radiance of the source is a factor of two lower than the current uncertainty in radiance sources disseminated by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA (NIST). These low uncertainties in radiance calibration sources are required for satellite sensors supporting climate change missions. For example, the uncertainty requirements for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) sensor are approximately 0.2 % (k=1) in the silicon range. The conceptual framework of the source, characterization and radiance validation data and trending of the source radiance over time are described.

  19. Factors Affecting the Difficulty of Verbal Analogies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roccas, Sonia; Moshinsky, Avital

    2003-01-01

    Examined factors affecting the difficulty of verbal analogies in a psychometric examination by characterizing 104 analogies using 5 defined attributes. Both knowledge and process attributes were found to contribute to the difficulty of verbal analogies assessed by 10 judges. (SLD)

  20. Factors affecting adhesion to mineralized tissues.

    PubMed

    Van Meerbeek, B; Lambrechts, P; Inokoshi, S; Braem, M; Vanherle, G

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review the literature concerning factors affecting adhesion to mineralized tissues. Factors related to the physicochemical structure of the adherents and to the inherent properties of composite restorative materials, along with the postulated bonding mechanisms of current adhesive systems, are discussed. PMID:1470540

  1. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,

  2. Economic and Cultural Factors Affecting University Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabnoun, Naceur

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The ranking of top universities in the world has generated increased interest in the factors that enhance university performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify economic and cultural factors that affect the number of top ranking universities in each country. Design/methodology/approach: This paper first identifies the number of…

  3. Economic and Cultural Factors Affecting University Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabnoun, Naceur

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The ranking of top universities in the world has generated increased interest in the factors that enhance university performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify economic and cultural factors that affect the number of top ranking universities in each country. Design/methodology/approach: This paper first identifies the number of

  4. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

  5. Factors Affecting the Quality of Staff Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Larry O.

    A review of the literature concerning the effectiveness and quality of staff development programs focuses on factors that affect the success of such programs. These factors include: individual concerns, training activities, applications, qualifications of consultants, scheduling, strategies, facilities, feedback, collaboration, and outcomes. It is…

  6. Factors affecting the estimate of primary production from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balch, W. M.; Byrne, C. F.

    1994-04-01

    Remote sensing of primary production in the euphotic zone has been based mostly on visible-band water-leaving radiance measured with the coastal zone color scanner. There are some robust, simple relationships for calculating integral production based on surface measurements, but they also require knowledge of photoadaptive parameters such as maximum photosynthesis which currently cannot be obtained from space. A 17,000-station data set is used to show that space-based estimates of maximum photosynthesis could improve predictions of ψ, the water column light utilization index, which is an important term in many primary productivity models. Temperature is also examined as a factor for predicting hydrographic structure and primary production. A simple model is used to relate temperature and maximum photosynthesis; the model incorporates (1) the positive relationship between maximum photosynthesis and temperature and (2) the strongly negative relationship between temperature and nitrate in the ocean (which directly affects maximum growth rates via nitrogen limitation). Since these two factors relate to carbon and nitrogen, "balanced carbon/nitrogen assimilation" was calculated assuming the Redfield ratio. It is expected that the relationship between maximum balanced carbon assimilation versus temperature is concave-down, with the peak dependent on nitrate uptake kinetics, temperature-nitrate relationships, and the carbon/chlorophyll ratio. These predictions were compared with sea truth data. The minimum turnover time for nitrate was also calculated using this approach. Lastly, sea surface temperature gradients were used to predict the slope of isotherms (a proxy for the slope of isopycnals in many waters). Sea truth data show that at size scales of several hundred kilometers, surface temperature gradients can provide information on the slope of isotherms in the top 200 m of the water column. This is directly relevant to the supply of nutrients into the surface mixed layer, which is useful for predicting integral biomass and primary production.

  7. Factors affecting the estimate of primary production from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balch, W. M.; Byrne, C. F.

    1994-01-01

    Remote sensing of primary production in the euphotic zone has been based mostly on visible-band and water-leaving radiance measured with the coastal zone color scanner. There are some robust, simple relationships for calculating integral production based on surface measurements, but they also require knowledge for photoadaptive parameters such as maximum photosynthesis which currently cannot be obtained from spave. A 17,000-station data set is used to show that space-based estimates of maximum photosynthesis could improve predictions of psi, the water column light utiliztion index, which is an important term in many primary productivity models. Temperature is also examined as a factor for predicting hydrographic structure and primary production. A simple model is used to relate temperature and maximum photosynthesis; the model incorporates (1) the positive relationship between maximum photosynthesis and temperature and (2) the strongly negative relationship between temperature and nitrate in the ocean (which directly affects maximum growth rates via nitrogen limitation). Since these two factors relate to carbon and nitrogen, 'balanced carbon/nitrogen assimilation' was calculated using the Redfield ratio, It is expected that the relationship between maximum balanced carbon assimilation versus temperature is concave-down, with the peak dependent on nitrate uptake kinetics, temperature-nitrate relationships,a nd the carbon chlorophyll ration. These predictions were compared with the sea truth data. The minimum turnover time for nitrate was also calculated using this approach. Lastly, sea surface temperature gradients were used to predict the slope of isotherms (a proxy for the slope of isopycnals in many waters). Sea truth data show that at size scales of several hundred kilometers, surface temperature gradients can provide information on the slope of isotherms in the top 200 m of the water column. This is directly relevant to the supply of nutrients into the surface mixed layer, which is useful for predicting integral biomass and primary production.

  8. Tree canopy radiance measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, William; Vanderbilt, V. C.

    1989-01-01

    A system is described for obtaining both an estimate of the spatial mean bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) for a tree canopy (displaying a horizontally heterogeneous foliage distribution) and the statistical significance of that estimate. The system includes a manlift supporting a horizontal beam 7 m long on which are mounted four radiometers. These radiometers may be pointed, and radiance data acquired, in any of 11 view directions in the principal plane of the sun. A total of 80 data points, acquired in 3 min, were used to estimate the BRF of a walnut orchard 5 m tall and detect true differences of 12 percent of the mean approximately 90 percent of the time.

  9. 'Florida Radiance' strawberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Florida Radiance' strawberry (Fragaria xananassa Duch.) is a new strawberry cultivar released by the University of Florida. It appears to be a good cultivar to complement the current commercial cultivar 'Strawberry Festival' during the early part of the production season as its yields are higher wh...

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer Susceptibility
    Suzanne. E. Fenton
    US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.

    Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

  11. Factors Affecting Smoking Tendency and Smoking Intensity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Nissim Ben; Zion, Uri Ben

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to measure the relative effect of relevant explanatory variable on smoking tendency and smoking intensity. Design/methodology/approach: Using survey data collected by the Israeli Bureau of Statistics in 2003-2004, a probit procedure is estimated for analyzing factors that affect the probability of being a…

  12. Factors Affecting Faculty Web Portal Usability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the factors that might significantly affect web portal usability. Results of the study were intended to serve as inputs for faculty web portal development of the University of the East-Manila. Descriptive statistics utilized questionnaire data from 82 faculty members. The data showed that most of the respondents were…

  13. CLIL Learning: Achievement Levels and Affective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seikkula-Leino, Jaana

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how successfully pupils had learned content in content and language integrated learning (CLIL) and to assess pupils' affective learning factors, such as motivation and self-esteem, in CLIL. Learning was presented in terms of achievement level, which was described as the relationship between measured levels…

  14. Factors Affecting the Speed of Free Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrier, Jonathan; Horne, Joanna; Singleton, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Factors affecting the free writing speed of 11-year-old students were investigated using the Group and Individual Assessment of Handwriting Speed. Intelligence, gender, legibility and whether the student has special educational needs or speaks English as an additional language were all found to impact on writing speed to a significant extent. In…

  15. INTERNATIONAL DIFFERENCES IN FACTORS AFFECTING LABOUR MOBILITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SELLIER, F.; ZARKA, C.

    THE GEOGRAPHICAL, OCCUPATIONAL, AND INTERFIRM MOBILITY, AND THE FACTORS AFFECTING THESE MOVEMENTS FOR WORKERS IN FRANCE, ITALY, GERMANY, AND SWEDEN IN THE PERIOD SINCE THE SECOND WORLD WAR ARE STUDIED. DATA OBTAINED FROM INDUSTRIAL SURVEYS AND GENERAL CENSUSES WERE USED TO COMPARE THE FOUR COUNTRIES WITH EACH OTHER AND WITH THE UNITED STATES.…

  16. Factors affecting spermatozoa morphology in beef bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate factors affecting sperm morphology of bulls (n=908) collected at 320 days of age. Bulls were a composite breed (50% Red Angus, 25% Charolais, and 25% Tarentaise) born from 2002 to 2008 to dams fed levels of feed during mid and late gestation that were expe...

  17. Factors Affecting Learning in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, J. Conrad, Jr.

    1996-01-01

    A literature review led to the following categories of factors affecting learning in older adults: major changes in physical capacities, changes in sensory capacities, changes in speed and timing, attitude changes, learning capacity and performance, memory change, and changes in adjustment ability and morale. (SK)

  18. Factors Affecting the Speed of Free Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrier, Jonathan; Horne, Joanna; Singleton, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Factors affecting the free writing speed of 11-year-old students were investigated using the Group and Individual Assessment of Handwriting Speed. Intelligence, gender, legibility and whether the student has special educational needs or speaks English as an additional language were all found to impact on writing speed to a significant extent. In

  19. Factors Affecting Faculty Web Portal Usability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the factors that might significantly affect web portal usability. Results of the study were intended to serve as inputs for faculty web portal development of the University of the East-Manila. Descriptive statistics utilized questionnaire data from 82 faculty members. The data showed that most of the respondents were

  20. Remote sensing of environmental factors affecting health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, Petar

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research to identify, by satellite imagery, parameters of the environment affecting health on Earth. Thus, we suggest expanding the application of space technology to preventive medicine, as a new field in the peaceful uses of outer space. The scope of the study includes all parts of the environment, natural and man-made, and all kinds of protection of life: human, animal and vegetation health. The general objective is to consider and classify those factors, detectable from space, that affect or are relevant to health and may be found in the air, water, sea, soil, land, vegetation, as well as those linked to climate, industry, energy production, development works, irrigation systems, and human settlements. The special objective is the classification of environmental factors detectable from space, that are linked to communicable or chronic endemic diseases or health problems. The method of identifying the factors affecting health was the parallel study of environmental epidemiological and biological parameters. The role of environmental factors common to both human and animal populations is discussed. Conclusive findings are formulated and possible applications, both scientific and practical, in other sectors are also discussed.

  1. Generalized Effective Radiance Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Radiance temperature is one of the most important and widely used concepts in radiation thermometry. The usual definition of radiance temperature does not strictly apply for complex situations, such as when surrounding radiation is non-negligible or when corrections are applied to measurements made using an inappropriate emissivity setting. A novel concept, generalized effective radiance temperature (GERT), that adopts a graybody as the reference radiator is proposed in this study to express and explain the actual measurands that exist extensively in practical radiation thermometry applications; for example, a measurement result by a spectral-band radiation thermometer whose instrumental emissivity setting is less than 1. An effective wavelength approach has been developed to elucidate the relationship between a thermometer-dependent temperature (reading from an actual spectral-band radiation thermometer) and the object-side parameter GERT. The characteristics of GERT and the effective wavelength of a GERT measurement are discussed. Choosing an arbitrary emissivity setting to correct for the emissivity of a real target is equivalent to using this value as the emissivity of the reference graybody of the GERT. The GERT can be used in calibrations of both sources and thermometers.

  2. Factors affecting growth factor activity in goat milk.

    PubMed

    Wu, F Y; Tsao, P H; Wang, D C; Lin, S; Wu, J S; Cheng, Y K

    2006-06-01

    Growth factors that are present in goat milk may be responsible for its beneficial effects on the digestive system as described in ancient Chinese medical texts. To develop a nutraceutical product rich in growth factors for promoting gastrointestinal health, it is essential to collect milk with consistently high growth factor activity. Therefore, we investigated the factors affecting growth factor activity in goat milk. Among the 5 breeds of dairy goats tested, milk from Nubian goats had the highest growth factor activity. Tight-junction leakage induced by a 24-h milking interval did not increase growth factor activity in the milk. Milk collected from pregnant does had a significantly higher growth factor activity than milk collected postpartum. Growth factor activity decreased during the first 8 wk of lactation, fluctuated thereafter, and then increased dramatically after natural mating. During wk 1 to 8, growth factor activity was inversely correlated with milk yield and week of lactation. No correlation was observed during wk 9 to 29. After natural mating of the goats, the growth factor activity in the milk correlated significantly with somatic cell count and conductivity (a measure of membrane permeability), and correlated inversely with milk yield. Based on the above data, goat milk with higher growth factor activity could be selectively collected from Nubian pregnant does. PMID:16702258

  3. Factors Affecting Intensive Care Units Nursing Workload

    PubMed Central

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ravangard, Ramin; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Mosavi, Seyed Masod; Gholami Fesharaki, Mohammad; Mehrabian, Fardin

    2014-01-01

    Background: The nursing workload has a close and strong association with the quality of services provided for the patients. Therefore, paying careful attention to the factors affecting nursing workload, especially those working in the intensive care units (ICUs), is very important. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the factors affecting nursing workload in the ICUs of the hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional and analytical-descriptive study that has done in Iran. All nurses (n = 400) who was working in the ICUs of the hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2014 were selected and studied using census method. The required data were collected using a researcher–made questionnaire which its validity and reliability were confirmed through getting the opinions of experts and using composite reliability and internal consistency (α = 0.89). The collected data were analyzed through exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and using SPSS 18.0 and AMOS 18.0. Results: Twenty-five factors were divided into three major categories through EFA, including structure, process, and activity. The following factors among the structure, process and activity components had the greatest importance: lack of clear responsibilities and authorities and performing unnecessary tasks (by a coefficient of 0.709), mismatch between the capacity of wards and the number of patients (by a coefficient of 0.639), and helping the students and newly employed staff (by a coefficient of 0.589). Conclusions: The nursing workload is influenced by many factors. The clear responsibilities and authorities of nurses, patients' admission according to the capacity of wards, use of the new technologies and equipment, and providing basic training for new nurses can decrease the workload of nurses. PMID:25389493

  4. Factors affecting the determination of cerebrovascular reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Rosemary E; Fisher, Joseph A; Duffin, James

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), measures the ability of the cerebrovasculature to respond to vasoactive stimuli such as CO2. CVR is often expressed as the ratio of cerebral blood flow change to CO2 change. We examine several factors affecting this measurement: blood pressure, stimulus pattern, response analysis and subject position. Methods Step and ramp increases in CO2 were implemented in nine subjects, seated and supine. Middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were determined breath-by-breath. Cerebrovascular conductance (MCAc) was estimated as MCAv/MAP. CVR was calculated from both the relative and absolute measures of MCAc and MCAv responses. Results MAP increased with CO2 in some subjects so that relative CVR calculated from conductance responses were less than those calculated from CVR calculated from velocity responses. CVR measured from step responses were affected by the response dynamics, and were less than those calculated from CVR measured from ramp responses. Subject position did not affect CVR. Conclusions (1) MAP increases with CO2 and acts as a confounding factor for CVR measurement; (2) CVR depends on the stimulus pattern used; (3) CVR did not differ from the sitting versus supine in these experiments; (4) CVR calculated from absolute changes of MCAv was less than that calculated from relative changes. PMID:25328852

  5. Factors Affecting Health Care Utilization in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Motlagh, Soraya Nouraei; Sabermahani, Asma; Hadian, Mohammad; Lari, Mohsen Asadi; Mahdavi, Mohamad Reza Vaez; Gorji, Hassan Abolghasem

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Successful health system planning and management is dependent on well informed decisions, so having complete knowledge about medical services’ utilization is essential for resource allocation and health plans. The main goal of this study is identification of factors effecting inpatient and outpatient services utilization in public and private sectors. Methods: This study encompasses all regions of Tehran in 2011 and uses Urban HEART questionnaires. This population-based survey included 34700 households with 118000 individuals in Tehran. For determining the most important factors affected on health services consumption, logit model was applied. Results: Regarding to the finding, the most important factors affected on utilization were age, income level and deciles, job status, household dimension and insurance coverage. The main point was the negative relationship between health care utilization and education but it had a positive relationship with private health care utilization. Moreover suffering from chronic disease was the most important variable in health care utilization. Conclusions: According to the mentioned results and the fact that access has effect on health services utilization, policy makers should try to eliminate financial access barriers of households and individuals. This may be done with identification of households with more than 65 or smaller than 5 years old, people in low income deciles or with chronic illness. According to age effect on health services usage and aging population of Iran, results of this study show more importance of attention to aged population needs in future years. PMID:26153189

  6. Factors affecting performance of dispenser photocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, Nathan A.; Jensen, Kevin L.; Feldman, Donald W.; Montgomery, Eric J.; O'Shea, Patrick G.

    2007-11-01

    Usable lifetime has long been a limitation of high efficiency photocathodes in high average current accelerator applications such as free electron lasers, where poor vacuum conditions and high incident laser power contribute to early degradation in electron beam emission. Recent progress has been made in adapting well known thermionic dispenser techniques to photocathodes, resulting in a dispenser photocathode whose photosensitive surface coating of cesium can be periodically replenished to extend effective lifetime. This article details the design and fabrication process of a prototype cesium dispenser photocathode and describes in detail the dominant factors affecting its performance: activation procedure, surface cleanliness, temperature, and substrate microstructure.

  7. Factors affecting the placental transfer of actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Sikov, M.R.; Kelman, B.J. )

    1989-01-01

    The primary goal of this paper is to consider factors that affect the availability and transport of actinides from maternal blood, through the placenta, to the conceptus. These factors, of particular importance in scaling results from animals to man, include the route and temporal pattern of administration, the mass and physicochemical state of material administered, metabolism of the pregnant animal and fetal organs or tissue, and species-specific changes in placental structure relative to stage of gestation at exposure. Preliminary concepts for descriptive and kinetic models are proposed to integrate these results, to identify additional information required for developing more comprehensive models, and to provide a basis for scaling to human pregnancies for purposes of radiation dosimetry.

  8. Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer

    DOE Data Explorer

    Gero, Jonathan; Ermold, Brian; Gaustad, Krista; Koontz, Annette; Hackel, Denny; Garcia, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    The atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI) is a ground-based instrument that measures the downwelling infrared radiance from the Earth’s atmosphere. The observations have broad spectral content and sufficient spectral resolution to discriminate among gaseous emitters (e.g., carbon dioxide and water vapor) and suspended matter (e.g., aerosols, water droplets, and ice crystals). These upward-looking surface observations can be used to obtain vertical profiles of tropospheric temperature and water vapor, as well as measurements of trace gases (e.g., ozone, carbon monoxide, and methane) and downwelling infrared spectral signatures of clouds and aerosols. The AERI is a passive remote sounding instrument, employing a Fourier transform spectrometer operating in the spectral range 3.3–19.2 μm (520–3020 cm-1) at an unapodized resolution of 0.5 cm-1 (max optical path difference of 1 cm). The extended-range AERI (ER-AERI) deployed in dry climates, like in Alaska, have a spectral range of 3.3–25.0 μm (400–3020 cm-1) that allow measurements in the far-infrared region. Typically, the AERI averages views of the sky over a 16-second interval and operates continuously.

  9. Assisted suicide: factors affecting public attitudes.

    PubMed

    Worthen, L T; Yeatts, D E

    Public support for assisted suicide has been growing despite the ethical questions raised by members of the medical profession. Previous research suggests that age, gender, experience, and religiosity are factors affecting individuals' attitudes. This study examines the effect of demographic and ideological factors, as well as individuals' caregiving experiences, on attitudes toward assisted suicide. Random-digit-dialing procedures produced a sample of 156 residents of Denton, Texas, in March 1998. T-tests were conducted to measure significance, while gamma values were used to measure level of association and percent reduction in error. The data indicate that age, gender, and caregiving experience were not significant predictors of attitudes. Situational factors, including whether a physician or friend/family member should assist and whether a child or a terminally ill patient experiencing no pain should receive assistance, all were highly significant and positively associated with attitudes toward assisted suicide. Respondents were most likely to support physician-assisted suicide for individuals experiencing no pain. The data also indicated that the depth of commitment to the beliefs that suffering has meaning, that life belongs to God, and that physician-assisted suicide is murder, were highly significant and negatively associated with attitudes toward assisted suicide. PMID:12557886

  10. Genetic factors affecting dental caries risk.

    PubMed

    Opal, S; Garg, S; Jain, J; Walia, I

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the literature on genetic aspects of dental caries and provides a framework for the rapidly changing disease model of caries. The scope is genetic aspects of various dental factors affecting dental caries. The PubMed database was searched for articles with keywords 'caries', 'genetics', 'taste', 'diet' and 'twins'. This was followed by extensive handsearching using reference lists from relevant articles. The post-genomic era will present many opportunities for improvement in oral health care but will also present a multitude of challenges. We can conclude from the literature that genes have a role to play in dental caries; however, both environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in the aetiology of caries. Additional studies will have to be conducted to replicate the findings in a different population. Identification of genetic risk factors will help screen and identify susceptible patients to better understand the contribution of genes in caries aetiopathogenesis. Information derived from these diverse studies will provide new tools to target individuals and/or populations for a more efficient and effective implementation of newer preventive measures and diagnostic and novel therapeutic approaches in the management of this disease. PMID:25721273

  11. Factors affecting the quality of bottled water.

    PubMed

    Diduch, Malwina; Polkowska, ?aneta; Namie?nik, Jacek

    2013-03-01

    The ever-increasing popularity of bottled water means that it is important to analyze not only its mineral content but also, above all, its content of possible contaminants, especially the organic ones. In this respect, bottled waters are a special case, because apart from organic chemical contaminants derived from the well from which they were acquired, their secondary contamination is always possible, during treatment or storage or transport in unsuitable conditions (sunlight and elevated temperature). This paper describes how various factors, from the area around the well, and the method of drawing and treating water, to the manner in which the finished product is stored and transported may affect the quality of bottled waters. It also summarizes literature information on the levels of organic contaminants in various kinds of bottled water samples. PMID:23093103

  12. Factors affecting dwell times on digital displaying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, A. J.; Harris, R. L., Sr.

    1985-01-01

    A series of exploratory tests were conducted to investigate the effects of advanced display formats and display media on pilot scanning behavior using Langley's oculometer, a desktop flight simulator, a conventional electro-mechanical meter, and various digital displays. The primary task was for the test subject to maintain level flight, on a specific course heading, during moderate turbulence. A secondary task of manually controlling the readout of a display was used to examine the effects of the display format on a subject's scan behavior. Secondary task scan parameters that were evaluated were average dwell time, dwell time histograms, and number of dwells per meter change. The round dial meter demonstrated shorter dwell times and fewer dwells per meter change than the digital displays. The following factors affected digital display scanning behavior: (1) the number of digits; (2) the update rate of the digits; (3) the display media; and (4) the character font. The size of the digits used in these tests (0.28 to 0.50 inches) did not affect scan behavior measures.

  13. Factors Affecting Informal Economy of Rural Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonenc, Sertac; Tanrivermis, Harun

    In this study, the informal economy in the rural areas of Turkey has been measured and factors affecting the informal economy have been analyzed. The informal economy has been discussed with regards to three main issues, namely unpaid household labor force usage, own consumption of crop and animal products and informal sales. Although the household labor force is mainly used in farms for agricultural and off-farm activities, the rate of idle labor has been found to be highly significant. It has been found that milk has the largest share of animal produce values consumed by the household, while particularly processed milk products are sold informally and that the consumption and sales values of animal produce processed in the households are required to be added to the unrecorded value calculation. Consumption of crops varies depending on the type of product. The own consumption ratio of crops is affected by the size of the enterprise, the number of individuals in the households and particularly the access to the markets of the enterprises in each region. An average informal value of 6,400.04 USD has been calculated per household, which is higher than the farm income, accounting for 4/5 of total household income. This can be attributed to the fact that the farms are generally small family enterprises with limited market-access opportunities.

  14. Factors affecting excretory behavior of pigs.

    PubMed

    Hacker, R R; Ogilvie, J R; Morrison, W D; Kains, F

    1994-06-01

    A 2(4) factorial experiment with six pens per treatment was conducted to examine the factors affecting the excretory behavior of growing-finishing pigs. The factors investigated were partition type (open or closed), pig density (9 or 14 pigs/pen, size: 2 m x 4.5 m), position of nipple drinker in the pen (back wall of the pen or side in front of slatted area), and prior experience of pigs (training or no training). A total of 1,104 pigs at a weight interval of 28.4 +/- .2 to 91.4 +/- .4 kg were used in this study. Pen cleanliness was assessed by a dung scoring system, and growth rate was determined over the growing-finishing period. Partition type, nipple drinker position, or prior training of pigs had no effect on growth rate. Stocking pigs at 14 pigs/pen reduced growth rate (P < .05) compared with 9 pigs/pen (.80 vs .83 kg/d). Significant differences for pen dirtiness were found for partition type. Pens with closed partitions were cleaner than those with open partitions (P = .0001) and pens became significantly dirtier as pigs grew older or heavier (P < .01). There was a significant interaction effect between pen partition and pig density as well as an interaction among pen partition, pig density, and water position (P < .05). PMID:8071169

  15. Factors affecting infant and child mortality.

    PubMed

    Adlakha, A L; Suchindran, C M

    1985-10-01

    This paper examines the determinants of infant and child mortality variations in Jordan, Yemen, Egypt, and Tunisia using data from WFS surveys. The analysis considers biological correlates of mortality--mother's age, birth order, birth interval, and previous infant loss--and several social factors--mother's and father's education, mother's residence, father's occupation, and mother's work experience since marriage. The estimates for the 4 countries show large variations in the mortality rates and an expected pattern of declining infant and child mortality during the period of 20 years prior to the survey. Further, the proportionate decline in child mortality in each country was generally greater than the proportionate decline in infant mortality. A persistent pattern of higher child mortality for females than for males is found, suggesting preferential care and treatment of male offspring. The higher mortality risk is found for infants born to very young and very old mothers, with short previous birth intervals, of higher birth orders, and where the previous infant had died. Among the socioeconomic characteristics, the education of the mother and rural-urban residence are found to affect infant survival. In childhood, among the demographic factors, only birth interval shows a significant effect on mortality. The risk of child mortality decreases considerably with the increase in the birth interval. The analysis of the effect of breastfeeding on mortality, although based on limited information, clearly shows the beneficial effect of breastfeeding on the infant's survival, especially during the early months of life. For all countries, the mortality rate for the non-breastfeeders is substantially higher than for the breastfeeders even when the effect of the other covariates is controlled. PMID:4055837

  16. Factors affecting water quality in Cherokee Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Iwanski, M.L.; Higgins, J.M.; Kim, B.R.; Young, R.C.

    1980-07-01

    The purpose was to: (1) define reservoir problems related to water quality conditions; (2) identify the probable causes of these problems; and (3) recommend procedures for achieving needed reservoir water quality improvements. This report presents the project findings to date and suggests steps for upgrading the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section II presents background information on the characteristics of the basin, the reservoir, and the beneficial uses of the reservoir. Section III identifies the impacts of existing reservoir water quality on uses of the reservoir for water supply, fishery resources, recreation, and waste assimilation. Section IV presents an assessment of cause-effect relationships. The factors affecting water quality addressed in Section IV are: (1) reservoir thermal stratification and hydrodynamics; (2) dissolved oxygen depletion; (3) eutrophication; (4) toxic substances; and (5) reservoir fisheries. Section V presents a preliminary evaluation of alternatives for improving the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section VI presents preliminary conclusions and recommendations for developing and implementing a reservoir water quality management plan. 7 references, 22 figures, 21 tables.

  17. Factors affecting coastal wetland loss and restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, D.R.

    2007-01-01

    Opening paragraph: Tidal and nontidal wetlands in the Chesapeake Bay watershed provide vital hydrologic, water-quality, and ecological functions. Situated at the interface of land and water, these valuable habitats are vulnerable to alteration and loss by human activities including direct conversion to non-wetland habitat by dredge-and-fill activities from land development, and to the effects of excessive nutrients, altered hydrology and runoff, contaminants, prescribed fire management, and invasive species. Processes such as sea-level rise and climate change also impact wetlands. Although local, State, and Federal regulations provide for protection of wetland resources, the conversion and loss of wetland habitats continue in the Bay watershed. Given the critical values of wetlands, the Chesapeake 2000 Agreement has a goal to achieve a net gain in wetlands by restoring 25,000 acres of tidal and nontidal wetlands by 2010. The USGS has synthesized findings on three topics: (1) sea-level rise and wetland loss, (2) wetland restoration, and (3) factors affecting wetland diversity.

  18. Rh Factor: How It Can Affect Your Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG The Rh Factor: How It Can Affect Your Pregnancy Home ... Your Pregnancy FAQ027, September 2013 PDF Format The Rh Factor: How It Can Affect Your Pregnancy Pregnancy ...

  19. Factors Affecting Ejection Risk in Rollover Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Funk, James R.; Cormier, Joseph M.; Bain, Charles E.; Wirth, Jeffrey L.; Bonugli, Enrique B.; Watson, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 – 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position, roof crush, side curtain airbag deployment, glazing type, and occupant age, gender, and size. Seatbelt use was found to reduce the risk of partial ejection and virtually eliminate the risk of complete ejection. For belted occupants, the risk of partial ejection risk was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, light trucks and vans (LTVs), and larger occupants. For unbelted occupants, the risk of complete ejection was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, LTVs, far side occupants, and higher levels of roof crush. Roof crush was not a significant predictor of ejection after normalizing for rollover severity. Curtain airbag deployment was associated with reduced rates of partial and complete ejection, but the effect was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small sample size (n = 89 raw cases with curtain deployments). A much greater proportion of occupants who were ejected in spite of curtain airbag deployment passed through the sunroof and other portals as opposed to the adjacent side window compared to occupants who were ejected in rollovers without a curtain airbag deployment. The primary factors that reduce ejection risk in rollover crashes are, in generally decreasing order of importance: seatbelt use, fewer roof inversions, passenger car body type, curtain airbag deployment, near side seating position, and small occupant size. PMID:23169130

  20. Factors affecting the process performance of biofiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Kopchynski, D.M.; Farmer, R.W.; Maier, W.J.

    1996-11-01

    Biofiltration is an emerging biological treatment technology for the removal of airborne VOCs from industrial process waste streams. Removal of air-phase VOCs by biofiltration is accomplished by contacting a process airstream with an active microbial biofilm attached to a solid phase packing. VOCs that partition into the biofilm are aerobically oxidized to the endproducts of water, carbon dioxide and salts. A multiple reactor biofiltration pilot plant test program has been in progress at the University of Minnesota Environmental Engineering Laboratories since 1992. The primary goal of the program is to study factors that affect biofiltration process performance. Initial results of this test program were reported in a previous conference paper and master`s thesis. This paper presents the results of more recent studies that focus on the effects of: (1) biofilm accumulation (which in turn causes a decrease in biofilter bed porosity and packing bed surface area), (2) rates of nutrient addition, and (3) chemical properties of the target contaminant, on biofiltration removal performance. Removal performance was evaluated by determining biofilter removal capacities and efficiencies for various substrate feeds. The performance parameters were measured under constant contaminant inlet concentrations and under constant temperature. Three VOCs were selected for study and they are: MEK, (methyl ethyl ketone), xylene, and hexane. MEK, xylene, and hexane were chosen because they are representative of widely used industrial solvents and they have significantly different Henry`s law constants relative to each other (the MEK value < Xylene value < Hexane value). Henry`s law constants quantify the partitioning of a chemical between the air and water-biofilm phase and therefore can be used to correlate the effect of chemical properties on biofilter removal capacities. This paper also introduces a new model for the biofiltration process.

  1. Examining infrared radiances for evidence of stochastic forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeSouza-Machado, Sergio; Tangborn, Andrew; Strow, Larrabee; Sura, Philip

    2015-04-01

    Under clear-sky conditions, Top-of-the Atmosphere (TOA) hyperspectral radiances from infrared sounders probe temperatures and humidity at multiple levels in the Earth's atmosphere. Depending on the weighting functions, many of the channel radiances are also affected by the presence of clouds. Here we use TOA radiance data from NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Higher order moments (skewness and kurtosis) of Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) from selected AIRS channels, constructed using 12 years of data from the instrument, are analyzed for evidence of stochastic forcing under clear and cloudy sky conditions. Trends in cloud radiative forcing are also studied and understood in terms of trends in regional subsets of the PDFs, and compared to trends in PDFs from ERA simulated radiances.

  2. Iatrogenic Factors Affecting the Periodontium: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Ravi Varma; Chincholi, Siddharth; V, Deepika; Sirajuddin, Syed; Biswas, Shriparna; Prabhu, Sandeep S; MP, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    The principal reason of gingival inflammation is bacterial plaque, along with other predisposing factors. These predisposing factors are calculus, malocclusion, faulty restorations, complications associated with orthodontic therapy, self- inflicted injuries, use of tobacco & radiation therapy. The contributing factors to gingival inflammation & periodontal destruction are deficient dental restorations and prosthesis. Inadequate dental procedures that add to the weakening of the periodontal tissues are referred to as iatrogenic factors. PMID:26312088

  3. Hospital Views of Factors Affecting Telemedicine Use.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Kimberly A S; Ward, Marcia M; Mueller, Keith J

    2015-04-01

    Telemedicine (also known as telehealth) is a means to increase access to care, one of the foundations of the Triple Aim. However, the expansion of telemedicine services in the United States has been relatively slow. We previously examined the extent of uptake of hospital based telemedicine using the 2013 HIMSS (Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society) Analytics national database of 4,727 non-specialty hospitals. Our analysis indicated that the largest percentage of operational telemedicine implementations (15.7 percent) was in radiology departments, with a substantial number in emergency/trauma care (7.5 percent) and cardiology/stroke/heart attack programs (6.8 percent). However, existing databases are limited because they do not identify whether a respondent hospital is a "hub" (providing telemedicine services) or a "spoke" (receiving telemedicine services). Therefore, we used data from interviews with hospital representatives to deepen the research and understanding of telemedicine use and the factors affecting that use. Interviews were conducted with key informants at 18 hub hospitals and 18 spoke hospitals to explore their perceptions of barriers and motivators to telemedicine adoption and expansion. Key Findings. (1) Respondents from both hub and spoke hospitals reported that telemedicine helps them meet their mission, enhances access, keeps lower-acuity patients closer to home, and helps head off competition. (2) Respondents from both hub and spoke hospitals reported licensing and credentialing to be significant barriers to telemedicine expansion. Thus, half of hubs provide services only within their state. (3) A variety of one-time funding sources have been used to initiate and grow telemedicine services among hubs and spokes. However, reimbursement issues have impeded the development of workable business models for sustainability. Hub hospitals shoulder the responsibility for identifying sustainable business models. (4) Although respondents from both hub and spoke hospitals reported that physician buy-in is mostly positive, they also believe that physician buy-in will improve if physicians are given time to adjust to practicing medicine using telemedicine technology. PMID:26793811

  4. The Factors Affecting Bone Density in Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Hajiabbasi, Asghar; Shafaghi, Afshin; Fayazi, Haniyeh Sadat; Shenavar Masooleh, Irandokht; Hedayati Emami, Mohammad Hassan; Ghavidel Parsa, Pooneh; Amir Maafi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bone loss is common in cirrhosis. However, the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis has been heterogeneous in different reports. Reduction in bone formation with or without increase in bone resorption appears to be responsible for bone loss in these patients. Objectives: We aimed to investigate bone loss in patients with cirrhosis at different anatomical sites and key factors that might affect it. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 97 patients with cirrhosis who were referred to Razi Hospital, Rasht, Iran, from 2008 to 2010, were studied. Cirrhosis was diagnosed using biopsy and/or clinical and paraclinical findings. Bone mineral densitometry was done in L2 through L4 lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN), using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) (QDR 1000, Hologic DEXA Inc, Waltham, Massachusetts, the United States). Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 18. A P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 97 patients with cirrhosis (55.7% male) and the mean age of 51 ± 13 years and median body mass index (BMI) of 22.7 kg/m2 were recruited over a two-year period. Etiologies of cirrhosis were hepatitis C (40.2%), hepatitis B (26.8%), cryptogenic (21.6%), and other causes (11.4%). Child A, B, and C, were seen in 16.5%, 47.4%, and 36.1% of patients, respectively. The DEXA results were abnormal in 78.4% of our participants (osteopenia, 45.4%; osteoporosis, 33%). BMI and calculated glomerular filtration rate (GFRc) had moderate positive and Child score had moderate negative significant correlation with T score in both anatomical sites. There was no significant association between abnormal DEXA and the causes of cirrhosis. The univariate analysis showed that the risk of abnormal results in DEXA was significantly higher in those with low BMI, current smoking, higher Child score, and low GFRc; however, in multivariate analysis, the abnormal results were more frequent in those with lower vitamin D, higher Child score, and less GFRc. Conclusions: Abnormal DEXA was highly prevalent among patients with cirrhosis. The risk of this finding was increased by lower vitamin D levels, advanced disease, and impaired renal function. PMID:25977695

  5. An overview of surface radiance and biology studies in FIFE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blad, B. L.; Schimel, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    The use of satellite data to study and to understand energy and mass exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere requires information about various biological processes and how various reflected or emitted spectral radiances are influenced by or manifested in these processes. To obtain such information, studies were conducted by the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) surface radiances and biology (SRB) group using surface, near-surface, helicopter, and aircraft measurements. The two primary objectives of this group were to relate radiative fluxes to biophysical parameters and physiological processes and to assess how various management treatments affect important biological processes. This overview paper summarizes the results obtained by various SRB teams working in nine different areas: (1) measurements of bidirectional reflectance and estimation of hemispherical albedo; (2) evaluation of spatial and seasonal variability reflectance and vegetation indices; (3) determination of surface and radiational factors and their effects on vegetation indices and photosynthetically active radiation relationships; (4) use of surface temperatures to estimate sensible heat flux; (5) controls over photosynthesis and respiration at small scales; (6) soil surface CO2 fluxes and grassland carbon budget; (7) landscape variations in controls over gas exchange and energy partitioning; (8) radiometric response of prairie to management and topography; and (9) determination of nitrogen gas exchanges in a tallgrass prairie.

  6. Factors Affecting Retention in Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berling, Victoria L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to expand what is known regarding the factors that relate to successful completion of online, undergraduate college courses. It addressed 13 student factors available through archival data at Northern Kentucky University based on 1,493 students enrolled in fully online courses in fall 2008. It included programmatic…

  7. Factors Affecting Turkish Students' Achievement in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Ibrahim; Kilic, Serpil; Depren, Ozer

    2009-01-01

    Following past researches, student background, learning strategies, self-related cognitions in mathematics and school climate variables were important for achievement. The purpose of this study was to identify a number of factors that represent the relationship among sets of interrelated variables using principal component factor analysis and…

  8. How Student Satisfaction Factors Affect Perceived Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Celia C.

    2010-01-01

    Data from students in two sections of a general education course offered at a research university in spring 2009 were used to explore whether student satisfaction factors are associated with perceived learning as rated by students. A list of 22 elements in the learning environment was explored. The 22 were used in creating 3 satisfaction factors

  9. The phase matrix truncation impact on polarized radiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compiègne, M.; C-Labonnote, L.; Dubuisson, P.

    2013-05-01

    While several papers deal with effects of truncation techniques on the total radiance there is a lack of such studies concerning polarized radiance. We present our first results obtained in studying the impact of phase matrix truncation on the accuracy of polarized radiance. Like for the total radiance, the single scattering (TMS) correction is crucial and efficient in case of the polarized radiance. We show that there is a systematic error on polarized radiance that increases with truncation factor and optical depth. This error is not induced by the restitution of the phase matrix angular dependency as a function of the number of terms in the Legendre polynomials expansion. Given a truncation factor, this error reaches a maximum asymptotic value for optical depth corresponding to the saturation of polarization. For the cloud droplet that we use in our study, the maximum error is 4.5% at λ=412nm. It raises the question of whether the condition for scale invariance of the scalar radiative transfer equation (RTE) can apply to vector RTE.

  10. Factors affecting the broadened use of hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The future role of hydrogen is considered. Specific factors discussed include: storage, transmission, and distribution problems; materials compatibility and safety; environmental and social implications of increased hydrogen usage; and the economics related to expanding hydrogen use.

  11. Structural Factors Affecting Health Examination Behavioral Intention

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hui-Ting; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Wang, Shiang-Ru; Wang, Chia-Fen; Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Disease screening instruments used for secondary prevention can facilitate early determination and treatment of pathogenic factors, effectively reducing disease incidence, mortality rates, and health complications. Therefore, people should be encouraged to receive health examinations for discovering potential pathogenic factors before symptoms occur. Here, we used the health belief model as a foundation and integrated social psychological factors and investigated the factors influencing health examination behavioral intention among the public in Taiwan. In total, 388 effective questionnaires were analyzed through structural model analysis. Consequently, this study yielded four crucial findings: (1) The established extended health belief model could effectively predict health examination behavioral intention; (2) Self-efficacy was the factor that most strongly influenced health examination behavioral intention, followed by health knowledge; (3) Self-efficacy substantially influenced perceived benefits and perceived barriers; (4) Health knowledge and social support indirectly influenced health examination behavioral intention. The preceding results can effectively increase the acceptance and use of health examination services among the public, thereby facilitating early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately reducing disease and mortality rates. PMID:27043606

  12. Structural Factors Affecting Health Examination Behavioral Intention.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Ting; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Wang, Shiang-Ru; Wang, Chia-Fen; Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Disease screening instruments used for secondary prevention can facilitate early determination and treatment of pathogenic factors, effectively reducing disease incidence, mortality rates, and health complications. Therefore, people should be encouraged to receive health examinations for discovering potential pathogenic factors before symptoms occur. Here, we used the health belief model as a foundation and integrated social psychological factors and investigated the factors influencing health examination behavioral intention among the public in Taiwan. In total, 388 effective questionnaires were analyzed through structural model analysis. Consequently, this study yielded four crucial findings: (1) The established extended health belief model could effectively predict health examination behavioral intention; (2) Self-efficacy was the factor that most strongly influenced health examination behavioral intention, followed by health knowledge; (3) Self-efficacy substantially influenced perceived benefits and perceived barriers; (4) Health knowledge and social support indirectly influenced health examination behavioral intention. The preceding results can effectively increase the acceptance and use of health examination services among the public, thereby facilitating early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately reducing disease and mortality rates. PMID:27043606

  13. Factors affecting thermally simulated HAZ microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Cardinal, N.

    1996-12-01

    Thermal simulation of heat affected zones (HAZs) by resistance heating has found widespread application in weldability assessment and steel development programs. This is due to two main reasons: Firstly, using thermal simulation it is possible to reproduce a relatively large area of the HAZ microstructure of interest which can then be assessed by mechanical tests without the influence of neighboring microstructures. Secondly, the method represents a relatively cheap and quick alternative to the production of real welds with microstructures being reproducible from one specimen to the next. Although it is widely recognized that thermal simulation will never reproduce exactly the same microstructures as found in real weld HAZs, very little is still known about how thermally simulated and real weld HAZ microstructures compare. In the present work microstructural features of thermally simulated and real weld HAZs produced on two different offshore steels have therefore been compared. The grain coarsened heat affected zone (GCHAZ) and the intercritically reheated grain coarsened heat affected zone (ICGCHAZ) have been assessed. Both types of microstructures usually receive high attention in weldability studies due to their potential risk of producing low toughness values. The GCHAZ has been examined in terms of packet size and hardness whereas for the ICGCHAZ the interest was focused on the formation of second phase product during the second thermal cycle. The findings of this examination are discussed with respect to implications of the use of HAZ thermal simulation in steel comparison and mechanical testing programs.

  14. Factors Affecting Attitudes toward Juvenile Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlstrom, Kimberly J.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment…

  15. Factors affecting metabolic syndrome by lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Ki, Nam-Kyun; Lee, Hae-Kag; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Seon-Chil; Kim, Nak-Sang

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to explore lifestyle factors in relation to metabolic syndrome so as to be able to utilize the results as baseline data for the furtherance of health-care and medical treatment. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted with patients who visited a health care center located in Seoul and had abdominal ultrasonography between 2 March 2013 and 28 February, 2014. Heights, weights, and blood pressures were measured by automatic devices. Three radiologists examined the patients using abdominal ultrasonography for gallstone diagnosis. The statuses of patients with regard to smoking, alcohol, coffee, and physical activities were explored for the lifestyle investigation. For investigating baseline demographics, we first used descriptive statistics. We then used the χ2 test to analyze lifestyles and gallstone prevalence with regard to the presence of metabolic syndrome. Lastly, logistic regression analysis was conducted to discover the risk factors of metabolic syndrome. [Results] For men, body mass index, maximum gallstone size, and waist circumference were revealed as risk factors for metabolic syndrome, in descending order of the degree of risk. For females, gallstone presence was the most significant risk factor, followed by waist circumference. [Conclusion] Metabolic disease mainly presents itself along with obesity, and we should become more focused on preventing and treating this disease. A large-scale prospective study is needed in the future, as the cause of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis remained unclear in this study. PMID:26957725

  16. Factors Affecting Performance of Soil Termiticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Applying liquid insecticide to soil under and around structures is one of the most widely used methods of subterranean termite prevention and control. Failure of soil termiticide treatments is often related to factors other than the active ingredient. Efficacy and longevity of soil treatments vary g...

  17. Factors Affecting School Quality in Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Barry; Arbogast, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the factors that are theorized to be determinants of school quality in the 67 counties of Florida from 2000 to 2011. The model constructed for this purpose is comprised of a mix of independent variables that include county educational attainment (number of high school graduates and State University System enrollees) and…

  18. Intrinsic Factors Affecting Overseas Student Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; MacKay, Brenda B.; Firmin, Ruth L.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative research study involving 13 undergraduate students who completed their student-teaching in overseas contexts. Participants completed two waves of interviews immediately after returning to campus from their multicultural experiences. Three intrinsic factors were found to have the greatest impact on students' overseas…

  19. Factors affecting alum-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Min; Wang, Wei

    2014-05-15

    Alum (or aluminum-containing) adjuvants are key components of many vaccines currently on the market. The immuno-potentiation effect of alum adjuvants is presumably due to their interaction with antigens, leading to adsorption on the alum particle surface. Understanding the mechanism of antigen adsorption/desorption and its influencing factors could provide guidance on formulation design and ensure proper in-vivo immuno-potentiation effect. In this paper, surface adsorption of several model proteins on two types of aluminum adjuvants (Alhydrogel() and Adjuphos()) are investigated to understand the underlying adsorption mechanisms, capacities, and potential influencing factors. It was found that electrostatic interactions are the major driving force for surface adsorption of all the model proteins except ovalbumin. Alhydrogel has a significantly higher adsorption capacity than Adjuphos. Several factors significantly change the adsorption capacity of both Alhydrogel and Adjuphos, including molecular weight of protein antigens, sodium chloride, phosphate buffer, denaturing agents, and size of aluminum particles. These important factors need to be carefully considered in the design of an effective protein antigen-based vaccine. PMID:24607202

  20. Factors Affecting Students' Medicine-Taking Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labig, Chalmer E., Jr.; Zantow, Kenneth; Peterson, Tim O.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines college students' beliefs about health, prescriptions, doctors, and the influence those beliefs have on adherence to prescribed medication regimens. After a brief review of attitudinal factors that influence adherence to prescription medicine directions, the authors discuss measurement issues and explain the reasons for their…

  1. Factors affecting metabolic syndrome by lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Ki, Nam-Kyun; Lee, Hae-Kag; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Seon-Chil; Kim, Nak-Sang

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to explore lifestyle factors in relation to metabolic syndrome so as to be able to utilize the results as baseline data for the furtherance of health-care and medical treatment. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted with patients who visited a health care center located in Seoul and had abdominal ultrasonography between 2 March 2013 and 28 February, 2014. Heights, weights, and blood pressures were measured by automatic devices. Three radiologists examined the patients using abdominal ultrasonography for gallstone diagnosis. The statuses of patients with regard to smoking, alcohol, coffee, and physical activities were explored for the lifestyle investigation. For investigating baseline demographics, we first used descriptive statistics. We then used the χ(2) test to analyze lifestyles and gallstone prevalence with regard to the presence of metabolic syndrome. Lastly, logistic regression analysis was conducted to discover the risk factors of metabolic syndrome. [Results] For men, body mass index, maximum gallstone size, and waist circumference were revealed as risk factors for metabolic syndrome, in descending order of the degree of risk. For females, gallstone presence was the most significant risk factor, followed by waist circumference. [Conclusion] Metabolic disease mainly presents itself along with obesity, and we should become more focused on preventing and treating this disease. A large-scale prospective study is needed in the future, as the cause of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis remained unclear in this study. PMID:26957725

  2. Factors Affecting Thermally Induced Furan Formation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Furan, a potential carcinogen, can be induced by heat from sugars and fatty acids. However, factors that contribute to its formation in foods are unclear. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of pH, presence of phosphate, heating time and heating temperature on furan forma...

  3. Intrinsic Factors Affecting Overseas Student Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; MacKay, Brenda B.; Firmin, Ruth L.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative research study involving 13 undergraduate students who completed their student-teaching in overseas contexts. Participants completed two waves of interviews immediately after returning to campus from their multicultural experiences. Three intrinsic factors were found to have the greatest impact on students' overseas

  4. Political and institutional factors affecting systems engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yardley, John F.

    1993-01-01

    External groups have a significant impact on NASA's programs. Ten groups affecting NASA are identified, and examples are given for some of the them. Methods of dealing with these external inputs are discussed, the most important being good and open two way communications and an objective attitude on the part of the NASA participants. The importance of planning ahead, of developing rapport with these groups, and of effective use of NASA contractors is covered. The need for an overall strategic plan for the U.S. space program is stressed.

  5. Some Factors Affecting Undergraduate Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, R. C. A.

    1965-01-01

    A related series of studies, most of which have been published previously, is described. These studies form a coherent whole and demonstrate the development of a theme, namely, the identification of factors in the student and the medical school which, in their interaction, influenced undergraduate academic performance at one medical school. In the population concerned no reliable positive or negative correlation could be demonstrated between cognitive ability and academic performance, when the former was measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Medical College Admission Test, and the latter by the current assessment methods of the medical school. Other factors, including socioeconomic and individual personality variables, are at present under investigation as to their effect on academic achievement. It is emphasized that the results of these studies cannot be regarded as valid for all medical schools, but the methods employed can be generalized. PMID:14278025

  6. Factors which affect fatigue strength of fasteners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skochko, G. W.; Herrmann, T. P.

    1992-11-01

    Axial load cycling fatigue tests of threaded fasteners are useful in determining fastener fatigue failure or design properties. By using appropriate design factors between the failure and design fatigue strengths, such tests are used to establish fatigue failure and design parameters of fasteners for axial and bending cyclic load conditions. This paper reviews the factors which influence the fatigue strength of low alloy steel threaded fasteners, identifies those most significant to fatigue strength, and provides design guidelines based on the direct evaluation of fatigue tests of threaded fasteners. Influences on fatigue strength of thread manufacturing process (machining and rolling of threads), effect of fastener membrane and bending stresses, thread root radii, fastener sizes, fastener tensile strength, stress relaxation, mean stress, and test temperature are discussed.

  7. Factors which affect fatigue strength of fasteners

    SciTech Connect

    Skochko, G.W.; Herrmann, T.P.

    1992-11-01

    Axial load cycling fatigue tests of threaded fasteners are useful in determining fastener fatigue failure or design properties. By using appropriate design factors between the failure and design fatigue strengths, such tests are used to establish fatigue failure and design parameters of fasteners for axial and bending cyclic load conditions. This paper reviews the factors which influence the fatigue strength of low Alloy steel threaded fasteners, identifies those most significant to fatigue strength, and provides design guidelines based on the direct evaluation of fatigue tests of threaded fasteners. Influences on fatigue strength of thread manufacturing process (machining and rolling of threads), effect of fastener membrane and bending stresses, thread root radii, fastener sizes, fastener tensile strength, stress relaxation, mean stress, and test temperature are discussed.

  8. Radiance calibration of spherical integrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, James T.; Guenther, Bruce W.

    1989-01-01

    Techniques for improving the knowledge of the radiance of large area spherical and hemispherical integrating energy sources have been investigated. Such sources are used to calibrate numerous aircraft and spacecraft remote sensing instruments. Comparisons are made between using a standard source based calibration method and a quantum efficient detector (QED) based calibration method. The uncertainty involved in transferring the calibrated values of the point source standard lamp to the extended source is estimated to be 5 to 10 percent. The use of the QED allows an improvement in the uncertainty to 1 to 2 percent for the measurement of absolute radiance from a spherical integrator source.

  9. Factors affecting selectivity in ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fritz, James S

    2005-08-26

    Methods for separation of ions by ion-exchange, ion-pair, and zwitterion ion chromatography share at least one common thread--the induced formation of a cation-anion pair in the stationary phase. Selectivity can be defined as the relative ability of sample ions to form such a pair. Examples are given in anion-exchange chromatography to show the effect of variations in the geometry, bulkiness and polarity of the resin cation on selectivity. The type of resin matrix, the hydrophobic nature of the resin surface and the degree of solvation also affect chromatographic behavior. The selectivity series observed in ion chromatography seems to be best explained by the interplay of two components: electrostatic attraction (ES) and the enforced-pairing (EP) that is brought about by hydrophobic attraction and by water-enforced ion pairing. Selectivity in ion-pair chromatography (IPC) and in zwitterion ion chromatography (ZIC) is affected by both the mobile phase cation and anion. This leads to elution orders for anions that are different from conventional ion-exchange chromatography (IC) of anions where cations are excluded from the stationary phase and have little effect on a separation. The elution order of anions in ZIC is similar to that in IC except for small anions of 2-charge, which are retained more weakly in ZIC. A unique advantage of ZIC is that sample ions can be eluted as ion pairs with pure water as the eluent and a conductivity detector. The mechanism for separation of anions on a zwitterionic stationary phase has been a subject for considerable debate. The available facts point strongly to a partitioning mechanism or a mixed mechanism in which partitioning is dominant with a weaker ion-exchange component. PMID:16106841

  10. Circulation factors affecting precipitation over Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nojarov, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the influence of circulation factors on precipitation in Bulgaria. The study succeeds investigation on the influence of circulation factors on air temperatures in Bulgaria, as the focus here is directed toward precipitation amounts. Circulation factors are represented through two circulation indices, showing west-east or south-north transport of air masses over Bulgaria and four teleconnection indices (patterns)—North Atlantic Oscillation, East Atlantic, East Atlantic/Western Russia, and Scandinavian. Omega values at 700-hPa level show vertical motions in the atmosphere. Annual precipitation trends are mixed and not statistically significant. A significant decrease of precipitation in Bulgaria is observed in November due to the strengthening of the eastward transport of air masses (strengthening of EA teleconnection pattern) and anticyclonal weather (increase of descending motions in the atmosphere). There is also a precipitation decrease in May and June due to the growing influence of the Azores High. An increase of precipitation happens in September. All this leads to a redistribution of annual precipitation course, but annual precipitation amounts remain the same. However, this redistribution has a negative impact on agriculture and winter ski tourism. Zonal circulation has a larger influence on precipitation in Bulgaria compared to meridional. Eastward transport throughout the year leads to lower than the normal precipitation, and vice versa. With regard to the four teleconnection patterns, winter precipitation in Bulgaria is determined mainly by EA/WR teleconnection pattern, spring and autumn by EA teleconnection pattern, and summer by SCAND teleconnection pattern.

  11. Genetic factors affecting susceptibility to udder pathogens.

    PubMed

    Detilleux, J C

    2009-02-16

    Many studies have identified genetic factors underlying resistance or susceptibility to mastitis in dairy cows and heifers. Some authors focused on polygenic variation while others searched for genes and/or quantitative trait loci with major effects on mastitis. Classical traits related to mastitis include somatic cell counts, electrical conductivity and clinical cases of the disease. With the development of automatic milking devices and '-omics' technologies, new traits are considered, such as acute phase proteins, immunological assays, and milk flow patterns, and new biological pathways are discovered, for example the role of mammary epithelium and the nervous system. The usefulness of these traits for the identification of resistant cows is discussed in relation to the biological mechanisms underlying the development of the disease. In addition, the utility of these traits for genetic improvement is reviewed. Finally, the problem of durability in resistance is addressed, including co-evolution and the cost of resistance. PMID:18930606

  12. Factors affecting the biotransformation of TNT

    SciTech Connect

    Wilber, G.G.; Li, J.; Clarkson, W.W.

    1999-07-01

    Experiments were performed investigating several of the factors the effect the biotransformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in soils and groundwater. Three different electron acceptor conditions (nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and fermentative) were tested, as were several other variables in the reactor medium. All three anaerobic conditions were found favorable for TNT transformation, though nitrate-reducing conditions appeared to be fastest. Under nitrate-reducing conditions, TNT transformation rates were directly proportionally to primary substrate (acetate) concentrations. In the presence of bisulfide, TNT reacted rapidly in an abiotic reaction. Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in the fermentative reactors were inhibited by TNT concentrations above 100 mg/L. The pattern on nitro-group reduction was reasonably predictable, with the more reduced products degrading fastest under nitrate-reducing conditions.

  13. Factors affecting production of catalase by Bacteroides.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, T D; Wagner, D L; Veltri, B J; Gregory, E M

    1978-01-01

    Several variables affected the production of catalase by members of the "Bacteroides fragilis group" of anaerobic bacteria. Both media yielded higher catalase levels than the respective agar media. Addition of hemin to media after autoclave sterilization, rather than before, significantly increased production of catalase. Both of these variables could be related to the available hemin concentration present in the medium being tested. Significantly higher amounts of hemin were required for catalase production than were required for growth. For catalase production by B. fragilis ATCC 25285, 1 microgram of hemin per ml was required. Of the various media tested, the use of chopped meat broth resulted in the highest levels of catalase production (up to 50 to 60 U of catalase per mg of protein). Of the various species and DNA homology groups tested, strains of B. fragilis and Bacteroides distasonis were catalase positive. Strains of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides ovatus, and Bacteroides eggerthi possessed variable catalase activity. Bacteroides vulgatus, Bacteroides uniformis, and DNA homology groups "3452A" and "subsp. a" were catalase negative. A catalase well test, in which equal volumes of 3% H2O2 and chopped meat culture are mixed, is described and recommended for routine catalase tests. PMID:730827

  14. FACTORS AFFECTING THE INTRACELLULAR SYNTHESIS OF KYNURENINE.

    PubMed

    RIZKI, T M; RIZKI, R M

    1964-04-01

    Near the time of pupation, autofluorescent kynurenine globules appear in the cells in the anterior region of the fatbody of Drosophila melanogaster. It has been reported previously that kynurenine synthesis may be induced in an additional group of fat cells by feeding the precursor tryptophan to Drosophila larvae, and that this induction of kynurenine production viewed within the fat cells is correlated with an increase in tryptophan pyrrolase activity. In the present report, conditions are outlined which result in the appearance of kynurenine in all of the fat cells. The number of cells in the fatbody which contain kynurenine is influenced by the quantity of tryptophan included in the diet, as well as by the developmental stage at the time of treatment and the duration of the feeding period on the inducer. Physical barriers modifying permeability, such as the membranous layer noted surrounding the fatbody, may be a factor in the regulation of the time and nature of the cellular induction of kynurenine synthesis. Another factor to be considered is the possibility of interference with the availability of tryptophan as a substrate or inducer for this synthesis within the cell. It is suggested that the occurrence of pteridines in some of the fat cells may modify the response of these cells to produce kynurenine, since pteridines as electron acceptors can complex with tryptophan as an electron donor. Kynurenine may be produced in the fat cells under in vitro conditions when they are incubated with L-tryptophan, but kynurenine is not formed when fat cells are incubated with D-tryptophan. The in vitro studies further demonstrate that induction of kynurenine synthesis may occur in fat cells isolated from young larvae in contrast, to in vivo conditions in which inducer does not effect an earlier appearance of kynurenine in the larval fatbody. PMID:14154493

  15. Operational factors affecting maternal mortality in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Urassa, E; Massawe, S; Lindmark, G; Nyström, L

    1997-03-01

    Identification of the main operational factors in cases of maternal death within and outside the health care system is necessary for safe motherhood programmes. In this study, a follow-up was done of all 117 cases of maternal deaths in Ilala district, Dar es Salaam, 1991-1993, at all levels of care. In all, 79% received some medical care whereas 11% arrived too late for treatment. For each case the major operational factors and all health care interventions were defined through interviews with family members and health care staff and from hospital records, and the avoidability of each case was determined. In the health institutions where the women had consulted, the available resources were assessed. It was found that in most cases the husband (29%) or the mother (31%) of the woman decided on her care in cases of complications, and together with the lack of transport, this often caused delay at home. Also, delay in transfer from the district hospital was common. Cases of abortion complications were often not managed on time because of the delay in reporting to hospital or misleading information. Suboptimal care was identified in 77% of the cases reaching health care. Inadequate treatment was identified by the district health staff in 61% and by the referral centres in 12% of their cases. Wrong decision at the district level and lack of equipment at the referral centre were the main reasons for inadequate care. It is concluded that although community education on danger signs in pregnancy and labour is important, provision of the core resources and supplies for emergency obstetric interventions, as well as clear protocols for management and referral, are absolutely necessary for improvement of maternal survival. PMID:10166102

  16. Geological factors affecting CO2 plume distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frailey, S.M.; Leetaru, H.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the lateral extent of a CO2 plume has important implications with regards to buying/leasing pore volume rights, defining the area of review for an injection permit, determining the extent of an MMV plan, and managing basin-scale sequestration from multiple injection sites. The vertical and lateral distribution of CO2 has implications with regards to estimating CO2 storage volume at a specific site and the pore pressure below the caprock. Geologic and flow characteristics such as effective permeability and porosity, capillary pressure, lateral and vertical permeability anisotropy, geologic structure, and thickness all influence and affect the plume distribution to varying degrees. Depending on the variations in these parameters one may dominate the shape and size of the plume. Additionally, these parameters do not necessarily act independently. A comparison of viscous and gravity forces will determine the degree of vertical and lateral flow. However, this is dependent on formation thickness. For example in a thick zone with injection near the base, the CO2 moves radially from the well but will slow at greater radii and vertical movement will dominate. Generally the CO2 plume will not appreciably move laterally until the caprock or a relatively low permeability interval is contacted by the CO2. Conversely, in a relatively thin zone with the injection interval over nearly the entire zone, near the wellbore the CO2 will be distributed over the entire vertical component and will move laterally much further with minimal vertical movement. Assuming no geologic structure, injecting into a thin zone or into a thick zone immediately under a caprock will result in a larger plume size. With a geologic structure such as an anticline, CO2 plume size may be restricted and injection immediately below the caprock may have less lateral plume growth because the structure will induce downward vertical movement of the CO2 until the outer edge of the plume reaches a spill point within the structure. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors Affecting Cellulolysis by Ruminococcus albus

    PubMed Central

    Smith, W. R.; Yu, Ida; Hungate, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The factors influencing the digestion of pebble-milled cellulose by enzymes were studied by using several strains of Ruminococcus albus including a mutant characterized by a more eccentric location of its colony in the clearing produced by digestion of the cellulose in the thin layer lining the wall of a culture tube. Most of the cellulase is extracellular. As much as 65% of the cellulose could be digested by the cell-free enzymes provided the quantity of cellulose was small. Fresh enzyme was repeatedly administered or the digestion experiment was arranged in a dialysis bag through which digestion products could diffuse. Cellobiose and, to a lesser extent, glucose inhibited digestion. Pebble-milled filter paper, moist crystalline cellulose from cotton, and dry crystalline cellulose (Sigmacel) were digested, but in decreasing rapidity, respectively. Carboxymethylcellulose was digested more rapidly than pebble-milled cellulose but to approximately the same final extent as judged by Cu reduction values. Cell walls from alfalfa were digested. The enzyme preparation was active over the pH range 6.0 to 6.8 and showed most rapid cellulose digestion at 45 C. Part of the cellulolytic activity was irreversibly destroyed by exposure to oxygen. Much of the enzyme was absorbed on cellulose. The absorption and desorption characteristics, as well as the partial inhibition by oxygen, indicate that multiple enzymes are involved. Images PMID:4735890

  18. Physical factors affecting chloroquine binding to melanin.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, R L; Pendleton, P; Gerber, J P

    2015-10-01

    Chloroquine is an antimalarial drug but is also prescribed for conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Long-term users risk toxic side effects, including retinopathy, thought to be caused by chloroquine accumulation on ocular melanin. Although the binding potential of chloroquine to melanin has been investigated previously, our study is the first to demonstrate clear links between chloroquine adsorption by melanin and system factors including temperature, pH, melanin type, and particle size. In the current work, two Sepia melanins were compared with bovine eye as a representative mammalian melanin. Increasing the surface anionic character due to a pH change from 4.7 to 7.4 increased each melanin's affinity for chloroquine. Although the chloroquine isotherms exhibited an apparently strong interaction with each melanin, isosteric heat analysis indicated a competitive interaction. Buffer solution cations competed effectively at low surface coverage; chloroquine adsorption occurs via buffer cation displacement and is promoted by temperature-influenced secondary structure swelling. PMID:26141438

  19. Factors affecting penetrating captive bolt gun performance.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Troy J; Mason, Charles W; Spence, Jade Y; Barker, Heather; Gregory, Neville G

    2015-01-01

    Captive bolt stunning is used for rendering livestock insensible at slaughter. The mechanical factors relating to performance of 6 penetrating captive bolt gun (CBG) models were examined. The Matador Super Sécurit 3000 and the .25 Cash Euro Stunner had the highest kinetic energy values (443 J and 412 J, respectively) of the CBGs tested. Ninety percent (27/30) of CBGs held at a government gun repository (United Kingdom) were found to have performed at a normal standard for the model, while 53% (10/19) of commercial contractor CBGs tested were found to underperform for the gun model. When the .22 Cash Special was fired 500 times at 4 shots per min, the gun reached a peak temperature of 88.8°C after 2.05 hr. Repeat firing during extended periods significantly reduced the performance of the CBG. When deciding on the appropriate CBG/cartridge combination, the kinetic energy delivered to the head of the nonhuman animal, bolt penetration depth, and species/animal type must be considered. It is recommended that CBGs are routinely checked for wear to the bolt and barrel if they are repeatedly fired in a session. PMID:25415241

  20. Some Factors Affecting Time Reversal Signal Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prevorovsky, Z.; Kober, J.

    Time reversal (TR) ultrasonic signal processing is now broadly used in a variety of applications, and also in NDE/NDT field. TR processing is used e.g. for S/N ratio enhancement, reciprocal transducer calibration, location, identification, and reconstruction of unknown sources, etc. TR procedure in con-junction with nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy NEWS is also useful for sensitive detection of defects (nonlinearity presence). To enlarge possibilities of acoustic emission (AE) method, we proposed the use of TR signal reconstruction ability for detected AE signals transfer from a structure with AE source onto a similar remote model of the structure (real or numerical), which allows easier source analysis under laboratory conditions. Though the TR signal reconstruction is robust regarding the system variations, some small differences and changes influence space-time TR focus and reconstruction quality. Experiments were performed on metallic parts of both simple and complicated geometry to examine effects of small changes of temperature or configuration (body shape, dimensions, transducers placement, etc.) on TR reconstruction quality. Results of experiments are discussed in this paper. Considering mathematical similarity between TR and Coda Wave Interferometry (CWI), prediction of signal reconstruction quality was possible using only the direct propagation. The results show how some factors like temperature or stress changes may deteriorate the TR reconstruction quality. It is also shown that sometimes the reconstruction quality is not enhanced using longer TR signal (S/N ratio may decrease).

  1. Factors affecting chromatin stability of bovine spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, T A A; Rekkas, C A; Lymberopoulos, A G; Sioga, A; Dimitriadis, I; Papanikolaou, Th

    2008-03-01

    The structural stability of transcriptionally inert paternal chromatin is of vital importance for the fertilization process and early embryonic development. Accordingly, a series of eight experiments were conducted during a 7-month period to investigate: (1) effects of bull breed, individuality, successive ejaculations, semen quality characteristics (SQC), semen dilution rates and hypothermic storage of semen in a Tris-egg yolk extender on incidence of sperm nuclear chromatin instability (NCI), and (2) effects of the interaction between variation of NCI within a frozen ejaculate and variation of oocytes quality due to maturation time and/or season on the efficiency of in vitro embryo production (IVEP). Semen samples were collected once a week from six bulls using an AV and only ejaculates (n=220) of >0.30x10(9) sperm/ml and >or=60% motility were used. NCI was measured by: (1) detection of lysine-rich histones in sperm chromatin using aniline blue staining, (2) sperm susceptibility to acid-induced nuclear DNA denaturation in situ using acridine orange test, and (3) sperm susceptibility to nuclear chromatin decondensation (NCD). Bovine oocytes (n=695) were matured in vitro for 18 or 24 h, fertilized after sperm selection through a swim-up procedure and cultured for 72 h. The results showed that the 2nd ejaculates were superior to the 1st ones with respect to chromatin stability. Dilution of semen to 49.67+/-8.56x10(6) sperm/ml (1:19) decreased resistance of sperm to NCD. Cooling of semen had no significant effect on chromatin stability. Cryopreservation of semen augmented sperm vulnerability to DNA denaturation. Improvement of SQC (semen volume, sperm motility, velocity, viability and morphological normalcy) was generally concomitant with increase of sperm resistance to NCI. While Blonde d'Aquitaine bulls had a resistance to NCD higher than Limousine bulls in fresh semen, the former showed a greater susceptibility to DNA denaturation than the latter in cooled semen. Individuality significantly influenced NCI. The variability of NCI within a frozen ejaculate affected efficiency of IVEP. Significant negative correlations were observed between incidence of NCI and both fertilization rate and developmental capacity of embryos after maturation of oocytes for 18 h. The significant variation in IVEP traits due to season was independent of the effect of sperm chromatin instability. PMID:17398042

  2. Fatherhood across Two Generations: Factors Affecting Early Family Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldscheider, Frances; Hofferth, Sandra; Spearin, Carrie; Curtin, Sally

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the determinants of men's early parental roles, distinguishing factors that affect being a father versus being childless, and factors that affect being a resident versus a nonresident father, in the context of having a partner or not. We also consider whether these patterns have changed between 1985 and 2004. The data come…

  3. Factors affecting proximal tubular reabsorption during development

    SciTech Connect

    Kaskel, F.J.; Kumar, A.M.; Lockhart, E.A.; Evan, A.; Spitzer, A.

    1987-01-01

    Studies performed in several animal species have demonstrated that glomerulotubular balance is maintained throughout development despite the many changes that occur in the factors known to control it. In an attempt to understand the nature of this phenomenon the authors quantified the magnitude and described the profile of these changes in guinea pigs. The changes in physical forces were assessed from measurements of hydrostatic and oncotic pressures, whereas those in the permeability characteristics of the proximal tubule epithelium were estimated from permanence to radioactivity-labelled macromolecules of graded radii, histologic measurements of the intercellular channels, and measurements of end-proximal ratio of tubular fluid-to-plasma osmolality (TF/P/sub osm/). Between 1 and 50 days of age the net pressure for reabsorption increased from 15.0 to 30.9 mmHg with the major change occurring during the first 2-3 wk of postnatal life. The urinary recovery of (/sup 3/H)inulin, (/sup 14/C)sucrose, and (/sup 14/C)creatinine, injected in the early segment of proximal tubules did not vary with age. The urinary recovery of (/sup 14/C)mannitol increased from 92% at birth to 100% at 49 days of age. The length of the zonulae occludens and the width of the intercellular channels did not change during this period. The findings support the hypothesis that during early postnatal life glomerulotubular balance is made possible by a high permeability of the proximal tubule, which compensates for the low net reabsorptive pressure. As the animal matures and the proximal tubule epithelium becomes tighter, for glomerulotubular balance to be maintained, an increase in the number of intercellular channels and in the active transport of sodium need to be postulated.

  4. Factors affecting mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets

    PubMed Central

    Janczak, Andrew M; Ranheim, Birgit; Fosse, Torunn K; Hild, Sophie; Nordgreen, Janicke; Moe, Randi O; Zanella, Adroaldo J

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the stability and repeatability of measures of mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets and to examine potentially confounding factors when using a hand held algometer. Study design Descriptive, prospective cohort. Animals Forty-four piglets from four litters, weighing 4.6 ± 1.0 kg (mean ± SD) at 2 weeks of age. Methods Mechanical thresholds were measured twice on each of 2 days during the first and second week of life. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures design to test the effects of behavior prior to testing, sex, week, day within week, and repetition within day. The effect of body weight and the interaction between piglet weight and behaviour were also tested. Piglet was entered into the model as a random effect as an additional test of repeatability. The effect of repeated testing was used to test the stability of measures. Pearson correlations between repeated measures were used to test the repeatability of measures. Variance component analysis was used to describe the variability in the data. Results Variance component analysis indicated that piglet explained only 17% of the variance in the data. All variables in the model (behaviour prior to testing, sex, week, day within week, repetition within day, body weight, the interaction between body weight and behaviour, piglet identity) except sex had a significant effect (p < 0.04 for all). Correlations between repeated measures increased from the first to the second week. Conclusions and Clinical relevance Repeatability was acceptable only during the second week of testing and measures changed with repeated testing and increased with increasing piglet weight, indicating that time (age) and animal body weight should be taken into account when measuring mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets. Mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds can be used both for testing the efficacy of anaesthetics and analgesics, and for assessing hyperalgesia in chronic pain states in research and clinical settings. PMID:22709378

  5. Review of environmental factors affecting hearing.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, J H; Going, J A

    1982-01-01

    The major nongenetic causes of sensorineural hearing loss are exposure to noise, aging, ototoxic drugs, viral and bacterial infections, and interactions between these factors. Regarding exposure to continuous noise, the data base from laboratory and field studies indicates that a risk of hearing loss is present when noise levels exceed 75-80 dBA. As noise level, duration and number of exposures increase so does risk. The data base for other forms of noise (intermittent, impact) is not as established. Risk of hearing loss due to impulse noise increases as the peak SPL exceeds 145-155 dB and as the duration of the impulse, the number of impulses and the number of exposures increase. High-level acoustic impulses can cause severe, permanent hearing loss. Interaction between some steady-state noises and some acoustic impulses can be synergistic, producing extensive injuries to the organ of Corti. Noise can also interact synergistically with some aminoglycoside antibiotics to produce severe injuries in the inner ear. These antibiotics are also capable of producing hearing loss and indeed may do so in up to 55% of the one million persons who receive aminoglycoside antibiotics during the course of treatment for tuberculosis or severe gram-negative infections. Bacterial and viral infections may also produce mild to severe hearing loss. With the development of rubella vaccine and Rhogam, cytomegalovirus may have become the most common cause of congenital deafness. Aging is also a major cause of hearing loss. Exposure to occupational and environmental noise, certain diseases and life styles (diet, stress, drugs) may interact with the specific effects of aging. The result is moderate to severe hearing loss in a majority of older persons. PMID:7044773

  6. Factors Affecting the Occurrence of Faculty-Doctoral Student Coauthorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Michelle A.; Timmerman, Briana Crotwell; Feldon, David F.; Strickland, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Using faculty narratives, this study identifies factors affecting the occurrence of faculty-doctoral student coauthorship. Norms of the discipline, resources, faculty goals for students, faculty goals for themselves, and institutional expectations emerged as dominant factors. Each factor is explored separately and as part of an interlocking…

  7. Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Tutorials: Factors Affecting Students' Preferences and Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyth-Marom, Ruth; Saporta, Kelly; Caspi, Avner

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the factors that affect students' preferences regarding tutorial modes. A learning-habit inclinations questionnaire (LHIQ) was constructed and administered to 288 students. Factor analysis revealed four factors: "time management," "ease of access" to learning materials, "positive aspects of interaction," and "negative…

  8. Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research News From NIH Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of ... project sponsored by the NIH's National Institute on Aging (NIA) to learn more about the effects of ...

  9. What Factors Affect Response to Ads? A Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotzoll, Kim B.

    The concept of "frame of reference" offers a perspective from which to examine the many factors which affect advertising response. The advertiser is interested in affecting two types of overt behavior. First, the individual is induced to select a particular stimulus (the advertisement) from competing stimuli (such as other people, noise, and other…

  10. Motivational and organizational factors affecting implementation of worker safety training.

    PubMed

    Lindell, M K

    1994-01-01

    Training is unlikely to affect behavior on the job if the worker views it as unnecessary. This chapter describes types of safety behaviors and training activities, the implementation of safety training, current perspectives on motivation, and other motivational and organizational factors affecting the implementation of worker safety training. PMID:8085202

  11. Preslaughter factors affecting poultry meat quality chapter 2.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry meat quality is affected by numerous antemortem factors, in particular those occurring during the last 24 hours that the bird is alive. These short term factors influence carcass yield (live shrink), carcass defects (bruising, broken/dislocated bones), carcass microbiological contamination, ...

  12. Age as an Affective Factor in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bista, Krishna K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship of age factor to second language acquisition. Age as an affective factor brings about different performance stages in second as well as first language learning. Traditionally, research in Critical Period Hypothesis and other variables has derived two major aspects of language learning--the younger = the better…

  13. Exploring Factors that Affect Purchase Intention of Athletic Team Merchandise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Donghun; Trail, Galen T.; Lee, Cindy; Schoenstedt, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a structural model to determine which psychosocial constructs affected the purchase intention of athletic team merchandise (ATM). Results from the analyses indicated that the twelve-factor ATM model fit the data from collegiate athletic events well, explaining the various impact factors that lead to purchase…

  14. FACTORS AFFECTING TRACE METAL MOBILITY IN SUBSURFACE SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted to examine factors affecting metal movement in subsurface materials to groundwater and how these factors interact. Subsoil pH as with surface soils was found to be the property that most influenced metal immobilization. The inclusion of...

  15. FACTORS ADVERSELY AFFECTING AMPHIBIAN POPULATIONS IN THE US

    EPA Science Inventory

    Factors known or suspected to be adversely affecting native amphibian populations in the US were identified using information from species accounts written in a standardized format by multiple authors in a forthcoming book. Specific adverse factors were identified for 53 (58%) of...

  16. Methods of Combinatorial Optimization to Reveal Factors Affecting Gene Length

    PubMed Central

    Bolshoy, Alexander; Tatarinova, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel method for genome ranking according to gene lengths. The main outcomes described in this paper are the following: the formulation of the genome ranking problem, presentation of relevant approaches to solve it, and the demonstration of preliminary results from prokaryotic genomes ordering. Using a subset of prokaryotic genomes, we attempted to uncover factors affecting gene length. We have demonstrated that hyperthermophilic species have shorter genes as compared with mesophilic organisms, which probably means that environmental factors affect gene length. Moreover, these preliminary results show that environmental factors group together in ranking evolutionary distant species. PMID:23300345

  17. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sze Yan, Ng; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  18. Factors Affecting Acceptance of Smartphone Application for Management of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Eunjoo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The factors affecting the acceptance of mobile obesity-management applications (apps) by the public were analyzed using a mobile healthcare system (MHS) technology acceptance model (TAM). Methods The subjects who participated in this study were Android smartphone users who had an intent to manage their weight. They used the obesity-management app for two weeks, and then completed an 18-item survey designed to determine the factors influencing the acceptance of the app. Three questions were asked pertaining to each of the following six factors: compatibility, self-efficacy, technical support and training, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and behavior regarding intention to use. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess the reliability of the scales. Pathway analysis was also performed to evaluate the MHS acceptance model. Results A total of 94 subjects participated in this study. The results indicate that compatibility, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use significantly affected the behavioral intention to use the mobile obesity-management app. Technical support and training also significantly affected the perceived ease of use; however, the hypotheses that self-efficacy affects perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use were not supported in this study. Conclusions This is the first attempt to analyze the factors influencing mobile obesity-management app acceptance using a TAM. Further studies should cover not only obesity but also other chronic diseases and should analyze the factors affecting the acceptance of apps among healthcare consumers in general. PMID:25995959

  19. Ranking factors affecting emissions of GHG from incubated agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    García-Marco, S; Ravella, S R; Chadwick, D; Vallejo, A; Gregory, A S; Cárdenas, L M

    2014-07-01

    Agriculture significantly contributes to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and there is a need to develop effective mitigation strategies. The efficacy of methods to reduce GHG fluxes from agricultural soils can be affected by a range of interacting management and environmental factors. Uniquely, we used the Taguchi experimental design methodology to rank the relative importance of six factors known to affect the emission of GHG from soil: nitrate (NO3 (-)) addition, carbon quality (labile and non-labile C), soil temperature, water-filled pore space (WFPS) and extent of soil compaction. Grassland soil was incubated in jars where selected factors, considered at two or three amounts within the experimental range, were combined in an orthogonal array to determine the importance and interactions between factors with a L16 design, comprising 16 experimental units. Within this L16 design, 216 combinations of the full factorial experimental design were represented. Headspace nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were measured and used to calculate fluxes. Results found for the relative influence of factors (WFPS and NO3 (-) addition were the main factors affecting N2O fluxes, whilst glucose, NO3 (-) and soil temperature were the main factors affecting CO2 and CH4 fluxes) were consistent with those already well documented. Interactions between factors were also studied and results showed that factors with little individual influence became more influential in combination. The proposed methodology offers new possibilities for GHG researchers to study interactions between influential factors and address the optimized sets of conditions to reduce GHG emissions in agro-ecosystems, while reducing the number of experimental units required compared with conventional experimental procedures that adjust one variable at a time. PMID:25177207

  20. Ranking factors affecting emissions of GHG from incubated agricultural soils

    PubMed Central

    García-Marco, S; Ravella, S R; Chadwick, D; Vallejo, A; Gregory, A S; Cárdenas, L M

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture significantly contributes to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and there is a need to develop effective mitigation strategies. The efficacy of methods to reduce GHG fluxes from agricultural soils can be affected by a range of interacting management and environmental factors. Uniquely, we used the Taguchi experimental design methodology to rank the relative importance of six factors known to affect the emission of GHG from soil: nitrate (NO3−) addition, carbon quality (labile and non-labile C), soil temperature, water-filled pore space (WFPS) and extent of soil compaction. Grassland soil was incubated in jars where selected factors, considered at two or three amounts within the experimental range, were combined in an orthogonal array to determine the importance and interactions between factors with a L16 design, comprising 16 experimental units. Within this L16 design, 216 combinations of the full factorial experimental design were represented. Headspace nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were measured and used to calculate fluxes. Results found for the relative influence of factors (WFPS and NO3− addition were the main factors affecting N2O fluxes, whilst glucose, NO3− and soil temperature were the main factors affecting CO2 and CH4 fluxes) were consistent with those already well documented. Interactions between factors were also studied and results showed that factors with little individual influence became more influential in combination. The proposed methodology offers new possibilities for GHG researchers to study interactions between influential factors and address the optimized sets of conditions to reduce GHG emissions in agro-ecosystems, while reducing the number of experimental units required compared with conventional experimental procedures that adjust one variable at a time. PMID:25177207

  1. Factors Affecting the Clearance and Biodistribution of Polymeric Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Nanoparticle (NP) drug delivery systems (5−250 nm) have the potential to improve current disease therapies because of their ability to overcome multiple biological barriers and releasing a therapeutic load in the optimal dosage range. Rapid clearance of circulating nanoparticles during systemic delivery is a critical issue for these systems and has made it necessary to understand the factors affecting particle biodistribution and blood circulation half-life. In this review, we discuss the factors which can influence nanoparticle blood residence time and organ specific accumulation. These factors include interactions with biological barriers and tunable nanoparticle parameters, such as composition, size, core properties, surface modifications (pegylation and surface charge), and finally, targeting ligand functionalization. All these factors have been shown to substantially affect the biodistribution and blood circulation half-life of circulating nanoparticles by reducing the level of nonspecific uptake, delaying opsonization, and increasing the extent of tissue specific accumulation. PMID:18672949

  2. Industry Training: The Factors that Affect Demand. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, A.; Roberts, P.; Noble, C.; Hayton, G.; Thorne, E.

    A study was conducted in Australia, to determine the factors that affect demand for job training. The study consisted of 30 detailed industry case studies, an industry analysis, and a literature review. Each case study examined current training practices, training decision making in the business, and the determinants of training for the…

  3. Factors Affecting Recruitment into Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Jon A.; Lewis, John E.; Katyal, Shalini

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the factors affecting the recruitment into child and adolescent psychiatry training in the United States. Methods: Medical students (n = 154) and general and child and adolescent psychiatry residents (n = 111) completed a questionnaire to evaluate career choice in child psychiatry (n = 265). Results: Compared with…

  4. Factors Affecting Workers' Valuation of Intrinsic Job Rewards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, E. Gary

    As the fit between job values and job rewards becomes more important to American workers, it is important to understand factors which may affect these values. Data from the combined General Social Surveys of 1974, 1976, 1977 and 1980 were used to investigate the influence of education, job prestige, earnings, age, sex, race, and family…

  5. Exploring the Factors that Affect Reading Comprehension of EAP Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nergis, Aysegul

    2013-01-01

    As far as academic reading comprehension is concerned, a network of linguistic skills and strategies operate in a complex and integrated matter. Since it is impossible to examine all the factors affecting reading comprehension all at once, it is more reasonable to compare and contrast the predictive effects of specific variables against each other…

  6. Genetic and environmental factors that affect gestation length

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic and environmental factors that might affect gestation length (GL) were investigated so that more accurate predictions of calving dates could be provided to dairy producers. Data from >8 million calvings from 1999 through 2005 for 5 dairy breeds were assembled from lactation, reproduction, an...

  7. Factors Affecting Students' Grades in Principles of Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Orhan; Bagheri, Fathollah; Tolin, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Factors affecting students' grades in principles of microeconomics and macroeconomics students are analyzed from the data collected in two public universities. Results indicate that gender, number of hours worked, SAT scores, number of missed classes, recommending the course to a friend, instructors, being a junior, number of economics courses…

  8. Identification of factors affecting horizontal displacement in subsidence process

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Yi; Peng, S.S.; Chen, H.J.

    1996-12-01

    In the study of the topographical effects on surface movement due to underground longwall mining, the factors that affect the incremental horizontal displacements are identified using 10 collected cases. Based on this study, the angle of surface natural slope is the major contributor to the incremental horizontal displacement while the total movement is also playing an important role in some cases.

  9. Factors Affecting the Relative Efficiency of General Acid Catalysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Eugene E.

    2005-01-01

    A simple framework for evaluating experimental kinetic data to provide support for Specific Acid Catalysis (SAC) and General Acid Catalysis (GAC) is described based on the factors affecting their relative efficiency. Observations reveal that increasing the SAC-to-GAC rate constant ratio reduces the effective pH range for GAC.

  10. Factors Affecting Teen Involvement in Pennsylvania 4-H Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Bart E.; Ewing, John C.; Bruce, Jacklyn A.

    2010-01-01

    The study reported here determined the factors that affect teen involvement in 4-H programming. The design of the study was descriptive and correlational in nature. Using a purposive sampling procedure, a survey questionnaire was distributed to all (N=214) 4-H members attending the 4-H State Leadership Conference. The major findings of the study

  11. Developing Worksheet Based on Science Process Skills: Factors Affecting Solubility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karsli, Fethiye; Sahin, Cigdem

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST) to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS). The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at…

  12. Factors affecting Iran`s future. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sinai, J.

    1993-05-28

    This study examines the factors affecting Iran`s future by focusing on the demographic, economic, and military trends in Iran and their impact on the country`s national security objectives in the next decade. The paper also assesses the implications of an economic embargo on Iran and potential Iranian threats to regional and United States national interests.

  13. Factors Affecting the Technology Readiness of Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Stephanie E.

    2010-01-01

    Federal government policies are promoting diffusion of technologies into the healthcare system. If health professionals reject the new technologies planned for the healthcare system, it could result in costly failures, delays, and workforce problems. There is a lack of knowledge about factors that affect technology readiness (TR), defined as the

  14. Factors Affecting Children's Math Achievement Scores in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilday, Carolyn R.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation contains three independently conducted studies on factors that affect the math achievement scores of preschool-aged children. The first study examined the associations between children's executive-functioning (EF) and math achievement scores at 54 months of age. Results suggest that EF is strongly associated with children's…

  15. Institutional and Managerial Factors Affecting International Student Recruitment Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Mitchell; Heaney, Joo-Gim; Cooper, Maxine

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate international student recruitment from an institutional perspective and to consider institutional factors that may affect recruitment. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative study is undertaken in which education marketing practitioners are interviewed regarding aspects of international…

  16. Factors Affecting Role Stress and Burnout among School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willingham, Wendy Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine factors affecting role stress and burnout among practicing school counselors as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES) and the Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scale. The MBI-ES utilizes three subscales to measure burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal…

  17. Factors Affecting Environmental Knowledge and Attitudes among Lebanese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oweini, Ahmad; Houri, Ahmad

    2006-01-01

    This exploratory study aimed at assessing the variables that would positively affect the knowledge and attitude of a group of Lebanese college students regarding the environment, namely such factors as gender, age, previous hiking experience and living abroad. A purposeful sample of students attending the Lebanese American University, was asked to…

  18. Students' Views on Factors Affecting Empathy in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winseman, Jeffrey; Malik, Abid; Morison, Julie; Balkoski, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Empathy is a prominent goal of medical education that is too often underachieved. Using concept mapping, the authors constructed a student-generated conceptual model of factors viewed as affecting empathy during medical education. Methods: During the 2005-2006 academic year, 293 medical students and interns answered a brainstorming…

  19. Factors Affecting Soil Microbial Community Structure in Tomato Cropping Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil and rhizosphere microbial communities in agroecosystems may be affected by soil, climate, plant species, and management. We identified some of the most important factors controlling microbial biomass and community structure in an agroecosystem utilizing tomato plants with the following nine tre...

  20. Organizational and Cultural Factors Affecting International Transfer of Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Doo H.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the results of a study of a global company that examined the effect of training design and work environment on the transfer of human resources development training. Presents a model of international transfer of training and discusses organizational factors and cultural differences that affected the transfer of training. (LRW)

  1. The Synergistic Effect of Affective Factors on Student Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Brady Michael; Lin, Huann-shyang; Yore, Larry D.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how affective and self-related factors impact participation in science learning and environmental awareness and responsibility. Using PISA 2006 datasets from Taiwan and Canada having similar level of science competency, the model for this study verifies and expands an earlier model by examining the relationships among…

  2. Factors Affecting the Effectiveness and Use of Moodle: Students' Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damnjanovic, Vesna; Jednak, Sandra; Mijatovic, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research paper is to identify the factors affecting the effectiveness of Moodle from the students' perspective. The research hypotheses derived from the suggested extended Seddon model have been empirically validated using the responses to a survey on e-learning usage among 255 users. We tested the model across higher education

  3. Factors Affecting English Language Teaching and Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Hong Thi; Warren, Wendy; Fehring, Heather

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports part of a study that aims to explore factors affecting the efficacy of non-major English teaching and learning in Vietnamese higher education through an investigation of classroom practices. Eight non-participant class observations were conducted at HUTECH University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The study's findings show that…

  4. Factors Affecting the Effectiveness and Use of Moodle: Students' Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damnjanovic, Vesna; Jednak, Sandra; Mijatovic, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research paper is to identify the factors affecting the effectiveness of Moodle from the students' perspective. The research hypotheses derived from the suggested extended Seddon model have been empirically validated using the responses to a survey on e-learning usage among 255 users. We tested the model across higher education…

  5. Factors Affecting Performance in an Introductory Sociology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwenda, Maxwell

    2011-01-01

    This study examines factors affecting students' performances in an Introductory Sociology course over five semesters. Employing simple and ordered logit regression models, the author explains final grades by focusing on individual demographic and educational characteristics that students bring into the classroom. The results show that a student's…

  6. Developing Worksheet Based on Science Process Skills: Factors Affecting Solubility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karsli, Fethiye; Sahin, Cigdem

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST) to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS). The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at

  7. Family Mobility: An Examination of Factors Affecting Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschenbaum, Alan B.

    The major purpose of this study was to examine one set of factors affecting family mobility, as well as to ascertain the circumstances influencing a choice of destination. Data employed were based upon the 1960 one-in-a-thousand sample Census. Family unit movement was distinguished from individual movement, as was mobility from migration. Major…

  8. Factors Affecting Online Groupwork Interest: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Jianxia; Xu, Jianzhong; Fan, Xitao

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the personal and contextual factors that may affect students' online groupwork interest. Using the data obtained from graduate students in an online course, both student- and group-level predictors for online groupwork interest were analyzed within the framework of hierarchical linear modeling…

  9. Factors Affecting the Technology Readiness of Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Stephanie E.

    2010-01-01

    Federal government policies are promoting diffusion of technologies into the healthcare system. If health professionals reject the new technologies planned for the healthcare system, it could result in costly failures, delays, and workforce problems. There is a lack of knowledge about factors that affect technology readiness (TR), defined as the…

  10. The Impact of CLIL on Affective Factors and Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary

  11. Factors Affecting Coefficient Alpha: A Mini Monte Carlo Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhardt, Brian M.

    Factors affecting a lower-bound estimate of internal consistency reliability, Cronbach's coefficient alpha, are explored. Theoretically, coefficient alpha is an estimate of the correlation between two tests drawn at random from a pool of items like the items in the test under consideration. As a practical matter, coefficient alpha can be an index…

  12. Factors Affecting the Formation of Food Preferences in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alles-White, Monica L.; Welch, Patricia

    1985-01-01

    Identifies and discusses factors that affect the development of food preferences in preschool children, including familiarity, age, parents, peers, teachers, and programs designed to influence food habits. Makes recommendations to preschool and day care programs for creating an atmosphere conducive to trying new foods. (Author/DST)

  13. The Impact of CLIL on Affective Factors and Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary…

  14. Factors Affecting Use of Environmental Services by the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartwigsen, Gail

    The ability to function independently in the later years has been defined as a combination of capability and support. To examine factors affecting older adults' use of services provided in an accommodating environment, 52 physically independent residents of an Arizona apartment complex for the elderly were surveyed. Time spent living in the…

  15. Factors Affecting the Acceptability of Microforms as a Reading Medium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Herbert; Reynolds, Linda

    Based on visits to representative microform users and an extensive survey of relevant literature, a study was undertaken to assess the relative importance of factors affecting the acceptability of microforms as reading mediums. The following variables were considered: (1) microform characteristics; (2) equipment design; (3) work station design;…

  16. Principals' Perception regarding Factors Affecting the Performance of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akram, Muhammad Javaid; Raza, Syed Ahmad; Khaleeq, Abdur Rehman; Atika, Samrana

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the perception of principals on how the factors of subject mastery, teaching methodology, personal characteristics, and attitude toward students affect the performance of teachers at higher secondary level in the Punjab. All principals of higher secondary level in the Punjab were part of the population of the study. From…

  17. Teaching the Factors Affecting Resistance Using Pencil Leads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kkzer, Asuman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a way of teaching the factors that affect resistance using mechanical pencil leads and the brightness of the light given out by a light bulb connected to an electrical circuit. The resistance of a conductor is directly proportional to its length (L) and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area (A).

  18. Teaching the Factors Affecting Resistance Using Pencil Leads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Küçüközer, Asuman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a way of teaching the factors that affect resistance using mechanical pencil leads and the brightness of the light given out by a light bulb connected to an electrical circuit. The resistance of a conductor is directly proportional to its length (L) and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area (A).…

  19. An Exploratory Investigation into Factors Affecting Visual Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niekamp, Walter

    1981-01-01

    Describes a study using ocular photography to examine factors which affect the visual weights of significant elements in a picture. Results indicating that the upper half of the visual fields has greatest weight are discussed, as are results showing insufficient support for side preferences. Included are 27 references. (Author/BK)

  20. Factors affecting the excretion of common neutral steroids in urine.

    PubMed

    Vestergaard, P

    1978-01-01

    After a brief summary of the biosynthesis, production rates, metabolism and elimination of the pertinent adrenocortical and gonadal precursors for the common urinary neutral steroids, a survey is presented of the general, disease related and hormonal factors that can affect the excretion of neutral steroids in urine. PMID:347865

  1. Factors Affecting Educational Innovation with in Class Electronic Response Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Mark; Bell, Amani; Comerton-Forde, Carole; Pickering, Joanne; Blayney, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the use of Rogers' diffusion of innovation perspective to understand the factors affecting educational innovation decisions, specifically in regard to in class electronic response systems. Despite decreasing costs and four decades of research showing strong student support, academic adoption is limited. Using data collected from…

  2. Arsenic in drinking water in bangladesh: factors affecting child health.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Sonia N; Aziz, Khwaja M S; Boyle, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people's individuals' time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children's health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854

  3. Arsenic in Drinking Water in Bangladesh: Factors Affecting Child Health

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Sonia N.; Aziz, Khwaja M. S.; Boyle, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting peoples individuals time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for childrens health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854

  4. Multifractals, cloud radiances and rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovejoy, S.; Schertzer, D.

    2006-05-01

    The extreme variability of rainfall over huge ranges of space-time scales makes direct rain gauge measurements of areal rainfall impossible; assumptions about the rainfall scalingwhether trivial (homogeneous), or multifractal (heterogeneous)are required even for interpolation. The alternative is to use rain surrogates such as radar reflectivities or those based on visible-infra red radiances. In this paper, we argue that cloud radiances should be studied to obtain basic information about the range and type of scaling in the atmosphere. Since, rain and clouds are strongly non-linearly coupledand since the scaling of the fields, the scale invariance of the generators/exponents is a symmetry principlea break in the scaling in one of the fields would cause a break in the other. Using 909 images from three satellites and six sensors (visible and infra red) collectively spanning the range of scales 5000-1 km, we demonstrate that power law scaling is respected to within an error of 0.3-0.5%; that an upper bound on the deviations from the theoretical universal multifractal scaling is 1-2% per octave in scale. We also show that the outer scale of the cascade is very close to 20,000 km, the largest great circle distance on the earth. Allowing for (one-parameter) subpower law (logarithmic) scaling corrections we show that universal multifractal cascades starting at this scale explain the isotropic moments (order ?1.6) to within an error of 0.8%. We argue that the scaling of these isotropic statistics shows that the diversity of cloud morphologies reflects differences in anisotropies which are effectively washed out by the isotropic statistical methods used. We compare and contrast existing multifractal models showing which can be used as realistic cloud and rain models. We go on to use continuous in scale, anisotropic, space-time multifractal rain and cloud simulations (including radiative transfer) to show how diverse cloud, rain and radiance morphologies can be compatible with the observed isotropic scaling statistics. Finally, we argue that these will be necessary for solving measurement problems including the use of rain gauge, radar and visible/infra red surrogate fields.

  5. [Occupational exposure of medical personnel to chemical factors affecting fertility].

    PubMed

    Sitarek, K; Berlińska, B

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to factors present in the working environment may exert an adverse effect on both those directly and on their progeny. Together with large populations exposed to harmful factors in different branches of industry (chemical, metallurgical, textile etc.), health service workers should be also taken into account as another significant group exposed. Factors affecting fertility, health service workers are mostly exposed to, are as follows: cytostatic drugs, chemicals used in sterilization, gases for general anaesthesia and enormous number of factors the health service workers are in contact with in laboratories. The authors reviewed the world literature and presented kinds of harmful factors and their effect on fertility in persons employed in health services and exposed to them. PMID:9273444

  6. A SWIR radiance model for cockpit instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, John; Robinson, Tim

    2013-06-01

    Night Vision Imaging Systems technology is advancing at a rapid pace. These advances can be broadly divided in two distinct categories; performance and data management. There is an encouraging trend towards higher sensitivity, better resolution, and lower power consuming devices. These improvements, coupled with the shift from analog to digital data output, promise to provide a powerful night vision device. Given a digital system, the data can be managed to enhance the pilot's view (image processing), overlay data from multiple sensors (image fusion), and send data to remote locations for analysis (image sharing). The US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) has an active program to introduce a helmet mounted digital imaging system that extends the detection range from the near infrared (NIR) band to the short-wave infrared (SWIR) band. Aside from the digital output, part of the motivation to develop a SWIR imaging system includes the desire to exploit the SWIR ambient night glow spectrum, see through some levels of fog and haze, and use a robust sensor technology suitable for 24 hours per day imaging. Integrating this advanced SWIR imaging system into a cockpit presents some human factor issues. Light emitted from illuminated instruments may hinder the performance of the imaging system, reducing the pilot's ability to detect lowvisible objects at night. The transmission of light through cockpit transparencies and through the atmosphere may also impact performance. In this paper we propose a model that establishes cockpit lighting SWIR radiance limits, much like MIL-STD-3009 specifies NVIS radiance limits for NVGs. This model is the culmination of a two year program sponsored by AFRL.

  7. Are Affective Factors a Good Predictor of Science Achievement? Examining the Role of Affective Factors Based on PISA 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozel, Murat; Caglak, Serdar; Erdogan, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how affective factors like attitude and motivation contribute to science achievement in PISA 2006 using linear structural modeling. The data set of PISA 2006 collected from 4942 fifteen-year-old Turkish students (2290 females, 2652 males) was used for the statistical analyses. A total of 42 selected items on a four point…

  8. Factors Affecting Accuracy of Data Abstracted from Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    Zozus, Meredith N.; Pieper, Carl; Johnson, Constance M.; Johnson, Todd R.; Franklin, Amy; Smith, Jack; Zhang, Jiajie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Medical record abstraction (MRA) is often cited as a significant source of error in research data, yet MRA methodology has rarely been the subject of investigation. Lack of a common framework has hindered application of the extant literature in practice, and, until now, there were no evidence-based guidelines for ensuring data quality in MRA. We aimed to identify the factors affecting the accuracy of data abstracted from medical records and to generate a framework for data quality assurance and control in MRA. Methods Candidate factors were identified from published reports of MRA. Content validity of the top candidate factors was assessed via a four-round two-group Delphi process with expert abstractors with experience in clinical research, registries, and quality improvement. The resulting coded factors were categorized into a control theory-based framework of MRA. Coverage of the framework was evaluated using the recent published literature. Results Analysis of the identified articles yielded 292 unique factors that affect the accuracy of abstracted data. Delphi processes overall refuted three of the top factors identified from the literature based on importance and five based on reliability (six total factors refuted). Four new factors were identified by the Delphi. The generated framework demonstrated comprehensive coverage. Significant underreporting of MRA methodology in recent studies was discovered. Conclusion The framework generated from this research provides a guide for planning data quality assurance and control for studies using MRA. The large number and variability of factors indicate that while prospective quality assurance likely increases the accuracy of abstracted data, monitoring the accuracy during the abstraction process is also required. Recent studies reporting research results based on MRA rarely reported data quality assurance or control measures, and even less frequently reported data quality metrics with research results. Given the demonstrated variability, these methods and measures should be reported with research results. PMID:26484762

  9. Factors Affecting Successful Implementation of Hospital Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Farzandipur, Mehrdad; jeddi, Fatemeh Rangraz; Azimi, Esmaeil

    2016-01-01

    Background: Today, the use of information systems in health environments, like any other fields, is necessary and organizational managers are convinced to use these systems. However, managers’ satisfaction is not the only factor in successfully implementing these systems and failed information technology projects (IT) are reported despite the consent of the directors. Therefore, this study aims to determine the factors affecting the successful implementation of a hospital information system. Methods: The study was carried out as a descriptive method in 20 clinical hospitals that the hospital information system (HIS) was conducted in them. The clinical and paraclinical users of mentioned hospitals are the study group. 400 people were chosen as samples in scientific method and the data was collected using a questionnaire consisted of three main human, managerial and organizational, and technological factors, by questionnaire and interview. Then the data was scored in Likert scale (score of 1 to 5) and were analyzed using the SPSS software. Results: About 75 percent of the population were female, with average work experience of 10 years and the mean age was 30 years. The human factors affecting the success of hospital information system implementation achieved the mean score of 3.5, both organizational and managerial factors 2.9 and technological factors the mean of 3. Conclusion: Human factors including computer skills, perceiving usefulness and perceiving the ease of a hospital information system use are more effective on the acceptance and successful implementation of hospital information systems; then the technological factors play a greater role. It is recommended that for the successful implementation of hospital information systems, most of these factors to be considered PMID:27041811

  10. Factors Affecting Nurses’ Coping With Transition: An Exploratory Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Azimian, Jalil; Negarandeh, Reza; Fakhr- Movahedi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Aim: One of the most important factors contributing to staff shortage is nurses’ ineffective coping with transitions. Changes in nurses’ official positions are usually associated with varying degrees of transition. Identification of affecting factors on nurses’ coping in responding to transition can promote quality of nursing activity and prevent nurses’ shortage. So the aim of this study was to explore factors affecting nurses’ coping with transitions. Methods: The participant of this exploratory qualitative study consisted of sixteen nurses that were work in medical wards of four hospitals in Qazvin, Iran. Data collected by semi-structured interviews. The data were analyzed by qualitative content analysis approach. Results: The main theme of the study was ‘inadequate preparation for transition’. This theme consisted of six categories including “staff training and development”, “professional relationships”, “perceived level of support”, “professional accountability and commitment”, “welfare services”, and “nursing staff shortage”. Conclusion: Nursing managers and policy makers need to pay special attention to the affecting factors on nurses’ coping with transition and develop effective strategies for facilitating it. PMID:25363117

  11. Factors affecting plant absorption, transport and fate of plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, T.R.; Cataldo, D.A.; McFadden, K.M.; Wildung, R.E.

    1984-03-01

    This study determined the extent to which several agricultural plants control plutonium (Pu) uptake and provides a general understanding of the fate and behavior of Pu in plants after absorption. Investigations were directed toward variables affecting the accumulation of Pu by plants from soils, transport of Pu within the plant, factors affecting transport with plant age, effects of different plant species on transport processes, form of Pu deposited in plant tissues, and effect of chemical form on animal gut absorption of Pu. 18 references, 10 figures, 14 tables.

  12. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  13. Factors affecting the development of adverse drug reactions (Review article)

    PubMed Central

    Alomar, Muaed Jamal

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To discuss the effect of certain factors on the occurrence of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs). Data Sources A systematic review of the literature in the period between 1991 and 2012 was made based on PubMed, the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, EMBASE and IDIS. Key words used were: medication error, adverse drug reaction, iatrogenic disease factors, ambulatory care, primary health care, side effects and treatment hazards. Summary Many factors play a crucial role in the occurrence of ADRs, some of these are patient related, drug related or socially related factors. Age for instance has a very critical impact on the occurrence of ADRs, both very young and very old patients are more vulnerable to these reactions than other age groups. Alcohol intake also has a crucial impact on ADRs. Other factors are gender, race, pregnancy, breast feeding, kidney problems, liver function, drug dose and frequency and many other factors. The effect of these factors on ADRs is well documented in the medical literature. Taking these factors into consideration during medical evaluation enables medical practitioners to choose the best drug regimen. Conclusion Many factors affect the occurrence of ADRs. Some of these factors can be changed like smoking or alcohol intake others cannot be changed like age, presence of other diseases or genetic factors. Understanding the different effects of these factors on ADRs enables healthcare professionals to choose the most appropriate medication for that particular patient. It also helps the healthcare professionals to give the best advice to patients. Pharmacogenomics is the most recent science which emphasizes the genetic predisposition of ADRs. This innovative science provides a new perspective in dealing with the decision making process of drug selection. PMID:24648818

  14. Factors Affecting Indigenous West Australians' Health Behavior: Indigenous Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Waterworth, Pippa; Dimmock, James; Pescud, Melanie; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The factors driving the disparity in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians include socio-economic factors, racism, and history. The current study focused on exploring Indigenous participants' perspectives of the factors that affect the health behavior of their community members. Participatory action research methodology and a grounded theory approach were utilized. In total, 120 members of two urban West Australian Indigenous communities participated in focus group discussions. There was substantial similarity between the themes that emerged within the discussions held in the two communities. Factors relating to culture, social connections, racism, communication, and personal aspects were particularly salient to health behavior of the participants. Several of the themes including culture, racism, communication, and distrust highlight the tension caused by being a member of a minority cultural group that has been marginalized by the practices and attitudes of the dominant cultural group. Personal choice was sometimes prioritized over health. PMID:25847855

  15. Factors Affecting Patients Undergoing Cosmetic Surgery in Bushehr, Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Salehahmadi, Zeinab; Rafie, Seyyed Reza

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although, there have been extensive research on the motivations driving patient to undergo cosmetic procedures, there is still a big question mark on the persuasive factors which may lead individuals to undergo cosmetic surgery. The present study evaluated various factors affecting patients undergoing cosmetic surgery in Bushehr, Southern Iran. METHODS From 24th March 2011 to 24th March 2012, eighty-one women and 20 men who wished to be operated in Fatemeh Zahra Hospital in Bushehr, Southern Iran and Pars Clinic, Iran were enrolled by a simple random sampling method. They all completed a questionnaire to consider reasons for cosmetic procedures. The collected data were statistically analyzed. RESULTS Demographical, sociological and psychological factors such as age, gender, educational level, marital status, media, perceived risks, output quality, depression and self-improvement were determined as factors affecting tendency of individuals to undergo cosmetic surgery in this region. Trend to undergo cosmetic surgery was more prevalent in educational below bachelor degree, married subjects, women population of 30-45 years age group. Education level, age, marital status and gender were respectively the influential factors in deciding to undergo cosmetic surgery. Among the socio-psychological factors, self-improvement, finding a better job opportunity, rivalry, media, health status as well as depression were the most persuasive factors to encourage people to undergo cosmetic surgery too. Cost risk was not important for our samples in decision making to undergo cosmetic surgery. CONCLUSION We need to fully understand the way in which the combination of demographic, social and psychological factors influence decision-making to undergo cosmetic surgery. PMID:25734051

  16. Factors affecting the remotely sensed response of coniferous forest plantations

    SciTech Connect

    Danson, F.M. ); Curran, P.J. )

    1993-01-01

    Remote sensing of forest biophysical properties has concentrated upon forest sites with a wide range of green vegetation amount and thereby leaf area index and canopy cover. However, coniferous forest plantations, an important forest type in Europe, are managed to maintain a large amount of green vegetation with little spatial variation. Therefore, the strength of the remotely sensed signal will, it is hypothesized, be determined more by the structure of this forest than by its cover. Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) and SPOT-1 HRV data were used to determine the effects of this structural variation on the remotely sensed response of a coniferous forest plantation in the United Kingdom. Red and near infrared radiance were strongly and negatively correlated with a range of structural properties and with the age of the stands but weakly correlated with canopy cover. A composite variable, related to the volume of the canopy, accounted for over 75% of the variation in near infrared radiance. A simple model that related forest structural variables to the remotely sensed response was used to understand and explain this response from a coniferous forest plantation.

  17. Factors affecting occupational therapy job site selection in underserviced areas.

    PubMed

    Polatajko, H; Quintyn, M

    1986-06-01

    Rural and isolated areas such as those found in northern Ontario are often underserved with respect to occupational therapy. These areas present special problems for those involved in recruitment and planning recruitment programs. While it is generally recognized that practice in these areas can be both stimulating and rewarding, little is known about what factors might influence occupational therapists to choose these areas for job sites. It was the purpose of this study to investigate factors affecting job site selection and retention among occupational therapists in northern Ontario. Seven potential factors were explored: family proximity, place of origin, lifestyle, fieldwork placements, job opportunities and recruitment tours. These became the basis for the development of a questionnaire which was sent to all facilities employing occupational therapists in northern Ontario. The responses of twenty eight therapists (70%) indicated that the factors affecting job site selection were, in descending order: lifestyle, job opportunity, partner's employment and family proximity. The results also indicated that the factors influencing recruitment and retention differ. Based on the findings, recruitment efforts should focus on emphasizing the attractive features of the north and perhaps on people with family in the north. Retention incentives should include money for equipment, space, continuing education, travel, better salaries, links to educational resources and fieldwork placements. PMID:10277425

  18. Ethnic and other factors affecting birthweight in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Viegas, O A; Ratnam, S S; Cole, T J

    1989-08-01

    Data on 1800 term babies, 600 from each of the Chinese, Malay and Indian racial groups, were used to identify the factors affecting birthweight in Singapore. After adjustment for gestation, maternal height and other variables, the mean Indian birthweight was 100 g less than for the Chinese (P less than 0.001), 0.001), while the Malays averaged 33 g less than the Chinese. The shortfall in Indian birthweight is thought to be due, at least partly, to environmental factors. PMID:2571528

  19. Factors affecting the accuracy of the integrated particle sizing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, Charles L.; Isager, Barbara D.; Touati, Abderrahama

    1988-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate factors affecting instrument accuracy of a nonintrusive optical system known as the Integrated Particle Sizing System (IPSS). Studies of soot formation and growth in laboratory combustors were conducted at the Air Force Engineering and Services Center, Environics Division, using the IPSS. However, the behavior of this instrument and the factors affecting its accuracy were not completely understood, causing the proper operation of the instrument and the interpretation of results to be questioned. This report focused on the theory governing the instrument's design. A list of limitations imposed by theory was derived and measurements were made to verify the relationship between incoming signal, theory, and actual particle size.

  20. Factors affecting the noise from small propeller driven aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maglieri, D. J.; Hubbard, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    The factors affecting noise from small propeller driven airplanes are reviewed to quantify their affects where possible, and to indicate the potential for noise reduction. The main sources of external noise are noted to be the propellers and engines; the airframe being of less importance for both aural detection and community annoyance. Propeller noise is a strong function of tip speed and is affected adversely by nonuniform inflows. Reciprocating engine exhausts are noisier than those of comparably rated turboshaft engines, but their noise can be reduced by the use of flight certified exhaust mufflers. Presently, there are no generally accepted engineering methods for development of optimized propellers and exhaust muffler designs from weight and performance penalty standpoints. Flight demonstration results, however, suggest that required noise reductions for future certification should be possible with potentially small penalties.

  1. Factors Affecting Liquid-Metal Embrittlement in C-103

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclemore, R.; Lampson, F. K.

    1982-01-01

    Results of a study of weld cracks on Space Shuttle control thrustors point toward better understanding of cracking problem in columbium metal, which has also plagued nonaerospace users. Although liquid-metal embrittlement is known to be cause of problem, factors affecting growth and severity of cracks are not well understood. New results tie crack growth to type of contaminants present, grain size and level of stress present while welding is done.

  2. Legal factors affecting the financing of small scale hydroelectric projects

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.H.; Ringo, M.J.; Forgione, N.

    1983-09-01

    An introduction to the major business organizational options open to small-scale hydroelectric (SSH) projects is given. The major federal income tax treatments of these options are compared. Significant general federal income tax factors affecting SSH projects are reintroduced and explained. Some of the special federal income tax problem areas in SSH development are isolated. Tax benefit flow through or transfer mechanisms are discussed. Tax exempt financing opportunities for private SSH projects are reviewed. (MHR)

  3. Factors affecting the probability of bacteriological cure of bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Degen, S; Paduch, J-H; Hoedemaker, M; Krömker, V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review factors affecting the probability of cure of bovine mastitis and thereby establish criteria for deciding whether to treat or cull individual animals. A further objective was to avoid redundant treatment with antibiotics so as to reduce the risk of pathogen resistance and enhance economic benefit. In evaluating success of therapy, bacteriological cure is the standard type of cure and is defined as elimination of mastitis-causing pathogens from the mammary gland. Administration of antibiotics is considered reasonable only when there is a prospect of bacteriological cure. In addition to age of the affected cow, the history of mastitis, number of infected quarters and somatic cell count affect the probability of bacteriological cure. Identifying and characterising chronic mastitis, which causes enormous production losses, are especially important to prevent unnecessary treatment and to decide whether or not to cull. To our knowledge, this is the first work providing a complete list of factors that have been confirmed in scientific literature to influence the probability of cure. This review should support farmers and veterinarians in deciding between culling and administering appropriate therapy to an affected animal. PMID:25960107

  4. Factors affecting sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Graciana; Nkambule, Sizwe E.

    The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target to reduce the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by the year 2015 has been met as of 2010, but huge disparities exist. Some regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa are lagging behind it is also in this region where up to 30% of the rural schemes are not functional at any given time. There is need for more studies on factors affecting sustainability and necessary measures which when implemented will improve the sustainability of rural water schemes. The main objective of this study was to assess the main factors affecting the sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland using a Multi-Criteria Analysis Approach. The main factors considered were: financial, social, technical, environmental and institutional. The study was done in Lubombo region. Fifteen functional water schemes in 11 communities were studied. Data was collected using questionnaires, checklist and focused group discussion guide. A total of 174 heads of households were interviewed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data and to calculate sustainability scores for water schemes. SPSS was also used to classify sustainability scores according to sustainability categories: sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable. The averages of the ratings for the different sub-factors studied and the results on the sustainability scores for the sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable schemes were then computed and compared to establish the main factors influencing sustainability of the water schemes. The results indicated technical and social factors as most critical while financial and institutional, although important, played a lesser role. Factors which contributed to the sustainability of water schemes were: functionality; design flow; water fetching time; ability to meet additional demand; use by population; equity; participation in decision making on operation and maintenance; existence of fund for operation and maintenance; willingness to contribute money; existence of a user’s committee; participation in the initial planning and design of the water scheme; and coordination between the local leaders and user’s committee. The main factors which made the schemes unsustainable were: long fetching time; non-involvement in decision making; lack of willingness to contribute funds; absence of users committee; and lack of cooperation between local leaders and the users committee. Water service providers should address the technical, social, financial and institutional factors identified affecting sustainability in their planning and implementation of rural water schemes.

  5. Radiance Data Products at the GES DAAC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savtchenko, A.; Ouzounov, D.; Acker, J.; Johnson, J.; Leptoukh, G.; Qin, J.; Rui, H.; Smith, P.; Teng, W.

    2004-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive Center (GES DAAC) has been archiving and distributing Radiance data, and serving science and application users of these data, for over 10 years now. The user-focused stewardship of the Radiance data from the AIRS, AVHRR, MODIS, SeaWiFS, SORCE, TOMS, TOVS, TRMM, and UARS instruments exemplifies the GES DAAC tradition and experience. Radiance data include raw radiance counts, onboard calibration data, geolocation products, radiometric calibrated and geolocated-calibrated radiance/reflectance. The number of science products archived at the GES DAAC is steadily increasing, as a result of more sophisticated sensors and new science algorithms. Thus, the main challenge for the GES DAAC is to guide users through the variety of Radiance data sets, provide tools to visualize and reduce the volume of the data, and provide uninterrupted access to the data. This presentation will describe the effort at the GES DAAC to build a bridge between multi-sensor data and the effective scientific use of the data, with an emphasis on the heritage of the science products. The intent is to inform users of the existence of this large collection of Radiance data; suggest starting points for cross-platform science projects and data mining activities; provide data services and tools information; and to give expert help in the science data formats and applications.

  6. Lengths of Orthologous Prokaryotic Proteins Are Affected by Evolutionary Factors

    PubMed Central

    Tatarinova, Tatiana; Dien Bard, Jennifer; Cohen, Irit

    2015-01-01

    Proteins of the same functional family (for example, kinases) may have significantly different lengths. It is an open question whether such variation in length is random or it appears as a response to some unknown evolutionary driving factors. The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate existence of factors affecting prokaryotic gene lengths. We believe that the ranking of genomes according to lengths of their genes, followed by the calculation of coefficients of association between genome rank and genome property, is a reasonable approach in revealing such evolutionary driving factors. As we demonstrated earlier, our chosen approach, Bubble-sort, combines stability, accuracy, and computational efficiency as compared to other ranking methods. Application of Bubble Sort to the set of 1390 prokaryotic genomes confirmed that genes of Archaeal species are generally shorter than Bacterial ones. We observed that gene lengths are affected by various factors: within each domain, different phyla have preferences for short or long genes; thermophiles tend to have shorter genes than the soil-dwellers; halophiles tend to have longer genes. We also found that species with overrepresentation of cytosines and guanines in the third position of the codon (GC3 content) tend to have longer genes than species with low GC3 content. PMID:26114113

  7. Factors Affecting Treatment Outcome of Graft Infection Following Penetrating Keratoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Mi Sun; Choi, Won; You, In Cheon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the factors affecting treatment outcome of graft infection following penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). Methods In this retrospective study, 28 patients who underwent PKP between January 2005 and January 2013 and who were diagnosed with graft infection were classified into a treatment success group or a treatment failure group. Demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as the results of the microbiologic investigation, were analyzed and compared. A subsequent binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the prognostic factors affecting treatment outcome. Results Graft infection occurred at a mean of 38.29 36.16 months (range, 1 to 96 months) after PKP. Seventeen patients developed bacterial keratitis, and 11 patients developed fungal keratitis. Overall, of the 28 patients, nine (32.1%) were classified in the treatment failure group. Multivariate analysis identified pre-existing graft failure (p = 0.019), interval longer than 72 hours between donor death and PKP (p = 0.010), and fungal infection (p = 0.026) as significant risk factors for treatment failure. Conclusions Pre-existing graft failure, extended interval between donor death and PKP, and fungal infection were important risk factors for treatment failure of graft infection following PKP. PMID:26457035

  8. Factors affecting the heart rate during self-paced walking.

    PubMed

    Bassey, E J; Macdonald, I A; Patrick, J M

    1982-01-01

    The results of 277 self-paced walking tests have been analysed for the effects of body composition, sex and age using step-up multiple regression analysis. Equations are given for the influence of the significant factors on chosen walking speeds and on heart rate (fc) (standardised at 4.8 km . h-1 by interpolation from points recorded at three walking speeds). The basic equations are: Normal speed (km . h-1) = 1.72 + 2.13 stature (m) - 0.008 age (years) Fast speed (km . h-1) = 0.54 + 3.69 stature (m) - 0.016 age (years) For men: fc4.8 (beat . min-1) = 161 - 50.7 stature (m) + 0.223 body weight (kg) For women: fc4.8 (beat . min-1) = 161 - 50.7 stature (m) + 0.223 body weight (kg) + 4.43 The significant factors affecting freely chosen walking speeds are stature and age. When estimates of body composition are available, percentage fat is found to be the most influential single factor affecting fc, while sex no longer has a significant effect, and age now has a negative influence. When allowance is made for these factors the effects of customary physical activity can be seen more clearly. PMID:7199445

  9. Factors affecting the reproductive success of dominant male meerkats.

    PubMed

    Spong, Gran F; Hodge, Sarah J; Young, Andrew J; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2008-05-01

    Identifying traits that affect the reproductive success of individuals is fundamental for our understanding of evolutionary processes. In cooperative breeders, a dominant male typically restricts mating access to the dominant female for extended periods, resulting in pronounced variation in reproductive success among males. This may result in strong selection for traits that increase the likelihood of dominance acquisition, dominance retention and reproductive rates while dominant. However, despite considerable research on reproductive skew, few studies have explored the factors that influence these three processes among males in cooperative species. Here we use genetic, behavioural and demographic data to investigate the factors affecting reproductive success in dominant male meerkats (Suricata suricatta). Our data show that dominant males sire the majority of all offspring surviving to 1 year. A male's likelihood of becoming dominant is strongly influenced by age, but not by weight. Tenure length and reproductive rate, both important components of dominant male reproductive success, are largely affected by group size and composition, rather than individual traits. Dominant males in large groups have longer tenures, but after this effect is controlled, male tenure length also correlates negatively to the number of adult females in the group. Male reproductive rate also declines as the number of intra- and extra-group competitors increases. As the time spent in the dominant position and reproductive rate while dominant explain > 80% of the total variance in reproductive success, group composition thus has major implications for male reproductive success. PMID:18410290

  10. Cooperation in wild Barbary macaques: factors affecting free partner choice.

    PubMed

    Molesti, Sandra; Majolo, Bonaventura

    2016-01-01

    A key aspect of cooperation is partner choice: choosing the best available partner improves the chances of a successful cooperative interaction and decreases the likelihood of being exploited. However, in studies on cooperation subjects are rarely allowed to freely choose their partners. Group-living animals live in a complex social environment where they can choose among several social partners differing in, for example, sex, age, temperament, or dominance status. Our study investigated whether wild Barbary macaques succeed to cooperate using an experimental apparatus, and whether individual and social factors affect their choice of partners and the degree of cooperation. We used the string pulling task that requires two monkeys to manipulate simultaneously a rope in order to receive a food reward. The monkeys were free to interact with the apparatus or not and to choose their partner. The results showed that Barbary macaques are able to pair up with a partner to cooperate using the apparatus. High level of tolerance between monkeys was necessary for the initiation of successful cooperation, while strong social bond positively affected the maintenance of cooperative interactions. Dominance status, sex, age, and temperament of the subjects also affected their choice and performance. These factors thus need to be taken into account in cooperative experiment on animals. Tolerance between social partners is likely to be a prerequisite for the evolution of cooperation. PMID:26350639

  11. Multifactorial analysis of factors affecting recurrence of stroke in Japan.

    PubMed

    Omori, Toyonori; Kawagoe, Masahiro; Moriyama, Michiko; Yasuda, Takeshi; Ito, Yasuhiro; Hyakuta, Takeshi; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Matsumoto, Masayasu

    2015-03-01

    Data on factors affecting stroke recurrence are relatively limited. The authors examined potential factors affecting stroke recurrence, retrospectively. The study participants were 1087 patients who were admitted to stroke centers suffering from first-ever ischemic stroke and returned questionnaires with usable information after discharge. The authors analyzed the association between clinical parameters of the patients and their prognosis. Recurrence rate of during an average of 2 years after discharge was 21.3%, and there were differences among stroke subtypes. It was found that the disability level of the patients after discharge correlated well with the level at discharge (r s = 0.66). Multivariate logistic regression analysis of the data shows that modified Rankin Scale score, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score, gender, age, and family history had statistically significant impacts on stroke recurrence, and the impact was different depending on subtypes. These findings suggest that aggressive and persistent health education for poststroke patients and management of risk factors are essential to reduce stroke recurrence. PMID:22500031

  12. [Analysis of factors affecting anaerobic threshold in healthy subjects].

    PubMed

    Nitta, Y; Nagatsuka, K; Inage, T; Yokoi, H; Inaoka, Y; Kawanishi, K; Sakamoto, S; Ishikawa, K

    1992-03-01

    The anaerobic threshold (AT) is used to determine the exercise capacity in patients with heart failure and healthy subjects. To determine the factors affecting AT, we determined the AT in healthy subjects, and examined the factors that determine AT in healthy subjects. One hundred and sixteen healthy subjects (79 men and 37 women) performed on a bicycle a stepwise increasing submaximal exercise. During the work test the parameters usually used in the detection of AT (Vo2, Vco2, VE), blood pressure, heart rate and oxygen saturation were recorded by a computerized system every minute. AT was determined from changes in ventilation and gas-exchange. The fat index was calculated from height and body weight measured at the beginning of the ventilatory function test. A significant correlation was obtained between AT and age, AT and fat index, AT and %VC, AT and maximum heart rate during exercise, AT and recovery rate of heart rate after exercise, and AT and Vo2 at rest. In addition, we examined the relationship among the parameters in 4 groups according to sex and age (30-49; younger, 50-69; older), because sex and age affected most parameters. We found a significant correlation between AT and fat index (older men and women), AT and %VC (younger and older women), AT and Vo2 at rest (younger and older men). We considered that the main factors that determined AT in healthy subjects were age, sex, fat index, %VC and Vo2 at rest. PMID:1518183

  13. Recruitment and retention: factors that affect pericyte migration

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Kristina Y.

    2013-01-01

    Pericytes are critical for vascular morphogenesis and contribute to several pathologies, including cancer development and progression. The mechanisms governing pericyte migration and differentiation are complex and have not been fully established. Current literature suggests that platelet-derived growth factor/platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β, sphingosine 1-phosphate/endothelial differentiation gene-1, angiopoietin-1/tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 2, angiopoietin-2/tyros-ine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 2, transforming growth factor β/activin receptor-like kinase 1, transforming growth factor β/activin receptor-like kinase 5, Semaphorin-3A/Neuropilin, and matrix metalloproteinase activity regulate the recruitment of pericytes to nascent vessels. Interestingly, many of these pathways are directly affected by secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC). Here, we summarize the function of these factors in pericyte migration and discuss if and how SPARC might infuence these activities and thus provide an additional layer of control for the recruitment of vascular support cells. Additionally, the consequences of targeted inhibition of pericytes in tumors and the current understanding of pericyte recruitment in pathological environments are discussed. PMID:23912898

  14. Factors affecting quality of dried low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Karthikeyan, M.; Kuma, J.V.M.; Hoe, C.S.; Ngo, D.L.Y.

    2007-07-01

    The chemical and physical properties of coal are strongly affected by the upgrading process employed. For high-moisture coals, upgrading involves thermal dehydration to improve the calorific value of the coal on mass basis. This study evaluates the feasibility of upgrading a low-rank/grade coal using the oven drying method. The objective of this research work is to study the drying characteristics of low-rank coals and to understand the factors affecting the quality of dried low-rank coals. This article describes laboratory experiments conducted on the characterization of the low-rank coals before and after the drying process. The results on drying kinetics, re-absorption of coal samples, and proximate analysis of coal samples before and after drying are discussed. It was found that the upgrading process produced coal with better heating value and combustion characteristics than those of the raw coal samples.

  15. Factors affecting plant succession on mine spoil at Colstrip, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Plantenberg, P.

    1981-01-01

    The major factors affecting plant succession on overburden at abandoned sites were found to be overburden texture, the condition of adjacent rangeland, postmining management, and environmental modifications created by early dominants. The 1930 site appeared to meet all requirements for successful reclamation indicating that a potential for reclamation exists at Colstrip. Also, the 1928 sites in fair condition indicate that reclamation of sandy overburden may be possible if it receives proper management. Data from this study suggest that the potential exists to improve some deteriorated range types.

  16. Factors affecting laser-trim stability of thick film resistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cote, R. E.; Headley, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    Various factors affecting precision of trim and resistor stability were considered. The influence of machine operating parameters on resistor performance was examined and quantified through statistically designed experiments for a Q switched YAG laser system. Laser kerf quality was studied by scanning electron microscopy and related to kerf isolation resistance measurements. A relatively simple production oriented, quality control test is proposed for rapid determination of kerf electrical stability. In addition, the effect of cut design and extent of trim on precision and stability were discussed.

  17. Teaching the Factors Affecting Resistance Using Pencil Leads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küçüközer, Asuman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a way of teaching the factors that affect resistance using mechanical pencil leads and the brightness of the light given out by a light bulb connected to an electrical circuit. The resistance of a conductor is directly proportional to its length (L) and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area (A). Additionally, the resistance depends on the type of conductor. Resistance R can be thus be expressed as R = ρL/A, where ρ is the resistivity of the conductor.

  18. Factors Affecting Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells Performance and Reproducibility

    SciTech Connect

    Moller-Holst S.

    1998-11-01

    Development of fuel cells is often based on small-scale laboratory studies. Due to limited time and budgets, a minimum number of cells are usually prepared and tested, thus, conclusions about improved performance are often drawn from studies of a few cells. Generally, statistics showing the significance of an effect are seldom reported. In this work a simple PEM fuel cell electrode optimization experiment is used as an example to illustrate the importance of statistical evaluation of factors affecting cell performance. The use of fractional factorial design of experiments to reduce the number of cells that have to be studied is also addressed.

  19. Factors affecting the level of success of community information systems.

    PubMed

    Coombs, C R; Doherty, N F; Loan-Clarke, J

    1999-01-01

    The factors that influence the ultimate level of success or failure of systems development projects have received considerable attention in the academic literature. However, previous research has rarely targeted different instances of a common type of system within a homogeneous organisational sector. This paper presents the results of a survey of IM&T managers within Community Trusts to gain insights into the factors affecting the success of Community Information Systems. The results demonstrate that the most successful operational systems were thoroughly tested prior to implementation and enjoyed high levels of user and senior management commitment. Furthermore, it has been shown that there is a relationship between the level of organisational impact and systems success, with the most successful systems engendering changes to the host organisation's culture, level of empowerment and clinical working practices. In addition to being of academic interest, this research provides many important insights for practising IM&T managers. PMID:10747445

  20. Human Factors Affecting the Patient's Acceptance of Wireless Biomedical Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fensli, Rune; Boisen, Egil

    In monitoring arrhythmia, the quality of medical data from the ECG sensors may be enhanced by being based on everyday life situations. Hence, the development of wireless biomedical sensors is of growing interest, both to diagnose the heart patient, as well as to adjust the regimen. However, human factors such as emotional barriers and stigmatization, may affect the patient's behavior while wearing the equipment, which in turn may influence quality of data. The study of human factors and patient acceptance is important both in relation to the development of such equipment, as well as in evaluating the quality of data gathered from the individual patient. In this paper, we highlight some important aspects in patient acceptance by comparing results from a preliminary clinical trial with patients using a wireless ECG sensor for three days out-of-hospital service, to available published results from telehomecare projects, and discuss important aspects to be taken into account in future investigations.

  1. Evaluation of different factors affecting antimicrobial properties of chitosan.

    PubMed

    Hosseinnejad, Mahmoud; Jafari, Seid Mahdi

    2016-04-01

    Chitosan as one of the natural biopolymers with antimicrobial activities could be a good choice to be applied in many areas including pharmaceuticals, foods, cosmetics, chemicals, agricultural crops, etc. There have been many studies in the literature which show this superb polymer is dependent on many factors to display its antimicrobial properties including the environmental conditions such as pH, type of microorganism, and neighbouring components; and its structural conditions such as molecular weight, degree of deacetylation, derivative form, its concentration, and original source. In this review, after a brief explanation of antimicrobial activity of chitosan and its importance, we will discuss the factors affecting the antimicrobial properties of this biopolymer based on recent studies. PMID:26780706

  2. Modeling and Assimilating Ocean Color Radiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson

    2012-01-01

    Radiances are the source of information from ocean color sensors to produce estimates of biological and geochemical constituents. They potentially provide information on various other aspects of global biological and chemical systems, and there is considerable work involved in deriving new information from these signals. Each derived product, however, contains errors that are derived from the application of the radiances, above and beyond the radiance errors. A global biogeochemical model with an explicit spectral radiative transfer model is used to investigate the potential of assimilating radiances. The results indicate gaps in our understanding of radiative processes in the oceans and their relationships with biogeochemical variables. Most important, detritus optical properties are not well characterized and produce important effects of the simulated radiances. Specifically, there does not appear to be a relationship between detrital biomass and its optical properties, as there is for chlorophyll. Approximations are necessary to get beyond this problem. In this reprt we will discuss the challenges in modeling and assimilation water-leaving radiances and the prospects for improving our understanding of biogeochemical process by utilizing these signals.

  3. An oceanographic radiance distribution camera system.

    PubMed

    Smith, R C; Austin, R W; Tyler, J E

    1970-09-01

    An oceanographic optical instrument has been designed and constructed to record the radiance distribution of natural radiant energy underwater. The instrument contains two cameras placed back-to-back, each equipped with a fisheye (180 degrees field of view) lens and is fabricated so that film can be exposed by remote control. The instrument is designed to operate at depths up to 100 m. Values of underwater radiance can be obtained from the exposed films by means of photographic photometry. Radiance distributions obtained in natural waters will provide basic information needed for the study and solution of several problems in optical oceanography. First, the radiance distribution is an important input for the study of the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with the sea. From the distribution of radiance in the natural light fields in the ocean, many of the important optical properties which relate to radiative transfer processes in the ocean can be calculated. Second, from these optical properties one can compute the magnitude of the deterioration of image contrast of submerged objects and thus furnish information for the study and solution of underwater visibility problems, which include problems in underwater television and photography. Finally, since radiant energy is critical to the beginning of the marine food chain through photosynthetic plankton, radiance distribution measurements will provide information of fundamental importance to the problem of primary productivity in natural waters. PMID:20094190

  4. Factors affecting compliance with measles vaccination in Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Phimmasane, Maniphet; Douangmala, Somthana; Koffi, Paulin; Reinharz, Daniel; Buisson, Yves

    2010-09-24

    In line with WHO objectives, the Lao Government is committed to eliminate measles by 2012. Yet from 1992 to 2007, the annual incidence of measles remained high while the vaccination coverage showed a wide diversity across provinces. A descriptive study was performed to determine factors affecting compliance with vaccination against measles, which included qualitative and quantitative components. The qualitative study used a convenience sample of 13 persons in charge of the vaccination program, consisting of officials from different levels of the health care structure and members of vaccination teams. The quantitative study performed on the target population consisted of a matched, case-control survey conducted on a stratified random sample of parents of children aged 9-23 months. Overall, 584 individuals (292 cases and 292 controls) were interviewed in the three provinces selected because of low vaccination coverage. On the provision of services side (supply), the main problems identified were a lack of vaccine supply and diluent, a difficulty in maintaining the cold chain, a lack of availability and competence among health workers, a lack of coordination and a limited capacity to assess needs and make coherent decisions. In the side of the consumer (demand), major obstacles identified were poor knowledge about measles immunization and difficulties in accessing vaccination centers because of distance and cost. In multivariate analysis, a low education level of the father was a factor of non-immunization while the factors of good compliance were high incomes, spacing of pregnancies, a feeling that children must be vaccinated, knowledge about immunization age, presenting oneself to the hospital rather than expecting the mobile vaccination teams and last, immunization of other family members or friends' children. The main factors affecting the compliance with vaccination against measles in Laos involve both the supply side and the demand side. Obtaining an effective coverage requires upgrading and training the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) staff and a reinforcement of health education for target populations in all provinces. PMID:20692220

  5. The Factors that Affect Science Teachers' Participation in Professional Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, Judi Ann

    Scientific literacy for our students and the possibilities for careers available in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) areas are important topics for economic growth as well as global competitiveness. The achievement of students in science learning is dependent upon the science teachers' effectiveness and experienced science teachers depend upon relevant professional development experiences to support their learning. In order to understand how to improve student learning in science, the learning of science teachers must also be understood. Previous research studies on teacher professional development have been conducted in other states, but Minnesota science teachers comprised a new and different population from those previously studied. The purpose of this two-phase mixed methods study was to identify the current types of professional development in which experienced, Minnesota secondary science teachers participated and the factors that affect their participation in professional development activities. The mixed-methods approach s utilized an initial online survey followed by qualitative interviews with five survey respondents. The results of the quantitative survey and the qualitative interviews indicated the quality of professional development experiences and the factors which affected the science teachers' participation in professional development activities. The supporting and inhibiting factors involved the availability of resources such as time and money, external relationships with school administrators, teacher colleagues, and family members, and personal intrinsic attributes such as desires to learn and help students. This study also describes implications for science teachers, school administrators, policymakers, and professional development providers. Recommendations for future research include the following areas: relationships between and among intrinsic and extrinsic factors, science-related professional development activities within local school districts, the use of formal and informal professional development, and the needs of rural science teachers compared to urban and suburban teachers.

  6. A review of factors affecting vaccine preventable disease in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Norimitsu; Ching, Michael S L

    2014-12-01

    Japan is well known as a country with a strong health record. However its incidence rates of vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) such as hepatitis B, measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella remain higher than other developed countries. This article reviews the factors that contribute to the high rates of VPD in Japan. These include historical and political factors that delayed the introduction of several important vaccines until recently. Access has also been affected by vaccines being divided into government-funded "routine" (eg, polio, pertussis) and self-pay "voluntary" groups (eg, hepatitis A and B). Routine vaccines have higher rates of administration than voluntary vaccines. Administration factors include differences in well child care schedules, the approach to simultaneous vaccination, vaccination contraindication due to fever, and vaccination spacing. Parental factors include low intention to fully vaccinate their children and misperceptions about side effects and efficacy. There are also provider knowledge gaps regarding indications, adverse effects, interval, and simultaneous vaccination. These multifactorial issues combine to produce lower population immunization rates and a higher incidence of VPD than other developed countries. This article will provide insight into the current situation of Japanese vaccinations, the issues to be addressed and suggestions for public health promotion. PMID:25628969

  7. Factors Affecting Perceived Stigma in Leprosy Affected Persons in Western Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Bipin; Kaehler, Nils; Chapman, Robert S.; Raut, Shristi; Roche, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background There are various factors which construct the perception of stigma in both leprosy affected persons and unaffected persons. The main purpose of this study was to determine the level of perceived stigma and the risk factors contributing to it among leprosy affected person attending the Green Pastures Hospital, Pokhara municipality of western Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 135 people affected by leprosy at Green Pastures Hospital and Rehabilitation Centre. Persons above the age of 18 were interviewed using a set of questionnaire form and Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC). In addition, two sets of focused group discussions each containing 10 participants from the ward were conducted with the objectives of answering the frequently affected EMIC items. Results Among 135 leprosy affected persons, the median score of perceived stigma was 10 while it ranged from 0–34. Higher perceived stigma score was found in illiterate persons (p = 0.008), participants whose incomes were self-described as inadequate (p = 0.014) and who had changed their occupation due to leprosy (p = 0.018). Patients who lacked information on leprosy (p = 0.025), knowledge about the causes (p = 0.02) and transmission of leprosy (p = 0.046) and those who had perception that leprosy is a severe disease (p<0.001) and is difficult to treat (p<0.001) had higher perceived stigma score. Participants with disfigurement or deformities (p = 0.014), ulcers (p = 0.022) and odorous ulcers (p = 0.043) had higher perceived stigma score. Conclusion The factors associated with higher stigma were illiteracy, perceived economical inadequacy, change of occupation due to leprosy, lack of knowledge about leprosy, perception of leprosy as a severe disease and difficult to treat. Similarly, visible deformities and ulcers were associated with higher stigma. There is an urgent need of stigma reduction strategies focused on health education and health awareness programs in addition to the necessary rehabilitation support. PMID:24901307

  8. Factors Affecting Ankle Support Device Usage in Young Basketball Players

    PubMed Central

    Cusimano, Michael D.; Faress, Ahmed; Luong, Wilson P.; Amin, Khizer; Eid, Joanne; Abdelshaheed, Tamer; Russell, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study explores factors affecting the decision of basketball players to wear ankle support devices (ASDs). A questionnaire regarding attitudes towards ASD usage was developed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM). The questionnaire assessed HBM perceptions (susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers) and modifying factors (demographic, personal history of ankle injury, influence of coach to preventive action) that may affect an athlete’s decision to wear ASDs. One hundred forty basketball players competing at the recreational, high school, or university levels completed the questionnaire, with the questionnaires being completed at the basketball gymnasium or at home. It was found that athletes whose coaches enforced ASD use were significantly more likely to wear them (OR: 35.71; 95% CI: 10.01, 127.36), as were athletes who perceived ankle injuries to be severe (OR: 2.77; 95% CI: 1.04, 7.37). Previous injury did not significantly increase the odds of using an ASD. The combined influence of coach enforcement and previous injury had the greatest effect on increasing ASD use. The largest barrier to ASD use was a lack of aesthetic appeal. Strategies aimed at increasing players’ willingness to wear ankle protection should be emphasized among coaches and parents as this may increase use of ASDs. PMID:26236986

  9. Factors affecting quality and safety of fresh-cut produce.

    PubMed

    Francis, G A; Gallone, A; Nychas, G J; Sofos, J N; Colelli, G; Amodio, M L; Spano, G

    2012-01-01

    The quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products includes a combination of attributes, such as appearance, texture, and flavor, as well as nutritional and safety aspects that determine their value to the consumer. Nutritionally, fruit and vegetables represent a good source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber, and fresh-cut produce satisfies consumer demand for freshly prepared, convenient, healthy food. However, fresh-cut produce deteriorates faster than corresponding intact produce, as a result of damage caused by minimal processing, which accelerates many physiological changes that lead to a reduction in produce quality and shelf-life. The symptoms of produce deterioration include discoloration, increased oxidative browning at cut surfaces, flaccidity as a result of loss of water, and decreased nutritional value. Damaged plant tissues also represent a better substrate for growth of microorganisms, including spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens. The risk of pathogen contamination and growth is one of the main safety concerns associated with fresh-cut produce, as highlighted by the increasing number of produce-linked foodborne outbreaks in recent years. The pathogens of major concern in fresh-cut produce are Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli mainly O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. This article describes the quality of fresh-cut produce, factors affecting quality, and various techniques for evaluating quality. In addition, the microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and factors affecting pathogen survival and growth on fresh-cut produce are discussed in detail. PMID:22530712

  10. Factors affecting sequestration and bioavailability of phenanthrene in soils

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.C.; Kelsey, J.W.; Hatzinger, P.B.; Alexander, M.

    1997-10-01

    A study was conducted to determine factors affecting the sequestration and changes in bioavailability as phenanthrene persists in soils. Phenanthrene became sequestered in seven soils differing appreciably in organic matter and clay content as measured by earthworm uptake, bacterial mineralization, or extractability. Phenanthrene also became sequestered as it aged in soil aggregates of various sizes as measured by decline in availability to a bacterium, a mild extractant, or both. Wetting and drying a soil during aging reduced the amount of phenanthrene recovered by a mild extractant and the rate and extent of bacterial mineralization of the hydrocarbon. After biodegradation of phenanthrene added to the soil, more of the compound remained if it had been aged than if it had not been aged. Wetting and drying the soil during aging further increased the amount of phenanthrene remaining after biodegradation. The rate and extent of bacterial mineralization of phenanthrene were less in leached than in unleached soil. Aging/sequestration is thus markedly affected by soil properties and environmental factors.

  11. Factors affecting the leaching of lead from UPVC pipes.

    PubMed

    Koh, L L; Wong, M K; Gan, L M; Yap, C T

    1991-10-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a series of studies on the various factors that affect the leaching of lead from unplasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (UPVC) pipes. Factors that were studied include temperature, pH and extractants. Results showed that, for a given UPVC pipe, the rate of leaching of lead depended primarily on temperature and the nature of extractants. While the rate of leaching of lead was quite low with distilled water, it was very much enhanced by the presence of low concentration of anions such as Cl(-), HPO inf4 (sup2-) HCO inf3 (sup-) , NO inf3 (sup-) , SO inf4 (sup2-) and EDTA. EDTA, being a strong complexing agent, was most effective. Rates of leaching were found to be higher at elevated temperature except in the cases of HPO inf4 (sup2-) and EDTA. Effect of pH was not pronounced. The temperature at which the UPVC pipes were extruded was found to affect the rate of leaching of lead. Pipes extruded at 190°C were found to have lower rate of leaching than those extruded at 180°C and 170°C. Analysis of the pipes by Scanning Electron Microscopy showed that the distribution of lead in the pipes extruded at 190°C was more uniform than those extruded at 170°C. PMID:24233940

  12. ASSESSING FACTORS THAT AFFECT COPING STRATEGIES AMONG NURSING PERSONNEL

    PubMed Central

    Zyga, Sofia; Mitrousi, Stavroula; Alikari, Victoria; Sachlas, Athanasios; Stathoulis, John; Fradelos, Evangelos; Panoutsopoulos, Georgios; Maria, Lavdaniti

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The nursing profession is characterized as one of the most stressful professions. A significant number of international surveys prove that nurses experience anxiety that often is accompanied by intense symptoms that negatively affect their work performance and their psychological mood. Aim: To evaluate the ways of coping in stress adopted by the nursing staff and their relationship with sociodemographic and job characteristics. Methodology: A cross-sectional, quantitative study was conducted in seven hospitals of Peloponnese Region, Greece. The study took place between April 2013-June 2013 and 395 nurses completed the Ways of Coping questionnaire. Socio-demographic, educational and job characteristics of nurses were, also, recorded. Results: Strategies focused on the problem were adopted to a greater extent more by postgraduate nurses, head nurses, and nurses with greater working experience. Intensive Care Unit nurses mainly adopted the strategy of denial while strategies focused on emotions were mostly adopted by females. Age and marital status did not affect significantly the choice of coping strategies. Conclusions: According to our findings several demographic factors that affect coping in stressful situations can be investigated and such an investigation could offer useful research findings for consideration. PMID:27147924

  13. Study of factors affecting the appearance of colors under microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakizadeh, Roshanak; Martinez-Garcia, Juan; Raja, Kiran B.; Siakidis, Christos

    2013-11-01

    The variation of colors in microscopy systems can be quite critical for some users. To address this problem, a study is conducted to analyze how different factors such as size of the sample, intensity of the microscope's light source and the characteristics of the material like chroma and saturation can affect the color appearance through the eyepiece of the microscope. To study the changes in colors considering these factors, the spectral reflectance of 24 colors of GretagMacbeth Classic ColorChecker® and Mini ColorChecker® which are placed under a Nikon ECLIPSE MA200 microscope®2 using dark filed and bright field illuminations which result in different intensity levels, is measured using a spectroradiometer®3 which was placed in front of the eyepiece of the microscope. The results are compared with the original data from N. Ohta1. The evaluation is done by observing the shift in colors in the CIE 1931 Chromaticity Diagram and the CIELAB space, also by applying a wide set of color-difference formulas, namely: CIELAB, CMC, BFD, CIE94, CIEDE2000, DIN99d and DIN99b. Furthermore, to emphasize on the color regions in which the highest difference is observed, the authors have obtained the results from another microscope; Olympus SZX10®4, which in this case the measurement is done by mounting the spectroradiometer to the camera port of the microscope. The experiment leads to some interesting results, among which is the consistency in the highest difference observed considering different factors or how the change in saturation of the samples of the same hue can affect the results.

  14. Factors Affecting Exercise Test Performance in Patients After Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kotarska, Katarzyna; Wunsch, Ewa; Jodko, Lukasz; Raszeja-Wyszomirska, Joanna; Bania, Izabela; Lawniczak, Malgorzata; Bogdanos, Dimitrios; Kornacewicz-Jach, Zdzislawa; Milkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant recipients. In addition, low physical activity is a risk factor for cardiac and cerebrovascular complications. Objectives This study examined potential relationships between physical activity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and an exercise test in liver-graft recipients. Patients and Methods A total of 107 participants (62 men/45 women) who had received a liver transplantation (LT) at least 6 months previously were evaluated. Physical activity was assessed using three different questionnaires, while HRQoL was assessed using the medical outcomes study short form (SF)-36 questionnaire, and health behaviors were evaluated using the health behavior inventory (HBI). The exercise test was performed in a standard manner. Results Seven participants (6.5%) had a positive exercise test, and these individuals were older than those who had a negative exercise test (P = 0.04). A significant association between a negative exercise test and a higher level of physical activity was shown by the Seven-day physical activity recall questionnaire. In addition, HRQoL was improved in various domains of the SF-36 in participants who had a negative exercise test. No correlations between physical activity, the exercise test and healthy behaviors, as assessed via the HBI were observed. Conclusions Exercise test performance was affected by lower quality of life and lower physical activity after LT. With the exception of hypertension, well known factors that affect the risk of coronary artery disease had no effect on the exercise test results.

  15. Factors affecting expanded electricity trade in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    The authors explore factors that affect electricity trade between enterprises in the US and Canada and the US and Mexico. They look to those underlying policy and institutional factors that affect the relative costs of producing electricity in the three countries. In particular, they consider six factors that appear to have a significant impact on electricity trade in North America: differences in the types of economic regulation of power leading to differences in cost recovery for wholesale and retail power and wheeling charges; changing regulatory attitudes, placing more emphasis on demand-side management and environmental concerns; differences in energy and economic policies; differences in national and subnational environmental policies; changing organization of electric power industries which may foster uncertainty, change historical relationships, and provide other potentially important sources of power for distribution utilities; and differences in the ability of enterprises to gain access to electric power markets because of restrictions placed on transmission access. In Section 2, the authors discuss the regulation of electricity trade in North America and provide an overview of the recent trading experience for electricity between Canada and the US and between Mexico and the US, including the volume of that trade over the past decade and existing transmission capacity between regions of the three countries. In Section 3, they look at the benefits that accrue to trading counties and what those benefits are likely to be for the three countries. The discussion in Section 4 centers on the relevant provisions of the Canada Free Trade Agreement and the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement. In Section 5, they set the stage for the discussion of policy and institutional differences presented in Section 6 by outlining differences in the organization of the electric power sectors of Canada, the US, and Mexico. The study is synthesized in Section 7.

  16. Comprehensive Understanding for Vegetated Scene Radiance Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimes, D. S.; Deering, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    Directional reflectance distributions spanning the entire existent hemisphere were measured in two field studies; one using a Mark III 3-band radiometer and one using the rapid scanning bidirectional field instrument called PARABOLA. Surfaces measured included corn, soybeans, bare soils, grass lawn, orchard grass, alfalfa, cotton row crops, plowed field, annual grassland, stipa grass, hard wheat, salt plain shrubland, and irrigated wheat. Analysis of field data showed unique reflectance distributions ranging from bare soil to complete vegetation canopies. Physical mechanisms causing these trends were proposed. A 3-D model was developed and is unique in that it predicts: (1) the directional spectral reflectance factors as a function of the sensor's azimuth and zenith angles and the sensor's position above the canopy; (2) the spectral absorption as a function of location within the scene; and (3) the directional spectral radiance as a function of the sensor's location within the scene. Initial verification of the model as applied to a soybean row crop showed that the simulated directional data corresponded relatively well in gross trends to the measured data. The model was expanded to include the anisotropic scattering properties of leaves as a function of the leaf orientation distribution in both the zenith and azimuth angle modes.

  17. Factors affecting intraocular light scattering from different color straylight sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikaunieks, Gatis; Ozolinsh, Maris

    2008-09-01

    Important optical parameter of the eye is intraocular light scattering. Straylight can reduce visual acuity, contrast sensitivity. It is one of the main factors for glare, especially for drivers at night, when there is light source some distance away from the fixation point. There are many factors, which can affect amount of light scattering in the eye. To assess the effect of the color of the straylight source on retinal image quality at different light scattering levels, retinal straylight was measured with and without light scattering occluder. Red, green and blue colors were choosed for straylight source. Psychophysical and electrophysiological methods were used to evaluate light scattering effect on perception on different color stimuli. Results show that straylight values are the greatest for blue color with and without light scattering occluder. In measurements without light scattering occluder ratio of straylight values for red and green color are different between subjects. Using light scattering occluder straylight values for green color are greater than for red color. Optical and anatomical factors which can induce these spectral variations are discussed. Psychophysical and electrophysiological methods showed the similar changes in results with straylight values when light scattering were increased.

  18. Dietary Factors Affecting Thyroid Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young Ae; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors are proposed to affect thyroid carcinogenesis, but previous studies have reported inconsistent findings. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis, including 18 eligible studies, to clarify the role of dietary factors in the risk of thyroid cancer. The relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated to assess the association and heterogeneity tests and subgroup and sensitivity analyses, and bias assessments were performed. When the results from all studies were combined, dietary iodine, fish, and cruciferous vegetable intake were not associated with thyroid cancer. However, when the data were divided by geographic location based on iodine availability, a slight increase in the risk of thyroid cancer was observed among those consuming a high total amount of fish in iodine nondeficient areas (RR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.03-1.35; P for heterogeneity = 0.282). When excluding the studies examining a single food item and hospital-based controls, a high intake of cruciferous vegetables was associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer in iodine-deficient areas (RR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.18-1.74; P for heterogeneity = 0.426). This meta-analysis implies that the role of dietary factors, such as fish and cruciferous vegetables, in thyroid cancer risk can differ based on iodine availability. PMID:25996474

  19. Validation of OMI Measured Radiances Over Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaross, G.; Cebula, R. P.; Warner, J.

    2005-12-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) was launched aboard the EOS Aura satellite on 15 July, 2004 and has since performed quite well. Calibrated radiances in the form of Level 1 data products are produced regularly every orbit with minimal data loss. A total of 12 atmospheric constituent data products are currently planned for the OMI science data processing. All rely, to varying degrees, on the sun-normalized radiances of the OMI sensor. Retrievals of atmospheric trace constituents, such as NO{}_2, BrO, OCLO, and HCHO, rely upon spectroscopy and tend to be insensitive to errors in the absolute radiance levels. But column O{}_3 amount, aerosol properties, cloud heights, and UV surface radiation have significant sensitivities to changes in the sun-normalized radiances. In this presentation we discuss our evaluation of the OMI sun-normalized radiances between 330 nm and 500 nm. This covers most of the OMI spectral range where ozone absorption is small. Our technique involves a comparison of normalized radiances measured by OMI over the Antarctic continent with top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) values computed with a radiative transfer model. In our model we assume a Rayleigh-scattering, aerosol-free, cloud-free atmosphere, and a mean surface reflectance derived from measurements on the ground. TOA radiances are sensitive to the bi-directional distribution of surface reflectance, especially at high solar zenith angles. We have developed a surface reflectance model to help correct these effects, but it still remains the largest source of uncertainty. We estimate the residual uncertainty at all wavelengths to be 2%.

  20. Factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Al-Fouzan, Rawan; Al-Ajlan, Sarah; Marwan, Yousef; Al-Saleh, Mervat

    2012-01-01

    Background Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to test the association between deciding a future specialty and students’ sociodemographic and academic factors. Results Of the 422 students approached, 387 (91.7%) decided to participate. A total of 144 (37.2%) students made a decision regarding their choice of future medical specialty. Pediatrics, general surgery, and cardiology were the most desired specialties – 18 (12.5%), 17 (11.8%), and 16 (11.1%) students requested these specialties, respectively. Only 61 (42.4%) of those who selected a future specialty received advice regarding their choice. Looking for a good treatment outcome for patients (66; 45.8%) and a challenging specialty (58; 40.3%) were the most influencing incentives when selecting a future specialty. Students in the clinical phase of their study were 3.014 (95% CI: 1.498–6.065) more likely to report on their decision regarding a future specialty compared to students in the basic medical sciences phase (p=0.002). Conclusion A variety of factors appeared to inspire medical students in Kuwait to choose a future medical specialty. When identified, these factors can be used by mentors of medical students and directors of residency training programs to motivate students to choose specialties that are limited in Kuwait. PMID:23272649

  1. Multilevel factors affecting quality: examples from the cancer care continuum.

    PubMed

    Zapka, Jane; Taplin, Stephen H; Ganz, Patricia; Grunfeld, Eva; Sterba, Katherine

    2012-05-01

    The complex environmental context must be considered as we move forward to improve cancer care and, ultimately, patient and population outcomes. The cancer care continuum represents several care types, each of which includes multiple technical and communication steps and interfaces among patients, providers, and organizations. We use two case scenarios to 1) illustrate the variability, diversity, and interaction of factors from multiple levels that affect care quality and 2) discuss research implications and provide hypothetical examples of multilevel interventions. Each scenario includes a targeted literature review to illustrate contextual influences upon care and sets the stage for theory-informed interventions. The screening case highlights access issues in older women, and the survivorship case illustrates the multiple transition challenges faced by patients, families, and organizations. Example interventions show the potential gains of implementing intervention strategies that work synergistically at multiple levels. While research examining multilevel intervention is a priority, it presents numerous study design, measurement, and analytic challenges. PMID:22623591

  2. Factors affecting characterization of bulk high-temperature superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, J.R.

    1997-11-01

    Three major factors affect the characterization of bulk high-temperature superconductors in terms of their levitation properties during interaction with permanent magnets. First, the appropriate parameter for the permanent magnet is internal magnetization, not the value of the magnetic field measured at the magnet`s surface. Second, although levitation force grows with superconductor thickness and surface area, for a given permanent magnet size, comparison of levitation force between samples is meaningful when minimum values are assigned to the superconductor size parameters. Finally, the effect of force creep must be considered when time-averaging the force measurements. In addition to levitational force, the coefficient of friction of a levitated rotating permanent magnet may be used to characterize the superconductor.

  3. Exploratory investigation of factors affecting the wing tip vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheiman, J.; Megrail, J. L.; Shivers, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel to study some factors affecting the tip vortex of a wing. It was found that there was a pronounced effect of Reynolds number on the tip-vortex core size. An attempt was made to determine what aerodynamic parameters, such as lift, drag, or induced drag, influence the size of the vortex core, but no particular function of the parameters was found to be superior to all others. Various spoilers placed on the upper and lower surfaces of the wing to increase the boundary-layer thickness resulted in a reduction in the vorticity as determined from the tuft grid. Various solid objects placed in the vortex core downstream of the wing tip seemed to decrease the vorticity within the vortex core.

  4. Students' application of a biological concept: Factors affecting consistency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, David

    1996-12-01

    This study investigated factors affecting students' ability to apply consistently the concept of adaptations (i.e., characteristics which suit an organism to its environment). Individual interviews were carried out with 74 Year 10 students, of whom only 47% showed an understanding of the concept. These students were asked to indicate on a list of living and non-living items which ones whould have adaptations. It was found that they were more likely to apply the concept to vertebrates than to other types of living things. In addition, many students appeared to be unable to separate consistently the idea of “adaptations as characteristics” from the other everyday and scientific meanings of the terms “adapt” and “adaptation”.

  5. Simulated lidar waveforms for understanding factors affecting waveform shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Angela M.; Olsen, Richard C.

    2011-06-01

    Full-waveform LIDAR is a technology which enables the analysis of the 3-D structure and arrangement of objects. An in-depth understanding of the factors that affect the shape of the full-waveform signal is required in order to extract as much information as possible from the signal. A simple model of LIDAR propagation has been created which simulates the interaction of LIDAR energy with objects in a scene. A 2-dimensional model tree allows controlled manipulation of the geometric arrangement of branches and leaves with varying spectral properties. Results suggest complex interactions of the LIDAR energy with the tree canopy, including the occurrence of multiple bounces for energy reaching the ground under the canopy. Idealized sensor instrument response functions incorporated in the simulation illustrate a large impact on waveform shape. A waveform recording laser rangefinder has been built which will allow validation or model results; preliminary collection results are presented here.

  6. Factors affecting white cell content in platelet concentrates.

    PubMed

    Champion, A B; Carmen, R A

    1985-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the factors affecting white cell content in platelet concentrates. White cell yields can be reduced 50 percent by stopping platelet-rich plasma expression when the interface is 1 cm from the top of the blood bag as compared to stopping expression when the interface reaches the top of the bag. Further reductions can be achieved by careful handling during transfer of units from the centrifuge cups to expressors (after the first spin) and by carefully balancing units against each other to ensure proper rotor balance during the first spin. Following these suggestions, blood banks should be able to produce platelet concentrates with white cell yields between 2 and 6 X 10(7) and with platelet yields between 7.5 and 8 X 10(10). Transfusion of this product may reduce febrile reactions and lower the incidence of alloimmunizations. PMID:4024231

  7. Multilevel Factors Affecting Quality: Examples From the Cancer Care Continuum

    PubMed Central

    Taplin, Stephen H.; Ganz, Patricia; Grunfeld, Eva; Sterba, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    The complex environmental context must be considered as we move forward to improve cancer care and, ultimately, patient and population outcomes. The cancer care continuum represents several care types, each of which includes multiple technical and communication steps and interfaces among patients, providers, and organizations. We use two case scenarios to 1) illustrate the variability, diversity, and interaction of factors from multiple levels that affect care quality and 2) discuss research implications and provide hypothetical examples of multilevel interventions. Each scenario includes a targeted literature review to illustrate contextual influences upon care and sets the stage for theory-informed interventions. The screening case highlights access issues in older women, and the survivorship case illustrates the multiple transition challenges faced by patients, families, and organizations. Example interventions show the potential gains of implementing intervention strategies that work synergistically at multiple levels. While research examining multilevel intervention is a priority, it presents numerous study design, measurement, and analytic challenges. PMID:22623591

  8. [Early mother-infant interaction and factors negatively affecting parenting].

    PubMed

    Cerezo, María Angeles; Trenado, Rosa María; Pons-Salvador, Gemma

    2006-08-01

    The social information-processing model contributes to identifying the psychological processes underlying the construct "sensitivity" in early mother-child interaction. Negative emotional states associated with inadequate self-regulation in coping with stressors affect the mother's attention skills and the processing of the baby's signals. This leads to less synchronous parental practices, particularly unsatisfactory when the baby is unhappy, or crying because the required self-regulation is not provided. This micro-social research studies the sequential profile of maternal reactions to the baby's positive/neutral vs. difficult behaviours and compares them in two groups of dyads, one with mothers who reported high levels of distress and other negative factors for parenting and another group with low levels. The unfavourable circumstances of the high stress group and their negative effects on interaction were observed in some indiscriminate maternal responses and particularly as they reacted to their baby's difficult behaviour, when the mother's regulatory role is more necessary. PMID:17296085

  9. Factors That Affect Adolescent Drug Users' Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hokwang

    2016-01-01

    Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academic achievement compared with a high level (OR=3.72 and 4.38) were independently associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt, while better perceived health (OR=0.32) was independently associated with reduced odds of a suicide attempt. For adolescent drug users, preventive work should be directed toward the active treatment of drug use, depression, and physical health and reinforcing proper coping strategies for academic and other stress.

  10. Factors affecting medication discontinuation in patients with overactive bladder symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Eun-Jung; Kim, Young-Mi; Kim, Donguk

    2015-01-01

    Objective To find out the factors affecting medication discontinuation in patients with overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. Methods The clinical data of 125 patients with OAB symptoms who had taken antimuscarinics and behavioral therapy were retrospectively reviewed. Antimuscarinics related outcomes were evaluated by an independent observer with telephone interview. All patients were asked about duration of medication and reason of continuation or discontinuation of antimuscarinics. To determine pre-treatment factors predicting self-report discontinuation of antimuscarinics, variables of only those with P-values <0.25 on the univariate analysis were included in the Cox proportional hazard modeling. Results Mean follow-up was 39.6 months and the proportion of discontinuation of antimuscarinics was 60.0% (75/125). The mean duration of medication was 21.2 months in the continuation group and 3.3 months in the discontinuation group. The reasons of discontinuation of antimuscarinics were improved OAB symptoms (46.7%), tolerable OAB symptoms (33.3%), no change of OAB symptoms (1.3%), side-effects (8.0%) and no desire to take long-term medication (10.7%). The variables affecting remaining cumulative probability of antimuscarinics were age, history of anti-incontinence surgery or vaginal surgery, and having stress predominant urinary incontinence on urodynamic study. Conclusion The lower rate of cumulative continuation of antimuscarinics encourages us to give a more detailed counseling and education to the patients with OAB symptoms before prescription. And explorations about newer agent and non-pharmacologic treatment with good efficacy and lower side-effects are needed. PMID:26623416

  11. Factors affecting survival in total artificial heart recipients before transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, A T; Gandjbakhch, I; Pavie, A; Muneretto, C; Solis, E; Bors, V; Leger, P; Vaissier, E; Levasseur, J P; Szefner, J

    1990-11-01

    To identify factors affecting the successful bridge to transplantation, experience with 32 recipients of the Jarvik-7 artificial heart was reviewed. Between patients with and without a successful bridge, there were no significant differences in preoperative hepatorenal function or postoperative hemodynamics, but there were significant differences in body size. When recipients were divided according to body surface areas of less than or greater than 1.8 m2, the smaller patients more frequently developed respirator dependence (73% vs. 18%, p less than 0.01), renal failure (53% vs. 18%, p less than 0.05), and hepatic failure and sepsis, resulting in less frequent qualification for transplantation (20% vs. 65%, p less than 0.05). There were no successful bridge operations in seven patients with body surface areas of less than 1.7 m2, and only one success in nine patients who were less than 170 cm in height, despite use of a smaller stroke volume model. The smaller patients had poorer ventricular filling, which was largely compensated for by the drive controls set for significantly longer diastole and higher vacuum, resulting in similar hemodynamics between the groups. The results suggest that device fitting as manifested by body size is an important factor affecting major organ recovery and subsequent transplantation in recipients of the Jarvik-7 artificial heart. A paracorporeal device may be advisable for patients with body surface areas of less than 1.8 m2 or who were less than 175 cm in height until an even smaller model with a better fit in the thorax becomes available. PMID:2225424

  12. Factors affecting ventriculoperitoneal shunt survival in adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Farid; Rehman, Abdul; Shamim, Muhammad S.; Bari, Muhammad E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt insertion remains the mainstay of treatment for hydrocephalus despite a high rate of complications. The predictors of shunt malfunction have been studied mostly in pediatric patients. In this study, we report our 11-year experience with VP shunts in adult patients with hydrocephalus. We also assess the various factors affecting shunt survival in a developing country setting. Methods: A retrospective chart analysis was conducted for all adult patients who had undergone shunt placement between the years 2001 and 2011. Kaplan–Meier curves were used to determine the duration from shunt placement to first malfunction and log-rank (Cox–Mantel) tests were used to determine the factors affecting shunt survival. Results: A total of 227 patients aged 18–85 years (mean: 45.8 years) were included in the study. The top four etiologies of hydrocephalus included post-cranial surgery (23.3%), brain tumor or cyst (22.9%), normal pressure hydrocephalus (15%), and intracranial hemorrhage (13.7%). The overall incidence of shunt malfunction was 15.4% with the median time to first shunt failure being 120 days. Etiology of hydrocephalus (P = 0.030) had a significant association with the development of shunt malfunction. Early shunt failure was associated with age (P < 0.001), duration of hospital stay (P < 0.001), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score less than 13 (P = 0.010), excision of brain tumors (P = 0.008), and placement of extra-ventricular drains (P = 0.033). Conclusions: Patients with increased age, prolonged hospital stay, GCS score of less than 13, extra-ventricular drains in situ, or excision of brain tumors were more likely to experience early shunt malfunction. PMID:25722930

  13. Factors Affecting Response to Infertility Treatment: Case of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Peyromusavi, Fatemeh; Barouni, Mohsen; Naderi, Tayebeh; Shahravan, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Infertility affects both women and men in all the countries. Infertility often has profound long-term or short-term impacts on the people involved and puts them at risk of familial and social pressures. According to WHO estimates, between 8% and 12% of all the couples worldwide experience some form of infertility during their reproductive life, i.e. 50–80 million people are affected. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response to infertility treatment by taking into account factors such as age, hirsutism, menstruation and galactose among women in Kerman. Methodology: Of a total of 300 patient files evaluated 220 cases were flawless, of which the study factors were recorded. These data were estimated by Logit model. The dependent variable was the response to treatment (0 and 1) and the independent variables included age of men and women, hirsutism, menstruation, galactose, duration of the period no preventive measures were used and body mass index. After entering the data, model output was analyzed by using the STATA software. Results: The results showed that of all the model variables, female age (prob=0.0065), menstruation (prob=0.04), hirsutism (prob=0.02), marriage age (in months) (prob=0.02) and BMI were significant and other variables were not significant. McFadden analysis for goodness of fit was 0.92. Conclusion: The study results showed that women should pay more attention to variables such as BMI, menstruation quality (regular and irregular) and aging because clinical disregard of any of the above can have a significant impact on the individual’s fertility. PMID:26234994

  14. Factors affecting retention of early pregnancy in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Starbuck, Melanie J; Dailey, Robert A; Inskeep, E Keith

    2004-08-01

    Potential factors affecting retention of pregnancy during weeks 5-9 of gestation were studied in dairy cows and heifers (N = 211) on two farms. Cows were examined by ultrasonography for presence of a viable embryo, and sizes of the corpus luteum (CL) and of follicles > or = 5mm were recorded. Blood samples were taken at each examination and assayed for progesterone and estradiol. Overall pregnancy loss was 11.4%. Cows with two CL did not have greater concentrations of progesterone than cows with one CL and they retained fewer pregnancies (P < 0.01; 73% versus 91%). Pregnancy retention was associated positively with concentrations of progesterone and estradiol during week 5 (P < 0.05). Embryos that were lost apparently died before CL regression. Retention of pregnancy declined in cows with high body condition and as age of the cow increased. Pregnancy retention was lower in cows bred to one of four frequently-used service sires (P < 0.05). Days postpartum, milk production, parity, service number, inseminator, synchronization of estrus, diameter of follicles and size of CL did not affect pregnancy retention. In conclusion, retention of pregnancy during placentation varied with concentrations of progesterone and estradiol, age of cow, body condition and service sire. PMID:15302385

  15. Factors affecting furfural as a nematicide on turf.

    PubMed

    Luc, J E; Crow, W T

    2013-12-01

    Recently a furfural nematicide Multiguard Protect EC was launched for use on turfgrasses in the United States. A series of greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the concentration and exposure time required for this formulation to irreversibly affect Belonolaimus longicaudatus, and to study factors that might affect the practicality of furfural use in turfgrass systems. One experiment exposed B. longicaudatus to increasing concentrations of furfural (0 to 990 ppm) in vitro for either 24 or 48 hr, followed by inoculation onto bermudagrass. A second experiment evaluated effects of exposure of B. longicaudatus to increasing concentrations of furfural in soil solution on bermudagrass with or without an organic thatch layer. A third experiment evaluated effects on B. longicaudatus of increasing concentrations of furfural applied as a spray treatment to creeping bentgrass. Results from the in vitro exposure experiment found decreasing numbers of B. longicaudatus with increasing furfural concentration beginning with the lowest concentration tested (270 ppm). Belonolaimus longicaudatus were virtually eliminated with furfural concentrations ≥ 720 ppm. Similarly, exposure to increasing concentration of furfural in soil solution resulted in increasing reduction in numbers of B. longicaudatus. Presence of thatch slightly reduced the population density of B. longicaudatus. Spray application of furfural only reduced numbers of B. longicaudatus at the two highest rates (3,600 and 4,950 ppm). PMID:24379484

  16. Formulation factors affecting acceptability of oral medicines in children.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Ranmal, Sejal; Batchelor, Hannah K; Orlu-Gul, Mine; Ernest, Terry B; Thomas, Iwan W; Flanagan, Talia; Kendall, Richard; Tuleu, Catherine

    2015-08-15

    Acceptability of medicines in children and caregivers affects safety and effectiveness of medicinal treatments. The pharmaceutical industry is required to demonstrate acceptability of new paediatric formulations in target age groups as an integrated part of the development of these products (Kozarewicz, 2014). Two questions arise when trying to tackle this task: "which dosage form to choose for each target age group?" and "how to formulate it once the dosage form is decided?". Inevitably, both the regulator and the developer turn to scientific evidence for answers. Research has emerged in recent years to demonstrate age-appropriateness and patient acceptability of different dosage forms; however, such information is still fragmented and far from satisfactory to define efficient formulation development strategies for a diverse patient subset (Ranmal and Tuleu, 2013). This paper highlights how formulation factors affect the acceptability of different oral medicines in children (Table 1), and it is based on a more extensive review article by Liu et al. (Liu et al., 2014). Gaps in knowledge are highlighted in order to stimulate further research. In some areas, findings from studies conducted in adult populations may provide useful guidance for paediatric development and this is also discussed. PMID:25959115

  17. Factors affecting heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions.

    PubMed

    Clark, Nigel N; Kern, Justin M; Atkinson, Christopher M; Nine, Ralph D

    2002-01-01

    Societal and governmental pressures to reduce diesel exhaust emissions are reflected in the existing and projected future heavy-duty certification standards of these emissions. Various factors affect the amount of emissions produced by a heterogeneous charge diesel engine in any given situation, but these are poorly quantified in the existing literature. The parameters that most heavily affect the emissions from compression ignition engine-powered vehicles include vehicle class and weight, driving cycle, vehicle vocation, fuel type, engine exhaust aftertreatment, vehicle age, and the terrain traveled. In addition, engine control effects (such as injection timing strategies) on measured emissions can be significant. Knowing the effect of each aspect of engine and vehicle operation on the emissions from diesel engines is useful in determining methods for reducing these emissions and in assessing the need for improvement in inventory models. The effects of each of these aspects have been quantified in this paper to provide an estimate of the impact each one has on the emissions of diesel engines. PMID:15152668

  18. Factors affecting the valve movements in freshwater unionids

    SciTech Connect

    Pynnoenen, K.S.; Englund, V.P.M.

    1994-12-31

    In order to avoid harmful conditions, freshwater unionids are able to close their valves and to resist extended long periods of complete anoxia. Xenobiotics and diverse abiotic and biotic factors can change the rhythm of valve movements and thus affect the accumulation of heavy metals in these bivalves. When bivalves are used a bioindicators in the field and when the accumulation of toxicants are studied under the laboratory conditions, the effects of valve movements and shell closure have to be involved. In this study, the authors have recorded valve movements of two different unionid species (Anodonta anatina, Unio tumidus) in the field and in the laboratory using a digital monitoring system. Several experimental arrangements were compared (caged mussels vs. sediment dwelling mussels, flow-through vials vs. static aquaria with and without sediment). Some parameters of the mussel hemolymph, such as electrolytes, gases and acid base status, were compared with the results on the valve activity (time with valves open, number of adductions). The natural valve activity of the two unionid species differed clearly. In the field, effects of transfer and caging were found, and in the laboratory, sediment and water flow changed their behavior. The level of the blood oxygen was most affected, whereas, the acid-base status and the concentrations of electrolytes were effectively regulated by the unionids. The correlation between valve movements and the hemolymph parameters was weaker than expected.

  19. Factors Affecting Formation of Incomplete Vi Antibody in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, Sidney; Currie, Julius A.; Tully, Joseph G.

    1965-01-01

    Gaines, Sidney (Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C.), Julius A. Currie, and Joseph G. Tully. Factors affecting formation of incomplete Vi antibody in mice. J. Bacteriol. 90:635–642. 1965.—Single immunizing doses of purified Vi antigen elicited complete and incomplete Vi antibodies in BALB/c mice, but only incomplete antibody in Cinnamon mice. Three of six other mouse strains tested responded like BALB/c mice; the remaining three, like Cinnamon mice. Varying the quantity of antigen injected or the route of administration failed to stimulate the production of detectable complete Vi antibody in Cinnamon mice. Such antibody was evoked in these animals by multiple injections of Vi antigen or by inoculating them with Vi-containing bacilli or Vi-coated erythrocytes. The early protection afforded by serum from Vi-immunized BALB/c mice coincided with the appearance of incomplete Vi antibody, 1 day prior to the advent of complete antibody. Persistence of incomplete as well as complete antibody in the serum of immunized mice was demonstrated for at least 56 days after injection of 10 μg of Vi antigen. Incomplete Vi antibody was shown to have blocking ability, in vitro bactericidal activity, and the capability of protecting mice against intracerebral as well as intraperitoneal challenge with virulent typhoid bacilli. Production of incomplete and complete Vi antibodies was adversely affected by immunization with partially depolymerized Vi antigens. PMID:16562060

  20. Factors affecting antibody levels after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Storek, Jan; Viganego, Federico; Dawson, Monja A; Herremans, M M P Tineke; Boeckh, Michael; Flowers, Mary E D; Storer, Barry; Bensinger, William I; Witherspoon, Robert P; Maloney, David G

    2003-04-15

    To obtain insight into the mechanism(s) of posttransplantation humoral immunodeficiency, we evaluated factors affecting serum antibody levels against polio, tetanus, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 87 patients. Patients with hematologic malignancies were randomized to receive marrow versus blood stem cells, which contain approximately 10 times more lymphocytes than marrow. Blood stem cell recipients did not have higher antibody levels than marrow recipients. Recipient pretransplantation antibody levels were correlated with the posttransplantation levels, especially in the first 6 months after transplantation when the correlation coefficients typically exceeded 0.6. Donor pretransplantation antibody levels had less of a correlation with posttransplantation levels in the recipient. Patient or donor age, total body irradiation, and graft-versus-host disease or its treatment appeared to have no effect. In conclusion, antibody levels in the first year after transplantation are affected primarily by pretransplantation antibody levels in the recipient and, to a lesser degree, in the donor. These findings suggest that immunization of the recipient and the donor before transplantation may be more effective in improving antibody immunity after transplantation than manipulating graft-versus-host disease, changing conditioning, or increasing the number of lymphocytes in the graft. PMID:12506030

  1. Clinical factors affecting quality of life of patients with asthma

    PubMed Central

    Uchmanowicz, Bartosz; Panaszek, Bernard; Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Rosińczuk, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent years, there has been increased interest in the subjective quality of life (QoL) of patients with bronchial asthma. QoL is a significant indicator guiding the efforts of professionals caring for patients, especially chronically ill ones. The identification of factors affecting the QoL reported by patients, despite their existing condition, is important and useful to provide multidisciplinary care for these patients. Aim To investigate the clinical factors affecting asthma patients’ QoL. Methods The study comprised 100 patients (73 female, 27 male) aged 18–84 years (mean age was 45.7) treated in the Allergy Clinic of the Wroclaw Medical University Department and Clinic of Internal Diseases, Geriatrics and Allergology. All asthma patients meeting the inclusion criteria were invited to participate. Data on sociodemographic and clinical variables were collected. In this study, we used medical record analysis and two questionnaires: the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ) to assess the QoL of patients with asthma and the Asthma Control Test to measure asthma control. Results Active smokers were shown to have a significantly lower QoL in the “Symptoms” domain than nonsmokers (P=0.006). QoL was also demonstrated to decrease significantly as the frequency of asthma exacerbations increased (R=−0.231, P=0.022). QoL in the domain “Activity limitation” was shown to increase significantly along with the number of years of smoking (R=0.404; P=0.004). Time from onset and the dominant symptom of asthma significantly negatively affected QoL in the “Activity limitation” domain of the AQLQ (R=−0.316, P=0.001; P=0.029, respectively). QoL scores in the “Emotional function” and “Environmental stimuli” subscale of the AQLQ decreased significantly as time from onset increased (R=−0.200, P=0.046; R=−0.328, P=0.001, respectively). Conclusion Patients exhibiting better symptom control have higher QoL scores. Asthma patients’ QoL decreases as time from onset increases. A lower QoL is reported by patients who visit allergy clinics more often, and those often hospitalized due to asthma. Smoking also contributes to a lower QoL in asthma patients. PMID:27143863

  2. Factors Affecting Mortality in Elderly Patients Hospitalized for Nonmalignant Reasons

    PubMed Central

    Ayaz, Teslime; Rakıcı, Halil

    2014-01-01

    Elderly population is hospitalized more frequently than young people, and they suffer from more severe diseases that are difficult to diagnose and treat. The present study aimed to investigate the factors affecting mortality in elderly patients hospitalized for nonmalignant reasons. Demographic data, reason for hospitalization, comorbidities, duration of hospital stay, and results of routine blood testing at the time of first hospitalization were obtained from the hospital records of the patients, who were over 65 years of age and hospitalized primarily for nonmalignant reasons. The mean age of 1012 patients included in the study was 77.8 ± 7.6. The most common reason for hospitalization was diabetes mellitus (18.3%). Of the patients, 90.3% had at least a single comorbidity. Whilst 927 (91.6%) of the hospitalized patients were discharged, 85 (8.4%) died. Comparison of the characteristics of the discharged and dead groups revealed that the dead group was older and had higher rates of poor general status and comorbidity. Differences were observed between the discharged and dead groups in most of the laboratory parameters. Hypoalbuminemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypopotassemia, hypernatremia, hyperuricemia, and high TSH level were the predictors of mortality. In order to meet the health necessities of the elderly population, it is necessary to well define the patient profiles and to identify the risk factors. PMID:25147737

  3. Factors affecting the evolution of bleaching resistance in corals.

    PubMed

    Day, Troy; Nagel, Laura; van Oppen, Madeleine J H; Caley, M Julian

    2008-02-01

    We present a mathematical model of coevolutionary interactions between partners in a coral-algae mutualistic symbiosis. Our goal is to better understand factors affecting the potential evolution of bleaching resistance in corals in response to increased average sea temperatures. We explore the evolutionary consequences of four factors: (i) trade-offs among fitness components, (ii) different proximate mechanisms of coral bleaching, (iii) the genetic determination of bleaching resistance, and (iv) the mode of sexual reproduction. We show that traits in mutualistic symbioses, such as thermal tolerance in corals, are potentially subject to novel kinds of evolutionary constraints and that these constraints are mediated by ecological dynamics. We also show that some proximate mechanisms of bleaching yield faster evolutionary responses to temperature stress and that the nature of interspecific control of bleaching resistance and the mode of sexual reproduction interact to strongly influence the rate of spread of resistance alleles. These qualitative theoretical results highlight important future directions for empirical research in order to quantify the potential for coral reefs to evolve resistance to thermal stress. PMID:18197764

  4. Factors affecting mortality in stage 3b necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Atıcı, Ahmet; Karaman, Ayşe; Zenciroğlu, Ayşegül; Karaman, Ibrahim; Afşarlar, Cağatay Evrim; Yılmaz, Engin; Okumuş, Nurullah; Cavuşoğlu, Yusuf Hakan; Ozgüner, Ismet Faruk; Erdoğan, Derya

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the factors that may affect the development of mortality in patients with stage 3b necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Between January 2005 and December 2012, patients with the diagnosis of stage 3b NEC who were surgically treated were enrolled in the study. Gestational age, birth weight, presence of hypoxemia history, major congenital heart diseases, enteral feeding, age at perforation, drainage type, operation, and laboratory findings were considered regarding their possible relationship with mortality. Thirty-one patients were enrolled in this study. Following treatment, 15 patients died, while 16 patients recovered and were discharged. Feeding type, high levels of prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), creatinine, and low platelet count, as well as need of inotropic support were associated with mortality. When the cut-off point of platelet level for mortality development in stage 3b NEC was calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the cut-off point for thrombocyte level was found to be 110,000/µL, with 93.3% sensitivity and 87.5% specificity. Despite the innovations in newborn intensive care, the mortality rate of stage 3b NEC remains very high. Breastfeeding has a significantly positive impact on the survival of patients with NEC. Thrombocytopenia is the most important risk factor of mortality in stage 3b NEC. PMID:24911845

  5. Spatial factors affecting statistical power in testing marine fauna displacement.

    PubMed

    Pérez Lapeña, B; Wijnberg, K M; Stein, A; Hulscher, S J M H

    2011-10-01

    Impacts of offshore wind farms on marine fauna are largely unknown. Therefore, one commonly adheres to the precautionary principle, which states that one shall take action to avoid potentially damaging impacts on marine ecosystems, even when full scientific certainty is lacking. We implement this principle by means of a statistical power analysis including spatial factors. Implementation is based on geostatistical simulations, accommodating for zero-inflation in species data. We investigate scenarios in which an impact assessment still has to be carried out. Our results show that the environmental conditions at the time of the survey is the most influential factor on power. This is followed by survey effort and species abundance in the reference situation. Spatial dependence in species numbers at local scales affects power, but its effect is smaller for the scenarios investigated. Our findings can be used to improve effectiveness of the economical investment for monitoring surveys. In addition, unnecessary extra survey effort, and related costs, can be avoided when spatial dependence in species abundance is present and no improvement on power is achieved. PMID:22073657

  6. The science of cycling: factors affecting performance - part 2.

    PubMed

    Faria, Erik W; Parker, Daryl L; Faria, Irvin E

    2005-01-01

    This review presents information that is useful to athletes, coaches and exercise scientists in the adoption of exercise protocols, prescription of training regimens and creation of research designs. Part 2 focuses on the factors that affect cycling performance. Among those factors, aerodynamic resistance is the major resistance force the racing cyclist must overcome. This challenge can be dealt with through equipment technological modifications and body position configuration adjustments. To successfully achieve efficient transfer of power from the body to the drive train of the bicycle the major concern is bicycle configuration and cycling body position. Peak power output appears to be highly correlated with cycling success. Likewise, gear ratio and pedalling cadence directly influence cycling economy/efficiency. Knowledge of muscle recruitment throughout the crank cycle has important implications for training and body position adjustments while climbing. A review of pacing models suggests that while there appears to be some evidence in favour of one technique over another, there remains the need for further field research to validate the findings. Nevertheless, performance modelling has important implications for the establishment of performance standards and consequent recommendations for training. PMID:15831060

  7. Study identifies socio-cultural factors affecting demographic behaviour.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is undertaking a project that will produce a state-of-the-art paper on sociocultural factors affecting demographic behavior. Particular emphasis will be placed on reproductive behavior in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Arab states region. The extent to which this information is incorporated in current population policies and programs will also be examined, and recommendations will be made. The factors to be studied include family and kinship structure; gender status and role; patterns of sexual relations and procreation in general and adolescent sexual behavior and fertility; religion, beliefs, customs, and traditions concerned with sexual relations and procreation; child rearing, socialization, and education; status and role of women; and sociocultural change, change agents, and influentials. The literature search will provide an inventory of methodologies. Guidelines on the use of the methodologies will be drafted for use by project personnel. These will later be tested in pilot studies in rural and urban communities in selected developing countries. The goal is to design programs that will accelerate contraceptive acceptance and sustain contraceptive practice by being sensitive to the sociocultural influences on the reproductive behavior of different subpopulations. PMID:12318974

  8. Factors affecting the absorption of vitamin K-1 in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Hollander, D; Rim, E

    1976-01-01

    Factors which might affect the absorption of vitamin K of dietary origin were investigated using everted small bowel sacs. Increasing the bile salt concentration to 20 mM or the addition of long chain fatty acids, monoolein, or lecithin all resulted in significant (P less than 0-05) decrease in the absorption rate of the vitamin. The addition of 2-5 mM short and medium chain fatty acids did not change the absorption rate of vitamin K-1 (P greater than 0-05). The absorption rate of vitamin K-1 appears to be modified by the presence of compounds in the incubation medium which either alter the partition of the vitamin between the micelle and the cell membrane or which change the permeation characteristics of the compound through the unstirred water layer or modify the physical characteristics of the cell membrane itself. It is possible that some of the above factors modify the absorption of lipid soluble compounds in general. PMID:955502

  9. Factors affecting production rates of cosmogenic nuclides in extraterrestrial matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reedy, R. C.

    2015-10-01

    Good production rates are needed for cosmic-ray-produced nuclides to interpret their measurements. Rates depend on many factors, especially the pre-atmospheric object's size, the location of the sample in that object (such as near surface or deep inside), and the object's bulk composition. The bulk composition affects rates, especially in objects with very low and very high iron contents. Extraterrestrial materials with high iron contents usually have higher rates for making nuclides made by reactions with energetic particles and lower rates for the capture of thermal neutrons. In small objects and near the surface of objects, the cascade of secondary neutrons is being developed as primary particles are being removed. Deep in large objects, that secondary cascade is fully developed and the fluxes of primary particles are low. Recent work shows that even the shape of an object in space has a small but measureable effect. Work has been done and continues to be done on better understanding those and other factors. More good sets of measurements in meteorites with known exposure geometries in space are needed. With the use of modern Monte Carlo codes for the production and transport of particles, the nature of these effects have been and is being studied. Work needs to be done to improve the results of these calculations, especially the cross sections for making spallogenic nuclides.

  10. Intrinsic factors that affect amino acid geochronology: protein diagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, L.L.

    1989-03-01

    Use of alloisoleucine/isoleucine ratios as a geochronological tool has been the basis of many stratigraphic studies of the Quaternary. In a number of these studies, the amino acid dates have been remarkably good, allowing chronologies to be established and sequences checked, at least in limited geographic locations. However, in other studies the variability and scatter of dates have obscured or confounded interpretation of the geochronology. A number of extrinsic and intrinsic factors may contribute to this variability. One intrinsic factor may be the varying rates of epimerization and breakdown of the many proteins within the shell matrix of the organism that is being analyzed; the shell matrix of planktonic foraminifera contains at least two classes, or types, of proteins and up to 40 protein components. Individual proteins differ in stability based on differences of structure. This stability will have direct ramifications on racemization rates. Traditionally, amino acid ratios have been analyzed from the remnants of the total organic material of shells, such as mollusk or planktonic foraminifera. To examine how the diagenetic breakdown of specific proteins may affect allisoleucine/isoleucine ratios of the total organic matrix, different classes of proteins from fossil planktonic foraminifera were analyzed and compared. Although planktonic foraminifera were used as a model system, the molluscan shell is analogous.

  11. Factors Affecting Growth of Pinus radiata in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Munoz, Jose Santos

    The Chilean forestry industry is based on hundreds of thousands of hectares of Pinus radiata plantations that have been established in a variety of soil and climate conditions. This approach has resulted in highly variable plantation productivity even when the best available technology was used. Little information is known about the ecophysiology basis for this variability. We explored the spatial and temporal variation of stand growth in Chile using a network of permanent sample plots from Modelo Nacional de Simulacion de Pino radiata. We hypothesized that the climate would play an important role in the annual variations in productivity. To answer these questions we developed the following projects: (1) Determination of site resource availability from historical data from automatic weather stations (rainfall, temperatures) and a geophysical model for solar irradiation, (2) Determination of peak annual leaf area index (LAI) for selected permanent sample plots using remote sensing technologies, (3) Analysis of soil, climate, canopy and stand factors affecting the Pinus radiata plantation growth and the use efficiency of site resources. For project 1, we estimated solar irradiation using the r.sun , Hargreaves-Samani (HS), and Bristow-Campbell (BC) models and validated model estimates with observations from weather stations. Estimations from a calibrated r.sun model accounted for 94% of the variance (r2=0.94) in monthly mean measured values. The r.sun model performed quite well for a wide range of Chilean conditions when compared with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global irradiation may be improved with better estimates of cloudiness as they become available. Our model was able to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly and yearly solar irradiation. For project 2, we estimated the inter-annual variation of LAI (Leaf Area Index), using remote sensing technologies. We determined LAI using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering a 5 year period (2005--2009) for a network of permanent sample plots in Pinus radiata plantations in Chile. In 2009, we calculated LAI from ground measurements using LI-COR LAI-2000 and TRAC instruments on each one hectare plot. These values of LAI were regressed against Simple Ratio (SR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Reduced Simple Ratio (RSR), derived from the TM 2009 data. Linear relationships were strong with R2 values of 0.65 for SR, 0.61 for NDVI and 0.67 for RSR. Using the RSR relationship, LAI values were estimated for the network of permanent sample plots of Pinus radiata plantations over the whole period. For project 3, we examined environmental factors affecting growth rates of Pinus radiata in Chile. Water availability (as affected by precipitation, soil water holding capacity, and potential evapotranspiration) appeared to be the factor most limiting to leaf area and growth. Maximum growing season temperature also negatively affected growth. Sites with highest productivities had the lowest annual water deficits and the most productive sites used water and light more efficiently. Good sites produced 1.6 as compared to 0.49 kg of wood per m3 of evapotranspired water for less productive sites. In addition, productive stands produced 0.5 as compared to 0.31 g of wood per MJ for less productive sites.

  12. Factors affecting detection of burrowing owl nests during standardized surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conway, C.J.; Garcia, V.; Smith, M.D.; Hughes, K.

    2008-01-01

    Identifying causes of declines and evaluating effects of management practices on persistence of local populations of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) requires accurate estimates of abundance and population trends. Moreover, regulatory agencies in the United States and Canada typically require surveys to detect nest burrows prior to approving developments or other activities in areas that are potentially suitable for nesting burrowing owls. In general, guidelines on timing of surveys have been lacking and surveys have been conducted at different times of day and in different stages of the nesting cycle. We used logistic regression to evaluate 7 factors that could potentially affect probability of a surveyor detecting a burrowing owl nest. We conducted 1,444 detection trials at 323 burrowing owl nests within 3 study areas in Washington and Wyoming, USA, between February and August 2000-2002. Detection probability was highest during the nestling period and increased with ambient temperature. The other 5 factors that we examined (i.e., study area, time of day, timing within the breeding season, wind speed, % cloud cover) interacted with another factor to influence detection probability. Use of call-broadcast surveys increased detection probability, even during daylight hours when we detected >95% of owls visually. Optimal timing of surveys will vary due to differences in breeding phenology and differences in nesting behavior across populations. Nevertheless, we recommend ???3 surveys per year: one that coincides with the laying and incubation period, another that coincides with the early nestling period, and a third that coincides with the late nestling period. In northern latitudes, surveys can be conducted throughout the day.

  13. Factors affecting outdoor exposure in winter: population-based study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkinen, Tiina M.; Raatikka, Veli-Pekka; Rytkönen, Mika; Jokelainen, Jari; Rintamäki, Hannu; Ruuhela, Reija; Näyhä, Simo; Hassi, Juhani

    2006-09-01

    The extent of outdoor exposure during winter and factors affecting it were examined in a cross-sectional population study in Finland. Men and women aged 25-74 years from the National FINRISK 2002 sub-study ( n=6,591) were queried about their average weekly occupational, leisure-time and total cold exposure during the past winter. The effects of gender, age, area of residence, occupation, ambient temperature, self-rated health, physical activity and education on cold exposure were analysed. The self-reported median total cold exposure time was 7 h/week (8 h men, 6 h women),<1 h/week (2 h men, 0 h women) at work, 4 h/week (5 h men, 4 h women) during leisure time and 1 h/week (1 h men, 1.5 h women) while commuting to work. Factors associated with increased occupational cold exposure among men were: being employed in agriculture, forestry and industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being less educated and being aged 55-64 years. Factors associated with increased leisure-time cold exposure among men were: employment in industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being a pensioner or unemployed, reporting at least average health, being physically active and having college or vocational education. Among women, being a housewife, pensioner or unemployed and engaged in physical activity increased leisure-time cold exposure, and young women were more exposed than older ones. Self-rated health was positively associated with leisure time cold exposure in men and only to a minor extent in women. In conclusion, the subjects reported spending 4% of their total time under cold exposure, most of it (71%) during leisure time. Both occupational and leisure-time cold exposure is greater among men than women.

  14. Factors affecting birth weight in sheep: maternal environment.

    PubMed

    Gardner, D S; Buttery, P J; Daniel, Z; Symonds, M E

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of factors affecting variation in birth weight is especially important given the relationship of birth weight to neonatal and adult health. The present study utilises two large contemporary datasets in sheep of differing breeds to explore factors that influence weight at term. For dataset one (Study 1; n=154 Blue-faced Leicester x Swaledale (Mule) and 87 Welsh Mountain ewes, 315 separate cases of birth weight), lamb birth weight as the outcome measure was related to maternal characteristics and individual energy intake of the ewe during specified periods of gestation, i.e. early (1-30 days; term ~147 days gestation), mid (31-80 days) or late (110-147 days) pregnancy. For dataset two (Study 2; n=856 Mule ewes and 5821 cases of birth weight), we investigated using multilevel modelling the influence of ewe weight, parity, barrenness, lamb sex, litter size, lamb mortality and year of birth on lamb birth weight. For a subset of these ewes (n=283), the effect of the ewes' own birth weight was also examined. Interactions between combinations of variables were selectively investigated. Litter size, as expected, had the single greatest influence on birth weight with other significant effects being year of birth, maternal birth weight, maternal nutrition, sex of the lamb, ewe barrenness and maternal body composition at mating. The results of the present study have practical implications not only for sheep husbandry but also for the increased knowledge of factors that significantly influence variation in birth weight; as birth weight itself has become a significant predictor of later health outcomes. PMID:17244755

  15. A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Howard R.; Brown, James W.; Brown, Otis B.; Evans, Robert H.; Smith, Raymond C.

    1988-01-01

    A semianalytical radiance model is developed which predicts the upwelled spectral radiance at the sea surface as a function of the phytoplankton pigment concentration for Morel Case 1 waters. The model is in good agreement with experimental measurements carried out in waters which were not included in the data base used to derive it. It suggests that the observed variability in the radiance is due to variations in the backscattering of plankton and the associated detrital material. The model is extended to include other material in the water, such as dissolved organic material, referred to as yellow substances, and detached coccoliths from coccolithophorids, e.g., Emiliana huxleyi. Potential applications include an improved biooptical algorithm for the retrieval of pigment concentrations from satellite imagery in the presence of interference from detached coccoliths and an improved atmospheric correction for satellite imagery. The model also serves to identify and to interpret deviations from Case 1 waters.

  16. Main error factors, affecting inversion of EM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuev, M. A.; Magomedov, M.; Korneev, V. A.; Goloshubin, G.; Zuev, J.; Brovman, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Inversions of EM data are complicated by a number of factors that need to be taken into account. These factors might contribute by tens of percents in data values, concealing responses from target objects, which usually contribute at the level of few percents only. We developed the exact analytical solutions of the EM wave equations that properly incorporate the contributions of the following effects: 1) A finite source size effect, where conventional dipole (zero-size) approximation brings 10-40% error compare to a real size source, needed to provide adequate signal-to-noise ratio. 2) Complex topography. A three-parametrical approach allows to keep the data misfits in 0.5% corridor while topography effect might be up to 40%. 3) Grounding shadow effect, caused by return ground currents, when Tx-line vicinity is horizontally non-uniform. By keeping survey setup within some reasonable geometrical ratios, the shadow effect comes to just one frequency-independent coefficient, which can be excluded from processing by using logarithmical derivatives. 4) Layer's wide spectral range effect. This brings to multi-layer spectral overlapping, so each frequency is affected by many layers; that requires wide spectral range processing, making the typical 'few-frequency data acquisition' non-reliable. 5) Horizontal sensitivity effect. The typical view at the target signal, reflected from a Tx-Rx mid-point is valid only for a ray approximation, reliable in a far-field zone. Unlike this, the real EM surveys usually work in near-field zone. Thus Tx-Rx mid-point does not represent the layer, so a sensitivity distribution function must be computed for each layer for the following 3D-unification process. 6) Wide range Rx-directions from mid-line Tx. Survey terrain often prevents placing Rx perpendicular to Tx-line, and even small deviations without proper corrections cause a significant inaccuracy. A radical simplification of the effect's description becomes possible after applying a special Angular Theorem. 7) Apparent conductivity spectral splitting factor. For some of the inversion approaches an averaged Earth's conductivity σA(ω) is the first step for the inversion to stratified Earth. The related spectral response from the loop-source splits such σA onto two branches: σA(ωHigh) and σA(ωLow), similar to early and late resistivities in time domain processing. 8) Calibration factor. A manufacturer-based internal calibration often leads to many percents of non-controllable systematic error at low and high frequency ends, as well as temperature changes. A special approach allows an external pre-survey calibration to achieve the required accuracy.

  17. Factors Affecting Prostate Volume Estimation in Computed Tomography Images

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Cheng-Hsiu; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Lin, Alex Tong-Long; Lin, Chao-An

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how apex-localizing methods and the computed tomography (CT) slice thickness affected the CT-based prostate volume estimation. Twenty-eight volunteers underwent evaluations of prostate volume by CT, where the contour segmentations were performed by three observers. The bottom of ischial tuberosities (ITs) and the bulb of the penis were used as reference positions to locate the apex, and the distances to the apex were recorded as 1.3 and 2.0 cm, respectively. Interobserver variations to locate ITs and the bulb of the penis were, on average, 0.10 cm (range 0.03-0.38 cm) and 0.30 cm (range 0.00-0.98 cm), respectively. The range of CT slice thickness varied from 0.08-0.48 cm and was adopted to examine the influence of the variation on volume estimation. The volume deviation from the reference case (0.08 cm), which increases in tandem with the slice thickness, was within {+-} 3 cm{sup 3}, regardless of the adopted apex-locating reference positions. In addition, the maximum error of apex identification was 1.5 times of slice thickness. Finally, based on the precise CT films and the methods of apex identification, there were strong positive correlation coefficients for the estimated prostate volume by CT and the transabdominal ultrasonography, as found in the present study (r > 0.87; p < 0.0001), and this was confirmed by Bland-Altman analysis. These results will help to identify factors that affect prostate volume calculation and to contribute to the improved estimation of the prostate volume based on CT images.

  18. Undergraduate nursing students' perceptions regarding factors that affect math abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyo, Katrina A.

    2011-07-01

    A review of the nursing literature reveals many undergraduate nursing students lack proficiency with basic mathematical skills, those necessary for safe medication preparation and administration. Few studies exploring the phenomenon from the undergraduate nursing student perspective are reported in the nursing literature. The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of math abilities, factors that affect math abilities, the use of math in nursing, and the extent to which specific math skills were addressed throughout a nursing curriculum. Polya’s Model for Problem Solving and the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Affective Domain served as the theoretical background for the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to obtain data from a purposive sample of undergraduate nursing students from a private university in western Pennsylvania. Participants were selected based on the proficiency level with math skills, as determined by a score on the Elsevier’s HESI™ Admission Assessment (A2) Exam, Math Portion. Ten students from the “Excellent” benchmark group and eleven students from the “Needing Additional Assistance or Improvement” benchmark group participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, and completed a 25-item, 4-point Likert scale survey that rated confidence levels with specific math skills and the extent to which these skills were perceived to be addressed in the nursing curriculum. Responses from the two benchmark groups were compared and contrasted. Eight themes emerged from the qualitative data. Findings related to mathematical approach and confidence levels with specific math skills were determined to be statistically significant.

  19. Reducing atmospheric noise in RST analysis of TIR satellite radiances for earthquakes prone areas satellite monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisi, Mariano; Filizzola, Carolina; Genzano, Nicola; Paciello, Rossana; Pergola, Nicola; Tramutoli, Valerio

    Space-time fluctuations of the Earth's emitted Thermal Infrared (TIR) radiation observed from satellite from months to weeks before an earthquake are reported in several studies. Among the others, a Robust Satellite data analysis Technique (RST) was proposed (and applied to different satellite sensors in various geo-tectonic contexts) to discriminate anomalous signal transients possibly associated with earthquake occurrence from normal TIR signal fluctuations due to other possible causes (e.g. solar diurnal-annual cycle, meteorological conditions, changes in observational conditions, etc.). Variations in satellite view angle depending on satellite's passages (for polar satellites) and atmospheric water vapour fluctuations were recognized in the past as the main factors affecting the residual signal variability reducing the overall Signal-to-Noise (S/N) ratio and the potential of the RST-based approach in identifying seismically related thermal anomalies. In this paper we focus on both factors for the first time, applying the RST approach to geostationary satellites (which guarantees stable view angles) and using Land Surface Temperature (LST) data products (which are less affected by atmospheric water vapour variability) instead of just TIR radiances at the sensor. The first results, obtained in the case of the Abruzzo earthquake (6 April 2009, MW ∼ 6.3) by analyzing 6 years of SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager on board the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation satellite) LST products provided by EUMETSAT, seem to confirm the major sensitivity of the proposed approach in detecting perturbations of the Earth's thermal emission a few days before the main shock. The results achieved in terms of increased S/N ratio (in validation) and reduced "false alarms" rate (in confutation) are discussed comparing results obtained by applying RST to LST products with those achieved by applying an identical RST analysis (using the same MSG-SEVIRI 2005-2010 data-set) to the simple TIR radiances at the sensor.

  20. Factors affecting bone mineral density in multiple sclerosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Ayatollahi, Azin; Mohajeri-Tehrani, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease which can cause many disabilities for the patient. Recent data suggests that MS patients have higher risk for osteoporosis. This study was performed to investigate if the osteoporosis prevalence is higher in MS patients and to determine the possible factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD). Methods 51 definite relapsing-remitting MS patients according to McDonald's criteria (45 females, 6 males aged between 20 and 50 years) participated in this study. The control group included 407 females aged from 20 to 49 years; they were healthy and had no history of the diseases affecting bone metabolism. Femoral and lumbar BMD were measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). The disability of MS patients was evaluated by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). The patient's quality of life was evaluated by the validated Persian version of multiple sclerosis impact scale (MSIS-29). Results Patients mean age was 36 3.3 years and their mean disease duration was 8.7 1.7 years. The mean EDSS score and the mean body mass index (BMI) of the patients were 3 0.9 and 23.5 2.3 kg/m2, respectively. 29% of the patients had never been treated by -interferon and 6% of them had not received glucocorticoids (GCs) pulses since their MS had been diagnosed. 26% of the patients had a history of fracture.18% of our patients were osteoporotic and 43% of them were osteopenic. Femoral BMD was significantly lower among MS patients than age matched controls (P < 0.001), but lumbar BMD showed no difference. There was no correlation between administration of GCs pulses, interferon and BMD; however, we found a significant correlation between EDSS score, quality of life (QoL), disease duration and BMD of both site. Conclusion As a result of this study, bone loss inevitably occurs in MS patients. The major factor of BMD loss is immobility. Osteoporosis should be managed as part of MS patients treatment protocols. PMID:24250892

  1. The NBS scale of radiance temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, William R.; Walker, James H.; Hattenburg, Albert T.

    1988-01-01

    The measurement methods and instrumentation used in the realization and transfer of the International Practical Temperature Scale (IPTS-68) above the temperature of freezing gold are described. The determination of the ratios of spectral radiance of tungsten-strip lamps to a gold-point blackbody at a wavelength of 654.6 nm is detailed. The response linearity, spectral responsivity, scattering error, and polarization properties of the instrumentation are described. The analysis of the sources of error and estimates of uncertainty are presented. The assigned uncertainties (three standard deviations) in radiance temperature range from + or - 2 K at 2573 K to + or - 0.5 K at 1073 K.

  2. Upwelling radiance distribution camera system, NURADS.

    PubMed

    Voss, Kenneth; Chapin, Albert

    2005-05-30

    We have built a new fisheye camera radiometer to measure the in-water spectral upwelling radiance distribution. This instrument measures the radiance distribution at six wavelengths and obtains a complete suite of measurements (6 spectral data images with associated dark images) in approximately 2 minutes (in clear water). This instrument is much smaller than previous instruments (0.3 m in diameter and 0.3 m long), decreasing the instrument self-shading. It also has improved performance resulting from enhanced sensor sensitivity and a more subtle lens rolloff effect. We describe the instrument, its characterization, and show data examples from both clear and turbid water. PMID:19495340

  3. Factors affecting recurrence after surgery for Crohns disease

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Takayuki

    2005-01-01

    Although in Crohns disease post-operative recurrence is common, the determinants of disease recurrence remain speculative. The aim of this study was to examine factors affecting post-operative recurrence of Crohns disease. A Medline-based literature review was carried out. The following factors were investigated: age at onset of disease, sex, family history of Crohns disease, smoking, duration of Crohns disease before surgery, prophylactic medical treatment (corticosteroids, 5-amino salicylic acid [5-ASA] and immunosuppressants), anatomical site of involvement, indication for surgery (perforating or non-perforating disease), length of resected bowel, anast-omotic technique, presence of granuloma in the specimen, involvement of disease at the resection margin, blood transfusions and post-operative complications. Smoking significantly increases the risk of recurrence (risk is approximately twice as high), especially in women and heavy smokers. Quitting smoking reduces the post-operative recurrence rate. A number of studies have shown a higher risk when the duration of the disease before surgery was short. There were, however, different definitions of short among the studies. Prophylactic cortic-osteroids therapy is not effective in reducing the post-operative recurrence. A number of randomized controlled trials offered evidence of the efficacy of 5-ASA (mesalazine) in reducing post-operative recurrence. Recently, the thera-peutic efficacy of immunosuppressive drugs (azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine) in the prevention of post-operative recurrence has been investigated and several studies have reported that these drugs might help prevent the recurrence. Further clinical trials would be necessary to evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of immunosuppressants. Several studies showed a higher recurrence rate in patients with perforating disease than in those with non-perforating disease. However, evidence for differing recurrence rates in perforating and non-perforating diseases is inconclusive. A number of retrospective studies reported that a stapled functional end-to-end anastomosis was associated with a lower recurrence rate compared with other types of anastomosis. However, prospective randomized studies would be necessary to draw a definite conclusion. Many studies found no difference in the recurrence rates between patients with radical resection and non-radical resection. Therefore, minimal surgery including strictureplasty has been justified in the management of Crohns disease. In this review, the following factors do not seem to be predictive of post-operative recurrence: age at onset of disease, sex, family history of Crohns disease, anatomical site of disease, length of resected bowel, presence of granuloma in the specimen, blood transfusions and post-operative complications. The most significant factor affecting post-operative recurrence of Crohns disease is smoking. Smoking significantly increases the risk of recurrence. A short disease duration before surgery seems, albeit to a very minor degree, to be associated with a higher recurrence rate. 5-ASA has been shown with some degree of confidence to lead to a lower recurrence rate. The prophylactic efficacy of immunosuppressive drugs should be assessed in future. A wider anastomotic technique after resection may reduce the post-operative recurrence rate, though this should be investigated with prospective randomized controlled trials. PMID:15996018

  4. Elimination of error factors, affecting EM and seismic inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magomedov, M.; Zuev, M. A.; Korneev, V. A.; Goloshubin, G.; Zuev, J.; Brovman, Y.

    2013-12-01

    EM or seismic data inversions are affected by many factors, which may conceal the responses from target objects. We address here the contributions from the following effects: 1) Pre-survey spectral sensitivity factor. Preliminary information about a target layer can be used for a pre-survey estimation of the required frequency domain and signal level. A universal approach allows making such estimations in real time, helping the survey crew to optimize an acquisition process. 2) Preliminary velocities' identification and their dispersions for all the seismic waves, arising in a stratified media became a fast working tool, based on the exact analytical solution. 3) Vertical gradients effect. For most layers the log data scatter, requiring an averaging pattern. A linear gradient within each representative layer is a reasonable compromise between required inversion accuracy and forward modeling complexity. 4) An effect from the seismic source's radial component becomes comparable with vertical part for explosive sources. If this effect is not taken into account, a serious modeling error takes place. This problem has an algorithmic solution. 5) Seismic modeling is often based on different representations for a source formulated either for a force or to a potential. The wave amplitudes depend on the formulation, making an inversion result sensitive to it. 6) Asymmetrical seismic waves (modified Rayleigh) in symmetrical geometry around liquid fracture come from S-wave and merge with the modified Krauklis wave at high frequencies. A detail analysis of this feature allows a spectral range optimization for the proper wave's extraction. 7) An ultrasonic experiment was conducted to show different waves appearance for a super-thin water-saturated fracture between two Plexiglas plates, being confirmed by comparison with theoretical computations. 8) A 'sandwich effect' was detected by comparison with averaged layer's effect. This opens an opportunity of the shale gas direct identification from the surface measurements.

  5. Factors affecting young children's use of pronouns as referring expressions.

    PubMed

    Campbell, A L; Brooks, P; Tomasello, M

    2000-12-01

    Most studies of children's use of pronouns have focused either on the morphology of personal pronouns or on the anaphoric use of pronouns by older children. The current two studies investigated factors affecting children's choice of pronouns as referring expressions-in contrast with their use of full nouns and null references. In the first study it was found that 2.5- and 3.5-year-old children did not use pronouns differentially whether the adult (a) modeled a pronoun or a noun for the target object or (b) did or did not witness the target event (although there was evidence that they did notice and take account of the adult's witnessing in other ways). In the second study it was found that children of this same age (a) do not use pronouns to avoid unfamiliar or difficult nouns but (b) do use pronouns differently depending on the immediately preceding discourse of the experimenter (whether they were asked a specific question such as "What did X do?" or a general question such as "What happened?"). In the case of specific questions, children prefer to use a null reference but use some pronouns as well (almost never using full nouns); in the case of the generic questions, children use pronouns even more often (and use nouns more as well). This finding was corroborated by some new analyses of children's use of pronouns in specific discourse situations in previously published studies. These findings suggest that children's choice of pronouns as referring expressions in early language development is influenced more by the immediately preceding discourse than other kinds of factors. PMID:11193956

  6. Factors affecting urinary excretion of testosterone metabolites conjugated with cysteine.

    PubMed

    Fabregat, Andreu; Marcos, Josep; Segura, Jordi; Ventura, Rosa; Pozo, Oscar J

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of the athlete steroidal passport in doping control analysis aims to detect intra-individual changes in the steroid profile related to the abuse of anabolic steroids. In this context, the study of intrinsic variations associated with each marker is of utmost importance. In the present work, the influence of several factors in the excretion of the recently reported testosterone metabolites conjugated with cysteine (Δ(1) -AED; 1,4-androstadien-3,17-dione, Δ(6) -AED; 4,6-androstadien-3,17-dione, Δ(6) -T; 4,6-androstadien-17β-ol-3-one, and Δ(15) -AD; 15-androsten-3,17-dione) is evaluated for the first time. Degradation experiments at 37 °C proved that, although the cysteinyl moiety is released, the variation for urinary Δ(1) -AED/Δ(6) -AED, Δ(1) -AED/Δ(6) -T ratios is less than 30%. Moreover, freeze/thaw cycle testing resulted in RSDs values below 15% for all the analytes. Regarding infradian variability, moderate variations (below 40%) were observed. Additionally, notable alterations in the excretion of these compounds have been observed in the earliest stages of pregnancy. UGT2B17 polymorphism, responsible for the low T/E ratio found in some population, does not influence the excretion of cysteinyl compounds whereas the intake of exogenous substances (alcohol or 5α-reductase inhibitors) dramatically affects their excretion. The urinary concentrations of Δ(1) -AED, Δ(6) -AED, and Δ(15) -AD decreased (<50 %) after the ethanol intake, whereas after the administration of dutasteride, an important increase was observed for the concentrations of Δ(6) -AED, Δ(6) -T and Δ(15) -AD. Overall, the presented data describes the stability of the urinary cysteinyl steroids under the influence of many factors, proving their potential as suitable parameters to be included in the steroidal module of the athlete's biological passport. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25917157

  7. Factors affecting the diffusion of online end user literature searching.

    PubMed Central

    Ash, J S

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify factors that affect diffusion of usage of online end user literature searching. Fifteen factors clustered into three attribute sets (innovation attributes, organizational attributes, and marketing attributes) were measured to study their effect on the diffusion of online searching within institutions. METHODS: A random sample of sixty-seven academic health sciences centers was selected and then 1,335 library and informatics staff members at those institutions were surveyed by mail with electronic mail follow-up. Multiple regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: The survey yielded a 41% response rate with electronic mail follow-up being particularly effective. Two dependent variables, internal diffusion (spread of diffusion) and infusion (depth of diffusion), were measured. There was little correlation between them, indicating they measured different things. Fifteen independent variables clustered into three attribute sets were measured. The innovation attributes set was significant for both internal diffusion and infusion. Significant individual variables were visibility for internal diffusion and image enhancement effects (negative relation) as well as visibility for infusion (depth of diffusion). Organizational attributes were also significant predictors for both dependent variables. No individual variables were significant for internal diffusion. Communication, management support (negative relation), rewards, and existence of champions were significant for infusion. Marketing attributes were not significant predictors. CONCLUSIONS: Successful diffusion of online end user literature searching is dependent on the visibility of the systems, communication among, rewards to, and peers of possible users who promote use (champions). Personal image enhancement effects have a negative relation to infusion, possibly because the use of intermediaries is still seen as the more luxurious way to have searches done. Management support also has a negative relation to infusion, perhaps indicating that depth of diffusion can increase despite top-level management actions. PMID:9934530

  8. Factors affecting recruitment to an observational multicentre palliative care study

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Patrick C; Gwilliam, Bridget; Keeley, Vaughan; Todd, Chris; Kelly, Laura C; Barclay, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify those factors which adversely affected recruitment to a large multicentre palliative care study. Methods Patient accrual to a multicentre, observational, palliative care study was monitored at three critical junctures in the research process. (1) Eligibility—did the patient fulfil the study entry criteria? (2) Accessibility—was it possible to access the patient to be able to inform them about the study? (3) Consent—did the patient agree to participate in the study? The reasons why patients were ineligible, inaccessible or refused consent were recorded. Results 12 412 consecutive referrals to participating clinical services were screened for study inclusion of whom 5394 (43%) were deemed to be ineligible. Of the remaining patients 4617/7018 (66%) were inaccessible to the research team. The most common reasons being precipitous death, ‘gatekeeping’ by clinical staff or rapid discharge. Of the 2410 patients who were visited by the research team and asked to participate in the study 1378 (57%) declined. Overall 8.2% (1018/12 412) of patients screened participated in the study. There were significant differences in recruitment patterns between hospice inpatient units, hospital support and community palliative care teams. Conclusions Systematic monitoring and analysis of patient flows through the clinical trial accrual process provided valuable insights about the reasons for failure to recruit patients to a clinical trial and may help to improve recruitment in future studies. PMID:24644750

  9. Hydrologic and geologic factors affecting land subsidence near Eloy, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Epstein, V.J.

    1987-01-01

    At an extensometer site near Eloy, Arizona, 1.09 m of land subsidence caused by groundwater withdrawal were measured by leveling in 1965-83. The extensometer, which partially penetrates the compressible sediments, recorded 0.82 m of compaction during the same period. By use of a one-dimensional model, cumulative daily compaction values were simulated to within an average of 0.0038 m of the actual values. Land subsidence was simulated to within an average of 0.011 m using the same model in conjunction with geohydrologic data of the sediments below the extensometer. A highly compressible clay layer that is 24.38 m thick was partially penetrated by the extensometer. The simulation indicated that the layer was driving compaction and land subsidence linearly with respect to time, despite the presence of other compacting layers. Because of its thickness and compressibility, this layer can be expected to continue to compact after applied vertical stresses have stopped increasing and other layers have stopped compacting. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the compressibility of fine-grained sediments (expressed as specific storage) is one of the factors to which compact is most sensitive. Preconsolidation stress and hydraulic conductivity also affect land subsidence near Eloy, Arizona. (Author 's abstract)

  10. Identification of factors affecting birth rate in Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zámková, Martina; Blašková, Veronika

    2013-10-01

    This article is concerned with identifying economic factors primarily that affect birth rates in Czech Republic. To find the relationship between the magnitudes, we used the multivariate regression analysis and for modeling, we used a time series of annual values (1994-2011) both economic indicators and indicators related to demographics. Due to potential problems with apparent dependence we first cleansed all series obtained from the Czech Statistical Office using first differences. It is clear from the final model that meets all assumptions that there is a positive correlation between birth rates and the financial situation of households. We described the financial situation of households by GDP per capita, gross wages and consumer price index. As expected a positive correlation was proved for GDP per capita and gross wages and negative dependence was proved for the consumer price index. In addition to these economic variables in the model there were used also demographic characteristics of the workforce and the number of employed people. It can be stated that if the Czech Republic wants to support an increase in the birth rate, it is necessary to consider the financial support for households with small children.

  11. Affective and cognitive factors influencing sensitivity to probabilistic information.

    PubMed

    Tyszka, Tadeusz; Sawicki, Przemyslaw

    2011-11-01

    In study 1 different groups of female students were randomly assigned to one of four probabilistic information formats. Five different levels of probability of a genetic disease in an unborn child were presented to participants (within-subject factor). After the presentation of the probability level, participants were requested to indicate the acceptable level of pain they would tolerate to avoid the disease (in their unborn child), their subjective evaluation of the disease risk, and their subjective evaluation of being worried by this risk. The results of study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that an experience-based probability format decreases the subjective sense of worry about the disease, thus, presumably, weakening the tendency to overrate the probability of rare events. Study 2 showed that for the emotionally laden stimuli, the experience-based probability format resulted in higher sensitivity to probability variations than other formats of probabilistic information. These advantages of the experience-based probability format are interpreted in terms of two systems of information processing: the rational deliberative versus the affective experiential and the principle of stimulus-response compatibility. PMID:21689126

  12. Factors affecting the rate of hydrolysis of starch in food.

    PubMed

    Snow, P; O'Dea, K

    1981-12-01

    After accurate determination of the content of available carbohydrate in a wide variety of cereals, as in vitro method was used to study factors that influence hydrolysis rates of starch in foods. Fiber, physical form, cooking, and the possible presence of a natural amylase inhibitor were all shown to affect hydrolysis rates of starch. Fiber only exerted an inhibiting effect on the rate of hydrolysis when it formed a physical barrier to limit access of the hydrolytic enzymes to the starch (as in whole brown rice, for example). Particle size played an important role in determining the rate of hydrolysis. Cooking made the starch much more readily available for enzymic hydrolysis presumably by gelatinizing it. Stoneground wholemeal flour was hydrolyzed more slowly than white flour. This is consistent with the presence of a natural amylase inhibitor that has been isolated from wheat germ in the whole grain. Our results suggest that such amylase inhibitor activity is destroyed by passage through the roller mill, since the starch in wheat germ and standard wholemeal flour (i.e., not stoneground but reconstituted after passage through the roller mill) was hydrolyzed at a rate identical to white flour. PMID:6172034

  13. Factors Affecting Fiber Design and Selection for Advanced Ceramic Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCarlo, James A.

    1998-01-01

    Structural Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) have the potential for application in the hot sections of a variety of advanced propulsion and power systems. It is therefore necessary to have a general understanding of the key properties of CMC and Reinforcing Fibers. This need is complicated by the wide variety of application conditions and structural requirements for which CMC's will be used, and the proprietary concerns of the design engineers. CMC's, to be successful, must display properties which are competitive with the currently used high temperature structural materials: (i.e., Iron and Nickel based superalloys, tough monolithic ceramics, and carbon/carbon composites.) Structural CMC offers several areas of competition: (1) performance, (i.e., strength and strength retention, creep resistance, and thermal conductivity), (2) reliability (i.e., environmental durability, and damage tolerance) and (3) processing (i.e., capability for varying sizes and shapes, and cost effective fabrication). The presentation further discusses, and illustrates with fiber and CMC data the key fiber properties and processes which strongly affect each CMC area of competition. The presentation further discusses the current knowledge of the important factors which control the key fiber properties. A design guidelines for the optimum fiber characteristics is developed, and the currently available fibers are compared against those guidelines.

  14. Factors affecting the bacteriological contamination of commercial washing machines.

    PubMed

    Legnani, P P; Leoni, E

    1997-10-01

    Wash water from self-service washing machines in three commercial launderettes of Bologna (Italy) were examined to verify which factors affect their bacterial contamination and to determine which procedures in the laundering process have the most significant effects on the removal of bacteria. Four washing formulas were compared: a delicates cycle (programmed temperature 25-30 degrees C; actual temperature: 28-31 degrees C); a whites cycle (programmed temperature: 80-90 degrees C; actual temperature: 50-57.5 degrees C); a delicates cycle with the addition of an oxygen-based bleach safe for delicate fabrics and a whites cycle with the addition of an oxygen-based bleach. Bacterial contamination of washing machines was higher in the launderette most heavely used, and, furthermore, it was in relation with the washing temperature and the use of bleaches. The low temperature laundering cycle (20-30 degrees C) did not guarantee elimination of bacterial content from either the inside of the washing machine or from the fabric being washed. Washing with water at a higher temperature, of about 55 degrees C, or adding an oxygen-based bleach to the low temperature cycle did ensure a significant reduction in bacterial recovery from water samples and fabrics, but did not prevent bacteria such as P. aeruginosa from surviving inside the washing machine. Only the addition of bleaches to the hot water program ensured the almost total elimination of bacteria and also guaranteed their elimination from protected parts of the drum. PMID:9638885

  15. Midterm Outcome of Femoral Artery Stenting and Factors Affecting Patency

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jae Seoung; Park, Keun-Myoung; Jeon, Yong Sun; Cho, Soon Gu; Hong, Kee Chun; Shin, Woo Young; Choe, Yun-Mee; Shin, Seok-Hwan; Kim, Kyung Rae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the early and midterm results of superficial femoral artery (SFA) stenting with self-expanding nitinol stents and to identify the factors affecting patency. Materials and Methods: SFA stenting was performed in 165 limbs of 117 patients from January 2009 to December 2013. Patients were followed-up for the first occurrence of occlusion or stenosis based on computed tomography and duplex scan results and a decrease in ankle brachial index of >15%. Results: During the follow-up period (mean, 15.3±3.2 months), no early thrombotic reocclusions occurred within 30 days, but in-stent restenosis developed in 78 limbs. The primary patency rates at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months were 78%, 66%, 42%, and 22%, respectively, and the secondary patency rates were 85%, 72%, 58%, and 58%, respectively. TASC II C or D lesions, stent length >8 cm, number of patent tibial arteries and diabetes were significantly associated with reintervention. Conclusion: The midterm results of stenting for SFA occlusive disease were disappointing because the primary and secondary patency rates at two years were 22% and 58%, respectively. Reintervention after SFA stenting remains a major problem, particularly in patients with diabetes mellitus or long TASC II C or D lesions. PMID:26719837

  16. [Characteristics of the hemostasis system affected by factors of flight].

    PubMed

    Fedulova, G A

    1988-01-01

    The importance of hemostasis investigations for present-day theoretical and clinical medicine is explained by the high incidence of thromboembolism which in recent years has noticeably increased in many countries of the world. Hemostasis is a physiological system that largely determines adaptability of man to the varying environment. The system may play a critical part in the sense that its disorders may cause severe complications. The mismatch of the system can be exemplified by the thrombohemorrhagic syndrome (THS) or disseminated intravascular coagulation of blood (DIC). Thrombogenesis or thromboembolism may strongly affect many physiological functions, particularly those of the cardiovascular and nervous systems. The process of thrombogenesis may also contribute significantly to atherosclerosis and should therefore be regarded as the leading factor in sudden and rapidly developing blood-vessel occlusion. Various aspects of blood coagulation are very important for the flying personnel exposed to many stress-effects in unusual and sometimes alien environments, e.g. hypoxia, acceleration, vibration, meteorological and climatic variations. In view of this, hemostasis maintenance as well as improved prophylaxis and treatment of thrombogenesis and atherosclerosis requires special attention. PMID:3419114

  17. Non-auditory factors affecting urban soundscape evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jin Yong; Lee, Pyoung Jik; Hong, Joo Young; Cabrera, Densil

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize urban spaces, which combine landscape, acoustics, and lighting, and to investigate people's perceptions of urban soundscapes through quantitative and qualitative analyses. A general questionnaire survey and soundwalk were performed to investigate soundscape perception in urban spaces. Non-auditory factors (visual image, day lighting, and olfactory perceptions), as well as acoustic comfort, were selected as the main contexts that affect soundscape perception, and context preferences and overall impressions were evaluated using an 11-point numerical scale. For qualitative analysis, a semantic differential test was performed in the form of a social survey, and subjects were also asked to describe their impressions during a soundwalk. The results showed that urban soundscapes can be characterized by soundmarks, and soundscape perceptions are dominated by acoustic comfort, visual images, and day lighting, whereas reverberance in urban spaces does not yield consistent preference judgments. It is posited that the subjective evaluation of reverberance can be replaced by physical measurements. The categories extracted from the qualitative analysis revealed that spatial impressions such as openness and density emerged as some of the contexts of soundscape perception. PMID:22225033

  18. [Factors affecting young mothers' social and family relations after pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Maranhão, Thatiana Araújo; Gomes, Keila Rejane Oliveira; Silva, José Mário Nunes da

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to analyze factors affecting social and family relations of young mothers in the two-year postpartum period. This was a cross-sectional study of 464 young mothers in Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil, who gave birth during the first four months of 2006 in six maternity hospitals. Data were collected from May to December 2008 after identifying the young women in the maternity hospital records. Multivariate analysis used multinomial logistic regression. Married young women (including those in common-law marriages) were 80% less likely to have negative relations with their partners. Participants 20 to 22 years of age related 2.4 times better with their mothers than those 17 to 19 years of age. Young women not attending school showed 97% higher odds of negative changes in relations with friends, and Catholics were 50% less likely to have worse relations with friends following childbirth. Measures are needed to orient individuals living with young mothers (especially their partners and mothers) concerning the importance of support in this phase of life, particularly encouraging them to stay in school. PMID:24936816

  19. Factors Affecting the Habitability of Earth-like Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, Victoria; NAI-Virtual Planetary Laboratory Team

    2014-03-01

    Habitability is a measure of an environment's potential to support life. For exoplanets, the concept of habitability can be used broadly - to inform our calculations of the possibility and distribution of life elsewhere - or as a practical tool to inform mission designs and to prioritize specific targets in the search for extrasolar life. Although a planet's habitability does depend critically on the effect of stellar type and planetary semi-major axis on climate balance, work in the interdisciplinary field of astrobiology has identified many additional factors that can affect a planet's environment and its potential ability to support life. Life requires material for metabolism and structures, a liquid medium for chemical transport, and an energy source to drive metabolism and other life processes. Whether a planet's surface or sub-surface can provide these requirements is the result of numerous planetary and astrophysical processes that affect the planet's formation and evolution. Many of these factors are interdependent, and fall into three main categories: stellar effects, planetary effects and planetary system effects. Key abiotic processes affecting the resultant planetary environment include photochemistry (e.g. Segura et al., 2003; 2005), stellar effects on climate balance (e.g. Joshii et al., 2012; Shields et al., 2013), atmospheric loss (e.g. Lopez and Fortney, 2013), and gravitational interactions with the star (e.g. Barnes et al., 2013). In many cases, the effect of these processes is strongly dependent on a specific planet's existing environmental properties. Examples include the resultant UV flux at a planetary surface as a product of stellar activity and the strength of a planet's atmospheric UV shield (Segura et al., 2010); and the amount of tidal energy available to a planet to drive plate tectonics and heat the surface (Barnes et al., 2009), which is in turn due to a combination of stellar mass, planetary mass and composition, planetary orbital parameters and the gravitational influence of other planets in the system. A thorough assessment of a planet's environment and its potential habitability is a necessary first step in the search for biosignatures. Targeted environmental characteristics include surface temperature and pressure (e.g. Misra et al., 2013), a census of bulk and trace atmospheric gases, and whether there are signs of liquid water on the planetary surface (e.g. Robinson et al., 2010). The robustness of a planetary biosignature is dependent on being able to characterize the environment sufficiently well, and to understand likely star-planet interactions, to preclude formation of a biosignature gas via abiotic processes such as photochemistry (e.g. Segura et al., 2007; Domagal-Goldman et al., 2011; Grenfell et al., 2012). Here we also discuss potential false positives for O2 and O3, which, in large quantities, are often considered robust biosignatures for oxygenic photosynthesis. There is clearly significant future work required to better identify and understand the key environmental processes and interactions that allow a planet to support life, and to distinguish life's global impact on an environment from the environment itself.

  20. Urban vs. rural factors that affect adult asthma.

    PubMed

    Jie, Yu; Isa, Zaleha Md; Jie, Xu; Ju, Zhang Long; Ismail, Noor Hassim

    2013-01-01

    In this review, our aim was to examine the influence of geographic variations on asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults, which is important for improving our understanding, identifying the burden, and for developing and implementing interventions aimed at reducing asthma morbidity. Asthma is a complex inflammatory disease of multifactorial origin, and is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The disparities in asthma prevalence and morbidity among the world's geographic locations are more likely to be associated with environmental exposures than genetic differences. In writing this article, we found that the indoor factors most consistently associated with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in adults included fuel combustion, mold growth, and environmental tobacco smoke in both urban and rural areas. Asthma and asthma-related symptoms occurred more frequently in urban than in rural areas, and that difference correlated with environmental risk exposures, SES, and healthcare access. Environmental risk factors to which urban adults were more frequently exposed than rural adults were dust mites,high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle.Exposure to indoor biological contaminants in the urban environment is common.The main risk factors for developing asthma in urban areas are atopy and allergy to house dust mites, followed by allergens from animal dander. House dust mite exposure may potentially explain differences in diagnosis of asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults in urban vs. rural areas. In addition, the prevalence of asthma morbidity increases with urbanization. High levels of vehicle emissions,Western lifestyles and degree of urbanization itself, may affect outdoor and thereby indoor air quality. In urban areas, biomass fuels have been widely replaced by cleaner energy sources at home, such as gas and electricity, but in most developing countries, coal is still a major source of fuel for cooking and heating, particularly in winter. Moreover, exposure to ETS is common at home or at work in urban areas.There is evidence that asthma prevalence and morbidity is less common in rural than in urban areas. The possible reasons are that rural residents are exposed early in life to stables and to farm milk production, and such exposures are protective against developing asthma morbidity. Even so, asthma morbidity is disproportionately high among poor inner-city residents and in rural populations. A higher proportion of adult residents of nonmetropolitan areas were characterized as follows:aged 55 years or older, no previous college admission, low household income, no health insurance coverage, and could not see a doctor due to healthcare service availability, etc. In rural areas, biomass fuels meet more than 70% of the rural energy needs. Progress in adopting modern energy sources in rural areas has been slow. The most direct health impact comes from household energy use among the poor, who depend almost entirely on burning biomass fuels in simple cooking devices that are placed in inadequately ventilated spaces. Prospective studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of biomass smoke on lung health among adults in rural areas.Geographic differences in asthma susceptibility exist around the world. The reason for the differences in asthma prevalence in rural and urban areas may be due to the fact that populations have different lifestyles and cultures, as well as different environmental exposures and different genetic backgrounds. Identifying geographic disparities in asthma hospitalizations is critical to implementing prevention strategies,reducing morbidity, and improving healthcare financing for clinical asthma treatment. Although evidence shows that differences in the prevalence of asthma do exist between urban and rural dwellers in many parts of the world, including in developed countries, data are inadequate to evaluate the extent to which different pollutant exposures contribute to asthma morbidity and severity of asthma between urban and rural areas. PMID:23625129

  1. Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J; Dedecker, R

    2005-01-01

    The atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI) measures the absolute infrared (IR) spectral radiance (watts per square meter per steradian per wavenumber) of the sky directly above the instrument. The spectral measurement range of the instrument is 3300 to 520 wavenumbers (cm-1) or 3-19.2 microns for the normal-range instruments and 3300 to 400 cm-1 or 3-25 microns, for the extended-range polar instruments. Spectral resolution is 1.0 cm-1. Instrument field-of-view is 1.3 degrees. A calibrated sky radiance spectrum is produced every 8 minutes in normal mode and every minute in rapid sampling mode. The actual sample scan time is 20-30 sec in rapid sampling mode with periodic gaps when the instrument is looking at the blackbodies. Rapid sampling will become available in all AERIs. Rapid sampling time will eventually be reduced to data every 20 seconds. The AERI data can be used for 1) evaluating line-by-line radiative transport codes, 2) detecting/quantifying cloud effects on ground-based measurements of infrared spectral radiance (and hence is valuable for cloud property retrievals), and 3) calculating vertical atmospheric profiles of temperature and water vapor and the detection of trace gases.

  2. Radiance Measurement for Low Density Mars Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruden, Brett A.

    2012-01-01

    We report measurements of radiance behind a shock wave in Martian simulant (96% CO2, 4% N2) atmosphere at conditions relevant for aerodynamic decelerators. Shock waves are generated in the NASA Ames Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) facility at velocities from 6-8 km/s and freestream densities from 1.2-5.9 x 10(exp -4) kilograms per cubic meter (0.05-0.25 Torr, corresponding to 35-50 km altitude). Absolute radiance is measured as a function of wavelength and position in the shock. Radiance measurements extend from the vacuum ultraviolet to near infrared (120-1650 nm). As at higher density/velocity, radiation is dominate by CO 4th positive radiation in the vacuum ultraviolet, though CN contribution is also significant. At most low density conditions, the shock does not relax to equilibrium over several centimeters. A small number of measurements in the mid-infrared were performed to quantify radiation from the fundamental vibrational transition in CO, and this is found to be a minor contributor to the overall radiance at these speeds. Efforts to extend test time and reliability in the 60 cm (24) shock tube will be discussed in the full paper.

  3. Evaluation of Factors Affecting Powdered Drug Reconstitution in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, Grant; Johnston, Smith; Marshburn, Tom

    1999-01-01

    Owing to the high cost of transporting mass into space, and the small volume available for equipment in the Space Shuttle Orbiter and the International Space Station, refrigeration space is extremely limited. For this reason, there exists strong motivation for transporting certain drugs in powdered form so that they do not require refrigeration. When needed, the powdered drug will be mixed with saline to obtain a liquid form that may be injected intravenously. While this is a relatively simple task in a 1-G environment, there are some difficulties that may be encountered in 0-G. In non-accelerated spaceflight, gravitational and inertial forces are eliminated allowing other smaller forces, such as capillary forces and surface tension, to dominate the behavior of fluids. For instance, water slowly ejected from a straw will tend to form a sphere, while fluid in a container will tend to wet the inside surface forming a highly rounded meniscus. Initial attempts at mixing powdered drugs with saline in microgravity have shown a tendency toward forming foamy emulsions instead of the desired homogeneous solution. The predominance of adhesive forces between the drug particles and the interface tensions at the gas/liquid and solid/liquid interfaces drastically reduce the rate of deaggregation of the drug powder and also reduce the rate of absorption of saline by the powder mass. In addition, the capillary forces cause the saline to wet the inside of the container, thus trapping air bubbles within the liquid. The rate of dissolution of a powder drug is directly proportional to the amount of surface area of the solid that is exposed to liquid solvent. The surface area of drug that is in contact with the liquid is greatly reduced in microgravity and, as a result, the dissolution rate is reduced as well. The KC-135 research described here was aimed at evaluating the extent to which it is possible to perform drug reconstitution in the weightlessness of parabolic flight using standard pharmacological supplies. The experiment included a parametric assessment of possible factors affecting the reconstitution process. The specific questions that we wished to answer were: (1) Is it possible to reconstitute powdered drugs in weightlessness using standard pharmacological equipment? (2) What are the differences between drug reconstitution in a 1-G and a 0-G environment? (3) What techniques of mixing the drug powder and diluent are more successful? (4) What physical and chemical factors play a role in determining the success of mixing and dissolution? (5) Is it necessary to employ crewmember and equipment restraints during the reconstitution process?

  4. Factors affecting stall use for different freestall bases.

    PubMed

    Wagner-Storch, A M; Palmer, R W; Kammel, D W

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare stall use (stall occupancy and cow position) by barn side for factors affecting stall use. A closed circuit television system recorded stall use four times per day for a 9-mo period starting May 9, 2001. Six factors were analyzed: stall base, distance to water, stall location within stall base section, stall location within barn, inside barn temperature, and length of time cows were exposed to stall bases. Two barn sides with different stocking densities were analyzed: low (66%), with cows milked by robotic milker; and high (100%), with cows milked 2X in parlor. Six stall base types were tested: two mattresses, a waterbed, a rubber mat, concrete, and sand (high side only). The base types were grouped 3 to 7 stalls/section and randomly placed in each row. Cows spent more time in mattress-based stalls, but the highest percentage lying was in sand-based stalls. The following significant stall occupancy percentages were found: sand had the highest percentage of cows lying on the high stocking density side (69%), followed by mattress type 1 (65%) > mattress type 2 (57%) > waterbed (45%) > rubber mat (33%) > concrete (23%). Mattress type 1 had the highest percentage stalls occupied (88%), followed by mattress type 2 (84%) > sand (79%) > soft rubber mat (65%) > waterbed (62%) > concrete (39%). On the low stocking rate side, mattress type 1 had the highest percentage cows lying (45%) and occupied (59.6%), followed by mattress type 2 > waterbed > soft rubber mat > concrete. Cow lying and stalls occupied percentages were highest for stalls 1) not at the end of a section, and 2) on the outside row, and varied by base type for time cows exposed to stalls and inside barn temperature. Lying and occupied percentages were different for different mattress types. The percentage of stalls with cows standing was higher for mat and mattress-based stalls. Results show mattress type 1 and sand to be superior and rubber mats and concrete inferior stall bases. PMID:12836963

  5. Factors affecting the degradation of pharmaceuticals in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Sara C; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2009-12-01

    Pharmaceuticals may be released to the soil environment through the application of biosolids to land. To understand those factors affecting the persistence of pharmaceuticals in the soil environment, the present study was performed to assess the effects of soil type, the presence of biosolids, and the impact of chemical mixture interactions on the degradation of three pharmaceuticals: naproxen, carbamazepine, and fluoxetine. Single-compound studies showed that naproxen degraded in a range of soils with half-lives ranging from 3.1 to 6.9 d and in biosolids with a half-life of 10.2 d. No relationships were observed between degradation rate and soil physicochemical properties and soil bioactivity. For naproxen, addition of biosolids to soils reduced the degradation rate observed in the soil-only studies, with half-lives in the soil-biosolid systems ranging from 3.9 to 15.1 d. Carbamazepine and fluoxetine were found to be persistent in soils, biosolids, and soil-biosolid mixtures. When degradation was assessed using a mixture of the three study compounds and the sulfonamide antibiotic sulfamethazine, the degradation behavior of fluoxetine and carbamazepine was similar to that observed in the single compound studies (i.e., no degradation). However, the degradation rate of naproxen in soils, biosolids, and soil-biosolid systems spiked with the mixture was significantly slower than in the single-compound studies. As degradation studies for risk assessment purposes are performed using single substances in soil-only studies, it is possible that current risk assessment procedures will underestimate environmental impacts. Further work is therefore warranted on a larger range of substances, soils, biosolid types, and chemical mixtures to better understand the fate of pharmaceuticals in terrestrial systems. PMID:19580336

  6. Factors affecting visibility of a target tissue in histologic sections.

    PubMed

    McGavin, M D

    2014-01-01

    The objective of histologic techniques is to stain the subject with high specificity and high visibility. Visibility depends on the microscope's resolution and contrast and on the microscopist's skill at optimizing the microscope's image. It also depends on histotechnological factors, which include specificity and differentiation of the stain, density of background staining (particularly in silver stains), innate color, and grayscale contrasts of the dyes in the stains and color and density of the counterstain. If contrast is not optimal, the image should be evaluated on the basis of 2 types of contrast-color and grayscale. Complementary colors have maximum color contrast, and the color triangle is useful in the selection of a suitable counterstain. Grayscale contrast is a function of the density of a stain. If dyes capable of staining the target and backgrounds tissue do not have optimal color contrast, the only method of increasing contrast is to change the grayscale value of one of the stains, usually the counterstain. Colors can have a subconscious effect on a viewer. Depending on whether they are aesthetically pleasing, they may influence the rigor of and time spent on the histopathologic examination. Maximizing the specificity of stains such as hematoxylin, eosin, trichrome, and Luxol fast blue (LFB) depends on optimal differentiation. In differentiation of counterstains such as methylene blue in the Ziehl-Neelsen stain, its recommended density is conveniently expressed as a grayscale value. Independent evaluation of color and grayscale contrasts is very helpful in determining the cause of low contrast in an image. This review discusses aspects of the histotechnique affecting the visibility of tissue components. PMID:24395975

  7. Factors affecting members' evaluation of agri-business ventures' effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Seyyed Mahmoud; Hedjazi, Yousef

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents work to identify factors affecting effectiveness of agri-business ventures (A-BVs) on the side of providers as perceived by their members. A survey was conducted among 95 members of A-BVs in Zanjan province, Iran. To collect data, a questionnaire was designed. Two distinct groups of A-BVs with low (group 1) and high (group 2) perceived (evaluated) levels of effectiveness were revealed. The study showed that there were significant differences between the two groups on important characteristics of A-BVs and their members. The study also found that there were statistically significant relationships between A-BVs' governance structure and capacity, management and organization characteristics and the perceived effectiveness, whereas there were no statistically significant relationships between A-BVs' advisory methods characteristic applied by members and the perceived effectiveness. Logistic regression results also showed that level of application of rules encouraging members' active participation in important decision makings, clear terms of reference to guide contracting procedures, roles, and responsibilities of parties involved, type of people served and geographical area of program coverage, and members' ability to use Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) were predictors of the perceived (evaluated) effectiveness of A-BVs. The study showed that evaluation of members of effectiveness of A-BVs would not be the same. It is suggested that Iranian public agricultural extension organization, as responsible organization for monitoring and evaluating services conducted by A-BVs, considered these differences between members with different levels of some important variables. PMID:20708268

  8. Factors affecting a climber's ability to ascend Mont Blanc.

    PubMed

    Tsianos, G; Woolrich-Burt, L; Aitchison, T; Peacock, A; Watt, M; Montgomery, H; Watt, I; Grant, S

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the factors affecting a climber's ability to ascend Mont Blanc using a number of variables collected at the Gouter Hut (3,817 m) before and after an attempted ascent on the Mont Blanc summit. Subjects (n=285) were tested at 3,817 m prior to their ascent of Mont Blanc. Maximum height ascended in the last 14 days was recorded. End tidal CO2, arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), heart rate and respiratory rate were measured using a Capnograph (Nellcor Patrick NPB75). Acute mountain sickness (AMS) was assessed using the Lake Louise scoring system. Summit information is available for 216 subjects. None of the subjects who attained 4,000 m in the previous 14 days failed to reach the summit (P=0.04). Previous recent exposure to an altitude of 4,000 m resulted in faster ascent times to the summit than those who had not been above 3,000 m in the previous 14 days (4.02+/-0.6 vs. 4.46+/-0.8 h, P=0.009), higher SaO2 on arrival at the Gouter Hut on day 1 (88.6+/-5 vs. 86.3+/-6%, P=0.004) and lower AMS scores upon arrival at the Gouter Hut after the attempted ascent to the summit 2.5+/-1.8 versus 4.7+/-2.5 U (P=0.001), respectively. It is concluded that recent exposure to 4,000 m confers an advantage to those who wish to ascend a 4,800 m peak. PMID:16235066

  9. Factors affecting nutritional status of Malaysian primary school children.

    PubMed

    Zaini, M Z Anuar; Lim, C T; Low, W Y; Harun, F

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the nutritional status of a randomly selected cohort of school children and the factors affecting it. This random survey was conducted in the state of Selangor, involving 1,405 primary students (aged 9-10 years from 54 national primary schools). Physical examination was carried out on all the students. Information on the students was also obtained from the parents. Blood samples were taken by using the finger pricking technique. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of physical growth. The students were mainly from urban areas (82.9%). The mean age was 9.71 years and a higher proportion was females (51%). Malays constituted 83.6%, Indians 11.6% and Chinese 4.2% of the study population. The mean weight and height were 32.30 kg and 135.18 cm respectively. The mean BMI was 17.42 kg/m2, with 1.2% of the students underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight and 6.3% were obese. Nutritional status was significantly related to blood pressure, history of breast feeding, eating fast food, taking canned/bottled drinks, income and educational level of parents. Significant differences in nutritional status between sexes and locations (rural/urban) were also found. The prevalence of overweight and obese children was of concern. There is thus an urgent need for the School Health Program to periodically monitor the school children's eating habits and physical growth. Appropriate counselling on nutritional intake and physical activities should be given not only to schoolchildren but also to their teachers and parents or caregivers. PMID:16425649

  10. Factors affecting lactate and malate utilization by Selenomonas ruminantium.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, J D; Martin, S A

    1997-01-01

    Lactate utilization by Selenomonas ruminantium is stimulated in the presence of malate. Because little information is available describing lactate-plus-malate utilization by this organism, the objective of this study was to evaluate factors affecting utilization of these two organic acids by two strains of S. ruminantium. When S. ruminantium HD4 and H18 were grown in batch culture on DL-lactate and DL-malate, both strains coutilized both organic acids for the initial 20 to 24 h of incubation and acetate, propionate, and succinate accumulated. However, when malate and succinate concentrations reached 7 mM, malate utilization ceased, and with strain H18, there was a complete cessation of DL-lactate utilization. Malate utilization by both strains was also inhibited in the presence of glucose. S. ruminantium HD4 was unable to grow on 6 mM DL-lactate at extracellular pH 5.5 in continuous culture (dilution rate, 0.05 h-1) and washed out of the culture vessel. Addition of 8 mM DL-malate to the medium prevented washout on 6 mM DL-lactate at pH 5.5 and resulted in succinate accumulation. Addition of malate also increased bacterial protein, acetate, and propionate concentrations in continuous culture. These results suggest that 8 mM DL-malate enhances the ability of strain HD4 to grow on 6 mM DL-lactate at extracellular pH 5.5. PMID:9471965

  11. Reconstruction in oral malignancy: Factors affecting morbidity of various procedures

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Suvadip; Chakrabarti, Preeti Rihal; Desai, Sanjay M.; Agrawal, Deepak; Mehta, Dharmendra Y.; Pancholi, Mayank

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objective: (1) To study the age and sex distribution of patient with oral malignancies. (2) To analyze various types of surgery performed. (3) Evaluation of reconstruction and factors affecting complications and its relation to the type of reconstruction. Materials and Methods: Cases of oral malignancies, undergoing surgery for the same in Sri Aurobindo Medical College and PG Institute, Indore from the period from October 1, 2012, to March 31, 2015. Results: Out of analysis of 111 cases of oral malignancy, 31 (27.9%) cases were in the fifth decade of life with male to female ratio 1.9:1. The commonest site of cancer was buccal mucosa. Forty-seven cases (43.2%) were in stage IVa. Diabetes was the most common co-morbidity reported, accounting for 53.9% of cases with reported morbidity. Tobacco chewing was the common entity in personal habits. All the cases underwent neck dissection along with resection of the primary. Hemimandibulectomy was the most preferred form of primary resection accounting for 53.15% (59 cases), followed by wide resection of primary 27% (30 cases). Pectoralis major myocutaneous (PMMC) flap only was the most common reconstruction across the study population. PMMC alone accounted for 38.7% (43 cases). The infection rate was 16.21%. PMMC alone accounted for 5 out of 18 (27.8%) of total infection rate, and 4.5% of the total study population. PMMC + deltopectoral accounted for 5 out of 18 (27.8%) of total infection rate, and 4.5% of the total study population. Conclusion: PMMC is a major workhorse for reconstruction with better functional outcome and acceptance among operated patients. PMID:26981469

  12. 78 FR 46418 - Proposed Information Collection (Obligation To Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Obligation To Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Obligation to Report Factors Affecting... dependents, may affect the amount of benefit that he or she receives or affect the right to receive...

  13. Assimilation of the Microwave Limb Sounder Radiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wargan, K.; Read, W.; Livesey, N.; Wagner, P.; Nguyen. H.; Pawson, S.

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that the assimilation of limb-sounder data can significantly improve the representation of ozone in NASA's GEOS Data Assimilation Systems (GEOS-DAS), particularly in the stratosphere. The studies conducted so far utilized retrieved data from the MIPAS, POAM, ILAS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS MLS) instruments. Direct assimilation of the radiance data can be seen as the natural next step to those studies. The motivation behind working with radiances is twofold. First, retrieval algorithms use a priori data which are either climatological or are obtained from previous analyses. This introduces additional uncertainty and, in some cases, may lead to "self-contamination"- when the a priori is taken from the same assimilation system in which subsequently ingests the retrieved observations. Second, radiances can be available in near real time thus providing an opportunity for operational assimilation, which could help improve the use of infrared radiance instruments from operational satellite instruments. In this presentation we summarize our ongoing work on an implementation of the assimilation of EOS MLS radiances into the GEOS-5 DAS. This work focuses on assimilation of band 7 brightness temperatures which are sensitive to ozone. Our implementation uses the MLS Callable Forward Model developed by the MLS team at NASA JPL as the observation operator. We will describe our approach and recent results which are not yet final. In particular, we will demonstrate that this approach has a potential to improve the vertical structure of ozone in the lower tropical stratosphere as compared with the retrieved MLS product. We will discuss the computational efficiency of this implementation.

  14. FACTORS AFFECTING THE PHOTOCHEMICAL TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The photochemical treatment of hazardous waste can be optimized by taking into account several factors that influence the rates of photochemical reactions. Physical factors that facilitate photochemical treatment include: (1) maximizing the irradiated surface to volume ratio of t...

  15. FACTORS AFFECTING THE PHOTOCHEMICAL TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The photochemical treatment of hazardous waste can be optimized by taking into account various factors that influence the rates of photochemical reactions. Physical factors that facilitate photochemical treatment include: (1) maximizing the irradiated surface to volume ratio of t...

  16. Factors affecting transport of bacterial cells in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, A.L.; Herman, J.S.; Hornberger, G.M.

    1992-07-01

    This study focused on identification of factors associated with the biology, chemistry, and hydrology of the subsurface environment that control bacterial transport through that habitat. We determined that control is a complex interaction of biological factors such as cell size and hydrophobicity, geochemical factors such as ionic strength of the ground water, and hydrological factors including the presence of preferred flow paths in the porous medium.

  17. Service Oriented Gridded Atmospheric Radiances (SOAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halem, M.; Goldberg, M. D.; Tilmes, C.; Zhou, L.; Shen, S.; Yesha, Y.

    2005-12-01

    We are developing a scalable web service tool that can provide complex griding services on-demand for atmospheric radiance data sets from multiple temperature and moisture sounding sensors on the NASA and NOAA polar orbiting satellites collected over the past three decades. This server-to-server middle ware tool will provide the framework for transforming user requests for an arbitrary spatial/temporal/spectral gridded radiance data set from one or more instruments into an action to invoke a griding process from a set of scientifically validated application programs that have been developed to perform such functions. The invoked web service agents will access, subset, concatenate, convolve, perform statistical and physically based griding operations and present the data as specified level 3 gridded fields for analysis and visualization in multiple formats. Examples of the griding operations consist of spatial-temporal radiance averaging accounting for the field of view instrument response function, first footprint in grid bin, selecting min/max brightness temperatures within a grid element, ratios of channels, filtering, convolving high resolution spectral radiances to match broader band spectral radiances, limb adjustments, calculating variances of radiances falling in grid box and creating visual displays of these fields. The gridded web services tool will support both human input through a WWW GUI as well as a direct computer request through a W3C SOAP/XML web service interface. It will generate regional and global gridded data sets on demand. A second effort will demonstrate the ability to locate, access, subset and grid radiance data for any time period and resolution from remote archives of NOAA and NASA data. The system will queue the work flow requests, stage processing and delivery of arbitrary gridded data sets in a data base and notify the users when the request is completed. This tool will greatly expand satellite sounding data utilization by responsively meeting diverse user specified requests in terms of the spatial and temporal compositing of radiance fields. Moreover, the volume of sounder data records produced from current and future instruments varies from GB's to TB's per day and griding these sounding data can thin the volume to KB's to MB's per day making them easier to download to desktops and laptops. This not only will better serve a wider earth science community but makes these capabilities more readily useful to the education community. This presentation will describe the rationale for the project, an overview of the system architecture, a description of the framework for executing the applications on the distributed cluster and present examples of gridded service requests that are currently available. This demonstration project represents a foundation for the development of a distributed web service architecture that will be able to invoke requested services for temperature and moisture retrievals for arbitrary integrated gridded radiance data sets. We plan to extend the framework to accommodate such services for other earth observing instruments as well.

  18. Cognitive Factors Affecting Student Understanding of Geologic Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodick, Jeff; Orion, Nir

    2003-01-01

    Presents a model that describes how students reconstruct geological transformations over time. Defines the critical factors influencing reconstructive thinking: (1) the transformation scheme, which influences the other diachronic schemes; (2) knowledge of geological processes; and (3) extracognitive factors. (Author/KHR)

  19. SYNOPSIS OF DISCUSSION SESSION ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL FACTORS AFFECTING TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper documents the workshop discussion regarding the role of these factors in altering toxicity. or each factor, the nature, magnitude, and uncertainty of its empirical relation to the toxicity of various chemicals or chemical classes is discussed. limitations in the empiri...

  20. An Empirical Analysis of Factors Affecting Honors Program Completion Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Hallie; Raehsler, Rod D.; Fiedor, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important issues in any educational environment is identifying factors that promote academic success. A plethora of research on such factors exists across most academic fields, involving a wide range of student demographics, and the definition of student success varies across the range of studies published. The analysis in this…

  1. Examining Factors That Affect Students' Knowledge Sharing within Virtual Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Jinxia; Gunter, Glenda

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors that might impact student knowledge sharing within virtual teams through online discussion boards. These factors include: trust, mutual influence, conflict, leadership, and cohesion. A path model was developed to determine whether relationships exist among knowledge sharing from asynchronous group

  2. Factors Affecting Teachers' Student-Centered Classroom Computer Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Helmut Felix; Hron, Aemilian

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims at investigating which factors are relevant to induce teachers' student-centered classroom computer use. Survey data were collected from 361 teachers at comprehensive schools. Based on a systemic view of technology use in schools, different individual teacher characteristics and school contextual factors were examined.…

  3. Examining Factors That Affect Students' Knowledge Sharing within Virtual Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Jinxia; Gunter, Glenda

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors that might impact student knowledge sharing within virtual teams through online discussion boards. These factors include: trust, mutual influence, conflict, leadership, and cohesion. A path model was developed to determine whether relationships exist among knowledge sharing from asynchronous group…

  4. Factors Affecting Survival of Bacteriophage on Tomato Leaf Surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of bacteriophage to persist in the phyllosphere for extended periods is limited by many factors, including sunlight irradiation, especially in the UV zone, temperature, desiccation, and exposure to copper bactericides. The effects of these factors on persistence of phage and formulated p...

  5. Consideration of Factors Affecting Strip Effluent PH and Sodium Content

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.

    2015-07-29

    A number of factors were investigated to determine possible reasons for why the Strip Effluent (SE) can sometimes have higher than expected pH values and/or sodium content, both of which have prescribed limits. All of the factors likely have some impact on the pH values and Na content.

  6. Factors Affecting Teacher Satisfaction in an Urban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpert, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to distinguish factors that influence the satisfaction levels of teachers in urban school districts. This work also distinguished factors that directly impacted teachers' level of satisfaction towards their work and their attitude towards the administration of their schools. Forty-one teachers from two kindergarten…

  7. Factors affecting the strength of alkali-activated slag

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.D.; Scrivener, K.L.; Pratt, P.L. . Dept. of Materials)

    1994-01-01

    The effect of several factors on the strength of alkali activated slags has been investigated. The most important factors were found to be: the type of alkaline activator, the means of adding activator, the dosage of alkali, the type and fineness of slag, SiO[sub 2]/Na[sub 2]O ratio (modulus, Ms) when using waterglass solution, curing temperature, liquid/slag or water/slag ratio and additive. Some of these factors are interdependent and the effect of changing more than one is usually not additive. The optimum range for each factor is suggested through reviewing previous work and their recent results of a full factorial range strength study. The interaction of factors is considered and discussed throughout the paper, hoping to gain a better understanding of the processing of alkali-activated slag (AAS) cement and concrete.

  8. Factors That Affect Academic Performance Among Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Sansgiry, Sujit S.; Bhosle, Monali; Sail, Kavita

    2006-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine factors such as academic competence, test competence, time management, strategic studying, and test anxiety, and identify whether these factors could distinguish differences among students, based on academic performance and enrollment in the experiential program. Methods A cross-sectional study design utilizing questionnaires measuring previously validated constructs was used to evaluate the effect of these factors on students with low and high cumulative grade point averages (GPAs). Pharmacy students (N = 198) enrolled at the University of Houston participated in the study. Results Academic performance was significantly associated with factors such as academic competence and test competence. Students with a cumulative GPA of 3.0 or greater significantly differed in their level of test competence than those with a GPA of less than 3.0. Students enrolled in their experiential year differed from students enrolled in their second year of curriculum on factors such as test anxiety, academic competence, test competence, and time management skills. Conclusion Test competence was an important factor to distinguish students with low vs. high academic performance. Factors such as academic competence, test competence, test anxiety and time management improve as students' progress in their experiential year. PMID:17149433

  9. Effect of forest canopy closure on incoming solar radiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dottavio, C. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    In order to better understand the physical processes involved in defoliation assessment from remotely sensed data, a field study was designed to investigate the effect of forest canopy closure and other environmental variables on incoming solar radiation. Diffuse radiation measurements were recorded in red, infrared, and middle infrared wavelengths using the Mark 2 three band field radiometer. Results to date indicate that the percent canopy closure is the single most important variable affecting incoming solar radiation. In the visible and near infrared regions, interaction between time of day and date (defined later as solar zenith angle) also affect radiometric response. Aspect has only limited influence on radiance response. These same variables do not influence middle infrared response, however. Uniformity of the forest canopy appears to be more important. These results are compared to LANDSAT MSS classification results of gypsy moth defoliation.

  10. Cloud altitude determination from infrared spectral radiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, William L.; Frey, Richard

    1990-01-01

    The CO2 slicing method is generally recognized as the most accurate means of inferring cloud altitude from passive infrared radiance observations. The method is applicable to semi-transparent and broken clouds. During the cirrus FIRE and COHMEX field experiments, CO2 channel radiance data suitable for cloud altitude specification were achieved from moderate spectral resolution satellite sounders (NOAA-TOVS and GOES-VAS) and from a High spectral resolution Interferometer Spectrometer (HIS) flown on the NASA U2/ER2 aircraft. Also aboard the ER2 was a down-looking active lidar unit capable of providing cloud top pressure verifications with high accuracy. A third instrument, the Multispectral Atmospheric Mapping Sensor (MAMS) provided 50 meter resolution infrared window data which is used wtih radiosonde data to verify the heights of middle and low level clouds. Comparisons of lidar and MAMS/radiosonde ground truth cloud heights are made with those determined from: high resolution (0.5/cm) HIS spectra, HIS spectra degraded to the moderate resolution (15/cm) of the VAS/TOVS instruments, and spectrally averaged HIS radiances for individual pairs of VAS spectral channels. The results show that the best results are achieved from high resolution spectra; the RMS difference with the ground truth is 23 mb. The RMS differences between the infrared radiance determination and ground truth increase by 35 percent when the spectral resolution is degraded to the moderate spectral resolution of the VAS/TOVS instruments and by 52 to 183 percent, depending upon channel combinations, when only two spectral channels at VAS/TOVS spectral resolution are used.

  11. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer nadir spectral radiance comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shephard, Mark W.; Worden, Helen M.; Cady-Pereira, Karen E.; Lampel, Michael; Luo, Mingzhao; Bowman, Kevin W.; Sarkissian, Edwin; Beer, Reinhard; Rider, David M.; Tobin, David C.; Revercomb, Henry E.; Fisher, Brendan M.; Tremblay, Denis; Clough, Shepard A.; Osterman, Gregory B.; Gunson, Michael

    2008-08-01

    The fundamental measurement of the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) on board the Aura spacecraft is upwelling infrared spectral radiances. Accurate TES retrievals of surface and atmospheric parameters such as trace gas amounts critically depend on well-calibrated radiance spectra. On-orbit TES nadir observations were evaluated using carefully selected, nearly coincident spectral radiance measurements from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on Aqua and special scanning high-resolution interferometer sounder (SHIS) underflights. Modifications to the L1B calibration algorithms for TES version 2 data resulted in significant improvements for the TES-AIRS comparisons. The comparison of TES with SHIS (adjusted for geometric differences) show mean and standard deviation differences of less than 0.3 K at warmer brightness temperatures of 290-295 K. The TES/SHIS differences are less than 0.4 K at brightness temperatures of 265-270 K. There are larger TES/SHIS comparison differences for higher-frequency TES 1A1 filter, which has less upwelling radiance signal. The TES/AIRS comparisons show mean differences of less than 0.3 K at 290-295 K and less than 0.5 K at 265-270 K with standard deviation less than 0.6 K for the majority of the spectral regions and brightness temperature range. A procedure to warm up the optical bench for better alignment in December 2005 gave a fourfold increase in the signal-to-noise ratio at higher frequency ranges. Recent results from a long-term comparison of TES sea surface temperature (SST) observations with the Reynolds optimally interpolated (ROI) SST product demonstrates TES radiometric stability.

  12. Extraction of Profile Information from Cloud Contaminated Radiances. Appendixes 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W. L.; Zhou, D. K.; Huang, H.-L.; Li, Jun; Liu, X.; Larar, A. M.

    2003-01-01

    Clouds act to reduce the signal level and may produce noise dependence on the complexity of the cloud properties and the manner in which they are treated in the profile retrieval process. There are essentially three ways to extract profile information from cloud contaminated radiances: (1) cloud-clearing using spatially adjacent cloud contaminated radiance measurements, (2) retrieval based upon the assumption of opaque cloud conditions, and (3) retrieval or radiance assimilation using a physically correct cloud radiative transfer model which accounts for the absorption and scattering of the radiance observed. Cloud clearing extracts the radiance arising from the clear air portion of partly clouded fields of view permitting soundings to the surface or the assimilation of radiances as in the clear field of view case. However, the accuracy of the clear air radiance signal depends upon the cloud height and optical property uniformity across the two fields of view used in the cloud clearing process. The assumption of opaque clouds within the field of view permits relatively accurate profiles to be retrieved down to near cloud top levels, the accuracy near the cloud top level being dependent upon the actual microphysical properties of the cloud. The use of a physically correct cloud radiative transfer model enables accurate retrievals down to cloud top levels and below semi-transparent cloud layers (e.g., cirrus). It should also be possible to assimilate cloudy radiances directly into the model given a physically correct cloud radiative transfer model using geometric and microphysical cloud parameters retrieved from the radiance spectra as initial cloud variables in the radiance assimilation process. This presentation reviews the above three ways to extract profile information from cloud contaminated radiances. NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed-Interferometer radiance spectra and Aqua satellite AIRS radiance spectra are used to illustrate how cloudy radiances can be used in the profile retrieval process.

  13. One Moon, many measurements 1: Radiance values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieters, C. M.; Boardman, J. W.; Ohtake, M.; Matsunaga, T.; Haruyama, J.; Green, R. O.; Mall, U.; Staid, M. I.; Isaacson, P. J.; Yokota, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Besse, S.; Sunshine, J. M.

    2013-09-01

    Several modern optical instruments orbited the Moon during 2008 and 2009 onboard the SELENE and Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft and provided a welcomed feast of spectroscopic data to be used for scientific analyses. The different spatial and spectral resolutions of these sensors along with diverse illumination geometry during data acquisition make each set of data unique, and each instrument contributes special value to integrated science analyses. In order to provide the maximum science benefit, we have undertaken a careful cross-validation of radiance data among these orbital instruments and also a set of systematic data acquired using Earth-based telescopes. Most radiance values at 750 nm fall between 0 and 100 W/(m2 μm sr), but a small important fraction can be up to ×2 to ×3 that value, with the largest values occurring at the highest spatial resolution. All instruments are in agreement about overall spectral properties of lunar materials, but small systematic differences are documented between instruments. Lunar radiance values measured with remote sensors for landing sites are all not as high as that estimated from laboratory measurements of returned soil. This is largely because laboratory measurements of lunar soils cannot retain or duplicate the fine structure of lunar regolith found in the natural space environment.

  14. Factors affecting minority population proximity to hazardous facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Nieves, A.L. |

    1995-04-01

    Disproportionate exposure of minority groups to environmental hazards has been attributed to ``environmental racism`` by some authors, without systematic investigation of the factors underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range of facility types and explores the effects of urban and income factors. A statistically significant inverse relationship is found between the percentage of non-Hispanic Whites and virtually all facility categories in all regions. Except for Hispanics in the South, all such associations for minority groups show a direct relationship, though some are nonsignificant. The geographic concentration of facilities is more closely tied to urbanization than to economic factors. Controlling for both urban and economic factors, minority population concentration is still a significant explanatory variable for some facility types in some regions. This finding is most consistent for African-Americans.

  15. Factors Affecting Quality Enhancement Procedures for E-Learning Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jara, Magdalena; Mellar, Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper reports on an empirical study exploring the way in which campus-based higher education institutions (HEIs) in the UK apply their internal quality assurance and enhancement (QA/QE) procedures to their e-learning courses. The purpose of this paper is to identify those characteristics of e-learning courses which affected the…

  16. Factors Affecting Willingness to Communicate in a Spanish University Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahuerta, Ana Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the relationships among the variables believed to affect Spanish undergraduates' willingness to communicate in English. The participants were 195 students majoring in several degrees at the University of Oviedo. A questionnaire and a standardized English Test were administered to the students in February-March 2013.…

  17. Institutional Factors Affecting Biophysical Outcomes in Forest Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Eric A.

    2009-01-01

    Although there is considerable interest in the impact of diverse policies affecting the biophysical outcomes in forests, gaining a substantial sample over time of forests under different institutional arrangements has been difficult. This article analyzes data from 46 forests located in six countries over time. In forests where policies have been…

  18. Factors Affecting the Personal and Social Outcomes of Organized Camping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorman, Marta

    A study examined features of camps and camp staff that might affect the personal and social benefits of organized camping for children. Questionnaires were completed by 29 camp directors and 270 campers aged 8-14 from 33 residential camps across the United States. Results indicate that higher personal and social outcomes were associated with

  19. Factors Affecting Students' Self-Efficacy in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dinther, Mart; Dochy, Filip; Segers, Mien

    2011-01-01

    Researchers working in educational settings are increasingly paying attention to the role students' thoughts and beliefs play in the learning process. Self-efficacy, a key element of social cognitive theory, appears to be an important variable because it affects students' motivation and learning. This article investigates empirical literature…

  20. Institutional Factors Affecting Biophysical Outcomes in Forest Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Eric A.

    2009-01-01

    Although there is considerable interest in the impact of diverse policies affecting the biophysical outcomes in forests, gaining a substantial sample over time of forests under different institutional arrangements has been difficult. This article analyzes data from 46 forests located in six countries over time. In forests where policies have been

  1. Demotivating Factors Affecting EFL Learning of Iranian Seminary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabatabaei, Omid; Molavi, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to determine the demotives affecting EFL learning of Iranian Islamic seminary students and also to distinguish the motivated and demotivated EFL learners in terms of their EFL learning as the major focus of this study. Fifty Iranian EFL seminary students were investigated using two validated…

  2. Factors Affecting Item Difficulty in English Listening Comprehension Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Pei-Ju; Lin, Su-Wei; Hung, Pi-Hsia

    2015-01-01

    Task difficulty is a critical issue affecting test developers. Controlling or balancing the item difficulty of an assessment improves its validity and discrimination. Test developers construct tests from the cognitive perspective, by making the test constructing process more scientific and efficient; thus, the scores obtained more precisely…

  3. Maternal Factors Affecting the Academic Achievement of Latino Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Marisa

    Although much research has been done to determine how familial processes affect academic achievement, few researchers have directly studied culturally or linguistically diverse populations, in particular Latinos. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of distal variables (maternal intelligence, maternal education,…

  4. Factors that affect the fatigue strength of power transmission shafting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1984-01-01

    A long standing objective in the design of power transmission shafting is to eliminate excess shaft material without compromising operational reliability. A shaft design method is presented which accounts for variable amplitude loading histories and their influence on limited life designs. The effects of combined bending and torsional loading are considered along with a number of application factors known to influence the fatigue strength of shafting materials. Among the factors examined are surface condition, size, stress concentration, residual stress and corrosion fatigue.

  5. 75 FR 80114 - Agency Information Collection (Obligation To Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Obligation To Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity Under... INFORMATION: Title: Obligation to Report Factors Affecting Entitlement (38 CFR 3.204(a)(1), 38 CFR 3.256(a..., marital status, and the beneficiary's number of dependents, may affect the amount of benefit that he...

  6. Universality in grey-body radiance: Extending Kirchoff's law to the statistics of quanta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekenstein, Jacob D.; Schiffer, M.

    1994-04-01

    An ideal grey body is a macroscopic object with definite temperature which absorbs only a fraction of the radiation incident on it. Assuming that a grey body always emits in a mixed state, and that the radiation density matrix factors into matrices for the various frequency modes, we employ general arguments to derive the complete statistic of grey-body radiance elicited by incident radiation. These depend only on the temperature and the absorptivities for the various frequencies (hence are of universal form), and coincide with the statistics of black-hole radiance first derived a decade and a half ago.

  7. Factors affecting quality of life in postmenopausal women, Isfahan, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Norozi, Ensiyeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Hasanzadeh, Akbar; Moodi, Mitra; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    Context: Various studies have shown that quality of life in women after menopause undergoes radical changes. Several factors such as psycho-social factors are associated with the quality of life during menopausal period. Aims: The present study surveyed the factors associated with quality of life of postmenopausal women in Isfahan, based on Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted through stratified random sampling among 200 healthy postmenopausal women in Isfahan in 2011. Subjects and Methods: Data were collected by two valid and reliable questionnaires (one to assess the quality of life and the other to survey the factors associated with the Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model). Data analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 18) and analytical and descriptive statistics. Results: Pearson correlation indicated a positive and significant correlation between the quality of life and attitude toward menopause, perceived self-efficacy, and enabling and reinforcing factors, but there was no significant relationship between the quality of life and knowledge about menopause. Also, the quality of life in postmenopausal women had significant correlation with their age, education level, marital status, and employment status. Conclusion: Based on the present study, attitude, perceived self-efficacy, perceived social support, and enabling factors are associated with the quality of life in postmenopausal women. So, attention to these issues is essential for better health planning of women. PMID:24520556

  8. A discussion of the factors affecting surge in centrifugal compressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elder, R. L.; Gill, M. E.

    1984-06-01

    The process of surge in a centrifugal compressor has been studied and found to be dependent on a number of complex and often interrelated factors. A major factor defining surge in high-speed, vaned diffuser designs appears to be the flow in the semivaneless space. By developing work initiated by others it has been possible to propose some explanation of previously presented apparently conflicting data. In addition, a more complex mathematical model capable of assessing additional factors is proposed. Using this model good agreement with experimental surge has been obtained. This model takes into consideration pressure losses in the impeller, diffuser, and collector, and by using this model it was possible to identify the stalling elements that are responsible for overall compressor instability.

  9. Factors affecting the energy consumption of two refrigerator-freezers

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, J.Y.; Kelley, G.E.

    1996-12-31

    Two refrigerator-freezers, one with a top-mounted freezer and one with side-by-side doors, were tested in the laboratory to determine the sensitivity of their energy consumption to various operational factors. Room temperature, room humidity, door openings, and the setting of the anti-sweat heater switch were the factors examined. The results indicated that the room temperature and door openings had a significantly greater effect on energy consumption than the other two factors. More detailed tests were then performed under different room temperature and door-opening combinations. The relationship of door openings and the equivalent test room temperature was established. Finally, the effect on energy of different temperature settings was studied. Test results are presented and discussed.

  10. Looking under the Bonnet: Factors Affecting Student Adoption of E-Learning Systems in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbad, Muneer Mahmood; Morris, David; de Nahlik, Carmel

    2009-01-01

    The primary questions addressed in this paper are the following: what are the factors that affect students' adoption of an e-learning system and what are the relationships among these factors? This paper investigates and identifies some of the major factors affecting students' adoption of an e-learning system in a university in Jordan. E-learning…

  11. Multiscale factors affecting human attitudes toward snow leopards and wolves.

    PubMed

    Suryawanshi, Kulbhushansingh R; Bhatia, Saloni; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Redpath, Stephen; Mishra, Charudutt

    2014-12-01

    The threat posed by large carnivores to livestock and humans makes peaceful coexistence between them difficult. Effective implementation of conservation laws and policies depends on the attitudes of local residents toward the target species. There are many known correlates of human attitudes toward carnivores, but they have only been assessed at the scale of the individual. Because human societies are organized hierarchically, attitudes are presumably influenced by different factors at different scales of social organization, but this scale dependence has not been examined. We used structured interview surveys to quantitatively assess the attitudes of a Buddhist pastoral community toward snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and wolves (Canis lupus). We interviewed 381 individuals from 24 villages within 6 study sites across the high-elevation Spiti Valley in the Indian Trans-Himalaya. We gathered information on key explanatory variables that together captured variation in individual and village-level socioeconomic factors. We used hierarchical linear models to examine how the effect of these factors on human attitudes changed with the scale of analysis from the individual to the community. Factors significant at the individual level were gender, education, and age of the respondent (for wolves and snow leopards), number of income sources in the family (wolves), agricultural production, and large-bodied livestock holdings (snow leopards). At the community level, the significant factors included the number of smaller-bodied herded livestock killed by wolves and mean agricultural production (wolves) and village size and large livestock holdings (snow leopards). Our results show that scaling up from the individual to higher levels of social organization can highlight important factors that influence attitudes of people toward wildlife and toward formal conservation efforts in general. Such scale-specific information can help managers apply conservation measures at appropriate scales. Our results reiterate the need for conflict management programs to be multipronged. PMID:25039397

  12. Factors affecting high resolution fixed-beam transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chiu, W; Glaeser, R M

    1977-04-01

    An experimental and theoretical characterization of a fixed-beam transmission electron microscope with a field emission gun has been made with regard to the factors of electron beam brightness, spatial and temporal coherence of the incident electrons, objective lens current fluctuation, mechanical stability, and specimen contamination. It has been found that mechanical stability and temporal coherence are the primary factors that prevent the contrast transfer function from extending to 2.0 A in our microscope. Different amorphous thin films have also been used in order to compare their suitability for testing the imaging capability of the microscope at atomic resolution. PMID:888240

  13. The factors affecting effectiveness of treatment in phages therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ly-Chatain, Mai Huong

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the use of lytic bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents controlling pathogenic bacteria has appeared as a promising new alternative strategy in the face of growing antibiotic resistance which has caused problems in many fields including medicine, veterinary medicine, and aquaculture. The use of bacteriophages has numerous advantages over traditional antimicrobials. The effectiveness of phage applications in fighting against pathogenic bacteria depends on several factors such as the bacteriophages/target bacteria ratio, the mode and moment of treatment, environmental conditions (pH, temperature...), the neutralization of phage and accessibility to target bacteria, amongst others. This report presents these factors and the challenges involved in developing phage therapy applications. PMID:24600439

  14. Factors affecting the dielectric properties of agricultural and food products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dielectric properties of materials are defined, and the major factors that influence these properties of agricultural and food materials, namely, frequency of the applied radio-frequency and microwave electric fields, water content, temperature, and density of the materials are discussed on the bas...

  15. Factors Affecting High Child Poverty in the Rural South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Carolyn C.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, 27 percent of rural children in the South were poor, compared to 17 percent elsewhere; the rural South also had more severe child poverty. Nationally, poor children were more likely to live in mother-only families; be Black; and have younger, less-educated, or unemployed parents. These factors were more prevalent in the rural South than…

  16. Factors Affecting Performance of New Mexico High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Annette A.; Murray, Leigh W.

    This research examined student demographic (gender, ethnicity, grades, and previous home economics experience) and geographic (rural/urban school locale and individual school) factors that may be related to performance on a statewide New Mexico achievement test under development in the home economics subject matter area of consumer education and…

  17. FACTORS AFFECTING DISINFECTION AND STABILIZATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective disinfection and stabilization of sewage sludge prior to land application is essential to not only protect human health, but also to convince the public of its benefits and safety. A basic understanding of the key factors involved in producing a stable biosolid product ...

  18. Factors Affecting University Teaching Team Effectiveness in Detached Working Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Roger; Kane, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the outcomes of a study of the factors that contribute to teaching team effectiveness in situations where team members rarely meet face to face. Academic faculty within a university Business School were asked to report the degrees to which they believed that the module teaching teams to which they belonged contained members who

  19. Factors Affecting the Misperception of Friendliness Cues in Initial Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnish, Richard J.; And Others

    Some researchers have found men to attribute more sexual meaning to heterosexual interactions than do women. This study was conducted to examine factors which may enhance or diminish this gender difference on perceptions of sexual intent by considering the three variables of physical attractiveness of target, similarity of target's personality to…

  20. Factors Affecting Drug Abuse in Adolescent Females in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renes, Susan L.; Strange, Anthony T.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores factors influencing adolescent female substance use in rural communities. Self-reported data gathered from females 12 to 15 years of age in two northwestern communities in the United States showed an association among gender identity, peer and parental relationships, and substance use. Aggressive masculinity had the strongest

  1. Investigating Factors that Affect Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantzen, Paul G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes activities that demonstrate the effects of factors such as wind velocity, water temperature, convection currents, intensity of light, rate of photosynthesis, atmospheric pressure, humidity, numbers of decomposers, presence of oxidizable ions, and respiration by plants and animals on the dissolved oxygen concentration in water. (MA)

  2. A Quantitative Assessment of Factors Affecting College Sports' Team Unity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aghazadeh, Seyed-Mahmoud; Kyei, Kwasi

    2009-01-01

    The competitiveness of National Collegiate Association (NCAA) schools increases in intensity each year. With the increased pressure on college sport staffs to be undefeated season after season, coaches have to find ways to keep players happy; to do this, they have to find factors that contribute to unify the players. It is nearly impossible to

  3. Attitudinal Factors Affecting Wiki Group Collaboration for English Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chwen Jen; Chuah, Kee Man; Tho, Jimmy; Teh, Chee Siong

    2015-01-01

    Wikis, being one of the popular Web 2.0 tools, have impacted students' engagement and performance particularly in the aspects of second and foreign language learning. While an increasing number of studies have focused on the effectiveness of wiki in improving students' writing skills, this study was conducted to examine the attitudinal factors

  4. Decadal change in factors affecting winter precipitation over eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, Juan; Sun, Jianqi

    2016-01-01

    The temporal and spatial distributions of winter precipitation variability over eastern China were analyzed on the basis of the empirical orthogonal function method. The results showed that the primary mode of winter precipitation variability over this area presented a homogeneous change during the study period, with a significant decadal change around the late 1980s. The factors that influenced winter precipitation variability over eastern China changed over different interdecadal periods. Before the late 1980s, the Eurasian (EU) mode and North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) mode were the two major atmospheric factors. After the late 1980s, the influence of the EU mode remained. However, the impact of the NPO weakened significantly, and a new Rossby Wave (RW) pattern became a key factor. Further analyses of both observations and numerical simulations indicated that the convective activity over the western tropical Pacific strengthened significantly around the late 1980s; the convection encouraged the RW mode and ultimately contributed to the anomalous winter precipitation over eastern China after the late 1980s. The results imply that the prediction of winter precipitation should consider different interdecadal backgrounds; otherwise, the changing factors could result in failure of the prediction over some decadal periods.

  5. Factors Affecting the Success of Hmong College Students in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiong, Soua; Lam, Sarah K. Y.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores barriers and success factors of Hmong students in American colleges by interviewing five Hmong graduate students from refugee families in the US. Emerging themes revolve around academic, cultural and financial barriers. Professors, advisors, classmates, academic support programmes, family, financial aid and their own…

  6. Factors That Affect Initial Enrollment of Working Adult, Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrignola, Matt Nolan

    2010-01-01

    What factors lead working adults to initially enroll in graduate programs? Is the undergraduate degree no longer enough to sustain a rewarding career? Little is known as to why this segment of graduate students are building careers and pursuing advanced degrees simultaneously. Traditional institutions of higher learning have primarily focused on…

  7. Factors Affecting Recreation Preferences and Expectations of Disabled Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Sibel

    2014-01-01

    Generalizing recreation services, one of the essential well-being sources of disabled persons who experience deprivation in many dimensions of life and which fulfill their learning needs, is a social responsibility. The present study aims to determine factors effective on recreation preferences and expectations of the disabled individuals who…

  8. Individual Differences: Factors Affecting Employee Utilization of Flexible Work Arrangements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Alysa D.; Marler, Janet H.; Gueutal, Hal G.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated individual and organizational factors that predict an individual's choice to use flexible work arrangements (FWAs). Survey data was collected from 144 employees in two different organizations. The results revealed several significant predictors of FWAs: tenure, hours worked per week, supervisory responsibilities,…

  9. Factors Affecting Teachers' Participation in Professional Development Activities in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayar, Adem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between factors (internal [personal] and external [environmental]) and teachers' participation in professional development (PD) programs in Turkey. The researcher employed a survey design, using a multiple-stage sampling method, selecting 30 out of 66 elementary schools in the Center…

  10. School-Related Factors Affecting High School Seniors' Methamphetamine Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Jarrod M.; Lo, Celia C.

    2009-01-01

    Data from the 2005 Monitoring the Future survey were used to examine relationships between school-related factors and high school seniors' lifetime methamphetamine use. The study applied logistic regression techniques to evaluate effects of social bonding variables and social learning variables on likelihood of lifetime methamphetamine use. The

  11. Sociological Factors Affecting Agricultural Price Risk Management in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Elizabeth; Quaddus, Mohammed; Islam, Nazrul; Stanton, John

    2009-01-01

    The highly volatile auction system in Australia accounts for 85 percent of ex-farm wool sales, with the remainder sold by forward contract, futures, and other hedging methods. In this article, against the background of an extensive literature on price risk strategies, we investigate the behavioral factors associated with producers' adoption of…

  12. Factors Affecting University Teaching Team Effectiveness in Detached Working Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Roger; Kane, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the outcomes of a study of the factors that contribute to teaching team effectiveness in situations where team members rarely meet face to face. Academic faculty within a university Business School were asked to report the degrees to which they believed that the module teaching teams to which they belonged contained members who…

  13. School-Related Factors Affecting High School Seniors' Methamphetamine Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Jarrod M.; Lo, Celia C.

    2009-01-01

    Data from the 2005 Monitoring the Future survey were used to examine relationships between school-related factors and high school seniors' lifetime methamphetamine use. The study applied logistic regression techniques to evaluate effects of social bonding variables and social learning variables on likelihood of lifetime methamphetamine use. The…

  14. Factors affecting the implementation of green specifications in construction.

    PubMed

    Lam, Patrick T I; Chan, Edwin H W; Poon, C S; Chau, C K; Chun, K P

    2010-01-01

    Green specifications constitute one of the important elements in green construction. New sustainability requirements and changing priorities in construction management have spurred the emerging green specifications to a faster pace of development. A cross-sectional survey has been conducted in Hong Kong in 2007 to identify principal factors leading to the success of preparing green specifications. Based on extensive construction management literature, 20 variables concerning sustainable construction were summarized. Using the Mann-Whitney U-test, the subtle differences between stakeholders in specifying construction work have been detected even with the high consistency of the responses among the groups. Moreover, five independent factors for successful specification of green construction have been categorized by factor analysis. They are related to (1) green technology and techniques, (2) reliability and quality of specification, (3) leadership and responsibility, (4) stakeholder involvement, and (5) guide and benchmarking systems. Whilst the first and fourth factors are generally more important, different stakeholder groups have different emphases. The results of the survey have been validated against established principles. PMID:19853367

  15. Factors Affecting Social Workers' Inclusion of Animals in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E.; Kawam, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors

  16. A Quantitative Assessment of Factors Affecting College Sports' Team Unity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aghazadeh, Seyed-Mahmoud; Kyei, Kwasi

    2009-01-01

    The competitiveness of National Collegiate Association (NCAA) schools increases in intensity each year. With the increased pressure on college sport staffs to be undefeated season after season, coaches have to find ways to keep players happy; to do this, they have to find factors that contribute to unify the players. It is nearly impossible to…

  17. Sociological Factors Affecting Agricultural Price Risk Management in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Elizabeth; Quaddus, Mohammed; Islam, Nazrul; Stanton, John

    2009-01-01

    The highly volatile auction system in Australia accounts for 85 percent of ex-farm wool sales, with the remainder sold by forward contract, futures, and other hedging methods. In this article, against the background of an extensive literature on price risk strategies, we investigate the behavioral factors associated with producers' adoption of

  18. Some Factors Affecting the Job Satisfaction of Academic Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Malcolm D.

    Job satisfaction of 752 male and 195 female faculty in 16 Pennsylvania colleges and unviersities was studied. Job satisfaction was measured by a 45-item inventory, and factor analysis of the inventory revealed the following components of job satisfaction: (1) teaching, (2) recognition-support, (3) convenience, (4) economic, (5) administrative, and…

  19. Psychological Factors Affecting Medical Students' Learning with Erroneous Worked Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopp, Eric; Stark, Robin; Kopp, Veronika; Fischer, Martin R.

    2013-01-01

    The acquisition of diagnostic competence is seen as a major goal during the course of study in medicine. One innovative method to foster this goal is problem-based learning with erroneous worked examples provided in a computer learning environment. The present study explores the relationship of attitudinal, emotional and cognitive factors for…

  20. Factors That Affect Initial Enrollment of Working Adult, Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrignola, Matt Nolan

    2010-01-01

    What factors lead working adults to initially enroll in graduate programs? Is the undergraduate degree no longer enough to sustain a rewarding career? Little is known as to why this segment of graduate students are building careers and pursuing advanced degrees simultaneously. Traditional institutions of higher learning have primarily focused on

  1. Factors Affecting Junior High School Students' Interest in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    We report the results of a study on students' interest in physics at the end of their compulsory schooling in Israel carried out in the framework of the ROSE Project. Factors studied were their opinions about science classes, their out-of-school experiences in physics, and their attitudes toward science and technology. Students' overall interest…

  2. Students' Perceptions of Factors that Affect College Funding Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Julia Y.; Fossey, W. Richard; Davis, William E.; Burnett, Michael F.; Stuhlmann, Janice; Suchy, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the factors that college students perceive are important in helping them make good financial decisions about paying for a college education. The study categorizes and summarizes students' self-reported responses to an open-ended survey question about recommendations for changes in financial aid counseling practices.…

  3. Factors Affecting Long-Term Abstinence from Substances Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsheikh, Salah Elgaily

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the attitudes of abstainers from drug use that relate to the factors leading to long-term abstinence. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was carried out in Al-Amal Hospital to examine, which attitudes of abstainers related to long-term abstinence. A random survey was conducted on 62…

  4. Historic Factors Affecting Educational Administration in Korean Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    1999-01-01

    An official of the Korean Education Department Institute analyzes the effect of historic factors on current educational administration in Korea. He suggests that Confucianism, Shinto-Confucianism, Christianity, and Western ideas mainly dominate current Korean educational administration's organizational structure, culture, and leadership, while…

  5. ACCURACY OF PESTICIDE REFERENCE STANDARD SOLUTIONS. PART I. FACTORS AFFECTING ORGANIC SOLVENT EVAPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A gravimetric experiment was undertaken to identify the factors affecting solvent evaporation from analytical reference standard solutions and to establish the magnitude of the resultant solvent evaporation. The evaporation of organic solvent from standard solutions is affected b...

  6. [Factors that affect DNA content analysis by flow cytometry].

    PubMed

    Castillo, J L; Kawaguchi, F; Madariaga, J; Venegas, O; Lecannelier, E; Ocampo, S; Castillo, M

    1999-11-01

    DNA ploidy and cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry is used to obtain additional information about the diagnosis and prognosis of different types of cancer. However, there are several disagreements among authors about the tissue source (fresh-frozen or paraffin embedded), cellular dissociation methods (mechanical, enzymatic or other), use of different dyes, lasers, analysis software with different mathematical models and interpretation of results. A discussion about the different aspects that affect the study of DNA ploidy and cell cycle and a consensus in publications is mandatory. A strict control of analysis processes and data interpretation is also necessary. PMID:10835727

  7. Environmental factors that can affect sleep and breathing: allergies.

    PubMed

    Kent, David T; Soose, Ryan J

    2014-09-01

    Allergic rhinitis and associated symptomatic nasal obstruction negatively affect sleep through a variety of mechanisms and may contribute to persistent symptoms and poor adherence with medical device therapy for sleep apnea. A history of sinonasal symptoms, particularly those that occur at night or in the supine position, is the cornerstone of the medical evaluation. Further research into the relationship between allergic rhinitis and sleep disturbance would benefit from improved anatomic and pathophysiologic phenotyping as well as more advanced outcome measures such as spectral electroencephalogram analysis or other polysomnography variables beyond the apnea-hypopnea index. PMID:25156773

  8. Preliminary report on some factors affecting shotpoint efficiency

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, W.H.; Healy, J.H.

    1964-01-01

    A study of first-arrival amplitudes from 6 water shotpoints and 7 drill-hole shotpoints in parts of central and western United States indicate a variation of over 100 to 1 between the best and poorest shotpoints. Water shotpoints are, in general, superior to drill-hole shotpoints; however, one drill-hole shotpoint produced higher signal amplitudes than more than half of the water shotpoints. Signal amplitudes from drill-hole shotpoints varied by a factor of over 20. Saturated clay shooting medium appears to be the best shooting medium. Amplitudes from water shotpoints varied by a factor of about 10. Signal amplitude increases, in general, with water depth for bottom shots.

  9. Factors affecting physician participation in nursing home care.

    PubMed

    Kane, R S

    1993-09-01

    Physicians generally consider nursing home practice a low priority compared with other aspects of their practices. In order to encourage more enthusiastic physician involvement, negative influences needed to be identified so that corrective ideas can be formulated. Negative factors include low reimbursement, frequent office interruptions, excessive paperwork, and a sense of loss of authority. The problem of quality physician involvement must be viewed from new perspectives. An increase in reimbursement is only part of the solution. Other measures that enhance the professional image and responsibility will increase physician participation more than laws and regulations, which increase physician time commitment without increasing reimbursement. Laws and regulations, through misperception, misinterpretation, and misapplication, can have unintended adverse results. Only creative solutions addressing identified negative factors will cut through the Gordian knot, which prevents enthusiastic and quality medical care for all NH residents. PMID:8409169

  10. Normative beliefs about factors that affect health and longevity.

    PubMed

    Love, M B; Thurman, Q

    1991-01-01

    Since the release of the Surgeon General's report, Healthy People, the general public has been barraged with health information and advice by the popular media. Accordingly, this article introduces a method for examining the public's beliefs about the importance of behavioral risk factors associated with health and longevity. The factorial survey approach--a technique appropriate for studying normative beliefs--seems uniquely suited to measuring the degree of public consensus regarding complex social phenomena. Data collected using this experimental vignette methodology suggest that there is much public agreement about the sources of good health. Information described in hypothetical vignettes about smoking, body weight and alcohol consumption are judged most important in promoting health and longevity even when controlling for other behavioral factors such as exercise activity, diet, amount of rest, stress, personality type, and coping strategies. The implications of these findings are briefly discussed. PMID:2055776

  11. Factors affecting peak height variability for short tandem repeat data.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Duncan; Buckleton, John; Bright, Jo-Anne

    2016-03-01

    In forensic DNA analysis a DNA extract is amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), separated using capillary electrophoresis and the resulting DNA products are detected using fluorescence. Sampling variation occurs when the DNA molecules are aliquotted during the PCR setup stage and this translates to variability in peak heights in the resultant electropherogram or between electropherograms generated from a DNA extract. Beyond the variability caused by sampling variation it has been observed that there are factors in generating the DNA profile that can contribute to the magnitude of variability observed, most notably the number of PCR cycles. In this study we investigate a number of factors in the generation of a DNA profile to determine which contribute to levels of peak height variability. PMID:26774098

  12. SOCIOECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND BEHAVIORAL FACTORS AFFECTING HISPANIC HEALTH OUTCOMES

    PubMed Central

    MORALES, LEO S.; LARA, MARIELENA; KINGTON, RAYNARD S.; VALDEZ, ROBERT O.; ESCARCE, JOS J.

    2006-01-01

    Evidence suggests that social and economic factors are important determinants of health. Yet, despite higher poverty rates, less education, and worse access to health care, health outcomes of many Hispanics living in the United States today are equal to, or better than, those of non-Hispanic whites. This paradox is described in the literature as the epidemiological paradox or Hispanic health paradox. In this paper, the authors selectively review data and research supporting the existence of the epidemiological paradox. They find substantial support for the existence of the epidemiological paradox, particularly among Mexican Americans. Census undercounts of Hispanics, misclassification of Hispanic deaths, and emigration of Hispanics do not fully account for the epidemiological paradox. Identifying protective factors underlying the epidemiological paradox, while improving access to care and the economic conditions among Hispanics, are important research and policy implications of this review. PMID:12407964

  13. Tautomerism in porphycenes: analysis of rate-affecting factors.

    PubMed

    Ciąćka, Piotr; Fita, Piotr; Listkowski, Arkadiusz; Kijak, Michał; Nonell, Santi; Kuzuhara, Daiki; Yamada, Hiroko; Radzewicz, Czesław; Waluk, Jacek

    2015-02-12

    Double hydrogen transfer occurring in both ground and the lowest electronically excited singlet states was studied for a series of 19 differently substituted porphycenes. The rates of tautomerization have been determined using femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy with polarized light. The values vary by over 3 orders of magnitude, suggesting the importance of tunneling. Good correlation exists between the values of the rates and the parameters characterizing the strength of two intramolecular hydrogen bonds: proton NMR shift, distance between the hydrogen-bonded nitrogen atoms, and the NH stretching frequency. While hydrogen-bond strength is the main factor determining the rate of double hydrogen transfer, other factors, such as static and dynamic symmetry breaking and the population of low-frequency vibrations also have to be taken into account. PMID:25105931

  14. A Factor Affecting Transonic Leading-edge Flow Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, George P; Gooderum, Paul B

    1956-01-01

    A change in flow pattern that was observed as the free-stream Mach number was increased in the vicinity of 0.8 was described in NACA Technical Note 1211 by Lindsey, Daley, and Humphreys. The flow on the upper surface behind the leading edge of an airfoil at an angle of attack changed abruptly from detached flow with an extensive region of separation to attached supersonic flow terminated by a shock wave. In the present paper, the consequences of shock-wave - boundary layer interaction are proposed as a factor that may be important in determining the conditions under which the change in flow pattern occurs. Some experimental evidence in support of the importance of this factor is presented.

  15. Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs

    SciTech Connect

    Pelham, J.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students dropouts'' whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

  16. Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs

    SciTech Connect

    Pelham, J.

    1991-12-31

    A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students ``dropouts`` whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

  17. Factors Affecting Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Rice Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, M. J.; Xiong, Z.; Khalil, M. K.

    2007-12-01

    Experiments have shown that a few factors control the emissions of methane from rice fields. Among the most significant factors are water management and soil amendments. Continuous flooding and organic fertilizers result in the highest emissions of methane while intermittent flooding and use of nitrogen fertilizers produce more nitrous oxide. We measured fluxes of methane and nitrous oxide from tubs planted with rice grown in a greenhouse at Portland State University. We used classical factorial experimental design to calculate interactions between water management, nitrogen fertilizer application, and organic matter (chopped rice straw) for emission of methane and nitrous oxide. We will discuss the results of three years of experiments. This research was supported by the Office of Science (BER), US Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02- 04ER63913.

  18. A biomechanical review of factors affecting rowing performance.

    PubMed

    Baudouin, A; Hawkins, D

    2002-12-01

    This review analyses rowing by linking the biological and mechanical systems that comprise the rowing system. Blade force was found to be the only propulsive force to counter the drag forces, consisting of both air drag and hydrodynamic drag, acting on the system. Vertical oscillations of the shell are shown to have minimal impact on system dynamics. The oar acts as the link between the force generated by the rower and the blade force and transmits this force to the rowing shell through the oarlock. Blade dynamics consist of both lift and drag mechanisms. The force on the oar handle is the result of a phased muscular activation of the rower. Oar handle force and movement are affected by the joint strength and torque-velocity characteristics of the rower. Maximising sustainable power requires a matching of the rigging setup and blade design to the rower's joint torque-velocity characteristics. Coordination and synchrony between rowers in a multiple rower shell affects overall system velocity. Force-time profiles should be better understood to identify specific components of a rower's biomechanics that can be modified to achieve greater force generation. PMID:12453833

  19. Factors affecting cosmic-ray doses at aircraft altitudes.

    PubMed

    Kendall, G M

    2000-11-01

    Cosmic rays make a significant, but not normally a dominant, contribution to the radiation dose of people all over the world. However, doses rise with altitude and the earth's magnetic field means that latitude also becomes important. Solar activity imposes a further, time dependent, variation. This article gives more details of these factors in the context of radiation protection as applied to air travel. PMID:11045530

  20. Biologics formulation factors affecting metal leachables from stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shuxia; Schöneich, Christian; Singh, Satish K

    2011-03-01

    An area of increasing concern and scientific scrutiny is the potential contamination of drug products by leachables entering the product during manufacturing and storage. These contaminants may either have a direct safety impact on the patients or act indirectly through the alteration of the physicochemical properties of the product. In the case of biotherapeutics, trace amounts of metal contaminants can arise from various sources, but mainly from contact with stainless steel (ss). The effect of the various factors, buffer species, solution fill volume per unit contact surface area, metal chelators, and pH, on metal leachables from contact with ss over time were investigated individually. Three major metal leachables, iron, chromium, and nickel, were monitored by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry because they are the major components of 316L ss. Iron was primarily used to evaluate the effect of each factor since it is the most abundant. It was observed that each studied factor exhibited its own effect on metal leachables from contact with ss. The effect of buffer species and pH exhibited temperature dependence over the studied temperature range. The metal leachables decreased with the increased fill volume (mL) per unit contact ss surface area (cm(2)) but a plateau was achieved at approximately 3 mL/cm(2). Metal chelators produced the strongest effect in facilitating metal leaching. In order to minimize the metal leachables and optimize biological product stability, each formulation factor must be evaluated for its impact, to balance its risk and benefit in achieving the target drug product shelf life. PMID:21360314

  1. Review of factors affecting sustainability in the universities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajilian, Hosna

    Understanding the factors which influence adopting sustainability practices in IHE is an important issue to develop more effective sustainability's methods and policies. The focus of this research is to find out a meaningful relationship between adopting sustainability practices and some of the characteristics of institutions of higher education (IHE). IHE can be considered as the best place to promote sustainability and develop the culture of sustainability in society. Thus, this research is conducted to help developing sustainability in IHE which have significant direct and indirect impact on society and the environment. First, the sustainability letter grades were derived from "Greenreportcard.org" which have been produced based on an evaluation of each school in nine main categories including: Administration, Climate Change & Energy, Food & Recycling, etc. In the next step, the characteristics of IHE as explanatory variables were chosen from "The Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System" (IPEDS) and respective database was implemented in STATA Software. Finally, the "ordered-Probit Model" is used through STATA to analyze the impact of some IHE's factor on adopting sustainability practices on campus. The results of this analysis indicate that variables related to "Financial support" category are the most influential factors in determining the sustainability status of the university. "The university features" with two significant variables for "Selectivity" and "Top 50 LA" can be classified as the second influential category in this table, although the "Student influence" is also eligible to be ranked as the second important factor. Finally, the "Location feature" of university was determined with the least influential impact on the sustainability of campuses.

  2. Factors affecting the morphology of isocitrate lyase crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demattei, Robert C.; Feigelson, Robert S.; Weber, Patricia C.

    1992-01-01

    Isocitrate lyase crystals have been grown by the hanging drop vapor equilibration method in both 1-g and microgravity and by vapor equilibrium in small capillaries. The crystal morphologies obtained have ranged from dendritic to 'octagonal' prisms. Theoretical evaporation models have been applied to these growth regimes. The results of these analyses along with other experimental results, indicate the factors which must be controlled to produce good growth morphologies.

  3. Factors affecting the adoption of healthcare information technology

    PubMed Central

    Phichitchaisopa, Nisakorn; Naenna, Thanakorn

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the quality and performance of healthcare services, healthcare information technology is among the most important technology in healthcare supply chain management. This study sets out to apply and test the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), to examine the factors influencing healthcare Information Technology (IT) services. A structured questionnaire was developed and distributed to healthcare representatives in each province surveyed in Thailand. Data collected from 400 employees including physicians, nurses, and hospital staff members were tested the model using structural equation modeling technique. The results found that the factors with a significant effect are performance expectancy, effort expectancy and facilitating conditions. They were also found to have a significant impact on behavioral intention to use the acceptance healthcare technology. In addition, in Thai provincial areas, positive significance was found with two factors: social influence on behavioral intention and facilitating conditions to direct using behavior. Based on research findings, in order for healthcare information technology to be widely adopted and used by healthcare staffs in healthcare supply chain management, the healthcare organizational management should improve healthcare staffs' behavioral intention and facilitating conditions. PMID:26417235

  4. Factors affecting the adoption of healthcare information technology.

    PubMed

    Phichitchaisopa, Nisakorn; Naenna, Thanakorn

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the quality and performance of healthcare services, healthcare information technology is among the most important technology in healthcare supply chain management. This study sets out to apply and test the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), to examine the factors influencing healthcare Information Technology (IT) services. A structured questionnaire was developed and distributed to healthcare representatives in each province surveyed in Thailand. Data collected from 400 employees including physicians, nurses, and hospital staff members were tested the model using structural equation modeling technique. The results found that the factors with a significant effect are performance expectancy, effort expectancy and facilitating conditions. They were also found to have a significant impact on behavioral intention to use the acceptance healthcare technology. In addition, in Thai provincial areas, positive significance was found with two factors: social influence on behavioral intention and facilitating conditions to direct using behavior. Based on research findings, in order for healthcare information technology to be widely adopted and used by healthcare staffs in healthcare supply chain management, the healthcare organizational management should improve healthcare staffs' behavioral intention and facilitating conditions. PMID:26417235

  5. Factors affecting Archaeal Lipid Compositions of the Sulfolobus Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, L.; Han, J.; Wei, Y.; Lin, L.; Wei, Y.; Zhang, C.

    2010-12-01

    Temperature is the best known variable affecting the distribution of the archaeal glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) in marine and freshwater systems. Other variables such as pH, ionic strength, or bicarbonate concentration may also affect archaeal GDGTs in terrestrial systems. Studies of pure cultures can help us pinpoint the specific effects these variables may have on archaeal lipid distribution in natural environments. In this study, three Sulfolobus species (HG4, HB5-2, HB9-6) isolated from Tengchong hot springs (pH 2-3, temperature 73-90°C) in China were used to investigate the effects of temperature, pH, substrate, and type of strain on the composition of GDGTs. Results showed that increase in temperature had negative effects on the relative contents of GDGT-0 (no cyclopentyl rings), GDGT-1 (one cyclopentyl ring), GDGT-2 and GDGT-3 but positive effects on GDGT-4, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5'. Increase in pH, on the other hand, had negative effects on GDGT-0, GDGT-1, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5', and positive effects on GDGT-3 and GDGT-4. GDGT-2 remained relatively constant with changing pH. When the HG4 was grown on different substrates, GDGT-5 was five time more abundant in sucrose-grown cultures than in yeast extract- or sulfur- grown cultures, suggesting that carbohydrates may stimulate the production of GDGT-5. For all three species, the ring index (average number of rings) of GDGTs correlated positively with incubation temperature. In HG4, ring index was much lower at optimal pH (3.5) than at other pH values. Ring index of HB5-2 or HB9-6 is higher than that of HG4, suggesting that speciation may affect the degree of cyclization of GDGT of the Sulfolobus. These results indicate that individual archaeal lipids respond differently to changes in environmental variables, which may be also species specific.

  6. Hydrostatic factors affect the gravity responses of algae and roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staves, Mark P.; Wayne, Randy; Leopold, A. C.

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis of Wayne et al. (1990) that plant cells perceive gravity by sensing a pressure differential between the top and the bottom of the cell was tested by subjecting rice roots and cells of Caracean algae to external solutions of various densities. It was found that increasing the density of the external medium had a profound effect on the polar ratio (PR, the ratio between velocities of the downwardly and upwardly streaming cytoplasm) of the Caracean algae cells. When these cells were placed in solutions of denser compound, the PR decreased to less than 1, as the density of the external medium became higher than that of the cell; thus, the normal gravity-induced polarity was reversed, indicating that the osmotic pressure of the medium affects the cell's ability to respond to gravity. In rice roots, an increase of the density of the solution inhibited the rate of gravitropism. These results agree with predictions of a hydrostatic model for graviperception.

  7. Environmental factors affecting pregnancy: endocrine disrupters, nutrients and metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Bazer, Fuller W; Wu, Guoyao; Johnson, Gregory A; Wang, Xiaoqiu

    2014-12-01

    Uterine adenogenesis, a unique post-natal event in mammals, is vulnerable to endocrine disruption by estrogens and progestins resulting in infertility or reduced prolificacy. The absence of uterine glands results in insufficient transport of nutrients into the uterine lumen to support conceptus development. Arginine, a component of histotroph, is substrate for production of nitric oxide, polyamines and agmatine and, with secreted phosphoprotein 1, it affects cytoskeletal organization of trophectoderm. Arginine is critical for development of the conceptus, pregnancy recognition signaling, implantation and placentation. Conceptuses of ungulates and cetaceans convert glucose to fructose which is metabolized via multiple pathways to support growth and development. However, high fructose corn syrup in soft drinks and foods may increase risks for metabolic disorders and increase insulin resistance in adults. Understanding endocrine disrupters and dietary substances, and novel pathways for nutrient metabolism during pregnancy can improve survival and growth, and prevent chronic metabolic diseases in offspring. PMID:25224489

  8. Factors affecting the occurrence of canine parvovirus in dogs.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Carla; Carvalheira, Júlio; Parrish, Colin R; Thompson, Gertrude

    2015-10-22

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is the most important enteric virus infecting canids worldwide. The purpose of this study was to detect CPV in naturally infected dogs from several veterinary clinics distributed throughout Portugal between 2012 and 2014 and to identify risk factors associated with CPV infection. From 209 dogs suspected of being infected with CPV, historical data and clinical signs were collected. Fecal samples were screened for CPV by PCR assay and those positive were confirmed by sequencing. The data was analyzed using logistic regression to investigate associations between each of the predisposing factors and CPV status. Of the samples collected, 77.5% tested CPV-positive. Statistical analysis showed that animals in the three age categories (p<0.001) were at list 12 times more likely to be CPV-positive than older animals. The anthelminthic treatment [OR=0.45, p=0.04] and the rectal temperature (hypothermia, [OR=0.12, p=0.004]) contributed to decrease the likelihood of the dogs be infected with CPV. On the other hand, clinical signs such as depression [OR=4.4, p=0.02] and dehydration status [OR=2.38, p=0.001] made dogs more likely to be CPV-infected. The results indicate that although having a high morbidity, only 18% of the Portuguese dog population died in the study. Some of the risk factors identified in this study have not been commonly reported, yet they are easy to obtain and can be used as prognostic indicators in the veterinary practice. PMID:26294318

  9. Genetic Factors Affecting Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Rezazadeh, Maryam; Khorrami, Aziz; Yeghaneh, Tarlan; Talebi, Mahnaz; Kiani, Seyed Jalal; Heshmati, Yaser; Gharesouran, Jalal

    2016-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease is considered a progressive brain disease in the older population. Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) as a multifactorial dementia has a polygenic inheritance. Age, environment, and lifestyle along with a growing number of genetic factors have been reported as risk factors for LOAD. Our aim was to present results of LOAD association studies that have been done in northwestern Iran, and we also explored possible interactions with apolipoprotein E (APOE) status. We re-evaluated the association of these markers in dominant, recessive, and additive models. In all, 160 LOAD and 163 healthy control subjects of Azeri Turkish ethnicity were studied. The Chi-square test with Yates' correction and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analysis. A Bonferroni-corrected p value, based on the number of statistical tests, was considered significant. Our results confirmed that chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2), estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF α), APOE, bridging integrator 1 (BIN1), and phosphatidylinositol-binding clathrin assembly protein (PICALM) are LOAD susceptibility loci in Azeri Turk ancestry populations. Among them, variants of CCR2, ESR1, TNF α, and APOE revealed associations in three different genetic models. After adjusting for APOE, the association (both allelic and genotypic) with CCR2, BIN1, and ESRα (PvuII) was evident only among subjects without the APOE ε4, whereas the association with CCR5, without Bonferroni correction, was significant only among subjects carrying the APOE ε4 allele. This result is an evidence of a synergistic and antagonistic effect of APOE on variant associations with LOAD. PMID:26553058

  10. Social factors affecting ART adherence in rural settings in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Nozaki, Ikuma; Dube, Christopher; Kakimoto, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Norio; Simpungwe, James B.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the factors that influence ART adherence arising in rural settings in Zambia. A survey was conducted with face-to-face interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire and written informed consent was obtained at ART sites in Mumbwa District in rural Zambia. The questionnaire included items such as the socio-demographic characteristics of respondents, support for adherence, ways to remember when to take ARVs at scheduled times, and the current status of adherence. Valid responses were obtained from 518 research participants. The mean age of the respondents was 38.3 years and the average treatment period was 12.5 months. More than half of the respondents (51%) were farmers, about half (49%) did not own a watch, and 10% of them used the position of the sun to remember when to take ARVs. Sixteen percent of respondents experienced fear of stigma resulting from taking ARVs at work or home, and 10% felt pressured to share ARVs with someone. Eighty-eight percent of the participants reported that they had never missed ARVs in the past four days. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified age (38 years old or less, odds ratio (OR) = 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34.8, p = 0.005), remembering when to take ARVs based on the position of the sun (OR = 3.3, 95% CI: 1.38.8, p = 0.016), and feeling pressured to share ARVs with someone (OR = 4.4, 95% CI: 1.612.0, p = 0.004) as independent factors for low adherence. As ART services expand to rural areas, program implementers should pay more attention to more specific factors arising in rural settings since they may differ from those in urban settings. PMID:21400314

  11. Review of factors affecting aircraft wet runway performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from investigations conducted at the Langley Aircraft Landing Loads and Traction Facility and from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  12. Environmental Factors Affecting the Transmission of Respiratory Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Pica, Natalie; Bouvier, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    Many viruses are capable of infecting the human respiratory tract to cause disease. These viruses display various transmission patterns among humans; however, they all share the ability to transmit from person to person, and their human transmissibility is influenced by the environment in which pathogen and host meet. This review aims to summarize recent and significant observations regarding the impact of environmental factors such as weather and climate, humidity, temperature, and airflow on the transmission of human respiratory viruses. Where possible, knowledge gaps that require further scientific study will be identified. PMID:22440971

  13. Factors affecting the retirement of commercial transport jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, F. A.

    1979-01-01

    The historical background of the technology and economics of aircraft replacement and retirement in the prejet era is reviewed in order to determine whether useful insights can be obtained applicable to the jet era. Significant differences between the two periods are noted. New factors are identified and examined. Topics discussed include concern over current policies regarding deregulation, regulatory reform, and retroactive noise regulations; financing and compliance legislation; aging; economic environment and inflation; technological progress; fuel efficiency and cost; and a financial perspective of replacement decisions.

  14. Factors affecting growth and urease production by Trichophyton spp.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, A L; El-Shanawany, A A; Omar, S A

    1996-01-01

    Among Trichophyton spp. examined for urease production, T. rubrum was negative, whereas T. mentagrophytes appeared to be the most active species. Urease was not detected in cell-free culture fluids of the tested fungi. The endocellular urease of the test fungi was essentially constitutive. Moreover, addition of urea to the growth medium of these organisms markedly inhibited their mycelial biomass and ureolytic yield. Environmental factors showed variable effects on the test fungi and there was no correlation between mycelial growth and urease activity of these fungi. PMID:9091827

  15. FACTORS AFFECTING SENSITIVITY OF CHEMICAL AND ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF MARINE EMBAYMEMTS TO NITROGEN LOADING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper summarizes an ongoing examination of the primary factors that affect sensitivity of marine embayment responses to nitrogen loading. Included is a discussion of two methods for using these factors: classification of embayments into discrete sensitivity classes and norma...

  16. Factors affecting engorgement behavior in the salt marsh horse fly, Tabanus nigrovittatus Macquart (Diptera: Tabanidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Female Tabanus nigrovittatus were field collected and used in laboratory experimentation to further elucidate the physiological and behavioral factors that affect engorgement. Previous studies have shown that sulfakinins are feeding satiety factors in invertebrates. This study demonstrates that sulf...

  17. Gene Risk Factors for Age-Related Brain Disorders May Affect Immune System Function

    MedlinePlus

    ... factors for age-related brain disorders may affect immune system function June 17, 2014 Scientists have discovered gene ... risk factors for age-related neurological disorders to immune system functions, such as inflammation, offers new insights into ...

  18. Improving AIRS radiance spectra in high contrast scenes using MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Manning, Evan M.; Elliott, Denis A.; Broberg, Steven E.

    2015-09-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the EOS Aqua Spacecraft was launched on May 4, 2002. AIRS acquires hyperspectral infrared radiances in 2378 channels ranging in wavelength from 3.7-15.4 um with spectral resolution of better than 1200, and spatial resolution of 13.5 km with global daily coverage. The AIRS is designed to measure temperature and water vapor profiles for improvement in weather forecast accuracy and improved understanding of climate processes. As with most instruments, the AIRS Point Spread Functions (PSFs) are not the same for all detectors. When viewing a non-uniform scene, this causes a significant radiometric error in some channels that is scene dependent and cannot be removed without knowledge of the underlying scene. The magnitude of the error depends on the combination of non-uniformity of the AIRS spatial response for a given channel and the non-uniformity of the scene, but is typically only noticeable in about 1% of the scenes and about 10% of the channels. The current solution is to avoid those channels when performing geophysical retrievals. In this effort we use data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument to provide information on the scene uniformity that is used to correct the AIRS data. For the vast majority of channels and footprints the technique works extremely well when compared to a Principal Component (PC) reconstruction of the AIRS channels. In some cases where the scene has high inhomogeneity in an irregular pattern, and in some channels, the method can actually degrade the spectrum. Most of the degraded channels appear to be slightly affected by random noise introduced in the process, but those with larger degradation may be affected by alignment errors in the AIRS relative to MODIS or uncertainties in the PSF. Despite these errors, the methodology shows the ability to correct AIRS radiances in non-uniform scenes under some of the worst case conditions and improves the ability to match AIRS and MODIS radiances in non-uniform scenes.

  19. Impact of ATOVS Radiance on the Analysis and Forecasts of a Mesoscale Model over the Indian Region During the 2008 Summer Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Randhir; Kishtawal, C. M.; Pal, P. K.

    2012-03-01

    Assimilation experiments are performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) models' three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3D-Var) scheme to evaluate the impact of directly assimilating the Advanced Television and Infrared Observation Satellite Operational Vertical Sounder (ATOVS) radiance, including AMSU-A, AMSU-B and HIRS, on the analysis and forecasts of a mesoscale model over the Indian region. The present study is, to our knowledge, the first where the impact of ATOVS radiance has been evaluated on the analysis and forecasts of a mesoscale model over the Indian region. The control (without ATOVS radiance) as well as experimental (which assimilated ATOVS radiance) run were made for 48 h starting at 0000 UTC during the entire July 2008. The impacts of assimilating the radiances from different instruments (e.g., AMSU-A, AMSU-B and HIRS) were measured in comparison to the control run. The assimilation experiments for July 2008 (30 cases) demonstrated a positive impact of the assimilated ATOVS radiance on both the analysis state as well as subsequent short-range forecasts. Relative to the control run, the moisture analysis was improved with the assimilation of AMSU-B and HIRS radiance, while AMSU-A was mainly responsible for improved temperature analysis. The comparison of the model-predicted temperature, moisture and wind with NCEP analysis indicated that a positive forecast impact is achieved from each of the three instruments. HIRS and AMSU-A radiance yielded only a slight positive forecast impact, while AMSU-B radiance had the largest positive forecast impact for moisture, temperature and wind. The comparison of model-predicted rainfall with observed rainfall indicates that ATOVS radiance, particularly AMSU-B and HIRS, impacted the rainfall positively. This study clearly shows that the improved analysis of mid-tropospheric moisture, due to the assimilation of AMSU-B radiances, is a key factor to improve the short-term forecast skill of a mesoscale model.

  20. Factors affecting healing after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair

    PubMed Central

    Abtahi, Amir M; Granger, Erin K; Tashjian, Robert Z

    2015-01-01

    Rotator cuff repair has been shown to have good long-term results. Unfortunately, a significant proportion of repairs still fail to heal. Many factors, both patient and surgeon related, can influence healing after repair. Older age, larger tear size, worse muscle quality, greater muscle-tendon unit retraction, smoking, osteoporosis, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia have all shown to negatively influence tendon healing. Surgeon related factors that can influence healing include repair construct-single vs double row, rehabilitation, and biologics including platelet rich plasma and mesenchymal stem cells. Double-row repairs are biomechanically stronger and have better healing rates compared with single-row repairs although clinical outcomes are equivalent between both constructs. Slower, less aggressive rehabilitation programs have demonstrated improved healing with no negative effect on final range of motion and are therefore recommended after repair of most full thickness tears. Additionally no definitive evidence supports the use of platelet rich plasma or mesenchymal stem cells regarding improvement of healing rates and clinical outcomes. Further research is needed to identify effective biologically directed augmentations that will improve healing rates and clinical outcomes after rotator cuff repair. PMID:25793161

  1. Factors affecting the relative age effect in NHL athletes

    PubMed Central

    Parent-Harvey, Caroline I.; Desjardins, Christophe; Harvey, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The relative age effect (RAE) has been reported for a number of different activities. The RAE is the phenomena whereby players born in the first few months of a competition year are advantaged for selection to elite sports. Much of the literature has identified elite male athletics, such as the National Hockey League (NHL), as having consistently large RAEs. We propose that RAE may be lessened in the NHL since the last examination. Methods We examined demographic and selection factors to understand current NHL selection biases. Results We found that RAE was weak and was only evident when birth dates were broken into year halves. Players born in the first half of the year were relatively advantaged for entry into the NHL. We found that the RAE is smaller than reported in previous studies. Intraplayer comparisons for multiple factors, including place of birth, country of play, type of hockey played, height and weight, revealed no differences. Players who were not drafted (e.g., free agents) or who played university hockey in North America had no apparent RAE. Conclusion We found little evidence of an RAE in the current NHL player rosters. A larger study of all Canadian minor hockey intercity teams could help determine the existence of an RAE. PMID:24869606

  2. Factors affecting denture use in some institutionalized elderly people.

    PubMed

    Minakuchi, Shunsuke; Takaoka, Seiji; Ito, Junji; Shimoyama, Kazuhiro; Uematsu, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess which factors were related to the ability of elderly residents of nursing homes to use dentures. For 205 patients in two nursing homes in Chuou-ku, Tokyo, dentists and caregivers examined oral status (caries, status of restoration, missing teeth and occlusal support) as well as denture use, Activities of Daily Living (ADL), ability to rinse the mouth, and degree of dementia. Fifty percent of subjects lacked dentures. Seven items were selected for variance in factor analysis. There was a significant relationship between denture use and all analyzed items except age. The items which proved to be significant, included the number of remaining teeth, the ability to rinse, communication, ability to dress/undress, ability to transfer, and eating (Fisher's exact test). A multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that the nonuse of dentures was significantly related to dressing (p<0.01), the number of remaining crowns (p<0.01) and the ability to rinse the mouth (p<0.0001). The nonuse of dentures was also related to the number of remaining teeth and to the disability of hand and oral functions. PMID:16774186

  3. Factors affecting proppant flowback with resin coated proppants

    SciTech Connect

    Almond, S.W.; Penny, G.S.; Conway, M.W.

    1995-12-31

    Resin coated proppants (RCPs) have been used to prevent proppant flowback for several years in the hydraulic fracturing of oil and gas wells. Proppant flowback problems, however, still exist with the commercially available RCPs and several operators report failures around the world under a variety of well conditions. To date, a clear explanation of the RCP failure mechanisms and the conditions under which failure occurs has not been presented in the industry. A correlation between the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of RCP materials and the proppant flowback potential has been previously presented by Vreeburg, et al. This paper will present the results of a study on a variety of factors which effect the proppant flowback of a number of commercially available RCP materials. These factors include (1) the effect of fluid pH (7 to 12) and fluid type (KCL, seawater and a HPG/Borate fracturing fluid), (2) the effect of fluid/proppant slurry shear, (3) the effect of closure pressure during RCP curing, (4) the effect of stress cycling and (5) the effect of downhole flow conditions on proppant flowback.

  4. Factors affecting formation and rupture of intracranial saccular aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Bacigaluppi, S; Piccinelli, M; Antiga, L; Veneziani, A; Passerini, T; Rampini, P; Zavanone, M; Severi, P; Tredici, G; Zona, G; Krings, T; Boccardi, E; Penco, S; Fontanella, M

    2014-01-01

    Unruptured intracranial aneurysms represent a decisional challenge. Treatment risks have to be balanced against an unknown probability of rupture. A better understanding of the physiopathology is the basis for a better prediction of the natural history of an individual patient. Knowledge about the possible determining factors arises from a careful comparison between ruptured versus unruptured aneurysms and from the prospective observation and analysis of unbiased series with untreated, unruptured aneurysms. The key point is the correct identification of the determining variables for the fate of a specific aneurysm in a given individual. Thus, the increased knowledge of mechanisms of formation and eventual rupture of aneurysms should provide significant clues to the identification of rupture-prone aneurysms. Factors like structural vessel wall defects, local hemodynamic stress determined also by peculiar geometric configurations, and inflammation as trigger of a wall remodeling are crucial. In this sense the study of genetic modifiers of inflammatory responses together with the computational study of the vessel tree might contribute to identify aneurysms prone to rupture. The aim of this article is to underline the value of a unifying hypothesis that merges the role of geometry, with that of hemodynamics and of genetics as concerns vessel wall structure and inflammatory pathways. PMID:24306170

  5. Differences between the factors affecting high-risk drinking and those affecting smoking in Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, Woojin; Lee, Sunmi; Lim, Seungji

    2011-11-01

    This study examines the factors influencing high-risk drinking and cigarette smoking and assesses the differences in those factors between 2 risky behaviors in Korea. A national, cross-sectional health behavior survey was performed on 12,303 households in 2006 and a data set of 2925 adult males was analyzed using bivariate probit estimation model. The likelihood of high-risk drinking rose with an increase in the level of income, whereas that of smoking was lowest in a medium income. White-collar workers were more at risk of high-risk drinking than blue-collar workers. Conversely, blue-collar workers tended to smoke more frequently than white-collar workers. Body mass index showed a positive association with high-risk drinking, but it had no significant relationship with smoking. Significant differences may exist in associations between factors influencing high-risk drinking and those influencing smoking. The comprehensive understanding of these differences would allow for the development of appropriate public health programs. PMID:22144711

  6. The Affect in Play Scale: confirmatory factor analysis in elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Chessa, Daphne; Di Riso, Daniela; Delvecchio, Elisa; Salcuni, Silvia; Lis, Adriana

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the construct validity of the Affect in Play Scale, an empirically based measure of pretend play, in a group of 519 Italian children ages 6 to 10 years. In confirmatory factor analysis, a correlated two-factor structure with a cognitive and an affective factor was identified. Possible differences in factor scores by sex and age were investigated but no significant differences were found. PMID:22420111

  7. Key biogeochemical factors affecting soil carbon storage in Posidonia meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, O.; Ricart, A. M.; Lavery, P. S.; Mateo, M. A.; Arias-Ortiz, A.; Masque, P.; Steven, A.; Duarte, C. M.

    2015-11-01

    Biotic and abiotic factors influence the accumulation of organic carbon (Corg) in seagrass ecosystems. We surveyed Posidonia sinuosa meadows growing in different water depths to assess the variability in the sources, stocks and accumulation rates of Corg. We show that over the last 500 years, P. sinuosa meadows closer to the upper limit of distribution (at 2-4 m depth) accumulated 3 to 4-fold higher Corg stocks (averaging 6.3 kg Corg m-2) at 3 to 4-fold higher rates (12.8 g Corg m-2 yr-1) compared to meadows closer to the deep limits of distribution (at 6-8 m depth; 1.8 kg Corg m-2 and 3.6 g Corg m-2 yr-1). In shallower meadows, Corg stores were mostly derived from seagrass detritus (88 % in average) compared to meadows closer to the deep limit of distribution (45 % on average). Also, sediment accumulation rates and fine-grained sediment content (< 0.125 mm) in shallower meadows (2.0 mm yr-1 and 9 %, respectively) were approximately 2-fold higher than in deeper meadows (1.2 mm yr-1 and 5 %, respectively). The Corg stocks and accumulation rates accumulated over the last 500 years in bare sediments (0.6 kg Corg m-2 and 1.2 g Corg m-2 yr-1) were 3 to 11-fold lower than in P. sinuosa meadows, while fine-grained sediment content (1 %) and seagrass detritus contribution to the Corg pool (20 %) were 8 and 3-fold lower than in Posidonia meadows, respectively. The patterns found support the hypotheses that Corg storage in seagrass soils is influenced by interactions of biological (e.g. meadow productivity, cover and density), chemical (e.g. recalcitrance of Corg stocks) and physical (e.g. hydrodynamic energy and sediment accumulation rates) factors within the meadow. We conclude that there is a need to improve global estimates of seagrass carbon storage accounting for biogeochemical factors driving variability within habitats.

  8. Ecological Factors Affecting Efficiency and Health in Warships*

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, F. P.

    1960-01-01

    The environment of those who live and work in warships is closely related to the way the ships are built and employed. In stating the requirements for the atmosphere between decks the emphasis has swung during the past 50 years from the need for controlling the chemical constituents to the control of the factors which comprise the thermal environment, and now, with the advent of the nuclear-powered submarine, to the need for achieving, as nearly as possible, complete physical, chemical, and microbiological control. Between 1944 and 1953 the thermal factors between decks were investigated in a series of studies carried out in H.M. Ships. The average effective temperatures on the mess decks and in the work places of 11 ships in the Eastern Fleet in 1944 exceeded 84°F. (28·9°C.). In compartments where radiant heat was an added factor the average corrected effective temperature levels were 1° or 2°F. (0·55-1·1°C.) higher than the corresponding effective temperatures. The effects of climatic conditions on naval personnel were investigated by psychological studies to determine the levels of warmth at which performance deteriorated; by physiological experiments to show the levels of warmth at which the collapse of men working at different work rates might be expected; by comfort surveys in ships and on shore to determine the levels of warmth at which the majority enjoyed optimum comfort; and by relating the monthly incidence of the common causes of ill-health to the average monthly upper-deck temperature as recorded at noon each day in order to determine the temperature level above which sickness increased. It was concluded that the upper desirable level of warmth to consider when designing ships for hot climates was an effective temperature of 78°F. (25·5°C.). As it is usually impracticable in many compartments to achieve temperatures below 78°F. (25·5°C.) in the tropics without the generous application of air cooling, attention was then directed to the associated effects on the chemical and bacterial constituents of restricting air supplies, an unavoidable feature of most air conditioning systems, and to defining the permissible lower limits for fresh air requirements. The nuclear submarine with its capacity for remaining submerged for very long periods raises new problems relating to life in a confined space and involving very prolonged exposure to the submarine environment. These problems have still to be investigated. PMID:13726470

  9. Factors that affect voluntary vaccination of children in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shono, Aiko; Kondo, Masahide

    2015-03-10

    Some important vaccinations are not included in the routine childhood immunization schedule in Japan. Voluntary vaccinations are usually paid as an out-of-pocket expense. Low voluntary vaccination coverage rates and high target disease incidence are assumed to be a consequence of voluntary vaccination. Therefore, this study aimed to explore factors associated with voluntary vaccination patterns in children. We conducted an online survey of 1243 mothers from a registered survey panel who had at least one child 2 months to <3 years of age. The voluntary vaccination mainly correlated positively with annual household income and mothers' positive opinions about voluntary vaccinations, but negatively with number of children. Financial support, especially for low income households and households with more than one child, may motivate parents to vaccinate their children. Communication is also an important issue. More opportunities for education and information about voluntary vaccinations should be provided to mothers without distinguishing between voluntary and routine vaccination. PMID:25529291

  10. Hyperplastic forming: Process potential and factors affecting formability

    SciTech Connect

    Daehn, G.S.; Vohnout, V.J.; Datta, S.

    2000-07-01

    Aluminum has an outstanding potential for reducing the mass of automobiles. One of the key problems is that it is very difficult to form without tearing. This paper has two distinct goals. First, the authors argue in an extended introduction that high velocity forming, as can be implemented through electromagnetic forming, is a technology that should be developed. As a process used in conjunction with traditional stamping, it may offer dramatically improved formability, reduced wrinkling and active control of springback among other advantages. In the body of the paper they describe the important factors that lead to improved formability at high velocity. In particular, high sample velocity can inhibit neck growth. There is a sample size dependence where larger samples have better ductility than those of smaller dimensions. These aspects are at least partially described by the recent model of Freund and Shenoy. In addition to this, boundary conditions imposed by sample launch and die impact can have important effects on formability.

  11. Abiotic factors affecting the toxicity of lead to fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Babich, H; Stotzky, G

    1979-01-01

    The toxicity of lead (Pb) to fungi in pure culture was influenced by several abiotic factors: pH, inorganic anions, clay minerals, and particulate (humic acid) and soluble organic matter. The toxicity of Pb was potentiated under acidic conditions (pH 5 and 6), and phosphate or carbonate anions reduced the toxicity, apparently as a result of the formation of sparingly soluble Pb salts. Clay minerals (montmorillonite greater than attapulgite greater than kaolinite) and particulate humic acid protected against the toxicity of Pb, presumably as the result of sorption, by cation exchange of the Pb to the exchange complexes, which reduced its availability for uptake by the fungi. Soluble organics, such as tryptone, yeast extract, cysteine, succinic acid, and increasing concentrations of neopeptone, also reduced the toxicity of Pb. PMID:43707

  12. Personality factors affecting pilot combat performance: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Siem, F M; Murray, M W

    1994-05-01

    Reviews of the research literature have generally concluded that personality factors contribute little to pilot performance. One possible explanation for the failure to find stronger relationships may be due to the lack of appropriate taxonomies for both personality constructs and for performance constructs. The present research was designed to examine the relationship between personality and combat performance using the "Big Five" model of personality and a multi-component model of pilot combat performance. A sample of 100 USAF pilots rated the importance of 60 traits for effective performance on performance dimensions such as flying skills and crew management. The results indicated that pilots from different aircraft agreed that the personality trait of Conscientiousness was the most important determinant of performance on all performance dimensions. Implications for pilot selection are discussed. PMID:8018078

  13. Geomorphic and biophysical factors affecting water tracks in northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trochim, E. D.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Prakash, A.; Kane, D. L.

    2016-03-01

    A better understanding of water movement on hillslopes in Arctic environments is necessary for evaluating the effects of climate variability. Drainage networks include a range of features that vary in transport capacity from rills to water tracks to rivers. This research focuses on describing and classifying water tracks, which are saturated linear-curvilinear stripes that act as first-order pathways for transporting water off of hillslopes into valley bottoms and streams. Multiple factor analysis was used to develop five water tracks classes based on their geomorphic, soil, and vegetation characteristics. The water track classes were then validated using conditional inference trees, to verify that the classes were repeatable. Analysis of the classes and their characteristics indicate that water tracks cover a broad spectrum of patterns and processes primarily driven by surficial geology. This research demonstrates an improved approach to quantifying water track characteristics for specific areas, which is a major step toward understanding hydrological processes and feedbacks within a region.

  14. Factors affecting the regulation of pacing: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Mauger, Alexis R

    2014-01-01

    During prolonged dynamic and rhythmic exercise, muscular pain and discomfort arises as a result of an increased concentration of deleterious metabolites. Sensed by peripheral nociceptors and transmitted via afferent feedback to the brain, this provides important information regarding the physiological state of the muscle. These sensations ultimately contribute to what is termed “exercise-induced pain”. Despite being well recognized by athletes and coaches, and suggested to be integral to exercise performance, this construct has largely escaped attention in experimental work. This perspective article highlights the current understanding of pacing in endurance performance, and the causes of exercise-induced pain. A new perspective is described, which proposes how exercise-induced pain may be a contributing factor in helping individuals to regulate their work rate during exercise and thus provides an important construct in pacing. PMID:25228823

  15. Factors Affecting the Performance of Undergraduate Medical Students: A Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Ananya; Ghosh, Arijit; Sengupta, Gairik; Bera, Tapas; Das, Nina; Mukherjee, Subir

    2012-01-01

    Context: Performance of medical students in developing nations like India is perceived to have largely declined. Aims: We attempted to assess the reasons behind such trends. Settings and Design: Students in their third year of medical study were given a predesigned, pretested structured and validated questionnaire that they filled in anonymously. The key areas assessed were concentration, interest and understanding of the subject and other perceived causes of poor performance. Tests for descriptive statistics were applied for evaluation. Results and Conclusions: One hundred and fifty students participated in the study. Fifty-five (36.66%) students performed poorly. Male gender, inability to clear the previous professional examination at the first attempt, difficulty in understanding medium of instruction, self-assessed depression, sleep disorders and perceived parental and peer pressure and dissatisfaction with career choice were significantly linked with poor performance (P<0.05 for each factor). Socioeconomic status and regularity in class were not linked to academic performance. PMID:22654287

  16. Factors Affecting Junior High School Students' Interest in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2006-03-01

    We report the results of a study on students' interest in physics at the end of their compulsory schooling in Israel carried out in the framework of the ROSE Project. Factors studied were their opinions about science classes, their out-of-school experiences in physics, and their attitudes toward science and technology. Students' overall interest in physics was "neutral" (neither positive nor negative), with boys showing a higher interest than girls. We found a strong correlation between students' "neutral" interest in physics and their negative opinions about science classes. These findings raise serious questions about the implementation of changes made in the Israeli science curriculum in primary and junior high school, especially if the goal is to prepare the young generation for life in a scientific-technological era. A more in-depth analysis of the results led us to formulate curricular, behavioral, and organizational changes needed to reach this goal.

  17. Factors affecting credit rating downgrades of hospital revenue bonds.

    PubMed

    McCue, M J; Renn, S C; Pillari, G D

    1990-01-01

    This paper identifies the key institutional, operational, financial, and market-area factors associated with downgrades in the credit ratings of hospitals' outstanding, tax-exempt revenue bonds between 1985 and 1988. We examined data from 41 hospitals whose ratings had been downgraded from A to BBB by Standard and Poor's Corp., as well as data from 17 hospitals whose ratings had been downgraded from BBB to BB and lower, compared with hospitals having unchanged A and BBB ratings, respectively. The analysis found only two variables--the hospital's occupancy rate and its ratio of cash and cash equivalents to debt service payments--that were significantly associated with both types of downgrades. PMID:2145225

  18. Control of mechanically activated polymersome fusion: Factors affecting fusion

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Henderson, Ian M.; Paxton, Walter F.

    2014-12-15

    Previously we have studied the mechanically-activated fusion of extruded (200 nm) polymer vesicles into giant polymersomes using agitation in the presence of salt. In this study we have investigated several factors contributing to this phenomenon, including the effects of (i) polymer vesicle concentration, (ii) agitation speed and duration, and iii) variation of the salt and its concentration. It was found that increasing the concentration of the polymer dramatically increases the production of giant vesicles through the increased collisions of polymersomes. Our investigations also found that increasing the frequency of agitation increased the efficiency of fusion, though ultimately limited the sizemore » of vesicle which could be produced due to the high shear involved. Finally it was determined that salt-mediation of the fusion process was not limited to NaCl, but is instead a general effect facilitated by the presence of solvated ionic compounds, albeit with different salts initiating fusion at different concentration.« less

  19. Control of mechanically activated polymersome fusion: Factors affecting fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Ian M.; Paxton, Walter F.

    2014-12-15

    Previously we have studied the mechanically-activated fusion of extruded (200 nm) polymer vesicles into giant polymersomes using agitation in the presence of salt. In this study we have investigated several factors contributing to this phenomenon, including the effects of (i) polymer vesicle concentration, (ii) agitation speed and duration, and iii) variation of the salt and its concentration. It was found that increasing the concentration of the polymer dramatically increases the production of giant vesicles through the increased collisions of polymersomes. Our investigations also found that increasing the frequency of agitation increased the efficiency of fusion, though ultimately limited the size of vesicle which could be produced due to the high shear involved. Finally it was determined that salt-mediation of the fusion process was not limited to NaCl, but is instead a general effect facilitated by the presence of solvated ionic compounds, albeit with different salts initiating fusion at different concentration.

  20. Factors affecting aromatic VOC removal by electron beam treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jo-Chun

    2002-11-01

    A study has been conducted to investigate the effects of dose, humidity, and temperature on the decomposition of representative volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by electron beam irradiation. For this study, toluene—a commonly used VOC in the various industrial coating processes, was selected as a representative VOC. The degradation characteristics under different concentrations and irradiation doses were extensively investigated to determine and improve VOC removal efficiencies. In general, this study illustrates that the removal efficiencies of aromatic VOCs increase as their concentrations decrease and the irradiation doses increase. Addition of water vapor and/or aerosol moisture into the reactor of a flow system results in 10-20% increase in VOC removal efficiencies compared to the experiments run without moisture added, presumably due to OH radical formation leading to additional degradation pathways. The level of decomposition was higher with the addition of water vapor compared to those observed with added aerosol moisture. The temperature variations from 30°C to 130°C did not significantly affect the decomposition rates of the toluene compound at 160 ppm C. However, there was a significant decrease in toluene decomposition rate at a higher temperature of 170°C.

  1. Factors that affect social cue recognition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, P W; Nelson, D R

    1998-05-01

    Earlier research (Corrigan and Green, Am. J. Psychiatry, 150 (1993) 589-594) showed fairly symptomatic persons with schizophrenia give more false-positive responses when answering questions about abstract cues in a social situation (i.e. affect, rules, and goals inferred about an interpersonal situation) than concrete cues (i.e. actions and dialogue observed in a situation). It is unclear, however, whether differential cue recognition is due to schizophrenia per se, or some aspect of the illness commensurate with significant symptoms and in-patient care. Moreover, the abstract and concrete dimension in the earlier study had not been independently validated. In this study, the 288 items of the Social Cue Recognition Test (SCRT) were divided into three sets based on abstraction ratings provided by 38 college students. The SCRT was then completed by 48 participants with DSM-III-R diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Participants with schizophrenia were divided into low and high symptom groups using scores from the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Results showed both low symptom and high symptom groups exhibited a differential deficit in cue recognition. False positives were greater for items rated as more abstract. Implications for understanding the social cognitive deficits of persons with schizophrenia are discussed. PMID:9657423

  2. Factors affecting mechanical properties of biomass pellet from compost.

    PubMed

    Zafari, A; Kianmehr, M H

    2014-01-01

    Effectiveness of a densification process to create strong and durable bonding in pellets can be determined by testing the mechanical properties such as compressive strength (CS) and durability. Mechanical properties of pellet from composted municipal solid waste were determined at different raw material and densification conditions. Ground compost samples were compressed with three levels of moisture content (35%, 40% and 45% (wb)), piston compaction speed (2, 6 and 10 mm/s), die length (8, 10 and 12mm) and raw material particle size (0.3, 0.9 and 1.5mm) into cylindrical pellets utilizing opened-end dies under axial stress from a vertical piston applied by a hydraulic press. The effects of independent variables on mechanical properties were determined using response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design (BBD). All independent variables affected the durability significantly. However, different piston speed and die length not produce any significant difference on CS of pellets. Also in this research the electron photography method was used to identify the binding mechanism of compost particles. PMID:24600888

  3. Factors affecting outcome after Frey procedure for chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Balachandar, Tirupporur Govindaswamy; Kannan, Devy Gounder; Rajarathinam, Govindhasamy; Vimalraj, Vellayudham; Rajendran, Shanmugasundaram; Ravichandran, Palanisamy; Jeswanth, Satyanesan; Surendran, Rajagopal

    2008-01-01

    Background. Debilitating abdominal pain remains the most common presentation of chronic pancreatitis and the treatment remains challenging. Objective. This prospective study analyzed the outcome of Frey's procedure in patients with inflammatory head mass. Methods. For the period between 2002 and 2007, 77 patients with chronic pancreatitis underwent Frey procedure for intractable abdominal pain. The mean follow-up was 14 months. For the purpose of analysis of the outcome, patients were grouped as poor pain control (19%) and good pain control groups (81%) based on the pain scores during follow-up. Results. There was no 30-day mortality. The logistic regression analysis showed that decreased volume percentage (48%) of head mass resected (p=0.003) and small diameter of the pancreatic duct (p=0.05) were associated with poor pain outcome. Subgroup analysis revealed that patients with small duct disease were associated with increased operative time (p=0.001), poor pain scores (p=0.001), and increased weight loss (p=0.003) during follow-up. Conclusions. Frey procedure can be performed with zero mortality and low morbidity in a high-volume center. It provides good pain relief in majority of the patients. Volume of the head mass cored affects pain outcome. Correlation between poor results in terms of pain relief and weight loss following Frey's procedure, and small duct disease supports the view that duct diameter is an important predictor of pain relief. PMID:19088936

  4. Factors affecting areas contributing recharge to wells in shallow aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Pollock, David W.

    1993-01-01

    The source of water to wells is ultimately the location where the water flowing to a well enters the boundary surface of the ground-water system. In ground-water systems that receive most of their water from areal recharge, the location of the water entering the ground-water system is at the water table. The area contributing recharge to a discharging well is the surface area that defines the location of the water entering the ground-water system at the water table that flows to the well and is eventually discharged from the well. The calculation of areas contributing recharge to wells is complex because flow paths in ground-water systems change in response to development, and the aquifer material in ground-water systems is heterogeneous and is hidden from direct observation . Hypothetical experiments were undertaken to show the complexities in the delineation of areas contributing recharge to wells. Four different 'cases' are examined to demonstrate the effect of different conceptualized aquifer frameworks on deterministically calculated areas contributing recharge. The main conclusion drawn from the experiments is that, in order to understand the cause and effect relations that affect the quality of water derived from wells, the importance and nature of the variability in the ground-waterflow system must be considered and accounted for in any efforts to 'protect' the water supply.

  5. Factors affecting growth of foodborne pathogens on minimally processed apples.

    PubMed

    Alegre, Isabel; Abadias, Maribel; Anguera, Marina; Oliveira, Marcia; Viñas, Inmaculada

    2010-02-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Listeria innocua increased by more than 2 log(10) units over a 24 h period on fresh-cut 'Golden Delicious' apple plugs stored at 25 and 20 degrees C. L. innocua reached the same final population level at 10 degrees C meanwhile E. coli and Salmonella only increased 1.3 log(10) units after 6 days. Only L. innocua was able to grow at 5 degrees C. No significant differences were observed between the growth of foodborne pathogens on fresh-cut 'Golden Delicious', 'Granny Smith' and 'Shampion' apples stored at 25 and 5 degrees C. The treatment of 'Golden Delicious' and 'Granny Smith' apple plugs with the antioxidants, ascorbic acid (2%) and NatureSeal (6%), did not affect pathogen growth. The effect of passive modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the growth of E. coli, Salmonella and L. innocua on 'Golden Delicious' apple slices was also tested. There were no significant differences in growth of pathogens in MAP conditions compared with air packaging of 'Golden Delicious' apple plugs, but the growth of mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms was inhibited. These results highlight the importance of avoiding contamination of fresh-cut fruit with foodborne pathogens and the maintenance of the cold chain during storage until consumption. PMID:19913695

  6. Key factors affecting urban runoff pollution under cold climatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtanen, Marjo; Sillanpää, Nora; Setälä, Heikki

    2015-10-01

    Urban runoff contains various pollutants and has the potential of deteriorating the quality of aquatic ecosystems. In this study our objective is to shed light on the factors that control the runoff water quality in urbanized catchments. The effects of runoff event characteristics, land use type and catchment imperviousness on event mass loads (EML) and event mean concentrations (EMC) were studied during warm and cold periods in three study catchments (6.1, 6.5 and 12.6 ha in size) in the city of Lahti, Finland. Runoff and rainfall were measured continuously for two years at each catchment. Runoff samples were taken for total nutrients (tot-P and tot-N), total suspended solids (TSS), heavy metals (Zn, Cr, Al, Co, Ni, Cu, Pb, Mn) and total organic carbon (TOC). Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis (SMLR) was used to identify general relationships between the following variables: event water quality, runoff event characteristics and catchment characteristics. In general, the studied variables explained 50-90% of the EMLs but only 30-60% of the EMCs, with runoff duration having an important role in most of the SMLR models. Mean runoff intensity or peak flow was also often included in the runoff quality models. Yet, the importance (being the first, second or third best) and role (negative or positive impact) of the explanatory variables varied between the cold and warm period. Land use type often explained cold period concentrations, but imperviousness alone explained EMCs weakly. As for EMLs, the influence of imperviousness and/or land use was season and pollutant dependent. The study suggests that pollutant loads can be - throughout the year - adequately predicted by runoff characteristics given that seasonal differences are taken into account. Although pollutant concentrations were sensitive to variation in seasonal and catchment conditions as well, the accurate estimation of EMCs would require a more complete set of explanatory factors than used in this study.

  7. Factors affecting recognition of cancer risks of nuclear workers.

    PubMed Central

    Kneale, G W; Stewart, A M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To discover whether direct estimates of the risks of cancer for nuclear workers agree with indirect estimates based on survivors of the atomic bomb; whether relations between age at exposure and risk of cancer are the same for workers and survivors, and whether dosimetry standards are sufficiently uniform to allow pooling of data from different nuclear industrial sites. METHOD--Data from five nuclear sites in the United States were included in a cohort analysis that as well as controlling for all the usual factors also allowed for possible effects of three cancer modulating factors (exposure age, cancer latency, and year of exposure). This analysis was first applied to three distinct cohorts, and then to two sets of pooled data. RESULTS--From each study cohort there was evidence of a risk of cancer related to dose, and evidence that the extra radiogenic cancers had the same overall histological manifestations as naturally occurring cancers and were largely the result of exposures after 50 years of age causing deaths after 70 years. There were, however, significant differences between the five sets of risk estimates. CONCLUSIONS--Although the risks of cancer in nuclear workers were appreciably higher than estimates based on the cancer experiences of survivors of the atomic bomb, some uncertainties remained as there were non-uniform standards of dosimetry in the nuclear sites. The differences between nuclear workers and survivors of the atomic bomb were largely the result of relations between age at exposure and risk of cancer being totally different for workers and survivors and, in the occupational data, there were no signs of the special risks of leukaemia found in atomic bomb data and other studies of effects of high doses. PMID:7663636

  8. Temperature can interact with landscape factors to affect songbird productivity.

    PubMed

    Cox, W Andrew; Thompson, Frank R; Reidy, Jennifer L; Faaborg, John

    2013-04-01

    Increased temperatures and more extreme weather patterns associated with global climate change can interact with other factors that regulate animal populations, but many climate change studies do not incorporate other threats to wildlife in their analyses. We used 20 years of nest-monitoring data from study sites across a gradient of habitat fragmentation in Missouri, USA, to investigate the relative influence of weather variables (temperature and precipitation) and landscape factors (forest cover and edge density) on the number of young produced per nest attempt (i.e., productivity) for three species of songbirds. We detected a strong forest cover × temperature interaction for the Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) on productivity. Greater forest cover resulted in greater productivity because of reduced brood parasitism and increased nest survival, whereas greater temperatures reduced productivity in highly forested landscapes because of increased nest predation but had no effect in less forested landscapes. The Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) exhibited a similar pattern, albeit with a marginal forest cover × temperature interaction. By contrast, productivity of the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) was not influenced by landscape effects or temperature. Our results highlight a potential difficulty of managing wildlife in response to global change such as habitat fragmentation and climate warming, as the habitat associated with the greatest productivity for flycatchers was also that most negatively influenced by high temperatures. The influence of high temperatures on nest predation (and therefore, nest predators) underscores the need to acknowledge the potential complexity of species' responses to climate change by incorporating a more thorough consideration of community ecology in the development of models of climate impacts on wildlife. PMID:23504884

  9. Masked fake face detection using radiance measurements.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngshin; Na, Jaekeun; Yoon, Seongbeak; Yi, Juneho

    2009-04-01

    This research presents a novel 2D feature space where real faces and masked fake faces can be effectively discriminated. We exploit the reflectance disparity based on albedo between real faces and fake materials. The feature vector used consists of radiance measurements of the forehead region under 850 and 685 nm illuminations. Facial skin and mask material show linearly separable distributions in the feature space proposed. By simply applying Fisher's linear discriminant, we have achieved 97.78% accuracy in fake face detection. Our method can be easily implemented in commercial face verification systems. PMID:19340250

  10. DEHP Impairs Zebrafish Reproduction by Affecting Critical Factors in Oogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Carnevali, Oliana; Tosti, Luca; Speciale, Claudia; Peng, Chun; Zhu, Yong; Maradonna, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Public concerns on phthalates distributions in the environment have been increasing since they can cause liver cancer, structural abnormalities and reduce sperm counts in male reproductive system. However, few data are actually available on the effects of Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) in female reproductive system. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of DEHP on zebrafish oogenesis and embryo production. Female Danio rerio were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of DEHP and a significant decrease in ovulation and embryo production was observed. The effects of DEHP on several key regulators of oocyte maturation and ovulation including bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP15), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 (ptgs2) were determined by real time PCR. The expressions of BMP15 and mPR proteins were further determined by Western analyses to strengthen molecular findings. Moreover, plasma vitellogenin (vtg) titers were assayed by an ELISA procedure to determine the estrogenic effects of DEHP and its effects on oocyte growth. A significant reduction of fecundity in fish exposed to DEHP was observed. The reduced reproductive capacity was associated with an increase in ovarian BMP15 levels. This rise, in turn, was concomitant with a significant reduction in LHR and mPRβ levels. Finally, ptgs2 expression, the final trigger of ovulation, was also decreased by DEHP. By an in vitro maturation assay, the inhibitory effect of DEHP on germinal vesicle breakdown was further confirmed. In conclusion, DEHP affecting signals involved in oocyte growth (vtg), maturation (BMP15, LHR, mPRs,) and ovulation (ptgs2), deeply impairs ovarian functions with serious consequences on embryo production. Since there is a significant genetic similarity between D.rerio and humans, the harmful effects observed at oocyte level may be relevant for further molecular studies on humans. PMID:20419165

  11. Factors affecting outcomes of corneal collagen crosslinking treatment

    PubMed Central

    Toprak, I; Yaylalı, V; Yildirim, C

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the effects of preoperative patient characteristics on clinical outcomes of corneal crosslinking (CXL) treatment in patients with progressive keratoconus. Methods This retrospective study comprised 96 eyes of 96 patients who had unilateral CXL treatment for progressive keratoconus. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmological examination and corneal topography at baseline and 1 year. Subgroup analyses were performed according to the age (<30 and≥30 years), gender, preoperative corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, <0.3 and ≥0.3 logMAR (log of the minimum angle of resolution)), preoperative maximum keratometry (K, <54 and ≥54 D), baseline topographic cone location (central, paracentral, and peripheral), and preoperative thinnest pachymetry (<450 and ≥450 μm) to determine the associations between preoperative patient characteristics and outcomes (changes in visual acuity and maximum keratometry) of CXL treatment. Results In the entire study population, mean CDVA and maximum K significantly improved after CXL treatment (P<0.001). Patients with a preoperative CDVA of 20/40 Snellen equivalent or worse (≥0.3 logMAR) experienced more visual improvement after CXL treatment (P<0.001). However, an age ≥30 years and a baseline thinnest pachymetry less than 450 μm were found significantly associated with more flattening in maximum keratometry (P=0.024, P=0.005 respectively). Gender, preoperative maximum K, and baseline topographic cone location did not show significant effect on postoperative visual acuity and maximum keratometry (P>0.05). Conclusions In patients with progressive keratoconus, age, baseline visual acuity, and baseline thinnest pachymetry seem to affect the success of the CXL treatment. PMID:24136568

  12. Factors affecting continence after surgery for anal fistula.

    PubMed

    Lunniss, P J; Kamm, M A; Phillips, R K

    1994-09-01

    Anorectal physiology and continence were assessed prospectively before and after surgery in 50 patients with chronic perianal sepsis. Functional and physiological parameters were unchanged after surgery in 13 control patients who had sepsis but who did not undergo division of the anal sphincter. Group 1 comprised 22 patients with internal sphincter division alone (15 intersphincteric, seven trans-sphincteric treated by a loose seton technique) and group 2 consisted of 15 patients with a trans-sphincteric fistula laid completely open. In group 1 the median (interquartile range (i.q.r.)) resting pressure in the distal 1 cm of the anal canal was reduced from 68 (60-90) cmH2O before surgery to 44 (35-60) cmH2O after operation (P < 0.001); squeeze pressure was less affected, but function deteriorated in 11 of the 22 patients. The median (i.q.r.) resting pressure in group 2 patients also fell, from 68 (34-84) cmH2O before operation to 28 (20-54) cmH2O afterwards (P = 0.003); median (i.q.r.) maximum squeeze pressure decreased more, from 124 (76-170) cmH2O to 72 (48-112) cmH2O (P = 0.002). Functional deficit occurred in eight of the 15 patients. Incontinence was related to low resting pressure, reflecting internal sphincter integrity, and to local epithelial electrosensitivity (reflecting scarring), but not to squeeze pressure, fistula type or surgical treatment. PMID:7953425

  13. Factors affecting survivability of local Rohilkhand goats under organized farm

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, D.; Patel, B. H. M.; Sahu, S.; Gaur, G. K.; Singh, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To study the pattern of mortality as affected by age, season and various diseases in local goats of Rohilkhand region maintained at the Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Bareilly. Materials and Methods: Post-mortem records of 12 years (2000-01 to 2011-12) were used, and total 243 mortality data were collected and analyzed. The causes of mortality were classified into seven major classes viz. digestive disorders, respiratory disorders, cardiovascular disorders, musculoskeletal disorder, parasitic disorders, mixed disorders (combination of digestive, respiratory, parasitic, and cardiovascular disorders) and miscellaneous disorders (cold, hypoglycemia, emaciation, endometritis, traumatic injury, etc.). Results: The average mortality was 10.93%. The overall mortality was more during rainy season followed by winter and summer season. The mortality in 4-6 months of age was high (2.52%) followed by 0-1 month (2.34%) and 2-3 months (1.35%). The average mortality among adult age groups (>12 months) was 3.42%. The mortality showed declining trend with the advancement of age up to 3 months and then again increased in 4-6 months age group. The digestive diseases (3.51%) followed by respiratory diseases (1.89%) and parasitic diseases (1.48%) contributed major share to the total mortality occurred and the remaining disorders were of lesser significance in causing death in goats. There is significant (p<0.01; χ2=55.62) association between year with season and age with the season (p<0.05, χ2=16.083) found in the present study. Conclusion: This study confirms that overall mortality rate averaged 10.93% (ranged between 1.10% and 25.56%) over 12 years under semi-intensive farm condition. It was generally higher in rainy season. The mortality remains higher in kids particularly under 1 month of age. The digestive diseases contributed major share to overall mortality. PMID:27047020

  14. Sociopsychological factors affecting the human response to noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Borsky, P N

    1979-08-01

    Community noise is reported to be the most often mentioned undesirable neighborhood condition in a recent U.S. Census survey. Understanding community response to noise involves the measurement of a number of complex acoustic and nonacoustic variables and establishing the chain of relationships between physical exposure, perception, annoyance, and acceptability responses and finally complaint behavior. The perceived loudness of a noise is the most important acoustic parameter influencing annoyance and complaints, and the simple dBA unit can be used to integrate spectral characteristics of complex sounds in community studies. Although energy averaging such as Leq or Ldn can be used to describe multiple noise exposures over time, the variable trade-off relationships between number and level of exposures are somewhat obscured by such summary measures. However, they are still the best available descriptors and, until more accurate ones are developed, can be used to measure community noise environments. Perception of an identical noise exposure can vary according to the physiological noise sensitivity of a person and the activity context in which the noise is heard. Although the acoustic quality of the noise itself usually explains about 10 to 25 per cent of the variability in annoyance responses, sociopsychological variables measured in field studies account for 35 to 50 per cent of the variations in human annoyance responses. Three of the most important nonacoustic factors are the connotative fear effects of the noise signal, the feeling that those responsible for the noise are misfeasant in not reducing the noise, and the feeling that harmful health effects are produced by the noise. When residents report great fear, a high misfeasance, and marked health effects, about 90 per cent report a high annoyance level whether their noise exposure level is above 90 Ldn or 65 to 70 Ldn. In contrast, if the feelings are a low fear level, a low degree of misfeasance, and minimal health effects, only 3 to 10 per cent give high annoyance responses. Complaint behavior, although based on intensity of annoyance, is modified by a number of other sociopsychological factors and often is an unreliable indicator of an environmental problem. PMID:471500

  15. The factors affecting persistent pneumothorax and mortality in neonatal pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Esme, Hidir; Doğru, Omer; Eren, Sevval; Korkmaz, Mevlüt; Solak, Okan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present our experience in management of neonatal pneumothorax and factors contributing to persistent pneumothorax and mortality. Forty-two newborns were analyzed according to gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score, age of admittance, type of delivery, mother's age, side of pneumothorax, causes of pneumothorax, accompanying disorders, tube thoracostomy and mechanical ventilation durations, mean hospital stay, and deaths. Sixteen patients (38%) weighed less than 2500 g and 28 (66%) were preterm. The mean Apgar score at 5th minute was 6.2 (2-10). The pneumothorax was bilateral in 9 patients (21%). There was a defined underlying lung pathology in 26 (61%) patients and accompanying disorder in 14 (33%). Mean tube thoracostomy duration was 5 days (2-12). Twenty-five patients (59%) needed mechanical ventilation. Overall 10 babies died. Our findings indicated that underlying primary lung pathology, need for mechanical ventilation, and bilateral pneumothorax were major determinants of persistent pneumothorax and mortality in newborns. PMID:18773669

  16. Factors Affecting the Antimicrobial Activity of Vitamin K51

    PubMed Central

    Merrifield, Larry S.; Yang, H. Y.

    1965-01-01

    Pure cultures of Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas fluorescens were used in this investigation. The bactericidal concentrations of vitamin K5 required for E. coli, B. subtilis, P. vulgaris, S. aureus, and P. fluorescens; the effect of an absence of oxygen; the effect of contact time with E. coli and S. aureus; and the effect of initial counts per milliliter of E. coli were studied. The bactericidal concentrations ranged from 60 ppm of K5 for S. aureus to 220 ppm for E. coli, with an initial count of 160,000 to 200,000 cells per milliliter and a contact time of 12 hr in nutrient broth. The gram-positive bacteria tested were more susceptible to the antimicrobial activity of vitamin K5 than the gram-negative bacteria. In the studies conducted under nitrogen atmosphere, the per cent inhibition showed an inverse relationship to the bactericidal concentrations required for complete inhibition in studies conducted under air atmosphere. This finding suggested that there might be different factors responsible for inhibition depending on the species of bacteria being tested, and it also might help explain the difference in concentrations necessary for inhibition. Cells of E. coli and S. aureus were not inhibited immediately on coming into contact with vitamin K5; 50% inhibition occurred after 25 and 32 min, respectively. A rapid inhibition rate was maintained until approximately 90% inhibition occurred, after whch a rapid decrease in the rate was noted. PMID:4956243

  17. Factors affecting survival and outgrowth from transplants of entorhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, R B; Cotman, C W

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine injury-related effects on the survival and growth of entorhinal tissues transplanted to the adult rat entorhinal area. Embryonic entorhinal cortex was transplanted to the angular bundle region of adults either immediately, or 8-10 days, after severing specific host projections. Graft survival (Nissl stain) and connectivity (acetylcholesterase stain and retrograde labeling with wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase) were examined two months post-transplantation. Grafts transplanted 8-10 days after severing the angular bundle were large and contained many cells which innervated the hippocampal formation. Grafts transplanted immediately after severing the angular bundle were small, did not integrate well with the host tissues, and failed to innervate the hippocampal formation. Grafts transplanted without producing any prior lesion, or following lesions which did not damage host entorhinal projections, were intermediate in size, but failed to innervate the hippocampal formation. The data demonstrate that: (1) introducing a delay between the lesion and implant surgeries can significantly enhance graft survival and the establishment of transplant-to-host projections, and (2) transplant-derived innervation of the host is significantly impaired when host homologous fibers are intact. These findings suggest that environmental factors, induced specifically by the destruction of host homologous fibers, are responsible for the differences in transplant survival and connectivity observed. PMID:3627432

  18. Environmental factors affecting indole metabolism under anaerobic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, E.L.; Francis, A.J.; Bollag, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of physiological and environmental factors on the accumulation of oxindole during anaerobic indole metabolism was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Under methanogenic conditions, indole was temporarily converted to oxindole in stoichiometric amounts in media inoculated with three freshwater sediments and an organic soil. In media inoculated with methanogenic sewage sludge, the modest amounts of oxindole detected at 35/sup 0/C reached higher concentrations and persisted longer when the incubation temperature was decreased from 35 to 15/sup 0/C. Also, decreasing the concentration of sewage sludge used as an inoculum from 50 to 1% caused an increase in the accumulation of oxindole from 10 to 75% of the indole added. Under denitrifying conditions, regardless of the concentration or source of the inoculum, oxindole appeared in trace amounts but did not accumulate during indole metabolism. In addition, denitrifying consortia which previously metabolized indole degraded oxindole with no lag period. Our data suggest that oxindole accumulation under methanogenic, but not under denitrifying conditions is caused by differences between relative rates of oxindole production and destruction.

  19. Experimental and environmental factors affect spurious detection of ecological thresholds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daily, Jonathan P.; Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Smith, David; Snyder, Craig D.

    2012-01-01

    Threshold detection methods are increasingly popular for assessing nonlinear responses to environmental change, but their statistical performance remains poorly understood. We simulated linear change in stream benthic macroinvertebrate communities and evaluated the performance of commonly used threshold detection methods based on model fitting (piecewise quantile regression [PQR]), data partitioning (nonparametric change point analysis [NCPA]), and a hybrid approach (significant zero crossings [SiZer]). We demonstrated that false detection of ecological thresholds (type I errors) and inferences on threshold locations are influenced by sample size, rate of linear change, and frequency of observations across the environmental gradient (i.e., sample-environment distribution, SED). However, the relative importance of these factors varied among statistical methods and between inference types. False detection rates were influenced primarily by user-selected parameters for PQR (τ) and SiZer (bandwidth) and secondarily by sample size (for PQR) and SED (for SiZer). In contrast, the location of reported thresholds was influenced primarily by SED. Bootstrapped confidence intervals for NCPA threshold locations revealed strong correspondence to SED. We conclude that the choice of statistical methods for threshold detection should be matched to experimental and environmental constraints to minimize false detection rates and avoid spurious inferences regarding threshold location.

  20. Factors Affecting the Intensity of Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2011-01-01

    This paper updates the influence of environmental and source factors of shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that are likely to influence the solar energetic particle (SEP) events. The intensity variation due to CME interaction reported that is confirmed by expanding the investigation to all the large SEP events of solar cycle 23. The large SEP events are separated into two groups, one associated with CMEs running into other CMEs, and the other with CMEs running into the ambient solar wind. SEP events with CME interaction generally have a higher intensity. New possibilities such as the influence of coronal holes on the SEP intensity are also discussed. For example, the presence of a large coronal hole between a well-connected eruption and the solar disk center may render the shock poorly connected because of the interaction between the CME and the coronal hole. This point is illustrated using the 2004 December 3 SEP event delayed by about 12 hours from the onset of the associated CME. There is no other event at the Sun that can be associated with the SEP onset. This event is consistent with the possibility that the coronal hole interaction influences the connectivity of the CMEs that produce SEPs, and hence the intensity of the SEP event.

  1. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Local Support for Black Bear Recovery Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morzillo, Anita T.; Mertig, Angela G.; Hollister, Jeffrey W.; Garner, Nathan; Liu, Jianguo

    2010-06-01

    There is global interest in recovering locally extirpated carnivore species. Successful efforts to recover Louisiana black bear in Louisiana have prompted interest in recovery throughout the species’ historical range. We evaluated support for three potential black bear recovery strategies prior to public release of a black bear conservation and management plan for eastern Texas, United States. Data were collected from 1,006 residents living in proximity to potential recovery locations, particularly Big Thicket National Preserve. In addition to traditional logistic regression analysis, we used conditional probability analysis to statistically and visually evaluate probabilities of public support for potential black bear recovery strategies based on socioeconomic characteristics. Allowing black bears to repopulate the region on their own (i.e., without active reintroduction) was the recovery strategy with the greatest probability of acceptance. Recovery strategy acceptance was influenced by many socioeconomic factors. Older and long-time local residents were most likely to want to exclude black bears from the area. Concern about the problems that black bears may cause was the only variable significantly related to support or non-support across all strategies. Lack of personal knowledge about black bears was the most frequent reason for uncertainty about preferred strategy. In order to reduce local uncertainty about possible recovery strategies, we suggest that wildlife managers focus outreach efforts on providing local residents with general information about black bears, as well as information pertinent to minimizing the potential for human-black bear conflict.

  2. Factors affecting the performance of the styles cell transformation test.

    PubMed

    Daniel, M R; Dehnel, J M

    1980-08-01

    The effects of certain factors on the performance of the cell transformation test of Styles were examined by testing the demonstrability of transformation of cells of a subclone of BHK21 C13 in response to treatment with 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, benzo[a]pyrene and 2-acetamidofluorene. An important requirement for success was supplementation of the soft agar medium with a serum which supported microcolony formation by a high proportion of the cells. Increasing the concentration of an unsuitable serum improved the results obtained; this suggests that the serum was inadequate rather than inhibitory. Alteration of the concentration of S-9 fraction used to activate the precarcinogens benzo[a]pyrene and 2-acetamidofluorene had little effect on the induction of transformation by either. A clearer distinction between the transformation frequencies for control and treated cells was usually obtained when 500 microm rather than 200 microm was the minimum diameter set for definition of transformation. It is suggested that, to assess the validity of results obtained with compounds which appear to induce transformation only at highly toxic levels, transformation frequencies for treated cells should be compared with those for control cells seeded at comparable densities. PMID:11272119

  3. Oxytocin and Psychological Factors Affecting Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Kontoangelos, K.; Raptis, A. E.; Papageorgiou, C. C.; Tsiotra, P. C.; Papadimitriou, G. N.; Rabavilas, A. D.; Dimitriadis, G.; Raptis, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of oxytocin with trait and state psychological factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods. OXT and psychological variables were analyzed from 86 controlled diabetic patients (glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) < 7%) from 45 uncontrolled diabetic patients (HbA1c ≥ 7). Psychological characteristics were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), while state psychological characteristics were measured with the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL 90-R). Blood samples were taken for measuring oxytocin in both subgroups during the initial phase of the study. One year later, the uncontrolled diabetic patients were reevaluated with the use of the same psychometric instruments. Results. During the first evaluation of the uncontrolled diabetic patients, a statistically significant positive relationship between the levels of OXT and psychoticism in EPQ rating scale (P < 0.013) was observed. For controlled diabetic patients, a statistically significant negative relationship between oxytocin and somatization (P < 0.030), as well as obsessive-compulsive scores (P < 0.047) in SCL-90 rating scale, was observed. During the second assessment, the values of OXT decreased when the patients managed to control their metabolic profile. Conclusions. The OXT is in association with psychoticism, somatization, and obsessionality may be implicated in T2DM. PMID:22997507

  4. Factors Affecting the Musculoskeletal Symptoms of Korean Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Taek-Sang; Jeon, Woo-Jin; Lee, Jin-Gu; Seok, Jong-Min; Cho, Jae-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    ] This study was conducted to investigate efficient, systematic management of the Korean police and to examine the status and prevention of musculoskeletal disorders in Korean police officers. [Subjects and Methods] A survey of police officers (353 subjects) who visited the National Police Hospital from March 2013 to May 2013 was conducted using a structured questionnaire. [Results] The incidence of pain was 44.2% in the shoulder, 41.4% in the waist, 31.2% in the neck, 26.1% in the legs/foot, 16.7% in the hand/wrist/finger, and 14.7% in the arm/elbow. The comparative risk of the relevant part factors was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. The shoulder had a 4.87 times higher risk in police lieutenants compared with those under the rank of corporal and a 1.78 times higher risk in people with chronic diseases than those without chronic diseases. The arm/elbow had a 2.37 times higher risk in people who exercised than those who did not exercise and a 1.78 times higher risk in people with a chronic disease than those without chronic diseases. Generally, people with a chronic disease showed a higher risk than those without chronic diseases. [Conclusion] The results of this study could be useful as basic data for improvement of police welfare, specialized treatment for the health safety of the police, and efficient management of police resources. PMID:25013298

  5. Defense Acquisitions: Factors Affecting Outcomes of Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    Since the ACTD (Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrations) program was started in 1994, a wide range of products have been tested by technology experts and military operators in realistic settings-from unmanned aerial vehicles, to friend-or-foe detection systems, to biological agent detection systems, to advanced simulation technology designed to enhance joint training. Many of these have successfully delivered new technologies to users. Though the majority of the projects that were examined, transitioned technologies to users, there are factors that hamper the ACTD process. For example: Technology has been too immature to be tested in a realistic setting, leading to cancellation of the demonstration. Military services and defense agencies have been reluctant to fund acquisition of ACTD-proven technologies, especially those focusing on joint requirements, because of competing priorities. ACTD's military utility may not have been assessed consistently. Some of the barriers identified can be addressed through efforts DOD (Department of Defense) now has underway, including an evaluation of how the ACTD process can be improved; adoption of criteria to be used to ensure technology is sufficiently mature; and placing of more attention on the end phase of the ACTD process. Other barriers, however, will be much more difficult to address in view of cultural resistance to joint initiatives and the requirements of DOD's planning and funding process.

  6. Factors affecting optical dispersion in borate glass systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Baki, Manal; Abdel-Wahab, F. A.; Radi, Amr; El-Diasty, Fouad

    2007-08-01

    Series of ternary glass systems namely, Na2O, B2O3, and RO (R=Ba or Mg) doped with TiO2 are synthesized. The present glasses are dictated by requirement for a small refractive index and a small nonlinear coefficient needed for waveguide and laser fabrication requirements. The effect of MgO and BaO as alkaline earth metals on the optical properties of the glass systems is investigated. The dependence of the refractive index and extinction coefficient dispersion curves on composition is carried out over a wavelength range of 0.3 2.5μm. Applying a genetic algorithm technique, the parameters of Sellmeier dispersion formula that fit index data to accuracy consistent well with the measurements are given. The zero material dispersion-wavelength (ZMDW) and group velocity are also determined using the refractive index data. The Fermi level is calculated exploiting the extinction coefficient dispersion curves. The absorption coefficient, both direct and indirect optical energy gaps, and Urbach energy are evaluated using the absorption edge calculations. The different factors that play a role for controlling the refractive indices such as coordination number, electronic polarizability, field strength of cations, bridging and nonbridging oxygen, and optical basicity are discussed in accordance with the obtained index data. IR spectroscopy is used as a structural probe of the nearest-neighbor environment in the glass network.

  7. Factors that affect print quality in thermal dye transfer imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Daniel J. P.; McInerney, Elizabeth

    1995-04-01

    Thermal dye transfer (TDT) imaging has established itself as the state- of-the-art process for high quality, continuous tone, nonimpact printing. Imaging quality from this process rivals conventional silver halide photography and exceeds other nonimpact printing technologies. Because this output appears to be virtually indistinguishable from photographic prints, there has been an expectation that all the quality attributes of silver halide photography are embodied in a TDT print. However, there are many significant differences that affect output quality between these two technologies. These differences are primarily in color gamut, print artifacts, Dmin, grain/sharpness, and image stability. The range of colors reproducible by a color, hard copy device, known as its color gamut, is dictated primarily by the image- forming dyes used by the device. The size and shape of a device's gamut is controlled by the spectral density distributions of these image forming dyes, the Dmin of the receiver base, the Dmax of each dye, the amount of light scatter, and the spectral distribution of the viewing illuminant. The spectral density distributions of dyes also have an impact on illuminant sensitivity, which is a predictor of how much the color balance of a print will change with a change in illuminant. By determining and then using characteristic curves for various image- forming dyes, we have been able to calculate and compare the color gamuts and illuminant sensitivity of TDT imaging with other technologies (color monitor and silver halide photography, for example). The differences we have found can have a significant impact on output quality, depending upon the application. Compared to conventional photography, thermal dye transfer prints have traditionally had inferior light stability and resistance to damage from fingerprints. In addition, thermal dye transfer prints have been aggressively attacked by plasticized polyvinyl chloride sheets and folders commonly found in office and home environments. We will describe a major advance in thermal dye transfer imaging technology that greatly improves the image stability position of thermal dye transfer images. This advance is derived from the addition of a thin protective layer onto the final print. To add to customer convenience, the protective layer is integrated into the dye donor ribbon as a 4th patch. The protective layer is laminated to the final print using the thermal print head. TDT print artifacts may also influence the quality of TDT output. These defects can include print head streaks, dust and dirt spots, printer banding, and donor ribbon wrinkling. The origin of these defects will be described.

  8. Factors Affecting Isolation and Identification of Haemophilus vaginalis (Corynebacterium vaginale)

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Robert K.; Voss, Jack L.; Smith, Rodney F.

    1979-01-01

    The rate of isolation of organisms resembling Haemophilus vaginalis (Corynebacterium vaginale) from vaginal specimens was not significantly affected by anaerobic versus carbon dioxide incubation atmospheres or whether specimens were inoculated on isolation media immediately after collection or after a delay of 6 h. Forty-one clinically isolated strains were provisionally divided into 30 H. vaginalis strains and 11 H. vaginalis-like (HVL) strains based on morphological and growth characteristics. The H. vaginalis strains were less reactive in API-20A identification test strips, (Analytab Products, Inc.) using Lombard-Dowell broth, than in a modified basal medium that contained proteose peptone no. 3 (Difco). The numbers and kinds of substrates fermented by 30 clinical and 2 reference strains of H. vaginalis varied among conventional, API, Minitek (Baltimore Biological Laboratory), and rapid buffered substrate fermentation systems. A greater number and variety of carbohydrates were fermented by the 11 HVL strains more consistently in all four test systems. Analysis of volatile and nonvolatile fermentation end products by gas-liquid chromatography did not reveal significant differences between the H. vaginalis and HVL strains. However, the latter group grew in peptone-yeast extract-glucose broth, whereas the H. vaginalis strains did not grow without the addition of starch to peptone-yeast extract-glucose. All of the reference and clinical strains were similar in their susceptibilities to a variety of antimicrobial compounds except sulfonamides, which inhibited the HVL strains and bifidobacteria but not the H. vaginalis strains. Sulfonamide susceptibility or resistance corresponded in part to the H. vaginalis and HVL-bifidobacteria strain reactions on selected conventional fermentation substrates. Susceptibility or resistance to sulfonamides and metronidazole in conjunction with fermentation tests is described to aid in the separation of H. vaginalis from other possibly unrecognized biotypes of H. vaginalis or other vaginal bacteria that presumptively resemble the organism. A human blood medium known as V agar was also of considerable value in distinguishing H. vaginalis from HVL strains, because only the H. vaginalis strains produced diffuse beta-hemolysis on V agar. PMID:372217

  9. A Study of the Technological, Instructional, and Motivational Factors Affecting PHR Certification Exam Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Although previous studies have considered the factors affecting other certification exam outcomes, they have not examined those that are related to performance on the Professional in Human Resources (PHR) exam. In response to that need, this study specifically investigates technology and training factors that affect self-efficacy and self-set

  10. 41 CFR 101-27.304-2 - Factors affecting the economic retention limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.3-Maximizing Use of Inventories § 101-27.304-2 Factors affecting the... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Factors affecting the economic retention limit. 101-27.304-2 Section 101-27.304-2 Public Contracts and Property...

  11. 41 CFR 101-27.304-2 - Factors affecting the economic retention limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.3-Maximizing Use of Inventories § 101-27.304-2 Factors affecting the... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Factors affecting the economic retention limit. 101-27.304-2 Section 101-27.304-2 Public Contracts and Property...

  12. 41 CFR 101-27.304-2 - Factors affecting the economic retention limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.3-Maximizing Use of Inventories § 101-27.304-2 Factors affecting the... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Factors affecting the economic retention limit. 101-27.304-2 Section 101-27.304-2 Public Contracts and Property...

  13. Affective and Social Factors in a Project-Based Writing Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kathpalia, Sujata Surinder; Heah, Carmel

    2011-01-01

    Much of the work in academic writing has focused on the cognitive rather than the affective and social aspects involved in project-based writing. Emphasis in past research has been on skills and processes of writing rather than on affective factors such as motivation, attitudes, feelings or social factors involving intrapersonal and interpersonal…

  14. The Internal Structure of Positive and Negative Affect: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the PANAS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuccitto, Daniel E.; Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.; Leite, Walter L.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested five confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) models of the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) to provide validity evidence based on its internal structure. A sample of 223 club sport athletes indicated their emotions during the past week. Results revealed that an orthogonal two-factor CFA model, specifying error…

  15. Attitudes to and Factors Affecting Unauthorized Copying of Computer Software in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siponen, M.T.; Vartiainen, T.

    2005-01-01

    Several quantitative studies have sought to determine the factors affecting the unauthorized copying of software, particularly in North America. However, we find no statistically reliable studies on the situation in Europe. In order to address this gap in the literature, we explored the attitudes to and factors affecting the unauthorized copying…

  16. 34 CFR 682.513 - Factors affecting coverage of a loan under the loan guarantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Factors affecting coverage of a loan under the loan guarantee. 682.513 Section 682.513 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education...) PROGRAM Federal Guaranteed Student Loan Programs § 682.513 Factors affecting coverage of a loan under...

  17. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 1215 - Factors Affecting Standard Charges

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Factors Affecting Standard Charges B Appendix B to Part 1215 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION TRACKING AND DATA RELAY SATELLITE SYSTEM (TDRSS) Pt. 1215, App. B Appendix B to Part 1215—Factors Affecting...

  18. Factors Affecting the Production of Vietnamese Tones: A Study of American Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Hanh thi; Macken, Marlys A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates factors that affect the accuracy of tone production by American students of Vietnamese as a second language (L2). Nine hypotheses are examined, each of which isolates a factor expected to affect production accuracy: (a) task type, (b) the position of a tone in a clause, (c) discourse distance between a model provided by a…

  19. Examining the Factors Affecting Student Dropout in an Online Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yukselturk, Erman; Inan, Fethi Ahmet

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the factors affecting student dropouts in an online certificate program. In this research, a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used. Online Course Dropout Survey was developed and used to determine which factors affect student attrition from the program. The dropout survey was sent by e-mail to 98 students…

  20. A Study of the Technological, Instructional, and Motivational Factors Affecting PHR Certification Exam Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Although previous studies have considered the factors affecting other certification exam outcomes, they have not examined those that are related to performance on the Professional in Human Resources (PHR) exam. In response to that need, this study specifically investigates technology and training factors that affect self-efficacy and self-set…

  1. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 1215 - Factors Affecting Standard Charges

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Factors Affecting Standard Charges B Appendix B to Part 1215 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION TRACKING AND DATA RELAY SATELLITE SYSTEM (TDRSS) Pt. 1215, App. B Appendix B to Part 1215—Factors Affecting...

  2. An Analysis of Factors That Affect the Educational Performance of Agricultural Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenway, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Many factors contribute to student achievement. This study focuses on three areas: how students learn, how student personality type affects performance, and how course format affects performance outcomes. The analysis sought to improve understanding of the direction and magnitude with which each of these factors impacts student success. Improved…

  3. Factors That Affect the Academic Success of Foreign Students at Cardinal Stritch University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annor, Peter

    2010-01-01

    There are limited studies in the literature on the factors that affect the academic success of foreign students in the United States. This ex post facto mixed method study investigated the factors that affect the academic success of foreign students at Cardinal Stitch University (CSU), a medium size, private university located in the Midwestern…

  4. Factors Affecting Decisions of Freshman Students Applying to GVSC for Fall, 1976. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweddale, R. Bruce

    A survey of freshmen students who applied for admission to Grand Valley State Colleges (GVSC) for fall term 1976 was conducted to explore the factors that affect the choice of GVSC. A survey instrument was used that asked for one response out of several alternatives to nine questions dealing with factors affecting the following four decisions:…

  5. Factors Affecting the Release of Ascospores of Anisogramma anomala.

    PubMed

    Pinkerton, J N; Johnson, K B; Stone, J K; Ivors, K L

    1998-02-01

    ABSTRACT Relationships between environmental factors and release of ascospores of Anisogramma anomala, the causal agent of eastern filbert blight, were examined in four European hazelnut (Corylus avellana) orchards during a 2-year period. In each orchard, Burkhard volumetric spore traps and automated weather-monitoring equipment were deployed for 12-week periods beginning at budbreak, when hazelnut becomes susceptible to infection. Ascospores of A. anomala were released when stromata on the surface of hazelnut branches were wet from rain but not from dew. Release of ascospores ceased after branch surfaces dried. The duration of free moisture on branch surfaces regulated the initiation and rate of ascospore release, but no significant effects of temperature, relative humidity, wind, or light on ascospore release were apparent. Most (>90%) ascospores were captured during precipitation events that exceeded 20 h in duration, which represented about 10% of the total precipitation events each season. Quantitative relationships between the hourly capture of A. anomala ascospores and hours since the beginning of a precipitation event were developed. With the onset of precipitation, the hourly rate of ascospore capture increased until the fifth hour of rain, remained relatively constant between the fifth and twelfth hours, and then declined gradually. During the 12-week spore-trapping periods, the likelihood and rates of ascospore release associated with precipitation were highest at budbreak and then declined through April and May until early June, when the reserve of ascospores in the perithecia was depleted. Large numbers of ascospores were captured in the volumetric spore traps, indicating that ascospores may be commonly dispersed long distances on air currents as well as locally by splash dispersal within the canopy, as reported previously. The results indicate that monitoring seasonal precipitation patterns may be useful for estimating the quantity and temporal distribution of airborne inoculum during the period that the host is susceptible to infection. PMID:18944980

  6. Validation of spectral radiance assignments to integrating sphere radiance standards for the Advanced Baseline Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. C.; Maxwell, Stephen; Shirley, Eric; Slack, Kim; Graham, Gary D.

    2014-09-01

    The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) is the next-generation imaging sensor for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) operational meteorological satellites in geostationary orbit. One pathway for traceability to reference standards of the visible and near-infrared radiometric response for ABI is to a 1.65 m diameter integrating sphere source standard of spectral radiance. This source illuminates the full entrance pupil via the ABI Earth-view port, thus determining the absolute spectral radiance responsivity in the visible and shortwave infrared. The spectral radiance values of the large sphere are assigned by Exelis using a double monochromator and a 15.24 cm diameter integrating sphere source standard that is calibrated by NIST. As part of the ABI program, Exelis was required by NASA to have the spectral radiance values assigned by Exelis to the large sphere be validated by NIST. Here we report the results of that activity, which took place in April, 2013. During the week of April 8, Exelis calibrated the 1.65 m diameter sphere at all 24 levels that correspond to the ABI calibration protocol. During the week of April 15, the NIST validation exercise for five selected levels took place. NIST deployed a portable spectral radiance source, a filter radiometer restricted to the visible and near-infrared, and two spectroradiometers that covered from 350 nm to 2500 nm. The NIST sphere source served as the validation standard. The comparison results, which are reported at the ABI bands, agreed to within the combined uncertainties. We describe the methodology, results, and uncertainty estimates related to this effort.

  7. Economic Conditions and Factors Affecting New Nuclear Power Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Thomas J.

    2014-10-01

    This report documents work performed in support of the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) program. The report presents information and results from economic analyses to describe current electricity market conditions and those key factors that may impact the deployment of AdvSMRs or any other new nuclear power plants. Thus, this report serves as a reference document for DOE as it moves forward with its plans to develop advanced reactors, including AdvSMRs. For the purpose of this analysis, information on electricity markets and nuclear power plant operating costs will be combined to examine the current state of the nuclear industry and the process required to successfully move forward with new nuclear power in general and AdvSMRs in particular. The current electricity market is generally unfavorable to new nuclear construction, especially in deregulated markets with heavy competition from natural gas and subsidized renewables. The successful and profitable operation of a nuclear power plant (or any power plant) requires the rate at which the electricity is sold to be sufficiently greater than the cost to operate. The wholesale rates in most US markets have settled into values that provide profits for most operating nuclear power plants but are too low to support the added cost of capital recovery for new nuclear construction. There is a strong geographic dependence on the wholesale rate, with some markets currently able to support new nuclear construction. However, there is also a strong geographic dependence on pronuclear public opinion; the areas where power prices are high tend to have unfavorable views on the construction of new nuclear power plants. The use of government-backed incentives, such as subsidies, can help provide a margin to help justify construction projects that otherwise may not seem viable. Similarly, low interest rates for the project will also add a positive margin to the economic analysis. In both cases, the profitable price point is decreased, making more markets open to profitable entry. Overall, the economic attractiveness of a nuclear power construction project is not only a function of its own costs, but a function of the market into which it is deployed. Many of the market characteristics are out of the control of the potential nuclear power plant operators. The decision-making process for the power industry in general is complicated by the short-term market volatility in both the wholesale electricity market and the commodity (natural gas) market. Decisions based on market conditions today may be rendered null and void in six months. With a multiple-year lead time, nuclear power plants are acutely vulnerable to market corrections.

  8. Alpha radiolysis and other factors affecting hydrolysis of tributyl phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, M.H.; Fellows, R.L.

    1985-06-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to identify the principal degradation products produced by Pu(IV) loading in 30% tributyl phosphate/dodecane (TBP-DD) solutions and to determine the formation rates of these species as a function of temperature. Experiments were also conducted to evaluate HNO/sub 3/ hydrolysis of TBP as a function of temperature and to compare the effects resulting from plutonium solvent loading with effects due to loading with uranium and zirconium. The results indicate that four factors are of particular significance: (1) dibutyl phosphate (DBP) is the principal plutonium-complexing species formed at temperatures of 50/sup 0/C or lower, while significant concentrations of monobutyl phosphate (MBP) are also formed at higher temperatures; (2) the TBP degradation rate due to alpha radiolysis or chemical hydrolysis is strongly dependent on temperature; (3) plutonium promotes TBP hydrolysis by two mechanisms, alpha radiolysis and metal-ion-induced hydrolysis, and, of these, metal-ion-induced hydrolysis can be the major effect; and (4) small amounts of an unidentified plutonium-complexing species are formed in experiments using plutonium of high specific activity (about 4 x 10/sup 8/ counts per minute per milligram (c/min dot mg)). This species cannot be removed from 30% TBP-DD by Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ washing or other solvent cleanup procedures. The TBP degradation rates (determined as grams of plutonium complexed by degradation products) increased from 0.125 mg Pu/L dot h at 25/sup 0/C to 47.9 mg Pu/L dot h at 80/sup 0/C in 30% TBP-DD solutions that contained only 0.68 M HNO/sub 3/. In solutions that additionally contained approx.20 g/L of plutonium (specific activity = 9 x 10/sup 7/ c/min dot mg) TBP degradation rates increased from 2.46 mg Pu/L dot h at 25/sup 0/C to 127.1 mg Pu/L dot h at 80/sup 0/C. 10 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Elimination of environmental effects from Landsat radiance data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S. T.; Smith, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    A critical problem involved in quantitative multi-temporal sensing of the physical processes with Landsat is the fact that variations in the spectral signatures for a given target of interest result from a combined effect of target properties and the environmental factors such as sun angles, atmospheric conditions, etc. at the time of an overpass. In an attempt to solve the problem, a transformation procedure is developed to remove the environmental effects from the MSS radiance data. Mathematical derivation of the transformation procedure is elaborated and an example of testing the procedure is illustrated using suspended sediments reflectance data obtained by Landsat MSS during four different overpasses over the lower Mississippi River valley.

  10. Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) Handbook

    DOE Data Explorer

    Gero, Jonathan; Hackel, Denny; Garcia, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    The atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI) is a ground-based instrument that measures the downwelling infrared radiance from the Earth’s atmosphere. The observations have broad spectral content and sufficient spectral resolution to discriminate among gaseous emitters (e.g., carbon dioxide and water vapor) and suspended matter (e.g., aerosols, water droplets, and ice crystals). These upward-looking surface observations can be used to obtain vertical profiles of tropospheric temperature and water vapor, as well as measurements of trace gases (e.g., ozone, carbon monoxide, and methane) and downwelling infrared spectral signatures of clouds and aerosols.The AERI is a passive remote sounding instrument, employing a Fourier transform spectrometer operating in the spectral range 3.3–19.2 μm (520–3020 cm-1) at an unapodized resolution of 0.5 cm-1 (max optical path difference of 1 cm). The extended-range AERI (ER-AERI) deployed in dry climates, like in Alaska, have a spectral range of 3.3–25.0 μm (400–3020 cm-1) that allow measurements in the far-infrared region. Typically, the AERI averages views of the sky over a 16-second interval and operates continuously.

  11. CrIS High Resolution Hyperspectral Radiances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepplewhite, C. L.; Strow, L. L.; Motteler, H.; Desouza-Machado, S. G.; Tobin, D. C.; Martin, G.; Gumley, L.

    2014-12-01

    The CrIS hyperspectral sounder flying on Suomi-NPPpresently has reduced spectral resolution in the mid-wave andshort-wave spectral bands due to truncation of the interferograms inorbit. CrIS has occasionally downlinked full interferograms for thesebands (0.8 cm max path, or 0.625 cm-1 point spacing) for a feworbits up to a full day. Starting Oct.1, 2014 CrIS will be commandedto download full interferograms continuously for the remainder of themission, although NOAA will not immediately produce high-spectralresolution Sensor Data Records (SDRs). Although the originalmotivation for operating in high-resolution mode was improved spectralcalibration, these new data will also improve (1) vertical sensitivityto water vapor, and (2) greatly increase the CrIS sensitivity tocarbon monoxide. This should improve (1) NWP data assimilation ofwater vapor and (2) provide long-term continuity of carbon monoxideretrievals begun with MOPITT on EOS-TERRA and AIRS on EOS-AQUA. Wehave developed a SDR algorithm to produce calibrated high-spectralresolution radiances which includes several improvements to theexisting CrIS SDR algorithm, and will present validation of thesehigh-spectral resolution radiances using a variety of techniques,including bias evaluation versus NWP model data and inter-comparisonsto AIRS and IASI using simultaneous nadir overpasses (SNOs). Theauthors are presently working to implement this algorithm for NASASuomi NPP Program production of Earth System Data Records.

  12. Factors affecting dystocia and offspring vigour in different sheep genotypes.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Cathy M; Bünger, Lutz

    2012-03-01

    Birth difficulty and poor lamb vigour are significant causes of perinatal lamb mortality. In this study we investigated whether sheep breeds differing in appearance, muscularity and selection history also had differences in dystocia and lamb vigour, and considered some of the factors that may contribute to the variation in these traits. Data were collected at birth from a total of 3252 lambs of two terminal sire breeds selected for lean growth (Suffolk [S], n=500 and Texel [T], n=1207), from a Hill breed (Scottish Blackface [B], n=610), which has been mainly selected for hardiness, and a crossbred (Mule×T [M], n=935) representing a maternal line. For each lamb the degree of assistance at delivery, lamb presentation, amount of assistance to achieve successful sucking, sex, litter size and birth weight were recorded. T lambs required the most, and B and M lambs the least assistance at birth, S lambs were intermediate (% lambs assisted: T=55.7, S=30.7, B=22.7, M=24.9, P<0.001). T and S lambs were equally likely to be malpresented at birth (29% of births) and more likely to be malpresented than B or M lambs (20%; P<0.001). In T and S breeds lambs requiring veterinary assistance at delivery were mainly heavy and singleton lambs, whereas in B and M breeds these were exclusively low birth weight lambs in multiple litters. Although heavier lambs needed greater birth assistance, T lambs were lighter than S and M lambs, but heavier than B lambs (birth weight (kg): S=4.66, M=4.56, T=4.32, B=3.67, P<0.001). S lambs were more likely to require assistance with sucking than other breeds, and T lambs also required more assistance than B or M lambs (% lambs assisted to suck: S=56.0, T=31.6, M=19.8, B=18.4, P<0.001). Heavier lambs were more likely to suck unaided than lighter lambs (P<0.001). The data suggest that the two terminal sire breeds, selected narrowly for greater productivity (muscle growth and conformation), are more likely to experience birth difficulty and poorer lamb vigour than the breed selected for hardiness, or the cross breed. Whether these effects arise as a consequence of genetic selection (e.g. for specific lamb conformation), or as a result of management practices to achieve selection goals (e.g. increased intervention at lambing) is unknown. Specific actions to improve birth difficulty and lamb vigour, such as including these traits in the selection index, would be beneficial in improving the welfare of ewes and lambs of the terminal sire breeds. PMID:21958901

  13. Platform and Environmental Effects on Above- and In-Water Determinations of Water-Leaving Radiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B.; Morel, Andre; McClain, Charles R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A comparison of above- and in-water spectral measurements in Case-1 conditions showed the uncertainty in above-water determinations of water-leaving radiances depended on the pointing angle of the above-water instruments with respect to the side of the ship. Two above-water methods were used to create a diagnostic variable to quantify the presence of superstructure reflections which degraded the above-water intracomparisons of water-leaving radiances by 10.9-33.4% (for far-to-near viewing distances, respectively). The primary conclusions of the above- and in-water intercomparison of water-leaving radiances were as follows: a) the SeaWiFS 5% radiometric objective was achieved with the above-water approach, but reliably with only one method and only for about half the data; b) a decrease in water-leaving radiance values was seen in the presence of swell, although, wave crests were radiometrically brighter than the troughs; and c) standard band ratios used in ocean color algorithms remained severely affected, because of the relatively low signal and, thus, proportionally significant contamination at the 555nm wavelength.

  14. Transmittance and Radiance Computations for Rocket Engine Plume Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tejwani, Gopal D.

    2003-01-01

    Emission and absorption characteristics of several atmospheric and combustion species have been studied and are presented with reference to rocket engine plume environments. The effects of clous, rain, and fog on plume radiance/transmittance has also been studied.Preliminary results for the radiance from the exhaust plume of the space shuttle main engine are shown and discussed.

  15. Radiance and atmosphere propagation-based method for the target range estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hoonkyung; Chun, Joohwan

    2012-06-01

    Target range estimation is traditionally based on radar and active sonar systems in modern combat system. However, the performance of such active sensor devices is degraded tremendously by jamming signal from the enemy. This paper proposes a simple range estimation method between the target and the sensor. Passive IR sensors measures infrared (IR) light radiance radiating from objects in dierent wavelength and this method shows robustness against electromagnetic jamming. The measured target radiance of each wavelength at the IR sensor depends on the emissive properties of target material and is attenuated by various factors, in particular the distance between the sensor and the target and atmosphere environment. MODTRAN is a tool that models atmospheric propagation of electromagnetic radiation. Based on the result from MODTRAN and measured radiance, the target range is estimated. To statistically analyze the performance of proposed method, we use maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and evaluate the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) via the probability density function of measured radiance. And we also compare CRLB and the variance of and ML estimation using Monte-Carlo.

  16. Real-World Affected Upper Limb Activity in Chronic Stroke: An Examination of Potential Modifying Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Ryan R.; Birkenmeier, Rebecca L.; Lang, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite improvement in motor function after intervention, adults with chronic stroke experience disability in everyday activity. Factors other than motor function may influence affected upper limb (UL) activity. OBJECTIVE To characterize affected UL activity and examine potential modifying factors of affected UL activity in community-dwelling adults with chronic stroke. METHODS Forty-six adults with chronic stroke wore accelerometers on both ULs for 25 hours and provided information about potential modifying factors (time spent in sedentary activity, cognitive impairment, depressive symptomatology, number of comorbidities, motor dysfunction of the affected UL, age, activities of daily living (ADL) status, and living arrangement). Accelerometry was used to quantify duration of affected and unaffected UL activity. The ratio of affected-to-unaffected UL activity was also calculated. Associations within and between accelerometry-derived variables and potential modifying factors were examined. RESULTS Mean hours of affected and unaffected UL activity were 5.0 2.2 and 7.6 2.1 hours, respectively. The ratio of affected-to-unaffected UL activity was 0.64 0.19, and hours of affected and unaffected UL activity were strongly correlated (r=0.78). Increased severity of motor dysfunction and dependence in ADLs were associated with decreased affected UL activity. No other factors were associated with affected UL activity. CONCLUSIONS Severity of motor dysfunction and ADL status should be taken into consideration when setting goals for UL activity in people with chronic stroke. Given the strong, positive correlation between affected and unaffected UL activity, encouragement to increase activity of the unaffected UL may increase affected UL activity. PMID:25776118

  17. Factors Affecting Open-Set Word Recognition in Adults with Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Laura K.; Finley, Charles C.; Firszt, Jill B.; Holden, Timothy A.; Brenner, Christine; Potts, Lisa G.; Gotter, Brenda D.; Vanderhoof, Sallie S.; Mispagel, Karen; Heydebrand, Gitry; Skinner, Margaret W.

    2012-01-01

    A monosyllabic word test was administered to 114 postlingually-deaf adult cochlear implant (CI) recipients at numerous intervals from two weeks to two years post-initial CI activation. Biographic/audiologic information, electrode position, and cognitive ability were examined to determine factors affecting CI outcomes. Results revealed that Duration of Severe-to-Profound Hearing Loss, Age at Implantation, CI Sound-field Threshold Levels, Percentage of Electrodes in Scala Vestibuli, Medio-lateral Electrode Position, Insertion Depth, and Cognition were among the factors that affected performance. Knowledge of how factors affect performance can influence counseling, device fitting, and rehabilitation for patients and may contribute to improved device design. PMID:23348845

  18. Statistical model for atmospheric limb radiance structure: application to airborne infrared surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quang, Carine; Dalaudier, Francis; Roblin, Antoine; Rialland, Valérie; Chervet, Patrick

    2008-10-01

    Infrared (IR) detectors can be used as airborne limb-viewing surveillance systems for missile detection. These systems' performances are impacted by the atmospheric inhomogeneous background. In fact, the probability of target detection can be heavily affected. Consequently, the knowledge of these radiance small-scale fluctuations and their statistical properties is required to assess these systems' detection capability. A model of two-dimensional radiance spatial fluctuations autocorrelation function (ACF) is developed. This model is dedicated to airborne limb-viewing conditions in the thermal IR. In the stratosphere and in clear-sky conditions, the structured background is mainly due to internal-gravity-wave-induced temperature and density spatial fluctuations. Moreover, in the particular case of water vapour absorption bands, the mass fraction fluctuations play a non negligible role on the radiative field. Thereby, considering the temperature field and the water vapour field as stochastic processes, the radiance ACF can be expressed as a function of the temperature ACF and the water vapor mass fraction ACF. A local thermodynamic equilibrium model is sufficient for stratospheric conditions and sunlight scattering is neglected in the thermal IR. In addition, determination of the radiance fluctuations ACF requires the knowledge of the absorption coefficient and its first derivatives with respect to the temperature and water vapour mass fraction. Thus, a line-by-line model specific to water vapor absorption bands has been developed. This model is used to precalculate the absorption coefficients and their derivatives. This look-up table method allows circumventing the computational cost of a line-by-line calculation. A detailed description of the radiance fluctuations ACF model is presented and first results are discussed.

  19. View-angle-dependent AIRS Cloudiness and Radiance Variance: Analysis and Interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gong, Jie; Wu, Dong L.

    2013-01-01

    Upper tropospheric clouds play an important role in the global energy budget and hydrological cycle. Significant view-angle asymmetry has been observed in upper-level tropical clouds derived from eight years of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) 15 um radiances. Here, we find that the asymmetry also exists in the extra-tropics. It is larger during day than that during night, more prominent near elevated terrain, and closely associated with deep convection and wind shear. The cloud radiance variance, a proxy for cloud inhomogeneity, has consistent characteristics of the asymmetry to those in the AIRS cloudiness. The leading causes of the view-dependent cloudiness asymmetry are the local time difference and small-scale organized cloud structures. The local time difference (1-1.5 hr) of upper-level (UL) clouds between two AIRS outermost views can create parts of the observed asymmetry. On the other hand, small-scale tilted and banded structures of the UL clouds can induce about half of the observed view-angle dependent differences in the AIRS cloud radiances and their variances. This estimate is inferred from analogous study using Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) radiances observed during the period of time when there were simultaneous measurements at two different view-angles from NOAA-18 and -19 satellites. The existence of tilted cloud structures and asymmetric 15 um and 6.7 um cloud radiances implies that cloud statistics would be view-angle dependent, and should be taken into account in radiative transfer calculations, measurement uncertainty evaluations and cloud climatology investigations. In addition, the momentum forcing in the upper troposphere from tilted clouds is also likely asymmetric, which can affect atmospheric circulation anisotropically.

  20. A three-factor model of trait anger: dimensions of affect, behavior, and cognition.

    PubMed

    Martin, R; Watson, D; Wan, C K

    2000-10-01

    The structure of trait anger was tested in a study of 24 self-report scales. Exploratory factor analyses in an undergraduate sample (N = 457) yielded a two-factor model (comprising cynicism and aggression) and a three-factor model (representing angry emotions, aggressive behaviors, and cynicism). Subsequent evaluations, including confirmatory factor analyses, indicated that the three-factor model provided the best characterization of the trait anger domain. The three-factor solution was consistent with an "ABC" conceptualization of trait anger, consisting of the dimensions of affect, behavior, and cognition. The three factors showed strikingly different associations with the Big Five personality traits. Angry Affect was most strongly related to Neuroticism, whereas Behavioral Aggression was associated with low Agreeableness. Cynical Cognition represented a blend of neurotic and disagreeable characteristics. Modest mean-level differences were observed between the genders for each factor. PMID:11001152

  1. Do You Get What You Deserve? Factors Affecting the Relationship between Productivity and Pay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konrad, Alison M.; Pfeffer, Jeffrey

    1990-01-01

    Using a sample of 5,645 academics in 200 colleges and universities across all academic fields, this study investigates factors affecting the relationship between productivity, measured by publication, and pay. Results indicate that productivity significantly affected pay in private, high quality institutions and research-oriented departments.…

  2. Improving Assimilation of Microwave Radiances in Cloudy Situations with Collocated High Resolution Imager Cloud Mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, H.; Li, J.; Goldberg, M.; Wang, P.; Li, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) accompanied with heavy rainfall and strong wind are high impact weather systems, often causing extensive property damage and even fatalities when landed. Better prediction of TCs can lead to substantial reduction of social and economic damage; there are growing interests in the enhanced satellite data assimilation for improving TC forecasts. Accurate cloud detection is one of the most important factors in satellite data assimilation due to the uncertainties of cloud properties and their impacts on satellite observed radiances. To enhance the accuracy of cloud detection and improve the TC forecasting, microwave measurements are collocated with high spatial resolution imager cloud mask. The collocated advanced microwave sounder measurements are assimilated for the hurricane Sandy (2012) and typhoon Haiyan (2013) forecasting using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the 3DVAR-based Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) data assimilation system. Experiments will be carried out to determine a cloud cover threshold to distinguish between cloud affected and cloud unaffected footprints. The results indicate that the use of the high spatial resolution imager cloud mask can improve the accuracy of TC forecasts by eliminating cloud contaminated pixels. The methodology used in this study is applicable to advanced microwave sounders and high spatial resolution imagers, such as ATMS/VIIRS onboard NPP and JPSS, and IASI/AVHRR from Metop, for the improved TC track and intensity forecasts.

  3. Absolute spectral radiance responsivity calibration of sun photometers

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Qiuyun; Zheng Xiaobing; Zhang Wei; Wang Xianhua; Li Jianjun; Li Xin; Li Zhengqiang

    2010-03-15

    Sun photometers are designed to measure direct solar irradiance and diffused sky radiance for the purpose of atmospheric parameters characterization. A sun photometer is usually calibrated by using a lamp-illuminated integrating sphere source for its band-averaged radiance responsivity, which normally has an uncertainty of 3%-5% at present. Considering the calibration coefficients may also change with time, a regular high precision calibration is important to maintain data quality. In this paper, a tunable-laser-based facility for spectral radiance responsivity calibration has been developed at the Key Laboratory of Optical Calibration and Characterization, Chinese Academy of Sciences. A reference standard radiance radiometer, calibrated against cryogenic radiometer, is used to determine the radiance from a laser-illuminated integrating sphere source. Spectral radiance responsivity of CIMEL CE318-2 sun photometer is calibrated using this new calibration system with a combined standard uncertainty of about 0.8%. As a validation, the derived band-averaged radiance responsivity are compared to that from a Goddard Space Flight Center lamp-based sphere calibration and good agreements (difference <1.4%) are found from 675 to 1020 nm bands.

  4. Absolute spectral radiance responsivity calibration of sun photometers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiuyun; Zheng, Xiaobing; Li, Zhengqiang; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xianhua; Li, Jianjun; Li, Xin

    2010-03-01

    Sun photometers are designed to measure direct solar irradiance and diffused sky radiance for the purpose of atmospheric parameters characterization. A sun photometer is usually calibrated by using a lamp-illuminated integrating sphere source for its band-averaged radiance responsivity, which normally has an uncertainty of 3%-5% at present. Considering the calibration coefficients may also change with time, a regular high precision calibration is important to maintain data quality. In this paper, a tunable-laser-based facility for spectral radiance responsivity calibration has been developed at the Key Laboratory of Optical Calibration and Characterization, Chinese Academy of Sciences. A reference standard radiance radiometer, calibrated against cryogenic radiometer, is used to determine the radiance from a laser-illuminated integrating sphere source. Spectral radiance responsivity of CIMEL CE318-2 sun photometer is calibrated using this new calibration system with a combined standard uncertainty of about 0.8%. As a validation, the derived band-averaged radiance responsivity are compared to that from a Goddard Space Flight Center lamp-based sphere calibration and good agreements (difference <1.4%) are found from 675 to 1020 nm bands. PMID:20370157

  5. An Empirically Derived Taxonomy of Factors Affecting Physicians' Willingness to Disclose Medical Errors

    PubMed Central

    Kaldjian, Lauris C; Jones, Elizabeth W; Rosenthal, Gary E; Tripp-Reimer, Toni; Hillis, Stephen L

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Physician disclosure of medical errors to institutions, patients, and colleagues is important for patient safety, patient care, and professional education. However, the variables that may facilitate or impede disclosure are diverse and lack conceptual organization. OBJECTIVE To develop an empirically derived, comprehensive taxonomy of factors that affects voluntary disclosure of errors by physicians. DESIGN A mixed-methods study using qualitative data collection (structured literature search and exploratory focus groups), quantitative data transformation (sorting and hierarchical cluster analysis), and validation procedures (confirmatory focus groups and expert review). RESULTS Full-text review of 316 articles identified 91 impeding or facilitating factors affecting physicians' willingness to disclose errors. Exploratory focus groups identified an additional 27 factors. Sorting and hierarchical cluster analysis organized factors into 8 domains. Confirmatory focus groups and expert review relocated 6 factors, removed 2 factors, and modified 4 domain names. The final taxonomy contained 4 domains of facilitating factors (responsibility to patient, responsibility to self, responsibility to profession, responsibility to community), and 4 domains of impeding factors (attitudinal barriers, uncertainties, helplessness, fears and anxieties). CONCLUSIONS A taxonomy of facilitating and impeding factors provides a conceptual framework for a complex field of variables that affects physicians' willingness to disclose errors to institutions, patients, and colleagues. This taxonomy can be used to guide the design of studies to measure the impact of different factors on disclosure, to assist in the design of error-reporting systems, and to inform educational interventions to promote the disclosure of errors to patients. PMID:16918739

  6. An Analysis of Multiple Factors Affecting Retention in Web-Based Community College Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, William

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined four factors affecting retention in Web-based community college courses. Analyses were conducted on student demographics, student learning styles, course communication and external factors. The results suggest that Web-based courses are more attractive to busy students who are also more likely to fail or drop the course.…

  7. Factors Affecting the Full Use of Library and Information Management Systems by Library Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skretas, Georgios

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a general list of factors that affects and determines the full use of library information management systems (LIMS) by library staff. Design/methodology/approach: The factors, which were identified mainly during participation in the implementation of automation projects in Greece, are listed and briefly analysed in categories

  8. Comparing Faculty and Student Perceptions Regarding Factors That Affect Student Retention in Online Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaytan, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study compared faculty and student perceptions regarding factors that affect student retention in online courses in an attempt to more effectively address the problem of attrition. A grounded study method was used to interview students taking online courses, analyze their responses related to the critical factors that affect…

  9. Factors Affecting Net Tuition Revenue at Private Colleges. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Bethaviva

    Factors affecting changes in net tuition revenue in private colleges were studied, and a model accounting for these factors was tested using 1976-1977 and 1977-1978 data. Analysis focused on the influence of tuition price, financial aid, and enrollment. Secondary consideration was given to those institutional characteristics that may distinguish…

  10. Factors Affecting Career Decision Making of Mexican and Mexican-American Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newlon, Betty J.; Borboa, Roman

    The purpose of this research was to identify the self-reported factors affecting the career decision making of Mexican and Mexican-American students. It was hypothesized that the factor clusters would differ between the two sample populations, Mexican and Mexican-American. It was also hypothesized that these clusters would differ from six clusters…

  11. A Review of Foreign Researches on Influential Factors Affecting Students' Engagement in English Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Chun-hong

    2010-01-01

    Students' active engagement constitutes the core of the process of learning and teaching in the student-oriented classroom. The paper centers on a review of foreign researches on influential factors affecting students' engagement in English classroom. It is expected to figure out the relevant factors in order to promote students' active engagement.

  12. Factors Affecting the Supply of Recent College Graduates in New England. Policy Brief 09-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasser, Alicia

    2009-01-01

    This policy brief investigates factors affecting New England's supply of recent college graduates and how those factors have changed over time, and suggests steps that states might take to expand this source of skilled labor. (Contains 3 figures.) [This brief summarizes analysis in NEPPC research report 08-1: "The Future of the Skilled Labor Force…

  13. Students Perceptions on Factors That Affect Their Academic Performance: The Case of Great Zimbabwe University (GZU)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mapuranga, Barbra; Musingafi, Maxwell C. C.; Zebron, Shupikai

    2015-01-01

    Some educators argue that entry standards are the most important determinants of successful completion of a university programme; others maintain that non-academic factors must also be considered. In this study we sought to investigate open and distance learning students' perceptions of the factors affecting academic performance and successful…

  14. Factors Affecting Perceived Learning, Satisfaction, and Quality in the Online MBA: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastianelli, Rose; Swift, Caroline; Tamimi, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined how six factors related to content and interaction affect students' perceptions of learning, satisfaction, and quality in online master of business administration (MBA) courses. They developed three scale items to measure each factor. Using survey data from MBA students at a private university, the authors estimated structural

  15. Factors Affecting the Full Use of Library and Information Management Systems by Library Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skretas, Georgios

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a general list of factors that affects and determines the full use of library information management systems (LIMS) by library staff. Design/methodology/approach: The factors, which were identified mainly during participation in the implementation of automation projects in Greece, are listed and briefly analysed in categories…

  16. An Analysis of Multiple Factors Affecting Retention in Web-Based Community College Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, William

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined four factors affecting retention in Web-based community college courses. Analyses were conducted on student demographics, student learning styles, course communication and external factors. The results suggest that Web-based courses are more attractive to busy students who are also more likely to fail or drop the course.

  17. Factors Affecting Learners' Attention to Teacher Talk in Nine ESL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Weiqing

    2015-01-01

    With classroom observation and stimulated recall interviews as research instruments, the present study investigated some of the factors that affected learners' attention to teacher talk in nine English as a Second Language (ESL) classrooms. The results revealed five such factors, namely, learners' self evaluation of their language knowledge, the…

  18. A Quantitative Study of Factors Affecting Learner Acceptance of a Computer-Based Training Support Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, G. Dale; Flannery, Daniele D.

    2004-01-01

    This study identifies and empirically tests factors that may influence learners' use of a computer-based training support system (TSS). The areas of research and theory were drawn from human-computer interaction, information and business management, and adult education. The factors suggested in the literature that may affect learner's use of a TSS…

  19. Motivating Factors that Affect Enrolment and Student Performance in an ODL Engineering Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadigamuwa, P. R.; Senanayake, Samans

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the motivating factors for enrolling in an engineering study programme in open and distance learning (ODL) and the factors that affect the students' performance. The study was conducted with two convenient samples of students following distance learning courses in engineering technology, conducted by…

  20. Factors Affecting Perceived Learning, Satisfaction, and Quality in the Online MBA: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastianelli, Rose; Swift, Caroline; Tamimi, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined how six factors related to content and interaction affect students' perceptions of learning, satisfaction, and quality in online master of business administration (MBA) courses. They developed three scale items to measure each factor. Using survey data from MBA students at a private university, the authors estimated structural…