Science.gov

Sample records for factors including type

  1. Include All 4 Types of Exercise (Endurance, Strength, Balance, Flexibility)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... at NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Include All 4 Types of Exercise Exercise generally falls into ... physical activity plan—this will help you incorporate all four types of exercise into your daily routine. ...

  2. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer, Including Occupational Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Meo, Margrethe; Vainio, Harri

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr). For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as "carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1): alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure). Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification "probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A) includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women. PMID:22953181

  3. 48 CFR 16.104 - Factors in selecting contract types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Factors in selecting contract types...Contract Types 16.104 Factors in selecting contract types. There are many factors that the contracting...interest. (b) Price analysis. Price analysis...

  4. Type IV pili mechanochemically regulate virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Persat, Alexandre; Inclan, Yuki F; Engel, Joanne N; Stone, Howard A; Gitai, Zemer

    2015-06-16

    Bacteria have evolved a wide range of sensing systems to appropriately respond to environmental signals. Here we demonstrate that the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa detects contact with surfaces on short timescales using the mechanical activity of its type IV pili, a major surface adhesin. This signal transduction mechanism requires attachment of type IV pili to a solid surface, followed by pilus retraction and signal transduction through the Chp chemosensory system, a chemotaxis-like sensory system that regulates cAMP production and transcription of hundreds of genes, including key virulence factors. Like other chemotaxis pathways, pili-mediated surface sensing results in a transient response amplified by a positive feedback that increases type IV pili activity, thereby promoting long-term surface attachment that can stimulate additional virulence and biofilm-inducing pathways. The methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein-like chemosensor PilJ directly interacts with the major pilin subunit PilA. Our results thus support a mechanochemical model where a chemosensory system measures the mechanically induced conformational changes in stretched type IV pili. These findings demonstrate that P. aeruginosa not only uses type IV pili for surface-specific twitching motility, but also as a sensor regulating surface-induced gene expression and pathogenicity. PMID:26041805

  5. Screening and Risk Factors Data Types

    Cancer.gov

    Direct Estimates are the usual estimates reported from a survey-directly estimated from the survey data using appropriate weighting. Most of these direct estimates are based on data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), a large annual telephone survey of U.S. households designed to measure at the state level.

  6. Q-Type Factor Analysis of Healthy Aged Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleban, Morton H.

    Q-type factor analysis was used to re-analyze baseline data collected in 1957, on 47 men aged 65-91. Q-type analysis is the use of factor methods to study persons rather than tests. Although 550 variables were originally studied involving psychiatry, medicine, cerebral metabolism and chemistry, personality, audiometry, dichotic and diotic memory,…

  7. Environmental factors and primary prevention in type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ilonen, Jorma; Vaarala, Outi; Åkerblom, Hans K.; Knip, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of type 1 diabetes has been increasing rapidly among children in most European countries over the last decades. Despite of the known strong genetic component in the disease only environmental factors can explain such a rapid change. The increase in incidence has been most conspicuous in the youngest age group, which emphasizes the importance of infancy and early environmental exposures. Nutritional and infectious factors affecting the young child or even the mother during pregnancy have been implicated to be important in the pathogenesis. The identification of single factors has been extremely difficult as reflected by many controversial reports on their importance. This difficulty may also be due to the heterogeneity of the disease mechanisms. Multiple mechanisms in different pathways may ultimately be responsible for beta-cell destruction. In most cases the disease is probably caused by a complex interplay between multiple factors including distinct genetic polymorphisms and environmental effects. Exploration of these pathways is needed for the development of effective preventive measures. The implementation of primary prevention trials will ultimately prove the value of various concepts generated for the disease pathogenesis. PMID:20455416

  8. Analytical expressions for the gate utilization factors of passive multiplicity counters including signal build-up

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, Stephen; Evans, Louise G; Schear, Melissa A

    2010-01-01

    In the realm of nuclear safeguards, passive neutron multiplicity counting using shift register pulse train analysis to nondestructively quantify Pu in product materials is a familiar and widely applied technique. The approach most commonly taken is to construct a neutron detector consisting of {sup 3}He filled cylindrical proportional counters embedded in a high density polyethylene moderator. Fast neutrons from the item enter the moderator and are quickly slowed down, on timescales of the order of 1-2 {micro}s, creating a thermal population which then persists typically for several 10's {micro}s and is sampled by the {sup 3}He detectors. Because the initial transient is of comparatively short duration it has been traditional to treat it as instantaneous and furthermore to approximate the subsequent capture time distribution as exponential in shape. With these approximations simple expressions for the various Gate Utilization Factors (GUFs) can be obtained. These factors represent the proportion of time correlated events i.e. Doubles and Triples signal present in the pulse train that is detected by the coincidence gate structure chosen (predelay and gate width settings of the multiplicity shift register). More complicated expressions can be derived by generalizing the capture time distribution to multiple time components or harmonics typically present in real systems. When it comes to applying passive neutron multiplicity methods to extremely intense (i.e. high emission rate and highly multiplying) neutron sources there is a drive to use detector types with very fast response characteristics in order to cope with the high rates. In addition to short pulse width, detectors with a short capture time profile are also desirable so that a short coincidence gate width can be set in order to reduce the chance or Accidental coincidence signal. In extreme cases, such as might be realized using boron loaded scintillators, the dieaway time may be so short that the build-up (thermalization transient) within the detector cannot be ignored. Another example where signal build-up might be observed is when a {sup 3}He based system is used to track the evolution of the time correlated signal created by a higher multiplying item within a reflective configuration such as the measurement of a spent fuel assembly. In this work we develop expressions for the GUFs which include signal build-up.

  9. Comparison of Predictive Accuracy on Several Types of Factor Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, John D.

    Several advantages to the use of factor scores as independent variables in a multiple regression equation were found. To help select the most desirable type of factor score on which to calculate a regression equation, computer-based Monte Carlo methods were used to compare the predictive accuracy upon replication of regression of five "complete"…

  10. Properties of gene expression including the non-functional binding of transcription factors to DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Anat; Walczak, Aleksandra; Wolynes, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Many eukaryotic transcription factors bind to DNA sequences with a remarkable lack of specificity. This suggests that non-functional binding between transcription factors and DNA might not have the detrimental effect on regulation one would naively assume results from competition for binding. In fact, if binding to DNA protects transcription factors from degradation, the number and binding affinity of these 'decoy' binding sites should have no influence on the copy number of transcription factors available for regulation. We calculate the influence of adding decoy binding sites on several important aspects of gene expression including the noise, the time to reach steady state, and bimodal switch rates. Analyzing these effects could shed some light on how a gene functions in the 'dressed' environment of a genomic background.

  11. A Study of Factors Promoting Success in Computer Science Including Gender Differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantwell Wilson, Brenda

    2002-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine factors that promote success in an introductory college computer science course and to determine what, if any, differences appear between genders on those factors. The model included math background, attribution for success/failure, self-efficacy, encouragement, comfort level in the course, work style preference, previous programming experience, previous non-programming computer experience, and gender as possible predictive factors for success in the computer science course. Subjects included 105 students enrolled in an introductory computer science course. The study revealed three predictive factors in the following order of importance: comfort level (with a positive influence), math background (with a positive influence), and attribution to luck (with a negative influence). No significant gender differences were found in these three factors. The study also revealed that both a formal class in programming (which had a positive correlation) and game playing (which had a negative correlation) were predictive of success. The study revealed a significant gender difference in game playing with males reporting more experience with playing games on the computer than females reported.

  12. DNA Damage Response Factors from Diverse Pathways, Including DNA Crosslink Repair, Mediate Alternative End Joining

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Sean M.; Yanez, Diana A.; Stark, Jeremy M.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative end joining (Alt-EJ) chromosomal break repair involves bypassing classical non-homologous end joining (c-NHEJ), and such repair causes mutations often with microhomology at the repair junction. Since the mediators of Alt-EJ are not well understood, we have sought to identify DNA damage response (DDR) factors important for this repair event. Using chromosomal break reporter assays, we surveyed an RNAi library targeting known DDR factors for siRNAs that cause a specific decrease in Alt-EJ, relative to an EJ event that is a composite of Alt-EJ and c-NHEJ (Distal-EJ between two tandem breaks). From this analysis, we identified several DDR factors that are specifically important for Alt-EJ relative to Distal-EJ. While these factors are from diverse pathways, we also found that most of them also promote homologous recombination (HR), including factors important for DNA crosslink repair, such as the Fanconi Anemia factor, FANCA. Since bypass of c-NHEJ is likely important for both Alt-EJ and HR, we disrupted the c-NHEJ factor Ku70 in Fanca-deficient mouse cells and found that Ku70 loss significantly diminishes the influence of Fanca on Alt-EJ. In contrast, an inhibitor of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) causes a decrease in Alt-EJ that is enhanced by Ku70 loss. Additionally, the helicase/nuclease DNA2 appears to have distinct effects from FANCA and PARP on both Alt-EJ, as well as end resection. Finally, we found that the proteasome inhibitor Bortezomib, a cancer therapeutic that has been shown to disrupt FANC signaling, causes a significant reduction in both Alt-EJ and HR, relative to Distal-EJ, as well as a substantial loss of end resection. We suggest that several distinct DDR functions are important for Alt-EJ, which include promoting bypass of c-NHEJ and end resection. PMID:25629353

  13. DNA damage response factors from diverse pathways, including DNA crosslink repair, mediate alternative end joining.

    PubMed

    Howard, Sean M; Yanez, Diana A; Stark, Jeremy M

    2015-01-01

    Alternative end joining (Alt-EJ) chromosomal break repair involves bypassing classical non-homologous end joining (c-NHEJ), and such repair causes mutations often with microhomology at the repair junction. Since the mediators of Alt-EJ are not well understood, we have sought to identify DNA damage response (DDR) factors important for this repair event. Using chromosomal break reporter assays, we surveyed an RNAi library targeting known DDR factors for siRNAs that cause a specific decrease in Alt-EJ, relative to an EJ event that is a composite of Alt-EJ and c-NHEJ (Distal-EJ between two tandem breaks). From this analysis, we identified several DDR factors that are specifically important for Alt-EJ relative to Distal-EJ. While these factors are from diverse pathways, we also found that most of them also promote homologous recombination (HR), including factors important for DNA crosslink repair, such as the Fanconi Anemia factor, FANCA. Since bypass of c-NHEJ is likely important for both Alt-EJ and HR, we disrupted the c-NHEJ factor Ku70 in Fanca-deficient mouse cells and found that Ku70 loss significantly diminishes the influence of Fanca on Alt-EJ. In contrast, an inhibitor of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) causes a decrease in Alt-EJ that is enhanced by Ku70 loss. Additionally, the helicase/nuclease DNA2 appears to have distinct effects from FANCA and PARP on both Alt-EJ, as well as end resection. Finally, we found that the proteasome inhibitor Bortezomib, a cancer therapeutic that has been shown to disrupt FANC signaling, causes a significant reduction in both Alt-EJ and HR, relative to Distal-EJ, as well as a substantial loss of end resection. We suggest that several distinct DDR functions are important for Alt-EJ, which include promoting bypass of c-NHEJ and end resection. PMID:25629353

  14. P and n-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including band gap widening elements, devices utilizing same

    DOEpatents

    Guha, Subhendu (Troy, MI); Ovshinsky, Stanford R. (Bloomfield Hills, MI)

    1988-10-04

    An n-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including a band gap widening element; a method of fabricating p-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including a band gap widening element; and electronic and photovoltaic devices incorporating said n-type and p-type materials.

  15. Humanized mouse models for type 1 diabetes including pancreatic islet transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rahmig, S; Bornstein, S R; Chavakis, T; Jaeckel, E; Waskow, C

    2015-01-01

    We comment here on the suitability of available mouse models for type 1 diabetes research including research on therapeutic pancreatic islet transplantation. The major emphasis will be laid on models that require minimal invasive procedures. Most biological processes are too complex for a complete recapitulation in a test tube. The study of innate or even adaptive immune responses involves a number of different cell types and organs making in vitro studies unreliable but also providing extreme challenges for the use of surrogate model organisms. Studying these processes directly in humans is impossible due to ethical and technical constraints. To resolve this problem small animal models such as mice or rats are frequently used to study mechanisms of complex diseases. This has brought much insight into hematopoiesis and immune cell function including type 1 diabetes (T1D); however, 65 million years of evolution introduced striking differences between mice and humans 1. In fact, none of the many suggested therapies arising from studies using mice 2 3 that have promised prevention or even reversion of T1D made it into the clinic yet 4 5 6. The reason for this are major species-specific differences between rodents and humans regarding the immune system and beta cells. PMID:25369071

  16. Representations of Each Number Type that Differ by Scale Factors

    E-print Network

    Paul Benioff

    2011-02-16

    For each type of number, structures that differ by arbitrary scaling factors and are isomorphic to one another are described. The scaling of number values in one structure, relative to the values in another structure, must be compensated for by scaling of the basic operations and relations (if any) in the structure. The scaling must be such that one structure satisfies the relevant number type axioms if and only if the other structure does.

  17. Systematic chromatin state comparison of epigenomes associated with diverse properties including sex and tissue type

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Angela; Kellis, Manolis

    2015-01-01

    Epigenomic data sets provide critical information about the dynamic role of chromatin states in gene regulation, but a key question of how chromatin state segmentations vary under different conditions across the genome has remained unaddressed. Here we present ChromDiff, a group-wise chromatin state comparison method that generates an information-theoretic representation of epigenomes and corrects for external covariate factors to better isolate relevant chromatin state changes. By applying ChromDiff to the 127 epigenomes from the Roadmap Epigenomics and ENCODE projects, we provide novel group-wise comparative analyses across sex, tissue type, state and developmental age. Remarkably, we find that distinct sets of epigenomic features are maximally discriminative for different group-wise comparisons, in each case revealing distinct enriched pathways, many of which do not show gene expression differences. Our methodology should be broadly applicable for epigenomic comparisons and provides a powerful new tool for studying chromatin state differences at the genome scale. PMID:26282110

  18. Systematic chromatin state comparison of epigenomes associated with diverse properties including sex and tissue type.

    PubMed

    Yen, Angela; Kellis, Manolis

    2015-01-01

    Epigenomic data sets provide critical information about the dynamic role of chromatin states in gene regulation, but a key question of how chromatin state segmentations vary under different conditions across the genome has remained unaddressed. Here we present ChromDiff, a group-wise chromatin state comparison method that generates an information-theoretic representation of epigenomes and corrects for external covariate factors to better isolate relevant chromatin state changes. By applying ChromDiff to the 127 epigenomes from the Roadmap Epigenomics and ENCODE projects, we provide novel group-wise comparative analyses across sex, tissue type, state and developmental age. Remarkably, we find that distinct sets of epigenomic features are maximally discriminative for different group-wise comparisons, in each case revealing distinct enriched pathways, many of which do not show gene expression differences. Our methodology should be broadly applicable for epigenomic comparisons and provides a powerful new tool for studying chromatin state differences at the genome scale. PMID:26282110

  19. Defining a non-concrete recursive type in HOL which includes Tanja Vos and Doaitse Swierstra

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    approach for defining a new type in HOL 2 2 The general approach for defining a new type in HOL The approach to defining a new logical type as described in [Mel89], involves the following three steps: 1. find an appropriate non-empty subset of an existing type to represent the new type 2. extend the syntax

  20. Defining a nonconcrete recursive type in HOL which includes Tanja Vos and Doaitse Swierstra

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    The general approach for defining a new type in HOL 2 2 The general approach for defining a new type in HOL The approach to defining a new logical type as described in [Mel89], involves the following three steps: 1. find an appropriate non­empty subset of an existing type to represent the new type 2. extend the syntax

  1. 10 CFR 719.6 - Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part...719.6 Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part? Matters not covered by this part include:...

  2. 10 CFR 719.6 - Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part...719.6 Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part? Matters not covered by this part include:...

  3. ‘Lonesome Town’? Is Loneliness Associated with the Residential Environment, including Housing and Neighbourhood Factors?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This article considers whether feelings of loneliness are associated with aspects of the home and neighbourhood of residence. Multinominal logistic regression models were used to explore associations between residential environment and loneliness in 4,000 residents across deprived areas of Glasgow. People who rated their neighbourhood environment of higher quality, and who used more local amenities, were less likely to report loneliness. Respondents who knew more people within the local area were less likely to report loneliness. Those who reported more antisocial behaviour problems, who had a weak perception of collective efficacy, and who felt unsafe walking alone at night-time were more likely to report loneliness. Length of residence and dwelling type were not associated with reported loneliness. The findings indicate the potential importance of several dimensions of the neighbourhood physical, service and social environment, including aspects of both quality and trust, in protecting against or reducing loneliness in deprived areas.

  4. Quantitative Differences in the Urinary Proteome of Siblings Discordant for Type 1 Diabetes Include Lysosomal Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Suh, Moo-Jin; Tovchigrechko, Andrey; Thovarai, Vishal; Rolfe, Melanie A; Torralba, Manolito G; Wang, Junmin; Adkins, Joshua N; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M; Osborne, Whitney; Cogen, Fran R; Kaplowitz, Paul B; Metz, Thomas O; Nelson, Karen E; Madupu, Ramana; Pieper, Rembert

    2015-08-01

    Individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) often have higher than normal blood glucose levels, causing advanced glycation end product formation and inflammation and increasing the risk of vascular complications years or decades later. To examine the urinary proteome in juveniles with T1D for signatures indicative of inflammatory consequences of hyperglycemia, we profiled the proteome of 40 T1D patients with an average of 6.3 years after disease onset and normal or elevated HbA1C levels, in comparison with a cohort of 41 healthy siblings. Using shotgun proteomics, 1036 proteins were identified, on average, per experiment, and 50 proteins showed significant abundance differences using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test (FDR q-value ? 0.05). Thirteen lysosomal proteins were increased in abundance in the T1D versus control cohort. Fifteen proteins with functional roles in vascular permeability and adhesion were quantitatively changed, including CD166 antigen and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. ?-N-Acetyl-galactosaminidase and ?-fucosidase 2, two differentially abundant lysosomal enzymes, were detected in western blots with often elevated quantities in the T1D versus control cohort. Increased release of proteins derived from lysosomes and vascular epithelium into urine may result from hyperglycemia-associated inflammation in the kidney vasculature. PMID:26143644

  5. 43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What types of infrastructure and... RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.9 What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included... limited to, the following types of infrastructure and facilities: (a) Pumps, pipes, wells, surface...

  6. A decision support system prototype including human factors based on the TOGA meta-theory approach

    SciTech Connect

    Cappelli, M.; Memmi, F.; Gadomski, A. M.; Sepielli, M.

    2012-07-01

    The human contribution to the risk of operation of complex technological systems is often not negligible and sometimes tends to become significant, as shown by many reports on incidents and accidents occurred in the past inside Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). An error of a human operator of a NPP can derive by both omission and commission. For instance, complex commission errors can also lead to significant catastrophic technological accidents, as for the case of the Three Mile Island accident. Typically, the problem is analyzed by focusing on the single event chain that has provoked the incident or accident. What is needed is a general framework able to include as many parameters as possible, i.e. both technological and human factors. Such a general model could allow to envisage an omission or commission error before it can happen or, alternatively, suggest preferred actions to do in order to take countermeasures to neutralize the effect of the error before it becomes critical. In this paper, a preliminary Decision Support System (DSS) based on the so-called (-) TOGA meta-theory approach is presented. The application of such a theory to the management of nuclear power plants has been presented in the previous ICAPP 2011. Here, a human factor simulator prototype is proposed in order to include the effect of human errors in the decision path. The DSS has been developed using a TRIGA research reactor as reference plant, and implemented using the LabVIEW programming environment and the Finite State Machine (FSM) model The proposed DSS shows how to apply the Universal Reasoning Paradigm (URP) and the Universal Management Paradigm (UMP) to a real plant context. The DSS receives inputs from instrumentation data and gives as output a suggested decision. It is obtained as the result of an internal elaborating process based on a performance function. The latter, describes the degree of satisfaction and efficiency, which are dependent on the level of responsibility related to each professional role. As an application, we present the simulation of the discussed error, e.g. the unchecked extraction of the control rods during a power variation maneuver and we show how the effect of human errors can affect the performance function, giving rise to different countermeasures which could call different operator figures into play, potentially not envisaged in the standard procedure. (authors)

  7. Thermoelectric material including a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Jihui (Lakeshore, CA); Shi, Xun (Troy, MI); Bai, Shengqiang (Shanghai, CN); Zhang, Wenqing (Shanghai, CN); Chen, Lidong (Shanghai, CN); Yang, Jiong (Shanghai, CN)

    2012-01-17

    A thermoelectric material includes a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure having the formula A.sub.8TM.sub.y.sub.1.sup.1TM.sub.y.sub.2.sup.2 . . . TM.sub.y.sub.n.sup.nM.sub.zX.sub.46-y.sub.1.sub.-y.sub.2.sub.- . . . -y.sub.n.sub.-z. In the formula, A is selected from the group consisting of barium, strontium, and europium; X is selected from the group consisting of silicon, germanium, and tin; M is selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, and indium; TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, and TM.sup.n are independently selected from the group consisting of 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metals; and y.sub.1, y.sub.2, y.sub.n and Z are actual compositions of TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, TM.sup.n, and M, respectively. The actual compositions are based upon nominal compositions derived from the following equation: z=8q.sub.A-|.DELTA.q.sub.1|y.sub.1-|.DELTA.q.sub.2|y.sub.2- . . . -|.DELTA.q.sub.n|y.sub.n, wherein q.sub.A is a charge state of A, and wherein .DELTA.q.sub.1, .DELTA.q.sub.2, .DELTA.q.sub.n are, respectively, the nominal charge state of the first, second, and n-th TM.

  8. Method of fabricating n-type and p-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including band gap widening elements

    DOEpatents

    Guha, Subhendu (Troy, MI); Ovshinsky, Stanford R. (Bloomfield Hills, MI)

    1990-02-02

    A method of fabricating doped microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material which includes a band gap widening element through a glow discharge deposition process by subjecting a precursor mixture which includes a diluent gas to an a.c. glow discharge in the absence of a magnetic field of sufficient strength to induce electron cyclotron resonance.

  9. Enhancer activation by a single type of transcription factor shows cell type dependence.

    PubMed Central

    Forsberg, M; Westin, G

    1991-01-01

    Promoter and enhancer elements contain multiple binding sites for ubiquitous and cell type-specific transcription factors which stimulate transcription synergistically. Here we show that cell type-dependent enhancer activity can be achieved by mechanisms other than interactions between cell type-specific transcription factors and DNA. The ability of the SV40 enhancer and the E2 transactivator from bovine papillomavirus (BPV-1) to stimulate transcription from a reporter gene with different minimal promoters was tested in four cell lines. In lymphoid BJA-B cells all minimal promoters that synergized with the SV40 enhancer did so also with the E2-dependent enhancer. In sharp contrast to these results, the E2 enhancer stimulated transcription only from a subset of promoters in fibroblasts and in epithelial cells. The results suggest that lymphoid cells, unlike fibroblasts and epithelial cells, contain auxiliary factor(s) which are necessary for the activation of certain promoters by the E2 enhancer and infer that the specificity of enhancers also is regulated at a co-activator level. Images PMID:1714381

  10. 78 FR 26847 - Including Specific Pavement Types in Federal-aid Highway Traffic Noise Analyses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ...analyses rely on data from three pavement types: dense-graded asphaltic concrete (DGAC), open-graded asphaltic concrete (OGAC), and Portland cement concrete (PCC). Prediction of future noise levels is based on the...

  11. Synergistic and multidimensional regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 expression by transforming growth factor type ? and epidermal growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Xiaoling; Thalacker, F.W.; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit

    2012-04-06

    The major physiological inhibitor of plasminogen activator, type I plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), controls blood clotting and tissue remodeling events that involve cell migration. Transforming growth factor type ? (TGF?) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) interact synergistically to increase PAI-1 mRNA and protein levels in human HepG2 and mink Mv1Lu cells. Other growth factors that activate tyrosine kinase receptors can substitute for EGF. EGF and TGF? regulate PAI-1 by synergistically activating transcription, which is further amplified by a decrease in the rate of mRNA degradation, the latter being regulated only by EGF. The combined effect of transcriptional activation and mRNA stabilization results in a rapid 2-order of magnitude increase in the level of PAI-1. TGF? also increases the sensitivity of the cells to EGF, thereby recruiting the cooperation of EGF at lower than normally effective concentrations. The contribution of EGF to the regulation of PAI-1 involves the MAPK pathway, and the synergistic interface with the TGF? pathway is downstream of MEK1/2 and involves phosphorylation of neither ERK1/2 nor Smad2/3. Synergism requires the presence of both Smad and AP-1 recognition sites in the promoter. This work demonstrates the existence of a multidimensional cellular mechanism by which EGF and TGF? are able to promote large and rapid changes in PAI-1 expression.

  12. Abstract Successful transformation of plant tissue using Agrobacterium relies on several factors including bacterial

    E-print Network

    Finer, John J.

    Abstract Successful transformation of plant tissue using Agrobacterium relies on several factors). Although some success has been reported with Agro- bacterium-mediated transformation of soybean (Hinchee et

  13. Impact of Outliers Arising from Unintended and Unknowingly Included Subpopulations on the Decisions about the Number of Factors in Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yan; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of research on the effects of outliers on the decisions about the number of factors to retain in an exploratory factor analysis, especially for outliers arising from unintended and unknowingly included subpopulations. The purpose of the present research was to investigate how outliers from an unintended and unknowingly included

  14. 78 FR 26847 - Including Specific Pavement Types in Federal-aid Highway Traffic Noise Analyses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... comment (or signing the comment, if submitted on behalf of an association, business, or labor union... pavement that a highway agency may want to consider in their noise analysis. For more information on the... specific pavement types in the Federal-aid highway traffic noise analysis process? (a) If you support...

  15. Globular Cluster Populations: Results Including S$^4$G Late-Type Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Zaritsky, Dennis; Aravena, Manuel; Athanassoula, E; Bosma, Albert; Comerón, Sébastien; Courtois, Helene M; Elmegreen, Bruce G; Elmegreen, Debra M; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Gadotti, Dimitri A; Hinz, Joannah L; Ho, Luis C; Holwerda, Benne; Kim, Taehyun; Knapen, Johan H; Laine, Jarkko; Laurikainen, Eija; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos; Salo, Heikki; Sheth, Kartik

    2015-01-01

    Using 3.6 and 4.5$\\mu$m images of 73 late-type, edge-on galaxies from the S$^4$G survey, we compare the richness of the globular cluster populations of these galaxies to those of early type galaxies that we measured previously. In general, the galaxies presented here fill in the distribution for galaxies with lower stellar mass, M$_*$, specifically $\\log({\\rm M}_*/{\\rm M}_\\odot) number of globular clusters per $10^9\\ {\\rm M}_\\odot$ of galaxy stellar mass, T$_{\\rm N}$, on M$_*$. For $8.5 < \\log ({\\rm M}_*/{\\rm M}_\\odot) < 10.5$ we find the relationship can be satisfactorily described as T$_{\\rm N} = ({\\rm M}_*/10^{6.7})^{-0.56}$ when M$_*$ is expressed in solar masses. The functional form of the relationship is only weakly constrained and extrapolation outside this range is not advised. Our late-type galaxies, in contrast to our early-types, do not show the tendency for l...

  16. Immunohistochemical expression of Type IV Collagen and Autocrine Motility Factor Receptor in Odontogenic Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Sneha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Autocrine motility factor receptor (AMFR) is a tumour motility stimulating protein secreted by tumour cells. The protein encoded by this gene is a glycosylated transmembrane protein and a receptor for autocrine motility factor. It has been known to play a role in progression of neoplastic lesions. Basement membranes are specialized extracellular matrices that serve as structural barriers as well as substrates for cellular interactions. The network of type IV collagen is thought to define the scaffold integrating other components such as laminins and perlecan into highly organized supramolecular architecture. The aim of this study was to determine and evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of Type IV Collagen and Autocrine motility factor receptor in odontogenic lesions. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical expression of Type IV Collagen and Autocrine motility factor receptor was evaluated in 31 odontogenic lesions, including unicystic ameloblastoma, multicystic ameloblastoma, keratocystic odontogenic tumour and ameloblastic carcinoma. Normal follicular tissue formed the control. Results: Maximum expression for Type IV Collagen was seen in multicystic ameloblastoma and minimum expression in keratocystic odontogenic tumour. The maximum expression of AMFR was seen in ameloblastic carcinoma and minimum expression in multicystic ameloblastoma. Conclusion: The results of this study suggested an association of loss of expression of type IV Collagen with progression of lesion. AMFR expression was found to be associated with the aggressive potential of tumours. PMID:25478440

  17. The iCRONUS softwareFactors included in the analysis of cosmogenic inventories Spatial and temporal scaling

    E-print Network

    Zreda, Marek

    : Implemented: topography; (neo)tectonic movement; snow cover(including one snow model). In progress: more snow on an artificial intelligence core (thus, the 'i' in the name). Calibrated production rates and correction factors

  18. Latina Resilience in Higher Education: Contributing Factors Including Seasonal Farmworker Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Cristina Santamaria; McCain, Terrence; Gomez-Vilchis, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Many Latina students overcome multiple obstacles to earn university degrees. Five married Latina women with children and seasonal farmworker backgrounds are the focus of this study which is analyzed through resiliency theory to understand factors contributing to their academic resilience. Variables connected to academic success are explored and…

  19. Meson Electro-Magnetic Form Factors in an Extended Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model including Heavy Quark Flavors

    E-print Network

    Yi-Long Luan; Xiao-Lin Chen; Wei-Zhen Deng

    2015-06-21

    Based on an extended NJL model including heavy quark flavors, we calculate the form factors of pseudo-scalar and vector mesons. After take into account of the vector-meson-dominance effect which introduce a form factor correction to the quark vector coupling vertices, the form factors and electric radii of $\\pi^+$ and $K^+$ of pseudo-scalar meson in light flavor sector fit the experimental data well. Also the magnetic moments of light vector meson $\\rho^+$ and $K^{*+}$ are comparable with other theoretical calculation. The form factors in light-heavy flavor sector are presented to confront with future experiments or theoretical calculations.

  20. Meson Electro-Magnetic Form Factors in an Extended Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model including Heavy Quark Flavors

    E-print Network

    Luan, Yi-Long; Deng, Wei-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Based on an extended NJL model including heavy quark flavors, we calculate the form factors of pseudo-scalar and vector mesons. After take into account of the vector-meson-dominance effect which introduce a form factor correction to the quark vector coupling vertices, the form factors and electric radii of $\\pi^+$ and $K^+$ of pseudo-scalar meson in light flavor sector fit the experimental data well. Also the magnetic moments of light vector meson $\\rho^+$ and $K^{*+}$ are comparable with other theoretical calculation. The form factors in light-heavy flavor sector are presented to confront with future experiments or theoretical calculations.

  1. Meson electro-magnetic form factors in an extended Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model including heavy quark flavors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Yi-Long; Chen, Xiao-Lin; Deng, Wei-Zhen

    2015-11-01

    Based on an extended NJL model including heavy quark flavors, we calculate the form factors of pseudo-scalar and vector mesons. After taking into account the vector-meson-dominance effect, which introduces a form factor correction to the quark vector coupling vertices, the form factors and electric radii of ?+ and K+ pseudo-scalar mesons in the light flavor sector fit the experimental data well. The magnetic moments of the light vector mesons ?+ and K*+ are comparable with other theoretical calculations. The form factors in the light-heavy flavor sector are presented to compare with future experiments or other theoretical calculations.

  2. Importance of genetic factors in the occurrence of epilepsy syndrome type: A twin study

    PubMed Central

    Corey, Linda A.; Pellock, John M.; Kjeldsen, Marianne J.; Nakken, Karl Otto

    2011-01-01

    Summary Although there is strong evidence that genetic factors contribute to risk for epilepsy, their role in the determination of syndrome type is less clear. This study was undertaken to address this question. Information related to epilepsy was obtained from twins included in 455 monozygotic and 868 dizygotic pairs ascertained from population-based twin registries in Denmark, Norway and the United States. Syndrome type was determined based on medical record information and detailed clinical interviews and classified using the International Classification Systems for the Epilepsies and Epileptic Syndromes. Concordance rates were significantly increased in monozygotic versus dizygotic pairs for all major syndrome groups except localization-related cryptogenic epilepsy. Among generalized epilepsies, genetic factors were found to play an important role in the determination of childhood absence, juvenile absence, juvenile myoclonic, and idiopathic generalized epilepsy; and to a lesser degree for epilepsies with grand mal seizures on awakening. Among localization-related epilepsies, genetic factors contributed to risk for localization-related idiopathic and symptomatic syndromes overall, but did not appear to play an important role in determining risk for frontal, occipital or temporal lobe epilepsy. These results suggest that, while genetic factors contribute to risk for major syndrome types, determined when possible, their contribution to risk for localization-related syndrome sub-types, as defined by specific focality, may be modest. PMID:21885256

  3. Including transcription factor information in the superparamagnetic clustering of microarray data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsiváis-Alonso, M. P.; Navarro-Muñoz, J. C.; Riego-Ruiz, L.; López-Sandoval, R.; Rosu, H. C.

    2010-12-01

    In this work, we modify the superparamagnetic clustering algorithm (SPC) by adding an extra weight to the interaction formula that considers which genes are regulated by the same transcription factor. With this modified algorithm which we call SPCTF, we analyze the Spellman et al. microarray data for cell cycle genes in yeast, and find clusters with a higher number of elements compared with those obtained with the SPC algorithm. Some of the incorporated genes by using SPCFT were not detected at first by Spellman et al. but were later identified by other studies, whereas several genes still remain unclassified. The clusters composed by unidentified genes were analyzed with MUSA, the motif finding using an unsupervised approach algorithm, and this allow us to select the clusters whose elements contain cell cycle transcription factor binding sites as clusters worthy of further experimental studies because they would probably lead to new cell cycle genes. Finally, our idea of introducing the available information about transcription factors to optimize the gene classification could be implemented for other distance-based clustering algorithms.

  4. Experiences with new European standards for calculation of flanged joints including necessary gasket factors

    SciTech Connect

    Bartonicek, J.; Kockelmann, H.; Schoeckle, F.

    1996-12-01

    The correct function of a flanged joint in a given construction (flanges, bolts) and with given loads (pressure, temperature, additional forces) depends on the following: (1) choice of the gasket for the operation environment; (2) determination of the gasket stress for assembly conditions; and (3) gasket stress in operation, i.e., the conditions when leakage has to be minimized. For the correct choice of a gasket it is necessary to have gasket factors available, as given by DIN 28090 (Sept. 95) together with the test procedures. These gasket factors determine the tightening characteristics as well as the deformation capability of the gaskets. Furthermore, these gasket factors must be available for use in calculations. On the basis of calculations a stress analysis (i.e. a limitation of the stresses in flanges and bolts) must be possible as well as the determination of the bolt forces for the assembly state and of the gasket stress for operating conditions. This is one of the goals of the standard pr DIN EN 1591. The paper first introduces the actual European standards. Calculations are reviewed using test data from special test rigs and from real flanged joints. The calculations were made according to DIN 2505 (initial German standard for flanged joints) and pr DIN EN 1591. Additionally, 2D and 3D Finite Element analysis calculations were performed.

  5. Current Changes in Pubertal Timing: Revised Vision in Relation with Environmental Factors Including Endocrine Disruptors.

    PubMed

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Franssen, Delphine; Fudvoye, Julie; Pinson, Anneline; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to revise some common views on changes in pubertal timing. This revision is based on recent epidemiological findings on the clinical indicators of pubertal timing and data on environmental factor effects and underlying mechanisms. A current advancement in timing of female puberty is usually emphasized. It appears, however, that timing is also changing in males. Moreover, the changes are towards earliness for initial pubertal stages and towards lateness for final stages in both sexes. Such observations indicate the complexity of environmental influences on pubertal timing. The mechanisms of changes in pubertal timing may involve both the central neuroendocrine control and peripheral effects at tissues targeted by gonadal steroids. While sufficient energy availability is a clue to the mechanism of pubertal development, changes in the control of both energy balance and reproduction may vary under the influence of common determinants such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). These effects can take place right before puberty as well as much earlier, during fetal and neonatal life. Finally, environmental factors can interact with genetic factors in determining changes in pubertal timing. Therefore, the variance in pubertal timing is no longer to be considered under absolutely separate control by environmental and genetic determinants. Some recommendations are provided for evaluation of EDC impact in the management of pubertal disorders and for possible reduction of EDC exposure along the precautionary principle. PMID:26680578

  6. The development of Myxobolus pavlovskii (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) includes an echinactinomyxon-type actinospore.

    PubMed

    Marton, Szilvia; Eszterbauer, Edit

    2011-06-01

    Echinactinomyxon-type actinospores were found in a mixed-species oligochaete culture originating from the Temperate Water Fish Hatchery near Budapest, Hungary. On the basis of DNA sequence analysis, the actinospores were identified as Myxobolus pavlovskii (Akhmerov, 1954), the 18S rDNA sequence from myxospores of which is available in GenBank. Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes) fry specimens were successfully infected by cohabitation with the echinactinomyxon-releasing oligochaetes, which confirmed the molecular data congruence. The echinactinomyxons and the myxospores that developed in the gills of exposed fish fry were analysed morphologically and on DNA basis. The infected gill tissue was examined histologically. As typical characters of M. pavlovskii, numerous small plasmodia were observed in the epithelia of gill lamellae. Plasmodia contained thousands of myxospores with polar capsules unequal in size and witl; large intercapsular processes. The 18S rDNA sequence from actinospores and those from myxospores originating from the experimentally infected fish were identical. The oligochaete species releasing actinospores was morphologically determined as Limnodrilus sp. This is the first record of an echinactinomyxon as an alternate stage within the genus Myxobolus. PMID:21776895

  7. The Scale Factor: A New Degree of Freedom in Phase Type Approximation

    E-print Network

    Telek, Miklós

    The Scale Factor: A New Degree of Freedom in Phase Type Approximation A. Bobbio a , A. Horvâ??ath b are assigned with a non­negative real parameter, the scale factor. The case when the scale factor is strictly positive results in Discrete phase­type distributions and the scale factor represents the time elapsed

  8. The Scale Factor: A New Degree of Freedom in Phase Type Approximation

    E-print Network

    Telek, Miklós

    The Scale Factor: A New Degree of Freedom in Phase Type Approximation #3; Andrea Bobbio 1 , Andr#19 of this common set are assigned with a non-negative real parameter, the scale factor. The case when the scale factor is strictly positive results in Discrete phase-type distributions and the scale factor represents

  9. 43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? 404.9 Section 404.9 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.9...

  10. 43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? 404.9 Section 404.9 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview §...

  11. 43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? 404.9 Section 404.9 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview §...

  12. 43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    43 ? Public Lands: Interior ? 1 ? 2010-10-01 ? 2010-10-01 ? false ? What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? ? 404.9 ? Section 404.9 ? Public Lands: Interior ? Regulations Relating to Public Lands ? BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT...

  13. Tumor necrosis factor-? receptor type 1, not type 2, mediates its acute responses in the kidney.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Alexander; Islam, M Toriqul; Prieto, Minolfa C; Majid, Dewan S A

    2012-06-15

    Acute administration of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) resulted in decreases in renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) but induced diuretic and natriuretic responses in mice. To define the receptor subtypes involved in these renal responses, experiments were conducted to assess the responses to human recombinant TNF-? (0.3 ng·min(-1)·g body wt(-1) iv infusion for 75 min) in gene knockout (KO) mice for TNF-? receptor type 1 (TNF?R1 KO, n = 5) or type 2 (TNF?R2 KO, n = 6), and the results were compared with those obtained in corresponding wild-type [WT (C57BL/6), n = 6] mice. Basal levels of RBF (PAH clearance) and GFR (inulin clearance) were similar in TNF?R1 KO, but were lower in TNF?R2 KO, than WT mice. TNF-? infusion in WT mice decreased RBF and GFR but caused a natriuretic response, as reported previously. In TNF?R1 KO mice, TNF-? infusion failed to cause such vasoconstrictor or natriuretic responses; rather, there was an increase in RBF and a decrease in renal vascular resistance. Similar responses were also observed with infusion of murine recombinant TNF-? in TNF?R1 KO mice (n = 5). However, TNF-? infusion in TNF?R2 KO mice caused changes in renal parameters qualitatively similar to those observed in WT mice. Immunohistochemical analysis in kidney slices from WT mice demonstrated that while both receptor types were generally located in the renal vascular and tubular cells, only TNF?R1 was located in vascular smooth muscle cells. There was an increase in TNF?R1 immunoreactivity in TNF?R2 KO mice, and vice versa, compared with WT mice. Collectively, these functional and immunohistological findings in the present study demonstrate that the activation of TNF?R1, not TNF?R2, is mainly involved in mediating the acute renal vasoconstrictor and natriuretic actions of TNF-?. PMID:22461305

  14. Biochemical and proteomic analysis of spliceosome factors interacting with intron-1 of human papillomavirus type-16.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Salazar, Martha; López-Urrutia, Eduardo; Arechaga-Ocampo, Elena; Bonilla-Moreno, Raul; Martínez-Castillo, Macario; Díaz-Hernández, Job; Del Moral-Hernández, Oscar; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; Martines-Juarez, Víctor; De Nova-Ocampo, Monica; Valdes, Jesús; Berumen, Jaime; Villegas-Sepúlveda, Nicolás

    2014-12-01

    The human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E6/E7 spliced transcripts are heterogeneously expressed in cervical carcinoma. The heterogeneity of the E6/E7 splicing profile might be in part due to the intrinsic variation of splicing factors in tumor cells. However, the splicing factors that bind the E6/E7 intron 1 (In-1) have not been defined. Therefore, we aimed to identify these factors; we used HeLa nuclear extracts (NE) for in vitro spliceosome assembly. The proteins were allowed to bind to an RNA/DNA hybrid formed by the In-1 transcript and a 5'-biotinylated DNA oligonucleotide complementary to the upstream exon sequence, which prevented interference in protein binding to the intron. The hybrid probes bound with the nuclear proteins were coupled to streptavidin magnetic beads for chromatography affinity purification. Proteins were eluted and identified by mass spectrometry (MS). Approximately 170 proteins were identified by MS, 80% of which were RNA binding proteins, including canonical spliceosome core components, helicases and regulatory splicing factors. The canonical factors were identified as components of the spliceosomal B-complex. Although 35-40 of the identified factors were cognate splicing factors or helicases, they have not been previously detected in spliceosome complexes that were assembled using in vivo or in vitro models. PMID:25108200

  15. 40 CFR 273.81 - Factors for petitions to include other wastes under 40 CFR part 273.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... wastes under 40 CFR part 273. 273.81 Section 273.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Other Wastes Under 40 CFR Part 273 § 273.81 Factors for petitions to include other wastes under 40 CFR... requirements appropriate to be added to 40 CFR 273.13, 273.33, and 273.52; and/or applicable Department...

  16. Prospective Study of Social and Other Risk Factors for Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes

    E-print Network

    Emmons, Scott

    Prospective Study of Social and Other Risk Factors for Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in the incidence of type 2 diabetes and the relation of health behaviors and psy- chosocial factors to the incidence of type 2 diabetes are not well established. Methods: Prospective occupational cohort study

  17. Analysis of factors inducing different type of landslide in apparently similar environmental contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busnardo, Enrico; Secco, Michele; Salbego, Giorgio; Toaldo, Miriam; Lampo, Chiara; Artioli, Gilberto; Floris, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Landslides frequently hit the hilly region of the Vicenza province (North-Eastern Italian Alps) exposing human activities to damage. The region includes Lessini Mountains and Marostica hills. These two areas are separated by a portion of the upper Vicenza plain. They have the same lithological framework, with the predominance of Tertiary volcanic rocks (Basalts and Tuffs) and most of landslides are earth slides and earth flows which affect the altered volcanic bedrock. At first glance, only considering these two type of movements, it seems that the predisposing conditions, as well as triggering factors (i.e. rainfall) are the same. The aim of this work is to find the factors that determine earth slides rather than earth flows. In other words, we checked if there are any anomalies due to particular lithological and morphological constraints attributable to a type of movement. The research was performed both at large and small scale. At large scale, we decide to perform spatial analysis of four numerical and seven categorical factors. Numerical factors are elevation, provided by the Veneto Region, slope gradient, slope aspect and surface curvature, derived from elevation. Categorical data are: soils map and land-use map, both provided by the Veneto Region; lithological map provided by the Vicenza province; IFFI (Inventory of Landslide Phenomena in Italy) project data. We also consider factors such as roads, rivers network and civil buildings. Spatial analysis was performed using a simple probabilistic method that compares spatial distribution of landslides with numerical and categorical factors. At small-scale, we performed mineralogical and geotechnical analyses of samples collected from an earth slide and an earth flow. In order to define the mineralogical phases we use x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) of whole sample and of thin portion. Geotechnical indexes were obtained by Atterber Limits and sieve analyses. We also determined the rheological and swelling properties of the materials. In particular we investigated the variation of those properties as a function of water content. At large-scale, we identified which are the main factors (morphological, lithological and anthropic factors) that determine the different types of landslides. At small-scale, we found significant differences in geotechnical and mineralogical properties of materials involved in the two type of landslide.

  18. Master Transcription Factors Determine Cell-Type-Specific Responses to TGF-? Signaling

    E-print Network

    Mullen, Alan C.

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) signaling, mediated through the transcription factors Smad2 and Smad3 (Smad2/3), directs different responses in different cell types. Here we report that Smad3 co-occupies the genome ...

  19. The Benefits of Including Clinical Factors in Rectal Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Defraene, Gilles; Van den Bergh, Laura; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Haustermans, Karin; Heemsbergen, Wilma; Van den Heuvel, Frank; Lebesque, Joos V.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To study the impact of clinical predisposing factors on rectal normal tissue complication probability modeling using the updated results of the Dutch prostate dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: Toxicity data of 512 patients (conformally treated to 68 Gy [n = 284] and 78 Gy [n = 228]) with complete follow-up at 3 years after radiotherapy were studied. Scored end points were rectal bleeding, high stool frequency, and fecal incontinence. Two traditional dose-based models (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) and Relative Seriality (RS) and a logistic model were fitted using a maximum likelihood approach. Furthermore, these model fits were improved by including the most significant clinical factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminating ability of all fits. Results: Including clinical factors significantly increased the predictive power of the models for all end points. In the optimal LKB, RS, and logistic models for rectal bleeding and fecal incontinence, the first significant (p = 0.011-0.013) clinical factor was 'previous abdominal surgery.' As second significant (p = 0.012-0.016) factor, 'cardiac history' was included in all three rectal bleeding fits, whereas including 'diabetes' was significant (p = 0.039-0.048) in fecal incontinence modeling but only in the LKB and logistic models. High stool frequency fits only benefitted significantly (p = 0.003-0.006) from the inclusion of the baseline toxicity score. For all models rectal bleeding fits had the highest AUC (0.77) where it was 0.63 and 0.68 for high stool frequency and fecal incontinence, respectively. LKB and logistic model fits resulted in similar values for the volume parameter. The steepness parameter was somewhat higher in the logistic model, also resulting in a slightly lower D{sub 50}. Anal wall DVHs were used for fecal incontinence, whereas anorectal wall dose best described the other two endpoints. Conclusions: Comparable prediction models were obtained with LKB, RS, and logistic NTCP models. Including clinical factors improved the predictive power of all models significantly.

  20. Falls presenting to the accident and emergency department: types of presentation and risk factor profile.

    PubMed

    Davies, A J; Kenny, R A

    1996-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the type and frequency of falls presenting to an inner city casualty department, and to identify modifiable risk factors in these patients. A prospective descriptive study evaluated those over 65 years presenting to an inner city casualty department with falls. Over a 4-week recruitment period, all consenting subjects completed a semi-structured questionnaire regarding their falls and cognitive status. Those with unexplained (UF) or recurrent falls (RF) underwent a more detailed assessment: history and examination, gait and balance assessment, visual acuity measurement and neurocardiovascular investigations (including orthostatic blood pressure, carotid sinus massage and head-up tilt testing). Of 200 patients with falls, 188 were interviewed; 29% could recall a reason for falling (accidental) and 30% had UF or RF. A cohort of 26 cognitively normal patients with UF and RF was fully investigated. In 23/26 patients risk factors for falls were found (median: three risk factors). These included: culprit medication (10), gait abnormalities (9) and carotid sinus hypersensitivity (19). Falls are a common presenting complaint yet a fall is readily explained in less than one-third of cases. Investigation of RF and UF has a high yield for possibly modifiable cardiac and non-cardiac risk factors. Targeted multi-disciplinary rapid assessment of patients attending the Accident and Emergency Department because of a fall might reduce the number of hospital admissions. PMID:8921140

  1. Effects of botulinum toxin type D on secretion of tumor necrosis factor from human monocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Imamura, K.; Spriggs, D.; Ohno, T.; Kufe, D.

    1989-05-01

    Botulinum toxins are potent neurotoxins which block the release of neurotransmitters. The effects of these toxins on hematopoietic cells, however, are unknown. Monocytes secrete a variety of polypeptide growth factors, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF). In the study reported here, the effects of botulinum toxin type D on the secretion of TNF from human monocytes were examined. The results demonstrate that biotulinum toxin type D inhibits the release of TNF from monocytes activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) but not by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. Botulinum toxin type D had no detectable effect on intracellular TNF levels in LPS-treated monocytes, indicating that the effects of this toxin involve the secretory process. This inhibitory effect of botulinum toxin type D on TNF secretion from LPS-treated monocytes was partially reversed by treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate or introduction of guanosine 5'-(/gamma/-thio)t-riphosphate into these cells. The results demonstrate that TNF secretion is regulated by at least two distinct guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, one responsible for the activation of phospholiphase C and another which acts as a substrate for botulinum toxin type D. ADP-ribosylation of monocyte membranes by botulinum toxin type D demonstrated the presence of three substrates with M/sub r/s of 45,000, 21,000, and 17,000. While the role of these substrates in exocytosis is unknown, the results suggest that the M/sub r/ 21,000 substrate is involved in a process other than TNF secretion.

  2. Bayesian Ages for Early-type Stars from Isochrones Including Rotation, and a Possible Old Age for the Hyades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Timothy D.; Huang, Chelsea X.

    2015-07-01

    We combine recently computed models of stellar evolution using a new treatment of rotation with a Bayesian statistical framework to constrain the ages and other properties of early-type stars. We find good agreement for early-type stars and clusters with known young ages, including ? Pictoris, the Pleiades, and the Ursa Majoris moving group. However, we derive a substantially older age for the Hyades open cluster (750 ± 100 Myr compared to 625 ± 50 Myr). This older age results from both the increase in main-sequence lifetime with stellar rotation and from the fact that rotating models near the main-sequence turnoff are more luminous, overlapping with slightly more massive (and shorter-lived) nonrotating ones. Our method uses a large grid of nonrotating models to interpolate between a much sparser rotating grid, and also includes a detailed calculation of synthetic magnitudes as a function of orientation. We provide a web interface at http://www.bayesianstellarparameters.info, where the results of our analysis may be downloaded for individual early-type (B-V? 0.25) Hipparcos stars. The web interface accepts user-supplied parameters for a Gaussian metallicity prior and returns posterior probability distributions on mass, age, and orientation.

  3. A predator-prey model with a holling type I functional response including a predator mutual interference

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seo, G.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    The most widely used functional response in describing predator-prey relationships is the Holling type II functional response, where per capita predation is a smooth, increasing, and saturating function of prey density. Beddington and DeAngelis modified the Holling type II response to include interference of predators that increases with predator density. Here we introduce a predator-interference term into a Holling type I functional response. We explain the ecological rationale for the response and note that the phase plane configuration of the predator and prey isoclines differs greatly from that of the Beddington-DeAngelis response; for example, in having three possible interior equilibria rather than one. In fact, this new functional response seems to be quite unique. We used analytical and numerical methods to show that the resulting system shows a much richer dynamical behavior than the Beddington-DeAngelis response, or other typically used functional responses. For example, cyclic-fold, saddle-fold, homoclinic saddle connection, and multiple crossing bifurcations can all occur. We then use a smooth approximation to the Holling type I functional response with predator mutual interference to show that these dynamical properties do not result from the lack of smoothness, but rather from subtle differences in the functional responses. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  4. Innate and adaptive factors regulating human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genomic activation.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sonia; Nonnemacher, Michael R; Pirrone, Vanessa; Wigdahl, Brian

    2010-09-01

    Over the past decade, antiretroviral therapy targeting the viral entry process, reverse transcriptase, integrase, and protease, has prolonged the lives of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). However, despite the development of more effective therapeutic strategies, reservoirs of viral infection remain. This review discusses molecular mechanisms surrounding the development of latency from the site of integration to pre- and post-integration maintenance of latency, including epigenetic factors. In addition, an overview of innate and adaptive cells important to HIV-1 infection are examined from the viewpoint of cytokines released and cytokines that act on these cells to explore an overall understanding of HIV-1 proviral genome activation. Finally, this review is discussed from the viewpoint of how an understanding of the interplay of all of these factors will help guide the next generation of therapies. PMID:20387125

  5. The Insulin-Like Growth Factor System in Obesity, Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Lewitt, Moira S.; Dent, Mairi S.; Hall, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system, acting in concert with other hormone axes, is important in normal metabolism. In obesity, the hyperinsulinaemia that accompanies peripheral insulin resistance leads to reduced growth hormone (GH) secretion, while total IGF-I levels are relatively unchanged due to increased hepatic GH sensitivity. IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-1 levels are suppressed in relation to the increase in insulin levels in obesity and low levels predict the development of type 2 diabetes several years later. Visceral adiposity and hepatic steatosis, along with a chronic inflammation, contribute to the IGF system phenotype in individuals with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus, including changes in the normal inverse relationship between IGFBP-1 and insulin, with IGFBP-1 concentrations that are inappropriately normal or elevated. The IGF system is implicated in the vascular and other complications of these disorders and is therefore a potential therapeutic target. PMID:26237614

  6. Relationship of Food Security with Type 2 Diabetes and Its Risk Factors in Tehranian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hasan-Ghomi, Majid; Ejtahed, Hanieh-Sadat; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hosseini-Esfahani, Firozeh; Sarbazi, Narges; Azizi, Fereidoun; Sadeghian, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Background: As food insecurity has negative effects on health, the aim of this study was to determine tahe relationship between household food security and type 2 diabetes mellitus and its related risk factors. Methods: In this case-control study, 200 individuals with and 200 individuals without type 2 diabetes mellitus, aged over 40 years, were randomly selected from among participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. The questionnaire on household food security proposed by the United States Department of Agriculture was completed for them by trained personnel. Logistic regression was used to determine the variable that had the most significant relationship with food security status. Results: The average of food security score was 2.38 ± 2.0 in non-diabetic and 2.25 ± 2.0 in diabetic individuals (P = 0.6). In both groups, the risk for food insecurity in women was more than in men. In the diabetic group, being single and having education levels below high school increased the risk of food insecurity. In the non-diabetic group, the risk of food insecurity in obese individuals was 3.3 times higher than normal individuals (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.2–4.1). Conclusions: There were no significant differences in food security levels of diabetic and non-diabetic groups. However, some risk factors of type 2 diabetes including sex, marital status, educational level, and obesity were associated with food insecurity. PMID:26605019

  7. 48 CFR 16.104 - Factors in selecting contract types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Government, usually result in greater risk assumption by the Government. This is especially true for complex..., the cost risk should shift to the contractor, and a fixed-price contract should be considered. (e) Urgency of the requirement. If urgency is a primary factor, the Government may choose to assume a...

  8. Effect of Neighborhood Factors on Diabetes Self-Care Behaviors in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Smalls, Brittany L.; Gregory, Chris M.; Zoller, James S.; Egede, Leonard E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to identify latent variables for neighborhood factors and diabetes self-care and examine the effect of neighborhood factors on diabetes self-care in adults with type 2 diabetes. Research Design and Methods 615 subjects were recruited from an academic medical center and a Veterans affairs medical center in the southeastern United States. Validated scales were used to assess neighborhood factors and diabetes-related self-care. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to determine the latent constructs. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was then used to assess the relationship between neighborhood factors and diabetes self-care. Results Based on a theoretical framework, CFA yielded four latent variables for neighborhood factors (neighborhood violence, access to healthy food, social support, and neighborhood aesthetics) and one latent variable diabetes self-care ( including diet, exercise, foot care, blood sugar testing and medication adherence). SEM showed that social support (r=0.28, p<0.001) and access to healthy foods (r=-0.16, p=0.003) were significantly associated with self-care behaviors, while neighborhood violence (r= -0.06, p<0.001) and aesthetics (r=-0.07, p=0.278) were not ?2 (180, N=611)=192, p=0.26, RMSEA=0.01, CFI=0.999). In the final trimmed model, social support (r=0.31, p<0.001) and access to healthy foods (r=-0.20, p<0.001) remained significantly associated with self-care behaviors ?2 (76, N=611)=60, p=0.91, RMSEA=0.00, CFI=1.0). Conclusion This study developed latent factors for neighborhood characteristics and diabetes self-care and found that social support and access to healthy foods were significantly associated with diabetes self-care and should be considered as targets for future interventions. PMID:25451904

  9. The Type Series of 'Sinemys' Wuerhoensis, a Problematic Turtlefrom the Lower Cretaceous of China, Includes at Least Three Taxa

    SciTech Connect

    Danilov, Igor G.; Parham, James F.

    2007-03-01

    We re-examine the type series of 'Sinemys' wuerhoensis Yeh(at least 20 specimens, including several shells and skulls on threeslabs of matrix and one isolated skull) from the Early Cretaceous TuguluGroup of China. Our study shows that the type series of 'S.'wuerhoensisis actually a chimera made up of at least three distinct taxa. Theholotype of this taxon should be assigned to the basal eucryptodire genusXinjiangchelys Yeh. As there are no characters that distinguish'S.'wuerhoensis from Xinjiangchelys species, we consider it to be a nomendubium. This new assignment of 'S.'wuerhoensis expands the temporal rangeof Xinjiangchelys from the Late Jurassic into the Early Cretaceous inAsia. The majority of the paratypes of 'S.'wuerhoensis (several shells indorsal and ventral aspect and skulls) are referred to the basaleucryptodire genus Ordosemys Brinkman and Peng. We establish a new namefor these specimens, Ordosemys brinkmania sp. nov. One additionalspecimen in the type series of 'S.'wuerhoensis, a skull, is referred tocf. Pantrionychia Joyce, Parham and Gauthier indet.

  10. Type II1 factors satisfying the spatial isomorphism conjecture

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Jan; Christensen, Erik; Sinclair, Allan M.; Smith, Roger R.; White, Stuart A.; Wiggins, Alan D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses a conjecture in the work by Kadison and Kastler [Kadison RV, Kastler D (1972) Am J Math 94:38–54] that a von Neumann algebra M on a Hilbert space should be unitarily equivalent to each sufficiently close von Neumann algebra N, and, moreover, the implementing unitary can be chosen to be close to the identity operator. This conjecture is known to be true for amenable von Neumann algebras, and in this paper, we describe classes of nonamenable factors for which the conjecture is valid. These classes are based on tensor products of the hyperfinite II1 factor with crossed products of abelian algebras by suitably chosen discrete groups. PMID:23184993

  11. Power Factor Anisotropy of p-Type and n-Type Conductive Thermoelectric Bi-Sb-Te Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothe, K.; Stordeur, M.; Leipner, H. S.

    2010-09-01

    The best films for thermoelectric applications near room temperature are based on the compounds Bi2Te3, Sb2Te3, and Bi2Se3, which as single crystals have distinct anisotropy in their electrical conductivity ? regarding the trigonal c-axis, whereas the Seebeck coefficient S is nearly isotropic. For p- and n-type alloys, P ?c > P ||c, and the power factors P ?c of single crystals are always higher compared with polycrystalline films, where the power factor is defined as P = S 2 ?, ?c and ||c are the direction perpendicular and parallel to the c-axis, respectively. For the first time in sputter-deposited p-type (Bi0.15Sb0.85)2Te3 and n-type Bi2(Te0.9Se0.1)3 thin films, the anisotropy of the electrical conductivity has been measured directly as it depends on the angle ? between the electrical current and the preferential orientation of the polycrystals (texture) using a standard four-probe method. The graphs of ?( ?) show the expected behavior, which can be described by a weighted mixture of ? ?c and ? ||c contributions. Because ( ? ?c/ ? ||c) p < ( ? ?c/ ? ||c) n , the n-type films have stronger anisotropy than the p-type films. For this reason, the angular weighted contributions of P ||c lead to a larger drop in the power factor of polycrystalline n-type films compared with p-type films.

  12. C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is a bifurcation factor for sensory neurons

    E-print Network

    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is a bifurcation factor for sensory neurons Hannes Schmidta , Agne that the secreted molecule C-type natriuretic pep- tide (CNP) induces a cGMP signaling cascade via its receptor identify C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) that is expressed in the dorsal horn of the embryonic spinal c

  13. Type 2 diabetes in children: Clinical aspects and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Rao, P. V.

    2015-01-01

    A strong link between obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome has been reported with development of a new paradigm to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), with some evidence suggesting that beta-cell dysfunction is present before the onset of impaired glucose tolerance. Differentiating type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) from T2DM is actually not very easy and there exists a number of overlapping characteristics. The autoantibody frequencies of seven antigens in T1DM patients may turn out to be actually having T2DM patients (pre-T2DM). T2DM patients generally have increased C-peptide levels (may be normal at time of diagnosis), usually no auto-antibodies, strong family history of diabetes, obese and show signs of insulin resistance (hypertension, acanthosis, PCOS). The American Academy of Paediatrics recommends lifestyle modifications ± metformin when blood glucose is 126–200 mg/dL and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) <8.5. Insulin is recommended when blood glucose is >200 mg/dL and HbA1c >8.5, with or without ketosis. Metformin is not recommended if the patient is ketotic, because this increases the risk of lactic acidosis. Metformin is currently the only oral hypoglycemic that has been approved for use in children. Knowing these subtle differences in mechanism, and knowing how to test patients for which mechanism (s) are causing their diabetes mellitus, may help us eventually tailor treatment programs on an individual basis. PMID:25941651

  14. 43 CFR 404.10 - Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included in a rural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... true Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included...10 Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included...project may not include: (a) Any infrastructure or facilities that would deliver...

  15. 43 CFR 404.10 - Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included in a rural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included...10 Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included...project may not include: (a) Any infrastructure or facilities that would deliver...

  16. Body Mass Index: A Risk Factor for Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kaštelan, Snježana; Tomi?, Martina; Gverovi? Antunica, Antonela; Ljubi?, Spomenka; Salopek Rabati?, Jasminka; Karabati?, Mirela

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether body mass index (BMI) independently or in correlation with other risk factors is associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) progression. The study included 545 patients with type 2 diabetes. According to DR status, they were divided into three groups: group 1 (no retinopathy; n = 296), group 2 (mild/moderate nonproliferative DR; n = 118), and group 3 (severe/very severe NPDR or proliferative DR; n = 131). Patients without DR were younger than those with signs of retinopathy at time of diabetes onset whilst diabetes duration was longer in groups with severe NPDR and PDR. DR progression was correlated with diabetes duration, BMI, HbA1c, hypertension, and cholesterol. Statistical analyses showed that the progression of retinopathy increased significantly with higher BMI (gr. 1: 26.50 ± 2.70, gr. 2: 28.11 ± 3.00, gr. 3: 28.69 ± 2.50; P < 0.01). We observed a significant deterioration of HbA1c and a significant increase in cholesterol and hypertension with an increase in BMI. Correlation between BMI and triglycerides was not significant. Thus, BMI in correlation with HbA1c cholesterol and hypertension appears to be associated with the progression of DR in type 2 diabetes and may serve as a predictive factor for the development of this important cause of visual loss in developed countries. PMID:24347825

  17. Reconstructive or cosmetic plastic surgery? Factors influencing the type of practice established by Canadian plastic surgeons

    PubMed Central

    McInnes, Colin W; Courtemanche, Douglas J; Verchere, Cynthia G; Bush, Kevin L; Arneja, Jugpal S

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some argue that the specialty of plastic surgery is facing a changing identity. Challenged by factors such as increasing competition in the cosmetic marketplace and decreasing reimbursement for reconstructive procedures, many American plastic surgeons have increasingly adopted cosmetic-focused practices. The present study investigated the currently unknown practice profiles of Canadian plastic surgeons to determine the reconstructive-cosmetic mix, as well as factors that influence practice type to determine whether a similar pattern exists in Canada. METHODS: An anonymous online survey regarding practice profiles was distributed to all 352 Canadian plastic surgeons with e-mail accounts registered with the Canadian Society of Plastic Surgeons and/or the Canadian Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. RESULTS: The survey response rate was 34% (120 responses), of which 75% of respondents currently had a reconstructive practice and 25% had a cosmetic practice. Reconstructive surgeons had more educational debt following their training, spent more time on emergency call, academics and teaching and, when deciding which type of practice to establish, were more influenced by academic opportunities and less influenced by financial and nonfinancial metrics. Similarities between the groups included hours worked per week and academic achievements. CONCLUSIONS: The field of reconstructive plastic surgery appears to be thriving in Canada. While a transition from reconstructive to cosmetic practice is common, compared with their American colleagues, a greater proportion of Canadian plastic surgeons maintain reconstructive practices. Differences between reconstructive and cosmetic plastic surgeons are discussed. PMID:23997582

  18. Parental concern about vaccine safety in Canadian children partially immunized at age 2: a multivariable model including system level factors.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Shannon E; Schopflocher, Donald P; Vaudry, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Children who begin but do not fully complete the recommended series of childhood vaccines by 2 y of age are a much larger group than those who receive no vaccines. While parents who refuse all vaccines typically express concern about vaccine safety, it is critical to determine what influences parents of 'partially' immunized children. This case-control study examined whether parental concern about vaccine safety was responsible for partial immunization, and whether other personal or system-level factors played an important role. A random sample of parents of partially and completely immunized 2 y old children were selected from a Canadian regional immunization registry and completed a postal survey assessing various personal and system-level factors. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and adjusted ORs (aOR) were calculated with logistic regression. While vaccine safety concern was associated with partial immunization (OR 7.338, 95% CI 4.138-13.012), other variables were more strongly associated and reduced the strength of the relationship between concern and partial immunization in multivariable analysis (aOR 2.829, 95% CI 1.151-6.957). Other important factors included perceived disease susceptibility and severity (aOR 4.629, 95% CI 2.017-10.625), residential mobility (aOR 3.908, 95% CI 2.075-7.358), daycare use (aOR 0.310, 95% CI 0.144-0.671), number of needles administered at each visit (aOR 7.734, 95% CI 2.598-23.025) and access to a regular physician (aOR 0.219, 95% CI 0.057-0.846). While concern about vaccine safety may be addressed through educational strategies, this study suggests that additional program and policy-level strategies may positively impact immunization uptake. PMID:25483477

  19. Diabetic foot risk factors in type 2 diabetes patients: a cross-sectional case control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetic foot is a serious condition in patients with a long lasting diabetes mellitus. Diabetic foot treated improperly may lead not only to delayed ulceration healing, generalized inflammation, unnecessary surgical intervention, but also to the lower limb amputation. The aim of this study was to compare diabetic foot risk factors in population with type 2 diabetes and risk factors for diabetes in healthy subjects. Methods The study included 900 subjects: 145 with diabetic foot, 293 with type 2 diabetes without diabetic foot and 462 healthy controls matched in terms of mean age, gender structure and cardiovascular diseases absence. Study was conducted in Gastroenterology and Metabolic Diseases Department, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland. In statistical analysis a logistic regression model, U Mann-Whitney’s and t-Student test were used. Results The binomial logit models analysis showed that the risk of diabetic foot in patients with type 2 diabetes was decreased by patient’s age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.92-0.96; p = 0.00001) and hyperlipidaemia (OR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.36-0.81; p = 0.01). In contrast, male gender (OR = 2.83; 95% CI: 1.86-4.28; p = 0.00001) diabetes duration (OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 1.03-1.06; p = 0.0003), weight (OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 1.03-1.06; p = 0.00001), height (OR = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.05-1.11; p = 0.00001) and waist circumference (OR = 1.028; 95% CI: 1.007-1.050; p = 0.006) increase the risk of diabetic foot. The onset of type 2 diabetes in healthy subjects was increased by weight (OR = 1.035; 95% CI: 1.024-1.046; p = 0.00001), WC (OR = 1.075; 95% CI: 1.055-1.096; p = 00001), hip circumference (OR = 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05; p = 0.005), overweight defined with body mass index (BMI) above 24,9 kg/m2 (OR = 2.49; 95% CI: 1.77-3.51; p = 0.00001) and hyperlipidaemia (OR = 3.53; 95% CI: 2.57-4.84; p = 0.00001). Conclusions Risk factors for Type 2 diabetes and diabetic foot are only partially common. Study proved that patients who are prone to developing diabetic foot experience different risk factors than patients who are at risk of diabetes. Identification of relationship between diabetic foot and diabetes risk factors in appropriate groups may help clinicians to focus on certain factors in diabetic foot prevention. PMID:25114882

  20. Factors associated with non-adherence to insulin in patients with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Riaz, Musarrat; Basit, Abdul; Fawwad, Asher; Yakoob Ahmedani, Muhammad; Ali Rizvi, Zahara

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To find out the various factors associated with non-adherence to diet, physical activity and insulin among patients with type 1 diabetes. (T1DM). Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted among T1DM subjects attending the Baqai Institute of Diabetology & Endocrinology (BIDE) and Diabetic Association of Pakistan (DAP), from July 2011 to June 2012.Clinical characteristics, anthropometric measurements, knowledge regarding type 1 diabetes along with adherence to dietary advice, physical activity and insulin were noted on a predesigned questionnaire and score was assigned to each question. Patients were categorized as adherent or non-adherent on the basis of scores obtained. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for windows version 17.0 was used to analyze the data. Results: A total of 194 patients (Male 94, Female 100), with mean age of 17.9± 6.4 years, mean duration of diabetes 5.37±4.96 years (38.1% >5 yrs, 61.9% <5 yrs) were included in the study. One hundred and fourteen (58.5%) patients were non adherent to dietary advice, 82(42.3%) non adherent to physical activity while 88.1% respondents were non adherent to their prescribed insulin regimen. Factors associated with non-compliance were family type, occupation & educational level of respondent’s parents, duration of T1DM, family history of diabetes, frequency of visits to diabetic clinic, knowledge regarding diabetes, lack of family support and fear of hypoglycemia. Conclusion: Non adherence to prescribed treatment regimen in patient with TIDM is quite high. There is need to design strategies to help patients and their family members understand their treatment regimen in order to improve their adherence. PMID:24772118

  1. The Opportunistic Pathogen Propionibacterium acnes: Insights into Typing, Human Disease, Clonal Diversification and CAMP Factor Evolution

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Andrew; Nagy, István; Magyari, Márta; Barnard, Emma; Patrick, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    We previously described a Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) scheme based on eight genes that facilitates population genetic and evolutionary analysis of P. acnes. While MLST is a portable method for unambiguous typing of bacteria, it is expensive and labour intensive. Against this background, we now describe a refined version of this scheme based on two housekeeping (aroE; guaA) and two putative virulence (tly; camp2) genes (MLST4) that correctly predicted the phylogroup (IA1, IA2, IB, IC, II, III), clonal complex (CC) and sequence type (ST) (novel or described) status for 91% isolates (n?=?372) via cross-referencing of the four gene allelic profiles to the full eight gene versions available in the MLST database (http://pubmlst.org/pacnes/). Even in the small number of cases where specific STs were not completely resolved, the MLST4 method still correctly determined phylogroup and CC membership. Examination of nucleotide changes within all the MLST loci provides evidence that point mutations generate new alleles approximately 1.5 times as frequently as recombination; although the latter still plays an important role in the bacterium's evolution. The secreted/cell-associated ‘virulence’ factors tly and camp2 show no clear evidence of episodic or pervasive positive selection and have diversified at a rate similar to housekeeping loci. The co-evolution of these genes with the core genome might also indicate a role in commensal/normal existence constraining their diversity and preventing their loss from the P. acnes population. The possibility that members of the expanded CAMP factor protein family, including camp2, may have been lost from other propionibacteria, but not P. acnes, would further argue for a possible role in niche/host adaption leading to their retention within the genome. These evolutionary insights may prove important for discussions surrounding camp2 as an immunotherapy target for acne, and the effect such treatments may have on commensal lineages. PMID:24058439

  2. Effects of benchmarking on the quality of type 2 diabetes care: results of the OPTIMISE (Optimal Type 2 Diabetes Management Including Benchmarking and Standard Treatment) study in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Tsimihodimos, Vasilis; Kostapanos, Michael S.; Moulis, Alexandros; Nikas, Nikos; Elisaf, Moses S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of benchmarking on the quality of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) care in Greece. Methods: The OPTIMISE (Optimal Type 2 Diabetes Management Including Benchmarking and Standard Treatment) study [ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00681850] was an international multicenter, prospective cohort study. It included physicians randomized 3:1 to either receive benchmarking for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) treatment targets (benchmarking group) or not (control group). The proportions of patients achieving the targets of the above-mentioned parameters were compared between groups after 12 months of treatment. Also, the proportions of patients achieving those targets at 12 months were compared with baseline in the benchmarking group. Results: In the Greek region, the OPTIMISE study included 797 adults with T2DM (570 in the benchmarking group). At month 12 the proportion of patients within the predefined targets for SBP and LDL-C was greater in the benchmarking compared with the control group (50.6 versus 35.8%, and 45.3 versus 36.1%, respectively). However, these differences were not statistically significant. No difference between groups was noted in the percentage of patients achieving the predefined target for HbA1c. At month 12 the increase in the percentage of patients achieving all three targets was greater in the benchmarking (5.9–15.0%) than in the control group (2.7–8.1%). In the benchmarking group more patients were on target regarding SBP (50.6% versus 29.8%), LDL-C (45.3% versus 31.3%) and HbA1c (63.8% versus 51.2%) at 12 months compared with baseline (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Conclusion: Benchmarking may comprise a promising tool for improving the quality of T2DM care. Nevertheless, target achievement rates of each, and of all three, quality indicators were suboptimal, indicating there are still unmet needs in the management of T2DM. PMID:26445642

  3. Dynamic shape factors for hydox-generated plutonium dioxide-type non-sperical objects 

    E-print Network

    Lohaus, James Harold

    1999-01-01

    The dynamic shape factors of HYDOX-generated plutonium dioxide-type non-spherical objects were estimated with computational methods. Leith's empirical methods were used to modify classical Stokes's law for aerosol dynamics (1987). The dynamic shape...

  4. The Cellulosome System of Acetivibrio cellulolyticus Includes a Novel Type of Adaptor Protein and a Cell Surface Anchoring Protein

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qi; Gao, Wenchen; Ding, Shi-You; Kenig, Rina; Shoham, Yuval; Bayer, Edward A.; Lamed, Raphael

    2003-01-01

    A scaffoldin gene cluster was identified in the mesophilic cellulolytic anaerobe Acetivibrio cellulolyticus. The previously described scaffoldin gene, cipV, encodes an N-terminal family 9 glycoside hydrolase, a family 3b cellulose-binding domain, seven cohesin domains, and a C-terminal dockerin. The gene immediately downstream of cipV was sequenced and designated scaB. The protein encoded by this gene has 942 amino acid residues and a calculated molecular weight of 100,358 and includes an N-terminal signal peptide, four type II cohesions, and a C-terminal dockerin. ScaB cohesins 1 and 2 are very closely linked. Similar, but not identical, 39-residue Thr-rich linker segments separate cohesin 2 from cohesin 3 and cohesin 3 from cohesin 4, and an 84-residue Thr-rich linker connects the fourth cohesin to a C-terminal dockerin. The scaC gene downstream of scaB codes for a 1,237-residue polypeptide that includes a signal peptide, three cohesins, and a C-terminal S-layer homology (SLH) module. A long, ca. 550-residue linker separates the third cohesin and the SLH module of ScaC and is characterized by an 18-residue Pro-Thr-Ala-Ser-rich segment that is repeated 27 times. The calculated molecular weight of the mature ScaC polypeptide (excluding the signal peptide) is 124,162. The presence of the cohesins and the conserved SLH module implies that ScaC acts as an anchoring protein. The ScaC cohesins are on a separate branch of the phylogenetic tree that is close to, but distinct from, the type I cohesins. Affinity blotting with representative recombinant probes revealed the following specific intermodular interactions: (i) an expressed CipV cohesin binds selectively to an enzyme-borne dockerin, (ii) a representative ScaB cohesin binds to the CipV band of the cell-free supernatant fraction, and (iii) a ScaC cohesin binds to the ScaB dockerin. The experimental evidence thus indicates that CipV acts as a primary (enzyme-recognizing) scaffoldin, and the protein was also designated ScaA. In addition, ScaB is thought to assume the role of an adaptor protein, which connects the primary scaffoldin (ScaA) to the cohesin-containing anchoring scaffoldin (ScaC). The cellulosome system of A. cellulolyticus thus appears to exhibit a special type of organization that reflects the function of the ScaB adaptor protein. The intercalation of three multiple cohesin-containing scaffoldins results in marked amplification of the number of enzyme subunits per cellulosome unit. At least 96 enzymes can apparently be incorporated into an individual A. cellulolyticus cellulosome. The role of such amplified enzyme incorporation and the resultant proximity of the enzymes within the cellulosome complex presumably contribute to the enhanced synergistic action and overall efficient digestion of recalcitrant forms of cellulose. Comparison of the emerging organization of the A. cellulolyticus cellulosome with the organizations in other cellulolytic bacteria revealed the diversity of the supramolecular architecture. PMID:12867464

  5. 43 CFR 404.10 - Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included in a rural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Are there certain types of infrastructure and...be included in a rural water supply project? 404...INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview...10 Are there certain types of infrastructure and...be included in a rural water supply project?...

  6. A new type of protein lysine methyltransferase trimethylates Lys-79 of elongation factor 1A

    E-print Network

    Clarke, Steven

    classified as N6-adenine DNA methyltransferase-like. Efm5 is required for trimethylation of Lys-79 on EF1AA new type of protein lysine methyltransferase trimethylates Lys-79 of elongation factor 1A Maria C Methyltransferase Posttranslational modification a b s t r a c t The elongation factors of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

  7. Prediction of Giant Thermoelectric Power Factor in Type-VIII Clathrate Si46

    E-print Network

    Myles, Charles W.

    Prediction of Giant Thermoelectric Power Factor in Type-VIII Clathrate Si46 Payam Norouzzadeh1 for thermoelectric application. Nevertheless, from the very large number of conceivable clathrate structures, only is focused on finding the ones with large thermoelectric power factor. Here we predict an extraordinarily

  8. Large-Scale Factorization of Type-Constrained Multi-Relational Data

    E-print Network

    Tresp, Volker

    Large-Scale Factorization of Type-Constrained Multi-Relational Data Denis KrompaÃ? Ludwig Maximilian- tion methods have been shown to scale up to these large multi- relational datasets, in particular) algorithms for calculating the factors. In this paper we extend the recently proposed state-of-the-art RESCAL

  9. Hopf-Type Intermediate-Scale Bifurcation in Single-Stage Power-Factor-Correction Power

    E-print Network

    Tse, Chi K. "Michael"

    Hopf-Type Intermediate-Scale Bifurcation in Single-Stage Power-Factor-Correction Power Supplies University, Hong Kong Abstract-- This paper reports intermediate-scale instability in a single-stage power-factor. The intermediate-scale instability usually manifests itself as local oscillations within a line cycle. Based

  10. Suicide, Schizophrenia, and Schizoid-Type Psychosis: Role of Life Events and Childhood Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tousignant, Michel; Pouliot, Louise; Routhier, Danielle; Vrakas, Georgia; McGirr, Alexander; Turecki, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    The first objective was to identify the provoking events of suicide in patients with schizophrenia or schizoid-type disorder, and to assess the humiliation component of these events. The second objective was to verify if quality of care during childhood is a vulnerability factor for suicide in patients with schizophrenia or schizoid-type

  11. Nonmitogenic survival-enhancing autocrine factors including cyclophilin A contribute to density-dependent mouse embryonic stem cell growth

    E-print Network

    Mittal, Nikhil

    An improved understanding of the role of extracellular factors in controlling the embryonic stem cell (ESC) phenotype will aid the development of cell-based therapies. While the role of extracellular factors in controlling ...

  12. Staphylococcus aureus strains associated with food poisoning outbreaks in France: comparison of different molecular typing methods, including MLVA

    PubMed Central

    Roussel, Sophie; Felix, Benjamin; Vingadassalon, Noémie; Grout, Joël; Hennekinne, Jacques-Antoine; Guillier, Laurent; Brisabois, Anne; Auvray, Fréderic

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks (SFPOs) are frequently reported in France. However, most of them remain unconfirmed, highlighting a need for a better characterization of isolated strains. Here we analyzed the genetic diversity of 112 Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from 76 distinct SFPOs that occurred in France over the last 30 years. We used a recently developed multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) protocol and compared this method with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa-typing and carriage of genes (se genes) coding for 11 staphylococcal enterotoxins (i.e., SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, SEE, SEG, SEH, SEI, SEJ, SEP, SER). The strains known to have an epidemiological association with one another had identical MLVA types, PFGE profiles, spa-types or se gene carriage. MLVA, PFGE and spa-typing divided 103 epidemiologically unrelated strains into 84, 80, and 50 types respectively demonstrating the high genetic diversity of S. aureus strains involved in SFPOs. Each MLVA type shared by more than one strain corresponded to a single spa-type except for one MLVA type represented by four strains that showed two different-but closely related-spa-types. The 87 enterotoxigenic strains were distributed across 68 distinct MLVA types that correlated all with se gene carriage except for four MLVA types. The most frequent se gene detected was sea, followed by seg and sei and the most frequently associated se genes were sea-seh and sea-sed-sej-ser. The discriminatory ability of MLVA was similar to that of PFGE and higher than that of spa-typing. This MLVA protocol was found to be compatible with high throughput analysis, and was also faster and less labor-intensive than PFGE. MLVA holds promise as a suitable method for investigating SFPOs and tracking the source of contamination in food processing facilities in real time. PMID:26441849

  13. Albuminuria, cardiovascular risk factors and disease management in subjects with type 2 diabetes: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Meisinger, Christa; Heier, Margit; Landgraf, Rüdiger; Happich, Michael; Wichmann, H-Erich; Piehlmeier, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have shown that microalbuminuria is an important risk factor for arteriosclerosis, coronary heart disease and other vascular diseases in persons with type 2 diabetes. In the present study we examined the prevalence and risk factors for micro- and macroalbuminuria and examined glycemic control as well as treatment of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in persons with known type 2 diabetes in Germany. Methods The presented data were derived from the 'KORA Augsburg Diabetes Family Study', conducted between October 2001 and September 2002. Participants were adults aged 29 years and older with previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes (n = 581). Microalbuminuria was defined as an albumin-creatinine ratio of 30 to 300 mg/g, and macroalbuminuria as an albumin-creatinine ratio of more than 300 mg/g. Results Microalbuminuria was revealed in 27.2% and macroalbuminuria in 9.0% of the 581 included diabetic persons. Multivariable regression analysis identified HBA1c, duration of diabetes, systolic blood pressure, serum creatinine, smoking and waist circumference as independent risk factors associated with albuminuria (micro- or macroalbuminuria). Relatively few persons with type 2 diabetes achieved treatment targets of HbA1c < 7% (46.6%), total cholesterol < 200 mg/dl (44.1%), and LDL cholesterol < 100 mg/dl (16.0%). Optimal HDL cholesterol values (> 45 mg/dl in men, > 55 mg/dl in women) were found in 55.8%, and blood pressure values < 130 and < 85 mmHg in 31.3% of the persons Conclusion Albuminuria is common among German persons with known type 2 diabetes. Despite evidence-based guidelines, only a small proportion of type 2 diabetic persons achieved the recommended levels of glycemic control and control of cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:18986536

  14. Blockade of nonhormonal fibroblast growth factors by FP-1039 inhibits growth of multiple types of cancer.

    PubMed

    Harding, Thomas C; Long, Li; Palencia, Servando; Zhang, Hongbing; Sadra, Ali; Hestir, Kevin; Patil, Namrata; Levin, Anita; Hsu, Amy W; Charych, Deborah; Brennan, Thomas; Zanghi, James; Halenbeck, Robert; Marshall, Shannon A; Qin, Minmin; Doberstein, Stephen K; Hollenbaugh, Diane; Kavanaugh, W Michael; Williams, Lewis T; Baker, Kevin P

    2013-03-27

    The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) pathway promotes tumor growth and angiogenesis in many solid tumors. Although there has long been interest in FGF pathway inhibitors, development has been complicated: An effective FGF inhibitor must block the activity of multiple mitogenic FGF ligands but must spare the metabolic hormone FGFs (FGF-19, FGF-21, and FGF-23) to avoid unacceptable toxicity. To achieve these design requirements, we engineered a soluble FGF receptor 1 Fc fusion protein, FP-1039. FP-1039 binds tightly to all of the mitogenic FGF ligands, inhibits FGF-stimulated cell proliferation in vitro, blocks FGF- and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis in vivo, and inhibits in vivo growth of a broad range of tumor types. FP-1039 antitumor response is positively correlated with RNA levels of FGF2, FGF18, FGFR1c, FGFR3c, and ETV4; models with genetic aberrations in the FGF pathway, including FGFR1-amplified lung cancer and FGFR2-mutated endometrial cancer, are particularly sensitive to FP-1039-mediated tumor inhibition. FP-1039 does not appreciably bind the hormonal FGFs, because these ligands require a cell surface co-receptor, klotho or ?-klotho, for high-affinity binding and signaling. Serum calcium and phosphate levels, which are regulated by FGF-23, are not altered by administration of FP-1039. By selectively blocking nonhormonal FGFs, FP-1039 treatment confers antitumor efficacy without the toxicities associated with other FGF pathway inhibitors. PMID:23536011

  15. In vivo demonstration of cell types in bone that harbor epidermal growth factor receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Martineau-Doize, B.; Lai, W.H.; Warshawsky, H.; Bergeron, J.J.

    1988-08-01

    The binding and internalization of (/sup 125/I)iodoepidermal growth factor (EGF) by bone cells of the rat was demonstrated in situ by quantitative radioautography. Specific binding sites were observed on a cell profile enriched in endocytic components, including lysosome-like structures, a rough endoplasmic reticulum-rich cell profile, and a cell profile that histologically resembles an undifferentiated precursor cell. By the criteria of gel filtration and precipitability by trichloroacetic acid, most of the bound (/sup 125/I)iodo-EGF was considered intact. By morphological criteria none of the cell profiles that bound (/sup 125/I)iodo-EGF corresponded to fully formed osteoclasts or osteoblasts. The endocytic cell was found in the epiphyseal plate between the invading capillary and the transverse and longitudinal cartilage septa as well as near osteoclasts in the zone of mixed spicules. The rough endoplasmic reticulum-rich cell was present in vacated chondrocyte lacunae of the epiphyseal plate close to the metaphysis, and the poorly differentiated cell was observed between the mixed spicules of the metaphysis. Similar cell types were also found in the alveolar bone surrounding the incisors. These cells may be the origin of established bone cell lines that harbor high concentrations of EGF receptors and may also be responsible for the humoral hypercalcemia in response to the reported actions of injected EGF or transforming growth factor-alpha as well as that of malignancy.

  16. Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease: Have all risk factors the same strength?

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Timón, Iciar; Sevillano-Collantes, Cristina; Segura-Galindo, Amparo; del Cañizo-Gómez, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition that occurs when the body cannot produce enough or effectively use of insulin. Compared with individuals without diabetes, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have a considerably higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease. Most of this excess risk is it associated with an augmented prevalence of well-known risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia and obesity in these patients. However the improved cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients can not be attributed solely to the higher prevalence of traditional risk factors. Therefore other non-traditional risk factors may be important in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cardiovascular disease is increased in type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects due to a complex combination of various traditional and non-traditional risk factors that have an important role to play in the beginning and the evolution of atherosclerosis over its long natural history from endothelial function to clinical events. Many of these risk factors could be common history for both diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, reinforcing the postulate that both disorders come independently from “common soil”. The objective of this review is to highlight the weight of traditional and non-traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the setting of type 2 diabetes mellitus and discuss their position in the pathogenesis of the excess cardiovascular disease mortality and morbidity in these patients. PMID:25126392

  17. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  18. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  19. Myeloid expression of the AP-1 transcription factor JUNB modulates outcomes of type 1 and type 2 parasitic infections.

    PubMed

    Fontana, M F; Baccarella, A; Kellar, D; Oniskey, T K; Terinate, P; Rosenberg, S D; Huang, E J; Herbert, D R; Kim, C C

    2015-09-01

    Activation of macrophages is a key step in the initiation of immune responses, but the transcriptional mechanisms governing macrophage activation during infection are not fully understood. It was recently shown that the AP-1 family transcription factor JUNB positively regulates macrophage activation in response to Toll-like receptor agonists that promote classical or M1 polarization, as well as to the cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4), which elicits an alternatively activated or M2 phenotype. However, a role for JUNB in macrophage activation has never been demonstrated in vivo. Here, to dissect the role of JUNB in macrophage activation in a physiological setting, mice lacking JUNB specifically in myeloid cells were tested in two infection models: experimental cerebral malaria, which elicits a pathological type 1 immune response, and helminth infection, in which type 2 responses are protective. Myeloid-restricted deletion of Junb reduced type 1 immune activation, which was associated with reduced cerebral pathology and improved survival during infection with Plasmodium berghei. Myeloid JUNB deficiency also compromised type 2 activation during infection with the hookworm Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, leading to diminished cytokine production and eosinophil recruitment and increased parasite burden. These results demonstrate that JUNB in myeloid cells shapes host responses and outcomes during type 1 and type 2 infections. PMID:26178310

  20. 43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? A rural water supply project may include, but is not limited...infrastructure and facilities: (a) Pumps, pipes, wells, surface water intakes and other diversion,...

  1. 43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? A rural water supply project may include, but is not limited...infrastructure and facilities: (a) Pumps, pipes, wells, surface water intakes and other diversion,...

  2. 43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? A rural water supply project may include, but is not limited...infrastructure and facilities: (a) Pumps, pipes, wells, surface water intakes and other diversion,...

  3. 43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? A rural water supply project may include, but is not limited...infrastructure and facilities: (a) Pumps, pipes, wells, surface water intakes and other diversion,...

  4. Factors associated with glycemic control in adult type 1 diabetes patients treated with insulin pump therapy.

    PubMed

    Matejko, Bart?omiej; Skupien, Jan; Mrozi?ska, Sandra; Grzanka, Ma?gorzata; Cyganek, Katarzyna; Kiec-Wilk, Beata; Malecki, Maciej T; Klupa, Tomasz

    2015-02-01

    Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) by insulin pump seems to improve glycemia and quality of life as compared to conventional insulin therapy in type 1 diabetes (T1DM). However, while many T1DM subjects achieve excellent glycemic control, some others cannot reach recommended goals. In a retrospective analysis, we searched for factors associated with glycemic control in T1DM patients treated with insulin pump therapy. Data from 192 patients (133 women and 59 men) treated with personal insulin pumps at the Department of Metabolic Diseases, University Hospital, Krakow, Poland were analyzed. Sources of information included medical records, memory read-outs from insulin pumps and data from glucose meters. Univariate, multivariate linear and logistic regression analysis for the association with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level were performed. The mean age of the subjects was 28.9 (±11.2) years, the mean duration of T1DM-14.6 (±7.6) years, mean body mass index-23.5 (±3.1) kg/m2. The mean HbA1c level in the entire study group was 7.4% (57 mmol/mol). In the multivariate linear regression analysis, HbA1c correlated with the mean number of daily blood glucose measurements, number of hypoglycemic episodes per 100 blood glucose measurements, age at the examination, and continuous glucose monitoring system use. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for reaching the therapeutic target of HbA1c<7.0% (53 mmol/mol) showed that the independent predictors of achieving this goal included the same four variables. In a large clinical observation, we identified that patient-related and technological factors associated with glycemic control in adult pump-treated T1DM subjects. PMID:24798448

  5. Factors associated with consumption of diabetic diet among type 2 diabetic subjects from Ahmedabad, Western India.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mayur; Patel, Ina M; Patel, Yash M; Rathi, Suresh K

    2012-12-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed the current situation of and factors associated with consumption of diabetic diet among 399 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects from Ahmedabad, Western India. The study was performed with diagnosed (at least one year old) diabetic subjects who attended the Department of Diabetology, All India Institute of Diabetes and Research and Yash Diabetes Specialties Centre (Swasthya Hospital), Ahmedabad during July 2010-November 2010. The subjects completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire included variables, such as sociodemographic factors, family history of diabetes, behavioural profile, risk profile (glycaemic status, hypertension, and obesity), and diet-related history (consumption of diabetic diet, consumption of low fat/skimmed milk, method of cooking, and sources for diet advice). Blood pressure, body mass index, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level, and fasting lipid profile were measured. All analyses including multivariate logistic regression were conducted using SPSS, version 11.5. In total, 399 T2DM subjects (65% male, 35% female) with mean age of 53.16 +/- 7.95 years were studied. Although 73% of T2DM subjects were consuming diabetic diet, the good glycaemic control (HbA1c level < 7%) was achieved only in 35% of the subjects. The majority (75%) of the subjects had a positive family history of diabetes, and 52% were obese. In 77%, the main source of dietary advice was doctor. In 36%, the main methods of cooking were: boiling and roasting. The final multivariate model showed that visit to dietician, level of education, intake of low fat, and family history of diabetes were independent predictors for diabetic diet consumption among T2DM subjects. However, longitudinal and cohort studies are required to establish the association between consumption of diabetic diet and glycaemic control. PMID:23304911

  6. Risk Factors Contributing to Type 2 Diabetes and Recent Advances in the Treatment and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanling; Ding, Yanping; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Zhang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a serious and common chronic disease resulting from a complex inheritance-environment interaction along with other risk factors such as obesity and sedentary lifestyle. Type 2 diabetes and its complications constitute a major worldwide public health problem, affecting almost all populations in both developed and developing countries with high rates of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has been increasing exponentially, and a high prevalence rate has been observed in developing countries and in populations undergoing “westernization” or modernization. Multiple risk factors of diabetes, delayed diagnosis until micro- and macro-vascular complications arise, life-threatening complications, failure of the current therapies, and financial costs for the treatment of this disease, make it necessary to develop new efficient therapy strategies and appropriate prevention measures for the control of type 2 diabetes. Herein, we summarize our current understanding about the epidemiology of type 2 diabetes, the roles of genes, lifestyle and other factors contributing to rapid increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes. The core aims are to bring forward the new therapy strategies and cost-effective intervention trials of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25249787

  7. Some flow phenomena in a constant area duct with a Borda type inlet including the critical region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Simoneau, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    Mass limiting flow characteristics for a 55 L/D tube with a Borda type inlet were assessed over large ranges of temperature and pressure, using fluid nitrogen. Under certain conditions, separation and pressure drop at the inlet was sufficiently strong to permit partial vaporization and the remaining fluid flowed through the tube as if it were a free jet. An empirical relation was determined which defines conditions under which this type of flow can occur. A flow coefficient is presented which enables estimations of flow rates over the experimental range. A flow rate stagnation pressure map for selected stagnation isotherms and pressure profiles document these flow phenomena.

  8. 43 CFR 404.10 - Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included in a rural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are there certain types of infrastructure... RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.10 Are there certain types of infrastructure and... not include: (a) Any infrastructure or facilities that would deliver water for commercial...

  9. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS GUIDANCE FOR...PRESIDENT JOHN F. KENNEDY ASSASSINATION RECORDS COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 ...materials included in scope of assassination record and...

  10. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS GUIDANCE FOR...PRESIDENT JOHN F. KENNEDY ASSASSINATION RECORDS COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 ...materials included in scope of assassination record and...

  11. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS GUIDANCE FOR...PRESIDENT JOHN F. KENNEDY ASSASSINATION RECORDS COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 ...materials included in scope of assassination record and...

  12. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS GUIDANCE FOR...PRESIDENT JOHN F. KENNEDY ASSASSINATION RECORDS COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 ...materials included in scope of assassination record and...

  13. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS GUIDANCE FOR...PRESIDENT JOHN F. KENNEDY ASSASSINATION RECORDS COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 ...materials included in scope of assassination record and...

  14. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include...perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for tourism and recreation travel; ...vehicle parking areas; (3) Development of tourist information...

  15. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include...perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for tourism and recreation travel; ...vehicle parking areas; (3) Development of tourist information...

  16. High Quality Power Supply Method for Islanding Microgrid by use of Several Types of DG Systems including Rotating Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Takuro; Baba, Jumpei; Kawachi, Shunsuke; Shimoda, Eisuke; Numata, Shigeo; Yamane, Toshihiro; Masada, Eisuke; Nitta, Tanzo

    When a microgrid is operated in the islanding mode, the operator must satisfy the power quality demand by compensating the active and reactive power using several types of distributed power generation (DG) systems. In this paper, a method to stabilize the system frequency fluctuations and voltage fluctuations of the islanding microgrid is suggested. Extending the suggested “combined cascade control method” which can realize the power compensation without interferences between several types of DGs, “hybrid control” strucuture is proposed and negative effects of control and measurement signal delays on a control are reduced. Moreover, a control of the state of charge (SoC) of energy storage devices is added. For the stabilization of the system voltage, the energy storage is driven by “STATCOM model control”. Experiments have been carried out to confirm the effects of these methods by use of the model microgrid system, and satisfying results were received.

  17. Aroma types of flue-cured tobacco in China: spatial distribution and association with climatic factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao; Wu, Wei; Wu, Shu-Cheng; Liu, Hong-Bin; Peng, Qing

    2014-02-01

    Aroma types of flue-cured tobacco (FCT) are classified into light, medium, and heavy in China. However, the spatial distribution of FCT aroma types and the relationships among aroma types, chemical parameters, and climatic variables were still unknown at national scale. In the current study, multi-year averaged chemical parameters (total sugars, reducing sugars, nicotine, total nitrogen, chloride, and K2O) of FCT samples with grade of C3F and climatic variables (mean, minimum and maximum temperatures, rainfall, relative humidity, and sunshine hours) during the growth periods were collected from main planting areas across China. Significant relationships were found between chemical parameters and climatic variables ( p < 0.05). A spatial distribution map of FCT aroma types were produced using support vector machine algorithms and chemical parameters. Significant differences in chemical parameters and climatic variables were observed among the three aroma types based on one-way analysis of variance ( p < 0.05). Areas with light aroma type had significantly lower values of mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures than regions with medium and heavy aroma types ( p < 0.05). Areas with heavy aroma type had significantly lower values of rainfall and relative humidity and higher values of sunshine hours than regions with light and medium aroma types ( p < 0.05). The output produced by classification and regression trees showed that sunshine hours, rainfall, and maximum temperature were the most important factors affecting FCT aroma types at national scale.

  18. Heel bone strength is related to lifestyle factors in Okinawan men with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Gushiken, Michiko; Komiya, Ichiro; Ueda, Shinichiro; Kobayashi, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Although male diabetic patients have an increased risk of fracture, there is little information about this in the literature. The association between heel bone stiffness and the lifestyle of male patients with diabetes was evaluated. Materials and Methods The study included 108 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and 168 age-adjusted, healthy male volunteers. None of the participants had a history of osteoporosis or other severe diseases. Heel bone stiffness was examined by quantitative ultrasound, and each participant completed a health interview survey questionnaire. Bone stiffness was taken as an indicator of bone strength. Stepwise regression analysis was used to investigate associations between bone stiffness and lifestyle-related factors, such as sunlight exposure, intake of milk or small fish, regular exercise, cigarette smoking, consumption of alcohol, and number of remaining teeth. Results Bone stiffness showed a significant negative association with cigarette smoking [standardized coefficient (SC) = ?0.297, F-value (F) = 10.059] and age (SC = ?0.207, F = 7.565) in diabetic patients. Bone stiffness showed a significant negative association with age (SC = ?0.371, F = 12.076) and height (SC = ?0.193, F = 7.898), as well as a significant positive association with sunlight exposure (SC = 0.182, F = 9.589) and intake of small fish (SC = 0.170, F = 7.393) in controls. Conclusions These findings suggest that cigarette smoking and age are negatively associated with bone stiffness in Okinawan male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25802722

  19. Hypertension is an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes: the Korean genome and epidemiology study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Ju; Lim, Nam-Kyoo; Choi, Sun-Ja; Park, Hyun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension and diabetes share common risk factors and frequently co-occur. Although high blood pressure (BP) was reported as a significant predictor of type 2 diabetes, little is known about this association in Korea. This study investigated the relationship of prehypertension and hypertension with type 2 diabetes in 7150 middle-aged Koreans, as well as the effect of BP control on diabetes development over 8 years. At 8 years, 1049 (14.7%) of the 7150 participants had newly developed diabetes, including 11.2, 16.7 and 21.5% of baseline normotensive, prehypertensive and hypertensive subjects, respectively. The overall incidence rate of diabetes was 22.3 events per 1000 person-years. Subjects with baseline prehypertension (hazard ratio (HR), 1.27; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09–1.48) and hypertension (HR 1.51; 95% CI, 1.29–1.76) were at higher risk of diabetes than normotensive subjects after controlling for potential confounders (P-value for trend <0.001). These associations persisted even when subjects were stratified by baseline glucose status, sex and body mass index (BMI). The risk of diabetes was significantly higher in subjects who had normal BP at baseline and progressed to prehypertention or hypertension at 8 years (HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.20–1.83) than those with controlled BP, but these associations were not observed in subjects with baseline prehypertension and hypertension. These findings showed that prehypertension and hypertension are significantly associated with the development of diabetes, independent of baseline glucose status, sex and BMI. Active BP control reduced incident diabetes only in normotensive individuals, suggesting the need for early BP management. PMID:26178151

  20. Receptor modelling of fine particles in southern England using CMB including comparison with AMS-PMF factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, J.; Cumberland, S. A.; Harrison, R. M.; Allan, J.; Young, D. E.; Williams, P. I.; Coe, H.

    2015-02-01

    PM2.5 was collected during a winter campaign at two southern England sites, urban background North Kensington (NK) and rural Harwell (HAR), in January-February 2012. Multiple organic and inorganic source tracers were analysed and used in a Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model, which apportioned seven separate primary sources, that explained on average 53% (NK) and 56% (HAR) of the organic carbon (OC), including traffic, woodsmoke, food cooking, coal combustion, vegetative detritus, natural gas and dust/soil. With the addition of source tracers for secondary biogenic aerosol at the NK site, 79% of organic carbon was accounted for. Secondary biogenic sources were represented by oxidation products of ?-pinene and isoprene, but only the former made a substantial contribution to OC. Particle source contribution estimates for PM2.5 mass were obtained by the conversion of the OC estimates and combining with inorganic components ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and sea salt. Good mass closure was achieved with 81% (92% with the addition of the secondary biogenic source) and 83% of the PM2.5 mass explained at NK and HAR respectively, with the remainder being secondary organic matter. While the most important sources of OC are vehicle exhaust (21 and 16%) and woodsmoke (15 and 28%) at NK and HAR respectively, food cooking emissions are also significant, particularly at the urban NK site (11% of OC), in addition to the secondary biogenic source, only measured at NK, which represented about 26%. In comparison, the major source components for PM2.5 at NK and HAR are inorganic ammonium salts (51 and 56%), vehicle exhaust emissions (8 and 6%), secondary biogenic (10% measured at NK only), woodsmoke (4 and 7%) and sea salt (7 and 8%), whereas food cooking (4 and 1%) showed relatively smaller contributions to PM2.5. Results from the CMB model were compared with source contribution estimates derived from the AMS-PMF method. The overall mass of organic matter accounted for is rather similar for the two methods. However, appreciably different concentrations were calculated for the individual primary organic matter contributions, although for most source categories the CMB and AMS-PMF results were highly correlated (r2 = 0.69-0.91). In comparison with the CMB model, the AMS appears to overestimate the biomass burning/coal and food cooking sources by a factor of around 1.5 to 2 while estimates of the traffic source are rather similar for each model. The largest divergence is in the primary/secondary organic matter split, with the AMS estimating an appreciably smaller secondary component. Possible reasons for these discrepancies are discussed, but despite these substantial divergences, the strong correlation of the two methods gives some confidence in their application.

  1. 43 CFR 404.10 - Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included in a rural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and facilities that may not be included in a rural water supply project? 404.10 Section 404.10 Public... RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.10 Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included in a rural water supply project? Yes. A rural water supply project...

  2. Mexican American Parents' Perceptions of Childhood Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, Barbara J.; Barr, Kathleen L.; Baker, Sharon K.

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify the norms, values, and perceptions of urban immigrant Mexican American (MA) parents of school children relative to physical activity, healthy eating, and child risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Investigators facilitated five focus groups in an urban elementary school setting and analyzed data using qualitative…

  3. Noninvasive Screening for Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes in Young, Rural, Caucasian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Sharon; Sheffer, Sarah; Long Roth, Sara; Bennett, Paul A.; Lloyd, Les

    2010-01-01

    School nurses play an important role in identifying students who are at risk for Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Few studies have screened Caucasian students, and none have targeted rural, low-income, elementary children. The five noninvasive risk factors used for this study were family history, high body mass index (BMI) for age/sex,…

  4. Differences between Juvenile Offenders with and without Intellectual Disability in Offense Type and Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asscher, Jessica J.; van der Put, Claudia E.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine differences between American juvenile offenders with and without intellectual disability (ID) in offense type and risk factors. The sample consisted of adolescents with ID (n = 102) and without ID (n = 526) who appeared before the courts for a criminal act and for whom the Washington State Juvenile Court…

  5. Investigating Factors Associated with Depression of Type 2 Diabetic Retinopathy Patients in China

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Duo; Dong, Qing; Gu, Zhifeng

    2015-01-01

    Aims and objectives To assess the depression status of type 2 diabetic retinopathy patients in Nantong China and to identify factors associated with depression. Methods Two hundred and ninety-four patients with type 2 diabetic retinopathy were recruited from the Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University. The severity of DR was measured in the worse eye. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D); the quality of life was measured with the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36). The logistic regression analyses were used to identify the independent factors of depression. Results The mean age of the study subjects was 57.77 years (SD: 9.64). Approximately 35.7% of subjects reported depressive symptoms (n = 105).Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that female gender (p = 0.014), low monthly income (p = 0.01), poor vision in the better eye (P = 0.002), laser treatment history (p = 0.01) were significant risk factors for depression. The quality of life of individuals with CES-D score<16 was significantly better compared with individuals with CES-D score?16. Conclusion The reported depressive symptoms among type 2 diabetic retinopathy population is higher in Nantong China. Gender, salary, vision acuity and treatment history were important risk factors linked to this disorder in the Chinese type 2 diabetic retinopathy population from Nantong. More attention by medical care personnel needs to be paid to the psychological health of this population. PMID:26151365

  6. Evaluation of a Multiplex PCR Assay (Bruce-ladder) for Molecular Typing of All Brucella Species, Including the Vaccine Strains? †

    PubMed Central

    López-Goñi, I.; García-Yoldi, D.; Marín, C. M.; de Miguel, M. J.; Muñoz, P. M.; Blasco, J. M.; Jacques, I.; Grayon, M.; Cloeckaert, A.; Ferreira, A. C.; Cardoso, R.; Corrêa de Sá, M. I.; Walravens, K.; Albert, D.; Garin-Bastuji, B.

    2008-01-01

    An evaluation of a multiplex PCR assay (Bruce-ladder) was performed in seven laboratories using 625 Brucella strains from different animal and geographical origins. This robust test can differentiate in a single step all of the classical Brucella species, including those found in marine mammals and the S19, RB51, and Rev.1 vaccine strains. PMID:18716225

  7. Extracellular matrix-associated molecules collaborate with ciliary neurotrophic factor to induce type-2 astrocyte development

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    O-2A progenitor cells give rise to both oligodendrocytes and type-2 astrocytes in vitro. Whereas oligodendrocyte differentiation occurs constitutively, type-2 astrocyte differentiation requires extracellular signals, one of which is thought to be ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). CNTF, however, is insufficient by itself to induce the development of stable type-2 astrocytes. In this report we show the following: (a) that molecules associated with the extracellular matrix (ECM) cooperate with CNTF to induce stable type-2 astrocyte differentiation in serum-free cultures. The combination of CNTF and the ECM-associated molecules thus mimics the effect of FCS, which has been shown previously to induce stable type-2 astrocyte differentiation in vitro. (b) Both the ECM-associated molecules and CNTF act directly on O- 2A progenitor cells and can induce them to differentiate prematurely into type-2 astrocytes. (c) ECM-associated molecules also inhibit oligodendrocyte differentiation, even in the absence of CNTF, but this inhibition is not sufficient on its own to induce type-2 astrocyte differentiation. (d) Whereas the effect of ECM on oligodendrocyte differentiation is mimicked by basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), the effect of ECM on type-2 astrocyte differentiation is not. (e) The ECM-associated molecules that are responsible for inhibiting oligodendrocyte differentiation and for cooperating with CNTF to induce type-2 astrocyte differentiation are made by non-glial cells in vitro. (f) Molecules that have these activities and bind to ECM are present in the optic nerve at the time type-2 astrocytes are thought to be developing. PMID:2199462

  8. Signatures of resistance to Lepeophtheirus salmonis include a TH2-type response at the louse-salmon interface.

    PubMed

    Braden, Laura M; Koop, Ben F; Jones, Simon R M

    2015-01-01

    Disease outbreaks with the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis cause significant economic losses in mariculture operations worldwide. Variable innate immune responses at the louse-attachment site contribute to differences in susceptibility among species such that members of Salmo spp. are more susceptible to infection than those of some Oncorhynchus spp. Relatively little is known about the mechanisms that contribute to disease resistance or susceptibility to L.?salmonis in salmon. Here, we utilize histochemistry and transcriptomics in a comparative infection model with susceptible (Atlantic, sockeye) and resistant (coho) salmon. At least three cell populations (MHII?+, IL1?+, TNF?+) were activated in coho salmon skin during L.?salmonis infection. Locally elevated expression of several pro-inflammatory mediators (e.g. IL1?, IL8, TNF?, COX2, C/EBP?), and tissue repair enzymes (MMP9, MMP13) were detected in susceptible and resistant species. However, responses specific to coho salmon (e.g. IL4, IL6, TGF?) or responses shared among susceptible salmon (e.g. SAP, TRF, Cath in Atlantic and sockeye salmon) provide evidence for species-specific pathways contributing to resistance or susceptibility, respectively. Our results confirm the importance of an early pro-inflammatory TH1-type pathway as an initial host response during infection with Pacific sea lice, and demonstrate subsequent regulatory TH2-type processes as candidate defense mechanisms in the skin of resistant coho salmon. PMID:25453579

  9. Retinal image quality with the different types of intraocular lenses including new idea of the hybrid IOLs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siedlecki, D.; Zaj?c, M.; Nowak, J.

    2007-07-01

    Cataract is one of the most frequent reasons of blindness all around the world. Its treatment relies on removing the pathologically altered crystalline lens and replacing it with an artificial intraocular lens (IOL). There exists plenty of types of such implants, which differ in the optical materials and designs (shapes). However one of the important features, which is rather overlooked in the development of the intraocular implants is the chromatic aberration and its influence on the retinal image quality. In this study authors try to estimate the influence of the design and optical material of the implant on the retinal image quality in the polychromatic light, taking into consideration several exemplary types of IOLs which are commercially available. Authors also propose the partially achromatized hybrid IOLs, the longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA)of which reduces the total LCA of the phakic eye to the level of a healthy eye's LCA. Several image characteristics, as the polychromatic Point Spread Function (PSF) and the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) and the polychromatic encircled energy are estimated. The results of the simulations show the significance of the partial chromatic aberration correction.

  10. Mediating factors of coping process in parents of children with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Type 1 diabetes is a lifelong condition for children and their parents, the management for which imposes a vast responsibility. This study explores the mediating factors that affect Iranian parents’ coping processes with their children’s type 1 diabetes. Methods Research was conducted using the grounded theory method. Participants were selected purposefully, and we continued with theoretical sampling. Constant comparative analysis was used to analyze the data. Results The mediating factors of the parental coping process with their child’s diabetes consist of the child’s cooperation, crises and experiences, economic challenges, and parental participation in care. Conclusion Findings highlight the necessity of well-informed nurses with insightful understanding of the mediating factors in parental coping with juvenile diabetes in order to meet the particular needs of this group. PMID:23673161

  11. Causes of Death and Prognostic Factors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Tetsuhide; Igarashi, Hisato; Uehara, Hirotsugu; Berna, Marc J.; Jensen, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is classically characterized by the development of functional or nonfunctional hyperplasia or tumors in endocrine tissues (parathyroid, pancreas, pituitary, adrenal). Because effective treatments have been developed for the hormone excess state, which was a major cause of death in these patients in the past, coupled with the recognition that nonendocrine tumors increasingly develop late in the disease course, the natural history of the disease has changed. An understanding of the current causes of death is important to tailor treatment for these patients and to help identify prognostic factors; however, it is generally lacking. To add to our understanding, we conducted a detailed analysis of the causes of death and prognostic factors from a prospective long-term National Institutes of Health (NIH) study of 106 MEN1 patients with pancreatic endocrine tumors with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (MEN1/ZES patients) and compared our results to those from the pooled literature data of 227 patients with MEN1 with pancreatic endocrine tumors (MEN1/PET patients) reported in case reports or small series, and to 1386 patients reported in large MEN1 literature series. In the NIH series over a mean follow-up of 24.5 years, 24 (23%) patients died (14 MEN1-related and 10 non-MEN1-related deaths). Comparing the causes of death with the results from the 227 patients in the pooled literature series, we found that no patients died of acute complications due to acid hypersecretion, and 8%–14% died of other hormone excess causes, which is similar to the results in 10 large MEN1 literature series published since 1995. In the 2 series (the NIH and pooled literature series), two-thirds of patients died from an MEN1-related cause and one-third from a non-MEN1-related cause, which agrees with the mean values reported in 10 large MEN1 series in the literature, although in the literature the causes of death varied widely. In the NIH and pooled literature series, the main causes of MEN1-related deaths were due to the malignant nature of the PETs, followed by the malignant nature of thymic carcinoid tumors. These results differ from the results of a number of the literature series, especially those reported before the 1990s. The causes of non-MEN1-related death for the 2 series, in decreasing frequency, were cardiovascular disease, other nonendocrine tumors > lung diseases, cerebrovascular diseases. The most frequent non-MEN1-related tumor deaths were colorectal, renal > lung > breast, oropharyngeal. Although both overall and disease-related survival are better than in the past (30-yr survival of NIH series: 82% overall, 88% disease-related), the mean age at death was 55 years, which is younger than expected for the general population. Detailed analysis of causes of death correlated with clinical, laboratory, and tumor characteristics of patients in the 2 series allowed identification of a number of prognostic factors. Poor prognostic factors included higher fasting gastrin levels, presence of other functional hormonal syndromes, need for >3 parathyroidectomies, presence of liver metastases or distant metastases, aggressive PET growth, large PETs, or the development of new lesions. The results of this study have helped define the causes of death of MEN1 patients at present, and have enabled us to identify a number of prognostic factors that should be helpful in tailoring treatment for these patients for both short- and long-term management, as well as in directing research efforts to better define the natural history of the disease and the most important factors determining long-term survival at present. PMID:23645327

  12. Transforming growth factor beta 1-responsive element: closely associated binding sites for USF and CCAAT-binding transcription factor-nuclear factor I in the type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor gene.

    PubMed Central

    Riccio, A; Pedone, P V; Lund, L R; Olesen, T; Olsen, H S; Andreasen, P A

    1992-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is the name of a group of closely related polypeptides characterized by a multiplicity of effects, including regulation of extracellular proteolysis and turnover of the extracellular matrix. Its cellular mechanism of action is largely unknown. TGF-beta 1 is a strong and fast inducer of type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor gene transcription. We have identified a TGF-beta 1-responsive element in the 5'-flanking region of the human type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor gene and shown that it is functional both in its natural context and when fused to a heterologous nonresponsive promoter. Footprinting and gel retardation experiments showed that two different nuclear factors, present in extracts from both TGF-beta 1-treated and nontreated cells, bind to adjacent sequences contained in the responsive unit. A palindromic sequence binds a trans-acting factor(s) of the CCAAT-binding transcription factor-nuclear factor I family. A partially overlapping dyad symmetry interacts with a second protein that much evidence indicates to be USF. USF is a transactivator belonging to the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors. Mutations which abolish the binding of either CCAAT-binding transcription factor-nuclear factor I or USF result in reduction of transcriptional activation upon exposure to TGF-beta 1, thus showing that both elements of the unit are necessary for the TGF-beta 1 response. We discuss the possible relationship of these findings to the complexity of the TGF-beta action. Images PMID:1549130

  13. Mother, Infant, and Household Factors Associated with the Type of Food Infants Receive in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Yarnoff, Benjamin; Allaire, Benjamin; Detzel, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We explore the complex factors associated with infant feeding by analyzing what mother, infant, and household factors are associated with the types of food given to infants. We seek to quantify associations in order to inform public health policy about the importance of target populations for infant feeding programs. Methods: We used data from the Demographic Health Survey in 20 developing countries for multiple years to examine mother, infant, and household factors associated with six types of food given to infants (exclusive breastfeeding, non-exclusive breastfeeding, infant formula, milk liquids, non-milk liquids, and solid foods). We performed a seemingly unrelated regressions analysis with community-year fixed effects to account for correlation between food types and control for confounding factors associated with community resources, culture, time period, and geography in the pooled analysis. Results: We found that several mother, infant, and household characteristics were associated with each of the feeding types. Most notably, mother’s education, working status, and weight are significantly associated with the type of food given to infants. We provide quantified estimates of the association of each of these variables with six types of food given to infants. Conclusion: By identifying maternal characteristics associated with infant feeding and quantifying those associations, we help public health policymakers generate priorities for targeting infant feeding programs to specific populations that are at greatest risk. Higher educated, working mothers are best to target with exclusive breastfeeding programs for young infants. Mothers with lower education are best to target with complementary feeding programs in infants older than 1?year. Finally, while maternal weight is associated with higher levels of exclusive breastfeeding the association is too weak to merit targeting of breastfeeding programs to low-weight mothers. PMID:24616887

  14. Source geometry factors for HDR 192Ir brachytherapy secondary standard well-type ionization chamber calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipley, D. R.; Sander, T.; Nutbrown, R. F.

    2015-03-01

    Well-type ionization chambers are used for measuring the source strength of radioactive brachytherapy sources before clinical use. Initially, the well chambers are calibrated against a suitable national standard. For high dose rate (HDR) 192Ir, this calibration is usually a two-step process. Firstly, the calibration source is traceably calibrated against an air kerma primary standard in terms of either reference air kerma rate or air kerma strength. The calibrated 192Ir source is then used to calibrate the secondary standard well-type ionization chamber. Calibration laboratories are usually only equipped with one type of HDR 192Ir source. If the clinical source type is different from that used for the calibration of the well chamber at the standards laboratory, a source geometry factor, ksg, is required to correct the calibration coefficient for any change of the well chamber response due to geometric differences between the sources. In this work we present source geometry factors for six different HDR 192Ir brachytherapy sources which have been determined using Monte Carlo techniques for a specific ionization chamber, the Standard Imaging HDR 1000?Plus well chamber with a type 70010?HDR iridium source holder. The calculated correction factors were normalized to the old and new type of calibration source used at the National Physical Laboratory. With the old Nucletron microSelectron-v1 (classic) HDR 192Ir calibration source, ksg was found to be in the range 0.983 to 0.999 and with the new Isodose Control HDR 192Ir Flexisource ksg was found to be in the range 0.987 to 1.004 with a relative uncertainty of 0.4% (k = 2). Source geometry factors for different combinations of calibration sources, clinical sources, well chambers and associated source holders, can be calculated with the formalism discussed in this paper.

  15. Risk factors affecting fatal bus accident severity: Their impact on different types of bus drivers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Ci, Yusheng; Zhang, Guohui

    2016-01-01

    While the bus is generally considered to be a relatively safe means of transportation, the property losses and casualties caused by bus accidents, especially fatal ones, are far from negligible. The reasons for a driver to incur fatalities are different in each case, and it is essential to discover the underlying risk factors of bus fatality severity for different types of drivers in order to improve bus safety. The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of fatal bus accident severity to different types of drivers in the U.S. by estimating an ordered logistic model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) database from the USA for the years 2006-2010. Accidents are divided into three levels by counting their equivalent fatalities, and the drivers are classified into three clusters by the K-means cluster analysis. The analysis shows that some risk factors have the same impact on different types of drivers, they are: (a) season; (b) day of week; (c) time period; (d) number of vehicles involved; (e) land use; (f) manner of collision; (g) speed limit; (h) snow or ice surface condition; (i) school bus; (j) bus type and seating capacity; (k) driver's age; (l) driver's gender; (m) risky behaviors; and (n) restraint system. Results also show that some risk factors only have impact on the "young and elder drivers with history of traffic violations", they are: (a) section type; (b) number of lanes per direction; (c) roadway profile; (d) wet road surface; and (e) cyclist-bus accident. Notably, history of traffic violations has different impact on different types of bus drivers. PMID:26513334

  16. Improvement of Surface Functionalities, Including Allergenicity Attenuation, of Whole Buckwheat Protein Fraction by Maillard-Type Glycation with Dextran

    PubMed Central

    Tazawa, Shigeru; Katayama, Shigeru; Hirabayashi, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Nakamura, Soichiro

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of the introduction of polysaccharide chains onto the molecular surface of buckwheat proteins on buckwheat protein surface functionality. The whole buckwheat protein fraction (WBP) was prepared using 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) containing 0.5 M NaCl and covalently linked with 6 kDa, 17.5 kDa, 40 kDa, 70 kDa, or 200 kDa dextran by Maillard-type glycation through controlled dry-heating at 60°C and 79% relative humidity for two weeks. Conjugation with 40 kDa dextran improved the water solubility and emulsifying properties of WBP without causing a serious loss of available lysine; 84.9% of the free amino groups were conserved. In addition, we found that the introduction of dextran chains onto the molecular surfaces of WBP attenuated the antigenicity of WBP. PMID:25580398

  17. Improvement of surface functionalities, including allergenicity attenuation, of whole buckwheat protein fraction by maillard-type glycation with dextran.

    PubMed

    Tazawa, Shigeru; Katayama, Shigeru; Hirabayashi, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Nakamura, Soichiro

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of the introduction of polysaccharide chains onto the molecular surface of buckwheat proteins on buckwheat protein surface functionality. The whole buckwheat protein fraction (WBP) was prepared using 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) containing 0.5 M NaCl and covalently linked with 6 kDa, 17.5 kDa, 40 kDa, 70 kDa, or 200 kDa dextran by Maillard-type glycation through controlled dry-heating at 60°C and 79% relative humidity for two weeks. Conjugation with 40 kDa dextran improved the water solubility and emulsifying properties of WBP without causing a serious loss of available lysine; 84.9% of the free amino groups were conserved. In addition, we found that the introduction of dextran chains onto the molecular surfaces of WBP attenuated the antigenicity of WBP. PMID:25580398

  18. 40 CFR 273.81 - Factors for petitions to include other wastes under 40 CFR part 273.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Petitions To Include Other...by the petitioner (e.g., waste management requirements appropriate to...diverted from non-hazardous waste management systems (e.g., the...

  19. 40 CFR 273.81 - Factors for petitions to include other wastes under 40 CFR part 273.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Petitions To Include Other...by the petitioner (e.g., waste management requirements appropriate to...diverted from non-hazardous waste management systems (e.g., the...

  20. 40 CFR 273.81 - Factors for petitions to include other wastes under 40 CFR part 273.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Petitions To Include Other...by the petitioner (e.g., waste management requirements appropriate to...diverted from non-hazardous waste management systems (e.g., the...

  1. 40 CFR 273.81 - Factors for petitions to include other wastes under 40 CFR part 273.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Petitions To Include Other...by the petitioner (e.g., waste management requirements appropriate to...diverted from non-hazardous waste management systems (e.g., the...

  2. 40 CFR 273.81 - Factors for petitions to include other wastes under 40 CFR part 273.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Petitions To Include Other...by the petitioner (e.g., waste management requirements appropriate to...diverted from non-hazardous waste management systems (e.g., the...

  3. Cross-Sectional Associations of Blood Elements, Clotting Factors, Nephropathy, and Retinal Outcomes in Long Duration Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Howard, Kerri P.; Lee, Kristine E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To determine the association of blood elements, selected clotting factors, and nephropathy with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and macular edema (ME) in those with long duration type 1 diabetes. Methods Participants (n=442) were seen in 2005–2007 at the 25-year follow-up of a population-based study of diabetic retinopathy, and were eligible for this analysis. Fundus photographs were graded using a standard retinopathy severity scheme. Laboratory measures included hematocrit, white blood cell and platelet counts, serum fibrinogen, interleukin-6, and von Willebrand factor. Results In models including duration of diabetes, hypertension, and diabetic nephropathy, only hematocrit was marginally associated (odds ratio; 95% confidence interval; P value for trend per quintile) with decreased odds of PDR (0.87; 0.74–1.01; P=0.06). Stratifying by nephropathy status, in those with and without nephropathy, there were no significant associations of any laboratory measures with PDR or ME. None of the variables we examined were associated with ME in individuals with or without nephropathy. Conclusion In persons with long duration type 1 diabetes, none of the blood elements or clotting factors was associated with increased odds of PDR or ME. Investigation of common pathways that lead to diabetic nephropathy and diabetic retinal outcomes should be a research priority in efforts to prevent vision-threatening complications of diabetes and nephropathy. PMID:22568424

  4. The LysR-type transcription factor PacR is a global regulator of photosynthetic carbon assimilation in Anabaena.

    PubMed

    Picossi, Silvia; Flores, Enrique; Herrero, Antonia

    2015-09-01

    Cyanobacteria perform water-splitting photosynthesis and are important primary producers impacting the carbon and nitrogen cycles at global scale. They fix CO2 through ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCo) and have evolved a distinct CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM) that builds high CO2 concentrations in the vicinity of RuBisCo favouring its carboxylase activity. Filamentous cyanobacteria such as Anabaena fix CO2 in photosynthetic vegetative cells, which donate photosynthate to heterocysts that rely on a heterotrophic metabolism to fix N2 . CCM elements are induced in response to inorganic carbon limitation, a cue that exposes the photosynthetic apparatus to photodamage by over-reduction. An Anabaena mutant lacking the LysR-type transcription factor All3953 grew poorly and dies under high light. The rbcL operon encoding RuBisCo was induced upon carbon limitation in the wild type but not in the mutant. ChIP-Seq analysis was used to globally identify All3953 targets under carbon limitation. Targets include, besides rbcL, genes encoding CCM elements, photorespiratory pathway- photosystem- and electron transport-related components, and factors, including flavodiiron proteins, with a demonstrated or putative function in photoprotection. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of selected All3953 targets showed regulation in the wild type but not in the mutant. All3953 (PacR) is a global regulator of carbon assimilation in an oxygenic photoautotroph. PMID:25684321

  5. Does high sugar consumption exacerbate cardiometabolic risk factors and increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease?

    PubMed Central

    Sonestedt, Emily; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Laaksonen, David E.; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of sugar has been relatively high in the Nordic countries; the impact of sugar intake on metabolic risk factors and related diseases has been debated. The objectives were to assess the effect of sugar intake (sugar-sweetened beverages, sucrose and fructose) on association with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and related metabolic risk factors (impaired glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia, blood pressure, uric acid, inflammation markers), and on all-cause mortality, through a systematic review of prospective cohort studies and randomised controlled intervention studies published between January 2000 and search dates. The methods adopted were as follows: the first search was run in PubMed in October 2010. A second search with uric acid as risk marker was run in April 2011. The total search strategy was rerun in April 2011 in SveMed+. An update was run in PubMed in January 2012. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion from the 2,743 abstracts according to predefined eligibility criteria. The outcome was that out of the 17 studies extracted, 15 were prospective cohort studies and two were randomised controlled crossover trials. All of the studies included only adults. With respect to incident type 2 diabetes (nine studies), four of six prospective cohort studies found a significant positive association for sugar-sweetened beverage intake. In general, larger cohort studies with longer follow-up more often reported positive associations, and BMI seemed to mediate part of the increased risk. For other metabolic or cardiovascular risk factors or outcomes, too few studies have been published to draw conclusions. In conclusion, data from prospective cohort studies published in the years 2000–2011 suggest that sugar-sweetened beverages probably increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. For related metabolic risk factors, cardiovascular disease or all-cause mortality and other types of sugars, too few studies were available to draw conclusions. PMID:22855643

  6. Risk factors for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in college students: association with sociodemographic variables1

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Adman Câmara Soares; Araújo, Márcio Flávio Moura; de Freitas, Roberto Wagner Júnior Freire; Zanetti, Maria Lúcia; de Almeida, Paulo César; Damasceno, Marta Maria Coelho

    2014-01-01

    Objective identify the modifiable risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus in college students and associate these factors with their sociodemographic variables. Method cross-sectional study, involving 702 college students from Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, physical exercise data and blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose levels were collected. Results the most prevalent risk factor was sedentariness, followed by overweight, central obesity, high fasting plasma glucose and arterial hypertension. A statistically significant association was found between overweight and sex (p=0.000), age (p=0.004) and marital status (p=0.012), as well as between central obesity and age (p=0.018) and marital status (p=0.007) and between high fasting plasma glucose and sex (p=0.033). Conclusion distinct risk factors were present in the study population, particularly sedentariness and overweight. PMID:25029061

  7. Enlarging the scope of cell penetrating prenylated peptides to include farnesylated “CAAX” box sequences and diverse cell types

    PubMed Central

    Ochocki, Joshua D.; Igbavboa, Urule; Wood, W. Gibson; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V.; Distefano, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Protein prenylation is a post-translational modification that is present in a large number of proteins; it has been proposed to be responsible for membrane association and protein-protein interactions which contribute to its role in signal transduction pathways. Research has been aimed at inhibiting prenylation with farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) based on the finding that the farnesylated protein Ras is implicated in 30% of human cancers. Despite numerous studies on the enzymology of prenylation in vitro, many questions remain about the process of prenylation as it occurs in living cells. Here we describe the preparation of a series of farnesylated peptides that contain sequences recognized by protein farnesyltransferase. Using a combination of flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, we show that these peptides enter a variety of different cell types. A related peptide where the farnesyl group has been replaced by a disulfide-linked decyl group is also shown to be able to efficiently enter cells. These results highlight the applicability of these peptides as a platform for further study of protein prenylation and subsequent processing in live cells. PMID:20584014

  8. ABO non-O type as a risk factor for thrombosis in patients with pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Donghui; Pise, Mayurika N; Overman, Michael J; Liu, Chang; Tang, Hongwei; Vadhan-Raj, Saroj; Abbruzzese, James L

    2015-01-01

    ABO blood type has previously been identified as a risk factor for thrombosis and pancreatic cancer (PC). The aim of the study is to demonstrate the associations between ABO blood type and other clinical factors with the risk of thromboembolism (TE) in patients with PC. We conducted a retrospective study in 670 patients with pathologically confirmed pancreatic adenocarcinoma at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. Clinical information was retrieved from medical records. ABO blood type was determined serologically and/or genetically. Logistic regression models, Kaplan–Meier plot, log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazard regression models were employed in data analysis. The incidence of TE was 35.2% in 670 patients who did not have TE prior to cancer diagnosis. Pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) consisted 44.1% of the TE events. Non-O blood type, pancreatic body/tail tumors, previous use of antithrombotic medication, and obesity (body mass index >30 kg/m2) were significant predictors for TE in general. Blood type A and AB, low hemoglobin level (?10 g/dL), obesity, metastatic tumor, and pancreatic body/tail tumors were significant predictors for PE and DVT. Patients with metastatic tumor or pancreatic body/tail tumors had a much higher frequency of early TE events (?3 months after cancer diagnosis); and early TE occurrence was a significant independent predictor for increased risk of death. These observations suggest that ABO non-O blood type is an independent predictor for TE in PC. A better understanding of the risk factors for TE in PC may help to identify patients who are most likely to benefit from prophylactic anticoagulation therapy. PMID:26275671

  9. Anti-tumour necrosis factor treatment increases circulating T helper type 17 cells similarly in different types of inflammatory arthritis.

    PubMed

    Hull, D N; Williams, R O; Pathan, E; Alzabin, S; Abraham, S; Taylor, P C

    2015-09-01

    We investigated changes in circulating T helper type 17 (Th17) cells following anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from 25 RA, 15 AS and eight PsA patients at baseline 4 and 12 weeks after treatment, and Th17 cell frequencies were analysed using interleukin (IL)-17 enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) and flow cytometry. A significant increase in IL-17-producing cells was observed by ELISPOT in RA and AS patients at 12 weeks. Flow cytometry confirmed significant increases in CD4(+) IL-17(+) cells at 12 weeks in RA and AS and 4 weeks in PsA patients. Anti-TNF treatment increases circulating Th17 cells in three different diseases. PMID:25766640

  10. Calculation of heat transfer on shuttle type configurations including the effects of variable entropy at boundary layer edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejarnette, F. R.

    1972-01-01

    A relatively simple method is presented for including the effect of variable entropy at the boundary-layer edge in a heat transfer method developed previously. For each inviscid surface streamline an approximate shockwave shape is calculated using a modified form of Maslen's method for inviscid axisymmetric flows. The entropy for the streamline at the edge of the boundary layer is determined by equating the mass flux through the shock wave to that inside the boundary layer. Approximations used in this technique allow the heating rates along each inviscid surface streamline to be calculated independent of the other streamlines. The shock standoff distances computed by the present method are found to compare well with those computed by Maslen's asymmetric method. Heating rates are presented for blunted circular and elliptical cones and a typical space shuttle orbiter at angles of attack. Variable entropy effects are found to increase heating rates downstream of the nose significantly higher than those computed using normal-shock entropy, and turbulent heating rates increased more than laminar rates. Effects of Reynolds number and angles of attack are also shown.

  11. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 alters brain-derived neurotrophic factor processing in neurons.

    PubMed

    Bachis, Alessia; Avdoshina, Valeriya; Zecca, Luigi; Parsadanian, Maia; Mocchetti, Italo

    2012-07-11

    The molecular mechanisms leading to synaptic simplification and neuronal apoptosis in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-positive subjects are unknown. The HIV protein gp120 reduced the length of neuronal processes similarly to the proneurotrophin pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF). Intriguingly, the effects of both proBDNF and gp120 were blocked by inhibitors of the p75 neurotrophin receptor, suggesting that proBDNF and gp120 share a similar mechanism of neurotoxicity. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that gp120 affects the release of proBDNF. Using rat primary neurons, we observed that gp120 promotes a time-dependent intracellular and extracellular accumulation of proBDNF concomitantly with a decrease in mature BDNF. A similar imbalance in the ratio proBDNF/mature BDNF was confirmed in postmortem brains of HIV-positive subjects cognitively impaired and motor impaired. Therefore, it is conceivable to formulate the hypothesis that HIV neurotoxicity includes a gp120-mediated alteration of BDNF processing. To determine the cellular mechanism whereby gp120 produces an accumulation of proBDNF, we examined the levels of intracellular and extracellular enzymes that proteolytically cleave proBDNF furin and tissue plasminogen, respectively. In rat neurons exposed to gp120, intracellular furin levels decreased before cell death, whereas tissue plasminogen changed only during apoptosis. Our data suggest that HIV, through gp120, reduces proBDNF processing by affecting furin levels, and therefore causes an altered balance between antiapoptotic and proapoptotic neurotrophins. Our studies identify a new mechanism that may explain how HIV promotes neuronal injury. PMID:22787033

  12. Differential regulation of mesodermal gene expression by Drosophila cell type-specific Forkhead transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xianmin; Ahmad, Shaad M.; Aboukhalil, Anton; Busser, Brian W.; Kim, Yongsok; Tansey, Terese R.; Haimovich, Adrian; Jeffries, Neal; Bulyk, Martha L.; Michelson, Alan M.

    2012-01-01

    A common theme in developmental biology is the repeated use of the same gene in diverse spatial and temporal domains, a process that generally involves transcriptional regulation mediated by multiple separate enhancers, each with its own arrangement of transcription factor (TF)-binding sites and associated activities. Here, by contrast, we show that the expression of the Drosophila Nidogen (Ndg) gene at different embryonic stages and in four mesodermal cell types is governed by the binding of multiple cell-specific Forkhead (Fkh) TFs – including Biniou (Bin), Checkpoint suppressor homologue (CHES-1-like) and Jumeau (Jumu) – to three functionally distinguishable Fkh-binding sites in the same enhancer. Whereas Bin activates the Ndg enhancer in the late visceral musculature, CHES-1-like cooperates with Jumu to repress this enhancer in the heart. CHES-1-like also represses the Ndg enhancer in a subset of somatic myoblasts prior to their fusion to form multinucleated myotubes. Moreover, different combinations of Fkh sites, corresponding to two different sequence specificities, mediate the particular functions of each TF. A genome-wide scan for the occurrence of both classes of Fkh domain recognition sites in association with binding sites for known cardiac TFs showed an enrichment of combinations containing the two Fkh motifs in putative enhancers found within the noncoding regions of genes having heart expression. Collectively, our results establish that different cell-specific members of a TF family regulate the activity of a single enhancer in distinct spatiotemporal domains, and demonstrate how individual binding motifs for a TF class can differentially influence gene expression. PMID:22378636

  13. Seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and 2 in Taiwan and Risk Factor Analysis, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Chao-Yu, Chen; Chen, Chih-Jung; Lin, Tzou-Yien; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2015-01-01

    Background Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) are common human pathogens and might cause severe illness. Following primary infection, the viruses establish lifelong latent infection and are transmitted by close contact, both sexual and nonsexual. However, the information about the seroprevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 across all age groups is limited. Methods Residual sera collected during the nationwide serosurvey in 2007 in Taiwan were selected for the study. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect anti-HSV-1 and anti-HSV-2 type-specific glycoprotein IgG. Demographics and personal health data were used for risk analysis. Results A total of 1411 and 1072 serum samples were included for anti-HSV-1 and anti-HSV-2 seroprevalence analysis, respectively. The weighted overall seroprevalence was 63.2% for HSV-1, and 7.7% for HSV-2, respectively. The HSV-1 seropositive rate was 19.2% for those less than 5 years old, increased to 46.4% for those aged 5–13 years, 60.9% for those aged 14–29 years, and reached as much as 95.0% for those aged over 30 years. In contrast, the HSV-2 seropositve rate was 1.6% for those less than 30 years old, rose to 10.1% for those age 30–39 years, and was up to 31.2% for those aged over 60 years. A significantly higher HSV-2 seropositive rate was noted in females than males aged over 40 years (26.3% v.s. 16.8%), and the overall HSV-2 seropositive rate was almost twice higher in females than males. Smoking history, drinking habit, and educational level were associated with the HSV-1 seropositivity. Female gender and rural residence were independent factors for the HSV-2 seropositivity. Conclusions An obvious increase of primary HSV-1 infection occurred in late adolescents and young adults, joined by the rise of HSV-2 infection in middle-aged adults, especially females. The acquistion and transmission of HSV warrant further studies in the susceptible population. PMID:26252011

  14. Correlations Between the Incidence of National Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Public Open Data, Including Meteorological Factors and Medical Facility Resources

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jin-Hwa; Lee, Ji-Hae; Je, Mi-Kyung; Cho, Myeong-Ji; Bae, Young Mee; Son, Hyeon Seok; Ahn, Insung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study was performed to investigate the relationship between the incidence of national notifiable infectious diseases (NNIDs) and meteorological factors, air pollution levels, and hospital resources in Korea. Methods: We collected and stored 660 000 pieces of publicly available data associated with infectious diseases from public data portals and the Diseases Web Statistics System of Korea. We analyzed correlations between the monthly incidence of these diseases and monthly average temperatures and monthly average relative humidity, as well as vaccination rates, number of hospitals, and number of hospital beds by district in Seoul. Results: Of the 34 NNIDs, malaria showed the most significant correlation with temperature (r=0.949, p<0.01) and concentration of nitrogen dioxide (r=-0.884, p<0.01). We also found a strong correlation between the incidence of NNIDs and the number of hospital beds in 25 districts in Seoul (r=0.606, p<0.01). In particular, Geumcheon-gu was found to have the lowest incidence rate of NNIDs and the highest number of hospital beds per patient. Conclusions: In this study, we conducted a correlational analysis of public data from Korean government portals that can be used as parameters to forecast the spread of outbreaks. PMID:26265666

  15. 43 CFR 404.10 - Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included in a rural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included in a rural water supply project? 404.10 Section 404.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY...

  16. 43 CFR 404.10 - Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included in a rural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included in a rural water supply project? 404.10 Section 404.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY...

  17. 43 CFR 404.10 - Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included in a rural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included in a rural water supply project? 404.10 Section 404.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY...

  18. 43 CFR 404.10 - Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included in a rural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    43 ? Public Lands: Interior ? 1 ? 2013-10-01 ? 2013-10-01 ? false ? Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included in a rural water supply project? ? 404.10 ? Section 404.10 ? Public Lands: Interior ? Regulations Relating to Public Lands ? BUREAU OF...

  19. Factors associated with psychological and behavioral functioning in people with type 2 diabetes living in France

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To identify demographic and clinical factors associated with psychological and behavioral functioning (PBF) in people with type 2 diabetes living in France. Methods In March 2002, approximately 10,000 adults, who had been reimbursed for at least one hypoglycemic treatment or insulin dose during the last quarter of 2001, received a questionnaire about their health status and PBF (3,646 responders). For this analysis, the 3,090 persons with type 2 diabetes, aged 18-85 years old were selected. PBF was measured with the adapted version of the Diabetes Health Profile for people with type 2 diabetes. This permitted the calculation of three functional scores - psychological distress (PD), barriers to activity (BA), and disinhibited eating (DE) - from 0 (worst) to 100 (best). Results Major negative associations were observed with PBF for microvascular complications (a difference of 6.7 in the BA score between persons with and without microvascular complications) and severe hypoglycemia (difference of 7.9 in the BA score), insulin treatment (-8.5 & -9.5 in the PD & BA scores respectively, as compared to treatment with oral hypoglycemic agents), non-adherence to treatment (-12.3 in the DE score for persons forgetting their weekly treatment), increasing weight (-8.5 & -9.7 in the PD & DE scores respectively, as compared to stable weight), at least one psychiatrist visit in 2001 (-8.9 in the DE score), and universal medical insurance coverage (-7.9 in the PD score) (due to low income). Conclusion Prevention and management of microvascular complications or adherence to treatment (modifiable factors) could be essential to preserving or improving PBF among people with type 2 diabetes. A specific approach to type 2 diabetes management may be required in groups with a low socioeconomic profile (particularly people with universal medical insurance coverage), or other non modifiable factors. PMID:21044345

  20. Observational calibration of the projection factor of Cepheids. I. The type II Cepheid ? Pavonis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitfelder, J.; Kervella, P.; Mérand, A.; Gallenne, A.; Szabados, L.; Anderson, R. I.; Willson, M.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.

    2015-04-01

    Context. The distance of pulsating stars, in particular Cepheids, are commonly measured using the parallax of pulsation technique. The different versions of this technique combine measurements of the linear diameter variation (from spectroscopy) and the angular diameter variation (from photometry or interferometry) amplitudes, to retrieve the distance in a quasi-geometrical way. However, the linear diameter amplitude is directly proportional to the projection factor (hereafter p-factor), which is used to convert spectroscopic radial velocities (i.e., disk integrated) into pulsating (i.e., photospheric) velocities. The value of the p-factor and its possible dependence on the pulsation period are still widely debated. Aims: Our goal is to measure an observational value of the p-factor of the type-II Cepheid ? Pavonis. Methods: The parallax of the type-II Cepheid ? Pav was measured with an accuracy of 5% using HST/FGS. We used this parallax as a starting point to derive the p-factor of ? Pav, using the SPIPS technique (Spectro-Photo-Interferometry of Pulsating Stars), which is a robust version of the parallax-of-pulsation method that employs radial velocity, interferometric and photometric data. We applied this technique to a combination of new VLTI/PIONIER optical interferometric angular diameters, new CORALIE and HARPS radial velocities, as well as multi-colour photometry and radial velocities from the literature. Results: We obtain a value of p = 1.26 ± 0.07 for the p-factor of ? Pav. This result agrees with several of the recently derived Period-p-factor relationships from the literature, as well as previous observational determinations for Cepheids. Conclusions: Individual estimates of the p-factor are fundamental to calibrating the parallax of pulsation distances of Cepheids. Together with previous observational estimates, the projection factor we obtain points to a weak dependence of the p-factor on period. Based on observations realized with ESO facilities at Paranal Observatory under program IDs 091.D-0020 and 093.D-0316.Based on observations collected at ESO La Silla Observatory using the Coralie spectrograph mounted to the Swiss 1.2 m Euler telescope, under program CNTAC2014A-5.

  1. Diaper Type as a Risk Factor in Urinary Tract Infection of Children

    PubMed Central

    Fahimzad, Alireza; Taherian, Masoomeh; Dalirani, Reza; Shamshiri, Ahmadreza

    2010-01-01

    Objective Urinary tract is one of the most common sources of infection in children under the age of two years. Many known and unknown risk factors predispose to this important disease in children. This study was conducted to determine whether using a specific type of diaper plays a role in urinary tract infection (UTI) in girls under the age of 2 years. Methods This case control study was performed in hospitalized children; girls with their first urinary tract infection were selected as cases, and those admitted for other reasons comprised the control group. Two groups were matched for age (±1 month), and other known risk factors for UTI. Type of diapers (superabsorbent, standard disposable and washable cotton), used for these children during six months, from October 2007 to March 2008, were compared in both groups. Findings 59 matched pair infant girls less than 2 years were selected. It was revealed that in cases with UTI superabsorbent diapers were used more frequently than in controls (Odds ratio=3.29, P-value=0.005) There were no significant differences in other factors like number of diapers used per day, the time between defecation and diaper change, mothers’ educational level, level of family income and mother's occupation. Conclusion The use of superabsorbent diapers could be a risk factor for urinary tract infection in infant girls. PMID:23056689

  2. Increased Blood Levels of Growth Factors, Proinflammatory Cytokines, and Th17 Cytokines in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Heilman, Kaire; Peet, Aleksandr; Varik, Karin; Uibo, Raivo

    2015-01-01

    The production of several cytokines could be dysregulated in type 1 diabetes (T1D). In particular, the activation of T helper (Th) type 1 (Th1) cells has been proposed to underlie the autoimmune pathogenesis of the disease, although roles for inflammatory processes and the Th17 pathway have also been shown. Nevertheless, despite evidence for the role of cytokines before and at the onset of T1D, the corresponding findings are inconsistent across studies. Moreover, conflicting data exist regarding the blood cytokine levels in T1D patients. The current study was performed to investigate genetic and autoantibody markers in association with the peripheral blood cytokine profiles by xMap multiplex technology in newly diagnosed young T1D patients and age-matched healthy controls. The onset of young-age T1D was characterized by the upregulation of growth factors, including granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-7, the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1? (but not IL-6 or tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-?), Th17 cytokines, and the regulatory cytokines IL-10 and IL-27. Ketoacidosis and autoantibodies (anti-IA-2 and -ZnT8), but not human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotype, influenced the blood cytokine levels. These findings broaden the current understanding of the dysregulation of systemic levels of several key cytokines at the young-age onset of T1D and provide a further basis for the development of novel immunoregulatory treatments in this disease. PMID:26636339

  3. Factors Associated with Glycemic Variability in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Focus on Oral Hypoglycemic Agents and Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Soyeon; Chin, Sang-Ouk; Lee, Sang-Ah

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of glycemic variability (GV) in development of cardiovascular diseases remains controversial, and factors that determine glucose fluctuation in patients with diabetes are unknown. We investigated relationships between GV indices, kinds of oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs), and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods We analyzed 209 patients with T2DM. The GV index (standard deviation [SD] and mean absolute glucose change [MAG]) were calculated from 7-point self-monitoring of blood glucose profiles. The patients were classified into four groups according to whether they take OHAs known as GV-lowering (A) and GV-increasing (B): 1 (A only), 2 (neither), 3 (both A and B), and 4 (B only). The 10-year risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) was calculated using the Pooled Cohort Equations. Results GV indices were significantly higher in patients taking sulfonylureas (SUs), but lower in those taking dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors. In hierarchical regression analysis, the use of SUs remained independent correlates of the SD (?=0.209, P=0.009) and MAG (?=0.214, P=0.011). In four OHA groups, GV indices increased progressively from group 1 to group 4. However, these did not differ according to quartiles of 10-year ASCVD risk. Conclusion GV indices correlated significantly with the use of OHAs, particularly SU, and differed significantly according to combination of OHAs. However, cardiovascular risk factors and 10-year ASCVD risk were not related to GV indices. These findings suggest that GV is largely determined by properties of OHAs and not to cardiovascular complications in patients with T2DM. PMID:26248860

  4. Modeling Occurrence of Urban Mosquitos Based on Land Use Types and Meteorological Factors in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yong-Su; Bae, Mi-Jung; Chung, Namil; Lee, Yeo-Rang; Hwang, Suntae; Kim, Sang-Ae; Choi, Young Jean; Park, Young-Seuk

    2015-10-01

    Mosquitoes are a public health concern because they are vectors of pathogen, which cause human-related diseases. It is well known that the occurrence of mosquitoes is highly influenced by meteorological conditions (e.g., temperature and precipitation) and land use, but there are insufficient studies quantifying their impacts. Therefore, three analytical methods were applied to determine the relationships between urban mosquito occurrence, land use type, and meteorological factors: cluster analysis based on land use types; principal component analysis (PCA) based on mosquito occurrence; and three prediction models, support vector machine (SVM), classification and regression tree (CART), and random forest (RF). We used mosquito data collected at 12 sites from 2011 to 2012. Mosquito abundance was highest from August to September in both years. The monitoring sites were differentiated into three clusters based on differences in land use type such as culture and sport areas, inland water, artificial grasslands, and traffic areas. These clusters were well reflected in PCA ordinations, indicating that mosquito occurrence was highly influenced by land use types. Lastly, the RF represented the highest predictive power for mosquito occurrence and temperature-related factors were the most influential. Our study will contribute to effective control and management of mosquito occurrences. PMID:26492260

  5. Modeling Occurrence of Urban Mosquitos Based on Land Use Types and Meteorological Factors in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yong-Su; Bae, Mi-Jung; Chung, Namil; Lee, Yeo-Rang; Hwang, Suntae; Kim, Sang-Ae; Choi, Young Jean; Park, Young-Seuk

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes are a public health concern because they are vectors of pathogen, which cause human-related diseases. It is well known that the occurrence of mosquitoes is highly influenced by meteorological conditions (e.g., temperature and precipitation) and land use, but there are insufficient studies quantifying their impacts. Therefore, three analytical methods were applied to determine the relationships between urban mosquito occurrence, land use type, and meteorological factors: cluster analysis based on land use types; principal component analysis (PCA) based on mosquito occurrence; and three prediction models, support vector machine (SVM), classification and regression tree (CART), and random forest (RF). We used mosquito data collected at 12 sites from 2011 to 2012. Mosquito abundance was highest from August to September in both years. The monitoring sites were differentiated into three clusters based on differences in land use type such as culture and sport areas, inland water, artificial grasslands, and traffic areas. These clusters were well reflected in PCA ordinations, indicating that mosquito occurrence was highly influenced by land use types. Lastly, the RF represented the highest predictive power for mosquito occurrence and temperature-related factors were the most influential. Our study will contribute to effective control and management of mosquito occurrences. PMID:26492260

  6. Factors Predictive of Type of Powered Mobility Received by Veterans with Disability

    PubMed Central

    Rabadi, Meheroz H.; Vincent, Andrea S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The goal of this observational study was to determine factors predictive of the type of powered mobility prescribed to veterans with disability. Material/Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted for all veterans (n=170) who received powered mobility from a designated power mobility clinic. Logistic regression analysis was used to determined factors predictive of the type of powered mobility provided. Results Sixty-four (38%) veterans were provided powered wheelchairs and 106 (62%) were provided powered scooters. Of the variables examined, only primary medical conditions for referral and disability severity (as measured by the 2-minute timed walk test; 2-MWT) were predictive of the types of powered mobility prescribed. Veterans who were able to walk longer distances were more likely to be prescribed powered scooters. Age, gender, race, level of education, marital and employment status, number of chronic medical conditions, and upper and lower limb muscle strength were not significant predictors. Conclusions This study suggests that the primary medical conditions for referral and 2-MWT can assist clinicians in the determination of the type of powered mobility to prescribe to veterans with disability. PMID:25955214

  7. Functional roles and clinical values of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-5 in different types of cancers

    PubMed Central

    Güllü, Gökçe; Karabulut, Sevgi; Akkiprik, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins (IGFBPs) are critical regulators of the mitogenic activity of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). IGFBP5, one of these IGFBPs, has special structural features, including a nuclear transport domain, heparin-binding motif, and IGF/extracellular matrix/acid-labile subunit-binding sites. Furthermore, IGFBP5 has several functional effects on carcinogenesis and even normal cell processes, such as cell growth, death, motility, and tissue remodeling. These biological effects are sometimes related with IGF (IGF-dependent effects) and sometimes not (IGF-independent effects). The functional role of IGFBP5 is most likely determined in a cell-type and tissue-type specific manner but also depends on cell context, especially in terms of the diversity of interacting proteins and the potential for nuclear localization. Clinical findings show that IGFBP5 has the potential to be a useful clinical biomarker for predicting response to therapy and clinical outcome of cancer patients. In this review, we summarize the functional diversity and clinical importance of IGFBP5 in different types of cancers. PMID:22313597

  8. Emission factors from biomass burning in three types of appliances: fireplace, woodstove and pellet stove

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Márcio; Vicente, Estela; Calvo, Ana; Nunes, Teresa; Tarelho, Luis; Alves, Célia

    2014-05-01

    In the last years, the importance of biomass fuels has increased mainly for two reasons. One of them is the effort to control the emissions of greenhouse gases, and on the other hand, the increasing costs associated with fossil fuels. Besides that, biomass burning is now recognised as one of the major sources contributing to high concentrations of particulate matter, especially during winter time. Southern European countries have a lack of information regarding emission profiles from biomass burning. Because of that, in most source apportionment studies, the information used comes from northern and alpine countries, whose combustion appliances, fuels and habits are different from those in Mediterranean countries. Due to this lack of information, series of tests using different types of equipment, as well as fuels, were carried out in order to obtain emission profiles and emission factors that correspond to the reality in southern European countries. Tests involved three types of biomass appliances used in Portugal, a fireplace, a woodstove and a modern pellet stove. Emission factors (mg.kg-1 fuel, dry basis) for CO, THC and PM10 were obtained. CO emission factors ranged from 38, for pine on the woodstove, to 84 for eucalyptus in the fireplace. THC emissions were between 4 and 24, for pine in the woodstove and eucalyptus in the fireplace, respectively. PM10 emission factors were in the range from 3.99, for pine in the woodstove, to 17.3 for eucalyptus in the fireplace. On average, the emission factors obtained for the fireplace are 1.5 (CO) to 4 (THC) times higher than those of the woodstove. The fireplace has emission factors for CO, THC and PM10 10, 35 and 32 times, respectively, higher than the pellet stove.

  9. Adiponectin as a Protective Factor Against the Progression Toward Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Darabi, Hossein; Raeisi, Alireza; Kalantarhormozi, Mohammad Reza; Ostovar, Afshin; Assadi, Majid; Asadipooya, Kamyar; Vahdat, Katayoun; Dobaradaran, Sina; Nabipour, Iraj

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Serum adiponectin levels have been suggested to be predictors of type 2 diabetes mellitus in diverse populations. However, the relationship between circulating adiponectin levels and the risk of development of type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal women has not been investigated. A total of 382 healthy postmenopausal women who participated in a prospective cohort study were followed for 5.8 years. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was defined according to the criteria set out by the American Diabetes Association. Adiponectin, osteoprotegerin (OPG), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were measured using ELISA. Of 195 women who did not have diabetes at baseline and who were reexamined in the second phase of the study for diabetic status, 35 subjects (17.9%) developed type 2 diabetes mellitus during the 5.8 years follow-up period. The women with type 2 diabetes had lower adiponectin levels than the healthy postmenopausal women. Multiple regression analysis showed that, after adjustments were made for age, cardiovascular risk factors, OPG, and hs-CRP levels, higher baseline adiponectin levels were associated with a lower relative risk (RR) of having type 2 (RR?=?0.07, confidence interval [CI]: 0.01–0.66, P?=?0.021). Higher baseline adiponectin levels functioned as a predictor of a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus among postmenopausal women during a 5.8 years follow-up study. Therefore, it is suggested that elevated adiponectin levels may offer protection against the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus after the menopause. PMID:26287420

  10. Adiponectin as a Protective Factor Against the Progression Toward Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Darabi, Hossein; Raeisi, Alireza; Kalantarhormozi, Mohammad Reza; Ostovar, Afshin; Assadi, Majid; Asadipooya, Kamyar; Vahdat, Katayoun; Dobaradaran, Sina; Nabipour, Iraj

    2015-08-01

    Serum adiponectin levels have been suggested to be predictors of type 2 diabetes mellitus in diverse populations. However, the relationship between circulating adiponectin levels and the risk of development of type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal women has not been investigated.A total of 382 healthy postmenopausal women who participated in a prospective cohort study were followed for 5.8 years. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was defined according to the criteria set out by the American Diabetes Association. Adiponectin, osteoprotegerin (OPG), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were measured using ELISA.Of 195 women who did not have diabetes at baseline and who were reexamined in the second phase of the study for diabetic status, 35 subjects (17.9%) developed type 2 diabetes mellitus during the 5.8 years follow-up period. The women with type 2 diabetes had lower adiponectin levels than the healthy postmenopausal women. Multiple regression analysis showed that, after adjustments were made for age, cardiovascular risk factors, OPG, and hs-CRP levels, higher baseline adiponectin levels were associated with a lower relative risk (RR) of having type 2 (RR?=?0.07, confidence interval [CI]: 0.01-0.66, P?=?0.021).Higher baseline adiponectin levels functioned as a predictor of a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus among postmenopausal women during a 5.8 years follow-up study. Therefore, it is suggested that elevated adiponectin levels may offer protection against the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus after the menopause. PMID:26287420

  11. The Presence of Family History and the Development of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Risk Factors in Rural Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Marsha Howell; Barnett Lammon, Carol Ann

    2007-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is reaching epidemic proportions among children and adolescents. School health fairs offer an opportunity to identify children with risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study identified selected risk factors (i.e., high-risk racial/ethnic group, obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated…

  12. Risk factors for migraine and tension-type headache in 11 year old children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Though migraine and tension type headache are both commonly diagnosed in childhood, little is known about their determinants when diagnosed prior to puberty onset. Our aim was to determine psychosocial- and health-related risk factors of migraine and tension-type headache in 11 year old children. Methods 871 New Zealand European children were enrolled in a longitudinal study at birth and data were collected at birth, 1, 3.5, 7, and 11 years of age. Primary headache was determined at age 11 years based on the International Headache Society. Perinatal factors assessed were small for gestational age status, sex, maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal perceived stress, and maternal school leaving age. Childhood factors assessed were sleep duration, percent body fat, television watching, parent and self-reported total problem behaviour, being bullied, and depression. Results Prevalence of migraine and tension-type headache was 10.5% and 18.6%, respectively. Both migraine and TTH were significantly associated with self-reported problem behaviour in univariable logistic regression analyses. Additionally, migraine was associated with reduced sleep duration, and both sleep and behaviour problems remained significant after multivariable analyses. TTH was also significantly associated with antenatal maternal smoking, higher body fat, and being bullied. For TTH, problem behaviour measured at ages 3.5 and 11 years both remained significant after multivariable analysis. Being born small for gestational age was not associated with either headache group. Conclusions Although they share some commonality, migraine and tension-type headache are separate entities in childhood with different developmental characteristics. The association between primary headache and problem behaviour requires further investigation. PMID:25205384

  13. Method Of Bonding A Metal Connection To An Electrode Including A Core Having A Fiber Or Foam Type Structure For An Electrochemical Cell, An

    DOEpatents

    Loustau, Marie-Therese (Bordeaux, FR); Verhoog, Roelof (Bordeaux, FR); Precigout, Claude (Lormont, FR)

    1996-09-24

    A method of bonding a metal connection to an electrode including a core having a fiber or foam-type structure for an electrochemical cell, in which method at least one metal strip is pressed against one edge of the core and is welded thereto under compression, wherein, at least in line with the region in which said strip is welded to the core, which is referred to as the "main core", a retaining core of a type analogous to that of the main core is disposed prior to the welding.

  14. Potential risk factors for the onset of complex regional pain syndrome type 1: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Pons, Tracey; Shipton, Edward A; Williman, Jonathan; Mulder, Roger T

    2015-01-01

    Anaesthetists in the acute and chronic pain teams are often involved in treating Complex Regional Pain Syndromes. Current literature about the risk factors for the onset of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 (CRPS 1) remains sparse. This syndrome has a low prevalence, a highly variable presentation, and no gold standard for diagnosis. In the research setting, the pathogenesis of the syndrome continues to be elusive. There is a growing body of literature that addresses efficacy of a wide range of interventions as well as the likely mechanisms that contribute to the onset of CRPS 1. The objective for this systematic search of the literature focuses on determining the potential risk factors for the onset of CRPS 1. Eligible articles were analysed, dated 1996 to April 2014, and potential risk factors for the onset of CRPS 1 were identified from 10 prospective and 6 retrospective studies. Potential risk factors for the onset of CRPS 1 were found to include being female, particularly postmenopausal female, ankle dislocation or intra-articular fracture, immobilisation, and a report of higher than usual levels of pain in the early phases of trauma. It is not possible to draw definite conclusions as this evidence is heterogeneous and of mixed quality, relevance, and weighting strength against bias and has not been confirmed across multiple trials or in homogenous studies. PMID:25688265

  15. Chronic Kidney Disease and Associated Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Chinese with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Qing-Lin; Ouyang, Xiao-Jun; Gu, Liu-Bao; Mo, Yong-Zhen; Ma, Ronald; Nan, Jennifer; Kong, Alice; So, Wing-Yee; Ko, Gary; Chan, Juliana; Chow, Chun-Chung

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine the frequency of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its associated risk factors in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients, we conducted a cross-sectional study in Nanjing, China, in the period between January 2008 and December 2009. Methods Patients with type 2 diabetes under the care by Jiangsu Province Official Hospital, Nanjing, China were invited for assessment. CKD was defined as the presence of albuminuria or estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Albuminuria was defined as urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio ?30 mg/g. Results We recruited 1,521 urban Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes (mean age, 63.9±12.0 years). The frequency of CKD and albuminuria was 31.0% and 28.9%, respectively. After adjusted by age and sex, hypertension, anemia and duration of diabetes were significantly associated with CKD with odds ratio (95% confidence interval) being 1.93 (1.28 to 2.93), 1.70 (1.09 to 2.64), and 1.03 (1.00 to 1.06), respectively. Conclusion In conclusion, CKD was common in the urban Nanjing Chinese with type 2 diabetes. Strategies to prevent or delay progression of kidney disease in diabetes should be carried out at the early disease course of type 2 diabetes. PMID:23275937

  16. Hydrological drought types in cold climates: quantitative analysis of causing factors and qualitative survey of impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Loon, A. F.; Ploum, S. W.; Parajka, J.; Fleig, A. K.; Garnier, E.; Laaha, G.; Van Lanen, H. A. J.

    2015-04-01

    For drought management and prediction, knowledge of causing factors and socio-economic impacts of hydrological droughts is crucial. Propagation of meteorological conditions in the hydrological cycle results in different hydrological drought types that require separate analysis. In addition to the existing hydrological drought typology, we here define two new drought types related to snow and ice. A snowmelt drought is a deficiency in the snowmelt discharge peak in spring in snow-influenced basins and a glaciermelt drought is a deficiency in the glaciermelt discharge peak in summer in glacierised basins. In 21 catchments in Austria and Norway we studied the meteorological conditions in the seasons preceding and at the time of snowmelt and glaciermelt drought events. Snowmelt droughts in Norway were mainly controlled by below-average winter precipitation, while in Austria both temperature and precipitation played a role. For glaciermelt droughts, the effect of below-average summer air temperature was dominant, both in Austria and Norway. Subsequently, we investigated the impacts of temperature-related drought types (i.e. snowmelt and glaciermelt drought, but also cold and warm snow season drought and rain-to-snow-season drought). In historical archives and drought databases for the US and Europe many impacts were found that can be attributed to these temperature-related hydrological drought types, mainly in the agriculture and electricity production (hydropower) sectors. However, drawing conclusions on the frequency of occurrence of different drought types from reported impacts is difficult, mainly because of reporting biases and the inevitably limited spatial and temporal scales of the information. Finally, this study shows that complete integration of quantitative analysis of causing factors and qualitative analysis of impacts of temperature-related droughts is not yet possible. Analysis of selected events, however, points out that it can be a promising research area if more data on drought impacts become available.

  17. Beverage-consumption patterns and associations with metabolic risk factors among low-income Latinos with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Monica L; Lemon, Stephenie C; Olendzki, Barbara; Rosal, Milagros C

    2013-12-01

    In the United States, Latinos experience disproportionately higher rates of type 2 diabetes and diabetes-related complications than non-Latino whites. Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is strongly associated with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Reducing caloric intake, particularly from energy-dense, low-nutrient foods or beverages, can be an effective and key strategy for metabolic and weight control. However, little is known about the contribution of various types of beverages, including but not limited to SSBs, to total caloric intake among Latinos with type 2 diabetes. Low-income Latinos (87.7% Puerto Rican) participating in a diabetes self-management intervention trial (N=238) provided cross-sectional, descriptive data on beverage-consumption patterns, anthropometric outcomes, and metabolic characteristics. Beverages accounted for one fifth of the total daily caloric intake. SSBs and milk beverages, respectively, contributed 9.6% of calories to overall daily caloric intake. Interventions directed at diabetes risk factors among low-income Latinos with diabetes can benefit from consideration of beverage-consumption behaviors as an important strategy to reduce caloric and sugar intake. PMID:23999278

  18. Type 1 Diabetes Patients Using Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion Therapy: Feeling Burdened Correlated with Factors

    PubMed Central

    Nishio, Ikuko; Chujo, Masami

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate factors related to feelings of being burdened in type 1 diabetes patients using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy. Methods Participants were 106 subscribers to the Diabetes Network’s e-mail newsletter. An online survey was used. Eligible participants were aged at least 20 years, had type 1 diabetes, and were using CSII. Survey questions concerned whether participants found CSII burdensome, and seven potential reasons for feelings of burden. Analysis calculated correlations among participants’ demographic and treatment-related factors, and among participants’ reasons for feeling CSII to be burdensome. Results Regarding demographic and treatment-related factors, gender was found to be weakly negatively correlated with the following variables: employment status, and whether participants had discussed their concerns with a doctor. Employment status was found to be weakly correlated with diabetes duration; employment status and diabetes duration were found to be weakly correlated with age. Regarding reasons for finding CSII therapy burdensome, “It takes too much time” was found to be strongly positively correlated with “It interferes with work responsibilities”; 16 weak positive correlations were also found. Conclusion To explain our results, we suggest that medical expenses, glycemic control, scheduling outpatient visits around home and work responsibilities, and interacting with medical staff may have caused participants to find CSII therapy burdensome. Most participants had never discussed their treatment concerns with a doctor. This suggests that nurses may be able to mitigate feeling burdened in participants using CSII therapy. PMID:26538798

  19. The Factors Associated With Disease Mismanagement in Young Patients with Type 1 Diabetes: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Selda; Kelleci, Meral; Satman, Ilhan

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this qualitative study on young adults with type 1 diabetes was to determine the factors associated with mismanagement of diabetes. Methods In this qualitative study, a descriptive phenomenological and psychological method was followed. Purposeful sampling method was used in this study. 28 young adults aged 18-25 with type 1 diabetes (16 females, 12 males) with HbA1c levels >6.5% were interviewed in-depth. Each interview lasted 40-45 minutes. The recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim, examined line-by-line and coded using open coding techniques and managed by QSR NVivo 7. During the research period, Guba ve Lincolln criteria were used to ensure the accuracy and precision of the study findings. Results The study identified seven themes which affect the diabetes management of the patients. These themes were negative emotions about the disease, difficulties arising from living condition, difficulties arising from the treatment treatment process, lack of social support, not solution oriented coping methods, concerns about the future and issues of developing knowledge and attitude regarding diabetes management. Conclusion There are multiple factors affecting the management of diabetes in young adults with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes has a biopsychosocial impact on young adults’ lives, developing a negative attitude toward their future and that of their family. PMID:26005688

  20. Modelling the Interplay between Lifestyle Factors and Genetic Predisposition on Markers of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Risk

    PubMed Central

    Holzapfel, Christina; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Fuller, Nicholas R.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Hauner, Hans; Caterson, Ian D.; Jebb, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    The risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is determined by a complex interplay involving lifestyle factors and genetic predisposition. Despite this, many studies do not consider the relative contributions of this complex array of factors to identify relationships which are important in progression or prevention of complex diseases. We aimed to describe the integrated effect of a number of lifestyle changes (weight, diet and physical activity) in the context of genetic susceptibility, on changes in glycaemic traits in overweight or obese participants following 12-months of a weight management programme. A sample of 353 participants from a behavioural weight management intervention were included in this study. A graphical Markov model was used to describe the impact of the intervention, by dividing the effects into various pathways comprising changes in proportion of dietary saturated fat, physical activity and weight loss, and a genetic predisposition score (T2DM-GPS), on changes in insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IR), insulin secretion (HOMA-B) and short and long term glycaemia (glucose and HbA1c). We demonstrated the use of graphical Markov modelling to identify the importance and interrelationships of a number of possible variables changed as a result of a lifestyle intervention, whilst considering fixed factors such as genetic predisposition, on changes in traits. Paths which led to weight loss and change in dietary saturated fat were important factors in the change of all glycaemic traits, whereas the T2DM-GPS only made a significant direct contribution to changes in HOMA-IR and plasma glucose after considering the effects of lifestyle factors. This analysis shows that modifiable factors relating to body weight, diet, and physical activity are more likely to impact on glycaemic traits than genetic predisposition during a behavioural intervention. PMID:26154605

  1. Incidence of and risk factors for type-specific anal human papillomavirus infection among HIV-positive MSM

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Alexandra L.; Efird, Jimmy T.; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Berry, J. Michael; Jay, Naomi; Palefsky, Joel M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective HIV-positive MSM are at increased risk of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection compared with men in the general population, and little is known about the natural history of anal HPV infection in this population. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of and risk factors for anal type-specific HPV infection. Design Prospective cohort study. Methods HIV-positive MSM were evaluated for anal HPV DNA, lifestyle factors, and sexual risk behaviors every 6 months for at least 2 years. Results The overall incidence rate of detectable type-specific anal HPV infection was 21.3 per 100 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI) 17.7–25.4] and was 13.3/100 person-years (10.5–16.6) for oncogenic HPV types. The most common incident infections were HPV 18 (3.7/100 person-years) and HPV 16 (3.5/100 person-years). An increased number of recent partners with whom the participant was the receptive partner [odds ratio (OR) 2.9 (1.6–5.1) 8+ partners vs. 0–1], an increased number of new partners in which the participant was the receptive partner [OR 1.03 (1.01–1.1) per partner], an increased number of new oral–anal contact partners in which the participant was the receptive partner [OR 1.1 (1.03–1.1) per partner], and the frequency of receptive anal intercourse [OR 1.1 (1.03–1.1) per act] all significantly increased the odds of incident HPV infection (P ? 0.05). Conclusion HIV-positive MSM have a high incidence of oncogenic anal HPV infection. Recent receptive anal sexual behaviors, including receptive anal intercourse and receptive oral–anal contact, are the most important risk factors for incident anal HPV infection. PMID:24959962

  2. Subclavian central venous catheter-related thrombosis in trauma patients: incidence, risk factors and influence of polyurethane type

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) related to a central venous catheter varies considerably in ICUs depending on the population included. The aim of this study was to determine subclavian central venous catheter (SCVC)-related DVT risk factors in severely traumatized patients with regard to two kinds of polyurethane catheters. Methods Critically ill trauma patients needing a SCVC for their usual care were prospectively included in an observational study. Depending on the month of inclusion, patients received one of the two available products in the emergency unit: either an aromatic polyurethane SCVC or an aliphatic polyurethane SCVC. Patients were screened weekly by ultrasound for SCVC-related DVT. Potential risk factors were collected, including history-related, trauma-related and SCVC-related characteristics. Results A total of 186 patients were included with a median Injury Severity Sore of 30 and a high rate of severe brain injuries (21% of high intracranial pressure). Incidence of SCVC-related DVT was 37% (95% confidence interval: 26 to 40) in patients or 20/1,000 catheter-days. SCVC-related DVT occurred within 8 days in 65% of cases. There was no significant difference in DVT rates between the aromatic polyurethane and aliphatic polyurethane SCVC groups (38% vs. 36%). SCVC-related DVT independent risk factors were age >30 years, intracranial hypertension, massive transfusion (>10 packed red blood cell units), SCVC tip position in the internal jugular or in the innominate vein, and ipsilateral jugular catheter. Conclusion SCVC-related DVT concerned one-third of these severely traumatized patients and was mostly clinically silent. Incidence did not depend on the type of polyurethane but was related to age >30 years, intracranial hypertension or misplacement of the SCVC. Further studies are needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of routine screening in these patients in whom thromboprophylaxis may be hazardous. PMID:23718723

  3. Factors Associated with Dietary Diversity Score among Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Tiew, Kee Fong; Lye, Munn Sann; Loke, Seng Cheong

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Studies on diet quality among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are scarce. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the diet quality and to determine its associated factors among individuals with T2DM at the Medical Outpatients Department, Serdang Hospital, Selangor, Malaysia, from July 2010 to March 2011. Subjects were interviewed for sociodemographic data. Diabetes history was retrieved from the hospital's e-database. Usual dietary intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire, from which a dietary diversity score was obtained with two measures: Food Group Score and Serving Score were constructed based on the Malaysian Dietary Guidelines. Food Group Score was computed from the number of food groups consumed from five major food groups (grains, vegetables, fruits, meat, and dairy products) whereas Serving Score was computed from the number of servings consumed from the various food groups. Anthropometric measures, including weight, height, waist- and hip-circumference were examined. For data analyses, descriptive statistics, simple and multiple linear regression were conducted using IBM SPSS Statistics 20.0. A total of 113 subjects (50.4% female), with mean±SD age of 54.05±10.30 years and duration of diabetes of 11.25±9.05 years were studied. The mean Food Group Score and Serving Score were 4.12±0.79 and 12.75±3.50 respectively. Slightly more than one-third of the subjects achieved five food groups a day while less than 2% consumed a desirable number of servings from all food groups. Among the five food groups, dairy, and fruits were the least-frequently consumed foods. Lower education, lower personal income, working, non-insulin, overweight and obese subjects had significantly lower Food Group Score than their counterparts [F (6,106)=4.924, p<0.0001] whereas lower education, lower waist-to-hip ratio, overweight and obese subjects had significantly lower Serving Score than their counterparts [F (4,108)=7.520, p<0.0001]. There was a high proportion of individuals with T2DM, who failed to adhere to the national dietary guidelines. The importance of taking a well-balanced diet in accordance with the guidelines should be emphasized, especially among those with lower educational level through a simple and easy-to-understand approach. PMID:25895200

  4. Factors associated with dietary diversity score among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Tiew, Kee Fong; Chan, Yoke Mun; Lye, Munn Sann; Loke, Seng Cheong

    2014-12-01

    Studies on diet quality among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are scarce. This crosssectional study aimed to assess the diet quality and to determine its associated factors among individuals with T2DM at the Medical Outpatients Department, Serdang Hospital, Selangor, Malaysia, from July 2010 to March 2011. Subjects were interviewed for sociodemographic data. Diabetes history was retrieved from the hospital's e-database. Usual dietary intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire, from which a dietary diversity score was obtained with two measures: Food Group Score and Serving Score were constructed based on the Malaysian Dietary Guidelines. Food Group Score was computed from the number of food groups consumed from five major food groups (grains, vegetables, fruits, meat, and dairy products) whereas Serving Score was computed from the number of servings consumed from the various food groups. Anthropometric measures, including weight, height, waist- and hip-circumference were examined. For data analyses, descriptive statistics, simple and multiple linear regression were conducted using IBM SPSS Statis- tics 20.0. A total of 113 subjects (50.4% female), with mean?SD age of 54.05 +/- 10.30 years and duration of diabetes of 11.25?9.05 years were studied. The mean Food Group Score and Serving Score were 4.12 +/- 0.79 and 12.75+3.50 respectively. Slightly more than one-third of the subjects achieved five food groups a day while less than 2% consumed a desirable number of servings from all food groups. Among the five food groups, dairy, and fruits were the least-frequently consumed foods. Lower education, lower personal income, working, non-insulin, overweight and obese subjects had significantly lower Food Group Score than their counterparts [F (6,106)=4.924, p<0.0001] whereas lower education, lower waist-to-hip ratio, overweight and obese subjects had significantly lower Serving Score than their counterparts [F (4,108)=7.520, p<0.0001]. There was a high proportion of individuals with T2DM, who failed to adhere to the national dietary guidelines. The importance of taking a well-balanced diet in accordance with the guidelines should be emphasized, especially among those with lower educational level through a simple and easy-to-understand approach. PMID:25895200

  5. Over-expression of Dof-type transcription factor increases lipid production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Salazar, Alejandro; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Rocha-Uribe, Alejandro; Ramírez-Alonso, Jocelín Itzel; Lara-Hernández, Ignacio; Hernández-Torres, Araceli; Paz-Maldonado, Luz María Teresita; Silva-Ramírez, Ana Sonia; Bañuelos-Hernández, Bernardo; Martínez-Salgado, José Luis; Soria-Guerra, Ruth Elena

    2014-08-20

    The high demand for less polluting, newer, and cheaper fuel resources has increased the search of the most innovative options for the production of the so-called biofuels. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a photosynthetic unicellular algae with multiple biotechnological advantages such as easy handling in the laboratory, a simple scale-up to industrial levels, as well as a feasible genetic modification at nuclear and chloroplast levels. Besides, its fatty acids can be used to produce biofuels. Previous studies in plants have found that the over expression of DOF-type transcription factor genes increases the synthesis and the accumulation of total lipids in seeds. In this context, the over-expression of a DOF-type transcription factor in C. reinhardtii was applied as approach to increase the amount of lipids. The results indicate higher amounts (around 2-fold) of total lipids, which are mainly fatty acids, in the genetically C. reinhardtii modified strains when compared with the non-genetically modified strain. In order to elucidate the possible function of the introduced Dof-type transcription factor, we performed a transcription profile of 8 genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and 6 genes involved in glycerolipid biosynthesis, by quantitative real time (qRT-PCR). Differential expression profile was observed, which can explain the increase in lipid accumulation. However, these strains did not show notable changes in the fatty acid profile. This work represents an early effort in generating a strategy to increase fatty acids production in C. reinhardtii and their use in biofuel synthesis. PMID:24844864

  6. Attenuation of fibroblast growth factor signaling by poly-N-acatyllactosamine type glycans

    PubMed Central

    Sugihara, Kazuhiro; Shibata, Toshiaki K.; Takata, Kayoko; Kimura, Takako; Kanayama, Naohiro; Williams, Roy; Hatakeyama, Shingo; Akama, Tomoya O.; Kuo, Chu-Wei; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Fukuda, Michiko N.

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors are expressed in a variety of mammalian tissues, playing a role in development and cell proliferation. While analyzing human sperm motility, we found that sperm treated with endo-?-galactosidase (EBG), which specifically hydrolyzes poly-N-acetyllactosamine type glycans (polyLacs), enhanced motility. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that sperm-associated polyLacs are heavily fucosylated, consistent with Lewis Y antigen. Immunohistochemistry of epididymis using an anti-Lewis Y antibody before and after EBG treatment suggested that polyLacs carrying the Lewis Y epitope are synthesized in epididymal epithelia and secreted to seminal fluid. EBG-treated sperm elevated cAMP levels and calcium influx, indicating activation of fibroblast growth factor signaling. Seminal fluid polyLacs bound to FGFs in vitro, and impaired FGF-mediated signaling in HEK293T cells. PMID:23968720

  7. Evaluation of risk factors, including fluconazole administration, for prolonged anesthetic recovery times in horses undergoing general anesthesia for ocular surgery: 81 cases (2006-2013).

    PubMed

    Krein, Stephanie R; Lindsey, Jane C; Blaze, Cheryl A; Wetmore, Lois A

    2014-03-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine risk factors for prolonged anesthetic recovery time in horses that underwent general anesthesia for ocular surgery. DESIGN--Retrospective cohort study. ANIMALS--81 horses that underwent general anesthesia for ocular surgery between 2006 and 2013. PROCEDURES--Descriptive information recorded included the ocular procedure performed, concurrent fluconazole treatments, analgesic and anesthetic agents administered, procedure duration, use of sedation for recovery, and recovery time. Data were analyzed for associations between recovery time and other variables. RESULTS--81 horses met inclusion criteria. In 72 horses, anesthesia was induced with ketamine and midazolam; 16 horses treated concurrently with fluconazole had significantly longer mean recovery time (109 minutes [95% confidence interval {CI}, 94 to 124 minutes]) than did 56 horses that were not treated with fluconazole (50 minutes [95% CI, 44 to 55 minutes]). In 9 horses anesthetized with a protocol that included ketamine but did not include midazolam, there was no difference between mean recovery time in horses that either received (59 minutes [95% CI, 36 to 81 minutes]; n = 5) or did not receive (42 minutes [95% CI, 16 to 68 minutes]; 4) fluconazole. Other variables identified as risk factors for prolonged recovery included duration of anesthesia and use of acepromazine for premedication. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE--Fluconazole administration was associated with prolonged anesthetic recovery time in horses when ketamine and midazolam were used to induce anesthesia for ocular surgery. Duration of anesthesia and premedication with acepromazine were also identified as risk factors for prolonged recovery time. PMID:24548232

  8. Factors Associated With Maternal-Reported Actions to Prevent Type 1 Diabetes in the First Year of the TEDDY Study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Laura B.; Lynch, Kristian F.; Baxter, Judith; Lernmark, Barbro; Roth, Roswith; Simell, Tuula; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Mothers of children at risk for type 1 diabetes report engaging in preventive behaviors. The purpose of this study is to further document these actions in an international, longitudinal sample and examine variables that predict whether mothers engage in these behaviors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This study examined an international sample (from Finland, Germany, Sweden, and the U.S.) from the naturalistic, longitudinal The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study, which tracked children genetically at risk for type 1 diabetes from birth to age 15 years. Mothers of 7,613 infants aged 6 months and 6,503 infants aged 15 months completed questionnaires assessing psychosocial factors and actions intended to prevent diabetes. RESULTS Many mothers (29.9% at 6 months and 42.8% at 15 months) reported engaging in a behavior intended to prevent type 1 diabetes, with the largest percentages (20.9–29.2%) reporting making changes to their child’s diet (e.g., reducing the consumption of sweets and carbohydrates). Factors related to engaging in preventive behaviors include older maternal age; higher maternal education; minority status; having only one child; having a first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes; being from a country other than Sweden; having an accurate perception of the child’s increased risk for developing diabetes; having postpartum depression, maternal anxiety, and worry about the risk of diabetes; and believing that diabetes can be prevented. CONCLUSIONS The findings of this study suggest that many mothers engage in actions to prevent diabetes and highlight the importance of tracking these behaviors to ensure the validity of naturalistic observational studies. PMID:24041684

  9. Causative factors for formation of toxic islet amyloid polypeptide oligomer in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hye Rin; An, Seong Soo A

    2015-01-01

    Human islet amyloid polypeptide (h-IAPP) is a peptide hormone that is synthesized and cosecreted with insulin from insulin-secreting pancreatic ?-cells. Recently, h-IAPP was proposed to be the main component responsible for the cytotoxic pancreatic amyloid deposits in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Since the causative factors of IAPP (or amylin) oligomer aggregation are not fully understood, this review will discuss the various forms of h-IAPP aggregation. Not all forms of IAPP aggregates trigger the destruction of ?-cell function and loss of ?-cell mass; however, toxic oligomers do trigger these events. Once these toxic oligomers form under abnormal metabolic conditions in T2DM, they can lead to cell disruption by inducing cell membrane destabilization. In this review, the various factors that have been shown to induce toxic IAPP oligomer formation will be presented, as well as the potential mechanism of oligomer and fibril formation from pro-IAPPs. Initially, pro-IAPPs undergo enzymatic reactions to produce the IAPP monomers, which can then develop into oligomers and fibrils. By this mechanism, toxic oligomers could be generated by diverse pathway components. Thus, the interconnections between factors that influence amyloid aggregation (eg, absence of PC2 enzyme, deamidation, reduction of disulfide bonds, environmental factors in the cell, genetic mutations, copper metal ions, and heparin) will be presented. Hence, this review will aid in understanding the fundamental causative factors contributing to IAPP oligomer formation and support studies for investigating novel T2DM therapeutic approaches, such as the development of inhibitory agents for preventing oligomerization at the early stages of diabetic pathology. PMID:26604727

  10. Factors influencing psoriasis: an analysis based upon the extent of involvement and clinical type.

    PubMed

    Park, B S; Youn, J I

    1998-02-01

    A variety of external stimuli are accepted as important in modifying the severity of psoriasis. We sought to determine whether there is any difference in the influence of external factors on psoriasis in relation to extent of involvement or clinical type. A total of 870 psoriasis patients seen between 1982 and 1995 were categorized as mild, moderate, or severe on the basis of extent of the disease, and as guttate, nummular/plaque, or exfoliative/generalized pustular according to clinical type. We then performed a questionnaire survey concerning the influence of external factors such as seasonal changes, sunlight, stress, and pregnancy. These data sets were combined and analysed. The majority of patients stated favorable effects of summer, sunlight, and pregnancy and adverse effects of winter and stress. A statistically significant correlation was noted between the extent of psoriasis and the proportion of patients stating that their disease worsened at times of psychological stress (p < 0.01). We confirmed that psoriasis patients with more extensive involvement experience greater fluctuations in their condition, notice these changes, and therefore relate them to psychological stress. PMID:9563276

  11. Klebsiella spp. as Nosocomial Pathogens: Epidemiology, Taxonomy, Typing Methods, and Pathogenicity Factors

    PubMed Central

    Podschun, R.; Ullmann, U.

    1998-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the genus Klebsiella frequently cause human nosocomial infections. In particular, the medically most important Klebsiella species, Klebsiella pneumoniae, accounts for a significant proportion of hospital-acquired urinary tract infections, pneumonia, septicemias, and soft tissue infections. The principal pathogenic reservoirs for transmission of Klebsiella are the gastrointestinal tract and the hands of hospital personnel. Because of their ability to spread rapidly in the hospital environment, these bacteria tend to cause nosocomial outbreaks. Hospital outbreaks of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella spp., especially those in neonatal wards, are often caused by new types of strains, the so-called extended-spectrum-?-lactamase (ESBL) producers. The incidence of ESBL-producing strains among clinical Klebsiella isolates has been steadily increasing over the past years. The resulting limitations on the therapeutic options demand new measures for the management of Klebsiella hospital infections. While the different typing methods are useful epidemiological tools for infection control, recent findings about Klebsiella virulence factors have provided new insights into the pathogenic strategies of these bacteria. Klebsiella pathogenicity factors such as capsules or lipopolysaccharides are presently considered to be promising candidates for vaccination efforts that may serve as immunological infection control measures. PMID:9767057

  12. Transcription factors binding to the mouse HTF9 housekeeping promoter differ between cell types.

    PubMed Central

    Somma, M P; Gambino, I; Lavia, P

    1991-01-01

    The mouse CpG island HTF9 harbours a bidirectional promoter shared by two housekeeping genes that are arranged head-to-head. We have previously identified several protein binding-elements across the CpG island, yet a short region around the initiation region was found to be capable of bidirectional transcription in transient expression assays, suggesting that the multiple elements of the HTF9 promoter are functionally redundant. We have now compared the binding activities in nuclear extracts from different cell types. Two protein-binding elements of HTF9 interact with widely distributed factors. A potentially strong Sp1 binding site was also identified, however Sp1 appeared to bind efficiently to its target sequence with extracts prepared from proliferating cultured cells, but not from adult organs. On the other hand, the CCAAT box upstream of one gene (HTF9-A) interacted with a liver-enriched factor, whereas no binding was detected with cultured fibroblasts extracts. Consistently, deletion of the CCAAT box affected transient expression from the HTF9-A promoter in hepatocyte, but not in fibroblast, cultures. Our results suggest that ubiquitous expression of housekeeping promoters results from the activation of alternative elements in different cell types. Images PMID:1886769

  13. Risk factors for acute kidney injury in overweight patients with acute type A aortic dissection: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Honglei; Pan, Xudong; Gong, Zhizhong; Zheng, Jun; Liu, Yongmin; Zhu, Junming

    2015-01-01

    Background To identify risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI) in overweight patients who underwent surgery for acute type A aortic dissection (TAAD). Methods A retrospective study including 108 consecutive overweight patients [body mass index (BMI) ?24] between December 2009 and April 2013 in Beijing Anzhen Hospital has been performed. AKI was defined by Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria, which is based on serum creatinine (sCr) or urine output. Results The mean age of the patients was 43.69±9.66 years. Seventy-two patients (66.7%) developed AKI during the postoperative period. A logistic regression analysis was performed to identify two independent risk factors for AKI: elevated preoperative sCr level and 72-h drainage volume. Renal replacement therapy (RRT) was required in 15 patients (13.9%). The overall postoperative mortality rate was 7.4%, 8.3% in AKI group and 5.6% in non-AKI group. There is no statistically significant difference between the two groups (P=0.32). Conclusions A higher incidence of AKI (66.7%) in overweight patients with acute TAAD was confirmed. The logistic regression model identified elevated preoperative sCr level and 72-h drainage volume as independent risk factors for AKI in overweight patients. We should pay more attention to prevent AKI in overweight patients with TAAD. PMID:26380764

  14. Neighborhood level risk factors for type 1 diabetes in youth: the SEARCH case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background European ecologic studies suggest higher socioeconomic status is associated with higher incidence of type 1 diabetes. Using data from a case-control study of diabetes among racially/ethnically diverse youth in the United States (U.S.), we aimed to evaluate the independent impact of neighborhood characteristics on type 1 diabetes risk. Data were available for 507 youth with type 1 diabetes and 208 healthy controls aged 10-22 years recruited in South Carolina and Colorado in 2003-2006. Home addresses were used to identify Census tracts of residence. Neighborhood-level variables were obtained from 2000 U.S. Census. Multivariate generalized linear mixed models were applied. Results Controlling for individual risk factors (age, gender, race/ethnicity, infant feeding, birth weight, maternal age, number of household residents, parental education, income, state), higher neighborhood household income (p = 0.005), proportion of population in managerial jobs (p = 0.02), with at least high school education (p = 0.005), working outside the county (p = 0.04) and vehicle ownership (p = 0.03) were each independently associated with increased odds of type 1 diabetes. Conversely, higher percent minority population (p = 0.0003), income from social security (p = 0.002), proportion of crowded households (0.0497) and poverty (p = 0.008) were associated with a decreased odds. Conclusions Our study suggests that neighborhood characteristics related to greater affluence, occupation, and education are associated with higher type 1 diabetes risk. Further research is needed to understand mechanisms underlying the influence of neighborhood context. PMID:22230476

  15. Vascular endothelial growth factor–induced elimination of the type 1 interferon receptor is required for efficient angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hui; Qian, Juan; Carbone, Christopher J.; Leu, N. Adrian; Baker, Darren P.

    2011-01-01

    Angiogenesis is stimulated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and antagonized by type 1 interferons, including IFN-?/?. On engaging their respective receptors (VEGFR2 and IFNAR), both stimuli activate protein kinase D2 (PKD2) and type 1 IFNs require PKD2 activation and recruitment to IFNAR1 to promote the phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination, down-regulation, and degradation of the cognate receptor chain, IFNAR1. Data reveal that PKD2 activity is dispensable for VEGF-stimulated down-regulation of VEGFR2. Remarkably, VEGF treatment promotes the recruitment of PKD2 to IFNAR1 as well as ensuing phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and degradation of IFNAR1. In cells exposed to VEGF, phosphorylation-dependent degradation of IFNAR1 leads to an inhibition of type 1 IFN signaling and is required for efficient VEGF-stimulated angiogenesis. Importance of this mechanism for proangiogenic or antiangiogenic responses in cells exposed to counteracting stimuli and the potential medical significance of this regulation are discussed. PMID:21832278

  16. Recurrent subthreshold depression in type 2 diabetes: an important risk factor for poor health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Norbert; Gariépy, Geneviève; Smith, Kimberley J; Clyde, Matthew; Malla, Ashok; Boyer, Richard; Strychar, Irene; Lesage, Alain; Wang, Jianli

    2014-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between recurrent subthreshold depressive episodes and functioning in a prospective community sample of people with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A prospective community study in Quebec, Canada, was carried out between 2008 and 2013 (n = 1,064). Five yearly follow-up assessments (telephone interviews) were conducted. Baseline and the first three follow-up assessments were used to identify recurrent subthreshold depressive episodes (Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ]-9). Functioning (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II [WHODAS-II]) and health-related quality of life (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] unhealthy days) at 4- and 5-year follow-up assessments were the outcome measures. RESULTS Nearly half of the participants suffered from at least one episode of subthreshold depressive symptoms. After adjusting for potentially confounding factors, the risk of poor functioning/impaired health-related quality of life was nearly three times higher (relative risk = 2.86) for participants with four subthreshold depressive episodes compared with participants with no/minimal depression. Results suggest a dose-response relationship: the risk of poor functioning/impaired health-related quality of life increased with the number of recurrent subthreshold depressive episodes even after controlling for potentially confounding variables (significant linear trend, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Recurrent subthreshold depressive symptoms might be an important risk factor for poor health outcomes in type 2 diabetes. Early identification, monitoring, and treatment of recurrent subthreshold depressive symptoms might improve functioning and quality of life in people with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24198303

  17. Prevalence of Non-Volitional Sex Types and Associated Factors: A National Sample of Young People

    PubMed Central

    Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H. T. M.; Somers, Carlijn; de Graaf, Hanneke; Meijer, Suzanne; Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-volitional sex (NVS) in young people continues to be a major public health problem with long-term negative health outcomes. For the first time, the prevalence of different types of NVS and associated factors are compared between young people with same-sex sexual activities and those who have not. Methods We obtained data from 10,401 young women and men (aged 12 to 25 years) who participated in a population study on sexual health, the Netherlands. We calculated and compared the prevalence of six types of NVS between women who had sex with men (yWSM) or women (yWSW), and men who had sex with women (yMSW) or men (yMSM). In sexually experienced participants (n = 5986) logistic regression analyses were applied to assess associations with NVS by assault or penetration. Analyses were weighted to represent the Dutch population. Results The prevalence of NVS ranged from 1% to 61%, depending on type. Prevalence was higher for young women (any: 40.6%) than men (any: 20.4%), and highest for yMSM and yWSW. Prevalence of NVS by assault or penetration was related to a range of socio-demographic, behavioral and social factors, which were largely similar regardless of sex or same-sex-experiences. The NVS perpetrators were in over 70% of cases known to the victim; 1 in 4 cases of NVS by penetration were accompanied by violence. Conclusion A substantial proportion of young people in the Netherlands have experienced NVS. Medical professionals, educators and caregivers should integrate services to continue to address NVS by targeting young people’s multifaceted risk profiles and evidenced based interventions for doing so are needed. PMID:26214829

  18. Aberrant expression of type I fibroblast growth factor receptor in human pancreatic adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kobrin, M S; Yamanaka, Y; Friess, H; Lopez, M E; Korc, M

    1993-10-15

    Acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors are mitogenic polypeptides that are overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. To determine whether fibroblast growth factors may exert direct effects on pancreatic cancer cells in vivo, we compared the expression of the high-affinity type I fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR-1) in human pancreatic tissues. In the normal pancreas, FGFR-1 immunostaining was seen mainly in acinar cells. In pancreatic cancers, FGFR-1 was abundant in ductal-like cancer cells which also exhibited many FGFR-1 mRNA in situ hybridization grains. Analysis by the polymerase chain reaction and RNase protection revealed that the 2-immunoglobulin-like and the 3-immunoglobulin-like forms of FGFR-1 were expressed in all tissue samples, and that the 2-immunoglobulin-like form was overexpressed in the cancer tissues by comparison with the normal tissues. These findings suggest that the 2-immunoglobulin-like form of FGFR-1 may contribute to aberrant autocrine and paracrine pathways in pancreatic cancer. PMID:8402651

  19. Diffuse-Type Gastric Carcinoma: Progression, Angiogenesis, and Transforming Growth Factor ? Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Komuro, Akiyoshi; Yashiro, Masakazu; Iwata, Caname; Morishita, Yasuyuki; Johansson, Erik; Matsumoto, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Akira; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Kiyono, Kunihiko; Shirai, Yo-taro; Suzuki, Hiroshi I.; Hirakawa, Kosei; Kano, Mitsunobu R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Diffuse-type gastric carcinoma is a cancer with poor prognosis that has high levels of transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) expression and thick stromal fibrosis. However, the association of TGF-? signaling with diffuse-type gastric carcinoma has not been investigated in detail. Methods We used a lentiviral infection system to express a dominant-negative TGF-? type II receptor (dnT?RII) or green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a control in the diffuse-type gastric carcinoma cell lines, OCUM-2MLN and OCUM-12. These infected cells and the corresponding parental control cells were subcutaneously or orthotopically injected into nude mice. Angiogenesis was inhibited by infecting cells with a lentivirus carrying the gene for angiogenic inhibitor thrombospondin-1 or by injecting mice intraperitoneally with the small-molecule angiogenic inhibitor sorafenib or with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) neutralizing antibody (six or eight mice per group). Expression of phospho-Smad2 and thrombospondin-1 was investigated immunologically in human gastric carcinoma tissues from 102 patients. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Expression of dnT?RII into OCUM-2MLN cells did not affect their proliferation in vitro, but it accelerated the growth of subcutaneously or orthotopically transplanted tumors in vivo (eg, for mean volume of subcutaneous tumors on day 10 relative to that on day 0: dnT?RII tumors = 3.49 and GFP tumors = 2.46, difference = 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.21 to 1.84; P = .003). The tumors expressing dnT?RII had higher levels of angiogenesis than those expressing GFP because of decreased thrombospondin-1 production. Similar results were obtained with OCUM-12 cells. Expression of thrombospondin-1 in the dnT?RII tumor or treatment with sorafenib or anti-VEGF antibody reduced tumor growth, whereas knockdown of thrombospondin-1 expression resulted in more accelerated growth of OCUM-2MLN tumors than of GFP tumors (eg, mean tumor volumes on day 14 relative to those on day 0: thrombospondin-1–knockdown tumors = 4.91 and GFP tumors = 3.79, difference = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.80 to 1.44; P < .001). Positive association between phosphorylated Smad2 and thrombospondin-1 immunostaining was observed in human gastric carcinoma tissues. Conclusions Disruption of TGF-? signaling in diffuse-type gastric carcinoma models appeared to accelerate tumor growth, apparently through increased tumor angiogenesis that was induced by decreased expression of thrombospondin-1. PMID:19351925

  20. Suicide, schizophrenia, and schizoid-type psychosis: role of life events and childhood factors.

    PubMed

    Tousignant, Michel; Pouliot, Louise; Routhier, Danielle; Vrakas, Georgia; McGirr, Alexander; Turecki, Gustavo

    2011-02-01

    The first objective was to identify the provoking events of suicide in patients with schizophrenia or schizoid-type disorder, and to assess the humiliation component of these events. The second objective was to verify if quality of care during childhood is a vulnerability factor for suicide in patients with schizophrenia or schizoid-type psychosis. Thirty-three cases of suicide with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoid-type psychosis were compared with 34 living patients with a similar diagnosis. The psychological autopsy method was used. The assessments were made with the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Axis I mental disorders, the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule, and the Child Experiences and Child Abuse Interview. The suicide group (SG) experienced more often a recent severe event, usually of a humiliation nature, than the control group (CG). It also experienced more severe events associated with aggressive behavior or with psychiatric impairment. Contrary to expectations, the CG had worse scores than the SG for quality of care during childhood. In conclusion, suicide in schizophrenia is related both to environmental stress and to psychiatric impairment. PMID:21309825

  1. Chronic Activation of Wild-Type Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Loss of Cdkn2a Cause Mouse Glioblastoma Formation

    E-print Network

    Whittaker, Charles A.

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is characterized by overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and loss of the tumor suppressors Ink4a/Arf. Efforts at modeling GBM using wild-type EGFR in mice have proven ...

  2. Trefoil factor 2 rapidly induces interleukin 33 to promote type 2 immunity during allergic asthma and hookworm infection

    E-print Network

    Wills-Karp, Marsha

    The molecular mechanisms that drive mucosal T helper type 2 (T[subscript H]2) responses against parasitic helminths and allergens remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate in mice that TFF2 (trefoil factor 2), an ...

  3. Zirconium-titanium placers of the Voronezh Anteclise: Types, epochs and factors of formation, and forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savko, A. D.; Zvonarev, A. E.; Ivanov, D. A.

    2012-02-01

    The early and late Frasnian, Barremian-Aptian, Cenomanian, early Santonian, early Campanian, and Oligocene-Miocene epochs of the formation of various types of zirconium-titanium placers are distinguished in the Voronezh Anteclise. The factors of their formation are considered, and a forecast of prospecting has been made. Lower Frasnian sedimentary rocks occur in the southeast, where the placers are related to the ilmenite-bearing volcanosedimentary rocks of the Yastrebovo Sequence. The upper Frasnian productive quartz sand of the Petino Sequence occurs in the central part of the Voronezh Anteclise. The Barremian-Aptian productive quartz sand and kaolinite clay occur in the northern and northeastern parts of the anteclise (Ryazan and Lipetsk oblasts). The placers formed in the Cenomanian are known in the Tambov oblast in the northeast of the Voronezh Anteclise and are related to phosphate-bearing glauconite-quartz sand. The early Campanian phosphorite-glauconite-quartz formation is widespread in the northwest of the Voronezh Anteclise at the junction with the northeastern wall of the Dnieper-Donets Basin (Bryansk oblast). The Oligocene-Miocene epoch was characterized by quartz sands abundant in the northwestern and south-western areas. The formation of zirconium-titanium placers is controlled by structural-tectonic, facies, volcanic, paleogeographic, stratigraphic, and evolutional factors. The indispensable condition for heavy mineral concentration is existence of positive forms of underwater topography. These are mostly structural elements of the third and fourth orders on the slopes of the Voronezh Anteclise at the boundaries of the adjacent negative structures. As concerns the facies factor, the occurrence of coastal and shallow-water marine facies with alternating and medium hydrodynamic activity and predominance of sand fractions 0.25-0.05 mm are criteria of elevated concentration of heavy minerals in sand. One of the conditions providing concentration of heavy minerals is a multiple rewashing of sands close to a relatively stable shoreline. The volcanic factor is determinant for the lower Frasnian marine placers fed by volcanic sources. The Cretaceous and Paleogene zirconium-titanium placers were formed owing to scouring of the older Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks of the Voronezh Anteclise, as well as the Baltic Shield, Moscow Syneclise, and the Volga-Ural Anteclise. The age of placers was estimated with accuracy up to substages (lower Aptian, lower Santonian, lower Campanian). The evolution factor is expressed in variation of localization and composition of placers in time and space. The forecast of potentially ore-bearing areas is based on optimal combinations of favorable factors.

  4. Daintain/AIF-1 (Allograft Inflammatory Factor-1) accelerates type 1 diabetes in NOD mice

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yan-Ying; Huang, Xin-Yuan; Chen, Zheng-Wang

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 is over-expressed in the blood of NOD mice suffering from insulitis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 stimulates white blood cell proliferation in NOD mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 increases blood glucose levels and triggers type 1 diabetes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 accelerates insulitis, while its antibody prevents insulitis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 enhances the levels of nitric oxide in the pancreases of NOD mice. -- Abstract: A large body of experimental evidence suggests that cytokines trigger pancreatic {beta}-cell death in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Daintain/AIF-1 (Allograft Inflammatory Factor-1), a specific marker for activated macrophages, is accumulated in the pancreatic islets of pre-diabetic BB rats. In the present study, we demonstrate that daintain/AIF-1 is released into blood and the levels of daintain/AIF-1 in the blood of type 1 diabetes-prone non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice suffering from insulitis are significantly higher than that in healthy NOD mice. When injected intravenously into NOD mice, daintain/AIF-1 stimulates white blood cell proliferation, increases the concentrations of blood glucose, impairs insulin expression, up-regulates nitric oxide (NO) production in pancreases and accelerates diabetes in NOD mice, while the antibody against daintain/AIF-1 delays or prevents insulitis in NOD mice. These results imply daintain/AIF-1 triggers type 1 diabetes probably via arousing immune cells activation and induction of NO production in pancreas of NOD mice.

  5. Associations between Familial Factor, Trait Conscientiousness, Gender and the Occurrence of Type 2 Diabetes in Adulthood: Evidence from a British Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Helen; Treglown, Luke; Montgomery, Scott; Furnham, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate social, familial, and psychological factors in influencing the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. Method Some 17,415 babies born in Great Britain in 1958 and followed up at 7, 11, 33, and 50 years of age. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes at age 50 years was the outcome measure. Results Some 5,032 participants with data on parental social class, childhood cognitive ability tests scores at age 11 years, educational qualifications at age 33 years, personality traits, occupational levels, and type 2 diabetes (all measured at age 50 years) were included in the study. Available information also included whether cohort members’ parents or siblings had diabetes. Using logistic regression analyses, results showed that sex (OR=0.63: 0.42-0.92, p<.05), family history (OR=3.40: 1.76-6.55, p<.01), and trait conscientiousness (OR=0.76: 0.64-0.90, p<.001) were all significantly and independently associated with the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. It appears that the occurrence of type 2 diabetes is greater among men than women (4.3% vs 2.5%). Conclusion Familial (genetic and non-genetic) and psychological factors are significantly associated with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. PMID:25946160

  6. A mammary cell-specific enhancer in mouse mammary tumor virus DNA is composed of multiple regulatory elements including binding sites for CTF/NFI and a novel transcription factor, mammary cell-activating factor.

    PubMed Central

    Mink, S; Härtig, E; Jennewein, P; Doppler, W; Cato, A C

    1992-01-01

    Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is a milk-transmitted retrovirus involved in the neoplastic transformation of mouse mammary gland cells. The expression of this virus is regulated by mammary cell type-specific factors, steroid hormones, and polypeptide growth factors. Sequences for mammary cell-specific expression are located in an enhancer element in the extreme 5' end of the long terminal repeat region of this virus. This enhancer, when cloned in front of the herpes simplex thymidine kinase promoter, endows the promoter with mammary cell-specific response. Using functional and DNA-protein-binding studies with constructs mutated in the MMTV long terminal repeat enhancer, we have identified two main regulatory elements necessary for the mammary cell-specific response. These elements consist of binding sites for a transcription factor in the family of CTF/NFI proteins and the transcription factor mammary cell-activating factor (MAF) that recognizes the sequence G Pu Pu G C/G A A G G/T. Combinations of CTF/NFI- and MAF-binding sites or multiple copies of either one of these binding sites but not solitary binding sites mediate mammary cell-specific expression. The functional activities of these two regulatory elements are enhanced by another factor that binds to the core sequence ACAAAG. Interdigitated binding sites for CTF/NFI, MAF, and/or the ACAAAG factor are also found in the 5' upstream regions of genes encoding whey milk proteins from different species. These findings suggest that mammary cell-specific regulation is achieved by a concerted action of factors binding to multiple regulatory sites. Images PMID:1328867

  7. Microvascular Complications and Their Associated Risk Factors in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Dipika; Gudala, Kapil; Esam, Hari Prasad; Nayakallu, Ramya; Vyamusani, Raja Vikram; Bhansali, Anil

    2014-01-01

    The study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of microvascular complications and associated risk factors in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a public tertiary care hospital. All the recruited patients underwent extensive examination for the presence of microvascular complications like neuropathy, retinopathy, and nephropathy. Prevalence of any complication was 18.04%. Prevalence of neuropathy, retinopathy, and nephropathy was found to be 8.2%, 9.5%, and 2.8%, respectively. Triglycerides (OR, 1.01; P = 0.011) and old age (OR, 1.06; P ? 0.01) were significantly associated with any complication. Triglycerides were significantly associated with neuropathy (OR, 1.01; P = 0.05) and retinopathy (OR, 1.01; P = 0.02). Being male posed high risk for nephropathy (OR, 0.06; P = 0.01). These results are suggesting need of regular screening for microvascular complications. PMID:26464850

  8. Role of adiponectin and some other factors linking type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborti, Chandra Kanti

    2015-01-01

    Because of the intimate association of obesity with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), during the last two decades, extensive research work is being conducted to find out whether the coexistence of the two is a simple association or there is a positive correlating link between the two. In this article, an attempt has been made to collect and analyse the recent developments in this field and to arrive at a conclusion on the subject. The possible role of several important factors (obtained from adipocytes/not of adipocyte origin) in linking the two has been discussed in detail. Some of the agents, specifically adiponectin, are beneficial (i.e., reduce the incidence of both), while others are harmful (i.e., increase their incidence). From the analysis, it appears that obesity and T2DM are intimately linked. PMID:26557957

  9. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes in a sixth-grade multi-racial cohort: The HEALTHY study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    HEALTHY is a 3-year middle school intervention program designed to reduce risk factors for type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes risk factors at baseline in a cohort of 6,358 sixth-grade students is reported. Forty-two schools at seven U.S. sites were randomly assigned to intervention or contr...

  10. Mining the Brassica oleracea genome for Q-type C2H2 zinc finger transcription factor proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Q-type zinc finger proteins have been studied in several plant species and have been associated with response to stress. A whole genome analysis of Arabidopsis identified 176 putative C2H2 transcription factors (TF). Q-type C2H2 TFs containing the QALGGH motif and are a subset of these. In Arabidops...

  11. Association between transcription factor 7-like 2 rs7903146 polymorphism and diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuzhi; Hu, Zizhong; Yuan, Songtao; Xie, Ping; Liu, Qinghuai

    2015-11-01

    As one of the vascular complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus, the incidence of diabetes retinopathy is greatly increasing worldwide. Both genetic and environmental factors are involved in the pathologies. A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the association between transcription factor 7-like 2 polymorphism (rs7903146) and type 2 diabetic retinopathy. Published literature from PubMed, Web of Science and China National Knowledge Infrastructure were retrieved. Pooled odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to estimate the strength of the association. Eight studies including 6422 participants were included in the final meta-analysis. Our analysis provides substantial evidence that the rs7903146 variant is significantly associated with the risk of diabetic retinopathy in Caucasian populations while not in East Asian populations. The variant of rs7903146 appeared more likely to be a promising genetic biomarker of diabetic retinopathy in Caucasians. PMID:26316572

  12. Effect of dietary factors on incidence of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review of cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2005-08-01

    We systematically reviewed cohort studies on the effect of nutrient and food intake (except for alcohol) on the incidence of type 2 diabetes, which had been published in English as of May 2004. Using the MEDLINE (PubMed) database as well as reference lists of searched papers, 15 individual cohort studies (a total of 31 papers) were identified. The number of subjects (n= 895-85,060), follow-up length (5.9-23 y), the number of diabetes cases (n= 74-4,085), dietary assessment method used (simple food questionnaire, food frequency questionnaire, food frequency interview, diet history interview, and 24-h recall), and method of case ascertainment (questionnaire, oral glucose tolerance test, fasting glucose level, death certificate, and nationwide registry) varied among studies. For nutrients, intakes of vegetable fat, polyunsaturated fatty acid, dietary fiber (particularly cereal fiber), magnesium, and caffeine were significantly inversely correlated and intakes of trans fatty acid and heme-iron, glycemic index, and glycemic load were significantly positively correlated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes in several papers. For foods and food groups, several papers showed significantly decreased risk for type 2 diabetes with the higher consumption of grain (particularly whole grain) and coffee, and significantly increased risk with processed meat consumption. Because all the studies were carried out in Western countries, however, research in non-Western countries including Japan is needed. PMID:16262005

  13. Defective glycosylation of coagulation factor XII underlies hereditary angioedema type III

    PubMed Central

    Björkqvist, Jenny; de Maat, Steven; Lewandrowski, Urs; Di Gennaro, Antonio; Oschatz, Chris; Schönig, Kai; Nöthen, Markus M.; Drouet, Christian; Braley, Hal; Nolte, Marc W.; Sickmann, Albert; Panousis, Con; Maas, Coen; Renné, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema type III (HAEIII) is a rare inherited swelling disorder that is associated with point mutations in the gene encoding the plasma protease factor XII (FXII). Here, we demonstrate that HAEIII-associated mutant FXII, derived either from HAEIII patients or recombinantly produced, is defective in mucin-type Thr309-linked glycosylation. Loss of glycosylation led to increased contact-mediated autoactivation of zymogen FXII, resulting in excessive activation of the bradykinin-forming kallikrein-kinin pathway. In contrast, both FXII-driven coagulation and the ability of C1-esterase inhibitor to bind and inhibit activated FXII were not affected by the mutation. Intravital laser-scanning microscopy revealed that, compared with control animals, both F12–/– mice reconstituted with recombinant mutant forms of FXII and humanized HAEIII mouse models with inducible liver-specific expression of Thr309Lys-mutated FXII exhibited increased contact-driven microvascular leakage. An FXII-neutralizing antibody abolished bradykinin generation in HAEIII patient plasma and blunted edema in HAEIII mice. Together, the results of this study characterize the mechanism of HAEIII and establish FXII inhibition as a potential therapeutic strategy to interfere with excessive vascular leakage in HAEIII and potentially alleviate edema due to other causes. PMID:26193639

  14. Staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid inhibits delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions via the platelet-activating factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiwei; Mousdicas, Nico; Yi, Qiaofang; Al-Hassani, Mohammed; Billings, Steven D; Perkins, Susan M; Howard, Katherine M; Ishii, Satoshi; Shimizu, Takao; Travers, Jeffrey B

    2005-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus infections are known triggers for skin inflammation and can modulate immune responses. The present studies used model systems consisting of platelet-activating factor receptor-positive and -negative (PAF-R-positive and -negative) cells and PAF-R-deficient mice to demonstrate that staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a constituent of Gram-positive bacteria cell walls, acts as a PAF-R agonist. We show that LTA stimulates an immediate intracellular Ca2+ flux only in PAF-R-positive cells. Intradermal injections of LTA and the PAF-R agonist 1-hexadecyl-2-N-methylcarbamoyl glycerophosphocholine (CPAF) induced cutaneous inflammation in wild-type but not PAF-R-deficient mice. Systemic exposure to LTA or CPAF inhibited delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions to the chemical dinitrofluorobenzene only in PAF-R-expressing mice. The inhibition of DTH reactions was abrogated by the addition of neutralizing antibodies to IL-10. Finally, we measured levels of LTA that were adequate to stimulate PAF-R in vitro on the skin of subjects with infected atopic dermatitis. Based on these studies, we propose that LTA exerts immunomodulatory effects via the PAF-R through production of the Th2 cytokine IL-10. These findings show a novel mechanism by which staphylococcal infections can inhibit Th1 reactions and thus worsen Th2 skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis. PMID:16184199

  15. Unconventional secretion of fibroblast growth factor 2--a novel type of protein translocation across membranes?

    PubMed

    Steringer, Julia P; Müller, Hans-Michael; Nickel, Walter

    2015-03-27

    N-terminal signal peptides are a hallmark of the vast majority of soluble secretory proteins that are transported along the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi-dependent pathway. They are recognized by signal recognition particle, a process that initiates membrane translocation into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum followed by vesicular transport to the cell surface and release into the extracellular space. Beyond this well-established mechanism of protein secretion from eukaryotic cells, a number of extracellular proteins with critical physiological functions in immune surveillance and tissue organization are known to be secreted in a manner independent of signal recognition particle. Such processes have collectively been termed "unconventional protein secretion" and, while known for more than two decades, their underlying mechanisms are only beginning to emerge. Different types of unconventional secretory mechanisms have been described with the best-characterized example being based on direct translocation of cytoplasmic proteins across plasma membranes. The aim of this review is to critically assess our current knowledge of this type of unconventional secretion focusing on fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) as the most established example. PMID:25051502

  16. Interest in different types of patients. What factors influence new-to-practice family physicians?

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, M.; Woodward, C. A.; Ferrier, B.; Williams, A. P.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that influence new-to-practice family physicians to be particularly interested in certain types of patients. DESIGN: Qualitative study and cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Ontario family practices. PARTICIPANTS: Seven focus groups involved a volunteer sample of 34 physicians who completed family medicine residency training between 1984 and 1989. A convenience sample of 43 physicians who had completed their residencies between 1990 and 1992 were interviewed. All certificates of the College of Family Physicians of Canada currently practising in Ontario who received certification between 1989 and 1991 were surveyed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Physician interest as determined by scores on two scales: one labeled "Chronic/Older Patient," designed to assess special interest in geriatric patients, chronic pain patients, palliative care patients, and chronically ill patients, and one labeled "Young Patient," designed to assess special interest in young families and adolescents. RESULTS: In general, new-to-practice physicians had little interest in caring for older or chronic patients; older physicians and male physicians had greater interest in caring for chronic or older patients. Women physicians, physicians rating higher on the "empathy" and "interest in counseling" scale, and physicians receiving primarily fee-for-service remuneration showed greater interest in caring for young families and adolescents than other physicians. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians' age, sex, attitudes to patient care, method of remuneration, undergraduate and postgraduate schools of medical training, and the age and sex composition of their practices all influenced their interest in caring for different types of patients. PMID:8939318

  17. Non-adherence to life-style modification and its factors among type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Mumu, Shirin Jahan; Saleh, Farzana; Ara, Ferdous; Afnan, Fadia; Ali, Liaquat

    2014-01-01

    Non-adherence to preventive and therapeutic life-style recommendations among patients with diabetes is special challenge in the management of these patients. This study aimed to measure the proportion of non-adherence to life-style modification and factors associated with these among a group of Bangladeshi type 2 diabetic patients. Under an analytical cross-sectional design 374 type 2 diabetic patients (age >20 years), diagnosed for at least 1 year, were selected from different health care centers operated by the Diabetic Association of Bangladesh. Non-adherence rate were assessed for: Diet (88%), exercise (25%), routine blood glucose testing (32%), foot care (70%), smoking (6%) and betel quid chewing habit (25%). Binary logistic regression suggests that higher education group (P = 0.013), rural area (P = 0.013) and attendance to diabetes education classes (P = 0.043) showed good adherence to diet and non-attendance to diabetes education class (P = 0.014), older age (P = 0.037) are associated to non-adherence to exercise. Unemployed patients showed more non-adherence to blood glucose testing (P = 0.045) than others. Non-attendance to diabetes education class (P = 0.037) and business occupation group (P = 0.039) showed significant association to smoking and betel quid intake habit respectively. PMID:24748356

  18. Pharmacological Analysis of Nod Factor-Induced Calcium Spiking in Medicago truncatula. Evidence for the Requirement of Type IIA Calcium Pumps and Phosphoinositide Signaling1

    PubMed Central

    Engstrom, Eric M.; Ehrhardt, David W.; Mitra, Raka M.; Long, Sharon R.

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial Nod factors trigger a number of cellular responses in root hairs of compatible legume hosts, which include periodic, transient increases in cytosolic calcium levels, termed calcium spiking. We screened 13 pharmaceutical modulators of eukaryotic signal transduction for effects on Nod factor-induced calcium spiking. The purpose of this screening was 2-fold: to implicate enzymes required for Nod factor-induced calcium spiking in Medicago sp., and to identify inhibitors of calcium spiking suitable for correlating calcium spiking to other Nod factor responses to begin to understand the function of calcium spiking in Nod factor signal transduction. 2-Aminoethoxydiphenylborate, caffeine, cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), 2,5-di-(t-butyl)-1,4-hydroquinone, and U-73122 inhibit Nod factor-induced calcium spiking. CPA and U-73122 are inhibitors of plant type IIA calcium pumps and phospholipase C, respectively, and implicate the requirement for these enzymes in Nod factor-induced calcium spiking. CPA and U-73122 inhibit Nod factor-induced calcium spiking robustly at concentrations with no apparent toxicity to root hairs, making CPA and U-73122 suitable for testing whether calcium spiking is causal to subsequent Nod factor responses. PMID:11950987

  19. Urinary transforming growth factor-beta 1 in various types of nephropathy.

    PubMed

    De Muro, Pierina; Faedda, Rossana; Fresu, Pietro; Masala, Antonio; Cigni, Alessandro; Concas, Gordiano; Mela, Maria Graziella; Satta, Andrea; Carcassi, Aldo; Sanna, Giovanni Maria; Cherchi, Gian Mario

    2004-03-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) is a potent multifunctional polypeptide that is involved in normal renal function and in the development of glomerular sclerosis. It is also an important mediator of the immune and anti-inflammatory responses. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the measurement of urinary TGF-beta1 excretion in patients with different types of renal diseases and in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus represents a non-invasive tool to evaluate disease activity and to monitor response to therapy. We studied the urinary excretion of TGF-beta1 in 57 nephropathic patients divided in different groups according to the underlying disease: 15 had mesangial glomerulonephritis (IgAGN), 9 membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN), 7 rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN), 8 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 9 interstitial nephritis (IN), 9 chronic renal failure (CRF). TGF-beta1 was also measured in 38 patients with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus (12 with newly diagnosed diabetes, 26 long-standing diabetes) and 31 healthy controls. Total urinary TGF-beta1 concentration was assayed by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA), and expressed as a ratio to urinary creatinine concentration. The urinary TGF-beta1 levels were compared with the findings of biopsy and clinical parameters. Urinary TGF-beta1 excretion was significantly increased in all groups except MGN, IN and CRF. In non-diabetic patients, urinary TGF-beta1 levels correlated with crescent formation, floccular adhesion and mesangial proliferation, but not with the degree of tubulo-interstitial fibrosis. Urinary TGF-beta1 levels did not correlate with indices of renal function (serum creatinine, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), albumin excretion rate [AER]). Among diabetic patients, HbA(1C) significantly correlated with TGF-beta1 urinary excretion. Urinary TGF-beta1 levels may represent a valid indicator of acute glomerular flogosis associated with mesangial proliferation in glomerulonephrities. In newly diagnosed diabetic patients, hyperglycaemia seems to represent the principal factor leading to TGF-beta1 overproduction. Follow-up studies of urinary TGF-beta1 levels measured during optimal glycaemic control are necessary to clarify the relationship between hyperglycaemia and TGF-beta1 excretion. PMID:14726227

  20. Cardiovascular Risk Factors Increase the Risks of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chun-Pai; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Li, Chia-Ing; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Lin, Wen-Yuan; Hwang, Kai-Lin; Yang, Sing-Yu; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Li, Tsai-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to examine whether poor glycemic control, measured by glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) and other cardiovascular risk factors, can predict diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Patients aged ?30 years with type 2 DM, enrolled in the National Diabetes Care Management Program, and free of DPN (n?=?37,375) in the period 2002 to 2004 were included and followed up until 2011. The related factors were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. For an average follow-up of 7.00 years, 8379 cases of DPN were identified, with a crude incidence rate of 32.04/1000 person-years. After multivariate adjustment, patients with HbA1c levels 7 to 8%, 8 to 9%, 9 to 10%, and ?10% exhibited higher risk of DPN (adjusted HR: 1.11 [1.04–1.20], 1.30 [1.21–1.40], 1.32 [1.22–1.43], and 1.62 [1.51–1.74], respectively) compared with patients with HbA1c level 6 to 7%. There was a significant linear trend in DPN incidence with increasing HbA1c (P?type 2 DM and HbA1c ?7.0% exhibit increased risk of DPN, demonstrating a linear relationship. The incidence of DPN is also associated with poor glucose control and cardiovascular risk factors like hypertension, hyper-triglyceridemia, low HDL-C, high LDL-C, and decreased eGFR. PMID:26496307

  1. Monte Carlo calculations of electron beam quality conversion factors for several ion chamber types

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, B. R.; Rogers, D. W. O.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To provide a comprehensive investigation of electron beam reference dosimetry using Monte Carlo simulations of the response of 10 plane-parallel and 18 cylindrical ion chamber types. Specific emphasis is placed on the determination of the optimal shift of the chambers’ effective point of measurement (EPOM) and beam quality conversion factors. Methods: The EGSnrc system is used for calculations of the absorbed dose to gas in ion chamber models and the absorbed dose to water as a function of depth in a water phantom on which cobalt-60 and several electron beam source models are incident. The optimal EPOM shifts of the ion chambers are determined by comparing calculations of R{sub 50} converted from I{sub 50} (calculated using ion chamber simulations in phantom) to R{sub 50} calculated using simulations of the absorbed dose to water vs depth in water. Beam quality conversion factors are determined as the calculated ratio of the absorbed dose to water to the absorbed dose to air in the ion chamber at the reference depth in a cobalt-60 beam to that in electron beams. Results: For most plane-parallel chambers, the optimal EPOM shift is inside of the active cavity but different from the shift determined with water-equivalent scaling of the front window of the chamber. These optimal shifts for plane-parallel chambers also reduce the scatter of beam quality conversion factors, k{sub Q}, as a function of R{sub 50}. The optimal shift of cylindrical chambers is found to be less than the 0.5 r{sub cav} recommended by current dosimetry protocols. In most cases, the values of the optimal shift are close to 0.3 r{sub cav}. Values of k{sub ecal} are calculated and compared to those from the TG-51 protocol and differences are explained using accurate individual correction factors for a subset of ion chambers investigated. High-precision fits to beam quality conversion factors normalized to unity in a beam with R{sub 50} = 7.5 cm (k{sub Q}{sup ?}) are provided. These factors avoid the use of gradient correction factors as used in the TG-51 protocol although a chamber dependent optimal shift in the EPOM is required when using plane-parallel chambers while no shift is needed with cylindrical chambers. The sensitivity of these results to parameters used to model the ion chambers is discussed and the uncertainty related to the practical use of these results is evaluated. Conclusions: These results will prove useful as electron beam reference dosimetry protocols are being updated. The analysis of this work indicates that cylindrical ion chambers may be appropriate for use in low-energy electron beams but measurements are required to characterize their use in these beams.

  2. [Parallel factor analysis for excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy of dissolved organic matter from a reservoir-type river].

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei-Dong; Yang, Li-Yang; Wang, Fu-Li; Chen, Wen-Zhao; Wang, Xin-Hong; Hong, Hua-Sheng

    2011-02-01

    The fluorescent components and their distribution and variation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were examined using excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy-parallel factor analysis technique (EEMs-PARAFAC) for samples collected during June, 2008 from Minjiang River, a typical subtropical reservoir-type river ecosystem. Three separate fluorescent components were identified by PARAFAC, including two dominant humic-like components (C1: < 250, 325/424 nm; C2: 270, 395/482 nm) and one protein-like component (C3: < 250, 280/358 nm), of which humic-like components were dominant. Fluorescence analysis provided a 'fingerprint' technique to trace the mixing of DOM between three tributaries in the upstream of Minjiang River. The nearly constant concentration and composition in the main stream of Minjiang River reflected the effect of dam construction Correlation and principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that humic-like components were principally derived from flushing of watershed soils, while protein-like component was formed from in-situ production which could be used as a proxy of the concentration of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN). Multi-linear regression of fluorescent components C2 and C3 can be used to trace the variation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. This study demonstrates that Minjiang is a typical subtropical reservoir-type river which still keeps relatively 'unpolluted' aquatic environment. PMID:21510396

  3. Factors associated with utilization of dipeptidyl-4 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Zaman Huri, Hasniza; Selamat, NorFarahen; Vethakkan, Shireene Ratna

    2014-01-01

    Dipeptidyl-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are oral antidiabetic agents recently introduced to Malaysia. Thus, limited data is available on their utilization patterns and factors associated with their use. This study aims to analyse the utilization patterns of DPP-4 inhibitors, factors that influenced the choice of agent, and the rationale for treatment with DPP-4 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This retrospective study was conducted to address the utilization pattern of DPP-4 inhibitors and factors that influence choice in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. 299 subjects taking either sitagliptin or vildagliptin from September 2008 to September 2012 were included in the study. Sitagliptin was more frequently prescribed than vildagliptin. Of the patients prescribed DPP-4 inhibitors, 95% received combinations of these and other agents, whereas only 5% were prescribed DPP-4 inhibitors as monotherapy. Factors affecting the utilization of DPP-4 inhibitors included age (P = 0.049) and concomitant use of beta blockers (P = 0.045) and aspirin (P = 0.008). Early identification of factors associated with DPP-4 inhibitors is essential to enhance quality use of the drugs. PMID:25258626

  4. Percutaneous renal allograft biopsy. A comparison of two needle types and analysis of risk factors.

    PubMed

    Kolb, L G; Velosa, J A; Bergstralh, E J; Offord, K P

    1994-06-27

    We retrospectively reviewed all (n = 369) percutaneous renal allograft biopsies performed at our institution between 1987 and 1992, comparing 14-gauge Franklin-Silverman (internal diameter = 2.0 mm, n = 169) and 18-gauge automated (internal diameter = 1.2 mm, n = 200) core biopsy needles. Visualization method, specimen adequacy, and complications were grouped by needle type. Five or more glomeruli were present in 88.9% of specimens obtained with Franklin-Silverman needles and in 82.7% with automated needles. A histologic diagnosis was obtained in 94.1% and 95.5% of Franklin-Silverman and automated biopsies, respectively. A complication was detected in 27 Franklin-Silverman biopsies (16.0%) and in 21 automated biopsies (10.5%) (not significant [NS], P > 0.05). Some procedures had more than one complication. Excluding asymptomatic gross hematuria, incidental hematomas, and incidental arteriovenous fistulas detected by routine ultrasonography, clinically significant complication rates were 6.5% for Franklin-Silverman biopsies and 2.5% for automated biopsies (NS). No allograft losses or patient deaths occurred as a result of allograft biopsy. Subgroup analysis of all biopsies performed with ultrasound marking alone (Franklin-Silverman, n = 119; automated, n = 148) revealed no significant (NS) difference in complication rates (15.1% vs. 10.8%). Additional subgroup analyses of palpation, ultrasound marking, and real-time ultrasonographic visualization techniques within each needle type also revealed no significant difference in the complication rate. Biopsy within 30 days of transplantation and no antihypertensive therapy were the only factors univariately associated (P < 0.05) with an increased complication rate. Multivariate analysis found biopsy within 30 days of transplantation (P = 0.007) was associated with the overall presence of one or more complications of any type. Type of needle (Franklin-Silverman vs. automated) achieved borderline significance (P = 0.047) when time to biopsy was statistically adjusted for; the Franklin-Silverman needle had a higher complication rate. PMID:8016879

  5. Resistance to the apoptotic effect of aggregated amyloid-beta peptide in several different cell types including neuronal- and hepatoma-derived cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Mazziotti, M; Perlmutter, D H

    1998-01-01

    There is a large body of literature indicating that aggregated amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) is toxic to neurons and suggesting that this neurotoxicity represents the final common pathway for neuronal degeneration in Alzheimer's disease. Previous studies have shown the outgrowth of a subclone of the rat neuronal cell line PC12 that is resistant to the toxic effect of aggregated Abeta peptide if the parent cell line is grown in the presence of aggregated Abeta peptide for a number of passages [Behl, Davis, Lesley and Schubert (1994) Cell 77, 817-827; Boland, Behrens, Choi, Manias and Perlmutter (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 18032-18044]. To begin to characterize the mechanism by which PC12 cells become resistant to the apoptotic effect of Abeta peptide, in the present study we examined whether the resistance was specific to aggregated peptides, specific to an apoptotic form of cell death, and specific in cell type or was a general resistance to cell death that could be elicited in diverse cell types. The results show that the resistance is specific to compounds that have apoptotic effects through the generation of hydroxyl radical or H2O2, including aggregated Abeta-(25-35), Abeta-(1-40), Abeta-(1-42), Abeta-(1-43), amylin, 6-hydroxydopamine and H2O2 itself. The resistant subclones of PC12 were not resistant to other forms of apoptotic cell death or to necrotic cell death. The resistant state was also identified in a human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, when it was grown in the presence of aggregated Abeta-(25-35) for several passages, indicating that the mechanism(s) or molecule(s) responsible for this resistance are not restricted to neuronal cells and may be relevant to the pathobiology of oxidative injury in other cell types. PMID:9601082

  6. Risk Factors Associated with Different Types of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV): An Emergency Department Study

    PubMed Central

    Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Kim, Eunjin; Lin, Johnny; Ahmadi, Alireza; Khamesi, Mojdeh T; Teruya, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    Background Domestic intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious healthcare concern, which may be mitigated by early detection, screening and intervention. Objectives We examine posited predictors in IPV and non-IPV groups, and in four different IPV profiles. Possible factors include a) alcohol use, b) drug use, d) depression, e) impulsivity, f) age, and g) any childhood experience in observing parental violence. We also introduce a new “Five Steps in Screening for IPV” quick reference tool, which may assist ED physicians in detection and treatment. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using survey data from 412 inner-city ED patients. Associations were explored using a chi-squared test of independence, independent-samples t-tests, and a one way analysis of variance. Results Nearly 16% had experienced IPV. As a group, they were younger, and more depressed and impulsive than the non-IPV group. They were more likely to engage in binge drinking, use drugs, and had more childhood exposure to violence. In the IPV group, 31% were perpetrators, 20% victims, and 49% both victims and perpetrators. The latter group was younger, more impulsive and depressed, used drugs, and was more likely to have observed parental violence as a child. Conclusion Correlates in groups affected by IPV indicate the same general risk factors, which appear to more acutely affect those who are both perpetrators and victims. Alcohol and drug use, depressive symptoms and childhood exposure to violence may be factors and signs for which emergency physicians should screen in the context of IPV. PMID:25281170

  7. Genetic Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes with Pharmacologic Intervention in African-American Patients with Schizophrenia or Schizoaffective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    MR, Irvin; HW, Wiener; RP, Perry; RM, Savage; CP, Go R

    2009-01-01

    An increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in schizophrenia (SCZ) patients has been observed. Exposure to antipsychotics (APs) has been shown to induce metabolic dysregulation in some patients but not all treated patients. We hypothesized important candidate genes for T2D may increase risk for T2D in African-American patients with SCZ or schizoaffective disorder. The PAARTNERS study comprises African-American families with at least one proband with SCZ or schizoaffective disorder. The current study of PAARTNERS SCZ and schizoaffective disorder cases (N=820) examined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within select T2D candidate genes including transcription factor like 7 (TCF7L2), calpain 10 (CAPN10), and ectoenzyme nucleotide pyrophosphate phosphodiesterase 1 (ENNP1) for association with prevalent T2D. We report association of TCF7L2 (rs7903146) with T2D under both an additive and recessive model for the risk allele T. Specifically, the odds ratio (OR) for having T2D was 1.4 (p=0.03) under an additive model and 2.4 (p=0.004) under a recessive model. We also report a marginally significant TCF7L2 by AP treatment interaction that should be investigated in future studies. CAPN10 (rs3792267) was marginally associated with T2D with OR=1.5 (p=0.08) when considering the model GG vs. AG/AA with risk allele G. ENPP1 (rs1044498) was not associated with T2D. We conclude TCF7L2, a risk factor for T2D in the general population, is also a risk factor for T2D in African-American patients with SCZ or schizoaffective disorder. Research is needed to determine if T2D associated polymorphisms are of interest in the pharmacogenetics and future treatment choices of antipsychotics in African-American patients. PMID:19643578

  8. The seal tuberculosis agent, Mycobacterium pinnipedii, infects domestic cattle in New Zealand: epidemiologic factors and DNA strain typing.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, Scott H; de Lisle, Geoffrey W; Neill, Mark A; Collins, Desmond M; Price-Carter, Marian; Paterson, Brent; Crews, Kevin B

    2014-04-01

    The fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri), which is abundant in coastal areas of New Zealand, harbors several zoonotic pathogens, including Mycobacterium pinnipedii, a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. We describe the microbiology and epidemiology of seven cases of M. pinnipedii infection in beef cattle (Bos primigenius) in coastal areas of New Zealand in 1991-2011. Epidemiologic factors were analyzed on six case farms and a telephone survey of 55 neighboring farms. A DNA-strain typing, using analysis of variable number tandem repeats and the direct repeats (VNTR/DR) of those isolates, was used to compare them to M. bovis isolates commonly found in New Zealand cattle and wildlife. In all cases of M. pinnipedii in cattle, only one animal in the herd was found to be infected. In six of seven cases, the lesions were in the thoracic lymph nodes, indicating a likely aerosol pathway. The lack of multiple cases within a herd suggests that cow-to-cow transmission is uncommon, if it occurs at all. There was no significant difference between case and control farms in distance to sea, herd size, herd type, or farming practice. The odds ratio for access to the beach for cattle on the Chatham Islands was significantly higher than it was for farms on the mainland coastal areas (odds ratio [OR]?= 3.6, 95% CI = 1.1-11.4) Likewise, the odds ratio for acquiring tuberculosis was increased when farmers had seen seals on the property (OR =? 9, 95% CI = 1.4-56.1 ). In all case farms, cattle had access to seals by beach grazing areas or waterways connecting directly with the ocean. The VNTR/DR typing of the isolates showed some variation in the M. pinnipedii isolates, with only two being identical; all isolates were easily distinguishable from M. bovis isolates. PMID:24484478

  9. Assessment of the Common Risk Factors Associated with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Jeddah

    PubMed Central

    Murad, Manal A.; Abdulmageed, Samia S.; Iftikhar, Rahila; Sagga, Bayan Khaled

    2014-01-01

    Risk factor management is important in avoiding life-threatening complications and preventing new-onset diabetes. We performed a case-control study in 2013 at ten primary health care centers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia to determine the common risk factors of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and the demographic background of adult Saudi patients with DM2. Known diabetic patients were recruited as cases, while nondiabetic attendants were selected as controls. A pretested designed questionnaire was used to collect data from 159 cases and 128 controls. Cases were more likely than controls to be men (P < 0.0001), less educated (P < 0.0001), natives of eastern Saudi Arabia (P < 0.0001), retired (P < 0.0001), lower-salaried (P < 0.0001), or married or divorced (P < 0.0001). By univariate analysis cases were likely to be current smokers (P < 0.0001), hypertensive (P < 0.0001), or overweight/obese (P < 0.0001). Cases were also more likely to have a history of DM in a first-degree relative (P = 0.020). By multivariate analysis, cases were more likely to be older than 40 years (P < 0.0001), less educated (P = 0.05), married or divorced (P = 0.04), jobless/housewives (P < 0.0001), or current smokers (P = 0.002). They were also more likely to have salaries <7000 Saudi riyals (P = 0.01). Overall, prediabetic and high risk groups should be identified and counseled early before the occurrence of diabetes. PMID:25548563

  10. Etiopathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus: prognostic factors for the evolution of residual ? cell function

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Type 1A diabetes mellitus (T1ADM) is a progressive autoimmune disease mediated by T lymphocytes with destruction of beta cells. Up to now, we do not have precise methods to assess the beta cell mass, "in vivo" or "ex-vivo". The studies about its genetic susceptibility show strong association with class II antigens of the HLA system (particularly DQ). Others genetics associations are weaker and depend on the population studied. A combination of precipitating events may occur at the beginning of the disease. There is a silent loss of immune-mediated beta cells mass which velocity has an inverse relation with the age, but it is influenced by genetic and metabolic factors. We can predict the development of the disease primarily through the determination of four biochemically islet auto antibodies against antigens like insulin, GAD65, IA2 and Znt8. Beta cell destruction is chronically progressive but at clinical diagnosis of the disease a reserve of these cells still functioning. The goal of secondary disease prevention is halt the autoimmune attack on beta cells by redirecting or dampening the immune system. It is remains one of the foremost therapeutic goals in the T1ADM. Glycemic intensive control and immunotherapeutic agents may preserve beta-cell function in newly diagnosed patients with T1ADM. It may be assessed through C-peptide values, which are important for glycemic stability and for the prevention of chronic complications of this disease. This article will summarize the etiopathogenesis mechanisms of this disease and the factors can influence on residual C-peptide and the strategies to it preservation. PMID:19961609

  11. Vitamin D as a risk factor for premature atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hamdy Al-Said, Nehal; Abd El Ghaffar Mohamed, Nagwa; Salam, Randa F.; Fawzy, Mary Wadie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several cardiovascular risk factors have been recognized in patients with diabetes and vitamin D deficiency is emerging as a new risk. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin D deficiency on the incidence of premature atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A total of 78 patients with type 2 diabetes were subjected to history taking, physical examination, fasting glucose level, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, lipid profile, 25(OH) vitamin D measurement, and carotid Doppler. Results: Patients with normal carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) had sufficient vitamin D. Of those with increased CIMT 23.1% had insufficient vitamin D while 76.9% had sufficient vitamin D (six patients had plaques, one of them had vitamin D insufficiency, and the other five patients had sufficient vitamin D). There was a statistically significant difference in the serum level of vitamin D between patients with increased CIMT, and those with normal intima, with a decreased level in the first group. There was a significant negative correlation between vitamin D and fasting blood glucose. There was a statistically significant correlation in left CIMT between the vitamin D sufficiency group and the vitamin D insufficiency group, with higher values in the second group. There was no statistically significant difference in serum cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol in patients with increased CIMT and those with normal intima. Conclusions: Decreased vitamin D levels in patients with diabetes lead to increased CIMT. The absence of a statistically significance difference in lipid profile between increased and normal CIMT groups raises the possibility of underlying causes for atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes other than dyslipidemia. PMID:26623002

  12. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression in Asthma. Association with Severity and Type 2 Inflammatory Processes.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tetsuya; Fajt, Merritt L; Trudeau, John B; Voraphani, Nipasiri; Hu, Haizhen; Zhou, Xiuxia; Holguin, Fernando; Wenzel, Sally E

    2015-12-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophin family, exists in several isoforms, which differentially impacts neuronal and immune cell survival and differentiation. The role of BDNF and its isoforms in asthma remains unclear. The objectives of this study were to compare the BDNF protein isoforms and specific splice variant expression in sputum and bronchoscopic samples from healthy control subjects and participants with asthma, and to relate these changes to findings in IL-13-stimulated human airway epithelial cells. Sputum and bronchoscopic samples from healthy control subjects and participants with asthma were evaluated for BDNF protein (ELISA and Western blot) and BDNF mRNA (gel and quantitative real-time PCR) in relation to asthma severity and type 2 inflammatory processes. BDNF mRNA was measured in cultured primary human airway epithelial cells after IL-13 stimulation. Total BDNF protein differed among the groups, and its mature isoform was significantly higher in sputum from subjects with severe asthma compared with healthy control subjects (overall P?=?0.008, P?=?0.027, respectively). Total BDNF was higher in those with elevated fractional exhaled nitric oxide and sputum eosinophilia. In vitro, IL-13 increased BDNF exon VIb splice variant and the ratio to BDNF common exon IX mRNA (P?type 2 cytokines regulate BDNF levels and activity in asthma. PMID:25945802

  13. Impact of Environmental Factors and Biological Soil Crust Types on Soil Respiration in a Desert Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Wei; Zhang, Yuqing; Jia, Xin; Wu, Bin; Zha, Tianshan; Qin, Shugao; Wang, Ben; Shao, Chenxi; Liu, Jiabin; Fa, Keyu

    2014-01-01

    The responses of soil respiration to environmental conditions have been studied extensively in various ecosystems. However, little is known about the impacts of temperature and moisture on soils respiration under biological soil crusts. In this study, CO2 efflux from biologically-crusted soils was measured continuously with an automated chamber system in Ningxia, northwest China, from June to October 2012. The highest soil respiration was observed in lichen-crusted soil (0.93±0.43 µmol m?2 s?1) and the lowest values in algae-crusted soil (0.73±0.31 µmol m?2 s?1). Over the diurnal scale, soil respiration was highest in the morning whereas soil temperature was highest in the midday, which resulted in diurnal hysteresis between the two variables. In addition, the lag time between soil respiration and soil temperature was negatively correlated with the soil volumetric water content and was reduced as soil water content increased. Over the seasonal scale, daily mean nighttime soil respiration was positively correlated with soil temperature when moisture exceeded 0.075 and 0.085 m3 m?3 in lichen- and moss-crusted soil, respectively. However, moisture did not affect on soil respiration in algae-crusted soil during the study period. Daily mean nighttime soil respiration normalized by soil temperature increased with water content in lichen- and moss-crusted soil. Our results indicated that different types of biological soil crusts could affect response of soil respiration to environmental factors. There is a need to consider the spatial distribution of different types of biological soil crusts and their relative contributions to the total C budgets at the ecosystem or landscape level. PMID:25050837

  14. Epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus in Shandong Peninsula of China

    PubMed Central

    Du, Zhao-Dong; Hu, Li-Ting; Zhao, Gui-Qiu; Ma, Yan; Zhou, Zhan-Yu; Jiang, Tao

    2011-01-01

    AIM To determine the epidemiological characteristics and estimate the risk factors of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Shandong Peninsula of China. METHODS The cases of T2DM admitted to Affiliated Hospital of Medical College of Qingdao University, Shandong Province, China, from January 2006 to December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. The epidemiological characteristics of DR were estimated. The cases were divided into two groups according to degrees of retinopathy: non-DR group and DR group. Logistic regression analysis was used to study the related risk factors of DR. RESULTS The prevalence of DR in patients with T2DM was 25.08% (834/3326). There was significant difference between the average age for men (59.08±15.43 years) and for women (62.92±18.19 years, P=0.0021). The majority of DR occurred in women (female: male ratio=1.76:1, P<0.0001). The incidence rate of DR in urban (489/834) was higher than that in rural area (345/834, P<0.0001). In 834 DR patients, the mean duration of T2DM was 8.90±4.15 years (range: 0-16 years); 440 people (52.76%) had received varying degrees of health education about prevention and primary care of DM; and 473 people (56.71%) suffered from other DM complications confirmed at the same time. In addition, the incidence rate of monocular (551/3326) and binocular retinopathy (283/3326) were statistically different (P<0.0001). Factors associated (P<0.05) with the presence of DR included old age, lower health educational level, intraocular surgery history, longer duration of T2DM, accompanying with other DM complications, no standard treatment procedure, lower body mass index (BMI) and higher fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), urine albumin (UA), total cholesterol (TC), low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The risk factors (P<0.05) independently associated with the presence of DR were: longer duration of T2DM, lower health educational level, higher FPG, higher UA, lower BMI and higher TC. CONCLUSION DR is highly prevalent in the patients with T2DM in Shandong Peninsula of China. Besides blood glucose, many factors are associated with the present and development of DR. PMID:22553643

  15. Individual factors associated with L- and H-type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in France

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cattle with L-type (L-BSE) and H-type (H-BSE) atypical Bovine Spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) were identified in 2003 in Italy and France respectively before being identified in other countries worldwide. As of December 2011, around 60 atypical BSE cases have currently been reported in 13 countries, with over one third in France. While the epidemiology of classical BSE (C-BSE) has been widely described, atypical BSEs are still poorly documented, but appear to differ from C-BSE. We analysed the epidemiological characteristics of the 12 cases of L-BSE and 11 cases of H-BSE detected in France from January 2001 to late 2009 and looked for individual risk factors. As L-BSE cases did not appear to be homogeneously distributed throughout the country, two complementary methods were used: spatial analysis and regression modelling. L-BSE and H-BSE were studied separately as both the biochemical properties of their pathological prion protein and their features differ in animal models. Results The median age at detection for L-BSE and H-BSE cases was 12.4 (range 8.4-18.7) and 12.5 (8.3-18.2) years respectively, with no significant difference between the two distributions. However, this median age differed significantly from that of classical BSE (7.0 (range 3.5-15.4) years). A significant geographical cluster was detected for L-BSE. Among animals over eight years of age, we showed that the risk of being detected as a L-BSE case increased with age at death. This was not the case for H-BSE. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge this is the first study to describe the epidemiology of the two types of atypical BSE. The geographical cluster detected for L-BSE could be partly due to the age structure of the background-tested bovine population. Our regression analyses, which adjusted for the effect of age and birth cohort showed an age effect for L-BSE and the descriptive analysis showed a particular age structure in the area where the cluster was detected. No birth cohort effect was evident. The relatively small number of cases of atypical BSE and the few individual data available for the tested population limited our analysis to the investigation of age and cohort effect only. We conclude that it is essential to maintain BSE surveillance to further elucidate our findings. PMID:22647660

  16. Production of staphylococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type C: influence of physical and chemical factors.

    PubMed

    Schlievert, P M; Blomster, D A

    1983-02-01

    Physical and chemical factors that may affect the growth of strains of Staphylococcus aureus that are associated with toxic-shock syndrome were examined for their effect on expression of pyrogenic exotoxin type C (PE-C). Significantly more PE-C was made when cultures were incubated at 37 C rather than at 30 C, although bacterial growth was similar at the two temperatures. Furthermore, 32-fold more toxin was made aerobically versus anaerobically for the seven strains tested, whereas only a twofold difference in bacterial growth was seen. Maximal toxin production occurred at pH 7 and pH 8, although the strains grew well in the range of pH 6 to pH 8. Glucose had little effect on growth and toxin production at levels from 0 to 0.3% but suppressed bacterial growth and, more extensively, toxin production at a level of 3%. Significant amounts of PE-C were made in beef-heart medium, brain-heart infusion broth, and Todd-Hewitt broth, but lesser amounts were made in trypticase soy broth. PMID:6827140

  17. Factors in the Design of Centrifugal Type Injection Valves for Oil Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joachim, W F; Beardsley, E G

    1928-01-01

    This research was undertaken in connection with a general study of the application of the fuel injection engine to aircraft. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the effect of four important factors in the design of a centrifugal type automatic injection valve on the penetration, general shape, and distribution of oil sprays. The general method employed was to record the development of single sprays by means of special high-speed photographic apparatus capable of taking 25 consecutive pictures of the moving spray at a rate of 4,000 per second. Investigations were made concerning the effects on spray characteristics, of the helix angle of helical grooves, the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the orifice to that of the grooves, the ratio of orifice length to diameter, and the position of the seat. Maximum spray penetration was obtained with a ratio of orifice length to diameter of about 1.5. Slightly greater penetration was obtained with the seat directly before the orifice.

  18. Type 2 diabetes as a risk factor for cognitive impairment: current insights

    PubMed Central

    Umegaki, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for cognitive dysfunction and dementia in the elderly. T2DM has been thought to be associated with vascular diseases, eventually leading to vascular dementia, but recent studies have established that T2DM is also associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). With the increase in the number of elderly individuals with T2DM, the number of diabetic patients with cognitive dysfunction has been increasing. T2DM may accelerate AD-associated pathologies through insulin resistance. Vascular pathologies may also be associated with cognitive dysfunction and dementia in T2DM subjects. Several other mechanisms also seem to be involved in T2DM-related cognitive dysfunction. More investigations to clarify the association of T2DM with cognitive impairment are warranted. These investigations may help to increase our understanding of AD and open a new door to the development of therapeutics. Recent pharmaceutical advancement in T2DM treatment has resulted in the availability of a wide range of antidiabetics. Some evidence has suggested that antidiabetic therapies help to prevent cognitive dysfunction. At present, however, the optimal level of blood glucose control and the best combination of medications to achieve it in terms of cognitive preservation have not been established. More investigation is warranted. Cognitive dysfunction is an emerging new complication of T2DM that requires further study. PMID:25061284

  19. Action of platelet-activating factor on type 1 diabetic human platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Greco, N.J.; Arnold, J.H.; O'Dorisio, T.M.; Cataland, S.; Panganamala, R.V.

    1985-04-01

    Platelets from patients with type 1 diabetes have exhibited more sensitivity to aggregation when compared with platelets from controls without diabetes after challenge with platelet-activating factor (PAF). The production of thromboxane B2 (TxB2) and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) and the release of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) were increased when the platelets were challenged by PAF (5.0 x 10(-6) mol/L and 1.0 x 10(-6) mol/L). The production of TxB2 and 12-HETE and the release of 5HT were related to the irreversible biphasic aggregation profiles observed in the patients with diabetes. Inhibition of thromboxane A2 (TxA2) production by acetylsalicylic acid abolished the secondary wave of aggregation of platelets from patients with diabetes, changing an irreversible aggregation to a reversible one. Inhibition of both TxA2 and 12-HETE production by eicosatetraenoic acid did not contribute further to the inhibition caused by acetylsalicylic acid alone, indicating that 12-HETE was not involved in the secondary wave of aggregation. These data show that the increased aggregation observed in the platelets from the group with diabetes in response to PAF results in part from their higher production of TxA2 and release of 5HT.

  20. Apocynin Attenuates Cardiac Injury in Type 4 Cardiorenal Syndrome via Suppressing Cardiac Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 With Oxidative Stress Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Yu; Liu, Xun; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Kun; Huang, Feifei; Wang, Jing-Feng; Tang, Wanchun; Huang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Background Type 4 cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) refers to the cardiac injury induced by chronic kidney disease. We aimed to assess oxidative stress and cardiac injury in patients with type 4 CRS, determine whether the antioxidant apocynin attenuated cardiac injury in rats with type 4 CRS, and explore potential mechanisms. Methods and Results A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients with type 4 CRS (n=17) and controls (n=16). Compared with controls, patients with type 4 CRS showed elevated oxidative stress, which was significantly correlated with cardiac hypertrophy and decreased ejection fraction. In vivo study, male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 5/6 subtotal nephrectomy and sham surgery, followed with apocynin or vehicle treatment for 8 weeks. Eight weeks after surgery, the 5/6 subtotal nephrectomy rats mimicked type 4 CRS, showing increased serum creatinine, cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, and decreased ejection fraction compared with sham-operated animals. Cardiac malondialdehyde, NADPH oxidase activity, fibroblast growth factor-2, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation increased significantly in the 5/6 subtotal nephrectomy rats. These changes were significantly attenuated by apocynin. In vitro study showed that apocynin reduced angiotensin II–induced NADPH oxidase–dependent oxidative stress, upregulation of fibroblast growth factor-2 and fibrosis biomarkers, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in cardiac fibroblasts. Importantly, the ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 reduced the upregulation of fibroblast growth factor-2 and fibrosis biomarkers in angiotensin II–treated fibroblasts. Conclusions Oxidative stress is a candidate mediator for type 4 CRS. Apocynin attenuated cardiac injury in type 4 CRS rats via inhibiting NADPH oxidase–dependent oxidative stress-activated ERK1/2 pathway and subsequent fibroblast growth factor-2 upregulation. Our study added evidence to the beneficial effect of apocynin in type 4 CRS. PMID:26109504

  1. Prevalence of HIV, human papillomavirus type 16 and herpes simplex virus type 2 among female sex workers in Guinea and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Aho, Joséphine; Koushik, Anita; Coutlée, François; Diakité, Soumaïla Laye; Rashed, Sélim

    2014-03-01

    Female sex workers are at high risk for HIV infection. Sexually transmitted infections are known to be co-factors for HIV infection. Our aims were (1) to assess the prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in this population; (2) to determine the association between sociodemographic characteristics, behavioural variables, and variables related to HIV prevention and HIV infection. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Conakry, Guinea, among a convenience sample of 223 female sex workers. A questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, risk factors, and exposure to prevention was administered. Screening for HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2, human papillomavirus type 16, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Chlamydia trachomatis was performed. Prevalences of HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2, human papillomavirus type 16, N. gonorrhoeae, and C. trachomatis were 35.3%, 84.1%, 12.2%, 9.0%, and 13.6%, respectively. Having a child, lubricant use, and human papillomavirus type 16 infection were associated with HIV infection. Interventions that promote screening and treatment of sexually transmitted infections are needed in order to achieve successful interventions to prevent HIV among female sex workers in resource-limited settings. PMID:24216036

  2. Multi-Biomarkers for Early Detection of Type 2 Diabetes, Including 10- and 12-(Z,E)-Hydroxyoctadecadienoic Acids, Insulin, Leptin, and Adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Umeno, Aya; Yoshino, Kohzoh; Hashimoto, Yoshiko; Shichiri, Mototada; Kataoka, Masatoshi; Yoshida, Yasukazu

    2015-01-01

    We have previously found that fasting plasma levels of totally assessed 10- and 12-(Z,E)-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HODE) correlated well with levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and glucose during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT); these levels were determined via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry after reduction and saponification. However, 10- and 12-(Z,E)-HODE alone cannot perfectly detect early impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and/or insulin resistance, which ultimately lead to diabetes. In this study, we randomly recruited healthy volunteers (n = 57) who had no known history of any diseases, and who were evaluated using the OGTT, the HODE biomarkers, and several additional proposed biomarkers, including retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), adiponectin, leptin, insulin, glycoalbumin, and high sensitivity-C-reactive protein. The OGTT revealed that our volunteers included normal individuals (n = 44; Group N), "high-normal" individuals (fasting plasma glucose 100-109 mg/dL) with IGT (n = 11; Group HN+IGT), and diabetic individuals (n = 2; Group D). We then used these groups to evaluate the potential biomarkers for the early detection of type 2 diabetes. Plasma levels of RBP4 and glycoalbumin were higher in Group HN+IGT, compared to those in Group N, and fasting levels of 10- and 12-(Z,E)-HODE/linoleic acids were significantly correlated with levels of RBP4 (p = 0.003, r = 0.380) and glycoalbumin (p = 0.006, r = 0.316). Furthermore, we developed a stepwise multiple linear regression models to predict the individuals' insulin resistance index (the Matsuda Index 3). Fasting plasma levels of 10- and 12-(Z,E)-HODE/linoleic acids, glucose, insulin, and leptin/adiponectin were selected as the explanatory variables for the models. The risks of type 2 diabetes, early IGT, and insulin resistance were perfectly predicted by comparing fasting glucose levels to the estimated Matsuda Index 3 (fasting levels of 10- and 12-(Z,E)-HODE/linoleic acids, insulin, and leptin/adiponectin). PMID:26132231

  3. Multi-Biomarkers for Early Detection of Type 2 Diabetes, Including 10- and 12-(Z,E)-Hydroxyoctadecadienoic Acids, Insulin, Leptin, and Adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Umeno, Aya; Yoshino, Kohzoh; Hashimoto, Yoshiko; Shichiri, Mototada; Kataoka, Masatoshi; Yoshida, Yasukazu

    2015-01-01

    We have previously found that fasting plasma levels of totally assessed 10- and 12-(Z,E)-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HODE) correlated well with levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and glucose during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT); these levels were determined via liquid chromatography—mass spectrometry after reduction and saponification. However, 10- and 12-(Z,E)-HODE alone cannot perfectly detect early impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and/or insulin resistance, which ultimately lead to diabetes. In this study, we randomly recruited healthy volunteers (n = 57) who had no known history of any diseases, and who were evaluated using the OGTT, the HODE biomarkers, and several additional proposed biomarkers, including retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), adiponectin, leptin, insulin, glycoalbumin, and high sensitivity-C-reactive protein. The OGTT revealed that our volunteers included normal individuals (n = 44; Group N), “high-normal” individuals (fasting plasma glucose 100–109 mg/dL) with IGT (n = 11; Group HN+IGT), and diabetic individuals (n = 2; Group D). We then used these groups to evaluate the potential biomarkers for the early detection of type 2 diabetes. Plasma levels of RBP4 and glycoalbumin were higher in Group HN+IGT, compared to those in Group N, and fasting levels of 10- and 12-(Z,E)-HODE/linoleic acids were significantly correlated with levels of RBP4 (p = 0.003, r = 0.380) and glycoalbumin (p = 0.006, r = 0.316). Furthermore, we developed a stepwise multiple linear regression models to predict the individuals’ insulin resistance index (the Matsuda Index 3). Fasting plasma levels of 10- and 12-(Z,E)-HODE/linoleic acids, glucose, insulin, and leptin/adiponectin were selected as the explanatory variables for the models. The risks of type 2 diabetes, early IGT, and insulin resistance were perfectly predicted by comparing fasting glucose levels to the estimated Matsuda Index 3 (fasting levels of 10- and 12-(Z,E)-HODE/linoleic acids, insulin, and leptin/adiponectin). PMID:26132231

  4. Eye color, hair color, blood type, and the rhesus factor: exploring possible genetic links to sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Lee; Ficek, Christopher; Burke, Donald; Das, Shyamal

    2008-02-01

    The present study sought to expand the limited evidence that sexual orientation is influenced by genetic factors. This was accomplished by seeking statistical differences between heterosexuals and homosexuals for four traits that are known to be genetically determined: eye color, natural hair color, blood type, and the Rhesus factor. Using a sample of over 7,000 U.S. and Canadian college students supplemented with additional homosexual subjects obtained through internet contacts, we found no significant differences between heterosexuals and homosexuals regarding eye color or hair color. In the case of blood type and the Rh factor, however, interesting patterns emerged. Heterosexual males and females exhibited statistically identical frequencies of the A blood type, while gay men exhibited a relatively low incidence and lesbians had a relatively high incidence (p < .05). In the case of the Rh factor, unusually high proportions of homosexuals of both sexes were Rh- when compared to heterosexuals (p < .06). The findings suggest that a connection may exist between sexual orientation and genes both on chromosome 9 (where blood type is determined) and on chromosome 1 (where the Rh factor is regulated). PMID:18074215

  5. Roles of the Tetrahymena thermophila type I element binding factor, TIF1, in DNA replication and genome stability 

    E-print Network

    Morrison, Tara Laine

    2005-11-01

    The Tetrahymena thermophila rDNA minichromosome has been used as a model system for studying DNA replication. Previous studies have identified cis-acting replication determinants within the rDNA origin and promoter region including the type I...

  6. A Comparison of Regression Prediction Accuracy on Several Types of Factor Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, John D.

    1979-01-01

    Computer-based Monte Carlo methods compared the predictive accuracy upon replication of regression of five complete and four incomplete factor score estimation methods. Prediction on incomplete factor scores showed better double cross-validated prediction accuracy than on complete scores. The unique unit-weighted factor score was superior among…

  7. Genetic and environmental factors affecting mating type frequency in natural isolates of Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Arslanyolu, M; Doerder, F P

    2000-01-01

    In Tetrahymena thermophila mating type alleles specify temperature sensitive frequency distributions of multiple mating types. A-like alleles specify mating types I, II, III, V and VI, whereas B-like alleles specify mating types II through VII. We have characterized the mating type distributions specified by several A- and B-like genotypes segregated by genomic exclusion from cells isolated from a pond in northwestern Pennsylvania. The B-like genotypes are alike in specifying very low frequencies of mating type III, but differ with respect to the frequencies of other mating types, particularly II and VII. An A-like genotype specifies a high frequency of mating type III and is unstable in successive generations for the expression of mating type II, suggesting a possible modifier. Inter se crosses performed at 18 degrees C, 28 degrees C and 34 degrees C showed that each genotype specifies a frequency distribution that is uniquely affected by temperature. No mating type was affected the same way by temperature in all genotypes. In A/B heterozygotes, the B-like genotype exhibited partial dominance. The genotypes described here differ significantly from previously described genotypes from the same pond, indicating that there are numerous mating type alleles. For frequency-dependent selection to equalize mating type frequencies, it must act not only on complex multiple alleles but also on the response of mating type alleles to temperature. PMID:11140456

  8. Do psychological factors influence recovery from complex regional pain syndrome type 1? A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Bean, Debbie J; Johnson, Malcolm H; Heiss-Dunlop, Wolfgang; Lee, Arier C; Kydd, Robert R

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that the outcomes of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) vary significantly between patients, but few studies have identified prognostic indicators. The aim of this study was to determine whether psychological factors are associated with recovery from recently onset CRPS amongst patients followed prospectively for 1 year. Sixty-six patients with CRPS (type 1) were recruited within 12 weeks of symptom onset and assessed immediately and at 6 and 12 months, during which time they received treatment as usual. At each assessment, the following were measured: signs and symptoms of CRPS, pain, disability, depression, anxiety, stress, pain-related fear, pain catastrophising, laterality task performance, body perception disturbance, and perceived ownership of the limb. Mixed-effects models for repeated measures were conducted to identify baseline variables associated with CRPS severity, pain, and disability over the 12 months. Results showed that scores for all 3 outcome variables improved over the study period. Males and those with lower levels of baseline pain and disability experienced the lowest CRPS severity scores over 12 months. Those with lower baseline anxiety and disability had the lowest pain intensity over the study period, and those with lower baseline pain and pain-related fear experienced the least disability over the 12 months. This suggests that anxiety, pain-related fear, and disability are associated with poorer outcomes in CRPS and could be considered as target variables for early treatment. The findings support the theory that CRPS represents an aberrant protective response to perceived threat of tissue injury. PMID:26133727

  9. Negative Interference by Rheumatoid Factor of Plasma B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in Chemiluminescent Microparticle Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Liangcai; Yang, Decai; Liu, Xuezheng; Zhang, Jiajun; Li, Yirong; Yi, Cunjian

    2014-01-01

    Background The chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) is widely used for the quantitative determination of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in human ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid plasma. Rheumatoid factor (RF) is usually thought to result in a positive interference in immunoassays, but it is not clear whether its presence in plasma can lead to interferences in the CMIA of BNP. Methods The estimation of BNP recovery was carried out by diluting high-concentration BNP samples with RF-positive or RF-negative plasma at a ratio of 1?9. The diluted samples were then tested using the ARCHITECT i2000 System and ARCHITECT BNP Reagent Kits and the recovery was then calculated. Results When the RF level ranged from 48 to 1420 IU/mL, the average recovery of BNP was 79.29% and 91.61% in the RF-positive and RF-negative plasma samples, respectively, and was thus significantly lower in the group of RF-positive plasma samples than in the group of RF-negative plasma samples. At a dilution of 1?16, the measured BNP level increased by >36% in six of the seven RF-positive plasma samples. The recovery of BNP increased significantly in the RF-positive plasma samples after pretreatment with IgG-sensitive latex particles. In addition, The BNP recovery was not significantly related to the plasma RF at concentrations ranging from 48 to 2720 IU/mL. Conclusions Measurement of BNP by CMIA is susceptible to interference from RF leading to predominantly (but not exclusively) lower results. Pretreatment of samples with blocking reagents is advisable prior to the initiation of denying patient's necessary treatment. PMID:25144685

  10. Patterns of Circulating Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 in Subjects with and without Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaojing; Hao, Yaping; Lu, Wei; Li, Huating; Bao, Yuqian; Zhou, Jian; Jia, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Background Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) exerts wide-range effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. However, its perturbation in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains elusive. Besides, previous human studies in T2DM simply investigated fasting or stimulated levels of FGF21. The current study sought to evaluate the temporal changes of circulating FGF21 in subjects with and without T2DM. Methods Ten patients with T2DM and 16 normal controls (NC) were recruited. Participants were categorized as obese (BMI?25 kg/m2) or lean (BMI<25 kg/m2). Blood samples were drawn every 30 min within 7 hours (8 a.m.-3 p.m.). Serum FGF21, blood glucose, insulin, free fatty acids (FFAs) and adiponectin were measured in all subjects. Results The peak levels of FGF21 were observed in the fasting state (8 a.m.) both in T2DM and NC groups (267.35 ±158.72 ng/L vs. 178.93±121.37 ng/L, P = 0.096). FGF21 AUC did not differ significantly between the two groups (T2DM: 949.4±471.47 ng/L; NC: 883.13±561.40 ng/L, P = 0.770). Obese subjects had higher FGF21 levels than lean ones in patients either with or without T2DM. The pattern of FFAs closely resembled that of FGF21. Correlation analysis showed that temporal levels of FGF21 were significantly related to FFAs (r = 0.749, P = 0.002),but not blood glucose, insulin or adiponectin (all P> 0.05). Conclusions These findings suggest that the pattern of circulating FGF21 does not differ significantly between T2DM and NC,although T2DM patients showed a trend toward higher fasting FGF21 than healthy subjects. The pattern of circulating FFAs is significantly associated with that of FGF21. PMID:26540514

  11. Impact of Leisure-Time Physical Activity on Glycemic Control and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Japanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Fukuoka Diabetes Registry

    PubMed Central

    Kaizu, Shinako; Kishimoto, Hiro; Iwase, Masanori; Fujii, Hiroki; Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Ide, Hitoshi; Jodai, Tamaki; Kikuchi, Yohei; Idewaki, Yasuhiro; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Nakamura, Udai; Kitazono, Takanari

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis The effects of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) on glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors are not fully understood in Asian type 2 diabetic patients, who are typically non-obese. We studied associations between LTPA and glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Methods A total of 4,870 Japanese type 2 diabetic patients aged ?20 years were divided into eight groups according to their LTPA. We investigated associations between the amount and intensity levels of physical activity (PA) and glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, cardiovascular risk factors, and low-grade systemic inflammation in a cross-sectional study. Results LTPA was dose-dependently associated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and prevalence of metabolic syndrome, but not with blood pressure, low density lipoprotein cholesterol or adiponectin. The amount of PA required to lower HbA1c was greater than that required to improve cardiovascular risk factors. LTPA was inversely associated with HbA1c in non-obese participants but not in obese participants after multivariate adjustments for age, sex, duration of diabetes, current smoking, current drinking, energy intake, cardiovascular diseases, depressive symptoms, and treatment of diabetes. Higher-intensity LTPA, not lower-intensity LTPA was associated with HbA1c after multivariate adjustments with further adjustment including BMI. Conclusions/interpretation LTPA was dose-dependently associated with better glycemic control and amelioration of some cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. In addition, increased higher-intensity LTPA may be appropriate for glycemic control. PMID:24897110

  12. CDK13, a New Potential Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Inhibitory Factor Regulating Viral mRNA Splicing?

    PubMed Central

    Berro, Reem; Pedati, Caitlin; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Wu, Weilin; Klase, Zachary; Even, Yasmine; Genevière, Anne-Marie; Ammosova, Tatiana; Nekhai, Sergei; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2008-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat is a 14-kDa viral protein that acts as a potent transactivator by binding to the transactivation-responsive region, a structured RNA element located at the 5? end of all HIV-1 transcripts. Tat transactivates viral gene expression by inducing the phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II through several Tat-activated kinases and by recruiting chromatin-remodeling complexes and histone-modifying enzymes to the HIV-1 long terminal repeat. Histone acetyltransferases, including p300 and hGCN5, not only acetylate histones but also acetylate Tat at lysine positions 50 and 51 in the arginine-rich motif. Acetylated Tat at positions 50 and 51 interacts with a specialized protein module, the bromodomain, and recruits novel factors having this particular domain, such as P/CAF and SWI/SNF. In addition to having its effect on transcription, Tat has been shown to be involved in splicing. In this study, we demonstrate that Tat interacts with cyclin-dependent kinase 13 (CDK13) both in vivo and in vitro. We also found that CDK13 increases HIV-1 mRNA splicing and favors the production of the doubly spliced protein Nef. In addition, we demonstrate that CDK13 acts as a possible restriction factor, in that its overexpression decreases the production of the viral proteins Gag and Env and subsequently suppresses virus production. Using small interfering RNA against CDK13, we show that silencing of CDK13 leads to a significant increase in virus production. Finally, we demonstrate that CDK13 mediates its effect on splicing through the phosphorylation of ASF/SF2. PMID:18480452

  13. Risk factors of herpes simplex virus type 2 among STD clinic attenders in Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ravinder; Mittal, Nalini; Bhalla, P; Reddy, B N S; Baveja, Usha K

    2006-12-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with HSV-2 infection among sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic attenders of Delhi in India. Out of 128 patients included, 76 were males and 52 were females. Antibodies to HSV 1 and 2 and HIV infection were determined by ELISA. Syphilis seropositivity was determined by VDRL test and confirm by TPHA test. Ulcer scrapping were stained by Giemsa for Herpes progenitalis and Donovan bodies and Grams for Haemophilus decreyi infection. The HSV-2 and HSV-I seroprevalence was found to be 85.2% and 77.3% respectively. 87.3% of HSV-2 seropositive patients were asymptomic. 10.7% of patients had coinfection of HSV-2 and HIV. STDs like syphilis, chancroid, gonococcal and non-gonococcal urethritis were significantly associated in HSV-2 infection. Thus the study demonstrates high prevalence of HSV-2 infection in Delhi city. Significant association of HSV-2 infection with previous history of STD (p < 0.02) and multiple sexual partners in males was found (p < 0.002). PMID:17913210

  14. Inadvertent Propagation of Factor VII Deficiency in a Canine Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I Research Breeding Colony

    PubMed Central

    Carlstrom, Lucas P; Jens, Jackie K; Dobyns, Marley E; Passage, Merry; Dickson, Patricia I; Ellinwood, N Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Issues of cost and genetics can result in inbreeding of canine genetic disease colonies. Beagles often are used to maintain such colonies, providing stock for outcrosses. Factor VII (FVII) deficiency is a hemostatic disorder found at increased frequency in beagles and has been characterized at the DNA level. Deficiency of FVII presents obstacles in colonies founded with beagles. An initial finding of a FVII-deficient pup from a longstanding colony prompted us to evaluate FVII deficiency fully in this colony. Current and archival records and tissues were used to reconstruct the colony pedigree, assess the contribution from beagles, and test samples to document the source and frequency of the mutant FVII allele. As part of this study we developed a PCR-based diagnostic assay that was simpler than what was previously available. Pedigree analysis revealed a founder effect implicating beagles that led to high frequency (55%) of the mutant allele. In addition, affected animals were identified. The complete picture of the clinical effect within the colony remains unclear, but unusual neonatal presentations, including hemoabdomen, have occurred in pups affected with FVII deficiency. Use of a PCR-based diagnostic assay to screen all potential beagle breeding stock will prevent similar occurrences of FVII deficiency in future canine research colonies. PMID:19712579

  15. TIL-type protease inhibitors may be used as targeted resistance factors to enhance silkworm defenses against invasive fungi.

    PubMed

    Li, Youshan; Zhao, Ping; Liu, Huawei; Guo, Xiaomeng; He, Huawei; Zhu, Rui; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-02-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi penetrate the insect cuticle using their abundant hydrolases. These hydrolases, which include cuticle-degrading proteases and chitinases, are important virulence factors. Our recent findings suggest that many serine protease inhibitors, especially TIL-type protease inhibitors, are involved in insect resistance to pathogenic microorganisms. To clarify the molecular mechanism underlying this resistance to entomopathogenic fungi and identify novel genes to improve the silkworm antifungal capacity, we conducted an in-depth study of serine protease inhibitors. Here, we cloned and expressed a novel silkworm TIL-type protease inhibitor, BmSPI39. In activity assays, BmSPI39 potently inhibited the virulence protease CDEP-1 of Beauveria bassiana, suggesting that it might suppress the fungal penetration of the silkworm integument by inhibiting the cuticle-degrading proteases secreted by the fungus. Phenol oxidase activation studies showed that melanization is involved in the insect immune response to fungal invasion, and that fungus-induced excessive melanization is suppressed by BmSPI39 by inhibiting the fungal cuticle-degrading proteases. To better understand the mechanism involved in the inhibition of fungal virulence by protease inhibitors, their effects on the germination of B. bassiana conidia was examined. BmSPI38 and BmSPI39 significantly inhibited the germination of B. bassiana conidia. Survival assays showed that BmSPI38 and BmSPI39 markedly improved the survival rates of silkworms, and can therefore be used as targeted resistance proteins in the silkworm. These results provided new insight into the molecular mechanisms whereby insect protease inhibitors confer resistance against entomopathogenic fungi, suggesting their potential application in medicinal or agricultural fields. PMID:25453359

  16. Academic Skills in Children with Early-Onset Type 1 Diabetes: The Effects of Diabetes-Related Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannonen, Riitta; Komulainen, Jorma; Riikonen, Raili; Ahonen, Timo; Eklund, Kenneth; Tolvanen, Asko; Keskinen, Paivi; Nuuja, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The study aimed to assess the effects of diabetes-related risk factors, especially severe hypoglycaemia, on the academic skills of children with early-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Method: The study comprised 63 children with T1DM (31 females, 32 males; mean age 9y 11mo, SD 4mo) and 92 comparison children without diabetes (40…

  17. EFFECT OF GROWTH FACTOR-FIBRONECTIN MATRIX INTERACTION ON RAT TYPE II CELL ADHESION AND DNA SYTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    Type II cells attach, migrate and proliferate on a provisional fibronectin-rich matrix during alveolar wall repair after lung injury. The combination of cell-substratum interactions via integrin receptors and exposure to local growth factors are likely to initiat...

  18. Lessons learned from the HEALTHY primary prevention trial of risk factors for type 2 diabetes in middle school youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The HEALTHY trial was designed to take a primary prevention approach to risk factors for type 2 diabetes in youth, primarily obesity. The study involved over 6,000 students at 42 middle schools across the U.S. Half received an integrated intervention program of components addressing the school food ...

  19. Incidence, risk factors, and implemented prophylaxis of varicella zoster virus infection, including complicated varicella zoster virus and herpes simplex virus infections, in lenalidomide-treated multiple myeloma patients.

    PubMed

    König, C; Kleber, M; Reinhardt, H; Knop, S; Wäsch, R; Engelhardt, M

    2014-03-01

    In the era of high-dose chemotherapy and novel antimyeloma agents, the survival of multiple myeloma (MM) patients has substantially improved. Adverse effects, including infections, may however arise in the era of combination antimyeloma therapies. In general, MM patients have shown a risk of varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection of 1-4 %, increasing with bortezomib treatment or transplants, but whether immunomodulatory drugs also bear a risk of VZV/complicated herpes simplex virus (HSV) (e.g., VZV-encephalitis [VZV-E], disseminated VZV-infection [d-VZV-i], or conus-cauda syndrome [CCS]) has not been elucidated. We here assessed VZV, VZV-E, d-VZV-i, and CCS in 93 lenalidomide-treated MM patients, consecutively seen and treated in our department. Patients' data were analyzed via electronic medical record retrieval within our research data warehouse as described previously. Of the 93 MM patients receiving lenalidomide, 10 showed VZV or other complicated VZV/HSV infections. These VZV patients showed defined risk factors as meticulously assessed, including suppressed lymphocyte subsets, substantial cell-mediated immune defects, and compromised humoral immune response. Due to our findings-and in line with an aciclovir prophylaxis in bortezomib and stem cell transplant protocols-we introduced a routine aciclovir prophylaxis in our lenalidomide protocols in May 2012 to minimize adverse events and to avoid discontinuation of lenalidomide treatment. Since then, we have observed no case of VZV/complicated HSV infection. Based on our data, we encourage other centers to also focus on these observations, assess viral infections, and-in those centers facilitating a research data warehouse-advocate an analogue data review as an appropriate multicenter approach. PMID:24318541

  20. Tumour type and size are high risk factors for the syndrome of "cerebellar" mutism and subsequent dysarthria

    PubMed Central

    Catsman-Berrevoet..., C.; Van Dongen, H. R; Mulder, P.; y, G; Paquier, P.; Lequin, M.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—"Cerebellar mutis" and subsequent dysarthria (MSD) is a documented complication of posterior fossa surgery in children. In this prospective study the following risk factors for MSD were assessed: type, size and site of the tumour; hydrocephalus at presentation and after surgery, cerebellar incision site, postoperative infection, and cerebellar swelling.?METHODS—In a consecutive series of 42 children with a cerebellar tumour, speech and neuroradiological studies (CT and MRI) were systematically analysed preoperatively and postoperatively. Speech was assessed using the Mayo Clinic lists and the severity of dysarthria using the Michigan rating scale.?RESULTS—Twelve children (29%) developed MSD postoperatively. The type of tumour, midline localisation, and vermal incision were significant single independent risk factors. In addition, an interdependency of possible risk factors (tumour>5 cm, medulloblastoma) was found.?CONCLUSION—MSD often occurs after paediatric cerebellar tumour removal and is most likely after removal of a medulloblastoma with a maximum lesion diameter>5 cm.?? PMID:10567492

  1. Risk factors for distal stent graft-induced new entry following endovascular repair of type B aortic dissection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Wang, Long-Fei; Ma, Wei-Guo; Xu, Shang-Dong; Zheng, Jun; Xing, Xiao-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background Distal stent graft-induced new entry (DSINE) has been increasingly observed following thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) for type B aortic dissection (TBAD). We seek to identify the risk factors for DSINE following TEVAR in patients with TBAD. Methods Between January 2009 and January 2013, we performed TEVAR for 579 patients with TBAD. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed with univariate and multivariate analyses to identify the risk factors for DSINE. Results Two patients (0.3%) died after the initial TEVAR. Morbidity included spinal cord injury in 2 (0.3%), stroke in 3 (0.5%) and endoleak in 12 (2.1%) patients. Clinical and radiological follow-up was complete in 100% (577/577) averaging 47±16 months. Late death occurred in 6 patients. DSINE occurred in 39 patients (6.7%) at mean 22±17 months after the initial TEVAR, which was managed with re-TEVAR in 25 and medically in 14. At 33±18 months after DSINE, 11 of patients managed medically (11/14) and all patients managed with re-TEVAR (25/25) survived (P=0.048). Freedom from DSINE was 92.7% at 5 years (95% CI: 90.0-94.7%). Using tapered stent grafts with a proximal end 4-8 mm larger than the distal end, TEVAR performed in the acute phase (?14 days from onset) was associated with a significantly lower incidence of DSINE than TEVAR performed in the chronic phase (4.3%, 7/185 vs. 13.9%, 15/108; P=0.003). Risk factors for DSINE were stent grafts less than 145 mm in length [odds ratio (OR) 2.268; 95% CI: 1.121-4.587; P=0.023] and TEVAR performed in the chronic phase (OR 1.935; 95% CI: 1.004-3.731; P=0.049). Conclusions Our results show that TEVAR performed during the acute phase and using stent grafts longer than 145 mm could decrease the incidence of DSINE in patients with TBAD. Tapered stent grafts with a proximal end 4-8 mm larger than the distal end may be helpful in preventing DSINE after TEVAR performed in the acute phase than TEVAR performed in the chronic phase, due to the difference in mobility of the dissected flap. Expedite repeat TEVAR is recommended to improve the clinical prognosis for patients with DSINE. PMID:26716029

  2. Risk and Protective Factors of Suicidal Ideation and Attempt among Adolescents with Different Types of School Bullying Involvement.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Liu, Tai-Ling; Yang, Pinchen; Hu, Huei-Fan

    2015-01-01

    Suicide has been found to be prevalent among adolescents involved in bullying; however, there has been a lack of research examining whether the risk and protective factors of suicidal ideation and attempt are different among adolescents with different types of bullying involvement. The aims of this study were to examine the risk and protective factors of suicidal ideation and attempt among adolescents with different experiences of bullying involvement, victimization, and perpetration. A total of 4,533 adolescents participated in this study. Different groups of bullying involvement, victimization, and perpetration were determined through use of the Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire. The associations of suicidal ideation and attempt with possible risk factors (domestic violence, overweight, depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse) and protective factors (family support and self-esteem) were examined using logistic regression analysis. Pure victims, pure perpetrators, and victim-perpetrators were more likely to report suicidal ideation and attempt than the neutral group. The risk and protective factors of suicidal ideation and attempt were different across adolescents with different experiences of bullying involvement, victimization, and perpetrators. The risk of suicide should be monitored among adolescents who are involved in any type of bullying. The risk and protective factors of suicide identified in this study should be taken into consideration in prevention and intervention programs for suicide in adolescents involved in bullying. PMID:26566860

  3. Dynamic Stress Factor (DySF): A Significant Predictor of Severe Hypoglycemic Events in Children with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Rawlings, RA; Yuan, L; Shi, H; Brehm, W; Pop-Busui, R; Nelson, PW

    2013-01-01

    Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is the current standard used in the clinical treatment of patients with diabetes. However, it has been shown that patients with similar HbA1c values may have widely different fluctuations in blood glucose values over the same period of time, including time spent in hyper- and/or hypo-glycemia. Hence, there exists a need for quantitative measures that can supplement HbA1c in managing patients with diabetes. We introduce and compare the Dynamic Stress Factor, DySF, a newly developed metric that quantifies glycemic volatility based on patient-specific glucose transition density profiles with HbA1c and with currently used glucose variability metrics in predicting severe hypoglycemia in children with type 1 diabetes. DySF, the daily weighted number of large monotonic glycemic transitions that occur within one hour, was calculated for 441 total subjects with type 1 diabetes (146 children, aged 8-14 yrs) to assess the magnitude and frequency of glucose transitions per day. Severe hypoglycemic episodes (HE) were quantified for all subjects and evaluated against HbA1c and existing measures of glucose variability, including SD, MAGE, MODD, and CONGA using logistic regression models. DySF was found to be a predictor of severe HE in children (p = 0.018) with the likelihood of a child, aged 8-14 yrs, experiencing severe hypoglycemia increasing by up to 20% with decreasing values of up to 60% of DySF. Patients of any age who had one or multiple severe hypoglycemic episodes had on average a lower DySF when compared to those with no HE. Additionally, when considering mean glucose levels, DySF/mean was a preliminary predictor of severe HE in patients with HbA1c ? 6.5% (p = 0.062). DySF is a dynamic, quantitative, measure of daily glucose “volatility” that separates patients, within the same strata of HbA1c, into visually distinct patient profiles. DySF can be used as a preliminary predictor of clinically severe hypoglycemia in children and “well-controlled” patients with HbA1c ? 6.5%. PMID:24349871

  4. Novel Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes in African-Americans.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Ranee; Maruthur, Nisa M; Edelman, David

    2015-12-01

    In the USA, compared to whites, African-Americans are disproportionately impacted by the diabetes epidemic. Traditional diabetes risk factors, such as obesity, are more common among African-Americans, but these traditional risk factors do not explain all of the disparity in diabetes risk. Recent research has identified novel environmental, lifestyle, physiologic, and genetic risk factors for diabetes, some of which appear to impact African-Americans more than whites. This manuscript reviews the recent literature to highlight some of these novel risk factors that may be contributing to the racial disparity in diabetes risk. Further study is needed of the modifiable risk factors for development of interventions to reduce the risk of diabetes in African-Americans, as well as other high-risk populations. PMID:26458374

  5. Challenges and Opportunities in the Management of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes: Lifestyle and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Katz, Michelle; Giani, Elisa; Laffel, Lori

    2015-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in persons with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Specific risk factors associated with diabetes, such as hyperglycemia and kidney disease, have been demonstrated to increase the incidence and progression of CVD. Nevertheless, few data exist on the effects of traditional risk factors such as dyslipidemia, obesity, and hypertension on CVD risk in youth with T1D. Improvements in understanding and approaches to the evaluation and management of CVD risk factors, specifically for young persons with T1D, are desirable. Recent advances in noninvasive techniques to detect early vascular damage, such as the evaluation of endothelial dysfunction and aortic or carotid intima-media thickness, provide new tools to evaluate the progression of CVD in childhood. In the present review, current CVD risk factor management, challenges, and potential therapeutic interventions in youth with T1D are described. PMID:26520142

  6. INTERMEDIATE-TERM MORTALITY AND CARDIAC TRANSPLANTATION IN INFANTS WITH SINGLE-VENTRICLE LESIONS: RISK FACTORS AND THEIR INTERACTION WITH SHUNT TYPE

    PubMed Central

    Tweddell, James S.; Sleeper, Lynn A.; Ohye, Richard G.; Williams, Ismee A.; Mahony, Lynn; Pizarro, Christian; Pemberton, Victoria L.; Frommelt, Peter C.; Bradley, Scott M.; Cnota, James F.; Hirsch, Jennifer; Kirshbom, Paul; Li, Jennifer S.; Pike, Nancy; Puchalski, Michael; Ravishankar, Chitra; Jacobs, Jeffrey P.; Laussen, Peter C.; McCrindle, Brian W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We sought to identify factors associated with death and cardiac transplantation in infants undergoing the Norwood procedure and to determine differences in associations that might favor either the modified Blalock-Taussig shunt (MBTS) or a right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery shunt (RVPAS). Methods We used competing risks methodology to analyze death without transplantation, cardiac transplantation, and survival without transplantation. Parametric time-to-event modeling and bootstrapping were used to identify independent predictors. Results Data from 549 subjects (follow-up, 2.7±0.9 years) were analyzed. Mortality risk was characterized by early and constant phases; transplant was characterized by only a constant phase. Early phase factors associated with death included lower socioeconomic status (SES; P=.01), obstructed pulmonary venous return (P<.001), smaller ascending aorta (P=.02), and anatomic subtype. Constant phase factors associated with death included genetic syndrome (P<.001) and lower gestational age (GA, P<.001). The RVPAS had better survival in the 51% who were full term with aortic atresia (P<.001). The MBTS was better among the 4% who were preterm with a patent aortic valve (P =.003). Lower pre-Norwood right ventricular fractional area change, pre-Norwood surgery, and anatomy other than hypoplastic left heart syndrome were independently associated with transplantation (all P<.03); but shunt type was not (P=.43). Conclusions Independent risk factors for intermediate-term mortality include lower SES, anatomy, genetic syndrome, and lower GA. Term infants with aortic atresia benefited from a RVPAS and preterm infants with a patent aortic valve benefited from a MBTS. Right ventricular function and anatomy, but not shunt type, were associated with transplantation. PMID:22341427

  7. A TCP domain transcription factor controls flower type specification along the radial axis of the Gerbera (Asteraceae) inflorescence

    PubMed Central

    Broholm, Suvi K.; Tähtiharju, Sari; Laitinen, Roosa A. E.; Albert, Victor A.; Teeri, Teemu H.; Elomaa, Paula

    2008-01-01

    Several key processes in plant development are regulated by TCP transcription factors. CYCLOIDEA-like (CYC-like) TCP domain proteins have been shown to control flower symmetry in distantly related plant lineages. Gerbera hybrida, a member of one of the largest clades of angiosperms, the sunflower family (Asteraceae), is an interesting model for developmental studies because its elaborate inflorescence comprises different types of flowers that have specialized structures and functions. The morphological differentiation of flower types involves gradual changes in flower size and symmetry that follow the radial organization of the densely packed inflorescence. Differences in the degree of petal fusion further define the distinct shapes of the Gerbera flower types. To study the role of TCP transcription factors during specification of this complex inflorescence organization, we characterized the CYC-like homolog GhCYC2 from Gerbera. The expression of GhCYC2 follows a gradient along the radial axis of the inflorescence. GhCYC2 is expressed in the marginal, bilaterally symmetrical ray flowers but not in the centermost disk flowers, which are nearly radially symmetrical and have significantly less fused petals. Overexpression of GhCYC2 causes disk flowers to obtain morphologies similar to ray flowers. Both expression patterns and transgenic phenotypes suggest that GhCYC2 is involved in differentiation among Gerbera flower types, providing the first molecular evidence that CYC-like TCP factors take part in defining the complex inflorescence structure of the Asteraceae, a major determinant of the family's evolutionary success. PMID:18574149

  8. Job Strain as a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes: A Pooled Analysis of 124,808 Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Fransson, Eleonor I.; Heikkilä, Katriina; Ahola, Kirsi; Alfredsson, Lars; Bjorner, Jakob B.; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Dragano, Nico; Goldberg, Marcel; Hamer, Mark; Jokela, Markus; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Koskinen, Aki; Kouvonen, Anne; Leineweber, Constanze; Madsen, Ida E.H.; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Marmot, Michael G.; Nielsen, Martin L.; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H.; Pentti, Jaana; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Siegrist, Johannes; Steptoe, Andrew; Suominen, Sakari; Theorell, Töres; Väänänen, Ari; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna; Westerholm, Peter J.M.; Westerlund, Hugo; Zins, Marie; Batty, G. David; Brunner, Eric J.; Ferrie, Jane E.; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The status of psychosocial stress at work as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes is unclear because existing evidence is based on small studies and is subject to confounding by lifestyle factors, such as obesity and physical inactivity. This collaborative study examined whether stress at work, defined as “job strain,” is associated with incident type 2 diabetes independent of lifestyle factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We extracted individual-level data for 124,808 diabetes-free adults from 13 European cohort studies participating in the IPD-Work Consortium. We measured job strain with baseline questionnaires. Incident type 2 diabetes at follow-up was ascertained using national health registers, clinical screening, and self-reports. We analyzed data for each study using Cox regression and pooled the study-specific estimates in fixed-effect meta-analyses. RESULTS There were 3,703 cases of incident diabetes during a mean follow-up of 10.3 years. After adjustment for age, sex, and socioeconomic status (SES), the hazard ratio (HR) for job strain compared with no job strain was 1.15 (95% CI 1.06–1.25) with no difference between men and women (1.19 [1.06–1.34] and 1.13 [1.00–1.28], respectively). In stratified analyses, job strain was associated with an increased risk of diabetes among those with healthy and unhealthy lifestyle habits. In a multivariable model adjusted for age, sex, SES, and lifestyle habits, the HR was 1.11 (1.00–1.23). CONCLUSIONS Findings from a large pan-European dataset suggest that job strain is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in men and women independent of lifestyle factors. PMID:25061139

  9. Comparing Factor, Class, and Mixture Models of Cannabis Initiation and DSM Cannabis Use Disorder Criteria, Including Craving, in the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Kubarych, Thomas S.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Aggen, Steven H.; Estabrook, Ryne; Edwards, Alexis C.; Clark, Shaunna L.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Hickie, Ian B.; Neale, Michael C.; Gillespie, Nathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnostic criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence are best represented by a single underlying factor. However, it remains possible that models with additional factors, or latent class models or hybrid models, may better explain the data. Using structured interviews, 626 adult male and female twins provided complete data on symptoms of cannabis abuse and dependence, plus a craving criterion. We compared latent factor analysis, latent class analysis, and factor mixture modeling using normal theory marginal maximum likelihood for ordinal data. Our aim was to derive a parsimonious, best-fitting cannabis use disorder (CUD) phenotype based on DSM-IV criteria and determine whether DSM-5 craving loads onto a general factor. When compared with latent class and mixture models, factor models provided a better fit to the data. When conditioned on initiation and cannabis use, the association between criteria for abuse, dependence, withdrawal, and craving were best explained by two correlated latent factors for males and females: a general risk factor to CUD and a factor capturing the symptoms of social and occupational impairment as a consequence of frequent use. Secondary analyses revealed a modest increase in the prevalence of DSM-5 CUD compared with DSM-IV cannabis abuse or dependence. It is concluded that, in addition to a general factor with loadings on cannabis use and symptoms of abuse, dependence, withdrawal, and craving, a second clinically relevant factor defined by features of social and occupational impairment was also found for frequent cannabis use. PMID:24588857

  10. Risk factors for cognitive decline in older people with type 2 diabetes 

    E-print Network

    Feinkohl, Insa

    2014-07-05

    People with type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of age-related cognitive impairment. Previous literature has focused on case-control studies comparing rates of cognitive impairment in patients with and without diabetes. ...

  11. Relationship among religious coping, psychosocial factors, and quality of life in individuals with type 2 diabetes 

    E-print Network

    Lager, Julia M.

    2009-06-02

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among religious coping, acceptance of diabetes, social support, diabetes management, and quality of life among individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Religious ...

  12. Continuing Disparities in Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Complications Between Aboriginal and Anglo-Celt Australians With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Timothy M.E.; Hunt, Kerry; McAullay, Daniel; Chubb, Stephen A.P.; Sillars, Brett A.; Bruce, David G.; Davis, Wendy A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether disparities in the nature and management of type 2 diabetes persist between Aboriginal and the majority Anglo-Celt patients in an urban Australian community. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Baseline data from the observational Fremantle Diabetes Study collected from 1993 to 1996 (phase I) and from 2008 to 2011 (phase II) were analyzed. Patients characterized as Aboriginal or Anglo-Celt by self-report and supporting data underwent comprehensive assessment, including questionnaires, examination, and biochemical testing in a single laboratory. Generalized linear modeling with age/sex adjustment was used to examine differences in changes in variables in the two groups between phases I and II. RESULTS The indigenous participants were younger at entry and at diabetes diagnosis than the Anglo-Celt participants in both phases. They were also less likely to be educated beyond primary level and were more likely to be smokers. HbA1c decreased in both groups over time (Aboriginal median 9.6% [interquartile range 7.8–10.7%] to 8.4% [6.6–10.6%] vs. Anglo-Celt median 7.1% [6.2–8.4%] to 6.7% [6.2–7.5%]), but the gap persisted (P = 0.65 for difference between phases I and II by ethnic group). Aboriginal patients were more likely to have microvascular disease in both phases. The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (ankle-brachial index ?0.90 or lower-extremity amputation) increased in Aboriginal but decreased in Anglo-Celt participants (15.8–29.7 vs. 30.7–21.5%; P = 0.055). CONCLUSIONS Diabetes management has improved for Aboriginal and Anglo-Celt Australian patients, but disparities in cardiovascular risk factors and complications persist. PMID:22815295

  13. Is there a role for epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in epidermal growth factor receptor wild-type non-small cell lung cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Arriola, Edurne; Taus, Álvaro; Casadevall, David

    2015-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer with a world-wide annual incidence of around 1.3 million. The majority of patients are diagnosed with advanced disease and survival remains poor. However, relevant advances have occurred in recent years through the identification of biomarkers that predict for benefit of therapeutic agents. This is exemplified by the efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of EGFR mutant patients. These drugs have also shown efficacy in unselected populations but this point remains controversial. Here we have reviewed the clinical data that demonstrate a small but consistent subgroup of EGFR wild-type patients with NSCLC that obtain a clinical benefit from these drugs. Moreover, we review the biological rationale that may explain this benefit observed in the clinical setting. PMID:26266101

  14. Impaired Contextual Fear Extinction Learning is Associated with Aberrant Regulation of CHD-Type Chromatin Remodeling Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wille, Alexandra; Maurer, Verena; Piatti, Paolo; Whittle, Nigel; Rieder, Dietmar; Singewald, Nicolas; Lusser, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Successful attenuation of fearful memories is a cognitive process requiring initiation of highly coordinated transcription programs. Chromatin-modulating mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, including acetylation, are key regulators of these processes. However, knowledge concerning the role of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors (ChRFs) being required for successful fear extinction is lacking. Underscoring the potential importance of these factors that alter histone-DNA contacts within nucleosomes are recent genome-wide association studies linking several ChRFs to various human cognitive and psychiatric disorders. To better understand the role of ChRFs in the brain, and since to date little is known about ChRF expression in the brain, we performed a comprehensive survey of expression levels of 24 ATP-dependent remodelers across different brain areas, and we identified several distinct high molecular weight complexes by chromatographic methods. We next aimed to gain novel insight into the potential regulation of ChRFs in different brain regions in association with normal and impaired fear extinction learning. To this end, we established the 129S1/SvImJ (S1) laboratory mouse strain as a model for compromised contextual fear extinction learning that can be rescued by dietary zinc restriction (ZnR). Using this model along with genetically related but fear extinction-competent 129S6/SvEv (S6) mice as controls, we found that impaired fear extinction in S1 was associated with enhanced ventral hippocampal expression of CHD1 and reduced expression of CHD5 that was normalized following successful rescue of impaired fear extinction. Moreover, a select reduction in CHD3 expression was observed in the ventral hippocampus (vHC) following successful rescue of fear extinction in S1 mice. Taken together, these data provide novel insight into the regulation of specific ChRFs following an impaired cognitive process and its rescue, and they suggest that imbalance of CHD-type remodeler levels, which consequently may lead to changes of transcriptional programs, may be an underlying mechanism involved in impaired fear extinction learning and its therapeutic rescue. PMID:26635563

  15. Heterogeneity in the costs of type 1 diabetes in a developing country: what are the determining factors?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims Regional differences in the clinical care of Type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Brazil have been recently described. This study aimed to estimate the costs of T1D from the public health care system’s perspective across the regions of Brazil and to determine the components that influence these costs. Methods This was a retrospective, cross-sectional and nationwide multicenter study conducted between December 2008 and December 2010 in 28 public clinics in 20 Brazilian cities. The study included 3,180 T1D subjects receiving healthcare from the National Brazilian Healthcare System (NBHCS) with a follow-up of at least one year. The direct medical costs were derived from the costs of medications, supplies, examinations, visits to the center, medical procedures and hospitalizations that occurred during the previous year. Clinical and demographic factors that determined the differences in the cost across four geographic regions (southeast, south, north/northeast and mid-west) were investigated. Results The per capita mean annual direct medical costs of T1D in US$ were 1,466.36, 1,252.83, 1,148.09 and 1,396.30 in southeast, south, north/northeast and mid-west regions, respectively. The costs of T1D in the southeast region were higher compared to south (p < 0.001) and north/northeast regions (p = < 0.001), but not to the mid-west (p = 0.146) region. The frequency of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) was different across the regions as well as the daily number of SMBG, use of insulin pumps or basal or prandial insulin analogs. Age, ethnicity, duration of diabetes, level of care, socioeconomic status and the prevalence of chronic diabetic complications differed among the regions. In a regression model the determinants of the costs were the presence of microvascular diabetes-related complications (p?factors influenced directly the costs of T1D and should be considered for discussing future health policies. PMID:24373627

  16. Cardiorenal syndrome type 1: a defective regulation of monocyte apoptosis induced by proinflammatory and proapoptotic factors.

    PubMed

    Pastori, Silvia; Virzì, Grazia Maria; Brocca, Alessandra; de Cal, Massimo; Clementi, Anna; Vescovo, Giorgio; Ronco, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we examined the possible immune-mediated mechanisms in cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) type 1 pathogenesis. We enrolled 40 patients with acute heart failure (AHF), 11 patients with CRS type 1 and 15 controls. Plasma from the different groups was incubated with monocytes; subsequently, cell apoptosis was evaluated by DNA fragmentation, caspase activity and cytofluorometric assay. Cytokine quantification in plasma and supernatant was performed by ELISA. Monocytes treated with CRS type 1 plasma showed significantly higher apoptosis compared with those treated with AHF and the controls (p < 0.05). Caspase-3 (CRS type 1: 2.20 ng/ml, IQR 2.06-2.33; AHF: 1.48 ng/ml, IQR 1.31-1.56; controls: 0.71 ng/ml, IQR 0.67-0.81) and caspase-8 levels (CRS type 1: 1.49 ng/ml, IQR 1.42-1.57; AHF: 0.94 ng/ml, IQR 0.84-0.98; controls: 0.56 ng/ml, IQR 0.51-0.58) in cells incubated with plasma from these patients demonstrated a significantly higher concentration. We observed a strong upregulation of plasma IL-6 and IL-18 in CRS type 1 compared with AHF and the controls (p < 0.05). Interestingly, we observed a similar concentration of TNF-? in CRS type 1 and AHF. In CRS type 1 patients, IL-6 (52.13 ng/ml, IQR 47.29-66.83) and IL-18 levels (197.75 ng/ml, IQR 120.80-265.49) in supernatant were significantly higher than in AHF patients (IL-6: 28.79 ng/ml, IQR 19.90-36.10; IL-18: 21.98 ng/ml, IQR 15.98-29.85) and controls (IL-6: 5.02 ng/ml, IQR 4.56-6.44; IL-18: 7.91 ng/ml, IQR 5.57-10.62). These findings suggest the presence of a defective regulation of monocyte apoptosis in CRS type 1 patients and the involvement of an immune-mediated mechanism in the pathophysiology of this syndrome. PMID:25999959

  17. 43 CFR 404.10 - Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included in a rural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...that may not be included in a rural water supply project? 404.10 Section 404.10...THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.10 Are...that may not be included in a rural water supply project? Yes. A rural water...

  18. Effects of metformin plus gliclazide versus metformin plus glimepiride on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Memy Hegazy; Abd-Allah, Gamil Mohamed

    2015-09-01

    High blood glucose level, lipid profile disturbances and plasma homocysteine (Hcy) are important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in patients with type 2 diabetes. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare effects of glimepiride/metformin combination versus gliclazide/metformin combination on cardiovascular risk factors in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. One hundred and eighty T2DM patients were randomly allocated for treatment with placebo (control), metformin (500 mg twice daily), glimepiride (3mg once daily), gliclazide (80 mg once daily), metformin plus glimepiride or metformin plus gliclazide for 3 months. We evaluated plasma levels of glucose (PG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), Hcy, vitamin B12, folic acid and lipid profile before treatment and 3 months post treatment. Compared to metformin treated patients, glimepiride plus metformin induced significant reductions in: fasting plasma glucose, postprandial PG level, HbA1C % and Hcy level. Conversely, plasma folic acid and vitamin B12 were significantly increased. The levels of total cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly decreased; low-density lipoprotein was markedly decreased, whereas high-density lipoprotein was significantly increased and hence risk ratio was signi?cantly decreased. Similar results but with lower values were obtained using combination of metformin plus gliclazide on glycemic control only. Combination of glimepiride with metformin was superior to gliclazide plus metformin in alleviating the cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. PMID:26408873

  19. Excellent scalability including self-heating phenomena of vertical-channel field-effect-diode type capacitor-less one transistor dynamic random access memory cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imamoto, Takuya; Endoh, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    The scalability study and the impact of the self-heating effect (SHE) on memory operation of the bulk vertical-channel field effect diode (FED) type capacitorless one transistor (1T) dynamic random access memory (DRAM) cell are investigated via device simulator for the first time. The vertical-channel FED type 1T-DRAM cell shows the excellent hold characteristics (100 ms at 358 K of ambient temperature) with large enough read current margin (1 µA/cell) even when silicon pillar diameter (D) is scaled down from 20 to 12 nm. It is also shown that by employing the vertical-channel FED type, maximum lattice temperature in the memory cell due to SHE (T_{\\text{L}}^{\\text{Max}}) can be suppressed to a negligible small value and only reach 300.6 from 300 K ambient temperature due to the low lateral electric field, while the vertical-channel bipolar junction transistor (BJT) type 1T-DRAM shows significant SHE (T_{\\text{L}}^{\\text{Max}} = 330.6 K). Moreover, this excellent thermal characteristic can be maintained even when D is scaled down from 20 to 12 nm.

  20. The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Adiposity, Blood Glycated Hemoglobin, Serum Leptin and Tumor Necrosis Factor-? in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ghavamzadeh, Saeid; Mobasseri, Majid; Mahdavi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) could be one of the risk factors at the development of diabetes complications; as well as serum leptin deficiency is related to increased susceptibility to infections in diabetic patients, they are potential indices from the preventive medicine viewpoint. This study was conducted to represent the effect of supplemental vitamin D3 on serum leptin, TNF-? and adiposity in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, study sample was selected through type 2 diabetic patients (n = 51). A total of 26 patients were orally supplemented by vitamin D3 (400 IU/d) (vitamin D group) and 25 patients by placebo (placebo group) for 14 weeks. The blood glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and the serum ionized Ca, leptin, TNF-?, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH] D) were measured at the two groups in the baseline and postintervention stages. Results: It was shown that despite of theplacebo group, serum 25(OH) D and serum leptin was significantly increased (P = 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively), while serum TNF-? was decreased significantly (P = 0.001) in vitamin D group. The remaining parameters, including body fat mass and HbA1c had no alterations between baseline and postintervention stages in vitamin D group. Conclusions: This study may advocate vitamin D supplementation among type 2 diabetic patients due to its beneficial effects on prevention of diabetes complications. PMID:25317290

  1. Assessing the three types of dieting in the Three-Factor Model of dieting. The Dieting and Weight History Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Witt, Ashley A; Katterman, Shawn N; Lowe, Michael R

    2013-04-01

    The construct of attempted eating restriction has been measured in a number of ways in recent years. The Three-Factor Model of Dieting suggests that dieting can be subdivided into three types: (1) frequency of past dieting and overeating (i.e., history of dieting), (2) current dieting to lose weight, and (3) weight suppression, or the difference between an individual's current weight and his or her highest previous weight. The purpose of this paper is to (1) describe the Dieting and Weight History Questionnaire (DWHQ), a measure that we have used for many years to assess these three dimensions of dieting; (2) provide some recent examples of published research on each type of dieting; (3) discuss some of the nuances of assessing these dieting types; and (4) suggest directions for future research. PMID:23220357

  2. An Analysis of Factor Extraction Strategies: A Comparison of the Relative Strengths of Principal Axis, Ordinary Least Squares, and Maximum Likelihood in Research Contexts That Include Both Categorical and Continuous Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Kevin B.

    2013-01-01

    This study is intended to provide researchers with empirically derived guidelines for conducting factor analytic studies in research contexts that include dichotomous and continuous levels of measurement. This study is based on the hypotheses that ordinary least squares (OLS) factor analysis will yield more accurate parameter estimates than…

  3. The expression and localization of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and its type 1 inhibitor are regulated by retinoic acid and fibroblast growth factor in human teratocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Tienari, J; Alanko, T; Lehtonen, E; Saksela, O

    1991-01-01

    Human Tera 2 embryonal carcinoma cells switch gradually from rapidly growing undifferentiated cells to almost nonproliferating cells during retinoic acid (RA)-induced neuronal differentiation. This process is associated with the increased expression of type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI 1) mRNA, and the secreted inhibitor is immobilized to the pericellular area. Furthermore, the differentiation is accompanied by a decrease in the amount of both the secreted tissue-type PA (tPA) and the mainly cell-associated urokinase-type PA (uPA) activity. In RA-differentiated cells, uPA becomes localized at the vinculin-rich cell-substratum adhesion sites. Fibroblast growth factor activity has been associated with various events during embryonal growth and with the regulation of proteolytic enzymes. A short-term treatment of the undifferentiated Tera 2 cells with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) increases uPA mRNA levels and the cell-associated uPA activity, whereas the secretory tPA activity decreases. bFGF induces PAI 1 mRNA expression in the undifferentiated cells, but unlike PAI 1 protein after RA-treatment, the inhibitor does not accumulate around the cells but is released in the medium. A similar exposure to bFGF has less effect on the RA-differentiated Tera 2 cells. Under these conditions bFGF treatment leads to an increase in the amounts of PAI 1 and uPA mRNAs, but no changes in the localization of these components can be seen. Differentiation of human embryonal carcinoma cells is thus connected with an altered response to bFGF. Images PMID:1905574

  4. Satisfaction with Life and Psychosocial Factors among Underserved Minorities with Type 2 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Kenneth W.; Hodgson, Jennifer L.; Lamson, Angela L.; Swanson, Melvin S.; White, Mark B.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between biomedical markers of disease management and psychosocial constructs, while also assessing the correlates and predictors of variability for satisfaction with life (SWL) among African American and Hispanic participants with type 2 diabetes. Data were collected from 142 participants…

  5. Type I Diabetes Mellitus: Genetic Factors and Presumptive Enteroviral Etiology or Protection

    PubMed Central

    Precechtelova, Jana; Borsanyiova, Maria; Sarmirova, Sona

    2014-01-01

    We review type 1 diabetes and host genetic components, as well as epigenetics and viruses associated with type 1 diabetes, with added emphasis on the enteroviruses, which are often associated with triggering the disease. Genus Enterovirus is classified into twelve species of which seven (Enterovirus A, Enterovirus B, Enterovirus C, and Enterovirus D and Rhinovirus A, Rhinovirus B, and Rhinovirus C) are human pathogens. These viruses are transmitted mainly by the fecal-oral route; they may also spread via the nasopharyngeal route. Enterovirus infections are highly prevalent, but these infections are usually subclinical or cause a mild flu-like illness. However, infections caused by enteroviruses can sometimes be serious, with manifestations of meningoencephalitis, paralysis, myocarditis, and in neonates a fulminant sepsis-like syndrome. These viruses are often implicated in chronic (inflammatory) diseases as chronic myocarditis, chronic pancreatitis, and type 1 diabetes. In this review we discuss the currently suggested mechanisms involved in the viral induction of type 1 diabetes. We recapitulate current basic knowledge and definitions. PMID:25574400

  6. Factors Influencing the Types of Products and Services Purchased over the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phau, Ian; Poon, Sui Meng

    2000-01-01

    Presents the findings of an empirical investigation of Internet shopping in Singapore. Compares Internet buying behavior between potential Internet buyers and non-Internet buyers, and concludes that the classification of different types of products and services will significantly influence consumer choice between a retail store and the Internet.…

  7. Different types of stainless steel used in equipment in meat plants do not affect the initial microbial transfer, including pathogens, from pork skin.

    PubMed

    Larivière-Gauthier, Guillaume; Quessy, Sylvain; Fournaise, Sylvain; Letellier, Ann; Fravalo, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    This study describes and measures the impact of different compositions and finishes of stainless steel used in equipment in the meat industry on the transfer of natural flora and selected pathogens from artificially contaminated pork skin. It is known that the adhesion to surfaces of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella, 2 pathogens frequently found in contaminated pork meat, depends on the nature and roughness of the surface. Our results show no statistically significant differences in microbial transfer regardless of the types of stainless steel considered, with the highest measured transfer difference being 0.18 log colony-forming units (CFUs)/800 cm(2). Moreover, no differences in total microbial community were observed after transfer on the 5 types of stainless steel using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). It was concluded that the different characteristics of the stainless steel tested did not affect the initial bacterial transfer in this study. PMID:26130860

  8. The photometric variability of solar-type stars. III - Results from 1981-82, including parallel observations of thirty-six Hyades stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radick, R. R.; Mihalas, D.; Lockwood, G. W.; Thompson, D. T.; Warnock, A., III; Hartmann, L. W.; Worden, S. P.; Henry, G. W.; Sherlin, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    A photometric survey of main-sequence stars in the Pleiades, Hyades, and Malmquist Field, to investigate variability among solar-type stars, had been continued at Cloudcroft Observatory for a second season. Possibly six of 40 Pleiades stars, two (possibly six) of 49 Hyades stars and possibly four of 42 stars in the Malmquist Field are found to be variable. Parallel observations of Hyades stars were obtained also at Lowell Observatory. These measurements, which achieved better precision, reveal significiant variations in eleven (possibly 16) of 36 Hyades stars, all of spectral type F7 V-K2 V. Agreement between the two surveys is acceptable. The two seasons of the Cloudcroft survey show that changes in the mean annual brightness of the Hyades stars accompany changes in the amplitude of their short-term variability, in the sense that a star tends to become fainter as its variability increases and vice versa. Color effects are absent.

  9. Human factors issues and approaches in the spatial layout of a space station control room, including the use of virtual reality as a design analysis tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Joseph P., II

    1994-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering support was provided for the 30% design review of the late Space Station Freedom Payload Control Area (PCA). The PCA was to be the payload operations control room, analogous to the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). This effort began with a systematic collection and refinement of the relevant requirements driving the spatial layout of the consoles and PCA. This information was used as input for specialized human factors analytical tools and techniques in the design and design analysis activities. Design concepts and configuration options were developed and reviewed using sketches, 2-D Computer-Aided Design (CAD) drawings, and immersive Virtual Reality (VR) mockups.

  10. Cloning the promoter for transforming growth factor-beta type III receptor. Basal and conditional expression in fetal rat osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ji, C.; Chen, Y.; McCarthy, T. L.; Centrella, M.

    1999-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta binds to three high affinity cell surface molecules that directly or indirectly regulate its biological effects. The type III receptor (TRIII) is a proteoglycan that lacks significant intracellular signaling or enzymatic motifs but may facilitate transforming growth factor-beta binding to other receptors, stabilize multimeric receptor complexes, or segregate growth factor from activating receptors. Because various agents or events that regulate osteoblast function rapidly modulate TRIII expression, we cloned the 5' region of the rat TRIII gene to assess possible control elements. DNA fragments from this region directed high reporter gene expression in osteoblasts. Sequencing showed no consensus TATA or CCAAT boxes, whereas several nuclear factors binding sequences within the 3' region of the promoter co-mapped with multiple transcription initiation sites, DNase I footprints, gel mobility shift analysis, or loss of activity by deletion or mutation. An upstream enhancer was evident 5' proximal to nucleotide -979, and a silencer region occurred between nucleotides -2014 and -2194. Glucocorticoid sensitivity mapped between nucleotides -687 and -253, whereas bone morphogenetic protein 2 sensitivity co-mapped within the silencer region. Thus, the TRIII promoter contains cooperative basal elements and dispersed growth factor- and hormone-sensitive regulatory regions that can control TRIII expression by osteoblasts.

  11. Brush types of the Nueces River watershed as related to soil, climatic and geological factors 

    E-print Network

    Huss, Donald Lee

    1959-01-01

    plans that actively involve stakeholders to preserve and restore watersheds are the accepted approach to managing Texas surface waters, said Kevin Wagner, TWRI project manager and leader for the short course. ?Proper training is needed to ensure... that will promote the use of sustainable best management practices to protect water quality. Participants are given an overview of EPA web-based tools, including the EPA Watershed Plan Builder. National water resources experts? including Charlie Mac...

  12. Borna disease virus nucleoprotein inhibits type I interferon induction through the interferon regulatory factor 7 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Wuqi; Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University ; Kao, Wenping; Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University ; Zhai, Aixia; Qian, Jun; Li, Yujun; Zhang, Qingmeng; Zhao, Hong; Hu, Yunlong; Li, Hui; Zhang, Fengmin; The Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Biology, Heilongjiang Higher Education Institutions; Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •IRF7 nuclear localisation was inhibited by BDV persistently infected. •BDV N protein resistant to IFN induction both in BDV infected OL cell and N protein plasmid transfected OL cell. •BDV N protein is related to the inhibition of IRF7 nuclear localisation. -- Abstract: The expression of type I interferon (IFN) is one of the most potent innate defences against viral infection in higher vertebrates. Borna disease virus (BDV) establishes persistent, noncytolytic infections in animals and in cultured cells. Early studies have shown that the BDV phosphoprotein can inhibit the activation of type I IFN through the TBK1–IRF3 pathway. The function of the BDV nucleoprotein in the inhibition of IFN activity is not yet clear. In this study, we demonstrated IRF7 activation and increased IFN-?/? expression in a BDV-persistently infected human oligodendroglia cell line following RNA interference-mediated BDV nucleoprotein silencing. Furthermore, we showed that BDV nucleoprotein prevented the nuclear localisation of IRF7 and inhibited endogenous IFN induction by poly(I:C), coxsackie virus B3 and IFN-?. Our findings provide evidence for a previously undescribed mechanism by which the BDV nucleoprotein inhibits type I IFN expression by interfering with the IRF7 pathway.

  13. Type. beta. transforming growth factor reversibly inhibits the early proliferative responsive to partial hepatectomy in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, W.E.; Coffey, R.J. Jr.; Ouellette, A.J.; Moses, H.L. )

    1988-07-01

    Type {beta} transforming growth factor (TGF-{beta}), a factor produced by many cell types, is a potent inhibitor of hepatocyte DNA synthesis in vitro. To determine whether TGF-{beta} can influence hepatocyte proliferation in vivo, its effects were examined on the regenerative response of liver to partial hepatectomy (PH) in the rat. Porcine platelet-derived TGF-{beta}1, administered intravenously at the time of PH and 11 hr later, reduced the fraction of hepatocytes engaged in DNA synthesis 22 hr after PH by 67% and inhibited the rate of hepatic ({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation by 50%. TGF-{beta}2 produced a similar effect. Although sensitive to TGF-{beta} administered 11 hr after PH, late in the G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle, a single does of 0.5 {mu}g given at the time of PH did not significantly influence DNA synthesis 22 hr after PH. The inhibitory effects of TGF-{beta} were transient. The nuclear labeling index of the TGF-{beta}-treated animals was significantly higher than that of the controls. There was no evidence of cytotoxicity from TGF-{beta}, as determined by liver histology and plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin-like growth factor I, and two hepatic enzymes. Thus, TGF-{beta}1 and TGF-{beta}2 reversibly inhibit the proliferative response of liver to PH and may be important in the modulation of normal liver growth and repair.

  14. Impact of type 2 diabetes on the plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and its soluble receptors type 1 and type 2 in patients with peripheral arterial disease*

    PubMed Central

    Wieczór, Rados?aw; Gadomska, Gra?yna; Ruszkowska-Ciastek, Barbara; Stankowska, Katarzyna; Budzy?ski, Jacek; Fabisiak, Jacek; Suppan, Karol; Pulkowski, Grzegorz; Ro??, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Type 2 diabetes coexistent with lower extremity artery disease (peripheral arterial disease (PAD)) can be observed in numerous patients. The mechanism compensating for ischemia and contributing to healing is angiogenesis—the process of forming new blood vessels. The purpose of this study was to assess the likely impact of type 2 diabetes on the plasma levels of proangiogenic factor (vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A)) and angiogenesis inhibitors (soluble VEGF receptors type 1 and type 2 (sVEGFR-1 and sVEGFR-2)) in patients with PAD. Methods: Among 46 patients with PAD under pharmacological therapy (non-invasive), we identified, based on medical history, a subgroup with coexistent type 2 diabetes (PAD-DM2+, n=15) and without diabetes (PAD-DM2?, n=31). The control group consisted of 30 healthy subjects. Plasma levels of VEGF-A, sVEGFR-1, and sVEGFR-2 were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Results: The subgroups of PAD-DM2+ and PAD-DM2? revealed significantly higher concentrations of VEGF-A (P=0.000 007 and P=0.000 000 1, respectively) and significantly lower sVEGFR-2 levels (P=0.02 and P=0.000 01, respectively), when compared with the control group. Patients with PAD and coexistent diabetes tended to have a lower level of VEGF-A and higher levels of sVEGFR-1 and sVEGFR-2 comparable with non-diabetic patients. Conclusions: The coexistence of type 2 diabetes and PAD is demonstrated by a tendency to a lower plasma level of proangiogenic factor (VEGF-A) and higher levels of angiogenesis inhibitors (sVEGFR-1 and sVEGFR-2) at the same time. Regardless of the coexistence of type 2 diabetes, hypoxia appears to be a crucial factor stimulating the processes of angiogenesis in PAD patients comparable with healthy individuals, whereas hyperglycemia may have a negative impact on angiogenesis in lower limbs. PMID:26537213

  15. [Responses of alpine grassland landscape in the source region of Shule River Basin to topographical factors and frozen ground types].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Jun; Yi, Shu-Hua; Qin, Yu; Wang, Xiao-Yun

    2014-06-01

    This paper retrieved the fractional vegetation cover of alpine grassland in the source region of the Shule River Basin based on Chinese environmental satellite (HJ-1A/1B) images and field data, and analyzed the response of the vegetation cover to topographic factors and types of frozen ground. The results showed that the vegetation coverage of this region was low with large spatial heterogeneity and high degree of dispersion. The landscape consisted mainly of non-vegetation surface types, eg. ice, snow, the bare rock gravel land and bare land. Slopes and aspects were the main limiting factors of vegetation distribution. The average vegetation coverage decreased with the increase of slope. The average vegetation coverage was the lowest on the sunny slope, and the highest on the shady slope. There were significant differences of vegetation coverage among different types of frozen ground. The distribution of vegetation coverage presented a reversed "U" curve trend by extremely stable permafrost, stable permafrost, sub-stable permafrost, transition permafrost, unstable permafrost and seasonal frost, and the average vegetation coverage was the highest in the sub-stable permafrost. PMID:25223013

  16. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for...C-1 to Subpart C of Part 98—Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values...type Default high heat value Default CO2 emission factor Coal and coke...

  17. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C - Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for...C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C—Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for...type Default high heat value Default CO2 emission factor Coal and coke...

  18. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for...C-1 to Subpart C of Part 98—Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat...

  19. Notes on Factors Affecting Geometrical Arrangement of Tricycle-Type Landing Gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzinger, Carl J.; Kantrowitz, A. R.

    1937-01-01

    The effects of the geometrical arrangement of tricycle landing gears on various characteristics of an airplane equipped with such landing gear is discussed. The characteristics discussed include directional stability, overturning tendencies, steering and ground handling, shimmy, takeoff, and porpoising. The conclusions are summarized in a table.

  20. Evaluation of Two Types of Differential Item Functioning in Factor Mixture Models with Binary Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, HwaYoung; Beretvas, S. Natasha

    2014-01-01

    Conventional differential item functioning (DIF) detection methods (e.g., the Mantel-Haenszel test) can be used to detect DIF only across observed groups, such as gender or ethnicity. However, research has found that DIF is not typically fully explained by an observed variable. True sources of DIF may include unobserved, latent variables, such as…

  1. Overt Attention and Context Factors: The Impact of Repeated Presentations, Image Type, and Individual Motivation

    PubMed Central

    Kaspar, Kai; König, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the dynamic of the attention focus during observation of different categories of complex scenes and simultaneous consideration of individuals' memory and motivational state. We repeatedly presented four types of complex visual scenes in a pseudo-randomized order and recorded eye movements. Subjects were divided into groups according to their motivational disposition in terms of action orientation and individual rating of scene interest. Statistical analysis of eye-tracking data revealed that the attention focus successively became locally expressed by increasing fixation duration; decreasing saccade length, saccade frequency, and single subject's fixation distribution over images; and increasing inter-subject variance of fixation distributions. The validity of these results was supported by verbal reports. This general tendency was weaker for the group of subjects who rated the image set as interesting as compared to the other group. Additionally, effects were partly mediated by subjects' motivational disposition. Finally, we found a generally strong impact of image type on eye movement parameters. We conclude that motivational tendencies linked to personality as well as individual preferences significantly affected viewing behaviour. Hence, it is important and fruitful to consider inter-individual differences on the level of motivation and personality traits within investigations of attention processes. We demonstrate that future studies on memory's impact on overt attention have to deal appropriately with several aspects that had been out of the research focus until now. PMID:21750726

  2. A Method for Measuring Active Region Filling Factors on Solar-Type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giampapa, Mark Steven; Andretta, Vincenzo; Beeck, Benjamin; Reiners, Ansgar; Schussler, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    Radiative diagnostics of “activity” in the Sun and solar-type stars are spatially associated with sites of emergent magnetic flux. The magnetic fields themselves are widely regarded as the surface manifestations of a dynamo mechanism. The further development of both dynamo theory and models of the non-radiative heating of outer stellar atmospheres requires a knowledge of stellar magnetic field properties. In this context, it becomes important to determine the surface distribution, or at least the fractional coverage of, magnetic active regions as one critical constraint for dynamo models. But, while information on the spatial distribution of activity on stellar surfaces can be gathered in some special cases (mostly rapid rotators), such measurements have always been elusive in more solar-like stars. We discuss the challenges and results obtained from a method that relies on the non-linear response of the two principal He I triplet lines (at 1083 nm and 587.6 nm) to infer useful constraints on the fractional area coverage of magnetic active regions on solar-type stars.

  3. An investigation of psycho-social factors associated with the uptake of pre-pregnancy care in Australian women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Komiti, A; Jackson, H J; Nankervis, A; Conn, J; Allan, C; Judd, F

    2013-06-01

    Pre-pregnancy care (PPC) reduces adverse pregnancy outcomes for women with pre-existing diabetes. Yet, despite the compelling case for PPC, participation rates remain poor. The reasons for poor participation are as yet unclear. The aim of this study was to further our understanding of the factors-associated PPC uptake, particularly attitudes and beliefs towards PPC using models of health behaviour: The Health Belief Model, Social Cognitive Theory, and Theory of Reasoned Action. Participants comprised 123 women with type 1 and 2 diabetes attending outpatient clinics for diabetes and pregnancy, who completed questionnaires. Logistic regression analysis indicated that after adjusting for socio-demographic factors, exposure to a greater number of cues was a significant predictor of PPC participation (odds ratio [OR]: 1.93; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.13-3.28). Other significant predictors of PPC uptake were older age (OR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.01-1.26) and not having children (OR: 3.93; 95% CI: 1.28-12.06). The findings from this study support initiatives to provide cues to PPC for women with diabetes to enhance PPC uptake. Further, some groups such as younger women as well as women with children may possibly be considered for the focus of more vigorous intervention efforts. PMID:23701456

  4. The relationship between serum hypoxia-inducible factor 1? and coronary artery calcification in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis, is a heterodimer consisting of HIF-1? and HIF-1? subunits, and is implicated in calcification of cartilage and vasculature. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between serum HIF-1? with coronary artery calcification (CAC) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods The subjects were 405 (262 males, 143 females, age 51.3?±?6.4 years) asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Serum HIF-1? and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were measured by ELISA. CAC scores were assessed by a 320-slice CT scanner. The subjects were divided into 4 quartiles depending on serum HIF-1? levels. Results Average serum HIF-1? was 184.4?±?66.7 pg/ml. Among patients with higher CAC scores, HIF-1? levels were also significantly increased (p <0.001). HIF-1? levels positively correlated with CRP, IL-6, UKPDS risk score, HbA1c, FBG, and CACS, but did not correlate with diabetes duration, age, and LDL. According to the multivariate analysis, HIF-1? levels significantly and independently predict the presence of CAC. ROC curve analysis showed that the serum HIF-1? level can predict the extent of CAC, but the specificity was lower than the traditional risk factors UKPDS and HbA1c. Conclusion As a marker of hypoxia, serum HIF-1? level may be an independent risk factor for the presence of CAC. These findings indicate that elevated serum HIF-1? may be involved in vascular calcification in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:24564828

  5. Risk Factors Associated With Complication Rates of Becker-Type Expander Implants in Relation to Implant Survival: Review of 314 Implants in 237 Patients.

    PubMed

    Taboada-Suarez, Antonio; Brea-García, Beatriz; Magán-Muñoz, Fernando; Couto-González, Iván; González-Álvarez, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    Although autologous tissue reconstruction is the best option for breast reconstruction, using implants is still a reliable and simple method, offering acceptable aesthetic results. Becker-type implants are permanent implants that offer a 1-stage reconstructive option.A retrospective study was carried out in our center reviewing the clinical reports of 237 patients, in whom a total of 314 Becker-type prostheses were implanted. Overall survival was calculated using a Kaplan-Meier estimate. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios.At the end of the study, 214 expanders (68.15%) presented no complications, 40 (12.47%) developed significant capsular contracture, in 27 (8.60%) infection occurred, 24 (7.64%) suffered minor complications, and 9 (2.87%) ruptured.The mean survival time of the expanders was 120.41 months (95% CI: 109.62, 131.19).Radiotherapy, chemotherapy, high Molecular Immunology Borstel, age, mastectomy performed previously to the implant, ductal carcinoma, advanced tumoral stage, experience of the surgeon, and Becker 35-type implants were significantly related to a high number of complications in relation to the survival of the implants.Cox regression analysis revealed that the main risk factors for the survival of expander implants included radiotherapy and surgeon experience. The complication hazard ratio or relative risk caused by these 2 factors was 1.976 and 1.680, respectively.One-stage reconstruction using Becker-type expanders is an appropriate, simple, and reliable option in delayed breast reconstruction in patients who have not received radiotherapy and as long as the procedure is carried out by surgeons skilled in the technique. PMID:25003425

  6. Diet, lifestyle, and genetic risk factors for type 2 diabetes: a review from the Nurses’ Health Study, Nurses’ Health Study 2, and Health Professionals’ Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Ardisson Korat, Andres V.; Willett, Walter C.; Hu, Frank B.

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiological evidence collected from three large US cohorts (Nurses’ Health Study, Nurses’ Health Study 2, and Health Professionals’ Follow-up Study) has yielded important information regarding the roles of overall diet, individual foods and nutrients, physical activity and other lifestyle factors in the development of type 2 diabetes. Excess adiposity is a major risk factor for diabetes, and thus, maintaining a healthy body weight and avoidance of weight gain during adulthood is the cornerstone of diabetes prevention. Independent of body weight, the quality or type of dietary fat and carbohydrate is more crucial than the quantity in determining diabetes risk. Higher consumption of coffee, whole grains, fruits, and nuts is associated with lower risk of diabetes, whereas regular consumption of refined grains, red and processed meats, and sugar-sweetened beverages including fruits juices is associated with increased risk. Dietary patterns rich in fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and nuts and legumes but lower in red and processed meats, refined grains, and sugar-sweetened beverages are consistently associated with diabetes risk, even after adjustment for body mass index. The genome-wide association studies conducted in these cohorts have contributed substantially to the discoveries of novel genetic loci for type 2 diabetes and other metabolic traits, although the identified common variants explain only a small proportion of overall diabetes predisposition. Taken together, these ongoing large cohort studies have provided convincing epidemiologic evidence that a healthy diet, together with regular physical activity, maintenance of a healthy weight, moderate alcohol consumption, and avoidance of sedentary behaviors and smoking would prevent the majority of type 2 diabetes cases. PMID:25599007

  7. Urinary pH as a Risk Factor for Stone Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhaee, Khashayar

    2007-04-01

    A high urinary pH is main risk factor for the calcium phosphate stone formation; however, its pathophysiologic mechanism has not been fully understood. The introduction of Topiramate in the treatment of various neurological disorders has been complicated by metabolic acidosis, significant hypocitraturia, elevated urinary pH, and calcium phosphate stone formation. This model provides a probe to investigate the pathophysiologic mechanism of calcium phosphate stone formation and perhaps to develop appropriate countermeasures in the future. On the other hand an unduly acidic urine predisposes one to uric acid nephrolithiasis. Our recent investigation linking low urinary pH, and defective renal ammoniagenesis to insulin resistance provides new knowledge to unfold the pathophysiology of uric acid nephrolithiasis. The metabolic profile leading to uric acid stone may emerge as one of the components of metabolic syndrome.

  8. Effect of genetic and phenotypic factors on the composition of commercial marmande type tomatoes studied through HRMAS NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, María José; García López, Jesús; Collados Luján, Juan Fernando; López Ortiz, Fernando; Bojórquez Pereznieto, Humberto; Toresano, Fernando; Camacho, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The effects of genetic, technological and environmental factors on the chemical composition of four marmande type tomato varieties have been investigated. The study is based on the analysis of (1)H HRMAS NMR spectra of tomato purée using a combination of partial least squares (PLS) and assigned signal analysis (ASA). In agreement with genetic, morphological and taste characteristics of the tomatoes studied, the analysis of the NMR data allows two groups of samples to be differentiated. The type of culture and climatic conditions can reduce the compositional differences. The extension of the compositional changes produced by climatic conditions is variety-depend. Neither grafting nor perlite affect significantly the relative content of primary metabolites. This was not the case for tomatoes grown using the pure hydroponic production system based on the recirculation of nutrient solution, New Growing System NGS®, which seems to be an effective agricultural approach to improve tomato quality. PMID:24001806

  9. Regulation of the FecI-type ECF sigma factor by transmembrane signalling.

    PubMed

    Braun, Volkmar; Mahren, Susanne; Ogierman, Monica

    2003-04-01

    Induction of the ferric citrate transport genes of Escherichia coli K-12 involves a signalling cascade that starts at the cell surface and proceeds to the cytoplasm. Three specific proteins are involved: FecA in the outer membrane, FecR in the cytoplasmic membrane, and FecI in the cytoplasm. The binding of dinuclear ferric citrate to FecA causes substantial structural changes in FecA, triggering the signal cascade. The amino-proximal end of FecA interacts with the carboxy-proximal end of FecR in the periplasm. FecR then transmits the signal across the cytoplasmic membrane into the cytoplasm and activates the FecI sigma factor, which binds to the RNA polymerase core enzyme and directs the RNA polymerase to the promoter upstream of the fecABCDE transport genes to initiate transcription. Transcription of the fecIR regulatory genes and the fec transport genes is repressed by the Fur protein loaded with Fe(2+). Therefore, transcription of the fec transport genes is subjected to double control: cells first detect iron deficiency and respond by synthesis of the regulatory proteins FecI and FecR, which initiate transcription of the fec transport genes, provided ferric citrate is available. FecI belongs to the extracytoplasmic function sigma factors, which are widespread among bacteria. With the recent sequencing of complete microbial genomes, it has become apparent that the FecIRA cascade is now a paradigm for the regulatory control of FecI family sigmas in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:12732308

  10. A 116-?m-radius disk cavity in a sunflower-type circular photonic crystal with ultrahigh quality factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xufeng; Sun, Xiankai; Tang, Hong X.

    2012-08-01

    We present a 1.16-\\mum-radius disk cavity with ultrahigh quality (Q) factor by embedding the disk into a sunflower-type circular photonic crystal (CPC). The band gap of the CPC reduces the bending loss of the whispering-gallery mode of the disk, leading to a simulated Q of 10^7, at least one order of magnitude higher than a bare disk of the same size. The design is experimentally verified with a record high loaded Q of 7.4 \\times 10^5 measured from an optimized device fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator substrate.

  11. Obstructive sleep apnea as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Preethi; Greenberg, Harly

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is independently associated with cardiovascular and cardiometabolic risk in several large epidemiologic studies. OSA leads to several physiologic disturbances such as intermittent hypoxia, sleep fragmentation, and increase in autonomic tone. These disturbances have been associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in animal and human studies. Studies also suggest a bidirectional relationship between OSA and T2DM whereby T2DM itself might contribute to the features of OSA. Moreover, successful treatment of OSA may reduce these risks, although this is controversial. The purpose of this article is to review 1) the links and bidirectional associations between OSA and T2DM; 2) the pathogenic mechanisms that might link these two disease states; 3) the role of continuous positive airway pressure therapy in improving glucose tolerance, sensitivity, and resistance; and 4) the implications for clinical practice. PMID:26491377

  12. Redescription of Philometra globiceps (Rudolphi, 1819) (Nematoda: Philometridae), the type species of Philometra Costa, 1845, including the first data obtained by SEM.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Tedesco, Perla

    2015-12-01

    A redescription of Philometra globiceps (Rudolphi 1819), the type species of Philometra Costa 1845 (Philometridae), is provided on the basis of specimens collected from the gonads, stomach, pyloric caeca, intestine and gallbladder of the marine fish Uranoscopus scaber Linnaeus (Uranoscopidae, Perciformes) caught in the Ionian Sea off Ugento, southern Italy. Light microscopical and scanning electron microscopical examinations (latter used for the first time in this species) of the specimens revealed some previously unreported morphological features, such as the location of submedian pairs of cephalic papillae of external circle on four elevated cuticular lobes in gravid females, the presence of amphids, genital papillae and phasmids in males, the lamellate structure of the distal end of gubernaculum appearing as a dorsal protuberance in lateral view and the structure of the male caudal end. A taxonomically important feature of P. globiceps is the details in the dorsal transverse lamella-like structures on the distal end of the gubernaculum, by which this species can be separated from other gonad-infecting species of this genus. Apparently, P. globiceps is a specific parasite of U. scaber and all previous records of this species from hosts belonging to other fish families are evidently based on misidentifications. PMID:26319523

  13. Characterization of a Bacillus subtilis sporulation operon that includes genes for an RNA polymerase sigma factor and for a putative DD-carboxypeptidase.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, J J; Schuch, R; Piggot, P J

    1992-01-01

    At early stages of sporulation, the spoIIA locus is transcribed as a tricistronic (1.7-kb) operon, coding for sigma F and for two proteins that modulate the activity of sigma F. The locus is transcribed as a longer (2.9-kb) transcript at the late stages of sporulation. We show here that the longer transcript contains an additional open reading frame whose product has extensive sequence homology with DD-carboxypeptidases; the corresponding gene is designated dacF. Cotranscription of a morphogene, such as dacF, with the gene for a sigma factor suggests a way to couple transcription regulation with morphogenesis. The predicted N-terminal sequence of the DacF protein and the inhibition of sporulation by a translational dacF-lacZ fusion both suggest that the protein has a signal peptide for transport into or across a membrane. Expression of a dacF-lacZ transcriptional fusion was in the forespore. The 5' end of the 2.9-kb transcript was determined by primer extension analysis. The region 5' to the end showed no homology to promoters recognized by known sigma factors but was homologous to the corresponding region of the forespore-specific 0.3-kb gene of Bacillus subtilis. Images PMID:1629150

  14. The yeast BDF1 gene encodes a transcription factor involved in the expression of a broad class of genes including snRNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Lygerou, Z; Conesa, C; Lesage, P; Swanson, R N; Ruet, A; Carlson, M; Sentenac, A; Séraphin, B

    1994-01-01

    While screening for genes that affect the synthesis of yeast snRNPs, we identified a thermosensitive mutant that abolishes the production of a reporter snRNA at the non-permissive temperature. This mutant defines a new gene, named BDF1. In a bdf1-1 strain, the reporter snRNA synthesized before the temperature shift remains stable at the non-permissive temperature. This demonstrates that the BDF1 gene affects the synthesis rather than the stability of the reporter snRNA and suggests that the BDF1 gene encodes a transcription factor. BDF1 is present in single copy on yeast chromosome XII, and is important for normal vegetative growth but not essential for cell viability. bdf1 null mutants share common phenotypes with several mutants affecting general transcription and are defective in snRNA production. BDF1 encodes a protein of 687 amino-acids containing two copies of the bromodomain, a motif also present in other transcription factors as well as a new conserved domain, the ET domain, also present in Drosophila and human proteins. Images PMID:7816623

  15. The influence of subclinical cardiovascular disease and related risk factors on cognition in type 2 diabetes mellitus: The DHS-Mind study.

    PubMed

    Hugenschmidt, Christina E; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Hayasaka, Satoru; Carr, J Jeffrey; Freedman, Barry I; Nyenhuis, David L; Williamson, Jeff D; Bowden, Donald W

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that measures of coronary artery calcified plaque (CAC) collected at baseline from the Diabetes Heart Study (DHS) would explain associations between cognition and diabetes collected at follow-up approximately 7 years later. The DHS is a sibling study of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a cohort with a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes (~80%). Associations between baseline CAC and cognitive performance were tested using generalized estimating equations and mixed effects models to adjust for familial relationships. Diabetes status was associated (p<0.05) with poorer performance on tests of verbal memory, processing speed, and semantic fluency adjusting for age, sex, education, and hypertension status. As hypothesized, including CAC in the statistical model attenuated this association. Additionally, CAC and fasting glucose predicted performance in tasks not associated with diabetes status in this study (Stroop Task, Phonemic Fluency). These results confirm work attributing the heterogeneity of cognitive outcomes in type 2 diabetes to subclinical risk factors that combine to affect different aspects of brain function. Importantly, these results imply that risk factor intervention should begin before comorbidities, particularly CVD, become clinically apparent. PMID:23659774

  16. Aging is the primary risk factor for the majority of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). There are almost 40 million

    E-print Network

    Liu, Taosheng

    by the same cellular mechanisms. This remains a topic of debate. For your comprehensive exam, choose either AD" is a goal of future research in these fields. Indeed, one model suggests that elements of lifestyle array of neurobiological disorders, including Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, essential tremor, Tourette

  17. Drugs, including alcohol, that act as risk factors for cataract, and possible protection against cataract by aspirin-like analgesics and cyclopenthiazide.

    PubMed Central

    Harding, J J; van Heyningen, R

    1988-01-01

    A case-control study of cataract in Oxfordshire explored the risks and benefits associated with a variety of drugs. Steroids including the diuretic spironolactone, nifedipine, heavy smoking, and beer drinking were associated with a raised risk. On the other hand aspirin-like analgesics (paracetamol, ibuprofen, aspirin, etc. appeared to protect against cataract. Cyclopenthiazide appeared to provide a similar protection. PMID:3207655

  18. Petrographic and Geochemical Characterization of Ore-Bearing Intrusions of the Noril'sk type, Siberia; With Discussion of Their Origin, Including Additional Datasets and Core Logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czamanske, Gerald K., (compiler)

    2002-01-01

    The Noril'sk I, Talnakh, and Kharaelakh intrusions of the Noril'sk district host one of the outstanding metal concentrations in the world; contained Cu-Ni resources are comparable to the deposits at Sudbury, Ontario and the platinum group element (PGE) resource is second only to that of the Bushveld Complex. Our opportunity to cooperatively sample and study this district in Siberian Russia arose in 1990 through a memorandum of understanding between the U.S. Geological Survey and the former Ministry of Geology of the U.S.S.R. The world-class significance of these deposits and the possibility that understanding their geologic context, including construction of a credible 'ore-deposit model,' will lead to discovery of similar deposits elsewhere, inspired extensive studies of the ores, the mafic-intrusions which host them, and associated flood basalts.

  19. Is obsessive-compulsive symptomatology a risk factor for Alzheimer-type dementia?

    PubMed

    Dondu, Ayse; Sevincoka, Levent; Akyol, Ali; Tataroglu, Cengiz

    2015-02-28

    In the present study, we hypothesized that lifetime Obsessive-Compulsive (OC) symptomatology would be risk factors for the development of Alzheimer?s disease (AD). For this aim, first we compared 39 patients with AD and 30 age and gender matched control subjects. We have found that lifetime and current OC symptoms (OCs) and comorbid diagnosis of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder in AD patients were significantly more prevalent than in control group. AD patients had more likely to have lifetime and current hoarding, and checking obsessions compared to controls. The rate of lifetime and current hoarding, and checking compulsions also appeared to be higher in AD patients in comparison to control subjects. Hoarding and checking obsessions, and compulsions seemed to proceed through the dementia in contrast to other OCs. The mean number of lifetime compulsions seemed to predict the diagnosis of AD. When we compared AD patients with and without OCs, we have found that OC symptomatology prior to AD did not cause an earlier onset of dementia and more severe cognitive impairment. Further longitudinal clinical, genetic and neuroimaging investigations are required to determine if lifetime presence of OCs would predispose to the development of later AD. PMID:25576369

  20. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Nef Inhibits Autophagy through Transcription Factor EB Sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Grant R.; Rawat, Pratima; Bruckman, Rachel S.; Spector, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    HIV Nef acts as an anti-autophagic maturation factor through interaction with beclin-1 (BECN1). We report that exposure of macrophages to infectious or non-infectious purified HIV induces toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8) and BECN1 dependent dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation of TFEB and that this correlates with an increase in autophagy markers. RNA interference for ATG13, TFEB, TLR8, or BECN1 inhibits this HIV-induced autophagy. However, once HIV establishes a productive infection, TFEB phosphorylation and cytoplasmic sequestration are increased resulting in decreased autophagy markers. Moreover, by 7 d post-infection, autophagy levels are similar to mock infected controls. Conversely, although Nef deleted HIV similarly induces TFEB dephosphorylation and nuclear localization, and increases autophagy, these levels remain elevated during continued productive infection. Thus, the interaction between HIV and TLR8 serves as a signal for autophagy induction that is dependent upon the dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation of TFEB. During permissive infection, Nef binds BECN1 resulting in mammalian target of rapamycin (MTOR) activation, TFEB phosphorylation and cytosolic sequestration, and the inhibition of autophagy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a virus modulating TFEB localization and helps to explain how HIV modulates autophagy to promote its own replication and cell survival. PMID:26115100

  1. Factors driving carbon mineralization priming effect in a soil amended with different types of biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cely, P.; Tarquis, A. M.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Méndez, A.; Gascó, G.

    2014-03-01

    The effect of biochar on soil carbon mineralization priming effect depends on the characteristics of the raw materials, production method and pyrolysis conditions. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the impact of three different types of biochar on soil CO2 emissions and in different physicochemical properties. For this purpose, a sandy-loam soil was amended with the three biochars (BI, BII and BIII) at a rate of 8 wt % and soil CO2 emissions were measured for 45 days. BI is produced from a mixed wood sieving's from wood chip production, BII from a mixture of paper sludge and wheat husks and BIII from sewage sludge. Cumulative CO2 emissions of biochars, soil and amended soil were well fit to a simple first-order kinetic model with correlation coefficients (r2) greater than 0.97. Results shown a negative priming effect in the soil after addition of BI and a positive priming effect in the case of soil amended with BII and BIII. These results can be related with different biochar properties such as ash content, volatile matter, fixed carbon, organic carbon oxidised with dichromate, soluble carbon and metal and phenolic substances content in addition to surface biochar properties. Three biochars increased the values of soil field capacity and wilting point, while effects over pH and cation exchange capacity were not observed.

  2. Genetic Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes: A Trans-Regulatory Genetic Architecture?

    PubMed Central

    Elbein, Steven C.; Gamazon, Eric R.; Das, Swapan K.; Rasouli, Neda; Kern, Philip A.; Cox, Nancy J.

    2012-01-01

    To date, 68 loci have been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) or glucose homeostasis traits. We report here the results of experiments aimed at functionally characterizing the SNPs replicated for T2D and glucose traits. We sought to determine whether these loci were associated with transcript levels in adipose, muscle, liver, lymphocytes, and pancreatic ?-cells. We found an excess of trans, rather than cis, associations among these SNPs in comparison to what was expected in adipose and muscle. Among transcripts differentially expressed (FDR < 0.05) between muscle or adipose cells of insulin-sensitive individuals and those of insulin-resistant individuals (matched on BMI), trans-regulated transcripts, in contrast to the cis-regulated ones, were enriched. The paucity of cis associations with transcripts was confirmed in a study of liver transcriptome and was further supported by an analysis of the most detailed transcriptome map of pancreatic ?-cells. Relative to location- and allele-frequency-matched random SNPs, both the 68 loci and top T2D-associated SNPs from two large-scale genome-wide studies were enriched for trans eQTLs in adipose and muscle but not in lymphocytes. Our study suggests that T2D SNPs have broad-reaching and tissue-specific effects that often extend beyond local transcripts and raises the question of whether patterns of cis or trans transcript regulation are a key feature of the architecture of complex traits. PMID:22958899

  3. X-RAY SCALING RELATION IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES: DARK MATTER AS A PRIMARY FACTOR IN RETAINING HOT GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Woo; Fabbiano, Giuseppina

    2013-10-20

    We have revisited the X-ray scaling relations of early-type galaxies (ETG) by investigating, for the first time, the L{sub X,Gas}-M{sub Total} relation in a sample of 14 ETGs. In contrast to the large scatter (a factor of 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3}) in the L{sub X,Total}-L{sub B} relation, we found a tight correlation between these physically motivated quantities with an rms deviation of a factor of three in L{sub X,Gas} = 10{sup 38}-10{sup 43} erg s{sup –1} or M{sub Total} = a few × 10{sup 10} to a few × 10{sup 12} M{sub ?}. More striking, this relation becomes even tighter with an rms deviation of a factor of 1.3 among the gas-rich galaxies (with L{sub X,Gas} > 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1}). In a simple power-law form, the new relation is (L{sub X,Gas}/10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1}) = (M{sub Total}/3.2 × 10{sup 11} M{sub ?}){sup 3}. This relation is also consistent with the steep relation between the gas luminosity and temperature, L{sub X,Gas} ? T{sub Gas} {sup 4.5}, identified by Boroson et al., if the gas is virialized. Our results indicate that the total mass of an ETG is the primary factor in regulating the amount of hot gas. Among the gas-poor galaxies (with L{sub X,Gas} < a few × 10{sup 39} erg s{sup –1}), the scatter in the L{sub X,Gas}-M{sub Total} (and L{sub X,Gas}-T{sub Gas}) relation increases, suggesting that secondary factors (e.g., rotation, flattening, star formation history, cold gas, environment, etc.) may become important.

  4. Response to Therapy and Outcomes in Oropharyngeal Cancer Are Associated With Biomarkers Including Human Papillomavirus, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, Gender, and Smoking

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Bhavna; Cordell, Kitrina G.; Lee, Julia S.; Prince, Mark E.; Tran, Huong H.; Wolf, Gregory T.; Urba, Susan G.; Worden, Francis P.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Teknos, Theodoros N.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Tsien, Christina I.; Taylor, Jeremy; D'Silva, Nisha J.; Yang, Kun; Kurnit, David M.; Bradford, Carol R.

    2007-10-01

    Induction chemotherapy and concurrent chemoradiation for responders or immediate surgery for non-responders is an effective treatment strategy head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) of the larynx and oropharynx. Biomarkers that predict outcome would be valuable in selecting patients for therapy. In this study, the presence and titer of high risk human papilloma virus (HPV) and expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in pre-treatment biopsies, as well as smoking and gender were examined in oropharynx cancer patients enrolled in an organ sparing trial. HPV16 copy number was positively associated with response to therapy and with overall and disease specific survival, whereas EGFR expression, current or former smoking behavior, and female gender (in this cohort) were associated with poor response and poor survival in multivariate analysis. Smoking cessation and strategies to target EGFR may be useful adjuncts for therapy to improve outcome in the cases with the poorest biomarker profile.

  5. T helper type 2 inflammatory disease in the absence of interleukin 4 and transcription factor STAT6.

    PubMed

    Dent, A L; Hu-Li, J; Paul, W E; Staudt, L M

    1998-11-10

    An important signaling pathway for the differentiation of T helper type 2 (TH2) cells from uncommitted CD4 T cell precursors is activation of the STAT6 transcription factor by interleukin 4 (IL-4). The protooncogene BCL-6 is also involved in TH2 differentiation, as BCL-6 -/- mice develop an inflammation of the heart and lungs associated with an overproduction of TH2 cells. Surprisingly, IL-4 -/- BCL-6 -/- and STAT6 -/- BCL-6 -/- double-mutant mice developed the same TH2-type inflammation of the heart and lungs as is characteristic of BCL-6 -/- mice. Furthermore, a TH2 cytokine response developed in STAT6 -/- BCL-6 -/- and IL-4 -/- BCL-6 -/- mice after immunization with a conventional antigen in adjuvant. In contrast to these in vivo findings, STAT6 was required for the in vitro differentiation of BCL-6 -/- T cells into TH2 cells. BCL-6, a transcriptional repressor that can bind to the same DNA binding motifs as STAT transcription factors, seems to regulate TH2 responses in vivo by a pathway independent of IL-4 and STAT6. PMID:9811885

  6. Sleep duration is a potential risk factor for newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Chao, Chi-Yuan; Wu, Jin-Shang; Yang, Yi-Ching; Shih, Chi-Chen; Wang, Ru-Hsueh; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Chang, Chih-Jen

    2011-06-01

    U-shaped patterns have been observed for the relationship between sleep duration and diabetes. In addition, prediabetes is associated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. However, there are few studies investigating the relationship between sleep duration and prediabetes/newly diagnosed diabetes. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between sleep duration and prediabetes/newly diagnosed diabetes in a Taiwanese population. After excluding the subjects with a high risk of obstructive sleep apnea, those with a positive history of diabetes, or those taking hypnotic drugs, a total of 3470 adults were recruited from a health checkup center. Each subject completed a self-administrated structured questionnaire on sleep duration and lifestyle factors. Prediabetes/diabetes was defined following the definition of the American Diabetes Association. Subjects with different sleep durations were classified into short (<6.0 hours), normal (6.0?8.49 hours), and long sleepers (?8.5 hours). The proportion of subjects with normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, and newly diagnosed diabetes was 71.9%, 22.9%, and 5.2%, respectively. There were significant differences in age, sex, weight, education level, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, alcohol and coffee drinking habits, family history of diabetes, and sleep duration among the 3 glycemic groups. In multinomial regression, both short and long sleepers had a higher risk of newly diagnosed diabetes; and the odds ratio were 1.55 (95% confidence interval, 1.07-2.24) and 2.83 (1.19-6.73), respectively. However, sleep duration was not found to relate to prediabetes. In conclusion, both short and long sleep durations were independently associated with newly diagnosed diabetes, but not with prediabetes. PMID:20846701

  7. Loss of intrinsic aminoglycoside resistance in Acinetobacter haemolyticus as a result of three distinct types of alterations in the aac(6')-Ig gene, including insertion of IS17.

    PubMed Central

    Rudant, E; Courvalin, P; Lambert, T

    1997-01-01

    The distribution of the aac(6')-Ig gene, encoding aminoglycoside 6'-N-acetyltransferase-Ig [AAC(6')-Ig], was studied in 96 Acinetobacter haemolyticus strains and 12 proteolytic Acinetobacter strains, including Acinetobacter genomospecies 6, 13, and 14 and 3 unnamed species assigned to this genomic group by DNA-DNA hybridization. This gene was detected by DNA-DNA hybridization in all 96 A. haemolyticus strains and by PCR in 95 strains but was not detected in strains of other species, indicating that it may be used to identify A. haemolyticus. Three A. haemolyticus strains were susceptible to tobramycin and did not produce an aminoglycoside 6'-N-acetylating activity, although they contained aac(6')-Ig-related sequences. An analysis of three susceptible A. haemolyticus strains indicated that aminoglycoside resistance was abolished by the following three distinct mechanisms: (i) a point mutation in aac(6')-Ig that led to a Met56-->Arg substitution, which was shown by analysis of a revertant to be responsible for the loss of resistance; (ii) a polythymine insertion that altered the reading frame; and (iii) insertion of IS17, a new member of the IS903 family. These observations indicated that AAC(6')-Ig is not essential for the viability of A. haemolyticus, although the aac(6')-Ig gene was detected in all members of this species. PMID:9420034

  8. Cold Heat Storage Characteristics of O/W-type Latent Heat Emulsion Including Continuum Phase of Water Treated with a Freezing Point Depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaba, Hideo; Morita, Shin-Ichi

    This paper deals with flow and cold heat storage characteristics of the oil (tetradecane, C14H30, freezing point 278.9 K, Latent heat 229 kJ/kg)/water emulsion as a latent heat storage material having a low melting point. The test emulsion includes a water-urea solution as a continuum phase. The freezing point depression of the continuum phase permits enhancement of the heat transfer rate of the emulison, due to the large temperature difference between the latent heat storage material and water-urea solution. The velocity of emulsion flow and the inlet temperature of coolant in a coiled double tube heat exchanger are chosen as the experimental parameters. The pressure drop, the heat transfer coefficient of the emulsion in the coiled tube are measured in the temperture region over solid and liquid phase of the latent heat storage material. The finishing time of the cold heat storage is defined experimentally in the range of sensible and latent heat storage. It is clarified that the flow behavior of the emulsion as a non-Newtonian fluid has an important role in cold heat storage. The useful nondimentional correlation equations for the additional pressure loss coefficient, the heat transfer coefficient and the finishing time of the cold heat storage are derived in terms of Dean number and heat capacity ratio.

  9. A human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) carrier complicated with various autoimmune diseases including primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Harada, Masaru; Kumemura, Hiroto; Fujita, Atsuko; Yanagimoto, Chikatoshi; Harada, Riko; Hashimoto, Osamu; Sakamoto, Masaharu; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Okamura, Takashi; Sata, Michio

    2005-02-01

    A 47-year-old woman with primary biliary cirrhosis and scleroderma was examined at our hospital for a 1-week history of non-resolving fever, arthralgia, myalgia, muscle weakness and fatigue. A diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus was made based on arthralgia, low leukocyte count, low lymphocyte count, low serum concentration of complements, positive anti-nuclear antibody and positive anti-double-strand-DNA antibody. She was negative for anti-U1RNP antibody, but positive for anti-Jo1 antibody, and her initial serum concentration of creatine phosphokinase was elevated. We diagnosed her as having overlap syndrome with scleroderma, systemic lupus erythematosus and possible polymyositis associated with primary biliary cirrhosis. Prednisolone rapidly improved her symptoms. Lobulated leukocytes were observed in her peripheral blood specimen. She was positive for anti-HTLV-1 antibody, but Southern blot hybridization did not confirm monoclonal integration of HTLV-I proviral DNA in her peripheral blood. This suggests the possibility of a relationship between HTLV-1 infection and various autoimmune disorders including primary biliary cirrhosis. PMID:15715972

  10. Identification of an osteoclast transcription factor that binds to the human T cell leukemia virus type I-long terminal repeat enhancer element.

    PubMed

    Inoue, D; Santiago, P; Horne, W C; Baron, R

    1997-10-01

    Transgenic mice expressing human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I)-tax under the control of HTLV-I-long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter develop skeletal abnormalities with high bone turnover and myelofibrosis. In these animals, Tax is highly expressed in bone with a pattern of expression restricted to osteoclasts and spindle-shaped cells within the endosteal myelofibrosis. To test the hypothesis that lineage-specific transcription factors promote transgene expression from the HTLV-I-LTR in osteoclasts, we first examined tax expression in transgenic bone marrow cultures. Expression was dependent on 1alpha,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol and coincided with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) expression, a marker of osteoclast differentiation. Furthermore, Tax was expressed in vitronectin receptor-positive mononuclear precursors as well as in mature osteoclast-like cells (OCLs). Consistent with our hypothesis, electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed the presence of an OCL nuclear factor (NFOC-1) that binds to the LTR 21-base pair direct repeat, a region critical for the promoter activity. This binding is further enhanced by Tax. Since NFOC-1 is absent in macrophages and conserved in osteoclasts among species including human, such a factor may play a role in lineage determination and/or in expression of the differentiated osteoclast phenotype. PMID:9312160

  11. Sugar-sweetened and diet beverage consumption is associated with cardiovascular risk factor profile in youth with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bortsov, Andrey V.; Bell, Ronny A.; Dabelea, Dana; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Hamman, Richard F.; Klingensmith, Georgeanna J.; Lawrence, Jean M.; Maahs, David M.; McKeown, Robert; Marcovina, Santica M.; Thomas, Joan; Williams, Desmond E.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among youth with type 1 diabetes is high and associated with age, gender, and race/ethnicity. It has also been shown that youth with type 1 diabetes often do not follow dietary recommendations. The objective of this cross-sectional observational study was to explore the association of sugar-sweetened and diet beverage intake with A1c, plasma lipids, adiponectin, leptin, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure in youth with type 1 diabetes. We examined data from 1,806 youth age 10–22 years with type 1 diabetes, of which 22% were minority (10% Hispanic, 8% African Americans, 4% other races) and 48% were female. Sugar-sweetened beverage, diet beverage, and mineral water intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. After adjustment for socio-demographic and clinical covariates, physical activity and total energy intake, high sugar-sweetened beverage intake (at least one serving per day vs. none), was associated with higher levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and plasma triglycerides, but not with A1c. High diet beverage intake was associated with higher A1c, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. These associations were partially confounded by body mass index, saturated fat and total fiber intake. High sugar-sweetened beverage intake may have an adverse effect on CVD risk in youth with type 1 diabetes. Diet beverage intake may be a marker of unhealthy lifestyle which, in turn, is associated with worse metabolic control and CVD risk profile in these youth. Youth with diabetes should be encouraged to minimize sugar-sweetened beverage intake. PMID:21249401

  12. Small field in-air output factors: The role of miniphantom design and dosimeter type

    SciTech Connect

    Warrener, Kirbie; Hug, Benjamin; Ebert, Martin A.; Liu, Paul; McKenzie, David R.; Ralston, Anna; Suchowerska, Natalka

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: The commissioning of treatment planning systems and beam modeling requires measured input parameters. The measurement of relative output in-air, S{sub c} is particularly difficult for small fields. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of miniphantom design and detector selection on measured S{sub c} values for small fields and to validate the measurements against Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: Measurements were performed using brass caps (with sidewalls) or tops (no sidewalls) of varying heights and widths. The performance of two unshielded diodes (60012 and SFD), EBT2 radiochromic film, and a fiber optic dosimeter (FOD) were compared for fields defined by MLCs (5–100 mm) and SRS cones (4–30 mm) on a Varian Novalis linear accelerator. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to theoretically predict S{sub c} as measured by the FOD. Results: For all detectors, S{sub c} agreed to within 1% for fields larger than 10 mm and to within 2.3% for smaller fields. Monte Carlo simulation matched the FOD measurements for all size of cone defined fields to within 0.5%. Conclusions: Miniphantom design is the most important variable for reproducible and accurate measurements of the in-air output ratio, S{sub c}, in small photon fields (less than 30 mm). Sidewalls are not required for fields ? 30 mm and tops are therefore preferred over the larger caps. Unlike output measurements in water, S{sub cp,} the selection of detector type for S{sub c} is not critical, provided the active dosimeter volume is small relative to the field size.

  13. Bilirubin as a potential causal factor in type 2 diabetes risk: a Mendelian randomization study

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Ali; Deetman, Petronella E.; Corpeleijn, Eva; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gans, Rijk O.B.; Hillege, Hans L.; van der Harst, Pim; Stolk, Ronald P.; Navis, Gerjan; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Bakker, Stephan J.L.

    2014-01-01

    Circulating bilirubin, a natural antioxidant, is associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the nature of the relationship remains unknown. We performed Mendelian randomization in a prospective cohort of 3,381 participants free of diabetes at baseline (aged 28-75 years; women, 52.6%). We used rs6742078 located in UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A1) locus as instrumental variable (IV) to study a potential causal effect of serum total bilirubin on T2D risk. T2D developed in a total of 210 (6.2%) participants during a median follow-up of 7.8 years. In adjusted analyses, rs6742078, which explained 19.5% of bilirubin variation, was strongly associated with total bilirubin (a 0.68-SD increase in bilirubin levels per T allele; P<1×10?122) and was also associated with T2D risk (OR 0.69 [95%CI, 0.54-0.90]; P=0.006). Per 1-SD increase in log-transformed bilirubin levels, we observed a 25% (OR 0.75 [95%CI, 0.62-0.92]; P=0.004) lower risk of T2D. In Mendelian randomization analysis, the causal risk reduction for T2D was estimated to be 42% (causal ORIVestimation per 1-SD increase in log-transformed bilirubin 0.58 [95%CI, 0.39-0.84]; P=0.005), which was comparable to the observational estimate (Durbin-Wu-Hausman chi-square test Pfor difference =0.19). These novel results provide evidence that elevated bilirubin is causally associated with risk of T2D and support its role as a protective determinant. PMID:25368098

  14. The Protective Effect of Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 Risk Allele rs7903146 against Elevated Fasting Plasma Triglyceride in Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuxia; Song, Kangxing; Srivastava, Roshni; Fathzadeh, Mohsen; Li, Na; Mani, Arya

    2015-01-01

    Background. The results from published studies regarding association of transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) variant rs7903146 with dyslipidemia have been conflicting and inconclusive. Methods. We carried out a meta-analysis that aimed to investigate the association of the rs7903146 variant with plasma lipid levels using electronic database and published studies. Data was extracted by a standard algorithm. Dominant, recessive, homozygote, and heterozygote comparison models were utilized. Results. 24 studies incorporating 52,785 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, the minor allele (T) was associated with lower risk for hypertriglyceridemia in subjects with type 2 diabetes (dominant model: SMD = ?0.04, 95% CI (?0.08, 0.00), P = 0.048, Pheterogeneity = 0.47; recessive model: SMD = ?0.10, 95% CI (?0.18, ?0.02), P = 0.01, Pheterogeneity = 0.56). No association was found between minor (T) allele and plasma TC, LDL-c, or HDL-c levels in subjects with type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome (MetS) and no association was found between minor (T) allele and plasma TG levels in nondiabetic subjects. Conclusions. Our meta-analysis indicated the association between TCF7L2 rs7903146 polymorphism and low plasma triglyceride (TG) level in subjects with type 2 diabetes. No association was found between rs7903146 variant and plasma lipids in nondiabetic subjects. PMID:26576435

  15. Synthesis and Evaluation of Candidate PET Radioligands for Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Type-1 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Lodge, Nicholas J.; Li, Yu-Wen; Chin, Frederick T.; Dischino, Douglas D.; Zoghbi, Sami S.; Deskus, Jeffrey A.; Mattson, Ronald J.; Imaizumo, Masao; Pieschl, Rick; Molski, Thaddeus F.; Fujita, Masahiro; Dulac, Heidi; Zaczek, Robert; Bronson, Joanne J.; Macor, John E.; Innis, Robert B.; Pike, Victor W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A radioligand for measuring the density of corticotrophin-releasing factor subtype-1 receptors (CRF1 receptors) in living animal and human brain with positron emission tomography (PET) would be a useful tool for neuropsychiatric investigations and the development of drugs intended to interact with this target. This study was aimed at discovery of such a radioligand from a group of CRF1 receptor ligands based on a core 3-(phenylamino)pyrazin-2(1H)-one scaffold. Methods CRF1 receptor ligands were selected for development as possible PET radioligands based on their binding potency at CRF receptors (displacement of [125I]CRF from rat cortical membranes), measured lipophilicity, autoradiographic binding profile in rat and rhesus monkey brain sections, rat biodistribution, and suitability for radiolabeling with carbon-11 or fluorine-18. Two identified candidates (BMS-721313 and BMS-732098) were labeled with fluorine-18. A third candidate (BMS-709460) was labeled with carbon-11 and all three radioligands were evaluated in PET experiments in rhesus monkey. CRF1 receptor density (Bmax) was assessed in rhesus brain cortical and cerebellum membranes with the CRF receptor ligand, [3H]BMS-728300. Results The three ligands selected for development showed high binding affinity (IC50 values, 0.3–8 nM) at CRF1 receptors and moderate lipophilicity (LogD, 2.8–4.4). [3H]BMS-728300 and the two 18F-labeled ligands showed region-specific binding in rat and rhesus monkey brain autoradiography, namely higher binding density in the frontal and limbic cortex, and cerebellum than in thalamus and brainstem. CRF1 receptor Bmax in rhesus brain was found to be 50–120 fmol/mg protein across cortical regions and cerebellum. PET experiments in rhesus monkey showed that the radioligands [18F]BMS-721313, [18F]BMS-732098 and [11C]BMS-709460 gave acceptably high brain radioactivity uptake but no indication of the specific binding as seen in vitro. Conclusions Candidate CRF1 receptor PET radioligands were identified but none proved to be effective for imaging monkey brain CRF1 receptors. Higher affinity radioligands are likely required for successful PET imaging of CRF1 receptors. PMID:24793011

  16. Investigating GSTT1 and GSTM1 null genotype as the risk factor of diabetes type 2 retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetes is one of the multifactorial disorders with genetics and environmental factors playing important role in its cause. In diabetes, the defects in cellular metabolism results in increasing free radicals. These radicals react with other vital cellular molecules which are responsible in diabetes side effects. Human glutathione S-transferases (GST) are a family of enzymes that catalyses conjugation of electrophilic substances with glutathione. In this research the deletion of two of the most important genes of this family; GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes was investigated as the risk factor for diabetes mellitus type II and one of its most important complications; retinopathy. Material and methods In this study deletion of GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes in 57 diabetics’ patients with retinopathy and 58 diabetic peoples without retinopathy was examined. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and then multiplex PCR was performed following agarose gel electrophoresis to detect GSTT1 and GSTM1 null genotypes. Data were analyzed with SPSS v16 software. Results The results indicated that there was significant relationship between GSTM1 null genotype with retinopathy side effect of diabetes type 2. While there was no significant relationship between GSTT1 null genotypes with retinopathy in diabetes type 2. Conclusion Significant correlation between GSTM1 null genotype and retinopathy in this and other studies could indicate this fact that impair cellular metabolism result in increase free radicals and oxidative pressure. Therefore, GST null genotypes may result in decrease antioxidant capacity which causes side effects of diabetes. Considering the performance of different classes of GST null genotypes additional studies are required to confirm this study. PMID:24355557

  17. Targeted gene transfer of hepatocyte growth factor to alveolar type II epithelial cells reduces lung fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Gazdhar, Amiq; Temuri, Almas; Knudsen, Lars; Gugger, Mathias; Schmid, Ralph A; Ochs, Matthias; Geiser, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Inefficient alveolar wound repair contributes to the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a potent growth factor for alveolar type II epithelial cells (AECII) and may improve repair and reduce fibrosis. We studied whether targeted gene transfer of HGF specifically to AECII improves lung fibrosis in bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. A plasmid encoding human HGF expressed from the human surfactant protein C promoter (pSpC-hHGF) was designed, and extracorporeal electroporation-mediated gene transfer of HGF specifically to AECII was performed 7 days after bleomycin-induced lung injury in the rat. Animals were killed 7 days after hHGF gene transfer. Electroporation-mediated HGF gene transfer resulted in HGF expression specifically in AECII at biologically relevant levels. HGF gene transfer reduced pulmonary fibrosis as assessed by histology, hydroxyproline determination, and design-based stereology compared with controls. Our results indicate that the antifibrotic effect of HGF is due in part to a reduction of transforming growth factor-?(1), modulation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and reduction of extravascular fibrin deposition. We conclude that targeted HGF gene transfer specifically to AECII decreases bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis and may therefore represent a novel cell-specific gene transfer technology to treat pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:23134111

  18. Tumor Necrosis Factor Type ? , a Potent Inhibitor of Endothelial Cell Growth in vitro, is Angiogenic in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frater-Schroder, Marijke; Risau, Werner; Hallmann, Rupert; Gautschi, Peter; Bohlen, Peter

    1987-08-01

    Tumor necrosis factor type ? (TNF-? ) inhibits endothelial cell proliferation in vitro. Basal cell growth (in the absence of exogenously added growth factor) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-stimulated cell proliferation are inhibited in a dose-dependent manner from 0.1 to 10 ng/ml with half-maximal inhibition occurring at 0.5-1.0 ng of TNF-? per ml. Bovine aortic and brain capillary endothelial and smooth muscle cells are similarly affected. TNF-? is a noncompetitive antagonist of FGF-stimulated cell proliferation. Its action on endothelial cells is reversible and noncytotoxic. Surprisingly, TNF-? does not seem to inhibit endothelial cell proliferation in vivo. In the rabbit cornea, even a high dose of TNF-? (10 ? g) does not suppress angiogenesis induced by basic FGF. On the contrary, in this model system TNF-? stimulates neovascularization. The inflammatory response that is seen in the cornea after TNF-? implantation suggests that the angiogenic properties of this agent may be a consequence of leukocyte infiltration.

  19. Outcomes of Combined Cardiovascular Risk Factor Management Strategies in Type 2 Diabetes: The ACCORD Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Karen L.; O’Connor, Patrick J.; Morgan, Timothy M.; Buse, John B.; Cohen, Robert M.; Cushman, William C.; Cutler, Jeffrey A.; Evans, Gregory W.; Gerstein, Hertzel C.; Grimm, Richard H.; Lipkin, Edward W.; Narayan, K.M.Venkat; Riddle, Matthew C.; Sood, Ajay; Goff, David C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare effects of combinations of standard and intensive treatment of glycemia and either blood pressure (BP) or lipids in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS ACCORD enrolled 10,251 type 2 diabetes patients aged 40–79 years at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. Participants were randomly assigned to hemoglobin A1c goals of <6.0% (<42 mmol/mol; intensive glycemia) or 7.0–7.9% (53–63 mmol/mol; standard glycemia) and then randomized a second time to either 1) systolic BP goals of <120 mmHg (intensive BP) or <140 mmHg (standard BP) or 2) simvastatin plus fenofibrate (intensive lipid) or simvastatin plus placebo (standard lipid). Proportional hazards models were used to assess combinations of treatment assignments on the composite primary (deaths due to CVD, nonfatal myocardial infarction [MI], and nonfatal stroke) and secondary outcomes. RESULTS In the BP trial, risk of the primary outcome was lower in the groups intensively treated for glycemia (hazard ratio [HR] 0.67; 95% CI 0.50–0.91), BP (HR 0.74; 95% CI 0.55–1.00), or both (HR 0.71; 95% CI 0.52–0.96) compared with combined standard BP and glycemia treatment. For secondary outcomes, MI was significantly reduced by intensive glycemia treatment and stroke by intensive BP treatment; most other HRs were neutral or favored intensive treatment groups. In the lipid trial, the general pattern of results showed no evidence of benefit of intensive regimens (whether single or combined) compared with combined standard lipid and glycemia treatment. The mortality HR was 1.33 (95% CI 1.02–1.74) in the standard lipid/intensive glycemia group compared with the standard lipid/standard glycemia group. CONCLUSIONS In the ACCORD BP trial, compared with combined standard treatment, intensive BP or intensive glycemia treatment alone improved major CVD outcomes, without additional benefit from combining the two. In the ACCORD lipid trial, neither intensive lipid nor glycemia treatment produced an overall benefit, but intensive glycemia treatment increased mortality. PMID:24595629

  20. Growth hormone-releasing peptide-biotin conjugate stimulates myocytes differentiation through insulin-like growth factor-1 and collagen type I

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chae Jin; Jeon, Jung Eun; Jeong, Se Kyoo; Yoon, Seok Jeong; Kwon, Seon Deok; Lim, Jina; Park, Keedon; Kim, Dae Yong; Ahn, Jeong Keun; Kim, Bong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Based on the potential beneficial effects of growth hormone releasing peptide (GHRP)-6 on muscle functions, a newly synthesized GHRP-6-biotin conjugate was tested on cultured myoblast cells. Increased expression of myogenic marker proteins was observed in GHRP-6-biotin conjugate-treated cells. Additionally, increased expression levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 and collagen type I were observed. Furthermore, GHRP-6-biotin conjugate-treated cells showed increased metabolic activity, as indicated by increased concentrations of energy metabolites, such as ATP and lactate, and increased enzymatic activity of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase. Finally, binding protein analysis suggested few candidate proteins, including desmin, actin, and zinc finger protein 691 as potential targets for GHRP6-biotin conjugate action. These results suggest that the newly synthesized GHRP-6-biotin conjugate has myogenic stimulating activity through, at least in part, by stimulating collagen type I synthesis and several key proteins. Practical applications of the GHRP-6-biotin conjugate could include improving muscle condition. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(9): 501-506] PMID:25644636

  1. Growth hormone-releasing peptide-biotin conjugate stimulates myocytes differentiation through insulin-like growth factor-1 and collagen type I.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chae Jin; Jeon, Jung Eun; Jeong, Se Kyoo; Yoon, Seok Jeong; Kwon, Seon Deok; Lim, Jina; Park, Keedon; Kim, Dae Yong; Ahn, Jeong Keun; Kim, Bong-Woo

    2015-09-01

    Based on the potential beneficial effects of growth hormone releasing peptide (GHRP)-6 on muscle functions, a newly synthesized GHRP-6-biotin conjugate was tested on cultured myoblast cells. Increased expression of myogenic marker proteins was observed in GHRP-6-biotin conjugate-treated cells. Additionally, increased expression levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 and collagen type I were observed. Furthermore, GHRP-6-biotin conjugate-treated cells showed increased metabolic activity, as indicated by increased concentrations of energy metabolites, such as ATP and lactate, and increased enzymatic activity of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase. Finally, binding protein analysis suggested few candidate proteins, including desmin, actin, and zinc finger protein 691 as potential targets for GHRP6-biotin conjugate action. These results suggest that the newly synthesized GHRP-6-biotin conjugate has myogenic stimulating activity through, at least in part, by stimulating collagen type I synthesis and several key proteins. Practical applications of the GHRP-6-biotin conjugate could include improving muscle condition. PMID:25644636

  2. Cell-type and transcription factor specific enrichment of transcriptional cofactor motifs in ENCODE ChIP-seq data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cell type and TF specific interactions between Transcription Factors (TFs) and cofactors are essential for transcriptional regulation through recruitment of general transcription machinery to gene promoter regions and their identification heavily reliant on protein interaction assays. Results Using TF targeted chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq) data from Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE), we report cell type and TF specific TF-cofactor interactions captured in vivo through enrichments of non target cofactor binding site motifs within ChIP-seq peaks. We observe enrichments in both known and novel cofactor motifs. Conclusions Given the regulatory implications which TF and cofactor interactions have on a cell's phenotype, their identification is necessary but challenging. Here we present the findings to our analyses surrounding the investigation of TF-cofactor interactions encoded within TF ChIP-seq peaks. Novel cofactor binding site enrichments observed provides valuable insight into TF and cell type specific interactions driving TF interactions. PMID:24564528

  3. Reduction of Specific Circulating Lymphocyte Populations with Metabolic Risk Factors in Patients at Risk to Develop Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Cucak, Helena; Vistisen, Dorte; Witte, Daniel; Philipsen, Annelotte; Rosendahl, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Low-grade inflammation, characterized by increased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, is present in patients with obesity-linked insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia and considered to play a leading role to progression into type 2 diabetes (T2D). In adipose tissue in obese patients and in pancreatic islets in T2D patients cellular inflammation is present. However, the systemic leukocyte compartment and the circulating endothelial/precursor compartment in patients at risk to develop T2D has so far not been analyzed in detail. To address this, peripheral blood cells from a cohort of 20 subjects at risk to develop diabetes with normal to impaired glucose tolerance were analyzed by flow cytometry using a wide range of cellular markers and correlated to known metabolic risk factors for T2D i.e. fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h plasma glucose (2 h PG), HbA1c, body mass index (BMI), homeostasis model assessment of ?-cell function (HOMA-B), homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS) and fasting insulin (FI). The four highest ranked cell markers for each risk factor were identified by random forest analysis. In the cohort, a significant negative correlation between the number of TLR4+ CD4 T cells and increased FPG was demonstrated. Similarly, with increased BMI the frequency of TLR4+ B cells was significantly decreased, as was the frequency of IL-21R+ CD4 T cells. Unlinked to metabolic risk factors, the frequency of regulatory T cells was reduced and TLR4+ CD4 T cells were increased with age. Taken together, in this small cohort of subjects at risk to develop T2D, a modulation of the circulating immune cell pool was demonstrated to correlate with risk factors like FPG and BMI. This may provide novel insights into the inflammatory mechanisms involved in the progression to diabetes in subjects at risk. PMID:25254631

  4. Influence of the host cell factors CK2, hTERT, and PML, on the antiviral response to herpes simplex virus type I infection

    E-print Network

    Smith, Miles Christian

    2013-08-31

    Herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) is a significant human pathogen that infects a large portion of the human population. As an obligate intracellular parasite, HSV-1 requires certain cellular factors for its replication; ...

  5. Discovery, linkage disequilibrium and association analyses of polymorphisms of the immune complement inhibitor, decay-accelerating factor gene (DAF/CD55) in type 1 diabetes

    E-print Network

    Taniguchi, Hidenori; Lowe, Christopher E.; Cooper, Jason D.; Smyth, Deborah J.; Bailey, Rebecca; Nutland, Sarah; Healy, Barry C.; Lam, Alex C.; Burren, Oliver; Walker, Neil M.; Smink, Luc J.; Wicker, Linda S.; Todd, John A.

    2006-04-20

    Abstract Background Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a common autoimmune disease resulting from T-cell mediated destruction of pancreatic beta cells. Decay accelerating factor (DAF, CD55), a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein, is a...

  6. 40 CFR Table C-2 to Subpart C - Default CH4 and N2O Emission Factors for Various Types of Fuel

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for Various Types of Fuel C Table C-2 to Subpart C Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Combustion Sources Pt. 98, Subpt. C, Table C-2 Table C-2 to Subpart C—Default CH4 and N2O Emission Factors... factor (kg N2O/mmBtu) Coal and Coke (All fuel types in Table C-1) 1.1 × 10?02 1.6 × 10?03 Natural Gas...

  7. 40 CFR Table C-2 to Subpart C - Default CH4 and N2O Emission Factors for Various Types of Fuel

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for Various Types of Fuel C Table C-2 to Subpart C Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Combustion Sources Pt. 98, Subpt. C, Table C-2 Table C-2 to Subpart C—Default CH4 and N2O Emission Factors... factor (kg N2O/mmBtu) Coal and Coke (All fuel types in Table C-1) 1.1 × 10?02 1.6 × 10?03 Natural Gas...

  8. Deficiency in the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-2 leads to severely compromised development of natural killer and T helper type 1 cells.

    PubMed

    Lohoff, M; Duncan, G S; Ferrick, D; Mittrücker, H W; Bischof, S; Prechtl, S; Röllinghoff, M; Schmitt, E; Pahl, A; Mak, T W

    2000-08-01

    Interferon (IFN) regulatory factor (IRF)-2 was originally described as an antagonist of IRF-1-mediated transcriptional regulation of IFN-inducible genes. IRF-1(-/)- mice exhibit defective T helper type 1 (Th1) cell differentiation. We have used experimental leishmaniasis to show that, like IRF-1(-/)- mice, IRF-2(-/)- mice are susceptible to Leishmania major infection due to a defect in Th1 differentiation. Natural killer (NK) cell development is compromised in both IRF-1(-/)- and IRF-2(-/)- mice, but the underlying mechanism differs. NK (but not NK(+) T) cell numbers are decreased in IRF-2(-/)- mice, and the NK cells that are present are immature in phenotype. Therefore, like IRF-1, IRF-2 is required for normal generation of Th1 responses and for NK cell development in vivo. In this particular circumstance the absence of IRF-2 cannot be compensated for by the presence of IRF-1 alone. Mechanistically, IRF-2 may act as a functional agonist rather than antagonist of IRF-1 for some, but not all, IFN-stimulated regulatory element (ISRE)-responsive genes. PMID:10934221

  9. Foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase inhibits dsRNA-induced type I interferon transcription by decreasing interferon regulatory factor 3/7 in protein levels

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dang; Fang, Liurong; Luo, Rui; Ye, Rui; Fang, Ying; Xie, Lilan; Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo

    2010-08-13

    Research highlights: {yields} FMDV L{sup pro} inhibits poly(I:C)-induced IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} mRNA expression. {yields} L{sup pro} inhibits MDA5-mediated activation of the IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} promoter. {yields} L{sup pro} significantly reduced the transcription of multiple IRF-responsive genes. {yields} L{sup pro} inhibits IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} promoter activation by decreasing IRF-3/7 in protein levels. {yields} The ability to process eIF-4G of L{sup pro} is not necessary to inhibit IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} activation. -- Abstract: The leader proteinase (L{sup pro}) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) has been identified as an interferon-{beta} (IFN-{beta}) antagonist that disrupts the integrity of transcription factor nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). In this study, we showed that the reduction of double stranded RNA (dsRNA)-induced IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} expression caused by L{sup pro} was also associated with a decrease of interferon regulatory factor 3/7 (IRF-3/7) in protein levels, two critical transcription factors for activation of IFN-{alpha}/{beta}. Furthermore, overexpression of L{sup pro} significantly reduced the transcription of multiple IRF-responsive genes including 2',5'-OAS, ISG54, IP-10, and RANTES. Screening L{sup pro} mutants indicated that the ability to process eIF-4G of L{sup pro} is not required for suppressing dsRNA-induced activation of the IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} promoter and decreasing IRF-3/7 expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that, in addition to disrupting NF-{kappa}B, L{sup pro} also decreases IRF-3/7 expression to suppress dsRNA-induced type I IFN production, suggesting multiple strategies used by FMDV to counteract the immune response to viral infection.

  10. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate and fibroblast growth factor increase the 30-kDa substrate binding subunit of type II deiodinase in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Lennon, A M; Esfandiari, A; Gavaret, J M; Courtin, F; Pierre, M

    1994-06-01

    Type II 5'-deiodinase (D-II) catalyzes the intracellular conversion of thyroxine (T4) to 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) in the brain. The D-II activity in astroglial cell cultures is induced by several pathways including cyclic AMP (cAMP), 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), and fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). We have examined the effect of TPA and FGFs on the 30-kDa substrate binding subunit of D-II, by affinity labeling with N-bromoacetyl-[125I]T4 in astroglial cells. TPA (0.1 microM), 20 ng/ml acidic FGF (aFGF), and 1 mM 8-bromo cyclic AMP all caused an increase in the 30-kDa protein. cAMP induced the greatest increase (fivefold) followed by TPA (3.2-fold) and FGF (2.8-fold). Glucocorticoids acted synergistically with cAMP and aFGF and promoted the effect of TPA. Affinity labeling was competitively inhibited by bromoacetyl-T4 > bromoacetyl-T3 > T4 > reverse T3 > iopanoic acid > T3 > 3,5,3'-triiodothyroacetic acid. The effect of TPA (0.1 microM) was maximum at 8 h and then gradually decreased. aFGF (20 ng/ml) plus heparin (17 micrograms/ml) induced a maximal 30-kDa increase at 8 h, which stayed stable for up to 24 h. The effect of aFGF was concentration dependent. Of the other growth factors studied, only basic FGF and platelet-derived growth factor induced small increases in the 30-kDa protein. Epidermal growth factor had little effect. In vitro labeling of cAMP, TPA, and aFGF-stimulated cell sonicates resulted in an increase in the 30-kDa protein that paralleled the increase in D-II activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7514646

  11. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake and cardiovascular risk factor profile in youth with type 1 diabetes: application of measurement error methodology in the SEARCH Nutrition Ancillary Study.

    PubMed

    Liese, Angela D; Crandell, Jamie L; Tooze, Janet A; Kipnis, Victor; Bell, Ronny; Couch, Sarah C; Dabelea, Dana; Crume, Tessa L; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J

    2015-08-14

    The SEARCH Nutrition Ancillary Study aims to investigate the role of dietary intake on the development of long-term complications of type 1 diabetes in youth, and capitalise on measurement error (ME) adjustment methodology. Using the National Cancer Institute (NCI) method for episodically consumed foods, we evaluated the relationship between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake and cardiovascular risk factor profile, with the application of ME adjustment methodology. The calibration sample included 166 youth with two FFQ and three 24 h dietary recall data within 1 month. The full sample included 2286 youth with type 1 diabetes. SSB intake was significantly associated with higher TAG, total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations, after adjusting for energy, age, diabetes duration, race/ethnicity, sex and education. The estimated effect size was larger (model coefficients increased approximately 3-fold) after the application of the NCI method than without adjustment for ME. Compared with individuals consuming one serving of SSB every 2 weeks, those who consumed one serving of SSB every 2 d had 3.7 mg/dl (0.04 mmol/l) higher TAG concentrations and 4.0 mg/dl (0.10 mmol/l) higher total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations, after adjusting for ME and covariates. SSB intake was not associated with measures of adiposity and blood pressure. Our findings suggest that SSB intake is significantly related to increased lipid levels in youth with type 1 diabetes, and that estimates of the effect size of SSB on lipid levels are severely attenuated in the presence of ME. Future studies in youth with diabetes should consider a design that will allow for the adjustment for ME when studying the influence of diet on health status. PMID:26177613

  12. Assessment of psychosocial risks faced by workers in Almería-type greenhouses, using the Mini Psychosocial Factor method.

    PubMed

    Montoya-García, M E; Callejón-Ferre, A J; Pérez-Alonso, J; Sánchez-Hermosilla, J

    2013-03-01

    This work reports the use of the Mini Psychosocial Factor (MPF) method for assessing the psychosocial risks faced by agricultural workers in the greenhouses of Almería (Spain) with the aim of improving their health. The variables Rhythm, Mobbing, Relationships, Health, Recognition, Autonomy, Emotional Involvement, Support, Compensation, Control, Demands, and Mental Load were recorded using a pre-validated questionnaire containing 15 questions. The sex, age, and nationality of the respondents (n = 310) were also recorded, as were the type of greenhouse in which each worked, the size of the greenhouse, and the crop grown. The results showed psychosocial risks to exist for the workers. Multiple correspondence analysis, however, showed that moderate risks can be offset by new prevention programmes that improve Spanish legislation in terms of workers' salaries, worker-employer social days, work timetables to facilitate family life, and training courses. This could improve the work environment and health of Almería's greenhouse workers as well as their productivity. PMID:22981469

  13. Role of Nutritional Factors at the Early Life Stages in the Pathogenesis and Clinical Course of Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kagohashi, Yukiko

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition has been suggested as an important environmental factor other than viruses and chemicals in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Whereas various maternal dietary nutritional elements have been suggested and examined in T1D of both humans and experimental animals, the results largely remain controversial. In a series of studies using T1D model nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, maternal dietary n-6/n-3 essential fatty acid ratio during pregnancy and lactation period, that is, early life stages of the offspring, has been shown to affect pathogenesis of insulitis and strongly prevent overt T1D of the offspring, which is consistent with its preventive effects on other allergic diseases. PMID:25883958

  14. Correlation between advanced glycation end-products and the expression of fatty inflammatory factors in type II diabetic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhengdong; Huang, Donghui; Tang, Xiange; Han, Jingjing; Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is one of the most severe complications of diabetes without a clear pathogenesis. This study investigated the adiponectin (APN) and leptin levels in type II DCM, as well as their correlation with advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). From 2011–2013, 78 type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) cases (40–65 years old) in the Taian region were randomly selected. Based on the results of colour Doppler ultrasonography and coronary angiography, the cases were divided into a simple T2DM group (40 cases) and a DCM group (38 cases). Forty healthy subjects were used as normal control (NC). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to determine the levels of fatty inflammatory factors such as APN, leptin and AGEs, and a correlation analysis was conducted. In the T2DM group, the APN levels were decreased but the leptin and AGE levels were significantly increased compared to the NC group. In the DCM group, the APN levels were decreased but the leptin and AGE levels were significantly increased (P<0.01) compared to the T2DM group. The AGE levels were positively correlated with disease progression and with fasting plasma glucose levels, glycated haemoglobin, insulin resistance and leptin, but were negatively correlated with APN levels. Additionally, the APN and leptin levels were independently related to the AGE levels. Fatty inflammatory factors play a significant role in the progression of both simple T2DM and DCM. The results of this study revealed the pathogenesis of DCM and indicated the potential significance of AGEs in DCM prevention and treatment. PMID:26614846

  15. A novel type of glial cell in the retina is stimulated by insulin-like growth factor 1 and may exacerbate damage to neurons and Müller glia

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Andy J.; Scott, Melissa A.; Zelinka, Christopher; Sherwood, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that insulin can have profound affects upon the survival of neurons within the retina. The purpose of this study was to determine how insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) influences retinal cells; in particular the glial cells. We identify a novel type of glial cell in the avian retina and provide evidence these cells respond to acute damage and IGF1. In normal retinas, we found a distinct cell-type, scattered across the ganglion cell and inner plexiform layers, that expressed Sox2, Sox9, Nkx2.2, vimentin and transitin, the avian homologue of mammalian nestin. These glial cells have a unique immunohistochemical profile, morphology and distribution that are distinct among other known types of retinal glia, including microglia, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and Muller glia. We termed these cells Non-astrocytic Inner Retinal Glia-like (NIRG) cells. We found that the NIRG cells may express the IGF1 receptor and respond to IGF1 by proliferating, migrating distally into the retina, and up-regulating transitin. In addition, IGF1 stimulated microglia to become reactive and up-regulate lysosomal membrane glycoprotein and CD45. With microglia and NIRG cells stimulated by IGF1 there were elevated levels of cell death and numerous focal detachments across the retina in response to excitotoxic damage. Cell death was prominent within areas of detachment coinciding with a stark loss of Müller glia and accumulation of NIRG cells. We conclude that NIRG cells are a novel type of retinal glia that is sensitive to IGF1 and whose activity may impact the survival of neurons and Müller glia. PMID:19941335

  16. Teaching Teams To Be Teams: An Exercise Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Five-Factor Personality Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinebell, Sharon; Stecher, Mary

    2003-01-01

    Management students formed teams after completing exercises based on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Five-Factor Model of Personality. Team members examined how types and traits might affect performance. Most students indicated that understanding personality increased awareness of behavior. Teams that used extreme division of labor were…

  17. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel C Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources Pt. 98, Subpt...and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel Default CO2 Emission Factors and...

  18. Risk Factors Associated with Depressive Symptoms in Caregivers of Children with Type 1 Diabetes or Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Suzanne Bennett; Barker, David; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Deeb, Larry C.; Geller, David E.; Gondor, Magdalen; Silverstein, Janet H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective?Evaluate depressive symptoms in caregivers of children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) or cystic fibrosis (CF) and identify associated risk factors.?Methods?A total of 195 caregivers completed demographic, stress, and depressive symptoms questionnaires. Children’s health status was obtained from medical records.?Results?Approximately 33% of caregivers reported elevated symptoms of depression (i.e., exceeded clinical cutoff of 16 on the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale). For caregivers of children with T1D, elevations were associated with less caregiver education, more family stress, older child age, and worse glycemic control. For caregivers of children with CF, more family stress and lack of employment outside of the home were associated with elevated depressive symptoms. Conclusions?Many caregivers of children with T1D or CF experience depressive symptoms, although risk factors may differ in these two populations. Screening of caregiver depressive symptoms as part of routine clinic visits may provide opportunities for needed intervention. PMID:20097908

  19. Porcine circovirus type 2 induces the activation of nuclear factor kappa B by I{kappa}B{alpha} degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Li; Kwang, Jimmy; Wang Jin; Shi Lei; Yang Bing; Li Yongqing; Liu Jue

    2008-08-15

    The transcription factor NF-{kappa}B is commonly activated upon virus infection and a key player in the induction and regulation of the host immune response. The present study demonstrated for the first time that porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), which is the primary causative agent of an emerging swine disease, postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, can activate NF-{kappa}B in PCV2-infected PK15 cells. In PCV2-infected cells, NF-{kappa}B was activated concomitantly with viral replication, which was characterized by increased DNA binding activity, translocation of NF-{kappa}B p65 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, as well as degradation and phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha} protein. We further demonstrated PCV2-induced activation of NF-{kappa}B and colocalization of p65 nuclear translocation with virus replication in cultured cells. Treatment of cells with CAPE, a selective inhibitor of NF-{kappa}B activation, reduced virus protein expression and progeny production followed by decreasing PCV2-induced apoptotic caspase activity, indicating the involvement of this transcription factor in induction of cell death. Taken together, these data suggest that NF-{kappa}B activation is important for PCV2 replication and contributes to virus-mediated changes in host cells. The results presented here provide a basis for understanding molecular mechanism of PCV2 infection.

  20. A study of sociodemographic clinical and glycemic control factors associated with co-morbid depression in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Hritu; Raju, M. S. V. K.; Dubey, Vaibhav; Kurrey, Ravindra; Bansal, Shaifali; Malik, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Context: Diabetes affects 9.2% of adults in India. About 8–16% of its population also suffer from depression. Both diseases pose a serious health challenge at individual and system level. The prevalence of depression in diabetes is much higher than in the general population. Undiagnosed and untreated depression puts people at higher morbidity and mortality risk. Aim: To study the prevalence of depression in diabetes and to identify associated risk factors. Settings and Design: Case control study carried out in an outpatient setting of a tertiary hospital in central India. Materials and Methods: One hundred and nine type 2 diabetes patients and 91 healthy controls formed the subjects of the study. Sociodemographic data were obtained on seven parameters. Comprehensive clinical data were obtained by means of standard procedures. Blood sugar levels and glycosylated hemoglobin levels were measured to assess glycemic control. Data of diabetic patients and controls as well as that of depressed and nondepressed diabetics were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: About 42.2% of diabetes patients and only 4.39% of controls had depression. About 19% of diabetics had peripheral neuropathy but had much higher neuropathic symptoms. Depression was not related to any sociodemographic or clinical factors but was strongly associated with poor glycemic control. Conclusion: Depression is highly prevalent in diabetes. Physical symptoms mask depression. Special attention needs to be paid to diagnose depression in diabetes and treat it appropriately along with effective glycemic control. Diabetes patients need to be treated collaboratively by physicians and psychiatrists. PMID:25788803

  1. Factors Associated With Sexual Function in Iranian Women With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Partner Relationship as the Most Important Predictor

    PubMed Central

    Shadman, Zhaleh; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Larijani, Bagher; Arzaghi, Seyed Masoud; Khoshniat, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: No comprehensive study has been conducted on risk factors of sexual dysfunction in women with diabetes mellitus. Objectives: The aim of this study was to consider all possible influencing variables including hormonal, physical and, psychological status, socioeconomic status, and dietary intake to get more accurate and reliable results. Patients and Methods: Sexual function was assessed by Iranian validated female sexual function index (FSFI).The variables of the study were demographic and diabetes-related factors, stress-depression, physical activity, blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, lipid profile, cortisol, sex and thyroid hormones, 25-hydroxy vitamin D, and dietary intake. Results: Among all investigated variables, partner relationship showed a strong positive association with FSFI (? = 1.93 ± 0.41, P < 0.0001). In addition, not considering partner relationship, FSFI showed a significant negative association with age (? = -0.19 ± 0.20, P = 0.04), stress-depression score (? = -0.08 ± 0.04, P = 0.04), DD (? = -0.03 ± 0.01, P = 0.04), and systolic blood pressure (? = -0.14 ± 0.06, P = 0.03). Significant associations between FSFI and serum sex hormones and other biochemical were found in neither postmenopausal nor non-menopausal women. The means of SFSI in postmenopausal women were greater than non-menopausal (P = 0.02). Conclusions: It seems that in our population, female sexual function was much more than just a hormonal or physical problem and psychological factors, especially partner relationship and stress-depression, are the most determinants. In addition, age, duration of challenging with disease, and the lack of controlling systolic blood pressure were common factors that decreased sexual function. PMID:24829778

  2. Defective dimerization of von Willebrand factor subunits due to a Cys-> Arg mutation in type IID von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed Central

    Schneppenheim, R; Brassard, J; Krey, S; Budde, U; Kunicki, T J; Holmberg, L; Ware, J; Ruggeri, Z M

    1996-01-01

    The same heterozygous T -> C transition at nt 8567 of the von Willebrand factor (vWF) transcript was found in two unrelated patients with type III) von Willebrand disease, with no other apparent abnormality. In one family, both alleles were normal in the parents and one sister; thus, the mutation originated de novo in the proposita. The second patient also had asymptomatic parents who, however, were not available for study. The structural consequences of the identified mutation, resulting in the CyS2010 -> Arg substitution, were evaluated by expression of the vWF carboxyl-terminal domain containing residues 1366-2050. Insect cells infected with recombinant baculovirus expressing normal vWF sequence secreted a disulfide linked dimeric molecule with an apparent molecular mass of 150 kDa before reduction, yielding a single band of 80 kDa after disulfide bond reduction. In contrast, cells expressing the mutant fragment secreted a monomeric molecule of apparent molecular mass of 80 kDa, which remained unchanged after reduction. We conclude that CyS2010 is essential for normal dimerization of vWF subunits through disulfide bonding of carboxyl-terminal domains and that a heterozygous mutation in the corresponding codon is responsible for defective multimer formation in type III) von Willebrand disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:8622978

  3. Herpes simplex virus type 2 and other genital ulcerative infections as a risk factor for HIV-1 acquisition.

    PubMed Central

    Keet, I P; Lee, F K; van Griensven, G J; Lange, J M; Nahmias, A; Coutinho, R A

    1990-01-01

    We studied the role of genital ulcerative infections for acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in a cohort of 989 homosexual men in Amsterdam between October 1984 and December 1988. Among 53 HIV-1 seroconverters serological and anamnestic data were gathered regarding herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and syphilis in the 6 months before seroconversion. For statistical analysis a control who remained seronegative during the same interval was selected at random for each HIV-1 seroconverter. A significant difference between the prevalence of HSV-2 antibodies among HIV-1 seroconverters and controls was found (72% vs 38%). HSV-2 seroconversions among men initially seronegative for HSV-2 were found among three of 18 HIV-1 seroconverters and among three of 36 controls. (O.R. = 2.2, 95% C.I. 0.4-12.1). Self-reported cases of anogenital herpes were found more frequently among HIV-1 seroconverters (8) than among controls (4). One case of syphilis was diagnosed among HIV-1 seroconverters, and one among controls. Summing up these cases we assessed the total number of genital ulcerative infections: 12 among HIV-1 seroconverters and eight among controls (23 vs 15%, O.R. 1.7, C.I. 0.6-4.62). These data suggest little evidence for genital ulcerative infections being an important independent risk factor for HIV-1 acquisition among homosexual men in Amsterdam during the time period studied. PMID:2245979

  4. Deregulation of Sucrose-Controlled Translation of a bZIP-Type Transcription Factor Results in Sucrose Accumulation in Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Shin; Yang, Seung Hwan; Zhu, XuJun; Imai, Ryozo; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Kusano, Tomonobu

    2012-01-01

    Sucrose is known to repress the translation of Arabidopsis thaliana AtbZIP11 transcript which encodes a protein belonging to the group of S (S - stands for small) basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP)-type transcription factor. This repression is called sucrose-induced repression of translation (SIRT). It is mediated through the sucrose-controlled upstream open reading frame (SC-uORF) found in the AtbZIP11 transcript. The SIRT is reported for 4 other genes belonging to the group of S bZIP in Arabidopsis. Tobacco tbz17 is phylogenetically closely related to AtbZIP11 and carries a putative SC-uORF in its 5?-leader region. Here we demonstrate that tbz17 exhibits SIRT mediated by its SC-uORF in a manner similar to genes belonging to the S bZIP group of the Arabidopsis genus. Furthermore, constitutive transgenic expression of tbz17 lacking its 5?-leader region containing the SC-uORF leads to production of tobacco plants with thicker leaves composed of enlarged cells with 3–4 times higher sucrose content compared to wild type plants. Our finding provides a novel strategy to generate plants with high sucrose content. PMID:22457737

  5. Monomeric ß-amyloid interacts with type-1 insulin-like growth factor receptors to provide energy supply to neurons

    PubMed Central

    Giuffrida, Maria L.; Tomasello, Marianna F.; Pandini, Giuseppe; Caraci, Filippo; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Busceti, Carla; Di Pietro, Paola; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Attanasio, Francesco; Chiechio, Santina; Bagnoli, Silvia; Nacmias, Benedetta; Sorbi, Sandro; Vigneri, Riccardo; Rizzarelli, Enrico; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Copani, Agata

    2015-01-01

    ß-amyloid (Aß1?42) is produced by proteolytic cleavage of the transmembrane type-1 protein, amyloid precursor protein. Under pathological conditions, Aß1?42self-aggregates into oligomers, which cause synaptic dysfunction and neuronal loss, and are considered the culprit of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, Aß1?42 is mainly monomeric at physiological concentrations, and the precise role of monomeric Aß1?42 in neuronal function is largely unknown. We report that the monomer of Aß1?42 activates type-1 insulin-like growth factor receptors and enhances glucose uptake in neurons and peripheral cells by promoting the translocation of the Glut3 glucose transporter from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. In neurons, activity-dependent glucose uptake was blunted after blocking endogenous Aß production, and re-established in the presence of cerebrospinal fluid Aß. APP-null neurons failed to enhance depolarization-stimulated glucose uptake unless exogenous monomeric Aß1?42 was added. These data suggest that Aß1?42 monomers were critical for maintaining neuronal glucose homeostasis. Accordingly, exogenous Aß1?42 monomers were able to rescue the low levels of glucose consumption observed in brain slices from AD mutant mice. PMID:26300732

  6. Effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on biological risk factors for type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Coffee consumption has been associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in prospective cohort studies, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of regular and decaffeinated coffee on biological risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Methods Randomized parallel-arm intervention conducted in 45 healthy overweight volunteers who were nonsmokers and regular coffee consumers. Participants were assigned to consumption of 5 cups (177 mL each) per day of instant caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or no coffee (i.e., water) for 8 weeks. Results Average age was 40 years and body mass index was 29.5 kg/m2. Compared with consuming no coffee, consumption of caffeinated coffee increased adiponectin (difference in change from baseline 1.4 ?g/mL; 95% CI: 0.2, 2.7) and interleukin-6 (difference: 60%; 95% CI: 8, 138) concentrations and consumption of decaffeinated coffee decreased fetuin-A concentrations (difference: -20%; 95% CI: -35, -1). For measures of glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion, no significant differences were found between treatment groups. Conclusions Although no changes in glycemia and/or insulin sensitivity were observed after 8 weeks of coffee consumption, improvements in adipocyte and liver function as indicated by changes in adiponectin and fetuin-A concentrations may contribute to beneficial metabolic effects of long-term coffee consumption. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT00305097 PMID:21914162

  7. Establishment of epitope-defined monoclonal antibodies with specificity for fibroblast growth factor receptor types 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Larocca, D; Witte, A; Gonzalez, A M; Houston, L L

    1998-02-01

    The development of specific antibody probes for characterizing the expression of the family of 4 fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) types has been difficult because of their close homology to each other and high degree of evolutionary conservation. Of the existing anti-FGFR monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), there are few that are useful for staining paraffin-embedded tissues. We have raised MAbs against human FGFR1 and FGFR2 in both rats and mice using bacterial recombinant receptor fusion proteins as immunogens. We used peptide epitope mapping to characterize the immune sera and the selected MAbs. Immunized animals were selected that displayed the broadest reactivity against epitopes unique to the immunizing receptor type. We produced FGFR1 specific MAbs that bind epitopes in immunoglobulin domain I (Ig-I) and FGFR2 specific MAbs that bind epitopes in Ig-I, Ig-II, and the acid box. The specificity of the antibodies was demonstrated by ELISA and immunoblot analysis of purified recombinant FGFR1 and FGFR2 extracellular domains produced both in E. coli and in eucaryotic cells. Based on the lack of epitope homology, these MAbs would not be expected to cross-react with FGFR3 or FGFR4. We isolated MAbs that bound to paraffin embedded tissue and immunoblots of recombinant receptor. These epitope-defined MAbs can distinguish between members of the FGF receptor family and should be useful as tools for assessing FGF receptor expression in a variety of normal and diseased tissues. PMID:9523234

  8. Seropositivity and Risk Factors for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection among Female Sex Workers in Guangxi, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shaochun; Yin, Yueping; Chen, Xiangsheng; Wang, Hongchun; Yu, Yanhua; Wei, Wanhui; Han, Yan; Jiang, Ning; Wang, Baoxi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine seropositivity of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection and associated risk factors among female sex workers (FSWs) in Guangxi, China. Methods A convenience sample of FSWs was recruited from different types of sex work venues in two cities (Wuzhou and Hezhou) in Guangxi. Blood specimens were collected for ELISA-based detection of HSV-2 antibodies to examine the seropositivity of HSV-2 infection. Socio-demographic and behavioral data were collected through a structured questionnaire interview. Association of HSV-2 seropositivity with socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics and HIV status was analyzed. Results The overall prevalence of HSV-2 seropositivity among 2453 FSWs was 54.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 52.9–56.9%). The HSV-2 seropositivity was independently associated with older age, low education level, non-Han minority, migration status, working in lower-tier venues and positive HIV status. Conclusions The study indicates a high prevalence of HSV-2 infection among FSWs, particularly in those working in low-tier venues in study areas, suggesting the needs to further emphasize the inclusion of HSV-2 in surveillance and intervention programs in this population. PMID:23894526

  9. Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Visceral Leishmaniasis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Patients in Southern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Pineda, Juan A.; Gallardo, José A.; Macías, Juan; Delgado, Juan; Regordán, Carmen; Morillas, Francisco; Relimpio, Federico; Martín-Sánchez, Joaquina; Sánchez-Quijano, Armando; Leal, Manuel; Lissen, Eduardo

    1998-01-01

    The actual prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis among human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients in the Mediterranean basin remains unknown. There is also controversy about the risk factors for Leishmania infantum and HIV-1 coinfection. To appraise the prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis in patients infected with HIV-1 in southern Spain and to identify factors associated with this disease, 291 HIV-1 carriers underwent a bone marrow aspiration, regardless of their symptoms. Giemsa-stained samples were searched for Leishmania amastigotes. Thirty-two (11%) patients showed visceral leishmaniasis. Thirteen (41%) patients had subclinical cases of infection. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) clinical category C was the factor most strongly associated with this disease (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.88 [95% confidence interval, 1.22 to 2.88]), but patients with subclinical cases of infection were found in all CDC categories. Female sex was negatively associated with visceral leishmaniasis (adjusted OR, 0.42 [95% confidence interval, 0.18 to 0.97]). Intravenous drug users showed a higher prevalence than the remaining patients (13.3 versus 4.9%; P = 0.04), but such an association was not independent. These results show that visceral leishmaniasis is a very prevalent disease among HIV-1-infected patients in southern Spain, with a high proportion of cases being subclinical. Like other opportunistic infections, subclinical visceral leishmaniasis can be found at any stage of HIV-1 infection, but symptomatic cases of infection appear mainly when a deep immunosuppression is present. There is also an association of this disease with male sex and intravenous drug use. PMID:9705366

  10. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection in Patients Attending a Baltimore City Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Eshan U.; Frank, Melanie A.; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Rothman, Richard E.; Baker, Amy E. O.; Kraus, Chadd K.; Shahan, Judy; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Kelen, Gabor D.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Laeyendecker, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a common sexually transmitted disease, but there is limited data on its epidemiology among urban populations. The urban Emergency Department (ED) is a potential venue for surveillance as it predominantly serves an inner city minority population. We evaluate the seroprevalence and factors associated with HSV-2 infection among patients attending the Johns Hopkins Hospital Adult Emergency Department (JHH ED). Methods An identity unlinked-serosurvey was conducted between 6/2007 and 9/2007 in the JHH ED; sera were tested by the Focus HerpeSelect ELISA. Prevalence risk ratios (PRR) were used to determine factors associated with HSV-2 infection. Results Of 3,408 serum samples, 1,853 (54.4%) were seropositive for HSV-2. Females (adjPRR ?=?1.47, 95% CI 1.38–1.56), non-Hispanic blacks (adjPRR ?=?2.03, 95% CI 1.82–2.27), single (adjPRR ?=?1.15, 95% CI 1.07–1.25), divorced (adjPRR ?=?1.28, 95% CI 1.15–1.41), and unemployed patients (adjPRR ?=?1.13, 95% CI 1.05–1.21) had significantly higher rates of HSV-2 infection. Though certain zip codes had significantly higher seroprevalence of HSV-2, this effect was completely attenuated when controlling for age and gender. Conclusions Seroprevalence of HSV-2 in the JHH ED was higher than U.S. national estimates; however, factors associated with HSV-2 infection were similar. The high seroprevalence of HSV-2 in this urban ED highlights the need for targeted testing and treatment. Cross-sectional serosurveys in the urban ED may help to examine the epidemiology of HSV-2. PMID:25036862

  11. Lentiviral gene therapy against human immunodeficiency virus type 1, using a novel human TRIM21-cyclophilin A restriction factor.

    PubMed

    Chan, Emma; Schaller, Torsten; Eddaoudi, Ayad; Zhan, Hong; Tan, Choon Ping; Jacobsen, Marianne; Thrasher, Adrian J; Towers, Greg J; Qasim, Waseem

    2012-11-01

    TRIM5? (tripartite motif-containing protein-5, isoform ?)-cyclophilin A fusion proteins are anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) restriction factors that have evolved in certain nonhuman primates over millions of years and protect against HIV and related viruses. Restriction by TRIM5?CypA is potent and highly resistant to viral escape by mutation and, in combination with a suitable gene delivery platform, offers the possibility of novel therapeutic approaches against HIV. Here we report that lentiviral vector delivery of human mimics of TRIM5?-cyclophilin A (TRIM5CypA) fusion proteins afforded robust and durable protection against HIV-1, but resulted in downregulation of host cell antiviral responses mediated by endogenous TRIM5?. We found that substitution of TRIM5? RING, B-box, and coiled-coil domains with similar domains from a related TRIM protein, TRIM21, produced a novel and equally potent inhibitor of HIV-1. Both TRIM5CypA and TRIM21CypA inhibited transduction by HIV-1-derived viral vectors and prevented propagation of replication-competent HIV-1 in human cell lines and in primary human T cells. Restriction factor-modified T cells exhibited preferential survival in the presence of wild-type HIV. Restriction was dependent on proteasomal degradation and was reversed in the presence of the cyclophilin inhibitor cyclosporin. Importantly, TRIM21CypA did not disturb endogenous TRIM5?-mediated restriction of gammaretroviral infection. Furthermore, endogenous TRIM21 antiviral activity was assessed by measuring inhibition of adenovirus-antibody complexes and was found to be preserved in all TRIMCypA-modified groups. We conclude that lentivirus-mediated expression of the novel chimeric restriction factor TRIM21CypA provides highly potent protection against HIV-1 without loss of normal innate immune TRIM activity. PMID:22909012

  12. Effects of factor Xa on the expression of proteins in femoral arteries from type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    López-Farré, Antonio J; Rodriguez-Sierra, Pablo; Modrego, Javier; Segura, Antonio; Martín-Palacios, Naiara; Saiz, Ana M; Zamorano-León, José J; Duarte, Juan; Serrano, Javier; Moñux, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Aim Further to its pivotal role in haemostasis, factor Xa (FXa) promotes effects on the vascular wall. The purpose of the study was to evaluate if FXa modifies the expression level of energy metabolism and oxidative stress-related proteins in femoral arteries obtained from type 2 diabetic patients with end-stage vasculopathy. Methods Femoral arteries were obtained from 12 type 2 diabetic patients who underwent leg amputation. Segments from the femoral arteries were incubated in vitro alone and in the presence of 25?nmol?l?1 FXa and 25?nmol?l?1 FXa + 50?nmol?l?1 rivaroxaban. Results In the femoral arteries, FXa increased triosephosphate isomerase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase isotype 1 expression but decreased pyruvate dehydrogenase expression. These facts were accompanied by an increased content of acetyl-CoA. Aconitase activity was reduced in FXa-incubated femoral arteries as compared with control. Moreover, FXa increased the protein expression level of oxidative stress-related proteins which was accompanied by an increased malonyldialdehyde arterial content. The FXa inhibitor, rivaroxaban, failed to prevent the reduced expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase induced by FXa but reduced acetyl-CoA content and reverted the decreased aconitase activity observed with FXa alone. Rivaroxaban + FXa but not FXa alone increased the expression level of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I and II, two mitochondrial long chain fatty acid transporters. Rivaroxaban also prevented the increased expression of oxidative stress-related proteins induced by FXa alone. Conclusions In femoral isolated arteries from type 2 diabetic patients with end-stage vasculopathy, FXa promoted disruption of the aerobic mitochondrial metabolism. Rivaroxaban prevented such effects and even seemed to favour long chain fatty acid transport into mitochondria. PMID:25041869

  13. C2H2 type of zinc finger transcription factors in foxtail millet define response to abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Bonthala, Venkata Suresh; Mishra, Awdhesh Kumar; Khandelwal, Rohit; Khan, Yusuf; Roy, Riti; Prasad, Manoj

    2014-09-01

    C2H2 type of zinc finger transcription factors (TFs) play crucial roles in plant stress response and hormone signal transduction. Hence considering its importance, genome-wide investigation and characterization of C2H2 zinc finger proteins were performed in Arabidopsis, rice and poplar but no such study was conducted in foxtail millet which is a C4 Panicoid model crop well known for its abiotic stress tolerance. The present study identified 124 C2H2-type zinc finger TFs in foxtail millet (SiC2H2) and physically mapped them onto the genome. The gene duplication analysis revealed that SiC2H2s primarily expanded in the genome through tandem duplication. The phylogenetic tree classified these TFs into five groups (I-V). Further, miRNAs targeting SiC2H2 transcripts in foxtail millet were identified. Heat map demonstrated differential and tissue-specific expression patterns of these SiC2H2 genes. Comparative physical mapping between foxtail millet SiC2H2 genes and its orthologs of sorghum, maize and rice revealed the evolutionary relationships of C2H2 type of zinc finger TFs. The duplication and divergence data provided novel insight into the evolutionary aspects of these TFs in foxtail millet and related grass species. Expression profiling of candidate SiC2H2 genes in response to salinity, dehydration and cold stress showed differential expression pattern of these genes at different time points of stresses. PMID:24915771

  14. Dual-Specificity Anti-sigma Factor Reinforces Control of Cell-Type Specific Gene Expression in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Mónica; Gao, JinXin; Bota, João; Bate, Ashley R.; Meisner, Jeffrey; Eichenberger, Patrick; Moran, Charles P.; Henriques, Adriano O.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression during spore development in Bacillus subtilis is controlled by cell type-specific RNA polymerase sigma factors. ?Fand ?E control early stages of development in the forespore and the mother cell, respectively. When, at an intermediate stage in development, the mother cell engulfs the forespore, ?F is replaced by ?G and ?E is replaced by ?K. The anti-sigma factor CsfB is produced under the control of ?F and binds to and inhibits the auto-regulatory ?G, but not ?F. A position in region 2.1, occupied by an asparagine in ?G and by a glutamate in ?F, is sufficient for CsfB discrimination of the two sigmas, and allows it to delay the early to late switch in forespore gene expression. We now show that following engulfment completion, csfB is switched on in the mother cell under the control of ?K and that CsfB binds to and inhibits ?E but not ?K, possibly to facilitate the switch from early to late gene expression. We show that a position in region 2.3 occupied by a conserved asparagine in ?E and by a conserved glutamate in ?K suffices for discrimination by CsfB. We also show that CsfB prevents activation of ?G in the mother cell and the premature ?G-dependent activation of ?K. Thus, CsfB establishes negative feedback loops that curtail the activity of ?E and prevent the ectopic activation of ?G in the mother cell. The capacity of CsfB to directly block ?E activity may also explain how CsfB plays a role as one of the several mechanisms that prevent ?E activation in the forespore. Thus the capacity of CsfB to differentiate between the highly similar ?F/?G and ?E/?K pairs allows it to rinforce the cell-type specificity of these sigma factors and the transition from early to late development in B. subtilis, and possibly in all sporeformers that encode a CsfB orthologue. PMID:25835496

  15. Does a Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor-Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor Axis Exist in All Types of Pigment Cells?

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoyin; Hou, Ling

    2015-12-01

    This Correspondence relates to the article by Dadras et al (A Novel Role for Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor-Regulated Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor during Melanoma Progression. Am J Pathol 2015, 185:252-265). PMID:26598237

  16. Tumor biology in estrogen receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-negative breast cancer: Mind the menopausal status

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is not one disease, but can be categorized into four major molecular subtypes according to hormone receptor [estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR)] and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) expression status. Ki67 labeling index and/or multigene assays are used to classify ER-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer into luminal A and luminal B (HER2-negative) subtypes. To date, most studies analyzing predictive or prognostic factors in ER-positive breast cancer have been performed in postmenopausal women, mainly using patients and samples in adjuvant aromatase inhibitor trials. In contrast, even the clinical roles of PgR and Ki67 have been little analyzed so far in premenopausal women. PgR is one of the estrogen-responsive genes, and it has been reported that plasma estradiol levels are related to expression levels of estrogen-responsive genes including PGR in ER-positive breast cancer. In this article, biological differences, especially differences in expression of PgR and Ki67 in ER-positive breast cancer between pre- and postmenopausal women are discussed. Clinical roles of PgR and Ki67 in ER-positive breast cancer differ between pre- and postmenopausal women. We suggest that the mechanisms of development and estrogen-dependent growth of ER-positive breast cancer might differ according to menopausal status. PMID:26677435

  17. Wingless-type family member 3A triggers neuronal polarization via cross-activation of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor pathway

    PubMed Central

    Bernis, María E.; Oksdath, Mariana; Dupraz, Sebastián; Nieto Guil, Alvaro; Fernández, Marisa M.; Malchiodi, Emilio L.; Rosso, Silvana B.; Quiroga, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Initial axonal elongation is essential for neuronal polarization and requires polarized activation of IGF-1 receptors (IGF-1r) and the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3k) pathway. Wingless-type family growth factors (Wnts) have also been implied in the regulation of axonal development. It is not known, however, if Wnts have any participation in the regulation of initial axonal outgrowth and the establishment of neuronal polarity. We used cultured hippocampal neurons and growth cone particles (GCPs) isolated from fetal rat brain to show that stimulation with the wingless family factor 3A (Wnt3a) was sufficient to promote neuronal polarization in the absence of IGF-1 or high insulin. We also show that Wnt3a triggered a strong activation of IGF-1r, PI3k, and Akt in developmental Stage 2 neurons and that the presence of activatable IGF-1r and PI3k activation were necessary for Wnt3a polarizing effects. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) experiments show that Wnt3a did not bind specifically to the IGF-1r. Using crosslinking and immuno-precipitation experiments, we show that stimulation with Wnt3a triggered the formation of a complex including IGF-1r-Wnt3a-Frizzled-7. We conclude that Wnt3a triggers polarization of neurons via cross-activation of the IGF-1r/PI3k pathway upon binding to Fz7. PMID:24298236

  18. Cardiovascular Risk Factors Increase the Risks of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Taiwan Diabetes Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun-Pai; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Li, Chia-Ing; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Lin, Wen-Yuan; Hwang, Kai-Lin; Yang, Sing-Yu; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Li, Tsai-Chung

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to examine whether poor glycemic control, measured by glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) and other cardiovascular risk factors, can predict diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).Patients aged ?30 years with type 2 DM, enrolled in the National Diabetes Care Management Program, and free of DPN (n?=?37,375) in the period 2002 to 2004 were included and followed up until 2011. The related factors were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression models.For an average follow-up of 7.00 years, 8379 cases of DPN were identified, with a crude incidence rate of 32.04/1000 person-years. After multivariate adjustment, patients with HbA1c levels 7 to 8%, 8 to 9%, 9 to 10%, and ?10% exhibited higher risk of DPN (adjusted HR: 1.11 [1.04-1.20], 1.30 [1.21-1.40], 1.32 [1.22-1.43], and 1.62 [1.51-1.74], respectively) compared with patients with HbA1c level 6 to 7%. There was a significant linear trend in DPN incidence with increasing HbA1c (P?type 2 DM and HbA1c ?7.0% exhibit increased risk of DPN, demonstrating a linear relationship. The incidence of DPN is also associated with poor glucose control and cardiovascular risk factors like hypertension, hyper-triglyceridemia, low HDL-C, high LDL-C, and decreased eGFR. PMID:26496307

  19. Type 2 Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Receptor in the Ventromedial Nucleus of Hypothalamus Is Critical in Regulating Feeding and Lipid Metabolism in White Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Hongxia; Digruccio, Michael; Chen, Peilin

    2012-01-01

    Ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus (VMH) plays a critical role in regulating feeding and energy metabolism. The nucleus expresses high levels of the type 2 corticotropin-releasing factor receptor (CRFR2) and receives prominent innervation of nerve fibers containing Urocortin 3 (Ucn 3), an endogenous ligand of the receptor. In the present study, we showed that mice deficient in Ucn 3 had elevated basal feeding and increased nocturnal food intake after overnight fasting compared with the wild-type (WT) littermates. The Ucn 3 null mice also had lower circulating insulin levels compared with those of the WT mice. Interestingly, the mutant mice maintained a comparable body weight with the WT littermates. Mice with reduced CRFR2 expression in the VMH by small hairpin RNA knockdown (KD) recapitulated feeding phenotypes observed in the Ucn 3 null mice. However, VMH CRFR2 KD mice gained significantly more weight than control mice. The weight gain was due to an accumulation of white adipose tissue (WAT) accompanied by reduced plasma free fatty acids and glycerol levels, increased respiratory quotients, and improved glucose tolerance. On the other hand, plasma insulin levels were comparable with the receptor KD and control mice. Furthermore, the expression of several genes, including hormone-sensitive lipase, was significantly reduced in the WAT of VMH CRFR2 KD mice compared with controls. These results indicate that Ucn 3 signaling through CRFR2 is a critical molecular mediator in the VMH in regulating feeding and lipid metabolism in WAT. PMID:22067315

  20. Factors Associated with Knowledge of Diabetes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Using the Diabetes Knowledge Test Validated with Rasch Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fenwick, Eva K.; Xie, Jing; Rees, Gwyn; Finger, Robert P.; Lamoureux, Ecosse L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective In patients with Type 2 diabetes, to determine the factors associated with diabetes knowledge, derived from Rasch analysis, and compare results with a traditional raw scoring method. Research Design & Methods Participants in this cross-sectional study underwent a comprehensive clinical and biochemical assessment. Diabetes knowledge (main outcome) was assessed using the Diabetes Knowledge Test (DKT) which was psychometrically validated using Rasch analysis. The relationship between diabetes knowledge and risk factors identified during univariate analyses was examined using multivariable linear regression. The results using raw and Rasch-transformed methods were descriptively compared. Results 181 patients (mean age±standard deviation?=?66.97±9.17 years; 113 (62%) male) were included. Using Rasch-derived DKT scores, those with greater education (??=?1.14; CI: 0.25,2.04, p?=?0.013); had seen an ophthalmologist (??=?1.65; CI: 0.63,2.66, p?=?0.002), and spoke English at home (??=?1.37; CI: 0.43,2.31, p?=?0.005) had significantly better diabetes knowledge than those with less education, had not seen an ophthalmologist and spoke a language other than English, respectively. Patients who were members of the National Diabetes Service Scheme (NDSS) and had seen a diabetes educator also had better diabetes knowledge than their counterparts. Higher HbA1c level was independently associated with worse diabetes knowledge. Using raw measures, access to an ophthalmologist and NDSS membership were not independently associated with diabetes knowledge. Conclusions Sociodemographic, clinical and service use factors were independently associated with diabetes knowledge based on both raw scores and Rasch-derived scores, which supports the implementation of targeted interventions to improve patients' knowledge. Choice of psychometric analytical method can affect study outcomes and should be considered during intervention development. PMID:24312484

  1. Which factors may determine the necessary and feasible type of effectiveness evidence? A mixed methods approach to develop an instrument to help coverage decision-makers

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, Saskia; Rijnsburger, Adriana J; Versteegh, Matthijs M; Heymans, Juanita M; Kleijnen, Sarah; Redekop, W Ken; Verstijnen, Ilse M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Reimbursement decisions require evidence of effectiveness and, in general, a blinded randomised controlled trial (RCT) is the preferred study design to provide it. However, there are situations where a cohort study, or even patient series, can be deemed acceptable. The aim of this study was to develop an instrument that first examines which study characteristics of a blinded RCT are necessary, and then, if particular characteristics are considered necessary, examines whether these characteristics are feasible. Design We retrospectively studied 22 interventions from 20 reimbursement reports concerning medical specialist care made by the Dutch National Health Care Institute (ZIN) to identify any factors that influenced the necessity and feasibility of blinded RCTs, and their constituent study characteristics, that is, blinding, randomisation and a control group. A literature review was performed to identify additional factors. Additional expertise was included by interviewing eight experts in epidemiology, medicine and ethics. The resulting instrument was called the FIT instrument (Feasible Information Trajectory), and was prospectively validated using three consecutive reimbursement reports. Results (Blinded) RCT evidence was lacking in 5 of 11 positive reimbursement decisions and 3 of 11 negative decisions. In the reimbursement reports, we found no empirical evidence supporting situations where a blinded RCT is unnecessary. The literature also revealed few arguments against the necessity of a blinded RCT. In contrast, many factors influencing the feasibility of randomisation, a control group and blinding, were found in the reimbursement reports and the literature; for example, when a patient population is too small or when an intervention is common practice, randomisation will be hindered. Conclusions Policy regarding the necessity and feasibility of different types of evidence of effectiveness would benefit from systematic guidance. The FIT instrument has the potential to support transparent, reproducible and well-founded decisions on appropriate evidence of effectiveness in medical specialist care. PMID:26220869

  2. Improved Variable Selection Algorithm Using a LASSO-Type Penalty, with an Application to Assessing Hepatitis B Infection Relevant Factors in Community Residents

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Pi; Zeng, Fangfang; Hu, Xiaomin; Zhang, Dingmei; Zhu, Shuming; Deng, Yu; Hao, Yuantao

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In epidemiological studies, it is important to identify independent associations between collective exposures and a health outcome. The current stepwise selection technique ignores stochastic errors and suffers from a lack of stability. The alternative LASSO-penalized regression model can be applied to detect significant predictors from a pool of candidate variables. However, this technique is prone to false positives and tends to create excessive biases. It remains challenging to develop robust variable selection methods and enhance predictability. Material and methods Two improved algorithms denoted the two-stage hybrid and bootstrap ranking procedures, both using a LASSO-type penalty, were developed for epidemiological association analysis. The performance of the proposed procedures and other methods including conventional LASSO, Bolasso, stepwise and stability selection models were evaluated using intensive simulation. In addition, methods were compared by using an empirical analysis based on large-scale survey data of hepatitis B infection-relevant factors among Guangdong residents. Results The proposed procedures produced comparable or less biased selection results when compared to conventional variable selection models. In total, the two newly proposed procedures were stable with respect to various scenarios of simulation, demonstrating a higher power and a lower false positive rate during variable selection than the compared methods. In empirical analysis, the proposed procedures yielding a sparse set of hepatitis B infection-relevant factors gave the best predictive performance and showed that the procedures were able to select a more stringent set of factors. The individual history of hepatitis B vaccination, family and individual history of hepatitis B infection were associated with hepatitis B infection in the studied residents according to the proposed procedures. Conclusions The newly proposed procedures improve the identification of significant variables and enable us to derive a new insight into epidemiological association analysis. PMID:26214802

  3. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Is a Risk Factor for the Development of Diabetic Nephropathy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qipeng; Shao, Jinshuang; Gao, Lei; Wang, Lu; Li, Qiang; Li, Nali

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is prevalent in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is also associated with T2DM. However, little is known about the interaction between these conditions in patients with T2DM. Objective To examine the association between NAFLD and DN in patients with T2DM. Methods This retrospective study included patients seen between January 2006 and July 2014.T2DM patients were divided into two groups based on NAFLD status (with NAFLD = group A; without = group B). The cumulative incidence of DN and chronic kidney disease (CKD) staging were compared between the two groups. Liver fat content was examined in some patients. Associations among NAFLD, other factors,and DN were analyzed by the additive interaction method. Results Cumulative incidence of DN in patients from group A (58.58%) was higher than in group B (37.22%) (P = 0.005). In both groups, the number of DN patients with CKD stage 1 was greater than the number of patients with stages 2–5. Increased liver fat content was associated with increased occurrence of severe and mild albuminuria and decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR). There were positive correlations between NAFLD and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), free fatty acids (FFA), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), omentin-1, visceral fat area, homocysteine (HCY), and serum uric acid (UA). Conclusion NAFLD might be a risk factor for DN. Elevated liver fat content could be associated with higher DN burden. PMID:26566287

  4. Cell type-specific modifications of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and its type 1 receptor (CRF1) on startle behavior and sensorimotor gating.

    PubMed

    Flandreau, Elizabeth; Risbrough, Victoria; Lu, Ailing; Ableitner, Martin; Geyer, Mark A; Holsboer, Florian; Deussing, Jan M

    2015-03-01

    The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family of peptides and receptors coordinates the mammalian endocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses to stress. Excessive CRF production has been implicated in the etiology of stress-sensitive psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is associated with alterations in startle plasticity. The CRF family of peptides and receptors mediate acute startle response changes during stress, and chronic CRF activation can induce startle abnormalities. To determine what neural circuits modulate startle in response to chronic CRF activation, transgenic mice overexpressing CRF throughout the central nervous system (CNS; CRF-COE(CNS)) or restricted to inhibitory GABAergic neurons (CRF-COE(GABA)) were compared across multiple domains of startle plasticity. CRF overexpression throughout the CNS increased startle magnitude and reduced ability to inhibit startle (decreased habituation and decreased prepulse inhibition (PPI)), similar to previous reports of exogenous effects of CRF. Conversely, CRF overexpression confined to inhibitory neurons decreased startle magnitude but had no effect on inhibitory measures. Acute CRF receptor 1 (CRF1) antagonist treatment attenuated only the effects on startle induced by CNS-specific CRF overexpression. Specific deletion of CRF1 receptors from forebrain principal neurons failed to alter the effects of exogenous CRF or stress on startle, suggesting that these CRF1 expressing neurons are not required for CRF-induced changes in startle behaviors. These data indicate that the effects of CRF activation on startle behavior utilize an extensive neural circuit that includes both forebrain and non-forebrain regions. Furthermore, these findings suggest that the neural source of increased CRF release determines the startle phenotype elicited. It is conceivable that this may explain why disorders characterized by increased CRF in cerebrospinal fluid (e.g. PTSD and major depressive disorder) have distinct symptom profiles in terms of startle reactivity. PMID:25575243

  5. Target Values of Cardiovascular Risk Factors Are Not Associated with All-Cause Mortality in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Pacilli, Antonio; Lamacchia, Olga; Fontana, Andrea; Copetti, Massimiliano; Cignarelli, Mauro; Trischitta, Vincenzo; De Cosmo, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate prospectively the relationship between target values of glycated hemoglobin, blood pressure and LDL-cholesterol, as considered in a combined fashion, and all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods Two cohorts of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the Gargano Mortality Study (n=810) and the Foggia Mortality Study (n=929), were investigated. A weighted target risk score was built as a weight linear combination of the recommended targets reached by each patient. Results In the Gargano Mortality Study and in the Foggia Mortality Study (mean follow up=7.4 and 5.5 years, respectively), 161 (19.9%) and 220 (23.7%) patients died, with an age and sex adjusted annual incidence rate of 2.1 and 2.8 per 100 person-years, respectively. In both study samples the weighted target risk score tended to be linearly associated with all-cause mortality (HR for one point increment=1.30, 95% CI: 1.11-1.53, p=0.001, and HR=1.08, 95% CI: 0.95-1.24, p=0.243, respectively). When the two cohorts were pooled and analyzed together, a clear association between weighted target risk score and all-cause mortality was observed (HR for one point increment=1.17, 95% CI:1.05-1.30, p=0.004). This counterintuitive association was no longer observable in a model including age, sex, body mass index, smoking habit, estimated glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria and anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive and anti-dyslipidemic treatment as covariates (HR for one point increment=0.99, 95% CI: 0.87-1.12, p=0.852). Conclusions In a real life clinical set of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the combination of recommended target values of established cardiovascular risk factors is not associated with all-cause mortality. PMID:25928715

  6. E6 and E7 from Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Cooperate To Target the PDZ Protein Na/H Exchange Regulatory Factor 1 ?

    PubMed Central

    Accardi, Rosita; Rubino, Rosa; Scalise, Mariafrancesca; Gheit, Tarik; Shahzad, Naveed; Thomas, Miranda; Banks, Lawrence; Indiveri, Cesare; Sylla, Bakary S.; Cardone, Rosa A.; Reshkin, Stephan J.; Tommasino, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the PDZ-binding motif of the E6 oncoprotein from the mucosal high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) types plays a key role in HPV-mediated cellular transformation in in vitro and in vivo experimental models. HR HPV E6 oncoproteins have the ability to efficiently degrade members of the PDZ motif-containing membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family; however, it is possible that other PDZ proteins are also targeted by E6. Here, we describe a novel interaction of HPV type 16 (HPV16) E6 with a PDZ protein, Na+/H+ exchange regulatory factor 1 (NHERF-1), which is involved in a number of cellular processes, including signaling and transformation. HPV16 E6 associates with and promotes the degradation of NHERF-1, and this property is dependent on the C-terminal PDZ-binding motif of E6. Interestingly, HPV16 E7, via the activation of the cyclin-dependent kinase complexes, promoted the accumulation of a phosphorylated form of NHERF-1, which is preferentially targeted by E6. Thus, both oncoproteins appear to cooperate in targeting NHERF-1. Notably, HPV18 E6 is not able to induce NHERF-1 degradation, indicating that this property is not shared with E6 from all HR HPV types. Downregulation of NHERF-1 protein levels was also observed in HPV16-positive cervical cancer-derived cell lines, such as SiHa and CaSki, as well as HPV16-positive cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Finally, our data show that HPV16-mediated NHERF-1 degradation correlates with the activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3?-OH kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway, which is known to play a key role in carcinogenesis. PMID:21680517

  7. A meta-regression evaluating the effectiveness and prognostic factors of oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jin-Qiu; Mao, Chen; Yang, Zu-Yao; Fu, Xiao-Hong; Wong, Samuel Y; Tang, Jin-Ling

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is) for erectile dysfunction (ED) varies considerably among trials, but available studies investigating the factors that affect the effectiveness are few and findings are not consistent. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE to identify randomized controlled trials comparing PDE5-Is with placebo for the treatment of ED. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed by the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias. The associations between prespecified study-level factors and effectiveness were tested by a random effects meta-regression model. This study included 93 trials with 26 139 patients. When all PDE5-Is were grouped together, Caucasian ethnicity was associated with 15.636% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.858% to 32.579%) increase in risk ratio (RR) for Global Assessment Questionnaire question-1 (GAQ-1), and 1.473 (95% CI: 0.406 to 2.338) score increase in mean difference (MD) for posttreatment International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function domain score (IIEF-EF), compared to Asian ethnicity. A one-score increase in baseline IIEF-EF was associated with -5.635% (95% CI: -9.120% to -2.017%) reduction in RR for GAQ-1, and -0.229 (95% CI: -0.425 to -0.042) score decrease in MD for posttreatment IIEF-EF. In conclusion, PDE5-Is are more effective in Caucasians than Asians, and in patients with more severe ED. PMID:25966626

  8. Functional Analysis of Regulatory Elements in the Gene Promoter for an Abscission-Specific Cellulase from Bean and Isolation, Expression, and Binding Affinity of Three TGA-Type Basic Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Mark L.; Whitelaw, Catherine A.; Lyssenko, Nicholas N.; Nath, Pravendra

    2002-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis was used to identify cis-acting elements that control hormonal and abscission-specific expression of the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) abscission cellulase (BAC) promoter. Auxin inhibition of BAC promoter expression is at least in part controlled by a negatively regulated element and ethylene induction by a positively regulated element. One of a series of 15 different 10-bp mutations created in a 2.9-kb BAC promoter reduced reporter gene expression by 60%. The native sequence for this 10-bp mutation includes a TGA-type basic leucine zipper (bZIP) motif. Tandem ligation of three 18-bp BAC elements (Z-BAC), which includes the bZIP motif to a minimal ?50 35S cauliflower mosaic virus promoter, enhanced expression in abscission zones (AZs) 13-fold over that of the minimal promoter alone. The native forward orientation of the Z-BAC elements was essential for high expression levels. Expression of the Z-BAC minimal construct was 3-fold greater in AZ than stems when compared with the expression levels of an internal control with an enhanced 35S cauliflower mosaic virus promoter. Polymerase chain reaction was used to identify three TGA-type bZIP transcription factors in an AZ cDNA library. One of these factors was of the class I type and two of the class II type. RNA-blot analysis was completed for these genes and electrophoretic mobility shift assays used to confirm their binding to the Z-BAC element. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay-binding affinity was greatest for the class I TGA-type bZIP factor. The results indicate a complex interaction of negative and positive regulating transcription factors that control BAC gene expression. PMID:12428013

  9. Elevated Circulating Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor Predicts the Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Elaine; Yeung, Chun-Yip; Lee, Paul C.H.; Woo, Yu-Cho; Fong, Carol H.Y.; Chow, Wing-Sun

    2014-01-01

    Context: Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a circulating glycoprotein with antiangiogenic, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory properties, protects against diabetic nephropathy (DN) in animal models. Objective: We investigated whether circulating PEDF predicted the progression of DN in a 4-year prospective study. Design, Setting, and Participants: Baseline plasma PEDF levels were measured in type 2 diabetic subjects recruited from the Hong Kong West Diabetes Registry. The role of PEDF in predicting chronic kidney disease (CKD) and albuminuria progression was analyzed using Cox regression analysis. Main Outcome Measure: We evaluated CKD progression, defined as deterioration in CKD staging and a 25% or greater drop in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) according to International Society of Nephrology statements. Results: At baseline, plasma PEDF levels increased progressively with CKD staging (P for trend <.001; n = 1136). Among 1071 subjects with baseline CKD stage ?3, plasma PEDF levels were significantly higher in those with CKD progression (n = 171) during follow-up than those without (P < .001). Baseline PEDF was independently associated with CKD progression (hazard ratio = 2.76; 95% confidence interval = 1.39–5.47; P = .004), adjusted for age, sex, waist circumference, diabetes duration, hemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, use of antihypertensive drugs, C-reactive protein, and eGFR. Elevated baseline PEDF was also associated with the development of microalbuminuria/albuminuria in a subgroup with normoalbuminuria and eGFR >60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (n = 462) at baseline (hazard ratio = 2.75; 95% confidence interval = 1.01–7.49; P < .05), even after adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusions: Elevated PEDF levels may represent a compensatory change in type 2 diabetic patients with renal disease and appear to be a useful marker for evaluating the progression of DN. PMID:25166721

  10. Association of classical risk factors and coronary artery disease in type 2 diabetic patients submitted to coronary angiography

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death among individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). T2DM accelerates atherosclerosis alongside classical risk factors such as dyslipidemia and hypertension. This study aims to investigate the association of hyperglycemia and associated risk factors with CAD in outpatients with T2DM undergoing coronary angiography. Methods 818 individuals referred to coronary angiography were evaluated for glucose disturbances. After exclusion of those with prediabetes, 347 individuals with T2DM and 94 normoglycemic controls were studied for BMI, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, lipids, HOMA, adiponectin, Framingham risk score, number of clinically significant coronary lesions (stenosis?>?50%). Results Among T2DM subjects, those with CAD (n?=?237) had worse glycemic control (fasting glucose 162.3?+?69.8 vs. 143.4?+?48.9 mg/dL, p?=?0.004; HbA1c 8.03?+?1.91 vs. 7.59?+?1.55%, p?=?0.03), lower HDL (39.2?+?13.2 vs. 44.4?+?15.9 mg/dL, p?=?0.003), and higher triglycerides (140 [106–204] vs. 121 [78.5-184.25] mg/dL, p?=?0.002), reached more often therapeutic goals for LDL (63.4% vs. 51.4%, p?=?0.037) and less often goals for HDL (26.6% vs. 37.3%, p?=?0.04), when compared to CAD-free individuals (n?=?110). The same differences were not seen in normoglycemic controls. In T2DM subjects HbA1c tertiles were associated with progressively higher number of significant coronary lesions (median number of lesions 2 [A1c??8.2%]; p?=?0.01 for trend). Conclusions Classic risk factors such as glycemic control and lipid profile were associated with presence of CAD in T2DM subjects undergoing coronary angiography. Glycemic control is progressively associated with number and extent of coronary lesions in patients with T2DM. PMID:24678928

  11. The Risk Factors and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Metabolic Syndrome in Women With Previous Gestational Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Valizadeh, Majid; Alavi, Nooshin; Mazloomzadeh, Saeideh; Piri, Zahra; Amirmoghadami, Hamidreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects nearly 5% of pregnancies. Significant proportion of the women with previous GDM develops type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the next years, which indicates a higher risk in them than in the general population. Objectives: We conducted this study to determine the risk factors and incidence of abnormal glucose level and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in women with a history of GDM in a long period after delivery in our region. Patients and Methods: We extracted the demographic characteristics of 110 women with GDM who had delivered during 2004 - 2010 in three main hospitals of Zanjan City, Iran. The patients were recalled to perform oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and other necessary tests for MetS diagnosis. Anthropometric measurements were recorded of all the participants. Results: In this study, 110 women with a history of GDM were studied at one to six years since delivery. Among these women, 36 (32.7%) developed T2DM and 11 (10%) had impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Moreover, 22 women (20%) had developed MetS. among those with abnormal results in glycemic test, 93.6% had fasting blood sugar (FBS) ? 95 mg/dL (? 5.27 mmol/L)at the time of GDM diagnosis in the index pregnancy that was significantly higher than the normal glycemic test (NGT) group with 42.9% being affected (OR, 19.55; P < 0.0001). There was a significant difference between those with abnormal results and NGT group in interval between delivery and performing laboratory tests (27 ± 18.8 and 18.5 ± 17.7 months, respectively; OR, 1.02; P = 0.02). No insulin use during pregnancy was discovered as a protective factor in women with a history of GDM (OR, 0.35; P = 0.01). Those with abnormal results were significantly different from NGT group in the number of parities (2.61 ± 1.4 vs. 2.05 ± 1.1, respectively; OR, 1.4; P = 0.03). The most common component of MetS among women with a history of GDM was FBS > 100 mg/dL (> 5.55 mmol/L). Conclusions: Regarding the high incidence of the T2DM and MetS among women with a history of GDM, they should be screened at a regular interval for diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25892996

  12. Changes in von Willebrand factor level and von Willebrand activity with age in type 1 von Willebrand disease

    PubMed Central

    Rydz, Natalia; Grabell, Julie; Lillicrap, David; James, Paula D.

    2015-01-01

    In a normal population, VWF plasma levels (VWF:Ag) and VWF activity (VWF:RCo) increase by approximately 0.17 and 0.15 IU/ml per decade, but the influence of age is unknown in patients with type 1 von Willebrand disease (VWD). In a retrospective cohort study, the medical records of 31 type 1 VWD patients over the age of 30, who had been followed for ?5 years, were reviewed for baseline clinical data and previously performed VWF:Ag, VWF:RCo and factor VIII levels (FVIII:C). VWF multimer analysis was normal in 27/31 cases performed. Mean bleeding score was 9.4 (range 2-21). Mean age at diagnosis was 33 (range 16-60 years), and duration of follow-up ranged from 5-26 years (mean 11 years). Patients had 2-10 time points of VWD testing (mean of 5.2). The mean VWF:Ag, VWF:RCo and FVIII:C at time of diagnosis were 0.44 IU/ml 0.34 IU/ml and 0.75 IU/ml. At last follow-up, the mean VWF:Ag, VWF:RCo and FVIII:C were significantly increased to 0.71 IU/L, 0.56 IU/ml and 0.90 IU/ml (p=<0.001, <0.001, and 0.0081, respectively). 18/31 patients had VWF:Ag, VWF:RCo and FVIII:C levels that increased into the normal range. The rate of change in VWF:Ag and VWF:RCo was 0.30 IU/ml (0.214-0.386, CI 95%, p<0.0001) and 0.20 IU/ml per year (0.126-0.274, CI 95%, p=0.0001). Patients with type 1 VWD experience age-related increases to VWF:Ag and VWF:RCo which can result in normalization of VWF levels. Further studies are required to determine if the bleeding phenotype resolves with the increases in VWF:Ag and VWF:RCo levels. PMID:25756206

  13. Role of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor Type 1 Receptor in the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Duo; Jiang, Shuang; Meng, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Defective cognitive function is common in patients with diabetes, suggesting that insulin normally exerts anabolic actions in neuron, namely, diabetic encephalopathy. However, because insulin can cross-activate the insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-1R), which also functions in most of tissues, such as muscle and bone, it has been difficult to establish the direct (IGF-1-independent) actions of insulin in the pathogenesis of diabetic encephalopathy. To overcome this problem, we examined insulin signaling and action in primary PC-12 cells engineered for conditional disruption of the IGF-1 receptor (?IGF-1R). The results showed that the lower glucose metabolism and high expression of IGF-1R occurred in the brain of the DE rat model. The results also showed the defect of IGF-1R could significantly improve the ability of glucose consumption and enhance sensitivity to insulin-induced IR and Akt phosphorylation in PC12 cells. And meanwhile, IGF-1R allele gene knockout (IGF-1Rneo) mice treated with HFD/STZ had better cognitive abilities than those of wild mice. Those results indicate that insulin exerts direct anabolic actions in neuron-like cells by activation of its cognate receptor and prove that IGF-1R plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic encephalopathy. PMID:26089889

  14. Bleeding complications in BCR-ABL negative myeloproliferative neoplasms: prevalence, type, and risk factors in a single-center cohort.

    PubMed

    Kander, Elizabeth M; Raza, Sania; Zhou, Zheng; Gao, Juehua; Zakarija, Anaadriana; McMahon, Brandon J; Stein, Brady L

    2015-11-01

    The BCR-ABL1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) share an increased risk of thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications. Risk factors for hemorrhage are less well defined than those for thrombosis. Because patients with CALR mutations have higher platelet counts compared to JAK2 V617F-mutated patients, bleeding rates may be increased in this group. Our aim was to retrospectively evaluate whether acquired von Willebrand disease (AvWD), thrombocytosis, mutational status, or treatment history are associated with bleeding in a cohort of MPN patients. Using an electronic database, MPN patients seen between 2005 and 2013 were retrospectively identified using ICD-9 codes and billing records. A bleeding event was defined as one that was identified in the medical record and graded based on the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Event (CTCAE) version 4.0. Among 351 MPN patients, 15.6 % experienced 64 bleeding event types. There was no association of bleeding with mutational status, gender, MPN subtype, aspirin use, prior thrombosis, or platelet count at presentation. There was an association between bleeding and older age at diagnosis. aVWD was identified in six patients. In this single-center retrospective study, bleeding events were identified in 15 % of patients, and associated with older age at diagnosis. aVWD was rarely tested for in this cohort. PMID:26440973

  15. Factors affecting the adsorptive removal of bisphenol A in landfill leachate by high silica Y-type zeolite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoqiang; Fujiwara, Taku; Fukahori, Shuji; Ishigaki, Tomonori

    2015-02-01

    Although bisphenol A (BPA), a representative endocrine-disrupting compound, has been detected frequently in landfill leachate, effective technologies for BPA removal from landfill leachates are limited. We used high silica Y-type zeolite (HSZ-385) for the selective adsorption of BPA from landfill leachate, and factors affecting this adsorption are discussed. Higher removal efficiencies at pH 5.0-9.0 imply that neutral BPA is adsorbed more easily onto HSZ-385 than monomeric or divalent BPA anions. An increase in ionic strength and sodium acetate concentration did not affect BPA adsorption significantly, while the removal efficiency decreased slightly when more than 50 mgC/L of humic acid was added. HSZ-385 was applied to synthetic leachates that simulate the composition of landfill leachate at various degradation stages. In young acidic leachates that contain sodium acetate, the use of HSZ-385 for the adsorptive removal of BPA appears to be more effective than in old alkaline leachates, which contain large amounts of humic acid. In addition, 82 % BPA removal was achieved from young raw leachates using HSZ-385, which demonstrates that selective BPA removal from actual landfill leachate has been achieved. PMID:25209542

  16. Human Coagulation Factor X-Adenovirus Type 5 Complexes Poorly Stimulate an Innate Immune Response in Human Mononuclear Phagocytes

    PubMed Central

    Eichholz, Karsten; Mennechet, Franck J. D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT One of the first lines of host defense against many viruses in vertebrates is the innate immune system, which detects pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) using pathogen recognition receptors (PRR). The dynamic interactions between pathogens and hosts create, in some cases, species-specific relationships. Recently, it was shown that murine factor X (mFX)-armored human adenovirus (HAd) stimulated a mFX-Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-associated response in mouse macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Given the importance of studies using animals to better understand host-pathogen interactions, we asked if human FX (hFX)-armored HAd type 5 (HAd5) was capable of activating innate immune sensors in primary human mononuclear phagocytes. To this end, we assayed human mononuclear phagocytes for their ability to be stimulated by hFX-armored HAd5 via a TLR/NF-?B pathway, in particular, a TLR4 pathway. In our hands, we found no significant interaction, activation, or maturation of human mononuclear phagocytes caused by the presence of hFX-armored HAd5. IMPORTANCE Animals, and mice in particular, are often used as informative and powerful surrogates for how pathogens interact with natural host systems. When possible, extended and targeted studies in the natural host can then be performed. Our data will help us understand the differences in preclinical testing in mice and clinical use in humans in order to improve treatment for HAd diseases and Ad vector effectiveness. PMID:25540380

  17. Deficiency in type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor in mice protects against oxygen-induced lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Ahamed, Karmene; Epaud, Ralph; Holzenberger, Martin; Bonora, Monique; Flejou, Jean-François; Puard, Julien; Clement, Annick; Henrion-Caude, Alexandra

    2005-01-01

    Background Cellular responses to aging and oxidative stress are regulated by type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R). Oxidant injury, which is implicated in the pathophysiology of a number of respiratory diseases, acutely upregulates IGF-1R expression in the lung. This led us to suspect that reduction of IGF-1R levels in lung tissue could prevent deleterious effects of oxygen exposure. Methods Since IGF-1R null mutant mice die at birth from respiratory failure, we generated compound heterozygous mice harboring a hypomorphic (Igf-1rneo) and a knockout (Igf-1r-) receptor allele. These IGF-1Rneo/- mice, strongly deficient in IGF-1R, were subjected to hyperoxia and analyzed for survival time, ventilatory control, pulmonary histopathology, morphometry, lung edema and vascular permeability. Results Strikingly, after 72 h of exposure to 90% O2, IGF-1Rneo/- mice had a significantly better survival rate during recovery than IGF-1R+/+ mice (77% versus 53%, P < 0.05). The pulmonary injury was consistently, and significantly, milder in IGF-1Rneo/- mice which developed conspicuously less edema and vascular extravasation than controls. Also, hyperoxia-induced abnormal pattern of breathing which precipitated respiratory failure was elicited less frequently in the IGF-1Rneo/- mice. Conclusion Together, these data demonstrate that a decrease in IGF-1R signaling in mice protects against oxidant-induced lung injury. PMID:15819984

  18. Overexpression of transforming growth factor type III receptor restores TGF-?1 sensitivity in human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Duo; Xu, Dongyang; Lu, Zhiyong; Dong, Xingli; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    The transforming growth factor type III receptor (T?RIII), also known as ?-glycan, is a multi-functional sensor that regulates growth, migration and apoptosis in most cancer cells. We hereby investigated the expression of T?RIII in clinical specimens of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) and the underlying mechanism that T?RIII inhibits the growth of CAL-27 human oral squamous cells. The TSCC tissues showed a significant decrease in T?RIII protein expression as detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blot analysis. Transfection of T?RIII-containing plasmid DNA dramatically promoted TGF-?1 (10 ng/ml)-induced decrease in cell viability, apoptosis and cell arrest at the G0-/G1-phase. Moreover, transient overexpression of T?RIII enhanced the TGF-?1-induced cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2b (CDKN2b) and p38 protein activity, but did not affect the activities of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) in CAL-27 cells. These results suggest overexpression of T?RIII receptor restored TGF-?1 sensitivity in CAL-27 cells, which may provide some new insights on exploiting this molecule therapeutically. PMID:26205654

  19. Environmental Factors Influencing the Prevalence of a Clostridium botulinum Type C/D Mosaic Strain in Nonpermanent Mediterranean Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Anza, Ibone; Taggart, Mark A.; Pérez-Ramírez, Elisa; Crespo, Elena; Hofle, Ursula; Mateo, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Between 1978 and 2008, 13 avian botulism outbreaks were recorded in the wetlands of Mancha Húmeda (central Spain). These outbreaks caused the deaths of around 20,000 birds from over 50 species, including globally endangered white-headed ducks (Oxyura leucoceophala). Here, a significant association was found between the number of dead birds recorded in each botulism outbreak and the mean temperature in July (always >26°C). The presence of Clostridium botulinum type C/D in wetland sediments was detected by real-time PCR (quantitative PCR [qPCR]) in 5.8% of 207 samples collected between 2005 and 2008. Low concentrations of Cl? and high organic matter content in sediments were significantly associated with the presence of C. botulinum. Seventy-five digestive tracts of birds found dead during botulism outbreaks were analyzed; C. botulinum was present in 38.7% of them. The prevalence of C. botulinum was 18.2% (n = 22 pools) in aquatic invertebrates (Chironomidae and Corixidae families) and 33.3% (n = 18 pools) in necrophagous invertebrates (Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae families), including two pools of adult necrophagous flies collected around bird carcasses. The presence of the bacteria in the adult fly form opens up new perspectives in the epidemiology of avian botulism, since these flies may be transporting C. botulinum from one carcass to another. PMID:23645197

  20. Persistent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in human fetal glial cells reactivated by T-cell factor(s) or by the cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta.

    PubMed Central

    Tornatore, C; Nath, A; Amemiya, K; Major, E O

    1991-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of the brain has been associated with a severe dementing illness in children and adults. However, HIV-1 antigens are most frequently found in macrophages and microglial cells. To determine the extent of susceptibility of neuroglial cells to infection, the HIV-1 genome was introduced into cells cultured from human fetal brain tissue. Astroglial cells rapidly transcribed the viral genome producing high levels of p24 protein and infectious virions which peaked two to three days posttransfection. Thereafter HIV-1 genome expression progressively diminished and a persistent phase of infection developed during which neither virus nor viral proteins could be demonstrated by immunodetection methods. Cocultivation with CD4+ T cells at any time during the persistent infection resulted in resumption of p24 synthesis and virus multiplication. The release of persistence did not require direct cell-cell contact between the glial and T cells, since separation of the two cell types across a permeable membrane resulted in a delayed but similar resumption of p24 synthesis and virus multiplication. The persistently infected glial cells could also be stimulated to produce viral p24 protein if either tumor necrosis factor alpha or interleukin-1 beta was added to the medium without T cells present. These results suggest that astrocytes may serve as an undetected reservoir for HIV-1 and disseminate the virus to other susceptible cells in the brain upon triggering by some cellular or biochemical signal. Images PMID:1920627

  1. 40 CFR Table C-2 to Subpart C of... - Default CH4 and N2O Emission Factors for Various Types of Fuel

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for Various Types of Fuel C Table C-2 to Subpart C of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Fuel Combustion Sources Pt. 98, Subpt. C, Table C-2 Table C-2 to Subpart C of Part 98—Default CH4 and...) Default N2O emission factor (kg N2O/mmBtu) Coal and Coke (All fuel types in Table C-1) 1.1 × 10? 02...

  2. 40 CFR Table C-2 to Subpart C of... - Default CH4 and N2O Emission Factors for Various Types of Fuel

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for Various Types of Fuel C Table C-2 to Subpart C of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Fuel Combustion Sources Pt. 98, Subpt. C, Table C-2 Table C-2 to Subpart C of Part 98—Default CH4 and...) Default N2O emission factor (kg N2O/mmBtu) Coal and Coke (All fuel types in Table C-1) 1.1 × 10?02...

  3. Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor Type 1 of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Kills Cultured Human Uroepithelial 5637 Cells by an Apoptotic Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Melody; Meysick, Karen C.; O'Brien, Alison D.

    2000-01-01

    Pathogenic Escherichia coli associated with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in otherwise healthy individuals frequently produce cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1 (CNF1), a member of the family of bacterial toxins that target the Rho family of small GTP-binding proteins. To gain insight into the function of CNF1 in the development of E. coli-mediated UTIs, we examined the effects of CNF1 intoxication on a panel of human cell lines derived from physiologically relevant sites (bladder, ureters, and kidneys). We identified one uroepithelial cell line that exhibited a distinctly different CNF1 intoxication phenotype from the prototypic one of multinucleation without cell death that is seen when HEp-2 or other epithelial cells are treated with CNF1. The 5637 bladder cell line detached from the growth surface within 72 h of CNF1 intoxication, a finding that suggested frank cytotoxicity. To determine the basis for the unexpected toxic effect of CNF1 on 5637 cells, we compared the degree of toxin binding, actin fiber formation, and Rho modification with those CNF1-induced events in HEp-2 cells. We found no apparent difference in the amount of CNF1 bound to 5637 cells and HEp-2 cells. Moreover, CNF1 modified Rho, in vivo and in vitro, in both cell types. In contrast, one of the classic responses to CNF1 in HEp-2 and other epithelial cell lines, the formation of actin stress fibers, was markedly absent in 5637 cells. Indeed, actin stress fiber induction by CNF1 did not occur in any of the other human bladder cell lines that we tested (J82, SV-HUC-1, or T24). Furthermore, the appearance of lamellipodia and filopodia in 5637 cells suggested that CNF1 activated the Cdc42 and Rac proteins. Finally, apoptosis was observed in CNF1-intoxicated 5637 cells. If our results with 5637 cells reflect the interaction of CNF1 with the transitional uroepithelium in the human bladder, then CNF1 may be involved in the exfoliative process that occurs in that organ after infection with uropathogenic E. coli. PMID:10992497

  4. Prevalence of Lipohypertrophy and Associated Risk Factors in Insulin-Treated Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Al Ajlouni, Mo’men; Abujbara, Mousa; Batieha, Anwar; Ajlouni, Kamel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Secondary failure of oral hypoglycemic agents is common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); thus, patients often need insulin therapy. The most common complication of insulin treatment is lipohypertrophy (LH). Objectives: This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of LH among insulin-treated patients with Patients with T2DM, to identify the risk factors for the development of LH, and to examine the association between LH and glycemic control. Patients and Methods: A total of 1090 patients with T2DM aged 20 to 89 years, who attended the diabetes clinics at the National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Genetics (NCDEG, Amman, Jordan) between October 2011 and January 2012, were enrolled. The presence of LH was examined by inspection and palpation of insulin injection sites at the time of the visit as relevant clinical and laboratory data were obtained. The LH was defined as a local tumor-like swelling of subcutaneous fatty tissue at the site of repeated insulin injections. Results: The overall prevalence of LH was 37.3% (27.4% grade 1, 9.7% grade 2, and 0.2% grade 3). The LH was significantly associated with the duration of diabetes, needle length, duration of insulin therapy, lack of systematic rotation of insulin injection sites, and poor glycemic control. Conclusions: The LH is a common problem in insulin-treated Jordanian patients with T2DM. More efforts are needed to educate patients and health workers on simple interventions such as using shorter needles and frequent rotation of the insulin injection sites to avoid LH and improve glycemic control. PMID:25926852

  5. Effect of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the simulated D-band length of type I collagen.

    PubMed

    Varma, Sameer; Botlani, Mohsen; Hammond, Jeff R; Scott, H Larry; Orgel, Joseph P R O; Schieber, Jay D

    2015-10-01

    A signature feature of collagen is its axial periodicity visible in TEM as alternating dark and light bands. In mature, type I collagen, this repeating unit, D, is 67 nm long. This periodicity reflects an underlying packing of constituent triple-helix polypeptide monomers wherein the dark bands represent gaps between axially adjacent monomers. This organization is visible distinctly in the microfibrillar model of collagen obtained from fiber diffraction. However, to date, no atomistic simulations of this diffraction model under zero-stress conditions have reported a preservation of this structural feature. Such a demonstration is important as it provides the baseline to infer response functions of physiological stimuli. In contrast, simulations predict a considerable shrinkage of the D-band (11-19%). Here we evaluate systemically the effect of several factors on D-band shrinkage. Using force fields employed in previous studies we find that irrespective of the temperature/pressure coupling algorithms, assumed salt concentration or hydration level, and whether or not the monomers are cross-linked, the D-band shrinks considerably. This shrinkage is associated with the bending and widening of individual monomers, but employing a force field whose backbone dihedral energy landscape matches more closely with our computed CCSD(T) values produces a small D-band shrinkage of < 3%. Since this force field also performs better against other experimental data, it appears that the large shrinkage observed in earlier simulations is a force-field artifact. The residual shrinkage could be due to the absence of certain atomic-level details, such as glycosylation sites, for which we do not yet have suitable data. PMID:26214145

  6. Non-Association between rs7903146 and rs12255372 Polymorphisms in Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 Gene and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Jahrom City, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Pourahmadi, Mohammad; Moradzadeh, Malihe; Jahromi, Abdolreza Sotoodeh

    2015-01-01

    Background Transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) is a transcription factor in the Wnt signaling pathway. High levels of TCF7L2 have been reported in most human tissues, including the heart, lung, brain, liver, kidney, placenta, adipose tissues, and pancreatic ?-cells. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between TCF7L2 polymorphisms (rs12255372 and rs7903146) and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the city of Jahrom, Iran. Methods This case-control study was conducted with 200 patients referred to Diabetes Clinics and 200 healthy subjects in Jahrom City. Biochemical characteristics were first determined. TCF7L2 rs1255372 and rs7903146 polymorphisms were then genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Results T-allele frequencies of both single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were significantly higher in diabetic patients than in normal glucose-tolerant subjects (rs12255372: 20.3% vs. 14.5%; rs7903146: 28.5% vs. 22.25%). The rs12255372 (G/T) polymorphism analysis showed an odds ratio of 0.473 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.170 to 1.314; P=0.151) for the TT genotype and 0.646 (95% CI, 0.410 to 1.019; P=0.060) for the TG genotype, compared with the GG genotype. The rs7903146 (C/T) polymorphism odds ratios for TT and TC genotypes were 0.564 (95% CI, 0.280 to 1.135; P=0.109) and 0.751 (95% CI, 0.487 to 1.157; P=0.194) compared with the CC genotype, respectively. Conclusion The rs12255372 and rs7903146 SNPs of the TCF7L2 gene were not associated with insulin resistance in the evaluated population. PMID:26616591

  7. Transcription factor PRDM8 is required for rod bipolar and type 2 OFF-cone bipolar cell survival and amacrine subtype identity.

    PubMed

    Jung, Cynthia C; Atan, Denize; Ng, David; Ploder, Lynda; Ross, Sarah E; Klein, Martin; Birch, David G; Diez, Eduardo; McInnes, Roderick R

    2015-06-01

    Retinal bipolar (BP) cells mediate the earliest steps in image processing in the visual system, but the genetic pathways that regulate their development and function are incompletely known. We identified PRDI-BF1 and RIZ homology domain containing 8 (PRDM8) as a highly conserved transcription factor that is abundantly expressed in mouse retina. During development and in maturity, PRDM8 is expressed strongly in BP cells and a fraction of amacrine and ganglion cells. To determine whether Prdm8 is essential to BP cell development or physiology, we targeted the gene in mice. Prdm8(EGFP/EGFP) mice showed nonprogressive b-wave deficits on electroretinograms, consistent with compromised BP cell function or circuitry resembling the incomplete form of human congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB). BP cell specification was normal in Prdm8(EGFP/EGFP) retina as determined by VSX2(+) cell numbers and retinal morphology at postnatal day 6. BP subtype differentiation was impaired, however, as indicated by absent or diminished expression of BP subtype-specific markers, including the putative PRDM8 regulatory target PKC? (Prkca) and its protein. By adulthood, rod bipolar (RB) and type 2 OFF-cone bipolar (CB) cells were nearly absent from Prdm8-null mice. Although no change was detected in total amacrine cell (AC) numbers, increased PRKCA(+) and cholinergic ACs and decreased GABAergic ACs were seen, suggesting an alteration in amacrine subtype identity. These findings establish that PRDM8 is required for RB and type 2 OFF-CB cell survival and amacrine subtype identity, and they present PRDM8 as a candidate gene for human CSNB. PMID:26023183

  8. Effects of krill oil on endothelial function and other cardiovascular risk factors in participants with type 2 diabetes, a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lobraico, Jessika M; DiLello, Lauren C; Butler, Amber D; Cordisco, Marie Elena; Petrini, Joann R; Ahmadi, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the effect of krill oil supplementation, a source of ?-3 fatty acids, on cardiovascular disease risk factors and blood glucose control among participants with type 2 diabetes. Research design and methods A randomized, double-blind controlled cross-over trial was employed. Outcomes assessed were: endothelial function, blood lipids, glucose, glycated hemoglobin, serum antioxidant level, C peptide, and calculated Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) scores. Participants were randomized to either krill oil or olive oil supplementation for 4?weeks, underwent a 2-week washout period, and then crossed to the other supplementation for 4?weeks. All participants were then offered an additional 17?weeks of krill supplementation. Testing occurred at 3 time points: baseline, after first supplementation, and after second supplementation. Testing also occurred after an optional 17?weeks of krill oil supplementation. Difference scores were calculated for each participant in both sequences (ie, differences in outcome measures in the first and second period of the sequence). The mean and SD of the scores in the 2 sequence groups were used to test for differences between treatment effects at a significance level of p<0.05. Results A total of 47 participants were included in the initial cross-over study. Participants who received krill oil for 4?weeks had an improvement in their endothelial function and a reduction in blood C peptide levels and HOMA scores as compared with the olive oil. A total of 34 participants completed the additional 17-week supplementation period. When compared with their respective baseline measures, these participants had a statistically significant improvement in endothelial function and blood high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Conclusions Krill oil may lead to moderate improvement of cardiovascular risks, specifically endothelial dysfunction and HDL in patients with type 2 diabetes. Trial registration number Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02091193. PMID:26504524

  9. NF-?B Protects Human Papillomavirus Type 38 E6/E7-Immortalized Human Keratinocytes against Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and UV-Mediated Apoptosis?

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Ishraq; Fathallah, Ikbal; Accardi, Rosita; Yue, Jiping; Saidj, Djamel; Shukla, Ruchi; Hasan, Uzma; Gheit, Tarik; Niu, Yamei; Tommasino, Massimo; Sylla, Bakary S.

    2011-01-01

    Constitutive activation of NF-?B signaling is a key event in virus- and non-virus-induced carcinogenesis. We have previously reported that cutaneous human papillomavirus type 38 (HPV38) displays transforming properties in in vitro and in vivo experimental models. However, the involvement of NF-?B signaling in HPV38-induced cell growth transformation remains to be determined. In this study, we showed that HPV38 E6 and E7 activate NF-?B and that inhibition of the pathway with the I?B? superrepressor sensitizes HPV38E6E7-immortalized human keratinocytes to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?)- and UVB radiation-mediated apoptosis. Accordingly, inhibition of NF-?B signaling resulted in the downregulation of NF-?B-regulated antiapoptotic genes, including cIAP1, cIAP2, and xIAP genes. These findings demonstrate a critical role of NF-?B activity in the survival of HPV38E6E7-immortalized human keratinocytes exposed to cytokine or UV radiation. Our data provide additional evidence for cooperation between beta HPV infection and UV irradiation in skin carcinogenesis. PMID:21715489

  10. Sandy Lake Health and Diabetes Project: A Community-Based Intervention Targeting Type 2 Diabetes and Its Risk Factors in a First Nations Community

    PubMed Central

    Kakekagumick, Kara E.; Naqshbandi Hayward, Mariam; Harris, Stewart B.; Saksvig, Brit; Gittelsohn, Joel; Manokeesic, Gary; Goodman, Starsky; Hanley, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    The Sandy Lake Health and Diabetes Project (SLHDP) was initiated in 1991 as a partnership between Sandy Lake First Nation and researchers interested in addressing the high rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the community. Following the expressed wishes of the community, the SLHDP has encompassed a variety of community-wide interventions and activities including: community surveys to document T2DM prevalence and risk factors, the Northern Store program aimed at increasing the availability and knowledge of healthy food options, a home visit program for the prevention and management of T2DM, a local diabetes radio show, a school diabetes curriculum for grades 3 and 4, a community-wide walking trail to encourage increased physical activity, youth diabetes summer camps, and a variety of community events focusing on nutrition and physical activity. Over the 22?year existence of the SLHDP, the community has taken ownership of the program and activities have evolved in alignment with community needs and priorities. This paper discusses the history, implementation, evaluation, and outcomes of the SLHDP and describes its sustainability. The SLHDP is a model of culturally appropriate participatory research that is iterative, with reciprocal capacity building for both key community stakeholders and academic partners. PMID:24302919

  11. Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 (PCSK9) Gene Is a Risk Factor of Large-Vessel Atherosclerosis Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Abboud, Shérine; Karhunen, Pekka J.; Lütjohann, Dieter; Goebeler, Sirkka; Luoto, Teemu; Friedrichs, Silvia; Lehtimaki, Terho; Pandolfo, Massimo; Laaksonen, Reijo

    2007-01-01

    Background/Purpose Genetic variation in proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) gene has been recently identified as an important determinant of plasma LDL-cholesterol and severity of coronary heart disease. We studied whether the PCSK9 gene is linked to the risk of ischemic stroke (IS) and with the development of intracranial atherosclerosis. Methods/Results The pivotal E670G polymorphism, tagging an important haplotype of the PCSK9 gene, was genotyped in two independent studies. The Belgium Stroke Study included 237 middle aged (45–60) Belgian patients, with small-vessel occlusion (SVO) and large-vessel atherosclerosis stroke (LVA), and 326 gender and ethnicity matched controls (>60 yrs) without a history of stroke. In multivariate analysis the minor allele (G) carriers appeared as a significant predictor of LVA (OR?=?3.52, 95% CI 1.25–9.85; p?=?0.017). In a Finnish crossectional population based consecutive autopsy series of 604 males and females (mean age 62.5 years), G-allele carriers tended to have more severe allele copy number-dependent (p?=?0.095) atherosclerosis in the circle of Willis and in its branches. Conclusion Our findings in this unique combination of clinical and autopsy data, provide evidence that PCSK9 gene associates with the risk of LVA stroke subtype, and suggest that the risk is mediated by the severity of intracranial atherosclerosis. PMID:17940607

  12. Comparison of flux motion in type-II superconductors including pinning centers with the shapes of nano-rods and nano-particles by using 3D-TDGL simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Shintaro; Ichino, Yusuke; Yoshida, Yutaka

    2015-11-01

    Time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) equations are very useful method for simulation of the motion of flux quanta in type-II superconductors. We constructed the 3D-TDGL simulator and succeeded to simulate the motion of flux quanta in 3-dimension. We carried out the 3D-TDGL simulation to compare two superconductors which included only pinning centers with the shape of nano-rods and only nano-particle-like pinning centers in the viewpoint of the flux motion. As a result, a motion of "single-kink" caused the whole motion of a flux quantum in the superconductor including only the nano-rods. On the other hand, in the superconductor including the nano-particles, the flux quanta were pinned by the nano-particles in the various magnetic field applied angles. As the result, no "single-kink" occurred in the superconductor including the nano-particles. Therefore, the nano-particle-like pinning centers are effective shape to trap flux quanta for various magnetic field applied angles.

  13. Type I and Type II Error Rates and Overall Accuracy of the Revised Parallel Analysis Method for Determining the Number of Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Samuel B.; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Levy, Roy; Lo, Wen-Juo

    2015-01-01

    Traditional parallel analysis (T-PA) estimates the number of factors by sequentially comparing sample eigenvalues with eigenvalues for randomly generated data. Revised parallel analysis (R-PA) sequentially compares the "k"th eigenvalue for sample data to the "k"th eigenvalue for generated data sets, conditioned on"k"-…

  14. Effect of the Look AHEAD Study intervention on medication use and related cost to treat cardiovascular disease risk factors in individuals with Type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to examine the effect of a lifestyle intervention to produce weight loss and increased physical fitness on use and cost of medications to treat cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in people with type 2 diabetes. Look AHEAD is a multicenter randomized controlled trial of 5,145...

  15. Pediatric diabetes consortium type 1 diabetes new onset (NeOn) study: Factors associated with HbA1c levels one year after diagnosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To identify determinants of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels 1 yr after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in participants in the Pediatric Diabetes Consortium (PDC) T1D New Onset (NeOn) Study. Diabetes-specific as well as socioeconomic factors during the first year following diagnosis were analyze...

  16. Screen Media Time Usage of 12-16 Year-Old Spanish School Adolescents: Effects of Personal and Socioeconomic Factors, Season and Type of Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devis-Devis, Jose; Peiro-Velert, Carmen; Beltran-Carrillo, Vicente J.; Tomas, Jose Manuel

    2009-01-01

    This study examined screen media time usage (SMTU) and its association with personal and socioeconomic factors, as well as the effect of season and type of day, in a Spanish sample of 12-16 year-old school adolescents (N=323). The research design was a cross-sectional survey, in which an interviewer-administered recall questionnaire was used.…

  17. Reduction in weight and cardiovascular diasease risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes: One-year results of the Look AHEAD trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of intentional weight loss in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in type 2 diabetes is unknown. This report describes 1-year changes in CVD risk factors in a trial designed to examine the long-term effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention on the incidence of major C...

  18. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C - Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel C Table C-1 to Subpart C Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Fuel Combustion Sources Pt. 98, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C—Default CO2 Emission Factors...; and (c) small batch incinerators that combust no more than 1,000 tons of MSW per year. 2...

  19. First Genome-Wide Association Study in an Australian Aboriginal Population Provides Insights into Genetic Risk Factors for Body Mass Index and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Richard W.; Syn, Genevieve; Scaman, Elizabeth S. H.; Davis, Elizabeth; Miles, Simon J.; McLeay, Toby; Jamieson, Sarra E.; Blackwell, Jenefer M.

    2015-01-01

    A body mass index (BMI) >22kg/m2 is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Aboriginal Australians. To identify loci associated with BMI and T2D we undertook a genome-wide association study using 1,075,436 quality-controlled single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped (Illumina 2.5M Duo Beadchip) in 402 individuals in extended pedigrees from a Western Australian Aboriginal community. Imputation using the thousand genomes (1000G) reference panel extended the analysis to 6,724,284 post quality-control autosomal SNPs. No associations achieved genome-wide significance, commonly accepted as P<5x10-8. Nevertheless, genes/pathways in common with other ethnicities were identified despite the arrival of Aboriginal people in Australia >45,000 years ago. The top hit (rs10868204 Pgenotyped = 1.50x10-6; rs11140653 Pimputed_1000G = 2.90x10-7) for BMI lies 5’ of NTRK2, the type 2 neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) that regulates energy balance downstream of melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R). PIK3C2G (rs12816270 Pgenotyped = 8.06x10-6; rs10841048 Pimputed_1000G = 6.28x10-7) was associated with BMI, but not with T2D as reported elsewhere. BMI also associated with CNTNAP2 (rs6960319 Pgenotyped = 4.65x10-5; rs13225016 Pimputed_1000G = 6.57x10-5), previously identified as the strongest gene-by-environment interaction for BMI in African-Americans. The top hit (rs11240074 Pgenotyped = 5.59x10-6, Pimputed_1000G = 5.73x10-6) for T2D lies 5’ of BCL9 that, along with TCF7L2, promotes beta-catenin’s transcriptional activity in the WNT signaling pathway. Additional hits occurred in genes affecting pancreatic (KCNJ6, KCNA1) and/or GABA (GABRR1, KCNA1) functions. Notable associations observed for genes previously identified at genome-wide significance in other populations included MC4R (Pgenotyped = 4.49x10-4) for BMI and IGF2BP2 Pimputed_1000G = 2.55x10-6) for T2D. Our results may provide novel functional leads in understanding disease pathogenesis in this Australian Aboriginal population. PMID:25760438

  20. Factors controlling the evolution of a wedge-top temperate-type carbonate platform in the Miocene of the northern Apennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, D.; Conti, S.; Fioroni, C.; Grillenzoni, C.

    2015-04-01

    An integrated study including stratigraphy, composition and biostratigraphy was performed on temperate-type shallow-water carbonates of early middle Miocene age deposited in a wedge-top basin within the Apenninic chain (Romagna-Tuscan area). The succession rests unconformably on the deep-water sediments of allochthonous Ligurian units and is represented by up to 350 m thick carbonates and mixed siliciclastic-carbonate rocks. Two main units are recognized, each characterized by a distinct facies association. The basal unit (upper Burdigalian) consists of rhodalgal rudstones and packstones of shelf environment, dominated by echinoids, bryozoans, coralline algae and benthic foraminifera, deposited in temperate conditions and showing a transgressive pattern. It gradually passes into mixed carbonate-siliciclastic shallow water-facies, (Langhian in age) characterized by an increase in terrigenous components and planktonic and benthic taxa. Sediment starvation during the Langhian is suggested by the occurrence of glaucony-rich packstones with abundant planktonic foraminifera. The succession grades upwards into upper Langhian-lower Serravallian planktonic foraminifera-rich marls. Increasing detrital discharge and water depth up section results in drowning of the carbonate shelf. Debris-flow deposits including material of extraformational origin are intercalated at different levels, in particular from the uplifting south-western margins, close to the Ligurian thrusts. The inception and demise of these temperate rhodalgal-foramol carbonate sediments located in wedge-top Epiligurian basins are primarily controlled by synsedimentary tectonics, which in turn affects relative sea-level rise, and nutrient and detrital input. In particular, tectonics controlled the initial stage of the transgression, determining the configuration of the basin, subdivided in narrow submerged palaeotopographic lows and relatively elevated areas. Synsedimentary tectonics related to the thrust migration was also the main controlling factor in the demise of carbonate sedimentation, through the combined effect of two processes: increasing the subsidence of the basin, and triggering the terrigenous discharge from the erosion of the uplifted Apenninic relieves.

  1. Epstein–Barr virus-transforming protein latent infection membrane protein 1 activates transcription factor NF-?B through a pathway that includes the NF-?B-inducing kinase and the I?B kinases IKK? and IKK?

    PubMed Central

    Sylla, Bakary S.; Hung, Siu Chun; Davidson, David M.; Hatzivassiliou, Eudoxia; Malinin, Nikolai L.; Wallach, David; Gilmore, Thomas D.; Kieff, Elliott; Mosialos, George

    1998-01-01

    The Epstein–Barr virus oncoprotein latent infection membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is a constitutively aggregated pseudo-tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) that activates transcription factor NF-?B through two sites in its C-terminal cytoplasmic domain. One site is similar to activated TNFRII in associating with TNFR-associated factors TRAF1 and TRAF2, and the second site is similar to TNFRI in associating with the TNFRI death domain interacting protein TRADD. TNFRI has been recently shown to activate NF-?B through association with TRADD, RIP, and TRAF2; activation of the NF-?B-inducing kinase (NIK); activation of the I?B? kinases (IKK? and IKK?); and phosphorylation of I?B?. I?B? phosphorylation on Ser-32 and Ser-36 is followed by its degradation and NF-?B activation. In this report, we show that NF-?B activation by LMP1 or by each of its effector sites is mediated by a pathway that includes NIK, IKK?, and IKK?. Dominant negative mutants of NIK, IKK?, or IKK? substantially inhibited NF-?B activation by LMP1 or by each of its effector sites. PMID:9707608

  2. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome According to Different Criteria and its Associated Factors in Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Kerman, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Foroozanfar, Zohre; Najafipour, Hamid; Khanjani, Narges; Bahrampour, Abbas; Ebrahimi, Hosseinali

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in type 2 diabetics and is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in such patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to the three criteria of ATPIII, IDF and the new criteria for metabolic syndrome diagnosis in Kerman, Iran. This cross-sectional study was performed on 950 diabetic type 2 patients. Data was analyzed by independent t-test, chi-square and logistic regression using the SPSS (revision 20) software. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Kerman was 73.4, 64.9, and 70.4%, according to the above criteria. Fasting blood sugar, gender, triglyceride, HDL, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure were related to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to the above-mentioned criteria.The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is high in type 2 diabetic patients and the above-mentioned factors exacerbate the situation. PMID:26538781

  3. Is there a ubiquitous growth factor in the eye? Proliferation induced in different cell types by eye-derived growth factors.

    PubMed

    Barritault, D; Arruti, C; Courtois, Y

    1981-01-01

    In a previous work [1] we showed that a neutral extract of bovine adult retina RE can stimulate the growth and modify the morphology of bovine epithelial lens (BEL) cells in vitro. We were also able to demonstrate that the differences in cell shape are closely related to the cell growth properties induced by RE and are mediated by cytoskeletal protein organization as well as external proteins. In this study, we report the results of further investigations on this retinal extract. We show that it possesses all the characteristics of other growth factors such as promoting proliferation in low serum concentration or of enhancing the colony-forming efficiency of BEL cells considerably. By comparing the morphological response of BEL cells treated with RE with the response of other cells to other growth factors, we propose that the phenotypic modifications are cell specific, but not growth factor specific. We report also that RE has a broad spectrum of activity since it is able to stimulate cells from different origins and species (vascular and corneal endothelial cells, myoblasts, chondrocytes, neuroblastoma cells, and keratinocytes), but not all of them, since it can be toxic for fibroblasts. In this respect, it has an activity similar in many aspects to FGF and EGF, while it differs from them for some target cells. Its action has also been compared with the effects of retinoic acid derivatives and shown to be strikingly different. RE-like activity can be found in other ocular tissues from bovine and other species. The highest growth-promoting capacities were found in extracts of iris, pigmented epithelium with choroid, and vitreous body. The nature of all these extracts has not yet been determined. Since they are prepared in a similar way and since they have similar growth-promoting activity, we postulate that there is an ubiquitous growth factor in the eye called eye-derived growth factor (EDGF) which may play an important role in physiology and pathology of the eye. PMID:6453034

  4. Factors influencing insulin acceptance among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in a primary care clinic: a qualitative exploration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients refuse insulin therapy even when they require this modality of treatment. However, some eventually accept insulin. This study aimed to explore the T2DM patients’ reasons for accepting insulin therapy and their initial barriers to use insulin. Methods This qualitative study interviewed twenty-one T2DM patients at a primary care clinic who had been on insulin for more than a year through three in-depth interviews and three focus group discussions. A semi structured interview protocol was used and the sessions were audio-recorded. Subsequently, thematic analysis was conducted to identify major themes. Results The participants’ acceptance of insulin was influenced by their concerns and beliefs about diabetes and insulin. Concerns about complications of poorly controlled diabetes and side effects of other treatment regime had resulted in insulin acceptance among the participants. They also had a strong belief in insulin benefits and effectiveness. These concerns and beliefs were the results of having good knowledge about the diabetes and insulin, experiential learning, as well as doctors’ practical and emotional support that helped them to accept insulin therapy and become efficient in self-care management. These factors also allayed their negative concerns and beliefs towards diabetes and insulin, which were their barriers for insulin acceptance as it caused fear to use insulin. These negative concerns were related to injection (self-injection, needle phobia, injection pain), and insulin use (inconvenience, embarrassment, lifestyle restriction, negative social stigma, and poor self-efficacy), whereas the negative beliefs were 'insulin could cause organ damage’, 'their diabetes was not serious enough’, 'insulin is for life-long’, and 'insulin is for more severe disease only’. Conclusions Exploring patients’ concerns and beliefs about diabetes and insulin is crucial to assist physicians in delivering patient-centered care. By understanding this, physicians could address their concerns with aim to modify their patients’ misconceptions towards insulin therapy. In addition, continuous educations as well as practical and emotional support from others were found to be valuable for insulin acceptance. Trial registration Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia FF-214-2009. PMID:24164794

  5. Differential regulation of Smad3 and of the type II transforming growth factor-? receptor in mitosis: implications for signaling.

    PubMed

    Hirschhorn, Tal; Barizilay, Lior; Smorodinsky, Nechama I; Ehrlich, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    The response to transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) depends on cellular context. This context is changed in mitosis through selective inhibition of vesicle trafficking, reduction in cell volume and the activation of mitotic kinases. We hypothesized that these alterations in cell context may induce a differential regulation of Smads and TGF-? receptors. We tested this hypothesis in mesenchymal-like ovarian cancer cells, arrested (or not) in mitosis with 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2). In mitosis, without TGF-? stimulation, Smad3 was phosphorylated at the C-terminus and linker regions and localized to the mitotic spindle. Phosphorylated Smad3 interacted with the negative regulators of Smad signaling, Smurf2 and Ski, and failed to induce a transcriptional response. Moreover, in cells arrested in mitosis, Smad3 levels were progressively reduced. These phosphorylations and reduction in the levels of Smad3 depended on ERK activation and Mps1 kinase activity, and were abrogated by increasing the volume of cells arrested in mitosis with hypotonic medium. Furthermore, an Mps1-dependent phosphorylation of GFP-Smad3 was also observed upon its over-expression in interphase cells, suggesting a mechanism of negative regulation which counters increases in Smad3 concentration. Arrest in mitosis also induced a block in the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of the type II TGF-? receptor (T?RII). Moreover, following the stimulation of mitotic cells with TGF-?, the proteasome-mediated attenuation of TGF-? receptor activity, the degradation and clearance of T?RII from the plasma membrane, and the clearance of the TGF-? ligand from the medium were compromised, and the C-terminus phosphorylation of Smad3 was prolonged. We propose that the reduction in Smad3 levels, its linker phosphorylation, and its association with negative regulators (observed in mitosis prior to ligand stimulation) represent a signal attenuating mechanism. This mechanism is balanced by the retention of active TGF-? receptors at the plasma membrane. Together, both mechanisms allow for a regulated cellular response to TGF-? stimuli in mitosis. PMID:22927969

  6. Role of protein kinase C in tumor necrosis factor induction of endothelial cell urokinase-type plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    Niedbala, M J; Stein-Picarella, M

    1993-05-15

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) can promote endothelial cell transcription, synthesis, and secretion of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) augmenting extracellular matrix remodeling and influencing cellular differentiation. In this report, the role of the protein kinase C (PKC) pathway in mediating TNF induction of uPA in human umbilical vein endothelial cells is described. The PKC inhibitors (H-7, staurosporine, and calphostin C), but not HA-1004, inhibited TNF-induced uPA expression, synthesis, and secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Analysis of cell-free conditioned medium obtained from PKC inhibitor-treated cultures by micro-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methodologies using uPA- and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1)-specific monoclonal antibodies indicate that the decrease in uPA activity observed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis zymography was a direct result of decreased extracellular uPA antigen and not a consequence of increased PAI-1 antigen. The effect of PKC inhibitors was specific for TNF-mediated increased uPA expression because cytokine induction of PAI-1 was not influenced by these agents. Northern blot analyses also showed that PKC inhibitor treatment of endothelial cells resulted in a decreased steady-state level of uPA mRNA with no measurable change in PAI-1 mRNA in cultures incubated with TNF. Downregulation of cellular PKC by 18 hours of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) pretreatment of endothelial cell cultures abolished TNF-mediated extracellular uPA induction. This effect was specific for PMA because 4-alpha PMA pretreatment of cells, which does not stimulate PKC, was ineffective in altering TNF induction of endothelial cell uPA. Induction of PKC directly with PMA, mezerein, and (-)-octylindolactam V increased endothelial cell levels of extracellular uPA in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, this increase in endothelial cell extracellular uPA activity mediated by PKC agonists could be inhibited with PKC inhibitors. Endothelial cells treated with TNF acquire the ability to invade extracellular matrix and reorganize into tube-like structures when grown on Matrigel-coated culture dishes, a behavior blocked by H-7, but not by HA 1004. In summary, these data implicate a role for the PKC pathway in the TNF-mediated induction of uPA expression, subsequent matrix remodeling, and the formation of tube-like structures, a process important in neovascularization, wound healing, and leukocyte extravasation. PMID:7683925

  7. Role of Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1 in forward trafficking of the type IIa Na+-Pi cotransporter.

    PubMed

    Ketchem, Corey J; Khundmiri, Syed J; Gaweda, Adam E; Murray, Rebecca; Clark, Barbara J; Weinman, Edward J; Lederer, Eleanor D

    2015-07-15

    Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor (NHERF1) plays a critical role in the renal transport of phosphate by binding to Na+-Pi cotransporter (NpT2a) in the proximal tubule. While the association between NpT2a and NHERF1 in the apical membrane is known, the role of NHERF1 to regulate the trafficking of NpT2a has not been studied. To address this question, we performed cell fractionation by sucrose gradient centrifugation in opossum kidney (OK) cells placed in low-Pi medium to stimulate forward trafficking of NpT2a. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated expression of NpT2a and NHERF1 in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/Golgi. Coimmunoprecipitation demonstrated a NpT2a-NHERF1 interaction in the ER/Golgi. Low-Pi medium for 4 and 8 h triggered a decrease in NHERF1 in the plasma membrane with a corresponding increase in the ER/Golgi. Time-lapse total internal reflection fluorescence imaging of OK cells placed in low-Pi medium, paired with particle tracking and mean square displacement analysis, indicated active directed movement of NHERF1 at early and late time points, whereas NpT2a showed active movement only at later times. Silence of NHERF1 in OK cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-NpT2a resulted in an intracellular accumulation of GFP-NpT2a. Transfection with GFP-labeled COOH-terminal (TRL) PDZ-binding motif deleted or wild-type NpT2a in OK cells followed by cell fractionation and immunoprecipitation confirmed that the interaction between NpT2a and NHERF1 was dependent on the TRL motif of NpT2a. We conclude that appropriate trafficking of NpT2a to the plasma membrane is dependent on the initial association between NpT2a and NHERF1 through the COOH-terminal TRL motif of NpT2a in the ER/Golgi and requires redistribution of NHERF1 to the ER/Golgi. PMID:25995109

  8. AB072. Novel mutation in the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1b/maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 5 gene—unreported Vietnamese case

    PubMed Central

    Dung, Vu Chi; Thao, Bui Phuong; Ngoc, Can Thi Bich; Khanh, Nguyen Ngoc; Ellard, Sian

    2015-01-01

    Maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 5 (MODY5), a type of dominantly inherited diabetes mellitus and nephropathy, has been associated with mutations of the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 (HNF-1?) gene, mostly generating truncated protein. Various phenotypes are related to HNF-1? mutations. Our aim to describe clinical and genetic findings in the unreported Vietnamese case identified with HNF-1? mutations. The proband with kidney failure from 7.5 years of age and diabetes diagnosed at 13.5 years of age who were described. Case report included information: characteristics of diabetes, renal function and structure, pancreas structure. Genomic DNA was extracted from WBC of whole blood and HNF-1? mutation was performed using PCR and direct sequencing. The proband is heterozygous for a novel HNF-1? missense mutation (c.505T > C; p.Y169H). This mutation results in the substitution of the amino acid histidine (charged polar) for tyrosine (uncharged polar) at codon 169. The tyrosine residue is conserved across species and it is therefore likely that the p.Y169H mutation is pathogenic. This result is consistent with a diagnosis of renal cysts and diabetes syndrome (RCAD). Testing was done for proband’s parents and no mutation was found in HNF-1?. It is therefore likely that the p.Y169H mutation has arisen de novo. Kidney MRI showed right kidney atrophy and pancreas MRI showed only tissue of head of pancreas. Investigations at 14.5 years of age—diagnosed diabetes showed: plasma urea 10.1 mmol/L; creatinine 250 micrommol/L; HbA1C 13.6%. He was given insulin of 0.8 UI/kg/day and HbA1C was 6.8% after 1 year of treatment with insulin injection. Maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 5 encompasses a wide clinical spectrum. Analysis for mutations of HNF-1? is warranted, even without a family history of diabetes, in nonobese patients with diabetes and slowly progressive non diabetic nephropathy, particularly when pancreatic atrophy.

  9. Blood Types

    MedlinePLUS

    ... type has a marker known as "B." Type AB. The blood cells in this type have both ... of the four main blood groups (A, B, AB, and O) may or may not have Rh ... marker and Rh factor, but not A marker. AB negative. This blood type has A and B ...

  10. 34 CFR 303.15 - Include; including.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Purpose, Eligibility, and Other General Provisions § 303.15 Include; including....

  11. 34 CFR 303.15 - Include; including.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Purpose, Eligibility, and Other General Provisions § 303.15 Include; including....

  12. Experimental Determination of the Recovery Factor and Analytical Solution of the Conical Flow Field for a 20 deg Included Angle Cone at Mach Numbers of 4.6 and 6.0 and Stagnation Temperatures to 2600 degree R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfyl, Frank A.; Presley, Leroy L.

    1961-01-01

    The local recovery factor was determined experimentally along the surface of a thin-walled 20 deg included angle cone for Mach numbers near 6.0 at stagnation temperatures between 1200 deg R and 2600 deg R. In addition, a similar cone configuration was tested at Mach numbers near 4.5 at stagnation temperatures of approximately 612 deg R. The local Reynolds number based on flow properties at the edge of the boundary layer ranged between 0.1 x 10(exp 4) and 3.5 x 10(exp 4) for tests at temperatures above 1200 deg R and between 6 x 10(exp 4) and 25 x 10(exp 4) for tests at temperatures near 612 deg R. The results indicated, generally, that the recovery factor can be predicted satisfactorily using the square root of the Prandtl number. No conclusion could be made as to the necessity of evaluating the Prandtl number at a reference temperature given by an empirical equation, as opposed to evaluating the Prandtl number at the wall temperature or static temperature of the gas at the cone surface. For the tests at temperatures above 1200 deg R (indicated herein as the tests conducted in the slip-flow region), two definite trends in the recovery data were observed - one of increasing recovery factor with decreasing stagnation pressure, which was associated with slip-flow effects and one of decreasing recovery factor with increasing temperature. The true cause of the latter trend could not be ascertained, but it was shown that this trend was not appreciably altered by the sources of error of the magnitude considered herein. The real-gas equations of state were used to determine accurately the local stream properties at the outer edge of the boundary layer of the cone. Included in the report, therefore, is a general solution for the conical flow of a real gas using the Beattie-Bridgeman equation of state. The largest effect of temperature was seen to be in the terms which were dependent upon the internal energy of the gas. The pressure and hence the pressure drag terms were unaffected.

  13. CCCTC-Binding Factor Recruitment to the Early Region of the Human Papillomavirus Type 18 Genome Regulates Viral Oncogene Expression

    E-print Network

    Paris, Christian; Pentland, Ieisha; Groves, Ian; Roberts, David C.; Powis, Simon J.; Coleman, Nicholas; Roberts, Sally; Parish, Joanna L.

    2015-02-18

    Host cell differentiation-dependent regulation of human papillomavirus (HPV) gene expression is required for productive infection. The host cell CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) functions in genome-wide chromatin organization and gene regulation. We have...

  14. Prospective associations between sedentary time, physical activity, fitness and cardiometabolic risk factors in people with type 2 diabetes

    E-print Network

    Lamb, Maxine J. E.; Westgate, Kate; Brage, Søren; Ekelund, Ulf; Long, Gráinne H.; Griffin, Simon J.; Simmons, Rebecca K.; Cooper, Andrew J. M.

    2015-01-01

    combined heart rate and movement sensing. Multivariable linear regression models were constructed to examine the associations between: baseline PAEE, sedentary time, MVPA, CRF and cardiometabolic risk factors and clustered cardiometabolic risk (CCMR...

  15. Studying of barrier height and ideality factor relation in the nano sized Au-n type Si Schottky diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeganeh, M. A.; Mamedov, R. K.; Rahmatallahpur, Sh.

    2011-07-01

    The results of formation of the operating potential barrier height ( ??) of inhomogeneous Schottky diodes (SD) in view of an additional electric field in the near contact region of the semiconductor and features of its dependence on the external applied voltage are presented. A correlation, between SD heterogeneity and dependence between potential barrier height ( ??) and ideality factor ( n), is presented. Using conducting probe atomic force microscope (CP-AFM) techniques, it is shown that Au/n-Si diodes consist of sets of parallel-connected and cooperating nano diodes with the contact surfaces sizes in the order of 100-200 nm. The effective ?? and ideality factors of the SD have been obtained from the current-voltage ( I- V) characteristics, which were measured using a CP-AFM along a contact surface. It was experimentally shown that the forward and reverse part of I- V characteristics and their effective ?? and ideality factors of the identically fabricated nano-SD differ from diode to diode. The ?? for the nano-SD has ranged from 0.565 to 0.723 eV and ideality factor from 1.11 to 1.98. No correlation can be found between the ?? and ideality factor. The ?? distribution obtained from the I- V characteristics has been fitted by a Gaussian function but the ideality factor distribution could not be fitted by a Gaussian function.

  16. Diverse evolutionary mechanisms shape the type III effector virulence factor repertoire in the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed Central

    Rohmer, Laurence; Guttman, David S; Dangl, Jeffery L

    2004-01-01

    Many gram-negative pathogenic bacteria directly translocate effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells via type III delivery systems. Type III effector proteins are determinants of virulence on susceptible plant hosts; they are also the proteins that trigger specific disease resistance in resistant plant hosts. Evolution of type III effectors is dominated by competing forces: the likely requirement for conservation of virulence function, the avoidance of host defenses, and possible adaptation to new hosts. To understand the evolutionary history of type III effectors in Pseudomonas syringae, we searched for homologs to 44 known or candidate P. syringae type III effectors and two effector chaperones. We examined 24 gene families for distribution among bacterial species, amino acid sequence diversity, and features indicative of horizontal transfer. We assessed the role of diversifying and purifying selection in the evolution of these gene families. While some P. syringae type III effectors were acquired recently, others have evolved predominantly by descent. The majority of codons in most of these genes were subjected to purifying selection, suggesting selective pressure to maintain presumed virulence function. However, members of 7 families had domains subject to diversifying selection. PMID:15280247

  17. Soybean DREB1/CBF-type transcription factors function in heat and drought as well as cold stress-responsive gene expression.

    PubMed

    Kidokoro, Satoshi; Watanabe, Keitaro; Ohori, Teppei; Moriwaki, Takashi; Maruyama, Kyonoshin; Mizoi, Junya; Myint Phyu Sin Htwe, Nang; Fujita, Yasunari; Sekita, Sachiko; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2015-02-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is a globally important crop, and its growth and yield are severely reduced by abiotic stresses, such as drought, heat, and cold. The cis-acting element DRE (dehydration-responsive element)/CRT plays an important role in activating gene expression in response to these stresses. The Arabidopsis DREB1/CBF genes that encode DRE-binding proteins function as transcriptional activators in the cold stress responsive gene expression. In this study, we identified 14 DREB1-type transcription factors (GmDREB1s) from a soybean genome database. The expression of most GmDREB1 genes in soybean was strongly induced by a variety of abiotic stresses, such as cold, drought, high salt, and heat. The GmDREB1 proteins activated transcription via DREs (dehydration-responsive element) in Arabidopsis and soybean protoplasts. Transcriptome analyses using transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing GmDREB1s indicated that many of the downstream genes are cold-inducible and overlap with those of Arabidopsis DREB1A. We then comprehensively analyzed the downstream genes of GmDREB1B;1, which is closely related to DREB1A, using a transient expression system in soybean protoplasts. The expression of numerous genes induced by various abiotic stresses were increased by overexpressing GmDREB1B;1 in soybean, and DREs were the most conserved element in the promoters of these genes. The downstream genes of GmDREB1B;1 included numerous soybean-specific stress-inducible genes that encode an ABA receptor family protein, GmPYL21, and translation-related genes, such as ribosomal proteins. We confirmed that GmDREB1B;1 directly activates GmPYL21 expression and enhances ABRE-mediated gene expression in an ABA-independent manner. These results suggest that GmDREB1 proteins activate the expression of numerous soybean-specific stress-responsive genes under diverse abiotic stress conditions. PMID:25495120

  18. Identification of Type 2 Diabetes Risk Factors Using Phenotypes Consisting of Anthropometry and Triglycerides based on Machine Learning.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bum Ju; Kim, Jong Yeol

    2016-01-01

    The hypertriglyceridemic waist (HW) phenotype is strongly associated with type 2 diabetes; however, to date, no study has assessed the predictive power of phenotypes based on individual anthropometric measurements and triglyceride (TG) levels. The aims of the present study were to assess the association between the HW phenotype and type 2 diabetes in Korean adults and to evaluate the predictive power of various phenotypes consisting of combinations of individual anthropometric measurements and TG levels. Between November 2006 and August 2013, 11 937 subjects participated in this retrospective cross-sectional study. We measured fasting plasma glucose and TG levels and performed anthropometric measurements. We employed binary logistic regression (LR) to examine statistically significant differences between normal subjects and those with type 2 diabetes using HW and individual anthropometric measurements. For more reliable prediction results, two machine learning algorithms, naive Bayes (NB) and LR, were used to evaluate the predictive power of various phenotypes. All prediction experiments were performed using a tenfold cross validation method. Among all of the variables, the presence of HW was most strongly associated with type 2 diabetes ( , adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.07 [95% CI, 1.72-2.49] in men; , adjusted OR = 2.09 [1.79-2.45] in women). When comparing waist circumference (WC) and TG levels as components of the HW phenotype, the association between WC and type 2 diabetes was greater than the association between TG and type 2 diabetes. The phenotypes tended to have higher predictive power in women than in men. Among the phenotypes, the best predictors of type 2 diabetes were waist-to-hip ratio + TG in men (AUC by NB = 0.653, AUC by LR = 0.661) and rib-to-hip ratio + TG in women (AUC by NB = 0.73, AUC by LR = 0.735). Although the presence of HW demonstrated the strongest association with type 2 diabetes, the predictive power of the combined measurements of the actual WC and TG values may not be the best manner of predicting type 2 diabetes. Our findings may provide clinical information concerning the development of clinical decision support systems for the initial screening of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25675467

  19. Factors Influencing the Use of a Web-Based Application for Supporting the Self-Care of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia EWC; Kelders, Saskia M; Brandenburg, Bart J; Seydel, Erwin R

    2011-01-01

    Background The take-up of eHealth applications in general is still rather low and user attrition is often high. Only limited information is available about the use of eHealth technologies among specific patient groups. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the factors that influence the initial and long-term use of a Web-based application (DiabetesCoach) for supporting the self-care of patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods A mixed-methods research design was used for a process analysis of the actual usage of the Web application over a 2-year period and to identify user profiles. Research instruments included log files, interviews, usability tests, and a survey. Results The DiabetesCoach was predominantly used for interactive features like online monitoring, personal data, and patient–nurse email contact. It was the continuous, personal feedback that particularly appealed to the patients; they felt more closely monitored by their nurse and encouraged to play a more active role in self-managing their disease. Despite the positive outcomes, usage of the Web application was hindered by low enrollment and nonusage attrition. The main barrier to enrollment had to do with a lack of access to the Internet (146/226, 65%). Although 68% (34/50) of the enrollees were continuous users, of whom 32% (16/50) could be defined as hardcore users (highly active), the remaining 32% (16/50) did not continue using the Web application for the full duration of the study period. Barriers to long-term use were primarily due to poor user-friendliness of the Web application (the absence of “push” factors or reminders) and selection of the “wrong” users; the well-regulated patients were not the ones who could benefit the most from system use because of a ceiling effect. Patients with a greater need for care seemed to be more engaged in long-term use; highly active users were significantly more often medication users than low/inactive users (P = .005) and had a longer diabetes duration (P = .03). Conclusion Innovations in health care will diffuse more rapidly when technology is employed that is simple to use and has applicable components for interactivity. This would foresee the patients’ need for continuous and personalized feedback, in particular for patients with a greater need for care. From this study several factors appear to influence increased use of eHealth technologies: (1) avoiding selective enrollment, (2) making use of participatory design methods, and (3) developing push factors for persistence. Further research should focus on the causal relationship between using the system’s features and actual usage, as such a view would provide important evidence on how specific technology features can engage and captivate users. PMID:21959968

  20. Polymorphisms in the Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Genes Affect the Expression Levels of Membrane-Bound Type I and Type II Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Sennikov, Sergey V.; Vasilyev, Filipp F.; Lopatnikova, Julia A.; Shkaruba, Nadezhda S.; Silkov, Alexander N.

    2014-01-01

    The level of TNF receptors on various cells of immune system and its association with the gene polymorphism were investigated. Determining the levels of membrane-bound TNF? receptors on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was performed by flow cytometry using BD QuantiBRITE calibration particles. Soluble TNF? receptor (sTNFRs) levels were determined by ELISA and genotyping was determined by PCR-RFLP. Homozygous TT individuals at SNP ?609G/T TNFRI (rs4149570) showed lower levels of sTNFRI compared to GG genotype carriers. Homozygous carriers of CC genotype at SNP ?1207G/C TNFRI (rs4149569) had lower expression densities of membrane-bound TNFRI on intact CD14+ monocytes compared to individuals with the GC genotype. The frequency differences in the CD3+ and CD19+ cells expressing TNFRII in relation to SNP ?1709A/T TNFRII (rs652625) in healthy individuals were also determined. The genotype CC in SNP ?3609C/T TNFRII (rs590368) was associated with a lower percentage of CD14+ cells expressing TNFRII compared to individuals with the CT genotype. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis had no significant changes in the frequencies of genotypes. Reduced frequency was identified for the combination TNFRI ?609GT + TNFRII ?3609CC only. The polymorphisms in genes represent one of cell type-specific mechanisms affecting the expression levels of membrane-bound TNF? receptors and TNF?-mediated signaling. PMID:24782596

  1. The Chlamydia trachomatis Type III Secretion Chaperone Slc1 Engages Multiple Early Effectors, Including TepP, a Tyrosine-phosphorylated Protein Required for the Recruitment of CrkI-II to Nascent Inclusions and Innate Immune Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Shan; Bastidas, Robert J.; Saka, Hector A.; Carpenter, Victoria K.; Richards, Kristian L.; Plano, Gregory V.; Valdivia, Raphael H.

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis, the causative agent of trachoma and sexually transmitted infections, employs a type III secretion (T3S) system to deliver effector proteins into host epithelial cells to establish a replicative vacuole. Aside from the phosphoprotein TARP, a Chlamydia effector that promotes actin re-arrangements, very few factors mediating bacterial entry and early inclusion establishment have been characterized. Like many T3S effectors, TARP requires a chaperone (Slc1) for efficient translocation into host cells. In this study, we defined proteins that associate with Slc1 in invasive C. trachomatis elementary bodies (EB) by immunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometry. We identified Ct875, a new Slc1 client protein and T3S effector, which we renamed TepP (Translocated early phosphoprotein). We provide evidence that T3S effectors form large molecular weight complexes with Scl1 in vitro and that Slc1 enhances their T3S-dependent secretion in a heterologous Yersinia T3S system. We demonstrate that TepP is translocated early during bacterial entry into epithelial cells and is phosphorylated at tyrosine residues by host kinases. However, TepP phosphorylation occurs later than TARP, which together with the finding that Slc1 preferentially engages TARP in EBs leads us to postulate that these effectors are translocated into the host cell at different stages during C. trachomatis invasion. TepP co-immunoprecipitated with the scaffolding proteins CrkI-II during infection and Crk was recruited to EBs at entry sites where it remained associated with nascent inclusions. Importantly, C. trachomatis mutants lacking TepP failed to recruit CrkI-II to inclusions, providing genetic confirmation of a direct role for this effector in the recruitment of a host factor. Finally, endocervical epithelial cells infected with a tepP mutant showed altered expression of a subset of genes associated with innate immune responses. We propose a model wherein TepP acts downstream of TARP to recruit scaffolding proteins at entry sites to initiate and amplify signaling cascades important for the regulation of innate immune responses to Chlamydia. PMID:24586162

  2. Effect of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol supplementations on serum leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and serum amyloid A levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Jamalan, Mostafa; Rezazadeh, Mahin; Zeinali, Majid; Ghaffari, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Diabetes mellitus Type 2 is one of the most widespread chronic metabolic diseases. In most cases, this type of diabetes is associated with alterations in levels of some inflammatory cytokines and hormones. Considering anti-inflammatory properties of plant extracts rich in ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), anti-diabetic properties of these two well-known antioxidant vitamins were investigated through measurement of serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), insulin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), and serum amyloid A (SAA) in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. Materials and Methods: Male patients (n=80) were randomly divided into two groups each consisted of 40 subjects. Test groups were supplemented with ascorbic acid (1000 mg/day) or alpha-tocopherol (300 mg/day) orally during four weeks. Before and after treatment, serum biochemical factors of subjects were measured and compared. Results: Our results showed that both ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol could induce significant anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing the level of inflammatory factors such as TNF-?, SAA, and hs-CRP in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients. Effects of alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid in decreasing serum leptin level were similar. Ascorbic acid in contrast to alpha-tocopherol diminished fasting insulin and HOMA index but had no effect on LDL serum level. Conclusion: Concerning the obtained results, it is concluded that consumption of supplementary vitamins C and E could decrease induced inflammatory response in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. It is also possible that vitamin C and vitamin E supplementation can attenuate incidence of some proposed pathological effects of diabetes mellitus. PMID:26693410

  3. The Additive Value of Femoral Ultrasound for Subclinical Atherosclerosis Assessment in a Single Center Cohort of 962 Adults, Including High Risk Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis, Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Protogerou, Athanasios D.; Fransen, Jaap; Zampeli, Evangelia; Argyris, Antonis A.; Aissopou, Evagelia; Arida, Aikaterini; Konstantonis, George D.; Tentolouris, Nikos; Makrilakis, Konstantinos; Psichogiou, Mina; Daikos, George; Kitas, George D.; Sfikakis, Petros P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Presence of femoral atheromatic plaques, an emerging cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarker additional to carotid plaques, is poorly investigated in conditions associating with accelerated atherosclerosis such as Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Objective/Methods To assess the frequency of femoral/carotid subclinical atheromatosis phenotypes in RA, HIV and T2DM and search for each disease-specific probability of either femoral and/or carotid subclinical atheromatosis, we examined by ultrasound a single-center cohort of CVD-free individuals comprised of consecutive non-diabetic patients with RA (n=226) and HIV (n=133), T2DM patients (n=109) and non-diabetic individuals with suspected/known hypertension (n=494) who served as reference group. Results Subclinical atheromatosis - defined as local plaque presence in at least on arterial bed - was diagnosed in 50% of the overall population. Among them, femoral plaques only were found in 25% of either RA or HIV patients, as well as in 16% of T2DM patients and 35% of reference subjects. After adjusting for all classical CVD risk factors, RA and HIV patients had comparable probability to reference group of having femoral plaques, but higher probability (1.75; 1.17 - 2.63 (odds ratio; 95% confidence intervals), 2.04; 1.14 - 3.64, respectively) of having carotid plaques, whereas T2DM patients had higher probability to have femoral and carotid plaques, albeit, due to their pronounced dyslipidemic profile. Conclusion RA and HIV accelerate predominantly carotid than femoral. A “two windows” carotid/femoral, rather than carotid alone ultrasound, screening improves substantially subclinical atheromatosis detection in patients at high CVD risk. PMID:26230728

  4. Factors Predicting the Type of Tactics Used to Resist Sexual Assault: A Prospective Study of College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turchik, Jessica A.; Probst, Danielle R.; Chau, Minna; Nigoff, Amy; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine how women's intentions, as well as psychological and situational factors, predicted the actual use of resistance tactics in response to a sexual assault situation over a 2-month follow-up period. Twenty-eight percent of the 378 undergraduate women who participated at the baseline assessment and…

  5. Studies on Shiga toxin type 1 mediated tumor necrosis factor synthesis in a human monocytic cell line 

    E-print Network

    Sakiri, Ramesh

    1997-01-01

    studies have shown that a direct cYtOtOxic effect Of Purified stx on human vascular endothelial cells was minimal unless they were treated with proinflammatory cytokines like interleukin-I (IL-1) or tumor necrois factor (-rNF)-These cytokines have been...

  6. Factors Influencing Self-Management in Chinese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaoping; Liu, Tingting; Yuan, Xiaojing; Ge, Song; Yang, Jing; Li, Changwei; Sun, Wenjie

    2015-09-01

    Diabetes is a major public health problem in China. Diabetes self-management is critical for patients to achieved better health outcomes, however, previous studies have shown suboptimal diabetes self-management performance. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify factors associated with diabetes self-management in Chinese adults. The results showed that confrontation, resignation, overall health beliefs, perceived susceptibility, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy were factors associated with overall diabetes self-management performance and six aspects of diabetes self-management behaviors. There is some limited evidence to suggest that provider-patient communication, married individuals, higher educational level, and higher household income level may also be linked to better diabetes self-management practice. Having healthcare insurance and utilizing chronic illness resources generally appeared to have a favorable effect on diabetes self-management performance. In addition, there were a number of factors for which the evidence is too limited to be able to ascertain its strength of association with diabetes self-management practice. The findings of this review suggest that diabetes self-management behaviors are affected by a wide range of personal and environmental factors, which allow health care providers to develop theory-based strategies to improve diabetes-self-management behaviors in this population. PMID:26378555

  7. Factors Influencing Self-Management in Chinese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaoping; Liu, Tingting; Yuan, Xiaojing; Ge, Song; Yang, Jing; Li, Changwei; Sun, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a major public health problem in China. Diabetes self-management is critical for patients to achieved better health outcomes, however, previous studies have shown suboptimal diabetes self-management performance. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify factors associated with diabetes self-management in Chinese adults. The results showed that confrontation, resignation, overall health beliefs, perceived susceptibility, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy were factors associated with overall diabetes self-management performance and six aspects of diabetes self-management behaviors. There is some limited evidence to suggest that provider-patient communication, married individuals, higher educational level, and higher household income level may also be linked to better diabetes self-management practice. Having healthcare insurance and utilizing chronic illness resources generally appeared to have a favorable effect on diabetes self-management performance. In addition, there were a number of factors for which the evidence is too limited to be able to ascertain its strength of association with diabetes self-management practice. The findings of this review suggest that diabetes self-management behaviors are affected by a wide range of personal and environmental factors, which allow health care providers to develop theory-based strategies to improve diabetes-self-management behaviors in this population. PMID:26378555

  8. The Value "Social Responsibility" as a Motivating Factor for Adolescents' Readiness to Participate in Different Types of Political Actions, and Its Socialization in Parent and Peer Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Based on a sample of tetrads (N = 839), including 16 year-old adolescents, their mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends, it was analyzed in which way the value social responsibility is related to adolescents' readiness for different types of political participation. Results showed that social responsibility was positively linked to readiness for…

  9. Nutritional and Hormonal Induction of Fatty Liver Syndrome and Effects of Dietary Lipotropic Factors in Egg-type Male Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Y. I.; Ahn, H. J.; Lee, B. K.; Oh, S. T.; An, B. K.; Kang, C. W.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted with male chicks to investigate the influence of hormones and nutrients on the development of fatty liver syndrome (FLS) as well as the effects of dietary lipotropic factors on hepatic fat accumulation and lipogenic enzyme gene expression. A total of two-hundred sixteen 4-wk-old Hy-Line male chicks were divided into six groups and fed an experimental diet (T1, low-energy diet with low levels of lipotropic factors; T2, high-energy diet with low levels of lipotropic factors; T3 and T5, low-energy diet with high levels of lipotropic factors; T4 and T6, high-energy diet with high levels of lipotropic factors) for six weeks. The chicks in T5 and T6 groups were treated with intramuscular injections of estradiol benzoate for three days prior to biopsy and clinical analysis of FLS. Chicks treated with estrogen had significantly greater liver weights than untreated chicks. The abdominal fat contents were increased in chicks consuming high-energy diets as compared to those consuming low-energy diets. Treatment with estrogen significantly increased the concentrations of serum cholesterol, triacylglycerol and phospholipid (p<0.05). The hepatic triacylglycerol levels were tenfold higher in the estrogen treated chicks than in the untreated chicks. There were no significant differences in malondialdehyde levels between the treatment groups. Estrogen treatment dramatically increased the levels of fatty acid synthetase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and ApoB mRNA. The results indicated that treatment with exogenous estrogen in growing male chicks induced hepatic fat accumulation, which might be partially due to increased lipogenic enzyme gene expression. PMID:25049674

  10. Psychometric properties of questionnaires measuring associations between behavioral factors and diabetes care for youth with type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of the recency of the large numbers of youth diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2D), measures of adherence behavior and family response to diabetes have not been developed or tested. The objective of this study is to identify whether questionnaires on personal and family behaviors regarding th...

  11. An Investigation of the Problematic Internet Use of Teacher Candidates Based on Personality Types, Shyness and Demographic Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Ebru; Kaymak Ozmen, Suna

    2011-01-01

    Researches proved that a new psychological disorder of problematic Internet use was associated with individual characteristics as loneliness, shyness, anxiety, depression, personality type, and self-cognition. But there appears to be little consensus about Problematic Internet Use disorder. Consequently the aim of study was to investigate…

  12. Type I Interferons Function as Autocrine and Paracrine Factors to Induce Autotaxin in Response to TLR Activation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jianwen; Guan, Ming; Zhao, Zhenwen; Zhang, Junjie

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is an important phospholipid mediator in inflammation and immunity. However, the mechanism of LPA regulation during inflammatory response is largely unknown. Autotaxin (ATX) is the key enzyme to produce extracellular LPA from lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). In this study, we found that ATX was induced in monocytic THP-1 cells by TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS), TLR9 ligand CpG oligonucleotide, and TLR3 ligand poly(I:C), respectively. The ATX induction by TLR ligand was abolished by the neutralizing antibody against IFN-? or the knockdown of IFNAR1, indicating that type I IFN autocrine loop is responsible for the ATX induction upon TLR activation. Both IFN-? and IFN-? were able to induce ATX expression via the JAK-STAT and PI3K-AKT pathways but with different time-dependent manners. The ATX induction by IFN-? was dramatically enhanced by IFN-?, which had no significant effect on ATX expression alone, suggesting a synergy effect between type I and type II IFNs in ATX induction. Extracellular LPA levels were significantly increased when THP-1 cells were treated with IFN-?/? or TLR ligands. In addition, the type I IFN-mediated ATX induction was identified in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) stimulated with LPS or poly(I:C), and IFN-?/? could induce ATX expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and monocytes isolated form blood samples. These results suggest that, in response to TLR activation, ATX is induced through a type I INF autocrine-paracrine loop to enhance LPA generation. PMID:26313906

  13. A double-blind, randomized trial, including frequent patient–physician contacts and Ramadan-focused advice, assessing vildagliptin and gliclazide in patients with type 2 diabetes fasting during Ramadan: the STEADFAST study

    PubMed Central

    Hassanein, Mohamed; Abdallah, Khalifa; Schweizer, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Background Several observational studies were conducted with vildagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) fasting during Ramadan, showing significantly lower incidences of hypoglycemia with vildagliptin versus sulfonylureas, including gliclazide. It was of interest to complement the existing real-life evidence with data from a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial. Clinical Trials Identifier NCT01758380. Methods This multiregional, double-blind study randomized 557 patients with T2DM (mean glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c], 6.9%), previously treated with metformin and any sulfonylurea to receive either vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily) or gliclazide plus metformin. The study included four office visits (three pre-Ramadan) and multiple telephone contacts, as well as Ramadan-focused advice. Hypoglycemic events were assessed during Ramadan; HbA1c and weight were analyzed before and after Ramadan. Results The proportion of patients reporting confirmed (<3.9 mmol/L and/or severe) hypoglycemic events during Ramadan was 3.0% with vildagliptin and 7.0% with gliclazide (P=0.039; one-sided test), and this was 6.0% and 8.7%, respectively, for any hypoglycemic events (P=0.173). The adjusted mean change pre- to post-Ramadan in HbA1c was 0.05%±0.04% with vildagliptin and ?0.03%±0.04% with gliclazide, from baselines of 6.84% and 6.79%, respectively (P=0.165). In both groups, the adjusted mean decrease in weight was ?1.1±0.2 kg (P=0.987). Overall safety was similar between the treatments. Conclusion In line with the results from previous observational studies, vildagliptin was shown in this interventional study to be an effective, safe, and well-tolerated treatment in patients with T2DM fasting during Ramadan, with a consistently low incidence of hypoglycemia across studies, accompanied by good glycemic and weight control. In contrast, gliclazide showed a lower incidence of hypoglycemia in the present interventional than the previous observational studies. This is suggested to be linked to the specific circumstances of this study, including frequent patient–physician contacts, Ramadan-focused advice, a recent switch in treatment, and very well-controlled patients, which is different from what is often seen in real life. PMID:24920915

  14. Interferon. beta. /sub 2//B-cell stimulatory factor type 2 shares identity with monocyte-derived hepatocyte-stimulating factor and regulates the major acute phase protein response in liver cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gauldie, J.; Richards, C.; Harnish, D.; Lansdorp, P.; Baumann, H.

    1987-10-01

    One of the oldest and most preserved of the homeostatic responses of the body to injury is the acute phase protein response associated with inflammation. The liver responds to hormone-like mediators by the increased synthesis of a series of plasma proteins called acute phase reactants. In these studies, the authors examined the relationship of hepatocyte-stimulating factor derived from peripheral blood monocytes to interferon ..beta../sub 2/ (IFN-..beta../sub 2/), which has been cloned. Antibodies raised against fibroblast-derived IFN-..beta.. having neutralizing activity against both IFN-..beta../sub 1/ and ..beta../sub 2/ inhibited the major hepatocyte-stimulating activity derived from monocytes. Fibroblast-derived mediator elicited the identical stimulated response in human HepG2 cells and primary rat hepatocytes as the monocyte cytokine. Finally, recombinant-derived human B-cell stimulatory factor type 2 (IFN-..beta../sub 2/) from Escherichia coli induced the synthesis of all major acute phase proteins studied in human hepatoma HepG2 and primary rat hepatocyte cultures. These data demonstrate that monocyte-derived hepatocyte-stimulating factor and IFN-..beta../sub 2/ share immunological and functional identity and that IFN-..beta../sub 2/, also known as B-cell stimulatory factor and hybridoma plasmacytoma growth factor, has the hepatocyte as a major physiologic target and thereby is essential in controlling the hepatic acute phase response.

  15. Association between the NF-E2 Related Factor 2 Gene Polymorphism and Oxidative Stress, Anti-Oxidative Status, and Newly-Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Chen, Hongxia; Liu, Jun; Ouyang, Yingying; Wang, Di; Bao, Wei; Liu, Liegang

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a major risk factor in the onset and progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). NF-E2 related factor 2 (NRF2) is a pivotal transcription factor in oxidative stress related illnesses. This study included 2174 subjects with 879 cases of newly-diagnosed T2DM and 1295 healthy controls. Compared to individuals with the CC genotype, those with the AA genotype had lower total anti-oxidative capacity, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase activity; and lower homeostasis model assessment of ?-cell function index. Those with the AA genotype also had a higher malondialdehyde concentration and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index values. The frequency of allele A was significantly higher in T2DM subjects (29.4%), compared to control subjects (26.1%; p = 0.019). Individuals with the AA genotype had a significantly higher risk of developing T2DM (OR 1.56; 95% CI 1.11, 2.20; p = 0.011), relative to those with the CC genotype, even after adjusting for known T2DM risk factors. Our results suggest that the NRF2 rs6721961 polymorphism was significantly associated with oxidative stress, anti-oxidative status, and risk of newly-diagnosed T2DM. This polymorphism may also contribute to impaired insulin secretory capacity and increased insulin resistance in a Chinese population. PMID:26204833

  16. Role of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in Obesity, Insulin Resistance, Type 2 Diabetes, and Associated Hepatic Co-Morbidities: A Comprehensive Review of Human and Rodent Studies

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Martine C.; Kleemann, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a chronic low-grade inflammatory state that drives the ­development of obesity-related co-morbidities such as insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and cardiovascular disease. This metabolic inflammation is thought to originate in the adipose tissue, which becomes inflamed and insulin resistant when it is no longer able to expand in response to excess caloric and nutrient intake. The production of inflammatory mediators by dysfunctional adipose tissue is thought to drive the development of more complex forms of disease such as type 2 diabetes and NAFLD. An important factor that may contribute to metabolic inflammation is the cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). Increasing evidence suggests that MIF is released by adipose tissue in obesity and that it is also involved in metabolic and inflammatory processes that underlie the development of obesity-related pathologies. This review provides a comprehensive summary of our current knowledge on the role of MIF in obesity, its production by adipose tissue, and its involvement in the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and NAFLD. We discuss the main findings from recent clinical studies in obese subjects and weight-loss intervention studies as well as results from clinical studies in patients with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we summarize findings from experimental disease models studying the contribution of MIF in obesity and insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and hepatic lipid accumulation and fibrosis. Although many of the findings support a pro-inflammatory role of MIF in disease development, recent reports also provide indications that MIF may exert protective effects under certain conditions. PMID:26124760

  17. Assessing water source and channel type as factors affecting benthic macroinvertebrate and periphyton assemblages in the highly urbanized Santa Ana River Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, C.A.; Brown, L.R.; Belitz, K.

    2005-01-01

    The Santa Ana River basin is the largest stream system in Southern California and includes a densely populated coastal area. Extensive urbanization has altered the geomorphology and hydrology of the streams, adversely affecting aquatic communities. We studied macroinvertebrate and periphyton assemblages in relation to two categorical features of the highly engineered hydrologic system-water source and channel type. Four water sources were identified-natural, urban-impacted groundwater, urban runoff, and treated wastewater. Three channel types were identified-natural, channelized with natural bottom, and concrete-lined. Nineteen sites, covering the range of these two categorical features, were sampled in summer 2000. To minimize the effects of different substrate types among sites, artificial substrates were used for assessing macroinvertebrate and periphyton assemblages. Physical and chemical variables and metrics calculated from macroinvertebrate and periphyton assemblage data were compared among water sources and channel types using analysis of variance and multiple comparison tests. Macroinvertebrate metrics exhibiting significant (P < 0.05) differences between water sources included taxa and Ephemeroptera-Plecoptera-Trichoptera richness, relative richness and abundance of nonchironomid dipterans, orthoclads, oligochaetes, and some functional-feeding groups such as parasites and shredders. Periphyton metrics showing significant differences between water sources included blue-green algae biovolume and relative abundance of nitrogen heterotrophic, eutrophic, motile, and pollution-sensitive diatoms. The relative abundance of trichopterans, tanytarsini chironomids, noninsects, and filter feeders, as well as the relative richness and abundance of diatoms, were significantly different between channel types. Most physical variables were related to channel type, whereas chemical variables and some physical variables (e.g., discharge, velocity, and channel width) were related to water source. These associations were reflected in correlations between metrics, chemical variables, and physical variables. Significant improvements in the aquatic ecosystem of the Santa Ana River basin are possible with management actions such as conversion of concrete-lined channels to channelized streams with natural bottoms that can still maintain flood control to protect life and property.

  18. Factors associated with anxiety and depression among type 2 diabetes outpatients in Malaysia: a descriptive cross-sectional single-centre study

    PubMed Central

    Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Renganathan, Pukunan; Manaf, Rizal Abdul; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence and factors associated with anxiety and depression among type 2 diabetes outpatients in Malaysia. Design Descriptive, cross-sectional single-centre study with universal sampling of all patients with type 2 diabetes. Setting Endocrinology clinic of medical outpatient department in a Malaysian public hospital. Participants All 169 patients with type 2 diabetes (men, n=99; women, n=70) aged between 18 and 90?years who acquired follow-up treatment from the endocrinology clinic in the month of September 2013. Main outcome measures The validated Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), sociodemographic characteristics and clinical health information from patient records. Results Of the total 169 patients surveyed, anxiety and depression were found in 53 (31.4%) and 68 (40.3%), respectively. In multivariate analysis, age, ethnicity and ischaemic heart disease were significantly associated with anxiety, while age, ethnicity and monthly household income were significantly associated with depression. Conclusions Sociodemographics and clinical health factors were important correlates of anxiety and depression among patients with diabetes. Integrated psychological and medical care to boost self-determination and confidence in the management of diabetes would catalyse optimal health outcomes among patients with diabetes. PMID:24760351

  19. A novel role for epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase and its downstream endoplasmic reticulum stress in cardiac damage and microvascular dysfunction in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Galán, Maria; Kassan, Modar; Choi, Soo-Kyoung; Partyka, Megan; Trebak, Mohamed; Henrion, Daniel; Matrougui, Khalid

    2012-07-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase (EGFRtk) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are important factors in cardiovascular complications. Understanding whether enhanced EGFRtk activity and ER stress induction are involved in cardiac damage, and microvascular dysfunction in type 1 diabetes mellitus is an important question that has remained unanswered. Cardiac fibrosis and microvascular function were determined in C57BL/6J mice injected with streptozotocin only or in combination with EGFRtk inhibitor (AG1478), ER stress inhibitor (Tudca), or insulin for 2 weeks. In diabetic mice, we observed an increase in EGFRtk phosphorylation and ER stress marker expression (CHOP, ATF4, ATF6, and phosphorylated-eIF2?) in heart and mesenteric resistance arteries, which were reduced with AG1478, Tudca, and insulin. Cardiac fibrosis, enhanced collagen type I, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 were decreased with AG1478, Tudca, and insulin treatments. The impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation and -independent relaxation responses were also restored after treatments. The inhibition of NO synthesis reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation in control and treated streptozotocin mice, whereas the inhibition of NADPH oxidase improved endothelium-dependent relaxation only in streptozotocin mice. Moreover, in mesenteric resistance arteries, the mRNA levels of Nox2 and Nox4 and the NADPH oxidase activity were augmented in streptozotocin mice and reduced with treatments. This study unveiled novel roles for enhanced EGFRtk phosphorylation and its downstream ER stress in cardiac fibrosis and microvascular endothelial dysfunction in type 1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:22665120

  20. DNA commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics: Recommendations on the evaluation of STR typing results that may include drop-out and/or drop-in using probabilistic methods

    PubMed Central

    Gill, P.; Gusmão, L.; Haned, H.; Mayr, W.R.; Morling, N.; Parson, W.; Prieto, L.; Prinz, M.; Schneider, H.; Schneider, P.M.; Weir, B.S.

    2015-01-01

    DNA profiling of biological material from scenes of crimes is often complicated because the amount of DNA is limited and the quality of the DNA may be compromised. Furthermore, the sensitivity of STR typing kits has been continuously improved to detect low level DNA traces. This may lead to (1) partial DNA profiles and (2) detection of additional alleles. There are two key phenomena to consider: allelic or locus ‘drop-out’, i.e. ‘missing’ alleles at one or more genetic loci, while ‘drop-in’ may explain alleles in the DNA profile that are additional to the assumed main contributor(s). The drop-in phenomenon is restricted to 1 or 2 alleles per profile. If multiple alleles are observed at more than two loci then these are considered as alleles from an extra contributor and analysis can proceed as a mixture of two or more contributors. Here, we give recommendations on how to estimate probabilities considering drop-out, Pr(D), and drop-in, Pr(C). For reasons of clarity, we have deliberately restricted the current recommendations considering drop-out and/or drop-in at only one locus. Furthermore, we offer recommendations on how to use Pr(D) and Pr(C) with the likelihood ratio principles that are generally recommended by the International Society of Forensic Genetics (ISFG) as measure of the weight of the evidence in forensic genetics. Examples of calculations are included. An Excel spreadsheet is provided so that scientists and laboratories may explore the models and input their own data. PMID:22864188

  1. Activation of transcription factor NF-kappaB by the Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Demarchi, F; d'Adda di Fagagna, F; Falaschi, A; Giacca, M

    1996-01-01

    A recombinant Tat protein was used to investigate the molecular mechanisms of transcriptional activation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat (LTR). Liposome-mediated delivery of this protein to responsive cells results in dose-dependent LTR activation. As evaluated by mRNA quantitation with competitive PCR, the activation response is rapid and transient, peaking at 5 h after the beginning of Tat treatment. In vivo footprinting experiments at the LTR showed that transcriptional activation is concomitant with a modification of the protein-DNA interaction pattern at the downstream kappaB site of the enhancer and at the adjacent Sp1 boxes. The effects of Tat on the enhancer are mediated by Tat-induced nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB, which parallels the kinetics of transcriptional activation. This induction results from degradation of the inhibitor IkappaB-alpha, is blocked under antioxidant conditions and by a protease inhibitor, and occurs as a rapid response in different cell types. The functional response to Tat is impaired upon cell treatment with a kappaB site decoy or with sodium salicylate, an inhibitor of NF-kappaB activation. These results show that NF-kappaB activation by Tat is important for LTR transcriptional activation. Furthermore, they suggest that some of the pleiotropic effects of Tat on cellular functions can be mediated by induction of NF-kappaB. PMID:8676466

  2. Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type I (HTLV-1) Infection among Iranian Blood Donors: First Case-Control Study on the Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Hedayati-Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza; Tehranian, Farahnaz; Bayati, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is an endemic condition in Northeast Iran and, as such, identification of risk factors associated with the infection in this region seems to be a necessity. All the possible risk factors for HTLV-1 seropositivity among first-time blood donors were evaluated in Mashhad, Iran, during the period of 2011-2012. Blood donation volunteers were interviewed for demographic data, medical history, and behavioral characteristics and the frequencies of risk factors were compared between HTLV-1 positive (case) and HTLV-1 negative (control) donors. The data was analyzed using Chi square and t-tests. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors for the infection. Assessments were carried out on 246 cases aged 17-60 and 776 controls aged 17-59, who were matched based on their ages, gender, and date and center of donation. Logistic analysis showed low income (OR = 1.53, p = 0.035), low educational level (OR = 1.64, p = 0.049), being born in the cities of either Mashhad (OR = 2.47, p = 0.001) or Neyshabour (OR = 4.30, p < 0001), and a history of blood transfusion (OR = 3.17, p = 0.007) or non-IV drug abuse (OR = 3.77, p < 0.0001) were significant predictors for infection with HTLV-1. Lack of variability or small sample size could be reasons of failure to detect some well-known risk factors for HTLV-1 infection, such as prolonged breastfeeding and sexual promiscuity. Pre-donation screening of possible risk factors for transfusion-transmissible infections should also be considered as an important issue, however, a revision of the screening criteria such as a history of transfusion for more than one year prior to donation is strongly recommended. PMID:26556363

  3. Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type I (HTLV-1) Infection among Iranian Blood Donors: First Case-Control Study on the Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Hedayati-Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza; Tehranian, Farahnaz; Bayati, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is an endemic condition in Northeast Iran and, as such, identification of risk factors associated with the infection in this region seems to be a necessity. All the possible risk factors for HTLV-1 seropositivity among first-time blood donors were evaluated in Mashhad, Iran, during the period of 2011–2012. Blood donation volunteers were interviewed for demographic data, medical history, and behavioral characteristics and the frequencies of risk factors were compared between HTLV-1 positive (case) and HTLV-1 negative (control) donors. The data was analyzed using Chi square and t-tests. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors for the infection. Assessments were carried out on 246 cases aged 17–60 and 776 controls aged 17–59, who were matched based on their ages, gender, and date and center of donation. Logistic analysis showed low income (OR = 1.53, p = 0.035), low educational level (OR = 1.64, p = 0.049), being born in the cities of either Mashhad (OR = 2.47, p = 0.001) or Neyshabour (OR = 4.30, p < 0001), and a history of blood transfusion (OR = 3.17, p = 0.007) or non-IV drug abuse (OR = 3.77, p < 0.0001) were significant predictors for infection with HTLV-1. Lack of variability or small sample size could be reasons of failure to detect some well-known risk factors for HTLV-1 infection, such as prolonged breastfeeding and sexual promiscuity. Pre-donation screening of possible risk factors for transfusion-transmissible infections should also be considered as an important issue, however, a revision of the screening criteria such as a history of transfusion for more than one year prior to donation is strongly recommended. PMID:26556363

  4. Relationship and factors responsible for regulating fasting and post-challenge plasma glucose levels in the early stage development of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Aoyama-Sasabe, Sae; Xin, Xin; Taniguchi, Ataru; Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Mitsui, Rie; Tsuji, Hideaki; Yabe, Daisuke; Yasuda, Koichiro; Kurose, Takeshi; Inagaki, Nobuya; Seino, Yutaka; Fukushima, Mitsuo

    2014-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Elevation of 2-h plasma glucose (2-h PG) levels keeps step with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels elevation, but some individuals show dominant elevation of 2-h PG and others FPG. We analyzed dependent and independent relationships between 2-h PG and FPG, and investigated the factors regulating 2-h PG and FPG. Materials and Methods In 1,657 Japanese participants who underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at the initial examination for a medical check-up, we carried out simple linear regression analysis between 2-h PG and FPG levels on the three patterns of independent variables. We divided the participants into two subgroups: the 2-h PG-side group and the FPG-side from the regression line, and examined the relationships between 2-h PG-FPG and factors responsible for elevation of plasma glucose levels. Results There was a significant positive correlation between 2-h PG and FPG levels. The regression line of both 2-h PG and FPG as independent variables was in accordance with the regression line of 2-h PG as an independent variable and FPG as a dependent variable. In 2-h PG-side group, age was the independent factor affecting 2-h PG in addition to insulinogenic index and insulin sensitivity index (ISI composite). In the FPG-side group, triglyceride was the independent factor affecting FPG in addition to insulinogenic index and ISI composite. Conclusions Two-hour PG was an independent predictor of FPG. In addition to the importance of decreased insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity, age was the strong factor to elevate 2-h PG levels in the 2-h PG-side group and triglyceride was the strong factor to elevate FPG levels in the FPG-side group in the early stage of development of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25422766

  5. Differences in body composition and cardiovascular and type 2 diabetes risk factors between migrant and British-born British Pakistani women.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Tessa M; Unwin, Nigel; Fischbacher, Colin; Chamley, Jagdip K

    2008-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes in people of South Asian origin living in affluent western countries. We do not know whether or how risk factors for these diseases change in subsequent generations born in the west. Findings that birth-weight is inversely associated with abdominal obesity and risk of cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes in later life suggest that those born in the west may have lower levels of risk than migrants. We assessed 30 migrants from Pakistan to the UK, 30 British-born British Pakistani women, and 25 British-born women of European origin. British-born British Pakistani women were taller (P = 0.05), had a lower waist to hip ratio (P = 0.04), lower mean fasting glucose levels (P = 0.03), lower mean triglyceride levels (P = 0.03), and higher mean HDL levels (P < 0.001) than migrant British Pakistani women. Levels of fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and blood pressure were not significantly different in the two British Pakistani groups. Thus, we found healthier levels of several cardiovascular and Type 2 diabetes risk factors in British-born British Pakistani women than in migrant British Pakistani women. These findings might be related to the effects of early environment or to other factors, such as differences in health behaviors. British-born British Pakistani women also differed from British-born European women, having a more adverse body composition, but healthier levels of HDL cholesterol and blood pressure. PMID:18433003

  6. Effects of stress reduction on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes patients with early kidney disease - results of a randomized controlled trial (HEIDIS).

    PubMed

    Kopf, S; Oikonomou, D; Hartmann, M; Feier, F; Faude-Lang, V; Morcos, M; Häring, H-U; Herzog, W; Bierhaus, A; Humpert, P M; Nawroth, P P

    2014-06-01

    Current guidelines for the treatment of type 2 diabetes focus on pharmacological treatment of glucose and cardio-vascular risk factors. The aim of this prospective randomized controlled intervention study was to examine the effects of a psychosocial intervention on clinical endpoints and risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes and early diabetic kidney disease.110 patients were randomized to receive an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) training (n = 53) compared to standard care (n = 57). The study was carried out open-labelled and randomization was performed computer-generated in a 1:1 ratio. Primary outcome of the study was the change in urinary albumin excretion (albumin-creatinine-ratio, ACR); secondary outcomes were metabolic parameters, intima media thickness (IMT), psychosocial parameters and cardiovascular events.89 patients (42 in control group and 47 in intervention group) were analysed after 3 years of follow-up. After 1 year, the intervention group showed a reduction of ACR from 44 [16/80] to 39 [20/71]?mg/g, while controls increased from 47 [16/120] to 59 [19/128]?mg/g (p = 0.05). Parallel to the reduction of stress levels after 1 year, the intervention-group additionally showed reduced catecholamine levels (p < 0.05), improved 24?h-mean arterial (p < 0.05) and maximum systolic blood pressure (p < 0.01), as well as a reduction in IMT (p < 0.01). However, these effects were lost after 2 and 3 years of follow-up.This is the first study to show that a psychosocial intervention improves cardiovascular risk factors in high risk type 2 diabetes patients. Trial-Registration: NCT00263419 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00263419 TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov-Identifier: NCT00263419. PMID:24798861

  7. Increased serum pigment epithelium-derived factor in women with gestational diabetes is associated with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Li, Tong-Huan; Qiu, Chun-Jian; Yu, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Dan-Dan; Zhou, Peng-Fei; Wu, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is demonstrated to be elevated in diabetes patients. However, no reports have emerged in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This study was undertaken to investigate serum PEDF levels in GDM women and to evaluate PEDF as a biomarker to predict diabetes postpartum. Methods. Serum PEDF concentration and clinical characteristics were detected in the pregnant women with GDM (n?=?120) and without GDM (control group, n?=?120). Results. PEDF levels were elevated in subjects with GDM versus controls. Univariate correlations showed that serum PEDF levels were positively correlated with fasting glucose and fasting insulin levels, respectively, and negatively correlated with adiponectin. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis demonstrated that the AUC of serum PEDF for diabetes mellitus in women postpartum was 0.893. Conclusion. Serum PEDF was elevated in pregnant women with GDM, which is probably an early detection marker for predicting development of GDM to diabetes mellitus. PMID:25918527

  8. Human factors design, verification, and validation for two types of control room upgrades at a nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Boring, Laurids Ronald

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the NUREG-0711 based human factors engineering (HFE) phases and associated elements required to support design, verification and validation (V&V), and implementation of a new plant process computer (PPC) and turbine control system (TCS) at a representative nuclear power plant. This paper reviews ways to take a human-system interface (HSI) specification and use it when migrating legacy PPC displays or designing displays with new functionality. These displays undergo iterative usability testing during the design phase and then undergo an integrated system validation (ISV) in a full scope control room training simulator. Following the successful demonstration of operator performance with the systems during the ISV, the new system is implemented at the plant, first in the training simulator and then in the main control room.

  9. Factors Influencing the Selection of the Systems Integration Organizational Model Type for Planning and Implementing Government High-Technology Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Leann; Utley, Dawn

    2006-01-01

    While there has been extensive research in defining project organizational structures for traditional projects, little research exists to support high technology government project s organizational structure definition. High-Technology Government projects differ from traditional projects in that they are non-profit, span across Government-Industry organizations, typically require significant integration effort, and are strongly susceptible to a volatile external environment. Systems Integration implementation has been identified as a major contributor to both project success and failure. The literature research bridges program management organizational planning, systems integration, organizational theory, and independent project reports, in order to assess Systems Integration (SI) organizational structure selection for improving the high-technology government project s probability of success. This paper will describe the methodology used to 1) Identify and assess SI organizational structures and their success rate, and 2) Identify key factors to be used in the selection of these SI organizational structures during the acquisition strategy process.

  10. A 1.16-{\\mu}m-radius disk cavity in a sunflower-type circular photonic crystal with ultrahigh quality factor

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Xufeng; Tang, Hong X

    2012-01-01

    We present a 1.16-\\mum-radius disk cavity with ultrahigh quality (Q) factor by embedding the disk into a sunflower-type circular photonic crystal (CPC). The band gap of the CPC reduces the bending loss of the whispering-gallery mode of the disk, leading to a simulated Q of 10^7, at least one order of magnitude higher than a bare disk of the same size. The design is experimentally verified with a record high loaded Q of 7.4 \\times 10^5 measured from an optimized device fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator substrate.

  11. DNA affinity labeling of adenovirus type 2 upstream promoter sequence-binding factors identifies two distinct proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Safer, B; Cohen, R B; Garfinkel, S; Thompson, J A

    1988-01-01

    A rapid affinity labeling procedure with enhanced specificity was developed to identify DNA-binding proteins. 32P was first introduced at unique phosphodiester bonds within the DNA recognition sequence. UV light-dependent cross-linking of pyrimidines to amino acid residues in direct contact at the binding site, followed by micrococcal nuclease digestion, resulted in the transfer of 32P to only those specific protein(s) which recognized the binding sequence. This method was applied to the detection and characterization of proteins that bound to the upstream promoter sequence (-50 to -66) of the human adenovirus type 2 major late promoter. We detected two distinct proteins with molecular weights of 45,000 and 116,000 that interacted with this promoter element. The two proteins differed significantly in their chromatographic and cross-linking behaviors. Images PMID:3336354

  12. Treatment gaps in the management of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Manoela FB; Casanova, Amparo; Teoh, Hwee; Dawson, Keith G; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Fitchett, David H; Harris, Stewart B; Honos, George; McFarlane, Philip A; Steele, Andrew; Ur, Ehud; Yale, Jean-François; Langer, Anatoly; Goodman, Shaun G; Leiter, Lawrence A

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate vascular protection treatment patterns and attainment of the 2003 Canadian Diabetes Association’s recommended targets in ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Between 2005 and 2006, 3002 outpatients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled by 229 primary health care settings across Canada. Baseline characteristics, therapeutic regimens and treatment success – defined as the achievement of a blood pressure (BP) of 130/80 mmHg or lower, glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C) of 7% or lower, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lower than 2.5 mmol/L and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio lower than 4.0 – are reported. RESULTS: Overall, 46% of individuals had a BP that was above the Canadian Diabetes Association’s recommended target. Of these, 11% were untreated, 28% were receiving monotherapy, 38% were not receiving an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and 16% were not receiving either an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker. Optimal A1C levels were achieved in 53% of patients. Of those who did not attain A1C targets, 3% were not on glucose-lowering pharmacotherapy and 27% were receiving monotherapy. A total of 74% of patients were treated with statins. Overall, 64% and 62%, respectively, met the target LDL-C and the target total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio. Statins were not prescribed to 43% of patients with LDL-C above target. Antiplatelet therapy was implemented in 81% of patients. In total, 21% achieved the combined targets for BP, A1C and LDL-C. INTERPRETATION: A substantial proportion of patients did not achieve guideline-recommended targets and were not receiving evidence-based therapy for vascular protection two years after publication of the Canadian guidelines. More research is warranted, and novel and effective strategies must be tested and implemented to correct this ongoing treatment gap. PMID:20548975

  13. Cytoplasmic expression of Wilms tumor transcription factor-1 (WT1): a useful immunomarker for young-type fibromatoses and infantile fibrosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Magro, Gaetano; Salvatorelli, Lucia; Vecchio, Giada Maria; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Rita, Alaggio; Parenti, Rosalba

    2014-09-01

    There is increasing evidence that Wilms' tumor transcription factor-1 (WT1) is expressed in the cytoplasm of neoplastic cells from different benign and malignant tumors. Only a few studies on WT1 cytoplasmic immunolocalization are available in pediatric tumors. The aim of the present study was to investigate immunohistochemically the expression and distribution of WT1 in a large series of soft tissue fibroblastic/myofibroblastic lesions occurring in children and adolescents. Notably WT1 was not expressed in nodular fasciitis and desmoid-type (adult) fibromatosis, while it stained diffusely and strongly in several infantile-type fibromatoses, such as fibrous hamartoma of infancy, myofibroma/myofibromatosis, and lipofibromatosis. Interestingly, WT1 cytoplasmic expression was also found in all cases (10/10) of infantile fibrosarcomas examined. The present study shows that a diffuse WT1 cytoplasmic expression is of complementary diagnostic value to conventional myofibroblastic markers (?-smooth muscle actin; desmin) in confirming diagnosis of young-type fibromatoses or infantile fibrosarcoma and in ruling out both desmoid-type fibromatoses and nodular fasciitis. WT1 cytoplasmic expression in infantile fibrosarcoma is a novel finding which could be exploitable as an immunomarker for this tumor. Although highly sensitive, WT1 cytoplasmic immunostaining is not specific for infantile fibrosarcoma, and thus it should be evaluated in the context of a wide immunohistochemical panel when pathologists are dealing with spindle cell lesions of soft tissues in children and adolescents. Accordingly we recommend that a correct diagnosis of fibroblastic/myofibroblastic soft tissue lesion in pediatric patients is usually achieved on the basis of a careful correlation of morphological and immunohistochemical findings in the appropriate clinical context. The different cellular localization of WT1, namely nuclear, cytoplasmic or nucleo-cytoplasmic, in different benign and malignant tumors supports the hypothesis that this transcription factor plays a complex role in tumorigenesis, likely as a chameleon protein functioning as either a tumor suppressor gene or an oncogene, depending on cellular context. PMID:25005570

  14. Different types of door-opening motions as contributing factors to containment failures in hospital isolation rooms.

    PubMed

    Tang, Julian W; Nicolle, Andre; Pantelic, Jovan; Klettner, Christian A; Su, Ruikun; Kalliomaki, Petri; Saarinen, Pekka; Koskela, Hannu; Reijula, Kari; Mustakallio, Panu; Cheong, David K W; Sekhar, Chandra; Tham, Kwok Wai

    2013-01-01

    Hospital isolation rooms are vital for the containment (when under negative pressure) of patients with, or the protection (when under positive pressure) of patients, from airborne infectious agents. Such facilities were essential for the management of highly contagious patients during the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreaks and the more recent 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic. Many different types of door designs are used in the construction of such isolation rooms, which may be related to the space available and affordability. Using colored food dye as a tracer, the qualitative effects of door-opening motions on the dissemination of potentially contaminated air into and out of a single isolation room were visualized and filmed using Reynolds-number-equivalent, small-scale, water-tank models fitted with programmable door-opening and moving human figure motions. Careful scaling considerations involved in the design and construction of these water-tank models enabled these results to be accurately extrapolated to the full-scale situation. Four simple types of door design were tested: variable speed single and double, sliding and hinged doors, in combination with the moving human figure. The resulting video footage was edited, synchronized and presented in a series of split-screen formats. From these experiments, it is clear that double-hinged doors pose the greatest risk of leakage into or out of the room, followed by (in order of decreasing risk) single-hinged, double-sliding and single-sliding doors. The relative effect of the moving human figure on spreading any potential contamination was greatest with the sliding doors, as the bulk airflows induced were large relative to those resulting from these door-opening motions. However, with the hinged doors, the airflows induced by these door-opening motions were significantly greater. Further experiments involving a simulated ventilated environment are required, but from these findings alone, it appears that sliding-doors are far more effective for hospital isolation room containment. PMID:23826109

  15. Deletion of IL-12p35 induces liver fibrosis in dominant negative transforming growth factor ? receptor type II mice

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Masanobu; Zhang, Weici; Yang, Guo-Xiang; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Ando, Yugo; Kawata, Kazuhito; Park, Ogyi; Leung, Patrick S.C.; Coppel, Ross L.; Ansari, Aftab A.; Ridgway, William M.; Gao, Bin; Lian, Zhe-Xiong; Flavell, Richard; He, Xiao-Song; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported that mice with a dominant negative transforming growth factor ? receptor restricted to T cells (dnTGF?RII mice) develop an inflammatory biliary ductular disease that strongly resembles human primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Furthermore, deletion of the gene encoding interleukin (IL)-12p40 resulted in a strain (IL-12p40?/?dnTGF?RII) with dramatically reduced autoimmune cholangitis. To further investigate the role of the IL-12 cytokine family in dnTGF?RII autoimmune biliary disease, we deleted the gene encoding the IL-12p35 subunit from dnTGF?RII mice, resulting in an IL-12p35?/? dnTGF?RII strain which is deficient in two members of the IL-12 family, IL-12 and IL-35. In contrast to IL-12p40?/? mice, the IL-12p35?/? mice developed liver inflammation and bile duct damage with similar severity but delayed onset as the parental dnTGF?RII mice. The p35?/? mice also demonstrated a distinct cytokine profile characterized by a shift from a Th1 to a Th17 response. Strikingly, liver fibrosis was frequently observed in IL-12p35?/? mice. In conclusion, IL-12p35?/? dnTGF?RII mice, histologically and immunologically, reflect key features of PBC, providing a useful generic model to understand the immunopathology of human PBC. PMID:22576253

  16. Factors driving the carbon mineralization priming effect in a sandy loam soil amended with different types of biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cely, P.; Tarquis, A. M.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Méndez, A.; Gascó, G.

    2014-06-01

    The effect of biochar on the soil carbon mineralization priming effect depends on the characteristics of the raw materials, production method and pyrolysis conditions. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the impact of three different types of biochar on physicochemical properties and CO2 emissions of a sandy loam soil. For this purpose, soil was amended with three different biochars (BI, BII and BIII) at a rate of 8 wt% and soil CO2 emissions were measured for 45 days. BI is produced from a mixed wood sieving from wood chip production, BII from a mixture of paper sludge and wheat husks and BIII from sewage sludge. Cumulative CO2 emissions of biochars, soil and amended soil were well fit to a simple first-order kinetic model with correlation coefficients (r2) greater than 0.97. Results show a negative priming effect in the soil after addition of BI and a positive priming effect in the case of soil amended with BII and BIII. These results can be related to different biochar properties such as carbon content, carbon aromaticity, volatile matter, fixed carbon, easily oxidized organic carbon or metal and phenolic substance content in addition to surface biochar properties. Three biochars increased the values of soil field capacity and wilting point, while effects over pH and cation exchange capacity were not observed.

  17. Factors affecting growth and toxin production by Clostridium botulinum type E on irradiated (0. 3 Mrad) chicken skins

    SciTech Connect

    Firstenberg-Eden, R.; Rowley, D.B.; Shattuck, G.E.

    1982-05-01

    A model system (chicken skins with chicken exudate) was used to determine if Clostridium botulinum type E (Beluga) spores, stressed by low dose irradiation, would develop and produce toxin at abuse temperatures of 10 and 30/sup 0/C in the absence of characteristic spoilage. Unstressed spores germinated, multiplied, and produced toxin on vacuum-packed chicken skins, stored at either 30 or 10/sup 0/C. Cell numbers increased faster and toxin was evident sooner at 30/sup 0/C than at 10/sup 0/C. At 30/sup 0/C, growth occurred and toxin was produced more slowly when samples were incubated aerobically than anaerobically. When samples were incubated aerobically at 10/sup 0/C, no toxin was detected within a test period of 14 days. An irradiation dose of 0.3 Mrad at 5/sup 0/C reduced a spore population on vacuum-sealed chicken skins by about 90%. The surviving population produced toxin at 30/sup 0/C under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions, at 10/sup 0/C no toxin was detected even on skins incubated anaerobically. Under the worst conditions (30/sup 0/C, vacuum packed) toxin was not detected prior to characteristic spoilage caused by the natural flora surviving 0.3 Mrad.

  18. Development of embryos from natural cycle in-vitro fertilization: impact of medium type and female infertility factors.

    PubMed

    Monks, N J; Turner, K; Hooper, M A; Kumar, A; Verma, S; Lenton, E A

    1993-02-01

    Single embryos derived from natural cycle in-vitro fertilization (IVF) were graded during the pre-transfer culture period using morphological criteria. Most embryos developed well in culture with 96% showing continuing division and 68% showing good morphological appearance, although embryo quality tended to decline with an increased incidence of fragmentation and uneven cleavage as division proceeded. Both the pregnancy rate and the distribution of embryo grades were similar among four different culture media used, suggesting that choice of medium had little impact on outcome. In contrast, there were marked differences in pregnancy rate according to the type of infertility, which was not reflected in a decrease in embryo quality. However, although embryos from patients with tubal infertility implanted and formed viable pregnancies irrespective of morphological appearance, only 'good' quality embryos from patients with non-tubal (or 'unexplained') infertility were able to implant. Thus the appearance of the embryo derived from natural cycle IVF in women with unexplained infertility may be of clinical relevance. PMID:8473432

  19. Factors affecting the performance of a single-chamber microbial fuel cell-type biological oxygen demand sensor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gai-Xiu; Sun, Yong-Ming; Kong, Xiao-Ying; Zhen, Feng; Li, Ying; Li, Lian-Hua; Lei, Ting-Zhou; Yuan, Zhen-Hong; Chen, Guan-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are devices that exploit microorganisms as biocatalysts to degrade organic matter or sludge present in wastewater (WW), and thereby generate electricity. We developed a simple, low-cost single-chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC)-type biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) sensor using carbon felt (anode) and activated sludge, and demonstrated its feasibility in the construction of a real-time BOD measurement system. Further, the effects of anodic pH and organic concentration on SCMFC performance were examined, and the correlation between BOD concentration and its response time was analyzed. Our results demonstrated that the SCMFC exhibited a stable voltage after 132 min following the addition of synthetic WW (BOD concentration: 200 mg/L). Notably, the response signal increased with an increase in BOD concentration (range: 5-200 mg/L) and was found to be directly proportional to the substrate concentration. However, at higher BOD concentrations (>120 mg/L) the response signal remained unaltered. Furthermore, we optimized the SCMFC using synthetic WW, and tested it with real WW. Upon feeding real WW, the BOD values exhibited a standard deviation from 2.08 to 8.3% when compared to the standard BOD5 method, thus demonstrating the practical applicability of the developed system to real treatment effluents. PMID:24225089

  20. CD39 expression on Treg and Th17 cells is associated with metabolic factors in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cortez-Espinosa, Nancy; Cortés-Garcia, Juan Diego; Martínez-Leija, Ernesto; Rodríguez-Rivera, Jose Guillermo; Barajas-López, Carlos; González-Amaro, Roberto; Portales-Pérez, Diana Patricia

    2015-09-01

    Th17 cells are involved in the pathogenesis of multiple inflammatory diseases such as type two diabetes (T2D). CD39(+) Treg cells have been implicated as responsible for suppressing Th17 cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the number and function of CD4(+)CD25(high)CD39(+) Treg and Th17 cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from T2D patients and healthy control subjects. The Th17 cells were detected in PBMC under culture with human anti-CD3/CD28 and PMA/ionomycin and the levels of IL-17 were assessed by ELISA and qPCR. The T2D patients with obesity showed significantly lower percentages of CD39(+) Treg cells. A negative correlation between CD39(+) Treg cells and weight, and body mass index was detected. In contrast, the low levels of CD4(+)IL-17(+) cells in overweight and obese T2D patients showed a positive correlation with glucose and HbA1c. Additionally, we found a subpopulation of Th17 cells that express CD39 and were correlated with glucose and HbA1c. Our findings suggest that the expression of CD39 on Treg cells and also in CD4(+)IL-17(+) cells from T2D patients is related to hyperglycemia as well as to overweight and obesity and therefore may participate as a modulator of the effector capacity of Th17 cells. PMID:26386144

  1. Dietary goal attainment measures and psychosocial factors among Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Briggs Early, Kathaleen; Armstrong Shultz, Jill; Evans, Marc; Corbett, Cynthia F; Nicholson Butkus, Sue; Massey, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes education programs need improved measures of goal setting for dietary control of diabetes. Additionally, measures of patient experiences with dietary goal setting are needed to better prepare patients for diabetes self-management. Measures of dietary goals and strategies were investigated via survey of 100 Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites with type 2 diabetes at a community clinic. Analyses tested novel goal measures as stages of change and goal attainment with a food plan compared to a traditional measure of food plan adherence. Ethnic groups varied in some reported experiences with goal setting education and goal attainment, but did not differ in most clinical characteristics of diabetes. Results indicated that different measures of goal setting vary in their psychosocial predictors, suggesting changes in how health care providers use and monitor goal setting for patients. At the time this research was conducted, Dr. Briggs Early was a doctoral candidate in the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition at Washington State University. She is currently an Assistant Professor of Biochemistry and Nutrition at Pacific Northwest University of Health Sciences - College of Osteopathic Medicine, and a certified diabetes educator, and insulin pump trainer in Yakima, Washington. PMID:22632062

  2. Visit-to-Visit Blood Pressure Variability Is a Novel Risk Factor for the Development and Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Hiroshi; Fukui, Michiaki; Tanaka, Muhei; Matsumoto, Shinobu; Mineoka, Yusuke; Nakanishi, Naoko; Asano, Mai; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Recent study has suggested that not only the presence of hypertension but also the variability in systolic blood pressure (SBP) are risk factors for vascular disease and organ damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between visit-to-visit variability in SBP and change in urinary albumin excretion (UAE) or development of albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We measured SBP in 354 consecutive patients at every visit during 1 year and calculated the coefficient of variation (CV) of SBP. We performed a follow-up study to assess change in UAE or development of albuminuria, the mean interval of which was 3.76 ± 0.71 years. Then, we evaluated relationships of variability of SBP to diabetic nephropathy using multiple regression analysis and multiple Cox regression model. RESULTS Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that CV of SBP was independently associated with change in UAE (? = 0.1758; P = 0.0108). Adjusted Cox regression analyses demonstrated that CV of SBP was associated with an increased hazard of development of albuminuria; hazard ratio was 1.143 (95% CI 1.008–1.302). CONCLUSIONS Visit-to-visit variability in SBP could be a novel risk factor for the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:23340892

  3. A Novel IFITM5 Mutation in Severe Atypical Osteogenesis Imperfecta Type VI Impairs Osteoblast Production of Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor

    PubMed Central

    Farber, Charles R; Reich, Adi; Barnes, Aileen M; Becerra, Patricia; Rauch, Frank; Cabral, Wayne A; Bae, Alison; Quinlan, Aaron; Glorieux, Francis H; Clemens, Thomas L; Marini, Joan C

    2015-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) types V and VI are caused, respectively, by a unique dominant mutation in IFITM5, encoding BRIL, a transmembrane ifitm-like protein most strongly expressed in the skeletal system, and recessive null mutations in SERPINF1, encoding pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF). We identified a 25-year-old woman with severe OI whose dermal fibroblasts and cultured osteoblasts displayed minimal secretion of PEDF, but whose serum PEDF level was in the normal range. SERPINF1 sequences were normal despite bone histomorphometry consistent with type VI OI and elevated childhood serum alkaline phosphatase. We performed exome sequencing on the proband, both parents, and an unaffected sibling. IFITM5 emerged as the candidate gene from bioinformatics analysis, and was corroborated by membership in a murine bone co-expression network module containing all currently known OI genes. The de novo IFITM5 mutation was confirmed in one allele of the proband, resulting in a p.S40L substitution in the intracellular domain of BRIL but was absent in unaffected family members. IFITM5 expression was normal in proband fibroblasts and osteoblasts, and BRIL protein level was similar to control in differentiated proband osteoblasts on Western blot and in permeabilized mutant osteoblasts by microscopy. In contrast, SERPINF1 expression was decreased in proband osteoblasts; PEDF was barely detectable in conditioned media of proband cells. Expression and secretion of type I collagen was similarly decreased in proband osteoblasts; the expression pattern of several osteoblast markers largely overlapped reported values from cells with a primary PEDF defect. In contrast, osteoblasts from a typical case of type V OI, with an activating mutation at the 5?-terminus of BRIL, have increased SERPINF1 expression and PEDF secretion during osteoblast differentiation. Together, these data suggest that BRIL and PEDF have a relationship that connects the genes for types V and VI OI and their roles in bone mineralization. PMID:24519609

  4. Sequence variants in SLC16A11 are a common risk factor for type 2 diabetes in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Performing genetic studies in multiple human populations can identify disease risk alleles that are common in one population but rare in others1, with the potential to illuminate pathophysiology, health disparities, and the population genetic origins of disease alleles. We analyzed 9.2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in each of 8,214 Mexicans and Latin Americans: 3,848 with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and 4,366 non-diabetic controls. In addition to replicating previous findings2–4, we identified a novel locus associated with T2D at genome-wide significance spanning the solute carriers SLC16A11 and SLC16A13 (P=3.9×10?13; odds ratio (OR)=1.29). The association was stronger in younger, leaner people with T2D, and replicated in independent samples (P=1.1×10?4; OR=1.20). The risk haplotype carries four amino acid substitutions, all in SLC16A11; it is present at ?50% frequency in Native American samples and ?10% in East Asian, but rare in European and African samples. Analysis of an archaic genome sequence indicated the risk haplotype introgressed into modern humans via admixture with Neandertals. The SLC16A11 mRNA is expressed in liver, and V5-tagged SLC16A11 protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum. Expression of SLC16A11 in heterologous cells alters lipid metabolism, most notably causing an increase in intracellular triacylglycerol levels. Despite T2D having been well studied by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in other populations, analysis in Mexican and Latin American individuals identified SLC16A11 as a novel candidate gene for T2D with a possible role in triacylglycerol metabolism. PMID:24390345

  5. Dependence of fibroblast infiltration in tumor stroma on type IV collagen-initiated integrin signal through induction of platelet-derived growth factor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng-Yi; Lin, Jo-Shi; Lin, Huan-Ching; Shan, Yan-Shen; Cheng, Yu-Jung; Yang, Bei-Chang

    2015-05-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts play a crucial role in accelerating tumor progression, but there is a knowledge gap regarding the chemotactic signal activated in a tumor microenvironment. In this study, the expression of type IV collagen was knocked down using a lentiviral-mediated short hairpin RNA strategy. Although there was no obvious effect on cell growth in vitro, silencing the Col4-?1 gene decreased the tumorigenicity of B16F10 in C57BL/6 mice, which was accompanied by a reduction in the infiltration of alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive (?-SMA+) fibroblasts. Silencing the Col4-?1 gene or disrupting integrin engagement by blocking the antibody reduced the expression of platelet-derived growth factor A (PDGF-A), a potent chemotactic factor for fibroblasts. Furthermore, ectopic expression of the autoclustering integrin mutant significantly stimulated PDGF-A expression in murine B16F10 and human U118MG and Huh7 cells. PDGF-A-specific sh-RNA and neutralizing anti-PDGF-A antibody effectively inhibited the transwell migration of fibroblasts. Adding recombinant PDGF-A back to shCol cell-conditioned media restored the fibroblast-attraction ability indicating that PDGF-A is a major chemotactic factor for fibroblasts in the current study model. The integrin-associated PDGF-A production correlated with the activation of Src and ERK. High type IV collagen staining intensity colocalized with elevated PDGF-A expression was observed in tumor tissues obtained from hepatoma and glioma patients. The integrin signal pathway was activated by collagen engagement through Src and ERK, leading to enhanced PDGF-A production, which serves as a key regulator of fibroblast recruitment. PMID:25686533

  6. Prediction of Foreign Object Debris/Damage type based in human factors for aeronautics using logistic regression model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romo, David Ricardo

    Foreign Object Debris/Damage (FOD) has been an issue for military and commercial aircraft manufacturers since the early ages of aviation and aerospace. Currently, aerospace is growing rapidly and the chances of FOD presence are growing as well. One of the principal causes in manufacturing is the human error. The cost associated with human error in commercial and military aircrafts is approximately accountable for 4 billion dollars per year. This problem is currently addressed with prevention programs, elimination techniques, and designation of FOD areas, controlled access, restrictions of personal items entering designated areas, tool accountability, and the use of technology such as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags, etc. All of the efforts mentioned before, have not show a significant occurrence reduction in terms of manufacturing processes. On the contrary, a repetitive path of occurrence is present, and the cost associated has not declined in a significant manner. In order to address the problem, this thesis proposes a new approach using statistical analysis. The effort of this thesis is to create a predictive model using historical categorical data from an aircraft manufacturer only focusing in human error causes. The use of contingency tables, natural logarithm of the odds and probability transformation is used in order to provide the predicted probabilities of each aircraft. A case of stu