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1

[Sarcoidosis: etiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentation].  

PubMed

Sarcoidosis is a chronic idiopathic multisystem granulomatous inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. Prevalence of this condition is approximately 3-5: 100 000 with the highest incidence at the age of 25-40 years old and no gender predomination. Early morbidity, disability and severe prognosis worsen patient's condition and make them socially limited. In some cases ocular involvement and vision loss aggravate general condition of the patients. Ocular involvement in sarcoidosis occurs in 10-75% patients. At the same time some data confirm the fact that in 7% of patients ocular damage is the presenting sign making them come to an ophthalmologist whereas orbital involvement may present in systemic disease only. Unclear etiology and clinical similarity with other conditions cause difficulties in early diagnosis and monitoring of patients with sarcoidosis. PMID:23120925

Éksarenko, O V; Kharlap, S I; Safonova, T N

2012-01-01

2

Risk factors and clinical presentation of craniocervical arterial dissection: A prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Craniocervical arterial dissection is a major cause of ischaemic stroke in young adults. The pathogenesis is not fully understood but is thought to be related to a combination of an intrinsic weakness in the arterial wall and an external trigger. Intrinsic susceptibility is thought to be a generalised arteriopathy, vascular anomaly or genetic predisposition. Proposed extrinsic factors include recent viral infection and minor mechanical trauma to the neck, including neck manipulation, which has raised concerns amongst manual practitioners in particular as to the appropriate screening of patients and avoidance of more vigorous therapeutic techniques. The presenting features of dissection may mimic a musculoskeletal presentation, creating a diagnostic dilemma for primary care practitioners. Early recognition is critical so that appropriate management can be commenced. The aims of this study are to prospectively investigate young patients ?55?years admitted to hospital with radiologically diagnosed craniocervical arterial dissection compared to matched controls with stroke but not dissection, to identify risk factors and early presenting clinical features, so these may be more readily identified by primary care practitioners. Methods Patients ? 55?years presenting to hospital with craniocervical arterial dissection and controls will have their medical records reviewed and be interviewed and questioned about possible risk factors, preceding events to admission such as recent neck trauma, and presenting clinical features including any preceding transient ischaemic features. Clinical assessment will include a connective tissue screening examination to identify subclinical connective tissue disorders. Radiology and blood screening will be reviewed for typical features and inflammatory markers. Functional outcome will be reviewed to determine the burden of the stroke. Discussion This study will provide descriptive and comparative data on intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors for craniocervical arterial dissection and outline the typical clinical presentation, including the nature of early presenting features which might assist practitioners to identify those patients for whom vigorous manual therapy of the neck is inappropriate and alert them to those for whom immediate urgent medical care should be sought. PMID:22937796

2012-01-01

3

Peritoneal Perforation of Liver Hydatid Cysts: Clinical Presentation, Predisposing Factors, and Surgical Outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical presentation of, predisposing factors in, and early and long-term outcome\\u000a of patients treated surgically for intraperitoneal ruptured liver hydatid cysts. Medical records of 27 patients with traumatic\\u000a rupture of hydatid cysts were evaluated retrospectively, as were records of 347 patients with nonperforated hydatid cysts.\\u000a The ratio of perforation cases to

Alper Akcan; Hizir Akyildiz; Tarik Artis; Ahmet Ozturk; Mehmet Ali Deneme; Engin Ok; Erdogan Sozuer

2007-01-01

4

Phenobarbitone-induced haematological abnormalities in idiopathic epileptic dogs: prevalence, risk factors, clinical presentation and outcome.  

PubMed

The aim of this retrospective study was to assess prevalence, risk factors, clinical presentation and outcome of phenobarbitone induced haematological abnormalities (PBIHA) in dogs. The medical records of two veterinary referral institutions were searched for dogs diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy and treated with PB as monotherapy or polytherapy between March 2003 and September 2010. Sixteen dogs had PBIHA; the median age at diagnosis was 69.5?months. Phenobarbitone was administered at a median dose of 3?mg/kg twice a day for a median period of 100.5?days and the median serum phenobarbitone level was 19??g/ml. Two dogs had neutropenia, three had anaemia and thrombocytopenia, two had anaemia and neutropenia; the remaining nine had pancytopenia. All dogs were referred for non-specific clinical signs. Phenobarbitone was discontinued after diagnosis, and the median time to resolution of PBIHA was 17?days. The prevalence and risk factors for PBIHA were evaluated from a questionnaire survey of referring practices to obtain more detailed follow-up on cases diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy. The prevalence rate of PBIHA was 4.2%, and the condition occurred in dogs treated with standard therapeutic doses often within the first three months after starting treatment. Serial haematological evaluations should be therefore considered from the beginning of phenobarbitone therapy to allow early diagnosis and treatment of PBIHA. PMID:24836432

Bersan, E; Volk, H A; Ros, C; De Risio, L

2014-09-13

5

Pulmonary embolism, part I: Epidemiology, risk factors and risk stratification, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and nonthrombotic pulmonary embolism  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary embolism is an important clinical entity with considerable mortality despite advances in diagnosis and treatment. In the present article, the authors offer a comprehensive review focused mainly on epidemiology, risk factors, risk stratification, pathophysiological considerations and clinical presentation. Diagnosis based on assessment of clinical likelihood, electrocardiography, chest x-ray, D-dimer levels, markers of myocardial injury and overload, and blood gases is discussed in detail. Special attention is devoted to the clinical use of computed tomography, pulmonary angiography and echocardiography in the setting of pulmonary embolism. PMID:23940438

B?lohlávek, Jan; Dytrych, Vladimír; Linhart, Aleš

2013-01-01

6

Pulmonary Embolism in Ischemic Stroke: Clinical Presentation, Risk Factors, and Outcome  

PubMed Central

Background Limited information is available on the frequency of pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with an acute ischemic stroke (AIS). We evaluated clinical characteristics, predisposing factors, and outcomes in AIS patients with PE. Methods and Results We included all AIS patients admitted to participating institutions in the Registry of the Canadian Stroke Network. Clinically PE was documented by a physician and confirmed by computed tomography pulmonary angiography within 30 days of the stroke case index. The primary outcome was death or disability at discharge. Secondary outcomes included disposition, length of hospital stay, mortality at 3 months and 1 year. Among 11 287 patients with AIS, PE was found in 89 (0.78%) patients. History of cancer, deep vein thrombosis (DVT)/PE, and DVT during the hospitalization were associated with PE. PE was associated with higher risk of death at 30 days (25.8% versus 13.6%; P<0.001), at 1 year (47.2% versus 24.6%; P<0.001), and disability at discharge (85.4% versus 63.6%; P<0.001). Mean length of stay was longer in stroke patients with PE (36 versus 16 days; P=0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, and stroke severity, PE remained associated with lower survival at 30 days and 1 year, and death or disability at discharge (OR 3.02; 95% CI 1.56 to 5.83). Conclusions In this large cohort study, PE occurred in nearly 1% of AIS patients. PE was more common in patients with severe stroke, history of cancer, previous DVT/PE or acute DVT and associated with lower short? and long?term survival, greater disability, and longer length of stay. PMID:24275627

Pongmoragot, Jitphapa; Rabinstein, Alejandro A.; Nilanont, Yongchai; Swartz, Richard H.; Zhou, Limei; Saposnik, Gustavo

2013-01-01

7

Lacaziosis - unusual clinical presentation*  

PubMed Central

Lacaziosis or Jorge Lobo's disease is a fungal, granulomatous, chronic infectious disease caused by Lacazia loboi, which usually affects the skin and subcutaneous tissue. It is characterized by slow evolution and a variety of cutaneous manifestations with the most common clinical expression being nodular keloid lesions that predominate in exposed areas. We report the case of a patient who had an unusual clinical presentation, with a single-plated lesion on the back. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of Lacaziosis.

de Sousa, Pétra Pereira; Schettini, Antonio Pedro Mendes; Rodrigues, Carlos Alberto Chirano; Westphal, Danielle Cristine

2015-01-01

8

Present outlook in bronchiectasis: clinical and social study and review of factors influencing prognosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and sixteen patients with proven bronchiectasis diagnosed at least five years previously were studied to determine the clinical outcome, change in pulmonary function, and degree of social disability. Twenty-two patients had died and the mean duration of follow-up in the survivors was 14 years. The patients who died were characterised by a poorer initial ventilatory capacity than the

D A Ellis; P E Thornley; A J Wightman; M Walker; J Chalmers; J W Crofton

1981-01-01

9

Rosacea: clinical presentation and pathophysiology.  

PubMed

Acne rosacea is one of the most common diagnoses seen in the clinical dermatologic practice. The classic presentation of rosacea, acneiform papules, and pustules on a background of telangiectasia, is often easily identified by primary care physicians, patients, or their similarly afflicted friends or family members. However, rosacea actually represents a spectrum of disease from chronic skin hypersensitivity and flushing to rhinophyma. Although the pathogenesis of rosacea remains unknown, it is important to understand its various presentations and possible etiologies prior to developing individualized treatment protocols. PMID:16468286

Diamantis, Stephanie; Waldorf, Heidi A

2006-01-01

10

Meningitis, Clinical Presentation of Tetanus  

PubMed Central

Background. Tetanus is an acute disease caused by a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani. Tetanus immunization has been available since the late 1930s but sporadic cases still occur, usually in incompletely vaccinated or unvaccinated individuals. Case Report. An elderly previously vaccinated female contracted tetanus following foot injury. Clinically she presented with meningitis causing diagnostic and therapeutic delays. Why Should Physician Be Aware of This? Even in developed countries the differential diagnosis of meningitis, especially in the elderly, should include tetanus. Treatment in intensive care unit is required. General population might benefit from vaccine boosters and education on this potentially fatal disease.

Moniuszko, Anna; Zajkowska, Agata; Tumiel, Ewa; Rutkowski, Krzysztof; Pancewicz, S?awomir; Rutkowski, Ryszard; Zdrodowska, Agnieszka; Zajkowska, Joanna

2015-01-01

11

Clinical presentations of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common but still underrecognized disorder. It affects 2% to 4% of middle-aged adults, a significant proportion of whom are female. The spectrum of clinical presentations of OSAS and their severity is variable, ranging from neurocognitive complaints to cardiorespiratory failure. OSAS has a significant impact on quality of life, cardiovascular morbidity, and mortality. Its major sequelae include daytime somnolence and its consequences (motor vehicle accidents, poor work performance, disrupted social interactions), systemic and pulmonary hypertension, and ischemic heart disease. Treatment of OSAS results in improvement in symptoms, quality of life, and blood pressure control, and may improve mortality. An expansion of our understanding of this condition has resulted in increased awareness of its consequences, but the recognition of OSAS in clinical practice is still delayed. Identification of these patients in clinical practice requires attention to risk factors (history of snoring and witnessed apneas, obesity, increased neck circumference, hypertension, family history) and careful examination of the upper airway. Clinical impression alone, however, has poor (50% to 60%) sensitivity and specificity (63% to 70%) and the diagnosis is usually obtained on polysomnography. Physicians and other health care professionals need to be aware of the progress made in this area and recognize the necessity for prompt evaluation and treatment of these patients. PMID:10406327

Skomro, R P; Kryger, M H

1999-01-01

12

Clinical presentation of hepatitis E.  

PubMed

Hepatitis E is a form of acute hepatitis, which is caused by infection with hepatitis E virus. The infection is transmitted primarily through fecal-oral route and the disease is highly endemic in several developing countries with opportunities for contamination of drinking water. In these areas with high endemicity, it occurs as outbreaks and as sporadic cases of acute hepatitis. The illness often resembles that associated with other hepatotropic viruses and is usually self-limiting; in some cases, the disease progresses to acute liver failure. The infection is particularly severe in pregnant women. Patients with chronic liver disease and superimposed HEV infection can present with severe liver injury, the so-called acute-on-chronic liver failure. In recent years, occasional sporadic cases with locally acquired hepatitis E have been reported from several developed countries in Europe, United States, and Asia. In these areas, in addition to acute hepatitis similar to that seen in highly endemic areas, chronic hepatitis E has been reported among immunosuppressed persons, in particular solid organ transplant recipients. HEV-infected mothers can transmit the infection to foetus, leading to premature birth, increased fetal loss and hypoglycaemia, hypothermia, and anicteric or icteric acute hepatitis in the newborns. Occasional cases with atypical non-hepatic manifestations, such as acute pancreatitis, hematological abnormalities, autoimmune phenomena, and neurological syndromes have been reported from both hyperendemic and non-endemic regions. The pathogenesis of these manifestations remains unclear. PMID:21458513

Aggarwal, Rakesh

2011-10-01

13

The clinical presentation of chronic traumatic encephalopathy.  

PubMed

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder attributed to repetitive mild traumatic brain injury. The diagnosis in a living individual can be challenging and can be made definitively only at autopsy. The symptoms are often nonspecific and overlap with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Higher exposure to repetitive head trauma increases the risk of CTE. Genetic risk factors such as presence of an apolipoprotein E ?4 allele may be important. Individuals have varying degrees of cognitive, behavioral, and motor decline. Limitations in the manner in which data have been obtained over the years have led to different clinical descriptions of CTE. At present, there are no biomarkers to assist in the diagnosis. Standard neuroimaging may show nonspecific atrophic changes; however, newer imaging modalities such as positron emission tomography (PET) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) show promise. Neuropsychological testing may be helpful in determining the pattern of cognitive or behavioral decline. PMID:25772999

Lenihan, Michael W; Jordan, Barry D

2015-05-01

14

Pathogenesis and clinical presentation of acute heart failure.  

PubMed

Acute heart failure constitutes a heterogeneous clinical syndrome, whose pathophysiology is complex and not completely understood. Given the diversity of clinical presentations, several different pathophysiological mechanisms along with factors triggering circulatory decompensation are involved. This article discusses the available evidence on the pathophysiological phenomena attributed or/and associated with episodes of acute heart failure and describes different clinical profiles, which, from a clinical perspective, constitute a key element for therapeutic decision-making. PMID:25743769

Ponikowski, Piotr; Jankowska, Ewa A

2015-04-01

15

Unilateral pulmonary hypoplasia: a rare clinical presentation  

PubMed Central

The clinical presentation of an adolescent man with left lung hypoplasia is described in detail including the history and clinical examination findings. On further investigation, the chest x-ray and CT scan of the chest reveal interesting findings. Generally, such conditions are brought to notice in the early years of life but the presentation of this condition at the age of 18?years make it even more interesting and unique. This is a discussion of the management of such a patient and the different types of lung hypoplasia which can be encountered in clinical practice. PMID:23519505

Pathania, Monika; Lali, Bhagat Singh; Rathaur, Vyas Kumar

2013-01-01

16

Clinical presentation of chronic traumatic encephalopathy  

PubMed Central

Objective: The goal of this study was to examine the clinical presentation of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in neuropathologically confirmed cases. Methods: Thirty-six adult male subjects were selected from all cases of neuropathologically confirmed CTE at the Boston University Center for the Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy brain bank. Subjects were all athletes, had no comorbid neurodegenerative or motor neuron disease, and had next-of-kin informants to provide retrospective reports of the subjects' histories and clinical presentations. These interviews were conducted blind to the subjects' neuropathologic findings. Results: A triad of cognitive, behavioral, and mood impairments was common overall, with cognitive deficits reported for almost all subjects. Three subjects were asymptomatic at the time of death. Consistent with earlier case reports of boxers, 2 relatively distinct clinical presentations emerged, with one group whose initial features developed at a younger age and involved behavioral and/or mood disturbance (n = 22), and another group whose initial presentation developed at an older age and involved cognitive impairment (n = 11). Conclusions: This suggests there are 2 major clinical presentations of CTE, one a behavior/mood variant and the other a cognitive variant. PMID:23966253

Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Baugh, Christine M.; Seichepine, Daniel R.; Montenigro, Philip H.; Riley, David O.; Fritts, Nathan G.; Stamm, Julie M.; Robbins, Clifford A.; McHale, Lisa; Simkin, Irene; Stein, Thor D.; Alvarez, Victor E.; Goldstein, Lee E.; Budson, Andrew E.; Kowall, Neil W.; Nowinski, Christopher J.; Cantu, Robert C.; McKee, Ann C.

2013-01-01

17

Combined Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Beclin1 Autophagic Protein Expression Analysis Identifies Different Clinical Presentations, Responses to Chemo- and Radiotherapy, and Prognosis in Glioblastoma  

PubMed Central

Dysregulated EGFR in glioblastoma may inactivate the key autophagy protein Beclin1. Each of high EGFR and low Beclin1 protein expression, independently, has been associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis. High (H) compared to low (L) expression of EGFR and Beclin1 is here correlated with main clinical data in 117 patients after chemo- and radiotherapy. H-EGFR correlated with low Karnofsky performance and worse neurological performance status, higher incidence of synchronous multifocality, poor radiological evidence of response, shorter progression disease-free (PDFS), and overall survival (OS). H-Beclin1 cases showed better Karnofsky performance status, higher incidence of objective response, longer PDFS, and OS. A mutual strengthening effect emerges in correlative power of stratified L-EGFR and H-Beclin1 expression with incidence of radiological response after treatment, unifocal disease, and better prognosis, thus identifying an even longer OS group (30 months median OS compared to 18 months in L-EGFR, 15 months in H-Beclin1, and 11 months in all GBs) (P = 0.0001). Combined L-EGFR + H-Beclin1 expression may represent a biomarker in identifying relatively favorable clinical presentations and prognosis, thus envisaging possible EGFR/Beclin1-targeted therapies.

Tini, Paolo; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Toscano, Marzia; Miracco, Clelia; Palumbo, Silvia; Pastina, Pierpaolo; Butorano, Marie Aimée Gloria Munezero; Masucci, Armando; Cerase, Alfonso; Pirtoli, Luigi

2015-01-01

18

Clinical Proteomics: Present and Future Prospects  

PubMed Central

Advances in proteomics technology offer great promise in the understanding and treatment of the molecular basis of disease. The past decade of proteomics research, the study of dynamic protein expression, post-translational modifications, cellular and sub-cellular protein distribution, and protein-protein interactions, has culminated in the identification of many disease-related biomarkers and potential new drug targets. While proteomics remains the tool of choice for discovery research, new innovations in proteomic technology now offer the potential for proteomic profiling to become standard practice in the clinical laboratory. Indeed, protein profiles can serve as powerful diagnostic markers, and can predict treatment outcome in many diseases, in particular cancer. A number of technical obstacles remain before routine proteomic analysis can be achieved in the clinic; however the standardisation of methodologies and dissemination of proteomic data into publicly available databases is starting to overcome these hurdles. At present the most promising application for proteomics is in the screening of specific subsets of protein biomarkers for certain diseases, rather than large scale full protein profiling. Armed with these technologies the impending era of individualised patient-tailored therapy is imminent. This review summarises the advances in proteomics that has propelled us to this exciting age of clinical proteomics, and highlights the future work that is required for this to become a reality. PMID:17077880

Verrills, Nicole M

2006-01-01

19

Clinical diaphanography--its present perspective.  

PubMed

The application of nonionizing radiations and magnetism in clinical medical diagnosis has been rapidly increasing. The incorporation of these techniques into the armamentarium of the diagnostic roentgenologist warrants a change in nonmenclature to diagnostic imageologists. This review of the clinical applications of diaphanography covers the period of simple light source examination of the 1930s to the present sophisticated imaging with infrared film or videcon T.V. computerized format. Light physics of the infrared spectrum is well known, however experimental data of the mechanism of transillumination or normal and abnormal breasts are being investigated. A short discussion of breast anatomy and pathology including benign and malignant is basic to the clinical evaluation technique. A realistic appraisal of the application, the limitations of the technique and the current ongoing investigative studies in the European and American literatures are reviewed. Other noninvasive breast diagnostic techniques of thermography, ultrasound, and NMR are included as well as mammography in the diagnosis of breast disease and cancer. PMID:6397269

Girolamo, R F; Gaythorpe, J V

1984-01-01

20

Delusional infestations: clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

Patients with delusional infestations (DI), previously named delusions of parasitosis, have a fixed, false belief that they are infested with living or non-living pathogens. Patients have abnormal cutaneous symptoms such as itching, biting, or crawling sensations. They often demonstrate self-destructive behavior in an effort to rid the pathogens from under their skin, leading to excoriations, ulcerations, and serious secondary infections. This review article aims to provide an overview of DI including its clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. Strategies on how to establish a strong therapeutic alliance with DI patients are discussed. In addition, antipsychotic medications used in the treatment of DI are described. PMID:23789596

Heller, Misha M; Wong, Jillian W; Lee, Eric S; Ladizinski, Barry; Grau, Manuel; Howard, Josephine L; Berger, Timothy G; Koo, John Y M; Murase, Jenny E

2013-07-01

21

Growth factors from genes to clinical application  

SciTech Connect

The last decade has witnessed an explosion in the identification of growth factors and their receptors. This has been greatly facilitated by recombinant DNA technology, which has provided the tools not only to identify these proteins at the gene level but also to produce recombinant proteins for evaluating their biological activities. With the help of such techniques, we are moving toward an understanding of the biosynthesis of growth factors and their receptors, structure-function relationships, as well as mechanisms for intracellular signal transmission. The possibility of modifying these factors has opened new fields of clinical application. In this paper, four major areas of growth factor research are presented: the characterization of growth factor genes and their protein products, growth factor receptors and signal transduction by the receptors to mediate biological action, the biological actions of the various growth factors, and the role of growth factors in health and disease and their possible clinical application. Some of the topics covered include: structure of the IGFs and their variants; isoforms of PDGF receptor types; tyrosine kinase activation; structure of G-proteins in biological membranes; possible therapeutic application of NGF in the treatment of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases; PDGF's possible role in the development of several fibroproliferative diseases and its therapeutic application in wound healing; and the possible use of angiogenic inhibitors in tumor treatment.

Sara, V.R. (Dept. of Pathology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (SE)); Hall, K.; Low, H. (Dept. of Endocrinology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (SE))

1990-01-01

22

[Indolent lymphomas: classification, clinical presentation and treatment  

PubMed

The malignant lymphomas comprise a heterogeneous group of neoplastic diseases of the lymphatic system. In the WHO classification 70 different entities are subdivided. Each type of lymphoma is defined as a disease with specific clinical characteristics, as well as morphological, immunophenotypic and genetic characteristics. The indolent lymphomas include follicular lymphoma, marginal zone lymphoma, Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, small cell lymphocytic lymhoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia, prolymphocytic leukemia and hairy cell leukemia. Indolent lymphomas are characterized by slow growth and a chronic course of the disease. Antibody-based therapies, have significantly improved the prognosis, nevertheless there is no curative treatment. Watch and wait is still an reasonable option in asymptomatic patients. The goal of therapy has been to maintain the best quality of life. and to avoid late toxicities. The following review presents the current treatment options. PMID:23531907

Zenhäusern, Reinhard

2013-03-27

23

Uterine sarcomas: clinical presentation and MRI features.  

PubMed

Uterine sarcomas are a rare heterogeneous group of tumors of mesenchymal origin, accounting for approximately 8% of uterine malignancies. They comprise leiomyosarcoma, endometrial stromal sarcoma, undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma, and adenosarcoma. Compared with the more common endometrial carcinomas, uterine sarcomas behave more aggressively and are associated with a poorer prognosis. Due to their distinct clinical and biological behavior, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics introduced a new staging system for uterine sarcomas in 2009, categorizing uterine carcinosarcoma as a variant of endometrial carcinoma, rather than a pure sarcoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a developing role in the assessment of these malignancies. Features such as tumor localization, irregular or nodular margins, necrosis, rapid growth, intense contrast enhancement, and restriction at diffusion-weighted imaging can suggest the diagnosis and help differentiate from more common leiomyomas and endometrial carcinoma. MRI is therefore extremely useful in preoperative detection and staging and, consequently, in determination of appropriate management. This pictorial review aims to discuss the clinical features of uterine sarcomas, as well as their most common appearances and distinct characteristics in MRI. PMID:25347940

Santos, Pedro; Cunha, Teresa Margarida

2015-01-01

24

Diverticulitis in women: an unappreciated clinical presentation.  

PubMed Central

A final diagnosis of diverticulosis or diverticulitis was made in 1,031 women over a 10 year period. The 69 patients who underwent abdominal operation for what proved to be diverticulitis are discussed in detail. Thirty-eight per cent of these women were believed to have gynecologic disease because of the presence of a pelvic mass. Diverticulitis is an important differential diagnosis of a pelvic mass with or without clinical and laboratory indications of infection and with or without history of diverticulosis or diverticulitis. The increasing awareness of ovarian carcinoma and its ominous prognosis make this differential diagnosis especially important. Diverticular disease should always be considered among such patients and preparations made to allow optimal treatment at that operation, whatever the ultimate cause of the mass. PMID:843136

Walker, J D; Gray, L A; Polk, H C

1977-01-01

25

Indeterminate cell histiocytosis that presented clinically as benign cephalic histiocytosis.  

PubMed

Indeterminate cell histiocytosis (ICH) is a rare, heterogeneous disorder that is characterized by immunophenotypic features of both Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and non-LCH. We describe a 12-month-old boy with a four-month history of asymptomatic, small, pink-tan papules on his face. Histopathologic evaluation showed a superficial, dermal infiltrate of histiocytes that was positive for S100, CD1a, CD68, and Factor XIIIa. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of the clinical presentation of benign cephalic histiocytosis with immunohistochemical findings of ICH. We review the classification of histiocytic disorders and the clinical and immunohistochemical features of both ICH and benign cephalic histiocytosis. PMID:25526330

Haimovic, Adele; Chernoff, Karen; Hale, Christopher S; Meehan, Shane A; Schaffer, Julie V

2014-12-01

26

Moya Moya disease : an unusual clinical presentation.  

PubMed

Moya Moya disease is a rare cause of stroke in adults, and is a rarity secondary to hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) and cryoglobulinemia (CG). We report such a rare association in a young patient who presented with intracerebral hemorrhage. PMID:15857014

Somarajan, A; Ashalatha, R; Syam, K

2005-01-01

27

Clinical presentation of ectopic pregnancy in Transkei, South Africa.  

PubMed

Due to advances in diagnostic techniques, it has become possible to identify and manage ectopic pregnancies before they cause clinical symptoms in many developed countries. However, the situation appears not to be the same in developing countries. We carried out a cross-sectional study at Umtata General Hospital, which serves an underprivileged black South African population in order to document the incidence, risk factors, clinical presentation and complications of ectopic pregnancy. We found the incidence of ectopic pregnancy was 11 per 1000 reported pregnancies, and the mortality rate was 2.0%. Of 148 consecutive cases of ectopic pregnancy, 62.2% were in shock and two thirds were severely anaemic on arrival. About 71% of the cases had tubal rupture and 25% were chronic leaking ectopics. Only four intact unruptured ectopics were found in spite of the availability of modern diagnostic techniques such as ultrasonography and sensitive pregnancy tests. About 86% of the cases had evidence of previous pelvic infection, thus making pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) the most important risk factor for ectopic pregnancy. We conclude that most ectopic pregnancies in Transkei are associated with previous pelvic infection, and still present as acute emergencies. Preventive measures should aim at controlling sexually transmitted diseases and PID. PMID:8689974

Amoko, D H; Buga, G A

1995-12-01

28

Lobomycosis: epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management options  

PubMed Central

Lobomycosis is a subcutaneous mycosis of chronic evolution caused by the Lacazia loboi fungus. Its distribution is almost exclusive in the Americas, and it has a particularly high prevalence in the Amazon basin. Cases of lobomycosis have been reported only in dolphins and humans. Its prevalence is higher among men who are active in the forest, such as rubber tappers, bushmen, miners, and Indian men. It is recognized that the traumatic implantation of the fungus on the skin is the route by which humans acquire this infection. The lesions affect mainly exposed areas such as the auricles and upper and lower limbs and are typically presented as keloid-like lesions. Currently, surgical removal is the therapeutic procedure of choice in initial cases. Despite the existing data and studies to date, the active immune mechanisms in this infection and its involvement in the control or development of lacaziosis have not been fully clarified. In recent years, little progress has been made in the appraisal of the epidemiologic aspects of the disease. So far, we have neither a population-based study nor any evaluation directed to the forest workers. PMID:25328400

Francesconi, Valeska Albuquerque; Klein, Ana Paula; Santos, Ana Paula Botelho Gualda; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; Francesconi, Fábio

2014-01-01

29

Adrenal histoplasmosis: clinical presentation and imaging features in nine cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We describe a retrospective analysis of the clinical presentation and imaging features in nine patients with adrenal histoplasmosis in nonimmunocompromised patients from a nonendemic region. Methods: Clinically, a tuberculosis-like presentation in four patients and a tumor-like presentation in five patients were seen. All patients were seronegative for the human immunodeficiency virus. Ultrasound (US) in all patients, computed tomography (CT)

N. Kumar; S. Singh; S. Govil

2003-01-01

30

Vein of Galen malformations: epidemiology, clinical presentations, management.  

PubMed

The vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation is a congenital vascular malformation that comprises 30% of the pediatric vascular and 1% of all pediatric congenital anomalies. Treatment is dependent on the timing of presentation and clinical manifestations. With the development of endovascular techniques, treatment paradigms have changed and clinical outcomes have significantly improved. In this article, the developmental embryology, clinical features and pathophysiology, diagnostic workup, and management strategies are reviewed. PMID:22107867

Recinos, Pablo F; Rahmathulla, Gazanfar; Pearl, Monica; Recinos, Violette Renard; Jallo, George I; Gailloud, Philippe; Ahn, Edward S

2012-01-01

31

Clinical Presentation and Outcome of Brown Recluse Spider Bite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: To examine the clinical presentation and outcome of patients treated in the ED or toxicology clinic for suspected brown recluse spider bites. Methods: We assembled a retrospective case series of patients at a southeastern US university hospital. Our study group comprised 111 patients with suspected brown recluse spider bites treated during a 30-month period. Our main outcome measures

Seth W Wright; Keith D Wrenn; Lindsay Murray; Donna Seger

1997-01-01

32

Childhood polycythemias\\/erythrocytoses: classification, diagnosis, clinical presentation, and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycythemias or erythrocytoses in childhood and adolescence are very rare. Systematic data on the clinical presentation and laboratory evaluations as well as on treatment regimens are sparse. The diagnostic program in absolute erythrocytosis includes extensive clinical, hematological, biochemical, and molecular biological examinations which should be applied following a stepwise algorithm. Absolute erythrocytoses are usually subdivided into primary and secondary forms.

H. Cario

2005-01-01

33

Current clinical presentation of prostatic abscesses; two case reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical cases – We report two cases of prostatic abscesses. The first was a diabetic patient with a prostatic adenoma both risk factors. In this case, the bacteria was Staphylococcus aureus, susceptible to ofloxacin and roxythromycin per os. The abscess was drained by a transrectal puncture. The second case was a patient hospitalized in the ICU after abdominal surgery. Multiple

P Ribes; P. L Blanc; E Legrand; J. M Marc

2001-01-01

34

Clinical Presentation of Acute Abdomen: Study of 600 Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the clinical features of 600 patients suffering from abdominal pain of acute onset and admitted to either the General Infirmary or St. James's Hospital, Leeds. The survey was initially retrospective, but later put on a prospective basis. Roughly two-thirds of these 600 patients presented a “typical” picture of the disease with which they presented, while the remaining

J. R. Staniland; Janet Ditchburn; F. T. de Dombal

1972-01-01

35

Clinical factors associated with trabecular bone score.  

PubMed

Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) is the reference standard for diagnosing osteoporosis but does not directly reflect deterioration in bone microarchitecture. The trabecular bone score (TBS), a novel grey-level texture measurement that can be extracted from DXA images, predicts osteoporotic fractures independent of BMD. Our aim was to identify clinical factors that are associated with baseline lumbar spine TBS. In total, 29,407 women ?50 yr at the time of baseline hip and spine DXA were identified from a database containing all clinical results for the Province of Manitoba, Canada. Lumbar spine TBS was derived for each spine DXA examination blinded to clinical parameters and outcomes. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression (lowest vs highest tertile) was used to define the sensitivity of TBS to other risk factors associated with osteoporosis. Only a small component of the TBS measurement (7-11%) could be explained from BMD measurements. In multiple linear regression and logistic regression models, reduced lumbar spine TBS was associated with recent glucocorticoid use, prior major fracture, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, high alcohol intake, and higher body mass index. In contrast, recent osteoporosis therapy was associated with a significantly lower likelihood for reduced TBS. Similar findings were seen after adjustment for lumbar spine or femoral neck BMD. In conclusion, lumbar spine TBS is strongly associated with many of the risk factors that are predictive of osteoporotic fractures. Further work is needed to determine whether lumbar spine TBS can replace some of the clinical risk factors currently used in fracture risk assessment. PMID:23452869

Leslie, William D; Krieg, Marc-Antoine; Hans, Didier

2013-01-01

36

Multicentric reticulohistiocytosis presenting with clinical features of dermatomyositis.  

PubMed

Multicentric reticulohistiocytosis (MRH) is a rare disorder with proliferating histiocytes that develop into multinucleated giant cells with "ground-glass" cytoplasm. The disease presents with a rapidly destructive, sometimes permanently debilitating, polyarthritis and a papulonodular eruption, generally of the face and hands. We present 3 cases of MRH in which the initial clinical diagnosis was thought to be dermatomyositis (DM). The cutaneous findings in these cases included an erythematous, predominantly photodistributed macular and papular eruption clinically consistent with DM. However, skin biopsy specimens revealed the diagnosis of MRH. This previously unreported clinical similarity between MRH and DM is significant because the treatment options and future complications vary greatly between the 2 diseases. Thus, it is important to consider the possibility of multicentric reticulohistiocytosis when evaluating a patient with the clinical diagnosis of dermatomyositis. PMID:12582374

Hsiung, Sherry H; Chan, Edward F; Elenitsas, Rosalie; Kolasinski, Sharon L; Schumacher, H Ralph; Werth, Victoria P

2003-02-01

37

Multicentric reticulohistiocytosis presenting with clinical features of dermatomyositis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multicentric reticulohistiocytosis (MRH) is a rare disorder with proliferating histiocytes that develop into multinucleated giant cells with “ground-glass” cytoplasm. The disease presents with a rapidly destructive, sometimes permanently debilitating, polyarthritis and a papulonodular eruption, generally of the face and hands. We present 3 cases of MRH in which the initial clinical diagnosis was thought to be dermatomyositis (DM). The cutaneous

Sherry H. Hsiung; Edward F. Chan; Rosalie Elenitsas; Sharon L. Kolasinski; H. Ralph Schumacher; Victoria P. Werth

2003-01-01

38

Oral manifestations of Cowden's disease. Presentation of a clinical case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cowden's disease, or multiple hamartoma syndrome, is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis, characterized by the presence of multiple cutaneous hamartomas, oral fibromas and benign acral keratosis. It affects multiple organs (breast, thyroids, stomach, colon), with the strong possibility of malignant neoplasia developing in these organs. We present a case of this rare syndrome, highlighting the presentation of some clinical characteristics that,

Rafael Segura Saint-Gerons; Alejandro Ceballos Salobreña; Mariano Toro Rojas; José Manuel Gándara Rey; Emilio Luque

39

What type of different clinical manifestations can cardiac sarcoidosis present?  

PubMed

Cardiac sarcoidosis is an infiltrative, granulomatous inflammatory disease of the myocardium. Generally, it can be difficult to diagnose cardiac sarcoidosis clinically because of the non-specific nature of its clinical manifestations. This property can be based on the presence of any clinical evidence of sarcoidosis in the other organs. We present two cases of cardiac sarcoidosis so as to demonstrate its different clinical manifestations. The first patient displayed no cardiac symptoms; the electrocardiogram showed an incidental right bundle branch block. Her cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) revealed late-phase opaque material enhancement involving the inferior and inferoseptal segment of the left ventricle. The second patient was severely symptomatic in terms of cardiac involvement, and a transthoracic echocardiogram revealed global hypokinesia and septal brightness; his ejection fraction decreased to 45 %. These cases highlighted the challenges encountered in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiac sarcoidosis. CMRI should be considered in all patients who have suspected findings for cardiac involvement. PMID:25429793

Sentürk, Ay?egül; Mara?, Yüksel; Argüder, Emine; Karalezli, Ay?egül; Hasano?lu, H Canan; O?üt, Tuba; Ba?tu?, Serdal; Karabekir, Ercan

2014-11-28

40

Rhinosporidiosis presenting as an oropharyngeal mass: A clinical predicament?  

PubMed Central

Rhinosporidiosis, is a chronic granulomatous disease presenting as a polypoidal mass in the nasal cavity and nasopharynx caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi and is endemic in India and Sri Lanka. Diagnosis is mainly by clinical observations and is confirmed by histopathology. We report a case of atypical rhinosporidiosis that presented as an oropharyngeal mass and mimicked chronic tonsillitis. Hence possibility of this atypical rhinosporidiosis should be included in the clinical differential diagnosis of any posterior oral or oropharyngeal mass, particularly when managing patients from rural endemic areas.

Rath, Rachna; Baig, Shadab Ali; Debata, Tribikram

2015-01-01

41

Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with diabetes presenting to an urban public hospital ophthalmology clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis study aims to describe the clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of patients with diabetes who are newly presenting to an inner city public hospital eye clinic. This study also aims to determine the prevalence and severity of ocular morbidity in this population at time of presentation and to assess the adequacy of the ophthalmic surveillance to which this population was

Richard S. Baker; Neil L. Watkins; M. Roy Wilson; Mohsen Bazargan; Charles W. Flowers

1998-01-01

42

Possible fatal acetaminophen intoxication with atypical clinical presentation.  

PubMed

Acetaminophen or paracetamol, a commonly used over-the-counter analgesic, is known to elicit severe adverse reactions when taken in overdose, chronically at therapeutic dosage or, sporadically, following single assumptions of a therapeutic dose. Damage patterns including liver damage and, rarely, acute tubular necrosis or a fixed drug exanthema. We present a case of fatal acetaminophen toxicity with postmortem blood concentration 78 ?g/mL and unusual clinical features, including a visually striking and massive epidermolysis and rhabdomyolysis, disseminated intravascular coagulation and myocardial ischemia. This case is compared with the most similar previous reports in terms of organ damage, clinical presentation, and cause of death. We conclude that a number of severe patterns of adverse effects to acetaminophen are emerging that were previously greatly underestimated, thus questioning the adequacy of the clinical spectrum traditionally associated with acetaminophen intoxication and leading to the need to review this spectrum and the associated diagnostic criteria. PMID:23822653

De-Giorgio, Fabio; Lodise, Maria; Chiarotti, Marcello; d'Aloja, Ernesto; Carbone, Arnaldo; Valerio, Luca

2013-09-01

43

Correlation of Angiographic Morphology and Clinical Presentation in Unstable Angina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This study sought to correlate angiographically detected complex lesions and intracoronary thrombus with the severity of clinical presentation in unstable angina (UA).Background. Unstable angina is usually related to acute thrombosis superimposed on a disrupted plaque. Complex and thrombotic lesions are more prevalent in UA and have been associated with a worse prognosis. The highest levels of the Braunwald classification

George Dangas; Roxana Mehran; Sylvan Wallenstein; Nikolaos A Courcoutsakis; Venu Kakarala; Jacqueline Hollywood; John A Ambrose

1997-01-01

44

Age-related macular degeneration: linking clinical presentation to pathology.  

PubMed

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide in the elderly population. Optometrists, as primary eye health care providers, require the skills and knowledge to accurately diagnose and manage AMD patients. There is an overwhelming body of research related to the clinical presentation, etiology, epidemiology, and pathology of this disease. Additionally, the evolution of new imaging modalities creates new opportunities to clinically detect and analyze previously uncharacterized and earlier changes in the retina. The challenge for optometrists is to combine all this information into an applicable knowledge base for use in everyday clinical assessment of AMD so that timely and accurate referrals can be made to retinal specialists. This review attempts to address this issue by linking the clinical presentation of AMD with the underlying disease biology. We emphasize the contribution of recent noninvasive imaging technologies to the clinical assessment of early and more advanced AMD including optical coherence tomography, fundus autofluorescence, and infrared reflectance. PMID:24879089

Nivison-Smith, Lisa; Milston, Rebecca; Madigan, Michele; Kalloniatis, Michael

2014-08-01

45

Membranous nephropathy in children: clinical presentation and therapeutic approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The approach to the pediatric patient with membranous nephropathy (MN) can be challenging to the practitioner. The clinical\\u000a presentation of the child with this histologic entity usually involves some degree of proteinuria ranging from persistent,\\u000a subnephrotic-ranged proteinuria to overt nephrotic syndrome. Patients often have accompanying microscopic hematuria and may\\u000a have azotemia or mild hypertension. Children presenting with nephrotic syndrome are

Shina Menon; Rudolph P. Valentini

2010-01-01

46

Peptide growth factors: clinical and therapeutic strategies.  

PubMed

The literature contains many accounts of studies in which tumour growth has been accelerated by administration of a particular mitogen and the response then inhibited by co-administration of the corresponding antagonist. Much effort has been focused on the development of cytokine or growth factor antagonists. Like most other cancer therapies, biological therapies will undoubtedly have undesirable toxicities because the proteins they target may not be unique to malignant cells. We reviewed the clinical and therapeutic potential of growth factor agonists and antagonists in some non urologic and urologic diseases. In a recent report we demonstrated that both androgen and antiandrogen treatments enhance the proliferation rate of the hormone-dependent prostate cancer cell line LNCaP, expressing a mutated androgen receptor. Simultaneous treatment with 1 nM R1881 and 100 nM OH-Flutamide, completely counteracted the androgen-induced increase of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) levels. Moreover we found that Testosterone, DHT and EGF are mainly concentrated in the periurethral zone in human BPH and long term treatment with Finasteride and with Flutamide modify the distribution and concentration of these factors. Some authors analyzed whether and addition of aurin tricarboxylic acid (ATA) can reduce the growth rate of basic FGF-dependent cells in a manner similar to suramin. PMID:9228827

Di Silverio, F; Sciarra, A; Di Nicola, S; Di Chiro, C

1997-06-01

47

Hyperinsulinaemia: A prospective risk factor for lethal clinical prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have suggested that hyperinsulinaemia and other components of metabolic syndrome are risk factors for clinical prostate cancer. This prospective study tested the hypothesis that hyperinsulinaemia and other components of metabolic syndrome are risk factors for lethal clinical prostate cancer. The clinical, haemodynamic, anthropometric, metabolic and insulin profile at baseline in men who had died from clinical prostate cancer

Jan Hammarsten; Benkt Högstedt

2005-01-01

48

Clinical Presentation and Magnetic Resonance Findings in Sellar Tuberculomas  

PubMed Central

Background and Importance. Sellar tuberculomas are extremely rare lesions with nonspecific clinical manifestations. The tuberculous infection of the pituitary gland and sellar region is characterized by the presence of an acute or chronic inflammatory reaction and may occur in the absence of systemic tuberculosis. The diagnosis is difficult prior to the surgery. An adequate diagnostic and antituberculous drugs usually result in a good outcome. Clinical Presentation. We report four cases of sellar tuberculoma, 3/1 female/male, age range: 50–57 years. All patients had visual disturbances and low levels of cortisol. Conclusion. The clinical diagnosis of sellar tuberculoma is a challenge and should be suspected when a sellar lesion shows abnormal enhancement pattern and stalk involvement, and absence of signal suppression in FLAIR. PMID:25114688

Bonifacio-Delgadillo, Dulce; Aburto-Murrieta, Yolanda; Salinas-Lara, Citlaltepetl; Sotelo, Julio; Montes-Mojarro, Ivonne; Garcia-Marquez, Arturo

2014-01-01

49

Clinical presentation and magnetic resonance findings in sellar tuberculomas.  

PubMed

Background and Importance. Sellar tuberculomas are extremely rare lesions with nonspecific clinical manifestations. The tuberculous infection of the pituitary gland and sellar region is characterized by the presence of an acute or chronic inflammatory reaction and may occur in the absence of systemic tuberculosis. The diagnosis is difficult prior to the surgery. An adequate diagnostic and antituberculous drugs usually result in a good outcome. Clinical Presentation. We report four cases of sellar tuberculoma, 3/1 female/male, age range: 50-57 years. All patients had visual disturbances and low levels of cortisol. Conclusion. The clinical diagnosis of sellar tuberculoma is a challenge and should be suspected when a sellar lesion shows abnormal enhancement pattern and stalk involvement, and absence of signal suppression in FLAIR. PMID:25114688

Bonifacio-Delgadillo, Dulce; Aburto-Murrieta, Yolanda; Salinas-Lara, Citlaltepetl; Sotelo, Julio; Montes-Mojarro, Ivonne; Garcia-Marquez, Arturo

2014-01-01

50

Swallow Syncope: Clinical Presentation, Diagnostic Criteria, and Therapeutic Options  

PubMed Central

We recently encountered three patients with episodes of syncope associated with food ingestion. A 31-year-old woman had an episode of syncope in the hospital while drinking soda. Transient asystole was noted on the telemonitor, confirming the diagnosis of swallow syncope. The other two patients were 78- and 80 year old gentlemen, respectively, who presented with recurrent and transient episodes of dizziness during deglutition. Extensive work-up of syncope was negative in both cases and a diagnosis of swallow syncope was made by clinical criteria. These cases illustrate the challenging problem of swallow syncope. The diagnosis can be suspected on the basis of clinical presentation and confirmed with the demonstration of transient brady-arrhythmia during deglutition. Medical management includes avoiding trigger foods, use of anticholinergics, and/or placement of a permanent cardiac pacemaker. PMID:25038205

Garg, Shashank; Girotra, Mohit; Glasser, Stephen; Dutta, Sudhir K.

2014-01-01

51

Suprasellar cysts: clinical presentation, surgical indications, and optimal surgical treatment  

PubMed Central

Background To describe the clinical presentation of suprasellar cysts (SSCs) and surgical indications, and compare the treatment methods of endoscopic ventriculocystostomy (VC) and ventriculocystocisternotomy (VCC). Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of 73 consecutive patients with SSC who were treated between June 2002 and September 2009. Twenty-two patients were treated with VC and 51 with VCC. Outcome was assessed by clinical examination and magnetic resonance imaging. Results The patients were divided into five groups based on age at presentation: age less than 1 year (n = 6), 1-5 years (n = 36), 6-10 years (n = 15), 11-20 years (n = 11), and 21-53 years (n = 5). The main clinical presentations were macrocrania (100%), motor deficits (50%), and gaze disturbance (33.3%) in the age less than 1 year group; macrocrania (75%), motor deficits (63.9%), and gaze disturbance (27.8%) in the 1-5 years group; macrocrania (46.7%), symptoms of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) (40.0%), endocrine dysfunction (40%), and seizures (33.3%) in the 6-10 years group; symptoms of raised ICP (54.5%), endocrine dysfunction (54.5%), and reduced visual field or acuity (36.4%) in the 11-20 years group; and symptoms of raised ICP (80.0%) and reduced visual field or acuity (40.0%) in the 21-53 years group. The overall success rate of endoscopic fenestration was 90.4%. A Kaplan-Meier curve for long-term efficacy of the two treatment modalities showed better results for VCC than for VC (p = 0.008). Conclusions Different age groups with SSCs have different main clinical presentations. VCC appears to be more efficacious than VC. PMID:21586175

2011-01-01

52

Clinical zinc deficiency as early presentation of Wilson disease.  

PubMed

Wilson disease is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of the copper metabolism caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the ATP-ase Cu(2+) transporting polypeptide (ATP7B) gene. The copper accumulation in different organs leads to the suspicion of Wilson disease. We describe a child with clinical zinc deficiency as presenting symptom of Wilson disease, which was confirmed by 2 mutations within the ATP7B gene and an increased copper excretion. PMID:25825851

Van Biervliet, Stephanie; Küry, Sébastien; De Bruyne, Ruth; Vanakker, Olivier M; Schmitt, Sébastien; Vande Velde, Saskia; Blouin, Eric; Bézieau, Stéphane

2015-04-01

53

Diverse Clinical and Histology Presentation in C1q Nephropathy  

PubMed Central

Patients presenting with nephrotic syndrome with or without nephritic illness rarely come across with the diagnosis of ‘C1q nephropathy’. This entity is purely diagnosed with the help of immunofluorescence like IgA nephropathy. Clinical presentation is heterogenous, ranging from nephrotic range proteinuria to sub-nephrotic state; and with or without hematuria / renal insufficiency. Similarly, the concept of ‘C1q nephroapthy’ has periodically evolved since its original description by Jenette and Hipp in 1985. Here the pathophysiology, histologic findings / diagnostic and therapeutic options in patients with C1q nephropathy are discussed. PMID:24282787

Malleshappa, Pavan; Vankalakunti, Mahesha

2013-01-01

54

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia endogenous endophthalmitis: clinical presentation, antibiotic susceptibility, and outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe clinical presentation, antibiotic susceptibility, and outcomes in patients with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia endogenous endophthalmitis. Design Retrospective case series. Participants Four eyes of four patients with S. maltophilia endogenous endophthalmitis. Methods Retrospective chart review of culture-positive S. maltophilia endogenous endophthalmitis treated at L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India, between January 2007 and December 2012, was done. Collected information included demographic, clinical, and microbiology data. Results These four patients with S. maltophilia endogenous endophthalmitis cases accounted for 0.47% (4/836) of total bacterial endophthalmitis cases treated in this period. All patients were from a rural setting and younger than 40 years. Two of the four patients had a history of immune compromise or hospitalization. The visual acuity at presentation was less than 20/320 in all patients. Common presenting features were severe anterior and posterior segment inflammation and hypopyon. All patients underwent vitrectomy with injection of intravitreal antibiotics and dexamethasone. Direct microscopy of the vitreous sample was positive in all cases. All isolates were sensitive to fluoroquinolones and chloramphenicol; sensitivity to aminoglycosides and third-generation cephalosporins was highly variable. The final visual acuity was 20/80 or more in three patients. The time to presentation did not seem to influence the visual or anatomical outcome. Conclusion S. maltophilia is a rare cause of endogenous endophthalmitis and usually occurs in young and apparently healthy individuals. Clinical presentation is moderate to severe, and recovery is variable. Fourth-generation fluoroquinolones and chloramphenicol were the most sensitive antibiotics against S. maltophilia in this series of patients. PMID:25170244

Chhablani, Jay; Sudhalkar, Aditya; Jindal, Animesh; Das, Taraprasad; Motukupally, Swapna R; Sharma, Savitri; Pathengay, Avinash; Flynn, Harry W

2014-01-01

55

Mayo Clinic urologists present findings at American Urological Association annual meeting  

Cancer.gov

Mayo Clinic researchers presented findings on prostate cancer risk, screening, treatment and other urological research at the annual meeting of the American Urological Association May 19–23 in Atlanta. In one study, of adjuvant hormonal therapy following radical prostatectomy, researchers found no adverse impact in overall survival of patients even when other health factors, specifically cardiovascular disease, were taken into account.

56

Systemic lupus erythematosus presenting as acute adrenal insufficiency: a rare clinical presentation.  

PubMed

Systemic lupus erythematosus is a complex autoimmune disease with multisystem involvement with varied presentation. Autoimmune adrenal disease, on the other hand, can be associated with other autoimmune diseases. Adrenal insufficiency as a presenting feature of Systemic lupus erythematosus is a rare occurrence. We hereby report a case of a 20 year-old female who presented to us in an acute hypoadrenal state and was found to have Systemic lupus erythematosus with renal involvement. Patient was successfully managed with steroids and improved clinically. PMID:24669348

Bhat, Ra; Khan, I; Mir, T; Khan, I; Wani, M

2014-01-01

57

Review of Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis of Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA  

PubMed Central

Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA) was described in 1929 by Luis Morquio from Uruguay and James Brailsford from England, and was later found as an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease. MPS IVA is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the enzyme, N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS). Reduced GALNS activity results in impaired catabolism of two glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), chondroitin-6-sulfate (C6S) and keratan sulfate (KS). Clinical presentations of MPS IVA reflect a spectrum of progression from a severe ”classical” phenotype to a mild “attenuated” phenotype. More than 180 different mutations have been identified in the GALNS gene, which likely explains the phenotypic heterogeneity of the disorder. Accumulation of C6S and KS manifests predominantly as short stature and skeletal dysplasia (dysostosis multiplex), including atlantoaxial instability and cervical cord compression. However, abnormalities in the visual, auditory, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems can also affect individuals with MPS IVA. Diagnosis is typically based on clinical examination, skeletal radiographs, urinary GAG, and enzymatic activity of GALNS in blood cells or fibroblasts. Deficiency of GALNS activity is a common assessment for the laboratory diagnosis of MPS IVA; however, with recently increased availability, gene sequencing for MPS IVA is often used to confirm enzyme results. As multiple clinical presentations are observed, diagnosis of MPS IVA may require multi-system considerations. This review provides a history of defining MPS IVA and how the understanding of the disease manifestations has changed over time. A summary of the accumulated knowledge is presented, including information from the International Morquio Registry. The classical phenotype is contrasted with attenuated cases, which are now being recognized and diagnosed more frequently. Laboratory based diagnoses of MPS IVA are also discussed. PMID:23665161

Hendriksz, C.J.; Harmatz, P.; Beck, M.; Jones, S.; Wood, T.; Lachman, R.; Gravance, C.G.

2013-01-01

58

Subacute Thyroiditis: Clinical Presentation and Long Term Outcome  

PubMed Central

Few studies have been reported from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SA) to describe the clinical presentation and long term outcomes of subacute thyroiditis (SAT). Our aim was to review the demographic, anthropometric, clinical presentation, laboratory results, treatment, and disease outcome in Riyadh region and to compare those with results from different regions of the Kingdom and different parts of the world. We reviewed the medical files of patients who underwent thyroid uptake scan during an 8-year period in King Khalid University Hospital. Only 25 patients had confirmed diagnosis of thyroiditis. Age and gender distribution were similar to other studies. Most patients presented with palpitation, goiter, and weight change. Elevated thyroid hormones, suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone, and elevated ESR were reported. Among those, 7 cases of SAT were recorded. ?-Blockers were prescribed to 57% and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to 29% of SAT. Long follow-up demonstrated that 85.7% of SAT cases recovered, while 14.3% developed permanent hypothyroidism. In conclusion, SAT is uncommon in the central region of SA. Compared to the western region, corticosteroid is not commonly prescribed, and permanent hypothyroidism is not uncommon. A nation-wide epidemiological study to explain these interprovincial differences is warranted. PMID:24803929

Alfadda, Assim A.; Sallam, Reem M.; Elawad, Ghadi E.; AlDhukair, Hisham; Alyahya, Mossaed M.

2014-01-01

59

Progranulin gene mutation with an unusual clinical and neuropathologic presentation.  

PubMed

Progranulin gene (PGRN) mutations cause frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U). Patients usually present with a frontotemporal dementia syndrome and have prominent atrophy and neuronal loss in frontal and temporal cortices and the striatum, with neuronal intranuclear and cytoplasmic inclusions. Clinical, neuropathological, and genetic studies are reported on an individual with PGRN mutation and her family members. We describe a patient with a PGRN c.26C>A mutation who presented with progressive stuttering dysarthria, oculomotor abnormalities, choreic buccolingual movements, and mild parkinsonism. Two other family members were affected, one with a behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia syndrome, the other with a diagnosis of probable Alzheimer's disease. At autopsy there was no neuronal loss in the cortex or medial temporal lobe structures, but there was striatal gliosis. Immunohistochemistry for ubiquitin and TDP-43 revealed neuronal cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions as well as neurites. This study further expands the clinical and pathological spectrum of PGRN mutations, and suggests the diagnosis could be missed in some individuals with atypical presentations. PMID:18442119

Wider, Christian; Uitti, Ryan J; Wszolek, Zbigniew K; Fang, John Y; Josephs, Keith A; Baker, Matthew C; Rademakers, Rosa; Hutton, Michael L; Dickson, Dennis W

2008-06-15

60

Clinical Presentation of Prostate Cancer in Black South Africans  

PubMed Central

Background Compared with White Americans, Black American men are at a significant increased risk of presenting with prostate cancer (PCa) and associated mortality, suggesting a link to African-ancestry. However, PCa status within Africa is largely unknown. We address the clinical presentation of PCa within Black South African men. Methods Over 1,000 participants with or without PCa have enrolled in the Southern African Prostate Cancer Study (SAPCS). Using genome-wide profiling we establish a unique within Africa population substructure. Adjusting for age, clinical variables were assessed, compared against Black Americans and between rural and urban localities while addressing potential socio-demographic confounders. Results We report a significant difference in the distribution of prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels skewed towards higher PSA levels in the PCa cases (83.0% present with a PSA???20?µg/L; median PSA?=?98.8?µg/L) relative to men with no detectable PCa (18.5% present with a PSA???20?µg/L; median PSA?=?9.1?µg/L). Compared with Black Americans, Black South Africans presented with significantly more aggressive disease defined by Gleason score >7 (17% and 36%, respectively) and PSA???20?µg/L (17.2% and 83.2%, respectively). We report exasperated disease aggression defined by Gleason score >7 (P?=?0.0042) and poorly differentiated tumor grade (P?present with higher PSA levels and histopathological tumor grade compared with Black Americans, which is further escalated in men from rural localities. Our data suggests that lack of PSA testing may be contributing to an aggressive PCa disease phenotype within South African men. PMID:24723425

Tindall, Elizabeth A; Monare, L Richard; Petersen, Desiree C; van Zyl, Smit; Hardie, Rae-Anne; Segone, Alpheus M; Venter, Philip A; Bornman, MS Riana; Hayes, Vanessa M

2014-01-01

61

5 CFR 847.602 - Present value factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ELECTIONS OF RETIREMENT COVERAGE BY CURRENT AND FORMER EMPLOYEES OF NONAPPROPRIATED FUND INSTRUMENTALITIES Additional Employee Costs Under the Retroactive Provisions § 847.602 Present value factors....

2010-01-01

62

Stroke and Pregnancy: Clinical Presentation, Evaluation, Treatment and Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Stroke is a neurological emergency that carries a risk of morbidity and mortality. Recent studies have shown that the incidence of stroke, while rare, is increasing in pregnant females. In this review, stroke and other vasculopathies in the pregnant and post-partum female are examined. A discussion of the symptoms and clinical presentation of stroke is provided, as well as the current guideline for treatment of stroke in pregnancy. Finally, the data illustrating the recent increases in stroke incidence is outlined. PMID:23632643

Grear, Karrie E; Bushnell, Cheryl D

2013-01-01

63

Factor Structure of the Clinical Research Appraisal Inventory (CRAI)  

PubMed Central

The Clinical Research Appraisal Inventory (CRAI) is a 92 item measure covering 10 domains of research self-efficacy. A known behavioral antecedent, reliable and valid measures of self-efficacy represent a potentially useful tool in the evaluation of research training program efficacy. However, few formal psychometric studies of this instrument exist. Using exploratory factor analysis, we examine the CRAI’s dimensional structure in a new sample of clinical research trainees. In contrast to the multidimensional solutions reported previously, CRAI responses in the present sample were unambiguously one-dimensional (as suggested by a dominant single eigenvalue and parallel analysis). This discrepant finding may reflect sample differences in research experience, as unlike previous studies, participants had all already obtained a professional degree. The CRAI’s dimensional structure may coalesce into a smaller number of factors as research experience is acquired, and investigators should be mindful of this possibility in future studies of the instrument. PMID:23960271

Mills, Britain A.; Caetano, Raul; Rhea, Arianne E.

2015-01-01

64

The Clinical Presentation of Celiac Disease: Experiences from Northeastern Iran  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND This study aimed to explore demographic characteristics and clinical presentations of celiac disease (CD) in Northeastern Iran. METHODS This was a cross-sectional retrospective study of 193 adults with CD who presented to Mashhad University Gastroenterology Clinic between 2008 and 2013. Patient data that included mode of presentation and the presence of any concomitant illnesses were collected. Intestinal biopsy and serum anti-tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG) were used for diagnosis. Mucosal lesions were classified according to modified Marsh classification. RESULTS Overall, 132 females and 61 males, with a mean age at diagnosis of 32.6 ± 13.2 years were included. The patient’s chief complaints in order of decreasing frequency were dyspepsia (24.6%), diarrhea (20%), anemia (12.8%), and flatulence (7.2%). Bone disease was seen (osteopenia, osteoporosis) in 30% of patients. A positive family history of CD was found in 17.9% of cases. There were 64% who had serum anti-tTG >200 units/ml and 78% had a Marsh classification grade 3 on duodenal biopsy. The histology grade (Marsh) did not show any correlation with anti-tTG serum levels, age, body mass index (BMI) or hemoglobin levels. CONCLUSION In Northeastern Iran, CD was seen more commonly in females and with non-diarrheal presentations. Abdominal discomfort, anemia and bone disease were most common primary presentations in this area. Histology grade showed no significant correlation with level of anti-tTG, BMI or hemoglobin levels. We suggest screening for CD in unexplained abdominal discomfort, bone disease and anemia. PMID:24872868

Ganji, Azita; Esmaielzadeh, Abbas; Aafzal Aghayee, Mehdi; Goshayeshi, Ladan; Ghaffarzadegan, Kamran

2014-01-01

65

Vulvar cancer: epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management options  

PubMed Central

Epidemiology Vulvar cancer can be classified into two groups according to predisposing factors: the first type correlates with a HPV infection and occurs mostly in younger patients. The second group is not HPV associated and occurs often in elderly women without neoplastic epithelial disorders. Histology Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common malignant tumor of the vulva (95%). Clinical features Pruritus is the most common and long-lasting reported symptom of vulvar cancer, followed by vulvar bleeding, discharge, dysuria, and pain. Therapy The gold standard for even a small invasive carcinoma of the vulva was historically radical vulvectomy with removal of the tumor with a wide margin followed by an en bloc resection of the inguinal and often the pelvic lymph nodes. Currently, a more individualized and less radical treatment is suggested: a radical wide local excision is possible in the case of localized lesions (T1). A sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy may be performed to reduce wound complications and lymphedema. Prognosis The survival of patients with vulvar cancer is good when convenient therapy is arranged quickly after initial diagnosis. Inguinal and/or femoral node involvement is the most significant prognostic factor for survival. PMID:25848321

Alkatout, Ibrahim; Schubert, Melanie; Garbrecht, Nele; Weigel, Marion Tina; Jonat, Walter; Mundhenke, Christoph; Günther, Veronika

2015-01-01

66

Familial Dementia With Lewy Bodies With an Atypical Clinical Presentation  

PubMed Central

The authors report a case of a 64-year-old male with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) pathology at autopsy who did not manifest the core symptoms of DLB until very late in his clinical course. His initial presentation of early executive and language dysfunction suggested a cortical dementia similar to frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Core symptoms of DLB including dementia, hallucination, and parkinsonian symptoms were not apparent until late in the course of his illness. Autopsy revealed both brainstem and cortical Lewy bodies and AD pathology. Family history revealed 7 relatives with a history of dementia including 4 with possible or probable DLB. This case is unique because of the FTLD-like presentation, positive family history of dementia, and autopsy confirmation of DLB. PMID:12641375

Bonner, Lauren T.; Tsuang, Debby W.; Cherrier, Monique M.; Eugenio, Charisma J.; Du, Jennifer Q.; Steinbart, Ellen J.; Limprasert, Pornprot; La Spada, Albert R.; Seltzer, Benjamin; Bird, Thomas D.; Leverenz, James B.

2006-01-01

67

Abdominal angiostrongyliasis: report of two cases with different clinical presentations.  

PubMed

Abdominal angiostrongyliasis is a sporadic infectious disease caused by the nematode Angiostrongylus costaricensis. It usually presents as acute abdomen, secondary to mesenteric ischemia, and pronounced eosinophilia. In some cases its course is insidious and transient, and the diagnosis is suspicious. The disease is confirmed by the detection of A. costaricensis elements in surgical specimen. The treatment is supportive, with avoidance of antihelminthic administration due to a possible erratic migration followed by worsening of the disease. We report two cases, both with intense eosinophilia and serum IgG-ELISA positive to A. costaricensis. The first case presented ileal perforation and was surgically treated. The second one showed hepatic nodules at ultrasound and was only symptomatically treated, evolving to an apparent protracted resolution. These two cases exemplify different clinical forms of the disease, one of them with liver involvement. PMID:19082375

Rodriguez, Rubens; Dequi, Roberta Martins; Peruzzo, Lucas; Mesquita, Paulo Moacir; Garcia, Errol; Fornari, Fernando

2008-01-01

68

Rheumatoid Arthritis—Atlanto-Axial Subluxation and Its Clinical Presentation  

PubMed Central

The clinical picture, radiological findings and treatment of 22 patients with atlantoaxial subluxation and rheumatoid arthritis are described. This lesion, untreated, may result in damage to the spinal cord, paresis or sudden death. Occipital headache, present in 13 of 22 patients, was often aggravated by working with the head in forward flexion. Paresthesias were present in six patients. The spine of the axis was often prominent. In three patients there was objective evidence of cord compression with sensory and/or pyramidal signs. In eight the lesion was asymptomatic and discovered by routine lateral radiography in flexion, the position of maximum subluxation. Conservative treatment involved the continuous use of a cervical collar to limit neck flexion. This usually relieved subjective symptoms including headaches. Successful surgical fixation was performed in two individuals. Surgical indications included acute or chronic cord compression or severe symptoms unrelieved by a collar. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:5907320

Robinson, H. S.

1966-01-01

69

Rhinitis in children: Common clinical presentations and differential diagnoses.  

PubMed

Rhinitis is a common presentation in childhood. Acute virally induced rhinitis is generally self-limiting and usually does not require medical attention. Whilst allergic rhinitis is the focus of the paediatric allergist, the presentation of other diseases or comorbidities that can complicate or mimic allergic rhinitis needs to be considered. Effects on the child's quality of life also need to be addressed. Rhinitis can be associated with asthma and other significant comorbidities: importantly, non-allergic rhinitis can sometimes be a consequence of systemic immune impairment. The diagnosis of rhinitis is based on clinical findings with directed investigations. Nasal nitric oxide measurement is an emerging diagnostic tool and helpful particularly in relation to evaluating the differential diagnosis in more difficult rhinitis. Successfully identifying the cause of rhinitis in childhood and associated comorbidities can ensure that the patient is successfully treated as described in the recently published EAACI Pediatric Rhinitis Position Paper. PMID:25616224

Rotiroti, G; Roberts, G; Scadding, G K

2015-03-01

70

[The historical background and present development of evidence-based healthcare and clinical nursing].  

PubMed

Evidence-based healthcare (EBHC) emphasizes the integration of the best research evidence with patient values, specialist suggestions, and clinical circumstances during the process of clinical decision-making. EBHC is a recognized core competency in modern healthcare. Nursing is a professional discipline of empirical science that thrives in an environment marked by advances in knowledge and technology in medicine as well as in nursing. Clinical nurses must elevate their skills and professional qualifications, provide efficient and quality health services, and promote their proficiency in EBHC. The Institute of Medicine in the United States indicates that evidence-based research results often fail to disseminate efficiently to clinical decision makers. This problem highlights the importance of better promoting the evidence-based healthcare fundamentals and competencies to frontline clinical nurses. This article describes the historical background and present development of evidence-based healthcare from the perspective of modern clinical nursing in light of the importance of evidence-based healthcare in clinical nursing; describes the factors associated with evidence-based healthcare promotion; and suggests strategies and policies that may improve the promotion and application of EBHC in clinical settings. The authors hope that this paper provides a reference for efforts to improve clinical nursing in the realms of EBHC training, promotion, and application. PMID:25464952

Tsai, Jung-Mei

2014-12-01

71

Fibrosing mediastinitis: clinical presentation, therapeutic outcomes, and adaptive immune response.  

PubMed

Fibrosing mediastinitis (FM) is a rare disorder characterized by the invasive proliferation of fibrous tissue within the mediastinum. FM frequently results in the compression of vital mediastinal structures and has been associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Its pathogenesis remains unknown. However, in North America most cases are thought to represent an immune-mediated hypersensitivity response to Histoplasma capsulatum infection. To characterize the clinical disease spectrum, natural disease progression, responses to therapy, and overall survival, we retrospectively analyzed all 80 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of FM evaluated at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, from 1998 to 2007. Furthermore, we characterized the adaptive immune response in 15 representative patients by immunohistochemistry. The majority of patients presented with nonspecific respiratory symptoms due to the compression of mediastinal broncho-vascular structures. Chest radiographic imaging most frequently revealed localized, invasive, and frequently calcified right-sided mediastinal masses. Most patients had radiographic or serologic evidence of previous histoplasmosis. In contrast to earlier reports summarizing previously reported FM cases, the clinical course of our patients appeared to be more benign and less progressive. The overall survival was similar to that of age-matched controls. There were only 5 deaths, 2 of which were attributed to FM. These differences may reflect publication bias associated with the preferential reporting of more severely affected FM patients in the medical literature, as well as the more inclusive case definition used in our consecutive case series. Surgical and nonsurgical interventions effectively relieved symptoms caused by the compression of mediastinal vascular structures in these carefully selected patients. In contrast, antifungal and antiinflammatory agents appeared ineffective. Histologic examination and immunostaining revealed mixed inflammatory infiltrates consistent with a fibroinflammatory tissue response in these histoplasmosis-associated FM cases. The immune cell infiltrates included large numbers of CD20-positive B lymphocytes. As B lymphocytes may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease, therapeutic B-cell depletion should be investigated as a therapeutic strategy for FM. PMID:22033450

Peikert, Tobias; Colby, Thomas V; Midthun, David E; Pairolero, Peter C; Edell, Eric S; Schroeder, Darrell R; Specks, Ulrich

2011-11-01

72

Late-Onset Nephropathic Cystinosis: Clinical Presentation, Outcome, and Genotyping  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives: Cystinosis is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by the intralysosomal accumulation of cystine, as a result of a defect in cystine transport across the lysosomal membrane. Three clinical forms have been described on the basis of severity of symptoms and age of onset: infantile cystinosis, characterized by renal proximal tubulopathy and progression to end-stage renal disease before 12 yr of age; juvenile form, with a markedly slower rate of progression; and adult form, with only ocular abnormalities. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Fourteen patients in nine unrelated families with noninfantile cystinosis were studied. Information about clinical outcome, biochemical data, renal histopathologic data, and genotyping was collected. Results: Eight patients had Fanconi syndrome. Proteinuria was present in all patients. Serum creatinine at last follow-up, without specific treatment, ranged between 69 and 450 ?mol/L, at an age of 12 to 56 yr. Four patients reached end-stage renal disease by 12 to 28 yr. Renal biopsies, available in four cases, disclosed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in three and crystals in three. Genetic screening showed that patients were compound heterozygous for mutations in the CTNS gene in four families and homozygous in two families. Patients had at least one “mild” mutation. A single heterozygous mutation was identified in one family and none in two families (only 72% mutations found). Conclusion: Renal involvement is heterogeneous in patients with noninfantile cystinosis even within families, and renal disease should be assessed even in families of patients with seemingly isolated ocular forms. PMID:18178779

Servais, Aude; Morinière, Vincent; Grünfeld, Jean-Pierre; Noël, Laure-Hélène; Goujon, Jean-Michel; Chadefaux-Vekemans, Bernadette; Antignac, Corinne

2008-01-01

73

Clinical presentation and protocol for management of hepatic sarcoidosis.  

PubMed

The liver is one of the most commonly involved extrapulmonary sites in sarcoidosis. Hepatic sarcoidosis has a broad range of presentations from scattered, asymptomatic noncaseating granulomas with normal liver enzymes, which are very common in patients with known pulmonary sarcoidosis, to portal hypertension and cirrhosis, which are relatively uncommon. Diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical, laboratory and histological manifestations. The authors' protocol for management of patients with suspected sarcoidosis of the liver without focal lesions includes a transjugular liver biopsy with portal pressure measurements to confirm the diagnosis, rule out coexisting liver diseases and to identify select patients with fibrosis or portal hypertension for consideration of immunosuppression. Steroids and azathioprine are the preferred agents and methotrexate is not recommended. PMID:25473783

Modaresi Esfeh, Jamak; Culver, Daniel; Plesec, Thomas; John, Binu

2015-03-01

74

Clinical presentation and manual therapy for lower quadrant musculoskeletal conditions.  

PubMed

Chronic lower quadrant injuries constitute a significant percentage of the musculoskeletal cases seen by clinicians. While impairments may vary, pain is often the factor that compels the patient to seek medical attention. Traumatic injury from sport is one cause of progressive chronic joint pain, particularly in the lower quarter. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of peripheral and central sensitization mechanisms in different lower quadrant pain syndromes, such as lumbar spine related leg pain, osteoarthritis of the knee, and following acute injuries such as lateral ankle sprain and anterior cruciate ligament rupture. Proper management of lower quarter conditions should include assessment of balance and gait as increasing pain and chronicity may lead to altered gait patterns and falls. In addition, quantitative sensory testing may provide insight into pain mechanisms which affect management and prognosis of musculoskeletal conditions. Studies have demonstrated analgesic effects and modulation of spinal excitability with use of manual therapy techniques, with clinical outcomes of improved gait and functional ability. This paper will discuss the evidence which supports the use of manual therapy for lower quarter musculoskeletal dysfunction. PMID:23115474

Courtney, Carol A; Clark, Jeffrey D; Duncombe, Alison M; O'Hearn, Michael A

2011-11-01

75

Clinical presentation and manual therapy for lower quadrant musculoskeletal conditions  

PubMed Central

Chronic lower quadrant injuries constitute a significant percentage of the musculoskeletal cases seen by clinicians. While impairments may vary, pain is often the factor that compels the patient to seek medical attention. Traumatic injury from sport is one cause of progressive chronic joint pain, particularly in the lower quarter. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of peripheral and central sensitization mechanisms in different lower quadrant pain syndromes, such as lumbar spine related leg pain, osteoarthritis of the knee, and following acute injuries such as lateral ankle sprain and anterior cruciate ligament rupture. Proper management of lower quarter conditions should include assessment of balance and gait as increasing pain and chronicity may lead to altered gait patterns and falls. In addition, quantitative sensory testing may provide insight into pain mechanisms which affect management and prognosis of musculoskeletal conditions. Studies have demonstrated analgesic effects and modulation of spinal excitability with use of manual therapy techniques, with clinical outcomes of improved gait and functional ability. This paper will discuss the evidence which supports the use of manual therapy for lower quarter musculoskeletal dysfunction. PMID:23115474

Courtney, Carol A; Clark, Jeffrey D; Duncombe, Alison M; O’Hearn, Michael A

2011-01-01

76

Clinical presentation and etiology of osteomalacia/rickets in adolescents.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine the causes and clinical presentations of osteomalacia/rickets in adolescents seen at the King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC), Riyadh. Because osteomalacia and rickets constitute the same entity, the term osteomalacia will be used for future discussion. A retrospective file review was performed on all adolescents (10-16 years) with osteomalacia, defined as alkaline phosphatase levels ?500 IU/L, seen at the KAMC, Riyadh, from 2000 to 2006. We recorded the signs and symptoms, dietary history and amount of sun exposure at presentation. A total of 135 patients were found to fit the inclusion criteria for the study. Of them, 57 had nutritional causes, with a mean age of 13.2 years, and included 32 females. At diagnosis, 22 patients were found to have bone pain, 10 had bone deformities, eight had pathological fractures and 17 were asymptomatic. Secondary causes for osteomalacia were found in 59 cases who had liver and renal disease and in 19 other patients who were on medications such as anticonvulsants and steroids, which are known to cause osteomalacia. Our study indicates that osteomalacia is a significant health burden that deserves special attention. Bone pain is the most common presenting symptom at diagnosis. Because of the high risk of osteomalacia associated with the use of anticonvulsants and steroids, it is advised that all patients on these drugs should be routinely screened for secondary osteomalacia. PMID:24029258

Hazzazi, Mohammad A; Alzeer, Ibrahim; Tamimi, Waleed; Al Atawi, Mohsen; Al Alwan, Ibrahim

2013-09-01

77

Sciatica presenting as post-amputation neuroma: presentation and clinical findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design  Case report, level-5 evidence.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To highlight the clinical challenges associated with lumbar disc disease in an amputee.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Summary of background  Radicular compression in a patient with lower limb amputation may present as phantom limb pain. Furthermore, nerve root tension\\u000a signs as a diagnostic sign of nerve root compression may be meaningless on the amputated side due to the absence of

Ali Mofidi; Amit Kotecha; Robin Banerjee; Chandra M. Rao; J. M. Trivedi

2010-01-01

78

Sarcoid arthritis: clinical characteristics, diagnostic aspects, and risk factors  

PubMed Central

Objectives: (a) To describe the clinical characteristics of acute sarcoid arthritis and the diagnostic value of its presenting clinical features; (b) to evaluate whether disease onset is seasonal; and (c) to evaluate whether smoking behaviour or the presence of HLA class II alleles is a risk factor for the disease. Methods: 579 consecutive patients with recent onset arthritis who had been newly referred to a rheumatology outpatient clinic were included in a prospective cohort study. The presenting clinical features, the smoking behaviour, and the results of HLA-DQ and HLA-DR DNA typing of 55 patients with sarcoid arthritis, 524 patients with other arthritides of recent onset, and samples of the normal population were compared. Results: In all cases the disease showed a self limiting arthritis and overall good prognosis. The diagnostic ability of a combination of four clinical features—symmetrical ankle arthritis, symptoms of less than two months, age below 40 years, and erythema nodosum—was exceptionally high. When test positivity is defined as the presence of at least three of four criteria the set rendered a sensitivity of 93%, a specificity of 99%, a positive predictive value of 75%, and a negative predictive value of 99.7%. The disease clustered in the months March–July. The disease was negatively associated with smoking (odds ratio (OR) 0.09; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.02 to 0.37) and positively associated with the presence of the DQ2 (DQB1*0201)-DR3 (DRB1*0301) haplotype (OR 12.33; 95% CI 5.97 to 25.48). Conclusion: The disease entity acute sarcoid arthritis has highly diagnostic clinical features. The seasonal clustering, the protective effect of smoking, and the association with specific HLA class II antigens support the hypothesis that it results from exposure of susceptible hosts to environmental agents through the lungs. PMID:12006321

Visser, H; Vos, K; Zanelli, E; Verduyn, W; Schreuder, G; Speyer, I; Breedveld, F; Hazes, J

2002-01-01

79

Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of New Patients Presenting to a Community Teaching Clinic  

PubMed Central

Purpose: We compare patient populations attending chiropractors in the field to those in teaching clinics to allow educational institutions to determine if students are exposed to a similar case mix. The purpose of our study was to describe and compare descriptively the clinical case mix of a recently opened community-based teaching clinic to previously published practice data. Methods: A retrospective descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using new patient records completed at a clinic. Data were extracted using a specifically designed abstraction form. Results: We manually abstracted 649 files. A total of 580 new patient files was included in the analysis, among which 57.7% included female patients with a mean age of 43 years (SD 18), and 42.1% presented with a chief complaint of more than one year in duration. The vast majority of patients complained of spinal pain (81.4%), most commonly low back pain. Almost 92% of the diagnoses were classified as simple (sprain/strain). The average number of visits per patient was 7.4 (SD 11.3); 54.7% received spinal manipulation on their first visit. The majority of patients were referred by the treating intern (64.8%) and about 24% of patients were local residents. Conclusions: Our study contributed to the few studies detailing patients attending chiropractic academic teaching clinics. It provided benchmark demographic and clinical data that may be used for operational planning. Our study suggested that the case mix of this teaching clinic provides interns with appropriate learning opportunities to achieve entry to practice competencies. PMID:23362363

Lishchyna, Natalia; Mior, Silvano

2012-01-01

80

Presentation and Outcomes with Clinically Apparent Interferon Beta Hepatotoxicity  

PubMed Central

AIMS The aim of this study was to describe the presenting features and outcomes of consecutive patients with liver injury attributed to interferon beta. Methods The presenting features of 8 subjects with clinically apparent liver injury attributed to interferon beta enrolled in the U.S. Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) prospective registry between 2004 and 2010 were reviewed and compared to 11 published reports of symptomatic hepatotoxicity. Results All 8 of the DILIN patients were women, 75% were Caucasian and the mean age was 49 years. Most subjects presented with an acute hepatocellular injury pattern and mean serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were 725 ± 593 U/L. The median duration of interferon beta use before injury onset was 462 days, and 4 patients had been treated for more than a year. No patient had detectable antinuclear or smooth muscle antibodies. One patient died of acute liver failure and the remaining patients usually recovered within 2 to 3 months. Causality assessment scored 3 cases as definite, 3 highly likely, 1 probable and 1 possible. Eleven additional published cases were all women, mean age was 40 years, mean ALT at onset 840 U/L, and 7 (63%) had autoantibodies. Liver histology in 3 cases from DILIN and 9 from the literature commented upon centri-lobular (zone 3) necrosis and infiltrates with lymphocytes and plasma cells. Conclusions Interferon beta hepatotoxicity occurs mostly in women and has a variable, but often prolonged time to onset. Most patients have self-limited acute hepatocellular liver injury but several have required liver transplantation or died of acute liver failure. Liver histology available in 3 cases demonstrated zone 3 necrosis and autoimmune features suggestive of an immunologic basis to this adverse drug reaction. PMID:23377559

Fontana, Robert J.; Hayashi, Paul; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; Kleiner, David E.; Kochhar, Sweta; Gu, Jiezhun; Ghabril, Marwan

2013-01-01

81

Clinical Presentation, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Epidermolysis Bullosa Acquisita  

PubMed Central

Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) is a chronic mucocutaneous autoimmune skin blistering disease. The pathogenic relevance of autoantibodies targeting type VII collagen (COL7) has been well-documented. Therefore, EBA is a prototypical autoimmune disease with a well-characterized pathogenic relevance of autoantibody binding to the target antigen. EBA is a rare disease with an incidence of 0.2 new cases per million and per year. The current treatment of EBA relies on general immunosuppressive therapy, which does not lead to remission in all cases. Therefore, there is a high, so far unmet medical need for the development of novel therapeutic options. During the last 10 years, several novel in vitro and in vivo models of EBA have been established. These models demonstrated a critical role of the genetic background, T cells, and cytokines for mediating the loss of tolerance towards COL7. Neutrophils, complement activation, Fc gamma receptor engagement, cytokines, several molecules involved in cell signaling, release of reactive oxygen species, and matrix metalloproteinases are crucial for autoantibody-induced tissue injury in EBA. Based on this growing understanding of the diseases' pathogenesis, several potential novel therapeutic targets have emerged. In this review, the clinical presentation, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and current treatment options for EBA are discussed in detail. PMID:23956869

Ludwig, Ralf J.

2013-01-01

82

Reviewing non clinical data for a granulocyte colony stimulatory factor product: experience in Brazil.  

PubMed

Non clinical studies are one of the requirements for the Brazilian National Regulatory Authority, ANVISA, for licensing a similar biotherapeutic product. During the WHO/KFDA workshop on implementing WHO guidelines on evaluating similar biotherapeutic products (SBP) in Seoul, Republic of Korea, the Brazilian experience with the non clinical studies of a Granulocyte Colony Stimulatory Factor (G-CSF), filgrastim, was presented. The applicant presented a reduced non clinical data package, but the key studies with relevant species were conducted and the non-clinical studies were considered sufficient for approval. Using the comparability exercise, these studies were taken together with the appropriate quality and clinical packages presented. PMID:21784651

Castanheira, Laura Gomes

2011-09-01

83

Prevalence and Predictive Factors of Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Patients Presenting With Dysphagia: A Prospective Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is an increasingly recognized cause of dysphagia. We prospectively assessed the prevalence of EE using midesophageal biopsies in patients presenting with no endoscopically evident cause of dysphagia. We also aimed to determine the clinical and endoscopic factors predictive of EE in outpatients undergoing endoscopy for dysphagia.METHODS:Outpatients (18–60 yr of age) undergoing endoscopy for dysphagia at Mayo Clinic,

Ganapathy A. Prasad; Nicholas J. Talley; Yvonne Romero; Amindra S. Arora; Lori A. Kryzer; Thomas C. Smyrk; Jeffery A. Alexander

2007-01-01

84

Water temperature-influential factors, field measurement, and data presentation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This manual contains suggested procedures for collecting and reporting of water-temperature data on streams, lakes and reservoirs, estuaries, and ground water. Among the topics discussed are the selection of equipment and measuring sites, objectives and accuracy of measurements, and data processing and presentation. Background information on the influence of temperature on water quality and the factors influencing water temperature are also presented.

Stevens, Herbert H.; Ficke, John F.; Smoot, George F.

1975-01-01

85

Clinical presentation and management of diabetes mellitus in pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the clinical presentation, management, and the outcome of diabetes mellitus in pregnancy. Methods One hundred seventy-one patients with diabetes mellitus admitted between September 1, 2006, and June 30, 2008, to the labor room at Maternity Hospital in Kuwait for induction of labor made up the study population; while an equivalent number of patients without medical complications who also were admitted for induction of labor made up the control group. The patients were assessed at admission, and their medical data were extracted. The study and control patients were monitored through labor/puerperium, and the outcome was documented. Results Gestational diabetes mellitus was diagnosed in 71.9% of the study patients, a past history of diabetes mellitus was recorded in 81.34% of the study patients, and 49.2% of the patients were admitted at 8–12 weeks of gestation for diabetic control. The mean weight gained in pregnancy was significantly higher for control patients (11.52±5.643 versus [vs] 9.90±5.757 kg/m2; P<0.009), and the body mass index of study patients was higher (32.00±6.160 vs 28.20±5.885 kg/m2; P<0.0001). Of the study population, 64.3% of the patients were managed with diet and increased physical activity and 35.7% with insulin, diet, and increased physical activity. The incidences of maternal morbidity in both study and control groups were comparable, and the incidence of preeclampsia was low, at 2.3%. The gestational age at delivery was higher in the control group (39.02±1.834 weeks vs 38.62±1.773 weeks; P<0.0001), and the percentage of cesarean deliveries was higher in the study population (44.4% vs 33.3%; P=0.046). The Apgar scores of the both groups were comparable and in the normal range, and the incidences of fetal anomaly (1.17%), shoulder dystocia (1.8%), and Erb’s palsy (1.8%) were low. Conclusion Gestational diabetes mellitus was diagnosed in 71.9% of the diabetic patients studied, and dietary control and increased physical activity were the main modalities of management. There was an increased rate of cesarean section in the study population, the incidences of maternal and perinatal morbidity were low, and the perinatal outcomes were satisfactory. PMID:24376363

Al-Azemi, Nasser; Diejomaoh, Michael F; Angelaki, Elisavet; Mohammed, Asiya T

2014-01-01

86

Clinical factors associated with retinopathy of prematurity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the period from September 1983 until June 1986 a prospective study was carried out to determine the incidence and severity of retinopathy of prematurity in inborn infants of less than 1500 g at birth and the risk factors associated with the development of retinopathy of prematurity in infants of less than 31 weeks' gestation. One hundred and forty four

A Prendiville; W E Schulenburg

1988-01-01

87

Factors impacting bladder underactivity and clinical implications.  

PubMed

Lower urinary tract symptoms in the voiding phase can be due to an underactive bladder, but are usually similar to symptoms of infravesical obstruction or dysfunctional voiding. The underactive bladder can be caused by an impaired detrusor contraction but also by a derangement of local and central neuro-cognitive regulatory systems or an impairment of bladder sensation. Potential risk factors of bladder underactivity include: ageing, diabetes, neurogenic disease, cardiovascular disease, obstruction and psychological causes. Comprehensive diagnostic and detection techniques for an underactive detrusor are necessary. To establish the diagnosis and follow up new treatments, useful urodynamic parameters and threshold values have to be determined. As neuro-cognitive regulation plays an important role in the control of voiding, psychological factors have to be taken into account during the assessment in these patients. Ambulatory urodynamic techniques therefore have to be considered. Voiding is determined by the balance of both the detrusor contraction and the resistance of the bladder outlet, a dysfunction in one factor can be compensated by a counter-acting function of the other factor. Therefore, to predict voiding problems in the future, it will be indicated to assess the compensatory capacity of the detrusor contractility, contractile reserve, and the outlet relaxation capacity. If novel treatments and evaluation techniques have become available, it is likely that in the future, many patients that get a TURP now, can be treated by pharmacological agents directed towards increasing the bladder contractility in a balanced combination with medication directed towards lowering the bladder outlet resistance. PMID:25645344

Van Koeveringe, G A; Rademakers, K L

2015-06-01

88

Malaria real-time PCR: correlation with clinical presentation.  

PubMed

Among 112 patients infected only by Plasmodium falciparum, WHO criteria of severity were compared with parasite load assessed by microscopy and quantitative PCR. Clinical severity was significantly correlated with higher parasite load as determined by microscopy (p < 0.001) and by PCR (p < 0.001). Hence, quantitative PCR might be useful to predict outcome. PMID:25905022

Dormond, L; Jaton, K; de Vallière, S; Genton, B; Greub, G

2015-05-01

89

Malaria real-time PCR: correlation with clinical presentation  

PubMed Central

Among 112 patients infected only by Plasmodium falciparum, WHO criteria of severity were compared with parasite load assessed by microscopy and quantitative PCR. Clinical severity was significantly correlated with higher parasite load as determined by microscopy (p < 0.001) and by PCR (p < 0.001). Hence, quantitative PCR might be useful to predict outcome.

Dormond, L.; Jaton, K.; de Vallière, S.; Genton, B.; Greub, G.

2015-01-01

90

Necrotizing Fasciitis: Clinical Presentation, Microbiology, and Determinants of Mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: The paucity of cutaneous findings early in the course of the disease makes the diagnosis difficult, and only thirteen of the eighty-nine patients had a diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis at the time of admission. Preadmission treatment with antibiotics modified the initial clinical picture and often masked the severity of the underlying infec- tion. Polymicrobial synergistic infection was the most

CHIN-HO WONG; HAW-CHONG CHANG; SHANKER PASUPATHY; LAY-WAI KHIN; JEE-LIM TAN; CHENG-OOI LOW

91

[Clinical presentations and a classification of oligophrenia psychoses in children.  

PubMed

The article discusses the clinical variants of psychosis in children with mental retardation. A particular group of psychotic disorders - oligophrenia psychosis, is described. A total of 28 children (19 boys) who were hospitalized in a psychiatric hospital or treated as outpatients from 1992 to 2012 were examined. The average age of the patients was 12±1.3 years. The duration of follow-up (analysis of medical records or direct clinical observation) was up to 18 years. Almost all children had mild mental retardation (only one patient had moderate mental retardation). Diagnosis corresponded to ICD-10 codes F06.07, F06.27, F06.29, F06.817 or F06.819. Mental retardation corresponded to the second code section F70 (F71 in one case). Clinical and psychopathological methods, follow-up study, statistical analysis of the data were used. Four clinical variants of oligophrenia psychoses in children were identified: 1) psychosis with amentive confusion, 2) schizophreniform psychosis, 3) verbal hallucinosis, 4) psychosis with a predominance of psychomotor agitation. PMID:24637824

Makarov, I V

2014-01-01

92

The Use of a Structured Case Presentation Examination to Evaluate Clinical Competencies of Psychology Doctoral Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the evaluation of clinical competence is an essential responsibility for all programs in clinical and counseling psychology, this task presents many conceptual and operational difficulties. The Clinical Proficiency Progress Review (CPPR) was developed to define and evaluate clinical competencies for third-year practicum students. Normative data for 911 students and 52 examiners over 10 years are presented. Outcomes yielded consistent

Patrick V. Petti

2008-01-01

93

Factors influencing radiation therapy student clinical placement satisfaction  

PubMed Central

Introduction:?Radiation therapy students at Queensland University of Technology (QUT) attend clinical placements at five different clinical departments with varying resources and support strategies. This study aimed to determine the relative availability and perceived importance of different factors affecting student support while on clinical placement. The purpose of the research was to inform development of future support mechanisms to enhance radiation therapy students’ experience on clinical placement. Methods:?This study used anonymous Likert-style surveys to gather data from years 1 and 2 radiation therapy students from QUT and clinical educators from Queensland relating to availability and importance of support mechanisms during clinical placements in a semester. Results:?The study findings demonstrated student satisfaction with clinical support and suggested that level of support on placement influenced student employment choices. Staff support was perceived as more important than physical resources; particularly access to a named mentor, a clinical educator and weekly formative feedback. Both students and educators highlighted the impact of time pressures. Conclusions:?The support offered to radiation therapy students by clinical staff is more highly valued than physical resources or models of placement support. Protected time and acknowledgement of the importance of clinical education roles are both invaluable. Joint investment in mentor support by both universities and clinical departments is crucial for facilitation of effective clinical learning.

Bridge, Pete; Carmichael, Mary-Ann

2014-01-01

94

Vulvovaginal candidiasis: clinical manifestations, risk factors, management algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To correlate symptoms, signs, and risk factors with positive wet mounts or cultures for Candida albicans and to develop an algorithm to diagnose vulvovaginal candidiasis.Methods: This cross-sectional study of 774 randomly selected women from an urban sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic evaluated symptoms, signs, and risk factors associated with C albicans, detected by wet mount and culture, and constructed

LindaO Eckert; S. E Hawes; C. E Stevens; L. A Koutsky; D. A Eschenbach; K. K Holmes

1998-01-01

95

Chronic pelvic ischemia: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and management.  

PubMed

Overactive bladder (OAB) and bladder pain syndrome (BPS) although common, are vaguely defined and difficult to diagnose and manage etiologies of storage-type lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The lack of optimal management options is a direct consequence of deficient understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying these conditions. These conditions are especially prevalent in females, and cumulative contemporary epidemiological, clinical and laboratory evidence implicates ischemia as one of the key players in the pathophysiologic foundation of both these disorders. Taken together they make up "the" diagnostic as well as therapeutic black-hole in urologic practice. Much akin to chronic ischemic heart disease, chronic ischemia-reperfusion has been shown to cause degenerative changes at cellular and subcellular level in the bladder mucosa, smooth muscle fibers, and vesical neural and microvascular structures leading to a hypersensitive, hyperactive bladder initially, which with time invariably progresses into a failed, fibrotic and pressurized bladder. Diagnosis and management of these diseases are currently symptom focused and remains a source of much frustration. Consideration of role of ischemia connotates hope and could lead to a paradigm shift in the management of these patients with a completely new therapeutic armamentarium attacking the pathology itself. The aim of the current review is to provide a clinical thought perspective on the etiology/pathophysiology of chronic pelvic ischemia and its role as a precursor to the aforementioned conditions, and shed some light upon the potential management strategies to consider. PMID:24988204

Kapoor, H; Gupta, E; Sood, A

2014-06-01

96

Differential diagnosis of psychological factors evoked by pain presentations.  

PubMed

The degree to which psychological factors are believed to influence the experience of pain has evolved significantly through history. Over the past 100 years, the trend has shifted from a focus on the study of sensory aspects of pain perception to one where psychological factors play a prominent role. Pain is now viewed as a complex subjective experience consisting of sensory, affective, and cognitive components. Psychological presentations of pain are commonly reduced to a differential among Pain Disorder, Somatization Disorder, and Malingering. Limitations in the use of the current DSM-IV-TR diagnostic classifications for pain will lead to changes in the upcoming DSM-V. Psychological testing is becoming increasingly recognized as a valuable evidence-based method for making diagnoses of psychological factors influencing pain presentations. There is a shift from the use of brief measures of pain intensity to multidimensional scales including assessment of affect and perceived functional disability. There is also increased attention to the use of validity scales for assessing symptom exaggeration and other types of response bias. Neuropsychologists, with specialized knowledge and background in evidence based assessment methods, are particularly well equipped to provide valuable input regarding psychological presentations of pain in forensic contexts and in consultation to multidisciplinary treatment teams. PMID:23398534

Barr, William B

2013-01-01

97

[Iron deficiency in elderly people: clinical presentation and management].  

PubMed

Iron deficiency (absolute or functional) is commonly observed (frequently without associated anemia) in up to one third of old people. Iron deficiency is the most cause of anemia in adults. Many non hematological consequences of iron deficiency are described like: cardiac failure, mood or cognitive disorders, chronic fatigue or restless leg syndrome. Iron deficiency can be orally or with intravenous iron replacement treates if necessary. Long term compliance of patients orally treated for iron deficiency is poor mainly because of fair tolerability of drugs. New regimen of intravenous iron replacement are now available when orally iron administration can not be achieved. In functional iron deficiency iron intravenous replacement seems especially relevant. However further controlled studies are necessary to assess their clinical benefits. PMID:25031217

Chassagne, Philippe; Bahri, Oarda; Roca, Frédéric

2014-06-01

98

Bacillary angiomatosis with atypical clinical presentation in an immunocompetent patient.  

PubMed

Bacillary angiomatosis is a recently described infectious disease that usually affects immunosupressed hosts with a previous history of contact with cats. We report a rare case of bacillary angiomatosis in an immunocompetent 59-year-old woman with no history of previous exposure to cats, and atypical clinical features (fever and subcutaneous nodules with ulceration on the left ankle). Histopathology of the lesion showed extensive ulceration and reactive tumor-like vascular proliferation of the blood vessels with swollen endothelial cells and an inflammatory infiltrate including neutrophils and lymphocytes in the dermis and subcutis. Staining with the Warthin-Starry method demonstrated the presence of clustered bacilli located in the extracellular matrix adjacent to the proliferating endothelial cells. Diagnosis was confirmed with the detection of Bartonella spp. DNA in the affected skin and in bone marrow using polymerase chain reaction. PMID:21079313

Bernabeu-Wittel, J; Luque, R; Corbi, R; Mantrana-Bermejo, M; Navarrete, M; Vallejo, A; Bernabeu-Wittel, M

2010-01-01

99

Clinical trials in "emerging markets": regulatory considerations and other factors.  

PubMed

Clinical studies are being placed in emerging markets as part of global drug development programs to access large pool of eligible patients and to benefit from a cost effective structure. However, over the last few years, the definition of "emerging markets" is being revisited, especially from a regulatory perspective. For purposes of this article, countries outside US, EU and the traditional "western countries" are discussed. Multiple factors are considered for placement of clinical studies such as adherence to Good Clinical Practice (GCP), medical infrastructure & standard of care, number of eligible patients, etc. This article also discusses other quantitative factors such as country's GDP, patent applications, healthcare expenditure, healthcare infrastructure, corruption, innovation, etc. These different factors and indexes are correlated to the number of clinical studies ongoing in the "emerging markets". R&D, healthcare expenditure, technology infrastructure, transparency, and level of innovation, show a significant correlation with the number of clinical trials being conducted in these countries. This is the first analysis of its kind to evaluate and correlate the various other factors to the number of clinical studies in a country. PMID:24070788

Singh, Romi; Wang, Ouhong

2013-11-01

100

[Sclerosing mesenteritis. Report of two cases with different clinical presentation].  

PubMed

Sclerosing mesenteritis is a rare disease of the mesenterium of unknown cause and chronic evolution. Two presentations have been reported: mesenteric panniculitis and retractile mesenteritis; inflammation of mesenteric fat predominates in one of them, while fibrotic thickening and shortening of the mesenterium is characteristic of the other. We report two cases of sclerosing mesenteritis which presented in very different ways. One patient suffered an episode of intestinal obstruction, and the second one was admitted for evaluation of fever of unknown origin (FUO). While intestinal obstruction is a relatively common complication of sclerosing mesenteritis, its presentation as a FUO is exceptional. PMID:12831301

Martínez Odriozola, P; García Jiménez, N; Cabeza García, S; Oceja Barrutieta, E

2003-05-01

101

Clinical Focus Presentations: Can You Talk the Talk?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When students are asked to do a class presentation about a disease affecting the human body, they often end up simply relaying facts and basic knowledge. This activity has very little relevancy to the actual tasks they would be completing in the medical field. This learning activity was designed to allow students to practice two different modes of real world communication: 1. Professional communication among colleagues 2. Bedside communication with patients. Students work in pairs to develop oral presentations that address these two very different set of skills. This resource includes guidelines for the activity, a rubric to assess student performance, and a suggested list of topics for the presentations.

PhD Cynthia J Miller (University of Louisville Physiology & Biophysics)

2011-01-01

102

Clostridium difficile infection among kidney transplant recipients: frequency, clinical presentation, and outcome.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of Clostridium Difficile Infection (CDI) among kidney transplant recipients and describe the clinical picture in correlation with the presence of certain risk factors. We included kidney transplant recipients with a functioning graft, who were admitted during the period 1/2012-12/2013, and patients with ESRD who were admitted to undergo Kidney Transplantation (KTx) from a deceased or a living donor in the same period. Patients were screened following clinical indication of gastrointestinal infection. CDI diagnosis was based on a positive stool sample for CD toxins and stool culture. Within the period 2012-2013, we recorded 24 cases of CDI in 19 patients, accounting for a frequency of 5.4% of CDI in our population. In addition to diarrhea, 63.15% of the patients presented with fever, 31.25% with anorexia, while abdominal pain was a rare symptom (0.53%). None of the patients had ileus, bowel obstruction or megacolon. Fourteen patients (73.7%) had a history of recent exposure (15 days) to antimicrobial agents prior to the evolution of CDI symptoms. A relapse of the CDI infection was identified in five cases. CDI infection is a significant factor of morbidity in patients with KTx and should be considered in the clinical setting of diarrhea, even in cases with no exposure to antibiotic agents. PMID:25556694

Lionaki, Sophia; Panagiotellis, Konstantinos; Moris, Demetrios; Daikos, George; Psyhogiou, Mina; Vernadakis, Spiridon; Zavos, Georgios; Boletis, John N

2015-03-01

103

Clinical presentation and diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis in Japan.  

PubMed

Distinguishing life-threatening toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) from brain lymphoma in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) may be difficult. Empiric anti-toxoplasmosis treatment is often initiated because of the reluctance in performing brain biopsies, which may delay the diagnosis and treatment of brain lymphoma in Japan. In this study, we retrospectively examined the clinical characteristics of 13 AIDS patients with TE in Japan, including magnetic resonance imaging and thallium 201 (201TI) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) findings, cerebral spinal fluid analysis, serology, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results. All patients improved on anti-toxoplasmosis treatment. Of the 11 patients who underwent serological testing, 6 (55%) had a positive serological result. Of the 7 patients who underwent PCR testing, 3 (42.9%) had a positive PCR result. Nine of 11 patients with TE (81.8%) had multiple lesions. Analysis of the sites of TE lesions did not reveal a difference in site predilection between TE and brain lymphoma. Uptake was negative in all 9 patients who underwent 201Tl SPECT. The study findings suggest that toxoplasma serostatus and PCR may be used to discriminate TE from brain lymphoma. No focal accumulation of 201TI is strongly suggestive of TE in patients with AIDS in Japan. PMID:24929035

Sakamoto, Naoya; Maeda, Takuya; Mikita, Kei; Kato, Yasuyuki; Yanagisawa, Naoki; Suganuma, Akihiko; Imamura, Akifumi; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Miyahira, Yasushi; Kawana, Akihiko; Ohnishi, Kenji; Ajisawa, Atsushi

2014-10-01

104

Present status of clinical deployment of glucokinase activators  

PubMed Central

Glucokinase is one of four members of the hexokinase family of enzymes. Its expression is limited to the major organs (such as the pancreas, liver, brain and the gastrointestinal tract) that are thought to have an integrated role in glucose sensing. In the liver, phosphorylation of glucose by glucokinase promotes glycogen synthesis, whereas in the ?-cells, it results in insulin release. Studies of glucokinase-linked genetically-modified mice and mutations in humans have illustrated the important roles played by glucokinase in whole-body glucose homeostasis, and suggest that the use of pharmacological agents that augment glucokinase activity could represent a viable treatment strategy in patients with type 2 diabetes. Since 2003, many glucokinase activators (GKAs) have been developed, and their ability to lower the blood glucose has been shown in several animal models of type 2 diabetes. Also, we and others have shown in mouse models that GKAs also have the effect of stimulating the proliferation of ?-cells. However, the results of recent phase II trials have shown that GKAs lose their efficacy within several months of use, and that their use is associated with a high incidence of hypoglycemia; furthermore, patients treated with GKAs frequently developed dyslipidemia. A better understanding of the role of glucokinase in metabolic effects is required to resolve several issues identified in clinical trials. PMID:25802718

Nakamura, Akinobu; Terauchi, Yasuo

2015-01-01

105

Amphetamine, past and present – a pharmacological and clinical perspective  

PubMed Central

Amphetamine was discovered over 100 years ago. Since then, it has transformed from a drug that was freely available without prescription as a panacea for a broad range of disorders into a highly restricted Controlled Drug with therapeutic applications restricted to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. This review describes the relationship between chemical structure and pharmacology of amphetamine and its congeners. Amphetamine’s diverse pharmacological actions translate not only into therapeutic efficacy, but also into the production of adverse events and liability for recreational abuse. Accordingly, the balance of benefit/risk is the key challenge for its clinical use. The review charts advances in pharmaceutical development from the introduction of once-daily formulations of amphetamine through to lisdexamfetamine, which is the first d-amphetamine prodrug approved for the management of ADHD in children, adolescents and adults. The unusual metabolic route for lisdexamfetamine to deliver d-amphetamine makes an important contribution to its pharmacology. How lisdexamfetamine’s distinctive pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile translates into sustained efficacy as a treatment for ADHD and its reduced potential for recreational abuse is also discussed. PMID:23539642

Smith, Sharon L; Gosden, Jane; Nutt, David J

2013-01-01

106

Chronic pelvic ischemia: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and management.  

PubMed

Overactive Bladder (OAB) and Bladder Pain Syndrome (BPS) although common, are vaguely defined and difficult to diagnose and manage etiologies of storage--type lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The lack of optimal management options is a direct consequence of deficient understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying these conditions. These conditions are especially prevalent in females, and cumulative contemporary epidemiological, clinical and laboratory evidence implicates ischemia as one of the key players in the pathophysiologic foundation of both these disorders. Taken together they make up 'the' diagnostic as well as therapeutic black--hole in urologic practice. Much akin to chronic ischemic heart disease, chronic ischemia--reperfusion has been shown to cause degenerative changes at cellular and sub--cellular level in the bladder mucosa, smooth muscle fibers, and vesical neural and microvascular structures leading to a hypersensitive, hyperactive bladder initially, which with time invariably progresses into a failed, fibrotic and pressurized bladder. Diagnosis and management of these diseases are currently symptom focused and remains a source of much frustration. Consideration of role of ischemia connotates hope and could lead to a paradigm shift in the management of these patients with a completely new therapeutic armamentarium attacking the pathology itself. PMID:24939050

Kapoor, H; Gupta, E; Sood, A

2014-06-18

107

Present status of clinical deployment of glucokinase activators.  

PubMed

Glucokinase is one of four members of the hexokinase family of enzymes. Its expression is limited to the major organs (such as the pancreas, liver, brain and the gastrointestinal tract) that are thought to have an integrated role in glucose sensing. In the liver, phosphorylation of glucose by glucokinase promotes glycogen synthesis, whereas in the ?-cells, it results in insulin release. Studies of glucokinase-linked genetically-modified mice and mutations in humans have illustrated the important roles played by glucokinase in whole-body glucose homeostasis, and suggest that the use of pharmacological agents that augment glucokinase activity could represent a viable treatment strategy in patients with type 2 diabetes. Since 2003, many glucokinase activators (GKAs) have been developed, and their ability to lower the blood glucose has been shown in several animal models of type 2 diabetes. Also, we and others have shown in mouse models that GKAs also have the effect of stimulating the proliferation of ?-cells. However, the results of recent phase II trials have shown that GKAs lose their efficacy within several months of use, and that their use is associated with a high incidence of hypoglycemia; furthermore, patients treated with GKAs frequently developed dyslipidemia. A better understanding of the role of glucokinase in metabolic effects is required to resolve several issues identified in clinical trials. PMID:25802718

Nakamura, Akinobu; Terauchi, Yasuo

2015-03-01

108

Clinical presentation and operative repair of hernia of Morgagni  

PubMed Central

A 77 year old woman who presented with an incarcerated hernia of Morgagni was successfully treated without complications. A Medline search (1996 to date) along with cross referencing was done to quantify the number of acute presentations in adults compared to children. Different investigating modalities—for example, lateral chest and abdominal radiography, contrast studies or, in difficult cases, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging—can be used to diagnose hernia of Morgagni. The favoured method of repair—laparotomy or laparoscopy—is also discussed. A total of 47 case reports on children and 93 case reports on adults were found. Fourteen percent of children (seven out of 47) presented acutely compared with 12% of adults (12 out of 93). Repair at laparotomy was the method of choice but if uncertain, laparoscopy would be a useful diagnostic tool before attempted repair. Laparoscopic repair was favoured in adults especially in non-acute cases. PMID:15640427

Loong, T; Kocher, H

2005-01-01

109

Appendiceal Crohn’s disease clinically presenting as acute appendicitis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine the incidence of appendiceal Crohn’s disease (CD) and to summarize the characteristic histologic features of appendiceal CD. METHODS: We reviewed the pathology files of 2179 appendectomy specimens from January 2007 to May 2013. The computer-assisted retrieval search facility was utilized to collect specimens. We selected those cases that were diagnosed as CD or chronic granulomatous inflammation and defined the final diagnosis according to the histologic findings of CD, including transmural lymphocytic inflammation, non-caseating epithelioid granulomas, thickening of the appendiceal wall secondary to hypertrophy of muscularis mucosa, mucosal ulceration with crypt abscesses, mucosal fissures, and fistula formation. RESULTS: We found 12 cases (7 male and 5 female patients, with an average age of 29.8 years) of appendiceal CD. The incidence of appendiceal CD was 0.55%. The chief complaints were right lower quadrant pain, abdominal pain, lower abdominal pain, and diarrhea. The duration of symptom varied from 2 d to 5 mo. The histologic review revealed appendiceal wall thickening in 11 cases (92%), transmural inflammation in all cases (100%), lymphoid aggregates in all cases (100%), epithelioid granulomas in all cases (100%), mucosal ulceration in 11 cases (92%), crypt abscesses in 5 cases (42%), perforation in 2 cases (17%), muscular hypertrophy in 1 case (8%), neural hyperplasia in 5 cases (42%), and perpendicular serosal fibrosis in 8 cases (67%). CONCLUSION: A typical and protracted clinical course, unusual gross features of the appendix and the characteristic histologic features are a clue in the diagnosis of appendiceal CD. PMID:25516865

Han, Hulin; Kim, Hyunsung; Rehman, Abdul; Jang, Se Min; Paik, Seung Sam

2014-01-01

110

[Myotonic dystrophies: clinical presentation, pathogenesis, diagnostics and therapy].  

PubMed

The autosomal-dominant myotonic dystrophies dystrophia myotonica type-1 (DM1, Curschmann-Steinert disease) and dystrophia myotonica type-2 (DM2, proximal myotonic myopathy (PROMM)), are, contrary to the non-dystrophic myotonias, progressive multisystem disorders. DM1 and DM2 are the most frequent of the muscular dystrophies. In both diseases the skeletal muscle is the most severely affected organ (weakness, wasting, myotonia, myalgia). Additionally, they manifest in the eye, heart, brain, endocrine glands, gastrointestinal tract, skin, skeleton, and peripheral nerves. Phenotypes of DM1 may be classified as congenital, juvenile, classical, or late onset. DM2 is a disorder of the middle or older age and usually has a milder course compared to DM1. DM1 is due to a CTG-repeat expansion >?50 repeats in the non-coding 3' UTR of the DMPK-gene. DM2 is caused by a CCTG-repeat expansion to 75?-?11?000 repeats in intron-1 of the CNBP/ZNF9 gene. Mutant pre-mRNAs of both genes aggregate within the nucleus (nuclear foci), which sequester RNA-binding proteins and result in an abnormal protein expression via alternative splicing in downstream effector genes (toxic RNA diseases). Other mechanisms seem to play an additional pathogenetic role. Clinical severity of DM1 increases from generation to generation (anticipation). The higher the repeat expansion the more severe the DM1 phenotype. In DM2 severity of symptoms and age at onset do not correlate with the expansion size. Contrary to DM2, there is a congenital form and anticipation in DM1. PMID:25602187

Finsterer, Josef; Rudnik-Schöneborn, S

2015-01-01

111

Spinal intramedullary cavernoma: clinical presentation and surgical outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Object. Improved neuroimaging techniques have led to an increase in the reported cases of intramedullary caver- nomas. The purpose of this study was to define the spectrum of presenting signs and symptoms in patients with spinal intramedullary cavernomas and to analyze the role of surgery as a treatment for these lesions. Methods. The authors reviewed the charts of 16 patients

Harel Deutsch; George I. Jallo; Alina Faktorovich; Fred Epstein

2000-01-01

112

The Clinical Spectrum of Schwannomas Presenting With Visual Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schwannomas (neurilemomas) are benign tumors that arise from Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system. The most commonly involved nerves that cause neuro-ophthalmic manifestations are cranial nerves V and VIII. In this series of three women, schwannomas presented as intraconal masses that mimicked a cavernous hemangioma, a superior orbital mass transgressing the superior orbital fissure, and an expansive frontal lobe

Kimberly Peele Cockerham; Glenn C Cockerham; Richard Stutzman; Ahmed A Hidayat; Mark H Depper; Roger E Turbin; John S Kennerdell

1999-01-01

113

Factors affecting the implementation of clinical pharmacy services in China.  

PubMed

New policies in China have recently led to the implementation of clinical pharmacy services in hospitals. We explored the views of hospital administrators, pharmacy directors, clinical pharmacists, and dispensing pharmacists about the factors affecting clinical pharmacy services in China, using the framework approach and organizational theory. We conducted 30 interviews with 130 participants at 29 hospitals (both secondary and tertiary) in Beijing, Zhengzhou, Luoyang, and Shanghai. We found that the barriers to and facilitators of implementation of clinical pharmacy services slotted into the environment and participant dimensions of Scott's adapted version of Leavitt's organizational model. External support from government was perceived as crucial to promoting pharmacy services. It is proposed that the internationally recognized Basel Statements of the International Pharmaceutical Federation also provide a strong foundation for guiding China in implementing clinical pharmacy services. PMID:24562375

Penm, Jonathan; Moles, Rebekah; Wang, Holly; Li, Yan; Chaar, Betty

2014-03-01

114

Digital Device in Postextraction Implantology: A Clinical Case Presentation  

PubMed Central

Aim. The aim of this work is to describe a case of immediate implant placement after extraction of the upper right first premolar, with the use of CAD/CAM technology, which allows an early digital impression of the implant site with an intraoral scanner (MHT 3D Progress, Verona, Italy). Case Report. A 46-year-old female was referred with a disorder caused by continuous debonding of the prosthetic crown on the upper right first premolar. Clinically, there were no signs, and the evaluation of the periapical radiograph showed a fracture of the root, with a mesial well-defined lesion of the hard tissue of the upper right first premolar, as the radiolucent area affected the root surface of the tooth. It was decided, in accordance with the patient, that the tooth would be extracted and the implant (Primer, Edierre implant system, Genoa, Italy) with diameter of 4.2?mm and length of 13?mm would be inserted. After the insertion of the implant, it was screwed to the scan abutment, and a scan was taken using an intraoral scanner (MHT 3D Progress, Verona, Italy). The scanned images were processed with CAD/CAM software (Exocad DentalCAD, Darmstadt, Germany) and the temporary crown was digitally drawn (Dental Knowledge, Milan, Italy) and then sent to the milling machine for production with a composite monoblock. After 4 months, when the implant was osteointegrated, it was not necessary to take another dental impression, and the definitive crown could be screwed in. Conclusion. The CAD/CAM technology is especially helpful in postextraction implant for aesthetic rehabilitation, as it is possible to immediately fix a provisional crown with an anatomic shape that allows an optimal healing process of the tissues. Moreover, the removal of healing abutments, and the use of impression copings, impression materials, and dental stone became unnecessary, enabling the reduction of the chair time, component cost, and patient's discomfort. However, it is still necessary for scientific research to continue to carry out studies on this procedure, in order to improve the accuracy, the reliability, and the reproducibility of the results. PMID:25610665

Borgonovo, A. E.; Rigaldo, F.; Battaglia, D.; Giannì, A. B.

2014-01-01

115

Cowden Syndrome Presenting as Breast Cancer: Imaging and Clinical Features  

PubMed Central

Cowden syndrome is an uncommon, autosomal dominant disease which is characterized by multiple hamartomas of the skin, mucous membrane, brain, breast, thyroid, and gastrointestinal tract. The diagnosis of Cowden syndrome implicates an increased risk of developing breast cancer. We report a case of a 22-year-old woman with Cowden syndrome that presented as breast cancer with concomitant bilateral exuberant benign masses in both breasts. PMID:25246819

Seo, Mirinae; Ahn, Hye Shin; Moon, Hyeong-Gon

2014-01-01

116

Henoch–Schönlein purpura: a clinical case with dramatic presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case study involving a 55-year-old Caucasian male with end-stage glomerulosclerosis is presented here. Kidney biopsies showed no deposits on imunofluorescent microscopy. Relapsing massive haemoptysis and suspected bronchovascular malformation required lung lobectomy which revealed malformative and tortuous small blood vessels, with no vasculitis. Blood antinuclear antibodies, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and antiglomerular basement membrane antibodies were undetectable. Seric immunoglobulins and complement

João Bento; Adriana Magalhães; Conceição Souto Moura; Venceslau Hespanhol

2010-01-01

117

Extreme clinical presentations of venous stasis: coronary sinus thrombosis.  

PubMed

Sixty six year old male with history of heart failure was admitted for dysphagia, weight loss. CT scan chest revealed diffuse oesophageal wall thickening. Upper endoscopy, oesophagogram confirmed diagnosis of achalasia. TTE revealed severely reduced biventricular systolic function with LVEF 10%; PASP 75-80 mmHg. Parasternal long views showed dilated coronary sinus with a visible, mobile 2.0 cm thrombus. Pro-thrombotic workup was negative. Coronary sinus thrombosis has been identified as a rare complication to invasive cardiac procedures causing damage to coronary sinus endothelium and in hypercoagulable states.Typically acute thrombosis presents with chest pain, dynamic ECG changes, but chronic development does not present with ischaemic signs due to formation of efficient collateral circulation. We present a case report of stable primary coronary sinus thrombus incidentally diagnosed, secondary to chronic venous stasis in coronary circulation. Currently, there are no guidelines to assist physicians in long term management of such patients and thus warrants further investigations. PMID:24974504

Kachalia, Amit; Sideras, Panagiotis; Javaid, Mian; Muralidharan, Sethu; Stevens-Cohen, Pilar

2013-11-01

118

Otomycosis; clinical features, predisposing factors and treatment implications  

PubMed Central

Objectives : The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of otomycosis, the clinical presentation, predisposing factors and treatment outcomes. Methods: This observational study was conducted at ENT department of Combined Military Hospital Attock, from October, 2010 to September, 2012. Convenient sample comprising 180 patients of both sexes and all age groups were selected from ENT OPD. The frequency, predisposing factors and most common symptoms of otomycosis were recorded. The response to different antifungal agents was also observed. Results were recorded in percentages. Results: There were 180 patients with documented diagnosis of otomycosis. There were 107 (59%) males and 73 (41%) females. The age of patients ranged from 1½ years to 75 years with a mean age of 38.5 years. Mean follow up time was 2 years. Most common presenting symptom was hearing loss (77.7%) followed by pruritis (68.8%) and otalgia (40%). We prescribed 1% clotrimazole drops or lotion in 58% patients and 2% salicylic acid in 31% cases. Both of these agents are effective. Topical 1% clotrimazole drops yielded highest resolution rate with lowest recurrent rate. Overall 149 (83%) patients were improved with initial treatment and 31 (17%) did not respond to initial treatment. Eight (4.4%) patients had a history of otological procedures. Four (2.2%) patients had canal wall down procedures that resulted in mastoid cavity. To analyse the efficacy of 1% clotrimazole and 2% salicylic acid we applied Z-Test to calculate the difference between 2 proportions of patients before treatment with those patients who remained uncured after treatment. Conclusion: Otomycosisis commonly presented with decreased hearing, pruritis, otalgia & otorrhoea. It usually resolves with local toilet of ear and instillation of antifungal agents. Eradication of disease is difficult in presence of a mastoid cavity and metabolic diseases like diabetes mellitus. PMID:24948980

Anwar, Khurshid; Gohar, Muhammad Shahid

2014-01-01

119

Henoch–Schönlein purpura: a clinical case with dramatic presentation  

PubMed Central

A case study involving a 55-year-old Caucasian male with end-stage glomerulosclerosis is presented here. Kidney biopsies showed no deposits on imunofluorescent microscopy. Relapsing massive haemoptysis and suspected bronchovascular malformation required lung lobectomy which revealed malformative and tortuous small blood vessels, with no vasculitis. Blood antinuclear antibodies, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and antiglomerular basement membrane antibodies were undetectable. Seric immunoglobulins and complement levels were normal. Three months later, arthralgia and joint oedema first appeared. Skin biopsy revealed vasculitis immune-reactive to immunoglobulin A. Systemic corticotherapy was then started. Two weeks later, the patient presented with abdominal pain melena and rectal bleeding (haematoquesia). Endoscopic study showed diffuse gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Angiographic study revealed diffuse lesions compatible with vasculitis and haemorrhage from multiple spots. Cyclophosphamide and then intravenous immunoglobulin were associated to treatment without response. Increasing blood loss occurred, with massive gastrointestinal haemorrhage and haemorrhagic ascitis. Death occurred due to uncontrolled diffuse bleeding. Necropsy findings showed generalised small vessels vasculitis compatible with Henoch–Schönlein purpura. PMID:22778211

Bento, João; Magalhães, Adriana; Moura, Conceição Souto; Hespanhol, Venceslau

2010-01-01

120

Multiple Autoimmune Syndromes Associated with Psoriasis: A Rare Clinical Presentation  

PubMed Central

Autoimmune diseases are known to have association with each other but it is very rare to see multiple autoimmune diseases in one patient. The combination of at least three autoimmune diseases in the same patient is referred to as multiple autoimmune syndrome. The case we are reporting features multiple autoimmune syndrome with five different conditions. The patient had type 1 diabetes mellitus, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, systemic lupus erythematosus, vitiligo, and psoriasis. Psoriasis has rarely been reported previously under the spectrum of autoimmune syndrome. Although the relationship of autoimmune conditions with each other has been explored in the past, this case adds yet another dimension to the unique evolution of autoimmune pathologies. The patient presented with a combination of five autoimmune diseases, which makes it consistent type three multiple autoimmune syndromes with the addition of psoriasis. The current case is unique in this aspect that the combination of these five autoimmune disorders has never been reported in the past. PMID:24715941

Masood, Sadia; Sajid, Sara; Jafferani, Asif; Tabassum, Saadia; Ansar, Sobia

2014-01-01

121

The broad clinical phenotype of Type 1 diabetes at presentation.  

PubMed

Immune-mediated (auto-immune) Type 1 diabetes mellitus is not a homogenous entity, but nonetheless has distinctive characteristics. In children, it may present with classical insulin deficiency and ketoacidosis at disease onset, whereas autoimmune diabetes in adults may not always be insulin dependent. Indeed, as the adult-onset form of autoimmune diabetes may resemble Type 2 diabetes, it is imperative to test for diabetes-associated autoantibodies to establish the correct diagnosis. The therapeutic response can be predicted by measuring the levels of autoantibodies to various islet cell autoantigens, such as islet cell antibodies (ICA), glutamate decarboxylase 65 (GAD65), insulin, tyrosine phosphatase (IA-2) and IA-2?, and zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8) and evaluating ?-cell function. A high risk of progression to insulin dependency is associated with particular genetic constellations, such as human leukocyte antigen risk alleles, young age at onset, the presence of multiple autoantibodies, including high titres of anti-GAD antibodies; such patients should be offered early insulin replacement therapy, as they respond poorly to diet and oral hypoglycaemic drug therapy. Hence, considering the broad spectrum of phenotypes seen in adult-onset diabetes, treatment targets can only be reached by identification of immune-mediated cases, as their management differs from those with classical Type 2 diabetes. PMID:23075321

Merger, S R; Leslie, R D; Boehm, B O

2013-02-01

122

Association between DNA Methylation of the BDNF Promoter Region and Clinical Presentation in Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims In the present study, we examined whether DNA methylation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promoter is associated with the manifestation and clinical presentation of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods Of 20 patients with AD and 20 age-matched normal controls (NCs), the DNA methylation of the BDNF promoter (measured using peripheral blood samples) was completely analyzed in 12 patients with AD and 6 NCs. The resulting methylation levels were compared statistically. Next, we investigated the correlation between the DNA methylation levels and the clinical presentation of AD. Results The total methylation ratio (in %) of the 20 CpG sites was significantly higher in the AD patients (5.08 ± 5.52%) than in the NCs (2.09 ± 0.81%; p < 0.05). Of the 20 CpG sites, the methylation level at the CpG4 site was significantly higher in the AD subjects than in the NCs (p < 0.05). Moreover, the methylation level was significantly and negatively correlated with some neuropsychological test subscores (registration, recall, and prehension behavior scores; p < 0.05). Conclusion These results suggest that the DNA methylation of the BDNF promoter may significantly influence the manifestation of AD and might be associated with its neurocognitive presentation.

Nagata, Tomoyuki; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Ishii, Jumpei; Shinagawa, Shunichiro; Nakayama, Ritsuko; Shibata, Nobuto; Kuerban, Bolati; Ohnuma, Tohru; Kondo, Kazuhiro; Arai, Heii; Yamada, Hisashi; Nakayama, Kazuhiko

2015-01-01

123

Factors affecting clinical reasoning of occupational therapists: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background: Clinical reasoning is generally defined as the numerous modes of thinking that guide clinical practice but little is known about the factors affecting how occupational therapists manage the decision-making process. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the factors influencing the clinical reasoning of occupational therapists. Methods: Twelve occupational therapy practitioners working in mental and physical dysfunction fields participated in this study. The sampling method was purposeful and interviews were continued until data saturation. All the interviews were recorded and transcribed. The data were analyzed through a qualitative content analysis method. Results: There were three main themes. The first theme: socio-cultural conditions included three subthemes: 1- client beliefs; 2- therapist values and beliefs; 3- social attitude to disability. The second theme: individual attributions included two subthemes 1- client attributions; 2- therapist attributions. The final theme was the workplace environment with the three subthemes: 1- knowledge of the managers of rehabilitation services, 2- working in an inter-professional team; 3- limited clinical facilities and resources. Conclusion: In this study, the influence of the attitudes and beliefs of client, therapist and society about illness, abilities and disabilities upon reasoning was different to previous studies. Understanding these factors, especially the socio-cultural beliefs basis can play a significant role in the quality of occupational therapy services. Accurate understanding of these influential factors requires more extensive qualitative and quantitative studies. PMID:25250253

Shafaroodi, Narges; Kamali, Mohammad; Parvizy, Soroor; Mehraban, Afsoon Hassani; O’Toole, Giyn

2014-01-01

124

Clinical features and prognostic factors in adults with bacterial meningitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

background We conducted a nationwide study in the Netherlands to determine clinical features and prognostic factors in adults with community-acquired acute bacterial meningitis. methods From October 1998 to April 2002, all Dutch patients with community-acquired acute bacterial meningitis, confirmed by cerebrospinal fluid cultures, were prospectively eval- uated. All patients underwent a neurologic examination on admission and at discharge, and outcomes

Diederik van de Beek; Jan de Gans; Lodewijk Spanjaard; Martijn Weisfelt; Johannes B. Reitsma; Marinus Vermeulen

2004-01-01

125

The factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex: basic and clinical issues.  

PubMed

Factor VIIII (FVIII) and von Willebrand factor (VWF) are two distinct but related glycoproteins that circulate in plasma as a tightly bound complex (FVIII/VWF). Their deficiencies or structural defects are responsible for the most common inherited bleeding disorders, namely hemophilia A (HA) and von Willebrand's disease (VWD). The VWF has a dual role in hemostasis: first it promotes platelet adhesion to thrombogenic surfaces as well as platelet-to-platelet cohesion during thrombus formation; second, it is the carrier for FVIII in plasma. FVIII acts as a co-factor to accelerate the activation of factor X by activated factor IX in the coagulation cascade. After many years of investigations, the molecular mechanisms of FVIII/VWF interactions are now well known and recent biochemical investigations have confirmed that VWF is a key partner for FVIII, playing significant roles in FVIII function, its production and its stabilization, in its conformation and immunogenicity. FVIII and VWF are both present in most plasma-derived FVIII/VWF concentrates used in clinical practice. FVIII/VWF concentrates can be classified into three main categories according to the degree of their purification. Intermediate-high purity plasma-derived concentrates containing FVIII/VWF currently in use since 1987 carry a low risk of transmitting blood-borne infections. Concentrate safety depends on the interaction of two factors: the decrease of viral plasma load and the increase of viral inactivation. These FVIII/VWF concentrates are currently used in type 3 VWD and in type 1 or 2 VWD patients who are unresponsive to desmopressin (DDAVP). More recently the presence of the physiologic FVIII/VWF complex has been considered to play an important role also in replacement therapy for patients with HA. The correct use of FVIII/VWF concentrates in VWD and HA have been reported in several national and international guidelines. PMID:12826528

Federici, Augusto B

2003-06-01

126

Seasonal trend and clinical presentation of Bacillus cereus bloodstream infection: association with summer and indwelling catheter.  

PubMed

Bacillus cereus, an opportunistic pathogen, can cause fatal infection. However, B. cereus bloodstream infections (BSIs) have not been well characterised. From 2008 to 2013, B. cereus isolates from all of the specimens and patients with B. cereus BSIs were identified. Environmental samples were collected to detect B. cereus contamination. We also characterised the clinical presentation of B. cereus BSI through analyses of risk factors for BSI and mortality. A total of 217 clinical B. cereus isolates was detected. Fifty-one patients with nosocomial infections were diagnosed as B. cereus BSI, and 37 had contaminated blood cultures. The number of B. cereus isolates and BSI patients was significantly greater from June to September than from January to April (4.9 vs. 1.5 per month and 1.2 vs. 0.2, respectively). All BSIs were nosocomial and related to central or peripheral vascular catheter. Urinary catheter [odds ratio (OR) 6.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.40-20.0] was the independent risk factor associated with BSI patients when compared to patients regarded as contaminated. In-hospital mortality among BSI patients was 20% and was associated with urinary catheter (OR 34.7, 95 % CI 1.89-63.6) and higher Charlson index (OR 1.99, 95 % CI 1.26-3.12). The number of B. cereus isolates and BSI increased during summer. Inpatients with indwelling vascular or urinary catheters should be carefully monitored for potential B. cereus BSIs. PMID:24584718

Kato, K; Matsumura, Y; Yamamoto, M; Nagao, M; Ito, Y; Takakura, S; Ichiyama, S

2014-08-01

127

Comparison of clinical findings between intensity-windowed versus CLAHE presentation of chest CT images  

E-print Network

Comparison of clinical findings between intensity-windowed versus CLAHE presentation of chest CT significantly different overall, there are specific clinical findings where the radiologists were less applied to clinical material and to compare the diagnostic information perceived by the radiologists from

North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

128

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and obesity: Biochemical, metabolic and clinical presentations  

PubMed Central

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in the world. Presentation of the disease ranges from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NAFLD is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome that includes central abdominal obesity along with other components. Up to 80% of patients with NAFLD are obese, defined as a body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m2. However, the distribution of fat tissue plays a greater role in insulin resistance than the BMI. The large amount of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in morbidly obese (BMI > 40 kg/m2) individuals contributes to a high prevalence of NAFLD. Free fatty acids derived from VAT tissue, as well as from dietary sources and de novo lipogenesis, are released to the portal venous system. Excess free fatty acids and chronic low-grade inflammation from VAT are considered to be two of the most important factors contributing to liver injury progression in NAFLD. In addition, secretion of adipokines from VAT as well as lipid accumulation in the liver further promotes inflammation through nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathways, which are also activated by free fatty acids, and contribute to insulin resistance. Most NAFLD patients are asymptomatic on clinical presentation, even though some may present with fatigue, dyspepsia, dull pain in the liver and hepatosplenomegaly. Treatment for NAFLD and NASH involves weight reduction through lifestyle modifications, anti-obesity medication and bariatric surgery. This article reviews the available information on the biochemical and metabolic phenotypes associated with obesity and fatty liver disease. The relative contribution of visceral and liver fat to insulin resistance is discussed, and recommendations for clinical evaluation of affected individuals is provided. PMID:25071327

Mili?, Sandra; Luli?, Davorka; Štimac, Davor

2014-01-01

129

[Clinical significance of Willebrand's factor in allergic dermatoses in children].  

PubMed

An original micromethod for assaying Willebrand's factor (WF) was used to measure the content of the protein in 45 children with different allergic dermatoses. WF measurement were at the height of the clinical manifestations and during remissions. It has been established that children with allergic dermatoses manifest a fairly appreciable increase fo WF in the plasma, which is likely to reflect objectively the systematic nature and gravity of vascular endothelium derangement. The increase of WF correlates with the gravity of the clinical manifestations of the disease. As the clinical symptoms were being removed, the level of WF was progressively decreasing. Its normalization attests to a genuine arrest of allergic vasculitis. Platelet activation detected in all the forms of allergic dermatoses in the basis for inclusion of antiaggregation agents into those patients' treatment. PMID:2075061

Rozhkova, L E; Chuprova, A V

1990-01-01

130

Ischemic Posterior Circulation Stroke: A Review of Anatomy, Clinical Presentations, Diagnosis, and Current Management  

PubMed Central

Posterior circulation strokes represent approximately 20% of all ischemic strokes (1, 2). In contrast to the anterior circulation, several differences in presenting symptoms, clinical evaluation, diagnostic testing, and management strategy exist presenting a challenge to the treating physician. This review will discuss the anatomical, etiological, and clinical classification of PC strokes, identify diagnostic pitfalls, and overview current therapeutic regimens. PMID:24778625

Nouh, Amre; Remke, Jessica; Ruland, Sean

2014-01-01

131

SPINning factors: factor analytic evaluation of the Social Phobia Inventory in clinical and nonclinical undergraduate samples.  

PubMed

The Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) was designed to assess three dimensions of social anxiety (i.e., fear, avoidance, and physiological arousal) as posited by the scale authors (Connor et al., 2000). Despite expectations of a 3-factor solution, analyses of the SPIN to date have provided support for 3- and 5-factor solutions (Radomsky et al., 2006). Moreover, a 3-item version, the Mini-SPIN (Connor et al., 2001), has good sensitivity and specificity for generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD), implying some item redundancy. Another recent psychometric analysis of the SPIN was performed in a diagnostically diverse clinical sample (Antony et al., 2006); however, the study did not include a comprehensive evaluation of the factor structure. The current study was designed to comprehensively assess the SPIN factor structure using exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory (CFA) factor analyses in undergraduate (N=227) and clinical samples (N=355) using current recommendations for factor analyses (Osborne et al., 2008). Results suggest a 10-item 3-factor solution may be an ideal fit for clinical samples; however, using the undergraduate sample, the same solution was significantly better than precedent solutions but nonetheless not ideal. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:19818582

Carleton, R Nicholas; Collimore, Kelsey C; Asmundson, Gordon J G; McCabe, Randi E; Rowa, Karen; Antony, Martin M

2010-01-01

132

Clinical Implications of Pneumococcal Serotypes: Invasive Disease Potential, Clinical Presentations, and Antibiotic Resistance  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pneumoniae can asymptomatically colonize the nasopharynx and cause a diverse range of illnesses. This clinical spectrum from colonization to invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) appears to depend on the pneumococcal capsular serotype rather than the genetic background. According to a literature review, serotypes 1, 4, 5, 7F, 8, 12F, 14, 18C, and 19A are more likely to cause IPD. Although serotypes 1 and 19A are the predominant causes of invasive pneumococcal pneumonia, serotype 14 remains one of the most common etiologic agents of non-bacteremic pneumonia in adults, even after 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) introduction. Serotypes 1, 3, and 19A pneumococci are likely to cause empyema and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Serotype 1 pneumococcal meningitis is prevalent in the African meningitis belt, with a high fatality rate. In contrast to the capsule type, genotype is more closely associated with antibiotic resistance. CC320/271 strains expressing serotype 19A are multidrug-resistant (MDR) and prevalent worldwide in the era of PCV7. Several clones of MDR serotype 6C pneumococci emerged, and a MDR 6D clone (ST282) has been identified in Korea. Since the pneumococcal epidemiology of capsule types varies geographically and temporally, a nationwide serosurveillance system is vital to establishing appropriate vaccination strategies for each country. PMID:23341706

Nahm, Moon H.; Moseley, M. Allen

2013-01-01

133

Tumor necrosis factor inhibitors: clinical utility in autoimmune diseases.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production is amplified in several autoimmune disorders. In the 1990s, it became a validated therapeutic target used for the treatment of conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Biologic drugs targeting TNF include engineered monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins. Currently, there are 5 Food and Drug Administration-approved TNF inhibitors (infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, certolizumab, and golimumab), representing close to $20 billion in sales. Clinical trials remain open to test their efficacy and safety compared with one another, as well as to measure clinical outcomes in different conditions and patient populations. The industry is also eager to develop biotherapeutics that are similar but cheaper than the currently existing biologics or are safer with higher efficacy; these are the so-called "biosimilars." Clinical utility of TNF inhibitors and indications of mono- or combined therapy with immunomodulators are reviewed here. Pharmacokinetics of the TNF inhibitors is affected by routes of administration, clearance mechanisms of immunoglobulins, and immunogenicity. Finally, strategies for management of treatment efficacy and increasing evidence for monitoring of serum concentration of TNF inhibitors are discussed, assessing for the presence of the antidrug antibodies and the different analytical methods available for laboratory testing. As clinical applications of the TNF inhibitors expand, and other classes join the revolution in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders, therapeutic drug monitoring of biologics will become increasingly important, with the potential to dramatically improve patient care and management. PMID:25305470

Willrich, Maria A V; Murray, David L; Snyder, Melissa R

2015-02-01

134

NCI Spanish-Language Presentations on Clinical Trials | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

These three PowerPoint presentations, which are in Spanish, provide a basic overview of clinical trials. They can be used by community leaders, advocates and health care providers when discussing clinical trials with Spanish-speaking audiences who are not familiar with the topic.

135

A new recombinant factor VIII: from genetics to clinical use  

PubMed Central

Advances in recombinant technology and knowledge about coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) are building a platform for new therapeutic options in patients with hemophilia A. The development of turoctocog alfa, a novel, high-purity, third-generation, B-domain truncated recombinant FVIII, has been produced and formulated without the use of animal-derived or human serum-derived components, in the wake of understanding of the new biochemical characteristics of FVIII, namely its protein structure, and glycosylation and sulfating patterns. Culture conditions and a five-step purification process have been developed to optimize the safety of turoctocog alfa. The results of two pilot clinical trials using turoctocog alfa confirmed high safety levels, with no patient developing inhibitors during the period of observation. The purpose of this review is to describe briefly the molecular and biological properties of turoctocog alfa, together with details of its clinical development, with emphasis on the needs of patients with hemophilia A. PMID:25548513

Santagostino, Elena

2014-01-01

136

Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: Assessment guidelines based on clinical presentation to a specialty clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 143 adults presenting for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) evaluation, 46 (32%) clearly met diagnostic criteria, 46 (32%) clearly did not meet diagnostic criteria, and another 51 (36%) with current ADHD-like features did not meet criteria due to either a lack of childhood history and\\/or complicating severe psychiatric or substance abuse comorbidity. The three groups were similar in demographics, psychiatric

Peter Roy-Byrne; Leonard Scheele; John Brinkley; Nicholas Ward; Connie Wiatrak; Joan Russo; Brenda Townes; Christopher Varley

1997-01-01

137

Clinical factors affecting the timing of delivery in twin pregnancies  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate clinical factors affecting the timing of delivery in twin pregnancies in order to minimize perinatal complications. Methods A retrospective study involved 163 twin pregnancies delivered from January 2006 to September 2011 at Gachon University Gil Medical Center. These cases were divided into three groups based on the delivery timing: less than 32 weeks' gestation (group A), between 32 and 35+6 weeks' gestation (group B), and over 36 weeks' gestation (group C). Clinical factors including maternal age, parity, presence of premature uterine contraction, presence of premature rupture of membrane, white blood cell, high sensitive C-reactive protein level, cervical dilatation, maternal complication, chorionicity, twin specific complication, and perinatal complication were analyzed for each group. Results In group B, the timing of delivery was postponed for 14 days or more from the time of admission, and there were fewer numbers of babies with low Apgar score at birth compared with other groups. The frequency of uterine contraction (P<0.001), presence of premature rupture of membranes (P=0.017), dilatation of cervix (P<0.001), increased white blood cell and high sensitive C-reactive protein levels (P=0.002, P<0.001) were important clinical factors during decision making process of delivery timing in twin pregnancies. Twin specific fetal conditions, such as twin-twin transfusion syndrome and discordant growth (over 25% or more) were shown more frequently in group A. However, there were no significant statistical differences among three groups (P=0.06, P=0.14). Conclusion Proper management for preventing premature contraction and inflammation can be essential in twin pregnancies until 32 weeks' gestation, and may decrease maternal and perinatal complications. PMID:25469330

Lee, Chae Min; Yang, Sun Hye; Lee, Sun Pyo; Hwang, Byung Chul

2014-01-01

138

Profiling the clinical presentation of diagnostic characteristics of a sample of symptomatic TMD patients  

PubMed Central

Background Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients might present a number of concurrent clinical diagnoses that may be clustered according to their similarity. Profiling patients’ clinical presentations can be useful for better understanding the behavior of TMD and for providing appropriate treatment planning. The aim of this study was to simultaneously classify symptomatic patients diagnosed with a variety of subtypes of TMD into homogenous groups based on their clinical presentation and occurrence of comorbidities. Methods Clinical records of 357 consecutive TMD patients seeking treatment in a private specialized clinic were included in the study sample. Patients presenting multiple subtypes of TMD diagnosed simultaneously were categorized according to the AAOP criteria. Descriptive statistics and two-step cluster analysis were used to characterize the clinical presentation of these patients based on the primary and secondary clinical diagnoses. Results The most common diagnoses were localized masticatory muscle pain (n?=?125) and disc displacement without reduction (n?=?104). Comorbidity was identified in 288 patients. The automatic selection of an optimal number of clusters included 100% of cases, generating an initial 6-cluster solution and a final 4-cluster solution. The interpretation of within-group ranking of the importance of variables in the clustering solutions resulted in the following characterization of clusters: chronic facial pain (n?=?36), acute muscle pain (n?=?125), acute articular pain (n?=?75) and chronic articular impairment (n?=?121). Conclusion Subgroups of acute and chronic TMD patients seeking treatment can be identified using clustering methods to provide a better understanding of the clinical presentation of TMD when multiple diagnosis are present. Classifying patients into identifiable symptomatic profiles would help clinicians to estimate how common a disorder is within a population of TMD patients and understand the probability of certain pattern of clinical complaints. PMID:22857609

2012-01-01

139

Factor Structure and Clinical Utility of BDI-II Factor Scores in Postpartum Women  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of the current study was to examine the factorial dimensions underlying Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) in a large ethnically and economically diverse sample of postpartum women and to assess their relative contribution in differentiating clinical diagnoses in a subsample of depressed women. Methods We administered the BDI-II to 953 women between 4 and 20 weeks postpartum. Women who had low (1–7) and high (> 12) BDI-II total scores were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I). Results Exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed three factors, Cognitive, Somatic, and Affective, that accounted for 49.09% of the overall variance of items. Logistic regression analyses showed that somatic and affective factors contributed to diagnosis of major depression, while the somatic factor alone contributed to the diagnosis of depression with comorbid anxiety. The cognitive factor differentiated women with major depression from women who were never depressed. Limitations Our definition of clinical depression included episodes of depression during the child’s lifetime, and depressive symptoms were not necessarily current at the time of the assessment, which may impact the relative contribution of BDI-II factors to clinical diagnosis. Conclusion Conceptualizing the structure of the BDI-II using these three factors could contribute to refining the measurement and scoring of depressive symptomatology and severity in postpartum women. Although somatic symptoms of depression may be difficult to differentiate from the physiological changes of normative postpartum adjustment, our results support the inclusion of somatic symptoms of depression in the calculation of a BDI-II total score. PMID:23521870

Manian, Nanmathi; Schmidt, Elizabeth; Bornstein, Marc H.; Martinez, Pedro

2013-01-01

140

RNAi Factors are Present and Active in Human Cell Nuclei  

PubMed Central

Summary RNAi is widely appreciated as a powerful regulator of mRNA translation in the cytoplasm of mammalian cells. However, the presence and activity of RNAi factors in the mammalian nucleus has been the subject of considerable debate. Here we show that Argonaute-2 (Ago2) and RNAi factors Dicer, TRBP and TRNC6A/GW182 are in the human nucleus and associate together in multi-protein complexes. Small RNAs can silence nuclear RNA and guide site-specific cleavage of the targeted RNA, demonstrating that RNAi can function in the human nucleus. Nuclear Dicer is active and miRNAs are bound to nuclear Ago2, consistent with the existence of nuclear miRNA pathways. Notably, we do not detect loading of duplex small RNAs in nuclear extracts and known loading factors are absent. These results extend RNAi into the mammalian nucleus and suggest that regulation of RNAi via small RNA loading of Ago2 differs between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. PMID:24388755

Gagnon, Keith T.; Li, Liande; Chu, Yongjun; Janowski, Bethany A.; Corey, David R.

2014-01-01

141

Factors in ETV Presenter Selection: Effects of Stereotyping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three presenters varying on two dimensions (young-mature, straight-hip) were used in a documentary on forest fires. The high school audience was tested for learning acquisition, as well as attitudes toward the presenter and the subject matter. (BD)

Coldevin, Gary O.

1977-01-01

142

Dental Erosion and Its Growing Importance in Clinical Practice: From Past to Present  

PubMed Central

Since the mid-1990s, the focus of studies on tooth wear has steadily shifted from the general condition towards the more specific area of dental erosion; equally, a shift has occurred from studies in adults to those in children and adolescents. During this time, understanding of the condition has increased greatly. This paper attempts to provide a critical overview of the development of this body of knowledge, from earlier perceptions to the present. It is accepted that dental erosion has a multifactorial background, in which individual and lifestyle factors have great significance. Notwithstanding methodological differences across studies, data from many countries confirm that dental erosion is common in children and young people, and that, when present, it progresses rapidly. That the condition, and its ramifications, warrants serious consideration in clinical dentistry, is clear. It is important for the oral healthcare team to be able to recognize its early signs and symptoms and to understand its pathogenesis. Preventive strategies are essential ingredients in the management of patients with dental erosion. When necessary, treatment aimed at correcting or improving its effects might best be of a minimally invasive nature. Still, there remains a need for further research to forge better understanding of the subject. PMID:22505907

Johansson, Ann-Katrin; Omar, Ridwaan; Carlsson, Gunnar E.; Johansson, Anders

2012-01-01

143

5 CFR 847.602 - Present value factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the annuitant's lifetime based on mortality rates for annuitants paid from the Fund; and increases each year, assuming a certain rate of inflation. (2) Interest, mortality, and inflation rates used in computing the present...

2013-01-01

144

5 CFR 847.602 - Present value factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the annuitant's lifetime based on mortality rates for annuitants paid from the Fund; and increases each year, assuming a certain rate of inflation. (2) Interest, mortality, and inflation rates used in computing the present...

2012-01-01

145

5 CFR 847.602 - Present value factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the annuitant's lifetime based on mortality rates for annuitants paid from the Fund; and increases each year, assuming a certain rate of inflation. (2) Interest, mortality, and inflation rates used in computing the present...

2011-01-01

146

5 CFR 847.602 - Present value factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...the annuitant's lifetime based on mortality rates for annuitants paid from the Fund; and increases each year, assuming a certain rate of inflation. (2) Interest, mortality, and inflation rates used in computing the present...

2014-01-01

147

Vascular Risk Factors and Clinical Progression in Spinocerebellar Ataxias  

PubMed Central

Background The contributions of vascular risk factors to spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) are not known. Methods We studied 319 participants with SCA 1, 2, 3, and 6 and repeatedly measured clinical severity using the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) for 2 years. Vascular risk factors were summarized by CHA2DS2-VASc scores as the vascular risk factor index. We employed regression models to study the effects of vascular risk factors on ataxia onset and progression after adjusting for age, sex, and pathological CAG repeats. Our secondary analyses took hyperlipidemia into account. Results Nearly 60% of SCA participants were at low vascular risks with CHA2DS2-VASc?=?0, and 31% scored 2 or greater. Higher CHA2DS2-VASc scores were not associated with either earlier onset or faster progression of ataxia. These findings were not altered after accounting for hyperlipidemia. Discussion Vascular risks are not common in SCAs and are not associated with earlier onset or faster ataxia progression. PMID:25713748

Lo, Raymond Y.; Figueroa, Karla P.; Pulst, Stefan M.; Lin, Chi-Ying; Perlman, Susan; Wilmot, George; Gomez, Christopher M.; Schmahmann, Jeremy; Paulson, Henry; Shakkottai, Vikram G.; Ying, Sarah H.; Zesiewicz, Theresa; Bushara, Khalaf; Geschwind, Michael; Xia, Guangbin; Subramony, S. H.; Ashizawa, Tetsuo; Kuo, Sheng-Han

2015-01-01

148

Clinical presentations and imaging findings of neuroblastoma beyond abdominal mass and a review of imaging algorithm  

PubMed Central

Neuroblastoma is one of the most common malignant neoplasms in childhood. The most common clinical presentation of this tumour is abdominal mass. However, affected children may have various clinical presentations as a result of disseminated metastatic disease or associated paraneoplastic syndromes at the time of diagnosis. In this article we have outlined the imaging findings in seven patients with “extra-abdominal” presentation of neuroblastoma and the pitfalls in making the correct diagnosis. The purpose of this pictorial review is to alert the general radiologist to the possible presentations of this common childhood malignancy to derive early detection and diagnosis. PMID:21172969

Chu, C M; Rasalkar, D D; Hu, Y J; Cheng, F W T; Li, C K; Chu, W C W

2011-01-01

149

Is Leptin the Parabiotic “Satiety” Factor ? Past and Present Interpretations  

PubMed Central

In 1959 Hervey hypothesized that a circulating feedback signal informed the hypothalamus of the size of fat stores and initiated appropriate corrections to energy balance. The hypothesis resulted from a parabiosis study in which one animal became obese following lesioning of the ventromedial hypothalamus. The partner of the lesioned rat was hypophagic and lost a large amount of body fat. Similar results came from parabiosis studies with obese Zucker rats and rats that overate due to stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus. In studies in which one parabiont was made obese by overfeeding the non-overfed partners lost substantial amounts of fat with a minimal reduction in food intake and no loss of lean tissue. The loss of fat was due to inhibition of adipose lipogenesis and other metabolic adjustments typical of food restriction. Parabiosis with genetically obese mice implied that ob/ob mice did not produce the feedback signal and subsequently the mutant ob protein, leptin, was identified. This paper provides a review and interpretation of parabiosis work that preceded the discovery of leptin, an evaluation of leptin in relation to its function as the circulating feedback signal and evidence for additional circulating factors involved in the control of adipose tissue mass. PMID:22889986

Harris, Ruth B.S.

2012-01-01

150

Reviewing audit: barriers and facilitating factors for effective clinical audit  

PubMed Central

I K Crombie, professor and E M Alder, senior lecturer H T O Davies, reader A Millard, research fellow Objective—To review the literature on the benefits and disadvantages of clinical and medical audit, and to assess the main facilitators and barriers to conducting the audit process. Design—A comprehensive literature review was undertaken through a thorough review of Medline and CINAHL databases using the keywords of "audit", "audit of audits", and "evaluation of audits" and a handsearch of the indexes of relevant journals for key papers. Results—Findings from 93 publications were reviewed. These ranged from single case studies of individual audit projects through retrospective reviews of departmental audit programmes to studies of interface projects between primary and secondary care. The studies reviewed incorporated the experiences of a wide variety of clinicians, from medical consultants to professionals allied to medicine and from those involved in unidisciplinary and multidisciplinary ventures. Perceived benefits of audit included improved communication among colleagues and other professional groups, improved patient care, increased professional satisfaction, and better administration. Some disadvantages of audit were perceived as diminished clinical ownership, fear of litigation, hierarchical and territorial suspicions, and professional isolation. The main barriers to clinical audit can be classified under five main headings. These are lack of resources, lack of expertise or advice in project design and analysis, problems between groups and group members, lack of an overall plan for audit, and organisational impediments. Key facilitating factors to audit were also identified: they included modern medical records systems, effective training, dedicated staff, protected time, structured programmes, and a shared dialogue between purchasers and providers. Conclusions—Clinical audit can be a valuable assistance to any programme which aims to improve the quality of health care and its delivery. Yet without a coherent strategy aimed at nurturing effective audits, valuable opportunities will be lost. Paying careful attention to the professional attitudes highlighted in this review may help audit to deliver on some of its promise. (Quality in Health Care 2000;9:23–36) Key Words: audit; attitudes; barriers; facilitating factors PMID:10848367

Johnston, G; Crombie, I; Alder, E; Davies, H; Millard, A

2000-01-01

151

Misleading presentations of malignant breast diseases--role of clinical cytology.  

PubMed

We described two examples with misleading presentations to draw attention to the role of clinical cytology as apart of multidisciplinary approach to breast lesions. In the first case--Paget's disease of the nipple, there was no obvious clinical and radiological evidence of breast cancer, while the second case--primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the breast imitated advanced breast carcinoma. The question is whether accurate and fast diagnoses can be made without cytological examinations. It must be kept in mind that first-hand clinical information and contact with the patient is necessary in rendering accurate cytological diagnoses. PMID:20432750

Kai?, Gordana; Stoos-Vei?, Tajana; Ostovi?, Karmen Trutin; Vojnovi?, Jovanka; Vidovi?, Ljerka; Lambasa, Smiljka; Harim, Visnja; Ajdukovi?, Radmila; Stanec, Sanda; Budi, Sre?ko

2010-03-01

152

Canavan disease - unusual imaging features in a child with mild clinical presentation.  

PubMed

Canavan disease is a rare hereditary leukodystrophy that manifests in early childhood. Associated with rapidly progressive clinical deterioration, it usually results in death by the third year of life. The predominant MRI appearance is diffuse and symmetrical white matter disease. We discuss an atypical, late presentation of Canavan disease with a benign clinical course and uncharacteristic imaging features. This case introduces a previously unreported pattern of diffuse cortical abnormality without significant white matter involvement. PMID:25107638

Nguyen, Ho V; Ishak, Gisele E

2015-03-01

153

Endothelin 1 levels in relation to clinical presentation and outcome of Henoch Schonlein purpura  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Henoch Schonlein purpura (HSP) is a common vasculitis of small vessels whereas endothelin-1 (ET-1) is usually reported elevated in vasculities and systematic inflammation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether ET-1 levels are correlated with the clinical presentation and the outcome of HSP. METHODS: The study sample consisted of thirty consecutive patients with HSP. An equal

S Fessatou; P Nicolaidou; D Gourgiotis; H Georgouli; K Douros; M Moustaki; A Fretzayas

2008-01-01

154

Oncologist Factors That Influence Referrals to Subspecialty Palliative Care Clinics  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Recent research and professional guidelines support expanded use of outpatient subspecialty palliative care in oncology, but provider referral practices vary widely. We sought to explore oncologist factors that influence referrals to outpatient palliative care. Methods: Multisite, qualitative interview study at three academic cancer centers in the United States with well-established palliative care clinics. Seventy-four medical oncologists participated in semistructured interviews between February and October 2012. The interview guide asked about experiences and decision making regarding outpatient palliative care use. A multidisciplinary team analyzed interview transcripts using constant comparative methods to inductively develop and refine themes related to palliative care referral decisions. Results: We identified three main oncologist barriers to subspecialty palliative care referrals at sites with comprehensive palliative care clinics: persistent conceptions of palliative care as an alternative philosophy of care incompatible with cancer therapy, a predominant belief that providing palliative care is an integral part of the oncologist's role, and a lack of knowledge about locally available services. Participants described their views of subspecialty palliative care as evolving in response to increasing availability of services and positive referral experiences, but emphasized that views of palliative care as valuable in addition to standard oncology care were not universally shared by oncologists. Conclusions: Improving provision of palliative care in oncology will likely require efforts beyond increasing service availability. Raising awareness of ways in which subspecialty palliative care complements standard oncology care and developing ways for oncologists and palliative care physicians to collaborate and integrate their respective skills may help. PMID:24301842

Schenker, Yael; Crowley-Matoka, Megan; Dohan, Daniel; Rabow, Michael W.; Smith, Cardinale B.; White, Douglas B.; Chu, Edward; Tiver, Greer A.; Einhorn, Sara; Arnold, Robert M.

2014-01-01

155

Clinical features and prognostic factors of Churg-Strauss syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a rare systemic necrotizing small-vessel vasculitis, with accompanying bronchial asthma, eosinophilia, and eosinophilic infiltration of various tissues. The purposes of our study were to characterize the clinical features of CSS and to identify factors associated with CSS prognosis in Koreans. Methods Medical records were reviewed retrospectively for all physician-diagnosed CSS patients in the Seoul National University Hospital between January 1990 and March 2011. Results Data from 52 CSS patients were analyzed. The respiratory tract was the most commonly involved organ (90.4%). Renal involvement was less frequent in antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)(-) patients than in ANCA(+) patients (p = 0.048). Clinical remission occurred in 95.3% of patients, but 16.3% of them relapsed. Patients who maintained remission for more than 6 months were relatively older (median, 51 years) at diagnosis (p = 0.004), had been diagnosed in earlier stages (p = 0.027), showed more frequent respiratory involvement (p = 0.024) and generalized symptoms (p = 0.039), and showed less frequent cutaneous involvement (p = 0.030) than those who did not achieve persistent (> 6 months) remission. Patients who achieved persistent remission also showed higher C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (p = 0.031) than those who did not. Conclusions ANCA(-) CSS patients showed less frequent renal involvement. Characteristics of good responders were older age, diagnosis at earlier stages, less cutaneous involvement, more respiratory involvement, high CRP values, and more generalized symptoms. PMID:24574837

Kim, Mi-Yeong; Sohn, Kyoung-Hee; Song, Woo-Jung; Park, Heung-Woo; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up

2014-01-01

156

Radial neck fracture presenting to a Chiropractic clinic: a case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe a patient that presented with a Mason type II radial neck fracture approximately three weeks following a traumatic injury. Clinical features A 59-year old female presented to a chiropractic practice with complaints of left lateral elbow pain distal to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus and pain provocation with pronation, supination and weight bearing. The complaint originated three weeks prior following a fall on her left elbow while hiking. Intervention and outcome Plain film radiographs of the left elbow and forearm revealed a transverse fracture of the radial neck with 2mm displacement--classified as a Mason Type II fracture. The patient was referred for medical follow-up with an orthopedist. Conclusion This report discusses triage of an elbow fracture presenting to a chiropractic clinic. This case study demonstrates the thorough clinical examination, imaging and decision making that assisted in appropriate patient diagnosis and management. PMID:24685056

2014-01-01

157

Pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain (PPP), I: Terminology, clinical presentation, and prevalence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pregnancy-related lumbopelvic pain has puzzled medicine for a long time. The present systematic review focuses on terminology, clinical presentation, and prevalence. Numerous terms are used, as if they indicated one and the same entity. We propose “pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain (PPP)”, and “pregnancy-related low back pain (PLBP)”, present evidence that the two add up to “lumbopelvic pain”, and show that

W. H. Wu; O. G. Meijer; K. Uegaki; J. M. A. Mens; J. H. van Dieën; P. I. J. M. Wuisman; H. C. Östgaard

2004-01-01

158

Different Clinical Presentation of Appendicolithiasis. The Report of Three Cases and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

An appendicolith is composed of firm feces and some mineral deposits. After increased use of abdominal computed tomography, appendicoliths are more frequently detected. Most of the patients with appendicolith are asymptomatic. However, an appendicolith may be associated with complicated appendicitis with serious outcomes. We reported three patients who exhibited different clinical symptoms due to appendicolithiasis. While one of the patients was confused with urolithiasis, the other two patients presented with phlegmenous and perforated appendicitis. We submit that appendicoliths may present different clinical findings and can mimic several pathologies including urinary disorders. PMID:21487530

Kaya, Bulent; Eris, Cengiz

2011-01-01

159

Sinonasal squamous cell carcinomas: clinical outcomes and predictive factors.  

PubMed

This was a retrospective study of 33 patients treated for sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma between 1995 and 2008. Epidemiological, clinical, histological, and therapeutic aspects of this series of patients were analysed, and their impacts on overall survival and disease-free survival established using the Kaplan-Meier method. A search for prognostic factors was made using a log-rank test. There were 27 men. The average age at diagnosis was 64.7 years. Tobacco-smoking was found to be a risk factor in 24 patients (72.7%). The median follow-up was 66 months (range 0-99 months). Tumours were classified as T1 in 18.3%, T2 in 27.3%, T3 in 6%, and T4 in 48.5% of cases. Disease-free survival rates at 1 and 5 years were 58.5% and 46.1%, respectively, and overall survival rates were 70.3% and 40%, respectively. Overall survival was correlated to tumour status (TNM, American Joint Committee on Cancer) (P = 0.010) and involvement of key structures (skull base, dura mater, brain, orbit, cavernous sinus, infratemporal fossa, skin) (P = 0.049). Surgery followed by radiotherapy improved overall survival (P = 0.005) and disease-free survival (P = 0.028) when compared to other treatment modalities. When compared to surgery alone, it improved disease-free survival (P = 0.049) regardless of tumour stage. PMID:23958462

Michel, J; Fakhry, N; Mancini, J; Braustein, D; Moreddu, E; Giovanni, A; Dessi, P

2014-01-01

160

Clinical, Genetic and Environmental Factors Associated with Congenital Vertebral Malformations  

PubMed Central

Congenital vertebral malformations (CVM) pose a significant health problem because they can be associated with spinal deformities, such as congenital scoliosis and kyphosis, in addition to various syndromes and other congenital malformations. Additional information remains to be learned regarding the natural history of congenital scoliosis and related health problems. Although significant progress has been made in understanding the process of somite formation, which gives rise to vertebral bodies, there is a wide gap in our understanding of how genetic factors contribute to CVM development. Maternal diabetes during pregnancy most commonly contributes to the occurrence of CVM, followed by other factors such as hypoxia and anticonvulsant medications. This review highlights several emerging clinical issues related to CVM, including pulmonary and orthopedic outcome in congenital scoliosis. Recent breakthroughs in genetics related to gene and environment interactions associated with CVM development are discussed. The Klippel-Feil syndrome which is associated with cervical segmentation abnormalities is illustrated as an example in which animal models, such as the zebrafish, can be utilized to provide functional evidence of pathogenicity of identified mutations. PMID:23653580

Giampietro, P.F.; Raggio, C.L.; Blank, R.D.; McCarty, C.; Broeckel, U.; Pickart, M.A.

2013-01-01

161

Factors associated with poor asthma control in the outpatient clinic setting  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The goal of the study was to assess asthma control using asthma control test (ACT) and to explore the factors that effects asthma control among participants with bronchial asthma in the outpatient clinic setting. METHODS: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in the outpatient primary care clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh. Adult patients who were diagnosed with bronchial asthma by their primary treating physician were recruited over a 6-month period. Patients completed the ACT and questionnaires, which identified factors that affect asthma control. RESULTS: Four hundred asthmatic patients (n = 400) were enrolled, and 70% of these patients were women. Fifty-four percent of patients inappropriately used the inhaler device. The estimated prevalence of uncontrolled asthma at the time of the study was 39.8%. Inappropriate device use by the patient was more frequently associated with uncontrolled asthma (P—value = 0.001). Active smoking (P—value = 0.007), passive smoking (P—value = 0.019), unsealed mattress (P—value = 0.030), and workplace triggers (P—value = 0.036) were also associated with uncontrolled asthma. However, the extent of asthma control did not appear to be related to the existence of regular follow-ups, bedroom carpets, outpatient clinic visits, age, body mass index (BMI), or duration of asthma. CONCLUSIONS: The present study identified a high prevalence of uncontrolled asthma in the primary outpatient clinic setting and common risk factors that may contribute to poor asthma control.

Al-Zahrani, Jamaan M.; Ahmad, Anwar; AL-Harbi, Abdullah; Khan, Ayaz M; Al-Bader, Bader; Baharoon, Salim; Shememeri, Abdullah AL; AL-Jahdali, Hamdan

2015-01-01

162

Factor Analysis of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale in a Clinical Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale has been used extensively in clinical research, its psychometric properties in a clinical population have not been reported. In this study, the responses of a large clinical sample (N = 2,023) on the original 100-item DAS were factor analyzed. On the basis of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, the scale was reduced to 80 variables,

Aaron T. Beck; Gary Brown; Robert A. Steer; Arlene N. Weissman

1991-01-01

163

Clinical and Virological Factors Influencing the Performance of a NS1 Antigen-Capture Assay and  

E-print Network

Clinical and Virological Factors Influencing the Performance of a NS1 Antigen-Capture Assay. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and virological factors influencing the performance disease. Citation: Duong V, Ly S, Lorn Try P, Tuiskunen A, Ong S, et al. (2011) Clinical and Virological

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

164

Cardiovascular risk factors, change in risk factors over 7 years, and the risk of clinical diabetes mellitus type 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a large longitudinal study, we examined the relationships between cardiovascular risk factors (blood lipids, blood pressure, smoking, and physical activity), and change in these risk factors over a 7-year period, and the risk of clinical diabetes mellitus type 2. There were 73 verified new cases of clinical diabetes mellitus type 2 (diagnosed between 1987 and 1995) and 9,982 controls

Bjarne K Jacobsen; Kaare H Bønaa; Inger Njølstad

2002-01-01

165

Sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Sporothrix brasiliensis Is Associated with Atypical Clinical Presentations  

PubMed Central

Background There have been several recent changes in the taxonomy of Sporothrix schenckii as well as new observations regarding the clinical aspects of sporotrichosis. In this study, we determined the identification of the Sporothrix species associated with both classic and unusual clinical aspects of sporotrichosis observed in the endemic area of sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings To verify whether S. brasiliensis is associated with clinical manifestations of sporotrichosis, a cross-sectional study was performed in which Sporothrix isolates from 50 patients with different clinical manifestations were analyzed and their isolates were studied by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Data from these patients revealed a distinct clinical picture and therapeutic response in infections caused by Sporothrix brasiliensis (n?=?45) compared to patients with S. schenckii sensu stricto (n?=?5). S. brasiliensis was associated with disseminated cutaneous infection without underlying disease, hypersensitivity reactions, and mucosal infection, whereas patients with S. schenckii presented with less severe and more often localized disease, similar to the majority of previously described sporotrichosis cases. Interestingly, S. brasiliensis-infected patients overall required shorter durations of itraconazole (median 16 weeks) compared to the individuals with S. schenckii (median 24 weeks). Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that Sporothrix species are linked to different clinical manifestations of sporotrichosis and that S. brasiliensis is effectively treated with oral itraconazole. PMID:25233227

Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; de Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Freitas, Dayvison Francis Saraiva; do Valle, Antônio Carlos Francesconi; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara

2014-01-01

166

Erlotinib-induced Hepatotoxicity—Clinical Presentation and Successful Management: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a common occurrence in clinical practice in the present era because of frequent use of drugs and increase in patients who have increased susceptibility to DILI (because of underlying non-alcoholic steatohepatitis [NASH], chronic hepatitis C, chronic hepatitis B and alcoholic liver disease). DILI is the most common reason for withdrawal of an approved drug from the market. The overall mortality rate among patients hospitalized for DILI is approximately 10%. Erlotinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is indicated for treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer and pancreatic cancer. The most common adverse effects associated with erlotinib use are rash and diarrhea. Liver function test (LFT) abnormalities are commonly associated with erlotinib use. Grade 2 (ALT elevations > 2.5–5× upper limit of normal [ULN]) LFT abnormalities are observed in around 4% of patients while Grade 3 (ALT < 5–20× ULN) are not reported. We report a case of acute hepatitis due to administration of erlotinib in 81-year-old gentleman diagnosed as having non-small cell lung cancer with metastasis to mediastinal lymph nodes and started on erlotinib 150 mg/day. This type of deep jaundice is very rare, and timely diagnosis and withdrawal of the drug saved the life of the patient. It is recommended that liver functions be closely monitored in those with hepatic impairment, who are also on other cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitors such as ketoconazole, clarithromycin, voriconazole, etc. In conclusion, we report a case of DILI secondary to erlotinib with significant hyperbilirubinemia (> 5× ULN; grade 4) in absence of concomitant P450 inhibitor intake and liver metastases. As erlotinib is now commonly incorporated into treatment of advanced lung and pancreatic cancer, it is important that clinicians are aware of this potential complication in practice especially in elderly patients.

Arora, Anil K

2011-01-01

167

Clinical hyperthermia of prostate cancer using magnetic nanoparticles: Presentation of a new interstitial technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate whether the technique of magnetic fluid hyperthermia can be used for minimally invasive treatment of prostate cancer. This paper presents the first clinical appli- cation of interstitial hyperthermia using magnetic nanoparticles in locally recurrent prostate cancer. Treatment planning was carried out using computerized tomography (CT) of the prostate. Based on the

M. Johannsen; U. Gneveckow; L. Eckelt; A. Feussner; N. WaldÖFner; R. Scholz; S. Deger; P. Wust; S. A. Loening; A. Jordan

2005-01-01

168

Central diabetes insipidus in five cats: clinical presentation, diagnosis and oral desmopressin therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five cases of central diabetes insipidus (CDI) in domestic shorthair cats are described. All cats were under 3 years of age at the onset of clinical signs, and outdoor or outdoor\\/indoor cats, in which a prior trauma was either present or possible. The history included polydipsia and polyuria, and physical examination abnormalities included urinary bladder distention and dehydration. All cats

Itamar Aroch; Michal Mazaki-Tovi; Oved Shemesh; Havi Sarfaty; Gilad Segev

2005-01-01

169

Glomerular filtration rate estimated by cystatin C among different clinical presentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimates from serum creatinine has not been generalizable across all populations. Cystatin C has been proposed as an alternative marker for estimating GFR. The objective of this study was to compare cystatin C with serum creatinine for estimating GFR among different clinical presentations. Cystatin C and serum creatinine levels were obtained from adult patients (n=460) during

A D Rule; E J Bergstralh; J M Slezak; J Bergert; T S Larson

2006-01-01

170

Extracorporeal Ultrasound-Guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound: Implications from the Present Clinical Trials  

PubMed Central

Extracorporeal ultrasound-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been clinically used for 15 years, and over 36000 cases have been reported. However, there yet lacked a consensus in the clinical values, suggesting the necessity of checking clinical findings. Clinical trials were searched and data reevaluated. HIFU was hardly performed alone; almost all present anticancer means have been applied during an HIFU treatment, and a specific regimen varied between trials; there were heterogeneity and disagreement between trials. The complexity made it difficult to distinguish the effect of HIFU. Based upon evaluable data, the efficacy of HIFU was similar to that of radio frequency, chemoembolization, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or hormone therapy; a combined therapy did not improve the efficacy. The survival rate of HIFU plus radiotherapy was lower than that of radical surgery in liver cancers. Adverse events had no downtrend in the past years. HIFU was not a standardized procedure where the intensity and insonation mode were modified constantly throughout a treatment, limiting an evaluation from the perspective of ultrasonics. These implied that HIFU should be applied as an alternative at most occasions. The present clinical trials had defects making against the understating of HIFU. PMID:24982965

Yu, Tinghe; Fu, Xiao

2014-01-01

171

Vaccination Practices, Policies, and Management Factors Associated With High Vaccination Coverage Levels in Georgia Public Clinics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the factors associated with the in- crease in childhood vaccination coverage levels from 53% in 1988 to 89% in 1994 in Georgia's public health clinics. Design: A 1994 mail survey obtaining information on clinic vaccination policies and practices and manage- ment practices. Setting: All 227 public health clinics in Georgia. Participants: Clinic nurses responsible for vaccina- tion

Vance J. Dietz; Andrew L. Baughman; Eugene F. Dini; John M. Stevenson; Bennett K. Pierce; James C. Hersey

2000-01-01

172

Cranio-maxillofacial non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: Clinical and histological presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma represents about 5% of all malignant lesions of the head and neck. In this study we retrospectively evaluated clinical presentation, histological subtype and long-term prognosis of 42 patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma involving the craniofacial area. The mean age at diagnosis was 64years. More than half of the patients presented with disseminated disease at multiple sites (55%, n=23). In

Sebastian Scherfler; Kolja Freier; Robin Seeberger; Claire Bacon; Jürgen Hoffmann; Oliver C. Thiele

173

Hotline update of clinical trials and registries presented at the German Cardiac Society Meeting 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review article gives an overview on a number of novel clinical trials and registries in the field of cardiovascular medicine.\\u000a Key presentations made at the 75th annual meeting of the German Cardiac Society, held in Mannheim, Germany, in April 2009\\u000a are reported. The data were presented by leading experts in the field with relevant positions in the trials and

L. S. Maier; S. H. Schirmer; K. Walenta; C. Jacobshagen; M. Böhm

2009-01-01

174

Contribution of Transjugular Liver Biopsy in Patients with the Clinical Presentation of Acute Liver Failure  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. Acute liver failure (ALF) treated with conservative therapy has a poor prognosis, although individual survival varies greatly. In these patients, the eligibility for liver transplantation must be quickly decided. The aim of this study was to assess the role of transjugular liver biopsy (TJLB) in the management of patients with the clinical presentation of ALF. Methods. Seventeen patients with the clinical presentation of ALF were referred to our institution during a 52 month period. A TJLB was performed using the Cook Quick-Core needle biopsy. Clinical data, procedural complications, and histologic findings were evaluated. Results. Causes of ALF were virus hepatitis B infection in 7 patients, drug toxicity in 4, mushroom in 1, Wilson's disease in 1, and unknown origin in 4. TJLB was technically successful in all patients without procedure-related complications. Tissue specimens were satisfactory for diagnosis in all cases. In 14 of 17 patients the initial clinical diagnosis was confirmed by TJLB; in 3 patients the initial diagnosis was altered by the presence of unknown cirrhosis. Seven patients with necrosis <60% were successfully treated with medical therapy; 6 patients with submassive or massive necrosis ({>=}85%) were treated with liver transplantation. Four patients died, 3 had cirrhosis, and 1 had submassive necrosis. There was a strict statistical correlation (r = 0.972, p < 0.0001) between the amount of necrosis at the frozen section examination and the necrosis found at routine histologic examination. The average time for TJLB and frozen section examination was 80 min. Conclusion. In patients with the clinical presentation of ALF, submassive or massive liver necrosis and cirrhosis are predictors of poor prognosis. TLJB using an automated device and frozen section examination can be a quick and effective tool in clinical decision-making, especially in deciding patient selection and the best timing for liver transplantation.

Miraglia, Roberto, E-mail: rmiraglia@ismett.edu; Luca, Angelo; Gruttadauria, Salvatore; Minervini, Marta Ida; Vizzini, Giovanni; Arcadipane, Antonio; Gridelli, Bruno [Istituto Mediterraneo per i Trapianti e Terapie ad Alta Specializzazione (IsMeTT) (Italy)

2006-12-15

175

Systemic Arthritis in Children: A Review of Clinical Presentation and Treatment  

PubMed Central

Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) constitutes a small part of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), yet has a disproportionally higher rate of mortality. Despite being grouped under JIA, it is considered to be a multifactorial autoinflammatory disease. The objective of this paper is to review the epidemiology, pathogenesis, genetics, clinical manifestations, complications, therapy, prognosis, and outcome of sJIA. The presentation and clinical manifestations of sJIA have not changed much in the past several decades, but the collective understanding of the pathogenesis and the development of new targeted therapies (particularly the biologic agents) have transformed and improved the disease outcome for children with sJIA. PMID:22235382

Gurion, R.; Lehman, T. J. A.; Moorthy, L. N.

2012-01-01

176

GDNF: A Potent Survival Factor for Motoneurons Present in Peripheral Nerve and Muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

For survival, embryonic motoneurons in vertebrates depend on as yet undefined neurotrophic factors present in the limb bud. Members of the neurotrophin family are currently the best candidates for such neurotrophic factors, but inactivation of their receptor genes leads to only partial loss of motoneurons, which suggests that other factors are involved. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), originally identified

Christopher E. Henderson; Heidi S. Phillips; Richard A. Pollock; Alun M. Davies; Corinne Lemeulle; Mark Armanini; Barbara Moffet; Richard A. Vandlen; Vassilis E. Koliatsos; Arnon Rosenthal; Ve Koliatsor

1994-01-01

177

Assessing the clinical impact of prognostic factors: When is \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very few tumor markers have been recommended for routine clinical care of patients with breast cancer [1]. A framework to determine the clinical utility of tumor markers is required. In a previous publication, a \\

Daniel F. Hayes; Bruce Trock; Adrian L. Harris

1998-01-01

178

Sinonasal adenoid cystic carcinomas: clinical outcomes and predictive factors.  

PubMed

This is a retrospective study of 11 patients treated for sinonasal adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs) between 1989 and 2008. The authors statistically analysed the epidemiological, clinical, histological and therapeutic aspects of this series of patients with sinonasal ACCs and their impact in terms of overall and disease-free survival established using the Kaplan-Meier method. A search for prognostic factors was made using a log-rank test. There were 5 women (45.4%) and 6 men (54.6%). Average age at diagnosis was 52.2 years (24-75 years). Mean follow-up of patients was 63 months (11-142 months). Tumours were classified as T1 in 9%, T2 in 45.4% and T4 in 45.4% of cases. Disease-free survival rates at 1, 5 and 10 years were 83%, 41% and 18%, respectively, and overall survival rates were 100%, 64% and 35%, respectively. Surgery followed or not by radiotherapy resulted in better survival than other treatment, regardless of tumour stage. Better disease-free survival with postoperative radiotherapy was not found. These tumours should be treated by surgical resection with clear margins followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. PMID:23219711

Michel, J; Fakhry, N; Santini, L; Mancini, J; Giovanni, A; Dessi, P

2013-02-01

179

Perineal dermatitis risk factors: clinical validation of a conceptual framework.  

PubMed

As part of a larger study previously published in December of 1994, the question was asked whether commonly used pressure ulcer assessment tools (the Braden and Medley) were applicable to a broader definition of "skin risk assessment" and altered skin integrity related to perineal dermatitis (PD), and, if so, which risk factors were actually related to PD. The three site randomized clinical trial compared the use of diapers and underpads for 166 adult patients hospitalized on medical and surgical floors who were incontinent of urine and/or feces. Variables related to skin breakdown were the number of incontinence episodes, fecal incontinence, poor skin condition, pain, poor oxygenation, fevers, and mobility problems. Results also suggest that older patients may not have the sensory perception to experience discomfort in the same intensity as younger patients. Based on the findings of this study, pressure ulcer risk assessment tools are not good risk assessment tools for PD. The previously published conceptual framework for PD was modified and validated to form a basis for preventive measures. PMID:8679050

Brown, D S

1995-01-01

180

Mental workload as a key factor in clinical decision making.  

PubMed

The decision making process is central to the practice of a clinician and has traditionally been described in terms of the hypothetico-deductive model. More recently, models adapted from cognitive psychology, such as the dual process and script theories have proved useful in explaining patterns of practice not consistent with purely cognitive based practice. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of mental workload as a key determinant of the type of cognitive processing used by clinicians. Published research appears to be consistent with 'schemata' based cognition as the principle mode of working for those engaged in complex tasks under time pressure. Although conscious processing of factual data is also used, it may be the primary mode of cognition only in situations where time pressure is not a factor. Further research on the decision making process should be based on outcomes which are not dependant on conscious recall of past actions or events and include a measure of mental workload. This further appears to support the concept of the patient, within the clinical environment, as the most effective learning resource. PMID:22411354

Byrne, Aidan

2013-08-01

181

The Effect of Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor Administration on Preterm Infant with Neutropenia and Clinical Sepsis: A Randomized Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical effect of Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (GCSF) on prognosis of neonatal sepsis. Materials and Methods Present study is a double- blinded randomized clinical trial, conducted on 46 preterm infants with neutropenia (Absolute Neutrophil Count (ANC) ? 5000 / ?L) and clinical sepsis. Infants were randomly allocated into two groups. In the first group (treatment group), infants were treated with GCSF for up to 5 consecutive days with 10 ?g/ kg in addition to standard treatment protocols, and in other group, infants received normal saline as the placebo. Each infant was monitored for 14 days. Primary outcome was mortality during 14 days after entering the study, and secondary outcome was the incidence of positive blood culture, weight gain on the fourteenth day, the duration of hospitalization and medication side effects. Results In the treated group, only one death was observed (P-value=1.00). However, no positive results for cultures were reported. Only one case in the treatment group and 3 patients in the control group showed feeding intolerance and needed respiratory support (P-value= 0.608). Length of hospitalization was 25 ± 6 days for the treatment group and 30 ± 7 days for the control group which was statistically significant (P-value=0.042). Conclusion The results of this study demonstrated that GCSF could reduce the hospital stay, but no significant effect was observed on mortality rate, respiratory or feeding status. PMID:24575272

Borjianyazdi, L; Froomandi, M; Noori Shadkam, M; Hashemi, A; Fallah, R

2013-01-01

182

Clinical presentation of PCOS following development of an insulinoma: case report.  

PubMed

A 24 year old woman presented with a prolonged clinical history of fasting and exertional hypoglycaemia, and was subsequently diagnosed with an insulinoma. Concurrent symptoms of oligomenorrhoea and hyperandrogenism of similar duration were noted. Biochemically, hyperinsulinaemia was observed in association with a raised serum luteinizing hormone (LH), raised testosterone and androstendione concentrations. Surgical removal of the insulinoma resulted in resolution of the clinical and biochemical features of the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) but minimal change was observed in the ovarian ultrasound appearances. This case demonstrates the role of insulin in mediating the hypersecretion of both LH and androgens in women with polycystic ovaries. We suggest that hyperinsulinaemia converted occult 'polycystic ovaries' to become clinically manifest as 'polycystic ovary syndrome'. This paradigm has clear implications for women with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus who presumably have systemic hyperinsulinaemia. PMID:10611194

Murray, R D; Davison, R M; Russell, R C; Conway, G S

2000-01-01

183

The past, present and future of stem cell clinical trials for ALS.  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the cortex, brainstem and spinal cord. This leads to paralysis, respiratory insufficiency and death within an average of 3 to 5 years from disease onset. While the genetics of ALS are becoming more understood in familial cases, the mechanisms underlying disease pathology remain unclear and there are no effective treatment options. Without understanding what causes ALS it is difficult to design treatments. However, in recent years stem cell transplantation has emerged as a potential new therapy for ALS patients. While motor neuron replacement remains a focus of some studies trying to treat ALS with stem cells, there is more rationale for using stem cells as support cells for dying motor neurons as they are already connected to the muscle. This could be through reducing inflammation, releasing growth factors, and other potential less understood mechanisms. Prior to moving into patients, stringent pre-clinical studies are required that have at least some rationale and efficacy in animal models and good safety profiles. However, given our poor understanding of what causes ALS and whether stem cells may ameliorate symptoms, there should be a push to determine cell safety in pre-clinical models and then a quick translation to the clinic where patient trials will show if there is any efficacy. Here, we provide a critical review of current clinical trials using either mesenchymal or neural stem cells to treat ALS patients. Pre-clinical data leading to these trials, as well as those in development are also evaluated in terms of mechanisms of action, validity of conclusions and rationale for advancing stem cell treatment strategies for this devastating disorder. PMID:24613827

Thomsen, Gretchen M; Gowing, Genevieve; Svendsen, Soshana; Svendsen, Clive N

2014-12-01

184

Occult cystobiliary communication presenting as postoperative biliary leakage after hydatid liver surgery: Are there significant preoperative clinical predictors?  

PubMed Central

Background Occult cystobiliary communication (CBC) presents with biliary leakage, if the cystobiliary opening cannot be detected and repaired at operation. We investigated the clinical signs associated with the risk of occult CBC in the preoperative period by studying patients who developed biliary leakage after hydatid liver surgery. Methods We analyzed the records of 191 patients treated for hydatid liver cyst. Postoperative biliary leakage developed in 41 patients (21.5%). Independent predictive factors were established by logistic regression analysis using clinical parameters, whose cutoff values were determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results Postoperative biliary leakage presented as external biliary fistula in 31 (75.6%) of 41 patients, as biliary peritonitis in 6 (14.6%) and as cyst cavity biliary abscess in 4 (9.8%). Independent clinical predictors of occult CBC, represented by biliary leakage, were alkaline phosphatase > 250 U/L, total bilirubin > 17.1 ?mol/L, direct bilirubin > 6.8 ?mol/L, ?-glutamyl transferase > 34.5 U/L, eosinophils > 0.09 and cyst diameter > 8.5 cm. Multilocular or degenerate cysts increased the risk of biliary leakage (p = 0.012). Postoperative complication rates were 53.7% in the patients with biliary leakage, and 10.0% (p < 0.001) in those without. The mean postoperative hospital stay was longer in patients with biliary leakage (14.3 [and standard deviation {SD} 1.9] d) than in those without (7.3 [SD 2.3] d) (p < 0.001). Nineteen (61.3%) of 31 biliary fistulae closed spontaneously within 10 days. The remaining 12 (38.7%) fistulae closed within 7 days after endoscopic sphincterotomy. Conclusion Factors that predict occult CBC due to hydatid liver cyst were identified. These factors should allow the likelihood of CBC to be determined and, thus, indicate the need for additional procedures during operation to prevent the complications of biliary leakage. PMID:16749978

Demircan, Orhan; Baymus, Mustafa; Seydaoglu, Gülsah; Akinoglu, Alper; Sakman, Gürhan

2006-01-01

185

Severe Rift Valley Fever May Present with a Characteristic Clinical Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus is an emerging pathogen that is transmitted in many regions of sub-Saharan Africa, parts of Egypt, and the Arabian peninsula. Outbreaks of RVF, like other diseases caused by hemorrhagic fever viruses, typically present in locations with very limited health resources, where initial diagnosis must be based only on history and physical examination. Although general signs and symptoms of human RVF have been documented, a specific clinical syndrome has not been described. In 2007, a Kenyan outbreak of RVF provided opportunity to assess acutely ill RVF patients and better delineate its presentation and clinical course. Our data reveal an identifiable clinical syndrome suggestive of severe RVF, characterized by fever, large-joint arthralgia, and gastrointestinal complaints and later followed by jaundice, right upper-quadrant pain, and delirium, often coinciding with hemorrhagic manifestations. Further characterization of a distinct RVF clinical syndrome will aid earlier detection of RVF outbreaks and should allow more rapid implementation of control. PMID:20207858

Kahlon, Summerpal S.; Peters, Clarence J.; LeDuc, James; Muchiri, Eric M.; Muiruri, Samuel; Njenga, M. Kariuki; Breiman, Robert F.; Clinton White, A.; King, Charles H.

2010-01-01

186

Clinical presentations and biochemical profile in adult celiac disease patients in Hyderabad: Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Objective: To see the various clinical presentations and biochemical profile in adult celiac disease patients of Hyderabad Sindh. Methods: A total 60 suspected cases of adult celiac disease, both males and females were screened out from Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences hospital and private clinics at Sadar Hyderabad Sind by non probability purposive sampling during a period from July 2011 to December 2012.Age ranged between 18 to 55 Years. A detailed history and clinical examination was done. Patients already on gluten free diet, age <12years, tuberculosis or cancer of intestine/colon and patients of diabetes and thyroid disorder were excluded, while patients having positive ant tTG (value >15 iu/ml detected by ELISA) were included. The biochemical profile including serum albumin, calcium ,ferritin, SGPT, Alkaline phosphatase and Haemoglobin were estimated in central Diagnostic laboratory LUMHS by taking 10 cc centrifuged blood sample. The data was plotted on SPSS 16, mean and percentages were calculated. Results: All patients were divided in to three groups according to age. The most common group was 18-30 years; (mean, 23.5±5.6) comprised 56.6%. The commonest clinical presentation was diarrhoea in 50%, menstrual irregularity in 21%, walking problems 21%, undue fatigue in 15% and edema in 15%. P values calculated in quantitative variable of males and females. The p value was significant in between serum calcium (p 0.004), haemoglobin (p 0,004), serum ferritin (<0.005) and alkaline phosphatise (<0.005). Conclusion: This study showed that Adult celiac disease was present with entirely different clinical and biochemical profile in patients in this region. PMID:24772128

Masood, Naila; Ali Shaikh, Imran

2014-01-01

187

Factors Associated with Clinically Significant Insomnia Among Pregnant Low-Income Latinas  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Poor sleep, common during pregnancy, is associated with negative health risks. The study aimed to identify predictors of clinically significant insomnia among pregnant Latinas. Methods A total of 1289 pregnant Latinas recruited from obstetric clinics completed the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and questions about demographics and sleep. Results Clinically significant insomnia (ISI?10) was present among 17% of participants. Significant correlates of clinically significant insomnia were higher scores on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) after removing the sleep item (47% of women with EPDS?9 and 9% with EPDS<9), completing measures in English (rather than Spanish: 26% versus 13%), and income but not pregnancy week, age, highest education level, or marital status. The highest percentage of clinically significant insomnia (59%) was experienced by women with EPDS?9 who completed measures in English. The lowest percentage of clinically significant insomnia (6.2%) was experienced by women with EPDS<9 who completed measures in Spanish. Conclusions In this sample of low-income, mostly Spanish-speaking pregnant Latinas, rates of clinically significant insomnia appear to be higher than rates among nonpregnant Latinas. Rates of clinically significant insomnia are particularly high among Latinas with elevated depressive symptom severity, a known risk for insomnia. Acculturation, as indicated by completing measures in English, may be another risk specific to Latinas, possibly owing to loss of some ethnicity-specific protective factors (e.g., social support, strong family ties, and group identity). It will be important to directly test this explanation in future research. PMID:23863074

Steidtmann, Dana; Chambers, Andrea S.; Ganger, William; Horwitz, Sarah; Connelly, Cynthia D.

2013-01-01

188

Case of acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau following psoriasis with atypical clinical presentation.  

PubMed

We present a 63-year-old Japanese woman who had clinically unique symmetrical skin rashes on her lower face, inframammary area, back and extremities, with some pustules on the cheeks. Skin biopsy specimens showed typical findings of psoriasis, and Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score was 5.9. After the skin lesions were treated successfully with vitamin D3 ointment, pustules developed on the tips of the fingers and toes, with paronychial and subungual involvement. The pathology of the nail matrix was consistent with pustular psoriasis, and the patient was diagnosed with acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau (ACH) following psoriasis with an unusual clinical presentation. ACH was well controlled with a low dose of cyclosporin. Our patient is a rare case chronologically affected by two diseases in the same category. We confirmed that ACH is a variant of pustular psoriasis, and believe that the patient could provide another clue to determining the entity of ACH. PMID:25346303

Iijima, Shigeruko; Okazaki, Yukiko; Watanabe, Shinya; Maruyama, Yoko

2014-11-01

189

Chronic GM1 gangliosidosis presenting as dystonia: clinical and biochemical studies in a new case.  

PubMed

Clinical and biochemical findings in a patient affected by chronic GM1 gangliosidosis, presenting as progressive dystonia and mental deterioration, are reported. The patient, a 13-year-old male, showed, at the age of 3 years, an impairment of gait with frequent falls, dysarthria and stuttering. At the age of 6, writing dystonia appeared and subsequently mental deterioration and dystonic postures of arms and legs became evident. The clinical features presented by this patient are similar to those shown by the cases of adult/chronic GM1 gangliosidosis previously reported, except for the early onset. This observation emphasizes the occurrence of dystonia as prominent symptom in chronic GM1 gangliosidosis, underlining that this disease must be considered in the diagnostic approach to the progressive dystonias of the early infancy. PMID:8355822

Nardocci, N; Bertagnolio, B; Rumi, V; Combi, M; Bardelli, P; Angelini, L

1993-06-01

190

Effectiveness of Physical Exercise to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Youths: A Randomized Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of the current study was to test the effectiveness of a physical activity and exercise-based program in a clinical context to reduce cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents. Methods A randomized clinical trial was conducted in a pediatric preventive outpatient clinic. Intervention was 14 weeks of exercise for the intervention group or general health advice for the control group. The primary and the secondary outcomes were reduction of cardiovascular risk factors and the feasibility and the effectiveness of clinical advice plan to practice physical exercises at home. Results A total of 134 children were screened; 26 met eligibility criteria. Of these, 10 were allocated in the exercise intervention group and nine were included in the control group until the end of the intervention. Those patients who discontinued the intervention had the lowest scores of z-BMI (P = 0.033) and subscapular skin fold (P = 0.048). After 14 weeks of intervention, no statistical differences were found between the groups. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was higher in the exercise group, with a mild tendency to be significant (P = 0.066). Patients who adhere to treatment had diastolic blood pressure decreased from baseline to the end of the follow-up period in the control group (P = 0.013). Regardless of this result, the other comparisons within the group were not statistically different between T0 and T14. Conclusion A low-cost physical activity advice intervention presented many barriers for implementation in routine clinical care, limiting its feasibility and evaluation of effectiveness to reduce cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25780484

Cesa, Claudia Ciceri; Barbiero, Sandra Mari; Petkowicz, Rosemary de Oliveira; Martins, Carla Correa; Marques, Renata das Virgens; Andreolla, Allana Abreu Martins; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

2015-01-01

191

Perceived factors of family planning clinic performance and service quality.  

PubMed

As part of a larger operations research project, this 1990 study analyzed the performance of the Philippine Department of Health's (DOH) family planning (FP) clinics. Specific study objectives were 1) to measure acceptor targets, servicing capacity utilization, outreach, and costs; 2) to determine what providers believed affected performance; 3) to record which quality indicator providers use; and 4) to determine the perceptions of acceptors about clinic personnel, the clinic as a FP outlet, FP service processing, and FP service quality. Data were gathered from clinic records and from sample surveys in 25 clinics in four specified locations. Eight clients were sampled from each of the 100 clinics. It was found that clinic staff accepted low attainment of FP acceptor targets and that clinic capacity utilization levels were at 25% of capacity. Providers were unaware of the number of potential FP acceptors in their areas and had no information about the costs of running their clinics. The FP clinic managers identified 34 major determinants of clinic performance, but more than half reported that they had very little control over these determinants. The providers described quality service from the point of view of the acceptors and described the quality of a clinic in terms of the minimal physical characteristics required. The acceptor survey revealed that acceptor satisfaction depends upon 1) clinic accessibility and lay-out, 2) intensive personal contact, and 3) clinic infrastructure. The study uncovered a need for the DOH to institute management training programs for clinic managers and to provide managers with the resources and personnel to shift priorities in favor of FP coverage and prevalence. Managers, who are resource allocators, must also receive information about the costs of FP services in their clinics. In addition, the DOH's determination that its FP program would be facility- rather than community-based should be modified to incorporate community outreach elements. The DOH can also make a big impact on perceptions of quality (of both providers and acceptors) by improving clinic conditions to meet basic standards. Once these basic needs are met, additional needs of acceptors can and must be addressed. PMID:12320234

Roberto, E L

1993-01-01

192

Left ventricular diastolic function in workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the study was to evaluate left ventricular diastolic function in workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement. The studies included 115 workers (92 men and 23 women) occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement (mean age: 47.83 ± 8.29). Blood samples were taken to determine blood lipid profile, urine was collected to estimate mercury concentration (Hg-U) and echocardiographic examination was performed to evaluate diastolic function of the left ventricle. In the entire group of workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement, Spearman correlations analysis demonstrated the following significant linear relationships: between body mass index (BMI) and ratio of maximal early diastolic mitral flow velocity/early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E/E') (r = 0.32, p < 0.05), between serum HDL concentration and E/E' (r = ? 0.22, p < 0.05), between Hg-U and E/E' (r = 0.35, p < 0.05), between Hg-U and isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT') (r = 0.41, p < 0.05), between Hg-U and ratio of maximal early diastolic mitral flow velocity/maximal late diastolic mitral flow velocity (E/A) (r = ? 0.31, p < 0.05) and between serum HDL concentration and E/A (r = 0.43, p < 0,05). In logistic regression analysis it as shown that independent factors of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction risk in the study group included a higher urine mercury concentration, a higher value of BMI and a lower serum HDL concentration (OR{sub Hg}-{sub U} = 1.071, OR{sub BMI} = 1.200, OR{sub HDL} = 0.896, p < 0.05). Summing up, occupational exposure to mercury vapour may be linked to impaired left ventricular diastolic function in workers without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement. -- Highlights: ? Study aimed at evaluation of LVDD in workers occupationally exposed to Hg. ? There was significant linear relationships between Hg-U and E/E'. ? Independent risk factor of LVDD in study group included higher Hg-U. ? Independent risk factor of LVDD in study group included higher BMI and lower HDL. ? Occupational exposure to Hg may be linked to LVDD.

Por?ba, Rafa?, E-mail: sogood@poczta.onet.pl; Skoczy?ska, Anna; Ga?, Pawe?; Turczyn, Barbara; Wojakowska, Anna

2012-09-15

193

Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor is present in most pleural effusion fluids from cancer patients.  

PubMed Central

Pleural effusion samples were obtained from 55 patients with malignant disease, including patients with primary lung cancers and those with a variety of other tumours metastatic to the pleura. The effusions were assayed for the presence of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF), by both ELISA and bioassay. The presence of malignant cells in the effusions was also assessed. Detectable amounts of the factor, as judged by both criteria, were found in over 90% of all the effusions, including those from patients with a wide variety of carcinomas and also lymphomas. A wide range of HGF/SF levels were found for all tumour classes, some effusions containing high levels above 4 ng ml-1. It is concluded that tumours within the pleura and adjacent lung tissue are usually exposed to biologically significant levels of HGF/SF. PMID:8562345

Eagles, G.; Warn, A.; Ball, R. Y.; Baillie-Johnson, H.; Arakaki, N.; Daikuhara, Y.; Warn, R. M.

1996-01-01

194

Clinical manifestations and prognostic factors of Morganella morganii bacteremia.  

PubMed

Although Morganella morganii causes a variety of clinical infections, there are limited studies on M. morganii bacteremia after the year 2000. A total of 109 patients with M. morganii bacteremia at a medical center in Taiwan from 2003 to 2012 were studied. Among them, 30.3 % had polymicrobial bacteremia and 75.2 % had community-acquired infection. The most common underlying diseases were hypertension (62.4 %) and diabetes mellitus (38.5 %). The urinary tract (41.3 %) was the major portal of entry, followed by the hepatobiliary tract (27.5 %), skin and soft tissue (21.1 %), and primary bacteremia (10.1 %). Susceptibility testing of M. morganii isolates showed ubiquitous resistance to first-generation cephalosporins and ampicillin-clavulanate; resistance rates to gentamicin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and ciprofloxacin were 30.3 %, 1.8 %, and 10.1 %, respectively. Overall, the 14-day mortality was 14.7 %. Univariate analysis revealed that elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) values [p?=?0.0137, odds ratio (OR) 5.26], intensive care unit (ICU) admission (p?=?0.011, OR 4.4), and higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores (p?factor for mortality in multivariate analysis (p?=?0.0012, OR 1.55). In conclusion, M. morganii bacteremia patients were mostly elderly, with one or more comorbidities. Most of the patients had community-acquired infection via the urinary and hepatobiliary tracts. Furthermore, prognosis can be predicted according to disease severity measured by the APACHE II score. PMID:25107625

Lin, T-Y; Chan, M-C; Yang, Y-S; Lee, Y; Yeh, K-M; Lin, J-C; Chang, F-Y

2015-02-01

195

Glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome and hemiplegic migraines as a dominant presenting clinical feature.  

PubMed

Glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome (OMIM 606777) is a treatable epileptic encephalopathy caused by mutations in the SLC2A1 gene (OMIM 138140) causing impaired glucose transport into the brain. The classical phenotype is associated with seizures, developmental delay, ataxia and spasticity; however, milder phenotypes are emerging. We describe an 8-year-old boy with glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome whose clinical presentation was dominated by hemiplegic migraines that resolved with institution of a modified Atkins diet. PMID:25440161

Mohammad, Shekeeb S; Coman, David; Calvert, Sophie

2014-12-01

196

Primary Laryngeal Neuroendocrine Carcinoma – A Rare Entity with Deviant Clinical Presentation  

PubMed Central

Primary laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinomas are rare neoplasms. WHO classifies them under five categories of which, the moderately differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma is synonymous with atypical or malignant carcinoid tumour. We report a rare case of primary laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinoma with an unusual and misleading clinical presentation. The initial cytological diagnosis of secondary neuroendocrine carcinoma in the cervical lymph node led to the suspicion of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma in the larynx. PMID:25386445

K, Anoosha; K, Amita; Shankar S, Vijay; Geeta K, Avadhani

2014-01-01

197

A case of ethylmalonic encephalopathy with atypical clinical and biochemical presentation.  

PubMed

A child is reported presenting with a clinical picture suggestive of genetic connective tissue disorders (vascular fragility, articular hyperlaxity, delayed motor development, and normal cognitive development), an absence of pathological ethylmalonic acid excretion during inter-critical phases and a homozygous R163W mutation in the ETHE1 gene. This case suggests that ethylmalonic aciduria is not a constant biochemical marker of ethylmalonic encephalopathy and that its normal excretion outside of metabolic decompensation episodes does not exclude this metabolic disease. PMID:16828325

Di Rocco, Maja; Caruso, Ubaldo; Briem, Egill; Rossi, Andrea; Allegri, Anna E M; Buzzi, Davide; Tiranti, Valeria

2006-12-01

198

A case of ethylmalonic encephalopathy with atypical clinical and biochemical presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A child is reported presenting with a clinical picture suggestive of genetic connective tissue disorders (vascular fragility, articular hyperlaxity, delayed motor development, and normal cognitive development), an absence of pathological ethylmalonic acid excretion during inter-critical phases and a homozygous R163W mutation in the ETHE1 gene. This case suggests that ethylmalonic aciduria is not a constant biochemical marker of ethylmalonic encephalopathy

Maja Di Rocco; Ubaldo Caruso; Egill Briem; Andrea Rossi; Anna E. M. Allegri; Davide Buzzi; Valeria Tiranti

2006-01-01

199

An unusual presentation of Kabuki syndrome: clinical overlap with CHARGE syndrome.  

PubMed

Kabuki syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by intellectual disability and multiple congenital anomalies, including short stature, peculiar facial appearance, skeletal anomalies, a variety of visceral malformations and abnormal dermatoglyphic patterns. We describe a case of Kabuki syndrome presenting with atypical features, consisting of bilateral microphthalmia, coloboma, anal atresia and panhypopituitarism, showing considerable phenotypic overlap with CHARGE syndrome. This report demonstrates that clinical follow-up and molecular genetic testing can be useful for establishing the correct diagnosis. PMID:24862881

Verhagen, Judith M A; Oostdijk, Wilma; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Cecilia E J; Schalij-Delfos, Nicoline E; van Bever, Yolande

2014-09-01

200

Levels of soluble adhesion molecules in various clinical presentations of coronary atherosclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adhesion molecules play an important role in the development and course of coronary atherosclerosis. In this study, soluble forms of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), E-selectin and P-selectin were evaluated in patients with various clinical presentations of coronary atherosclerosis and compared them to those with angiographically documented normal coronary arteries. Venous plasma samples were collected from

Ümit Güray; A. Riza Erbay; Yesim Güray; M. Birhan Yilmaz; Asiye Ayca Boyac?; Hatice Sasmaz; Sule Korkmaz; Emine Kütük

2004-01-01

201

Clinical presentation and physiotherapy treatment of 4 patients with low back pain and isthmic spondylolisthesis  

PubMed Central

Objective Spondylolisthesis is a pathological condition characterized by the slipping of a vertebral body, compared with the underlying one, following structural and/or degenerative changes of the spine. The purpose of this case series is to describe clinical presentations and the conservative physiotherapy management of 4 patients with low back pain and lumbar isthmic spondylolisthesis. Clinical Features Four patients aged 25, 43, 36, and 50 years presented with low back pain of various duration. Radiographs confirmed the presence of lumbar isthmic spondylolisthesis. Outcome measures included numerical rating scale, disability outcome measure (Oswestry Disability Index), spinal instability tests (Prone Instability Test, Passive Lumbar Extension test), and muscle function tests (Aberrant Movement Patterns, Active Straight Leg Raising, Prone and Supine Bridge Tests). Intervention and Outcomes Treatment consisted of postural reeducation, stretching, and strengthening exercises. Over the course of individualized treatment, ranging from 8 to 10 treatment visits, outcomes improved for all 4 patients. Conclusion This report describes varying clinical presentations and treatment of 4 patients with isthmic spondylolisthesis, suggesting that different pain generators could be managed by different conservative approaches. PMID:23204952

Ferrari, Silvano; Vanti, Carla; O'Reilly, Caroline

2012-01-01

202

Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria syndrome with stroke-like imaging presentation: clinical, biochemical and molecular analysis.  

PubMed

Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in ORNT1 gene that encodes a mitochondrial ornithine transporter. It has variable clinical presentations with episodic hyperammonemia, liver dysfunction, and chronic neurological manifestations. In this work, we report the findings of HHH syndrome in 3 Saudi siblings. The 4-year-old proband presented with recurrent Reye-like episodes, hypotonia, and multiple stroke-like lesions on brain MRI. Biochemical and molecular analysis confirmed that she had HHH syndrome. She significantly improved on protein restriction and sodium benzoate. Her two older siblings have milder phenotypes with protein intolerance and learning problems. In comparison to their sister, their homocitrulline and orotic acid were only mildly elevated even before treatment. The three patients were homozygous for a novel mutation in ORNT1 with a Gly220Arg change. In view of the CNS lesions, which initially were felt to be suggestive of MELAS, we sequenced the entire mtDNA genome and no potential pathogenic mutations were detected. Analysis of ORNT2 did not provide explanation of the clinical and biochemical variability. This work presents a yet unreported CNS involvement pattern, notably multiple supratentorial stroke-like lesions in association with HHH syndrome. Moreover, it illustrates considerable clinical/biochemical correlation, and describes a novel mutation. We suggest including HHH syndrome in the differential diagnosis of patients found to have stroke-like lesions on brain MRI. PMID:17825324

Al-Hassnan, Zuhair N; Rashed, Mohamed S; Al-Dirbashi, Osama Y; Patay, Zoltan; Rahbeeni, Zuhair; Abu-Amero, Khaled K

2008-01-15

203

Clostridium difficile in a HIV-Infected Cohort: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Clinical Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objective C. difficile is the most commonly reported infectious diarrhea in HIV-infected patients in the United States. We set out to determine the incidence, risk factors, and clinical presentation of C. difficile infections (CDI) in a cohort of HIV-infected subjects. Design We performed a nested, case-control analysis with four non-CDI controls randomly selected for each case. Methods We assessed the incidence of CDI in the Johns Hopkins HIV Clinical Cohort between July 1, 2003 and December 31, 2010. Incident cases were defined as first positive C. difficile cytotoxin assay or PCR for toxin B gene. We used conditional logistic regression models to assess risk factors for CDI. We abstracted data on the clinical presentation and outcomes from case chart review. Results We identified 154 incident CDI cases for an incidence of 8.3 cases/1000 patient years. No unique clinical features of HIV-associated CDI were identified. In multivariate analysis, risk of CDI was independently increased for: CD4 count ?50 cells/mm3 (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 20.7, 95% CI 2.8–151.4), hospital onset CDI (AOR 26.7 [3.1–231.2]), and use of clindamycin (AOR 27.6 [2.2–339.4]), fluoroquinolones (AOR 4.5 [1.2–17.5]), macrolides (AOR 6.3 [1.8–22.1]), gastric acid suppressants (AOR 3.1 [1.4–6.9]), or immunosuppressive agents (AOR 6.8 [1.2–39.6]). Conclusions The incidence of CDI in HIV-infected patients was twice that previously reported. Our data show compromised cellular immunity, as defined by CD4 ?50 cells/ mm3is a risk factor for CDI. Clinicians should be aware of the increased CDI risk, particularly in those with severe CD4 count suppression. PMID:23842125

Haines, Charles F.; Moore, Richard D.; Bartlett, John G.; Sears, Cynthia L.; Cosgrove, Sara E.; Carroll, Karen; Gebo, Kelly A.

2013-01-01

204

Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis presenting to a chiropractic clinic: a description of 2 cases  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this case series is to describe the presentation of 2 patients who presented to a chiropractic teaching clinic with Paget-Schroetter syndrome (PSS) and to discuss the potential role for conservative therapy in the management of symptoms. Clinical Features Two patients presented with a vascular and muscular findings suggesting activity-related upper extremity deep vein thrombosis. One patient presented with recent onset of symptoms (pain in the neck with a “pinched nerve sensation” in the left upper trapezius); and the other presented with chronic, low-grade neck pain of 1 year's duration. Intervention and Outcome The initial treatment approach for the patient with acute symptoms included soft tissue therapy. During the second appointment, he was immediately referred for medical evaluation and management because of worsening symptoms. He was diagnosed with thrombus in the left brachial vein, started immediately on a thrombolytic agent, and referred to a thrombosis clinic. Treatment for the second patient with chronic symptoms included soft tissue therapy, spinal manipulative therapy, and active care. Two months after 3 treatments, she reported improved symptoms. She remains under supportive care and has reported continued relief of her symptoms. Conclusion Although a rare condition, PSS has the potential to result in significant morbidity and potentially fatal complications; thus, it is critical that practitioners recognize the signs and symptoms to facilitate appropriate and timely referrals. Clinicians should be aware of the presentation and proposed pathogenesis of PSS, and consider this diagnosis in patients with unilateral upper limb and/or neck pain. PMID:23843762

Stainsby, Brynne E.; Muir, Bradley J.; Miners, Andrew L.

2012-01-01

205

The Morel-Lavallée lesion: pathophysiology, clinical presentation, imaging features, and treatment options.  

PubMed

Morel-Lavallée lesions are posttraumatic hemolymphatic collections related to shearing injury and disruption of interfascial planes between subcutaneous soft tissue and muscle. We review the pathophysiology of Morel-Lavallée lesions, clinical presentation, and potential sites of involvement. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice for characterization. We present the MRI classification and highlight the key imaging features that distinguish the different types, focusing on the three most common: seroma, subacute hematoma, and chronic organizing hematoma. Potential mimics of Morel-Lavallée lesions, such as soft tissue sarcoma and hemorrhagic prepatellar bursitis, are compared and contrasted. Treatment options and a management algorithm are also briefly discussed. PMID:23949106

Bonilla-Yoon, Iris; Masih, Sulabha; Patel, Dakshesh B; White, Eric A; Levine, Benjamin D; Chow, Kira; Gottsegen, Christopher J; Matcuk, George R

2014-02-01

206

[Solid-pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas. Presentation of 3 clinical cases].  

PubMed

The solid-pseudopapillary tumors of the pancreas (TSPP) are a uncommon neoplasm (1- 2% of exocrine tumors). Are more frequent in young women and presents a low malignant potential (15% develop metastases). Its preoperative diagnosis is very difficult, because these tumors haven`t radiological features that makes distinguish from the other pancreatic cysts tumors. Usually are a histopathological finding. Surgical therapy provides good survival, even in the presence of metastases. We present 3 cases with clinical, imaging, treatment and histopathology to provide more information about this rare disease. PMID:21544159

Venturelli, Francisco M; Carrasco, Cristian L; Del Pozo, Maeva L; Cárcamo, Carlos I; Felmer, Orlando E; Ibaceta, Marcela Cárcamo; Leonelli, Aliro Venturelli

2011-01-01

207

Genomic imbalances in patients with a clinical presentation in the spectrum of Cornelia de Lange syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a rare autosomal-dominant disorder characterised by facial dysmorphism, growth and psychomotor developmental delay and skeletal defects. To date, causative mutations in the NIPBL (cohesin regulator) and SMC1A (cohesin structural subunit) genes account for > 50% and 6% of cases, respectively. Methods We recruited 50 patients with a CdLS clinical diagnosis or with features that overlap with CdLS, who were negative for mutations at NIPBL and SMC1A at molecular screening. Chromosomal rearrangements accounting for the clinical diagnosis were screened for using array Comparative Genomic Hybridisation (aCGH). Results Four patients were shown to carry imbalances considered to be candidates for having pathogenic roles in their clinical phenotypes: patient 1 had a 4.2 Mb de novo deletion at chromosome 20q11.2-q12; patient 2 had a 4.8 Mb deletion at chromosome 1p36.23-36.22; patient 3 carried an unbalanced translocation, t(7;17), with a 14 Mb duplication of chromosome 17q24.2-25.3 and a 769 Kb deletion at chromosome 7p22.3; patient 4 had an 880 Kb duplication of chromosome 19p13.3, for which his mother, who had a mild phenotype, was also shown to be a mosaic. Conclusions Notwithstanding the variability in size and gene content of the rearrangements comprising the four different imbalances, they all map to regions containing genes encoding factors involved in cell cycle progression or genome stability. These functional similarities, also exhibited by the known CdLS genes, may explain the phenotypic overlap between the patients included in this study and CdLS. Our findings point to the complexity of the clinical diagnosis of CdLS and confirm the existence of phenocopies, caused by imbalances affecting multiple genomic regions, comprising 8% of patients included in this study, who did not have mutations at NIPBL and SMC1A. Our results suggests that analysis by aCGH should be recommended for CdLS spectrum cases with an unexplained clinical phenotype and included in the flow chart for diagnosis of cases with a clinical evaluation in the CdLS spectrum. PMID:23551878

2013-01-01

208

Infected aortic aneurysms: clinical outcome and risk factor analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeInfected aortic aneurysms are difficult to treat, and are associated with significant mortality. Hospital survival is poor in patients with severe aortic infection, Salmonella species infection, Staphylococcus aureus infection, aneurysm rupture, and suprarenal aneurysm location. We reviewed the clinical outcome in 46 patients with primary infected aortic aneurysms and identified clinical variables associated with prognosis.

Ron-Bin Hsu; Robert J Chen; Shoei-Shen Wang; Shu-Hsun Chu

2004-01-01

209

False fracture of the penis: Different pathology but similar clinical presentation and management  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Penile fracture is the most common presentation of acute penis. Rupture of the superficial dorsal penile vein (s) may mimic penile fractures with similar clinical presentation but with intact corporeal bodies. Our aim of the study is to highlight superficial dorsal penile vein (s) injury as true emergency with better prognosis. Subjects and Methods: Sixty-eight patients with suspected penile fractures presented to our hospital between June 2007 and January 2013. Out of these, 11 patients showed intact tunica albuginea on exploration with injured dorsal penile vein (s) identified. Records of such 11 cases were reviewed regarding age, etiology, symptoms, physical signs, findings of surgical exploration and post-operative erectile function. Results: All 11 patients were injured during sexual intercourse and presented with penile swelling and ecchymosis and gradual detumescence. Mild penile pain was encountered in 5 cases and the “snap” sound was noted in 2 cases. Examination revealed no localized tenderness, or tunical defect. All the patients regained penile potency without deformity after surgical ligation of the severed vessels. One patient developed penile hypoesthesia. Conclusion: Although the classic “snap” sound and immediate detumescence are usually lacking in the symptomology of dorsal penile vein rupture, its clinical presentation can be indistinguishable from true penile fracture. Surgical exploration is still required to avoid missing tunical tear with possible future complications. The long-term outcome and prognosis are excellent. PMID:24669117

Kurkar, Adel; Elderwy, Ahmad A.; Orabi, Elderwy

2014-01-01

210

Genotypic analysis of meningococcal factor h-binding protein from non-culture clinical specimens.  

PubMed

Factor H-Binding Protein (fHbp) is an outer membrane protein antigen included in two novel meningococcal group B vaccines and, as such, is an important typing target. Approximately 50% of meningococcal disease cases in England and Wales are confirmed using real-time PCR on non-culture clinical specimens only. Protocols for typing fHbp from this subset of cases have not yet been established. Here we present a nested PCR-based assay designed to amplify and sequence fHbp from non-culture clinical specimens. From analytical sensitivity experiments carried out using diluted DNA extracts, an estimated analytical sensitivity limit of 6 fg/µL of DNA (<3 genome copies/µL) was calculated. The sensitivity of the assay was shown to be comparable to the ctrA-directed real-time PCR assay currently used to confirm invasive disease diagnoses from submitted clinical specimens. A panel of 96 diverse, patient-matched clinical specimen/isolate pairs from invasive disease cases was used to illustrate the breadth of strain coverage for the assay. All fHbp alleles sequenced from the isolates matched those derived from previous whole genome analyses. The first-round PCR primer binding sites are highly conserved, however an exceptional second-round PCR primer site mismatch in one validation isolate prevented amplification. In this case, amplification from the corresponding clinical specimen was achieved, suggesting that the use of a nested PCR procedure may compensate for any minor mismatches in round-two primer sites. The assay was successful at typing 91/96 (94.8%) of the non-culture clinical specimens in this study and exhibits sufficient sensitivity to type fHbp from the vast majority of non-culture clinical specimens received by the Meningococcal Reference Unit, Public Health England. PMID:24587125

Clark, Stephen A; Lucidarme, Jay; Newbold, Lynne S; Borrow, Ray

2014-01-01

211

Idiopathic Retroperitoneal Fibrosis: A Retrospective Review of Clinical Presentation, Treatment, and Outcomes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical manifestations, laboratory results, imaging findings, and treatments in patients with idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis (IRF) seen at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, we used International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes to identify all patients evaluated for IRF between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2006, at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN. Medical records were reviewed, and clinical information was abstracted. Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis was diagnosed on the basis of compatible imaging findings. Patients were followed up until their last visit at Mayo Clinic, death, or December 31, 2008, whichever came first. RESULTS: Of the 185 patients identified as having IRF, 113 (61%) were men and 72 (39%) were women. Mean ± SD age at diagnosis was 57.6±11.8 years. Biopsy specimens were obtained in 142 cases (77%). The most common presenting symptoms were back pain (38%) and abdominal pain (40%). Baseline erythrocyte sedimentation rate and/or C-reactive protein levels were elevated in 88 (58%) of the 151 patients tested. The median creatinine level at diagnosis was 1.3 mg/dL (interquartile range, 1.1-2.1 mg/dL). Fifteen patients (8%) were treated with ureteral procedures only, 58 patients (31%) with medications only, and 105 patients (57%) with a combination of medical and surgical therapies. Seven patients (4%) were not treated. Corticosteroids were initiated in 116 patients (63%), and tamoxifen was used in 120 patients (65%). Follow-up was available for 151 patients (82%). Creatinine levels were normal at last visit in 102 (68%) of the 151 patients with follow-up. No patient developed end-stage renal disease. Relapses occurred in 18 (12%) of the 151 patients. Eleven patients died. CONCLUSION: In this cohort, outcomes such as end-stage renal disease or death from renal failure were not observed. Relapses may occur, and patients with IRF warrant long-term follow-up. PMID:21454732

Kermani, Tanaz A.; Crowson, Cynthia S.; Achenbach, Sara J.; Luthra, Harvinder S.

2011-01-01

212

Presentations  

Cancer.gov

Presentations Name Position Presentation (ppt) Sudhir Srivastava, PhD, MPH Chief, Cancer Biomarkers Research Group Metabolomics: An Untapped Frontier (ppt, 161kb) John Milner, PhD Chief, Nutritional Sciences research Group Can Metabolomics

213

Factors Associated with Utilization of a Free HIV VCT Clinic by Female Sex Workers in Jinan City, Northern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on our previous qualitative exploration, this research presents the second phase in our study of factors associated\\u000a with utilization of a free HIV VCT clinic in Jinan City, Northern China, by female sex workers (FSWs). A total of 970 FSWs\\u000a from entertainment venues were interviewed and prospectively followed to determine who ultimately sought and received VCT\\u000a at the clinic,

Ying Wang; Bing Li; Jingbin Pan; Sohini Sengupta; Catherine Boland Emrick; Myron S. Cohen; Gail E. Henderson

2011-01-01

214

Comorbidity and high viral load linked to clinical presentation of respiratory human bocavirus infection.  

PubMed

Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a new parvovirus associated with acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI). In order to evaluate HBoV significance as an agent of acute respiratory disease, we screened 1,135 respiratory samples from children and adults with and without symptoms during two complete calendar years. HBoV1 prevalence in patients with ARTI was 6.33 % in 2011 and 11.64 % in 2012, including neonatal and adult patients. HBoV1 was also detected in 3.77 % of asymptomatic individuals. The co-detection rate was 78.1 %. Among children, 87 % were clinically diagnosed with lower respiratory infection (no significant differences between patients with and without coinfection), and 31 % exhibited comorbidities. Pediatric patients with comorbidities were significantly older than patients without comorbidities. Patients with ARTI had either high or low viral load, while controls had only low viral load, but there were no clinical differences between patients with high or low viral load. In conclusion, we present evidence of the pathogenic potential of HBoV1 in young children with ARTI. Since patients with HBoV1-single infection are not significantly different from those with coinfection with respect to clinical features, the virus can be as pathogenic by itself as other respiratory agents are. Furthermore, an association between high HBoV1 load and disease could not be demonstrated in this study, but all asymptomatic individuals had low viral loads. Also, children with comorbidities are susceptible to HBoV1 infection at older ages than previously healthy children. Thus, the clinical presentation of infection may occur depending on both viral load and the particular interaction between the HBoV1 and the host. PMID:25269520

Ghietto, Lucía María; Majul, Diego; Ferreyra Soaje, Patricia; Baumeister, Elsa; Avaro, Martín; Insfrán, Constanza; Mosca, Liliana; Cámara, Alicia; Moreno, Laura Beatriz; Adamo, Maria Pilar

2015-01-01

215

Aggressive Pseudomyxoma Peritonei: A Case Report with an Unusual Clinical Presentation  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is an uncommon surgical entity. We report a case of aggressive disease with an unusual clinical presentation and we analyze current data on diagnosis and management of PMP. Case Presentation. A 71-year-old male patient presented with intermittent diarrhea and loss of appetite during the last two months, without any other classic symptoms of PMP. The clinical examination was misleading due to patient's obesity. The radiological evaluation revealed ascites of the abdomen and possible mucocele of the appendix, whereas the laboratory exams showed high values of specific tumour markers. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy for definite diagnosis. Biopsies and immunohistochemical examination confirmed the diagnosis of an aggressive and extended peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis (PMCA). The patient was programmed for adjuvant systematic chemotherapy, which was not completed due to progression of the disease. Conclusions. Progressed PMP can present with unspecific symptoms that mislead diagnosis. Cytoreductive surgery in combination with systematic chemotherapy could be appropriate for aggressive PMCA, even with an unfavourable prognosis. PMID:24324903

Kavouras, Nikolaos; Menis, Michalis; Lavant, Laurant

2013-01-01

216

Tuberculous Otitis with Proteus mirabilis Co-Infection: An Unsuspected Presentation Encountered in Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis, a contagious bacterial disease which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, primarily involves the lungs.Though Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is the commonest clinical presentation, there is a need for alertness towards uncommon presentations which involve other organs. Tuberculous otitis media (TOM) is one such rare presentation seen in paediatric practice. It is characterized by painless otorrhoea which fails to respond to the routine antibacterial treatment. TOM usually occurs secondary to PTB. Here is a case of tuberculous otitis media with Proteus mirabilis co-infection, with no evidence of PTB. In the sample of ear discharge obtained from the patient, acid fast bacilli were demonstrated on direct microscopy after Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Culture done on Lowenstein-Jensen medium demonstrated slow-growing Mycobacterium. Bacteriological culture and identification helped in isolating Proteus mirabilis. PCR, followed by Line- Probe Assay for early identification and susceptibility testing to primary drugs, was done. Further, patient tested negative for the Mantoux test. Patient was enrolled in National Tuberculosis programme- RNTCP. This case emphasizes on one of the less common presentations of a common disease. A high clinical suspicion and laboratory confirmation are required for appropriate patient management. PMID:24995225

Sardar, Moumita; Jadhav, Savita Vivek; Vyawahare, Chanda; Misra, Rabindranath

2014-01-01

217

WISC-IV and Clinical Validation of the Four- and Five-Factor Interpretative Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the constructs measured by the WISC-IV and the consistency of measurement across large normative and clinical samples. Competing higher order four- and five-factor models were analyzed using the WISC-IV normative sample and clinical subjects. The four-factor solution is the model published with the test…

Weiss, Lawrence G.; Keith, Timothy Z.; Zhu, Jianjun; Chen, Hsinyi

2013-01-01

218

Critical factors for the effectiveness of clinical pathway in improving care outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, clinical pathway (CP) is becoming a promising healthcare management protocol due to its positive effectiveness on the care outcomes. But there are many factors that may influence the application effectiveness of clinical pathway thereby some unsuccessful cases are reported. To date, little research has been systematically conducted to identify and explore these factors. Under this consideration, this research dedicates

Jinghua Shi; Qiang Su; Zhongsheng Zhao

2008-01-01

219

CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS FOR THE INTRODUCTION OF A CLINICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

There exist some certain factors considered as critical that determines the success, failure or delay of the completion of IT projects. This paper discusses some of the critical success factors that we re identified during the Introduction of a Clinical Information System to a Greek Hospital. More specifically, it discusses the importance of choosing the most appropriate clinics to start

A. Vagelatos; J. Sarivouyioukas

220

Promoting Factors and Barriers to Participation in Early Phase Clinical Trials: Patients Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Background Inclusion of minorities in clinical research is an essential step to develop novel cancer treatments, improve health care overall, understand potential differences in pharmacogenomics and address minorities’ disproportionate cancer burden. However, Latinos and other minority groups continue to be critically underrepresented, particularly in early-phase clinical trials (EPCTs). The objective of the present study was to explore barriers and promoting factors influencing patients’ decisions to enroll or not in early phase clinical trials (EPCTs) and identify areas for intervention to increase minority enrollment into clinical research. Methods An interviewer-administered survey was conducted with 100 cancer patients in the predominantly Latino region of South Texas. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to identify underlying dimensions, and multiple logistic regression assessed significant factors that promote or deter patients enrollment to EPCTs. In addition, a separate subgroup mean analysis assessed differences by enrollment status and race/ethnicity. Results For one standard deviation increase in the importance given to the possibility of symptoms improvement, the predicted odds of refusing enrollment were 3.20 times greater (OR=3.20, 95% CI=1.06–9.71, p 0.040). Regarding barriers, among patients who considered fear/uncertainty of the new treatment a deterrent to enrollment, one standard deviation increase in agreement with these barriers was associated with a 3.60 increase (OR=3.60, 95% CI=1.30–9.97h, p 0.014) in the odds of not being enrolled in an EPCT. In contrast, non-enrolled patients were less likely (OR=0.14, 95% CI=0.05–0.44, p 0.001) to consider fatalistic beliefs as an important barrier. Conclusion This study, one of the first to identify South Texas patients’ barriers to enroll in EPCTs, highlights potential focal areas to increase participation of both minority and non-minority patients in clinical research. Culturally tailored interventions promoting patient-centered care and bilingual, culturally competent study teams could solve common barriers and enhance Latinos’ likelihood of joining clinical trials. These interventions may simultaneously increase opportunities to involve patients and physicians in clinical trials, while ensuring the benefits of participation are equitably distributed to all patients. PMID:25077043

Chalela, Patricia; Suarez, Lucina; Muñoz, Edgar; Gallion, Kipling J.; Pollock, Brad H.; Weitman, Steven D.; Karnad, Anand; Ramirez, Amelie G.

2014-01-01

221

Clinical presentation of Paget's disease: evaluation of a contemporary cohort and systematic review.  

PubMed

Paget's disease of bone (PDB) has become less common over recent decades but it is unclear if this has impacted on clinical presentation. Here we evaluated the presenting features of PDB in a contemporary cohort of UK patients and conducted a systematic review of studies in which the presenting features had been reported. The case series comprised 88 patients referred to a specialist clinic between 2005 and 2013. Bone pain was the most common presenting feature occurring in 73.8% of patients. Others included bone deformity (18.1%), deafness (7.9%) and pathological fracture (5.7%). The disease was asymptomatic in 22% of cases. Antiresorptive treatment was given for pain in 34 cases and 61.7% of patients responded. Patients with a shorter disease duration were more likely to respond (p = 0.047). In the systematic review, bone pain was the most common presenting feature (52.2% of cases) followed by deformity (21.5%), deafness (8.9%) and fracture (8.5%). Time trend analysis in subjects of European descent showed that fracture was less common in studies performed during the past 25 years as compared with older studies (5.5 vs. 10.8% p < 0.001) whereas pain was more common (54.3 vs. 48.3%, p = 0.003). While changes in the mode of presentation of PDB have occurred over recent years, many patients present with complications such as fracture and deformity. Further research is required to determine if early detection and therapeutic intervention might be of value in preventing the morbidity associated with this common disease. PMID:25160936

Tan, Adrian; Ralston, Stuart H

2014-11-01

222

The factor structure and psychometric properties of the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation – Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) in Norwegian clinical and non-clinical samples  

PubMed Central

Background The Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation - Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) is a 34-item instrument developed to monitor clinically significant change in out-patients. The CORE-OM covers four domains: well-being, problems/symptoms, functioning and risk, and sums up in two total scores: the mean of All items, and the mean of All non-risk items. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Norwegian translation of the CORE-OM. Methods A clinical sample of 527 out-patients from North Norwegian specialist psychiatric services, and a non-clinical sample of 464 persons were obtained. The non-clinical sample was a convenience sample consisting of friends and family of health personnel, and of students of medicine and clinical psychology. Students also reported psychological stress. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was employed in half the clinical sample. Confirmatory (CFA) factor analyses modelling the theoretical sub-domains were performed in the remaining half of the clinical sample. Internal consistency, means, and gender and age differences were studied by comparing the clinical and non-clinical samples. Stability, effect of language (Norwegian versus English), and of psychological stress was studied in the sub-sample of students. Finally, cut-off scores were calculated, and distributions of scores were compared between clinical and non-clinical samples, and between students reporting stress or no stress. Results The results indicate that the CORE-OM both measures general (g) psychological distress and sub-domains, of which risk of harm separates most clearly from the g factor. Internal consistency, stability and cut-off scores compared well with the original English version. No, or only negligible, language effects were found. Gender differences were only found for the well-being domain in the non-clinical sample and for the risk domain in the clinical sample. Current patient status explained differences between clinical and non-clinical samples, also when gender and age were controlled for. Students reporting psychological distress during last week scored significantly higher than students reporting no stress. These results further validate the recommended cut-off point of 1 between clinical and non-clinical populations. Conclusions The CORE-OM in Norwegian has psychometric properties at the same level as the English original, and could be recommended for general clinical use. A cut-off point of 1 is recommended for both genders. PMID:23521746

2013-01-01

223

Information Presentation: Human Research Program - Space Human Factors and Habitability, Space Human Factors Engineering Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within this DRP are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Electronic Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. This DRP is a collaborative effort between researchers atJohnson Space Center and Ames Research Center. T

Holden, Kristina L.; Sandor, Aniko; Thompson, Shelby G.; Kaiser, Mary K.; McCann, Robert S.; Begault, D. R.; Adelstein, B. D.; Beutter, B. R.; Wenzel, E. M.; Godfroy, M.; Stone, L. S.

2010-01-01

224

Changes in clinical & biochemical presentations of primary hyperparathyroidism in India over a period of 20 years  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: With the advent of serum chemistry autoanalyzer and routine estimation of serum calcium as a part of annual physical examination, there has been a dramatic change in the presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) from symptomatic to asymptomatic disease in the United States. However, such trend has not been documented from India. We carried out this retrospective study to analyse the changes in clinical presentations of PHPT patients over a period of two decades in a tertiary care centre in north India. Methods: This retrospective study included patients with PHPT treated at a single centre of north India between March1990 and October 2010. Two decades were divided into four different time periods, i.e. 1990 to 1994, 1995 to 1999, 2000 to 2004 and 2005 to 2010. Clinical presentations, biochemical parameters and surgical outcomes were compared between different time periods using appropriate statistical methods. Results: Data of 202 patients with PHPT with male: female ratio of 3:7 were analyzed. There was a rise in the number of cases of PHPT diagnosed in the last decade compared to the previous decade (28 cases vs 174 cases, P<0.001). Change in the mean age, male: female ratio, lag time for the diagnosis of PHPT and clinical presentations of PHPT (predominance of bone and stone symptoms) did not differ across different time periods. Non-significant decrease in serum calcium levels at the time of diagnosis of PHPT and a significant, decline in the serum alkaline phosphatase levels (P<0.01) were found in the last decade, however, iPTH levels were higher in the last decade (P<0.05). There was no change in the site and size of parathyroid adenoma in the two decades, however, postoperative symptomatic hypocalcemia was less frequent in the last decade. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings of this retrospective analysis show that the PHPT still remains symptomatic disease with increasing awareness over the last two decades in our center. There was not much change in the clinical presentation, in the past two decades. PMID:25027078

Shah, Viral N.; Bhadada, Sanjay Kumar; Bhansali, Anil; Behera, Arnanshu; Mittal, B.R.

2014-01-01

225

Ciliary neurotrophic factor genotype does not influence clinical phenotype in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) maintains survival of adult motor neurons. Mice lacking the CNTF gene develop mild, progressive motor neuron loss. In the normal human population, 1 to 2.3% are homozygous for a null allele, and reports suggest this mutant is associated with a younger onset of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We have tested this hypothesis in a study of 400 subjects with ALS and 236 controls. There was no difference in age of onset, clinical presentation, rate of progression, or disease duration for those with one or two copies of the null allele, excluding CNTF as a major disease modifier in ALS. PMID:12838531

Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Scheffler, Margaret D; Smith, Bradley N; Parton, Matthew J; Cudkowicz, Merit E; Andersen, Peter M; Hayden, Douglas L; Hansen, Valerie K; Turner, Martin R; Shaw, Christopher E; Leigh, P Nigel; Brown, Robert H

2003-07-01

226

Clinical analysis of the risk factors of slow coronary flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slow coronary flow (SCF) phenomenon is a coronary microvascular disorder characterized by the delayed passage of contrast\\u000a in the absence of obstructive epicardial coronary disease, and is an important clinical entity because it may be the cause\\u000a of precordial pain when the body is at rest and\\/or during exercise. Although clinical and pathological features of SCF have\\u000a been previously described,

Shuang Xia; Song-Bai Deng; Yang Wang; Jun Xiao; Jian-Lin Du; Yu Zhang; Xi-Chun Wang; Ye-Qing Li; Rui Zhao; Li He; Yu-Luan Xiang; Qiang She

227

Clinical significance of expression of tissue factor and tissue factor pathway inhibitor in ulcerative colitis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the clinical significance of expression of tissue factor (TF) and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) in ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: Thirty UC specimens taken by colonoscopy from patients with active UC treated at the Department of Pathology, Central Hospital Affiliated to Shenyang Medical College from February 2010 to January 2012 were included in an experimental group, and 30 normal colon tissue samples taken by colonoscopy from non-UC patients were included in a control group. Expression of TF and TFPI in UC and normal colon tissue samples was detected by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The positive rate of TF in UC was significantly higher than that in normal colon tissue (63% vs 33%, ?2 = 5.41, P < 0.05). The positive rate of TFPI in UC was also significantly higher than that in normal colon tissue (43% vs 17%, ?2 = 5.08, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Positive rates of TF and TFPI expression in UC are significantly higher than those in normal colon tissue. TF and TFPI may play an important role in the pathogenesis of UC. PMID:24966616

He, Hao-Lan; Zhang, Ji-Bin; Li, Qian

2014-01-01

228

Varicella Zoster Virus Meningitis in a Young Immunocompetent Adult without Rash: A Misleading Clinical Presentation  

PubMed Central

Meningitis caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV) is rare in healthy population. Predominantly immunocompromised patients are affected by reactivation of this virus with primary clinical features of rash and neurological symptoms. Here we report a young otherwise healthy man diagnosed with a VZV meningitis without rash. He complained of acute headache, nausea, and vomiting. The clinical examination did not show any neurological deficits or rash. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed a high leukocyte cell count of 1720?cells/µL and an elevated total protein of 1460?mg/L misleadingly indicating a bacterial infection. Further CSF analyses, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and detection of intrathecal synthesis of antibodies, showed a VZV infection. Clinical and CSF follow-up examinations proved the successful antiviral treatment. In conclusion, even young immunocompetent patients without rash might present with VZV meningitis. CSF examination is a key procedure in the diagnosis of CNS infections but in rare cases the standard values cell count and total protein might misleadingly indicate a bacterial infection. Thus, virological analyses should be considered even when a bacterial infection is suspected. PMID:25614843

Pasedag, Thomas; Weissenborn, Karin; Wurster, Ulrich; Ganzenmueller, Tina

2014-01-01

229

Red flags in patients presenting with headache: clinical indications for neuroimaging.  

PubMed

Headache is a very common patient complaint but secondary causes for headache are unusual. Neuroimaging is both expensive and has a low yield in this group. Most patients with intracranial pathology have clinical features that would raise a "red flag". Appropriate selection of patients with headache for neuroimaging to look for secondary causes is very important. Red flags act as screening tools to help in identifying those patients presenting with headache who would benefit from prompt neuroimaging, and may increase the yield. The aim of this study is to evaluate clinical features in patients with headache using neuroimaging as a screening tool for intracranial pathology. 20 red flags were defined. A retrospective study of 111 patients was performed and the outcomes were divided into positive and negative. Abnormal neuroimaging was present in 39 patients. Results were analysed using the Logistic Regression model. Sensitivity and specificity of red flags were analysed to establish the cut-off point to predict abnormal neuroimaging and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve plotted to show the sensitivity of the diagnostic test. Three red flag features proved to be statistically significant with the p-value of less than 0.05 on both univariate and multivariate analysis. These were: paralysis; papilloedema; and "drowsiness, confusion, memory impairment and loss of consciousness". In addition, if three or more red flags from the list were present, this showed strong indication of abnormal neuroimaging, from cut-off point of ROC curve (area under the curve =0.76). PMID:12893694

M, Sobri; Lamont, A C; Alias, N A; Win, M N

2003-08-01

230

Human Factors Barriers to the Effective Use of Ten HIV Clinical Reminders  

PubMed Central

Objective: Substantial variations in adherence to guidelines for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care have been documented. To evaluate their effectiveness in improving quality of care, ten computerized clinical reminders (CRs) were implemented at two pilot and eight study sites. The aim of this study was to identify human factors barriers to the use of these CRs. Design: Observational study was conducted of CRs in use at eight outpatient clinics for one day each and semistructured interviews were conducted with physicians, pharmacists, nurses, and case managers. Measurements: Detailed handwritten field notes of interpretations and actions using the CRs and responses to interview questions were used for measurement. Results: Barriers present at more than one site were (1) workload during patient visits (8 of 8 sites), (2) time to document when a CR was not clinically relevant (8 of 8 sites), (3) inapplicability of the CR due to context-specific reasons (9 of 26 patients), (4) limited training on how to use the CR software for rotating staff (5 of 8 sites) and permanent staff (3 of 8 sites), (5) perceived reduction of quality of provider–patient interaction (3 of 23 permanent staff), and (6) the decision to use paper forms to enable review of resident physician orders prior to order entry (2 of 8 sites). Conclusion: Six human factors barriers to the use of HIV CRs were identified. Reducing these barriers has the potential to increase use of the CRs and thereby improve the quality of HIV care. PMID:14527974

Patterson, Emily S.; Nguyen, Anh D.; Halloran, James P.; Asch, Steven M.

2004-01-01

231

Poland’s Syndrome: Different Clinical Presentations and Surgical Reconstructions in 18 Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The literature reports many variations of Poland’s syndrome. This article describes 18 cases of Poland’s syndrome in different\\u000a stages of treatment, with variable clinical presentations and reconstructive techniques.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This study evaluated 15 females and 3 males, ages 2 to 43 years, for breast deformity, nipple–areolar complex position, pectoralis\\u000a muscle malformation, thoracic deformities, and the presence of brachysyndactyly. Surgical treatment was

Renato da Silva Freitas; André Ricardo Dall’Oglio Tolazzi; Vanessa Dello Mônaco Martins; Breno Albuquerque Knop; Ruth Maria Graf; Gilvani Azor de Oliveira e Cruz

2007-01-01

232

Clinical Features and Risk Factors for Atazanavir (ATV)-Associated Urolithiasis: A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Clinical features and risk factors for atazanavir (ATV)-associated urolithiasis have not been fully investigated. Methods We reviewed all cases of ATV-containing urolithiasis identified by infrared spectrophotometry among HIV-infected patients over a 5-year period to describe their clinical features and outcome. A case-control study was performed to identify risk factors associated with ATV-associated urolithiasis using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results 30 cases of ATV-associated urolithiasis were analyzed. Patients were mostly men (87%), median age: 45.5 years, median CD4 cell count: 443 cells/µL and 97% had plasma HIV RNA level <50 cp/mL. Median time between the initiation of ATV-containing regimen and the diagnosis of urolithiasis was 3.1 years. Patients presented with flank pain in 90% and macroscopic hematuria in 82.6%, 34% had renal dysfunction and 44.8% needed ureteroscopic treatment. In univariate analysis, chronic hepatitis C, a history of urolithiasis, prior use of indinavir, ATV duration, undetectable plasma HIV RNA, use of ritonavir as a booster and serum free bilirubin level were associated with ATV-urolithiasis. Multivariate models retained serum free bilirubin level (OR: 2.31, p<0.02) and either ATV duration (OR: ?=?1.42, p?=?<0.03) or a history of urolithiasis (OR?=?4.79, p<0.02) when adjusting on serum free bilirubin level as risk factors associated with urolithiasis. Conclusions ATV-containing urolithiasis are associated with frank clinical symptoms and may require surgical intervention. A high serum bilirubin level, a long exposure to ATV and a history of urolithiasis are risk factors for this rare adverse event. PMID:25409506

Lafaurie, Matthieu; De Sousa, Barbara; Ponscarme, Diane; Lapidus, Nathanael; Daudon, Michel; Weiss, Laurence; Rioux, Christophe; Fourn, Erwan; Katlama, Christine; Molina, Jean-Michel

2014-01-01

233

Presentations from the SNM NCI Workshop: Use of PET CT in the Clinic and Clinical Trials: Quantitation for Change Analysis  

Cancer.gov

The session was aimed at physicians and physicists with an interest in the use of PET CT and other imaging modalities in clinical trials and clinical medicine. A basic understanding of PET imaging principles is useful as a background for viewing this material.

234

Intrinsic multipotential mesenchymal stromal cell activity in gelatinous Heberden’s nodes in osteoarthritis at clinical presentation  

PubMed Central

Introduction Gelatinous Heberden’s nodes (HNs), also termed synovial cysts, are a common form of generalized osteoarthritis (OA). We sought to determine whether HN cases at clinical presentation contained multipotential stromal cells (MSCs) and to explore whether such cells were more closely related to bone marrow (BM) or synovial fluid (SF) MSCs by transcriptional analysis. Methods At clinical presentation, gelatinous material was extracted/extruded from the distal phalangeal joint of OA patients with HNs. From this, plastic adherent cells were culture-expanded for phenotypic and functional characterization and comparison with BM- and SF-MSCs. Mesenchymal related gene expression was studied by using a custom-designed TaqMan Low Density Array to determine transcriptional similarities between different MSC groups and skin fibroblasts. Results In all cases, HN material produced MSC-like colonies. Adherent cultures displayed an MSC phenotype (CD29+, CD44+, CD73+, CD81+, and CD90+ and CD14- CD19-, CD31-, CD34-, CD45-, and HLADR-) and exhibited osteogenic, chondrogenic lineage differentiation but weak adipogenesis. Gene cluster analysis showed that HN-MSCs were more closely related to SF- than normal or OA BM-MSCs with significantly higher expression of synovium-related gene markers such as bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4), bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 1A (BMPR1A), protein/leucine-rich end leucine-rich repeat protein (PRELP), secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (SFRP4), and tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 6 (TNFAIP6) (P <0.05). Conclusions Gelatinous HNs derived from hand OA at clinical presentation contain a population of MSCs that share transcriptional similarities with SF-derived MSCs. Their aberrant entrapment within the synovial cysts may impact on their normal role in joint homeostasis. PMID:24894724

2014-01-01

235

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor in rheumatoid arthritis: clinical correlations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Cytokines play an important role in the pathology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a cytokine with a broad spectrum of actions, including induction of monocyte tumour necrosis factor a (TNF-a). Evidence of the expression and proinflammatory activity of MIF has recently been demonstrated in RA synovium and in animal models of RA. We wished

E. F. Morand; M. Leech; H. Weedon; C. Metz; R. Bucala; M. D. Smith

2002-01-01

236

Congenital Aniridia: Long-term Clinical Course, Visual Outcome, and Prognostic Factors  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe the clinical course of congenital aniridia and to evaluate prognostic factors for visual outcome after long-term follow-up. Methods The medical records of 120 eyes from 60 patients with congenital aniridia were retrospectively reviewed. The prevalence and clinical course of ophthalmic characteristics, systemic disease, refractive errors, and visual acuity were assessed. Prognostic factors for final visual outcomes were analyzed. Results Aniridic keratopathy developed in 82 (69%) of 119 eyes. Macular hypoplasia was observed in 70 eyes of 35 patients (91%). Cataract was observed in 63 of 120 eyes (53%). Nystagmus was present in 41 patients (68% of 60 patients) at the initial visit but decreased in five patients (8% of 60 patients). Ocular hypertension was detected in 19 eyes (20% of 93 eyes), six (32% of 19 eyes) of which developed secondarily after cataract surgery. The mean changes in spherical equivalent and astigmatism during the follow-up period were -1.10 and 1.53 diopter, respectively. The mean final visual acuity was 1.028 logarithm of minimal angle of resolution. Nystagmus and ocular hypertension were identified as prognostic factors for poor visual outcome. Conclusions Identification of nystagmus and ocular hypertension was important to predict final visual outcome. Based on the high rate of secondary ocular hypertension after cataract surgery, careful management is needed. PMID:25435751

Chang, Ji Woong; Kim, Jeong Hun; Kim, Seong-Joon

2014-01-01

237

[Clinical evaluation of the risk factors for liver abscess after TACE or RFA].  

PubMed

Radiofrequency ablation(RFA)and transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) are widely enforced as a standard combined therapy for liver cancer. Liver abscess occurs occasionally as a complication. This clinical study was conducted to determine risk factors for liver abscess. We investigated the clinical background of 10 cases complicated by liver abscess in 957 cases of patients who underwent TACE or RFA for liver cancer at Minoh City Hospital between April 2002 and March 2012. Risk factors for liver abscess were analyzed statistically in comparison to a control group without liver abscess. Diabetes and a history of biliary tract organic disease were statistically significant independent risk factors determined by multivariate analysis. We consider patients with a history of biliary tract organic disease, or who have a potential biliary tract infection, and diabetes, to be susceptible to infection. A case presenting with diabetes and a history of biliary tract disease is in a high-risk group, so treatment with TACE or RFA for such cases should be considered carefully. PMID:25731440

Oshima, Satoshi; Tani, Naoko; Takaishi, Kenji; Hirano, Miki; Makari, Yoichi; Hoshi, Minako; Doi, Takashi; Matsuno, Hiroshi; Kobori, Yuko; Kobayashi, Teruyuki; Hyuga, Satoshi; Ikeda, Kimimasa; Kurokawa, Eiji; Tamura, Shinji; Inoue, Yutaka; Nakajima, Kazuhiro

2014-11-01

238

Comparison of clinical findings between intensity-windowed versus CLAHE presentations of chest CT images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are investigating how radiologists's readings of standard intensity windowed (IW) chest computed tomography (CT) films compare with readings of the same images processed with contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE). Previously reported studies where CLAHE has been tested have involved detection of computer generated targets in medical images. Our study is designed to evaluate CLAHE when applied to clinical material and to compare the diagnostic information perceived by the radiologists from CLAHE processed images to that from the conventional IW images. Our initial experiment with two radiologists did not yield conclusive results, due in part, to inadequate observer training prior to the experiment. The initial experimental protocol was redesigned to include more in-depth training. Three new radiologist observers were recruited for the follow-up study. Results from the initial study are reviewed and the follow-up study is presented. In the new study we find that while CLAHE and IW are not statistically significantly different overall, there are specific clinical findings where the radiologists were less comfortable reading CLAHE presentations. Advantages and disadvantages of using CLAHE as a replacement or as an adjunct to IW are discussed.

Hemminger, Bradley M.; Johnston, Richard E.; Muller, Keith E.; Taylor, D.; Mauro, J. Matthew; Schiebler, M.; Pisano, Etta D.

1992-05-01

239

Clinical presentation of a patient with localized acquired cutis laxa of abdomen: a case report.  

PubMed

Background. Cutis laxa (CL) is a rare disorder of elastic tissue characterized by loose, sagging skin with reduced elasticity, and resilience without resulting scarring. CL may be inherited as a dominant, recessive, or X-linked recessive disease, or acquired. The heritable forms of CL predominantly begin at birth, but it may be delayed until puberty or age of 30 years with extracutaneous manifestations including pulmonary emphysema, umbilical and inguinal hernias, and gastrointestinal and vesicourinary tract diverticuli. An acquired form of the disease occurs in adults with no evidence of internal organ involvement. Objective. The aim of this case report was to present our patient suffering from CL, and to evaluate clinical presentation, diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties in this rare condition. Case Report. A 30-year-old female patient was admitted to our Hospital due to localized loose and sagging skin of abdomen, induced by prior cesarean section 6 years ago. CL has been diagnosed based on the clinical picture and pathohistological appearance. Conclusion. Reconstructive surgery provides a dramatic cosmetic improvement with significant psychosocial benefit. Repeated surgical procedures may be required to correct the lax skin, which worsens with age. PMID:20585600

Gveri?, Tugomir; Bari?, Marko; Bulat, Vedrana; Situm, Mirna; Pusi?, Jana; Huljev, Dubravko; Zdilar, Boris; Gveri?-Ahmetasevi?, Snjezana; Tomas, Davor

2010-01-01

240

Clinical Presentation of a Patient with Localized Acquired Cutis Laxa of Abdomen: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Background. Cutis laxa (CL) is a rare disorder of elastic tissue characterized by loose, sagging skin with reduced elasticity, and resilience without resulting scarring. CL may be inherited as a dominant, recessive, or X-linked recessive disease, or acquired. The heritable forms of CL predominantly begin at birth, but it may be delayed until puberty or age of 30 years with extracutaneous manifestations including pulmonary emphysema, umbilical and inguinal hernias, and gastrointestinal and vesicourinary tract diverticuli. An acquired form of the disease occurs in adults with no evidence of internal organ involvement. Objective. The aim of this case report was to present our patient suffering from CL, and to evaluate clinical presentation, diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties in this rare condition. Case Report. A 30-year-old female patient was admitted to our Hospital due to localized loose and sagging skin of abdomen, induced by prior cesarean section 6 years ago. CL has been diagnosed based on the clinical picture and pathohistological appearance. Conclusion. Reconstructive surgery provides a dramatic cosmetic improvement with significant psychosocial benefit. Repeated surgical procedures may be required to correct the lax skin, which worsens with age. PMID:20585600

Gveri?, Tugomir; Bari?, Marko; Bulat, Vedrana; Šitum, Mirna; Puši?, Jana; Huljev, Dubravko; Zdilar, Boris; Gveri?-Ahmetaševi?, Snježana; Tomas, Davor

2010-01-01

241

Severe dental caries as the first presenting clinical feature in primary Sjögren’s syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background: Sjögren’s syndrome is an autoimmune syndrome involving the exocrine glands specially the salivary and lacrimal glands leading to xerostomia and xerophtalmia. This paper presents a case with primary Sjögren’s syndrome that severe dental caries were the first clinical manifestation. Case Presentation: A 42-year-old man was referred to the School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences due to unexplained severe dental decays. After systematic evaluation and consultation with the rheumatologist and the ophthalmologist, the diagnosis of primary Sjögren’s syndrome was suggested and confirmed by serologic and histopathologic study. Conclusion: Primary Sjögren’s syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with early severe dental caries. PMID:24009970

Ahmadi, Elham; Fallahi, Sasan; Alaeddini, Mojgan; Hasani Tabatabaei, Masoomeh

2013-01-01

242

Renal failure: unusual clinical presentation of an isolated intrarenal hydatid cyst.  

PubMed

Cystic echinococcosis or hydatid disease is a zoonotic parasitic infection caused by larval stage of cestode Echinococcus spp. Humans are an accidental intermediate host and present with the involvement of different organs, the liver being the most common while kidney is the rarest site. Here, authors are reporting a case of a 55-year-old woman who presented with renal failure and was found to have a right-sided intrarenal hydatid cyst, diagnosed and treated with nephroscopy without sacrificing the kidney. She had an uneventful postoperative course and her renal function improved dramatically. She is now on oral albendazole therapy and doing well on follow-up. To the best of our knowledge, renal failure has never been reported in the literature as clinical manifestation of intrarenal hydatid cyst in adult population. PMID:24243503

Nadeem, Mehwash; Biyabani, Syed Raziuddin; Pervez, Shahid

2013-01-01

243

Overdose of drugs for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: clinical presentation, mechanisms of toxicity, and management.  

PubMed

The prevalence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the USA is estimated at approximately 4-9% in children and 4% in adults. It is estimated that prescriptions for ADHD medications are written for more than 2.7 million children per year. In 2010, US poison centers reported 17,000 human exposures to ADHD medications, with 80% occurring in children <19 years old and 20% in adults. The drugs used for the treatment of ADHD are diverse but can be roughly separated into two groups: the stimulants such as amphetamine, methylphenidate, and modafinil; and the non-stimulants such as atomoxetine, guanfacine, and clonidine. This review focuses on mechanisms of toxicity after overdose with ADHD medications, clinical effects from overdose, and management. Amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methylphenidate act as substrates for the cellular monoamine transporter, especially the dopamine transporter (DAT) and less so the norepinephrine (NET) and serotonin transporter. The mechanism of toxicity is primarily related to excessive extracellular dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. The primary clinical syndrome involves prominent neurological and cardiovascular effects, but secondary complications can involve renal, muscle, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal (GI) effects. In overdose, the patient may present with mydriasis, tremor, agitation, hyperreflexia, combative behavior, confusion, hallucinations, delirium, anxiety, paranoia, movement disorders, and seizures. The management of amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methylphenidate overdose is largely supportive, with a focus on interruption of the sympathomimetic syndrome with judicious use of benzodiazepines. In cases where agitation, delirium, and movement disorders are unresponsive to benzodiazepines, second-line therapies include antipsychotics such as ziprasidone or haloperidol, central alpha-adrenoreceptor agonists such as dexmedetomidine, or propofol. Modafinil is not US FDA approved for treatment of ADHD; however, it has been shown to improve ADHD signs and symptoms and has been used as an off-label pharmaceutical for this diagnosis in both adults and children. The mechanism of action of modafinil is complex and not fully understood. It is known to cause an increase in extracellular concentrations of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin in the neocortex. Overdose with modafinil is generally of moderate severity, with reported ingestions of doses up to 8 g. The most common neurological effects include increased anxiety, agitation, headache, dizziness, insomnia, tremors, and dystonia. The management of modafinil overdose is largely supportive, with a focus on sedation, and control of dyskinesias and blood pressure. Atomoxetine is a selective presynaptic norepinephrine transporter inhibitor. The clinical presentation after overdose with atomoxetine has generally been mild. The primary effects have been drowsiness, agitation, hyperactivity, GI upset, tremor, hyperreflexia, tachycardia hypertension, and seizure. The management of atomoxetine overdose is largely supportive, with a focus on sedation, and control of dyskinesias and seizures. Clonidine is a synthetic imidazole derivative with both central and peripheral alpha-adrenergic agonist actions. The primary clinical syndrome involves prominent neurological and cardiovascular effects, with the most commonly reported features of depressed sensorium, bradycardia, and hypotension. While clonidine is an anti-hypertensive medication, a paradoxical hypertension may occur early with overdose. The clinical syndrome after overdose of guanfacine may be mixed depending on central or peripheral alpha-adrenoreceptor effects. Initial clinical effects may be drowsiness, lethargy, dry mouth, and diaphoresis. Cardiovascular effects may depend on time post-ingestion and may present as hypotension or hypertension. The management of guanfacine overdose is largely supportive, with a focus on support of blood pressure. Overdose with ADHD medications can produce major morbidity, with many cases requiring intensive care medicine an

Spiller, Henry A; Hays, Hannah L; Aleguas, Alfred

2013-07-01

244

Clinical preference for factors in treatment of geriatric depression  

PubMed Central

Little is known about symptom preferences of clinical psychiatrists in the treatment of geriatric depression and preferences for avoiding adverse drug effects. Participants (board-certified psychiatrists) were recruited prior to a lecture on geriatric depression during a continuing education program. An analytic hierarchy process was performed and participants were asked for pairwise comparison of criteria guiding them in appraising therapeutic efficacy, and in avoiding toxicity and adverse events. Of the 61 participants from the continuing education program, 42 (69%) returned their data sheet. Avoidance of cardiotoxicity was regarded as more important than avoidance of hepatotoxicity or hematotoxicity. Concerning adverse events, highest preference was given to avoidance of falls and drug interactions, followed by avoidance of sedation, weight change, and impairment of sexual function. The most important preferences for appraisal of therapeutic efficacy were suicidality over ability to concentrate and sleep. Clinical psychiatrists have a hierarchy of preferences for treatment goals and avoidance of adverse events and toxicity. This raises the question for future research whether these preferences cause differences in prescription patterns in clinical practice even though a multitude of antidepressants are similarly effective when judged with instruments used in clinical trials. PMID:25565848

Riepe, Matthias W

2015-01-01

245

Infections caused by carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae: risk factors, clinical features and prognosis.  

PubMed

Infections caused by carbapenem-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) can present as several infectious syndromes, but they primarily present as respiratory, urinary and blood stream infections (primary or catheter-related) that are usually found as nosocomial or healthcare-associated infections. The risk of CPE infection is influenced by individual factors, such as the length of the hospital stay and their exposure to invasive procedures and/or to antimicrobials. Of note, exposure to several antimicrobials, not only carbapenems, has been linked to CPE colonization; the duration of antibiotic exposure is one of the primary drivers of CPE acquisition. Individual risk factors must be considered jointly with the local epidemiology of these microorganisms in healthcare institutions. Overall, these infections have a high associated mortality. Mortality is influenced by host factors (e.g., age, comorbidity and immune deficiency), infection-related variables (e.g., type and severity of the infection) and treatment-related factors such as the delay in the initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy and the use or monotherapy or combined antimicrobial therapy. Gaining knowledge concerning the epidemiology, clinical features and prognostic features of CPE infection could be useful for improving infection prevention and for the management of patients with infections caused by these microorganisms. PMID:25542051

Paño Pardo, José Ramón; Serrano Villar, Sergio; Ramos Ramos, Juan Carlos; Pintado, Vicente

2014-12-01

246

Extraintestinal Salmonellosis in a General Hospital (1991 to 1996): Relationships between Salmonella Genomic Groups and Clinical Presentations  

PubMed Central

Episodes of extraintestinal salmonellosis treated at a general hospital (1,522 beds) over a 6-year period (1991 to 1996) were characterized by the analysis of phenotypic and genotypic traits of Salmonella organisms and clinical data from medical reports. Extraintestinal salmonellosis accounted for 8% of all salmonellosis episodes. Fifty-two medical reports, dealing with 6 cases of typhoid fever, 32 cases of bacteremia, and 14 focal infections, were reviewed. All cases of typhoid fever except 1, 7 cases of bacteremia, and 5 focal infections were not related to any underlying disease or predisposing factors, while 25 cases of bacteremia and 9 focal infections were associated with some of these risk factors. All typhoid isolates and 65.4% of the nontyphoid isolates were susceptible to antimicrobials. Fifty-one nontyphoid strains were analyzed and assigned to 21 genomic groups, which were defined by serotype, combined ribotype, and combined randomly amplified polymorphic DNA type (each genomic group could include organisms differing in some phenotypic traits). The relationships between genomic groups and clinical presentations were traced. Organisms causing 22 episodes (17 episodes of bacteremia, 2 of pneumonia, 1 of peritonitis, 1 of pyelonephritis, and 1 of cystitis) belonged to a prevalent Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis genomic group, which included organisms assigned to four phage types, five biotypes, and four resistance patterns, causing infections in patients with and without risk factors. Seven other genomic groups, 4 Enteritidis groups (associated with both bacteremia and focal infections), 2 Typhimurium groups (one associated with bacteremia and the other with focal infections) and 1 Brandenburg group (associated with bacteremia) included two or more strains, and the remaining 13 genomic groups consisted of only one strain each. PMID:9774581

Rodríguez, Mercedes; de Diego, Isabel; Mendoza, M. Carmen

1998-01-01

247

Pathological gambling, co-occurring disorders, clinical presentation, and treatment outcomes at a university-based counseling clinic.  

PubMed

It is the intent of this study to examine the relationship between the number of co-occurring disorders in a sample of pathological gamblers and variables associated with clinical presentation and treatment outcomes. Participants were given screening tools for four common psychological disorders: the hands depression screen, the Mood Disorder Questionnaire, the Carroll-Davidson generalized anxiety disorder screen, and the Sprint-4 PTSD Screen. The number of co-occurring disorders, as indicated by the results of these screening instruments, was compared to severity of gambling problems at outset of treatment, as measured by the NORC diagnostic screen for gambling problems-self administered. The number of co-occurring disorders was also compared to psychosocial functioning at the outset of treatment, as well as level of improvement in psychosocial functioning through treatment. Psychosocial functioning was measured using the Outcome Questionnaire 45 (OQ-45). The number of co-occurring disorders was compared to participant satisfaction with the therapeutic relationship as measured by the working alliance inventory-short form. Results suggest that co-occurring disorders are commonplace among treatment seeking pathological gamblers. Over 86 % of the sample screened positively for at least one of the four targeted psychological disorders. Furthermore, the number of co-occurring disorders was found to be positively related to severity of gambling problems at outset of treatment and negatively related to level of psychosocial functioning at outset of treatment. However, the number of co-occurring disorders was not found to be significantly related to level of improvement in psychosocial functioning through treatment. Overall, those that attended at least six sessions reported significantly improved psychosocial functioning by the end of their sixth session. Finally, the number of co-occurring disorders was not found to be significantly related to participants' reported level of satisfaction with the therapeutic relationship. PMID:23297170

Soberay, Adam; Faragher, J Michael; Barbash, Melissa; Brookover, Amanda; Grimsley, Paul

2014-03-01

248

Retrospective analysis of 104 histologically proven adult brainstem gliomas: clinical symptoms, therapeutic approaches and prognostic factors  

PubMed Central

Background Adult brainstem gliomas are rare primary brain tumors (<2% of gliomas). The goal of this study was to analyze clinical, prognostic and therapeutic factors in a large series of histologically proven brainstem gliomas. Methods Between 1997 and 2007, 104 patients with a histologically proven brainstem glioma were retrospectively analyzed. Data about clinical course of disease, neuropathological findings and therapeutic approaches were analyzed. Results The median age at diagnosis was 41 years (range 18-89 years), median KPS before any operative procedure was 80 (range 20-100) and median survival for the whole cohort was 18.8 months. Histopathological examinations revealed 16 grade I, 31 grade II, 42 grade III and 14 grade IV gliomas. Grading was not possible in 1 patient. Therapeutic concepts differed according to the histopathology of the disease. Median overall survival for grade II tumors was 26.4 months, for grade III tumors 12.9 months and for grade IV tumors 9.8 months. On multivariate analysis the relative risk to die increased with a KPS ? 70 by factor 6.7, with grade III/IV gliomas by the factor 1.8 and for age ? 40 by the factor 1.7. External beam radiation reduced the risk to die by factor 0.4. Conclusion Adult brainstem gliomas present with a wide variety of neurological symptoms and postoperative radiation remains the cornerstone of therapy with no proven benefit of adding chemotherapy. Low KPS, age ? 40 and higher tumor grade have a negative impact on overall survival. PMID:24555482

2014-01-01

249

Clinical Management of Patients Presenting with Non-Adjustable Gastric Band (NAGB) Complications  

PubMed Central

Background: A number of bariatric surgical procedures have been developed to manage morbid obesity and related co-morbidities. The non-adjustable gastric band (NAGB) was one such procedure that created restriction to food intake by gastric segmentation. Benefits of the procedure included a low risk of perioperative complications and substantial early weight loss. Unfortunately, the long term results of NAGB include a high incidence of complications and failure to maintain weight loss. The purpose of this study was to examine the presentation, workup, and treatment of patients presenting with complications following NAGB placement. Methods: A retrospective review of the diagnosis and management of 11 patients who presented with complications related to NAGB placement. Results: All patients presented with some degree of proximal gastric outlet obstruction. The majority of patients (8/11) presented with vomiting as the main complaint. Other complaints included intolerance to solids, liquids, and reflux. Only 2/11 patients presented with weight loss since undergoing NAGB placement, while the remainder had weight regain to their pre-NAGB level and above. Depending on clinical presentation, desire for additional weight loss and co-morbid conditions, patients underwent a variety of treatments. This included NAGB removal (endoscopic, laparo-endoscopic, and laparoscopic) as well as conversion to another bariatric procedure (sleeve gastrectomy, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass). Conclusion: Patients with NAGB complications present with symptoms related to a proximal gastric outlet obstruction, related to constriction imposed by the band. This may result in severe food and liquid intolerance and subsequent weight loss, but more likely results in maladaptive eating and subsequent weight gain. Optimal therapy involves removal of the NAGB. Laparoscopic conversion to another bariatric procedure, optimally a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, is warranted to treat morbid obesity and associated co-morbidities. PMID:24910561

Balogh, Julius; Vizhul, Andrey; Dunkin, Brian J.; Tariq, Nabil; Sherman, Vadim

2014-01-01

250

Influence of HTLV-1 on the clinical, microbiologic and immunologic presentation of tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Background HTLV-1 is associated with increased susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and severity of tuberculosis. Although previous studies have shown that HTLV-1 infected individuals have a low frequency of positive tuberculin skin test (TST) and decreasing in lymphoproliferative responses compared to HTLV-1 uninfected persons, these studies were not performed in individuals with history of tuberculosis or evidence of M. tuberculosis infection. Therefore the reasons why HTLV-1 infection increases susceptibility to infection and severity of tuberculosis are not understood.The aim of this study was to evaluate how HTLV-1 may influence the clinical, bacteriologic and immunologic presentation of tuberculosis. Methods The study prospectively enrolled and followed 13 new cases of tuberculosis associated with HTLV-1 (cases) and 25 patients with tuberculosis without HTLV-1 infection (controls). Clinical findings, bacterial load in the sputum, x-rays, immunological response and death were compared in the two groups. Results There were no differences in the demographic, clinical and TST response between the two study groups. IFN-? and TNF-? production was higher in unstimulated cultures of mononuclear cells of case than in control patients (p?

2012-01-01

251

Foot Small Muscle Atrophy is present before the detection of Clinical Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To characterize structural changes and the metabolic profile in the foot muscles and correlate them with diabetic neuropathy measurements using a phosphorus-31 (31P) rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (RARE) MRI method. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twelve control subjects, nine non-neuropathic and 12 neuropathic diabetic patients were studied using 31P RARE and proton (1H) MRI at 3 Tesla. The ratio of the total cross-sectional area of the foot to that of the muscle tissue was calculated from trans-axial 1H and 31P images. The average 31P concentration across the metatarsal head region was measured from the 31P images. RESULTS The muscle/total-area ratio was different among all three groups: 0.55 ± 0.04 (means ± SD); 0.44 ± 0.05; and 0.06 ± 0.06 for controls, non-neuropathic and neuropathic subjects respectively, (p <0.0001). The average 31P concentration was also different among all groups: 27.7 ± 3.8 mM; 21.7 ± 4.8; and 7.9 ± 8.8 for controls, non-neuropathic and neuropathic subjects respectively, (p <0.0001). The muscle/total-area ratios strongly correlated with clinical measurements: Neuropathy Disability Score (NDS) (r = ?0.83, p <0.0001), Vibration Perception Threshold (VPT) (r= ?0.79, p <0.0001) and Semmes-Weinstein Monofilaments (SWM) (r = ?0.87, p <0.0001). CONCLUSIONS Small muscle atrophy is present in diabetes before clinical peripheral neuropathy can be detected using standard techniques available in clinical practice. The 31P RARE MRI method evaluates the severity of muscle atrophy, even in the early stages when neuropathy is absent. This technique may prove a useful diagnostic tool that can identify early stage diabetic foot problems. PMID:15920063

Greenman, Robert L; Khaodhiar, Lalita; Lima, Christina; Dinh, Thanh; Giurini, John M; Veves, Aristidis

2005-01-01

252

Variable Clinical Presentation of an MUC1 Mutation Causing Medullary Cystic Kidney Disease Type 1  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives The genetic cause of medullary cystic kidney disease type 1 was recently identified as a cytosine insertion in the variable number of tandem repeat region of MUC1 encoding mucoprotein-1 (MUC1), a protein that is present in skin, breast, and lung tissue, the gastrointestinal tract, and the distal tubules of the kidney. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the clinical characteristics of families and individuals with this mutation. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Families with autosomal dominant interstitial kidney disease were referred for genetic analysis over a 14-year period. Families without UMOD or REN mutations prospectively underwent genotyping for the presence of the MUC1 mutation. Clinical characteristics were retrospectively evaluated in individuals with the MUC1 mutation and historically affected individuals (persons who were both related to genetically affected individuals in such a way that ensured that they could be genetically affected and had a history of CKD stage IV or kidney failure resulting in death, dialysis, or transplantation). Results Twenty-four families were identified with the MUC1 mutation. Of 186 family members undergoing MUC1 mutational analysis, the mutation was identified in 95 individuals, 91 individuals did not have the mutation, and111 individuals were identified as historically affected. Individuals with the MUC1 mutation suffered from chronic kidney failure with a widely variable age of onset of end stage kidney disease ranging from 16 to >80 years. Urinalyses revealed minimal protein and no blood. Ultrasounds of 35 individuals showed no medullary cysts. There were no clinical manifestations of the MUC1 mutation detected in the breasts, skin, respiratory system, or gastrointestinal tract. Conclusion MUC1 mutation results in progressive chronic kidney failure with a bland urinary sediment. The age of onset of end stage kidney disease is highly variable, suggesting that gene–gene or gene–environment interactions contribute to phenotypic variability. PMID:24509297

Kmoch, Stanislav; Antignac, Corinne; Robins, Vicki; Kidd, Kendrah; Kelsoe, John R.; Hladik, Gerald; Klemmer, Philip; Knohl, Stephen J.; Scheinman, Steven J.; Vo, Nam; Santi, Ann; Harris, Alese; Canaday, Omar; Weller, Nelson; Hulick, Peter J.; Vogel, Kristen; Rahbari-Oskoui, Frederick F.; Tuazon, Jennifer; Deltas, Constantinos; Somers, Douglas; Megarbane, Andre; Kimmel, Paul L.; Sperati, C. John; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Ben-Shachar, Shay; Waugh, David A.; McGinn, Stella; Hoda?ová, Kate?ina; Vylet'al, Petr; Živná, Martina; Hart, Thomas C.; Hart, P. Suzanne

2014-01-01

253

Clinical presentation of intracranial epidermoids: a surgical series of 20 initial and four recurred cases  

PubMed Central

Epidermoids are generally recognized as benign tumors; however, total resection is often difficult. The recurrence from the residual capsule, dissemination of the tumor, and aseptic meningitis are common problems. The aim of the present study was to analyze and report on the clinical characteristics of intracranial epidermoids, particularly complications and cases with a poor clinical outcome. 24 patients with intracranial epidermoids who were treated surgically at Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital between 1997 and 2007 were examined. The location and size of the tumor, pre-and postoperative symptoms, adherence of the tumor to cranial nerves, and proliferative capacity were determined. The most frequent site of the tumor was the cerebello-pontine (C-P) angle (16/24); eight of these patients presented with hearing loss and six presented with trigeminal neuralgia. In many cases, hearing loss and diplopia persisted after surgery. All epidermoids located in the C-P angle were attached to and/or compressed the trigeminal nerves, therefore, the origin is suggested to be the dura mafer of petrous bone around the trigeminal nerve. Of all 24 patients, the tumor recurred in four (after 3, 5, 10 and 20 years). One patient had a poor prognosis, with dissemination and brain stem infarction. Epidermoids can recur from residual capsule adhering to the brain stem or cranial nerves up to 10-20 years after the initial surgery. Long-term follow-up imaging studies are required when complete resection of the tumor capsule is not possible. In rare cases, spontaneous cyst rupture, dissemination, and brain stem infarction result in a poor prognosis. PMID:22028741

Kato, Koichi; Ujiie, Hiroshi; Higa, Takashi; Hayashi, Masataka; Kubo, Osami; Okada, Yoshikazu; Hori, Tomokatsu

2010-01-01

254

Enrollment in clinical trials: institutional factors affecting enrollment in the cardiac arrhythmia suppression trial (CAST).  

PubMed

Recruitment and Enrollment Assessment in Clinical Trials (REACT), an NHLBI-sponsored substudy of the Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial (CAST), was conducted to assess factors associated with enrollment in clinical trials. We report on the relationships of institutional factors at CAST sites to patient enrollment. The proportion of CAST-eligible patients enrolling at each CAST site during the REACT study period was defined as the number of subjects enrolled divided by the sum of (1) the number enrolled plus (2) the number of eligibles who refused plus (3) the number of eligibles whose physicians refused to permit CAST personnel to attempt to enroll them. A questionnaire that included 78 questions regarding factors hypothesized to be associated with enrollment was completed between August 1988 and February 1990 by the nurse coordinators at all 112 CAST sites in the United States and Canada. Sixteen items were unanalyzable, and 37 of the remaining 62 were grouped into seven scales. The remaining items were analyzed individually. Enrollment proportions varied widely across the 112 CAST sites (mean 32.7% SD 22.6). Five variables or scales were included in the final multiple regression model (multiple R2 = .39). The most important of these was the proportion of eligible patients at a site cared for by medical staff other than private attending physicians (multiple R2 for this variable alone, .26). This proportion tended to be high in teaching hospitals. Other variables in this model that were associated with higher enrollment proportions included the number of days per week a nurse coordinator was present at the site, the number of nurse coordinator full-time equivalents at the site, fewer other clinical trials for which the nurse coordinator was responsible, and fewer perceived obstacles to enrollment. These findings indicate that enrollment was more successful at hospitals with higher proportions of eligible subjects cared for by fellows, housestaff, and service attending physicians and at institutions with the committed presence of a nurse-coordinator. PMID:1334819

Shea, S; Bigger, J T; Campion, J; Fleiss, J L; Rolnitzky, L M; Schron, E; Gorkin, L; Handshaw, K; Kinney, M R; Branyon, M

1992-12-01

255

Retained Fetal Membranes in C57BL/6NCrl Mice: Description of Clinical Case Presentations and Related Epidemiologic Findings  

PubMed Central

During a triinstitutional study to test whether individually ventilated caging systems impaired welfare and reproduction relative to static housing systems, varying numbers (2 to 7) of discoid-shaped, fleshy structures were found in utero of 17 postpartum female mice on study. Further investigation revealed these structures to be retained fetal membranes (RFM). A point prevalence of 24.3% was calculated based on a total population of 70 postpartum female mice on study. This finding was preceded by 3 typical clinical presentations, which are described here. We designed a case-control matched cross-sectional epidemiologic study to identify associated risk factors and antemortem indicators of RFM. Housing on the bottom shelves and attachment to the rack systems were factors associated with a diagnosis of the condition. In addition, neutrophilia, monocytosis, lymphopenia, and decreasing hematocrit values were associated with the diagnosis of RFM. These results confirmed that a CBC can be a useful antemortem screening test for the identification of affected mice. We conclude that RFM are likely an incidental finding although they may present concurrent with other pregnancy complications. PMID:22330577

Johnson, Jenelle K; Vemulapalli, Tracy H; Van Alstine, William G; Roberts, Christopher S; Garner, Joseph P; Hickman, Debra L

2011-01-01

256

The ESPEN clinical practice Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition: present status and perspectives for future research.  

PubMed

The ESPEN Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition (PN) reflect current scientific knowledge in the field of clinical nutrition in adults. They summarize the indications for PN and its anticipated outcomes in respect of the underlying disease, nutritional status and quality of life. They are companion documents to the ESPEN Guidelines on Enteral Nutrition and follow the same general format. They address the influence of the underlying disease on the patient's nutritional status, and that of malnutrition on the outcome of the disease. Contraindications to and complications of PN are considered, together with comparative analyses of the roles of the parenteral and enteral routes in different illness states. The quality and strength of the supporting literature has been graded according to the criteria of the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) and the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. Hence, meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials (level of evidence Ia) or at least one randomised clinical trial (level of evidence Ib) translate to a Grade A recommendation. Levels of evidence IIa, IIb and III are attributed respectively to: at least one well-designed controlled trial without randomisation; at least one other type of well-designed, quasi-experimental study; or well-designed non-experimental descriptive studies such as comparative studies, correlation studies, case-control studies; each of these sustains a Grade B recommendation. Grade C recommendations reflect expert opinion and/or the clinical experience of respected authorities (level of evidence IV). Each of the 11 sets of PN Guidelines was devised by an international working group, the total faculty comprising no fewer than 87 experts from 16 European/Mediterranean countries, each group's contributions being co-ordinated by a designated chairman. Once each guideline had been approved by all the members of the relevant working group, this version was reviewed by at least two independent external reviewers (one selected from ESPEN's Education and Clinical Practice Committee, and at least one from outside the ESPEN committee structure). Following this review each guideline was hosted in draft form on the public pages of the ESPEN website for at least one month to permit the receipt of comments or suggestions from any interested party. At this point the Guidelines were reviewed and revised again by the original working group chairman and submitted to the Clinical Nutrition editorial process. At least 3 further reviewers were selected by the Journal's editorial office for each guideline, in line with the normal selection process. Final revisions were performed by the Chairmen of the working groups, and by ourselves as commissioning editors of the whole project. More than 300 evidence-based recommendations are now presented. Fewer than one sixth of the recommendations are Grade A, and disappointingly, but unsurprisingly, more than 50% are Grade C. The need for more and better controlled trials in the field remains apparent. PMID:19523723

Bozzetti, Federico; Forbes, Alastair

2009-08-01

257

High prevalence of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) as presentation of cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency in childhood: molecular and clinical findings of Turkish probands.  

PubMed

Classical homocystinuria is the most commonly inherited disorder of sulfur metabolism, caused by the genetic alterations in human cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) gene. In this study, we present comprehensive clinical findings and the genetic basis of homocystinuria in a cohort of Turkish patients. Excluding some CBS mutations, detailed genotype-phenotype correlation for different CBS mutations has not been established in literature. We aimed to make clinical subgroups according to main clinical symptoms and discussed these data together with mutational analysis results from our patients. Totally, 16 different mutations were identified; twelve of which had already been reported, and four are novel (p.N93Y, p.L251P, p.D281V and c.829-2A>T). The probands were classified into three major groups according to the clinical symptoms caused by these mutations. A psychomotor delay was the most common diagnostic symptom (n=12, 46.2% neurological presentation), followed by thromboembolic events (n=6, 23.1% vascular presentation) and lens ectopia, myopia or marfanoid features (n=5, 19.2% connective tissue presentation). Pyridoxine responsiveness was 7.7%; however, with partial responsive probands, the ratio was 53.9%. In addition, five thrombophilic nucleotide changes including MTHFR c.677 C>T and c.1298 A>C, Factor V c.1691 G>A, Factor II c.20210 G>A, and SERPINE1 4G/5G were investigated to assess their contributions to the clinical spectrum. We suggest that the effect of these polymorphisms on clinical phenotype of CBS is not very clear since the distribution of thrombophilic polymorphisms does not differ among specific groups. This study provides molecular findings of 26 Turkish probands with homocystinuria and discusses the clinical presentations and putative effects of the CBS mutations. PMID:24211323

Karaca, Mehmet; Hismi, Burcu; Ozgul, Riza Koksal; Karaca, Sefayet; Yilmaz, Didem Yucel; Coskun, Turgay; Sivri, Hatice Serap; Tokatli, Aysegul; Dursun, Ali

2014-01-25

258

Impact of HIV on clinical presentation and outcomes of tuberculosis treatment at primary care level.  

PubMed

Little is known on how human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection impacts pediatric tuberculosis (TB) in primary care. We compared TB type, HIV care and case fatality rates between 5685 adults and 830 children with TB treated at primary care clinics in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Children represented a substantial burden (13%) of TB, and presented predominantly with difficult to diagnose smear-negative TB and extra-pulmonary TB. The HIV co-infection rate was lower in children than in adults, and fewer children than adults received antiretroviral therapy during anti-tuberculosis treatment. Case fatality was four times higher in HIV-infected than non-infected children. Child-friendly point-of-care TB diagnostics and decentralized pediatric TB-HIV care should receive greater attention. PMID:24125443

Henegar, C; Behets, F; Vanden Driessche, K; Tabala, M; Van Rie, A

2013-11-01

259

Aligning new interventions with developing country health systems: Target product profiles, presentation, and clinical trial design  

PubMed Central

Many new interventions are being created to address health problems of the developing world. However, many developing countries have fragile health systems and find it difficult to accommodate change. Consequently, it is essential that new interventions are well aligned with health systems and their users. Establishing target product profiles (TPPs) is a critical, early step towards tailoring interventions to suit both of these constituencies. Specific analyses can help identify and establish relevant TPP criteria such as optimal formulation, presentation and packaging. Clinical trials for a new intervention should be designed to address both TPP-specific questions and anticipated use of the intervention in target countries. Examples are provided from research on malaria vaccines that are also applicable to other new public health interventions. PMID:22783872

Brooks, Alan; Nunes, Julia K.; Garnett, Andrew; Biellik, Robin; Leboulleux, Didier; Birkett, Ashley J.; Loucq, Christian

2012-01-01

260

The interaction of ethnicity, sociocultural factors, and gender in clinical psychopharmacology.  

PubMed

There is increased interest in the role that ethnicity, sociocultural factors, and gender play in research, health care delivery, and response to intervention. The impact of these factors on AIDS awareness programs, on the phenomenology of suicide and anorexia nervosa, and on clinical psychopharmacology in a homogeneous population is discussed. Risky sex practices can be related to cultural norms that stigmatize condom use and sex education; economic deprivation; and male dominance. Gender, cultural, and ethnic demographics can identify high-risk groups as well as influence effective interventions. Suicide rates and risk factors are compared in African-American, Canadian Native, and South Korean adolescents. Academic stress was a differential risk factor for the Koreans. Anorexia nervosa predominantly affects women and has cultural differences in prevalence. The homogeneous population in Hong Kong illustrates the impact of ethnicity, sociocultural factors, and gender on clinical psychopharmacology. Attention to ethnicity, sociocultural factors, and gender can individualize and improve the effectiveness of clinical psychopharmacology. PMID:8783899

Dawkins, K

1996-01-01

261

The clinical characteristics of patients with glaucoma presenting to Botswana healthcare facilities: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to establish the clinical characteristics of patients with glaucoma attending eye care facilities in Botswana, and management of glaucoma among patients who received care in these facilities. The study also aimed to calculate the number of new diagnoses of glaucoma within the glaucoma service. Design A prospective, hospital-based, observational study. Setting A multicentre study was undertaken in government-run eye departments in Botswana from June to August 2012. Participants All patients with a diagnosis of glaucoma attending clinics at seven study sites were invited to participate. Outcome measures Examination findings, diagnosis and management were extracted from individual patient-held medical charts. Sociodemographic characteristics, patient knowledge and understanding of glaucoma were assessed through face-to-face interviews. In addition, details of outpatient attendances for 2011 were collected from 21 government-run hospitals. Results The majority of the 366 patients interviewed had a diagnosis of primary glaucoma (86.6%). The diagnoses were mainly made by ophthalmologists (48.6%) and ophthalmic nurses (44.0%). Many patients (38.5%) had been symptomatic for over 6?months before visiting an eye clinic. The mean presenting intraocular pressure was 28.2?mm?Hg (SD 11.9?mm?Hg). Most follow-up patients (79.2%) had not received surgery, however, many (89.5%) would accept surgery. Only 11.5% of participants had heard of glaucoma prior to diagnosis. Many participants (35.9%) did not understand glaucoma after being diagnosed. The majority (94.9%) of living first-degree relatives had never been examined. The number of newly diagnosed glaucoma cases for 2011 in the south of the country was 14.1/100?000; 95% CI (12.0 to 16.5), in the north it was 16.2/100?000; 95% CI (13.8 to 19.0). Conclusions Glaucoma is a significant burden that presents challenges to ophthalmic services in Botswana. Many patients have limited understanding of the condition and poor access to services. There is a need to develop a treatment infrastructure to include safe surgery and a reliable supply of effective medication. PMID:25472657

Jackson, Daniel J; Razai, Mohammad S; Falama, Rosemary; Mongwa, Matlhogonolo; Mutapanduwa, Mishell; Baemisi, Chao; Josiah, Engelinah; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Lehasa, Alice; Brealey, Evelyn; White, Andrew J; Jankowski, Deborah; Kerr-Muir, Malcolm G; Martin, Keith R; Ngondi, Jeremiah M

2014-01-01

262

Difficult diagnoses in an austere environment: a clinical vignette ?the presentation, diagnosis, and management of ichthyosis.  

PubMed

Lamellar ichthyosis (LI) is a rare inherited skin disorder of cornification, with an incidence of approximately 1 in 200,000 births. It is one of three types of autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI), a collective term for the spectrum of nonsyndromic ichthyoses caused by a number of well-described genetic mutations. We describe the case of LI diagnosed in a 10-day-old child of a Somali refugee at a free clinic in downtown Djibouti. Initial concern was for staphylococcal infection versus congenital disease. With the use of digital photographs, consultation with experts accessed through the Army Teledermatology Consultation Service supported a diagnosis of ARCI. Providing care to patients in austere environments can present numerous medical challenges. A provider cannot be expected to be able to diagnose and treat every disease and disorder alone, especially if there is a language barrier. Telemedicine can help close the gap in knowledge, particularly when presented with a challenging case. With a novel presentation, simply taking a photograph and e-mailing a consultant can quickly augment one?s medical acumen, ensuring appropriate diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23526325

Pickard-Gabriel, C J; Rudinsky, Sherri

2013-01-01

263

Potential Clinical Correlates and Risk Factors for Interatrial Block  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Interatrial block (IAB; P wave ?110 ms) denotes a conduction delay between the atria, is strongly associated with atrial tachyarrhythmias, left atrial enlargement, left atrial electromechanical dysfunction, and is a risk for embolism. Despite this, potential risk factors for IAB have not been clearly defined. Methods: Patients admitted via the Emergency Department for nonacute medical reasons to the nontelemetry

Vignendra Ariyarajah; Sirin Apiyasawat; Ranjani Moorthi; David H. Spodick

2006-01-01

264

Giant colonic diverticulum: Clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment: Systematic review of 166 cases  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of giant colonic diverticulum (GCD, by means of a complete and updated literature review). GCD is a rare manifestation of diverticular disease of the colon. Less than 200 studies on GCD were published in the literature, predominantly case reports or small patient series. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed using the Embase and PubMed databases to identify all the GCD studies. The following MESH search headings were used: “giant colonic diverticulum”; “giant sigmoid diverticulum”. The “related articles” function was used to broaden the search, and all of the abstracts, studies, and citations were reviewed by two authors. The following outcomes were of interest: the disease and patient characteristics, study design, indications for surgery, type of operation, and post-operative outcomes. Additionally, a subgroup analysis of cases treated in the last 5 years was performed to show the current trends in the treatment of GCD. A GCD case in an elderly patient treated in our department by a sigmoidectomy with primary anastomosis and a diverting ileostomy is presented as a typical example of the disease. RESULTS: In total, 166 GCD cases in 138 studies were identified in the literature. The most common clinical presentation was abdominal pain, which occurred in 69% of the cases. Among the physical signs, an abdominal mass was detected in 48% of the cases, whereas 20% of the patients presented with fever and 14% with abdominal tenderness. Diagnosis is based predominantly on abdominal computed tomography. The most frequent treatment was colic resection with en-bloc resection of the diverticulum, performed in 57.2% of cases, whereas Hartmann’s procedure was followed in 11.4% of the cases and a diverticulectomy in 10.2%. An analysis of sixteen cases reported in the last 5 years showed that the majority of patients were treated with sigmoidectomy and en-bloc resection of the diverticulum; the postoperative mortality was null, morbidity was very low (1 patient was hospitalized in the intensive care unit for postoperative hypotension), and the patients were discharged 4-14 d after surgery. CONCLUSION: Giant colonic diverticulum is a rare manifestation of diverticular diseases. Surgical treatment, consisting predominantly of colonic resection with en bloc resection of the diverticulum, is the preferred option for GCD and guarantees excellent results. PMID:25574112

Nigri, Giuseppe; Petrucciani, Niccolò; Giannini, Giulia; Aurello, Paolo; Magistri, Paolo; Gasparrini, Marcello; Ramacciato, Giovanni

2015-01-01

265

Update on clinical trials of growth factors and anabolic steroids in cachexia and wasting.  

PubMed

This article and others that focused on the clinical features, mechanisms, and epidemiology of skeletal muscle loss and wasting in chronic diseases, which include chronic kidney disease, cancer, and AIDS, were presented at a symposium entitled "Cachexia and Wasting: Recent Breakthroughs in Understanding and Opportunities for Intervention," held at Experimental Biology 2009. The clinical and anabolic efficacy of specific growth factors and anabolic steroids (eg, growth hormone, testosterone, megestrol acetate) in malnutrition and other catabolic states has been the subject of considerable research during the past several decades. Research on the effects of these agents in cachexia or wasting conditions, characterized by progressive loss of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, focused on patients with AIDS in the early 1990s, when the devastating effects of the loss of body weight, lean body mass, and adipose tissue were recognized as contributors to these patients' mortality. These same agents have also been studied as methods to attenuate the catabolic responses observed in cancer-induced cachexia and in wasting induced by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, renal failure, and other conditions. This article provides an updated review of recent clinical trials that specifically examined the potential therapeutic roles of growth hormone, testosterone, oxandrolone, and megestrol acetate and emerging data on the orexigenic peptide ghrelin, in human cachexia and wasting. PMID:20164318

Gullett, Norleena P; Hebbar, Gautam; Ziegler, Thomas R

2010-04-01

266

The risk factors and clinical outcomes of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis.  

PubMed

The prevalence of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) has shown a dramatic increase with the use of central venous catheters (CVCs) for patient care. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors and clinical outcomes in patients diagnosed with UEDVT at an academic medical center over a 1-year period. Medical records of 373 consecutive patients who underwent upper extremity venous duplex ultrasound (VDU) examination were retrospectively reviewed. A quarter of the patients screened by VDU (94 of 373) had acute UEDVT; 63% presented with arm swelling or arm pain; 48% had cancer; and 93% had indwelling CVCs. Cancer patients with CVCs were more likely to develop UEDVT (48%). Of the 94 UEDVTs, 16% had concurrent lower extremity DVT. The incidence of objectively confirmed pulmonary embolism (PE) was 9% (8 of 94 patients), and the 1-month mortality rate was 6.4%. The majority of patients (80%) with UEDVT received anticoagulation therapy and 20% were not treated. The most common risk factors for UEDVT were indwelling CVCs and a diagnosis of cancer. The incidence rate of PE and mortality rate from UEDVT were not insignificant at 9% and 6%, respectively. There were no institutional screening protocols for patients at risk of UEDVT associated with CVCs. Future research should focus on risk assessment and management protocols for patients at risk of UEDVT. In addition, a comparison of clinical outcomes associated with the type, size, and duration of catheter placement should be conducted in patients at risk of or diagnosed with UEDVT. PMID:22328450

Lee, Jung-Ah; Zierler, Brenda K; Zierler, R Eugene

2012-02-01

267

Psychometric Structure of a Comprehensive Objective Structured Clinical Examination: A Factor Analytic Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem Statement and Background: While the psychometric properties of Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) have been studied, their latent structures have not been well characterized. This study examines a factor analytic model of a comprehensive OSCE and addresses implications for measurement of clinical performance. Methods: An…

Volkan, Kevin; Simon, Steven R.; Baker, Harley; Todres, I. David

2004-01-01

268

A Four- and Five-Factor Structural Model for Wechsler Tests: Does It Really Matter Clinically?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this commentary is to focus on the clinical utility of the four- and five-factor structural models for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). It provides a discussion of important considerations when evaluating the clinical utility of the…

Schwartz, David M.

2013-01-01

269

A Review of Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Its Presentation in Different Clinical Settings  

PubMed Central

Objective: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a relatively common psychiatric disorder characterized by preoccupations with perceived defects in physical appearance. This review aimed to explore epidemiology, clinical features, comorbidities, and treatment options for BDD in different clinical settings. Data Source and Study Selection: A search of the literature from 1970 to 2011 was performed using the MEDLINE search engine. English-language articles, with no restriction regarding the type of articles, were identified using the search terms body dysmorphic disorder, body dysmorphic disorder clinical settings, body dysmorphic disorder treatment, and body dysmorphic disorder & psychodermatology. Results: BDD occurs in 0.7% to 2.4% of community samples and 13% of psychiatric inpatients. Etiology is multifactorial, with recent findings indicating deficits in visual information processing. There is considerable overlap between BDD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in symptom etiology and response to treatment, which has led to suggestions that BDD can be classified with anxiety disorders and OCD. A recent finding indicated genetic overlap between BDD and OCD. Over 60% of patients with BDD had a lifetime anxiety disorder, and 38% had social phobia, which tends to predate the onset of BDD. Studies reported a high level of comorbidity with depression and social phobia occurring in > 70% of patients with BDD. Individuals with BDD present frequently to dermatologists (about 9%–14% of dermatologic patients have BDD). BDD co-occurs with pathological skin picking in 26%–45% of cases. BDD currently has 2 variants: delusional and nondelusional, and both variants respond similarly to serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs), which may have effect on obsessive thoughts and rituals. Cognitive-behavioral therapy has the best established treatment results. Conclusions: A considerable overlap exists between BDD and other psychiatric disorders such as OCD, anxiety, and delusional disorder, and this comorbidity should be considered in evaluation, management, and long-term follow-up of the disorder. Individuals with BDD usually consult dermatologists and cosmetic surgeons rather than psychiatrists. Collaboration between different specialties (such as primary care, dermatology, cosmetic surgery, and psychiatry) is required for better treatment outcome. PMID:24392251

Mufaddel, Amir; Osman, Ossama T.; Almugaddam, Fadwa

2013-01-01

270

Turner syndrome and female sex chromosome aberrations: deduction of the principal factors involved in the development of clinical features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although clinical features in Turner syndrome have been well defined, underlying genetic factors have not been clarified. To deduce the factors leading to the development of clinical features, we took the following four steps: (1) assessment of clinical features in classic 45,X Turner syndrome; (2) review of clinical features in various female sex chromosome aberrations (karyotype-phenotype correlations); (3) assessment of

Tsutomu Ogata; Nobutake Matsuo

1995-01-01

271

Clinical presentation and imaging characteristics of occult lung cancer associated ischemic stroke.  

PubMed

We investigated the clinical and imaging characteristics of initial and recurrent strokes in patients with occult lung cancer associated ischemic stroke (OLCA-stroke). A retrospective review of all ischemic stroke patients with occult lung cancer in the absence of conventional stroke etiologies between 2005 and 2013 was conducted. We compared the initial and recurrent lesion patterns on diffusion-weighted MRI in patients with OLCA-stroke, with respect to vascular territory involved, number and size of lesions, clinical presentation, cancer subtypes, recurrences and fatalities, and outcome of survivors. Thirteen patients with confirmed OLCA-stroke were identified. All had elevated D-dimer levels, six had central lung cancer and seven had peripheral lung cancer. Eight (62%) had adenocarcinoma, and nine (69%) had metastasis. Ten (77%) patients had multiple lesions in multiple vascular territories. Twelve (92%) patients suffered recurrent strokes. Multiple small and large disseminated lesions in multiple vascular territories were more frequent in recurrent strokes in comparison with initial strokes. The middle cerebral artery was most frequently involved in recurrent strokes, followed by the posterior circulation territory and anterior cerebral artery, which were of similar frequency as initial strokes. Overall, 58% of patients had their first recurrent stroke within the first month, and 69% had a poor outcome, especially for those with multiple recurrent strokes and metastases. Occult cancer should be considered in the setting of multiple and recurrent embolic strokes within the short term in the absence of conventional stroke etiologies. The severity of malignancy and cancer treatments and stroke influenced the recurrences and outcome. PMID:25443087

Mai, Hui; Xia, Jun; Wu, Yongjun; Ke, Junlong; Li, Junliang; Pan, Jiangang; Chen, Wubiao; Shao, Yiming; Yang, Zhi; Luo, Saihua; Sun, Yonghua; Zhao, Bin; Li, Longxuan

2015-02-01

272

Proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndromes: advances in pathogeneses, clinical presentations, diagnosis, and management.  

PubMed

The disease spectrum currently known as the proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndromes (PRAAS) was first described in 1939 in patients who presented with recurrent fevers beginning in infancy or early childhood, which were accompanied by nodular erythema, a pernio-like rash, and joint contractures. Since then, several syndromes, such as chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE) syndrome, Nakajo-Nishimura syndrome (NNS), joint contractures, muscle atrophy, microcytic anemia and panniculitis-induced lipodystrophy (JMP) syndrome, and Japanese autoinflammatory syndrome with lipodystrophy (JASL), have been used to categorize patients with diseases within the same spectrum. Recently, independent studies have identified mutations in the human proteasome subunit ? type 8 (PSMB8) gene, which result in a sustained inflammatory response in all syndromes. Further functional studies not only suggest a causative role of PSMB8 mutations but also imply that they represent one disease spectrum, referred to as PRAAS. In this paper, we review the clinical presentations and laboratory findings of PRAAS, as well as the most recent advances in pathogeneses, diagnosis, and treatment options for patients with diseases in this spectrum. PMID:25521013

McDermott, Amelia; Jacks, Jennifer; Kessler, Marcus; Emanuel, Peter D; Gao, Ling

2015-02-01

273

Clinical and Histological Presentation of Helicobacter pylori and Gluten Related Gastroenteropathy  

PubMed Central

Background Celiac disease has been reported to be associated with gastric abnormalities. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the prevalence of celiac disease and Helicobacter pylori infection in an Iranian population of 250 patients. Methods Biopsies were taken from the gastric antrum and duodenum. Morphology and histology were evaluated using the updated Sydney system and modified Marsh criteria, respectively. To simplify the interpretation of gastric lesions we classified gastritis in macroscopic and microscopic stages. Serology for anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody was performed to determine the presence of celiac disease. Results Among 250 patients, 232 (93%) had histological evidence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Histological abnormalities (Marsh I to IIIc) were present in 24 (10%). Of 24 patients, 20 (83%) with histological abnormalities were infected with Helicobacter pylori. Of 250 patients, 25 (10%) had a positive anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody. Of 25 anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody positive patients, 9 (3.6%) had microscopic and macroscopic enteritis (Marsh I to IIIc). Conclusions Clinical presentation of celiac disease was not distinguishable from cases infected with Helicobacter pylori. Histology, even in patients with positive serology, was non-specific and unhelpful. We found a high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic gastritis, but neither was associated with celiac disease, in agreement with studies in Western populations. PMID:21361718

Nejad, Mohammad Rostami; Rostami, Kamran; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Mashayekhi, Reza; Molaei, Mahsa; Dabiri, Hossein; Al Dulaimi, David; Mirsattari, Dariush; Zojaji, Homayoun; Norouzinia, Mohsen; Zali, Mohammad Reza

2011-01-01

274

A comparative study of pre- and post-menopausal breast cancer: Risk factors, presentation, characteristics and management  

PubMed Central

Objective: Breast cancer is the most common female cancer worldwide and is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in Indian women. This study evaluates the differences between pre- and post-menopausal breast cancer women regarding risk factors, nature of disease presentation, tumor characteristics, and management. Methods: This is a prospective observational study, conducted in the Oncology Department of St. Ann's Cancer Hospital, for a period of 6 months from January to August 2012. Data on basic demography, clinical and pathological tumor profile, and treatment details were collected prospectively for each patient based on patient interviews and medical records. Findings: Among 100 female patients taken up for the study, 48 were premenopausal and 52 had reached menopause. The mean age of presentation for breast carcinoma was a decade earlier in these patients compared with western patients. The risk factors for both pre-and post-menopausal breast cancer were found similar other than late menopause in postmenopausal patients. Having dense breast tissue was a predominant risk factor among all women. Late presentation was the common phenomenon in almost all patients. The treatment given was not based on any standard guidelines due to inadequate public health policies. Conclusion: Late stage at presentation of breast cancer is the main problem and possesses a challenge to the health care community. In order to reduce the burden of breast cancer, a multi-sectorial approach and evidence-based strategies aiming at early detection and effective management of the disease are required. PMID:24991630

Surakasula, Aruna; Nagarjunapu, Govardhana Chary; Raghavaiah, K. V.

2014-01-01

275

Analysis of factors that predict clinical performance in medical school.  

PubMed

Academic achievement indices including GPAs and MCAT scores are used to predict the spectrum of medical student academic performance types. However, use of these measures ignores two changes influencing medical school admissions: student diversity and affirmative action, and an increased focus on communication skills. To determine if GPA and MCAT predict performance in medical school consistently across students, and whether either predicts clinical performance in clerkships. A path model was developed to examine relationships among indices of medical student performance during the first three years of medical school for five cohorts of medical students. A structural equation approach was used to calculate the coefficients hypothesized in the model for majority and minority students. Significant differences between majority and minority students were observed. MCAT scores, for example, did not predict performance of minority students in the first year of medical school but did predict performance of majority students. This information may be of use to medical school admissions and resident selection committees. PMID:18030590

White, Casey B; Dey, Eric L; Fantone, Joseph C

2009-10-01

276

Demographic and clinical factors associated with radiographic severity of first metatarsophalangeal joint osteoarthritis: cross-sectional findings from the Clinical Assessment Study of the Foot  

PubMed Central

Summary Objective To explore demographic and clinical factors associated with radiographic severity of first metatarsophalangeal joint osteoarthritis (OA) (First MTPJ OA). Design Adults aged ?50 years registered with four general practices were mailed a Health Survey. Responders reporting foot pain within the last 12 months were invited to undergo a clinical assessment and weight-bearing dorso-plantar and lateral radiographs of both feet. Radiographic first MTPJ OA in the most severely affected foot was graded into four categories using a validated atlas. Differences in selected demographic and clinical factors were explored across the four radiographic severity subgroups using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and ordinal regression. Results Clinical and radiographic data were available from 517 participants, categorised as having no (n = 105), mild (n = 228), moderate (n = 122) or severe (n = 62) first MTPJ OA. Increased radiographic severity was associated with older age and lower educational attainment. After adjusting for age, increased radiographic first MTPJ OA severity was significantly associated with an increased prevalence of dorsal hallux and first MTPJ pain, hallux valgus, first interphalangeal joint (IPJ) hyperextension, keratotic lesions on the dorsal aspect of the hallux and first MTPJ, decreased first MTPJ dorsiflexion, ankle/subtalar joint eversion and ankle joint dorsiflexion range of motion, and a trend towards a more pronated foot posture. Conclusions This cross-sectional study has identified several dose–response associations between radiographic severity of first MTPJ OA and a range of demographic and clinical factors. These findings highlight the progressive nature of first MTPJ OA and provide insights into the spectrum of presentation of the condition in clinical practice. PMID:25450852

Menz, H.B.; Roddy, E.; Marshall, M.; Thomas, M.J.; Rathod, T.; Myers, H.; Thomas, E.; Peat, G.M.

2015-01-01

277

A General Factor of Death Distress in Seven Clinical and Non-Clinical Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Arabic Scale of Death anxiety (ASDA), the Death Depression Scale (DDS), and the Death Obsession Scale (DOS) were administered, individually, to 7 groups (n = 765) of Egyptian normal participants (non-clinical), anxiety disorder patients, patients suffering from schizophrenia (males and females), and addicts (males only). They were generally…

Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.

2004-01-01

278

A GENERAL FACTOR OF DEATH DISTRESS IN SEVEN CLINICAL AND NON-CLINICAL GROUPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arabic Scale of Death anxiety (ASDA), the Death Depression Scale (DDS), and the Death Obsession Scale (DOS) were administered, individually, to 7 groups (n = 765) of Egyptian normal participants (non-clinical), anxiety disorder patients, patients suffering from schizophrenia (males and females), and addicts (males only). They were generally matched as groups according to age, occupation, and education. The intercorrelations between the

AHMED M. ABDEL-KHALEK

2004-01-01

279

Risks, precipitants and clinical presentation of gastroesophageal reflux disease at the Kilimanjaro christian medical centre in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Introduction Risk factors and precipitants of gastroesophageal disease (GERD) differ widely in communities. We conducted an observational study to describe these risks, precipitants and clinical presentation of GERD patients at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC) in Tanzania. Methods We consecutively recruited 92 GERD patients referred for endoscopy at KCMC from March to November 2008. Using structured questionnaire risk factors, precipitants and symptoms of GERD were enquired. Their upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings were as well documented. Results The mean (± SD) age of the study population was 47.32 (±17) years. Reported symptoms included water brash (37%), dyspepsia (6%), chronic cough (11%) and hemoptysis (5%). More than half (56%) of the patients surveyed identified food precipitants for their GERD symptoms. Triggers of GERD symptoms were boiled beans 19%, spicy food 11%, sour/fermented meals 10%, roasted tomato 9%, silver cyprinid fish (dagaa)5%,beans with cooked green banana (matoke) 2% and fermented milk 1%. Most of the studied patients had normal body mass index (52%), and 25% admitted to be consuming alcohol though they didn't associate it with their GERD symptoms. The most common endoscopy finding was ‘loose lower esophageal sphincter (85%). Conclusion Most GERD patients referred for endoscopy at KCMC were found to have water brash and ‘loose lower esophageal sphincters’ as described by endoscopists to denote mechanical abnormality of the lower esophageal sphincter. GERD symptoms were precipitated by common locally available food and spices.

Mwandri, Michael Bartholomew; Mwita, Julius Chacha; Mgwaya, Magafu; Kilonzo, Kajiru Gad; Urasa, Sarah

2014-01-01

280

What Are the Correlates of Infertility-Related Clinical Anxiety? A Literature Review and the Presentation of a Conceptual Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infertility is a major stressor for many couples. Although several reviews addressing psychological distress and depression within infertile couples exist, less emphasis has been placed on infertility-related anxiety. Yet it is important to know whether clinical anxiety is a prevalent problem among infertile couples and what are the characteristics of those suffering from clinical anxiety. The present article summarizes the

Katherine Peoquin; Marie-France Lafontaine

2010-01-01

281

Late presentation of hyperandrogenism in pregnancy: clinical features and differential diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Hyperandrogenic states in pregnancy are rare but arise most commonly due to new-onset ovarian pathology in pregnancy. We describe the case of a young woman who presented in the latter half of her pregnancy with features of hyperandrogenism. We review the biochemical and imaging findings and discuss the differential diagnosis. Case presentation A 26-year-old woman presented in the later part of her pregnancy with widespread hirsutism. Biochemical testing confirmed hyperandrogenism (testosterone, 13.7?nmol/l and second-trimester pregnancy range, 0.9–4.9?nmol/l), although she had no history of menstrual disturbance, hirsutism or acne prior to conception. Radiological evaluation (ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging) revealed multiple cystic lesions in both ovaries, leading to a presumptive diagnosis of hyperreactio luteinalis (HL). The implications of maternal hyperandrogenism on foetal virilisation were considered and the patient was counselled appropriately. She delivered a healthy baby boy uneventfully. Androgen levels, hirsutism and acne normalised within a few weeks of delivery. Conclusion HL can occur at any stage of pregnancy and is an important differential diagnosis in pregnant patients with features of androgen excess. Most cases regress spontaneously after delivery and major interventions are usually not needed. Learning points Hyperandrogenism in pregnancy is rare.Clinical features are similar to the non-pregnant state in the mother but virilisation in the foetus can have profound consequences.HL and pregnancy luteoma are the most common ovarian pathologies leading to hyperandrogenism in pregnancy.Spontaneous regression occurs in the post-partum period in the vast majority of cases and surgery is only required for local complications. PMID:24616776

Das, Gautam; Eligar, Vinay S; Govindan, Jyothish; Rees, D Aled

2013-01-01

282

Embryological, clinical and ultrastructural study of human oocytes presenting indented zona pellucida.  

PubMed

Human oocyte dysmorphisms attain a large proportion of retrieved oocytes from assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment cycles. Extracytoplasmic defects involve abnormal morphology of the zona pellucida (ZP), perivitelline space and first polar body. The aim of the present study was to describe a novel dysmorphism affecting the ZP, indented ZP. We also evaluated the clinical, embryological and ultrastructural features of these cases. We evaluated all ART treatment cycles during 7 consecutive years and found 13 treatment cycles (six patients) with all oocytes presenting an indented ZP. In addition, these oocytes presented total or partial absence of the perivitelline space, absence of resistance to ZP and oolemma penetration during microinjection, and low ooplasm viscosity during aspiration. This novel described dysmorphism was recurrent and attained all oocytes in three cases that had more than one treatment cycle. When compared with controls, data showed significant low oocyte maturity (42% versus 81.6%) and high cycle cancellation (30.8% versus 8.5%) rates, normal degeneration (3.4% versus 6.3%) and fertilization rates (69% versus 69.5%), and low pregnancy (15.4% versus 33.3%) and live-birth delivery (7.7% versus 27.7%) rates per cycle. Ultrastructure analysis revealed a zona pellucida structure with large empty electrolucent regions, an outer ZP layer with an indented surface with protuberances and a thick inner ZP that obliterated the perivitelline space. There was evidence of exocytosis of ZP material by the oocyte. In conclusion, oocytes with this novel described dysmorphism (indented ZP) are associated with low maturity, pregnancy and live-birth delivery rates. PMID:23992046

Sousa, M; Teixeira da Silva, J; Silva, J; Cunha, M; Viana, P; Oliveira, E; Sá, R; Soares, C; Oliveira, C; Barros, A

2015-02-01

283

Clinical Presentation of Novel Influenza A (H1N1) in Hospitalized Children  

PubMed Central

Objective Human pandemic influenza H1N1 virus as the cause of febrile respiratory infection ranging from self-limited to severe illness has spread globally during 2009. Signs and symptoms of upper and lower respiratory tract involvement, fever, sore throat, rhinitis, myalgia, malaise, headache, chills and fatigue are common. In this article we report the clinical presentation of Influenza A (H1N1) in our hospitalized children. Methods Between September and October 2009, all children requiring hospitalization for suspected H1N1 infection were transferred to Pediatric Infectious Diseases ward. For all patients the throat swab was taken for PCR testing to confirm or exclude the diagnosis of H1N1 Influenza A. Case patients consisted of H1N1-positive patients. Age, sex, symptoms, signs, laboratory data, CXR changes, details of therapy, duration of admission and patient outcome were documented. Findings Twenty patients were H1N1 positive. Mean age of the patients was 65.50±9.8 months. Fever and coughs were with 55% the most commonly reported symptoms. Other presentations included vomiting (55%), abdominal pain (25%), cyanosis and dyspnea (5%), body ache (40%), rhinorrhea (80%), sore throat (35%), head stiffness (5%) and loss of conciousness (5%). The median temperature of the patients was 38.5°C. Chest X-Ray changes were noted in 13 out of 20 patients (65%). Mean leukocyte and platelet was 6475 and 169000 respectively. Seventeen (85%) patients were treated with Oseltamivir, 3 patients received adjuvant antibiotics. The mean duration of admission was 3 days. Three patients required intensive care support and all of them expired due to superinfection. Conclusion Our data confirm that the presentation of influenza in children is variable and 2009 H1N1 influenza may cause leucopenia and thrombocytopenia. PMID:23056790

Soleimani, Gholamreza; Akbarpour, Marzieh

2011-01-01

284

Clinical and hematological presentation of children and adolescents with polycythemia vera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycythemia vera (PV) in children and adolescents is very rare. Data on clinical and laboratory evaluations as well as on\\u000a treatment modalities are sparse. Here, we report the long-term clinical course of a PV patient first diagnosed more than 40 years\\u000a ago at age 12. In addition, after a systematic review of the scientific medical literature, clinical and hematological data\\u000a of

Holger Cario; Mary Frances McMullin; Heike L. Pahl

2009-01-01

285

Risk Factors for Late-Stage HIV Disease Presentation at Initial HIV Diagnosis in Durban, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background After observing persistently low CD4 counts at initial HIV diagnosis in South Africa, we sought to determine risk factors for late-stage HIV disease presentation among adults. Methods We surveyed adults prior to HIV testing at four outpatient clinics in Durban from August 2010 to November 2011. All HIV-infected adults were offered CD4 testing, and late-stage HIV disease was defined as a CD4 count <100 cells/mm3. We used multivariate regression models to determine the effects of sex, emotional health, social support, distance from clinic, employment, perceived barriers to receiving healthcare, and foregoing healthcare to use money for food, clothing, or housing (“competing needs to healthcare”) on presentation with late-stage HIV disease. Results Among 3,669 adults screened, 830 were enrolled, newly-diagnosed with HIV and obtained a CD4 result. Among those, 279 (33.6%) presented with late-stage HIV disease. In multivariate analyses, participants who lived ?5 kilometers from the test site [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.8, 95% CI 1.7–4.7], reported competing needs to healthcare (AOR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2–2.4), were male (AOR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2–2.3), worked outside the home (AOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1–2.1), perceived health service delivery barriers (AOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1–2.1), and/or had poor emotional health (AOR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0–1.9) had higher odds of late-stage HIV disease presentation. Conclusions Independent risk factors for late-stage HIV disease presentation were from diverse domains, including geographic, economic, demographic, social, and psychosocial. These findings can inform various interventions, such as mobile testing or financial assistance, to reduce the risk of presentation with late-stage HIV disease. PMID:23383147

Drain, Paul K.; Losina, Elena; Parker, Gary; Giddy, Janet; Ross, Douglas; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Coleman, Sharon M.; Bogart, Laura M.; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Bassett, Ingrid V.

2013-01-01

286

Clinical characteristics at presentation of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children younger than 15 years in Croatia.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine the clinical and biochemical characteristics of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) at presentation in children younger than 15 years in Croatia during a 9-year period, with special attention to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) incidence. The registered data set comprised blood glucose, pH, serum bicarbonate levels, and clinical symptoms at disease manifestation. During the study period, 692 children were diagnosed with type 1 DM. Polydipsia (96.7%), polyuria (96.05%), and weight loss (82.7%) were the most frequent symptoms anticipating disease detection. Enuresis was recorded in 11.55%. A total of 36.41% patients had DKA (pH < 7.3) at disease onset. During the 9-year period, the percentage of children presenting with DKA at time of diagnosis decreased from 41.67% to 33.33% (z = 1.68, p = 0.046). A positive family history of DM, the only factor with an impact on the DKA incidence rate in our population, lowers the probability of the development of ketoacidosis. This study confirms the importance of the detection of the classic symptoms of polyuria, polydipsia, and weight loss in patients with new-onset type 1 DM. The percentage of patients with DKA at diabetes onset decreased during the observed period but is still high and includes one-third of all patients. This is why in every acutely ill child, especially at a younger age, one should evaluate the possibility of type 1 DM to avoid the development of ketoacidosis. PMID:22145453

Stipancic, Gordana; Sepec, Marija Pozgaj; Sabolic, Lavinija La Grasta; Radica, Ana; Skrabic, Veselin; Severinski, Srecko; Tiljak, Mirjana Kujundzic

2011-01-01

287

Relation between HLA typing and clinical presentations in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus patients in Al-Qassim region, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a disease with diverse clinical presentations due to interaction between genetic and environmental factors. SLE is associated worldwide with polymorphisms at various loci, including the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), although inconsistencies exist among these studies. Aims This study was carried out to investigate, the association of HLA-DRB1, DRB3, DRB4, DRB5, and DQB1 alleles in SLE patients and clinical presentations at Qassim, Saudi Arabia. Methods Fifty one patients with SLE—84.3% of whom had kidney involvement were studied in a case control study for HLA-DRB1, DRB3, DRB4, DRB5, and DQB1. Results It was found that DRB3 is a protective gene among Saudi’s against SLE, HLA DRB3, HLA DRB1*11 frequency was increased in patients with serositis with a p value of (0.004), (0.047) respectively, increased frequency of HLA DQB1*3 among SLE patients with skin manifestations with a p value of (0.041), the frequency of HLA DRB1*15 alleles was increased among SLE patients with nephritis with a p value of (0.029), the frequency of HLA DRB1*11 among those with hematological manifestations with a p value of (0.03) and the frequency DRB1*10 was found to be increased among SLE patients with neurological manifestations with a p value of (0.002) Conclusion In contradistinction to what have been found among other populations DRB3 is a protective gene among Saudi’s against SLE. No evidence for a role of the HLA-DRB1, DRB4, DRB5, DQB1 alleles. There was an increased HLA DRB3 frequency with serositis, DQB1*3 skin manifestations, HLA DRB1*15 with nephritis, DRB1*10 with hematological manifestations and DRB1*11 with neurological manifestations. PMID:25246883

Wadi, Walid; Elhefny, Noor eldeen A.M.; Mahgoub, Essam H.; Almogren, Adel; Hamam, Khaled D.; Al–hamed, Hamad A.; Gasim, Gasim I.

2014-01-01

288

Clinical decision support: effectiveness in improving quality processes and clinical outcomes and factors that may influence success.  

PubMed

The use of electronic health records has skyrocketed following the 2009 HITECH Act, which provides financial incentives to health care providers for the "meaningful use" of electronic medical record systems. An important component of the "Meaningful Use" legislation is the integration of Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS) into the computerized record, providing up-to-date medical knowledge and evidence-based guidance to the physician at the point of care. As reimbursement is increasingly tied to process and clinical outcomes, CDSS will be integral to future medical practice. Studies of CDSS indicate improvement in preventive services, appropriate care, and clinical and cost outcomes with strong evidence for CDSS effectiveness in process measures. Increasing provider adherence to CDSS recommendations is essential in improving CDSS effectiveness, and factors that influence adherence are currently under study. PMID:24910564

Murphy, Elizabeth V

2014-06-01

289

Refining Vancomycin Protein Binding Estimates: Identification of Clinical Factors That Influence Protein Binding?  

PubMed Central

While current data indicate only free (unbound) drug is pharmacologically active and is most predictive of response, pharmacodynamic studies of vancomycin have been limited to measurement of total concentrations. The protein binding of vancomycin is thought to be approximately 50%, but considerable variability surrounds this estimate. The present study sought to determine the extent of vancomycin protein binding, to identify factors that modulate its binding, and to create and validate a prediction tool to estimate the extent of protein binding based on individual clinical factors. This single-site prospective cohort study included hospitalized adult patients treated with vancomycin and with a vancomycin serum concentration determination available. Linear regression was used to predict the free vancomycin concentration (f[vanco]) and to determine the clinical factors modulating vancomycin protein binding. Among the 50 patients in the study, the mean protein binding was 41.5%. The strongest predictor of f[vanco] was the total vancomycin concentration (total [vanco]), and this was modified by dialysis and total protein of ?6.7 g/dl as covariates. The algebraic expression from the final prediction model was f[vanco] = 0.643 + 0.560 × total [vanco] ? {0.067 × total [vanco] × D} ? {0.071 × total [vanco] × TP} where D = 1 if dialysis dependent or 0 if not dialysis dependent, and TP = 1 if total protein is ?6.7 g/dl or 0 if total protein is <6.7 g/dl. The R2 of the final prediction model was 0.959 (P < 0.001). Validation of our model was performed in 13 patients, and the predictive performance was highly favorable (R2 was 0.9, and bias and precision were 0.18 and 0.18, respectively). Prediction models such as ours can be utilized in future pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics studies evaluating the exposure-response profile and to determine the pharmacodynamic target of interest as it relates to the free concentration. PMID:21670191

Butterfield, Jill M.; Patel, Nimish; Pai, Manjunath P.; Rosano, Thomas G.; Drusano, George L.; Lodise, Thomas P.

2011-01-01

290

Refining vancomycin protein binding estimates: identification of clinical factors that influence protein binding.  

PubMed

While current data indicate only free (unbound) drug is pharmacologically active and is most predictive of response, pharmacodynamic studies of vancomycin have been limited to measurement of total concentrations. The protein binding of vancomycin is thought to be approximately 50%, but considerable variability surrounds this estimate. The present study sought to determine the extent of vancomycin protein binding, to identify factors that modulate its binding, and to create and validate a prediction tool to estimate the extent of protein binding based on individual clinical factors. This single-site prospective cohort study included hospitalized adult patients treated with vancomycin and with a vancomycin serum concentration determination available. Linear regression was used to predict the free vancomycin concentration (f[vanco]) and to determine the clinical factors modulating vancomycin protein binding. Among the 50 patients in the study, the mean protein binding was 41.5%. The strongest predictor of f[vanco] was the total vancomycin concentration (total [vanco]), and this was modified by dialysis and total protein of ?6.7 g/dl as covariates. The algebraic expression from the final prediction model was f[vanco] = 0.643 + 0.560 × total [vanco] - {0.067 × total [vanco] × D} - {0.071 × total [vanco] × TP} where D = 1 if dialysis dependent or 0 if not dialysis dependent, and TP = 1 if total protein is ?6.7 g/dl or 0 if total protein is <6.7 g/dl. The R(2) of the final prediction model was 0.959 (P < 0.001). Validation of our model was performed in 13 patients, and the predictive performance was highly favorable (R(2) was 0.9, and bias and precision were 0.18 and 0.18, respectively). Prediction models such as ours can be utilized in future pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics studies evaluating the exposure-response profile and to determine the pharmacodynamic target of interest as it relates to the free concentration. PMID:21670191

Butterfield, Jill M; Patel, Nimish; Pai, Manjunath P; Rosano, Thomas G; Drusano, George L; Lodise, Thomas P

2011-09-01

291

Risk Factors for Clinically Significant Intimate Partner Violence among Active-Duty Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hypothesized risk factors for men's and women's clinically significant intimate partner violence (CS-IPV) from four ecological levels (i.e., individual, family, workplace, community) were tested in a representative sample of active-duty U.S. Air Force members (N = 42,744). When considered together, we expected only individual and family factors to…

Smith Slep, Amy M.; Foran, Heather M.; Heyman, Richard E.; Snarr, Jeffery D.

2011-01-01

292

Factors associated with successful answering of clinical questions using an information retrieval system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Despite the growing use of on-line databases by clinicians, there is very little research documenting how effectively they are used. This study assessed the ability of medical and nurse practitioner students to answer clinical questions and attempted to identify factors associated with that ability. Objective: Identify the demographic, experience, cognitive, personality, search mechanics, and user satisfaction factors associated with

William R. Hersh; Lynetta Sacherek; David Hickam; Linda Rose; Charles Friedman

293

An Update on the Epidemiology of Schizophrenia with a Special Reference to Clinically Important Risk Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schizophrenia is a chronic mental illness which poses a tremendous burden on the families, caregivers and the society. The purpose of this paper is to provide an updated review of the epidemiology of schizophrenia with a special attention to the clinically important risk factors such as drug abuse, hormonal factors and the new advances in genetic…

El-Missiry, Ahmed; Aboraya, Ahmed Sayed; Manseur, Hader; Manchester, Johnna; France, Cheryl; Border, Katherine

2011-01-01

294

Tumour necrosis factor in man: clinical and biological observations.  

PubMed Central

Eighteen patients with advanced cancer have been treated intravenously with human recombinant tumour necrosis factor (rhTNF). The drug produced febrile reactions at all doses although these were preventable by steroids and indomethacin. Doses at or above 9 x 10(5) units (400 micrograms)m-2 were associated with hypotension, abnormal liver enzymes, leucopenia and mild renal impairment in a substantial proportion of patients. RhTNF was cleared from plasma with a half life of approximately 20 minutes but non-linear pharmacokinetics lymphoma, improvements in their tumours were recorded. RhTNF was noted to produce rapid increases in serum C-reactive protein concentrations. Endogenous TNF levels were not found to be elevated in 72 cancer patients. TNF deserves further therapeutic evaluation and these observations support its biological importance as an endogenous pyrogen, mediator of acute phase protein responses, and a mediator of endotoxic shock. PMID:3435706

Selby, P.; Hobbs, S.; Viner, C.; Jackson, E.; Jones, A.; Newell, D.; Calvert, A. H.; McElwain, T.; Fearon, K.; Humphreys, J.

1987-01-01

295

Literature Review and Clinical Presentation of Cervical Spondylitis Due to Salmonella Enteritidis in Immunocompetent  

PubMed Central

A 48-year-old woman was presented to our clinic with some fever and neck pains for about one month. Based on the symptoms and results of image, an empirical diagnosis of tuberculous cervical spondylitis was made. The pain was not significantly decreased after anti-tuberculosis therapy. And, 3 weeks later, she was re-admitted to our hospital for the unbearable pain. An exploration of the C4/5 by the anterior medial approach was recommended to evaluate the germ and debridement. Bacteriological tests showed that the pathogen was Salmonella Enteritidis. The pain was relieved significantly after operation and sensitive antibiotic treatments. Infections with Salmonella Typhi or Salmonella Paratyphi have been well-documented, while there are few reports of cervical spondylitis caused by Salmonella Enteritidis. We reported a case of a healthy woman with whom pyogenic cervical spondylitis of Salmonella Enteritidis was corroborated and treated and reviewed according to previous reports about spondylitis caused by Salmonella Enteritidis in the literature. PMID:24761205

Feng, Zhi-Yun; Guo, Fang

2014-01-01

296

Clinical Presentation and Microarray Analysis of Peruvian Children with Atypical Development and/or Aberrant Behavior  

PubMed Central

We report our experience with high resolution microarray analysis in infants and young children with developmental disability and/or aberrant behavior enrolled at the Centro Ann Sullivan del Peru in Lima, Peru, a low income country. Buccal cells were collected with cotton swabs from 233 participants for later DNA isolation and identification of copy number variation (deletions/duplications) and regions of homozygosity (ROH) for estimating consanguinity status in 15 infants and young children (12 males, 3 females; mean age ± SD = 28.1?m ± ?7.9?m; age range 14?m–41?m) randomly selected for microarray analysis. An adequate DNA yield was found in about one-half of the enrolled participants. Ten participants showed deletions or duplications containing candidate genes reported to impact behavior or cognitive development. Five children had ROHs which could have harbored recessive gene alleles contributing to their clinical presentation. The coefficient of inbreeding was calculated and three participants showed first-second cousin relationships, indicating consanguinity. Our preliminary study showed that DNA isolated from buccal cells using cotton swabs was suboptimal, but yet in a subset of participants the yield was adequate for high resolution microarray analysis and several genes were found that impact development and behavior and ROHs identified to determine consanguinity status. PMID:25400949

Butler, Merlin G.; Usrey, Kelly; Roberts, Jennifer L.; Schroeder, Stephen R.

2014-01-01

297

A molecular diagnostic approach able to detect the recurrent genetic prognostic factors typical of presenting myeloma  

PubMed Central

Risk stratification in myeloma requires an accurate assessment of the presence of a range of molecular abnormalities including the differing IGH translocations and the recurrent copy number abnormalities that can impact clinical behavior. Currently, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization is used to detect these abnormalities. High failure rates, slow turnaround, cost, and labor intensiveness make it difficult and expensive to use in routine clinical practice. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), a molecular approach based on a multiplex polymerase chain reaction method, offers an alternative for the assessment of copy number changes present in the myeloma genome. Here, we provide evidence showing that MLPA is a powerful tool for the efficient detection of copy number abnormalities and when combined with expression assays, MLPA can detect all of the prognostically relevant molecular events which characterize presenting myeloma. This approach opens the way for a molecular diagnostic strategy that is efficient, high throughput, and cost effective. PMID:25287954

Boyle, Eileen M; Proszek, Paula Z; Kaiser, Martin F; Begum, Dil; Dahir, Nasrin; Savola, Suvi; Wardell, Christopher P; Leleu, Xavier; Ross, Fiona M; Chiecchio, Laura; Cook, Gordon; Drayson, Mark T; Owen, Richard G; Ashcroft, John M; Jackson, Graham H; Anthony Child, James; Davies, Faith E; Walker, Brian A; Morgan, Gareth J

2015-01-01

298

Comparison of MRI criteria at first presentation to predict conversion to clinically definite multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We compared MRI criteria used to predict conversion of suspected multiple sclerosis to clinically definte multiple sclerosis. Seventy-four patients with clinically isolated neurological symptoms suggestive of multiple sclerosis were studied with MRI. Logistic regression analysis was used to remove redundant information, and a diagnostic model was built after each MRI parameter was dichotomized according to maximum accuracy using receiver

Frederik Barkhof; Massimo Filippi; L. H. Miller; Philip Scheltens; Adriana Campi; Chris H. Polman; Giancarlo Comi; H. J. Adhr; Nick Losseff; Jacob Valk

1997-01-01

299

Bloodstream Infection among Children Presenting to a General Hospital Outpatient Clinic in Urban Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background There are limited data on the etiology and characteristics of bloodstream infections in children presenting in hospital outpatient settings in South Asia. Previous studies in Nepal have highlighted the importance of murine typhus as a cause of febrile illness in adults and enteric fever as a leading bacterial cause of fever among children admitted to hospital. Methods We prospectively studied a total of 1084 febrile children aged between 2 months and 14 years presenting to a general hospital outpatient department in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, over two study periods (summer and winter). Blood from all patients was tested by conventional culture and by real-time PCR for Rickettsia typhi. Results Putative etiological agents for fever were identified in 164 (15%) patients. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) was identified in 107 (10%), S. enterica serovar Paratyphi A (S. Paratyphi) in 30 (3%), Streptococcus pneumoniae in 6 (0.6%), S. enterica serovar Typhimurium in 2 (0.2%), Haemophilus influenzae type b in 1 (0.1%), and Escherichia coli in 1 (0.1%) patient. S. Typhi was the most common organism isolated from blood during both summer and winter. Twenty-two (2%) patients were PCR positive for R. typhi. No significant demographic, clinical and laboratory features distinguished culture positive enteric fever and murine typhus. Conclusions Salmonella infections are the leading cause of bloodstream infection among pediatric outpatients with fever in Kathmandu Valley. Extension of immunization programs against invasive bacterial disease to include the agents of enteric fever and pneumococcus could improve the health of children in Nepal. PMID:23115652

Pradhan, Rahul; Shrestha, Umesh; Gautam, Samir C.; Thorson, Stephen; Shrestha, Kabindra; Yadav, Bharat K.; Kelly, Dominic F.; Adhikari, Neelam; Pollard, Andrew J.; Murdoch, David R.

2012-01-01

300

Factors affecting urine specific gravity in apparently healthy cats presenting to first opinion practice for routine evaluation.  

PubMed

Evidence suggests that apparently healthy cats presenting for routine evaluation should have a randomly sampled urine specific gravity (USG) >1.035. A USG <1.035 might reflect inappropriate concentrating ability warranting further investigation. We measured the USG of 1040 apparently healthy cats presenting to first opinion practice in an observational study, using either in-clinic refractometers or measurements provided by reference laboratories, and examined factors that might affect USG. In-clinic refractometers were calibrated using distilled water (specific gravity = 1.000). The USG was >1.030 in 91% of cats and >1.035 in 88% of cats; 121 adult cats (?6 months old) and five young cats (<6 months old) had USGs of <1.035. Of these 126 cats, a pathological cause was identified in 27 adult cats - of these, 26 were >9 years old - but no young cats. No cause was identified in 43 adult cats, and further investigation was not pursued in 51 adult cats. Factors that affected USG included age, diet type, sex, fasting status, drinking avidity, refractometer type, and the interaction between sex and diet - increasing dietary moisture content lowered USG only in female cats. Most factors minimally affected USG. The odds of having a USG <1.035 without apparent pathology included age and dietary moisture content. Drinking avidity decreased with increasing dietary moisture content. Our results show that most apparently healthy cats presenting to first-opinion practice should have a USG >1.035. Dietary management strategies to lower USG might be less effective than anticipated, and warrant monitoring of USG to determine efficacy. Older cats with USG <1.035 are more likely to have pathological causes identified, although clinicians are more likely to examine these cats for possible pathology. A lack of stringent refractometer calibration could have caused some errors in estimates of USG by some observers, but would be unlikely to alter markedly the findings. PMID:25030955

Rishniw, Mark; Bicalho, Rodrigo

2015-04-01

301

Analysis of clinical and demographic characteristics of patients presenting with renal colic in the emergency department  

PubMed Central

Background Renal colic (RC), is one of the most severe pain patterns which is most commonly diagnosed and managed in the emergency department (ED). This study is designed to evaluate the characteristics of adult patients presenting with pain and diagnosed with RC in the ED, length of stay in the ED and hospital and factors affecting these variables. Methods All consecutive adult patients who presented with side pain, flank pain, abdominal or groin pain and consequently diagnosed with urolithiasis or RC were analyzed retrospectively. Sociodemographic data, times of admission into and discharge from the ED, adjunctive complaints, results of laboratory investigations, findings on examination, treatment and drugs administered were noted. Results A total of 235 patients with a diagnostic code of urolithiasis were enrolled. Physicians were more likely to order radiological and laboratory investigations for female patients and those without hematuria in urinalysis. The peak incidence of patients diagnosed with RC (p = 0.001) was noted in August, while the winter had the lowest frequency of relevant admissions. The peak frequency was between 06:00 and 08:00. Women stayed longer in the ED (p = 0.001). Absence of hematuria in urinalysis was associated with increased length of stay (p = 0.007). Conclusion Although RC is a common ED presentation for which the emergency physician has no guidelines in terms of diagnosis and management, there is no exact pattern to guide ordering investigations. Patients with atypical presentations stay longer in the ED and are likely to undergo additional tests in management. PMID:18793451

Serinken, Mustafa; Karcioglu, Ozgur; Turkcuer, Ibrahim; Ozkan, Halis Ilke; Keysan, Mustafa Kemal; Bukiran, Aytaç

2008-01-01

302

Bleb-related Endophthalmitis: Clinical Presentation, Isolates, Treatment and Visual Outcome of Culture-proven Cases  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To investigate clinical features, causative organisms and their antibiotic sensitivity, management, and visual acuity outcomes of eyes with bleb-related endophthalmitis (BRE). Design: Retrospective, noncomparative, consecutive eye series. Methods: Clinical and microbiological records of patients with culture positive bleb-related endophthalmitis treated at a single institution between April 1995 and February 2002 were revised retrospectively. Main Outcome Measures: Final visual acuity, loss of eye and complications. Results: There were 34 cases with presenting visual acuities ranging from 20/200 to light perception. Decrease of visual acuity was the most frequent sign (94%) followed by pain (79%) and hypopyon (53%). Associated features included pseudophakia (79%), vitreous wick (29%), and wound leak (12%). The most frequent organisms isolated from vitreous specimens, were streptococcus species (55%) and gram positive coagulase negative staphylococci (20%). Polymicrobial growth was noted in 27% of cases. The cultured organisms were sensitive to antibiotics used in 94% of cases. Treatment modality used was vitreous tap with antibiotic injection without (65%) or with vitrectomy (35%). The most common intravitreal antibiotics combination was vancomycin with ceftazidime, Intravitreal dexamethsone was administered in 56% of cases. Final visual outcome of 20/400 or better was noticed in 50% of cases without and 33% with vitrectomy, but this was not statistically significant (p=0.45). The difference in final visual acuity of cases infected by gram-positive coagulase-negative staphylococci and streptococcus species were not statistically significant (p= 0.18). Overall, final visual outcome of 20/400 or better was noticed in 47% of cases, while no light perception was recorded in 8 (24%) cases. Of no light perception cases 7 underwent evisceration or enucleation. Overall, 32% of the cases experienced other complications like retinal detachment with dislocated intraocular lens, phthisis bulbi, and epiretinal membrane formation. Conclusion: BRE is associated with substantial visual morbidity. Prompt treatment of BRE with intravitreal vancomycin and broad spectrum antibiotics recommended while culture results are pending. Neither tap-injection with vitrectomy nor tap-injection without vitrectomy proved superior in the management of this condition. PMID:20142955

Ba'arah, Basel T.; Smiddy, William E.

2009-01-01

303

Demographic, epidemiologic and clinical profile of snake bite cases, presented to Emergency Medicine department, Ahmedabad, Gujarat  

PubMed Central

Aim: Snake bite is a common medical emergency faced mainly by the rural populations in tropical and subtropical countries with heavy rainfall and humid climate. Although India is a single largest contributor of snake bite cases, reporting is very poor. There is hardly any publication of the same from Gujarat state that is developing at a good pace. Hence, we aimed to study the snake bite cases with particular attention to demography, epidemiology, and clinical profile. Settings and Design: The present descriptive, observational study was carried out at the Emergency Medicine Department of a tertiary care center in Ahmedabad, Gujarat. This department is one if the firsts to get recognized by the Medical Council of India. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional single-center study. Cases were entered into the prescribed form, and detailed information regarding demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical parameters was entered. Statistical Method: Data were analyzed using Epi2000. Means and frequencies for each variable were calculated. Results: Majority (67.4%) of the snake bite victims were in the age group between 15 and 45 years. Majority were male victims (74.2%). 71% victims of snake bite lived in rural areas. Farmers and laborers were the main victims. 61.2% incidents took place at night time or early morning (before 6 a.m.). 64% patients had bite mark on the lower limb. 40% victims had seen the snake. Eight patients had snake bite, but were asymptomatic. 52% had neuroparalytic manifestation, 34% were asymptomatic, and 9.6% had hemorrhagic manifestation. 14% cases received treatment within 1 h of the bite and 64.84% within 1-6 h after the bite. First aid given was in the form of application of tourniquet (16.2%), local application of lime, chillies, herbal medicine, etc., (1%). 2.20% cases were sensitive to anti-snake venom. Only three patients died. Conclusion: In this region (Gujarat), neuroparalytic manifestation of snake bite is more prevalent. Cobra and krait are the commonest types of poisonous snakes. The time of seeking treatment has reduced because of awareness about snake bite treatment and better transport and ambulance facility. Mortality is very less in well-equipped hospitals due to early initiation of treatment with anti-snake venom. PMID:23960378

Jarwani, Bhavesh; Jadav, Pradeep; Madaiya, Malhar

2013-01-01

304

Metabolomic Analysis of Clinical Plasma from Cerebral Infarction Patients Presenting with Blood Stasis  

PubMed Central

Blood stasis (BS) is characterized as a disorder of blood circulation. In traditional Korean medicine (TKM), it is viewed as a cause factor of diseases such as multiple sclerosis and stroke. This study investigated differences in the plasma metabolites profiles of subjects displaying BS or non-BS patterns. Thirty-one patients with cerebral infarction diagnosed with BS and an equal number of sex- and age-matched non-BS patients were enrolled. Metabolic profiling was performed using UPLC-MS. The ratio of subjects with a rough pulse and purple coloration of the tongue was higher in patients presenting with BS pattern. Through metabolomics analysis, 82 metabolites that differed significantly between the BS and non-BS pattern were identified, and the two groups were significantly separated using an orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis model (P < 0.001). Of these 82 metabolites, acetyl carnitine, leucine, kynurenine, phosphocholine, hexanoyl carnitine, and decanoyl carnitine were present in significantly higher levels in patients with a BS pattern than those with a non-BS pattern. Our results also demonstrated that seven plasma metabolites, including acyl-carnitines and kynurenine, were associated with a BS pattern, suggesting that variant plasma metabolic profiles may serve as a biomarker for diagnosis of BS in patients with cerebral infarction. PMID:25834622

Kim, Min Jung; Jung, Jeeyoun; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Myeong Soo; Kim, Myung-Sunny

2015-01-01

305

Inflammatory biomarker profiles of mental disorders and their relation to clinical, social and lifestyle factors.  

PubMed

In the last few decades, mental health research has increasingly provided evidence supporting the role of inflammation in pathogenesis, course and treatment of mental disorders. With such a steep incline of research, resulting in a wealth of emerged findings, it has become difficult to follow developments within the field. The present review sets out to present the recent developments and to give an overview of the inflammatory profiles of depression, psychosis and bipolar disorder, as well as variations within these disorders. Moreover, mediating factors such as social environment and childhood experience are discussed, both in terms of their potential in elucidating the complex interface between the inflammation and other closely related biological systems, as well as the possibly confounding impact of various lifestyle factors. Whilst many issues in this fascinating area of research remain to be fully understood and elaborated, all current evidence suggests that inflammation plays a key role in mental disorders and may open up novel avenues for clinical treatment. PMID:24789456

Baumeister, David; Russell, Alice; Pariante, Carmine M; Mondelli, Valeria

2014-06-01

306

Stimulation of human prostatic carcinoma cell growth by factors present in human bone marrow.  

PubMed Central

Malignant prostatic carcinoma, a major cause of cancer mortality in males, most often metastasizes to secondary sites in bone. Frequently, the growth rate of the secondary tumor in bone marrow is considerably greater than that of the slowly growing primary prostatic tumor. We now report that two lines of human prostatic carcinoma cells proliferate in response to conditioned media from unstimulated human, rat, or bovine bone marrow. Nonprostatic tumor cell lines showed little or no growth response to the same medium. The proliferative activity found in bone marrow was not duplicated by any of a variety of purified growth factors including epidermal growth factor (EGF), acidic or basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor (TGF) alpha or beta, interleukins 1, 2, 3, 4 or 6, granulocyte (G), macrophage (M) or granulocyte-macrophage (GM) colony stimulating factor (CSF). Whereas a mixture of G-CSF, M-CSF, and IL 3 produced a mitogenic response in the prostatic carcinoma cells, these three factors were not present in our bone marrow samples in sufficient quantities to promote the observed proliferative response. To further identify the cellular source of the proliferative activity present in bone marrow-conditioned medium, we tested conditioned media made from human bone marrow stromal cells. The stromal cell conditioned medium stimulated increased growth of the prostatic carcinoma cells to levels equivalent to those observed with the bone marrow conditioned medium. These results suggest that novel mitogenic factors that are produced by bone marrow stromal cells and remain in the bone marrow cavity may account, in part, for the preferential growth of prostatic metastases in bone. PMID:2786890

Chackal-Roy, M; Niemeyer, C; Moore, M; Zetter, B R

1989-01-01

307

Evaluation of clinical factors influencing pregnancy rate in frozen embryo transfer  

PubMed Central

Background: Frozen embryo transfer (FET) is one of the most important supplementary procedures in the treatment of infertile couples. While general information concerning the outcome of fresh embryo transfer has been documented, paucity of investigations has addressed the clinical factors influenced on pregnancy rates in FET. Objective: In this study, we performed a retrospective analysis of clinical factors that potentially influence the outcome of FET. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the data from 372 women who were subjected to FET registered from April 2009-2011 at the Research and clinical center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran. Baseline data and pregnancy rate were collected. The data were analyzed statistically using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: The clinical pregnancy rate was 57.7 and 29.2% in women <35 years old, and women >35 years old, respectively (p<0.0001). Clinical pregnancy rates in women with FSH <10 IU/ml, and FSH >10 IU/ml were 56.3% and 17.5 %, respectively (p<0.0001). Whereas the other clinical parameters consist of reason of fetus freezing, primary IVF protocol, IVF procedure, endometrial thickness, treatment duration to fetal transfer found to be unrelated to FET outcomes (p>0.05). Conclusion: Female age and basal FSH level are the most important factors influencing the clinical pregnancy rate following FET. PMID:25114675

Eftekhar, Maryam; Rahmani, Elham; Pourmasumi, Soheila

2014-01-01

308

Homelessness: patterns of emergency department use and risk factors for re-presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo describe patterns of service use and to predict risk factors for re-presentation to a metropolitan emergency department (ED) among people who are homeless.MethodsA retrospective cohort analysis was undertaken over a 24-month period from a principal referral hospital in Melbourne, Australia. All ED visits relating to people classified as homeless were included. A predictive model for risk of re-presentation was

G. Moore; M. F. Gerdtz; G. Hepworth; E. Manias

2010-01-01

309

Clinical presentations of substance abuse in bipolar heroin addicts at time of treatment entry  

E-print Network

self-medication hypothesis’ have focused on substance abuseabuse (heroin included) at study entry We excluded patients: Receiving opioid agonist medicationsabuse in the clinical course of bipolar patients [16,31]. Studies on the self-medication

2012-01-01

310

Familial Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis May Present during Adulthood: Clinical and Genetic Features of a Small Series  

PubMed Central

Familial Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is a rare immune deficiency with defective cytotoxic function. The age at onset is usually young and the natural course is rapidly fatal if untreated. A later onset of the disease has been sporadically reported even in adolescents and adults. We report the results of our retrospective data collection of all cases diagnosed with FHL at an age of 18 years or older and enrolled in the Italian Registry of HLH. All cases were diagnosed with FHL based on evidence of genetic defect in one FHL-related gene. A total of 11 patients were diagnosed with FHL. They were 9 males and 2 females, from 10 unrelated families; their age ranged between 18 and 43 years (median, 23 years). Family history was unremarkable in eight families at the time of the diagnosis. Their genetic diagnoses are: FHL2 (n?=?6), FHL3 (n?=?2), FHL5 (n?=?1), XLP1 (n?=?2). Clinical, molecular and functional data are described. These data confirm that FHL may present beyond the pediatric age and up to the fifth decade. FHL2 due to perforin defect is the most frequently reported subtype. Adult specialists should consider FHL in the differential diagnosis of patients with cytopenia and liver or central nervous system disorders, especially when a lymphoproliferative disease is suspected but eventually not confirmed. FHL may turn to be fatal within a short time course even in adults. This risk, together with the continuous improvement in the transplant technique, especially in the area of transplant from matched unrelated donor, resulting in reduced treatment related mortality, might suggest a wider use of SCT in this population. Current diagnostic approach allows prompt identification of patients by flow-cytometry screening, then confirmed by the genetic study, and treatment with chemo-immunotherapy followed by stem cell transplantation. PMID:22970278

Piccin, Andrea; Gherlinzoni, Filippo; Sasso, Ferdinando Carlo; Rabusin, Marco; Attard, Luciano; Bosi, Alberto; Pende, Daniela; Moretta, Lorenzo; Aricò, Maurizio

2012-01-01

311

Human Factors Principles Applied to CAD/CAM Presentation by Eric N. Wiebe  

E-print Network

Human Factors Principles Applied to CAD/CAM Presentation by Eric N. Wiebe NC State University Meeting, San Diego, CA. Abstract CAD/CAM technology has advanced rapidly in the last few years but only. The geometric model generated by CAD tools has been underutilized as a means of increasing the efficiency

312

The clinical presentation and early outcomes of necrotizing fasciitis in a Ugandan Tertiary Hospital- a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Necrotizing fasciitis is an infectious process characterized by rapidly progressing necrosis of superficial fascia and subcutaneous tissue with subsequent necrosis of overlying skin. Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare but fatal infection. The worldwide incidence is at 0.4 per 100,000. Mortality is up to 80% with no intervention, and 30-50% with intervention. Delay in intervention is associated with poor outcome. The risk factors for necrotizing fasciitis are diabetes mellitus, HIV, malignancy, illicit drug use, malnutrition among others. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical presentation and early outcomes of necrotizing fasciitis amongst Ugandan patients. Methods A prospective descriptive case series study conducted at Mulago National Referral and Teaching hospital from 5th January to 30th April 2011. Patients with necrotizing fasciitis were consecutively recruited after clinical evaluation, laboratory and microbiological tests were performed. Aggressive debridement was done and broad-spectrum antibiotics administered. Patients were followed up on surgical wards. Ethical approval was obtained. Results Thirty five patients were recruited over a 4 months period. More males were affected with, M: F 3:1. The 20-40 years age group was most affected. Attainment of healthy granulation tissue took 19 days on average. Mortality rate was 14% (5/35). Limbs were the most affected body parts 20/35 (57%), the scrotum and perineum (23%). Among infants the scalp was the most affected. Co-morbidities included HIV 8/35 (17%), and DM (5%) among others. The commonest organisms were gram negative. Split skin grafting was necessary in 74% (26/35) of patients. Conclusion There were a high number of patients with necrotizing fasciitis; it was associated with low mortality but high morbidity (long hospital stay). There was a high preponderance to males and limbs were the more affected body parts. PMID:25069415

2014-01-01

313

Frequency, Clinical Presentation and Evolution of Renal Oncocytomas: Multicentric Experience from a European Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To understand the clinical behavior of renal oncocytoma in a retrospective analysis of a European multicentric nephrectomies database.Methods: The records of 891 patients who underwent surgical resection of renal neoplasm were reviewed. Relevant clinical and pathological data for each patient were retrieved in a database.Results: Thirty-two (3.6%) cases of renal oncocytoma were identified. Twenty patients (62.5%) were asymptomatic. No

Leo Romis; Luca Cindolo; Jean Jacques Patard; Giovanni Messina; Vincenzo Altieri; Laurent Salomon; Claude Clement Abbou; Dominique Chopin; Bernard Lobel; Alexandre de La Taille

2004-01-01

314

Factors Associated with Utilization of a Free HIV VCT Clinic by Female Sex Workers in Jinan City, Northern China  

PubMed Central

Based on our previous qualitative exploration, this research presents the second phase in our study of factors associated with utilization of a free HIV VCT clinic in Jinan City, Northern China, by female sex workers (FSWs). A total of 970 FSWs from entertainment venues were interviewed and prospectively followed to determine who ultimately sought and received VCT at the clinic, compared to those who did not. Simple and multiple logistic regressions were performed on factors drawn from the Ecological Perspective, hypothesized to be associated with utilization of testing at the VCT clinic. Despite 69% of FSWs expressing willingness to attend the VCT clinic, only 11% were actually tested. The multiple logistic regression model that provided best goodness of fit included the covariates of willingness to attend the VCT clinic (Adjusted OR 3.13, 95% CI: 1.62–6.59), low perceived HIV infection risk (Adjusted OR 0.64, 95% CI: 0.35–1.11), low fear of FSWs status disclosure in the clinic (Adjusted OR 0.55, 95% CI: 0.31–0.94) and influence of acquaintances (Adjusted OR 0.52, 95% CI: 0.29–0.89) and peers (Adjusted OR 2.45, 95% CI: 1.40–4.50). This is the first study in China to follow FSWs longitudinally to measure factors related to VCT utilization. The low utilization of VCT services by participants in our study is similar to prior reports throughout China. FSWs’ access to VCT service is associated with intrapersonal, institutional, and particularly, interpersonal factors. Based on these findings, we recommend emphasis on confidentiality of services, VCT education for influential peers, and introduction of HIV rapid testing on site. PMID:20458528

Li, Bing; Pan, Jingbin; Sengupta, Sohini; Emrick, Catherine Boland; Cohen, Myron S.; Henderson, Gail E.

2010-01-01

315

Clinical factors, including All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Group severity, as predictors of early rehospitalization after COPD exacerbation  

PubMed Central

Background: Patients hospitalized for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations carry a high risk for early rehospitalization. We wished to identify the basic clinical factors associated with a high risk of rehospitalization, and to see how well the standardized All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Group (APR-DRG) severity of illness (SOI) subclassification predicted rehospitalization if combined with other simple clinical measures. Methods: We identified adult patients aged ?40 years discharged from a major hospital in the Southwestern USA with a COPD discharge diagnosis during the study index period (1 October 2009 to 30 September 2010). Patients readmitted within 30 days (“early rehospitalization”) and 90 days (“any rehospitalization”) were each compared with those not rehospitalized. Clinical parameters (including demographics, comorbidities) and recent healthcare utilization were examined for their association with rehospitalization. Factors independently associated with rehospitalization were then combined with the index admission APR-DRG SOI assessment using conditional linear regression to find the best models in terms of the highest C-statistic. Results: Among 306 patients hospitalized for COPD, 62 (20.3%) had a rehospitalization within 90 days and 28 (9.2%), an early readmission. An APR-DRG SOI subclassification ?3 was a modest independent predictor of early or any readmission, with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 2.09 to 3.33. Models that combined the APR-DRG SOI subclassification with clinical factors present before the index hospitalization had strong C-statistics of ?0.80. Good models without the APR-DRG SOI subclassification but including a history of recent hospitalizations before the index hospitalization were also identified. Conclusions: An APR-DRG SOI subclassification of ?3 for the index COPD admission is associated with an increased risk of early rehospitalizations, and can be combined with a few historical clinical factors to create strong predictive models for rehospitalization. This study demonstrates that hospitals can use commonly collected clinical information to help identify COPD patients at a high risk of failure after discharge.

Roberts, Melissa H; Mapel, Douglas W; Von Worley, Ann; Beene, Janice

2015-01-01

316

PTA of Infrapopliteal Arteries: Long-term Clinical Follow-up and Analysis of Factors Influencing Clinical Outcome  

SciTech Connect

This study was a retrospective analysis of patients with CLI who underwent infrapopliteal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). The main goal was to evaluate clinical and morphological factors that influence the clinical outcome of PTA in long-term follow-up. A total of 1,445 PTA procedures were performed in 1,268 patients. Main indications for PTA included gangrene, nonhealing ulcers, or rest pain. The mean number of treated arteries was 1.77 artery/limb, and the majority of lesions were type TASC D. The technical success rate of PTA was 89% of intended-to-treat arteries. The main criterion of clinical success was functional limb salvage (LS). One-year follow-up involved 1,069 limbs. Primary and secondary 1-year LS rates were 76.1 and 84.4%, respectively. The effect of clinical and morphological parameters on the 1-year LS was that the only associated disease with an adverse effect on LS rate was DM combined with dialysis. Regarding limb preprocedural status, gangrene was clearly a negative predictor. The most important factor affecting LS was the number of patent arteries post-PTA: patients with 0, 1, 2, and 3 patent arteries had 1-year primary LS rates of 56.4, 73.1, 80.4, and 83%, respectively. Long-term follow-up of LS rates demonstrated secondary LS rates of 84.4, 78.8, and 73.3% at 1, 5, and 10 years. Every effort should be made to perform PTA for as many arteries as possible, even if TASC D type, to improve clinical outcome. Our study shows that repeat PTA is capable of keeping the long-term LS rate close to 75%.

Peregrin, Jan H., E-mail: jape@medicon.cz; Koznar, Boris; Kovac, Josef; Lastovickova, Jarmila; Novotny, Jiri; Vedlich, Daniel [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Czech Republic); Skibova, Jelena [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Department of Statistics (Czech Republic)

2010-08-15

317

Three Cases of Organized Hematoma of the Maxillary Sinus: Clinical Features and Immunohistological Studies for Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 Expressions  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Organized hematoma (OH) is a rare, nonneoplastic, hemorrhagic lesion causing mucosal swelling and bone thinning, mainly in the maxillary sinus. We aimed to clarify the clinical presentation and treatment of OH. Methods. Three cases of maxillary sinus OH and a literature review are presented. Results. Three men aged 16–40 years complained of nasal obstruction, frequent epistaxis, and/or headache. Clinical and radiological examinations revealed a maxillary sinus OH. They were cured in a piecemeal fashion via endoscopic middle meatal antrostomy. Furthermore, vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor were expressed in the lesion. Conclusions. The pathogenesis of OH is unclear and it presents various histological and imaging findings; however, it is not difficult to rule out malignant tumors. Minimally invasive surgery such as endoscopic sinus surgery can cure it completely. Thus, it is important to determine the diagnosis using CT and MRI and to quickly provide surgical treatment. PMID:25699195

Imayoshi, Shoichiro; Kanazawa, Takeharu; Fukushima, Noriyoshi; Kikuchi, Hisashi; Hasegawa, Masayo; Nagatomo, Takafumi; Nishino, Hiroshi

2015-01-01

318

Patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders: relationship between clinical and psychological factors and functional health status  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To examine the relative contribution of cervical impairments and psychosocial factors to perceived disability among people with chronic whiplash-associated disorders. DESIGN: A total of 86 patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders participated in this observational, cross-sectional study. All patients were presented to outpatient physical therapy clinics. All patients completed the neck disability index. Depression, anxiety, and catastrophizing were measured with

Maarten A. Schmitt; Nico L. van Meeteren; Anton de Wijer; Frank R. van Genderen; Yolanda van der Graaf; Paul J. Helders

2009-01-01

319

Prognostic factors of primary pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma: a clinical and pathological analysis of 34 cases  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma (PMEC) is a rare malignant neoplasm, and little is known about the prognostic factors. The aim of the present study was to identify the relationship between tumor’s histological features and clinical behaviors and to analyze the survival of patients with PMEC. A total of 34 patients with PMEC from May 2001 to April 2013 were included in the investigation. The clinical data, radiological manifestation, pathological findings, treatment strategy, and prognoses of all patients were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were classified into low-grade group (n = 25) and high-grade group (n = 9), based on histological grades. High-grade PMEC was more common in patient with elevated serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) (P = 0.033), advanced tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (P = 0.004) and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001). The 5-year PFS and OS of all patients were 75.7% and 83.6%, respectively. Age, pathological grade, lymph node metastasis and TNM stage were correlated with the survival of PMEC patients. Lymph node metastasis was an independent predictor of OS (HR, 0.080; P = 0.029) and PFS (HR, 0.090; P = 0. 004). A higher tumor histological grade indicated a more aggressive behavior. Patients who had undergone complete resection for PMEC without any lymph node metastasis were expected to be cured. PMID:25400760

Jiang, Li; Li, Pengfei; Xiao, Zizheng; Qiu, Huijuan; Zhang, Xinke; Xiao, Yongbo; Zhang, Bei

2014-01-01

320

Meeting report: present state of molecular genetics in clinical laboratories. Report on the VII European Symposium on Clinical Laboratory and In Vitro Diagnostic Industry in Barcelona.  

PubMed

The VII European Symposium of the Clinical Laboratory and In Vitro Diagnostic Industry, co-organized between the Catalan Association for Clinical Laboratory Sciences (ACCLC) and the Catalan Society of Biology, was held on May 28th-29th, 2013 in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) under the IFCC auspices and the IUPAC sponsorship. The subject of the present Symposium was "Molecular Genetics in the Clinical Laboratory" and began with an opening conference that was a stroll through the history of molecular genetics in the context of the clinical laboratory. The scientific program was structured in several 2-h length roundtables that dealt with the following topics: recent advances in molecular genetics for clinical microbiology, latest evidences and real applicability of pharmacogenetics in the clinical practice, quality assurance of a molecular genetics laboratory, and latest trends in prenatal genetic diagnosis. The aim of the Symposium was the discussion of the transformation that molecular genetics has generated on clinical laboratories in terms of organization, specialization, interpretation of results and fast technical and knowledge evolution. High-qualified professionals from several countries together with in-country experts formed the roundtables. Attendants participated actively in the debates, increasing the overall interest. PMID:25296673

Padró-Miquel, Ariadna; Candás-Estébanez, Beatriz

2015-02-01

321

Daily Mean Temperature and Clinical Kidney Stone Presentation in Five U.S. Metropolitan Areas: A Time-Series Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: High ambient temperatures are a risk factor for nephrolithiasis, but the precise relationship between temperature and kidney stone presentation is unknown. Objectives: Our objective was to estimate associations between mean daily temperature and kidney stone presentation according to lag time and temperatures. Methods: Using a time-series design and distributed lag nonlinear models, we estimated the relative risk (RR) of kidney stone presentation associated with mean daily temperatures, including cumulative RR for a 20-day period, and RR for individual daily lags through 20 days. Our analysis used data from the MarketScan Commercial Claims database for 60,433 patients who sought medical evaluation or treatment of kidney stones from 2005–2011 in the U.S. cities of Atlanta, Georgia; Chicago, Illinois; Dallas, Texas; Los Angeles, California; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Results: Associations between mean daily temperature and kidney stone presentation were not monotonic, and there was variation in the exposure–response curve shapes and the strength of associations at different temperatures. However, in most cases RRs increased for temperatures above the reference value of 10°C. The cumulative RR for a daily mean temperature of 30°C versus 10°C was 1.38 in Atlanta (95% CI: 1.07, 1.79), 1.37 in Chicago (95% CI: 1.07, 1.76), 1.36 in Dallas (95% CI: 1.10, 1.69), 1.11 in Los Angeles (95% CI: 0.73, 1.68), and 1.47 in Philadelphia (95% CI: 1.00, 2.17). Kidney stone presentations also were positively associated with temperatures < 2°C in Atlanta, and < 10°C in Chicago and Philadelphia. In four cities, the strongest association between kidney stone presentation and a daily mean temperature of 30°C versus 10°C was estimated for lags of ? 3 days. Conclusions: In general, kidney stone presentations increased with higher daily mean temperatures, with the strongest associations estimated for lags of only a few days. These findings further support an adverse effect of high temperatures on nephrolithiasis. Citation: Tasian GE, Pulido JE, Gasparrini A, Saigal CS, Horton BP, Landis JR, Madison R, Keren R, for the Urologic Diseases in America Project. 2014. Daily mean temperature and clinical kidney stone presentation in five U.S. metropolitan areas: a time-series analysis. Environ Health Perspect 122:1081–1087;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307703 PMID:25009122

Pulido, Jose E.; Gasparrini, Antonio; Saigal, Christopher S.; Horton, Benjamin P.; Landis, J. Richard; Madison, Rodger; Keren, Ron

2014-01-01

322

Factors associated with success or failure of quit attempts: a clinical approach for lung cancer prevention.  

PubMed

The objective of the study is to investigate the success rate of quit attempts and identify factors associated with success or failure of quit attempts in a quit smoking clinic. A cohort study was conducted with 495 smokers who enrolled in a quit smoking clinic from 2005 to 2008. The factors leading to quit smoking successfully were "being Malay", "having high blood pressure" "type of Nicotine Replacement Therapy" and "duration of follow up". In contrast, clerical staff had negative association to quit smoking. People who started smoking in their teenage years had a high risk of relapse. Integration of active follow up and tailor-made support programmes for quitters appear necessary in order to maintain their non-smoking status and encourage them to be permanent quitters. Integration of quit smoking clinics and primary care clinics could be another potential step for the success of quit smoking programmes. PMID:22502663

Su, Tin Tin; Sallehuddin, Bin Abu Bakar; Murniati, Hj Hussain; Swinder, Jit; Al Sadat, Nabilla; Saimy, Ismail

2012-01-01

323

Factors influencing polymerase chain reaction outcomes in patients with clinically suspected ocular tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Background Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay can be a useful method for definitive diagnosis in paucibacillary infections such as ocular tuberculosis (TB). In this study, we have evaluated factors affecting PCR outcomes in patients with clinically suspected ocular TB. Patients with clinically suspected ocular TB were investigated by PCR of aqueous or vitreous samples. Three control groups were also tested: group 1 included culture-proven non-tuberculous endophthalmitis, group 2 culture-negative non-tuberculous endophthalmitis, and group 3 patients undergoing surgery for uncomplicated cataract. PCR targeted one or more of following targets: IS6110, MPB64, and protein b genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Multiple regression analysis (5% level of significance) was done to evaluate the associations between positive PCR outcome and laterality of disease, tuberculin skin test (TST)/interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA), chest radiography, and type of sample (aqueous or vitreous). The main outcome measures were positive PCR by one or more gene targets, and factors influencing positive PCR outcomes. Results All 114 samples were tested for MPB64, 110 for protein b, and 88 for IS6110. MPB64 was positive in 70.2% (n?=?80) of tested samples, protein b in 40.0% (n?=?44), and IS6110 in only 9.1% (n?=?8). DNA sequencing of amplicons from four randomly chosen PCR reactions showed homology for M. tuberculosis complex. Of the 80 PCR-positive patients, 71 completed a full course of antitubercular therapy, of which 65 patients (91.5%) had complete resolution of inflammation at final follow-up. Among controls, 12.5% (3 out of 24) in group 1 and 18.7% (6 out of 32) in group 2 also tested positive by PCR. No PCR-positive outcome was observed in control group 3 (n?=?25). Multiple regression analysis revealed significant association of positive PCR outcome with bilateral presentation, but not with a positive TST/IGRA, chest radiography, or type of sample (aqueous/vitreous) used. Conclusions Careful selection of gene targets can yield high PCR positivity in clinically suspected ocular TB. Bilateral disease presentation but not any evidence of latent systemic TB influences PCR outcomes. False-positive results may be seen in ocular inflammation unrelated to ocular TB. PMID:24661354

2014-01-01

324

Patient characteristics upon initial presentation to chiropractic teaching clinics: A descriptive study conducted at one university  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to compare demographics and chief complaints of the new patient population at our institution's fee-for-service clinics to the patient population of practicing chiropractors in the United States. We also compared the prevalence of obesity and hypertension to reference standards for the adult population. Methods Patient data were obtained from the electronic health records. All records identified as new patients during October 2013 were included. Variables of interest were clinic site, patient demographics, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), chief complaint, and ICD-9 codes. Descriptive statistics were computed and compared to reference standards from previous reports. Results During October 2013, there were 224 new patients that entered the clinics. The average patient was a 31- to 50-year-old white male. Our clinic patients differed from those seen by US chiropractors in the distribution of all demographic variables. For adult patients, 31.4% were overweight, 29% were obese, and 8% stage 1 or 2 hypertension. Conclusion New patients in the fee-for-service teaching clinics appear to be dissimilar to those of US practicing chiropractors in several important demographics, characteristics, and types of complaints. The new patients had lower levels of overweight, obesity, and hypertension compared to US reference standards. PMID:25162982

Kaeser, Martha A.; Hawk, Cheryl; Anderson, Michelle

2014-01-01

325

Profile of patients presenting at a low vision clinic in a developing country  

PubMed Central

Background Low vision is an important public health problem; however, very few low vision clinics are available to address the needs of low vision patients in most developing countries. The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of patients attending the low vision clinic of a Nigerian tertiary hospital. Methods This was a prospective cross sectional study of all new patients seen at the low vision clinic over a 36?month period. Patients were administered with a structured questionnaire, and were examined and tested with low vision devices by the attending low vision specialist. Information on the demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients was recorded. Results A total of 193 new patients seen during the period were studied. The mean age was 41.4?years, and their ages ranged between 6 and 90?years with a male to female ratio of 1.9:1. Majority (58%) were aged below 50?years, 23.3% were children (?15?years), while 21.8% were elderly patients (?65?years). The commonest cause of low vision was retinitis pigmentosa (16.6%); 14.5% had age related macular degeneration (ARMD); 9.8% had albinism; while only 1% had diabetic retinopathy. ARMD (45.2%) was the commonest cause in the elderly patients, while albinism (24.4%) and optic atrophy (24.4%) were the commonest in children. Conclusion The demographic and clinical characteristics of low vision patients seen in this clinic are similar to that of patients in other developing countries, but different from those in developed countries. Elderly patients and females may be under-utilising low vision services. There is a need for further research into the determinants of low vision service utilisation in developing countries. This would further aid the planning and delivery of services to low vision patients in these countries. PMID:22846399

2012-01-01

326

Past trauma and present functioning of patients attending a women's psychiatric clinic.  

PubMed

A women's psychiatric clinic, incorporated within a university teaching general hospital and staffed entirely by women, was opened in March of 1980. The authors studied a sample of 100 women who came to the clinic and characterized them by demographic variables, psychiatric diagnoses, health problems, chronic illness, death in the family, and traumatic incidents. Death in the family before she was 18 was found to predict a woman's subsequent request for or completion of sterilization. Physical or sexual abuse was significantly related to abortion, and abortion and trauma were significantly correlated. PMID:3976919

Borins, E F; Forsythe, P J

1985-04-01

327

Chronic graft-versus-host disease: clinical presentation of multiple lesions of lichenoid and atrophic pattern*  

PubMed Central

Graft-versus-host disease is observed mainly in recipients of hematopoietic cell transplantation and is expressed by cutaneous or systemic signals and symptoms. Graft-versus-host disease is clinically classified as acute or chronic. Chronic Graft-versus-host disease occurs in up to 70% of hematopoietic cell transplanted patients and its clinical manifestations have important impact on morbidity and quality of life. The authors report an expressive cutaneous, oral and adnexal involvement in a patient with chronic Graft-versus-host disease with multiple lesions of lichenoid and atrophic pattern. PMID:24173188

Vasconcelos, Luiza; Vieira, Érica Cristina; Minicucci, Eliana Maria; Salvio, Ana Gabriela; de Souza, Mair Pedro; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar; Marques, Silvio Alencar

2013-01-01

328

Cognitive Behavioral Treatment of Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia in a Multiethnic Urban Outpatient Clinic: Initial Presentation and Treatment Outcome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies examine the effectiveness of panic control treatment across diverse ethnic groups. In this paper we present data on 40 patients (African American, n = 24; Caucasian, n = 16) with panic disorder and comorbid agoraphobia who presented at an anxiety disorder clinic in an inner-city area. On initial assessment both groups were similar on…

Friedman, Steven; Braunstein, Jeffrey W.; Halpern, Beth

2006-01-01

329

Factors of the Lectin Pathway of Complement Activation and Their Clinical Associations in Neonates  

PubMed Central

This paper summarizes the data concerning soluble defense lectins (mannan-binding lectin, M-ficolin, L-ficolin, and H-ficolin) with the unique ability to activate complement and their associated serine proteases (MASPs) in neonates. The clinical importance of deficiencies of these immune factors is presented in aspects of perinatal mortality, premature births, and low birthweight. Prenatal serum concentrations of L-ficolin, H-ficolin, and MASP-2 (and probably M-ficolin) correlate with gestational age and birthweight. The relationship of serum MBL to gestational age is controversial. The MBL2 genotypes XA/O and O/O (associated with low-serum MBL) are associated with perinatal infections, whereas the high serum MBL-conferring A/A genotypes may be associated with prematurity. Low-serum L-ficolin concentrations, but not low-serum H-ficolin concentrations, are also associated with perinatal infections. Much of the literature is inconsistent, and the relationships reported so far require independent confirmation at both gene and protein levels. Our preliminary conclusion is that these soluble defense lectins play a protective role in the neonate, and that insufficiency of such factors contributes to the adverse consequences of prematurity and low birthweight. PMID:22619494

Cedzynski, Maciej; Swierzko, Anna St.; Kilpatrick, David C.

2012-01-01

330

Host Factors and HIV-1 Replication: Clinical Evidence and Potential Therapeutic Approaches  

PubMed Central

HIV and human defense mechanisms have co-evolved to counteract each other. In the process of infection, HIV takes advantage of cellular machinery and blocks the action of the host restriction factors (RF). A small subset of HIV+ individuals control HIV infection and progression to AIDS in the absence of treatment. These individuals known as long-term non-progressors (LNTPs) exhibit genetic and immunological characteristics that confer upon them an efficient resistance to infection and/or disease progression. The identification of some of these host factors led to the development of therapeutic approaches that attempted to mimic the natural control of HIV infection. Some of these approaches are currently being tested in clinical trials. While there are many genes which carry mutations and polymorphisms associated with non-progression, this review will be specifically focused on HIV host RF including both the main chemokine receptors and chemokines as well as intracellular RF including, APOBEC, TRIM, tetherin, and SAMHD1. The understanding of molecular profiles and mechanisms present in LTNPs should provide new insights to control HIV infection and contribute to the development of novel therapies against AIDS. PMID:24167505

Santa-Marta, Mariana; de Brito, Paula Matos; Godinho-Santos, Ana; Goncalves, Joao

2013-01-01

331

Clinically Significant Fatigue: Prevalence and Associated Factors in an International Sample of Adults with Multiple Sclerosis Recruited via the Internet  

PubMed Central

Background Fatigue contributes a significant burden of disease for people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Modifiable lifestyle factors have been recognized as having a role in a range of morbidity outcomes in PwMS. There is significant potential to prevent and treat fatigue in PwMS by addressing modifiable risk factors. Objectives To explore the associations between clinically significant fatigue and demographic factors, clinical factors (health-related quality of life, disability and relapse rate) and modifiable lifestyle, disease-modifying drugs (DMD) and supplement use in a large international sample of PwMS. Methods PwMS were recruited to the study via Web 2.0 platforms and completed a comprehensive survey measuring demographic, lifestyle and clinical characteristics, including health-related quality of life, disability, and relapse rate. Results Of 2469 participants with confirmed MS, 2138 (86.6%) completed a validated measure of clinically significant fatigue, the Fatigue Severity Scale. Participants were predominantly female from English speaking countries, with relatively high levels of education, and due to recruitment methods may have been highly pro-active about engaging in lifestyle management and self-help. Approximately two thirds of our sample (1402/2138; 65.6% (95% CI 63.7–67.7)) screened positive for clinically significant fatigue. Bivariate associations were present between clinically significant fatigue and several demographic, clinical, lifestyle, and medication variables. After controlling for level of disability and a range of stable socio-demographic variables, we found increased odds of fatigue associated with obesity, DMD use, poor diet, and reduced odds of fatigue with exercise, fish consumption, moderate alcohol use, and supplementation with vitamin D and flaxseed oil. Conclusion This study supports strong and significant associations between clinically significant fatigue and modifiable lifestyle factors. Longitudinal follow-up of this sample may help clarify the contribution of reverse causation to our findings. Further research is required to explore these associations including randomized controlled trials of lifestyle interventions that may alleviate fatigue. PMID:25692993

Weiland, Tracey J.; Jelinek, George A.; Marck, Claudia H.; Hadgkiss, Emily J.; van der Meer, Dania M.; Pereira, Naresh G.; Taylor, Keryn L.

2015-01-01

332

Clinical Presentation of Inhalational Anthrax Following Bioterrorism Exposure Report of 2 Surviving Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of anthrax as a weapon of biological terrorism has moved from theory to reality in recent weeks. Following processing of a letter containing anthrax spores that had been mailed to a US senator, 5 cases of inhalational anthrax have occurred among postal workers employed at a major postal facility in Wash- ington, DC. This report details the clinical

Thom A. Mayer; Susan Bersoff-Matcha; Cecele Murphy; James Earls; Scott Harper; Denis Pauze; Michael Nguyen; Jonathan Rosenthal; Donald Cerva; Glenn Druckenbrod; Dan Hanfling; Naaz Fatteh; Anthony Napoli; Ashna Nayyar; Elise L. Berman

333

Annual Research Review: Attachment Disorders in Early Childhood--Clinical Presentation, Causes, Correlates, and Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Though noted in the clinical literature for more than 50 years, attachment disorders have been studied systematically only recently. In part because of the ubiquity of attachments in humans, determining when aberrant behavior is best explained as an attachment disorder as opposed to insecure attachment has led to some confusion. In…

Zeanah, Charles H.; Gleason, Mary Margaret

2015-01-01

334

Clinical Profile of Childhood Onset Depression Presenting to Child Adolescent and Family Services in Northampton  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The clinical profile of depressive disorder in children and young people in Child Adolescent and Family Services (CAFS), Northampton was studied. Methods: Twenty-five patients who had attended the CAFS over a period of 2 years were analysed retrospectively. Results: The age range of subjects was 8 to 19 years. Majority of patients were…

Majumder, Pallab; Hammad, Hala

2006-01-01

335

Post-allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation membranous nephropathy: clinical presentation, outcome and pathogenic aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Post-allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) membranous nephropathy (MN), a rare complication of HSCT, remains an ill- defined entity. We describe the clinical and biological characteristics and outcome of five patients with post- HSCT MN, review the previously reported cases and discuss the pathogenic aspects of this nephropathy. Methods. Cases were identified by using a question- naire sent to

Benjamin Terrier; Yahsou Delmas; Aurelie Hummel; Claire Presne; Francois Glowacki; Bertrand Knebelmann; Christian Combe; Philippe Lesavre; Natacha Maillard; Natahlie Patey-Mariaud de Serre; Sylvie Nusbaum; Isabelle Radford; Agnes Buzyn; Fadi Fakhouri

2007-01-01

336

Clinical presentation, microbiological features and correlates of disease severity of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to describe epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics of confirmed novel\\u000a influenza A (H1N1) infection, investigating factors associated with disease severity. We retrospectively selected patients\\u000a seeking care for respiratory symptoms in two periods (May–August and September–November 2009) with different epidemiological\\u000a characteristics. Only patients with confirmed pandemic influenza A (H1N1) were enrolled in this study. A

S. Di Giambenedetto; L. Zileri Dal Verme; M. Sali; S. Farina; V. Di Cristo; S. Manzara; A. De Luca; G. Pignataro; M. Prosperi; A. Di Franco; N. Gentiloni Silveri; G. Delogu; R. Cauda; M. Fabbiani; G. Fadda

2011-01-01

337

A review of central retinal artery occlusion: clinical presentation and management  

PubMed Central

Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is an ophthalmic emergency and the ocular analogue of cerebral stroke. Best evidence reflects that over three-quarters of patients suffer profound acute visual loss with a visual acuity of 20/400 or worse. This results in a reduced functional capacity and quality of life. There is also an increased risk of subsequent cerebral stroke and ischaemic heart disease. There are no current guideline-endorsed therapies, although the use of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) has been investigated in two randomized controlled trials. This review will describe the pathophysiology, epidemiology, and clinical features of CRAO, and discuss current and future treatments, including the use of tPA in further clinical trials. PMID:23470793

Varma, D D; Cugati, S; Lee, A W; Chen, C S

2013-01-01

338

Cancer immunotherapy in clinical practice—the past, present, and future  

PubMed Central

Considerable progress has been made in the field of cancer immunotherapy in recent years. This has been made possible in large part by the identification of new immune-based cellular targets and the development of novel approaches aimed at stimulating the immune system. The role played by the immunosuppressive microenvironment in the development of tumors has been established. The success of checkpoint-inhibiting antibodies and cancer vaccines has marked the beginning of a new era in cancer treatment. This review highlights the clinically relevant principles of cancer immunology and various immunotherapeutic approaches that have either already entered mainstream oncologic practice or are currently in the process of being evaluated in clinical trials. Furthermore, the current barriers to the development of effective immunotherapies and the potential strategies of overcoming them are also discussed. PMID:25189717

Goel, Gaurav; Sun, Weijing

2014-01-01

339

Clinical presentation of genetically defined patients with hypokalemic salt-losing tubulopathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeHypokalemic salt-losing tubulopathies (Bartter-like syndromes) comprise a set of clinically and genetically distinct inherited renal disorders. Mutations in four renal membrane proteins involved in electrolyte reabsorption have been identified in these disorders: the furosemide-sensitive sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter NKCC2, the potassium channel ROMK, the chloride channel ClC-Kb, and the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter NCCT. The aim of this study was to characterize the

Melanie Peters; Nikola Jeck; Stephan Reinalter; Andreas Leonhardt; Burkhard Tönshoff; G. ünter Klaus; Martin Konrad; Hannsjörg W Seyberth

2002-01-01

340

Clinical presentation and management of mTOR inhibitor-associated stomatitis.  

PubMed

Anti-cancer agents that inhibit the mTOR pathway are associated with a number of unique toxicities, with one of the most significant and potentially dose-limiting being stomatitis. The objective of this study was to report the clinical features and management outcomes of a series of cancer patients who developed painful mTOR inhibitor-associated stomatitis (mIAS). Seventeen cancer patients developed mIAS while being treated with everolimus- or ridaforolimus-containing protocols at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and were referred to the oral medicine clinic for evaluation and management. Clinical characteristics, toxicity management, and outcomes were summarized. In addition, the frequency and rationale for dose reductions and therapy discontinuation were assessed. The median duration of mTOR inhibitor therapy was 80 days (range 9-187 days). The median time to development of mouth ulcers was 10 days (range 4-25 days). Five patients required protocol-directed dose reductions due to grades 2 and 3 stomatitis and one patient discontinued cancer treatment due to mouth ulcers. Clinical improvement and pain relief was reported in 86.6% of patients following topical, intralesional, or systemic corticosteroid therapy, with side effects limited to secondary candidiasis (n=2). Mouth ulcers are a common and potentially dose limiting toxicity associated with the use of mTOR inhibitors in cancer treatment. This case series demonstrates that local and systemic corticosteroid therapy is an effective approach to managing patients with symptomatic mIAS. Prospective studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment and prevention strategies with the ultimate goal of improving overall cancer treatment outcomes. PMID:21890398

de Oliveira, Marcio Augusto; Martins E Martins, Fabiana; Wang, Qian; Sonis, Stephen; Demetri, George; George, Suzanne; Butrynski, James; Treister, Nathaniel S

2011-10-01

341

Combined methylmalonic acidemia and homocystinuria, cblC type. I. Clinical presentations, diagnosis and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined methylmalonic acidemia and homocystinuria, cblC type, is an inborn error of intracellular cobalamin metabolism with\\u000a a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that is stated to be the most common inherited disorder of cobalamin metabolism.\\u000a This metabolic disease is caused by mutations in the MMACHC gene and results in impaired intracellular synthesis of adenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin, cofactors for the methylmalonyl-CoA

Nuria Carrillo-Carrasco; Randy J. Chandler; Charles P. Venditti

342

Chronic idiopathic polyneuropathy presenting in middle or old age: a clinical and electrophysiological study of 75 patients.  

PubMed Central

The clinical and electrophysiological features were prospectively studied of 75 patients (46 men and 29 women) with chronic polyneuropathy presenting in middle or old age in whom a diagnosis could not be made even after extensive evaluation and a follow up of six months. The mean age at the onset of symptoms was 56.5 years. The clinical features of chronic idiopathic polyneuropathy are heterogeneous. On clinical grounds 44 patients had a sensorimotor, 29 patients a sensory, and two patients a motor polyneuropathy. The overall clinical course in chronic idiopathic polyneuropathy was slowly progressive. None of the patients became severely disabled. Electrophysiological and nerve biopsy studies were compatible with an axonal polyneuropathy. Antibodies against myelin associated glycoprotein, gangliosides, and sulphatides were assessed in 70 patients and found to be negative. PMID:7691991

Notermans, N C; Wokke, J H; Franssen, H; van der Graaf, Y; Vermeulen, M; van den Berg, L H; Bär, P R; Jennekens, F G

1993-01-01

343

The Validity of the Five-Factor Model Prototypes for Personality Disorders in Two Clinical Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the validity of D. R. Lynam and T. A. Widiger's (2001) prototypes for personality disorders (PDs) derived from the facets of the 5-factor model (FFM) of personality in 2 clinical samples. In the 1st sample (N = 94), there was good agreement between the prototypes generated by experts and the profiles reported by patients.…

Miller, Joshua D.; Reynolds, Sarah K.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

2004-01-01

344

Poststroke Shoulder Pain in Turkish Stroke Patients: Relationship with Clinical Factors and Functional Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to assess the possible causes of hemiplegic shoulder pain (HSP) in Turkish patients with stroke, to identify the correlation between HSP and clinical factors, and to review the effects of HSP on functional outcomes. A total of 187 consecutive patients with stroke were evaluated for the presence of HSP and for the…

Barlak, Aysegul; Unsal, Sibel; Kaya, Kurtulus; Sahin-Onat, Sule; Ozel, Sumru

2009-01-01

345

Factors Influencing Electronic Clinical Information Exchange in Small Medical Group Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the organizational factors that influence electronic health information exchange (HIE) by medical group practices in rural areas. Methods: A purposive sample of 8 small medical group practices in 3 experimental HIE regions were interviewed to determine the extent of clinical information exchange…

Kralewski, John E.; Zink, Therese; Boyle, Raymond

2012-01-01

346

Retrospective analysis of demographic and clinical factors associated with etiology of febrile respiratory illness among US military basic trainees.  

PubMed

BackgroundBasic trainees in the US military have historically been vulnerable to respiratory infections. Adenovirus and influenza are the most common etiological agents responsible for febrile respiratory illness (FRI) among trainees and present with similar clinical signs and symptoms. Identifying demographic and clinical factors associated with the primary viral pathogens causing FRI epidemics among trainees will help improve differential diagnosis and allow for appropriate distribution of antiviral medications. The objective of this study was to determine what demographic and clinical factors are associated with influenza and adenovirus among military trainees.MethodsSpecimens were systematically collected from military trainees meeting FRI case definition (fever ¿38.0 °C with either cough or sore throat; or provider-diagnosed pneumonia) at eight basic training centers in the USA. PCR and/or cell culture testing for respiratory pathogens were performed on specimens. Interviewer-administered questionnaires collected information on patient demographic and clinical factors. Polychotomous logistic regression was employed to assess the association between these factors and FRI outcome categories: laboratory-confirmed adenovirus, influenza, or other FRI. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value were calculated for individual predictors and clinical combinations of predictors.ResultsAmong 21,570 FRI cases sampled between 2004 and 2009, 63.6% were laboratory-confirmed adenovirus cases and 6.6% were laboratory-confirmed influenza cases. Subjects were predominantly young men (86.8% men; mean age 20.8¿±¿3.8 years) from Fort Jackson (18.8%), Great Lakes (17.1%), Fort Leonard Wood (16.3%), Marine Corps Recruit Depot (MCRD) San Diego (19.0%), Fort Benning (13.3%), Lackland (7.5%), MCRD Parris Island (8.7%), and Cape May (3.2%). The best multivariate predictors of adenovirus were the combination of sore throat (odds ratio [OR], 2.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.66¿3.25), cough (OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 2.11¿2.57), and fever (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.90¿2.26) with a PPV of 77% (p¿¿¿.05). A combination of cough, fever, training week 0¿2 and acute onset were most predictive of influenza (PPV =38%; p¿¿¿.05).ConclusionsSpecific demographic and clinical factors were associated with laboratory-confirmed influenza and adenovirus among military trainees. Findings from this study can guide clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment of military trainees presenting with FRI. PMID:25475044

Padin, Damaris S; Faix, Dennis; Brodine, Stephanie; Lemus, Hector; Hawksworth, Anthony; Putnam, Shannon; Blair, Patrick

2014-12-01

347

Update on the pathophysiological implications and clinical role of angiogenic factors in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Angiogenic markers are now being incorporated into clinical practice for the screening, diagnosing, and monitoring of preeclampsia. Pregnancy requires both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in the fetal compartment and angiogenesis in the maternal compartment. Abnormal angiogenesis in the placenta determines impaired remodeling of the maternal spiral arteries and placental underperfusion that may ultimately lead to fetal growth restriction and maternal preeclampsia. The dysregulation of angiogenesis in the placenta and maternal-fetal circulation has emerged as one of the main pathophysiological features in the development of placental insufficiency and its clinical consequences. Abnormal angiogenesis has also been related to other obstetric and fetal conditions such as peripartum cardiomyopathy and fetal cardiac defects. This opens up new challenges for our understanding of angiogenic involvement in maternal cardiovascular function and fetal cardiac development, and it offers new clinical opportunities. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the pathophysiological implications and the clinical role of angiogenic factors in pregnancy. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25659427

Llurba, Elisa; Crispi, Fatima; Verlohren, Stefan

2015-01-01

348

Prevalence and clinical presentation of Cryptococcal meningitis among HIV seropositive patients.  

PubMed

A total of 573 HIV seropositive and clinically suspected cases of Cryptococcal meningitis were included in the study, from January 2006 to January 2007. CSF samples were processed by negative staining with 10% Nigrosin, cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar, biochemical tests, such as urease test and brownish growth in Niger seed agar. The prevalence of Cryptococcal meningitis was found to be 2.79%. The most common signs and symptoms were: fever (100%), headache (100%), altered sensorium (100%), and neck stiffness (90%). All the patients responded to intravenous Amphotericin B treatment. PMID:21938109

Baradkar, Vasant; Mathur, M; De, A; Kumar, S; Rathi, M

2009-01-01

349

Clinical presentations of severe cutaneous drug reactions in HIV-infected Africans.  

PubMed

Sub-Saharan Africa is the epicenter of the HIV pandemic and HIV-infected people are more susceptible to inflammatory dermatoses, infections, and drug eruptions. Many of the drugs used for HIV-associated opportunistic infections are associated with a higher incidence of drug-related toxicities and drug interactions. This article discusses the epidemiology, pharmacogenetics, and clinical features of idiosyncratic drug reactions in HIV-infected Africans. Special considerations in this population, including immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, multiple drug hypersensitivity syndrome, drug reactions in pregnancy, drug rechallenge in lichenoid drug eruptions, and anxiety/depression after cutaneous adverse drug reactions, are also briefly discussed. PMID:24680008

Lehloenya, Rannakoe J; Kgokolo, Mahlatse

2014-04-01

350

Antinuclear antibody determination: the present state of diagnostic and clinical relevance.  

PubMed

Determination of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) will gain in diagnostic significance if a specific type of ANA can be related to a defined clinical disorder. The past decade has brought us quite a lot of papers dedicated to this subject. Yet, with exception of the DNA/anti-DNA system, observed correlations have remained scarce or contradictory. Also, still little is known about the pathogenic role of ANA. Perhaps more recent approaches using biochemical technologies will provide us with highly purified nuclear antigens necessary to study possible correlations at a more sophisticated level. PMID:3890156

Smeenk, R; Westgeest, T; Swaak, T

1985-01-01

351

Contribution of Gender to Pathophysiology and Clinical Presentation of IBS: Should Management Be Different in Women?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is found more commonly in women than men. It is more prevalent in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, and chronic pelvic pain, all syndromes characterized by pain and found predominantly in women. This article reviews evidence for a role of biological sex factors and gender on the pathways mediating visceral pain. The effect of

Ann Ouyang; Helena F. Wrzos

2006-01-01

352

An Unusual Clinical Presentation of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in a Sudanese Refugee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some anxiety disorders may present with signs and symptoms that may linger many years after the stress-inducer events and\\u000a threat has passed. A case of posttraumatic stress disorder is presented in this report of a Sudanese refugee presenting with\\u000a chronic abdominal and lower back pain. PTSD in refugees may present with typical or atypical manifestations such as chronic\\u000a pain syndromes.

Carlos Franco-Paredes

2010-01-01

353

Clinical Factors That Predict Successful Posterior Urethral Anastomosis With a Gracilis Muscle Flap  

PubMed Central

Purpose We evaluated the preoperative clinical factors that affect the surgical outcome of posterior urethral anastomosis (PUA) with a gracilis muscle flap (GMF) to determine which factors predict benefit from the use of the GMF. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective analysis of 49 patients who underwent a delayed PUA with a GMF. A successful clinical outcome was defined as achieving a peak urinary flow rate greater than 15 mL/s at 3 and 12 months postoperatively without evidence of stricture recurrence on a retrograde urethrogram or cystourethroscopy at 3 months postoperatively. Multiple clinical factors were evaluated by use of univariate and multivariate analyses. Results The outcome of 21 of 49 patients (42.9%) was deemed successful. The mean age of the 49 patients was 37.2±13.5 years and the mean follow-up duration was 43.4±28.0 months. The length of the urethral defect was significantly shorter in patients with a successful outcome than in patients with an unsuccessful outcome (p=0.010). The outcome differed significantly depending on whether the patients had a previously successful urethroplasty (p=0.036) or whether they had suffered a pelvic bone injury (p=0.012). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that a previous urethroplasty was the only preoperative clinical factor that significantly affected the surgical outcome in PUA with a GMF (odds ratio, 0.218; 95% confidence interval, 0.050 to 0.947; p=0.042). Conclusions A history of previous urethroplasty is a preoperative clinical factor that significantly affects the surgical outcome in PUA with a GMF; the procedure is more likely to be successful in patients who have not previously undergone urethroplasty. PMID:24175047

Hwang, Jin Ho; Kang, Moon Hyung; Lee, Young Tae; Park, Dong Soo

2013-01-01

354

Back pack injuries in Indian school children: risk factors and clinical presentations.  

PubMed

The use of backpack increased substantially among the school children. Studies have shown that carrying a backpack cause to develop different symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders among the carrier of the backpack. In India there are fewer studies available in literature which explains the musculoskeletal discomfort among the school children. This study aimed at to find out the prevalence of different musculoskeletal problems among the school children. In a retrospective study data were collected for twenty two students. The main diagnostic criteria were pressure mark (redness or swelling) over neck and shoulder corresponding to the straps of the backpack, stooping posture while carrying the back pack, pain or stiffness in the neck, upper back and shoulders predominantly while carrying the back pack and absence of these symptoms during school holidays. Results revealed that pain in the upper back (40%), neck (27%) and shoulder (20%) were most prevalent body regions followed by forearm and wrist pain (7%) and low back (6%). Results further revealed that all the students participated in this study have a pressure mark over shoulder. 54.55% of the children were diagnosed with myofascial pain and rest with thoracic outlet syndrome. PMID:22316840

Sharan, Deepak; Ajeesh, P S; Jose, Jerrish A; Debnath, Sukrit; Manjula, M

2012-01-01

355

Risk factors for emergency presentation with lung and colorectal cancers: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify patient and practitioner factors that influence cancer diagnosis via emergency presentation (EP). Design Systematic review. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, EBM Reviews, Science and Social Sciences Citation Indexes, Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science and Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Social Science and Humanities. Searches were undertaken from 1996 to 2014. No language restrictions were applied. Study selection Studies of any design assessing factors associated with diagnosis of colorectal or lung cancer via EP, or describing an intervention to impact on EP, were included. Studies involving previously diagnosed cancer patients, assessing only referral pathway effectiveness, outcomes related to diagnosis or post-EP management were excluded. The population was individual or groups of adult patients or primary care practitioners. Two authors independently screened studies for inclusion. Results 22 studies with over 200?000 EPs were included, most providing strong evidence. Five were graded ‘insufficient’, primarily due to missing information rather than methodological weakness. Older patient age was associated with EP for lung and colorectal cancers (OR 1.11–11.03 and 1.19–5.85, respectively). Women were more at risk of EP for lung but not colorectal cancer. Higher deprivation increased the likelihood of lung cancer EP, but evidence for colorectal was less conclusive. Being unmarried (or divorced/widowed) increased the likelihood of EP for colorectal cancer, which was also associated with pain, obstruction and weight loss. Lack of a regular source of primary care, and lower primary care use were positively associated with EP. Only three studies considered practitioner factors, two involving diagnostic tests. No conclusive evidence was found. Conclusions Patient-related factors, such as age, gender and deprivation, increase the likelihood of cancer being diagnosed as the result of an EP, while cancer symptoms and patterns of healthcare utilisation are also relevant. Further work is needed to understand the context in which risk factors for EP exist and influence help-seeking. PMID:25838506

Mitchell, Elizabeth D; Pickwell-Smith, Benjamin; Macleod, Una

2015-01-01

356

Limited Promiscuity of HLA-DRB1 Presented Peptides Derived of Blood Coagulation Factor VIII  

PubMed Central

The formation of inhibitory antibodies directed against coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) is a severe complication in the treatment of hemophilia A patients. The induction of anti-FVIII antibodies is a CD4+ T cell-dependent process. Activation of FVIII-specific CD4+ T cells is dependent on the presentation of FVIII-derived peptides on MHC class II by antigen-presenting cells. Previously, we have shown that FVIII-pulsed human monocyte-derived dendritic cells can present peptides from several FVIII domains. In this study we show that FVIII peptides are presented on immature as well as mature dendritic cells. In immature dendritic cells half of the FVIII-loaded MHC class II molecules are retained within the cell, whereas in LPS-matured dendritic cells the majority of MHC class II/peptide complexes is present on the plasma membrane. Time-course studies revealed that presentation of FVIII-derived peptides was optimal between 12 and 24 hours after maturation but persisted for at least 96 hours. We also show that macrophages are able to internalize FVIII as efficiently as dendritic cells, however FVIII was presented on MHC class II with a lower efficiency and with different epitopes compared to dendritic cells. In total, 48 FVIII core-peptides were identified using a DCs derived of 8 different donors. Five HLA-promiscuous FVIII peptide regions were found – these were presented by at least 4 out of 8 donors. The remaining 42 peptide core regions in FVIII were presented by DCs derived from a single (30 peptides) or two to three donors (12 peptides). Overall, our findings show that a broad repertoire of FVIII peptides can be presented on HLA-DR. PMID:24244658

van Haren, Simon D.; Wroblewska, Aleksandra; Herczenik, Eszter; Kaijen, Paul H.; Ruminska, Aleksandra; ten Brinke, Anja; Meijer, Alexander B.; Voorberg, Jan

2013-01-01

357

Cognitive impairment in chronic kidney disease: clinical findings, risk factors and consequences for patient care.  

PubMed

Cognitive deficits have a high prevalence in elderly patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The clinical picture consists of cognitive slowing, executive, memory and language deficits, and is attributed to cerebral white matter disease and clinically often silent brain infarcts. In the meantime, robust evidence exists that low estimated glomerular filtration rate, a measure of CKD severity, predisposes to cognitive deficits, cerebral white matter lesions, and ischemic brain infarcts in addition to demographic factors, vascular risk factors and diseases which also contribute to CKD-related cognitive deficits. In terminal CKD, cerebral blood flow is compromized during hemodialysis sessions, resulting in oxygen desaturation, cognitive deterioration and-in the longer run-brain atrophy. Kidney transplantation improves cognitive deficits in terminal CKD. At all stages, vascular risk factors and associated diseases should stringently be treated according to therapeutic guidelines. PMID:24452609

Hermann, Dirk M; Kribben, Andreas; Bruck, Heike

2014-06-01

358

Exome sequencing and directed clinical phenotyping diagnose cholesterol ester storage disease presenting as autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia  

PubMed Central

Objective Autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH) is a rare inherited disorder characterized by extremely high total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels that has been previously linked to mutations in LDLRAP1. We identified a family with ARH not explained by mutations in LDLRAP1 or other genes known to cause monogenic hypercholesterolemia. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular etiology of ARH in this family. Approach and Results We used exome sequencing to assess all protein coding regions of the genome in three family members and identified a homozygous exon 8 splice junction mutation (c.894G>A, also known as E8SJM) in LIPA that segregated with the diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia. Since homozygosity for mutations in LIPA is known to cause cholesterol ester storage disease (CESD), we performed directed follow-up phenotyping by non-invasively measuring hepatic cholesterol content. We observed abnormal hepatic accumulation of cholesterol in the homozygote individuals, supporting the diagnosis of CESD. Given previous suggestions of cardiovascular disease risk in heterozygous LIPA mutation carriers, we genotyped E8SJM in >27,000 individuals and found no association with plasma lipid levels or risk of myocardial infarction, confirming a true recessive mode of inheritance. Conclusions By integrating observations from Mendelian and population genetics along with directed clinical phenotyping, we diagnosed clinically unapparent CESD in the affected individuals from this kindred and addressed an outstanding question regarding risk of cardiovascular disease in LIPA E8SJM heterozygous carriers. PMID:24072694

Stitziel, Nathan O.; Fouchier, Sigrid W.; Sjouke, Barbara; Peloso, Gina M.; Moscoso, Alessa M.; Auer, Paul L.; Goel, Anuj; Gigante, Bruna; Barnes, Timothy A.; Melander, Olle; Orho-Melander, Marju; Duga, Stefano; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Nikpay, Majid; Martinelli, Nicola; Girelli, Domenico; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Kooperberg, Charles; Lange, Leslie A.; Ardissino, Diego; McPherson, Ruth; Farrall, Martin; Watkins, Hugh; Reilly, Muredach P.; Rader, Daniel J.; de Faire, Ulf; Schunkert, Heribert; Erdmann, Jeanette; Samani, Nilesh J.; Charnas, Lawrence; Altshuler, David; Gabriel, Stacey; Kastelein, John J.P.; Defesche, Joep C.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Hovingh, G. Kees

2014-01-01

359

Clinical and electrophysiological features in a French family presenting with seipinopathy.  

PubMed

Seipinopathies are a group of inherited diseases affecting upper and lower motor neurons due to mutations in the Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy 2 gene (BSCL2). We report a French family carrying the N88S mutation in the BSCL2 gene. A 12-yr-old girl complained of bilateral asymmetrical pes cavus with right hand motor deficit and amyotrophy, asymmetrical leg amyotrophy and pyramidal signs. Electrophysiological examination showed axonal asymmetrical motor neuropathy with distal predominance. Her father complained of right hand rest tremor with bilateral hand weakness. Physical examination revealed left leg, hand and forearm amyotrophy, akinesia and right arm rigidity, brisk reflexes in the lower limbs and bilateral Babinski sign. Nerve conduction studies showed distal asymmetrical axonal neuropathy with slight sensitive impairment with moderate decrease of nerve conduction velocity in some nerves. DNA sequencing revealed the presence of the known N88S mutation in the BSCL2 gene (dideoxy-nucleotide method on a 3730 DNA Analyzer, Life Technologies). BSCL2 gene mutations are associated with a wide spectrum of clinical and electrophysiological phenotypes and should be suspected in cases of distal hereditary motor neuropathy with pyramidal signs or early hand involvement. There may also be associated mild demyelination which may vary in severity within the same family. Clinical diagnosis was more difficult in this particular case due to the association with Parkinson symptoms. PMID:25454168

Ollivier, Yolaine; Magot, Armelle; Latour, Philippe; Perrier, Julie; Mercier, Sandra; Maisonobe, Thierry; Péréon, Yann

2015-02-01

360

Brain MRI findings in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis types I and II and mild clinical presentation.  

PubMed

Our objective was to determine the brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities in a selected group of patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) types I and II who had only mild clinical manifestations. We retrospectively assessed MRI brain studies in 18 patients with MPS (type I: 6 and type II: 12). We evaluated abnormal signal intensity in the white matter, widening of the cortical sulci, size of the supratentorial ventricles, dilatation of the perivascular spaces (PVS) and enlargement of the subarachnoid spaces. We observed a broad spectrum of findings, and despite severely abnormal MRI studies, no patients had mental retardation. We also observed that dilated PVS, previously believed to be caused by macroscopic deposition of the mucopolysaccharides, had an appearance similar to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in all MRI sequences performed, even in FLAIR and trace diffusion weighted images. Based on our results, we believe that with the exception of white matter abnormalities and brain atrophy, all other findings may be related to abnormal resorption of CSF, and there is no relationship between the imaging and clinical manifestations of the disease. PMID:15205860

Matheus, M Gisele; Castillo, Mauricio; Smith, J Keith; Armao, Diane; Towle, Diane; Muenzer, Joseph

2004-08-01

361

Between clinical medicine and the laboratory: medical research funding in France from 1945 to the present.  

PubMed

By focusing on funding methods, this paper considers the way in which medical research eventually led to the science-based medicine that is prevalent in France today. This process seems to have taken place in three stages during the second half of the twentieth century. In the 1940s and 1950s, two major events occurred. The first was the creation of a national health insurance fund in France, which opened up new reasons for, and ways of, funding medical research. The second was the development of antibiotics, which triggered a revival of clinical medicine. In the 1960s and 1970s, a proactive government science policy allowed the life sciences and medical research to come together in the wake of a burgeoning new science: molecular biology. Thus, in 1964, the creation of the National Health and Medical Research Institute (Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale or INSERM), destined to "molecularize" medical research, was seen as the fulfillment of the government's ambitious research policy. Today, with medicine irreversibly embedded in scientific and technical rationality, health has become a major issue in modern societies. This paper therefore touches on some of the key features of biomedical research, including the revival of funding systems for clinical research and the development of a system of research grants that was made possible by patient organizations and the creation of new funding agencies. PMID:21037320

Esterle, Laurence; Picard, Jean-François

2011-10-01

362

Idiopathic bile acid malabsorption--a review of clinical presentation, diagnosis, and response to treatment.  

PubMed

Between 1982 and 1989, the seven day retention of 75SeHCAT was measured in 181 patients with chronic diarrhoea that remained unexplained after full investigation. Altogether 121 of the 181 had a seven day 75SeHCAT retention greater than or equal to 15% and thus had no evidence of abnormal bile acid turnover. Twenty one had a seven day 75SeHCAT retention greater than or equal to 10% but less than 15%. Their clinical features were typical of the irritable bowel syndrome, and none of eight treated with cholestyramine showed symptomatic improvement. Sixteen patients had a seven day retention greater than or equal to 5% and less than 10%, six of whom had improved symptoms after treatment with bile acid chelating agents. The remaining 23 patients had a 75SeHCAT retention of less than 5% at seven days and responded to bile acid chelators. This group had a characteristic illness with intermittent watery diarrhoea, but no constitutional upset. It was not possible to distinguish the patients with bile acid malabsorption exclusively on the basis of the clinical symptoms and investigations, other than 75SeHCAT retention. We conclude that the measurement of 75SeHCAT retention is useful, appropriate, and necessary in patients with unexplained chronic diarrhoea. PMID:1916479

Williams, A J; Merrick, M V; Eastwood, M A

1991-09-01

363

Idiopathic bile acid malabsorption--a review of clinical presentation, diagnosis, and response to treatment.  

PubMed Central

Between 1982 and 1989, the seven day retention of 75SeHCAT was measured in 181 patients with chronic diarrhoea that remained unexplained after full investigation. Altogether 121 of the 181 had a seven day 75SeHCAT retention greater than or equal to 15% and thus had no evidence of abnormal bile acid turnover. Twenty one had a seven day 75SeHCAT retention greater than or equal to 10% but less than 15%. Their clinical features were typical of the irritable bowel syndrome, and none of eight treated with cholestyramine showed symptomatic improvement. Sixteen patients had a seven day retention greater than or equal to 5% and less than 10%, six of whom had improved symptoms after treatment with bile acid chelating agents. The remaining 23 patients had a 75SeHCAT retention of less than 5% at seven days and responded to bile acid chelators. This group had a characteristic illness with intermittent watery diarrhoea, but no constitutional upset. It was not possible to distinguish the patients with bile acid malabsorption exclusively on the basis of the clinical symptoms and investigations, other than 75SeHCAT retention. We conclude that the measurement of 75SeHCAT retention is useful, appropriate, and necessary in patients with unexplained chronic diarrhoea. PMID:1916479

Williams, A J; Merrick, M V; Eastwood, M A

1991-01-01

364

Risk Factors for Deliberate Self-Harm in Patients Presenting to the Emergency Departments of Karachi  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the risk factors for Deliberate Self-Harm (DSH) in patients presenting to the Emergency Departments (EDs) of three tertiary care hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. Study Design Multicentre matched case control study. Place and Duration of Study EDs of the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Civil Hospital, Karachi and Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from March 2011 to February 2012. Methodology A total of 201 cases and 201 matched controls were taken from three hospitals situated in Karachi. All patients of 16 years and above presenting to the EDs of the hospitals with DSH attempt were invited to participate in the study. Controls were ED patients with complaints other than DSH. A control was matched with case for hospital, gender and age. Two questionnaires were used to collect information on the risk factors of DSH. Conditional Logistic Regression (CLR) was used to assess the association of various risk factors with DSH. Results Risk factors of DSH in Karachi included current history of mental disorder (OR = 4.53, 95% CI = 1.59 – 12.92), not sharing problems with someone (OR = 4.67, 95% CI = 2.4 – 9.0), living in rented houses (OR = 2.58, 95% CI = 1.37 – 4.84), Pathan ethnicity (OR = 5.05, 95% CI = 1.01–25.38) followed by others (OR = 3.88, 95% CI = 0.77 – 19.69) and Urdu speaking (OR = 2.71, 95% CI = 0.59 – 12.45). Absence of physical illness in the past month had an inverse association with DSH (OR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.07 – 0.37). Conclusion Mental illnesses, low socio-economic status and loneliness were the risk factors of DSH patients presenting to the three EDs of Karachi. Physical illness in the last month was protective against DSH in these patients. Psychiatric evaluation of DSH patients in the ED is important for early diagnosis and management of mental disorders. PMID:25604370

Shahid, Muhammad; Iqbal, Romaina; Khan, Murad M.; Khan, Muhammad Zaman; Shamsi, Uzma Shoaib; Nakeer, Rooham

2015-01-01

365

Cantharidin Poisoning due to Blister Beetle Ingestion in Children: Two case reports and a review of clinical presentations.  

PubMed

Cantharidin is an intoxicant found in beetles in the Meloidae (Coleoptera) family. Ingestion may result in haematemesis, impaired level of consciousness, electrolyte disturbance, haematurea and renal impairment. Here, we report two paediatric cases of meloid beetle ingestion resulting in cantharidin poisoning and the clinical presentation of the ensuing intoxication. PMID:21509239

Al-Binali, Ali M; Shabana, Medhat; Al-Fifi, Suliman; Dawood, Sami; Shehri, Amer A; Al-Barki, Ahmed

2010-08-01

366

Vascular leiomyoma of the oral cavity. Clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics. Presentation of five cases and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leiomyoma, a benign neoplasia arising from smooth muscle is an uncommon neoplasia of the oral cavity. The most common histological subtype in the oral cavity is the vascular one. To supplement information on vascular leiomyoma of the oral cavity (VLOC), we present cases of VLOC describing their clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical characteristics. Case reports. Five cases of VLOC (3 females;

Luis Alberto Gaitan Cepeda; Daniel Quezada River; Fernando Tenorio Rocha; Elba Rosa; Leyva Huerta; Edgar Ramiro; Mendez Sánchez

367

Hotline sessions and clinical trial updates presented at the European Society of Cardiology Congress in Stockholm 2010.  

PubMed

This article gives an overview on several novel clinical trials in the field of cardiovascular (CV) medicine which were presented during the hotline sessions and clinical trial updates at the European Society of Cardiology Congress, held in Stockholm, Sweden, from 28th August to 1st September 2010. The data have been presented by leading experts in the accordant field with relevant positions in the trials. Unpublished reports should be considered as preliminary data as the analysis may change in the final publications. The summaries presented in the manuscript were generated from the oral presentations and should provide the readers with the most comprehensive information on diagnostic and therapeutic development in CV medicine similar as previously reported Schirmer SH et al. PMID:20890707

Lenski, Matthias; Mahfoud, Felix; Werner, Christian; Bauer, Axel; Böhm, Michael

2010-11-01

368

Genetic, psychosocial and clinical factors associated with hippocampal volume in the general population  

PubMed Central

The hippocampus—crucial for memory formation, recall and mood regulation—is involved in the pathophysiology of dementia and depressive disorders. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified five genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume (HV). Previous studies have described psychosocial and clinical factors (for example, smoking, type 2 diabetes and hypertension) to have an impact on HV. However, the interplay between genetic, psychosocial and clinical factors on the HV remains unclear. Still, it is likely that genetic variants and clinical or psychosocial factors jointly act in modifying HV; it might be possible they even interact. Knowledge of these factors might help to quantify ones individual risk of or rather resilience against HV loss. We investigated subjects (N=2463; 55.7% women; mean age 53 years) from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-2; SHIP-TREND-0) who underwent whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and genotyping. HVs were estimated with FreeSurfer. For optimal nonlinear model fitting, we used regression analyses with restricted cubic splines. Genetic variants and associated psychosocial or clinical factors were jointly assessed for potential two-way interactions. We observed associations between HV and gender (P<0.0001), age (P<0.0001), body height (P<0.0001), education (P=0.0053), smoking (P=0.0058), diastolic blood pressure (P=0.0211), rs7294919 (P=0.0065), rs17178006 (P=0.0002), rs6581612 (P=0.0036), rs6741949 (P=0.0112) and rs7852872 (P=0.0451). In addition, we found three significant interactions: between rs7294919 and smoking (P=0.0473), rs7294919 and diastolic blood pressure (P=0.0447) and between rs7852872 and rs6581612 (P=0.0114). We suggest that these factors might have a role in the individual susceptibility to hippocampus-associated disorders. PMID:25313508

Janowitz, D; Schwahn, C; Borchardt, U; Wittfeld, K; Schulz, A; Barnow, S; Biffar, R; Hoffmann, W; Habes, M; Homuth, G; Nauck, M; Hegenscheid, K; Lotze, M; Völzke, H; Freyberger, H J; Debette, S; Grabe, H J

2014-01-01

369

Clinical presentation and outcome of mesenteric vein thrombosis: a single-center experience.  

PubMed

Mesenteric venous thrombosis (MVT) is an uncommon event. We retrospectively analyzed data for patients who were admitted with MVT between June 2005 and May 2012 in Qatar. The study included 35 patients with a mean age of 45 ± 11 years. The risk of MVT was significantly high among males who smoked and females of Arab ethnicity. The main manifestations of MVT were abdominal distension and vomiting. The major etiological factors included deficiency in protein C and S, homocysteinemia, and prior abdominal surgery. Computed tomography (CT) findings were helpful in 80% of the patients. Bowel resection with primary anastomosis was performed in 25 (71%) patients. The overall mortality rate was 17%. High index of suspicion, detection of risk factors, CT imaging, and timely intervention are essential for better prognosis. PMID:24755695

Al-Thani, Hassan; El-Mabrok, Jamela; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Sulaiti, Marym; Tabeb, Abdel Hakem; Hajaji, Khairi; Elgohary, Hesham; Asim, Mohammad; Latifi, Rifat

2015-03-01

370

[Environmental factors and clinical course of inflammatory bowel disease: which evidences?].  

PubMed

Identify environmental factors that can influence the course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is of great interest since managing on these factors might improve the prognosis of patients. No environmental factor has been shown to have a linear cause-and-effect link with the relapse of the disease, but many environmental factors (smoking, diet, medications, stress, etc.) seem to play a plausible role in influencing the clinical course of IBD. The aim of this review is to describe the current evidence of the impact of different environmental factors on the long-term course of IBD and to give practical indications that can help doctors and patients in the management of IBD. PMID:25533236

Aratari, Annalisa; Margagnoni, Giovanna; Feigush, Ludovica; Koch, Maurizio; Papi, Claudio

2014-12-01

371

Cancer pain as the presenting problem in emergency departments: incidence and related factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goals of work  Since emergency departments (ED) are designed to manage people with urgent and life-threatening conditions, cancer patients\\u000a presenting with pain may not receive the appropriate care in the ED. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence\\u000a and factors related to ED visits by cancer patients with pain complaints.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Medical charts selected by stratified random

Shu-Ching Tsai; Li-Ni Liu; Siew-Tzuh Tang; Jih-Chang Chen; Mei-Ling Chen

2010-01-01

372

Clinical applications for magnetic resonance guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU): present and future.  

PubMed

It has been well known for decades that high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) generates heat in tissues resulting in coagulative necrosis. Implementation, however, has been slow, due to difficulties with finding an appropriate imaging modality that could not only guide treatment, but also provide real-time thermal feedback. These problems have been overcome with the newest magnetic resonance-guided high intensity focused ultrasound systems (MRgHIFU). With its superior spatial resolution enabling accurate image guidance coupled with its ability to provide real-time thermography during treatments, MRI is moving further into the realm of therapeutics for oncologic patient care. This article will discuss the implementation of an MR-guided HIFU system, current clinical indications and touch on future directions. PMID:23870333

Ellis, Samantha; Rieke, Viola; Kohi, Maureen; Westphalen, Antonio C

2013-08-01

373

Reward-Related Decision Making in Older Adults: Relationship to Clinical Presentation of Depression  

PubMed Central

Objective Impairment in reward processes has been found in individuals with depression and in the aging population. The purpose of this study was twofold: 1. To use an affective neuroscience probe to identify abnormalities in reward-related decision making in late-life depression. 2. To examine the relationship of reward-related decision making abnormalities in depressed, older adults to the clinical expression of apathy in depression. We hypothesized that relative to elderly, healthy subjects, depressed, elderly patients would exhibit impaired decision making and that apathetic, depressed patients would show greater impairment in decision making than non-apathetic, depressed patients. Methods We used the Iowa Gambling Task to examine reward-related decision making in 60 non-demented, elderly patients with non-psychotic major depression and 36 elderly, psychiatrically healthy participants. Apathy was quantified using the Apathy Evaluation Scale. Of those with major depression, 18 individuals reported clinically significant apathy whereas 42 participants did not have apathy. Results Older adults with depression and healthy comparison participants did not differ in their performance on the IGT. However, apathetic, depressed older adults adopted an advantageous strategy and selected cards from the conservative decks compared to non-apathetic, depressed older adults. Non-apathetic, depressed patients showed a failure to adopt a conservative strategy and persisted in making risky decisions throughout the task. Conclusions This study indicates that apathy in older, depressed adults is associated with a conservative response style on a behavioral probe of the systems involved in reward-related decision making. This conservative response style may be the result of reduced sensitivity to rewards in apathetic individuals. PMID:25306937

McGovern, Amanda R.; Alexopoulos, George S.; Yuen, Genevieve S.; Morimoto, Sarah Shizuko; Gunning, Faith M.

2015-01-01

374

Differential and synergistic effects of mechanical stimulation and growth factor presentation on vascular wall function  

PubMed Central

We investigated the hypothesis that immobilizing TGF-?1 within fibrin hydrogels may act in synergy with cyclic mechanical stimulation to enhance the properties of vascular grafts. To this end, we engineered a fusion TGF-?1 protein that can covalently anchor to fibrin during polymerization upon the action of factor XIII. We also developed a 24-well based bioreactor in which vascular constructs can be mechanically stimulated by distending the silastic mandrel in the middle of each well. TGF-?1 was either conjugated to fibrin or supplied in the culture medium and the fibrin based constructs were cultured statically for a week followed by cyclic distention for another week. The tissues were examined for myogenic differentiation, vascular reactivity, mechanical properties and ECM content. Our results showed that some aspects of vascular function were differentially affected by growth factor presentation vs. pulsatile force application, while others were synergistically enhanced by both. Overall, this two-prong biomimetic approach improved ECM secretion, vascular reactivity and mechanical properties of vascular constructs. These findings may be applied in other tissue engineering applications such as cartilage, tendon or cardiac regeneration where growth factors TGF-?1 and mechano-stimulation play critical roles. PMID:23810080

Liang, Mao-Shih; Koobatian, Maxwell T.; Lei, Pedro; Swartz, Daniel D.; Andreadis, Stelios T.

2013-01-01

375

Environmental risk factors associated with West Nile virus clinical disease in Florida horses.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the extrinsic risk factors of West Nile virus (WNV) clinical disease in Florida horses as established from confirmed and negative horses tested within the state from 2001 to 2003. An Arboviral Case Information Form (ACF) was submitted by a referring veterinarian at the time of testing to the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services on every horse suspected of a viral encephalitis in Florida. A follow-up survey that focused on arbovirus prevention and farm ecology was created and mailed to the owner of each tested horse. Data from the follow-up survey indicated peak WNV prevalence in the late summer months in Florida. Quarter horses were the most commonly affected breed. The WNV vaccine was highly protective and natural water on the property also had a protective association. Factors that increased the risk of WNV to horses were the use of fans and a stable construction of solid wood or cement. Some risk indicators were dead birds on the property and other ill animals on the property. Data from this retrospective study have helped identify factors associated with WNV transmission in equines in Florida. Horses that have not been vaccinated and show clinical signs of arboviral infection from June to November should be tested for WNV. Horses that have been vaccinated and show clinical signs should be tested when the vaccination was administered within 1 month or greater than 6 months prior to the onset of clinical symptoms associated with WN infection. PMID:19941601

Rios, L M V; Sheu, J-J; Day, J F; Maruniak, J E; Seino, K; Zaretsky, H; Long, M T

2009-12-01

376

Relationship between Helicobacter pylori virulence factors and regulatory cytokines as predictors of clinical outcome  

PubMed Central

H. pylori infection is highly prevalent in Chile (73%). Usually a minority of infected patients develops complications such as ulcers and gastric cancer that have been associated with the presence of virulence factors (cagA, vacA) and host T helper response (Th1/Th2). Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between strain virulence and host immune response, using a multiple regression approach for the development of a model based on data collected from H. pylori infected patients in Chile. We analyzed levels of selected cytokines determined by ELISA (IL-12, IL-10, IFN-? and IL-4) and the presence of cagA and vacA alleles polymorphisms determined by PCR in antral biopsies of 41 patients referred to endoscopy. By multiple regression analysis we established a correlation between bacterial and host factors using clinical outcome (gastritis and duodenal ulcer) as dependent variables. The selected model was described by: clinical outcome = 0.867491 (cagA) + 0.0131847 (IL-12/IL-10) + 0.0103503 (IFN-?/IL-4) and it was able to explain over 90% of clinical outcomes observations (R2=96.4). This model considers that clinical outcomes are better explained by the interaction of host immune factors and strain virulence as a complex and interdependent mechanism. PMID:17336120

Serrano, Carolina; Diaz, Maria Ines; Valdivia, Alejandra; Godoy, Alex; Peña, Alfredo; Rollan, Antonio; Kirberg, Arturo; Hebel, Eduardo; Fierro, Jaqueline; Klapp, Gerardo; Venegas, Alejandro; Harris, Paul R.

2013-01-01

377

Knowledge of risk factors and the periodontal disease-systemic link in dental students' clinical decisions.  

PubMed

This study evaluated second-, third-, and fourth-year dental students' ability to identify systemic conditions associated with periodontal disease, risk factors most important for referral, and medications with an effect on the periodontium and their ability to apply this knowledge to make clinical decisions regarding treatment and referral of periodontal patients. A twenty-one question survey was administered at one U.S. dental school in the spring semester of 2012 to elicit the students' knowledge and confidence regarding clinical reasoning. The response rate was 86 percent. Periodontal risk factors were accurately selected by at least 50 percent of students in all three classes; these were poorly controlled diabetes, ?6 mm pockets posteriorly, and lack of response to previous non-surgical therapy. Confidence in knowledge, knowledge of risk factors, and knowledge of medications with an effect on the periodontium improved with training and were predictive of better referral decision making. The greatest impact of training was seen on the students' ability to make correct decisions about referral and treatment for seven clinical scenarios. Although the study found a large increase in the students' abilities from the second through fourth years, the mean of 4.6 (out of 7) for the fourth-year students shows that, on average, those students missed correct treatment or referral on more than two of seven clinical cases. These results suggest that dental curricula should emphasize more critical decision making with respect to referral and treatment criteria in managing the periodontal patient. PMID:25179920

Friesen, Lynn Roosa; Walker, Mary P; Kisling, Rebecca E; Liu, Ying; Williams, Karen B

2014-09-01

378

Prevalence of Clinical Anxiety, Clinical Depression and Associated Risk Factors in Chinese Young and Middle-Aged Patients with Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the prevalence of clinical anxiety and clinical depression in Chinese young and mid-aged patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) and to analyze their potential risk factors. Methods Two hundred and sixteen Chinese patients with ONFH were consecutively enrolled in this cross-sectional study from January 2010 to December 2010. The Zung self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and the Zung self-rating depression scale (SDS) were used to assess the prevalence of clinical anxiety and clinical depression. An additional questionnaire containing seventeen items of potential risk factors was completed by all patients. Binary logistic regression analysis was employed to reveal potential risk factors of anxiety and depression. Results The prevalence of clinical anxiety and clinical depression was 20.4% and 21.8% in Chinese young and middle-aged patients with ONFH, respectively. Binary regression analysis showed that independent risk factors correlated with high incidence of clinical anxiety included involved femoral head (OR = 3.168, 95% CI: 1.496 - 6.708) and stages of ONFH (ORIV-V / II = 5.383, 95% CI: 1.664-17.416). Independent risk factors correlated with high incidence of depression included gender (OR = 2.853, 95% CI: 1.467-5.778), comorbid diseases (OR = 4.243, 95% CI: 1.940-9.278) and stages of the disease (OR IV-V/II = 16.963, 95% CI: 4.404-65.331). Conclusions Patients with bilateral ONFH are inclined to have clinical anxiety, while female patients and patients with comorbid diseases might tend to get clinical depression. Advanced stages of ONFH are independent risk factors for both clinical anxiety and clinical depression. PMID:25789850

Gao, You-Shui; He, Hai-Yan; Jin, Dong-Xu; Zhang, Chang-Qing

2015-01-01

379

Factors associated with timely initiation of antiretroviral therapy in two HIV clinics in Lilongwe, Malawi.  

PubMed

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that only 30% of eligible, HIV-infected individuals start antiretroviral therapy (ART). This study seeks to explore the geographic and individual factors associated with starting ART on time. This retrospective study includes 15,734 HIV-positive adults initiating ART at two HIV clinics in Lilongwe, Malawi. The outcome was starting ART within two weeks of meeting ART eligibility as defined by the Malawi ART guidelines. Euclidean distance from patient neighbourhood to their clinic was calculated using Google Earth. Logistic regression models assessed factors influencing starting ART on time. Of 15,734 adults initiating ART, 8178 were from Lighthouse (LH) and 7556 were from Martin Preuss Center (MPC). Combined, 68.7% started treatment on time. Patients who were eligible for ART based on a CD4 cell count <250 cells/mm(3) versus WHO stage were less likely to begin ART on time at both LH (odds ratio [OR] 0.16; 95% CI 0.13-0.19) and MPC (OR 0.24; 95% CI 0.21-0.28). Likelihood of starting on time decreased with each kilometer further from clinic location among LH patients (OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.94-0.99); distance was not significant at MPC. In conclusion, predictors differed by clinic. Distance to clinic and type of eligibility for ART significantly influence starting ART on time. PMID:23467293

Johnson, D C; Feldacker, C; Tweya, H; Phiri, S; Hosseinipour, M C

2013-01-01

380

The Many Faces of Celiac Disease: Clinical Presentation of Celiac Disease in the Adult Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major modes of presentation of patients with celiac disease are the classic diarrhea-predominant form and silent celiac disease. Those with silent celiac disease lack diarrhea, although they may present with manifestations of celiac disease that include an irritable bowel syndrome, anemia, osteoporosis, neurologic diseases, or malignancy. A significant proportion of patients are diagnosed through screening at-risk groups including relatives

PETER H. R. GREEN

2005-01-01

381

Alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency due to Pi null: clinical presentation and evidence for molecular heterogeneity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proteinase inhibitor null (Pi-) allele is a rare cause of alpha 1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency. In three families, all the subjects with AAT deficiency due to PiZ- presented in early childhood with recurrent chest infections and wheezing presumably related to passive smoking. In Pi- the AAT gene is present and there is no evidence for a gene deletion. In

F J Bamforth; N A Kalsheker

1988-01-01

382

Risk factors of postoperative recurrences in patients with clinical stage I NSCLC  

PubMed Central

Background Despite advances in radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and newly developed molecular targeting therapies, long-term survival after resection for patients with NSCLC remains less than 50%. We investigated factors predicting postoperative locoregional recurrences and distant metastases in patients with clinical stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after surgical resection. Methods All patients with clinical stage I NSCLC, who underwent surgical resection between January 2002 and June 2006, were reviewed retrospectively. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent risk factors for patients with locoregional recurrences and distant metastases. Results A total of 261 patients were eligible. Overall survival was significant related to locoregional recurrences (P?=?0.03) and distant metastases (P <0.001). There were significant differences of locoregional recurrence in tumor differentiation (P?=?0.032) and advanced pathological stage (P?=?0.002). In the group of distant metastases, there were significant differences in tumor differentiation (P?=?0.035), lymphovascular space invasion (P?=?0.031). Among the relationship between pattern of distant metastasis and clinicopathologic variables in patients with clinical stage I NSCLC, SUVmax (P?=?0.02) and tumor size (P?=?0.001) had significant differences. According to multiple logistic regression analysis, tumor differentiation is the only risk factor of postoperative outcome for locoregional recurrence and serum CEA (>3.5 ng/mL) is the predictor of distant metastasis. Conclusions Tumor differentiation and serum CEA were predictors of postoperative relapse for clinical stage I NSCLC after surgical resection. Risk factors of postoperative recurrence in patients with clinical stage I NSCLC may enable us to optimize the patient selection for postoperative adjuvant therapies or neoadjuvant treatment before surgery. PMID:24410748

2014-01-01

383

Risk factors and clinical features of ovarian pregnancy: a case–control study  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify risk factors for ovarian pregnancy (OP) and compare clinical features between OP and tubal pregnancy (TP) patients. Design Case–control study. Setting University hospital. Participants A case–control study was conducted from January 2005 to May 2014. Women diagnosed with OP were recruited as the case group (n=71), 145 women with TP and 146 with intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) were matched as controls at a ratio of 1:2:2. Women who refused interviews or provided incomplete information were excluded. Results OP risk was lower than TP risk in women with serological evidence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection (adjusted OR1 0.17, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.52), previous adnexal surgery (adjusted OR1 0.25, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.95), and current levonorgestrel emergency contraceptive use (adjusted OR1 0.24, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.78). In vitro fertilisation-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) carried a higher risk of OP (adjusted OR1 12.18, 95% CI 2.23 to 66.58) than natural conception. When Controlled by IUP women, current users of intrauterine devices (IUDs) carried a higher risk of OP than non-users of any contraceptives (adjusted OR2 9.60, 95% CI 1.76 to 42.20). ?-Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels on the day of surgery were higher in OP patients than in TP patients (p<0.01). Women with OP were less likely to initially present with vaginal bleeding than those with TP (p=0.02). Moreover, shock (p=0.02), rupture (p<0.01), haemoperitoneum (p<0.01) and emergency laparotomy (p<0.01) were more common in the OP group than in the TP group. Conclusions IVF-ET and IUD use may be risk factors for OP, and OP patients tend to have high ?-hCG levels and a poor clinical outcome (shock, rupture, haemoperitoneum and need for emergency laparotomy). Our findings may contribute to the prevention and early diagnosis of OP. PMID:25472658

Zhu, Qian; Li, Cheng; Zhao, Wei-Hong; Yuan, Jiang-Jing; Yan, Ming-Xing; Qin, Guo-Juan; Zhang, Jian

2014-01-01

384

[The development of clinical reasoning skills and leadership: personal factors and organizational factors].  

PubMed

Continuing education of newly graduated nurses (NGN) depends on several factors related to the characteristics of skills to be developed, the target population and the organizational context. Few studies describe both how nurses develop their skills and how institutions promote this development. The objectives of this manuscript are to (1) describe the behaviors that the NGN use to develop their reasoning skills and leadership and (2) document the organizational elements that facilitate this development. Method. Individual interviews were conducted with nurses (n = 34) using a grid of semistructured interviews and two group interviews were conducted with nurses (n = 7) and managers (n = 19) in two teaching hospitals in eastern Canada. The results show that nurses develop mainly by reflecting on their professional practice in their workplace. However, the lack of time for reflection in the workspace is a considerable obstacle while managerial leadership is an important asset. PMID:23671988

Larue, Caroline; Dubois, Sylvie; Girard, Francine; Goudreau, Johanne; Dumont, Katia

2013-03-01

385

Correlation of clinical findings, collision parameters, and psychological factors in the outcome of whiplash associated disorders  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine prognostic factors for the duration and severity of acute symptoms in subjects with grade 1 or 2 whiplash injuries. Methods: Collision victims presenting to a trauma centre with spinal pain or stiffness were assessed clinically (including a visual analogue scale (VAS)), radiologically, and psychologically (short form 36 (SF36), everyday life quality (EDLQ), pain control questionnaire (FSR)). Collision type and estimated ?V (change in velocity of the occupant's vehicle) were also assessed. Assessment at six months involved VAS symptom rating, SF36, EDLQ, depression scale (CES-D), and impact of event scale (IES). Results: 43 consecutive collision victims (22 male, 21 female; mean age 29 years (range 19 to 72) with grade 1 or 2 whiplash associated disorders were assessed. Mean ?V, available for 36 of 43 collisions, was 13.9 (5 to 30) km/h. Thirty two (74%) of the subjects were available for follow up at six months. The mean duration of symptoms was 28 (1 to 180) days in this group. No correlation was found between severity and duration of symptoms and the ?V of collision or other collision parameters. Patients with initial pain VAS >5 or with duration of symptoms more than 28 days had significant changes in SF36, EDLQ, CES-D, and IES scores at six months, and had initial scores that were predictive of these outcomes. Conclusions: Psychological factors were found to be more relevant than collision severity in predicting the duration and severity of symptoms in collision victims with grade 1 or 2 whiplash associated disorders. PMID:15090574

Richter, M; Ferrari, R; Otte, D; Kuensebeck, H; Blauth, M; Krettek, C

2004-01-01

386

Diagnosis, Clinical Presentation, and In-Hospital Mortality of Severe Malaria in HIV-Coinfected Children and Adults in Mozambique  

PubMed Central

Background.?Severe falciparum malaria with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection is common in settings with a high prevalence of both diseases, but there is little information on whether HIV affects the clinical presentation and outcome of severe malaria. Methods.?HIV status was assessed prospectively in hospitalized parasitemic adults and children with severe malaria in Beira, Mozambique, as part of a clinical trial comparing parenteral artesunate versus quinine (ISRCTN50258054). Clinical signs, comorbidity, complications, and disease outcome were compared according to HIV status. Results.?HIV-1 seroprevalence was 11% (74/655) in children under 15 years and 72% (49/68) in adults with severe malaria. Children with HIV coinfection presented with more severe acidosis, anemia, and respiratory distress, and higher peripheral blood parasitemia and plasma Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP2). During hospitalization, deterioration in coma score, convulsions, respiratory distress, and pneumonia were more common in HIV-coinfected children, and mortality was 26% (19/74) versus 9% (53/581) in uninfected children (P < .001). In an age- and antimalarial treatment–adjusted logistic regression model, significant, independent predictors for death were renal impairment, acidosis, parasitemia, and plasma PfHRP2 concentration. Conclusions.?Severe malaria in HIV-coinfected patients presents with higher parasite burden, more complications, and comorbidity, and carries a higher case fatality rate. Early identification of HIV coinfection is important for the clinical management of severe malaria. PMID:22752514

Hendriksen, Ilse C. E.; Ferro, Josefo; Montoya, Pablo; Chhaganlal, Kajal D.; Seni, Amir; Gomes, Ermelinda; Silamut, Kamolrat; Lee, Sue J.; Lucas, Marcelino; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Fanello, Caterina I.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; White, Nicholas J.; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Dondorp, Arjen M.

2012-01-01

387

Factors influencing heartworm, flea, and tick preventative use in patients presenting to a veterinary teaching hospital  

PubMed Central

The introduction of modern heartworm, flea, and tick preventatives has provided a safe and effective means of controlling companion animal endoparasites, but achieving good owner compliance remains an ongoing challenge for the veterinary profession. Based on a sample of patients from the veterinary teaching hospital at the University of Pennsylvania, this study retrospectively examined factors associated with preventative use and areas of potential weakness in client communication. Between 1999 and 2006, records of 5,276 canine and 1,226 feline patients were searched for signalment, survey results for heartworm, flea, and tick preventative use, date of visit, presenting complaint, vaccination history, and owner zip code. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate techniques. Overall, only 13 - 23 % of patients were questioned about heartworm, flea, or tick preventative use during routine medical history taking. Patients with a prior history of parasites, younger patients, or those presenting with signs of cardiac disease were no more likely to be questioned about preventative use than healthy animals. Patients presenting to a specialty service were also less likely to be questioned. Approximately 74 - 79% of dogs and 12 – 38 % of cats in the sample were on preventative products at any given time. There was a distinct seasonality to preventative use corresponding to the heartworm transmission season from June through November in the northeastern United States. Only 50% of patients seen for a yearly physical examination in winter were reported to be using preventative products when surveyed later in the year, compared to the roughly 85% on patients in heartworm preventatives when they received their routine physical exam in spring. Month of presentation and neuter status were the only signalment factors significantly (P<0.05) associated with preventative use in the multivariate analysis. Findings from this study emphasize target areas for increasing owner compliance. PMID:19931925

Gates, Maureen C.; Nolan, Thomas J.

2009-01-01

388

LUNG CANCER IN NEVER SMOKERS: CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS  

PubMed Central

More than 161,000 lung cancer deaths are projected to occur in the U.S. in 2008. Of these, an estimated 10–15% will be caused by factors other than active smoking, corresponding to 16,000–24,000 deaths annually. Thus lung cancer in never smokers would rank among the most common causes of cancer mortality in the U.S. if considered to be a separate category. Slightly more than half of the lung cancers caused by factors other than active smoking occur in never smokers. As summarized in the accompanying article, lung cancers that occur in never smokers differ from those that occur in smokers in their molecular profile and response to targeted therapy. These recent laboratory and clinical observations highlight the importance of defining the genetic and environmental factors responsible for the development of lung cancer in never-smokers. This article summarizes available data on the clinical epidemiology of lung cancer in never smokers, and the several environmental risk factors that population-based research has implicated in the etiology of these cancers. Primary factors closely tied to lung cancer in never smokers include exposure to known and suspected carcinogens including radon, second-hand tobacco smoke, and other indoor air pollutants. Several other exposures have been implicated. However, a large fraction of lung cancers occurring in never-smokers cannot be definitively associated with established environmental risk factors, highlighting the need for additional epidemiologic research in this area. PMID:19755391

Samet, Jonathan M.; Avila-Tang, Erika; Boffetta, Paolo; Hannan, Lindsay M.; Olivo-Marston, Susan; Thun, Michael J.; Rudin, Charles M.

2011-01-01

389

Endovascular Treatment of Malignant Superior Vena Cava Syndrome: Results and Predictive Factors of Clinical Efficacy  

SciTech Connect

To demonstrate the effectiveness of endovascular treatment (EVT) with self-expandable bare stents for malignant superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) and to analyze predictive factors of EVT efficacy. Retrospective review of the 164 patients with malignant SVCS treated with EVT in our hospital from August 1992 to December 2007 and followed until February 2009. Endovascular treatment includes angioplasty before and after stent placement. We used self-expandable bare stents. We studied results of this treatment and looked for predictive factors of clinical efficacy, recurrence, and complications by statistical analysis. Endovascular treatment was clinically successful in 95% of cases, with an acceptable rate of early mortality (2.4%). Thrombosis of the superior vena cava was the only independent factor for EVT failure. The use of stents over 16 mm in diameter was a predictive factor for complications (P = 0.008). Twenty-one complications (12.8%) occurred during the follow-up period. Relapse occurred in 36 patients (21.9%), with effective restenting in 75% of cases. Recurrence of SVCS was significantly increased in cases of occlusion (P = 0.01), initial associated thrombosis (P = 0.006), or use of steel stents (P = 0.004). Long-term anticoagulant therapy did not influence the risk of recurrence or complications. In malignancy, EVT with self-expandable bare stents is an effective SVCS therapy. These results prompt us to propose treatment with stents earlier in the clinical course of patients with SVCS and to avoid dilatation greater than 16 mm.

Fagedet, Dorothee, E-mail: DFagedet@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique universitaire de medecine interne, Pole Pluridisciplinaire de Medecine (France)] [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique universitaire de medecine interne, Pole Pluridisciplinaire de Medecine (France); Thony, Frederic, E-mail: FThony@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique universitaire de radiologie et imagerie medicale, Pole d'Imagerie (France)] [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique universitaire de radiologie et imagerie medicale, Pole d'Imagerie (France); Timsit, Jean-Francois, E-mail: JFTimsit@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique universitaire de reanimation, Pole Medecine Aiguee Communautaire (France)] [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique universitaire de reanimation, Pole Medecine Aiguee Communautaire (France); Rodiere, Mathieu, E-mail: MRodiere@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique universitaire de radiologie et imagerie medicale, Pole d'Imagerie (France)] [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique universitaire de radiologie et imagerie medicale, Pole d'Imagerie (France); Monnin-Bares, Valerie, E-mail: v-monnin@chu-montpellier.fr [CHRU Arnaud de Villeneuve, Imagerie Medicale Thoracique Cardiovasculaire (France)] [CHRU Arnaud de Villeneuve, Imagerie Medicale Thoracique Cardiovasculaire (France); Ferretti, Gilbert R., E-mail: GFerretti@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique universitaire de radiologie et imagerie medicale, Pole d'Imagerie (France); Vesin, Aurelien; Moro-Sibilot, Denis, E-mail: DMoro.pneumo@chu-grenoble.fr [University Grenoble 1 e Albert Bonniot Institute, Inserm U823 (France)] [University Grenoble 1 e Albert Bonniot Institute, Inserm U823 (France)

2013-02-15

390

White blood cell growth factor use in an outpatient oncology clinic: Lessons and opportunities learned.  

PubMed

The increased use and high cost associated with white blood cell growth factors at our outpatient oncology clinic has prompted this evaluation. The objectives of this study were to categorize the indication for use of pegfilgrastim and filgrastim; evaluate the administration of these white blood cell growth factors; identify opportunities for cost savings; and identify ways to increase prescriber adherence to evidence-based practice guidelines. This medication use evaluation study involved retrospective data collection from patient medical records. Adult oncology patients treated in the outpatient oncology clinic who received filgrastim or pegfilgrastim were identified and included in this study. Computerized patient records were used to collect data on patient demographics, risk factors for febrile neutropenia, prescribing patterns for filgrastim and pegfilgrastim, and chemotherapy regimens. The number of pegfilgrastim and filgrastim doses were predominately used for primary prophylaxis following chemotherapy treatment. Of the 234 total doses of pegfilgrastim used in the setting of primary prophylaxis, 28 (12%), 134 (57%), and 72 (31%) doses were given to patients receiving chemotherapy regimens associated with a high risk (>20%), intermediate risk (10-20%), and low risk (<10%) of febrile neutropenia, respectively. The total number of pegfilgrastim doses used in secondary prophylaxis was 78; 20 (26%) and 58 (74%) of these doses were given to patients receiving chemotherapy regimens associated with an intermediate risk and low risk of febrile neutropenia, respectively. This study revealed a significant portion of prescribed growth factor use that was not in accordance with clinical practice guidelines. PMID:24710955

Le, Anna T; Trovato, James A

2014-04-01

391

Stromal prostatic sarcoma: a rare tumor with rare clinical and imaging presentation.  

PubMed

Adult prostatic stromal sarcoma is a rare malignant tumor. The main presenting symptom is urinary retention secondary to bladder outlet obstruction. Prostatic Specific Antigen level can be normal. Imaging features show a prostate mass with or without pelvic organ invasion depending on the aggressiveness of the tumor. We present a patient with prostatic stromal sarcoma who debuted with urinary obstruction, leukocytosis and neutrophilia, prostate enlargement, and hypodense prostate areas on CT images, simulating prostatitis with abscess formation. PMID:24421945

Rojas-Jiménez, Anamaría; Otero-Garcia, Milagros; Mateos-Martin, Alejandro

2013-07-01

392

Stromal prostatic sarcoma: a rare tumor with rare clinical and imaging presentation  

PubMed Central

Adult prostatic stromal sarcoma is a rare malignant tumor. The main presenting symptom is urinary retention secondary to bladder outlet obstruction. Prostatic Specific Antigen level can be normal. Imaging features show a prostate mass with or without pelvic organ invasion depending on the aggressiveness of the tumor. We present a patient with prostatic stromal sarcoma who debuted with urinary obstruction, leukocytosis and neutrophilia, prostate enlargement, and hypodense prostate areas on CT images, simulating prostatitis with abscess formation. PMID:24421945

Rojas-Jiménez, Anamaría; Otero-Garcia, Milagros; Mateos-Martin, Alejandro

2013-01-01

393

Clinical and Genetic Characteristics of Mexican Patients with Juvenile Presentation of Niemann-Pick Type C Disease  

PubMed Central

Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC) is a rare lysosomal disease with a protean presentation, ranging from a fatal neonatal course with visceromegaly to an adult presentation with only neurological or psychiatric symptomatology. In this report we describe the genetic and clinical characteristics of 3 Mexican patients from different families with juvenile presentation of NPC. Clinical examination, imaging of central nervous and gastrointestinal system, and EEG were performed. Genetic studies include sequencing and deletion/duplication analysis of NPC1 and NPC2 genes. All patients presented with cognitive impairment, ataxia, and supranuclear vertical gaze palsy; one case had gelastic cataplexy. Also they developed epilepsy and cortical atrophy and two patients had thinning of corpus callosum. The 3 patients were compound heterozygotes for NPC1 sequence variants, including 5 missense and 1 nonsense mutations: p.P1007A and p.F1087L in Case 1; p.Q921P and p.G992R in Case 2; and p.R348? and p.V1165M in case 3. Mexican patients with juvenile NPC presented with a variable clinical phenotype and compound heterozygosity. This suggests a relative high frequency of mutation carriers as it is reported for European population. Consequently, clinicians should consider NPC as a diagnosis possibility in any adolescent or young adult patient with juvenile dementia and/or ataxia, even in absence of gelastic cataplexy and supranuclear vertical gaze palsy. PMID:25349751

Piña-Aguilar, Raul E.; Vera-Loaiza, Aurea; Chacón-Camacho, Oscar F.; Zenteno, Juan Carlos; Nuñez-Orozco, Lilia; Santillán-Hernández, Yuritzi

2014-01-01

394

Clinical application of Electrical Impedance Tomography in the Present Health Scenario of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early detection of Breast Cancer is currently emerging as a big clinical entity requiring a non invasive, radiation less, harmless, cost effective diagnostic technique. Survival is improved if detected early. Breast Cancer is the second most common cancer in India. Health corporate system of India is urgently requiring a cost effective, noninvasive novel technique like "Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT)" for screening large poor rural population of India for early diagnosis of Breast Cancer. EIT is the technique to visualize spatial distribution of Electro-impedance (or conductivity) inside the object, such as human body. A medical device which allows imaging of the distribution of conductivity in 3D in regions below the skin surface has been developed and tested. Its purpose is to enable early detection and preliminary diagnosis of breast tumors. The system uses a planar array consisting of 256 electrodes and enables obtaining images of the three-dimensional conductivity distribution in regions below the skin's surface up to several centimeters deep. The developed measuring system and image reconstruction algorithm can be used for breast tissue imaging and diagnostic, in particular for malignant tumor detection. Initially ten patients as control and ten patients with breast lesions have been studied with this new technique. It was found that electrical impedance mammograms from different groups has clear visual distinctions and statistically significant difference in breast glands conductivity. The results are quiet encouraging. EIT may emerge as the first line noninvasive imaging method of choice for screening large population for early detection of breast cancer.

Chakraborti, K. L., Dr; Selvamurthy, W., Dr

2010-04-01

395

Clinical and research measurement techniques of the pulmonary circulation: the present and the future.  

PubMed

There has been a lot of progress in measurement techniques of the pulmonary circulation in recent years, and this has required updating of basic physiological knowledge. Pulmonary artery pressures (PAP) are normally low and dependent on left atrial pressure (LAP) and cardiac output (CO). Therefore, defining the functional state of the pulmonary circulation for the detection of pulmonary vascular disease or evaluation of disease progression requires measurements of PAP, LAP and CO. Invasive measurements have lately improved by a better definition of zero leveling and of the effects of intrathoracic pressure changes, and understanding of the inherent limitations of fluid-filled thermodilution catheters. The effects of LAP and pulmonary flow on PAP in health and disease are now integrated in the hemodynamic diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension. Development of alternative noninvasive approaches is critically dependent on their potential to quantify pulmonary vascular pressures and CO. Doppler echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging are coming close. Both approaches are performant for flow measurements, but pressures remain indirectly assessed from flow velocities and/or structural changes. Doppler echocardiography or magnetic resonance imaging has been shown to be accurate, allowing for valid population studies, but with insufficient precision for single number-derived clinical decision making. PMID:25534670

Naeije, Robert; D'Alto, Michele; Forfia, Paul R

2015-01-01

396

Collagenous colitis: a retrospective study of clinical presentation and treatment in 163 patients.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Data on collagenous colitis have been based on a limited number of patients. AIMS: To obtain more information on this disease from a register set up at Orebro Medical Center Hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty five Swedish hospitals have contributed to this patient register, which comprises 163 histopathologically verified cases. Clinical data were retrospectively analysed. RESULTS: Collagenous colitis followed a chronic intermittent course in most cases (85%) with a sudden onset in 42%. Symptoms were chronic watery diarrhoea, often nocturnal (27%), abdominal pain (41%), and weight loss (42%). Sixty six patients (40%) had one or more associated diseases. Routine laboratory data were mostly normal. The median age at diagnosis was 55 (range 16-86) years, but 25% of the patients were younger than 45 years. Seven patients died of unrelated diseases. The response rate for sulphasalazine was 59%, and 50% and 40% for mesalazine and olsalazine. Prednisolone was most effective with a response rate of 82%, but the required dose was often high and the effect was not sustained after withdrawal. Antibiotics were efficient in 63%. Cholestyramine and loperamide had response rates of 59% and 71% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Collagenous colitis follows a chronic continuous course. Symptoms can be socially disabling, but the disease does not seem to have a malignant potential. A plan for the treatment of a newly diagnosed patient with collagenous colitis is proposed. PMID:9038667

Bohr, J; Tysk, C; Eriksson, S; Abrahamsson, H; Järnerot, G

1996-01-01