Sample records for factors including type

  1. Prime type III factors

    PubMed Central

    Shlyakhtenko, Dimitri

    2000-01-01

    It is shown that for each 0 < ? < 1, the free Araki–Woods factor of type III? cannot be written as a tensor product of two diffuse von Neumann algebras (i.e., is prime) and does not contain a Cartan subalgebra. PMID:11058159

  2. Include All 4 Types of Exercise (Endurance, Strength, Balance, Flexibility)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nih.gov/Go4Life ENDURANCE FLEXIBILITY STRENGTH BALANCE Include All 4 Types of Exercise Exercise generally falls into ... physical activity plan—this will help you incorporate all four types of exercise into your daily routine. ...

  3. Neonatal risk factors and risk scores including auditory evoked responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Pasman; J. J. Rotteveel; B. Maassen; R. de Graaf; A. A. Kollée

    1998-01-01

    In a prospective study, 81 preterm infants and 25 healthy term infants were neurologically and neurophysiologically evaluated\\u000a in the neonatal period. At 5–7 years of age the neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed. The validity and predictive value\\u000a of the Neonatal Neurological Inventory (NNI) and the Neurobiological Risk Score (NBRS), including an additional gestational\\u000a age factor (GAF) and an auditory evoked response

  4. Qualitative models of seat discomfort including static and dynamic factors.

    PubMed

    Ebe, K; Griffin, M J

    2000-06-01

    Judgements of overall seating comfort in dynamic conditions sometimes correlate better with the static characteristics of a seat than with measures of the dynamic environment. This study developed qualitative models of overall seat discomfort to include both static and dynamic seat characteristics. A dynamic factor that reflected how vibration discomfort increased as vibration magnitude increased was combined with a static seat factor which reflected seating comfort without vibration. The ability of the model to predict the relative and overall importance of dynamic and static seat characteristics on comfort was tested in two experiments. A paired comparison experiment, using four polyurethane foam cushions (50, 70, 100, 120 mm thick), provided different static and dynamic comfort when 12 subjects were exposed to one-third octave band random vertical vibration with centre frequencies of 2.5 and 5.5 Hz, at magnitudes of 0.00, 0.25 and 0.50 m x s(-2) rms measured beneath the foam samples. Subject judgements of the relative discomfort of the different conditions depended on both static and dynamic characteristics in a manner consistent with the model. The effect of static and dynamic seat factors on overall seat discomfort was investigated by magnitude estimation using three foam cushions (of different hardness) and a rigid wooden seat at six vibration magnitudes with 20 subjects. Static seat factors (i.e. cushion stiffness) affected the manner in which vibration influenced the overall discomfort: cushions with lower stiffness were more comfortable and more sensitive to changes in vibration magnitude than those with higher stiffness. The experiments confirm that judgements of overall seat discomfort can be affected by both the static and dynamic characteristics of a seat, with the effect depending on vibration magnitude: when vibration magnitude was low, discomfort was dominated by static seat factors; as the vibration magnitude increased, discomfort became dominated by dynamic factors. PMID:10902887

  5. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer, Including Occupational Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Meo, Margrethe; Vainio, Harri

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr). For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as "carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1): alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure). Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification "probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A) includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women. PMID:22953181

  6. Toeplitz CAR flows and type I factorizations

    E-print Network

    Izumi, Masaki

    2009-01-01

    Toeplitz CAR flows are a class of E_0-semigroups including the first type III example constructed by R. T. Powers. We show that the Toeplitz CAR flows contain uncountably many mutually non cocycle conjugate E_0-semigroups of type III. We also generalize the type III criterion for Toeplitz CAR flows employed by Powers (and later refined by W. Arveson), and show that Toeplitz CAR flows are always either of type I or type III.

  7. 48 CFR 16.104 - Factors in selecting contract types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Factors in selecting contract types...Contract Types 16.104 Factors in selecting contract types. There are many factors that the contracting...interest. (b) Price analysis. Price analysis...

  8. New Besov-type spaces and Triebel–Lizorkin-type spaces including Q spaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dachun Yang; Wen Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Let $${s,\\\\,\\\\tau\\\\in\\\\mathbb{R}}$$ and $${q\\\\in(0,\\\\infty]}$$ . We introduce Besov-type spaces $${{{{\\\\dot B}^{s,\\\\,\\\\tau}_{p,\\\\,q}(\\\\mathbb{R}^{n})}}}$$ for $${p\\\\in(0,\\\\,\\\\infty]}$$ and Triebel–Lizorkin-type spaces $${{{{\\\\dot F}^{s,\\\\,\\\\tau}_{p,\\\\,q}(\\\\mathbb{R}^{n})}}\\\\,{\\\\rm for}\\\\, p\\\\in(0,\\\\,\\\\infty)}$$ , which unify and generalize the Besov spaces, Triebel–Lizorkin spaces and Q spaces. We then establish the $${\\\\varphi}$$ -transform characterization of these new spaces in the sense of Frazier and Jawerth. Using the $${\\\\varphi}$$ -transform characterization of $${{{{\\\\dot B}^{s,\\\\,\\\\tau}_{p,\\\\,q}(\\\\mathbb{R}^{n})}\\\\, {\\\\rm

  9. 48 CFR 16.104 - Factors in selecting contract types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Contract Types 16.104 Factors in selecting contract types. There are many factors that the contracting...performance and their possible impact upon costs be identified...contract type. This factor may be critical— ...other contracts, the impact of those...

  10. 48 CFR 16.104 - Factors in selecting contract types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Contract Types 16.104 Factors in selecting contract types. There are many factors that the contracting...performance and their possible impact upon costs be identified...contract type. This factor may be critical— ...other contracts, the impact of those...

  11. 48 CFR 16.104 - Factors in selecting contract types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Contract Types 16.104 Factors in selecting contract types. There are many factors that the contracting...performance and their possible impact upon costs be identified...contract type. This factor may be critical— ...other contracts, the impact of those...

  12. Exposure Value /EV/ system expanded to include filter factors and transmittance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. F.

    1966-01-01

    Application of the exposure value system requires that the system be extended to high brightness level and expanded to include filter factors. A minimum of four photographic factors are involved in the evaluation of an exposure which, when determined from tables of 1-stop interval, could introduce noticeable error.

  13. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and type 2 diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. S. Krabbe; A. R. Nielsen; R. Krogh-Madsen; P. Plomgaard; P. Rasmussen; C. Erikstrup; C. P. Fischer; B. Lindegaard; A. M. W. Petersen; S. Taudorf; N. H. Secher; H. Pilegaard; H. Bruunsgaard; B. K. Pedersen

    2007-01-01

    Aims\\/hypothesis  Decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease\\u000a and depression. These disorders are associated with type 2 diabetes, and animal models suggest that BDNF plays a role in insulin\\u000a resistance. We therefore explored whether BDNF plays a role in human glucose metabolism.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Subjects and methods  We included (Study 1) 233 humans divided into

  14. Type IV pili mechanochemically regulate virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Persat, Alexandre; Inclan, Yuki F; Engel, Joanne N; Stone, Howard A; Gitai, Zemer

    2015-06-16

    Bacteria have evolved a wide range of sensing systems to appropriately respond to environmental signals. Here we demonstrate that the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa detects contact with surfaces on short timescales using the mechanical activity of its type IV pili, a major surface adhesin. This signal transduction mechanism requires attachment of type IV pili to a solid surface, followed by pilus retraction and signal transduction through the Chp chemosensory system, a chemotaxis-like sensory system that regulates cAMP production and transcription of hundreds of genes, including key virulence factors. Like other chemotaxis pathways, pili-mediated surface sensing results in a transient response amplified by a positive feedback that increases type IV pili activity, thereby promoting long-term surface attachment that can stimulate additional virulence and biofilm-inducing pathways. The methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein-like chemosensor PilJ directly interacts with the major pilin subunit PilA. Our results thus support a mechanochemical model where a chemosensory system measures the mechanically induced conformational changes in stretched type IV pili. These findings demonstrate that P. aeruginosa not only uses type IV pili for surface-specific twitching motility, but also as a sensor regulating surface-induced gene expression and pathogenicity. PMID:26041805

  15. A Study of Factors Promoting Success in Computer Science Including Gender Differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brenda Cantwell Wilson

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine factors that promote success in an introductory college computer science course and to determine what, if any, differences appear between genders on those factors. The model included math background, attribution for success\\/failure, self-efficacy, encouragement, comfort level in the course, work style preference, previous programming exp- erience, previous non-programming computer experience, and gender as possible

  16. Screening and Risk Factors Data Types

    Cancer.gov

    Direct Estimates are the usual estimates reported from a survey-directly estimated from the survey data using appropriate weighting. Most of these direct estimates are based on data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), a large annual telephone survey of U.S. households designed to measure at the state level.

  17. Early life factors and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xinli; Ma, Huijie; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multifactorial disease, and its aetiology involves a complex interplay between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. In recent years, evidences from both human and animal experiments have correlated early life factors with programming diabetes risk in adult life. Fetal and neonatal period is crucial for organ development. Many maternal factors during pregnancy may increase the risk of diabetes of offsprings in later life, which include malnutrition, healthy (hyperglycemia and obesity), behavior (smoking, drinking, and junk food diet), hormone administration, and even stress. In neonates, catch-up growth, lactation, glucocorticoids administration, and stress have all been found to increase the risk of insulin resistance or T2DM. Unfavorable environments (socioeconomic situation and famine) or obesity also has long-term negative effects on children by causing increased susceptibility to T2DM in adults. We also address the potential mechanisms that may underlie the developmental programming of T2DM. Therefore, it might be possible to prevent or delay the risk for T2DM by improving pre- and/or postnatal factors. PMID:24455747

  18. Analytical expressions for the gate utilization factors of passive multiplicity counters including signal build-up

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Evans, Louise G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schear, Melissa A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    In the realm of nuclear safeguards, passive neutron multiplicity counting using shift register pulse train analysis to nondestructively quantify Pu in product materials is a familiar and widely applied technique. The approach most commonly taken is to construct a neutron detector consisting of {sup 3}He filled cylindrical proportional counters embedded in a high density polyethylene moderator. Fast neutrons from the item enter the moderator and are quickly slowed down, on timescales of the order of 1-2 {micro}s, creating a thermal population which then persists typically for several 10's {micro}s and is sampled by the {sup 3}He detectors. Because the initial transient is of comparatively short duration it has been traditional to treat it as instantaneous and furthermore to approximate the subsequent capture time distribution as exponential in shape. With these approximations simple expressions for the various Gate Utilization Factors (GUFs) can be obtained. These factors represent the proportion of time correlated events i.e. Doubles and Triples signal present in the pulse train that is detected by the coincidence gate structure chosen (predelay and gate width settings of the multiplicity shift register). More complicated expressions can be derived by generalizing the capture time distribution to multiple time components or harmonics typically present in real systems. When it comes to applying passive neutron multiplicity methods to extremely intense (i.e. high emission rate and highly multiplying) neutron sources there is a drive to use detector types with very fast response characteristics in order to cope with the high rates. In addition to short pulse width, detectors with a short capture time profile are also desirable so that a short coincidence gate width can be set in order to reduce the chance or Accidental coincidence signal. In extreme cases, such as might be realized using boron loaded scintillators, the dieaway time may be so short that the build-up (thermalization transient) within the detector cannot be ignored. Another example where signal build-up might be observed is when a {sup 3}He based system is used to track the evolution of the time correlated signal created by a higher multiplying item within a reflective configuration such as the measurement of a spent fuel assembly. In this work we develop expressions for the GUFs which include signal build-up.

  19. Type 2 Diabetes in Children: Clinical Aspects and Risk Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silva Arslanian

    2002-01-01

    In the past, type 2 diabetes mellitus was considered a disease of adults and older individuals, not a paediatric condition. Over the last decade, however, in the USA and the rest of the world there has been a disturbing trend of increasing cases of type 2 diabetes in children, mirroring increasing rates of obesity. The risk factors for paediatric type

  20. Amplification of progenitors in the mammalian telencephalon includes a new radial glial cell type

    PubMed Central

    Pilz, Gregor-Alexander; Shitamukai, Atsunori; Reillo, Isabel; Pacary, Emilie; Schwausch, Julia; Stahl, Ronny; Ninkovic, Jovica; Snippert, Hugo J.; Clevers, Hans; Godinho, Leanne; Guillemot, Francois; Borrell, Victor; Matsuzaki, Fumio; Götz, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms governing the expansion of neuron number in specific brain regions are still poorly understood. Enlarged neuron numbers in different species are often anticipated by increased numbers of progenitors dividing in the subventricular zone. Here we present live imaging analysis of radial glial cells and their progeny in the ventral telencephalon, the region with the largest subventricular zone in the murine brain during neurogenesis. We observe lineage amplification by a new type of progenitor, including bipolar radial glial cells dividing at subapical positions and generating further proliferating progeny. The frequency of this new type of progenitor is increased not only in larger clones of the mouse lateral ganglionic eminence but also in cerebral cortices of gyrated species, and upon inducing gyrification in the murine cerebral cortex. This implies key roles of this new type of radial glia in ontogeny and phylogeny. PMID:23839311

  1. Active proliferation of different cell types, including lymphocytes, in human atherosclerotic plaques.

    PubMed Central

    Rekhter, M. D.; Gordon, D.

    1995-01-01

    Cell proliferation, an important mechanism of atherosclerotic plaque growth, occurs among smooth muscle, inflammatory cell, and other cell types. We have identified different topographical patterns of cell proliferation in human carotid plaques, based on cell type. Cell proliferation was determined with an antibody to the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), combined with cell type-specific antibodies. Despite low levels of overall proliferative activity, the intima displayed more proliferative activity than the underlying media (1.61 +/- 0.35% in intima versus 0.05 +/- 0.03% in media; P < 0.01). The preponderant proliferative cell type in the intima was the monocyte/macrophage (46.0% of PCNA-positive cells), with a minority being smooth muscle alpha-actin-positive (9.7%), microvascular endothelial (14.3%), and T cells (13.1%). Smooth muscle cells were the dominant proliferating cell type in the media (44.4% of PCNA-positive cells versus 20% endothelial cells, 13.0% monocyte/macrophages, and 14.3% T cells). Within the plaque, foam-cell-rich regions mostly displayed proliferation among macrophages (66.5%), whereas in vascularized fields PCNA positivity was almost equally shared by endothelial cells (23.8%), monocyte/macrophages (26.3%), smooth muscle alpha-actin-positive cells (14.0%), and to a lesser extent, T cells (8.2%). Logistic and linear regression analyses also demonstrated that location in foam-cell-rich regions was a significant predictor of proliferation only among monocyte/macrophages, whereas location in vascularized regions was a good predictor of PCNA positivity among both inflammatory and noninflammatory cells. These different patterns of cell type proliferation suggest possibly different distributions of putative responsible growth regulatory factors in human atherosclerosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7677178

  2. DNA Damage Response Factors from Diverse Pathways, Including DNA Crosslink Repair, Mediate Alternative End Joining

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Sean M.; Yanez, Diana A.; Stark, Jeremy M.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative end joining (Alt-EJ) chromosomal break repair involves bypassing classical non-homologous end joining (c-NHEJ), and such repair causes mutations often with microhomology at the repair junction. Since the mediators of Alt-EJ are not well understood, we have sought to identify DNA damage response (DDR) factors important for this repair event. Using chromosomal break reporter assays, we surveyed an RNAi library targeting known DDR factors for siRNAs that cause a specific decrease in Alt-EJ, relative to an EJ event that is a composite of Alt-EJ and c-NHEJ (Distal-EJ between two tandem breaks). From this analysis, we identified several DDR factors that are specifically important for Alt-EJ relative to Distal-EJ. While these factors are from diverse pathways, we also found that most of them also promote homologous recombination (HR), including factors important for DNA crosslink repair, such as the Fanconi Anemia factor, FANCA. Since bypass of c-NHEJ is likely important for both Alt-EJ and HR, we disrupted the c-NHEJ factor Ku70 in Fanca-deficient mouse cells and found that Ku70 loss significantly diminishes the influence of Fanca on Alt-EJ. In contrast, an inhibitor of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) causes a decrease in Alt-EJ that is enhanced by Ku70 loss. Additionally, the helicase/nuclease DNA2 appears to have distinct effects from FANCA and PARP on both Alt-EJ, as well as end resection. Finally, we found that the proteasome inhibitor Bortezomib, a cancer therapeutic that has been shown to disrupt FANC signaling, causes a significant reduction in both Alt-EJ and HR, relative to Distal-EJ, as well as a substantial loss of end resection. We suggest that several distinct DDR functions are important for Alt-EJ, which include promoting bypass of c-NHEJ and end resection. PMID:25629353

  3. Including Magnetic Saturation in Voltage-Behind-Reactance Induction Machine Model for EMTP-Type Solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liwei Wang; Juri Jatskevich

    2010-01-01

    A voltage-behind-reactance (VBR) machine model has been recently proposed for the electro-magnetic transient programs (EMTP)-type simulation programs. The VBR model greatly improves numerical accuracy and efficiency compared with the traditional qd and phase-domain (PD) models. This paper extends the previous research and presents an approach to include magnetic saturation into the VBR induction machine model. The presented method takes into

  4. CAR flows on type III factors and their extendability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikram, Panchugopal

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we prove that the CAR flows on type III factors arising from a large class of quasi-free states are not extendable, in the sense of Bikram, Izumi, Srinivasan and Sunder.8 As a consequence, CAR flows and CCR flows on type III factors are not cocycle conjugate. This is in sharp contrast with the situation for the type I? factor, for which CAR and CCR flows are in fact conjugate. In addition, we also compute the super-product systems associated to CAR flows.

  5. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include? 170...Policy and Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?...

  6. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include? 170...Policy and Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?...

  7. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include? 170...Policy and Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?...

  8. Hybrid peripheral nerve sheath tumors, including a malignant variant in type 1 neurofibromatosis.

    PubMed

    Kacerovska, Denisa; Michal, Michal; Kuroda, Naoto; Tanaka, Azusa; Sima, Radek; Denisjuk, Natalja; Kreuzberg, Boris; Ricarova, Renata; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2013-08-01

    The authors report a small case series of hybrid nerve sheath tumors occurring in the setting of type 1 neurofibromatosis. Four lesions were benign and consisted of plexiform neurofibromas with considerable areas of perineuriomatous differentiation in patients with type 1 neurofibromatosis. In these lesions, biphasic (Schwannian and perineuriomatous) differentiation was apparent on immunohistochemistry, with the perineuriomatous areas staining for epithelial membrane antigen, glut-1, and claudin-1 and being negative for S-100 protein. Three patients were members of a single family, with a history of various malignant neoplasms. Included in the series is 1 hybrid lesion in which neurofibromatous and perineuriomatous areas were clearly visible on hematoxylin- and eosin-stained slides. The lesion was unique in that it manifested malignant change in the S-100 protein-positive component, which was classified as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor. The malignant component showed areas with an epithelioid cell morphology. PMID:23676318

  9. New enzyme immunoassay for detecting total, type I, and type II intrinsic factor antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H M Waters; C Smith; J E Howarth; D W Dawson; I W Delamore

    1989-01-01

    A method for the detection of total, type I, and type II intrinsic factor antibodies was devised. The technique comprises a two-site solid phase enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with human intrinsic factor conjugated with horseradish peroxidase as label and attached to polystyrene tubes as solid phase. One conjugation provides sufficient material to assay more than 10,000 patient samples. The

  10. Type D Personality: A Five-Factor Model Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Filip De Fruyt; Johan Denollet

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the position of Type D (high Negative Affectivity and high Social Inhibition) within the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality. A sample of 155 healthy subjects were administered the Type D Scale and the NEO-FFI, assessing the FFM traits. Subjects also filled out the General Health Questionnaire and the Job Stress Survey. Negative Affectivity was positively correlated with

  11. Application of Factor Analysis to a Type Diesel Engine SOA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Liu; Hongxiang Tian; Wenyong Guo

    2010-01-01

    In order to monitor wear condition of a type of six-cylinder diesel engine, 69 oil samples from an experiment engine in laboratory and 117 oil routine samples on site were taken. With the Spectroil M type Instrument made in U. S. America, 16 elements' concentrations of every oil sample were detected. All data were analyzed by Factor Analysis. The results

  12. Transcription factors relevant to auxin signalling coordinate broad-spectrum metabolic shifts including sulphur metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Falkenberg, Bettina; Witt, Isabell; Zanor, Maria Inés; Steinhauser, Dirk; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Hesse, Holger; Hoefgen, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    A systems approach has previously been used to follow the response behaviour of Arabidopsis thaliana plants upon sulphur limitation. A response network was reconstructed from a time series of transcript and metabolite profiles, integrating complex metabolic and transcript data in order to investigate a potential causal relationship. The resulting scale-free network allowed potential transcriptional regulators of sulphur metabolism to be identified. Here, three sulphur-starvation responsive transcription factors, IAA13, IAA28, and ARF-2 (ARF1-Binding Protein), all of which are related to auxin signalling, were selected for further investigation. IAA28 overexpressing and knock-down lines showed no major morphological changes, whereas IAA13- and ARF1-BP-overexpressing plants grew more slowly than the wild type. Steady-state metabolite levels and expression of pathway-relevant genes were monitored under normal and sulphate-depleted conditions. For all lines, changes in transcript and metabolite levels were observed, yet none of these changes could exclusively be linked to sulphur stress. Instead, up- or down-regulation of the transcription factors caused metabolic changes which in turn affected sulphur metabolism. Auxin-relevant transcription factors are thus part of a complex response pattern to nutrient starvation that serve as coordinators of the metabolic shifts driving sulphur homeostasis rather then as direct effectors of the sulphate assimilation pathway. This study provides the first evidence ever presented that correlates auxin-related transcriptional regulators with primary plant metabolism. PMID:18596113

  13. Type I and II Endometrial Cancers: Have They Different Risk Factors?

    PubMed Central

    Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Yang, Hannah P.; Pike, Malcolm C.; McCann, Susan E.; Yu, Herbert; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Wolk, Alicja; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Weiss, Noel S.; Webb, Penelope M.; van den Brandt, Piet A.; van de Vijver, Koen; Thompson, Pamela J.; Strom, Brian L.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Soslow, Robert A.; Shu, Xiao-ou; Schairer, Catherine; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Rohan, Thomas E.; Robien, Kim; Risch, Harvey A.; Ricceri, Fulvio; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Rastogi, Radhai; Prescott, Jennifer; Polidoro, Silvia; Park, Yikyung; Olson, Sara H.; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Miller, Anthony B.; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Matsuno, Rayna K.; Magliocco, Anthony M.; Lurie, Galina; Lu, Lingeng; Lissowska, Jolanta; Liang, Xiaolin; Lacey, James V.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Håkansson, Niclas; Goodman, Marc T.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Doherty, Jennifer; De Vivo, Immaculata; Courneya, Kerry S.; Cook, Linda S.; Chen, Chu; Cerhan, James R.; Cai, Hui; Brinton, Louise A.; Bernstein, Leslie; Anderson, Kristin E.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Schouten, Leo J.; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Endometrial cancers have long been divided into estrogen-dependent type I and the less common clinically aggressive estrogen-independent type II. Little is known about risk factors for type II tumors because most studies lack sufficient cases to study these much less common tumors separately. We examined whether so-called classical endometrial cancer risk factors also influence the risk of type II tumors. Patients and Methods Individual-level data from 10 cohort and 14 case-control studies from the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium were pooled. A total of 14,069 endometrial cancer cases and 35,312 controls were included. We classified endometrioid (n = 7,246), adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified (n = 4,830), and adenocarcinoma with squamous differentiation (n = 777) as type I tumors and serous (n = 508) and mixed cell (n = 346) as type II tumors. Results Parity, oral contraceptive use, cigarette smoking, age at menarche, and diabetes were associated with type I and type II tumors to similar extents. Body mass index, however, had a greater effect on type I tumors than on type II tumors: odds ratio (OR) per 2 kg/m2 increase was 1.20 (95% CI, 1.19 to 1.21) for type I and 1.12 (95% CI, 1.09 to 1.14) for type II tumors (Pheterogeneity < .0001). Risk factor patterns for high-grade endometrioid tumors and type II tumors were similar. Conclusion The results of this pooled analysis suggest that the two endometrial cancer types share many common etiologic factors. The etiology of type II tumors may, therefore, not be completely estrogen independent, as previously believed. PMID:23733771

  14. Thermoelectric material including a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Jihui (Lakeshore, CA); Shi, Xun (Troy, MI); Bai, Shengqiang (Shanghai, CN); Zhang, Wenqing (Shanghai, CN); Chen, Lidong (Shanghai, CN); Yang, Jiong (Shanghai, CN)

    2012-01-17

    A thermoelectric material includes a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure having the formula A.sub.8TM.sub.y.sub.1.sup.1TM.sub.y.sub.2.sup.2 . . . TM.sub.y.sub.n.sup.nM.sub.zX.sub.46-y.sub.1.sub.-y.sub.2.sub.- . . . -y.sub.n.sub.-z. In the formula, A is selected from the group consisting of barium, strontium, and europium; X is selected from the group consisting of silicon, germanium, and tin; M is selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, and indium; TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, and TM.sup.n are independently selected from the group consisting of 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metals; and y.sub.1, y.sub.2, y.sub.n and Z are actual compositions of TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, TM.sup.n, and M, respectively. The actual compositions are based upon nominal compositions derived from the following equation: z=8q.sub.A-|.DELTA.q.sub.1|y.sub.1-|.DELTA.q.sub.2|y.sub.2- . . . -|.DELTA.q.sub.n|y.sub.n, wherein q.sub.A is a charge state of A, and wherein .DELTA.q.sub.1, .DELTA.q.sub.2, .DELTA.q.sub.n are, respectively, the nominal charge state of the first, second, and n-th TM.

  15. Impact of Outliers Arising from Unintended and Unknowingly Included Subpopulations on the Decisions about the Number of Factors in Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yan; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of research on the effects of outliers on the decisions about the number of factors to retain in an exploratory factor analysis, especially for outliers arising from unintended and unknowingly included subpopulations. The purpose of the present research was to investigate how outliers from an unintended and unknowingly included

  16. Lucky drift estimation of excess noise factor for conventional avalanche photodiodes including the dead space effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John S. Marsland; R. C. Woods; C. A. Brownhill

    1992-01-01

    A technique for estimating the excess noise factor in conventional avalanche photodiodes has been developed. It is based upon a computer simulation of carrier motion using the lucky drift concept. The importance of the impact ionization dead space is demonstrated, and an established theory is shown to overestimate the excess noise factor due to the neglect of the dead space

  17. CHEMICAL WASTE RECYCLING PROGRAM All types of batteries are collected by Chemical Waste Services (CWS) for recycling. These include

    E-print Network

    Baker, Chris I.

    Services (CWS) for recycling. These include alkaline, lithium, rechargeable, coin batteries, leadCHEMICAL WASTE RECYCLING PROGRAM BATTERIES All types of batteries are collected by Chemical Waste-acid and all other types. Uninterruptible Power Source (UPS) batteries must be removed from the UPS casing

  18. A. Modifications to the Presented Experiment A.1 Including a third Treasury security type asset

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    type asset U.S. Treasury securities carry a zero probability of default (and very low risk overall that it can create panic in the financial markets leading to a spiral of downward movements. #12 and then should be returned back to their owner in the next period. This is consistent with the usual practice

  19. Cluster type grain interaction model including twinning for texture prediction: Application to magnesium alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sijia Mu; Talal Al-Samman; Volker Mohles; Günter Gottstein

    2011-01-01

    In many materials with low crystal symmetry or low stacking fault energies plastic deformation occurs not only by crystallographic slip, but also by twinning. Several proposals have been made to implement mechanical twinning into texture modeling, for example the predominant twin reorientation (PTR) scheme of Tomé. The grain interaction (GIA) model is one of the most advanced cluster type Taylor

  20. Estimating the number of factors to include in a high-dimensional multivariate bilinear model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eun Sug Park; Ronald C. Henry; Clifford H. Spiegelman

    2000-01-01

    We present two new statistics for estimating the number of factors underlying in a multivariate system. One of the two new methods, the original NUMFACT, has been used in high profile environmental studies. The two new methods are first explained from a geometrical viewpoint. We then present an algebraic development and asymptotic cutoff points. Next we present a simulation study

  1. School Factors Associated with Mainstream Progress in Secondary Education for Included Pupils with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Lisa A.; Reed, Phil

    2011-01-01

    This research examined the factors promoting inclusion of young people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in mainstream secondary schools, and noted high levels of behavioral difficulties in these pupils. The size of the secondary school, and the class size, impacted positively on the pupils with Autism, and the number of other pupils with…

  2. Infrared Absorption Spectra of Certain Organic Compounds, Including the Principal Types Present in Gasoline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles F. Kettering; W. W. Sleator

    1933-01-01

    The absorption spectra for twenty-five compounds, of which seventeen are typical of the important components of gasoline and which include both chain and ring molecules, all in the vapor state, have been examined throughout the spectral range 1? to 30?, by using prisms of NaCl, KCl and KBr. The percentage absorption is shown graphically in the charts which follow as

  3. A well-type ionization chamber geometric correction factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiler, R. J.; Sibata, C. H.; Ho, A. K.; de Souza, C.; Shin, K. H.

    1996-07-01

    To correct for the influence of source configuration on the measured activity of spherical and cylindrical brachytherapy sources, a geometric correction factor was calculated for the Standard Imaging HDR-1000 well-type ionization chamber. A Fortran program modelled each source as a lattice of point sources. Because of the cylindrical symmetry of the well chamber, it could be uniquely modelled by point detectors along the perimeter of the radial plane of the detection volume. Path lengths were calculated and attenuation factors were applied to each source - detector point combination individually. The total dose rate at each detection point was found through a Sievert summation of the point source contributions. For sources with identical activities, a correction factor of was calculated, equal to the ratio of the dose rate of the cylindrical source to that of the sphere. Experimental verification using a Nuclear Associates 67-809 series cylindrical source and an Amersham spherical source yielded a correction factor of .

  4. Should Global Burden of Disease Estimates Include Depression as a Risk Factor for Coronary Heart Disease?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fiona J Charlson; Nicholas JC Stapelberg; Amanda J Baxter; Harvey A Whiteford

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study estimates the premature mortality and disability of all major diseases and injuries.\\u000a In addition it aims to quantify the risk that diseases and other factors play in the aetiology of disease and injuries. Mental\\u000a disorders and coronary heart disease are both significant public health issues due to their high prevalence and considerable\\u000a contribution

  5. Experiences with new European standards for calculation of flanged joints including necessary gasket factors

    SciTech Connect

    Bartonicek, J. [GKN Gemeinschaftskernkraftwerk Neckar, Neckarwestheim (Germany); Kockelmann, H. [Univ. Stuttgart (Germany). MPA Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt; Schoeckle, F. [AMTEC Advanced Measurements, Leinfelden (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The correct function of a flanged joint in a given construction (flanges, bolts) and with given loads (pressure, temperature, additional forces) depends on the following: (1) choice of the gasket for the operation environment; (2) determination of the gasket stress for assembly conditions; and (3) gasket stress in operation, i.e., the conditions when leakage has to be minimized. For the correct choice of a gasket it is necessary to have gasket factors available, as given by DIN 28090 (Sept. 95) together with the test procedures. These gasket factors determine the tightening characteristics as well as the deformation capability of the gaskets. Furthermore, these gasket factors must be available for use in calculations. On the basis of calculations a stress analysis (i.e. a limitation of the stresses in flanges and bolts) must be possible as well as the determination of the bolt forces for the assembly state and of the gasket stress for operating conditions. This is one of the goals of the standard pr DIN EN 1591. The paper first introduces the actual European standards. Calculations are reviewed using test data from special test rigs and from real flanged joints. The calculations were made according to DIN 2505 (initial German standard for flanged joints) and pr DIN EN 1591. Additionally, 2D and 3D Finite Element analysis calculations were performed.

  6. Immunohistochemical expression of Type IV Collagen and Autocrine Motility Factor Receptor in Odontogenic Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Sneha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Autocrine motility factor receptor (AMFR) is a tumour motility stimulating protein secreted by tumour cells. The protein encoded by this gene is a glycosylated transmembrane protein and a receptor for autocrine motility factor. It has been known to play a role in progression of neoplastic lesions. Basement membranes are specialized extracellular matrices that serve as structural barriers as well as substrates for cellular interactions. The network of type IV collagen is thought to define the scaffold integrating other components such as laminins and perlecan into highly organized supramolecular architecture. The aim of this study was to determine and evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of Type IV Collagen and Autocrine motility factor receptor in odontogenic lesions. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical expression of Type IV Collagen and Autocrine motility factor receptor was evaluated in 31 odontogenic lesions, including unicystic ameloblastoma, multicystic ameloblastoma, keratocystic odontogenic tumour and ameloblastic carcinoma. Normal follicular tissue formed the control. Results: Maximum expression for Type IV Collagen was seen in multicystic ameloblastoma and minimum expression in keratocystic odontogenic tumour. The maximum expression of AMFR was seen in ameloblastic carcinoma and minimum expression in multicystic ameloblastoma. Conclusion: The results of this study suggested an association of loss of expression of type IV Collagen with progression of lesion. AMFR expression was found to be associated with the aggressive potential of tumours. PMID:25478440

  7. Apolipoprotein E polymorphisms and type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of 30 studies including 5423 cases and 8197 controls.

    PubMed

    Anthopoulos, P G; Hamodrakas, S J; Bagos, P G

    2010-07-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a highly complicated metabolic disorder for which there is worldwide effort for the identification of susceptibility genes. Polymorphisms of the Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene are associated with plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels and influence cardiovascular risk. Since insulin resistance is known to be strongly associated with metabolic dyslipidemia, ApoE polymorphisms have been implicated in predisposition to diabetes but the results of the individual studies were inconclusive. We present here a meta-analysis of population-based case-control genetic-association studies relating ApoE polymorphisms and T2DM. We included in the analysis 30 studies, which reported data of ApoE genotypes in 5423 T2DM patients and 8197 healthy unrelated controls. Multivariate and univariate methods suggest a significant role played by the E2 allele, since carriers of the E2 allele were at elevated risk for T2DM (Odds Ratio=1.18, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.35). There was no evidence for publication bias or other small-study related bias or significant heterogeneity in the analyses. Cumulative meta-analysis revealed no trend of the effect estimates over time and influential analysis excluded the possibility of a single influential study. E2 allele of ApoE seems to be a moderate risk factor for T2DM. Meta-regression analysis provided some weak evidence that the risk conferred by E2 allele is mediated through altering serum lipid levels (Total Cholesterol, LDL and HDL). Further studies are needed in order to elucidate the metabolic mechanism of this association as well as to study its effects on larger populations. PMID:20381392

  8. Epidemiological profiles of hand, foot, and mouth disease, including meteorological factors, in Suzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhengrong; Sun, Hongpeng; Yan, Yongdong; Wang, Yuqing; Zhu, Canhong; Zhou, Weifang; Huang, Li; Wang, Meijuan; Mize, Maximillion; Tian, Jianmei; Ji, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the epidemiological profiles of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) activity in Suzhou, China, and the relationship between meteorological factors and enterovirus71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CoxA16) infection. Children < 14 years old with probable HFMD at Soochow University Affiliated Children's Hospital were enrolled during January 2008 to December 2013. Samples from hospitalized children with HFMD were collected and tested using real-time reverse transcription PCR. Correlations between probable HFMD, laboratory-confirmed HFMD, and meteorological factors were analyzed using bivariate correlation, stepwise regression and time series analysis. A total of 29,530 probable cases were diagnosed with HFMD, and 1090 hospitalized cases were confirmed in the laboratory. The median age of individuals with HFMD was 28.6 months (interquartile range, 18-46.9 months), and the incidence was highest in children aged 12-36 months. Children infected with other enteroviruses were younger than those infected with EV71 and CoxA16. Mean temperature and total rainfall were strongly correlated with probable HFMD. In terms of the specific pathogen, only EV71 cases were associated with mean temperature during the study period of 2012-2013. Based on a simple seasonal model with a good fit, a seasonal pattern of HFMD activity could be predicted. This study provides quantitative evidence that probable HFMD was associated with mean temperature and total rainfall. Furthermore, a seasonal model could be used as an early and reliable monitoring system to predict seasonal pattern of HFMD in Suzhou, China. PMID:25430907

  9. Rimonabant: a cannabinoid receptor type 1 blocker for management of multiple cardiometabolic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Eli V; Cannon, Christopher P

    2006-05-16

    Rimonabant is a first selective blocker of the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) being developed for the treatment of multiple cardiometabolic risk factors, including abdominal obesity and smoking. In four large trials, after one year of treatment, rimonabant 20 mg led to greater weight loss and reduction in waist circumference compared with placebo. Therapy with rimonabant is also associated with favorable changes in serum lipid levels and an improvement in glycemic control in prediabetes patients and in type 2 diabetic patients. At the same dose, rimonabant significantly increased cigarette smoking quit rates as compared with placebo. Rimonabant seems to be well tolerated, with a primary side effect of mild nausea. As an agent with a novel mechanism of action, rimonabant has a potential to be a useful adjunct to lifestyle and behavior modification in treatment of multiple cardiometabolic risk factors, including abdominal obesity and smoking. PMID:16697306

  10. The transcription factor lymphoid enhancer factor 1 controls invariant natural killer T cell expansion and Th2-type effector differentiation.

    PubMed

    Carr, Tiffany; Krishnamoorthy, Veena; Yu, Shuyang; Xue, Hai-Hui; Kee, Barbara L; Verykokakis, Mihalis

    2015-05-01

    Invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) are innate-like T cells that rapidly produce cytokines that impact antimicrobial immune responses, asthma, and autoimmunity. These cells acquire multiple effector fates during their thymic development that parallel those of CD4(+) T helper cells. The number of Th2-type effector iNKT cells is variable in different strains of mice, and their number impacts CD8 T, dendritic, and B cell function. Here we demonstrate a unique function for the transcription factor lymphoid enhancer factor 1 (LEF1) in the postselection expansion of iNKT cells through a direct induction of the CD127 component of the receptor for interleukin-7 (IL-7) and the transcription factor c-myc. LEF1 also directly augments expression of the effector fate-specifying transcription factor GATA3, thus promoting the development of Th2-like effector iNKT cells that produce IL-4, including those that also produce interferon-?. Our data reveal LEF1 as a central regulator of iNKT cell number and Th2-type effector differentiation. PMID:25897173

  11. 43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    43 ? Public Lands: Interior ? 1 ? 2010-10-01 ? 2010-10-01 ? false ? What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? ? 404.9 ? Section 404.9 ? Public Lands: Interior ? Regulations Relating to Public Lands ? BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT...

  12. Importance of genetic factors in the occurrence of epilepsy syndrome type: A twin study

    PubMed Central

    Corey, Linda A.; Pellock, John M.; Kjeldsen, Marianne J.; Nakken, Karl Otto

    2011-01-01

    Summary Although there is strong evidence that genetic factors contribute to risk for epilepsy, their role in the determination of syndrome type is less clear. This study was undertaken to address this question. Information related to epilepsy was obtained from twins included in 455 monozygotic and 868 dizygotic pairs ascertained from population-based twin registries in Denmark, Norway and the United States. Syndrome type was determined based on medical record information and detailed clinical interviews and classified using the International Classification Systems for the Epilepsies and Epileptic Syndromes. Concordance rates were significantly increased in monozygotic versus dizygotic pairs for all major syndrome groups except localization-related cryptogenic epilepsy. Among generalized epilepsies, genetic factors were found to play an important role in the determination of childhood absence, juvenile absence, juvenile myoclonic, and idiopathic generalized epilepsy; and to a lesser degree for epilepsies with grand mal seizures on awakening. Among localization-related epilepsies, genetic factors contributed to risk for localization-related idiopathic and symptomatic syndromes overall, but did not appear to play an important role in determining risk for frontal, occipital or temporal lobe epilepsy. These results suggest that, while genetic factors contribute to risk for major syndrome types, determined when possible, their contribution to risk for localization-related syndrome sub-types, as defined by specific focality, may be modest. PMID:21885256

  13. Risk Factors and Primary Prevention Trials for Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yan-Ling; Ding, Yan-Ping; Gao, Jian; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Zhang, Wen

    2013-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic autoimmune disease resulting in the designated immune destruction of insulin producing ?-cells, usually diagnosed in youth, and associated with important psychological, familial, and social disorders. Once diagnosed, patients need lifelong insulin treatment and will experience multiple disease-associated complications. There is no cure for T1DM currently. The last decade has witnessed great progress in elucidating the causes and treatment of the disease based on numerous researches both in rodent models of spontaneous diabetes and in humans. This article summarises our current understanding of the pathogenesis of T1DM, the roles of the immune system, genes, environment and other factors in the continuing and rapid increase in T1DM incidence at younger ages in humans. In addition, we discuss the strategies for primary and secondary prevention trials of T1DM. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of this disorder's pathogenesis, risk factors that cause the disease, as well as to bring forward an ideal approach to prevent and cure the disorder. PMID:23904791

  14. Genomes & Developmental Control Med-type GATA factors and the evolution of mesendoderm

    E-print Network

    Maduro, Morris F.

    Genomes & Developmental Control Med-type GATA factors and the evolution of mesendoderm. elegans, the divergent GATA-type transcription factors MED-1 and MED-2 are encoded by an unlinked that is not expected from the resemblance of its single C4-type zinc finger to those of other known GATA factors, which

  15. Tae-Eum Type as an Independent Risk Factor for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Ku; Yoon, Dae Wui; Yi, Hyeryeon; Lee, Si Woo; Kim, Jong Yeol; Shin, Chol

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is prevalent and associated with several kinds of chronic diseases. There has been evidence that a specific type of Sasang constitution is a risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases that can be found in patients with OSA, but there are no studies that address the association between the Sasang constitution type (SCT) and OSA. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between the SCT and OSA. A total of 652 participants were included. All participants were examined for demographic information, medical history, and completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire on life style and sleep-related variables. Biochemical analyses were performed to determine the glucose and lipid profiles. An objective recording of OSA was done with an unattended home PSG using an Embla portable device. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and oxygen desaturation index (ODI) were significantly higher in the Tae-eum (TE) type as compared to the So-eum (SE) and the So-yang (SY) types. Even after adjusting for confounding variables, the TE type still had a 2.34-fold (95% CI, 1.11–4.94; P = 0.0262) increased risk for OSA. This population-based cohort study found that the TE constitutional type is an independent risk factor for the development of OSA. PMID:23554836

  16. Risk Factors for Group B Streptococcal Colonization: Potential for Different Transmission Systems by Capsular Type

    PubMed Central

    Foxman, B.; Gillespie, B. W.; Manning, S. D.; Marrs, C. F.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a common inhabitant of the bowel and vaginal flora, with known transmission routes including sexual contact and vertical transmission from mother to infant. Foodborne transmission is also possible, as GBS is a known fish and bovine pathogen. We conducted a prospective cohort study in order to identify risk factors for acquisition. Methods We identified risk factors for GBS acquisition among college women (n=129) and men (n=128) followed at 3-week intervals for 3 months. Results A doubling in sex acts significantly increased incidence of capsular type V by 80% (95% CI: 1.19, 2.58), and other non-Ia or Ib types combined by 40% (95% CI: 1.00, 2.06; incidence of capsular type Ia (OR=1.2; 95% CI: 0.71, 1.88 p=0.57) and Ib (OR=1.5, 95% CI: 0.75, 2.86, p=0.27) were elevated although not significantly. After adjustment for sexual activity and sexual history, gender, and eating venue, fish consumption increased risk of acquiring capsular types Ia and Ib combined 7.3 fold (95% CI: 2.34, 19.50), but not other capsular types. Beef and milk were not associated with GBS incidence. Conclusions Different GBS capsular types may have different transmission routes. PMID:17689259

  17. Overview of the Taxonomy of Environmental Types and the Factor Structure of the Salter Environmental Type Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Daniel W.; Vandiver, Beverly J.

    2002-01-01

    The Salter Environmental Type Assessment (SETA) was created to be a commensurate measure for the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and to improve the efficacy of the person-environmental interaction paradigm to student affairs. A confirmatory factor analysis of SETA profiles supported the four dimensions in environmental type theory. The utility of this…

  18. Perceptions and management of psychosocial factors affecting type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese Americans.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Juliana; Halperin, Lucila; Ritholz, Marilyn D; Hsu, William C

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes has become a global pandemic and Chinese Americans are at least 60% more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than White Americans, despite having lower body weight, due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Because of the increased risk, it is vitally important to address the issues of treatment adherence and diabetes self-management in the Chinese American population. Many factors affect an individual's ability to manage diabetes, including cultural beliefs, immigration experience, language abilities/health literacy, educational background, employment, and accessibility of healthcare services. In treating Chinese American patients, these factors must be considered to determine appropriate treatment. Eastern cultural and individual beliefs differ greatly from Western beliefs and, therefore, may affect the presentation of the patients. If left unacknowledged, these differences might be misinterpreted by healthcare providers as merely treatment non-adherence or unwillingness to change. Suggestions for providing culturally competent healthcare are discussed. PMID:23545465

  19. Effects of various factors including the CYP2D6 genotype and coadministration of flunitrazepam on the steady-state plasma concentrations of bromperidol and its reduced metabolite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Suzuki; K. Otani; K. Mihara; N. Yasui; T. Kondo; N. Tokinaga; H. Furukori; S. Kaneko; Y. Inoue; K. Hayashi

    1998-01-01

    The effects of various factors, including the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 genotype and the coadministration of flunitrazepam, on the steady-state plasma concentrations (Css) of bromperidol and its\\u000a reduced metabolite were studied in 62 schizophrenic inpatients receiving bromperidol 12 mg\\/day. By use of allele-specific\\u000a PCR analysis, the wild type allele (CYP2D6\\u000a \\u000a *\\u000a \\u000a 1A) and four mutated alleles causing either absent (CYP2D6

  20. Bayesian Ages for Early-type Stars from Isochrones Including Rotation, and a Possible Old Age for the Hyades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Timothy D.; Huang, Chelsea X.

    2015-07-01

    We combine recently computed models of stellar evolution using a new treatment of rotation with a Bayesian statistical framework to constrain the ages and other properties of early-type stars. We find good agreement for early-type stars and clusters with known young ages, including ? Pictoris, the Pleiades, and the Ursa Majoris moving group. However, we derive a substantially older age for the Hyades open cluster (750 ± 100 Myr compared to 625 ± 50 Myr). This older age results from both the increase in main-sequence lifetime with stellar rotation and from the fact that rotating models near the main-sequence turnoff are more luminous, overlapping with slightly more massive (and shorter-lived) nonrotating ones. Our method uses a large grid of nonrotating models to interpolate between a much sparser rotating grid, and also includes a detailed calculation of synthetic magnitudes as a function of orientation. We provide a web interface at http://www.bayesianstellarparameters.info, where the results of our analysis may be downloaded for individual early-type (B-V? 0.25) Hipparcos stars. The web interface accepts user-supplied parameters for a Gaussian metallicity prior and returns posterior probability distributions on mass, age, and orientation.

  1. A predator-prey model with a holling type I functional response including a predator mutual interference

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seo, G.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    The most widely used functional response in describing predator-prey relationships is the Holling type II functional response, where per capita predation is a smooth, increasing, and saturating function of prey density. Beddington and DeAngelis modified the Holling type II response to include interference of predators that increases with predator density. Here we introduce a predator-interference term into a Holling type I functional response. We explain the ecological rationale for the response and note that the phase plane configuration of the predator and prey isoclines differs greatly from that of the Beddington-DeAngelis response; for example, in having three possible interior equilibria rather than one. In fact, this new functional response seems to be quite unique. We used analytical and numerical methods to show that the resulting system shows a much richer dynamical behavior than the Beddington-DeAngelis response, or other typically used functional responses. For example, cyclic-fold, saddle-fold, homoclinic saddle connection, and multiple crossing bifurcations can all occur. We then use a smooth approximation to the Holling type I functional response with predator mutual interference to show that these dynamical properties do not result from the lack of smoothness, but rather from subtle differences in the functional responses. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  2. Bayes factors based on robust TDT-type tests for family trio design.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Min; Pan, Xiaoqing; Yang, Yaning

    2015-06-01

    Adaptive transmission disequilibrium test (aTDT) and MAX3 test are two robust-efficient association tests for case-parent family trio data. Both tests incorporate information of common genetic models including recessive, additive and dominant models and are efficient in power and robust to genetic model specifications. The aTDT uses information of departure from Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium to identify the potential genetic model underlying the data and then applies the corresponding TDT-type test, and the MAX3 test is defined as the maximum of the absolute value of three TDT-type tests under the three common genetic models. In this article, we propose three robust Bayes procedures, the aTDT based Bayes factor, MAX3 based Bayes factor and Bayes model averaging (BMA), for association analysis with case-parent trio design. The asymptotic distributions of aTDT under the null and alternative hypothesis are derived in order to calculate its Bayes factor. Extensive simulations show that the Bayes factors and the p-values of the corresponding tests are generally consistent and these Bayes factors are robust to genetic model specifications, especially so when the priors on the genetic models are equal. When equal priors are used for the underlying genetic models, the Bayes factor method based on aTDT is more powerful than those based on MAX3 and Bayes model averaging. When the prior placed a small (large) probability on the true model, the Bayes factor based on aTDT (BMA) is more powerful. Analysis of a simulation data about RA from GAW15 is presented to illustrate applications of the proposed methods. PMID:26030793

  3. Prospective Study of Social and Other Risk Factors for Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes

    E-print Network

    Brown, Lucy L.

    Prospective Study of Social and Other Risk Factors for Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in the incidence of type 2 diabetes and the relation of health behaviors and psy- chosocial factors to the incidence of type 2 diabetes are not well established. Methods: Prospective occupational cohort study

  4. Analysis of factors inducing different type of landslide in apparently similar environmental contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busnardo, Enrico; Secco, Michele; Salbego, Giorgio; Toaldo, Miriam; Lampo, Chiara; Artioli, Gilberto; Floris, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Landslides frequently hit the hilly region of the Vicenza province (North-Eastern Italian Alps) exposing human activities to damage. The region includes Lessini Mountains and Marostica hills. These two areas are separated by a portion of the upper Vicenza plain. They have the same lithological framework, with the predominance of Tertiary volcanic rocks (Basalts and Tuffs) and most of landslides are earth slides and earth flows which affect the altered volcanic bedrock. At first glance, only considering these two type of movements, it seems that the predisposing conditions, as well as triggering factors (i.e. rainfall) are the same. The aim of this work is to find the factors that determine earth slides rather than earth flows. In other words, we checked if there are any anomalies due to particular lithological and morphological constraints attributable to a type of movement. The research was performed both at large and small scale. At large scale, we decide to perform spatial analysis of four numerical and seven categorical factors. Numerical factors are elevation, provided by the Veneto Region, slope gradient, slope aspect and surface curvature, derived from elevation. Categorical data are: soils map and land-use map, both provided by the Veneto Region; lithological map provided by the Vicenza province; IFFI (Inventory of Landslide Phenomena in Italy) project data. We also consider factors such as roads, rivers network and civil buildings. Spatial analysis was performed using a simple probabilistic method that compares spatial distribution of landslides with numerical and categorical factors. At small-scale, we performed mineralogical and geotechnical analyses of samples collected from an earth slide and an earth flow. In order to define the mineralogical phases we use x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) of whole sample and of thin portion. Geotechnical indexes were obtained by Atterber Limits and sieve analyses. We also determined the rheological and swelling properties of the materials. In particular we investigated the variation of those properties as a function of water content. At large-scale, we identified which are the main factors (morphological, lithological and anthropic factors) that determine the different types of landslides. At small-scale, we found significant differences in geotechnical and mineralogical properties of materials involved in the two type of landslide.

  5. The iron-responsive, GATA-type transcription factor Cir1 influences mating in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Jung, Won Hee; Kronstad, James W

    2011-01-01

    Mating and sexual development have been associated with virulence in various fungal pathogens including Cryptococcus neoformans. This fungus is a significant pathogen of humans because it causes life-threatening cryptococcal meningitis in immunocompromised people such as AIDS patients. The virulence of C. neoformans is known to be associated with the mating type of the cells (? or a), with the ? mating type being predominant among clinical isolates. However, the mechanisms by which mating and sexual development are controlled by environmental conditions and their relationship with virulence require further investigation. Cir1 is a GATA-type transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes required for utilization of essential metals such as iron and copper, and also genes required for major virulence factors including the polysaccharide capsule and melanin. Here we investigated the role of Cir1 in the mating of C. neoformans. Our results demonstrate that mutants lacking CIR1 are defective in mating, and that Cir1 contributes to copper mediated enhancement of sexual filamentation. Furthermore, we found that Cir1 influences the expression of mating pheromone genes suggesting that this protein plays a role in the early phase of sexual development on V8 mating medium. PMID:21120626

  6. Genetic Interactions between Brn3 Transcription Factors in Retinal Ganglion Cell Type Specification

    PubMed Central

    Kretschmer, Friedrich; Mu, Xiuqian; Badea, Tudor C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Visual information is conveyed from the retina to the brain via 15–20 Retinal Ganglion Cell (RGC) types. The developmental mechanisms by which RGC types acquire their distinct molecular, morphological, physiological and circuit properties are essentially unknown, but may involve combinatorial transcriptional regulation. Brn3 transcription factors are expressed in RGCs from early developmental stages, and are restricted in adults to distinct, partially overlapping populations of RGC types. Previously, we described cell autonomous effects of Brn3b (Pou4f2) and Brn3a (Pou4f1) on RGC axon and dendrites development. Methods and Findings We now have investigated genetic interactions between Brn3 transcription factors with respect to RGC development, by crossing conventional knock-out alleles of each Brn3 gene with conditional knock-in reporter alleles of a second Brn3 gene, and analyzing the effects of single or double Brn3 knockouts on RGC survival and morphology. We find that Brn3b loss results in axon defects and dendritic arbor area and lamination defects in Brn3a positive RGCs, and selectively affects survival and morphology of specific Brn3c (Pou4f3) positive RGC types. Brn3a and Brn3b interact synergistically to control RGC numbers. Melanopsin positive ipRGCs are resistant to combined Brn3 loss but are under the transcriptional control of Isl1, expanding the combinatorial code of RGC specification. Conclusions Taken together these results complete our knowledge on the mechanisms of transcriptional control of RGC type specification. They demonstrate that Brn3b is required for the correct development of more RGC cell types than suggested by its expression pattern in the adult, but that several cell types, including some Brn3a, Brn3c or Melanopsin positive RGCs are Brn3b independent. PMID:24116103

  7. The Type Series of 'Sinemys' Wuerhoensis, a Problematic Turtlefrom the Lower Cretaceous of China, Includes at Least Three Taxa

    SciTech Connect

    Danilov, Igor G.; Parham, James F.

    2007-03-01

    We re-examine the type series of 'Sinemys' wuerhoensis Yeh(at least 20 specimens, including several shells and skulls on threeslabs of matrix and one isolated skull) from the Early Cretaceous TuguluGroup of China. Our study shows that the type series of 'S.'wuerhoensisis actually a chimera made up of at least three distinct taxa. Theholotype of this taxon should be assigned to the basal eucryptodire genusXinjiangchelys Yeh. As there are no characters that distinguish'S.'wuerhoensis from Xinjiangchelys species, we consider it to be a nomendubium. This new assignment of 'S.'wuerhoensis expands the temporal rangeof Xinjiangchelys from the Late Jurassic into the Early Cretaceous inAsia. The majority of the paratypes of 'S.'wuerhoensis (several shells indorsal and ventral aspect and skulls) are referred to the basaleucryptodire genus Ordosemys Brinkman and Peng. We establish a new namefor these specimens, Ordosemys brinkmania sp. nov. One additionalspecimen in the type series of 'S.'wuerhoensis, a skull, is referred tocf. Pantrionychia Joyce, Parham and Gauthier indet.

  8. The Use of API Career Factors as Holland Occupational Types

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan A. Ahadi

    1991-01-01

    As a modern version of the 16PF, the Adult Personality Inventory (API) was designed to report scale scores that provided more information and were more useful to psychologists than the underlying 16 factors. This was accomplished by generating a set of 21 scales that are linear combinations of the original 16 factors. Six of the API scales have been labeled

  9. The location of the Myers-Briggs type indicator in personality factor space

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aristide Saggino; Paul Kline

    1996-01-01

    Two factor analyses were performed to investigate the validity of the Italian version of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Form F by locating the MBTI scales and factors in personality factor space in order to establish their meaning. In the first analysis the four continuous scores of the MBTI were subjected to a factor analysis together with the scales of

  10. Do Type A men drink more frequently than Type B men? Findings in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron R. Folsom; John R. Hughes; Jan F. Buehler; Maurice B. Mittelmark; David R. Jacobs; Richard H. Grimm

    1985-01-01

    The association between the Type A behavior pattern and self-reported alcohol intake was studied among men at high risk for coronary disease in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Two assessments of behavior pattern, the Structured Behavior Pattern Interview (SBPI) and the Jenkins Activity Survey (JAS), and two measures of alcohol intake were examined. Type A's consumed more alcohol (up

  11. II. Comparisons among Three Distinct Types of Monoclonal Suppressor Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KENJI OKUDA; MUTSUHIKO MINAMI; SHUICHI FURUSAWA; MARTIN E. DORF

    Recent advances in cell hybridization techniques have permitted the fusion of functional T cell subpopulations with tumor cells to yield stable T cell hybridomas (1-9). Such hybrids immortalize the biological activity of an individual cell and permit analysis of monoclonal T cell-derived helper (5) and suppression factors (2, 4, 6, 9, 10). The preparation of monoclonal T cell hybridomas and

  12. Curriculum Type as a Differentiating Factor in Medical Licensing Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Linjun

    This study assessed the effects of the type of medical curriculum on differential item functioning (DIF) and group differences at the test level in Level 1 of the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examinations (COMLEX). The study also explored the relationship of the DIF and group differences at the test level. There are generally two…

  13. 29 CFR 37.34 - What type of notice must a recipient include in publications, broadcasts, and other communications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 true What type of notice must...broadcasts, and other communications? 37.34 Section...Recipients Notice and Communication § 37.34 What type of notice must...broadcasts, and other communications?...

  14. 29 CFR 37.34 - What type of notice must a recipient include in publications, broadcasts, and other communications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false What type of notice must...broadcasts, and other communications? 37.34 Section...Recipients Notice and Communication § 37.34 What type of notice must...broadcasts, and other communications?...

  15. Gene Ther . Author manuscript Coagulation factor X mediates adenovirus type 5 liver gene transfer in

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Gene Ther . Author manuscript Page /1 4 Coagulation factor X mediates adenovirus type 5 liver gene been genetically engineered to ablate the interaction with coagulation factor X (FX) resulting coagulation factors in mediating liver gene transfer and the mechanism underlying Ad5 hepatocyte transduction

  16. Item factor analysis of the Italian version of the Myers-Briggs type indicator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aristide Saggino; Paul Kline

    1995-01-01

    The 95 scored items of the Italian version of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Form F were subjected to a rotated, simple-structure factor analysis with a sample of 1798 subjects. Five factors were obtained of which four resembled the four MBTI scales. Cronbach ?-coefficients are reported for the scales and factors together with their intercorrelations. The results support the scale

  17. Delayed-type heparin allergy: diagnostic procedures and treatment alternatives--a case series including 15 patients

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions (DTHRs) after subcutaneous application of unfractionated heparins or low-molecular-weight heparins are not uncommon. Standard allergological testing usually includes intracutaneous skin tests and patch testing of different heparins, heparinoids, and thrombin inhibitors followed by subcutaneous and/or intravenous challenge with skin test-negative drugs. We present data from a single-center case series of 15 patients with DTHR after low-molecular-weight heparin administration. Intracutaneous testing that can be considered as gold standard identified the suspicious elicitor in 11 (73.4%) of 15 of the patients. Patch testing was positive in 5 (33.4%) of 15 of the patients and was only positive in patients who were also reacting in the intradermal testing. Intravenous challenge with heparin sodium was performed in 10 of 15 patients and was well tolerated in all cases, despite prior positive intracutaneous tests with the same substance. Intracutaneous documentation of DTHR was not an adequate predictor of intravenous challenge. PMID:23282847

  18. Power Factor Anisotropy of p-Type and n-Type Conductive Thermoelectric Bi-Sb-Te Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothe, K.; Stordeur, M.; Leipner, H. S.

    2010-09-01

    The best films for thermoelectric applications near room temperature are based on the compounds Bi2Te3, Sb2Te3, and Bi2Se3, which as single crystals have distinct anisotropy in their electrical conductivity ? regarding the trigonal c-axis, whereas the Seebeck coefficient S is nearly isotropic. For p- and n-type alloys, P ?c > P ||c, and the power factors P ?c of single crystals are always higher compared with polycrystalline films, where the power factor is defined as P = S 2 ?, ?c and ||c are the direction perpendicular and parallel to the c-axis, respectively. For the first time in sputter-deposited p-type (Bi0.15Sb0.85)2Te3 and n-type Bi2(Te0.9Se0.1)3 thin films, the anisotropy of the electrical conductivity has been measured directly as it depends on the angle ? between the electrical current and the preferential orientation of the polycrystals (texture) using a standard four-probe method. The graphs of ?( ?) show the expected behavior, which can be described by a weighted mixture of ? ?c and ? ||c contributions. Because ( ? ?c/ ? ||c) p < ( ? ?c/ ? ||c) n , the n-type films have stronger anisotropy than the p-type films. For this reason, the angular weighted contributions of P ||c lead to a larger drop in the power factor of polycrystalline n-type films compared with p-type films.

  19. TISSUE TYPE DIFFERENTIATION FOR BRAIN GLIOMA USING NON-NEGATIVE MATRIX FACTORIZATION

    E-print Network

    TISSUE TYPE DIFFERENTIATION FOR BRAIN GLIOMA USING NON-NEGATIVE MATRIX FACTORIZATION Yuqian Li1, customized for the problem of blindly separating brain glioma tumor tissue types using short-echo time proton detect the spectral profile corresponding to the most predominant tissue type, i.e., normal tissue, while

  20. 42 CFR 137.202 - What types of information will Self-Governance Tribes be expected to include in the reports?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...What types of information will Self-Governance Tribes be expected to include in the...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Health Status...What types of information will Self-Governance Tribes be expected to include in...

  1. Upstream stimulatory factor activates the vasopressin promoter via multiple motifs, including a non-canonical E-box.

    PubMed Central

    Coulson, Judy M; Edgson, Jodie L; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V; Mulgrew, Robert; Quinn, John P; Woll, Penella J

    2003-01-01

    We have described previously a complex E-box enhancer (-147) of the vasopressin promoter in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) extracts [Coulson, Fiskerstrand, Woll and Quinn, (1999) Biochem. J. 344, 961-970]. Upstream stimulatory factor (USF) heterodimers were one of the complexes binding to this site in vitro. We now report that USF overexpression in non-SCLC (NSCLC) cells can functionally activate vasopressin promoter-driven reporters that are otherwise inactive in this type of lung cancer cell. Site-directed mutagenesis and electrophoretic mobility-shift analysis demonstrate that although the -147 E-box contributes, none of the previously predicted E-boxes (-147, -135, -34) wholly account for this USF-mediated activation in NSCLC. 5' Deletion showed the key promoter region as -52 to +42; however, USF-2 binding was not reliant on the -34 E-box, but on a novel adjacent CACGGG non-canonical E-box at -42 (motif E). This mediated USF binding in both SCLC and USF-2-transfected NSCLC cells. Mutation of motif E or the non-canonical TATA box abolished activity, implying both are required for transcriptional initiation on overexpression of USF-2. Co-transfected dominant negative USF confirmed that binding was required through motif E for function, but that the classical activation domain of USF was not essential. USF-2 bound motif E with 10-fold lower affinity than the -147 E-box. In NSCLC, endogenous USF-2 expression is low, and this basal level appears to be insufficient to activate transcription of arginine vasopressin (AVP). In summary, we have demonstrated a novel mechanism for USF activation, which contributes to differential vasopressin expression in lung cancer. PMID:12403649

  2. Type 2 diabetes in children: Clinical aspects and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Rao, P V

    2015-04-01

    A strong link between obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome has been reported with development of a new paradigm to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), with some evidence suggesting that beta-cell dysfunction is present before the onset of impaired glucose tolerance. Differentiating type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) from T2DM is actually not very easy and there exists a number of overlapping characteristics. The autoantibody frequencies of seven antigens in T1DM patients may turn out to be actually having T2DM patients (pre-T2DM). T2DM patients generally have increased C-peptide levels (may be normal at time of diagnosis), usually no auto-antibodies, strong family history of diabetes, obese and show signs of insulin resistance (hypertension, acanthosis, PCOS). The American Academy of Paediatrics recommends lifestyle modifications ± metformin when blood glucose is 126-200 mg/dL and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) <8.5. Insulin is recommended when blood glucose is >200 mg/dL and HbA1c >8.5, with or without ketosis. Metformin is not recommended if the patient is ketotic, because this increases the risk of lactic acidosis. Metformin is currently the only oral hypoglycemic that has been approved for use in children. Knowing these subtle differences in mechanism, and knowing how to test patients for which mechanism (s) are causing their diabetes mellitus, may help us eventually tailor treatment programs on an individual basis. PMID:25941651

  3. Empowerment assessment and influential factors among patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetic patients need high awareness of disease prevention to adopt self-management behaviors in their daily life. Central to this activity is patients’ empowerment. Current study was conducted to assess empowerment score and its related factors among type 2 diabetic patients. Method A cross-sectional study carried out over a period of nine months during 2010–2011. All patients with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes including those referring to four hospitals affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences were recruited. A total of 688 diabetic patients were identified who met the inclusion criteria and were all included in the study. Patients’ empowerment was measured by Diabetes Empowerment Scale reflecting three dimensions including managing psychosocial aspect of diabetes, assessing dissatisfaction and readiness to change and Setting and achieving diabetes goal. Collected data was analysed using SPSS software version 11.5. Results As total, 688 were available for analysis, ranging from 37–81 years old with mean of 54.41 years (SD?=?8.22). The Mean duration of the disease was approximately 6.67 years (SD?=?4.58). Dimensions of ‘managing the psychosocial aspect of diabetes’, ‘assessing dissatisfaction and readiness to change’ and ‘setting and achieving diabetes goal’ were all measured and scored for each patient. The mean score for each domain was 25.75?±?5.55, 24.78?±?7.54, 27.63?±?7.90, respectively. Data analysis revealed a statistically significant reverse relationship between age and ‘assessing dissatisfaction and readiness to change’ and ‘setting and achieving diabetes goal’. In addition, disease duration had a statistically significant reverse relationship with ‘assessing dissatisfaction and readiness to change’. Conclusion Patients with type 2 diabetes have the potential to be empowered to manage their chronic disease if they are actively informed and educated. PMID:23497631

  4. Persistent organic pollutants as risk factors for type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ngwa, Elvis Ndonwi; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Tiedeu-Atogho, Barbara; Mofo-Mato, Edith-Pascale; Sobngwi, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major and fast growing public health problem. Although obesity is considered to be the main driver of the pandemic of T2DM, a possible contribution of some environmental contaminants, of which persistent organic pollutants (POPs) form a particular class, has been suggested. POPs are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes which enable them to persist in the environment, to be capable of long-range transport, bio accumulate in human and animal tissue, bio accumulate in food chains, and to have potential significant impacts on human health and the environment. Several epidemiological studies have reported an association between persistent organic pollutants and diabetes risk. These findings have been replicated in experimental studies both in human (in-vitro) and animals (in-vivo and in-vitro), and patho-physiological derangements through which these pollutants exercise their harmful effect on diabetes risk postulated. This review summarizes available studies, emphasises on limitations so as to enable subsequent studies to be centralized on possible pathways and bring out clearly the role of POPs on diabetes risk. PMID:25987904

  5. Diabetic foot risk factors in type 2 diabetes patients: a cross-sectional case control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetic foot is a serious condition in patients with a long lasting diabetes mellitus. Diabetic foot treated improperly may lead not only to delayed ulceration healing, generalized inflammation, unnecessary surgical intervention, but also to the lower limb amputation. The aim of this study was to compare diabetic foot risk factors in population with type 2 diabetes and risk factors for diabetes in healthy subjects. Methods The study included 900 subjects: 145 with diabetic foot, 293 with type 2 diabetes without diabetic foot and 462 healthy controls matched in terms of mean age, gender structure and cardiovascular diseases absence. Study was conducted in Gastroenterology and Metabolic Diseases Department, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland. In statistical analysis a logistic regression model, U Mann-Whitney’s and t-Student test were used. Results The binomial logit models analysis showed that the risk of diabetic foot in patients with type 2 diabetes was decreased by patient’s age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.92-0.96; p = 0.00001) and hyperlipidaemia (OR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.36-0.81; p = 0.01). In contrast, male gender (OR = 2.83; 95% CI: 1.86-4.28; p = 0.00001) diabetes duration (OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 1.03-1.06; p = 0.0003), weight (OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 1.03-1.06; p = 0.00001), height (OR = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.05-1.11; p = 0.00001) and waist circumference (OR = 1.028; 95% CI: 1.007-1.050; p = 0.006) increase the risk of diabetic foot. The onset of type 2 diabetes in healthy subjects was increased by weight (OR = 1.035; 95% CI: 1.024-1.046; p = 0.00001), WC (OR = 1.075; 95% CI: 1.055-1.096; p = 00001), hip circumference (OR = 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05; p = 0.005), overweight defined with body mass index (BMI) above 24,9 kg/m2 (OR = 2.49; 95% CI: 1.77-3.51; p = 0.00001) and hyperlipidaemia (OR = 3.53; 95% CI: 2.57-4.84; p = 0.00001). Conclusions Risk factors for Type 2 diabetes and diabetic foot are only partially common. Study proved that patients who are prone to developing diabetic foot experience different risk factors than patients who are at risk of diabetes. Identification of relationship between diabetic foot and diabetes risk factors in appropriate groups may help clinicians to focus on certain factors in diabetic foot prevention. PMID:25114882

  6. The Opportunistic Pathogen Propionibacterium acnes: Insights into Typing, Human Disease, Clonal Diversification and CAMP Factor Evolution

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Andrew; Nagy, István; Magyari, Márta; Barnard, Emma; Patrick, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    We previously described a Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) scheme based on eight genes that facilitates population genetic and evolutionary analysis of P. acnes. While MLST is a portable method for unambiguous typing of bacteria, it is expensive and labour intensive. Against this background, we now describe a refined version of this scheme based on two housekeeping (aroE; guaA) and two putative virulence (tly; camp2) genes (MLST4) that correctly predicted the phylogroup (IA1, IA2, IB, IC, II, III), clonal complex (CC) and sequence type (ST) (novel or described) status for 91% isolates (n?=?372) via cross-referencing of the four gene allelic profiles to the full eight gene versions available in the MLST database (http://pubmlst.org/pacnes/). Even in the small number of cases where specific STs were not completely resolved, the MLST4 method still correctly determined phylogroup and CC membership. Examination of nucleotide changes within all the MLST loci provides evidence that point mutations generate new alleles approximately 1.5 times as frequently as recombination; although the latter still plays an important role in the bacterium's evolution. The secreted/cell-associated ‘virulence’ factors tly and camp2 show no clear evidence of episodic or pervasive positive selection and have diversified at a rate similar to housekeeping loci. The co-evolution of these genes with the core genome might also indicate a role in commensal/normal existence constraining their diversity and preventing their loss from the P. acnes population. The possibility that members of the expanded CAMP factor protein family, including camp2, may have been lost from other propionibacteria, but not P. acnes, would further argue for a possible role in niche/host adaption leading to their retention within the genome. These evolutionary insights may prove important for discussions surrounding camp2 as an immunotherapy target for acne, and the effect such treatments may have on commensal lineages. PMID:24058439

  7. THE FURTHER SEPARATION OF TYPES AMONG THE PNEUMOCOCCI HITHERTO INCLUDED IN GROUP IV AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF THERAPEUTIC ANTISERA FOR THESE TYPES.

    PubMed

    Cooper, G; Rosenstein, C; Walter, A; Peizer, L

    1932-03-31

    The unclassified strains known as Group IV have been separated into twenty-nine types which are designated by the Roman numerals IV and XXXII. Only a small percentage of the pneumococcus strains isolated in New York City for this study were left unclassified. The majority of the types gave very slight cross-reactions, the exceptions being Types II and V, III and VIII, VII and XVIII and XV and XXX. In the series of cases studied, Types IV, V, VII and VIII were found more prevalent in the lobar pneumonia of adults and Types V, VI a and XIV in children. The majority of the types were also found in normal individuals and in persons having respiratory infections other than pneumonia. Types VI a and XIX were most prevalent in the limited number of strains studied by us. Fourteen of the types were found in pneumococcus meningitis; Type XVIII was found most often. Antisera suitable for clinical trial have been prepared for fourteen types. From the majority of the horses inoculated for more than a year, antisera having 500 to 1000 units per cc. were obtained. Antisera of lower potency were concentrated and preparations obtained equal to or stronger than high grade unconcentrated serum. Potent bivalent antisera have been prepared for types which were found to give marked cross-agglutination reactions. The results with each type as to prevalence, severity of cases, presence in normal individuals, and in spinal meningitis, potency of antisera produced for therapeutic trial and virulence of strains for mice have been considered under the different type headings. PMID:19870011

  8. Dynamic shape factors for hydox-generated plutonium dioxide-type non-sperical objects

    E-print Network

    Lohaus, James Harold

    1999-01-01

    The dynamic shape factors of HYDOX-generated plutonium dioxide-type non-spherical objects were estimated with computational methods. Leith's empirical methods were used to modify classical Stokes's law for aerosol dynamics (1987). The dynamic shape...

  9. Type specimens in the Port Elizabeth Museum, South Africa, including the historically important Albany Museum collection. Part 1: Amphibians.

    PubMed

    Conradie, Werner; Branch, William R; Watson, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    The Port Elizabeth Museum houses the consolidated herpetological collections of three provincial museums of the Eastern Cape, South Africa: the Port Elizabeth Museum (Port Elizabeth), the Amatole (previously Kaffarian) Museum (King Williams Town), and the Albany Museum (Grahamstown). Under John Hewitt, Albany Museum was the main centre of herpetological research in South Africa from 1910-1940, and he described numerous new species, many based on material in the museum collection. The types and other material from the Albany Museum are now incorporated into the Port Elizabeth Museum Herpetology collection (PEM). Due to the vague typification of much of Hewitt's material, the loss of the original catalogues in a fire and the subsequent deterioration of specimen labels, the identification of this type material is often troublesome. Significant herpetological research has been undertaken at the PEM in the last 35 years, and the collection has grown to be the third largest in Africa. During this period, numerous additional types have been deposited in the PEM collection, generated by active taxonomic research in the museum. As a consequence, 43 different amphibian taxa are represented by 37 primary and 151 secondary type specimens in the collection. This catalogue provides the first documentation of these types. It provides the original name, the original publication date, journal number and pagination, reference to illustrations, current name, museum collection number, type locality, notes on the type status, and photographs of all holotypes and lectotypes. Where necessary to maintain nomenclatural stability, and where confused type series are housed in the PEM collection, lectotypes and paralectotypes are nominated. PMID:25947420

  10. Antidepressant Medication as a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes and Impaired Glucose Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, Katharine; Peveler, Robert C.; Holt, Richard I.G.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Antidepressant use has risen sharply over recent years. Recent concerns that antidepressants may adversely affect glucose metabolism require investigation. Our aim was to assess the risk of type 2 diabetes associated with antidepressants through a systematic review. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data sources were MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, meeting abstracts of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, American Diabetes Association, and Diabetes UK, Current Controlled Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov, U.K. Clinical Research Network, scrutiny of bibliographies of retrieved articles, and contact with relevant experts. Relevant studies of antidepressant effects were included. Key outcomes were diabetes incidence and change in blood glucose (fasting and random). RESULTS Three systemic reviews and 22 studies met the inclusion criteria. Research designs included 1 case series and 21 observational studies comprising 4 cross-sectional, 5 case-control, and 12 cohort studies. There was evidence that antidepressant use is associated with type 2 diabetes. Causality is not established, but rather, the picture is confused, with some antidepressants linked to worsening glucose control, particularly with higher doses and longer duration, others linked with improved control, and yet more with mixed results. The more recent, larger studies, however, suggest a modest effect. Study quality was variable. CONCLUSIONS Although evidence exists that antidepressant use may be an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes, long-term prospective studies of the effects of individual antidepressants rather than class effects are required. Heightened alertness to potential risks is necessary until these are complete. PMID:24065841

  11. On the realisation of maximal simple types and epsilon factors of pairs

    E-print Network

    Stevens, Shaun

    On the realisation of maximal simple types and epsilon factors of pairs Vytautas Paskunas and Shaun the epsilon factor, using the definition of Jacquet, Piatetskii-Shapiro, Shalika. We also investigate . . . . . . . . . . 32 4.4 A characterisation of Ind K(A) J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 5 Realisation

  12. A confirmatory factor analysis of the Myers–Briggs Type Indicator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aristide Saggino; Colin Cooper; Paul Kline

    2001-01-01

    The 95×95 covariance matrix of the Italian edition of the Myers–Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Form F was subjected to a series of three maximum likelihood confirmatory factor analyses using EQS 3.0 (Bentler, 1989) on a sample of 1798 subjects. The purpose was to try to test the fit of three plausible correlated non-nested factor models: the traditional four-factor model assumed

  13. Suicide, Schizophrenia, and Schizoid-Type Psychosis: Role of Life Events and Childhood Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tousignant, Michel; Pouliot, Louise; Routhier, Danielle; Vrakas, Georgia; McGirr, Alexander; Turecki, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    The first objective was to identify the provoking events of suicide in patients with schizophrenia or schizoid-type disorder, and to assess the humiliation component of these events. The second objective was to verify if quality of care during childhood is a vulnerability factor for suicide in patients with schizophrenia or schizoid-type

  14. Von Willebrand Factor A1 Loop 1399H Sequence Variation Decreases Type IV Collagen Binding

    E-print Network

    Von Willebrand Factor A1 Loop 1399H Sequence Variation Decreases Type IV Collagen Binding Abraham C in hemostasis via binding to vascular collagen and platelet glycoprotein Ib. · The VWF A1 loop is the binding site for types IV and VI collagen. · The VWF sequence variation 1399H is present in 2

  15. Means for cleaning exhaust gas in a reciprocating piston type automobile engine. [design includes auxiliary spark plug for each cylinder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Yamauti; Y. Oyama; Y. Hohsho

    1975-01-01

    A method is described for cleaning exhaust gas in a reciprocating piston type automobile engine involving supplying a lean fuel-air mixture, sufficiently atomizing the supplied fuel, primary and auxiliary ignition plugs provided in each engine combustion chamber, and means for determining the ignition timing of the auxiliary plug 0° to 25° different from that of the primary plug in accordance

  16. Retinal image quality with the different types of intraocular lenses including new idea of the hybrid IOLs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Siedlecki; M. Zajac; J. Nowak

    2007-01-01

    Cataract is one of the most frequent reasons of blindness all around the world. Its treatment relies on removing the pathologically altered crystalline lens and replacing it with an artificial intraocular lens (IOL). There exists plenty of types of such implants, which differ in the optical materials and designs (shapes). However one of the important features, which is rather overlooked

  17. Time & Position of Encounter with Debris (includes vessel, gear and animals) Incident Type (check one or more)

    E-print Network

    ):____________________ Biota Type (check one or more and list species names if known): Fish Crustaceans Encrusting organisms No biota/organisms present Weight (kg): Photos: Y / N Brought onboard for disposal: Y / N Length and biota living on the debris): Description of downtime and cost (describe what was done during downtime (e

  18. Time & Position of Encounter with Debris (includes vessel, gear and animals) Incident Type (check one or more)

    E-print Network

    ):____________________ Biota Type (check one or more and list species names if known): Fish Crustaceans Encrusting organisms No biota/organisms present Weight (kg): Photos: Y / N Brought onboard for disposal: Y / N Length in more detail, diameter or width, length, colors and biota living on the debris): Description of downtime

  19. Genetic and environmental factors associated with type 2 diabetes and diabetic vascular complications

    PubMed Central

    Murea, Mariana; Ma, Lijun; Freedman, Barry I.

    2012-01-01

    Faced with a global epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2D), it is critical that researchers improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of T2D and related vascular complications. These findings may ultimately lead to novel treatment options for disease prevention or delaying progression. Two major paradigms jointly underlie the development of T2D and related coronary artery disease, diabetic nephropathy, and diabetic retinopathy. These paradigms include the genetic risk variants and behavioral/environmental factors. This article systematically reviews the literature supporting genetic determinants in the pathogenesis of T2D and diabetic vasculopathy, and the functional implications of these gene variants on the regulation of beta-cell function and glucose homeostasis. We update the discovery of diabetes and diabetic vasculopathy risk variants, and describe the genetic technologies that have uncovered them. Also, genomic linkage between obesity and T2D is discussed. There is a complementary role for behavioral and environmental factors modulating the genetic susceptibility and diabetes risk. Epidemiological and clinical data demonstrating the effects of behavioral and novel environmental exposures on disease expression are reviewed. Finally, a succinct overview of recent landmark clinical trials addressing glycemic control and its impact on rates of vascular complications is presented. It is expected that novel strategies to exploit the gene- and exposure-related underpinnings of T2D will soon result. PMID:22972441

  20. Resistance to human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-targeted therapies.

    PubMed

    Thery, Jean-Christophe; Spano, Jean-Philippe; Azria, David; Raymond, Eric; Penault Llorca, Frédérique

    2014-03-01

    The overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER-2) is an independent prognostic factor of poor outcome in patients with breast cancer. Two compounds have been registered for HER-2-positive tumour treatment: trastuzumab, a humanised antibody directed against the HER-2 extracellular domain, and lapatinib, a small molecule acting as a dual EGF-R and HER-2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Although both drugs improve progression-free survival, many patients' tumours will exhibit primary resistance, or develop secondary resistance, to anti-HER-2 therapies. The recent significant improvement of survival gained with pertuzumab (an antibody disrupting dimerisation of the receptor) or trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1, a cytotoxic drug vectored by trastuzumab binding) opened the way for new registrations. This review describes the molecular mechanisms by which tumour cells may adapt to and evade HER-2 inhibition by HER-2-targeted therapies and discusses strategies to prevent and overcome resistance to trastuzumab and lapatinib. These strategies may include the establishment of predictive markers, exploration of combination therapies and modulation of nodal targets. PMID:24462377

  1. 43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...facilities: (a) Pumps, pipes, wells, surface water intakes and other diversion, transmission, or...Storage tanks and small impoundments; (c) Water treatment facilities for potable water supplies, including desalination...

  2. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...non-motorized trail activities including pedestrians and bicycles; (5) Provision...safe travel on trails; (7) Safety and educational activities; ...13) Bicycle Transportation and pedestrian walkways (see 23 U.S.C....

  3. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...non-motorized trail activities including pedestrians and bicycles; (5) Provision...safe travel on trails; (7) Safety and educational activities; ...13) Bicycle Transportation and pedestrian walkways (see 23 U.S.C....

  4. Spanish public awareness regarding DNA profile databases in forensic genetics: what type of DNA profiles should be included?

    PubMed Central

    Gamero, Joaquín J; Romero, Jose?Luis; Peralta, Juan?Luis; Carvalho, Mónica; Corte?Real, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    The importance of non?codifying DNA polymorphism for the administration of justice is now well known. In Spain, however, this type of test has given rise to questions in recent years: (a) Should consent be obtained before biological samples are taken from an individual for DNA analysis? (b) Does society perceive these techniques and methods of analysis as being reliable? (c) There appears to be lack of knowledge concerning the basic norms that regulate databases containing private or personal information and the protection that information of this type must be given. This opinion survey and the subsequent analysis of the results in ethical terms may serve to reveal the criteria and the degree of information that society has with regard to DNA databases. In the study, 73.20% (SE 1.12%) of the population surveyed was in favour of specific legislation for computer files in which DNA analysis results for forensic purposes are stored. PMID:17906059

  5. Receptor modelling of fine particles in Southern England using CMB including comparison with AMS-PMF factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, J.; Cumberland, S. A.; Harrison, R. M.; Allan, J.; Young, D. E.; Williams, P. I.; Coe, H.

    2014-09-01

    PM2.5 was collected during a winter campaign at two southern England sites, urban background North Kensington (NK) and rural Harwell (HAR), in January-February 2012. Multiple organic and inorganic source tracers were analysed and used in a Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model, which apportioned seven separate primary sources, that explained on average 53% (NK) and 56% (HAR) of the organic carbon (OC), including traffic, woodsmoke, food cooking, coal combustion, vegetative detritus, natural gas and dust/soil. With the addition of source tracers for secondary biogenic aerosol at the NK site, 79% of organic carbon was accounted for. Secondary biogenic sources were represented by oxidation products of ?-pinene and isoprene, but only the former made a substantial contribution to OC. Particle source contribution estimates for PM2.5 mass were obtained by the conversion of the OC estimates and combining with inorganic components ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate and sea salt. Good mass closure was achieved with 8% (92% with the addition of the secondary biogenic source) and 83% of the PM2.5 mass explained at NK and HAR respectively, with the remainder being secondary organic matter. While the most important sources of OC are vehicle exhaust (21 and 16%) and woodsmoke (15% and 28%) at NK and HAR respectively, food cooking emissions are also significant, particularly at the urban NK site (11% of OC), in addition to the secondary biogenic source, only measured at NK, which represented about 26%. In comparison, the major source components for PM2.5 at NK and HAR are inorganic ammonium salts (51 and 56%), vehicle exhaust emissions (8 and 6%), secondary biogenic (10% measured at NK only), woodsmoke (4 and 7%) and sea salt (7 and 8%), whereas food cooking (4% and 1%) showed relatively smaller contributions to PM2.5. Results from the CMB model were compared with source contribution estimates derived from the AMS-PMF method. The overall mass of organic matter accounted for is rather similar for the two methods. However, appreciably different concentrations were calculated for the individual primary organic matter contributions, although for most source categories the CMB and AMS-PMF results were highly correlated (r2 = 0.69-0.91). In comparison with the CMB model, the AMS appears to over-estimate the biomass burning/coal and food cooking sources by a factor of around 1.5 to 2 while estimates of the traffic source are rather similar for each model. The largest divergence is in the primary/secondary organic matter split, with the AMS estimating an appreciably smaller secondary component. Possible reasons for these discrepancies are discussed, but despite these substantial divergences, the strong correlation of the two methods gives some confidence in their application.

  6. Biosynthesis of Dictyostelium discoideum differentiation-inducing factor by a hybrid type I fatty acid–type III polyketide synthase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael B Austin; Tamao Saito; Marianne E Bowman; Stephen Haydock; Atsushi Kato; Bradley S Moore; Robert R Kay; Joseph P Noel

    2006-01-01

    Differentiation-inducing factors (DIFs) are well known to modulate formation of distinct communal cell types from identical Dictyostelium discoideum amoebas, but DIF biosynthesis remains obscure. We report complimentary in vivo and in vitro experiments identifying one of two ?3,000-residue D. discoideum proteins, termed 'steely', as responsible for biosynthesis of the DIF acylphloroglucinol scaffold. Steely proteins possess six catalytic domains homologous to

  7. Fraud Prediction and the Human Factor: An Approach to Include Human Behavior in an Automated Fraud Audit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Hoyer; Halyna Zakhariya; Thorben Sandner; Michael H. Breitner

    2012-01-01

    Every year, fraud as a subset of insider threats causes billions US dollar of damage worldwide. We suggest a generic architectural model to unify the classic fraud audit approach with human behavior taking into account the fraud triangle in order to achieve better fraud detection and prevention. The human factor is extensively integrated into the audit as a qualitative component,

  8. Patterns of regulatory activity across diverse human cell types predict tissue identity, transcription factor binding, and long-range interactions

    PubMed Central

    Sheffield, Nathan C.; Thurman, Robert E.; Song, Lingyun; Safi, Alexias; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.; Lenhard, Boris; Crawford, Gregory E.; Furey, Terrence S.

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory elements recruit transcription factors that modulate gene expression distinctly across cell types, but the relationships among these remains elusive. To address this, we analyzed matched DNase-seq and gene expression data for 112 human samples representing 72 cell types. We first defined more than 1800 clusters of DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) with similar tissue specificity of DNase-seq signal patterns. We then used these to uncover distinct associations between DHSs and promoters, CpG islands, conserved elements, and transcription factor motif enrichment. Motif analysis within clusters identified known and novel motifs in cell-type-specific and ubiquitous regulatory elements and supports a role for AP-1 regulating open chromatin. We developed a classifier that accurately predicts cell-type lineage based on only 43 DHSs and evaluated the tissue of origin for cancer cell types. A similar classifier identified three sex-specific loci on the X chromosome, including the XIST lincRNA locus. By correlating DNase I signal and gene expression, we predicted regulated genes for more than 500K DHSs. Finally, we introduce a web resource to enable researchers to use these results to explore these regulatory patterns and better understand how expression is modulated within and across human cell types. PMID:23482648

  9. Retinal image quality with the different types of intraocular lenses including new idea of the hybrid IOLs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siedlecki, D.; Zaj?c, M.; Nowak, J.

    2007-07-01

    Cataract is one of the most frequent reasons of blindness all around the world. Its treatment relies on removing the pathologically altered crystalline lens and replacing it with an artificial intraocular lens (IOL). There exists plenty of types of such implants, which differ in the optical materials and designs (shapes). However one of the important features, which is rather overlooked in the development of the intraocular implants is the chromatic aberration and its influence on the retinal image quality. In this study authors try to estimate the influence of the design and optical material of the implant on the retinal image quality in the polychromatic light, taking into consideration several exemplary types of IOLs which are commercially available. Authors also propose the partially achromatized hybrid IOLs, the longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA)of which reduces the total LCA of the phakic eye to the level of a healthy eye's LCA. Several image characteristics, as the polychromatic Point Spread Function (PSF) and the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) and the polychromatic encircled energy are estimated. The results of the simulations show the significance of the partial chromatic aberration correction.

  10. Clinical, immunohistochemical and phenotypic features of aggressive nodal cytotoxic lymphomas, including ?\\/?, ?\\/? T-cell and natural killer cell types

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koichi Ohshima; Junji Suzumiya; Midori Sugihara; Motomu Kanda; Kae Shimazaki; Chika Kawasaki; Seiji Haraoka; Masahiro Kikuchi

    1999-01-01

    Cytotoxic cells include natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic ?? and ?? T lymphocytes (CTLs). These cells express cytotoxic\\u000a molecules of T-cell restricted intracellular antigen(TIA-1), and activated cytotoxic molecules of perforin, granzyme B, and\\u000a FasL. Recent studies suggest that most extranodal T-cell lymphomas are derived from CTLs, and that NK cell lymphomas are extranodal.\\u000a However, only a few nodal NK

  11. Improvement of Surface Functionalities, Including Allergenicity Attenuation, of Whole Buckwheat Protein Fraction by Maillard-Type Glycation with Dextran

    PubMed Central

    Tazawa, Shigeru; Katayama, Shigeru; Hirabayashi, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Nakamura, Soichiro

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of the introduction of polysaccharide chains onto the molecular surface of buckwheat proteins on buckwheat protein surface functionality. The whole buckwheat protein fraction (WBP) was prepared using 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) containing 0.5 M NaCl and covalently linked with 6 kDa, 17.5 kDa, 40 kDa, 70 kDa, or 200 kDa dextran by Maillard-type glycation through controlled dry-heating at 60°C and 79% relative humidity for two weeks. Conjugation with 40 kDa dextran improved the water solubility and emulsifying properties of WBP without causing a serious loss of available lysine; 84.9% of the free amino groups were conserved. In addition, we found that the introduction of dextran chains onto the molecular surfaces of WBP attenuated the antigenicity of WBP. PMID:25580398

  12. Injuries in epilepsy: a review of its prevalence, risk factors, type of injuries and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Rita; Téllez Zenteno, José F.

    2009-01-01

    Currently, there is intense clinical research into various aspects of the medical risks relating to epilepsy, including total and cause-specific mortality, accidents and injuries in patients with epilepsy and mortality related with seizures. Seizures occurring in precarious situations and resulting in injuries are still an important concern for patients with epilepsy, their employers and their care-givers. Submersion injuries, motor vehicle accidents, burns, and head injuries are among the most feared epilepsy-related injuries. These concerns seem valid because the hallmark of epilepsy, episodic impairment of consciousness and motor control, may occur during interictal EEG epileptiform discharges, even in the absence of a clinical seizure. In addition, psychomotor comorbidity and side effects of antiepileptic drugs may contribute to the risk of injuries in patients with epilepsy. Published risk factors for injuries include the number of antiepileptic drugs, history of generalized seizures, and seizure frequency. In general, epidemiological information about incidence of injuries has been conflicting and sparse. In general, studies focusing on populations with more severe forms of epilepsy tend to report substantially higher risks of injuries than those involving less selected populations. On the other hand, studies based on non-selected populations of people with epilepsy have not shown an increased frequency of injuries in people with epilepsy compared with the general population. Some studies have shown that patients with epilepsy are more frequently admitted to the hospital following an injury. Possible explanations include: more cautious attitude of clinicians toward injuries occurring in the setting of seizures; hospitalization required because of seizures and not to the injuries themselves; and hospitalization driven by other issues, such as comorbidities, which are highly prevalent in patients with epilepsy. Potentially the high rate of hospitalizations could be related with the severity of the injury. This article reviews the best available epidemiological information about injuries, including incidence and risk factors. Also this article reviews information about specific types of injuries such as fractures, burns, concussions, dislocations, etc. Information about accidents in people with epilepsy is also discussed. PMID:21577358

  13. Enlarging the scope of cell penetrating prenylated peptides to include farnesylated “CAAX” box sequences and diverse cell types

    PubMed Central

    Ochocki, Joshua D.; Igbavboa, Urule; Wood, W. Gibson; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V.; Distefano, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Protein prenylation is a post-translational modification that is present in a large number of proteins; it has been proposed to be responsible for membrane association and protein-protein interactions which contribute to its role in signal transduction pathways. Research has been aimed at inhibiting prenylation with farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) based on the finding that the farnesylated protein Ras is implicated in 30% of human cancers. Despite numerous studies on the enzymology of prenylation in vitro, many questions remain about the process of prenylation as it occurs in living cells. Here we describe the preparation of a series of farnesylated peptides that contain sequences recognized by protein farnesyltransferase. Using a combination of flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, we show that these peptides enter a variety of different cell types. A related peptide where the farnesyl group has been replaced by a disulfide-linked decyl group is also shown to be able to efficiently enter cells. These results highlight the applicability of these peptides as a platform for further study of protein prenylation and subsequent processing in live cells. PMID:20584014

  14. Factors influencing plant succession following fire in Ashe juniper woodland types in Real County, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Huss, Donald Lee

    1954-01-01

    FACTORS INFLUENCING PLANT SUCCESSION FOLLOWING FIRE IN ASHE JUHIPER WOODLAND TYPES IN REAL COUNTY& TEXAS By DONAID L. RUSS Approved as to style end content by: ~c-". '~ Z). 4:-. = Chairman of Committee Bead of Depantme Nay l954. LIBgARV A... A M GOLLEGL OF TEXAS FACTORS INFLUENCING PLANT SUCCESSION FOLLOWING FIRE IN ASHE JUNIPER WO(NILAND TIPES IN REAL COUNTI, TEUIS Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment oi...

  15. Brush types of the Nueces River watershed as related to soil, climatic and geological factors 

    E-print Network

    Huss, Donald Lee

    1959-01-01

    Relationships 10 METHODS 12 Vegetational Analysis and Classification 12 Edaphic and Physiographic Studies 13 CLASSIFICATION OF WOODY VEGETATION 14 ARBORESCENT VEGETATION TYPES 17 Communities with Mesquite dominant 17 1. Mesquite Grassland 19 2. Mesquite... to various environmental factors will be of con? siderable value for future brush control studies as well as the develop? ment of land-use policies. OBJECTIVES 1. To develop a classification of woody vegetational types of the Nueces River Watershed. 2...

  16. Type II platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase is essential for epithelial morphogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Takao; Sugimoto, Asako; Suzuki, Yuka; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Tsujimoto, Masafumi; Inoue, Keizo; Aoki, Junken; Arai, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    Type II platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase [PAF-AH (II)] is an N-myristoylated enzyme that contains a lipase/esterase catalytic motif and selectively hydrolyzes the sn-2 acetyl ester of PAF and other short-chain acyl groups attached to phosphoglycerides. However, the physiological role of this enzyme remains to be elucidated. PAF-AH (II) is conserved in a variety of species ranging from a simple multicellular organism, Caenorhabditis elegans, to mammals. C. elegans possesses two homologous PAF-AH (II) genes, named paf-1 and paf-2. In this study, we generated these two loss-of-function mutants to elucidate the in vivo PAF-AH (II) function. Surprisingly, mutants of paf-2, a major isoform of C. elegans PAF-AH (II)s, exhibits gross defects in epithelial sheet formation, resulting in unsuccessful subsequent morphogenesis with complete penetrance. Moreover, paf-2 RNA interference worms show a variable abnormal morphology, including ectopic protrusions and a lumpy shape at the late embryonic and early larval stages due to epithelial organization defects. Consistent with these phenotypes, PAF-AH (II) is predominantly expressed in epithelial cells of C. elegans. This study demonstrates that PAF-AH (II) is essential for epithelial morphogenesis. PMID:15340150

  17. Factorize

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, students find factor pairs for a given number and then create a rectangle with those dimensions on a coordinate plane. This activity allows students to explore factorizations of numbers and how they relate to rectangles with that number as an area. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

  18. Statistical analysis, optimization, and prioritization of virtual screening parameters for zinc enzymes including the anthrax toxin lethal factor.

    PubMed

    Maize, Kimberly M; Zhang, Xia; Amin, Elizabeth Ambrose

    2014-01-01

    The anthrax toxin lethal factor (LF) and matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3, stromelysin-1) are popular zinc metalloenzyme drug targets, with LF primarily responsible for anthrax-related toxicity and host death, while MMP-3 is involved in cancer- and rheumatic disease-related tissue remodeling. A number of in silico screening techniques, most notably docking and scoring, have proven useful for identifying new potential drug scaffolds targeting LF and MMP-3, as well as for optimizing lead compounds and investigating mechanisms of action. However, virtual screening outcomes can vary significantly depending on the specific docking parameters chosen, and systematic statistical significance analyses are needed to prioritize key parameters for screening small molecules against these zinc systems. In the current work, we present a series of chi-square statistical analyses of virtual screening outcomes for cocrystallized LF and MMP-3 inhibitors docked into their respective targets, evaluated by predicted enzyme-inhibitor dissociation constant and root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) between predicted and experimental bound configurations, and we present a series of preferred parameters for use with these systems in the industry-standard Surflex-Dock screening program, for use by researchers utilizing in silico techniques to discover and optimize new scaffolds. PMID:25373478

  19. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel C ...Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel Fuel type Default high heat value Default CO2 emission factor...

  20. Investigating Factors Associated with Depression of Type 2 Diabetic Retinopathy Patients in China

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Duo; Dong, Qing; Gu, Zhifeng

    2015-01-01

    Aims and objectives To assess the depression status of type 2 diabetic retinopathy patients in Nantong China and to identify factors associated with depression. Methods Two hundred and ninety-four patients with type 2 diabetic retinopathy were recruited from the Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University. The severity of DR was measured in the worse eye. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D); the quality of life was measured with the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36). The logistic regression analyses were used to identify the independent factors of depression. Results The mean age of the study subjects was 57.77 years (SD: 9.64). Approximately 35.7% of subjects reported depressive symptoms (n = 105).Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that female gender (p = 0.014), low monthly income (p = 0.01), poor vision in the better eye (P = 0.002), laser treatment history (p = 0.01) were significant risk factors for depression. The quality of life of individuals with CES-D score<16 was significantly better compared with individuals with CES-D score?16. Conclusion The reported depressive symptoms among type 2 diabetic retinopathy population is higher in Nantong China. Gender, salary, vision acuity and treatment history were important risk factors linked to this disorder in the Chinese type 2 diabetic retinopathy population from Nantong. More attention by medical care personnel needs to be paid to the psychological health of this population. PMID:26151365

  1. Factors associated with psychological and behavioral functioning in people with type 2 diabetes living in France

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie Boini; Marie-Line Erpelding; Anne Fagot-Campagna; Mounir Mesbah; Judith Chwalow; Alfred Penfornis; Vincent Coliche; Etienne Mollet; Keith Meadows; Serge Briançon

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To identify demographic and clinical factors associated with psychological and behavioral functioning (PBF) in people with type 2 diabetes living in France. METHODS: In March 2002, approximately 10,000 adults, who had been reimbursed for at least one hypoglycemic treatment or insulin dose during the last quarter of 2001, received a questionnaire about their health status and PBF (3,646 responders).

  2. Mexican American Parents' Perceptions of Childhood Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, Barbara J.; Barr, Kathleen L.; Baker, Sharon K.

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify the norms, values, and perceptions of urban immigrant Mexican American (MA) parents of school children relative to physical activity, healthy eating, and child risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Investigators facilitated five focus groups in an urban elementary school setting and analyzed data using qualitative…

  3. 43 CFR 404.10 - Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included in a rural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    43 ? Public Lands: Interior ? 1 ? 2013-10-01 ? 2013-10-01 ? false ? Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included in a rural water supply project? ? 404.10 ? Section 404.10 ? Public Lands: Interior ? Regulations Relating to Public Lands ? BUREAU OF...

  4. Financial evidence for Tier 4 student visa applications This guidance note includes information about the type of financial evidence you can use to

    E-print Network

    Evans, Paul

    _Rules_-_Appendix_P.pdf If you use financial evidence from a bank which does not meet the UK Visas and Immigration requirementsFinancial evidence for Tier 4 student visa applications This guidance note includes information about the type of financial evidence you can use to prove that you meet the maintenance requirement

  5. Prevalence of obesity in type 2 diabetes in secondary care: association with cardiovascular risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Daousi, C; Casson, I F; Gill, G V; MacFarlane, I A; Wilding, J P H; Pinkney, J H

    2006-01-01

    Aims To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus attending a secondary care diabetes clinic in the United Kingdom, and to assess the impact of overweight and obesity on glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods 3637 patients with diabetes were identified from the hospital electronic diabetes register, 916 with type 1 diabetes (mean (SD) age 40.4 (15.1) years, 496 male) and 2721 with type 2 diabetes (mean (SD) age 62.5 (11.8) years, 1436 male). Data on body mass index (BMI), glycaemic control, lipid profiles, and blood pressure were extracted. Results Of patients with type 1 diabetes, 55.3% were overweight (BMI ?25?kg/m2), 16.6% were obese (BMI ?30?kg/m2), and 0.4% had morbid obesity (BMI ?40?kg/m2). In contrast, 86% of patients with type 2 diabetes were overweight or obese, 52% were obese, and 8.1% had morbid obesity. Obese patients with type 2 diabetes were younger, had poorer glycaemic control, higher blood pressures, worse lipid profiles, and were more likely to be receiving antihypertensive and lipid lowering drugs compared with patients with BMI <30?kg/m2. Conclusions Obesity is the rule among patients attending this hospital diabetes clinic, with 86% of those with type 2 diabetes overweight or obese. Obesity is associated with significantly worse cardiovascular risk factors in this patient group, suggesting that more active interventions to control weight gain would be appropriate. PMID:16597817

  6. Peroxiredoxin isoforms are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    El Eter, E.; Al-Masri, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    The production of oxygen free radicals in type 2 diabetes mellitus contributes to the development of complications, especially the cardiovascular-related ones. Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) are antioxidant enzymes that combat oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the levels of PRDX isoforms (1, 2, 4, and 6) and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Fifty-three patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (28F/25M) and 25 healthy control subjects (7F/18M) were enrolled. We measured the plasma levels of each PRDX isoform and analyzed their correlations with cardiovascular risk factors. The plasma PRDX1, -2, -4, and -6 levels were higher in the diabetic patients than in the healthy control subjects. PRDX2 and -6 levels were negatively correlated with diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, and hemoglobin A1c. In contrast, PRDX1 levels were positively correlated with low-density lipoprotein and C-reactive protein levels. PRDX4 levels were negatively correlated with triglycerides. In conclusion, PRDX1, -2, -4, and -6 showed differential correlations with a variety of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. These results should encourage further research into the crosstalk between PRDX isoforms and cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25742636

  7. STAT3 transcription factor is constitutively activated and is oncogenic in nasal-type NK/T-cell lymphoma

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    STAT3 transcription factor is constitutively activated and is oncogenic in nasal-type NK in the oncogenic process of nasal-type NK cell lymphomas, and may represent a promising therapeutical target. 3

  8. Regeneration dynamics, causal factors, and characteristics of pacific ocean-type beech ( Fagus crenata ) forests in Japan: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koji Shimano

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the differences in the distribution and regeneration ofFagus crenata between two types of Japanese beech forests, the Japan Sea (JS)-type and the Pacific Ocean (PO)-type, and discusses the causal\\u000a factors and characteristics of these forests, particularly the PO-type.F. crenata in PO-type forests regenerates sporadically rather than constantly, whereas regeneration in the JS-type forests is relatively\\u000a constant with

  9. Gauge factors of fibre Bragg grating strain sensors in different types of optical fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jülich, Florian; Aulbach, Laura; Wilfert, Andre; Kratzer, Peter; Kuttler, Rolf; Roths, Johannes

    2013-09-01

    Gauge factors of fibre Bragg grating (FBG)-based strain sensors that had been inscribed into three different types of optical fibres, which differ in core diameters and doping concentrations, were determined at room temperature with high accuracy. Repeated measurements were carried out with several samples of each type of fibre to allow statistical evaluations. For each type, the gauge factors were measured in two configurations: when the bare fibres were glued on a specimen at the location of the FBG and when they were vertically suspended and not bonded to any structure at the location of the FBG. By combining the results of both configurations, the strain transfer ratio of the gluing process and the strain-optic coefficient, peff, of the different types of fibres were determined. The strain-optic coefficient was found to vary up to 1.5% for the different types of optical fibres. The strain transfer ratio was obtained to be close to unity (>99%), showing the high quality of the gluing technique employed. The investigations demonstrate that highly accurate strain sensing is possible with fibre-optic strain sensors. The results are important for the development of accurate and reliable attaching techniques for coated sensor fibres and fibre-optic sensor patches.

  10. A bHLH-Type Transcription Factor, ABA-INDUCIBLE BHLH-TYPE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR/JA-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1, Acts as a Repressor to Negatively Regulate Jasmonate Signaling in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Masaru; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Herde, Marco; Koo, Abraham J.K.; Moreno, Javier E.; Suzuki, Kaoru; Howe, Gregg A.; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are plant hormones that regulate the balance between plant growth and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although recent studies have uncovered the mechanisms for JA-induced responses in Arabidopsis thaliana, the mechanisms by which plants attenuate the JA-induced responses remain elusive. Here, we report that a basic helix-loop-helix–type transcription factor, ABA-INDUCIBLE BHLH-TYPE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR/JA-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), acts as a transcriptional repressor and negatively regulates JA signaling. Gain-of-function transgenic plants expressing the chimeric repressor for JAM1 exhibited substantial reduction of JA responses, including JA-induced inhibition of root growth, accumulation of anthocyanin, and male fertility. These plants were also compromised in resistance to attack by the insect herbivore Spodoptera exigua. Conversely, jam1 loss-of-function mutants showed enhanced JA responsiveness, including increased resistance to insect attack. JAM1 and MYC2 competitively bind to the target sequence of MYC2, which likely provides the mechanism for negative regulation of JA signaling and suppression of MYC2 functions by JAM1. These results indicate that JAM1 negatively regulates JA signaling, thereby playing a pivotal role in fine-tuning of JA-mediated stress responses and plant growth. PMID:23673982

  11. Relationship Factors Associated with Gay Male Couples’ Concordance on Aspects of Their Sexual Agreements: Establishment, Type, and Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Jason W.; Harvey, S. Marie; Champeau, Donna; Moskowitz, David A.; Seal, David Wyatt

    2014-01-01

    Factors associated with gay male couples’ concordance on aspects of sexual agreements remain understudied. The present study examined which relationship factors, self-reports of UAI, and patterns of HIV testing may be associated with men who were concordant about having a sexual agreement, the same type of sexual agreement, and adhering to their sexual agreement with their main partner. Various recruitment strategies were used to collect dyadic data from 142 gay male couples. Concordance on aspects of sexual agreements varied within the sample. Results indicated that relationship satisfaction was significantly associated with couples who were concordant about having and adhering to their sexual agreement. Predictability and faith of trusting a partner, and value in one’s sexual agreement were also positively associated with couples’ adhering to their sexual agreement. More research is needed to better understand how relationship dynamics, including sexual agreements, affect HIV risk among gay male couples in the U.S. PMID:22012148

  12. Relationship factors associated with gay male couples' concordance on aspects of their sexual agreements: establishment, type, and adherence.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jason W; Harvey, S Marie; Champeau, Donna; Moskowitz, David A; Seal, David Wyatt

    2012-08-01

    Factors associated with gay male couples' concordance on aspects of sexual agreements remain understudied. The present study examined which relationship factors, self-reports of UAI, and patterns of HIV testing may be associated with men who were concordant about having a sexual agreement, the same type of sexual agreement, and adhering to their sexual agreement with their main partner. Various recruitment strategies were used to collect dyadic data from 142 gay male couples. Concordance on aspects of sexual agreements varied within the sample. Results indicated that relationship satisfaction was significantly associated with couples who were concordant about having and adhering to their sexual agreement. Predictability and faith of trusting a partner, and value in one's sexual agreement were also positively associated with couples' adhering to their sexual agreement. More research is needed to better understand how relationship dynamics, including sexual agreements, affect HIV risk among gay male couples in the U.S. PMID:22012148

  13. Type VIII Si based clathrates: prospects for a giant thermoelectric power factor.

    PubMed

    Norouzzadeh, Payam; Krasinski, Jerzy S; Myles, Charles W; Vashaee, Daryoosh

    2015-04-14

    Although clathrate materials are known for their small thermal conductivity, they have not shown a large thermoelectric power factor so far. We present the band structures of type VIII Si, Ge, and Sn clathrates as well as the alkali and alkaline-earth intercalated type VIII Si clathrates. Our calculations revealed that this group of materials has potentially large power factors due to the existence of a large number of carrier pockets near their band edges. In particular, we calculated the charge carrier transport properties of Si46-VIII both for n-type and p-type materials. The exceptionally high multi-valley band structure of Si46-VIII near the Fermi energy due to the high crystallographic symmetry resulted in a giant power factor in this material. It was shown that the intercalation of Si46-VIII with alkali and alkaline-earth guest atoms shifts the Fermi energy close to the conduction band edge and, except for Be8Si46 and Mg8Si46, they weakly influence the band structure of Si46. Among these clathrate systems, Ca8Si46, Sr8Si46, and Ba8Si46 showed negative formation energy, which should facilitate their synthesis. Our results imply that the intercalation affects the conduction band of Si46-VIII more than its valence band. Also, interestingly, the type VIII clathrates of Si46 and its derivatives (except Be8Si46 and Mg8Si46), Sn46, and Ge46 all have 26 carrier pockets near their valence band edge. Among the different derivatives of Si46-VIII, Rb8Si46 and Ba8Si46 have the highest number of electron pockets near their band edges. The thermoelectric power factor was predicted using a multiband Boltzmann transport equation linked with parameters extracted from density functional calculations. It was shown that both the increment of charge mobility and the existence of multiple band extrema contribute to the enhancement of the thermoelectric power factor considerably. Such a large power factor along with their inherently low thermal conductivity can make this group of clathrates promising thermoelectric materials. PMID:25744661

  14. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator-Expanded Analysis Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald A. Johnson; David R. Saunders

    1990-01-01

    The MBTI-Expanded Analysis is a new personality test based upon the Myers Briggs Type Indicator Form J, which provides 5 subscale scores for each of the four bipolar indices (E\\/I, S\\/N, T\\/F, and J\\/P) of the MBTI. Confirmatory factor analysis using LISREL 7.13 was performed on test scores from 500 participants in organizational development and career development workshops. Results were

  15. The transcription factor Egr1 is a direct regulator of multiple tumor suppressors including TGF?1, PTEN, p53 and fibronectin

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Veronique; Adamson, Eileen D.; Calogero, Antonella; Ragona, Giuseppe; Mercola, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies are reviewed indicating that the transcription factor Egr1 is a direct regulator of multiple tumor suppressors including TGF?1, PTEN, p53 and fibronectin. The downstream pathways of these factors display multiple nodes of interaction with each other suggesting the existence of a functional network of suppressor factors that serves to maintain normal growth regulation and resist the emergence of transformed variants. Paradoxically, Egr-1 is oncogenic in prostate cancer. In the majority of these cancers PTEN and/or p53 is inactive. It is suggested that these defects in the tumor suppressor network allow for the unopposed induction of TGF?1 and fibronectin, which favor transformation and survival of prostate tumor epithelial cells, explain the role of Egr1 in prostate cancer. Egr1 is a novel and logical target for intervention by gene therapy methods and targeting methods are discussed. PMID:16138117

  16. GATA Factors Promote ER Integrity and ?-Cell Survival and Contribute to Type 1 Diabetes Risk

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Daniel J.; Wilbur, Christopher J.; Long, Simon Y.; Rankin, Matthew M.; Li, Changhong; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Grant, Struan F. A.; Pu, William T.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic ?-cell survival remains poorly understood despite decades of research. GATA transcription factors broadly regulate embryogenesis and influence survival of several cell types, but their role in adult ?-cells remains undefined. To investigate the role of GATA factors in adult ?-cells, we derived ?-cell-inducible Gata4- and Gata6-knockout mice, along with whole-body inducible Gata4 knockouts. ?-Cell Gata4 deletion modestly increased the proportion of dying ?-cells in situ with ultrastructural abnormalities suggesting endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Notably, glucose homeostasis was not grossly altered in Gata4- and Gata6-knockout mice, suggesting that GATA factors do not have essential roles in ?-cells. Several ER stress signals were up-regulated in Gata4 and Gata6 knockouts, most notably CHOP, a known regulator of ER stress-induced apoptosis. However, ER stress signals were not elevated to levels observed after acute thapsigargin administration, suggesting that GATA deficiency only caused mild ER stress. Simultaneous deletion of Gata4 and CHOP partially restored ?-cell survival. In contrast, whole-body inducible Gata4 knockouts displayed no evidence of ER stress in other GATA4-enriched tissues, such as heart. Indeed, distinct GATA transcriptional targets were differentially expressed in islets compared with heart. Such ?-cell-specific findings prompted study of a large meta-analysis dataset to investigate single nucleotide polymorphisms harbored within the human GATA4 locus, revealing several variants significantly associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus. We conclude that GATA factors have important but nonessential roles to promote ER integrity and ?-cell survival in a tissue-specific manner and that GATA factors likely contribute to type 1 diabetes mellitus pathogenesis. PMID:24284823

  17. Type I Interferon induces binding of STAT1 to Bcl6: Divergent Roles of STAT-family transcription factors in the TFH cell genetic program2

    PubMed Central

    Nakayamada, Shingo; Poholek, Amanda C.; Lu, Kristina T.; Takahashi, Hayato; Kato, Masanari; Iwata, Shigeru; Hirahara, Kiyoshi; Cannons, Jennifer L.; Schwartzberg, Pamela L.; Vahedi, Golnaz; Sun, Hong-wei; Kanno, Yuka; O’Shea, John J.

    2014-01-01

    CD4+ T follicular helper cells (TFH) are critical for the formation and function of B cell responses to infection or immunization, but also play an important role in autoimmunity. The factors that contribute to the differentiation of this helper cell subset are incompletely understood, although several cytokines including IL-6, IL-21 and IL-12 can promote TFH cell formation. Yet, none of these factors, nor their downstream cognate STATs, have emerged as non-redundant, essential drivers of TFH cells. This suggests a model in which multiple factors can contribute to the phenotypic characteristics of TFH cells. As type I interferons (IFNs) are often generated in immune responses, we set out to investigate if these factors are relevant to TFH cell differentiation. Type I IFNs promote Th1 responses, thus one possibility was these factors antagonized TFH-expressed genes. However, we show that type I IFNs (IFN-?/?) induced Bcl6 expression, the master regulator transcription factor for TFH cells, and CXCR5 and PD-1 (encoded by Pdcd1), key surface molecules expressed by TFH cells. In contrast, type I IFNs failed to induce IL-21, the signature cytokine for TFH cells. The induction of Bcl6 was regulated directly by STAT1, which bound to the Bcl6, Cxcr5 and Pdcd1 loci. These data suggest that type I IFNs (IFN-?/?) and STAT1 can contribute to some features of TFH cells but are inadequate in inducing complete programming of this subset. PMID:24489092

  18. Ligand-independent transforming growth factor-? type I receptor signalling mediates type I collagen-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    DeMaio, Lucas; Buckley, Stephen T; Krishnaveni, Manda S; Flodby, Per; Dubourd, Mickael; Banfalvi, Agnes; Xing, Yiming; Ehrhardt, Carsten; Minoo, Parviz; Zhou, Beiyun; Crandall, Edward D; Borok, Zea

    2012-03-01

    Evidence suggests epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as one potential source of fibroblasts in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. To assess the contribution of alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) EMT to fibroblast accumulation in vivo following lung injury and the influence of extracellular matrix on AEC phenotype in vitro, Nkx2.1-Cre;mT/mG mice were generated in which AECs permanently express green fluorescent protein (GFP). On days 17-21 following intratracheal bleomycin administration, ~4% of GFP-positive epithelial-derived cells expressed vimentin or ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA). Primary AECs from Nkx2.1-Cre;mT/mG mice cultured on laminin-5 or fibronectin maintained an epithelial phenotype. In contrast, on type I collagen, cells of epithelial origin displayed nuclear localization of Smad3, acquired spindle-shaped morphology, expressed ?-SMA and phospho-Smad3, consistent with activation of the transforming growth factor-? (TGF?) signalling pathway and EMT. ?-SMA induction and Smad3 nuclear localization were blocked by the TGF? type I receptor (T?RI, otherwise known as Alk5) inhibitor SB431542, while AEC derived from Nkx2.1-Cre;Alk5(flox/KO) mice did not undergo EMT on collagen, consistent with a requirement for signalling via Alk5 in collagen-induced EMT. Inability of a pan-specific TGF? neutralizing antibody to inhibit effects of collagen together with absence of active TGF? in culture supernatants is consistent with TGF? ligand-independent activation of Smad signalling. These results support the notion that AECs can acquire a mesenchymal phenotype following injury in vivo and implicate type I collagen as a key regulator of EMT in AECs through signalling via Alk5, likely in a TGF? ligand-independent manner. PMID:21984393

  19. Ligand-independent transforming growth factor-? type I receptor signaling mediates type I collagen-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    DeMaio, Lucas; Buckley, Stephen T.; Krishnaveni, Manda S.; Flodby, Per; Dubourd, Mickael; Banfalvi, Agnes; Xing, Yiming; Ehrhardt, Carsten; Minoo, Parviz; Zhou, Beiyun; Crandall, Edward D.; Borok, Zea

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as one potential source of fibroblasts in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. To assess the contribution of alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) EMT to fibroblast accumulation in vivo following lung injury and the influence of extracellular matrix on AEC phenotype in vitro, Nkx2.1-Cre;mT/mG mice were generated in which AEC permanently express green fluorescent protein (GFP). On days 17-21 following intratracheal bleomycin administration, ~4% of GFP-positive epithelial-derived cells expressed vimentin or ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA). Primary AEC from Nkx2.1-Cre;mT/mG mice cultured on laminin-5 or fibronectin maintained an epithelial phenotype. In contrast, on type I collagen, cells of epithelial origin displayed nuclear localization of Smad3, acquired spindle-shaped morphology, expressed ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and phospho-Smad3, consistent with activation of the transforming growth factor-? (TGF?) signaling pathway and EMT. ?-SMA induction and Smad3 nuclear localization were blocked by the TGF? type I receptor (T?RI, otherwise known as Alk5) inhibitor SB43154, while AEC derived from Nkx2.1-Cre;Alk5flox/KO mice did not undergo EMT on collagen, consistent with a requirement for signaling via Alk5 in collagen-induced EMT. Inability of a pan-specific TGF? neutralizing antibody to inhibit effects of collagen together with absence of active TGF? in culture supernatants is consistent with TGF? ligand-independent activation of Smad signaling. These results support the notion that AEC can acquire a mesenchymal phenotype following injury in vivo and implicate type I collagen as a key regulator of EMT in AEC through signaling via Alk5, likely in a TGF? ligand-independent manner. PMID:21984393

  20. Hereditary porcine membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type II is caused by factor H deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Høgåsen, K; Jansen, J H; Mollnes, T E; Hovdenes, J; Harboe, M

    1995-01-01

    We have recently described hereditary membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type II in the pig. All affected animals had excessive complement activation, revealed as low plasma C3, elevated plasma terminal complement complex, and massive deposits of complement in the renal glomeruli, and eventually died of renal failure within 11 wk of birth. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cause of complement activation in this disease. Transfusion of normal porcine plasma to affected piglets inhibited complement activation and increased survival. Plasma was successively fractionated and the complement inhibitory effect of each fraction tested in vivo. A single chain 150-kD protein which showed the same complement inhibitory effect as whole plasma was finally isolated. Immunologic cross-reactivity, functional properties, and NH2-terminal sequence identified the protein as factor H. By Western blotting and enzyme immunoassay, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis-affected piglets were demonstrated to be subtotally deficient in factor H. At 1 wk of age, median (range) factor H concentration was 1.6 mg/liter (1.1-2.3) in deficient animals (n = 13) and 51 mg/liter (26-98) in healthy littermates (n = 52). Our data show that hereditary porcine membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis type II is caused by factor H deficiency. Images PMID:7883953

  1. The specific contribution of hypoxia-inducible factor-2alpha to hypoxic gene expression in vitro is limited and modulated by cell type-specific and exogenous factors.

    PubMed

    Warnecke, Christina; Weidemann, Alexander; Volke, Melanie; Schietke, Ruth; Wu, Xiaoqing; Knaup, Karl X; Hackenbeck, Thomas; Bernhardt, Wanja; Willam, Carsten; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Wiesener, Michael S

    2008-06-10

    Cellular integrity in hypoxia is dependent on molecular adaptations dominated by the heterodimeric transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). The HIF complex contains one of two alternative oxygen-regulated alpha-subunits considered to play distinct roles in the hypoxia response. Although HIF-2alpha may be more important in tumour biology and erythropoiesis, the spectrum of individual target genes is still insufficiently characterized. We therefore performed an Affymetrix gene array on Hep3B cells stimulated with a hypoxia-mimetic and transfected with either HIF-1alpha or HIF-2alpha siRNA. 271 transcripts were found to be induced HIF-dependently, including most previously identified HIF targets and a number of novel genes. Most were influenced by HIF-1alpha knock-down, whereas a smaller number were regulated by HIF-2alpha. Validation of a selection of genes by RNase protection confirmed the hypoxic regulation and HIF-1alpha- or HIF-2alpha-dependency in most cases, with the latter showing a lower amplitude. Many HIF-2alpha targets also responded to HIF-1alpha knock-down. Interestingly, regulation by HIF-2alpha was markedly influenced not only by cell type, but also by cell culture conditions, features that were not shared with HIF-1alpha-regulated genes. Thus, HIF-2alpha effects are modulated by a number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors which may be most relevant in tumour cells. PMID:18420194

  2. Emission factors from biomass burning in three types of appliances: fireplace, woodstove and pellet stove

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Márcio; Vicente, Estela; Calvo, Ana; Nunes, Teresa; Tarelho, Luis; Alves, Célia

    2014-05-01

    In the last years, the importance of biomass fuels has increased mainly for two reasons. One of them is the effort to control the emissions of greenhouse gases, and on the other hand, the increasing costs associated with fossil fuels. Besides that, biomass burning is now recognised as one of the major sources contributing to high concentrations of particulate matter, especially during winter time. Southern European countries have a lack of information regarding emission profiles from biomass burning. Because of that, in most source apportionment studies, the information used comes from northern and alpine countries, whose combustion appliances, fuels and habits are different from those in Mediterranean countries. Due to this lack of information, series of tests using different types of equipment, as well as fuels, were carried out in order to obtain emission profiles and emission factors that correspond to the reality in southern European countries. Tests involved three types of biomass appliances used in Portugal, a fireplace, a woodstove and a modern pellet stove. Emission factors (mg.kg-1 fuel, dry basis) for CO, THC and PM10 were obtained. CO emission factors ranged from 38, for pine on the woodstove, to 84 for eucalyptus in the fireplace. THC emissions were between 4 and 24, for pine in the woodstove and eucalyptus in the fireplace, respectively. PM10 emission factors were in the range from 3.99, for pine in the woodstove, to 17.3 for eucalyptus in the fireplace. On average, the emission factors obtained for the fireplace are 1.5 (CO) to 4 (THC) times higher than those of the woodstove. The fireplace has emission factors for CO, THC and PM10 10, 35 and 32 times, respectively, higher than the pellet stove.

  3. Factors Predictive of Type of Powered Mobility Received by Veterans with Disability

    PubMed Central

    Rabadi, Meheroz H.; Vincent, Andrea S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The goal of this observational study was to determine factors predictive of the type of powered mobility prescribed to veterans with disability. Material/Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted for all veterans (n=170) who received powered mobility from a designated power mobility clinic. Logistic regression analysis was used to determined factors predictive of the type of powered mobility provided. Results Sixty-four (38%) veterans were provided powered wheelchairs and 106 (62%) were provided powered scooters. Of the variables examined, only primary medical conditions for referral and disability severity (as measured by the 2-minute timed walk test; 2-MWT) were predictive of the types of powered mobility prescribed. Veterans who were able to walk longer distances were more likely to be prescribed powered scooters. Age, gender, race, level of education, marital and employment status, number of chronic medical conditions, and upper and lower limb muscle strength were not significant predictors. Conclusions This study suggests that the primary medical conditions for referral and 2-MWT can assist clinicians in the determination of the type of powered mobility to prescribe to veterans with disability. PMID:25955214

  4. Repressor- and activator-type ethylene response factors functioning in jasmonate signaling and disease resistance identified via a genome-wide screen of Arabidopsis transcription factor gene expression.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Ken C; Dombrecht, Bruno; Manners, John M; Schenk, Peer M; Edgar, Cameron I; Maclean, Donald J; Scheible, Wolf-Rüdiger; Udvardi, Michael K; Kazan, Kemal

    2005-10-01

    To identify transcription factors (TFs) involved in jasmonate (JA) signaling and plant defense, we screened 1,534 Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) TFs by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR for their altered transcript at 6 h following either methyl JA treatment or inoculation with the incompatible pathogen Alternaria brassicicola. We identified 134 TFs that showed a significant change in expression, including many APETALA2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF), MYB, WRKY, and NAC TF genes with unknown functions. Twenty TF genes were induced by both the pathogen and methyl JA and these included 10 members of the AP2/ERF TF family, primarily from the B1a and B3 subclusters. Functional analysis of the B1a TF AtERF4 revealed that AtERF4 acts as a novel negative regulator of JA-responsive defense gene expression and resistance to the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum and antagonizes JA inhibition of root elongation. In contrast, functional analysis of the B3 TF AtERF2 showed that AtERF2 is a positive regulator of JA-responsive defense genes and resistance to F. oxysporum and enhances JA inhibition of root elongation. Our results suggest that plants coordinately express multiple repressor- and activator-type AP2/ERFs during pathogen challenge to modulate defense gene expression and disease resistance. PMID:16183832

  5. THE PREVALENCE OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS AND CORRELATION WITH NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sommaieh Mohammadi; Mehrdad Karimi; Khadijeh Mirzaie; Seyyed Hossein Hosseini

    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is a major predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). There is a large body of evidence that nutrients have a important role in preventing and controlling of CVD risk factors. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of CVD risk factors and their re- lations with nutrients and energy intake in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS:

  6. Efficacy of interventions that include diet, aerobic and resistance training components for type 2 diabetes prevention: a systematic review with meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Current recommendations for the prevention of type 2 diabetes advise modification of diet and exercise behaviors including both aerobic and resistance training. However, the efficacy of multi-component interventions involving a combination of these three components has not been established. The aims of this review were to systematically review and meta-analyze the evidence on multi-component (diet?+?aerobic exercise?+?resistance training) lifestyle interventions for type 2 diabetes prevention. Eight electronic databases (Medline, Embase, SportDiscus, Web of Science, CINAHL, Informit health collection, Cochrane library and Scopus) were searched up to June 2013. Eligible studies 1) recruited prediabetic adults or individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes; 2) conducted diet and exercise [including both physical activity/aerobic and resistance training] programs; and 3) reported weight and plasma glucose outcomes. In total, 23 articles from eight studies were eligible including five randomized controlled trials, one quasi-experimental, one two-group comparison and one single-group pre-post study. Four studies had a low risk of bias (score???6/10). Median intervention length was 12 months (range 4–48 months) with a follow-up of 18 months (range 6.5 - 48 months). The diet and exercise interventions varied slightly in terms of their specific prescriptions. Meta-analysis favored interventions over controls for weight loss (-3.79 kg [-6.13, -1.46; 95% CI], Z?=?3.19, P?=?0.001) and fasting plasma glucose (-0.13 mmol.L-1 [-0.24, -0.02; 95% CI], Z?=?2.42, P?=?0.02). Diabetes incidence was only reported in two studies, with reductions of 58% and 56% versus control groups. In summary, multi-component lifestyle type 2 diabetes prevention interventions that include diet and both aerobic and resistance exercise training are modestly effective in inducing weight loss and improving impaired fasting glucose, glucose tolerance, dietary and exercise outcomes in at risk and prediabetic adult populations. These results support the current exercise guidelines for the inclusion of resistance training in type 2 diabetes prevention, however there remains a need for more rigorous studies, with long-term follow-up evaluating program efficacy, muscular fitness outcomes, diabetes incidence and risk reduction. PMID:24423095

  7. Potential risk factors for the onset of complex regional pain syndrome type 1: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Pons, Tracey; Shipton, Edward A; Williman, Jonathan; Mulder, Roger T

    2015-01-01

    Anaesthetists in the acute and chronic pain teams are often involved in treating Complex Regional Pain Syndromes. Current literature about the risk factors for the onset of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 (CRPS 1) remains sparse. This syndrome has a low prevalence, a highly variable presentation, and no gold standard for diagnosis. In the research setting, the pathogenesis of the syndrome continues to be elusive. There is a growing body of literature that addresses efficacy of a wide range of interventions as well as the likely mechanisms that contribute to the onset of CRPS 1. The objective for this systematic search of the literature focuses on determining the potential risk factors for the onset of CRPS 1. Eligible articles were analysed, dated 1996 to April 2014, and potential risk factors for the onset of CRPS 1 were identified from 10 prospective and 6 retrospective studies. Potential risk factors for the onset of CRPS 1 were found to include being female, particularly postmenopausal female, ankle dislocation or intra-articular fracture, immobilisation, and a report of higher than usual levels of pain in the early phases of trauma. It is not possible to draw definite conclusions as this evidence is heterogeneous and of mixed quality, relevance, and weighting strength against bias and has not been confirmed across multiple trials or in homogenous studies. PMID:25688265

  8. Risk factors for migraine and tension-type headache in 11 year old children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Though migraine and tension type headache are both commonly diagnosed in childhood, little is known about their determinants when diagnosed prior to puberty onset. Our aim was to determine psychosocial- and health-related risk factors of migraine and tension-type headache in 11 year old children. Methods 871 New Zealand European children were enrolled in a longitudinal study at birth and data were collected at birth, 1, 3.5, 7, and 11 years of age. Primary headache was determined at age 11 years based on the International Headache Society. Perinatal factors assessed were small for gestational age status, sex, maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal perceived stress, and maternal school leaving age. Childhood factors assessed were sleep duration, percent body fat, television watching, parent and self-reported total problem behaviour, being bullied, and depression. Results Prevalence of migraine and tension-type headache was 10.5% and 18.6%, respectively. Both migraine and TTH were significantly associated with self-reported problem behaviour in univariable logistic regression analyses. Additionally, migraine was associated with reduced sleep duration, and both sleep and behaviour problems remained significant after multivariable analyses. TTH was also significantly associated with antenatal maternal smoking, higher body fat, and being bullied. For TTH, problem behaviour measured at ages 3.5 and 11 years both remained significant after multivariable analysis. Being born small for gestational age was not associated with either headache group. Conclusions Although they share some commonality, migraine and tension-type headache are separate entities in childhood with different developmental characteristics. The association between primary headache and problem behaviour requires further investigation. PMID:25205384

  9. The insulin-like growth factor pathway is altered in Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 and type 7

    SciTech Connect

    Gatchel, Jennifer R.; Watase, Kei; Thaller, Christina; Carson, James P.; Jafar-Nejad, Paymaan; Shaw, Chad A.; Zu, Tao; Orr, Harry T.; Zoghbi, Huda Yahya

    2008-01-29

    Polyglutamine diseases are inherited neurodegenerative disorders caused by expansion of CAG trinucleotide repeats encoding a polyglutamine tract in the disease-causing proteins. There are nine of these disorders each having distinct features but also clinical and pathological similarities. In particular, spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 and 7 (SCA1 and SCA7) patients manifest cerebellar ataxia with corresponding degeneration of Purkinje cells. Given this common phenotype, we asked whether the two disorders share common molecular pathogenic events. To address this question we studied two genetically accurate mouse models of SCA1 and SCA7—Sca1154Q/2Q and Sca7266Q/5Q knock-in mice—that express the glutamine-expanded proteins from the respective endogenous loci. We found common transcriptional changes in early symptomatic mice, with downregulation of Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 (Igfbp5) representing one of the most robust transcriptional changes that closely correlates with disease state. Interestingly, down-regulation of Igfbp5 occurred in granule neurons through a non-cell autonomous mechanism and was concomitant with activation of the Insulin-like growth factor I (Igf-I) pathway, and, in particular, the Igf-I receptor, expressed in part on Purkinje cells (PC). These data define a possible common pathogenic response in SCA1 and SCA7 and reveal the importance of neuron-neuron interactions in SCA1 and SCA7 pathogenesis. The sensitivity of Igfbp5 levels to disease state could render it and other components of its effector pathway useful as biomarkers in this class of diseases.

  10. Modelling the Interplay between Lifestyle Factors and Genetic Predisposition on Markers of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Risk

    PubMed Central

    Holzapfel, Christina; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Fuller, Nicholas R.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Hauner, Hans; Caterson, Ian D.; Jebb, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    The risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is determined by a complex interplay involving lifestyle factors and genetic predisposition. Despite this, many studies do not consider the relative contributions of this complex array of factors to identify relationships which are important in progression or prevention of complex diseases. We aimed to describe the integrated effect of a number of lifestyle changes (weight, diet and physical activity) in the context of genetic susceptibility, on changes in glycaemic traits in overweight or obese participants following 12-months of a weight management programme. A sample of 353 participants from a behavioural weight management intervention were included in this study. A graphical Markov model was used to describe the impact of the intervention, by dividing the effects into various pathways comprising changes in proportion of dietary saturated fat, physical activity and weight loss, and a genetic predisposition score (T2DM-GPS), on changes in insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IR), insulin secretion (HOMA-B) and short and long term glycaemia (glucose and HbA1c). We demonstrated the use of graphical Markov modelling to identify the importance and interrelationships of a number of possible variables changed as a result of a lifestyle intervention, whilst considering fixed factors such as genetic predisposition, on changes in traits. Paths which led to weight loss and change in dietary saturated fat were important factors in the change of all glycaemic traits, whereas the T2DM-GPS only made a significant direct contribution to changes in HOMA-IR and plasma glucose after considering the effects of lifestyle factors. This analysis shows that modifiable factors relating to body weight, diet, and physical activity are more likely to impact on glycaemic traits than genetic predisposition during a behavioural intervention. PMID:26154605

  11. Coagulation factor X mediates adenovirus type 5 liver gene transfer in non-human primates (Microcebus murinus).

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Coagulation factor X mediates adenovirus type 5 liver gene transfer in non- human primates the interaction with coagulation factor X (FX) resulting in substantially reduced hepatocyte transduction documented the role of blood coagulation factors in mediating liver gene transfer in vivo and the mechanism

  12. The Factors Associated With Disease Mismanagement in Young Patients with Type 1 Diabetes: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Selda; Kelleci, Meral; Satman, Ilhan

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this qualitative study on young adults with type 1 diabetes was to determine the factors associated with mismanagement of diabetes. Methods In this qualitative study, a descriptive phenomenological and psychological method was followed. Purposeful sampling method was used in this study. 28 young adults aged 18-25 with type 1 diabetes (16 females, 12 males) with HbA1c levels >6.5% were interviewed in-depth. Each interview lasted 40-45 minutes. The recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim, examined line-by-line and coded using open coding techniques and managed by QSR NVivo 7. During the research period, Guba ve Lincolln criteria were used to ensure the accuracy and precision of the study findings. Results The study identified seven themes which affect the diabetes management of the patients. These themes were negative emotions about the disease, difficulties arising from living condition, difficulties arising from the treatment treatment process, lack of social support, not solution oriented coping methods, concerns about the future and issues of developing knowledge and attitude regarding diabetes management. Conclusion There are multiple factors affecting the management of diabetes in young adults with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes has a biopsychosocial impact on young adults’ lives, developing a negative attitude toward their future and that of their family. PMID:26005688

  13. A systematic analysis of host factors reveals a Med23-interferon-? regulatory axis against herpes simplex virus type 1 replication.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Samantha J; Koegl, Manfred; Boutell, Chris; Zenner, Helen L; Crump, Colin M; Pica, Francesca; Gonzalez, Orland; Friedel, Caroline C; Barry, Gerald; Martin, Kim; Craigon, Marie H; Chen, Rui; Kaza, Lakshmi N; Fossum, Even; Fazakerley, John K; Efstathiou, Stacey; Volpi, Antonio; Zimmer, Ralf; Ghazal, Peter; Haas, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic virus causing vesicular oral or genital skin lesions, meningitis and other diseases particularly harmful in immunocompromised individuals. To comprehensively investigate the complex interaction between HSV-1 and its host we combined two genome-scale screens for host factors (HFs) involved in virus replication. A yeast two-hybrid screen for protein interactions and a RNA interference (RNAi) screen with a druggable genome small interfering RNA (siRNA) library confirmed existing and identified novel HFs which functionally influence HSV-1 infection. Bioinformatic analyses found the 358 HFs were enriched for several pathways and multi-protein complexes. Of particular interest was the identification of Med23 as a strongly anti-viral component of the largely pro-viral Mediator complex, which links specific transcription factors to RNA polymerase II. The anti-viral effect of Med23 on HSV-1 replication was confirmed in gain-of-function gene overexpression experiments, and this inhibitory effect was specific to HSV-1, as a range of other viruses including Vaccinia virus and Semliki Forest virus were unaffected by Med23 depletion. We found Med23 significantly upregulated expression of the type III interferon family (IFN-?) at the mRNA and protein level by directly interacting with the transcription factor IRF7. The synergistic effect of Med23 and IRF7 on IFN-? induction suggests this is the major transcription factor for IFN-? expression. Genotypic analysis of patients suffering recurrent orofacial HSV-1 outbreaks, previously shown to be deficient in IFN-? secretion, found a significant correlation with a single nucleotide polymorphism in the IFN-?3 (IL28b) promoter strongly linked to Hepatitis C disease and treatment outcome. This paper describes a link between Med23 and IFN-?, provides evidence for the crucial role of IFN-? in HSV-1 immune control, and highlights the power of integrative genome-scale approaches to identify HFs critical for disease progression and outcome. PMID:23950709

  14. Factors responsible for the evolution of insulin resistance in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients: Association with atherosclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ataru Taniguchi; Mitsuo Fukushima; Yoshikatsu Nakai; Akira Kuroe; Michihiro Ohya; Minako Ohgushi; Yutaka Seino

    2007-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a heterogeneous syndrome characterized by defective insulin secretion and\\/or insulin resistance. In distinct from Caucasian populations, Japanese type 2 diabetic patients are divided into two categories: one with insulin resistance and the other with normal insulin sensitivity. This unique feature allows us to explore the factors responsible for the evolution of insulin resistance in Japanese type

  15. Predominant factor determining wear properties of ?-type and (?+?)-type titanium alloys in metal-to-metal contact for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoon-Seok; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Nakai, Masaaki; Narita, Kengo; Cho, Ken

    2015-01-01

    The predominant factor determining the wear properties of a new titanium alloy, Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr (TNTZ) and a conventional titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V extra-low interstitial (Ti64) was investigated for TNTZ and Ti64 combinations in metal-to-metal contacting bio-implant applications. The worn surfaces, wear debris, and subsurface damages were analyzed using a scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive spectroscopy and electron-back scattered diffraction analysis. The volume loss of TNTZ is found to be larger than that of Ti64, regardless of the mating material. The wear track of TNTZ exhibits the galled regions and severe plastic deformation with large flake-like debris, indicative of delamination wear, which strongly suggests the occurrence of adhesive wear. Whereas, the wear track of Ti64 have a large number of regular grooves and microcuttings with cutting chip-like wear debris and microfragmentation of fine oxide debris, indicative of abrasive wear combined with oxidative wear. This difference in the wear type is caused by severe and mild subsurface deformations of TNTZ and Ti64, respectively. The lower resistance to plastic shearing for TNTZ compared to that of Ti64 induces delamination, resulting in a higher wear rate. PMID:25460417

  16. Mannose-binding lectin and its associated proteases (MASPs) mediate coagulation and its deficiency is a risk factor in developing complications from infection, including disseminated intravascular coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kazue; Chang, Wei-Chuan; Takahashi, Minoru; Pavlov, Vasile; Ishida, Yumi; La Bonte, Laura; Shi, Lei; Fujita, Teizo; Stahl, Gregory L.; Van Cott, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    The first line of host defense is the innate immune system that includes coagulation factors and pattern recognition molecules, one of which is mannose-binding lectin (MBL). Previous studies have demonstrated that MBL deficiency increases susceptibility to infection. Several mechanisms are associated with increased susceptibility to infection, including reduced opsonophagocytic killing and reduced lectin complement pathway activation. In this study, we demonstrate that MBL and MBL-associated serine protease (MASP)-1/3 together mediate coagulation factor-like activities, including thrombin-like activity. MBL and/or MASP-1/3 deficient hosts demonstrate in vivo evidence that MBL and MASP-1/3 are involved with hemostasis following injury. Staphylococcus aureus infected MBL null mice developed disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), which was associated with elevated blood IL-6 levels (but not TNF-? and multi-organ inflammatory responses). Infected MBL null mice also develop liver injury. These findings suggest that MBL deficiency may manifest into DIC and organ failure during infectious diseases. PMID:20399528

  17. Factors associated with dietary diversity score among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Tiew, Kee Fong; Chan, Yoke Mun; Lye, Munn Sann; Loke, Seng Cheong

    2014-12-01

    Studies on diet quality among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are scarce. This crosssectional study aimed to assess the diet quality and to determine its associated factors among individuals with T2DM at the Medical Outpatients Department, Serdang Hospital, Selangor, Malaysia, from July 2010 to March 2011. Subjects were interviewed for sociodemographic data. Diabetes history was retrieved from the hospital's e-database. Usual dietary intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire, from which a dietary diversity score was obtained with two measures: Food Group Score and Serving Score were constructed based on the Malaysian Dietary Guidelines. Food Group Score was computed from the number of food groups consumed from five major food groups (grains, vegetables, fruits, meat, and dairy products) whereas Serving Score was computed from the number of servings consumed from the various food groups. Anthropometric measures, including weight, height, waist- and hip-circumference were examined. For data analyses, descriptive statistics, simple and multiple linear regression were conducted using IBM SPSS Statis- tics 20.0. A total of 113 subjects (50.4% female), with mean?SD age of 54.05 +/- 10.30 years and duration of diabetes of 11.25?9.05 years were studied. The mean Food Group Score and Serving Score were 4.12 +/- 0.79 and 12.75+3.50 respectively. Slightly more than one-third of the subjects achieved five food groups a day while less than 2% consumed a desirable number of servings from all food groups. Among the five food groups, dairy, and fruits were the least-frequently consumed foods. Lower education, lower personal income, working, non-insulin, overweight and obese subjects had significantly lower Food Group Score than their counterparts [F (6,106)=4.924, p<0.0001] whereas lower education, lower waist-to-hip ratio, overweight and obese subjects had significantly lower Serving Score than their counterparts [F (4,108)=7.520, p<0.0001]. There was a high proportion of individuals with T2DM, who failed to adhere to the national dietary guidelines. The importance of taking a well-balanced diet in accordance with the guidelines should be emphasized, especially among those with lower educational level through a simple and easy-to-understand approach. PMID:25895200

  18. Trigger factors of migraine and tension-type headache: experience and knowledge of the patients.

    PubMed

    Wöber, Christian; Holzhammer, Julia; Zeitlhofer, Josef; Wessely, Peter; Wöber-Bingöl, Ciçek

    2006-09-01

    The objective was to examine potential trigger factors of migraine and tension-type headache (TTH) in clinic patients and in subjects from the population and to compare the patients' personal experience with their theoretical knowledge. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a headache centre. There were 120 subjects comprising 66 patients with migraine and 22 with TTH from a headache outpatient clinic and 32 persons with headache (migraine or TTH) from the population. A semistructured interview covering biographic data, lifestyle, medical history, headache characteristics and 25 potential trigger factors differentiating between the patients' personal experience and their theoretical knowledge was used. The most common trigger factors experienced by the patients were weather (82.5%), stress (66.7%), menstruation (51.4%) and relaxation after stress (50%). The vast majority of triggers occurred occasionally and not consistently. The patients experienced 8.9+/-4.3 trigger factors (range 0-20) and they knew 13.2+/-6.0 (range 1-27). The number of experienced triggers was smallest in the population group (p=0.002), whereas the number of triggers known did not differ in the three study groups. Comparing theoretical knowledge with personal experience showed the largest differences for oral contraceptives (65.0 vs. 14.7%, p<0.001), chocolate (61.7 vs. 14.3%, p>0.001) and cheese (52.5 vs. 8.4%, p<0.001). In conclusion, almost all trigger factors are experienced occasionally and not consistently by the majority of patients. Subjects from the population experience trigger factors less often than clinic patients. The difference between theoretical knowledge and personal experience is largest for oral contraceptives, chocolate and cheese. PMID:16897622

  19. Over-expression of Dof-type transcription factor increases lipid production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Salazar, Alejandro; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Rocha-Uribe, Alejandro; Ramírez-Alonso, Jocelín Itzel; Lara-Hernández, Ignacio; Hernández-Torres, Araceli; Paz-Maldonado, Luz María Teresita; Silva-Ramírez, Ana Sonia; Bañuelos-Hernández, Bernardo; Martínez-Salgado, José Luis; Soria-Guerra, Ruth Elena

    2014-08-20

    The high demand for less polluting, newer, and cheaper fuel resources has increased the search of the most innovative options for the production of the so-called biofuels. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a photosynthetic unicellular algae with multiple biotechnological advantages such as easy handling in the laboratory, a simple scale-up to industrial levels, as well as a feasible genetic modification at nuclear and chloroplast levels. Besides, its fatty acids can be used to produce biofuels. Previous studies in plants have found that the over expression of DOF-type transcription factor genes increases the synthesis and the accumulation of total lipids in seeds. In this context, the over-expression of a DOF-type transcription factor in C. reinhardtii was applied as approach to increase the amount of lipids. The results indicate higher amounts (around 2-fold) of total lipids, which are mainly fatty acids, in the genetically C. reinhardtii modified strains when compared with the non-genetically modified strain. In order to elucidate the possible function of the introduced Dof-type transcription factor, we performed a transcription profile of 8 genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and 6 genes involved in glycerolipid biosynthesis, by quantitative real time (qRT-PCR). Differential expression profile was observed, which can explain the increase in lipid accumulation. However, these strains did not show notable changes in the fatty acid profile. This work represents an early effort in generating a strategy to increase fatty acids production in C. reinhardtii and their use in biofuel synthesis. PMID:24844864

  20. Type I insulin-like growth factor receptor induces pulmonary tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Linnerth, Nicolle M; Siwicky, Megan D; Campbell, Craig I; Watson, Katrina L M; Petrik, James J; Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Moorehead, Roger A

    2009-07-01

    Despite the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) being highly expressed in more than 80% of human lung tumors, a transgenic model of IGF-IR overexpression in the lung has not been created. We produced two novel transgenic mouse models in which IGF-IR is overexpressed in either lung type II alveolar cells (surfactant protein C [SPC]-IGFIR) or Clara cells (CCSP-IGFIR) in a doxycycline-inducible manner. Overexpression of IGF-IR in either cell type caused multifocal adenomatous alveolar hyperplasia with papillary and solid adenomas. These tumors expressed thyroid transcription factor 1 and Kruppel-like factor 5 in most tumor cells. Similar to our previous work with lung tumors that developed in the mouse mammary tumor virus-IGF-II transgenic mice, the lung tumors that develop in the SPC-IGFIR and CCSP-IGFIR transgenic mice expressed high levels of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein that was localized primarily to the nucleus. Although elevated IGF-IR expression can initiate lung tumor development, tumors can become independent of IGF-IR signaling as IGF-IR down-regulation in established tumors produced tumor regression in some, but not all, of the tumors. These findings implicate IGF-IR as an important initiator of lung tumorigenesis and suggest that the SPC-IGFIR and CCSP-IGFIR transgenic mice can be used to further our understanding of human lung cancer and the role IGF-IR plays in this disease. PMID:19568412

  1. Beyond genetics. Influence of dietary factors and gut microbiota on type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Dennis S; Krych, ?ukasz; Buschard, Karsten; Hansen, Camilla H F; Hansen, Axel K

    2014-11-17

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease ultimately leading to destruction of insulin secreting ?-cells in the pancreas. Genetic susceptibility plays an important role in T1D etiology, but even mono-zygotic twins only have a concordance rate of around 50%, underlining that other factors than purely genetic are involved in disease development. Here we review the influence of dietary and environmental factors on T1D development in humans as well as animal models. Even though data are still inconclusive, there are strong indications that gut microbiota dysbiosis plays an important role in T1D development and evidence from animal models suggests that gut microbiota manipulation might prove valuable in future prevention of T1D in genetically susceptible individuals. PMID:24746688

  2. Prediction of giant thermoelectric power factor in type-VIII clathrate Si46.

    PubMed

    Norouzzadeh, Payam; Myles, Charles W; Vashaee, Daryoosh

    2014-01-01

    Clathrate materials have been the subject of intense interest and research for thermoelectric application. Nevertheless, from the very large number of conceivable clathrate structures, only a small fraction of them have been examined. Since the thermal conductivity of clathrates is inherently small due to their large unit cell size and open-framework structure, the current research on clathrates is focused on finding the ones with large thermoelectric power factor. Here we predict an extraordinarily large power factor for type-VIII clathrate Si(46). We show the existence of a large density of closely packed elongated ellipsoidal carrier pockets near the band edges of this so far hypothetical material structure, which is higher than that of the best thermoelectric materials known today. The high crystallographic symmetry near the energy band edges for Si(46)-VIII clathrates is responsible for the formation of such a large number of carrier pockets. PMID:25391971

  3. Expression and secretion of type. beta. transforming growth factor by activated human macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Assoian, R.K.; Fleurdelys, B.E.; Stevenson, H.C.; Miller, P.J.; Madtes, D.K.; Raines, E.W.; Ross, R.; Sporn, M.B.

    1987-09-01

    Alveolar macrophages activated with concanavalin A and peripheral blood monocytes activated with lipopolysaccharide secrete type ..beta.. transforming growth factor (TGF-..beta..). There is minimal TGF-..beta.. secretion in unactivated monocytes, even though TGF-..beta.. mRNA is expressed in these cells at a level similar to that in activated, lipopolysaccharide-treated cultures. U937 lymphoma cells, which have momocytic characteristics, also express mRNA for TGF-..beta... Freshly isolated monocytes, both control and lipopolysaccharide-treated, secrete an acid-labile binding protein that inhibits TGF-..beta.. action. They conclude the following: (i) that expression of TGF-..beta.. mRNA is unrelated to monocyte activation, (ii) that secretion of TGF-..beta.. is induced by monocyte activation, and (iii) that cosecretion of TGF-..beta.. and its monocyte/macrophage-derived binding protein may modulate growth factor action. In contrast, monocytic expression of other growth factor genes, such as the B chain of platelet-derived growth factor, is not constitutive and requires activation.

  4. Macaque-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1: breaking out of the host restriction factors

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Akatsuki; Akari, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    Macaque monkeys serve as important animal models for understanding the pathogenesis of lentiviral infections. Since human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) hardly replicates in macaque cells, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or chimeric viruses between HIV-1 and SIV (SHIV) have been used as challenge viruses in this research field. These viruses, however, are genetically distant from HIV-1. Therefore, in order to evaluate the efficacy of anti-HIV-1 drugs and vaccines in macaques, the development of a macaque-tropic HIV-1 (HIV-1mt) having the ability to replicate efficiently in macaques has long been desired. Recent studies have demonstrated that host restriction factors, such as APOBEC3 family and TRIM5, impose a strong barrier against HIV-1 replication in macaque cells. By evading these restriction factors, others and we have succeeded in developing an HIV-1mt that is able to replicate in macaques. In this review, we have attempted to shed light on the role of host factors that affect the susceptibility of macaques to HIV-1mt infection, especially by focusing on TRIM5-related factors. PMID:23847610

  5. Early onset type 2 diabetes: risk factors, clinical impact and management

    PubMed Central

    Idris, Iskandar

    2014-01-01

    Early onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasingly prevalent with a significant impact on the individual, healthcare service delivery and planning. The individuals are likely to be obese, lead a sedentary lifestyle, have a strong family history of T2DM, be of black and minority ethnic (BME) origin and come from a less affluent socioeconomic group. They have a heightened risk of developing microvascular and macrovascular complications, often at an earlier stage and with greater frequency than seen in type 1 diabetes. As such, early and aggressive risk factor management is warranted. Early onset T2DM is complex and impacts on service delivery with a need for multidisciplinary care of complications and comorbidities’, in addition to adequate educational and psychological support. This review on the impact of early onset T2DM provides the latest insights into this emerging epidemic. PMID:25364491

  6. Impact of Walking on Glycemic Control and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Shanhu; Cai, Xue; Schumann, Uwe; Velders, Martina; Sun, Zilin; Steinacker, Jürgen Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Walking is the most popular and most preferred exercise among type 2 diabetes patients, yet compelling evidence regarding its beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors is still lacking. The aim of this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was to evaluate the association between walking and glycemic control and other cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes patients. Methods Three databases were searched up to August 2014. English-language RCTs were eligible for inclusion if they had assessed the walking effects (duration ?8 weeks) on glycemic control or other cardiovascular risk factors among type 2 diabetes patients. Data were pooled using a random-effects model. Subgroup analyses based on supervision status and meta-regression analyses of variables regarding characteristics of participants and walking were performed to investigate their association with glycemic control. Results Eighteen studies involving 20 RCTs (866 participants) were included. Walking significantly decreased glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) by 0.50% (95% confidence intervals [CI]: ?0.78% to ?0.21%). Supervised walking was associated with a pronounced decrease in HbA1c (WMD ?0.58%, 95% CI: ?0.93% to ?0.23%), whereas non-supervised walking was not. Further subgroup analysis suggested non-supervised walking using motivational strategies is also effective in decreasing HbA1c (WMD ?0.53%, 95% CI: ?1.05% to ?0.02%). Effects of covariates on HbA1c change were generally unclear. For other cardiovascular risk factors, walking significantly reduced body mass index (BMI) and lowered diastolic blood pressure (DBP), but non-significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP), or changed high-density or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Conclusions This meta-analysis supports that walking decreases HbA1c among type 2 diabetes patients. Supervision or the use of motivational strategies should be suggested when prescribed walking to ensure optimal glycemic control. Walking also reduces BMI and lowers DBP, however, it remains insufficient regarding the association of walking with lowered SBP or improved lipoprotein profiles. Trial Registration PROSPERO CRD42014009515 PMID:25329391

  7. A mammary cell-specific enhancer in mouse mammary tumor virus DNA is composed of multiple regulatory elements including binding sites for CTF/NFI and a novel transcription factor, mammary cell-activating factor.

    PubMed Central

    Mink, S; Härtig, E; Jennewein, P; Doppler, W; Cato, A C

    1992-01-01

    Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is a milk-transmitted retrovirus involved in the neoplastic transformation of mouse mammary gland cells. The expression of this virus is regulated by mammary cell type-specific factors, steroid hormones, and polypeptide growth factors. Sequences for mammary cell-specific expression are located in an enhancer element in the extreme 5' end of the long terminal repeat region of this virus. This enhancer, when cloned in front of the herpes simplex thymidine kinase promoter, endows the promoter with mammary cell-specific response. Using functional and DNA-protein-binding studies with constructs mutated in the MMTV long terminal repeat enhancer, we have identified two main regulatory elements necessary for the mammary cell-specific response. These elements consist of binding sites for a transcription factor in the family of CTF/NFI proteins and the transcription factor mammary cell-activating factor (MAF) that recognizes the sequence G Pu Pu G C/G A A G G/T. Combinations of CTF/NFI- and MAF-binding sites or multiple copies of either one of these binding sites but not solitary binding sites mediate mammary cell-specific expression. The functional activities of these two regulatory elements are enhanced by another factor that binds to the core sequence ACAAAG. Interdigitated binding sites for CTF/NFI, MAF, and/or the ACAAAG factor are also found in the 5' upstream regions of genes encoding whey milk proteins from different species. These findings suggest that mammary cell-specific regulation is achieved by a concerted action of factors binding to multiple regulatory sites. Images PMID:1328867

  8. Deficient liver regeneration after carbon tetrachloride injury in mice lacking type 1 but not type 2 tumor necrosis factor receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Y.; Fausto, N.

    1998-01-01

    Signaling by tumor necrosis factor type 1 receptor (TNFR-1) is required for the initiation of liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. Using knockout mice that lack either TNFR-1 or TNFR-2, we determined whether signaling through TNF receptors is important for liver injury and hepatocyte proliferation induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Lack of TNFR-1 inhibited hepatocyte DNA synthesis after CCl4 injection. At 44 hours after the injection, replication of hepatocytes in TNFR-1 was 50% to 90% lower than in wild-type (WT) animals, depending on the dose injected. In WT animals, hepatocyte replication was essentially completed by 4 days after CCl4 injection, but replication at a low level persisted in TNFR-1 mice for at least 2 weeks. TNFR-1 knockout mice had little detectable NF-kappa B and STAT3 binding during the first 5 hours after CCl4, high plasma TNF, and reduced levels of plasma interleukin (IL)-6 and liver IL-6 mRNA. Injection of IL-6 30 minutes before CCl4 administration corrected the deficiency of hepatocyte replication at 44 hours and restored STAT3 binding to normal levels. In contrast, mice lacking TNFR-2 did not differ significantly from WT mice in NF-kappa B and STAT3 binding, IL-6 and TNF levels, or hepatocyte replication. Although AP-1 binding was induced in WT TNFR-1 and TNFR-2 knockout mice, binding in TNFR-2 knockouts was lower than in WT mice. C/EBP binding was much lower in TNFR-1 and TNFR-2 knockout mice than in WT mice. As assessed by morphological analysis and alanine aminotransferase levels, the acute injury caused by CCl4 appeared to be similar in the three groups of animals, but subsequent regeneration was impaired in mice lacking TNFR-1. We conclude that a TNFR-1 signaling pathway involving NF-kappa B, IL-6, and STAT3 is an important component of the hepatocyte mitogenic response induced by CCl4 injury in mouse liver. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 12 PMID:9626061

  9. Genome-wide identification of target genes of a mating-type ?-domain transcription factor reveals functions beyond sexual development.

    PubMed

    Becker, Kordula; Beer, Christina; Freitag, Michael; Kück, Ulrich

    2015-06-01

    Penicillium chrysogenum is the main industrial producer of the ?-lactam antibiotic penicillin, the most commonly used drug in the treatment of bacterial infections. Recently, a functional MAT1-1 locus encoding the ?-box transcription factor MAT1-1-1 was discovered to control sexual development in P.?chrysogenum. As only little was known from any organism about the regulatory functions mediated by MAT1-1-1, we applied chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) to gain new insights into the factors that influence MAT1-1-1 functions on a molecular level and its role in genome-wide transcriptional regulatory networks. Most importantly, our data provide evidence for mating-type transcription factor functions that reach far beyond their previously understood role in sexual development. These new roles include regulation of hyphal morphology, asexual development, as well as amino acid, iron, and secondary metabolism. Furthermore, in vitro?DNA-protein binding studies and downstream analysis in yeast and P.?chrysogenum enabled the identification of a MAT1-1-1 DNA-binding motif, which is highly conserved among euascomycetes. Our studies pave the way to a more general understanding of these master switches for development and metabolism in all fungi, and open up new options for optimization of fungal high production strains. PMID:25728030

  10. Klebsiella spp. as Nosocomial Pathogens: Epidemiology, Taxonomy, Typing Methods, and Pathogenicity Factors

    PubMed Central

    Podschun, R.; Ullmann, U.

    1998-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the genus Klebsiella frequently cause human nosocomial infections. In particular, the medically most important Klebsiella species, Klebsiella pneumoniae, accounts for a significant proportion of hospital-acquired urinary tract infections, pneumonia, septicemias, and soft tissue infections. The principal pathogenic reservoirs for transmission of Klebsiella are the gastrointestinal tract and the hands of hospital personnel. Because of their ability to spread rapidly in the hospital environment, these bacteria tend to cause nosocomial outbreaks. Hospital outbreaks of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella spp., especially those in neonatal wards, are often caused by new types of strains, the so-called extended-spectrum-?-lactamase (ESBL) producers. The incidence of ESBL-producing strains among clinical Klebsiella isolates has been steadily increasing over the past years. The resulting limitations on the therapeutic options demand new measures for the management of Klebsiella hospital infections. While the different typing methods are useful epidemiological tools for infection control, recent findings about Klebsiella virulence factors have provided new insights into the pathogenic strategies of these bacteria. Klebsiella pathogenicity factors such as capsules or lipopolysaccharides are presently considered to be promising candidates for vaccination efforts that may serve as immunological infection control measures. PMID:9767057

  11. Multiple nuclear factors interact with promoter sequences of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator gene.

    PubMed Central

    von der Ahe, D; Pearson, D; Nakagawa, J; Rajput, B; Nagamine, Y

    1988-01-01

    To characterize proteins that bind to the cyclic AMP inducible promoter of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator gene, we performed a DNAase I footprinting analysis. Within 500 nucleotides upstream of the transcription start site we found eight protected regions due to at least four different binding proteins. Among these is a single binding site for the transcription factor CTF/NF1, which is flanked on each side by two conserved binding sites for the transcription factor Sp1. A region at -380, which shares a similarity with sequences observed in the corresponding regions of other cyclic AMP regulated genes, was protected. This binding site contains a sequence of ten nucleotides which is repeated further upstream at -480 and also protected against DNAase I digestion. Comparisons of extracts from four different cell lines revealed that all DNA binding factors are present in nuclei of uPA expressing and nonexpressing cells. Mechanism underlying hormonal regulation of the gene is discussed. Images PMID:3412894

  12. Recurrent subthreshold depression in type 2 diabetes: an important risk factor for poor health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Norbert; Gariépy, Geneviève; Smith, Kimberley J; Clyde, Matthew; Malla, Ashok; Boyer, Richard; Strychar, Irene; Lesage, Alain; Wang, Jianli

    2014-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between recurrent subthreshold depressive episodes and functioning in a prospective community sample of people with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A prospective community study in Quebec, Canada, was carried out between 2008 and 2013 (n = 1,064). Five yearly follow-up assessments (telephone interviews) were conducted. Baseline and the first three follow-up assessments were used to identify recurrent subthreshold depressive episodes (Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ]-9). Functioning (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II [WHODAS-II]) and health-related quality of life (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] unhealthy days) at 4- and 5-year follow-up assessments were the outcome measures. RESULTS Nearly half of the participants suffered from at least one episode of subthreshold depressive symptoms. After adjusting for potentially confounding factors, the risk of poor functioning/impaired health-related quality of life was nearly three times higher (relative risk = 2.86) for participants with four subthreshold depressive episodes compared with participants with no/minimal depression. Results suggest a dose-response relationship: the risk of poor functioning/impaired health-related quality of life increased with the number of recurrent subthreshold depressive episodes even after controlling for potentially confounding variables (significant linear trend, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Recurrent subthreshold depressive symptoms might be an important risk factor for poor health outcomes in type 2 diabetes. Early identification, monitoring, and treatment of recurrent subthreshold depressive symptoms might improve functioning and quality of life in people with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24198303

  13. Bound states of the Klein-Gordon equation in D-dimensions with some physical scalar and vector exponential-type potentials including orbital centrifugal term

    E-print Network

    Sameer M. Ikhdair

    2011-10-05

    The approximate analytic bound state solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation with equal scalar and vector exponential-type potentials including the centrifugal potential term are obtained for any arbitrary orbital angular momentum number l and dimensional space D. The relativistic/non-relativistic energy spectrum equation and the corresponding unnormalized radial wave functions, in terms of the Jacobi polynomials P_{n}^{({\\alpha},{\\beta})}(z), where {\\alpha}>-1, {\\beta}>-1 and z\\in[-1,+1] or the generalized hypergeometric functions _{2}F_{1}(a,b;c;z), are found. The Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU) method is used in the solution. The solutions of the Eckart, Rosen-Morse, Hulth\\'en and Woods-Saxon potential models can be easily obtained from these solutions. Our results are identical with those ones appearing in the literature. Finally, under the PT-symmetry, we can easily obtain the bound state solutions of the trigonometric Rosen-Morse potential.

  14. Suicide, schizophrenia, and schizoid-type psychosis: role of life events and childhood factors.

    PubMed

    Tousignant, Michel; Pouliot, Louise; Routhier, Danielle; Vrakas, Georgia; McGirr, Alexander; Turecki, Gustavo

    2011-02-01

    The first objective was to identify the provoking events of suicide in patients with schizophrenia or schizoid-type disorder, and to assess the humiliation component of these events. The second objective was to verify if quality of care during childhood is a vulnerability factor for suicide in patients with schizophrenia or schizoid-type psychosis. Thirty-three cases of suicide with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoid-type psychosis were compared with 34 living patients with a similar diagnosis. The psychological autopsy method was used. The assessments were made with the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Axis I mental disorders, the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule, and the Child Experiences and Child Abuse Interview. The suicide group (SG) experienced more often a recent severe event, usually of a humiliation nature, than the control group (CG). It also experienced more severe events associated with aggressive behavior or with psychiatric impairment. Contrary to expectations, the CG had worse scores than the SG for quality of care during childhood. In conclusion, suicide in schizophrenia is related both to environmental stress and to psychiatric impairment. PMID:21309825

  15. Trefoil factor 2 rapidly induces interleukin 33 to promote type 2 immunity during allergic asthma and hookworm infection

    E-print Network

    Wills-Karp, Marsha

    The molecular mechanisms that drive mucosal T helper type 2 (T[subscript H]2) responses against parasitic helminths and allergens remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate in mice that TFF2 (trefoil factor 2), an ...

  16. Associations between Familial Factor, Trait Conscientiousness, Gender and the Occurrence of Type 2 Diabetes in Adulthood: Evidence from a British Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Helen; Treglown, Luke; Montgomery, Scott; Furnham, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate social, familial, and psychological factors in influencing the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. Method Some 17,415 babies born in Great Britain in 1958 and followed up at 7, 11, 33, and 50 years of age. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes at age 50 years was the outcome measure. Results Some 5,032 participants with data on parental social class, childhood cognitive ability tests scores at age 11 years, educational qualifications at age 33 years, personality traits, occupational levels, and type 2 diabetes (all measured at age 50 years) were included in the study. Available information also included whether cohort members’ parents or siblings had diabetes. Using logistic regression analyses, results showed that sex (OR=0.63: 0.42-0.92, p<.05), family history (OR=3.40: 1.76-6.55, p<.01), and trait conscientiousness (OR=0.76: 0.64-0.90, p<.001) were all significantly and independently associated with the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. It appears that the occurrence of type 2 diabetes is greater among men than women (4.3% vs 2.5%). Conclusion Familial (genetic and non-genetic) and psychological factors are significantly associated with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. PMID:25946160

  17. A radioisotope dilution assay for unlabelled vitamin B12-intrinsic factor complex employing the binding intrinsic factor antibody: probable evidence for two types of binding antibody.

    PubMed

    Jacob, E; O'Brien, H A; Mollin, D L

    1977-08-01

    A new radioisotope dilution assay for vitamin B12-intrinsic factor complex is described. The method is based on the use of the binding type intrinsic factor antibody (the binding reagent), which when combined with the intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 complex (labelled ligand), is quantitatively adsorbed onto zirconium phosphate gel at pH 6.25. The new assay has been shown to provide a measure of intrinsic factor comparable with other intrinsic factor assays, but it has the important advantage of being able to measure the unlabelled vitamin B12-intrinsic factor complex (unlabelled ligand), and will, therefore, be valuable in the study of physiological events in the gastrointestinal tract. During the study, it was found that there is some evidence for a least two types of binding intrinsic factor antibody: One which combines preferentially with the intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 complex and one which combines equally well with this complex or with free intrinsic factor. PMID:897560

  18. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity are independent risk factors for poor outcome in patients with high-grade glioma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lola B. ChamblessScott; Scott L. Parker; Laila Hassam-Malani; Matthew J. McGirt; Reid C. Thompson

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and obesity are known risk factors for poor outcomes in patients with systemic malignancies\\u000a but are not well-studied in the brain tumor population. In this study we asked if type 2 DM and elevated body mass index (BMI)\\u000a are independent risk factors for poor prognosis in patients with high-grade glioma (HGG.). We conducted a retrospective

  19. Daintain/AIF-1 (Allograft Inflammatory Factor-1) accelerates type 1 diabetes in NOD mice

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yan-Ying, E-mail: biozyy@163.com [College of Life Science and Technology, Southwest University for Nationalities, Chengdu 610041 (China)] [College of Life Science and Technology, Southwest University for Nationalities, Chengdu 610041 (China); Huang, Xin-Yuan [College of Life Science and Technology, Hubei Engineering University, Xiaogan 432000 (China)] [College of Life Science and Technology, Hubei Engineering University, Xiaogan 432000 (China); Chen, Zheng-Wang [Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 is over-expressed in the blood of NOD mice suffering from insulitis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 stimulates white blood cell proliferation in NOD mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 increases blood glucose levels and triggers type 1 diabetes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 accelerates insulitis, while its antibody prevents insulitis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 enhances the levels of nitric oxide in the pancreases of NOD mice. -- Abstract: A large body of experimental evidence suggests that cytokines trigger pancreatic {beta}-cell death in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Daintain/AIF-1 (Allograft Inflammatory Factor-1), a specific marker for activated macrophages, is accumulated in the pancreatic islets of pre-diabetic BB rats. In the present study, we demonstrate that daintain/AIF-1 is released into blood and the levels of daintain/AIF-1 in the blood of type 1 diabetes-prone non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice suffering from insulitis are significantly higher than that in healthy NOD mice. When injected intravenously into NOD mice, daintain/AIF-1 stimulates white blood cell proliferation, increases the concentrations of blood glucose, impairs insulin expression, up-regulates nitric oxide (NO) production in pancreases and accelerates diabetes in NOD mice, while the antibody against daintain/AIF-1 delays or prevents insulitis in NOD mice. These results imply daintain/AIF-1 triggers type 1 diabetes probably via arousing immune cells activation and induction of NO production in pancreas of NOD mice.

  20. Simultaneous determination of multiclass preservatives including isothiazolinones and benzophenone-type UV filters in household and personal care products by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Gazpio, Josu; Garcia-Arrona, Rosa; Millán, Esmeralda

    2015-04-01

    In this work, a simple and reliable micellar electrokinetic chromatography method for the separation and quantification of 14 preservatives, including isothiazolinones, and two benzophenone-type UV filters in household, cosmetic and personal care products was developed. The selected priority compounds are widely used as ingredients in many personal care products, and are included in the European Regulation concerning cosmetic products. The electrophoretic separation parameters were optimized by means of a modified chromatographic response function in combination with an experimental design, namely a central composite design. After optimization of experimental conditions, the BGE selected for the separation of the targets consisted of 60 mM SDS, 18 mM sodium tetraborate, pH 9.4 and 10% v/v methanol. The MEKC method was checked in terms of linearity, LODs and quantification, repeatability, intermediate precision, and accuracy, providing appropriate values (i.e. R(2) ? 0.992, repeatability RSD values ?9%, and accuracy 90-115%). Applicability of the validated method was successfully assessed by quantifying preservatives and UV filters in commercial consumer products. PMID:25598506

  1. Multiple Legionella pneumophila Type II Secretion Substrates, Including a Novel Protein, Contribute to Differential Infection of the Amoebae Acanthamoeba castellanii, Hartmannella vermiformis, and Naegleria lovaniensis

    PubMed Central

    Tyson, Jessica Y.; Pearce, Meghan M.; Vargas, Paloma; Bagchi, Sreya; Mulhern, Brendan J.

    2013-01-01

    Type II protein secretion (T2S) by Legionella pneumophila is required for intracellular infection of host cells, including macrophages and the amoebae Acanthamoeba castellanii and Hartmannella vermiformis. Previous proteomic analysis revealed that T2S by L. pneumophila 130b mediates the export of >25 proteins, including several that appeared to be novel. Following confirmation that they are unlike known proteins, T2S substrates NttA, NttB, and LegP were targeted for mutation. nttA mutants were impaired for intracellular multiplication in A. castellanii but not H. vermiformis or macrophages, suggesting that novel exoproteins which are specific to Legionella are especially important for infection. Because the importance of NttA was host cell dependent, we examined a panel of T2S substrate mutants that had not been tested before in more than one amoeba. As a result, RNase SrnA, acyltransferase PlaC, and metalloprotease ProA all proved to be required for optimal intracellular multiplication in H. vermiformis but not A. castellanii. Further examination of an lspF mutant lacking the T2S apparatus documented that T2S is also critical for infection of the amoeba Naegleria lovaniensis. Mutants lacking SrnA, PlaC, or ProA, but not those deficient for NttA, were defective in N. lovaniensis. Based upon analysis of a double mutant lacking PlaC and ProA, the role of ProA in H. vermiformis was connected to its ability to activate PlaC, whereas in N. lovaniensis, ProA appeared to have multiple functions. Together, these data document that the T2S system exports multiple effectors, including a novel one, which contribute in different ways to the broad host range of L. pneumophila. PMID:23429532

  2. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes in a sixth-grade multi-racial cohort: The HEALTHY study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    HEALTHY is a 3-year middle school intervention program designed to reduce risk factors for type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes risk factors at baseline in a cohort of 6,358 sixth-grade students is reported. Forty-two schools at seven U.S. sites were randomly assigned to intervention or contr...

  3. Tumor Necrosis Factor Type alpha , a Potent Inhibitor of Endothelial Cell Growth in vitro, is Angiogenic in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marijke Frater-Schroder; Werner Risau; Rupert Hallmann; Peter Gautschi; Peter Bohlen

    1987-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor type alpha (TNF-alpha ) inhibits endothelial cell proliferation in vitro. Basal cell growth (in the absence of exogenously added growth factor) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-stimulated cell proliferation are inhibited in a dose-dependent manner from 0.1 to 10 ng\\/ml with half-maximal inhibition occurring at 0.5-1.0 ng of TNF-alpha per ml. Bovine aortic and brain capillary endothelial and

  4. Analysis of New Type Air-Conditioning for Loom Based on CFD Simulation and Single-Factor Experiment Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wu Jianbo; Wu Gao; Yang Ruiliang; Liang Yongzhi; Song Gaoju

    2010-01-01

    A new energy-saving type of air-conditioning named large and small zone ventilation for loom workshop is proposed and researched by four factors and three levels method in authors' preliminary work. There are four factors which effect greatest large and small zone ventilation and are concerned by most designer and operators. Combined with engineering practice, each factor of this new energy-saving

  5. Mining the Brassica oleracea genome for Q-type C2H2 zinc finger transcription factor proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Q-type zinc finger proteins have been studied in several plant species and have been associated with response to stress. A whole genome analysis of Arabidopsis identified 176 putative C2H2 transcription factors (TF). Q-type C2H2 TFs containing the QALGGH motif and are a subset of these. In Arabidops...

  6. Growth inhibitory effects of vitamin K2 on colon cancer cell lines via different types of cell death including autophagy and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kawakita, Hideaki; Tsuchida, Akihiko; Miyazawa, Keisuke; Naito, Munekazu; Shigoka, Masatoshi; Kyo, Bunso; Enomoto, Masanobu; Wada, Tatehiko; Katsumata, Kenji; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Itoh, Masahiro; Tomoda, Akio; Aoki, Tatsuya

    2009-06-01

    Vitamin K2 (menaquinone-4: MK4) has been reported to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in various tumor cells. We examined the effects of MK4 using three types of colon cancer cell lines: PMCO1, COLO201, and DLD-1. Exposure to MK4 was at concentrations from 5 to 50 microM, growth inhibitory effects were observed dose-dependently in COLO201 and PMCO1, whereas the growth inhibition observed in DLD-1 was minimal. Comparison of COLO201 and PMCO1 cells exhibiting distinct growth inhibitory effects showed that cell death via apoptosis accompanied by activation of caspase-3 was induced in PMCO1, while apoptosis was not induced in COLO201. On the contrary, immunoblot assay using an anti-LC3B antibody showed autophagy induction by addition of MK4 and incubation in all three types of colon cancer cell lines. Addition of 3-methyladenine (3-MA) attenuated the growth inhibitory effect of MK4 in COLO201, whereas no influence of 3-MA was noted in PCMO1. Electron microscopy images of COLO201 showed that addition of MK4 induced an increased number of cytoplasmic autophagosomes and autolysosomes as well as morphological changes including scantiness of cytoplasm accompanied by loss of cell organelles, nuclear shrinkage, and fragmentation of cytoplasmic membrane in some cells, indicating the induction of cell death via autophagy not accompanied by the formation of apoptotic bodies in COLO201 cells. These results suggested that the response to MK4 and the way of induction of cell death vary in different colon cancer cell lines. PMID:19424596

  7. Prevalence and clustering of metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes among Chinese adults in Shanghai, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    He Xu; Yiqing Song; Nai-Chieh You; Zuo-Feng Zhang; Sander Greenland; Earl S Ford; Lin He; Simin Liu

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is becoming an epidemic in China. To evaluate the prevalence, clustering of metabolic risk factors and their impact on type 2 diabetes, we conducted a population-based study in Shanghai, China's largest metropolitan area. METHODS: From 2006 to 2007, 2,113 type 2 diabetes cases and 2,458 comparable controls of adults aged 40 to 79 years were enrolled.

  8. TACO: a general-purpose tool for predicting cell-type–specific transcription factor dimers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cooperative binding of transcription factor (TF) dimers to DNA is increasingly recognized as a major contributor to binding specificity. However, it is likely that the set of known TF dimers is highly incomplete, given that they were discovered using ad hoc approaches, or through computational analyses of limited datasets. Results Here, we present TACO (Transcription factor Association from Complex Overrepresentation), a general-purpose standalone software tool that takes as input any genome-wide set of regulatory elements and predicts cell-type–specific TF dimers based on enrichment of motif complexes. TACO is the first tool that can accommodate motif complexes composed of overlapping motifs, a characteristic feature of many known TF dimers. Our method comprehensively outperforms existing tools when benchmarked on a reference set of 29 known dimers. We demonstrate the utility and consistency of TACO by applying it to 152 DNase-seq datasets and 94 ChIP-seq datasets. Conclusions Based on these results, we uncover a general principle governing the structure of TF-TF-DNA ternary complexes, namely that the flexibility of the complex is correlated with, and most likely a consequence of, inter-motif spacing. PMID:24640962

  9. Repression of the human papillomavirus type 18 enhancer by the cellular transcription factor Oct-1.

    PubMed Central

    Hoppe-Seyler, F; Butz, K; zur Hausen, H

    1991-01-01

    The role of cellular factors involved in the transcriptional regulation of the cancer-associated human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV18) is yet poorly understood. The presence of an Oct-1-binding site within the HPV18 upstream regulatory region led us to investigate the influence of Oct-1 on viral transcription. Cotransfection of Oct-1 expression plasmids together with luciferase reporter constructs containing HPV18 regulatory sequences indicated that Oct-1 can transcriptionally repress the HPV18 upstream regulatory region. In contrast, heterologous control regions were not affected by Oct-1. HPV18 cis elements that can be repressed by Oct-1 mapped to a 135-bp subregion of the viral constitutive enhancer. Analysis of an Oct-1 mutant defective in DNA binding suggested that HPV18 down-modulation does not require direct binding of Oct-1 to DNA. These results make Oct-1 a candidate factor involved in the intracellular surveillance of HPV18 transcription and support the notion of a host cell mechanism that can specifically repress HPV E6-E7 transforming gene expression. Images PMID:1654457

  10. Selected Factors Determining a Way of Coping with Stress in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sobol-Pacyniak, Anna Beata; Szymczak, Wies?aw; Loba, Jerzy; Pietras, Tadeusz

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the study was to examine factors which determine stress coping styles in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients, with regard to selected demographic variables, clinical diabetes-related variables and selected psychical variables (anxiety level and assessment of depressive disorders). Methods. 50 T2D patients, aged 59.9 ± 10.2 years were assessed by Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). In the statistical analysis simple and multivariable logistic regression models were used. Results. Variables significantly increasing the selection risk of stress coping style different from preferred task-oriented strategy in a simple logistic regression model are: hypoglycemia within three months prior to the research: odds ratio (OR) = 6.86 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25–37.61), taking antidepressants or neuroleptics: OR =15.42 (95% CI 2.42–98.33), severe depression in Beck's scale: OR = 84.00 (95% CI 6.51–1083.65), high state-anxiety level: OR = 9.60 (95% CI 1.08–85.16), and high trait-anxiety level: OR = 18.40 (95%CI 2.96–114.31), but in a multivariable model, diagnosed depression is the strongest factor: OR = 32.38 (95% CI 4.94–212.13). Conclusions. In T2D patients, the strategy to cope with stress appears to be mostly influenced by psychical predisposition. PMID:25105132

  11. Racial/ethnic Differences in Clinical and Biochemical Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Risk Factors in Children

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Michael; Fennoy, Ilene; Accacha, Siham; Altshuler, Lisa; Carey, Dennis E.; Holleran, Steven; Rapaport, Robert; Shelov, Steven P.; Speiser, Phyllis W.; Ten, S.; Bhangoo, Amrit; Boucher-Berry, Claudia; Espinal, Yomery; Gupta, Rishi; Hassoun, Abeer A.; Iazetti, Loretta.; Jacques, Fabien J.; Jean, Amy M.; Klein, Michelle. L.; Levine, Robert; Lowell, Barbara; Michel, Lesley; Rosenfeld, Warren

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine whether peri-adolescent children demonstrate the significant racial/ethnic differences in body fatness relative to BMI and in the prevalence and relationship of body composition to risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as in adults. Design and Methods We examined family history of obesity and T2DM, anthropometry, insulin sensitivity and secretory capacity, lipids, and cytokines (IL-6, CRP, TNF-?, and adiponectin) in a cohort of 994 middle school students (47% male, 53%, female; 12% African American, 14% East Asian, 13% South Asian, 9% Caucasian, 44% Hispanic, and 8% other). Results Fractional body fat content was significantly greater at any BMI among South Asians. There were racial/ethnic specific differences in lipid profiles, insulin secretory capacity, insulin sensitivity, and inflammatory markers corrected for body fatness that are similar to those seen in adults. Family history of T2DM was associated with lower insulin secretory capacity while family history of obesity was more associated with insulin resistance. Conclusion Children show some of the same racial/ethnic differences in risk factors for adiposity-related co-morbidities as adults. BMI and waist circumference cutoffs to identify children at-risk for adiposity-related co-morbidities should be adjusted by racial/ethnic group as well as other variables such as birthweight and family history. PMID:23596082

  12. Risk factors and gene type for infections of MRSA in diabetic foot patients in Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shu-Hong; Chu, Yue-Jie; Wang, Peng-Hua; Jun, Xu; Min, Ding; Li, Xue-Mei

    2013-06-01

    The objective was to study risk factors and gene type of DF patients infected with MRSA. A total of 429 DF patients were recruited. The patients with S aureus infections were divided into MRSA and MSSA groups. MRSA were genotyped by SCCmec. pvl and lukE-lukD were detected. A total of 559 pathogens were isolated from them, with G+ bacteria firstly(59.0%), followed G- bacilli (37.7%) and true fungi (3.3%). The 3 most frequently isolated pathogens were S aureus (35.2%), S epidermidis (12.3%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (11.2%). SCCmec III MRSA and SCCmec IVa MRSA had the same antibacterial spectrum. mecA positive rate was 100%. lukE-lukD and pvl positive rates were 100% and 0%, respectively. 28 strains belonged to SCCmec III and the others belonged to SCCmec IVa. The G+ cocci were the main pathogens, S aureus and S epidermidis were predominant among them. Antibiotic usage in 6 months prior to hospitalization, long course of ulcer, osteomyelitis and hypoproteinemia are risk factors for MRSA. SCCmec IVa is high in proportion to MRSA isolates, suggesting that CA-MRSA has become major pathogen of DF infection. All the MRSA were harboring lukE-lukD, which has been reported to present poor leucotoxin compared to pvl, and may be a response to atypical local inflammatory reaction in DF infection. PMID:23771611

  13. Unconventional secretion of fibroblast growth factor 2--a novel type of protein translocation across membranes?

    PubMed

    Steringer, Julia P; Müller, Hans-Michael; Nickel, Walter

    2015-03-27

    N-terminal signal peptides are a hallmark of the vast majority of soluble secretory proteins that are transported along the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi-dependent pathway. They are recognized by signal recognition particle, a process that initiates membrane translocation into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum followed by vesicular transport to the cell surface and release into the extracellular space. Beyond this well-established mechanism of protein secretion from eukaryotic cells, a number of extracellular proteins with critical physiological functions in immune surveillance and tissue organization are known to be secreted in a manner independent of signal recognition particle. Such processes have collectively been termed "unconventional protein secretion" and, while known for more than two decades, their underlying mechanisms are only beginning to emerge. Different types of unconventional secretory mechanisms have been described with the best-characterized example being based on direct translocation of cytoplasmic proteins across plasma membranes. The aim of this review is to critically assess our current knowledge of this type of unconventional secretion focusing on fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) as the most established example. PMID:25051502

  14. Multi-Biomarkers for Early Detection of Type 2 Diabetes, Including 10- and 12-(Z,E)-Hydroxyoctadecadienoic Acids, Insulin, Leptin, and Adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Umeno, Aya; Yoshino, Kohzoh; Hashimoto, Yoshiko; Shichiri, Mototada; Kataoka, Masatoshi; Yoshida, Yasukazu

    2015-01-01

    We have previously found that fasting plasma levels of totally assessed 10- and 12-(Z,E)-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HODE) correlated well with levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and glucose during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT); these levels were determined via liquid chromatography—mass spectrometry after reduction and saponification. However, 10- and 12-(Z,E)-HODE alone cannot perfectly detect early impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and/or insulin resistance, which ultimately lead to diabetes. In this study, we randomly recruited healthy volunteers (n = 57) who had no known history of any diseases, and who were evaluated using the OGTT, the HODE biomarkers, and several additional proposed biomarkers, including retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), adiponectin, leptin, insulin, glycoalbumin, and high sensitivity-C-reactive protein. The OGTT revealed that our volunteers included normal individuals (n = 44; Group N), “high-normal” individuals (fasting plasma glucose 100–109 mg/dL) with IGT (n = 11; Group HN+IGT), and diabetic individuals (n = 2; Group D). We then used these groups to evaluate the potential biomarkers for the early detection of type 2 diabetes. Plasma levels of RBP4 and glycoalbumin were higher in Group HN+IGT, compared to those in Group N, and fasting levels of 10- and 12-(Z,E)-HODE/linoleic acids were significantly correlated with levels of RBP4 (p = 0.003, r = 0.380) and glycoalbumin (p = 0.006, r = 0.316). Furthermore, we developed a stepwise multiple linear regression models to predict the individuals’ insulin resistance index (the Matsuda Index 3). Fasting plasma levels of 10- and 12-(Z,E)-HODE/linoleic acids, glucose, insulin, and leptin/adiponectin were selected as the explanatory variables for the models. The risks of type 2 diabetes, early IGT, and insulin resistance were perfectly predicted by comparing fasting glucose levels to the estimated Matsuda Index 3 (fasting levels of 10- and 12-(Z,E)-HODE/linoleic acids, insulin, and leptin/adiponectin). PMID:26132231

  15. The Quality of Different Types of Child Care at 10 and 18 Months: A Comparison between Types and Factors Related to Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Penelope; Barnes, Jacqueline; Malmberg, Lars-Erik; Sylva, Kathy; Stein, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The quality of care offered in four different types of non-parental child care to 307 infants at 10 months old and 331 infants at 18 months old was compared and factors associated with higher quality were identified. Observed quality was lowest in nurseries at each age point, except that at 18 months they offered more learning activities. There…

  16. Frequency and associated risk factors of recurrent diabetic ketoacidosis among Saudi adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hayek, Ayman A.; Robert, Asirvatham A.; Braham, Rim B.; Turki, Anoud S.; Al-Sabaan, Fahad S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the frequency and associated risk factors of recurrent diabetic ketoacidosis (RDKA) among Saudi adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 103 T1DM adolescents (aged 13-18 years, 57 males) who were hospitalized for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) between January 2013 and May 2014 at Prince Sultan Military Medical City (PSMMC), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The respondents were purposively, conveniently selected, and interviewed using a structured Arabic questionnaire including clinical information and demographics. Results: Fifty-six participants had experienced one episode of DKA, 41 had 2 episodes, and 6 had ?3 episodes. Compared with adolescents who had hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ?9, mean difference in RDKA was found among adolescents with >9 HbA1c. Similarly, adolescents who stopped insulin and those with lipodystrophy at the injection site had a higher frequency of RDKA. Discontinuing insulin (67%) was the major reason for RDKA followed by infection (31%). Among adolescents who discontinued insulin treatment, 31 (46.3%) gave no reason for stopping, 25 (37.3%) reported feeling sick, 7 (10.4%) gave a combination of reasons, and 4 (6%) reported a lack of supplies or other reasons. Regression analysis revealed that a higher HbA1c level and the presence of lipodystrophy were independent risk factors for RDKA. Conclusion: The frequency of RDKA was significantly greater in the T1DM adolescents with a higher HbA1c level, lipodystrophy, and those who had discontinued insulin treatment. Comprehensive multidisciplinary diabetes education should be offered to control modifiable risk factors in these patients. PMID:25719588

  17. Percutaneous renal allograft biopsy. A comparison of two needle types and analysis of risk factors.

    PubMed

    Kolb, L G; Velosa, J A; Bergstralh, E J; Offord, K P

    1994-06-27

    We retrospectively reviewed all (n = 369) percutaneous renal allograft biopsies performed at our institution between 1987 and 1992, comparing 14-gauge Franklin-Silverman (internal diameter = 2.0 mm, n = 169) and 18-gauge automated (internal diameter = 1.2 mm, n = 200) core biopsy needles. Visualization method, specimen adequacy, and complications were grouped by needle type. Five or more glomeruli were present in 88.9% of specimens obtained with Franklin-Silverman needles and in 82.7% with automated needles. A histologic diagnosis was obtained in 94.1% and 95.5% of Franklin-Silverman and automated biopsies, respectively. A complication was detected in 27 Franklin-Silverman biopsies (16.0%) and in 21 automated biopsies (10.5%) (not significant [NS], P > 0.05). Some procedures had more than one complication. Excluding asymptomatic gross hematuria, incidental hematomas, and incidental arteriovenous fistulas detected by routine ultrasonography, clinically significant complication rates were 6.5% for Franklin-Silverman biopsies and 2.5% for automated biopsies (NS). No allograft losses or patient deaths occurred as a result of allograft biopsy. Subgroup analysis of all biopsies performed with ultrasound marking alone (Franklin-Silverman, n = 119; automated, n = 148) revealed no significant (NS) difference in complication rates (15.1% vs. 10.8%). Additional subgroup analyses of palpation, ultrasound marking, and real-time ultrasonographic visualization techniques within each needle type also revealed no significant difference in the complication rate. Biopsy within 30 days of transplantation and no antihypertensive therapy were the only factors univariately associated (P < 0.05) with an increased complication rate. Multivariate analysis found biopsy within 30 days of transplantation (P = 0.007) was associated with the overall presence of one or more complications of any type. Type of needle (Franklin-Silverman vs. automated) achieved borderline significance (P = 0.047) when time to biopsy was statistically adjusted for; the Franklin-Silverman needle had a higher complication rate. PMID:8016879

  18. Translational control of the activation of transcription factor NF-?B and production of type I interferon by phosphorylation of the translation factor eIF4E

    PubMed Central

    Svitkin, Yuri V; Rosenfeld, Amy B; Kobayashi, Mariko; Walsh, Derek; Alain, Tommy; Sean, Polen; Robichaud, Nathaniel; Topisirovic, Ivan; Furic, Luc; Dowling, Ryan J O; Sylvestre, Annie; Rong, Liwei; Colina, Rodney; Costa-Mattioli, Mauro; Fritz, Jörg H; Olivier, Martin; Brown, Earl; Mohr, Ian; Sonenberg, Nahum

    2014-01-01

    Type I interferon is an integral component of the antiviral response, and its production is tightly controlled at the levels of transcription and translation. The translation-initiation factor eIF4E is a rate-limiting factor whose activity is regulated by phosphorylation of Ser209. Here we found that mice and fibroblasts in which eIF4E cannot be phosphorylated were less susceptible to virus infection. More production of type I interferon, resulting from less translation of Nfkbia mRNA (which encodes the inhibitor I?B?), largely explained this phenotype. The lower abundance of I?B? resulted in enhanced activity of the transcription factor NF-?B, which promoted the production of IFN-?. Thus, phosphorylation of eIF4E has a key role in antiviral host defense by selectively stimulating the translation of mRNA that encodes a critical suppressor of the innate antiviral response. PMID:22544393

  19. Health-risk behaviors among a sample of US pre- adolescents: Types, frequency, and predictive factors

    PubMed Central

    Riesch, Susan K.; Kedrowski, Karen; Brown, Roger L.; Temkin, Barbara Myers; Wang, Kevin; Henriques, Jeffrey; Jacobson, Gloria; Giustino-Kluba, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Background Children as young as 10 years old report curiosity and participation in health-risk behaviors, yet most studies focus upon adolescent samples. Objective To document the types and frequencies of health risk behavior among pre-adolescents and to examine the child, family, and environment factors that predict them. Method A sample of 297 pre-adolescents (mean age = 10.5, SD = 0.6) from two Midwestern US cities and their parents (child-parent dyads) provided data about demographic characteristics, health risk behavior participation, child self-esteem, child pubertal development, child and adult perception of their neighborhood, and parent monitoring. Their participation was at intake to a 5-year clustered randomized controlled trial. Results Pre-adolescents participated in an average of 3.7 health-risk behaviors (SD = 2.0), primarily those that lead to unintentional (helmet and seatbelt use) and intentional (feeling unsafe, having something stolen, and physical fighting) injury. Factors predictive of unintentional injury risk behavior were self-esteem, pubertal development, parent monitoring, and parent perception of the neighborhood environment. Boys were 1.8 times less likely than girls to use helmets and seatbelts. Pre-adolescents whose parents were not partnered were 2.8 times more likely than pre-adolescents whose parents were partnered to report intentional risk behavior. Recommendations These data demonstrate trends that cannot be ignored. We recommend, focused specifically upon boys and non-partnered families, that (a) developmentally-appropriate, appealing prevention messages be developed and delivered for parents and pre-adolescents and community interventions targeting both parent and pre-adolescent together be provided to help them establish and monitor behavioral expectations and (b) organized nursing endorse policy in the US and globally that assures adequate family environments for children. PMID:23177901

  20. Assessment of the Common Risk Factors Associated with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Jeddah

    PubMed Central

    Murad, Manal A.; Abdulmageed, Samia S.; Iftikhar, Rahila; Sagga, Bayan Khaled

    2014-01-01

    Risk factor management is important in avoiding life-threatening complications and preventing new-onset diabetes. We performed a case-control study in 2013 at ten primary health care centers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia to determine the common risk factors of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and the demographic background of adult Saudi patients with DM2. Known diabetic patients were recruited as cases, while nondiabetic attendants were selected as controls. A pretested designed questionnaire was used to collect data from 159 cases and 128 controls. Cases were more likely than controls to be men (P < 0.0001), less educated (P < 0.0001), natives of eastern Saudi Arabia (P < 0.0001), retired (P < 0.0001), lower-salaried (P < 0.0001), or married or divorced (P < 0.0001). By univariate analysis cases were likely to be current smokers (P < 0.0001), hypertensive (P < 0.0001), or overweight/obese (P < 0.0001). Cases were also more likely to have a history of DM in a first-degree relative (P = 0.020). By multivariate analysis, cases were more likely to be older than 40 years (P < 0.0001), less educated (P = 0.05), married or divorced (P = 0.04), jobless/housewives (P < 0.0001), or current smokers (P = 0.002). They were also more likely to have salaries <7000 Saudi riyals (P = 0.01). Overall, prediabetic and high risk groups should be identified and counseled early before the occurrence of diabetes. PMID:25548563

  1. Perturbations of Fibroblast Growth Factors 19 and 21 in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Roesch, Stephen L.; Styer, Amanda M.; Wood, G. Craig; Kosak, Zachary; Seiler, Jamie; Benotti, Peter; Petrick, Anthony T.; Gabrielsen, Jon; Strodel, William E.; Gerhard, Glenn S.; Still, Christopher D.; Argyropoulos, George

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors 19 and 21 (FGF19 and FGF21) have been implicated, independently, in type 2 diabetes (T2D) but it is not known if their circulating levels correlate with each other or whether the associated hepatic signaling mechanisms that play a role in glucose metabolism are dysregulated in diabetes. We used a cross-sectional, case/control, experimental design involving Class III obese patients undergoing Roux-en-Y bariatric surgery (RYGB), and measured FGF19 and FGF21 serum levels and hepatic gene expression (mRNA) in perioperative liver wedge biopsies. We found that T2D patients had lower FGF19 and higher FGF21 serum levels. The latter was corroborated transcriptionally, whereby, FGF21, as well as CYP7A1, ?-Klotho, FGFR4, HNF4?, and glycogen synthase, but not of SHP or FXR mRNA levels in liver biopsies were higher in T2D patients that did not remit diabetes after RYGB surgery, compared to T2D patients that remitted diabetes after RYGB surgery or did not have diabetes. In a Phenome-wide association analysis using 205 clinical variables, higher FGF21 serum levels were associated with higher glucose levels and various cardiometabolic disease phenotypes. When serum levels of FGF19 were < 200 mg/mL and FGF21 > 500 mg/mL, 91% of patients had diabetes. These data suggest that FGF19/FGF21 circulating levels and hepatic gene expression of the associated signaling pathway are significantly dysregulated in type 2 diabetes. PMID:25664662

  2. Perturbations of fibroblast growth factors 19 and 21 in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Roesch, Stephen L; Styer, Amanda M; Wood, G Craig; Kosak, Zachary; Seiler, Jamie; Benotti, Peter; Petrick, Anthony T; Gabrielsen, Jon; Strodel, William E; Gerhard, Glenn S; Still, Christopher D; Argyropoulos, George

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors 19 and 21 (FGF19 and FGF21) have been implicated, independently, in type 2 diabetes (T2D) but it is not known if their circulating levels correlate with each other or whether the associated hepatic signaling mechanisms that play a role in glucose metabolism are dysregulated in diabetes. We used a cross-sectional, case/control, experimental design involving Class III obese patients undergoing Roux-en-Y bariatric surgery (RYGB), and measured FGF19 and FGF21 serum levels and hepatic gene expression (mRNA) in perioperative liver wedge biopsies. We found that T2D patients had lower FGF19 and higher FGF21 serum levels. The latter was corroborated transcriptionally, whereby, FGF21, as well as CYP7A1, ?-Klotho, FGFR4, HNF4?, and glycogen synthase, but not of SHP or FXR mRNA levels in liver biopsies were higher in T2D patients that did not remit diabetes after RYGB surgery, compared to T2D patients that remitted diabetes after RYGB surgery or did not have diabetes. In a Phenome-wide association analysis using 205 clinical variables, higher FGF21 serum levels were associated with higher glucose levels and various cardiometabolic disease phenotypes. When serum levels of FGF19 were < 200 mg/mL and FGF21 > 500 mg/mL, 91% of patients had diabetes. These data suggest that FGF19/FGF21 circulating levels and hepatic gene expression of the associated signaling pathway are significantly dysregulated in type 2 diabetes. PMID:25664662

  3. Tat-expressing Jurkat cells show an increased resistance to different apoptotic stimuli, including acute human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection.

    PubMed

    Gibellini, D; Caputo, A; Celeghini, C; Bassini, A; La Placa, M; Capitani, S; Zauli, G

    1995-01-01

    Human CD4+ T lymphoblastoid Jurkat cells were stably transfected with two different plasmid vectors containing the cDNA of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) tat gene under the control of either the promoter of simian virus 40 (pRPneo/tat) or the long terminal repeat region of SL3 murine leukaemia virus (pRPneo/SL3/tat). Both pRPneo/tat and pRPneo/SL3/tat Jurkat cell lines showed a constant and high production of bioactive Tat in transient co-transfection assays with an HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR)-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter plasmid. Tat-positive and mock-transfected Jurkat cells were cultured with various cytotoxic agents, which have been associated to the progressive loss of CD4 T-lymphocytes characteristic of HIV-1 disease. In the presence of recombinant tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), anti-fas antibody, Leu3a anti-CD4 antibody, the percentage of apoptosis, evaluated in a 24-72 h short-term assay, was lower (P < 0.05) in tat-positive Jurkat cells than in mock-transfected controls. The low susceptibility to the cytotoxic activity of TNF-alpha and anti-fas antibody of tat-transfected cells was confirmed by counting viable cells up to 15 d of culture. Also, recombinant Tat protein was able to prevent the increase of apoptosis induced in mock-transfected Jurkat by TNF-alpha. Of note, tat-expressing cells showed a better survival with respect to mock-transfected control cells even when acutely infected with high doses (500,000 cpm of reverse transcriptase) of HIV-1 (strain IIIB) or treated with heat-inactivated HIV-1. These data demonstrate that the expression of the regulatory HIV-1 Tat protein is able to rescue Jurkat lymphoblastoid cells from apoptosis induced by a variety of cytotoxic agents. Since Tat protein expression is restricted to the initial phases of an active HIV-1 replication, the anti-apoptotic effect of Tat could have the physiological significance of selectively protecting HIV-1 producing cells from death, at least for the time necessary to allow virus production and spreading. PMID:7530479

  4. Factoring

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr Clark

    2012-10-31

    Test your factoring skills Factors and Multiples Jeopardy How much do you know about factoring and multiples? Play Jeopardy and find out! Prime Factoring Turkey Shoot Blast these turkeys using your factoring skills. Help the Professor Super save the planet by "cooking" the Giant Frozen Turkeys of Destruction. Math Lines 12 X-Factor Shoot the ball at the other factors to get a product of 12. You can also ...

  5. Pharmacokinetics and hemostatic effect of different factor VIII\\/von Willebrand factor concentrates in von Willebrand's disease type III

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Lethagen; E. Berntorp; I. M. Nilsson

    1992-01-01

    Summary Four different plasma-derived concentrates composed of coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) of varying quality (Hemate-P, Behring; Profilate, Alpha; and FVIII-VHP-vWF, C.R.T.S Lille), or almost purified vWF (Facteur Willebrand, C.R.T.S Lille) and one recombinant FVIII concentrate (Recombinate, Baxter) were given, in doses of 30–60 IU VIII:C\\/kg or 70–110 IU RCof\\/kg, to five patients with von Willebrand's

  6. Hepatocyte growth factor activator is a potential target proteinase for Kazal-type inhibitor in turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    S?owi?ska, Mariola; Bukowska, Joanna; Hejmej, Anna; Bili?ska, Barbara; Koz?owski, Krzysztof; Jankowski, Jan; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2015-08-01

    A peculiar characteristic of turkey seminal plasma is the increased activity of serine proteinases. It is of interest if the single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor controls the activity of turkey seminal plasma proteinases. Pure preparations of the Kazal-type inhibitor and anti-Kazal-type inhibitor monospecific immunoglobulin Gs were used as ligands in affinity chromatography for proteinase isolation from turkey seminal plasma. Gene expression and the immunohistochemical detection of the single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor in the reproductive tract of turkey toms are described. The hepatocyte growth factor activator (HGFA) was identified in the binding fraction in affinity chromatography. Hepatocyte growth factor activator activity was inhibited by the Kazal-type inhibitor in a dose-dependent manner. This protease was a primary physiological target for the single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor. Numerous proteoforms of HGFA were present in turkey seminal plasma, and phosphorylation was the primary posttranslational modification of HGFA. In addition to HGFA, acrosin was a target proteinase for the single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor. In seminal plasma, acrosin was present only in complexes with the Kazal-type inhibitor and was not present as a free enzyme. The single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor was specific for the reproductive tract. The germ cell-specific expression of Kazal-type inhibitors in the testis indicated an important function in spermatogenesis; secretion by the epithelial cells of the epididymis and the ductus deferens indicated that the Kazal-type inhibitor was an important factor involved in the changes in sperm membranes during maturation and in the maintenance of the microenvironment in which sperm maturation occurred and sperm was stored. The role of HGFA in these processes remains to be established. PMID:25930730

  7. Effects of psychosocial and individual factors on physiological risk factors for upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders while typing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura E. Hughes; Kari Babski-Reeves; Tonya Smith-Jackson

    2007-01-01

    Psychosocial factors are hypothesized to contribute to work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) development, although previous research has been largely epidemiological or has focused primarily on the shoulders, back and neck. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of mental workload and time pressure on perceived workload and physiological responses of the distal upper extremity. A total of 18

  8. Repressor and Activator-Type Ethylene Response Factors Functioning in Jasmonate Signaling and Disease Resistance Identified via a Genome-Wide Screen of Arabidopsis Transcription Factor Gene Expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken C. McGrath; Bruno Dombrecht; John M. Manners; Peer M. Schenk; Cameron I. Edgar; Donald J. Maclean; Wolf-Rudiger Scheible; Michael K. Udvardi; Kemal Kazan

    2005-01-01

    To identify transcription factors (TFs) involved in jasmonate (JA) signaling and plant defense, we screened 1,534 Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) TFs by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR for their altered transcript at 6 h following either methyl JA treatment or inoculation with the incompatible pathogen Alternaria brassicicola. We identified 134 TFs that showed a significant change in expression,including many APETALA2\\/ethylene response factor

  9. Residence place as a risk factor in different types of fatal car accidents.

    PubMed

    Leveau, Carlos M; Vacchino, Marta N

    2015-06-01

    The association between place of residence, population density, relief and type of event (collision or non-collision of the vehicle) has not been evaluated in developing countries. The main objective of this study is to determine the differential factors associated with the occurrence of deaths of collision and non-collision automobile users in Patagonia, Argentina. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed using as the dependent variable death by car accident (collision or non-collision of the vehicle) and sex, age, place of residence of the victim, relief and population density as the independent variables. Collision fatalities were related to areas of high population density, while non-collision fatalities were related to areas of low population density, mountainous landscape and place of residence of the victims outside the Patagonian region. The results obtained in this study indicate the need to develop differential primary prevention policies by place of residence of car occupants, focusing on Patagonia non-resident drivers and by emphasising non-collision accidents. PMID:24134389

  10. Steroid hormone synthesis by a vaccinia enzyme: a new type of virus virulence factor.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, J B; Smith, G L

    1992-01-01

    Vaccinia virus open reading frame (ORF) SalF7L has 31% amino acid identity to human 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta 5-delta 4 isomerase (3 beta-HSD). Here we show that SalF7L encodes an active 3 beta-HSD, by the conversion of pregnenolone to the steroid hormone progesterone. The gene is transcribed early during infection into a 1.4 kb mRNA from an initiation site 12 bp upstream of the ORF. An antiserum raised against bacterially expressed SalF7L immunoprecipitated a 38 kDa polypeptide from infected cells, but not from mock infected cells or from cells infected with a mutant virus from which the SalF7L ORF had been removed. Deletion of the gene had no effect on virus replication in CV-1 cells in culture, yet the deletion mutant was attenuated when intranasally inoculated into mice. This steroid hormone synthesizing enzyme is a novel type of virus virulence factor. Images PMID:1582424

  11. Factors in the Design of Centrifugal Type Injection Valves for Oil Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joachim, W F; Beardsley, E G

    1928-01-01

    This research was undertaken in connection with a general study of the application of the fuel injection engine to aircraft. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the effect of four important factors in the design of a centrifugal type automatic injection valve on the penetration, general shape, and distribution of oil sprays. The general method employed was to record the development of single sprays by means of special high-speed photographic apparatus capable of taking 25 consecutive pictures of the moving spray at a rate of 4,000 per second. Investigations were made concerning the effects on spray characteristics, of the helix angle of helical grooves, the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the orifice to that of the grooves, the ratio of orifice length to diameter, and the position of the seat. Maximum spray penetration was obtained with a ratio of orifice length to diameter of about 1.5. Slightly greater penetration was obtained with the seat directly before the orifice.

  12. The unbinding studies of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 protein tyrosine kinase type II inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kang, Cong-Min; Liu, Dong-Qing; Wang, Xin-Ying; Yu, Ri-Lei; Lv, Ying-Tao

    2015-06-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) tyrosine kinase has two conformations, active and inactive conformations. Type II inhibitors bind to inactive conformation. It has two possible binding/unbinding paths. To explore the unbinding path of inhibitor 01-435 that was generated by fragment build in the binding pocket of VEGFR-2, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was performed on the crystal structure of VEGFR-2 in complex with 01-435, then steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulation was executed on the crystal structure of VEGFR-2 in complex with 01-435. Pull force, van der Waals and electrostatic interaction along the two paths were calculated by using SMD simulation. The SMD simulation results indicate that the more favorable path for inhibitor dissociation is along with the traditional ATP-channel rather than the allosteric-pocket-channel, which is mainly due to the less electrostatic interaction that the ligand suffers during dissociation process along the traditional ATP-channel. PMID:25989626

  13. Effects of pelleting, dietary protein level and unidentified factors on feed cost and the performance of egg type layers 

    E-print Network

    Karunajeewa, Hector

    1961-01-01

    EFFECTS OF PELLETING, DIETARY PROTEIN LEVEL AND UNIDENTIFIED FACTORS ON FEED COST AND THE PERFORMANCE OF EGG TYPE LAYERS A Thesis by Hector Reruns]eewa Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas... in Partial Fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science August 1961 Ma)or Sub)ect - Poultry Science EPPECTS OP PELLETING, DIETARY PROTEIN LEVEL AND DNIDENTIPTED FACTORS ON PEED COST AND THE PERFORNANCE OP BIN' TTPE LAYERS A...

  14. Eye Color, Hair Color, Blood Type, and the Rhesus Factor: Exploring Possible Genetic Links to Sexual Orientation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee Ellis; Christopher Ficek; Donald Burke; Shyamal Das

    2008-01-01

    The present study sought to expand the limited evidence that sexual orientation is influenced by genetic factors. This was\\u000a accomplished by seeking statistical differences between heterosexuals and homosexuals for four traits that are known to be\\u000a genetically determined: eye color, natural hair color, blood type, and the Rhesus factor. Using a sample of over 7,000 U.S.\\u000a and Canadian college students

  15. Clinicopathological Characteristics of Gynecological Cancer Associated with Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1? Expression: A Meta-Analysis Including 6,612 Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaowei; Liang, Xiaowen; Liu, Xin; Wang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Background Gynecological cancer is characterized by tumor hypoxia. However, the role of hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) in gynecological cancer remains unclear. Method Electronic databases including Cochrane Library, PUBMED, Web of Knowledge and clinical trial registries were searched from inception through October 2014 for published, case-control studies assessing the association between HIF-1? and the clinicopathological characteristics of gynecological cancer. We pooled results from 59 studies using fixed or random-effects models and present results as odds ratios (ORs) following the PRISMA guidelines. Results Our meta-analysis, which included 6,612 women, demonstrated that the expression of HIF-1? was associated with the clinicopathological characteristics of gynecological cancer. The expression of HIF-1? in cancer or borderline tissue was significantly higher than that in normal tissue (cancer vs. normal: odds ratio (OR) =9.59, 95% confidence interval (CI): 5.97, 15.39, p<0.00001; borderline vs. normal: OR=4.13, 95% (CI): 2.43, 7.02, p<0.00001; cancer vs. borderline: OR=2.70, 95% (CI): 1.69, 4.31, p<0.0001). The expression of HIF-1? in III?IV stage or lymph node metastasis was significantly higher than that in I?II stage or that without lymph node metastasis, respectively (OR=2.66, 95% (CI): 1.87,3.79, p<0.00001; OR= 3.98, 95% (CI): 2.10,12.89, p<0.0001). HIF-1? was associated with histological grade of cancer (Grade 3 vs. Grade 1: OR=3.77, 95% (CI): 2.76,5.16, p<0.00001; Grade 3 vs. Grade 2: OR=1.62, 95% (CI): 1.20,2.19, p=0.002; Grade 2 vs. Grade 1: OR=2.34, 95% (CI): 1.82,3.00, p<0.00001),5-years disease free survival (DFS) rates (OR=2.93, 95% (CI):1.43,6.01, p=0.001) and 5-years overall survival (OS) rates (OR=5.53, 95% (CI): 2.48,12.31, p<0.0001). Conclusion HIF-1? is associated with the malignant degree, FIGO stage, histological grade, lymph node metastasis, 5-years survival rate and recurrence rate of gynecological cancer. It may play an important role in clinical treatment and prognostic evaluation. PMID:25993275

  16. Leukemia inhibitory factor and interleukin-6 trigger the same immediate early response, including tyrosine phosphorylation, upon induction of myeloid leukemia differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Lord, K A; Abdollahi, A; Thomas, S M; DeMarco, M; Brugge, J S; Hoffman-Liebermann, B; Liebermann, D A

    1991-01-01

    Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), two multifunctional cytokines lacking structural homology and binding to distinct receptors, share interesting functional similarities, which include induction of hematopoietic differentiation in normal and myeloid leukemia cells, induction of neuronal cell differentiation, and stimulation of acute-phase protein synthesis in hepatocytes. Structural information on the LIF receptor is not yet available, whereas recent cloning of the IL-6 receptor has shown it to be bipartite, with a signal-transducing subunit that lacks sequence homology to known protein kinases and produces second messengers of unknown nature. The molecular nature of the mechanisms which LIF and IL-6 use to induce cell differentiation is not known. To address this issue, we took advantage of a clone of M1 myeloblastic leukemia cells capable of being induced for terminal differentiation by both LIF and IL-6 directly activate the same set of immediate early response genes upon induction of M1 myeloid differentiation. At least two mechanisms of gene activation, one transcriptional and the other posttranscriptional, are shown to be involved. It is also shown that the LIF and IL-6 immediate early response, at suboptimal cytokine concentrations, is additive. Using a variety of protein kinase activators and inhibitors, we have shown that the intracellular signalling pathways for both LIF and IL-6 are distinct from those of known second messengers and involve protein phosphorylation, notably tyrosine phosphorylation of a 160-kDa protein, as an essential step(s) in the immediate early activation of MyD gene expression. These observations indicate that the functional similarities of LIF and IL-6 as inducers of cell differentiation prevail at the level of the complex differentiation immediate early response and implicate common mechanisms of signal transduction for LIF- and IL-6-induced differentiation. Images PMID:1908551

  17. Distinguishing habitat types and the relative influences of environmental factors on patch occupancy for a butterfly metapopulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monte P. SanfordDennis; Dennis D. Murphy; Peter F. Brussard

    The goals of this study were to examine whether subjective habitat types may be segregated based on environmental variables\\u000a and whether the relative influences of environmental factors on patch occupancy differ among habitat types. We examined these\\u000a questions using a metapopulation of the butterfly Speyeria nokomis carsonensis, surveying sites for environmental characteristics and butterfly presence\\/absence over a 2-year period. Discriminant

  18. Impact of Leisure-Time Physical Activity on Glycemic Control and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Japanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Fukuoka Diabetes Registry

    PubMed Central

    Kaizu, Shinako; Kishimoto, Hiro; Iwase, Masanori; Fujii, Hiroki; Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Ide, Hitoshi; Jodai, Tamaki; Kikuchi, Yohei; Idewaki, Yasuhiro; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Nakamura, Udai; Kitazono, Takanari

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis The effects of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) on glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors are not fully understood in Asian type 2 diabetic patients, who are typically non-obese. We studied associations between LTPA and glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Methods A total of 4,870 Japanese type 2 diabetic patients aged ?20 years were divided into eight groups according to their LTPA. We investigated associations between the amount and intensity levels of physical activity (PA) and glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, cardiovascular risk factors, and low-grade systemic inflammation in a cross-sectional study. Results LTPA was dose-dependently associated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and prevalence of metabolic syndrome, but not with blood pressure, low density lipoprotein cholesterol or adiponectin. The amount of PA required to lower HbA1c was greater than that required to improve cardiovascular risk factors. LTPA was inversely associated with HbA1c in non-obese participants but not in obese participants after multivariate adjustments for age, sex, duration of diabetes, current smoking, current drinking, energy intake, cardiovascular diseases, depressive symptoms, and treatment of diabetes. Higher-intensity LTPA, not lower-intensity LTPA was associated with HbA1c after multivariate adjustments with further adjustment including BMI. Conclusions/interpretation LTPA was dose-dependently associated with better glycemic control and amelioration of some cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. In addition, increased higher-intensity LTPA may be appropriate for glycemic control. PMID:24897110

  19. CT Findings of Risk Factors for Persistent Type II Endoleak from Inferior Mesenteric Artery to Determine Indicators of Preoperative IMA Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Hitoshi; Sanda, Yoshihiro; Morita, Yoshiaki; Minatoya, Kenji; Kobayashi, Junjiro; Naito, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the computed tomography (CT) findings of persistent type II endoleak from the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) which indicate the need for preoperative IMA embolization. Materials and Methods: Included were 120 patients (96 males, 49–93 years old, mean: 77.7) who underwent endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) between June 2007 and October 2010. The relationship between persistent type II endoleak and CT findings of IMA orifice was examined. Results: CT showed no type II endoleak from IMA in 106 patients (89%; Group N), and transient type II endoleak from IMA in 10 patients (8.3%; Group T). CT showed persistent type II endoleak from IMA in 4 patients (3.3%; Group P) and three of them underwent reintervention. Univariate Cox-Mantel test analysis indicated that stenosis (p = 0.0003) and thrombus (p = 0.043) in IMA orifice were significant factors for persistent type II endoleak. The ratios of patients with proximal IMA more than 2.5 mm diameter in Groups N, Y, and P were 26/106 (24%), 5/10 (50%) and 4/4 (100%), respectively. Conclusion: Indicators for embolization of IMA prior to EVAR for the prevention of type II endoleak appear to be: (1) more than 2.5 mm in diameter and (2) no stenosis due to calcification or mural thrombus in IMA orifice. PMID:25298829

  20. Orientation factor and number of fibers at failure plane in ring-type steel fiber reinforced concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C., E-mail: cdlee@cau.ac.k [School of Architecture and Building Science, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H. [School of Architecture and Building Science, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Considering the probabilistic distributions of fibers in ring-type steel fiber reinforced concrete, the orientation factor and the number of ring-type steel fibers crossing the failure plane were theoretically derived as a function of fiber geometry, specimen dimensions, and fiber volume fraction. A total number of 24 specimens were tested incorporating different fiber types, specimen geometry, and fiber volume fractions of 0.2% and 0.4%: 5 beams and 5 panels containing straight steel fibers; and 6 beams and 8 panels containing ring-type steel fibers. Measurements were made to assess the number of fibers at fractured surfaces of steel fiber reinforced concrete. The developed theoretical expressions reasonably predicted the orientation factor and the number of ring-type steel fibers at failure plane: the average and the standard deviation for the ratios of the test to theory were 1.03 and 0.26, respectively. Theoretical investigations and comparisons were made for the values of orientation factor and the number of fibers at failure plane for straight steel fibers and ring-type steel fibers.

  1. Evaluating risk factors for endemic human Salmonella Enteritidis infections with different phage types in Ontario, Canada using multinomial logistic regression and a case-case study approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Identifying risk factors for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections in Ontario will assist public health authorities to design effective control and prevention programs to reduce the burden of SE infections. Our research objective was to identify risk factors for acquiring SE infections with various phage types (PT) in Ontario, Canada. We hypothesized that certain PTs (e.g., PT8 and PT13a) have specific risk factors for infection. Methods Our study included endemic SE cases with various PTs whose isolates were submitted to the Public Health Laboratory-Toronto from January 20th to August 12th, 2011. Cases were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire that included questions pertaining to demographics, travel history, clinical symptoms, contact with animals, and food exposures. A multinomial logistic regression method using the Generalized Linear Latent and Mixed Model procedure and a case-case study design were used to identify risk factors for acquiring SE infections with various PTs in Ontario, Canada. In the multinomial logistic regression model, the outcome variable had three categories representing human infections caused by SE PT8, PT13a, and all other SE PTs (i.e., non-PT8/non-PT13a) as a referent category to which the other two categories were compared. Results In the multivariable model, SE PT8 was positively associated with contact with dogs (OR=2.17, 95% CI 1.01-4.68) and negatively associated with pepper consumption (OR=0.35, 95% CI 0.13-0.94), after adjusting for age categories and gender, and using exposure periods and health regions as random effects to account for clustering. Conclusions Our study findings offer interesting hypotheses about the role of phage type-specific risk factors. Multinomial logistic regression analysis and the case-case study approach are novel methodologies to evaluate associations among SE infections with different PTs and various risk factors. PMID:23057531

  2. TIL-type protease inhibitors may be used as targeted resistance factors to enhance silkworm defenses against invasive fungi.

    PubMed

    Li, Youshan; Zhao, Ping; Liu, Huawei; Guo, Xiaomeng; He, Huawei; Zhu, Rui; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-02-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi penetrate the insect cuticle using their abundant hydrolases. These hydrolases, which include cuticle-degrading proteases and chitinases, are important virulence factors. Our recent findings suggest that many serine protease inhibitors, especially TIL-type protease inhibitors, are involved in insect resistance to pathogenic microorganisms. To clarify the molecular mechanism underlying this resistance to entomopathogenic fungi and identify novel genes to improve the silkworm antifungal capacity, we conducted an in-depth study of serine protease inhibitors. Here, we cloned and expressed a novel silkworm TIL-type protease inhibitor, BmSPI39. In activity assays, BmSPI39 potently inhibited the virulence protease CDEP-1 of Beauveria bassiana, suggesting that it might suppress the fungal penetration of the silkworm integument by inhibiting the cuticle-degrading proteases secreted by the fungus. Phenol oxidase activation studies showed that melanization is involved in the insect immune response to fungal invasion, and that fungus-induced excessive melanization is suppressed by BmSPI39 by inhibiting the fungal cuticle-degrading proteases. To better understand the mechanism involved in the inhibition of fungal virulence by protease inhibitors, their effects on the germination of B. bassiana conidia was examined. BmSPI38 and BmSPI39 significantly inhibited the germination of B. bassiana conidia. Survival assays showed that BmSPI38 and BmSPI39 markedly improved the survival rates of silkworms, and can therefore be used as targeted resistance proteins in the silkworm. These results provided new insight into the molecular mechanisms whereby insect protease inhibitors confer resistance against entomopathogenic fungi, suggesting their potential application in medicinal or agricultural fields. PMID:25453359

  3. Evaluation of dietary habits and related factors among type 2 diabetic patients: An innovative study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Tol, Azar; Mohebbi, Bahram; Sadeghi, Roya

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess dietary habits and related factors among type 2 diabetic mellitus patients for designing an effective nutrition intervention. Materials and Methods: A descriptive–analytical study was performed on 480 diabetic patients referred to four selected teaching hospitals affiliated to the Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) in Tehran for a period of nine months in 2012. Patients’ dietary habits were measured by a 51-item self-report instrument with four general questions about dietary habits and four subscales reflecting domains including general diabetes information (12 items), planning, shopping for, and preparing meals (6 items), eating meals (17 items), and family influence on dietary habits (12 items). The collected data was analyzed by using SPSS software version 11.5. Results were considered significant at a conventional P < 0.05 level. Results: Mean age of the participants was 59.96 ± 11.53 years. Mean scores in the domains were (53.72 ± 19.83), (57.31 ± 23.82), (52.27 ± 12.13), and (64.72 ± 14.3), respectively. Family influence on dietary habits was highlighted as the most important domain in the dietary habits instrument. Study results revealed that there was a significant association between the four domains and socioeconomic and some variables related to dietary habits such as dietary self-management, planned healthy lifestyle and attending diabetes educational programs. Discussion: The important role of family on dietary habits among type 2 diabetic patients highlighted the role of perceived social support from the family. The results of the sociodemographic variables stressed the necessity of tailoring specific intervention programs accordingly. PMID:24741644

  4. Corticotropin-releasing factor enhances inhibitory synaptic transmission to type III neurons in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Yusuke; Kaneda, Katsuyuki; Maruyama, Chikashi; Ide, Soichiro; Kato, Fusao; Minami, Masabumi

    2015-07-23

    We previously reported that corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) increased neuronal excitability specifically in type II neurons of the dorsolateral part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dlBNST). Because the majority of type II dlBNST neurons are thought to be GABAergic interneurons, at least a portion of which are considered to regulate type III dlBNST neurons, it is possible that CRF increases inhibitory input to type III neurons through the activation of type II neurons in the dlBNST. To test this possibility, we examined the effect of CRF on type III dlBNST neurons using whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings of inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) from rat BNST slices in the presence of kynurenic acid. Spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs) and miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) were recorded in the absence and presence of tetrodotoxin, respectively. Bath application of CRF significantly increased the frequency of sIPSCs, indicating that CRF enhances the inhibitory input to type III neurons. CRF application failed to increase the frequency of mIPSCs, suggesting that CRF-induced increases in sIPSCs are dependent on action potentials. Combined with our previous finding that CRF specifically depolarizes type II dlBNST neurons, these results suggest that CRF may attenuate type III neuron excitation by augmenting the inhibitory influence of type II neurons in the dlBNST. PMID:26044990

  5. Pseudomonas syringae CC1557: a highly virulent strain with an unusually small type III effector repertoire that includes a novel effector.

    PubMed

    Hockett, Kevin L; Nishimura, Marc T; Karlsrud, Erick; Dougherty, Kevin; Baltrus, David A

    2014-09-01

    Both type III effector proteins and nonribosomal peptide toxins play important roles for Pseudomonas syringae pathogenicity in host plants, but whether and how these pathways interact to promote infection remains unclear. Genomic evidence from one clade of P. syringae suggests a tradeoff between the total number of type III effector proteins and presence of syringomycin, syringopeptin, and syringolin A toxins. Here, we report the complete genome sequence from P. syringae CC1557, which contains the lowest number of known type III effectors to date and has also acquired genes similar to sequences encoding syringomycin pathways from other strains. We demonstrate that this strain is pathogenic on Nicotiana benthamiana and that both the type III secretion system and a new type III effector, hopBJ1, contribute to pathogenicity. We further demonstrate that activity of HopBJ1 is dependent on residues structurally similar to the catalytic site of Escherichia coli CNF1 toxin. Taken together, our results provide additional support for a negative correlation between type III effector repertoires and the potential to produce syringomycin-like toxins while also highlighting how genomic synteny and bioinformatics can be used to identify and characterize novel virulence proteins. PMID:24835253

  6. Fluoxetine-induced transactivation of the platelet-derived growth factor type ? receptor reveals a novel heterologous desensitization process.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Jeff S; Vasefi, Maryam S; Gondora, Nyasha; Ahmed, Nawaz; Heikkila, John J; Beazely, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    Many G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), including serotonin (5-HT) receptors promote the activity of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) via intracellular signaling pathways in a process termed transactivation. Although transactivation pathways are commonly initiated by a GPCR, a recent report demonstrated that serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) were able to block 5-HT-induced transactivation of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) type ? receptor. We show that a 45 min pretreatment of SH-SY5Y cells with the SSRI fluoxetine indeed blocked 5-HT-induced transactivation of the PDGF? receptor. However, upon further examination, we discovered that during the pretreatment period, fluoxetine itself was transiently transactivating the PDGF? receptor via 5-HT2 receptor activation. After 45min, the increase in PDGF? receptor phosphorylation induced by fluoxetine had returned to baseline, but a subsequent transactivating stimulus (5-HT) failed to "re-transactivate" the PDGF? receptor. We further demonstrate that 45min, but not 3h, 5-HT pretreatment blocks dopamine-induced PDGF? receptor transactivation. This did not involve changes in PDGF receptor function, since ligand (PDGF)-induced PDGF? receptor activation was not inhibited by 5-HT pretreatment. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of the heterologous desensitization of an RTK transactivation pathway and reveals a previously unknown short-term "blackout" period where no additional transactivation signaling is possible. PMID:25702926

  7. SPSB1, a Novel Negative Regulator of the Transforming Growth Factor-? Signaling Pathway Targeting the Type II Receptor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sheng; Nheu, Thao; Luwor, Rodney; Nicholson, Sandra E; Zhu, Hong-Jian

    2015-07-17

    Appropriate cellular signaling is essential to control cell proliferation, differentiation, and cell death. Aberrant signaling can have devastating consequences and lead to disease states, including cancer. The transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) signaling pathway is a prominent signaling pathway that has been tightly regulated in normal cells, whereas its deregulation strongly correlates with the progression of human cancers. The regulation of the TGF-? signaling pathway involves a variety of physiological regulators. Many of these molecules act to alter the activity of Smad proteins. In contrast, the number of molecules known to affect the TGF-? signaling pathway at the receptor level is relatively low, and there are no known direct modulators for the TGF-? type II receptor (T?RII). Here we identify SPSB1 (a Spry domain-containing Socs box protein) as a novel regulator of the TGF-? signaling pathway. SPSB1 negatively regulates the TGF-? signaling pathway through its interaction with both endogenous and overexpressed T?RII (and not T?RI) via its Spry domain. As such, T?RII and SPSB1 co-localize on the cell membrane. SPSB1 maintains T?RII at a low level by enhancing the ubiquitination levels and degradation rates of T?RII through its Socs box. More importantly, silencing SPSB1 by siRNA results in enhanced TGF-? signaling and migration and invasion of tumor cells. PMID:26032413

  8. Direct functional interaction of initiation factor eIF4G with type 1 internal ribosomal entry sites.

    PubMed

    de Breyne, Sylvain; Yu, Yingpu; Unbehaun, Anett; Pestova, Tatyana V; Hellen, Christopher U T

    2009-06-01

    Viral internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs) mediate end-independent translation initiation. There are 4 major structurally-distinct IRES groups: type 1 (e.g., poliovirus) and type 2 (e.g., encephalomyocarditis virus), which are dissimilar except for a Yn-Xm-AUG motif at their 3' borders, type 3 (e.g., hepatitis C virus), and type 4 (dicistroviruses). Type 2-4 IRESs mediate initiation by distinct mechanisms that are nevertheless all based on specific noncanonical interactions with canonical components of the translation apparatus, such as eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4G (type 2), 40S ribosomal subunits (types 3 and 4), and eIF3 (type 3). The mechanism of initiation on type 1 IRESs is unknown. We now report that domain V of type 1 IRESs, which is adjacent to the Yn-Xm-AUG motif, specifically interacts with the central domain of eIF4G. The position and orientation of eIF4G relative to the Yn-Xm-AUG motif is analogous in type 1 and 2 IRESs. eIF4G promotes recruitment of eIF4A to type 1 IRESs, and together, eIF4G and eIF4A induce conformational changes at their 3' borders. The ability of mutant type 1 IRESs to bind eIF4G/eIF4A correlated with their translational activity. These characteristics parallel the mechanism of initiation on type 2 IRESs, in which the key event is binding of eIF4G to the J-K domain adjacent to the Yn-Xm-AUG motif, which is enhanced by eIF4A. These data suggest that fundamental aspects of the mechanisms of initiation on these unrelated classes of IRESs are similar. PMID:19470487

  9. Negative Interference by Rheumatoid Factor of Plasma B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in Chemiluminescent Microparticle Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Liangcai; Yang, Decai; Liu, Xuezheng; Zhang, Jiajun; Li, Yirong; Yi, Cunjian

    2014-01-01

    Background The chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) is widely used for the quantitative determination of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in human ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid plasma. Rheumatoid factor (RF) is usually thought to result in a positive interference in immunoassays, but it is not clear whether its presence in plasma can lead to interferences in the CMIA of BNP. Methods The estimation of BNP recovery was carried out by diluting high-concentration BNP samples with RF-positive or RF-negative plasma at a ratio of 1?9. The diluted samples were then tested using the ARCHITECT i2000 System and ARCHITECT BNP Reagent Kits and the recovery was then calculated. Results When the RF level ranged from 48 to 1420 IU/mL, the average recovery of BNP was 79.29% and 91.61% in the RF-positive and RF-negative plasma samples, respectively, and was thus significantly lower in the group of RF-positive plasma samples than in the group of RF-negative plasma samples. At a dilution of 1?16, the measured BNP level increased by >36% in six of the seven RF-positive plasma samples. The recovery of BNP increased significantly in the RF-positive plasma samples after pretreatment with IgG-sensitive latex particles. In addition, The BNP recovery was not significantly related to the plasma RF at concentrations ranging from 48 to 2720 IU/mL. Conclusions Measurement of BNP by CMIA is susceptible to interference from RF leading to predominantly (but not exclusively) lower results. Pretreatment of samples with blocking reagents is advisable prior to the initiation of denying patient's necessary treatment. PMID:25144685

  10. Insulin-like growth factors and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Tham; A. Nordberg; F. E. Grissom; C. Carlsson-Skwirut; M. Viitanen; V. R. Sara

    1993-01-01

    Summary  After acid gelchromatography cerebrospinal fluid and serum levels of immunoreactive insulin-like growth factor 1 and 2 (IGF-1 and IGF-2) were determined in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type (AD) and in healthy subjects. The AD CSF levels of immunoreactive IGF-1 did not differ from the subjects but the levels of immunoreactive IGF-2 was significantly elevated in both serum and

  11. Power factor enhancement in solution-processed organic n-type thermoelectric materials through side chain design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russ, Boris; Robb, Maxwell J.; Brunetti, Fulvio G.; Miller, Levi; Patel, Shrayesh; Ho, Victor; Urban, Jeffrey J.; Chabinyc, Michael L.; Hawker, Craig J.; Segalman, Rachel A.

    2014-03-01

    Building efficient organic thermoelectric architectures requires complementary p-type (hole transporting) and n-type (electron transporting) components. While several high performance hole-transporting polymers have been developed, the design of n-type organics has proven challenging, and thermoelectric studies of organic n-type systems are scarce. We investigate the properties of a series of charged perylene diimide (PDI) derivatives. Charged side chains in these materials enable both water solubility and self-doping. We show that changing the length of the alkyl spacer between the charged end groups and the PDI core dramatically improves thin film thermoelectric properties. The top derivatives in our study demonstrated the highest power factor reported for n-type solution-processed films. By complementing thermoelectric characterization of these variants with insight on the electronic and structural property changes from optical spectroscopy, EPR, and GIWAXS experiments, our findings shape a promising molecular design strategy for future enhancements in thermoelectric performance.

  12. Regional Differences of Undiagnosed Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes Prevalence Are Not Explained by Known Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Tamayo, Teresa; Schipf, Sabine; Meisinger, Christine; Schunk, Michaela; Maier, Werner; Herder, Christian; Roden, Michael; Nauck, Matthias; Peters, Annette; Völzke, Henry; Rathmann, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Background We have previously found regional differences in the prevalence of known type 2 diabetes between northeastern and southern Germany. We aim to also provide prevalence estimates for prediabetes (isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG), isolated glucose intolerance (i-IGT), combined IFG and IGT) and unknown type 2 diabetes for both regions. Methods Prevalence (95%CI) of prediabetes (i-IFG: fasting glucose 5.6–6.9 mmol/l; i-IGT: 2 h postchallenge gluose 7.8–11.0 mmol/l, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), ?8 h overnight fasting) and unknown diabetes were analyzed in two regional population-based surveys (age group 35–79 years): SHIP-TREND (Study of Health in Pomerania (northeast), 2008–2012) and KORA F4 (Cooperative Health Research in the region of Augsburg (south), 2006–2008). Both studies used similar methods, questionnaires, and identical protocols for OGTT. Overall, 1,980 participants from SHIP-TREND and 2,617 participants from KORA F4 were included. Results Age-sex-standardized prevalence estimates (95%CI) of prediabetes and unknown diabetes were considerably higher in the northeast (SHIP-TREND: 43.1%; 40.9–45.3% and 7.1%; 5.9–8.2%) than in the south of Germany (KORA F4: 30.1%; 28.4–31.7% and 3.9%; 3.2–4.6%), respectively. In particular, i-IFG (26.4%; 24.5–28.3% vs. 17.2%; 15.7–18.6%) and IFG+IGT (11.2%; 9.8–12.6% vs. 6.6%; 5.7–7.5%) were more frequent in SHIP-TREND than in KORA. In comparison to normal glucose tolerance, the odds of having unknown diabetes (OR, 95%CI: 2.59; 1.84–3.65) or prediabetes (1.98; 1.70–2.31) was higher in the northeast than in the south after adjustment for known risk factors (obesity, lifestyle). Conclusions The regional differences of prediabetes and unknown diabetes are in line with the geographical pattern of known diabetes in Germany. The higher prevalences in the northeast were not explained by traditional risk factors. PMID:25402347

  13. The Identification of Potential Factors Associated with the Development of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hongfang; Yang, Ying; Allister, Emma M.; Wijesekara, Nadeeja; Wheeler, Michael B.

    2008-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) arises when pancreatic ?-cells fail to compensate for systemic insulin resistance with appropriate insulin secretion. However, the link between insulin resistance and ?-cell failure in T2D is not fully understood. To explore this association, we studied transgenic MKR mice that initially develop insulin resistance in skeletal muscle but by 8 weeks of age have T2D. In the present study, global islet protein and gene expression changes were characterized in diabetic MKR versus non-diabetic control mice at 10 weeks of age. Using a quantitative proteomics approach (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)), 159 proteins were differentially expressed in MKR compared with control islets. Marked up-regulation of protein biosynthesis and endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways and parallel down-regulation in insulin processing/secretion, energy utilization, and metabolism were observed. A fraction of the differentially expressed proteins identified (including GLUT2, DNAJC3, VAMP2, RAB3A, and PC1/3) were linked previously to insulin-secretory defects and T2D. However, many proteins for the first time were associated with islet dysfunction, including the unfolded protein response proteins (ERP72, ERP44, ERP29, PPIB, FKBP2, FKBP11, and DNAJB11), endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation proteins (VCP and UFM1), and multiple proteins associated with mitochondrial energy metabolism (NDUFA9, UQCRH, COX2, COX4I1, COX5A, ATP6V1B2, ATP6V1H, ANT1, ANT2, ETFA, and ETFB). The mRNA expression level corresponding to these proteins was examined by microarray, and then a small subset was validated using quantitative real time PCR and Western blot analyses. Importantly ?54% of differentially expressed proteins in MKR islets (including proteins involved in proinsulin processing, protein biosynthesis, and mitochondrial oxidation) showed changes in the proteome but not transcriptome, suggesting post-transcriptional regulation. These results underscore the importance of integrated mRNA and protein expression measurements and validate the use of the iTRAQ method combined with microarray to assess global protein and gene changes involved in the development of T2D. PMID:18448419

  14. Type of presentation: Poster IT-11-P-1659 Factors affecting phase noise in off-axis electron holography

    E-print Network

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Type of presentation: Poster IT-11-P-1659 Factors affecting phase noise in off-axis electron author: ChrisBoothroyd@cantab.net The amount of noise in the reconstructed wave of an electron hologram of phase noise on condenser lens strength for holograms taken on a 300kV FEI Titan with two biprisms

  15. Single-molecule imaging revealed enhanced dimerization of transforming growth factor ? type II receptors in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kangmin He; Yongnan Fu; Wei Zhang; Jinghe Yuan; Zijian Li; Zhizhen Lv; Youyi Zhang; Xiaohong Fang

    2011-01-01

    Transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) signaling plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy. However, the molecular mechanism of TGF-? signaling during the process of cardiac remodeling remains poorly understood. In the present study, by employing single-molecule fluorescence imaging approach, we demonstrated that in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, TGF-? type II receptors (T?RII) existed as monomers at the low

  16. Metabolic and Vascular Effects of Tumor Necrosis Factor-? Blockade with Etanercept in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helena Dominguez; Heidi Storgaard; Christian Rask-Madsen; Thomas Steffen Hermann; Nikolaj Ihlemann; Dorthe Baunbjerg Nielsen; Camilla Spohr; Lars Kober; Allan Vaag; Christian Torp-Pedersen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) impairs insulin action in insulin-sensitive tissues, such as fat, muscle and endothelium, and causes endothelial dysfunction. We hypothesized that TNF-? blockade with etanercept could reverse vascular and metabolic insulin resistance. Method and Results: Twenty obese patients with type 2 diabetes were randomized to etanercept treatment (25 mg subcutaneously twice weekly for 4

  17. Mexican Americans With Type 2 Diabetes in an Emerging Latino Community: Evaluation of Health Disparity Factors and Interventions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen A. Amirehsani

    2010-01-01

    Mexican Americans suffer from disproportionately higher rates of type 2 diabetes and its associated complications than the general population. They also confront significant obstacles to health care access and may not receive the same quality of health care as non-Hispanic Whites. Understanding the factors contributing to their health disparities is critical for nurses and other health care providers working with

  18. EFFECT OF GROWTH FACTOR-FIBRONECTIN MATRIX INTERACTION ON RAT TYPE II CELL ADHESION AND DNA SYTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT Type II cells attach, migrate and proliferate on a provisional fibronectin-rich matrix during alveolar wall repair after lung injury. The combination of cell-substratum interactions via integrin receptors and exposure to local growth factors are likely to initiat...

  19. Lessons learned from the HEALTHY primary prevention trial of risk factors for type 2 diabetes in middle school youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The HEALTHY trial was designed to take a primary prevention approach to risk factors for type 2 diabetes in youth, primarily obesity. The study involved over 6,000 students at 42 middle schools across the U.S. Half received an integrated intervention program of components addressing the school food ...

  20. Factors in the Adjustment of Khashm El-Girba Tenants to a New Location and a New Type of Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelrahman, Ahmed Elamin

    The main objectives of the study were: to analyze factors related to adjustment to resettlement; to find the relationship of attitudes to behavior in relation to two major social changes -- adjustment to new location and to a new type of agriculture; to identify the characteristics of unadjusted tenants; to identify the environmental elements…

  1. Relationship between the vegetation types and topographical factors from Wula mountain, Inner Mongolia: Based on ALOS data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huercha Bao; Xiaojiang Wang; Wenjun Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The vegetation map, with a complex landform of DAHUABEI region in Wula mountain was produced based on the field vegetation investigation, and image interpretation, using the ALOS data and a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The spatial distribution of the main vegetation types and their relations with topographical factors were statistically analyzed under the support of GIS, combining the vegetation map

  2. Interleukin-10- and transforming growth factor ?-independent regulation of CD8? T cells expressing type 1 and type 2 cytokines in human lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Anuradha, Rajamanickam; George, Parakkal Jovvian; Kumaran, Paul; Nutman, Thomas B; Babu, Subash

    2014-12-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is known to be associated with diminished CD4? Th1 and elevated CD4? Th2 responses to parasite-specific antigens. The roles of cytokine-expressing CD8? T cells in immune responses to filarial infections are not well defined. To study the roles of CD8? T cells expressing type 1, type 2, and type 17 cytokines in filarial infections, we examined the frequencies of these cells in clinically asymptomatic, patently infected (INF) individuals, directly ex vivo and in response to parasite or nonparasite antigens; these frequencies were compared with the results for individuals with filarial lymphedema (i.e., clinical pathology [CP]) and those without active infection or pathology (i.e., endemic normal [EN]). INF individuals exhibited significant decreases in the frequencies of CD8? T cells expressing tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), gamma interferon (IFN-?), and interleukin-22 (IL-22) at baseline and/or in response to filarial antigens, compared with CP and EN individuals. In contrast, the same individuals exhibited significant increases in the frequencies of CD8? T cells expressing IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, and IL-21, compared with CP and/or EN individuals. Curative treatment resulted in significantly increased frequencies of CD8? T cells expressing IL-2 and significantly decreased frequencies of CD8? T cells expressing type 2 cytokines. Finally, the regulation of these responses appears to be independent of IL-10 and transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?), since blockade of IL-10 or TGF-? signaling did not significantly alter the frequencies of type 1 or type 2 cytokine-expressing CD8? T cells. Our findings suggest that alterations in the frequencies of cytokine-expressing CD8? T cells are characteristic features of lymphatic filarial infections. PMID:25253667

  3. Interleukin-10- and Transforming Growth Factor ?-Independent Regulation of CD8+ T Cells Expressing Type 1 and Type 2 Cytokines in Human Lymphatic Filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Anuradha, Rajamanickam; George, Parakkal Jovvian; Kumaran, Paul; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is known to be associated with diminished CD4+ Th1 and elevated CD4+ Th2 responses to parasite-specific antigens. The roles of cytokine-expressing CD8+ T cells in immune responses to filarial infections are not well defined. To study the roles of CD8+ T cells expressing type 1, type 2, and type 17 cytokines in filarial infections, we examined the frequencies of these cells in clinically asymptomatic, patently infected (INF) individuals, directly ex vivo and in response to parasite or nonparasite antigens; these frequencies were compared with the results for individuals with filarial lymphedema (i.e., clinical pathology [CP]) and those without active infection or pathology (i.e., endemic normal [EN]). INF individuals exhibited significant decreases in the frequencies of CD8+ T cells expressing tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), gamma interferon (IFN-?), and interleukin-22 (IL-22) at baseline and/or in response to filarial antigens, compared with CP and EN individuals. In contrast, the same individuals exhibited significant increases in the frequencies of CD8+ T cells expressing IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, and IL-21, compared with CP and/or EN individuals. Curative treatment resulted in significantly increased frequencies of CD8+ T cells expressing IL-2 and significantly decreased frequencies of CD8+ T cells expressing type 2 cytokines. Finally, the regulation of these responses appears to be independent of IL-10 and transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?), since blockade of IL-10 or TGF-? signaling did not significantly alter the frequencies of type 1 or type 2 cytokine-expressing CD8+ T cells. Our findings suggest that alterations in the frequencies of cytokine-expressing CD8+ T cells are characteristic features of lymphatic filarial infections. PMID:25253667

  4. Bioinformatics Analysis of the Factors Controlling Type I IFN Gene Expression in Autoimmune Disease and Virus-Induced Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Di; Barnes, Betsy J.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) display increased levels of type I interferon (IFN)-induced genes. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) are natural interferon producing cells and considered to be a primary source of IFN-? in these two diseases. Differential expression patterns of type I IFN-inducible transcripts can be found in different immune cell subsets and in patients with both active and inactive autoimmune disease. A type I IFN gene signature generally consists of three groups of IFN-induced genes – those regulated in response to virus-induced type I IFN, those regulated by the IFN-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) pathway, and those by the IFN-induced phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI-3K) pathway. These three groups of type I IFN-regulated genes control important cellular processes such as apoptosis, survival, adhesion, and chemotaxis, that when dysregulated, contribute to autoimmunity. With the recent generation of large datasets in the public domain from next-generation sequencing and DNA microarray experiments, one can perform detailed analyses of cell-type specific gene signatures as well as identify distinct transcription factors (TFs) that differentially regulate these gene signatures. We have performed bioinformatics analysis of data in the public domain and experimental data from our lab to gain insight into the regulation of type I IFN gene expression. We have found that the genetic landscape of the IFNA and IFNB genes are occupied by TFs, such as insulators CTCF and cohesin, that negatively regulate transcription, as well as interferon regulatory factor (IRF)5 and IRF7, that positively and distinctly regulate IFNA subtypes. A detailed understanding of the factors controlling type I IFN gene transcription will significantly aid in the identification and development of new therapeutic strategies targeting the IFN pathway in autoimmune disease. PMID:24065968

  5. 43 CFR 404.10 - Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included in a rural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...that may not be included in a rural water supply project? 404.10 Section...THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.10...that may not be included in a rural water supply project? Yes. A rural...

  6. 43 CFR 404.10 - Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included in a rural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...that may not be included in a rural water supply project? 404.10 Section...THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.10...that may not be included in a rural water supply project? Yes. A rural...

  7. 43 CFR 404.10 - Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included in a rural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...that may not be included in a rural water supply project? 404.10 Section...THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.10...that may not be included in a rural water supply project? Yes. A rural...

  8. 43 CFR 404.10 - Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included in a rural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...that may not be included in a rural water supply project? 404.10 Section...THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.10...that may not be included in a rural water supply project? Yes. A rural...

  9. Understanding perceived risk of type 2 diabetes in healthy middle-aged adults: A cross-sectional study of associations with modelled risk, clinical risk factors, and psychological factors

    PubMed Central

    Godino, Job G.; van Sluijs, Esther M.F.; Sutton, Stephen; Griffin, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To determine the perceived risk of type 2 diabetes in a sample of healthy middle-aged adults and examine the association between perceived risk and modelled risk, clinical risk factors, and psychological factors theorised to be antecedents of behaviour change. Methods An exploratory, cross-sectional analysis of perceived risk of type 2 diabetes (framed according to time and in comparison with peers) was conducted using baseline data collected from 569 participants of the Diabetes Risk Communication Trial (Cambridgeshire, UK). Type 2 diabetes risk factors were measured during a health assessment and the Framingham Offspring Diabetes Risk Score was used to model risk. Questionnaires assessed psychological factors including anxiety, diabetes-related worry, behavioural intentions, and other theory-based antecedents of behaviour change. Multivariable regression analyses were used to examine associations between perceived risk and potential correlates. Results Participants with a high perceived risk were at higher risk according to the Framingham Offspring Diabetes Risk Score (p < 0.001). Higher perceived risk was observed in those with a higher body fat percentage, lower self-rated health, higher diabetes-related worry, and lower self-efficacy for adhering to governmental recommendations for physical activity (all p < 0.001). The framing of perceived risk according to time and in comparison with peers did not influence these results. Conclusions High perceived risk of type 2 diabetes is associated with higher risk of developing the disease, and a decreased likelihood of engagement in risk-reducing health behaviours. Risk communication interventions should target high-risk individuals with messages about the effectiveness of prevention strategies. PMID:25467619

  10. The tao of IGF-1: insulin-like growth factor receptor activation increases pain by enhancing T-type calcium channel activity.

    PubMed

    Stemkowski, Patrick L; Zamponi, Gerald W

    2014-10-01

    T-type calcium channels are important players in the transmission of pain signals in the primary afferent pathway. Indeed, inhibiting or depleting T-type calcium channels in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons mediates analgesia. Conversely, nerve injury or peripheral inflammation have been shown to induce T-type calcium channel activity in DRG neurons, and this in turn has been linked to the development of chronic pain states. The mechanisms that underlie this enhancement of T-type channels remain incompletely understood and may include changes in channel stability in the plasma membrane or alterations in channel function. In this issue of Science Signaling, Zhang and colleagues identify a cell signaling pathway that potently regulates T-type calcium channel activity in afferent neurons and link this process to pain hypersensitivity. Specifically, they show that insulin-like growth factor-1 receptors in DRG neurons mediate a protein kinase C ? (PKC?)-dependent enhancement of T-type calcium currents and that interfering with this pathway reduces both mechanical and thermal pain hypersensitivity in rodents. Targeting this process offers a new avenue for developing pain therapeutics. PMID:25292211

  11. Biosynthesis of Dictyostelium Discoideum Differentation-Inducing Factor by a Hybrid Type I Fatty Acid A-Type III polyketide synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Austin,M.; Saito, T.; Bowman, M.; Haydock, S.; Kato, A.; Moore, B.; Kay, R.; Noel, J.

    2006-01-01

    Differentiation-inducing factors (DIFs) are well known to modulate formation of distinct communal cell types from identical Dictyostelium discoideum amoebas, but DIF biosynthesis remains obscure. We report complimentary in vivo and in vitro experiments identifying one of two {approx}3,000-residue D. discoideum proteins, termed 'steely', as responsible for biosynthesis of the DIF acylphloroglucinol scaffold. Steely proteins possess six catalytic domains homologous to metazoan type I fatty acid synthases (FASs) but feature an iterative type III polyketide synthase (PKS) in place of the expected FAS C-terminal thioesterase used to off load fatty acid products. This new domain arrangement likely facilitates covalent transfer of steely N-terminal acyl products directly to the C-terminal type III PKS active sites, which catalyze both iterative polyketide extension and cyclization. The crystal structure of a steely C-terminal domain confirms conservation of the homodimeric type III PKS fold. These findings suggest new bioengineering strategies for expanding the scope of fatty acid and polyketide biosynthesis.

  12. Human factors issues and approaches in the spatial layout of a space station control room, including the use of virtual reality as a design analysis tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Joseph P., II

    1994-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering support was provided for the 30% design review of the late Space Station Freedom Payload Control Area (PCA). The PCA was to be the payload operations control room, analogous to the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). This effort began with a systematic collection and refinement of the relevant requirements driving the spatial layout of the consoles and PCA. This information was used as input for specialized human factors analytical tools and techniques in the design and design analysis activities. Design concepts and configuration options were developed and reviewed using sketches, 2-D Computer-Aided Design (CAD) drawings, and immersive Virtual Reality (VR) mockups.

  13. Hydrogen Peroxide Enhances Shedding of Type I Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor from Pulmonary Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshihiko Hino; Hidenori Nakamura; Shuichi Abe; Hiroshi Saito; Minoru Inage; Kyoko Terashita; Shuichi Kato; Hitonobu Tomoike

    1999-01-01

    Reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) are among the important mediators in the pathogenesis of lung dis- eases in which tumor necrosis factor (TNF) plays a pivotal role. However, the effects of ROIs on the TNF- TNF receptor system remain unclear. Effects of hydrogen peroxide on the shedding of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNF-R) were investigated in a pulmonary epithelial cell

  14. Different types of stainless steel used in equipment in meat plants do not affect the initial microbial transfer, including pathogens, from pork skin.

    PubMed

    Larivière-Gauthier, Guillaume; Quessy, Sylvain; Fournaise, Sylvain; Letellier, Ann; Fravalo, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    This study describes and measures the impact of different compositions and finishes of stainless steel used in equipment in the meat industry on the transfer of natural flora and selected pathogens from artificially contaminated pork skin. It is known that the adhesion to surfaces of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella, 2 pathogens frequently found in contaminated pork meat, depends on the nature and roughness of the surface. Our results show no statistically significant differences in microbial transfer regardless of the types of stainless steel considered, with the highest measured transfer difference being 0.18 log colony-forming units (CFUs)/800 cm(2). Moreover, no differences in total microbial community were observed after transfer on the 5 types of stainless steel using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). It was concluded that the different characteristics of the stainless steel tested did not affect the initial bacterial transfer in this study. PMID:26130860

  15. Mutations in the yeast LCB1 and LCB2 genes, including those corresponding to the hereditary sensory neuropathy type I mutations, dominantly inactivate serine palmitoyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Gable, Ken; Han, Gongshe; Monaghan, Erin; Bacikova, Dagmar; Natarajan, Mukil; Williams, Robert; Dunn, Teresa M

    2002-03-22

    It was recently demonstrated that mutations in the human SPTLC1 gene, encoding the Lcb1p subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), cause hereditary sensory neuropathy type I . As a member of the subfamily of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate enzymes known as the alpha-oxoamine synthases, serine palmitoyltransferase catalyzes the committed step of sphingolipid synthesis. The residues that are mutated to cause hereditary sensory neuropathy type I reside in a highly conserved region of Lcb1p that is predicted to be a catalytic domain of Lcb1p on the basis of alignments with other members of the alpha-oxoamine synthase family. We found that the corresponding mutations in the LCB1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae reduce serine palmitoyltransferase activity. These mutations are dominant and decrease serine palmitoyltransferase activity by 50% when the wild-type and mutant LCB1 alleles are coexpressed. We also show that serine palmitoyltransferase is an Lcb1p small middle dotLcb2p heterodimer and that the mutated Lcb1p proteins retain their ability to interact with Lcb2p. Modeling studies suggest that serine palmitoyltransferase is likely to have a single active site that lies at the Lcb1p small middle dotLcb2p interface and that the mutations in Lcb1p reside near the lysine in Lcb2p that is expected to form the Schiff's base with the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate cofactor. Furthermore, mutations in this lysine and in a histidine residue that is also predicted to be important for pyridoxal 5'-phosphate binding to Lcb2p also dominantly inactivate SPT similar to the hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1-like mutations in Lcb1p. PMID:11781309

  16. The morphologic and immunohistochemical spectrum of papillary renal cell carcinoma: study including 132 cases with pure type 1 and type 2 morphology as well as tumors with overlapping features.

    PubMed

    Chevarie-Davis, Myriam; Riazalhosseini, Yasser; Arseneault, Madeleine; Aprikian, Armen; Kassouf, Wassim; Tanguay, Simon; Latour, Mathieu; Brimo, Fadi

    2014-07-01

    Papillary renal cell carcinomas (pRCC) are classically divided into type 1 and 2 tumors. However, many cases do not fulfill all the criteria for either type. We describe the clinical, morphologic, and immunohistochemical (IHC) features of 132 pRCCs to better characterize the frequency and nature of tumors with overlapping features. Cases were reviewed and classified; IHC evaluation of CK7, EMA, TopoII?, napsin A, and AMACR was performed on 95 cases. The frequencies of type 1, type 2, and "overlapping" pRCC were 25%, 28%, and 47%, respectively. The 2 categories of "overlapping" tumors were: (1) cases with bland cuboidal cells but no basophilic cytoplasm (type A); and (2) cases with predominantly type 1 histology admixed with areas showing prominent nucleoli (type B). The pathologic stage of "overlapping" cases showed concordance with type 1 tumors. Using the 2 discriminatory markers (CK7, EMA), "type A" cases were similar to type 1. Although the high-nuclear grade areas of "type B" tumors showed some staining differences from their low-nuclear grade counterpart, their IHC profile was closer to type 1. Single nucleotide polymorphism array results, although preliminary and restricted to only 9 cases (3 with overlapping features), also seemed to confirm those findings. In conclusion, we demonstrate that variations in cytoplasmic quality and/or presence of high-grade nuclei in tumors otherwise displaying features of type 1 pRCCs are similar in stage and IHC profile those with classic type 1 histology, suggesting that their spectrum might be wider than originally described. PMID:24919183

  17. Simian Virus 40 Large Tumor Antigen is Unable to Transform Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts Lacking Type 1 Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Sell; Michele Rubini; Raphael Rubin; Jeh-Ping Liu; Argiris Efstratiadis; Renato Baserga

    1993-01-01

    Fibroblast cell lines were established from mouse embryos homozygous for a targeted disruption of the Igf1r gene, encoding the type 1 receptor for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and from their wild-type littermates. The cells from the wild-type embryos (W cells) grow in serum-free medium supplemented with platelet-derived growth factor, epidermal growth factor, and IGF-I, whereas the cells from Igf1r(-\\/-)

  18. Type III Secretion: a Virulence Factor Delivery System Essential for the Pathogenicity of Burkholderia mallei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricky L. Ulrich; David DeShazer

    2004-01-01

    By creating mutations in the Burkholderia mallei ATCC 23344 animal pathogen-like type III secretion system (TTSS), this study analyzes the correlation between type III secretion and the pathogenicity of ATCC 23344 in vivo. Mutagenesis demonstrated that a functional TTSS was required for the full pathogenicity of ATCC 23344 in the BALB\\/c mouse and Syrian hamster models of infection. However, vaccination

  19. Towards a Theory of Knowledge Reuse: Types of Knowledge Reuse Situations and Factors in Reuse Succes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Markus

    2001-01-01

    Abstract This paper represents a step toward a theory of knowledge reusability, with emphasis on knowledge ma nagement systems and repositories, often called organizational memory,systems. Synthesis of evidence from a wide variety of sources suggests four distinct types of knowledge reuse situations according to the knowledge reuser and the purpose of knowledge reuse. The types involve shared work producers, who

  20. Invertrons, a class of structurally and functionally related genetic elements that includes linear DNA plasmids, transposable elements, and genomes of adeno-type viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, K

    1990-01-01

    Invertrons are genetic elements composed of DNA with inverted terminal repeats at both ends, covalently bonded to terminal proteins involved in the initiation of DNA replication at both their 5' termini when they exist in the cytoplasm of their host in free form. They function as viruses, linear DNA plasmids, transposable elements, and sometimes combinations of two of these properties. They differ from retroviruses and related retro-type transposons which have direct repeats on both their genomic ends and exploit RNA intermediates for replication of their DNA. A model for replication and integration of invertrons is presented, as well as a model for transposition of transposable elements. PMID:2157134

  1. Epidemiology of type 2 diabetic foot problems and predictive factors for amputation in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yufeng; Ran, Xingwu; Jia, Lijing; Yang, Chuan; Wang, Penghua; Ma, Jianhua; Chen, Bing; Yu, Yanmei; Feng, Bo; Chen, Lili; Yin, Han; Cheng, Zhifeng; Yan, Zhaoli; Yang, Yuzhi; Liu, Fang; Xu, Zhangrong

    2015-03-01

    To determine incidence and clinically relevant risk factors for diabetic amputation in a large cohort study of diabetic foot ulceration patients in China, we investigated a total of 669 diabetic foot ulceration patients, who were assessed at baseline for demographic information, medical and social history, peripheral neuropathy screening, periphery artery disease screening, assessment of nutritional status and diabetic control, physical examination including foot deformity in 15 Grade III-A hospitals. Of the 669 patients, 435 were male and 201 were female, with the mean age being 64.0 years. Of all patients, 110 had neuropathic ulcers, 122 had ischemic ulcers, 276 had neuroischemic ulcers, and 12 cases were unclassified. Wagner classification showed 61 cases were grade I, 216 cases grade II, 159 cases grade III, 137 cases grade IV, and 7 cases grade V. The overall amputation rate among diabetic foot patients was 19.03%, and major and minor amputation rates were 2.14% and 16.88%, respectively. By univariate analysis, statistically significant differences were found in smoking, rest pain, ulcer history, revascularization history, amputation history, gangrene, infection, Wagner grades, duration of diabetes, and postprandial blood glucose, aldehyde, total protein, globulin, albumin, white blood cell (WBC), hemoglobin, HbA1c, ulcer property, body mass index, as well as creatinine. Binary logistic regression model showed that increased WBC (odds ratio 1.25) and ulcer history (odds ratio 6.8) were associated with increased risks from diabetic foot ulcer to major amputation; increased duration of diabetes (odds ratio 1.004), WBC (odds ratio 1.102), infection (odds ratio 2.323), foot deformity (odds ratio 1.973), revascularization history (odds ratio 2.662), and decreased postprandial blood sugar (odds ratio 0.94) were associated with increased risks from diabetic foot ulcer to minor amputation. It is of great importance to give better management to diabetic patients at early stages. Following a diagnosis of DFU more intensive surveillance and aggressive care may improve outcome. PMID:25573978

  2. Molecular systematic studies of eubacteria, using sigma70-type sigma factors of group 1 and group 2.

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, T M; Bryant, D A

    1997-01-01

    Sigma factors of the sigma70 family were used as a phylogenetic tool to compare evolutionary relationships among eubacteria. Several new sigma factor genes were cloned and sequenced to increase the variety of available sequences. Forty-two group 1 sigma factor sequences of various species were analyzed with the help of a distance matrix method to establish a phylogenetic tree. The tree derived by using sigma factors yielded subdivisions, including low-G+C and high-G+C gram-positive bacteria, cyanobacteria, and the alpha, beta, gamma, and delta subdivisions of proteobacteria, consistent with major bacterial groups found in trees derived from analyses with other molecules. However, some groupings (e.g., the chlamydiae, mycoplasmas, and green sulfur bacteria) are found in different positions than for trees obtained by using other molecular markers. A direct comparison to the most extensively used molecule in systematic studies, small-subunit rRNA, was made by deriving trees from essentially the same species set and using similar phylogenetic methods. Differences and similarities based on the two markers are discussed. Additionally, 31 group 2 sigma factors were analyzed in combination with the group 1 proteins in order to detect functional groupings of these alternative sigma factors. The data suggest that promoters recognized by the major vegetative sigma factors of eubacteria will contain sequence motifs and spacing very similar to those for the sigma70 sigma factors of Escherichia coli. PMID:9045836

  3. Ineffectiveness of tumor necrosis factor-? blockers and ustekinumab in a case of type IV pityriasis rubra pilaris.

    PubMed

    Lernia, Vito Di; Ficarelli, Elena; Zanelli, Magda

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) may be difficult since no standardized therapeutic approach has been established. Recently, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) blockers have been demonstrated to be favorable in the management of recalcitrant PRP. The authors report a case of a patient who presented a type IV PRP or circumscribed, juvenile type. Such a condition follows an unpredictable course, presenting with diffuse, palmoplantar keratoderma and sharply-demarcated areas of follicular hyperkeratosis on the elbows and knees. Treatment with all available TNF-? inhibitors and ustekinumab did not prove to be helpful. The authors suggest that circumscribed variants of PRP could respond to therapy in ways different from classical PRP. PMID:26009720

  4. Aging is the primary risk factor for the majority of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). There are almost 40 million

    E-print Network

    Liu, Taosheng

    impact the incidence of AD or PD. B.) whether current data suggests a single target to cure AD or PD array of neurobiological disorders, including Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, essential tremor, Tourette

  5. Impact of Plasmids, Including Those EncodingVirB4/D4 Type IV Secretion Systems, on Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg Virulence in Macrophages and Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gokulan, Kuppan; Khare, Sangeeta; Rooney, Anthony W.; Han, Jing; Lynne, Aaron M.; Foley, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg (S. Heidelberg) can cause foodborne illness in humans following the consumption of contaminated meat and poultry products. Recent studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that certain S. Heidelberg isolated from food-animal sources harbor multiple transmissible plasmids with genes that encode antimicrobial resistance, virulence and a VirB4/D4 type-IV secretion system. This study examines the potential role of these transmissible plasmids in bacterial uptake and survival in intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages, and the molecular basis of host immune system modulation that may be associated with disease progression. A series of transconjugant and transformant strains were developed with different combinations of the plasmids to determine the roles of the individual and combinations of plasmids on virulence. Overall the Salmonella strains containing the VirB/D4 T4SS plasmids entered and survived in epithelial cells and macrophages to a greater degree than those without the plasmid, even though they carried other plasmid types. During entry in macrophages, the VirB/D4 T4SS encoding genes are up-regulated in a time-dependent fashion. When the potential mechanisms for increased virulence were examined using an antibacterial Response PCR Array, the strain containing the T4SS down regulated several host innate immune response genes which likely contributed to the increased uptake and survival within macrophages and epithelial cells. PMID:24098597

  6. A lattice calculation of the pion form factor with Ginsparg-Wilson-type fermions

    E-print Network

    Stefano Capitani; Christof Gattringer; C. B. Lang

    2006-02-03

    Results for Monte Carlo calculations of the electromagnetic vector and scalar form factors of the pion in a quenched simulation are presented. We work with two different lattice volumes up to a spatial size of 2.4 fm at a lattice spacing of 0.148 fm. The pion form factors in the space-like region are determined for pion masses down to 340 MeV.

  7. Lattice calculation of the pion form factor with Ginsparg-Wilson-type fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Capitani, Stefano; Gattringer, Christof; Lang, C.B. [Institut fuer Physik, FB Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Graz, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2006-02-01

    Results for Monte Carlo calculations of the electromagnetic vector and scalar form factors of the pion in a quenched simulation are presented. We work with two different lattice volumes up to a spatial size of 2.4 fm at a lattice spacing of 0.148 fm. The pion form factors in the spacelike region are determined for pion masses down to 340 MeV.

  8. Blood-typing of Indian Water Buffaloes with Reagents for Antigenic Factors of Cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. Datta; W. H. Stone

    1963-01-01

    MORE than eighty heritable antigenic factors have been detected on the erythrocytes (cells) of cattle by their reactions with blood-grouping reagents; the reagent being an antibody population made relatively specific for a particular factor by appropriate absorptions1. Using cattle reagents, it has been shown that at least nine genetic blood-group systems of cattle have their homologues in American bison, Bison

  9. Nipple discharge: is its significance as a risk factor for breast cancer fully understood? Observational study including 915 consecutive patients who underwent selective duct excision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isacco Montroni; Donatella Santini; Giorgia Zucchini; Monica Fiacchi; Simone Zanotti; Giampaolo Ugolini; Alessio Manaresi; Mario Taffurelli

    2010-01-01

    Nipple discharge (ND) is a common symptom seen in breast cancer clinics. The primary aim of this study was to identify preoperative\\u000a risk factors for breast cancer in patients with pathologic ND. The secondary aim was to assess the clinical and pathological\\u000a effectiveness of physical examination, galactography, cytological examination of the discharge, selective duct excision and\\u000a ductoscopy. All patients operated

  10. The effect of sampling duration on the ability to resolve source types using factor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lioy, Paul J.; Zelenka, Michael P.; Cheng, Meng-Dawn; Reiss, Nathan M.; Wilson, William E.

    The effects of sampling duration on source identification using factor analysis method were examined in this paper. Principal factor analyses were performed on the data collected as part of the Philadelphia Regional and Local Sulfur Aerosol Concentrations Study conducted from July to October 1982. The data were mass concentrations of 22 trace elements analyzed by proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) analysis and their associated analytical uncertainties that are a measure of the precision of the measurements. A weighting scheme is applied to the concentrations of the elements to emphasize the precisely measured elements for factor analysis. Furthermore, a new method was used to eliminate the problem of Heywood cases in the factor analyses. Results show the influence of sampling duration on the number of resolvable factors as well as the amount of variance explained by the factors. The analyses show that reducing the sampling duration can increase the number of sources identified by the model. Idiosyncrasies not found in the total data are shown on the separate analyses on daylight and non-daylight data.

  11. Unchanged levels of interleukins, neopterin, interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type.

    PubMed

    Engelborghs, S; De Brabander, M; De Crée, J; D'Hooge, R; Geerts, H; Verhaegen, H; De Deyn, P P

    1999-06-01

    Several histopathological studies suggest that amyloidogenesis in dementia of the Alzheimer type is accompanied by activated glia and glia-derived cytokines, leading to chronic, self-propagating, cytokine-mediated molecular and cellular reactions. As studies regarding inflammatory changes in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type has been inconclusive, we set up a prospective study to assess cerebrospinal fluid levels of interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, interleukin-12, soluble interleukin-2 receptor, interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and neopterin in 20 patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type and 20 age- and sex-matched controls. Comparing both groups, no significant differences in concentrations and specific activities could be revealed. An additional 22 patients were included to enlarge the study population. No statistically significant differences were shown comparing patients (n=42) with the control group (n=20). We conclude that the immune-mediated inflammatory changes found in histopathological studies are not reflected in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type. Probably, cytokine production appears very localized in the central nervous system, not allowing representative detection in cerebrospinal fluid. Further studies assessing cytokine levels in various regions of central nervous system of patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type will be of interest to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:10402228

  12. An assay for serum vitamin-B12 and for intrinsic factor antibody type I by means of hog intrinsic factor.

    PubMed

    Hudák, J; Berger, Z; Varga, L

    1980-01-01

    A method of assay for the circulating intrinsic factor antibody type I (IFA1) and for the serum vitamin-B12 level by the use of hog intrinsic factor has been developed. The results, the sources of error being taken into consideration, are in agreement with the values obtained by the generally accepted methods of ARDEMAN--CHANARIN for IFA1 and of WIDE--KILLANDER for the serum vitamin-B12 level. Parallel with the increase in the frequency of circulating IFA1, the serum vitamin-B12 level was found to decline in normal individuals as well as in patients with atrophic gastritis or pernicious anaemia. The method is suitable for the assessment of vitamin-B12 deficiency and lends itself to screening of patients tending to pernicious anaemia. PMID:7457023

  13. Gene-specific initiation factor USF (upstream stimulatory factor) bound at the adenovirus type 2 major late promoter: mass and three-dimensional structure

    SciTech Connect

    Hough, P.V.C.; Mastrangelo, I.A.; Wall, J.S.; Hainfeld, J.F.; Sawadogo, M.; Roeder, R.G.

    1987-07-01

    The gene-specific transcription initiation factor USF (upstream stimulatory factor) binds at a palindromic sequence that extends from -52 to -63 relative to the start site of the adenovirus type 2 major late promoter; USF enhances in vitro transcription 10- to 20-fold. By analysis of digital micrographs from the Brookhaven scanning transmission electron microscope, the authors have identified a sample of 29 proteins (mass, 55 +/- 5 kDa) specifically bound at the palindrome. The individual protein digital images show extensive homology, which permits modeling a three-dimensional structure at relatively low resolution, which is nonetheless significant for the study of protein-protein interactions in initiation. Nonsequence-specific competitor DNA at high mass excess can be used in reactions for microscopy, enabling characterization of specific binding for proteins present at 1% of total protein or less.

  14. Age ? 60 years was an independent risk factor for diabetes-related complications despite good control of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Chew, Boon How; Ghazali, Sazlina Shariff; Ismail, Mastura; Haniff, Jamaiyah; Bujang, Mohd Adam

    2013-05-01

    Providing effective medical care for older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) that may contribute to their active aging has always been challenging. We examined the independent effect of age ? 60 years on disease control and its relationship with diabetes-related complications in patients with T2D in Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study using secondary data from the electronic diabetes registry database Adult Diabetes Control and Management (ADCM). A total of 303 centers participated and contributed a total of 70,889 patients from May 2008 to the end of 2009. Demographic data, details on diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and their treatment modalities, various risk factors and complications were updated annually. Independent associated risk factors were identified using multivariate regression analyses. Fifty-nine percent were female. Malay comprised 61.9%, Chinese 19% and Indian 18%. There were more Chinese, men, longer duration of diabetes and subjects that were leaner or had lower BMI in the older age group. Patients aged ? 60 years achieved glycemic and lipid targets but not the desired blood pressure. After adjusting for duration of diabetes, gender, ethnicity, body mass index, disease control and treatment, a significantly higher proportion of patients ? 60 years suffered from reported diabetes-related complications. Age ? 60 years was an independent risk factor for diabetes-related complications despite good control of cardiovascular risk factors. Our findings caution against the currently recommended control of targets in older T2D patients with more longstanding diseases and complications. PMID:23454736

  15. Relationship among religious coping, psychosocial factors, and quality of life in individuals with type 2 diabetes

    E-print Network

    Lager, Julia M.

    2009-06-02

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among religious coping, acceptance of diabetes, social support, diabetes management, and quality of life among individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Religious coping, acceptance...

  16. Interplay Between Viral and Cellular Factors Determines the Fate of Herpes Simplex Virus type I Infection

    E-print Network

    Mabrouk-Mostafa, Heba

    2014-05-31

    The herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) is a major human pathogen that infects the majority of the world's population. The life cycle of HSV-1 is controlled by interactions with its hosts. Understanding virus-host interactions ...

  17. Risk factors for cognitive decline in older people with type 2 diabetes 

    E-print Network

    Feinkohl, Insa

    2014-07-05

    People with type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of age-related cognitive impairment. Previous literature has focused on case-control studies comparing rates of cognitive impairment in patients with and without diabetes. ...

  18. Relationship among religious coping, psychosocial factors, and quality of life in individuals with type 2 diabetes 

    E-print Network

    Lager, Julia M.

    2009-06-02

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among religious coping, acceptance of diabetes, social support, diabetes management, and quality of life among individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Religious coping, acceptance...

  19. Analysis of Prognostic Factors of Pediatric-Type Sarcomas in Adult Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hee Kyung Ahn; Ji Eun Uhm; Jeeyun Lee; Do Hoon Lim; Sung Wook Seo; Ki-Sun Sung; Su Jin Lee; Duk Joo Lee; Kyung Kee Baek; Won-Seog Kim; Joon Oh Park

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Pediatric-type sarcomas such as Ewing’s sarcoma (EWS)\\/primitive neuroectodermal tumor family and rhabdomyosarcoma are relatively uncommon in adult patients. Optimal treatment strategies for this population and prognosis in adult patients compared with pediatric patients remain controversial. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed pediatric-type sarcoma patients older than 15 years at a single institution. Results: A total of 84 consecutive patients between 1995

  20. Exciton g factor of type-II InP\\/GaAs single quantum dots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. F. de Godoy; P. F. Gomes; M. K. K. Nakaema; F. Iikawa; M. J. S. P. Brasil; R. A. Caetano; J. R. Madureira; J. R. R. Bortoleto; M. A. Cotta; E. Ribeiro; G. E. Marques; A. C. R. Bittencourt

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the magneto-optical properties of type-II InP\\/GaAs quantum dots using single-dot spectroscopy. The emission energy from individual dots presents a quadratic diamagnetic shift and a linear Zeeman splitting as a function of magnetic fields up to 10 T , as previously observed for type-I systems. We analyzed the in-plane localization of the carriers using the diamagnetic shift results. The

  1. Comparing Type D personality and older age as correlates of tumor necrosis factor-? dysregulation in chronic heart failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan Denollet; Christiaan J. Vrints; Viviane M. Conraads

    2008-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and its soluble receptors 1 (sTNFR1) and 2 (sTNFR2) have been shown to be implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure (CHF). Ageing is accompanied by increased plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We hypothesized that Type D personality (joint tendency to experience negative emotions and to inhibit self-expression) and age may have similar pro-inflammatory effects

  2. Human Papillomavirus Type 5 E6 Oncoprotein Represses the Transforming Growth Factor   Signaling Pathway by Binding to SMAD3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose-Andres Mendoza; Yves Jacob; Patricia Cassonnet; Michel Favre

    2006-01-01

    Mechanisms of cellular transformation associated with human papillomavirus type 5 (HPV5), which is responsible for skin carcinomas in epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) patients, are poorly understood. Using a yeast two-hybrid screening and molecular and cellular biology experiments, we found that HPV5 oncoprotein E6 interacts with SMAD3, a key component in the transforming growth factor 1 (TGF-1) signaling pathway. HPV5 E6 inhibits

  3. Association of Transcription Factor 7Like 2 (TCF7L2) Variants With Type 2 Diabetes in a Finnish Sample

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura J. Scott; Lori L. Bonnycastle; Cristen J. Willer; Andrew G. Sprau; Anne U. Jackson; Narisu Narisu; William L. Duren; Peter S. Chines; Heather M. Stringham; Michael R. Erdos; Timo T. Valle; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Richard N. Bergman; Karen L. Mohlke; Francis S. Collins; Michael Boehnke

    2006-01-01

    Transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) is part of the Wnt signaling pathway. Genetic variants within TCF7L2 on chromosome 10q were recently reported to be associated with type 2 diabetes in Icelandic, Danish, and American (U.S.) samples. We previously observed a modest logarithm of odds score of 0.61 on chromosome 10q, 1 Mb from TCF7L2, in the Finland-United States Investigation of

  4. The transcription factor T-bet controls regulatory T cell homeostasis and function during type 1 inflammation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meghan A Koch; Glady's Tucker-Heard; Nikole R Perdue; Justin R Killebrew; Kevin B Urdahl; Daniel J Campbell

    2009-01-01

    Several subsets of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg cells) work in concert to maintain immune homeostasis. However, the molecular bases underlying the phenotypic and functional diversity of Treg cells remain obscure. We show that in response to interferon-?, Foxp3+ Treg cells upregulated the T helper type 1 (TH1)-specifying transcription factor T-bet. T-bet promoted expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 on

  5. A new approach to improve power factor and reduce harmonics in a three phase diode rectifier type utility interface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kim; P. Enjeti; P. Packebush; I. Pitel

    1993-01-01

    A novel approach to improving power factor and reducing harmonics generated by a three-phase diode-rectifier-type utility interface is proposed. This approach is passive and consists of a novel interconnection of a star\\/delta power transformer between the AC and DC sides of the diode rectifier topology. This interconnection, in combination with the 120° conduction intervals of each diode, is shown to

  6. Relationships Between Risk Factors and Fractures Differ by Type of Fracture: A Population-Based Study of 12192 Perimenopausal Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Honkanen; M. Tuppurainen; H. Kröger; E. Alhava; S. Saarikoski

    1998-01-01

    .   Relationship between selected factors and fractures according to type of fracture were retrospectively examined in 12192\\u000a women aged 47–56 years responding to the baseline postal enquiry of the Kuopio Osteoporosis Study, Finland, in 1989. A total\\u000a of 1358 women reported fractures sustained during the previous 9.4 years, i.e. at ages 38–57 years. The incidence of fractures\\u000a per 1000 person-years

  7. The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Adiposity, Blood Glycated Hemoglobin, Serum Leptin and Tumor Necrosis Factor-? in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ghavamzadeh, Saeid; Mobasseri, Majid; Mahdavi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) could be one of the risk factors at the development of diabetes complications; as well as serum leptin deficiency is related to increased susceptibility to infections in diabetic patients, they are potential indices from the preventive medicine viewpoint. This study was conducted to represent the effect of supplemental vitamin D3 on serum leptin, TNF-? and adiposity in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, study sample was selected through type 2 diabetic patients (n = 51). A total of 26 patients were orally supplemented by vitamin D3 (400 IU/d) (vitamin D group) and 25 patients by placebo (placebo group) for 14 weeks. The blood glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and the serum ionized Ca, leptin, TNF-?, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH] D) were measured at the two groups in the baseline and postintervention stages. Results: It was shown that despite of theplacebo group, serum 25(OH) D and serum leptin was significantly increased (P = 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively), while serum TNF-? was decreased significantly (P = 0.001) in vitamin D group. The remaining parameters, including body fat mass and HbA1c had no alterations between baseline and postintervention stages in vitamin D group. Conclusions: This study may advocate vitamin D supplementation among type 2 diabetic patients due to its beneficial effects on prevention of diabetes complications. PMID:25317290

  8. Cardiorenal syndrome type 1: a defective regulation of monocyte apoptosis induced by proinflammatory and proapoptotic factors.

    PubMed

    Pastori, Silvia; Virzì, Grazia Maria; Brocca, Alessandra; de Cal, Massimo; Clementi, Anna; Vescovo, Giorgio; Ronco, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we examined the possible immune-mediated mechanisms in cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) type 1 pathogenesis. We enrolled 40 patients with acute heart failure (AHF), 11 patients with CRS type 1 and 15 controls. Plasma from the different groups was incubated with monocytes; subsequently, cell apoptosis was evaluated by DNA fragmentation, caspase activity and cytofluorometric assay. Cytokine quantification in plasma and supernatant was performed by ELISA. Monocytes treated with CRS type 1 plasma showed significantly higher apoptosis compared with those treated with AHF and the controls (p < 0.05). Caspase-3 (CRS type 1: 2.20 ng/ml, IQR 2.06-2.33; AHF: 1.48 ng/ml, IQR 1.31-1.56; controls: 0.71 ng/ml, IQR 0.67-0.81) and caspase-8 levels (CRS type 1: 1.49 ng/ml, IQR 1.42-1.57; AHF: 0.94 ng/ml, IQR 0.84-0.98; controls: 0.56 ng/ml, IQR 0.51-0.58) in cells incubated with plasma from these patients demonstrated a significantly higher concentration. We observed a strong upregulation of plasma IL-6 and IL-18 in CRS type 1 compared with AHF and the controls (p < 0.05). Interestingly, we observed a similar concentration of TNF-? in CRS type 1 and AHF. In CRS type 1 patients, IL-6 (52.13 ng/ml, IQR 47.29-66.83) and IL-18 levels (197.75 ng/ml, IQR 120.80-265.49) in supernatant were significantly higher than in AHF patients (IL-6: 28.79 ng/ml, IQR 19.90-36.10; IL-18: 21.98 ng/ml, IQR 15.98-29.85) and controls (IL-6: 5.02 ng/ml, IQR 4.56-6.44; IL-18: 7.91 ng/ml, IQR 5.57-10.62). These findings suggest the presence of a defective regulation of monocyte apoptosis in CRS type 1 patients and the involvement of an immune-mediated mechanism in the pathophysiology of this syndrome. PMID:25999959

  9. Association of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha polymorphisms with type 2 diabetes with or without metabolic syndrome in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Saif-Ali, Riyadh; Harun, Roslan; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Al-Jassabi, Saad; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the association of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF4) alpha single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with type 2 diabetes with or without metabolic syndrome in Malaysia. Nine HNF4 alpha SNPs were genotyped in 390 type 2 diabetic subjects with metabolic syndrome, 135 type 2 diabetic subjects without metabolic syndrome, and 160 control subjects. The SNPs rs4810424, rs1884613, and rs2144908 were associated with protection against type 2 diabetes without metabolic syndrome (recessive P = 0.018, OR 0.32; P = 0.004, OR 0.25; P = 0.005, OR 0.24, respectively). The 6-SNP haplotype2 CCCGTC containing the risk genotype of these SNPs was associated with higher risk for type 2 diabetes with or without metabolic syndrome (P = 0.002, OR 2.2; P = 0.004, OR 3.1). These data suggest that HNF4 alpha SNPs and haplotypes contributed to increased type 2 diabetes risk in the Malaysian population. PMID:21983932

  10. siRNA-targeting transforming growth factor-? type I receptor reduces wound scarring and extracellular matrix deposition of scar tissue.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Wen; Liou, Nien-Hsien; Cherng, Juin-Hong; Chang, Shu-Jen; Ma, Kuo-Hsing; Fu, Earl; Liu, Jiang-Chuan; Dai, Niann-Tzyy

    2014-07-01

    Hypertrophic scarring is related to persistent activation of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?)/Smad signaling. In the TGF-?/Smad signaling cascade, the TGF-? type I receptor (TGFBRI) phosphorylates Smad proteins to induce fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition. In this study, we inhibited TGFBRI gene expression via TGFBRI small interfering RNA (siRNA) to reduce fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition. Our results demonstrate that downregulating TGFBRI expression in cultured human hypertrophic scar fibroblasts significantly suppressed cell proliferation and reduced type I collagen, type III collagen, fibronectin, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) mRNA, and type I collagen and fibronectin protein expression. In addition, we applied TGFBRI siRNA to wound granulation tissue in a rabbit model of hypertrophic scarring. Downregulating TGFBRI expression reduced wound scarring, the extracellular matrix deposition of scar tissue, and decreased CTGF and ?-smooth muscle actin mRNA expression in vivo. These results suggest that TGFBRI siRNA could be applied clinically to prevent hypertrophic scarring. PMID:24670383

  11. The Effects of 12 Weeks Regular Aerobic Exercise on Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor and Inflammatory Factors in Juvenile Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Soo; Yoo, Jae Ho; Kang, Sung; Woo, Jin Hee; Shin, Ki Ok; Kim, Kwi Beak; Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae; Kim, Young Il

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 12 weeks regular aerobic exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory factors in juvenile obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Obesity and T2DM, typically common among adults, have recently become more prevalent in the Korean juvenile population, affecting not only their lipid profiles and oxidant stress levels, but also their BDNF and inflammatory factor levels. [Subjects] This study enrolled 26 juveniles (boys = 15, girls = 9) who were assigned to a control group (CG, n = 11), obesity group (OG, n = 8), or T2DM group (TG, n = 7). [Methods] The outcome of a 40–60-minute aerobic exercise session that took place three times per week for 12 weeks at a maximum oxygen intake (VO2max) of 50~60% was investigated. [Results] The exercise resulted in a significant reduction in the resting serum BDNF and TrkB levels (baseline) among juveniles in the OG and TG as compared to those in the CG. Additionally, the 12 weeks of regular aerobic exercise led to significant reductions in body weight, body fat percentage, and body mass index in the OG and a significant increase of VO2max in the OG and TG. However, no significant differences in serum NGF or inflammatory factors were found among the three groups. There was a significant increase in resting serum BDNF levels following the 12 weeks regular exercise only in the OG. [Conclusion] While 12 weeks of regular aerobic exercise had a positive effect on body composition, and increased BDNF levels of juveniles in the OG, it did not affect the inflammatory factor levels and had no effect on the TG. PMID:25202180

  12. Petrographic and Geochemical Characterization of Ore-Bearing Intrusions of the Noril'sk type, Siberia; With Discussion of Their Origin, Including Additional Datasets and Core Logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czamanske, Gerald K., (compiler)

    2002-01-01

    The Noril'sk I, Talnakh, and Kharaelakh intrusions of the Noril'sk district host one of the outstanding metal concentrations in the world; contained Cu-Ni resources are comparable to the deposits at Sudbury, Ontario and the platinum group element (PGE) resource is second only to that of the Bushveld Complex. Our opportunity to cooperatively sample and study this district in Siberian Russia arose in 1990 through a memorandum of understanding between the U.S. Geological Survey and the former Ministry of Geology of the U.S.S.R. The world-class significance of these deposits and the possibility that understanding their geologic context, including construction of a credible 'ore-deposit model,' will lead to discovery of similar deposits elsewhere, inspired extensive studies of the ores, the mafic-intrusions which host them, and associated flood basalts.

  13. A Factor-Analytic Investigation of Role Types and Profiles of Higher Education Department Chairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, James B.; Gmelch, Walter H.

    This paper reports on a study that investigated the role, attitudes, and behaviors of department chairs in higher education. Specifically, the study investigated four objectives: (1) to examine role factors of effective chair performance; (2) to assess the impact of antecedent variables such as individual characteristics (gender, marital status,…

  14. Angiotensin II upregulates transforming growth factor-? type I receptor on rat vascular smooth muscle cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noboru Fukuda; Wen-Yang Hu; Atsushi Kubo; Hirobumi Kishioka; Chikara Satoh; Masayoshi Soma; Yoichi Izumi; Katsuo Kanmatsuse

    2000-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) and transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) modulate cell growth and metabolism. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of Ang II on the characteristics and expression of TGF-? receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from Wistar-Kyoto rats. The addition of TGF-?1 elicited a biphasic response on DNA synthesis in cultured VSMC in the absence of Ang

  15. Differential sensitivities of transcription factor target genes underlie cell type-specific gene

    E-print Network

    Bresnick, Emery H.

    activity of the hematopoietic transcription factor GATA-1, chromatin occupancy, and target gene sensitivity. Graded activation of GATA-1 in GATA-1-null cells re- vealed high-, intermediate-, and low-sensitivity targets. GATA-1 activity requirements for occupancy and transcription often corre- lated. A GATA-1 amino

  16. Impaired Preneoplastic Changes and Liver Tumor Formation in Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Type 1 Knockout Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Belinda Knight; George C. T. Yeoh; Kirsten L. Husk; Tina Ly; Lawrence J. Abraham; Changpu Yu; Jonathan A. Rhim; Nelson Fausto

    Hepatic stem cells (oval cells) proliferate within the liver after exposure to a variety of hepatic carcinogens and can generate both hepatocytes and bile duct cells. Oval cell proliferation is commonly seen in the preneoplastic stages of liver carcinogenesis, often accompanied by an in- flammatory response. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), an inflammatory cytokine, is also impor- tant in liver regeneration

  17. Housekeeping Na,K-ATPase alpha 1 subunit gene promoter is composed of multiple cis elements to which common and cell type-specific factors bind.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki-Yagawa, Y; Kawakami, K; Nagano, K

    1992-01-01

    Na,K-ATPase alpha 1 subunit gene (ATP1A1) is one of the housekeeping genes involved in homeostasis of Na+ and K+ in all animal cells. We identified and characterized the cis-acting elements that regulate the expression of ATP1A1. The region between -155 and -49 was determined as a positive regulatory region in five cultured cell lines of different tissue origins (MDCK, B103, L6, 3Y1, and HepG2). The region was divided into three subregions: from -120 to -106 (including the Sp1 binding site), from -102 to -61, and from -58 to -49 (including an Sp1 consensus sequence). Cell type-specific factors binding to the middle subregion (from -102 to -61) were detected by gel retardation analysis, using nuclear extracts prepared from MDCK and B103 cells. Two gel retardation complexes were formed in the B103 nuclear extract, and three were formed in the MDCK nuclear extract. DNA binding regions of these factors were located at -88 to -69 and differed from each other in DNase I footprinting experiments. These factors also showed different binding characteristics in gel retardation competition and methylation interference experiments. The identified cis element was named the ATP1A1 regulatory element. The core sequence of this element is found in several other genes involved in cellular energy metabolism, suggesting that the sequence is a common regulatory element responsive to the state of energy metabolism. Images PMID:1324413

  18. Dietary Factors and Type 2 Diabetes in the Middle East: What Is the Evidence for an Association?––A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Al-Khudairy, Lena; Stranges, Saverio; Kumar, Sudhesh; Al-Daghri, Nasser; Rees, Karen

    2013-01-01

    This review aims to search and summarise the available evidence on the association between dietary factors and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Middle Eastern populations, where diabetes prevalence is among the highest in the world. Electronic databases were searched; authors, libraries, and research centres in the Middle East were contacted for further studies and unpublished literature. Included studies assessed potential dietary factors for T2DM in Middle Eastern adults. Two reviewers assessed studies independently. Extensive searching yielded 17 studies which met the inclusion criteria for this review. The findings showed that whole-grain intake reduces the risk of T2DM, and potato consumption was positively correlated with T2DM. Vegetables and vegetable oil may play a protective role against T2DM. Dietary patterns that are associated with diabetes were identified, such as Fast Food and Refined Grains patterns. Two studies demonstrated that lifestyle interventions decreased the risk of T2DM. In summary, the identified studies support an association between some dietary factors and T2DM; however, many of the included studies were of poor methodological quality so the findings should be interpreted with caution. The review draws attention to major gaps in current evidence and the need for well-designed studies in this area. PMID:24077241

  19. Soft typing with conditional types

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Aiken; Edward L. Wimmers; T. K. Lakshmant

    1994-01-01

    We present a simple and powerful type inference method for dynamically typed languages where no type information is supplied by the user. Type inference is reduced to the problem of solvability of a system of type inclusion constraints over a type language that includes function types, constructor types, union, intersection, and recursive types, and conditional types. Conditional types enable us

  20. Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Isolation of Escherichia coli Producing CTX-M-Type Extended-Spectrum ?-Lactamase in a Large U.S. Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Gattu, Sureka; Marchaim, Dror; Bhargava, Ashish; Palla, Mohan; Alshabani, Khaled; Gudur, Uma Mahesh; Pulluru, Harish; Bathina, Pradeep; Sundaragiri, Pranathi Rao; Sarkar, Moumita; Kakarlapudi, Hari; Ramasamy, Balaji; Nanjireddy, Priyanka; Mohin, Shah; Dasagi, Meenakshi; Datla, Satya; Kuchipudi, Vamsi; Reddy, Swetha; Shahani, Shobha; Upputuri, Vijaya; Marrey, Satya; Gannamani, Vedavyas; Madhanagopal, Nandhini; Annangi, Srinadh; Sudha, Busani; Muppavarapu, Kalyan Srinivas; Moshos, Judy A.; Lephart, Paul R.; Pogue, Jason M.; Bush, Karen; Kaye, Keith S.

    2013-01-01

    A case-case-control study was conducted to identify independent risk factors for recovery of Escherichia coli strains producing CTX-M-type extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (CTX-M E. coli) within a large Southeastern Michigan medical center. Unique cases with isolation of ESBL-producing E. coli from February 2010 through July 2011 were analyzed by PCR for blaCTX-M, blaTEM, and blaSHV genes. Patients with CTX-M E. coli were compared to patients with E. coli strains not producing CTX-M-type ESBLs (non-CTX-M E. coli) and uninfected controls. Of 575 patients with ESBL-producing E. coli, 491 (85.4%) isolates contained a CTX-M ESBL gene. A total of 319 (84.6%) patients with CTX-M E. coli (282 [74.8%] CTX-M-15 type) were compared to 58 (15.4%) non-CTX-M E. coli patients and to uninfected controls. Independent risk factors for CTX-M E. coli isolation compared to non-CTX-M E. coli included male gender, impaired consciousness, H2 blocker use, immunosuppression, and exposure to penicillins and/or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Compared to uninfected controls, independent risk factors for isolation of CTX-M E. coli included presence of a urinary catheter, previous urinary tract infection, exposure to oxyimino-cephalosporins, dependent functional status, non-home residence, and multiple comorbid conditions. Within 48 h of admission, community-acquired CTX-M E. coli (n = 51 [16%]) and non-CTX-M E coli (n = 11 [19%]) strains were isolated from patients with no recent health care contacts. CTX-M E. coli strains were more resistant to multiple antibiotics than non-CTX-M E. coli strains. CTX-M-encoding genes, especially blaCTX-M-15 type, represented the most common ESBL determinants from ESBL-producing E. coli, the majority of which were present upon admission. Septic patients with risk factors for isolation of CTX-M E. coli should be empirically treated with appropriate agents. Regional infection control efforts and judicious antibiotic use are needed to control the spread of these organisms. PMID:23752516

  1. Epidemiology and risk factors for isolation of Escherichia coli producing CTX-M-type extended-spectrum ?-lactamase in a large U.S. Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Kayoko; Gattu, Sureka; Marchaim, Dror; Bhargava, Ashish; Palla, Mohan; Alshabani, Khaled; Gudur, Uma Mahesh; Pulluru, Harish; Bathina, Pradeep; Sundaragiri, Pranathi Rao; Sarkar, Moumita; Kakarlapudi, Hari; Ramasamy, Balaji; Nanjireddy, Priyanka; Mohin, Shah; Dasagi, Meenakshi; Datla, Satya; Kuchipudi, Vamsi; Reddy, Swetha; Shahani, Shobha; Upputuri, Vijaya; Marrey, Satya; Gannamani, Vedavyas; Madhanagopal, Nandhini; Annangi, Srinadh; Sudha, Busani; Muppavarapu, Kalyan Srinivas; Moshos, Judy A; Lephart, Paul R; Pogue, Jason M; Bush, Karen; Kaye, Keith S

    2013-08-01

    A case-case-control study was conducted to identify independent risk factors for recovery of Escherichia coli strains producing CTX-M-type extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (CTX-M E. coli) within a large Southeastern Michigan medical center. Unique cases with isolation of ESBL-producing E. coli from February 2010 through July 2011 were analyzed by PCR for blaCTX-M, blaTEM, and blaSHV genes. Patients with CTX-M E. coli were compared to patients with E. coli strains not producing CTX-M-type ESBLs (non-CTX-M E. coli) and uninfected controls. Of 575 patients with ESBL-producing E. coli, 491 (85.4%) isolates contained a CTX-M ESBL gene. A total of 319 (84.6%) patients with CTX-M E. coli (282 [74.8%] CTX-M-15 type) were compared to 58 (15.4%) non-CTX-M E. coli patients and to uninfected controls. Independent risk factors for CTX-M E. coli isolation compared to non-CTX-M E. coli included male gender, impaired consciousness, H2 blocker use, immunosuppression, and exposure to penicillins and/or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Compared to uninfected controls, independent risk factors for isolation of CTX-M E. coli included presence of a urinary catheter, previous urinary tract infection, exposure to oxyimino-cephalosporins, dependent functional status, non-home residence, and multiple comorbid conditions. Within 48 h of admission, community-acquired CTX-M E. coli (n = 51 [16%]) and non-CTX-M E coli (n = 11 [19%]) strains were isolated from patients with no recent health care contacts. CTX-M E. coli strains were more resistant to multiple antibiotics than non-CTX-M E. coli strains. CTX-M-encoding genes, especially bla(CTX-M-15) type, represented the most common ESBL determinants from ESBL-producing E. coli, the majority of which were present upon admission. Septic patients with risk factors for isolation of CTX-M E. coli should be empirically treated with appropriate agents. Regional infection control efforts and judicious antibiotic use are needed to control the spread of these organisms. PMID:23752516

  2. Large Thermoelectric Power Factor in P-type Si (110)/[110] Ultra-Thin-Layers Compared to Differently Oriented Channels

    E-print Network

    1 Large Thermoelectric Power Factor in P-type Si (110)/[110] Ultra-Thin-Layers Compared the thermoelectric power factor of ultra-thin-body p-type Si layers of thicknesses from W=3nm up to 10nm. We show improvement in 2D thin- layers of zincblende semiconductors. Keywords: low-dimensional thermoelectrics

  3. Response to Therapy and Outcomes in Oropharyngeal Cancer Are Associated With Biomarkers Including Human Papillomavirus, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, Gender, and Smoking

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Bhavna [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Cordell, Kitrina G. [Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lee, Julia S. [Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Prince, Mark E.; Tran, Huong H.; Wolf, Gregory T. [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Urba, Susan G. [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Worden, Francis P. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Chepeha, Douglas B.; Teknos, Theodoros N. [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Eisbruch, Avraham; Tsien, Christina I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Taylor, Jeremy [Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); D'Silva, Nisha J. [Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Yang, Kun; Kurnit, David M. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bradford, Carol R. [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] (and others)

    2007-10-01

    Induction chemotherapy and concurrent chemoradiation for responders or immediate surgery for non-responders is an effective treatment strategy head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) of the larynx and oropharynx. Biomarkers that predict outcome would be valuable in selecting patients for therapy. In this study, the presence and titer of high risk human papilloma virus (HPV) and expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in pre-treatment biopsies, as well as smoking and gender were examined in oropharynx cancer patients enrolled in an organ sparing trial. HPV16 copy number was positively associated with response to therapy and with overall and disease specific survival, whereas EGFR expression, current or former smoking behavior, and female gender (in this cohort) were associated with poor response and poor survival in multivariate analysis. Smoking cessation and strategies to target EGFR may be useful adjuncts for therapy to improve outcome in the cases with the poorest biomarker profile.

  4. Factoring

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Taylor

    2010-10-19

    In this lesson we will explore prime numbers and factors A prime number has only two factors, 1 and itself. The Greek scholar, Eratosthenes of Cyrene lived from approximately 275 to 195 BC. He is know for being the first to have computed the size of the Earth and served as the director of the famous library in

  5. Type A behavior pattern, personality factors, disease, and physiological reactivity: A meta-analytic update

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Myrtek

    1995-01-01

    Research on the Type A behavior pattern (TABP) has declined in the last years, presumably in response to several large-scale prospective studies which failed to find an association between TABP and coronary heart disease (CHD). Quantitative reviews of the connection between TABP and CHD or TABP and physiological reactivity were published several years ago. These reviews, for the most part

  6. Metabolic factors, adipose tissue, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels in Type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) production by adipose tissue is increased in obesity, and its circulating levels are high in type 2 diabetes. PAI-1 increases cardiovascular risk by favoring clot stability, interfering with vascular remodeling, or both. We investigated in obese diabetic per...

  7. Impact of visualization type and contextual factors on performance with enterprise resource planning systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avi Parush; Adi Hod; Avy Shtub

    2007-01-01

    We studied the use of two types of graphic information visualization to support human operators performing tasks using enterprise resource planning systems (ERP). We compared the original display design of a commercial ERP system with a prototype information visualization design. A simulated supply chain was used to test the hypothesis that graphical visualization can improve the performance of the human

  8. A Higher Order Analysis of the Factor Structure of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William L.; Mauzey, Edward; Johnson, Annabel M.; Murphy, Stanley D.; Zimmerman, Kurt J.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the higher order structure of Form G of the Myers Briggs Type Indicator. A third order component analysis of a sample (N=926) found two higher order components. This higher order analysis contributes to the research literature pertaining to the generalized structure of the personality measure. (Contains 44 references and 1 table.) (GCP)

  9. Type I Diabetes Mellitus: Genetic Factors and Presumptive Enteroviral Etiology or Protection

    PubMed Central

    Precechtelova, Jana; Borsanyiova, Maria; Sarmirova, Sona

    2014-01-01

    We review type 1 diabetes and host genetic components, as well as epigenetics and viruses associated with type 1 diabetes, with added emphasis on the enteroviruses, which are often associated with triggering the disease. Genus Enterovirus is classified into twelve species of which seven (Enterovirus A, Enterovirus B, Enterovirus C, and Enterovirus D and Rhinovirus A, Rhinovirus B, and Rhinovirus C) are human pathogens. These viruses are transmitted mainly by the fecal-oral route; they may also spread via the nasopharyngeal route. Enterovirus infections are highly prevalent, but these infections are usually subclinical or cause a mild flu-like illness. However, infections caused by enteroviruses can sometimes be serious, with manifestations of meningoencephalitis, paralysis, myocarditis, and in neonates a fulminant sepsis-like syndrome. These viruses are often implicated in chronic (inflammatory) diseases as chronic myocarditis, chronic pancreatitis, and type 1 diabetes. In this review we discuss the currently suggested mechanisms involved in the viral induction of type 1 diabetes. We recapitulate current basic knowledge and definitions. PMID:25574400

  10. Fluoride affects calcium homeostasis and osteogenic transcription factor expressions through L-type calcium channels in osteoblast cell line.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiao-Qin; Zhao, Zhi-Tao; Zhang, Xiu-Yun; Wang, Ying; Wang, Huan; Liu, Da-Wei; Li, Guang-Sheng; Jing, Ling

    2014-12-01

    Osteoblast L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCC) play important roles in maintaining intracellular homeostasis and influencing multiple cellular processes. In particular, they contribute to the activities and functions of osteoblasts (OBs). In order to study how L-type VDCC modulate calcium ion (Ca(2+)) homeostasis and the expression of osteogenic transcription factors in OBs exposed to fluoride, MC3T3-E1 cells were exposed to a gradient of concentrations of fluoride (0, 2.0, 5.0, 10.0 mg/L) in combination with 10 ?M nifedipine, a specific inhibitor of VDCC, for 48 h. We examined messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of Cav1.2, the main subunit of VDCC, and c-fos, c-jun, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osterix (OSX), and intracellular free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) concentrations in MC3T3-E1 cells. Our results showed that [Ca(2+)]i levels increased in a dose-dependent manner with increase in concentration of fluoride. Meantime, results indicated that lower concentrations of fluoride (less than 5 mg/L, especially 2 mg/L) can lead to high expression of Cav1.2 and enhance osteogenic function, while high concentration of fluoride (10 mg/L) can induce decreased Cav1.2 and osteogenic transcriptional factors in MC3T3E1 cells exposed to fluoride. However, the levels of [Ca(2+)]i, Cav1.2, c-fos, c-jun, Runx2, and OSX induced by fluoride were significantly altered and even reversed in the presence of nifedipine. These results demonstrate that L-type calcium channels play a crucial role in Ca(2+) homeostasis and they affect the expression of osteogenic transcription factors in fluoride-treated osteoblasts. PMID:25201340

  11. Brush types of the Nueces River watershed as related to soil, climatic and geological factors

    E-print Network

    Huss, Donald Lee

    1959-01-01

    ; mesquite is the dominant of the top layer, black persimmon is the principal species of the second layer and the third layer includes a mixture with no predominant species. Agarita, Mahonia trifoliolata, colima, Xanthoxylum fagara, and wolfberry, Lycium...

  12. The C-type lectin receptor CLEC4M binds, internalizes, and clears von Willebrand factor and contributes to the variation in plasma von Willebrand factor levels

    PubMed Central

    Rydz, Natalia; Swystun, Laura L.; Notley, Colleen; Paterson, Andrew D.; Riches, J. Jacob; Sponagle, Kate; Boonyawat, Boonchai; Montgomery, Robert R.; James, Paula D.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic variation in or near the C-type lectin domain family 4 member M (CLEC4M) has been associated with plasma levels of von Willebrand factor (VWF) in healthy individuals. CLEC4M is a lectin receptor with a polymorphic extracellular neck region possessing a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR). A total of 491 participants (318 patients with type 1 von Willebrand disease [VWD] and 173 unaffected family members) were genotyped for the CLEC4M VNTR polymorphism. Family-based association analysis on kindreds with type 1 VWD demonstrated an excess transmission of VNTR 6 to unaffected individuals (P = .0096) and an association of this allele with increased VWF:RCo (P = .029). CLEC4M-Fc bound to VWF. Immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated that HEK 293 cells transfected with CLEC4M bound and internalized VWF. Cells expressing 4 or 9 copies of the CLEC4M neck region VNTR showed reduced interaction with VWF relative to CLEC4M with 7 VNTR (CLEC4M 4%-60% reduction, P < .001; CLEC4M 9%-45% reduction, P = .006). Mice expressing CLEC4M after hydrodynamic liver transfer have a 46% decrease in plasma levels of VWF (P = .0094). CLEC4M binds to and internalizes VWF, and polymorphisms in the CLEC4M gene contribute to variable plasma levels of VWF. PMID:23529928

  13. New challenges in dietary pattern analysis: combined dietary patterns and calorie adjusted factor analysis in type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Some variability for dietary pattern analysis due to subjective procedures (e.g. arbitrary food categorization and number of factors extraction) was reported. The aim of this study was to present or design a new approach to challenge the conventional dietary pattern analysis through new classification of dietary patterns according to the possibility of the high adherence to more than one dietary pattern and calorie adjusted factor extracting. Methods This cross-sectional study conducted on 734 type2 diabetic patients. Factor analysis defined three major dietary patterns (Western like, Asian like and Traditional like) and the associations of each pattern were assessed with glycemic control and lipid profiles among tertiles of each pattern. In order to compare variables in highest tertile of three defined dietary patterns, eight new different groups were classified according to the high adherence to one or more patterns and ANOVA and ANCOVA were used to compare them. Also, calorie adjusted factor extracting were done to find out if the same factor loadings would be extract. Results Among three major dietary patterns, only Western like showed a significant association with fasting blood sugar (p?=?0.03, 12.49?±?5.99), serum total cholesterol (p?=?0.02, 8.71?±?3.81) and LDL cholesterol (p?=?0.04, 5.04?±?2.40). While comparison of new classified patterns, showed no significant differences, except a high blood glucose in Western like- Asian like versus traditional like dietary pattern (p?=?0.04). Also, calorie adjusted factor extracting showed different factor loadings. Conclusions Results showed that the conventional dietary pattern analysis method may have substantial limitations in interpreting the results and may lead to inappropriate conclusions. PMID:25032128

  14. Tax protein of human T-cell leukemia virus type I binds to the ankyrin motifs of inhibitory factor kappa B and induces nuclear translocation of transcription factor NF-kappa B proteins for transcriptional activation.

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, H; Suzuki, T; Fujisawa, J; Inoue, J; Yoshida, M

    1994-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type I causes adult T-cell leukemia and tropical spastic paraparesis, and its regulator protein Tax has been implicated in the pathogenic activity of human T-cell leukemia virus type I. Tax activates transcription of viral and cellular genes through specific enhancers: the 21-bp enhancer of human T-cell leukemia virus type I, the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B)-binding site of the interleukin 2 receptor alpha gene, and the serum-responsive element of c-fos. Tax binds to enhancer-binding proteins including cAMP-responsive element-binding protein, cAMP-responsive element modulator, transcription factor NF-kappa B p50 and p67SRF, and associates with each enhancer DNA indirectly. In addition to this mechanism, we report here that Tax binds to inhibitory factor kappa B gamma (I-kappa B) gamma, which forms a complex with NF-kappa B protein heterodimer p50-p65 or homodimer p50-p50 and retains them in the cytoplasm. Tax binding to I-kappa B gamma induces nuclear translocation of NF-kappa B p65. In association with this nuclear translocation of p65, transcription directed by the kappa B enhancer is strongly activated. Tax binds to the ankyrin motifs of I-kappa B gamma, suggesting its possible interaction with many other proteins carrying ankyrin motifs contributing to various regulatory processes. This is a different mechanism of transcriptional activation by the oncoprotein Tax and seems to be independent from the trans-activation through indirect binding to enhancer DNAs. Images PMID:8170951

  15. Mutations in VKORC1 cause warfarin resistance and multiple coagulation factor deficiency type 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simone Rost; Andreas Fregin; Vytautas Ivaskevicius; Ernst Conzelmann; Konstanze Hörtnagel; Hans-Joachim Pelz; Knut Lappegard; Erhard Seifried; Inge Scharrer; Edward G. D. Tuddenham; Clemens R. Müller; Tim M. Strom; Johannes Oldenburg

    2004-01-01

    Coumarin derivatives such as warfarin represent the therapy of choice for the long-term treatment and prevention of thromboembolic events. Coumarins target blood coagulation by inhibiting the vitamin K epoxide reductase multiprotein complex (VKOR). This complex recycles vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to vitamin K hydroquinone, a cofactor that is essential for the post-translational gamma-carboxylation of several blood coagulation factors. Despite extensive efforts,

  16. Cigarette Smoking Induces Overexpression of Hepatocyte Growth Factor in Type II Pneumocytes and Lung Cancer Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Tang Chen; Torng-Sen Lin; Kuan-Chih Chow; Hsuan-Hua Huang; Shu-Fen Chiang; Hong-Chen Chen; Tzu-Lin Chuang; Tze-Yi Lin; Chih-Yi Chen

    We examined gene expression of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and HGF receptor (HGFR), or product of proto-oncogene c-met (c-met), in smokers and nonsmokers with adenocarcinoma (ADC) by suppression subtractive hybridization and microarray tech- niques. Expression of HGF and c-met was confirmed by RT-PCR. HGFcontentin therespective tumormassandnontumorlungtissue was measured by ELISA. HGF in pathologic samples was localized by immunohistochemistry and in

  17. Metabolic control as reflectet by HbA1c in children, adolescents and young adults with type-1 diabetes mellitus: combined longitudinal analysis including 27,035 patients from 207 centers in Germany and Austria during the last decade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E.-M. Gerstl; W. Rabl; J. Rosenbauer; H. Gröbe; S. E. Hofer; U. Krause; R. W. Holl

    2008-01-01

    Introduction  While the central role of HbA1c levels for the prediction of micro- and macrovascular complications in patients with type\\u000a 1 diabetes is generally accepted; recommendations in current guidelines and the level of metabolic control actually achieved\\u000a during routine care differ widely. Limited information is available on factors that influence metabolic control in the pediatric\\u000a age group and during the transition

  18. Individual differences and ergonomic factors in performance on a videotex-type task

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Perry R. Morrison; Grant Noble

    1987-01-01

    This study manipulated ergonomic aspects of a videotex–type task and attempted to relate paper and pencil measures of field dependence-independence, intelligence, capacity to complete a computer science curriculum and attitudes toward computers, to the performance of novice users. Results indicated that fault-tolerant aspects of the software and the use of self–defined commands resulted in superior performance. In addition, field independence

  19. Borna disease virus nucleoprotein inhibits type I interferon induction through the interferon regulatory factor 7 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Wuqi [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China) [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China); Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University (China); Kao, Wenping [The Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Biology, Heilongjiang Higher Education Institutions (China) [The Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Biology, Heilongjiang Higher Education Institutions (China); Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University (China); Zhai, Aixia [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China)] [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China); Qian, Jun; Li, Yujun [The Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Biology, Heilongjiang Higher Education Institutions (China)] [The Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Biology, Heilongjiang Higher Education Institutions (China); Zhang, Qingmeng [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China)] [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China); Zhao, Hong; Hu, Yunlong; Li, Hui [Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University (China)] [Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University (China); Zhang, Fengmin, E-mail: fengminzhang@ems.hrbmu.edu.cn [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China) [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China); The Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Biology, Heilongjiang Higher Education Institutions (China); Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University (China)

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •IRF7 nuclear localisation was inhibited by BDV persistently infected. •BDV N protein resistant to IFN induction both in BDV infected OL cell and N protein plasmid transfected OL cell. •BDV N protein is related to the inhibition of IRF7 nuclear localisation. -- Abstract: The expression of type I interferon (IFN) is one of the most potent innate defences against viral infection in higher vertebrates. Borna disease virus (BDV) establishes persistent, noncytolytic infections in animals and in cultured cells. Early studies have shown that the BDV phosphoprotein can inhibit the activation of type I IFN through the TBK1–IRF3 pathway. The function of the BDV nucleoprotein in the inhibition of IFN activity is not yet clear. In this study, we demonstrated IRF7 activation and increased IFN-?/? expression in a BDV-persistently infected human oligodendroglia cell line following RNA interference-mediated BDV nucleoprotein silencing. Furthermore, we showed that BDV nucleoprotein prevented the nuclear localisation of IRF7 and inhibited endogenous IFN induction by poly(I:C), coxsackie virus B3 and IFN-?. Our findings provide evidence for a previously undescribed mechanism by which the BDV nucleoprotein inhibits type I IFN expression by interfering with the IRF7 pathway.

  20. Factors affecting the toxicity of rotting carcasses containing Clostridium botulinum type E.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, G. R.; Turner, A.; Till, D.

    1988-01-01

    Mice killed shortly after receiving c. 2000 spores of a type E strain of Clostridium botulinum per os were incubated at one of five chosen temperatures together with bottles of cooked meat medium seeded with a similar inoculum. After incubation the rotting carcasses were homogenized. Sterile membrane filtrates of the homogenates (10%, w/v) and pure cultures were then titrated for toxicity. Some of the main findings were confirmed with two further type E strains. Toxicity produced at 37 degrees C was poor in both carcasses and cultures (200-20,000 mouse intraperitoneal LD/g or ml). It was good in both systems at 30 and 23 degrees C, usually reaching 20,000-200,000 LD/g or ml, and in carcasses occasionally more; at 30 degrees C maximal toxicity was reached more quickly in carcasses than in cultures. Prolonged incubation (36-118 days) at 30 or 23 degrees C resulted in complete loss of toxicity in virtually all carcasses but not in cultures. At 16 degrees C the development of toxicity in carcasses was strikingly greater than in cultures. At 9 degrees C neither system produced more than slight toxicity after prolonged incubation. Trypsinization increased the toxicity of cultures but not usually of carcasses. Unfiltered carcass homogenate (10%, w/v) with maximal intraperitoneal toxicity was harmless for mice by mouth in doses of 0.25 ml. These findings differed in important respects from those made earlier with a type C strain. PMID:3288491

  1. Risk Factors for Retinopathy and DME in Type 2 Diabetes-Results from the German/Austrian DPV Database.

    PubMed

    Hammes, Hans-Peter; Welp, Reinhard; Kempe, Hans-Peter; Wagner, Christian; Siegel, Erhard; Holl, Reinhard W

    2015-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and risk factors for early and severe diabetic retinopathy and macular edema in a large cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes Retinopathy grading (any retinopathy, severe retinopathy, diabetic macular edema) and risk factors of 64784 were prospectively recorded between January 2000 and March 2013 and analyzed by Kaplan-Meier analysis and logistic regression. Retinopathy was present in 20.12% of subjects, maculopathy was found in 0.77%. HbA1c > 8%, microalbuminuria, hypertension, BMI > 35 kg/m2 and male sex were significantly associated with any retinopathy, while HbA1c and micro- and macroalbuminuria were the strongest risk predictors for severe retinopathy. Presence of macroalbuminuria increased the risk for DME by 177%. Retinopathy remains a significant clinical problem in patients with type 2 diabetes. Metabolic control and blood pressure are relevant factors amenable to treatment. Concomitant kidney disease identifies high risk patients and should be emphasized in interdisciplinary communication. PMID:26177037

  2. Type. beta. transforming growth factor reversibly inhibits the early proliferative responsive to partial hepatectomy in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, W.E.; Coffey, R.J. Jr.; Ouellette, A.J.; Moses, H.L. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (USA))

    1988-07-01

    Type {beta} transforming growth factor (TGF-{beta}), a factor produced by many cell types, is a potent inhibitor of hepatocyte DNA synthesis in vitro. To determine whether TGF-{beta} can influence hepatocyte proliferation in vivo, its effects were examined on the regenerative response of liver to partial hepatectomy (PH) in the rat. Porcine platelet-derived TGF-{beta}1, administered intravenously at the time of PH and 11 hr later, reduced the fraction of hepatocytes engaged in DNA synthesis 22 hr after PH by 67% and inhibited the rate of hepatic ({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation by 50%. TGF-{beta}2 produced a similar effect. Although sensitive to TGF-{beta} administered 11 hr after PH, late in the G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle, a single does of 0.5 {mu}g given at the time of PH did not significantly influence DNA synthesis 22 hr after PH. The inhibitory effects of TGF-{beta} were transient. The nuclear labeling index of the TGF-{beta}-treated animals was significantly higher than that of the controls. There was no evidence of cytotoxicity from TGF-{beta}, as determined by liver histology and plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin-like growth factor I, and two hepatic enzymes. Thus, TGF-{beta}1 and TGF-{beta}2 reversibly inhibit the proliferative response of liver to PH and may be important in the modulation of normal liver growth and repair.

  3. Risk Factors for Retinopathy and DME in Type 2 Diabetes—Results from the German/Austrian DPV Database

    PubMed Central

    Hammes, Hans-Peter; Welp, Reinhard; Kempe, Hans-Peter; Wagner, Christian; Siegel, Erhard; Holl, Reinhard W.

    2015-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and risk factors for early and severe diabetic retinopathy and macular edema in a large cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes Retinopathy grading (any retinopathy, severe retinopathy, diabetic macular edema) and risk factors of 64784 were prospectively recorded between January 2000 and March 2013 and analyzed by Kaplan–Meier analysis and logistic regression. Retinopathy was present in 20.12% of subjects, maculopathy was found in 0.77%. HbA1c > 8%, microalbuminuria, hypertension, BMI > 35 kg/m2 and male sex were significantly associated with any retinopathy, while HbA1c and micro- and macroalbuminuria were the strongest risk predictors for severe retinopathy. Presence of macroalbuminuria increased the risk for DME by 177%. Retinopathy remains a significant clinical problem in patients with type 2 diabetes. Metabolic control and blood pressure are relevant factors amenable to treatment. Concomitant kidney disease identifies high risk patients and should be emphasized in interdisciplinary communication. PMID:26177037

  4. Structural Congruency of Ligand Binding to the Insulin and Insulin/Type 1 Insulin-like Growth Factor Hybrid Receptors.

    PubMed

    Menting, John G; Lawrence, Callum F; Kong, Geoffrey K-W; Margetts, Mai B; Ward, Colin W; Lawrence, Michael C

    2015-07-01

    The homodimeric insulin and type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptors (IR and IGF-1R) share a common architecture and each can bind all three ligands within the family: insulin and insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IFG-II). The receptor monomers also assemble as heterodimers, the primary ligand-binding sites of which each comprise the first leucine-rich repeat domain (L1) of one receptor type and an ?-chain C-terminal segment (?CT) of the second receptor type. We present here crystal structures of IGF-I bound to such a hybrid primary binding site and of a ligand-free version of an IR ?CT peptide bound to an IR L1 plus cysteine-rich domain construct (IR310.T). These structures, refined at 3.0-Å resolution, prove congruent to respective existing structures of insulin-complexed IR310.T and the intact apo-IR ectodomain. As such, they provide key missing links in the emerging, but sparse, repertoire of structures defining the receptor family. PMID:26027733

  5. Monogenic diabetes mellitus includes a heterogeneous group of diabetes types that are caused by mutations in single genes. It is estimated that the monogenic forms of diabetes could represent as much as 12% of all cases

    E-print Network

    Das, Soma

    3/13 Monogenic diabetes mellitus includes a heterogeneous group of diabetes types that are caused by mutations in single genes. It is estimated that the monogenic forms of diabetes could represent as much as 1­2% of all cases of diabetes mellitus (1). The main phenotypes suggestive of an underlying monogenic cause

  6. GEOL 103 Writing Assignment 2. Rock Cycle 1. How do each of the three major rock types form? Include the source of the material and the rock-forming

    E-print Network

    Kirby, Carl S.

    GEOL 103 Writing Assignment 2. Rock Cycle 1. How do each of the three major rock types form of the rock cycle in your on words. · All major classes of rocks (ign. mmorphic, or sed) can be transformed? Include the source of the material and the rock-forming process. · Igneous rocks form from the hi

  7. Isolation and characterization of three DREB\\/ERF-type transcription factors from melon ( Cucumis melo)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinji Mizuno; Yosuke Hirasawa; Masatoshi Sonoda; Hiroki Nakagawa; Takahide Sato

    2006-01-01

    A melon 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (CMe-ACS2) is a key enzyme in the ethylene biosynthesis pathway in melon, but mechanisms regulating CMe-ACS2 expression remain to be clarified. We characterized three melon AP2\\/ERF transcription factors (CMe-DREB1, CMe-ERF1 and CMe-ERF2), which were isolated by a yeast one-hybrid screening method using a GCCGAC sequence (DRE\\/CRT cis-acting element) in the CMe-ACS2 promoter. We demonstrated that CMe-DREB1

  8. Structural analogs of human insulin-like growth factor I with reduced affinity for serum binding proteins and the type 2 insulin-like growth factor receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Bayne, M.L.; Applebaum, J.; Chicchi, G.G.; Hayes, N.S.; Green, B.G.; Cascieri, M.A.

    1988-05-05

    Four structural analogs of human insulin-like growth factor I (hIGF-I) have been prepared by site-directed mutagenesis of a synthetic IGF-I gene and subsequent expression and purification of the mutant protein from the conditioned media of transformed yeast. (Phe/sup -1/, Val/sup 1/, Asn/sup 2/, Gln/sup 3/, His/sup 4/, Ser/sup 8/, His/sup 9/, Glu/sup 12/, Tyr/sup 15/, Leu/sup 16/)IGF-I (B-chain mutant), in which the first 16 amino acids of hIGF-I were replaced with the first 17 amino acids of the B-chain of insulin, has >1000-, 100-, and 2-fold reduced potency for human serum binding proteins, the rat liver type 2 IGF receptor, and the human placental type 1 IGF receptor, respectively. The B-chain mutant also has 4-fold increased affinity for the human placental insulin receptor. (Gln/sup 3/, Ala/sup 4/) IGF-I has 4-fold reduced affinity for human serum binding proteins, but is equipotent to hIGF-I at the types 1 and 2 IGF and insulin receptors. (Tyr/sup 15/, Leu/sup 16/) IGH-I has 4-fold reduced affinity for human serum binding proteins and 10-fold increased affinity for the insulin receptor. The peptide in which these four-point mutations are combined, (Gln/sup 3/, Ala/sup 4/, Tyr/sup 15/,Leu/sup 16/)IGF-I, has 600-fold reduced affinity for the serum binding proteins. All four of these mutants stimulate DNA synthesis in the rat vascular smooth muscle cell line A10 with potencies reflecting their potency at the type 1 IGF receptor. These studies identify some of the domains of hIGF-I which are responsible for maintaining high affinity binding with the serum binding protein and the type 2 IGF receptor. In addition, These peptides will be useful in defining the role of the type 2 IGF receptor and serum binding proteins in the physiological actions of hIGF-I.

  9. Risk of skin and soft tissue infections (including shingles) in patients exposed to anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy: results from the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, James B; Mercer, Louise K; Moseley, Alison; Dixon, William G; Ustianowski, Andrew P; Helbert, Matthew; Watson, Kath D; Lunt, Mark; Hyrich, Kimme L; Symmons, Deborah PM

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapy is a mainstay of treatment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In 2001, BSRBR was established to evaluate the safety of these agents. This paper addresses the safety of anti-TNF therapy in RA with specific reference to serious skin and soft tissue infections (SSSI) and shingles. Methods A cohort of anti-TNF-treated patients was recruited alongside a comparator group with active RA treated with non-biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (nbDMARD). 11 881 anti-TNF and 3673 nbDMARD patients were analysed. Follow-up was by 6-monthly questionnaires to patients and clinicians. Analyses considered SSSI and shingles separately. Incidence rates (IR) were calculated and then compared using survival analyses. Results The crude IR for SSSI were: anti-TNF 1.6/100 patient-years (95% CI 1.4 to 1.8); nbDMARD 0.7/100 patient-years (95% CI 0.5 to 1.0) and shingles: anti-TNF 1.6/100 patient-years (95% CI 1.3 to 2.0); nbDMARD 0.8/100 patient-years (95% CI 0.6 to 1.1). Adjusted HR were SSSI 1.4 (95% CI 0.9 to 2.4), shingles 1.8 (95% CI 1.2 to 2.8). For SSSI, no significant differences were seen between anti-TNF agents. For shingles, the lowest risk was observed for adalimumab (adjusted HR vs nbDMARD) 1.5 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.0) and highest for infliximab (HR 2.2; 95% CI 1.4 to 3.4)). Conclusion A significantly increased risk of shingles was observed in the anti-TNF-treated cohort. The risk of SSSI tended towards being greater with anti-TNF treatment but was not statistically significant. As with any observational dataset cause and effect cannot be established with certainty as residual confounding may remain. This finding would support the evaluation of zoster vaccination in this population. PMID:22532633

  10. Differential Antagonism of Activin, Myostatin and Growth and Differentiation Factor 11 by Wild-Type and Mutant Follistatin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan L. Schneyer; Yisrael Sidis; Anisha Gulati; Jie L. Sun; Henry Keutmann; Philip A. Krasney

    2008-01-01

    Follistatin binds and neutralizes members of the TGF su- perfamily including activin, myostatin, and growth and dif- ferentiation factor 11 (GDF11). Crystal structure analysis of thefollistatin-activincomplexrevealedextensivecontactsbe- tween follistatin domain (FSD)-2 and activin that was critical for the high-affinity interaction. However, it remained un- knownwhetherfollistatinresiduesinvolvedwithmyostatin and GDF11 binding were distinct from those involved with activin binding. If so, this would allow

  11. Evaluation of Two Types of Differential Item Functioning in Factor Mixture Models with Binary Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, HwaYoung; Beretvas, S. Natasha

    2014-01-01

    Conventional differential item functioning (DIF) detection methods (e.g., the Mantel-Haenszel test) can be used to detect DIF only across observed groups, such as gender or ethnicity. However, research has found that DIF is not typically fully explained by an observed variable. True sources of DIF may include unobserved, latent variables, such as…

  12. Angiogenic factor thymidine phosphorylase associates with angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in the intestinal-type gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianglan; Zheng, Zhenlong; Shin, You Keun; Kim, Ki-Yeol; Rha, Sun Young; Noh, Sung Hoon; Chung, Hyun Cheol; Jeung, Hei-Cheul

    2014-06-01

    As an angiogenic factor, thymidine phosphorylase (TP) expression in primary tumours has been thought to be a risk factor for lymph node (LN) and hepatic metastasis in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. However, the molecular basis for the induction of metastasis by TP is largely unknown. We aim to elucidate the role of TP expression in gastric cancer neovascularisation and LN metastasis.The angiogenic and lymphangiogenic activity (CD31, D2-40, Ki-67, VEGFC, VEGFR3) and expression status of TP were detected in 103 resected human gastric carcinoma samples by immunohistochemistry. The influence of TP expression on neovascularisation and cancer cell invasion was further comparatively investigated in two groups of nude mice intraperitoneally injected with TP overexpressing MKN-45 cells (MKN-45/TP) and control cells (MKN-45/CV). In gastric cancer tissues, we found that high TP expression and various angiogenic and lymphangiogenic activities were significantly associated with poor prognostic outcomes. In addition, TP expression was also found to be associated with neovascularisation activity of gastric cancer tissues. In vivo, the MKN-45/TP group exhibited significantly increased infiltrating tumour nodules and neovascularisation activity compared to the MKN-45/CV group. TP could strongly influence gastric cancer progression via the dual activities of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. PMID:24798152

  13. Erythrocyte trans-fatty acids, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged and older Chinese individuals

    PubMed Central

    Yu, D.X.; Sun, Q.; Ye, X.W.; Pan, A.; Zong, G.; Zhou, Y.H.; Li, H.X.; Hu, F.B.; Lin, X.

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Few data are available about intakes and food sources of trans-fatty acids (TFAs) or their associations with cardiometabolic outcomes in Asian people who consume a prudent diet but are experiencing rapid nutritional transitions. We aimed to investigate the relationships between TFA biomarkers and type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese individuals. Methods Erythrocyte fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography among 3,107 men and women (50–70 years) recruited from urban and rural areas in Beijing and Shanghai, China. Results Total trans-18:1 and two trans-18:2 isomers were detected and accounted for 0.37% of the total fatty acids in the erythrocytes. Concentrations of TFAs were higher in women than men, and in urban than rural residents. Of the TFAs, trans-18:1, but not trans-18:2, showed a modest association with dairy consumption (?=0.27), but not with other foods. After adjustment for BMI, social-demographic, lifestyle and dietary factors and other TFAs, erythrocyte trans-18:1 was shown to be associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes (OR comparing extreme quartiles=0.68, 95% CI=0.48, 0.97, ptrend=0.02), as well as 20–50% lower odds of central obesity, dyslipidaemia, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and chronic inflammation. In contrast, trans-18:2 fatty acids were positively associated with high triacylglycerol (ptrend<0.001) and LDL-cholesterol (ptrend=0.03) levels, but not with diabetes and other cardiometabolic risk factors. Conclusions/interpretation Among middle-aged and older Chinese individuals with overall low erythrocyte TFAs levels, trans-18:1 might serve as a marker of dairy intake. Higher trans-18:1 levels were associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, whereas higher trans-18:2 levels were associated with dyslipidaemia. PMID:22886370

  14. Overt Attention and Context Factors: The Impact of Repeated Presentations, Image Type, and Individual Motivation

    PubMed Central

    Kaspar, Kai; König, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the dynamic of the attention focus during observation of different categories of complex scenes and simultaneous consideration of individuals' memory and motivational state. We repeatedly presented four types of complex visual scenes in a pseudo-randomized order and recorded eye movements. Subjects were divided into groups according to their motivational disposition in terms of action orientation and individual rating of scene interest. Statistical analysis of eye-tracking data revealed that the attention focus successively became locally expressed by increasing fixation duration; decreasing saccade length, saccade frequency, and single subject's fixation distribution over images; and increasing inter-subject variance of fixation distributions. The validity of these results was supported by verbal reports. This general tendency was weaker for the group of subjects who rated the image set as interesting as compared to the other group. Additionally, effects were partly mediated by subjects' motivational disposition. Finally, we found a generally strong impact of image type on eye movement parameters. We conclude that motivational tendencies linked to personality as well as individual preferences significantly affected viewing behaviour. Hence, it is important and fruitful to consider inter-individual differences on the level of motivation and personality traits within investigations of attention processes. We demonstrate that future studies on memory's impact on overt attention have to deal appropriately with several aspects that had been out of the research focus until now. PMID:21750726

  15. Controlling factors of Tc dome structure in 1111-type iron arsenide superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuishi, Satoru; Maruyama, Takuya; Iimura, Soshi; Hosono, Hideo

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the effects of phosphorus substitution on the shape of the Tc(x ) dome in 1111-type SmFeAs1 -yPyO1 -xHx (0 < x < 0.5). Hydride ion substitution of oxide sites (O2 - ? H-) exerts a chemical pressure effect, i.e., a structural reduction of the Pn-Fe-Pn angle ? (Pn = P, As) and also dopes electrons into the FePn layer to induce superconductivity. Isovalent phosphorus substitution (P3 - ? As3 -) can induce only a chemical pressure effect, i.e., an increase of ? for La substitution of Sm sites. As y increases from 0.0 to 0.5, the single Tc dome gradually splits into two domes, similar to those of LaFeAsO1 -xHx with a Tc valley at x ? 0.16. We found that the Tc valley is located around (x , ?) ? (0.16, 113°) for both of the SmFeAs1 -yPyO1 -xHx and LaFeAsO1 -xHx series, irrespective of changes in the Pn anion and Ln cation species. This result suggests that suppression of Tc leads to the emergence of a Tc valley when both the shape of FeP n4 tetrahedra represented by ? and electron-doping level of x meet the above criterion in 1111-type iron oxypnictide superconductors.

  16. Identification of Myelin Transcription Factor 1 (MyT1) as a Subunit of the Neural Cell Type-specific Lysine-specific Demethylase 1 (LSD1) Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Atsushi; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Sato, Tetsuya; Takagi, Kiyoshi; Otsuka I., Maky; Shishido, Yurina; Baba, Takashi; Ito, Ryo; Kanno, Jun; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Morohashi, Ken-ichirou; Sugawara, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of spatiotemporal gene expression in higher eukaryotic cells is critical for the precise and orderly development of undifferentiated progenitors into committed cell types of the adult. It is well known that dynamic epigenomic regulation (including chromatin remodeling and histone modifications by transcriptional coregulator complexes) is involved in transcriptional regulation. Precisely how these coregulator complexes exert their cell type and developing stage-specific activity is largely unknown. In this study we aimed to isolate the histone demethylase lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) complex from neural cells by biochemical purification. In so doing, we identified myelin transcription factor 1 (MyT1) as a novel LSD1 complex component. MyT1 is a neural cell-specific zinc finger factor, and it forms a stable multiprotein complex with LSD1 through direct interaction. Target gene analysis using microarray and ChIP assays revealed that the Pten gene was directly regulated by the LSD1-MyT1 complex. Knockdown of either LSD1 or MyT1 derepressed the expression of endogenous target genes and inhibited cell proliferation of a neuroblastoma cell line, Neuro2a. We propose that formation of tissue-specific combinations of coregulator complexes is a critical mechanism for tissue-specific transcriptional regulation. PMID:24828497

  17. Insulin-like growth factor receptor type I as a target for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Corvaia, Nathalie; Beck, Alain; Caussanel, Véronique; Goetsch, Liliane

    2013-01-01

    After more than 20 years of extensive work, insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF-IR) is still an attractive target for drug development. Due to its close homology to insulin receptor, IGF-IR is of interest for antibody design while antibody great specificity allows to discriminate between the two receptors. Major efforts from a large number of pharmaceutical companies are invested to evaluate the efficacy of such molecules in human without so far an obvious success. Discovery of biomarkers associated with efficacy and patient selection is one of the main challenges that we will have to deal with in order to target the appropriate patient population that will most benefit anti-IGF-IR monoclonal antibody (Mab) and combined treatments. This review will provide an overview of the current knowledge on IGF-IR axis for development of novel therapeutics in Oncology. PMID:23277061

  18. Urinary pH as a Risk Factor for Stone Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhaee, Khashayar

    2007-04-01

    A high urinary pH is main risk factor for the calcium phosphate stone formation; however, its pathophysiologic mechanism has not been fully understood. The introduction of Topiramate in the treatment of various neurological disorders has been complicated by metabolic acidosis, significant hypocitraturia, elevated urinary pH, and calcium phosphate stone formation. This model provides a probe to investigate the pathophysiologic mechanism of calcium phosphate stone formation and perhaps to develop appropriate countermeasures in the future. On the other hand an unduly acidic urine predisposes one to uric acid nephrolithiasis. Our recent investigation linking low urinary pH, and defective renal ammoniagenesis to insulin resistance provides new knowledge to unfold the pathophysiology of uric acid nephrolithiasis. The metabolic profile leading to uric acid stone may emerge as one of the components of metabolic syndrome.

  19. Factors affecting the adoption of recommended agricultural practices by three different types of farmers in Mexico

    E-print Network

    Garza-Falcon, Gilberto Severino

    1968-01-01

    study (21) which included approximately 1800 persons who read the daily newspaper "El Dictamen (Published in the city of Veracruz, Mexico), showed that the great majority of the farmers and cattlemen who read this paper were owners of the land... implied that the amount of reading done by people increased with age, a study 25 completed in 1955 by Myren (23) disclosed that younger farmers read more farm magazines than older farmers. Modern practices are needed to improve agricultural...

  20. bZIP-Type transcription factors CREB and OASIS bind and stimulate the promoter of the mammalian transcription factor GCMa/Gcm1 in trophoblast cells

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Steffen Wolfgang; Abendroth, Alexandra; Kilian, Karin; Vogler, Tina; Mayr, Bernhard; Knerr, Ina; Hashemolhosseini, Said

    2008-01-01

    One of the master regulators of placental cell fusion in mammals leading to multi-nucleated syncytiotrophoblasts is the transcription factor GCMa. Recently, we proved that the cAMP-driven protein kinase A signaling pathway is fundamental for up-regulation of GCMa transcript levels and protein stability. Here, we show that Transducer of Regulated CREB activity (TORC1), the human co-activator of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), but not a dominant-negative CREB mutant, significantly up-regulates the GCMa promoter. We identified potential cAMP response element (CRE)-binding sites within the GCMa promoter upstream of the transcriptional start site. Only the CRE site at -1337 interacted strongly with CREB in promoter mapping experiments. The characterization of GCMa promoter mutants and additional bZIP-type family members demonstrated that also old astrocyte specifically-induced substance (OASIS) is able to stimulate GCMa transcription. Knockdown of endogenous CREB or OASIS in BeWo cells decreased endogenous GCMa mRNA level and activity. Overexpression of TORC1 or OASIS in choriocarcinoma cells led to placental cell fusion, accompanied by placental expression of gap junction forming protein connexin-43. Further, we show that CREB expression is replaced by OASIS expression around E12.5 suggesting that a sequential order of bZIP-type family members ensures a high rate of GCMa transcription throughout placentation. PMID:18495750

  1. Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor system components and relationship to bone metabolism in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Jehle, P M; Jehle, D R; Mohan, S; Böhm, B O

    1998-11-01

    Osteopenia has been ascribed to diabetics without residual insulin secretion and high insulin requirement. However, it is not known if this is partially due to disturbances in the IGF system, which is a key regulator of bone cell function. To address this question, we performed a cross-sectional study measuring serum levels of IGF-I, IGF-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), IGFBP-3, IGFBP-4 and IGFBP-5 by specific immunoassays in 52 adults with Type 1 (n=27) and Type 2 (n=25) diabetes mellitus and 100 age- and sex-matched healthy blood donors. In the diabetic patients, we further determined serum levels of proinsulin, intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and several biochemical bone markers, including osteocalcin (OSC), bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP), carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), and type I collagen cross-linked carboxy-terminal telopeptide (ICTP). Urinary albumin excretion was ascertained as a marker of diabetic nephropathy. Bone mineral density (BMD) of hip and lumbar spine was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Data are presented as means+/-s.e.m. Differences between the experimental groups were determined by performing a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Newman-Keuls test. Correlations between variables were assessed using univariate linear regression analysis and partial correlation analysis. Type 1 diabetics showed significantly lower IGF-I (119+/-8 ng/ml) and IGFBP-3 (2590+/-104 ng/ml) but higher IGFBP-1 levels (38+/-10 ng/ml) compared with Type 2 patients (170+/-13, 2910+/-118, 11+/-3 respectively; P<0.05) or healthy controls (169+/-5, 4620+/-192, 3.5+/-0.4 respectively; P<0.01). IGFBP-5 levels were markedly lower in both diabetic groups (Type 1, 228+/-9; Type 2, 242+/-11 ng/ml) than in controls (460+/-7 ng/ml,P<0. 01), whereas IGFBP-4 levels were similar in diabetics and controls. IGF-I correlated positively with IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5 and negatively with IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-4 in all subjects. Type 1 patients showed a lower BMD of hip (83+/-2 %, Z-score) and lumbar spine (93+/-2 %) than Type 2 diabetics (93+/-5 %, 101+/-5 % respectively), reaching significance in the female subgroups (P<0.05). In Type 1 patients, BMD of hip correlated negatively with IGFBP-1 (r=-0.34, P<0.05) and IGFBP-4 (r=-0.3, P<0.05) but positively with IGFBP-5 (r=0.37, P<0. 05), which was independent of age, diabetes duration, height, weight and body mass index, as assessed by partial correlation analysis. Furthermore, biochemical markers indicating bone loss (ICTP) and increased bone turnover (PTH, OSC) correlated positively with IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-4 but negatively with IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5, while the opposite was observed with bone formation markers (PICP, B-ALP) and vitamin D3 metabolites. In 20 Type 2 patients in whom immunoreactive proinsulin could be detected, significant positive correlations were found between proinsulin and BMD of hip (r=0.63, P<0.005), IGF-I (r=0.59, P<0.01) as well as IGFBP-3 (r=0.49, P<0.05). Type 1 and Type 2 patients with macroalbuminuria showed a lower BMD of hip, lower IGFBP-5 but higher IGFBP-4 levels, suggesting that diabetic nephropathy may contribute to bone loss by a disturbed IGF system. In conclusion, the findings of this study support the hypothesis that the imbalance between individual IGF system components and the lack of endogenous proinsulin may contribute to the lower BMD in Type 1 diabetics. PMID:9795371

  2. Induction of tumour necrosis factor-alpha during haemodialysis. Influence of the membrane type.

    PubMed Central

    Chollet-Martin, S; Stamatakis, G; Bailly, S; Mery, J P; Gougerot-Pocidalo, M A

    1991-01-01

    Some of the secondary clinical effects induced by long-term haemodialysis in patients with end-stage renal failure have been related to an increased production of interleukin-1 (IL-1). We investigated the role of another cytokine which shares a number of biological properties with IL-1, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). In long-term haemodialysed patients, we found at the beginning of the dialysis increased plasma TNF-alpha levels and enhanced monocyte capacity to produce TNF-alpha spontaneously ex vivo. Non-haemodialysed uraemic patients also presented increased plasma TNF-alpha levels. During dialysis with cellulose acetate (CA) or polysulphone (PS) membranes, plasma TNF-alpha levels and the spontaneous and lipopolysaccharide-induced production of TNF-alpha by monocytes remained at predialysis levels. In contrast, when cuprophane membranes were used, there was a significant increase in plasma TNF-alpha levels and in both spontaneous (10-fold) and lipopolysaccharide-induced (seven-fold) ex vivo TNF-alpha production by monocytes. These results suggest that monocytes are stimulated during haemodialysis with the poorly biocompatible cuprophane membrane. PMID:1993364

  3. Xenopus Kielin: A dorsalizing factor containing multiple chordin-type repeats secreted from the embryonic midline

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Masaru; Mizuseki, Kenji; Nakatani, Jin; Nakanishi, Shigetada; Sasai, Yoshiki

    2000-01-01

    The midline tissues are important inductive centers of early vertebrate embryos. By signal peptide selection screening, we isolated a secreted factor, Kielin, which contains multiple cys-rich repeats similar to those in chordin (Chd). Expression of Kielin starts at midgastrula stages in the notochord and is detected in the floor plate of neurula embryos. Kielin is induced in mesoderm and in ectoderm by nodal-related genes. Chd is sufficient to activate Kielin expression in mesoderm whereas Shh or HNF-3? in addition to Chd is required for induction in ectoderm. Kielin has a distinct biological activity from that of Chd. Injection of Kielin mRNA causes dorsalization of ventral marginal zone explants and expansion of MyoD expression in neurula embryos. Unlike Chd, Kielin does not efficiently induce neural differentiation of animal cap ectoderm, suggesting that the activity of Kielin is not simply caused by BMP4 blockade. Kielin is a signaling molecule that mediates inductive activities of the embryonic midline. PMID:10779551

  4. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Nef Inhibits Autophagy through Transcription Factor EB Sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Grant R.; Rawat, Pratima; Bruckman, Rachel S.; Spector, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    HIV Nef acts as an anti-autophagic maturation factor through interaction with beclin-1 (BECN1). We report that exposure of macrophages to infectious or non-infectious purified HIV induces toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8) and BECN1 dependent dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation of TFEB and that this correlates with an increase in autophagy markers. RNA interference for ATG13, TFEB, TLR8, or BECN1 inhibits this HIV-induced autophagy. However, once HIV establishes a productive infection, TFEB phosphorylation and cytoplasmic sequestration are increased resulting in decreased autophagy markers. Moreover, by 7 d post-infection, autophagy levels are similar to mock infected controls. Conversely, although Nef deleted HIV similarly induces TFEB dephosphorylation and nuclear localization, and increases autophagy, these levels remain elevated during continued productive infection. Thus, the interaction between HIV and TLR8 serves as a signal for autophagy induction that is dependent upon the dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation of TFEB. During permissive infection, Nef binds BECN1 resulting in mammalian target of rapamycin (MTOR) activation, TFEB phosphorylation and cytosolic sequestration, and the inhibition of autophagy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a virus modulating TFEB localization and helps to explain how HIV modulates autophagy to promote its own replication and cell survival. PMID:26115100

  5. Genetic Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes: A Trans-Regulatory Genetic Architecture?

    PubMed Central

    Elbein, Steven C.; Gamazon, Eric R.; Das, Swapan K.; Rasouli, Neda; Kern, Philip A.; Cox, Nancy J.

    2012-01-01

    To date, 68 loci have been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) or glucose homeostasis traits. We report here the results of experiments aimed at functionally characterizing the SNPs replicated for T2D and glucose traits. We sought to determine whether these loci were associated with transcript levels in adipose, muscle, liver, lymphocytes, and pancreatic ?-cells. We found an excess of trans, rather than cis, associations among these SNPs in comparison to what was expected in adipose and muscle. Among transcripts differentially expressed (FDR < 0.05) between muscle or adipose cells of insulin-sensitive individuals and those of insulin-resistant individuals (matched on BMI), trans-regulated transcripts, in contrast to the cis-regulated ones, were enriched. The paucity of cis associations with transcripts was confirmed in a study of liver transcriptome and was further supported by an analysis of the most detailed transcriptome map of pancreatic ?-cells. Relative to location- and allele-frequency-matched random SNPs, both the 68 loci and top T2D-associated SNPs from two large-scale genome-wide studies were enriched for trans eQTLs in adipose and muscle but not in lymphocytes. Our study suggests that T2D SNPs have broad-reaching and tissue-specific effects that often extend beyond local transcripts and raises the question of whether patterns of cis or trans transcript regulation are a key feature of the architecture of complex traits. PMID:22958899

  6. SCN4A mutation as modifying factor of myotonic dystrophy type 2 phenotype.

    PubMed

    Bugiardini, E; Rivolta, I; Binda, A; Soriano Caminero, A; Cirillo, F; Cinti, A; Giovannoni, R; Botta, A; Cardani, R; Wicklund, M P; Meola, G

    2015-04-01

    In myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2), an association has been reported between early and severe myotonia and recessive chloride channel (CLCN1) mutations. No DM2 cases have been described with sodium channel gene (SCN4A) mutations. The aim is to describe a DM2 patient with severe and early onset myotonia and co-occurrence of a novel missense mutation in SNC4A. A 26-year-old patient complaining of hand cramps and difficulty relaxing her hands after activity was evaluated at our department. Neurophysiology and genetic analysis for DM1, DM2, CLCN1 and SCN4A mutations were performed. Genetic testing was positive for DM2 (2650 CCTG repeat) and for a variant c.215C>T (p.Pro72Leu) in the SCN4A gene. The variation affects the cytoplasmic N terminus domain of Nav1.4, where mutations have never been reported. The biophysical properties of the mutant Nav1.4 channels were evaluated by whole-cell voltage-clamp analysis of heterologously expressed mutant channel in tsA201 cells. Electrophysiological studies of the P72L variant showed a hyperpolarizing shift (-5?mV) of the voltage dependence of activation that may increase cell excitability. This case suggests that SCN4A mutations may enhance the myotonic phenotype of DM2 patients and should be screened for atypical cases with severe myotonia. PMID:25660391

  7. Factors related to type of companion pet owned by older women.

    PubMed

    Gulick, Elsie E; Krause-Parello, Cheryl A

    2012-11-01

    Although pets can be valuable companions for older adults, little is known about why older adults select a specific kind of pet. This study examined demographic (e.g., marital status, health status), health (i.e., well-being, loneliness), and environmental characteristics (i.e., living arrangement, type of housing) of 159 older women in terms of whether they had a companion dog or cat. Significantly more women who were married/partnered had dogs, whereas more single women had cats. Significantly more women who lived alone had cats, whereas more women who lived with someone had dogs. Women with companion dogs had significantly lower depressed mood and higher levels of general health, vitality, and total well-being than those with cats. Although loneliness was somewhat greater among women with cats, the difference was not statistically significant. More women living in 55-and-older communities had cats, whereas more women living in private homes had dogs. Practicing psychiatric nurses can use the information generated from this research to advocate for pet companionship in order to enhance well-being in older women. PMID:23066827

  8. Sleep duration is a potential risk factor for newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Chao, Chi-Yuan; Wu, Jin-Shang; Yang, Yi-Ching; Shih, Chi-Chen; Wang, Ru-Hsueh; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Chang, Chih-Jen

    2011-06-01

    U-shaped patterns have been observed for the relationship between sleep duration and diabetes. In addition, prediabetes is associated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. However, there are few studies investigating the relationship between sleep duration and prediabetes/newly diagnosed diabetes. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between sleep duration and prediabetes/newly diagnosed diabetes in a Taiwanese population. After excluding the subjects with a high risk of obstructive sleep apnea, those with a positive history of diabetes, or those taking hypnotic drugs, a total of 3470 adults were recruited from a health checkup center. Each subject completed a self-administrated structured questionnaire on sleep duration and lifestyle factors. Prediabetes/diabetes was defined following the definition of the American Diabetes Association. Subjects with different sleep durations were classified into short (<6.0 hours), normal (6.0?8.49 hours), and long sleepers (?8.5 hours). The proportion of subjects with normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, and newly diagnosed diabetes was 71.9%, 22.9%, and 5.2%, respectively. There were significant differences in age, sex, weight, education level, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, alcohol and coffee drinking habits, family history of diabetes, and sleep duration among the 3 glycemic groups. In multinomial regression, both short and long sleepers had a higher risk of newly diagnosed diabetes; and the odds ratio were 1.55 (95% confidence interval, 1.07-2.24) and 2.83 (1.19-6.73), respectively. However, sleep duration was not found to relate to prediabetes. In conclusion, both short and long sleep durations were independently associated with newly diagnosed diabetes, but not with prediabetes. PMID:20846701

  9. Clearance function of type C receptors of atrial natriuretic factor in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, F.A.; Suzuki, M.; Scarborough, R.M.; Lewicki, J.A.; Maack, T.

    1989-02-01

    The overwhelming majority of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) receptors in kidney and vascular tissues do not mediate any of the known functional effects of the hormone. To test whether these receptors (C-ANF receptors) function as clearance receptors for circulating ANF-(1-28), we determined the effects of C-ANF-(4-23) (des(Gln18Ser19Gly20Leu21Gly22)rANF-(3-23)-NH2), a specific ligand of C-ANF receptors, on the pharmacokinetics and hydrolysis of 125I-labeled ANF-(1-28) in anesthetized rats. Radioactivity in plasma was characterized by trichloroacetic acid solubility and high-pressure liquid chromatography. C-ANF-(4-23) (1 and 10 micrograms.min-1.kg body wt-1) led to marked dose-dependent increases in initial plasma concentration of administered 125I-ANF-(1-28) and decreases in its volume of distribution at steady state (Vss), metabolic clearance rate (MCR), and appearance of hydrolytic products ((125I)monoiodotyrosine and free 125I) in plasma (Pm). At the highest dose, C-ANF-(4-23) decreased Vss from 97 +/- 12 to 36 +/- 2 ml/100 g body wt, MCR from 50 +/- 4 to 12 +/- 1 ml.min-1.100 g body wt-1, and Pm from 54 +/- 8 to 11 +/- 2% of initial plasma 125I-ANF-(1-28). The data demonstrate that C-ANF receptors are mainly responsible for the very large volume of distribution and fast MCR of ANF in the rat. In this manner, C-ANF receptors are likely to play an important role in the homeostasis of circulating ANF.

  10. Expression and Regulation of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Receptor Type 2? in Developing and Mature Mouse Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Kuperman, Yael; Issler, Orna; Vaughan, Joan; Bilezikjian, Louise; Vale, Wylie; Chen, Alon

    2011-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRFR2) is highly expressed in skeletal muscle (SM) tissue where it is suggested to inhibit interactions between insulin signaling pathway components affecting whole-body glucose homeostasis. However, little is known about factors regulating SM CRFR2 expression. Here, we demonstrate the exclusive expression of CRFR2, and not CRFR1, in mature SM tissue using RT-PCR and ribonuclease protection assays and report a differential expression of CRF receptors during C2C12 myogenic differentiation. Whereas C2C12 myoblasts exclusively express CRFR1, the C2C12 myotubes solely express CRFR2. Using cAMP luciferase assays and calcium mobilization measurements, we further demonstrate the functionality of these differentially expressed receptors. Using luciferase reporter assays we show a differential activation of CRFR promoters during myogenic differentiation. Transfections with different fragments of the 5?-flanking region of the mCRFR2? gene fused to a luciferase reporter gene show a promoter-dependent expression of the reporter gene and reveal the importance of the myocyte enhancer factor 2 consensus sequence located at the 3?-proximal region of CRFR2? promoter. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CRFR2 gene transcription in the mature mouse is stimulated by both high-fat diet and chronic variable stress conditions. Performing a whole-genome expression microarray analysis of SM tissues obtained from CRFR2-null mice or wild-type littermates revealed a robust reduction in retinol-binding protein 4 expression levels, an adipokine whose serum levels are elevated in insulin-resistant states. In correlation with the SM CRFR2? levels, the SM retinol-binding protein 4 levels were also elevated in mice subjected to high-fat diet and chronic variable stress conditions. The current findings further position the SM CRFR2 pathways as a relevant physiological system that may affect the known reciprocal relationship between psychological and physiological challenges and the metabolic syndrome. PMID:21084379

  11. A Comparative Study of Age-Related Hearing Loss in Wild Type and Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, Raquel; Cediel, Rafael; Contreras, Julio; Lourdes, Rodriguez-de la Rosa; Murillo-Cuesta, Silvia; Hernandez-Sanchez, Catalina; Zubeldia, Jose M.; Cerdan, Sebastian; Varela-Nieto, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) belongs to the family of insulin-related peptides that fulfils a key role during the late development of the nervous system. Human IGF1 mutations cause profound deafness, poor growth and mental retardation. Accordingly, Igf1?/? null mice are dwarfs that have low survival rates, cochlear alterations and severe sensorineural deafness. Presbycusis (age-related hearing loss) is a common disorder associated with aging that causes social and cognitive problems. Aging is also associated with a decrease in circulating IGF-I levels and this reduction has been related to cognitive and brain alterations, although there is no information as yet regarding the relationship between presbycusis and IGF-I biodisponibility. Here we present a longitudinal study of wild type Igf1+/+ and null Igf1?/? mice from 2 to 12?months of age comparing the temporal progression of several parameters: hearing, brain morphology, cochlear cytoarchitecture, insulin-related factors and IGF gene expression and IGF-I serum levels. Complementary invasive and non-invasive techniques were used, including auditory brainstem-evoked response (ABR) recordings and in vivo MRI brain imaging. Igf1?/? null mice presented profound deafness at all the ages studied, without any obvious worsening of hearing parameters with aging. Igf1+/+ wild type mice suffered significant age-related hearing loss, their auditory thresholds and peak I latencies augmenting as they aged, in parallel with a decrease in the circulating levels of IGF-I. Accordingly, there was an age-related spiral ganglion degeneration in wild type mice that was not evident in the Igf1 null mice. However, the Igf1?/? null mice in turn developed a prematurely aged stria vascularis reminiscent of the diabetic strial phenotype. Our data indicate that IGF-I is required for the correct development and maintenance of hearing, supporting the idea that IGF-I-based therapies could contribute to prevent or ameliorate age-related hearing loss. PMID:20661454

  12. Tumor Necrosis Factor Type ? , a Potent Inhibitor of Endothelial Cell Growth in vitro, is Angiogenic in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frater-Schroder, Marijke; Risau, Werner; Hallmann, Rupert; Gautschi, Peter; Bohlen, Peter

    1987-08-01

    Tumor necrosis factor type ? (TNF-? ) inhibits endothelial cell proliferation in vitro. Basal cell growth (in the absence of exogenously added growth factor) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-stimulated cell proliferation are inhibited in a dose-dependent manner from 0.1 to 10 ng/ml with half-maximal inhibition occurring at 0.5-1.0 ng of TNF-? per ml. Bovine aortic and brain capillary endothelial and smooth muscle cells are similarly affected. TNF-? is a noncompetitive antagonist of FGF-stimulated cell proliferation. Its action on endothelial cells is reversible and noncytotoxic. Surprisingly, TNF-? does not seem to inhibit endothelial cell proliferation in vivo. In the rabbit cornea, even a high dose of TNF-? (10 ? g) does not suppress angiogenesis induced by basic FGF. On the contrary, in this model system TNF-? stimulates neovascularization. The inflammatory response that is seen in the cornea after TNF-? implantation suggests that the angiogenic properties of this agent may be a consequence of leukocyte infiltration.

  13. Transforming Growth Factor-Beta and Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator: Dangerous Partners in Tumorigenesis—Implications in Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Santibanez, Juan F.

    2013-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) is a pleiotropic factor, with several different roles in health and disease. TGF-? has been postulated as a dual factor in tumor progression, since it represses epithelial tumor development in early stages, whereas it stimulates tumor progression in advanced stages. During tumorigenesis, cancer cells acquire the capacity to migrate and invade surrounding tissues and to metastasize different organs. The urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) system, comprising uPA, the uPA cell surface receptor, and plasminogen-plasmin, is involved in the proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix and regulates key cellular events by activating intracellular signal pathways, which together allow cancer cells to survive, thus, enhancing cell malignance during tumor progression. Due to their importance, uPA and its receptor are tightly transcriptionally regulated in normal development, but are deregulated in cancer, when their activity and expression are related to further development of cancer. TGF-? regulates uPA expression in cancer cells, while uPA, by plasminogen activation, may activate the secreted latent TGF-?, thus, producing a pernicious cycle which contributes to the enhancement of tumor progression. Here we review the specific roles and the interplay between TGF-? and uPA system in cancer cells and their implication in skin cancer. PMID:23984088

  14. Bilirubin as a potential causal factor in type 2 diabetes risk: a Mendelian randomization study

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Ali; Deetman, Petronella E.; Corpeleijn, Eva; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gans, Rijk O.B.; Hillege, Hans L.; van der Harst, Pim; Stolk, Ronald P.; Navis, Gerjan; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Bakker, Stephan J.L.

    2014-01-01

    Circulating bilirubin, a natural antioxidant, is associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the nature of the relationship remains unknown. We performed Mendelian randomization in a prospective cohort of 3,381 participants free of diabetes at baseline (aged 28-75 years; women, 52.6%). We used rs6742078 located in UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A1) locus as instrumental variable (IV) to study a potential causal effect of serum total bilirubin on T2D risk. T2D developed in a total of 210 (6.2%) participants during a median follow-up of 7.8 years. In adjusted analyses, rs6742078, which explained 19.5% of bilirubin variation, was strongly associated with total bilirubin (a 0.68-SD increase in bilirubin levels per T allele; P<1×10?122) and was also associated with T2D risk (OR 0.69 [95%CI, 0.54-0.90]; P=0.006). Per 1-SD increase in log-transformed bilirubin levels, we observed a 25% (OR 0.75 [95%CI, 0.62-0.92]; P=0.004) lower risk of T2D. In Mendelian randomization analysis, the causal risk reduction for T2D was estimated to be 42% (causal ORIVestimation per 1-SD increase in log-transformed bilirubin 0.58 [95%CI, 0.39-0.84]; P=0.005), which was comparable to the observational estimate (Durbin-Wu-Hausman chi-square test Pfor difference =0.19). These novel results provide evidence that elevated bilirubin is causally associated with risk of T2D and support its role as a protective determinant. PMID:25368098

  15. [Epidemiologic factors and serum antibody titer to Coxsackie B-4 virus in patients with type I diabetes].

    PubMed

    Tuszkiewicz-Misztal, E

    1991-03-01

    In 150 patients (aged 4-16) with type I diabetes, hospitalized in the Paediatric Institute in Lublin in the years 1968 bis 1979, some epidemiological data were analysed, including age, sex and the month of onset of diabetes. An increase of the number of onsets of diabetes type I was observed in the second half of the year, particularly in September and October, similarly to the occurrence of some virological infections, including Coxsackie B-4. Our question was if the Coxsackie B-4 virus could have triggered the onset of diabetes. In 66 children (2,5-14 years old) with recent onset of diabetes, the neutralising antibody titer to Coxsackie B-4 virus was determined. We found it possible to determine the titres of the antibodies in 34 of these patients 3-5 years after the first hospitalization. Titres were also determined, during the same season, in a control group consisting of 42 persons. Patients with recent onsets of type I diabetes had significantly higher titres than in the control group, namely P-0.01 titres 1:64-1:256 constituting 42.4% while the control group showed 14.3%. During the 3-5 year course of diabetes the titres decreased to the levels observed in the control group. Our observations confirmed the participation of Coxsakie B-4 virus in the evocation of IDDM. PMID:1647469

  16. Basic fibroblast growth factor regulates type I collagen and collagenase gene expression in human smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, S. H.; Qin, H.; Lin, L.; Tan, E. M.

    1995-01-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a multifunctional peptide well known for angiogenic, neurotropic, and mesoderm-inducing effects. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of bFGF on collagen and collagenase gene expression in human iliac arterial smooth muscle cells. We report that bFGF inhibits type I collagen gene expression and collagen biosynthesis, with concomitant stimulation of collagenase gene expression. The smooth muscle cells incubated with human recombinant bFGF decreased the mRNA steady state levels of pro-alpha 1(I) type I collagen by as much as 72%. [3H]Hydroxyproline synthesis was also suppressed by 59% compared with untreated control cultures. Indirect immunofluorescence confirmed corresponding changes at the protein level. In contrast to the down-regulation of type I collagen gene expression, collagenase gene expression was found to be up-regulated severalfold by bFGF. The data suggest that bFGF is capable of regulating collagen and collagenase gene expression divergently in human smooth muscle cells and that the effects appear to be mediated at a pretranslational level. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:7887456

  17. Arabidopsis Cuticular Wax Biosynthesis Is Negatively Regulated by the DEWAX Gene Encoding an AP2/ERF-Type Transcription Factor.

    PubMed

    Go, Young Sam; Kim, Hyojin; Kim, Hae Jin; Suh, Mi Chung

    2014-04-01

    The aerial parts of plants are protected from desiccation and other stress by surface cuticular waxes. The total cuticular wax loads and the expression of wax biosynthetic genes are significantly downregulated in Arabidopsis thaliana under dark conditions. We isolated Decrease Wax Biosynthesis (DEWAX), which encodes an AP2/ERF-type transcription factor that is preferentially expressed in the epidermis and induced by darkness. Disruption of DEWAX leads to an increase in total leaf and stem wax loads, and the excess wax phenotype of dewax was restored to wild type levels in complementation lines. Moreover, overexpression of DEWAX resulted in a reduction in total wax loads in leaves and stems compared with the wild type and altered the ultrastructure of cuticular layers. DEWAX negatively regulates the expression of alkane-forming enzyme, long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase, ATP citrate lyase A subunit, enoyl-CoA reductase, and fatty acyl-CoA reductase, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis suggested that DEWAX directly interacts with the promoters of wax biosynthesis genes. Cuticular wax biosynthesis is negatively regulated twice a day by the expression of DEWAX, throughout the night and at stomata closing. Significantly higher levels (10- to 100-fold) of DEWAX transcripts were found in leaves than in stems, suggesting that DEWAX-mediated transcriptional repression may be an additional mechanism contributing to the different total wax loads in leaves and stems. PMID:24692420

  18. Mosaic structure of globular domains in the human type VI collagen alpha 3 chain: similarity to von Willebrand factor, fibronectin, actin, salivary proteins and aprotinin type protease inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Chu, M L; Zhang, R Z; Pan, T C; Stokes, D; Conway, D; Kuo, H J; Glanville, R; Mayer, U; Mann, K; Deutzmann, R

    1990-01-01

    Human collagen alpha 3(VI) chain mRNA (approximately 10 kb) was cloned and shown by sequence analysis to encode a 25 residue signal peptide, a large N-terminal globule (1804 residues), a central triple helical segment (336 residues) and a C-terminal globule (803 residues). Some of the sequence was confirmed by Edman degradation of peptides. The N-terminal globular segment consists of nine consecutive 200 residue repeats (N1 to N9) showing internal homology and also significant identity (17-25%) to the A domains of von Willebrand Factor and similar domains present in some other proteins. Deletions were found in the N3 and N9 domains of several cDNA clones suggesting variation of these structures by alternative splicing. The C-terminal globule starts immediately after the triple helical segment with two domains C1 (184 residues) and C2 (248 residues) being similar to the N domains. They are followed by a proline rich, repetitive segment C3 of 122 residues, with similarity to some salivary proteins, and domain C4 (89 residues), which is similar to the type III repeats present in fibronectin and tenascin. The most C-terminal domain C5 (70 residues) shows 40-50% identity to a variety of serine protease inhibitors of the Kunitz type. The whole sequence contains 29 cysteines which are mainly clustered in short segments connecting domains N1, C1, C2 and the triple helix, and in the inhibitor domain. Five putative Arg-Gly-Asp cell-binding sequences are exclusively localized in the triple helical segment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1689238

  19. Effect of Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Antagonist, Losartan on Inflammatory Factor in Atherosclerotic Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan-min; Sharma, Deepak; Li, Guang-ping; Zhao, Ya-Nan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease characterized by the accumulation of lipids and fibrous elements in the large arteries which now has become the pre-eminent health problem worldwide. Objectives: To investigate the effect and mechanism of Losartan intervention on atherosclerosis in rabbits fed with high-cholesterol diet. Materials and Methods: 32 New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: control group, high-cholesterol group and Losartan group. The level of weights, serum lipid levels and inflammatory factors, such as IL-6 and hs C-reactive protein were detected before the Losartan intervention and two months after the Losartan intervention respectively. The content of AngII was detected on later stage of the experiment. Pathological examination of the iliac arteries was performed to measure the thickness of endothelium and media. Results: After the atherosclerosis model was established, the level of the serum lipids, hs CRP and IL-6 of rabbits in high-cholesterol group and Losartan group increased significantly in comparison with control group(P < 0.05), but there was no statistical difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). After the Losartan intervention, the levels of serum hs CRP and IL-6 were higher in high-cholesterol group and Losartan group in comparison with control group (P < 0.05), and they were significantly lower in Losartan group than high-cholesterol group (P < 0.05). Serum lipids levels of rabbits in high-cholesterol group and Losartan group also increased significantly in comparison with control group (P < 0.05), but there was no statistical difference between them (P > 0.05). Ratio of endothelium thickness to the media thickness was higher in high-cholesterol group and Losartan group in comparison with control group (P < 0.05), and the ratio in Losartan group was significantly lower than high-cholesterol group (P < 0.05). Content of Angiotensin was higher in high-cholesterol group and Losartan group compared to control group, and there was no statistical difference between them. Conclusions: The effect of Losartan on atherosclerosis is to prevent the development of atherosclerosis by inhibiting inflammatory process and may not be related to the lipid metabolism. PMID:25478508

  20. Factors Associated with Serum B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in Infants with Single Ventricles

    PubMed Central

    Butts, Ryan J.; Zak, Victor; Hsu, Daphne; Cnota, James; Colan, Steven D.; Hehir, David; Kantor, Paul; Levine, Jami C.; Margossian, Renee; Richmond, Marc; Szwast, Anita; Williams, Derek; Williams, Richard; Atz, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Data regarding the value of B-type natriuretic peptide measurements (BNP) in infants with single ventricle (SV) physiology are lacking. The objective of this analysis was to describe the changes in BNP in infants with SV physiology before and after superior cavopulmonary connection (SCPC) surgery. Methods BNP levels were measured by a core laboratory pre-SCPC (5.0 ± 1.6 months) and at age 14 months during a multicenter trial of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition therapy in infants with SV. Multivariable longitudinal analysis was utilized to model the associations between BNP with three sets of grouped variables (echocardiographic, catheterization, growth). Multivariable analysis was performed to assess associations with patient characteristics at both visits. Associations between BNP and neurodevelopmental variables were investigated at the 14 month visit as neurodevelopmental assessment was performed only at this visit. Results BNP was significantly higher before SCPC (n=173) than at 14 months (n=134); median [IQR] 80.8 pg/ml [35–187] v. 34.5 pg/ml [17–67], p<0.01. BNP > 100 pg/ml was present in 72 (42%) subjects pre-SCPC and 21 (16%) at 14 months. In the 117 patients who had BNP at both visits, the median BNP decreased 32 pg/mL [1–79 pg/mL], p<0.01. In longitudinal multivariable analysis, higher BNP were associated with a higher end-systolic volume z-score (p=0.01), greater degree of atrioventricular (AV) valve regurgitation (p<0.01), lower weight z-score (p<0.01), and lower length z-score (p=0.02) In multivariable analyses, higher BNP at 14 months was associated with presence of arrhythmia post-SCPC surgery (p<0.01), prior Norwood procedure (p<0.01), longer length of hospital stay post-SCPC surgery (p=0.04), and lower Bayley Psychomotor Developmental Index (p=0.02). Conclusion BNP decreases in infants with SV from the pre- SCPC visit to 14 months. Higher BNP is associated with increased ventricular dilation in systole, increased AV valve regurgitation, impaired growth and poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes. Therefore, BNP may be a useful seromarker in identifying infants with SV at risk for worse outcomes. PMID:24522523

  1. Outcomes of Combined Cardiovascular Risk Factor Management Strategies in Type 2 Diabetes: The ACCORD Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Karen L.; O’Connor, Patrick J.; Morgan, Timothy M.; Buse, John B.; Cohen, Robert M.; Cushman, William C.; Cutler, Jeffrey A.; Evans, Gregory W.; Gerstein, Hertzel C.; Grimm, Richard H.; Lipkin, Edward W.; Narayan, K.M.Venkat; Riddle, Matthew C.; Sood, Ajay; Goff, David C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare effects of combinations of standard and intensive treatment of glycemia and either blood pressure (BP) or lipids in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS ACCORD enrolled 10,251 type 2 diabetes patients aged 40–79 years at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. Participants were randomly assigned to hemoglobin A1c goals of <6.0% (<42 mmol/mol; intensive glycemia) or 7.0–7.9% (53–63 mmol/mol; standard glycemia) and then randomized a second time to either 1) systolic BP goals of <120 mmHg (intensive BP) or <140 mmHg (standard BP) or 2) simvastatin plus fenofibrate (intensive lipid) or simvastatin plus placebo (standard lipid). Proportional hazards models were used to assess combinations of treatment assignments on the composite primary (deaths due to CVD, nonfatal myocardial infarction [MI], and nonfatal stroke) and secondary outcomes. RESULTS In the BP trial, risk of the primary outcome was lower in the groups intensively treated for glycemia (hazard ratio [HR] 0.67; 95% CI 0.50–0.91), BP (HR 0.74; 95% CI 0.55–1.00), or both (HR 0.71; 95% CI 0.52–0.96) compared with combined standard BP and glycemia treatment. For secondary outcomes, MI was significantly reduced by intensive glycemia treatment and stroke by intensive BP treatment; most other HRs were neutral or favored intensive treatment groups. In the lipid trial, the general pattern of results showed no evidence of benefit of intensive regimens (whether single or combined) compared with combined standard lipid and glycemia treatment. The mortality HR was 1.33 (95% CI 1.02–1.74) in the standard lipid/intensive glycemia group compared with the standard lipid/standard glycemia group. CONCLUSIONS In the ACCORD BP trial, compared with combined standard treatment, intensive BP or intensive glycemia treatment alone improved major CVD outcomes, without additional benefit from combining the two. In the ACCORD lipid trial, neither intensive lipid nor glycemia treatment produced an overall benefit, but intensive glycemia treatment increased mortality. PMID:24595629

  2. Factors associated with serum B-type natriuretic peptide in infants with single ventricles.

    PubMed

    Butts, Ryan J; Zak, Victor; Hsu, Daphne; Cnota, James; Colan, Steven D; Hehir, David; Kantor, Paul; Levine, Jami C; Margossian, Renee; Richmond, Marc; Szwast, Anita; Williams, Derek; Williams, Richard; Atz, Andrew M

    2014-06-01

    Data regarding the value of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) measurements in infants with a single-ventricle (SV) physiology are lacking. This analysis aimed to describe the BNP level changes in infants with an SV physiology before and after superior cavopulmonary connection (SCPC) surgery. Levels of BNP were measured by a core laboratory before SCPC (at 5.0 ± 1.6 months) and at the age of 14 months during a multicenter trial of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition therapy for infants with SV. Multivariable longitudinal analysis was used to model the associations between BNP levels and three sets of grouped variables (echocardiography, catheterization, growth). Multivariable analysis was performed to assess associations with patient characteristics at both visits. Associations between BNP levels and neurodevelopmental variables were investigated at the 14 month visit because neurodevelopmental assessment was performed only at this visit. The BNP level was significantly higher before SCPC (n = 173) than at the age of 14 months (n = 134). The respective median levels were 80.8 pg/ml (interquartile range [IQR], 35-187 pg/ml) and 34.5 pg/ml (IQR, 17-67 pg/ml) (p < 0.01). A BNP level higher than 100 pg/ml was present in 72 subjects (42 %) before SCPC and in 21 subjects (16 %) at the age of 14 months. In the 117 patients who had BNP measurements at both visits, the median BNP level decreased 32 pg/ml (IQR, 1-79 pg/ml) (p < 0.01). In the longitudinal multivariable analysis, higher BNP levels were associated with a higher end-systolic volume z-score (p = 0.01), a greater degree of atrioventricular (AV) valve regurgitation (p < 0.01), a lower weight z-score (p < 0.01), and a lower length z-score (p = 0.02). In multivariable analyses, a higher BNP level at the age of 14 months was associated with arrhythmia after SCPC surgery (p < 0.01), a prior Norwood procedure (p < 0.01), a longer hospital stay after SCPC surgery (p = 0.04), and a lower Bayley psychomotor developmental index (p = 0.02). The levels of BNP decreases in infants with SV from the pre-SCPC visit to the age of 14 months. A higher BNP level is associated with increased ventricular dilation in systole, increased AV valve regurgitation, impaired growth, and poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes. Therefore, BNP level may be a useful seromarker for identifying infants with SV at risk for worse outcomes. PMID:24522523

  3. Discovery, linkage disequilibrium and association analyses of polymorphisms of the immune complement inhibitor, decay-accelerating factor gene (DAF/CD55) in type 1 diabetes

    E-print Network

    Taniguchi, Hidenori; Lowe, Christopher E; Cooper, Jason D; Smyth, Deborah J; Bailey, Rebecca; Nutland, Sarah; Healy, Barry C; Lam, Alex C; Burren, Oliver; Walker, Neil M; Smink, Luc J; Wicker, Linda S; Todd, John A

    2006-04-20

    Abstract Background Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a common autoimmune disease resulting from T-cell mediated destruction of pancreatic beta cells. Decay accelerating factor (DAF, CD55), a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein, is a...

  4. Reduction of specific circulating lymphocyte populations with metabolic risk factors in patients at risk to develop type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cucak, Helena; Vistisen, Dorte; Witte, Daniel; Philipsen, Annelotte; Rosendahl, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Low-grade inflammation, characterized by increased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, is present in patients with obesity-linked insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia and considered to play a leading role to progression into type 2 diabetes (T2D). In adipose tissue in obese patients and in pancreatic islets in T2D patients cellular inflammation is present. However, the systemic leukocyte compartment and the circulating endothelial/precursor compartment in patients at risk to develop T2D has so far not been analyzed in detail. To address this, peripheral blood cells from a cohort of 20 subjects at risk to develop diabetes with normal to impaired glucose tolerance were analyzed by flow cytometry using a wide range of cellular markers and correlated to known metabolic risk factors for T2D i.e. fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h plasma glucose (2 h PG), HbA1c, body mass index (BMI), homeostasis model assessment of ?-cell function (HOMA-B), homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS) and fasting insulin (FI). The four highest ranked cell markers for each risk factor were identified by random forest analysis. In the cohort, a significant negative correlation between the number of TLR4(+) CD4 T cells and increased FPG was demonstrated. Similarly, with increased BMI the frequency of TLR4(+) B cells was significantly decreased, as was the frequency of IL-21R(+) CD4 T cells. Unlinked to metabolic risk factors, the frequency of regulatory T cells was reduced and TLR4(+) CD4 T cells were increased with age. Taken together, in this small cohort of subjects at risk to develop T2D, a modulation of the circulating immune cell pool was demonstrated to correlate with risk factors like FPG and BMI. This may provide novel insights into the inflammatory mechanisms involved in the progression to diabetes in subjects at risk. PMID:25254631

  5. Gene clusters encoding the cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1, Prs-fimbriae and ?-hemolysin form the pathogenicity island II of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain J96

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriele Blum; Vincenzo Falbo; Alfredo Caprioli; Jörg Hacker

    1995-01-01

    The uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain J96 (04:K6) is able to produce four adherence factors [P-fimbriae (pap and prs), F1C-fimbriae (foc) and Type 1-fimbriae (fim)], two ?-hemolysins (hfyI and II) and the cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1 (cnf1). Using phenotypic test systems and genotypic analysis, it has been shown that the mutant strain J96-M1 has lost the hlyII, prs and cnf1

  6. Foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase inhibits dsRNA-induced type I interferon transcription by decreasing interferon regulatory factor 3/7 in protein levels

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dang; Fang, Liurong; Luo, Rui; Ye, Rui; Fang, Ying; Xie, Lilan; Chen, Huanchun [Division of Animal Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China)] [Division of Animal Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Xiao, Shaobo, E-mail: shaoboxiao@yahoo.com [Division of Animal Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China)] [Division of Animal Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2010-08-13

    Research highlights: {yields} FMDV L{sup pro} inhibits poly(I:C)-induced IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} mRNA expression. {yields} L{sup pro} inhibits MDA5-mediated activation of the IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} promoter. {yields} L{sup pro} significantly reduced the transcription of multiple IRF-responsive genes. {yields} L{sup pro} inhibits IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} promoter activation by decreasing IRF-3/7 in protein levels. {yields} The ability to process eIF-4G of L{sup pro} is not necessary to inhibit IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} activation. -- Abstract: The leader proteinase (L{sup pro}) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) has been identified as an interferon-{beta} (IFN-{beta}) antagonist that disrupts the integrity of transcription factor nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). In this study, we showed that the reduction of double stranded RNA (dsRNA)-induced IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} expression caused by L{sup pro} was also associated with a decrease of interferon regulatory factor 3/7 (IRF-3/7) in protein levels, two critical transcription factors for activation of IFN-{alpha}/{beta}. Furthermore, overexpression of L{sup pro} significantly reduced the transcription of multiple IRF-responsive genes including 2',5'-OAS, ISG54, IP-10, and RANTES. Screening L{sup pro} mutants indicated that the ability to process eIF-4G of L{sup pro} is not required for suppressing dsRNA-induced activation of the IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} promoter and decreasing IRF-3/7 expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that, in addition to disrupting NF-{kappa}B, L{sup pro} also decreases IRF-3/7 expression to suppress dsRNA-induced type I IFN production, suggesting multiple strategies used by FMDV to counteract the immune response to viral infection.

  7. Transcriptional factor typing with SOX2, HNF4aP1, and CDX2 closely relates to tumor invasion and Epstein-Barr virus status in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Uozaki, Hiroshi; Barua, Rita Rani; Minhua, Sun; Ushiku, Tetsuo; Hino, Rumi; Shinozaki, Aya; Sakatani, Takashi; Fukayama, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Gastric cancer (GC) is a major cancer, sometimes associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Some transcriptional factors (TFs) are specific to the digestive tract and related to the character of the tumors. Methods: We studied three TFs, SOX2, CDX2, and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha-promoter 1 (HNF4aP1) in GC. First, 255 tumors including 31 EBV-associated GC were immunohistochemically examined using tissue arrays and compared TF type and mucin phenotype. We classified them into 4 TF types: N-TF type as SOX2-/HNF4aP1- tumor, G: SOX2+/HNF4aP1-, GI: SOX2+/HNF4aP1+, and I: SOX2-/HNF4aP1+. Next, 915 GCs were intensely investigated and compared with their clinicopathological factors.Results: In the first study, 255 GCs were classified into N-TF 44%, G-TF 31%, GI-TF 3%, and I-TF 2%. The TF type did not strictly accord with the mucin phenotype, classified by MUC2/5AC/6/CD10 expression. EBV status was the only factor related to both the TF and mucin phenotype classifications (P<0.0001, <0.0001). TF classification is related to more factors including tumor stage, than mucin phenotype classification. The second study using 915 GCs revealed that N-TF gradually increased and I-TF decreased as GC invaded deeper. TF classification was not related to nodal involvement in each tumor stage. HNF4aP1 and CDX2 were independent factors for early stage tumor in logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: EBV-associated GC is a discriminating group in both TF and mucin phenotype. TF classification, especially the absence of HNF4aP1 and CDX2, is related to tumor invasion. TF classification is a useful marker to study the carcinogenesis of GC further. PMID:21487519

  8. Promoting Physical Activity in a Low Income Multiethnic District: Effects of a Community Intervention Study to Reduce Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANNE KAREN JENUM; SIGMUND A. ANDERSSEN; KÅRE I. BIRKELAND; INGAR HOLME; SIDSEL GRAFF-IVERSEN; CATHERINE LORENTZEN; YNGVAR OMMUNDSEN; TRULS RAASTAD; ROALD BAHR

    OBJECTIVE — The aim was to assess the net effects on risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease of a community-based 3-year intervention to increase physical activity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS — A pseudo-experimental cohort design was used to compare changes in risk factors from an intervention and a control district with similar socioeconomic status in Oslo, Norway,

  9. Oil recovery by counter-current spontaneous imbibition: Effects of matrix shape factor, gravity, IFT, oil viscosity, wettability, and rock type

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Can Ulas Hatiboglu; Tayfun Babadagli

    2007-01-01

    The effects of the matrix shape factor, wettability, gravity, rock type, oil viscosity, and interfacial tension on the rate of capillary imbibition and development of residual non-wetting phase saturation were studied experimentally in this paper. Experiments were conducted on Berea sandstone and Indiana limestone samples. Cylindrical samples with different shape factors were obtained by cutting the plugs 1\\/2, 1 and

  10. Role of Nutritional Factors at the Early Life Stages in the Pathogenesis and Clinical Course of Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kagohashi, Yukiko

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition has been suggested as an important environmental factor other than viruses and chemicals in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Whereas various maternal dietary nutritional elements have been suggested and examined in T1D of both humans and experimental animals, the results largely remain controversial. In a series of studies using T1D model nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, maternal dietary n-6/n-3 essential fatty acid ratio during pregnancy and lactation period, that is, early life stages of the offspring, has been shown to affect pathogenesis of insulitis and strongly prevent overt T1D of the offspring, which is consistent with its preventive effects on other allergic diseases. PMID:25883958

  11. Teaching Teams To Be Teams: An Exercise Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Five-Factor Personality Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinebell, Sharon; Stecher, Mary

    2003-01-01

    Management students formed teams after completing exercises based on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Five-Factor Model of Personality. Team members examined how types and traits might affect performance. Most students indicated that understanding personality increased awareness of behavior. Teams that used extreme division of labor were…

  12. Beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a randomized cross-over pilot study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tommy Jönsson; Yvonne Granfeldt; Bo Ahrén; Ulla-Carin Branell; Gunvor Pålsson; Anita Hansson; Margareta Söderström; Staffan Lindeberg

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our aim was to compare the effects of a Paleolithic ('Old Stone Age') diet and a diabetes diet as generally recommended on risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes not treated with insulin. METHODS: In a randomized cross-over study, 13 patients with type 2 diabetes, 3 women and 10 men, were instructed to eat a

  13. An evaluation of patients’ adherence with hypoglycemic medications among Papua New Guineans with type 2 diabetes: influencing factors

    PubMed Central

    Pihau-Tulo, Stella Tilu; Parsons, Richard W; Hughes, Jeffery D

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this study were to evaluate the extent of adherence to hypoglycemic medications, assess the relationship between adherence and glycemic control, and evaluate factors affecting adherence. Research design and methods This was a cross-sectional study of patients with established type 2 diabetes attending the Port Moresby General Hospital Diabetes Clinic. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a questionnaire designed for the study and data were collected concerning the 3 months prior to interview. The questionnaire covered demographic details, lifestyle, biochemical and physical measurements, and medication management. Glycemic control was investigated among patients adhering to their medications (not missing doses) to different degrees (100%, 95%, 90%, and 80%). Results Of a total of 356 participants who were prescribed hypoglycemic medications, 59.6% omitted some of their doses. Age appeared to have a significant impact on adherence at some levels of adherence, with those aged >60 years being more likely to be adherent (logistic regression). Those who were 95%–99% and those who were <80% adherent had a statistically significant risk of a high glycated hemoglobin of >10% (85.5 mmol/mol). Multiple factors were identified as contributors to nonadherence, with patient-based issues (86.0%) and the health care system (21.7%) being the most common. Conclusion This study showed a significant level of nonadherence among patients with type 2 diabetes in Papua New Guinea. Nonadherence to medication appeared to be associated with poor glycemic control and was due to a variety of reasons. Future interventions aimed at improving adherence will need to take these into account. PMID:25258517

  14. Additional Contribution of Emerging Risk Factors to the Prediction of the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Evidence From the Western New York Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saverio Stranges; Lisa B. Rafalson; Jacek Dmochowski; Karol Rejman; Russell P. Tracy; Maurizio Trevisan; Richard P. Donahue

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To examine whether several biomarkers of endothelial function and inflammation improve prediction of type 2 diabetes over 5.9 years of follow-up, independent of traditional risk factors.Methods and Procedures:A total of 1,455 participants from the Western New York Study, free of type 2 diabetes at baseline, were selected. Incident type 2 diabetes was defined as fasting glucose exceeding 125 mg\\/dl or

  15. Cooperation Between Two Growth Factors Promotes Extended Self-Renewal and Inhibits Differentiation of Oligodendrocyte-Type-2 Astrocyte (O-2A) Progenitor Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Bogler; Damian Wren; Susan C. Barnett; Hartmut Land; Mark Noble

    1990-01-01

    Biopotential oligodendrocyte-type-2 astrocyte (O-2A) progenitor cells, which give rise to oligodendrocytes and type-2 astrocytes in cultures of rat optic nerve, are one of the few cell types in which most aspects of proliferation and differentiation can be manipulated in a defined in vitro environment. Previous studies have shown that O-2A progenitors exposed to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) divide as migratory

  16. Defective production of both leukemia inhibitory factor and type 2 T-helper cytokines by decidual T cells in unexplained recurrent abortions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Pierre Piccinni; Lucio Beloni; Claudia Livi; Enrico Maggi; Gianfranco Scarselli; Sergio Romagnani

    1998-01-01

    Leukemia inhibitory factor is essential for embryo implantation, and a shift from type 1 T-helper to type 2 T-helper response at the fetal–maternal interface may contribute to successful pregnancy. We show that LIF production is associated with type 2 T-helper cells, is upregulated by IL-4 and progesterone and is downregulated by IL-12, IFN-? and IFN-?. We also show a decreased

  17. Porcine circovirus type 2 induces the activation of nuclear factor kappa B by I{kappa}B{alpha} degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Li [Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Beijing Municipal Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, No.9 Shuguang Garden Central Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100097 (China); Kwang, Jimmy [Animal Health Biotechnology Group, Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, National University of Singapore, 1 Research Link, Singapore 117604 (Singapore); Wang Jin; Shi Lei; Yang Bing; Li Yongqing [Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Beijing Municipal Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, No.9 Shuguang Garden Central Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100097 (China); Liu Jue [Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Beijing Municipal Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, No.9 Shuguang Garden Central Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100097 (China)], E-mail: liujue@263.net

    2008-08-15

    The transcription factor NF-{kappa}B is commonly activated upon virus infection and a key player in the induction and regulation of the host immune response. The present study demonstrated for the first time that porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), which is the primary causative agent of an emerging swine disease, postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, can activate NF-{kappa}B in PCV2-infected PK15 cells. In PCV2-infected cells, NF-{kappa}B was activated concomitantly with viral replication, which was characterized by increased DNA binding activity, translocation of NF-{kappa}B p65 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, as well as degradation and phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha} protein. We further demonstrated PCV2-induced activation of NF-{kappa}B and colocalization of p65 nuclear translocation with virus replication in cultured cells. Treatment of cells with CAPE, a selective inhibitor of NF-{kappa}B activation, reduced virus protein expression and progeny production followed by decreasing PCV2-induced apoptotic caspase activity, indicating the involvement of this transcription factor in induction of cell death. Taken together, these data suggest that NF-{kappa}B activation is important for PCV2 replication and contributes to virus-mediated changes in host cells. The results presented here provide a basis for understanding molecular mechanism of PCV2 infection.

  18. A study of sociodemographic clinical and glycemic control factors associated with co-morbid depression in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Hritu; Raju, M. S. V. K.; Dubey, Vaibhav; Kurrey, Ravindra; Bansal, Shaifali; Malik, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Context: Diabetes affects 9.2% of adults in India. About 8–16% of its population also suffer from depression. Both diseases pose a serious health challenge at individual and system level. The prevalence of depression in diabetes is much higher than in the general population. Undiagnosed and untreated depression puts people at higher morbidity and mortality risk. Aim: To study the prevalence of depression in diabetes and to identify associated risk factors. Settings and Design: Case control study carried out in an outpatient setting of a tertiary hospital in central India. Materials and Methods: One hundred and nine type 2 diabetes patients and 91 healthy controls formed the subjects of the study. Sociodemographic data were obtained on seven parameters. Comprehensive clinical data were obtained by means of standard procedures. Blood sugar levels and glycosylated hemoglobin levels were measured to assess glycemic control. Data of diabetic patients and controls as well as that of depressed and nondepressed diabetics were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: About 42.2% of diabetes patients and only 4.39% of controls had depression. About 19% of diabetics had peripheral neuropathy but had much higher neuropathic symptoms. Depression was not related to any sociodemographic or clinical factors but was strongly associated with poor glycemic control. Conclusion: Depression is highly prevalent in diabetes. Physical symptoms mask depression. Special attention needs to be paid to diagnose depression in diabetes and treat it appropriately along with effective glycemic control. Diabetes patients need to be treated collaboratively by physicians and psychiatrists. PMID:25788803

  19. Types, Risk Factors, Clinical symptoms and Diagnostic Tests of Acute Adult Meningitis in Northern Iran During 2006-2012

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Babamahmoodi, Farhang

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment and otherwise associated with serious morbidity and mortality. Aim The aim of this study was to assess types, risk factors, clinical symptoms and diagnostic tests of meningitis in hospitalized patients of Mazandaran University of medical sciences hospitals during 2006-2012. Matherials and Methods This is a retrospective descriptive study. Following approval of the ethics committee of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, records of adult patients diagnosed with acute meningitis from 2006 to 2012 were extracted from Mazandaran Provincial Health Center and patients attending hospitals affiliated to Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Statistical Analysis Data were analyzed with SPSS-16 using descriptive statistics (frequency, mean, standard deviation, and median). Results In this study, of the 137 patients with meningitis, 73 (53.9%) were viral, 61 (46%) bacterial, 1 (0.7%) fungal, and 2 (1.4%) unknown. The majority of risk factors in patients were head trauma, upper respiratory infection, and drug addiction. The most common clinical signs were headache, fever, nausea and vomiting, and stiff neck. Conclusion In this study, the incidence of meningitis was much lower than any other country. It could be due to geographic variation or incomplete recording of patient's data. It is recommended to perform a longitudinal study during the coming years on patients with meningitis.

  20. Interaction of the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 tax transactivator with transcription factor IIA.

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, K E; Piras, G; Radonovich, M F; Choi, K S; Duvall, J F; DeJong, J; Roeder, R; Brady, J N

    1996-01-01

    The Tax protein of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a 40-kDa transcriptional activator which is critical for HTLV-1 gene regulation and virus-induced cellular transformation. Tax is localized to the DNA through its interaction with the site-specific activators cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein, NF-kappaB, and serum response factor. It has been suggested that the recruitment of Tax to the DNA positions Tax for interaction with the basal transcriptional machinery. On the basis of several independent assays, we now report a physical and functional interaction between Tax and the transcription factor, TFIIA. First, Tax was found to interact with the 35-kDa (alpha) subunit of TFIIA in the yeast two-hybrid interaction system. Importantly, two previously characterized mutants with point mutations in Tax, M32 (Y196A, K197S) and M41 (H287A, P288S), which were shown to be defective in Tax-activated transcription were unable to interact with TFIIA in this assay. Second, a glutathione-S-transferase (GST) affinity-binding assay showed that the interaction of holo-TFIIA with GST-Tax was 20-fold higher than that observed with either the GST-Tax M32 activation mutant or the GST control. Third, a coimmunoprecipitation assay showed that in HTLV-1-infected human T lymphocytes, Tax and TFIIA were associated. Finally, TFIIA facilitates Tax transactivation in vitro and in vivo. In vitro transcription studies showed reduced levels of Tax-activated transcription in cell extracts depleted of TFIIA. In addition, transfection of human T lymphocytes with TFIIA expression vectors enhanced Tax-activated transcription of an HTLV-1 long terminal repeat-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter construct. Our study suggests that the interaction of Tax with the transcription factor TFIIA may play a role in Tax-mediated transcriptional activation. PMID:8756622

  1. Loss of survival factors and activation of inflammatory cascades in brain sympathetic centers in type 1 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ping; Thinschmidt, Jeffrey S; Caballero, Sergio; Adamson, Samuel; Cole, Louise; Chan-Ling, Tailoi; Grant, Maria B

    2015-04-15

    Neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration have been observed in the brain in type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, little is known about the mediators of these effects. In T1D mice with 12- and 35-wk duration of diabetes we examined two mechanisms of neurodegeneration, loss of the neuroprotective factors insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and changes in indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) expression in the brain, and compared the response to age-matched controls. Furthermore, levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 (CD39), and ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1) were utilized to assess inflammatory changes in astrocytes, microglia, and blood vessels. In the diabetic hypothalamus (HYPO), we observed 20% reduction in neuronal soma diameter (P<0.05) and reduced neuronal expression of IGFBP-3 (-32%, P<0.05) and IGF-I (-15%, P<0.05) compared with controls at 35 wk. In diabetic HYPO, MMP-2 expression was increased in astrocytes (46%, P<0.01), and IDO+ cell density rose by (62%, P<0.05). CD39 expression dropped by 30% (P<0.05) in microglia and blood vessels. With 10 wk of systemic treatment using minocycline, an anti-inflammatory agent that crosses the blood-brain barrier, MMP-2, IDO, and CD39 levels normalized (P<0.05). Our results suggest that increased IDO and early loss of CD39+ protective cells lead to activation of inflammation in sympathetic centers of the CNS. As a downstream effect, the loss of the neuronal survival factors IGFBP-3 and IGF-I and the neurotoxic products of the kynurenine pathway contribute to the loss of neuronal density observed in the HYPO in T1D. PMID:25714673

  2. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection in Patients Attending a Baltimore City Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Eshan U.; Frank, Melanie A.; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Rothman, Richard E.; Baker, Amy E. O.; Kraus, Chadd K.; Shahan, Judy; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Kelen, Gabor D.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Laeyendecker, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a common sexually transmitted disease, but there is limited data on its epidemiology among urban populations. The urban Emergency Department (ED) is a potential venue for surveillance as it predominantly serves an inner city minority population. We evaluate the seroprevalence and factors associated with HSV-2 infection among patients attending the Johns Hopkins Hospital Adult Emergency Department (JHH ED). Methods An identity unlinked-serosurvey was conducted between 6/2007 and 9/2007 in the JHH ED; sera were tested by the Focus HerpeSelect ELISA. Prevalence risk ratios (PRR) were used to determine factors associated with HSV-2 infection. Results Of 3,408 serum samples, 1,853 (54.4%) were seropositive for HSV-2. Females (adjPRR ?=?1.47, 95% CI 1.38–1.56), non-Hispanic blacks (adjPRR ?=?2.03, 95% CI 1.82–2.27), single (adjPRR ?=?1.15, 95% CI 1.07–1.25), divorced (adjPRR ?=?1.28, 95% CI 1.15–1.41), and unemployed patients (adjPRR ?=?1.13, 95% CI 1.05–1.21) had significantly higher rates of HSV-2 infection. Though certain zip codes had significantly higher seroprevalence of HSV-2, this effect was completely attenuated when controlling for age and gender. Conclusions Seroprevalence of HSV-2 in the JHH ED was higher than U.S. national estimates; however, factors associated with HSV-2 infection were similar. The high seroprevalence of HSV-2 in this urban ED highlights the need for targeted testing and treatment. Cross-sectional serosurveys in the urban ED may help to examine the epidemiology of HSV-2. PMID:25036862

  3. The value "social responsibility" as a motivating factor for adolescents' readiness to participate in different types of political actions, and its socialization in parent and peer contexts.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Christine

    2012-06-01

    Based on a sample of tetrads (N = 839), including 16 year-old adolescents, their mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends, it was analyzed in which way the value social responsibility is related to adolescents' readiness for different types of political participation. Results showed that social responsibility was positively linked to readiness for participation in legal protest actions. No relationships with readiness for participation in federal elections or with readiness for participation in illegal protest actions occurred, and a negative relationship with readiness for participation in political violent actions was found. In a second step, the socialization of the value social responsibility in the parents and peer context was the focus. Value similarities between adolescents, their parents and friends, as well as other contextual factors were considered. Multiple regression analyses revealed differential effects for male and female adolescents. In male adolescents, authoritative parenting and political discussions with parents were positively linked to social responsibility. Furthermore, peer-group membership had a negative impact. For female adolescents, significant value similarities with their parents, especially with their mothers, occurred. Value similarities with their friend were found in both gender groups, but appeared to be higher in the female group. Also, in both gender groups, a positive parent-child relationship quality was linked to higher social responsibility. In sum, findings show that parents as well as peer contextual factors were contributing to the adolescents' value acquisition. PMID:22494811

  4. p38 MAP Kinase Inhibitor Suppresses Transforming Growth Factor-?2–Induced Type 1 Collagen Production in Trabecular Meshwork Cells

    PubMed Central

    Inoue-Mochita, Miyuki; Inoue, Toshihiro; Fujimoto, Tomokazu; Kameda, Takanori; Awai-Kasaoka, Nanako; Ohtsu, Naoki; Kimoto, Kenichi; Tanihara, Hidenobu

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is an age-related neurodegenerative disease of retinal ganglion cells, and appropriate turnover of the extracellular matrix in the trabecular meshwork is important in its pathology. Here, we report the effects of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) and p38 MAP kinase on transforming growth factor (TGF)-?2–induced type I collagen production in human trabecular meshwork cells. TGF-?2 increased RhoA activity, actin polymerization, and myosin light chain 2 phosphorylation. These effects were significantly inhibited by Y-27632, but not SB203580. TGF-?2 also increased promoter activity, mRNA synthesis, and protein expression of COL1A2. These effects were significantly inhibited by SB203580, but not Y-27632. Additionally, Y-27632 did not significantly inhibit TGF-?2–induced promoter activation, or phosphorylation or nuclear translocation of Smad2/3, whereas SB203580 partially suppressed these processes. Collectively, TGF-?2–induced production of type 1 collagen is suppressed by p38 inhibition and accompanied by partial inactivation of Smad2/3, in human trabecular meshwork cells. PMID:25799097

  5. Joint Effect of Genetic and Lifestyle Risk Factors on Type 2 Diabetes Risk among Chinese Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Raquel; Delahanty, Ryan; Gao, Yu-Tang; Long, Jirong; Williams, Scott M.; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Cai, Hui; Li, Hong-Lan; Hu, Frank; Cai, Qiuyin; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2012-01-01

    More than 40 genetic susceptibility loci have been reported for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recently, the combined effect of genetic variants has been investigated by calculating a genetic risk score. We evaluated 36 genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified SNPs in 2,679 T2D cases and 3322 controls in middle-age Han Chinese. Fourteen SNPs were significantly associated with T2D in analysis adjusted for age, sex and BMI. We calculated two genetic risk scores (GRS) (GRS1 with all the 36 SNPs and GRS2 with the 14 SNPs significantly associated with T2D). The odds ratio for T2D with each GRS point (per risk allele) was 1.08 (95% CI: 1.06–1.09) for GRS1 and 1.15 (95% CI: 1.13–1.18) for GRS2. The OR for quintiles were 1.00, 1.26, 1.69, 1.95 and 2.18 (P<0.0001) for GRS1 and 1.00, 1.33, 1.60, 2.03 and 2.80 (P<0.001) for GRS2. Participants in the higher tertile of GRS1 and the higher BMI category had a higher risk of T2D compared to those on the lower tertiles of the GRS1 and of BMI (OR?=?11.08; 95% CI: 7.39–16.62). We found similar results when we investigated joint effects between GRS1 and WHR terciles and exercise participation. We finally investigated the joint effect between tertiles of GRSs and a composite high risk score (no exercise participation and high BMI and WHR) on T2D risk. We found that compared to participants with low GRS1 and no high risk factors for T2D, those with high GRS1 and three high risk factors had a higher risk of T2D (OR?=?13.06; 95% CI: 8.65–19.72) but the interaction factor was of marginal significance. The association was accentuated when we repeated analysis with the GRS2. In conclusion we found an association between GRS and lifestyle factors, alone and in combination, contributed to the risk of and T2D among middle age Chinese. PMID:23185337

  6. Coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease risk factors: a study on a middle-aged and elderly population.

    PubMed

    Giansanti, R; Rabini, R A; Romagnoli, F; Fumelli, D; Sorichetti, P; Boemi, M; Fumelli, P

    1999-01-01

    The risk for all the manifestations of atherosclerotic disease is increased in patients affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in a well-characterized middle-aged and elderly Italian diabetic population. The population studied included 3862 subjects, i.e. all the patients affected by type 2 diabetes of age >or=50 years attending the outpatient diabetes care unit of INRCA in Ancona (Italy) from 1 August 1997 to 31 July 1998. We collected and analysed both clinical and laboratory data by means of a computerized data base for the outpatient clinic management. The prevalence rate of CHD was 20.25% in this population. The groups with CHD and without CHD did not differ significantly with respect to age at onset of diabetes, body mass index and HbA1c levels, while patients with CHD were significantly older than patients without CHD and had a longer duration of diabetes. The prevalence of patients with hypertension (52.9 vs 63.0%, P<0.001), hypercholesterolemia (11.6 vs 14.1%, P<0.05) and hyperlipidemia (17.8 vs 23.3%, P<0.001) was significantly higher in the group of diabetic subjects affected by CHD than in patients not affected by heart ischemic disease. It might be hypothesized that the improvement of metabolic profile and the currently feasible control of non-diabetic risk factors could reduce cardiovascular disease rates in type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:15374070

  7. Underreporting of energy intake and associated factors in a Latino population at risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Olendzki, Barbara C; Ma, Yunsheng; Hébert, James R; Pagoto, Sherry L; Merriam, Philip A; Rosal, Milagros C; Ockene, Ira S

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the extent of underreporting of total energy intake and associated factors in a low-income, low-literacy, predominantly Caribbean Latino community in Lawrence, MA. Two hundred fifteen Latinos participated in a diabetes prevention study, for which eligibility included a >or=30% risk of developing diabetes in 7.5 years. Dietary self-reported energy intake was assessed using three randomly selected days of 24-hour diet recalls. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) was estimated using the Mifflin-St Jeor equation. Underreporting was determined by computing a ratio of energy intake to BMR, with a ratio of 1.55 expected for sedentary populations. Linear regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with underreporting (energy intake:BMR ratio). The population was predominately women (77%), middle-aged (mean 52+/-11 years), obese (78% had a body mass index >or=30); low-literate (62% < high school education), unemployed (57% reported no job), married or living with partner (52%), and some had a family history of diabetes (37% had siblings with diabetes). Reported total daily energy intake was 1,540+/-599 kcal, whereas estimated BMR was 1,495.7+/-245.1 kcal/day. When multiplied by an activity factor (1.20 for sedentariness), expected energy intake was 1,794+/-294.0 per day, indicating underreporting by an average of 254 kcal/day. Mean energy intake:BMR was 1.03+/-0.37, and was lower for participants with higher body mass index, siblings with diabetes, sedentary lifestyle, and those who were unemployed. Energy intake underreporting is prevalent in this low-income, low-literacy Caribbean Latino population. Future studies are needed to develop dietary assessment measures that minimize underreporting in this population. PMID:18502234

  8. Socio-Economic Position and Type 2 Diabetes Risk Factors: Patterns in UK Children of South Asian, Black African-Caribbean and White European Origin

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Claudia; Nightingale, Claire M.; Donin, Angela S.; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; Owen, Christopher G.; Sattar, Naveed; Cook, Derek G.; Whincup, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Socio-economic position (SEP) and ethnicity influence type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk in adults. However, the influence of SEP on emerging T2DM risks in different ethnic groups and the contribution of SEP to ethnic differences in T2DM risk in young people have been little studied. We examined the relationships between SEP and T2DM risk factors in UK children of South Asian, black African-Caribbean and white European origin, using the official UK National Statistics Socio-economic Classification (NS-SEC) and assessed the extent to which NS-SEC explained ethnic differences in T2DM risk factors. Methods and Findings Cross-sectional school-based study of 4,804 UK children aged 9–10 years, including anthropometry and fasting blood analytes (response rates 70%, 68% and 58% for schools, individuals and blood measurements). Assessment of SEP was based on parental occupation defined using NS-SEC and ethnicity on parental self-report. Associations between NS-SEC and adiposity, insulin resistance (IR) and triglyceride differed between ethnic groups. In white Europeans, lower NS-SEC status was related to higher ponderal index (PI), fat mass index, IR and triglyceride (increases per NS-SEC decrement [95%CI] were 1.71% [0.75, 2.68], 4.32% [1.24, 7.48], 5.69% [2.01, 9.51] and 3.17% [0.96, 5.42], respectively). In black African-Caribbeans, lower NS-SEC was associated with lower PI (?1.12%; [?2.01, ?0.21]), IR and triglyceride, while in South Asians there were no consistent associations between NS-SEC and T2DM risk factors. Adjustment for NS-SEC did not appear to explain ethnic differences in T2DM risk factors, which were particularly marked in high NS-SEC groups. Conclusions SEP is associated with T2DM risk factors in children but patterns of association differ by ethnic groups. Consequently, ethnic differences (which tend to be largest in affluent socio-economic groups) are not explained by NS-SEC. This suggests that strategies aimed at reducing social inequalities in T2DM risk are unlikely to reduce emerging ethnic differences in T2DM risk. PMID:22412897

  9. Activation of human papillomavirus type 18 E6-E7 oncogene expression by transcription factor Sp1.

    PubMed Central

    Hoppe-Seyler, F; Butz, K

    1992-01-01

    The human papillomavirus 18 (HPV18) E6 and E7 proteins are considered to be primarily responsive for the transforming activity of the virus. In order to analyse the molecular mechanisms resulting in viral oncoprotein expression, it is necessary to identify the factors involved in the transcriptional regulation of the E6/E7 genes. Here we define by gel retardation experiments a sequence aberrant Sp1 binding site present in the promoter proximal part of the viral transcriptional control region (Upstream Regulatory Region, URR). Functional analyses employing transient reporter assays reveal that this Sp1 element is required for an efficient stimulation of the HPV18 E6/E7-promoter. Mutation of the Sp1 element in the natural context of the HPV18 URR leads to a strong decrease in the activity of the E6/E7-promoter in several cell lines. The magnitude of reduction varies between different cell types and is higher in cell lines of epithelial origin when compared with nonepithelial cells. Cotransfection assays using Sp1 expression vector systems further define the promoter proximal HPV18 Sp1 binding motif as a functional Sp1 element in vivo and show that its integrity is essential for the stimulation of the E6/E7-promoter by augmented levels of Sp1. These results indicate, that the cellular transcription factor Sp1 plays an important role for the stimulation of the E6/E7-promoter by the viral URR and represents a major determinant for the expression of HPV18 transforming genes E6 and E7. Images PMID:1336181

  10. Interactions between Type III receptor tyrosine phosphatases and growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases regulate tracheal tube formation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Mili; Scott, Matthew P.; Zinn, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Summary The respiratory (tracheal) system of the Drosophila melanogaster larva is an intricate branched network of air-filled tubes. Its developmental logic is similar in some ways to that of the vertebrate vascular system. We previously described a unique embryonic tracheal tubulogenesis phenotype caused by loss of both of the Type III receptor tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs), Ptp4E and Ptp10D. In Ptp4E Ptp10D double mutants, the linear tubes in unicellular and terminal tracheal branches are converted into bubble-like cysts that incorporate apical cell surface markers. This tube geometry phenotype is modulated by changes in the activity or expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr) tyrosine kinase (TK). Ptp10D physically interacts with Egfr. Here we demonstrate that the Ptp4E Ptp10D phenotype is the consequence of the loss of negative regulation by the RPTPs of three growth factor receptor TKs: Egfr, Breathless and Pvr. Reducing the activity of any of the three kinases by tracheal expression of dominant-negative mutants suppresses cyst formation. By competing dominant-negative and constitutively active kinase mutants against each other, we show that the three RTKs have partially interchangeable activities, so that increasing the activity of one kinase can compensate for the effects of reducing the activity of another. This implies that SH2-domain downstream effectors that are required for the phenotype are likely to be able to interact with phosphotyrosine sites on all three receptor TKs. We also show that the phenotype involves increases in signaling through the MAP kinase and Rho GTPase pathways. PMID:23213447

  11. Molecular events in the processing of recombinant type 1 pre-pro-transforming growth factor beta to the mature polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Gentry, L E; Lioubin, M N; Purchio, A F; Marquardt, H

    1988-10-01

    Recently, the simian type 1 transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta 1) cDNA was expressed at high levels in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells by dihydrofolate reductase-induced gene amplification (L.E. Gentry, N.R. Webb, G.J. Lim, A.M. Brunner, J.E. Ranchalis, D.R. Twardzik, M.N. Lioubin, H. Marquardt, and A.F. Purchio, Mol. Cell. Biol. 7:3418-3427, 1987). We have now purified and characterized the recombinant proteins released by these cells. Analyses of the precursor proteins by amino acid sequencing identified potentially important proteolytic processing sites. Signal peptide cleavage occurs at the Gly-29-Leu-30 peptide bond of pre-pro-TGF-beta 1, yielding pro-TGF-beta 1 (30 to 390). In addition, proteolytic processing of the precursor to yield mature TGF-beta 1 occurs at the dibasic cleavage site immediately preceding Ala-279, indicating that CHO cells possess the appropriate processing enzyme. Greater than 95% of the biological activity detected in the conditioned medium of the CHO transfectant was due to mature, properly processed growth factor. Highly purified recombinant TGF-beta 1 had the same specific biological activity as natural TGF-beta 1. The concentration of TGF-beta 1 required for half-maximal inhibition of Mv1Lu mink lung epithelial cell growth was approximately 1 to 2 pM. Purified precursor inhibited mink lung cell proliferation at 50 to 60 pM concentrations. The purified precursor preparation was shown to consist of pro-TGF-beta 1 (30 to 390), the pro region of the precursor (30 to 278), and mature TGF-beta 1 (279 to 390) interlinked by at least one disulfide bond with the pro portion of the precursor. These recombinant forms of TGF-beta1 should prove useful for further structural and functional studies. PMID:3185545

  12. Factor Trees

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    In this online activity, the learner finds the prime factorization of composite numbers by building factor trees. A second level includes finding the greatest common factor and the least common multiple by sorting factors using a Venn Diagram.

  13. Glial-derived neurotropic factor and RET gene expression in normal human anterior pituitary cell types and in pituitary tumors.

    PubMed

    Japón, Miguel A; Urbano, Angel G; Sáez, Carmen; Segura, Dolores I; Cerro, Alfonso Leal; Diéguez, Carlos; Alvarez, Clara V

    2002-04-01

    Glial-derived neurotropic factor (GDNF) signaling is mediated through a 2-component system consisting of the so-called GDNF receptor-alpha (GFRalpha1), which binds to GDNF. This complex activates the tyrosine kinase receptor RET. In this paper we demonstrate GDNF, GFRalpha1, and RET mRNA and protein expression in the human anterior pituitary gland. Double immunohistochemistry of anterior pituitary sections showed GDNF immunoreactivity in more than 95% of somatotrophs and to a lesser extent in corticotrophs (20%); it was almost absent in the remaining cell types. Also, although more than 95% of somatotrophs were stained for RET, no positive immunostaining could be detected in other cell types. Furthermore, we have looked for GDNF and RET in human pituitary adenomas of various hormonal phenotypes. Strong positive immunostaining was found for c-RET in all of the GH-secreting adenomas screened as well as in 50% of ACTH-producing adenomas. Positive immunostaining for GDNF was found in all of the GH-secreting adenomas and in 10% of the corticotropinomas. Lastly, we found strong positive immunostaining for GFRalpha1 in 90% of the somatotropinomas and 50% of the corticotropinomas as well as in 1 of 8 prolactinomas and 1 of 13 nonfunctioning adenomas. All of the remaining pituitary tumors screened were negative for RET, GDNF, and GFRalpha1. This study indicates that GDNF may well be acting in the regulation of somatotroph cell growth and/or cell function in the normal human anterior pituitary gland. The expression of RET in all of the somatotropinomas and in 50% of the ACTH-producing tumors implies that GDNF and RET could be involved in the pathogenesis of pituitary tumors. PMID:11932334

  14. Type I Interferon Mimetics Bypass Vaccinia Virus Decoy Receptor Virulence Factor for Protection of Mice against Lethal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Chulbul M.

    2014-01-01

    The canonical model of interferon (IFN) signaling focuses solely on the activation of STAT transcription factors which, according to the model, are initiated by the singular event of cross-linkage of the receptor extracellular domain by the IFN. The IFN has no further function beyond this. The model thus provides no approach to circumventing poxviruses decoy receptors that compete with the IFN receptors for IFNs. This simple event has allowed smallpox virus to decimate human populations throughout the ages. We have developed a noncanonical model of IFN signaling that has resulted in the development of small peptide mimetics to both types I and II IFNs. In this report, we focus on a type I IFN mimetic at positions 152 to 189, IFN-?1(152–189), which corresponds to the C terminus of human IFN-?1. This mimetic functions intracellularly and is thus not recognized by the B18R vaccinia virus decoy receptor. Mimetic synthesized with an attached palmitate (lipo-) for cell penetration protects mice from a lethal dose of vaccinia virus, while the parent IFN-?1 is ineffective. Unlike IFN-?1, the mimetic does not bind to the B18R decoy receptor. It further differs from the parent IFN in that it lacks the toxicity of weight loss and bone marrow suppression in mice while at the same time possessing a strong adjuvant effect on the immune system. The mimetic is thus an innate and adaptive immune regulator that is evidence of the dynamic nature of the noncanonical model of IFN signaling, in stark contrast to the canonical or classical model of signaling. PMID:24964806

  15. Environmental Factors Influencing the Prevalence of a Clostridium botulinum Type C/D Mosaic Strain in Nonpermanent Mediterranean Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Anza, Ibone; Taggart, Mark A.; Pérez-Ramírez, Elisa; Crespo, Elena; Hofle, Ursula; Mateo, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Between 1978 and 2008, 13 avian botulism outbreaks were recorded in the wetlands of Mancha Húmeda (central Spain). These outbreaks caused the deaths of around 20,000 birds from over 50 species, including globally endangered white-headed ducks (Oxyura leucoceophala). Here, a significant association was found between the number of dead birds recorded in each botulism outbreak and the mean temperature in July (always >26°C). The presence of Clostridium botulinum type C/D in wetland sediments was detected by real-time PCR (quantitative PCR [qPCR]) in 5.8% of 207 samples collected between 2005 and 2008. Low concentrations of Cl? and high organic matter content in sediments were significantly associated with the presence of C. botulinum. Seventy-five digestive tracts of birds found dead during botulism outbreaks were analyzed; C. botulinum was present in 38.7% of them. The prevalence of C. botulinum was 18.2% (n = 22 pools) in aquatic invertebrates (Chironomidae and Corixidae families) and 33.3% (n = 18 pools) in necrophagous invertebrates (Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae families), including two pools of adult necrophagous flies collected around bird carcasses. The presence of the bacteria in the adult fly form opens up new perspectives in the epidemiology of avian botulism, since these flies may be transporting C. botulinum from one carcass to another. PMID:23645197

  16. Environmental factors influencing the prevalence of a Clostridium botulinum type C/D mosaic strain in nonpermanent Mediterranean wetlands.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Dolors; Anza, Ibone; Taggart, Mark A; Pérez-Ramírez, Elisa; Crespo, Elena; Hofle, Ursula; Mateo, Rafael

    2013-07-01

    Between 1978 and 2008, 13 avian botulism outbreaks were recorded in the wetlands of Mancha Húmeda (central Spain). These outbreaks caused the deaths of around 20,000 birds from over 50 species, including globally endangered white-headed ducks (Oxyura leucoceophala). Here, a significant association was found between the number of dead birds recorded in each botulism outbreak and the mean temperature in July (always >26°C). The presence of Clostridium botulinum type C/D in wetland sediments was detected by real-time PCR (quantitative PCR [qPCR]) in 5.8% of 207 samples collected between 2005 and 2008. Low concentrations of Cl(-) and high organic matter content in sediments were significantly associated with the presence of C. botulinum. Seventy-five digestive tracts of birds found dead during botulism outbreaks were analyzed; C. botulinum was present in 38.7% of them. The prevalence of C. botulinum was 18.2% (n = 22 pools) in aquatic invertebrates (Chironomidae and Corixidae families) and 33.3% (n = 18 pools) in necrophagous invertebrates (Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae families), including two pools of adult necrophagous flies collected around bird carcasses. The presence of the bacteria in the adult fly form opens up new perspectives in the epidemiology of avian botulism, since these flies may be transporting C. botulinum from one carcass to another. PMID:23645197

  17. Overactivation of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 and aquaporin-4 by hypoxia induces cerebral edema.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Jun; Yang, Jia-Fang; Kong, Fan-Ping; Ren, Ji-Long; Hao, Ke; Li, Min; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Xin-Can; Yu, Ri-Sheng; Li, Jun-Fa; Leng, Gareth; Chen, Xue-Qun; Du, Ji-Zeng

    2014-09-01

    Cerebral edema is a potentially life-threatening illness, but knowledge of its underlying mechanisms is limited. Here we report that hypobaric hypoxia induces rat cerebral edema and neuronal apoptosis and increases the expression of corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF), CRF receptor type 1 (CRFR1), aquaporin-4 (AQP4), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the cortex. These effects, except for the increased expression of CRF itself, could all be blocked by pretreatment with an antagonist of the CRF receptor CRFR1. We also show that, in cultured primary astrocytes: (i) both CRFR1 and AQP4 are expressed; (ii) exogenous CRF, acting through CRFR1, triggers signaling of cAMP/PKA, intracellular Ca(2+), and PKC?; and (iii) the up-regulated cAMP/PKA signaling contributes to the phosphorylation and expression of AQP4 to enhance water influx into astrocytes and produces an up-regulation of ET-1 expression. Finally, using CHO cells transfected with CRFR1(+) and AQP4(+), we show that transfected CRFR1(+) contributes to edema via transfected AQP4(+). In conclusion, hypoxia triggers cortical release of CRF, which acts on CRFR1 to trigger signaling of cAMP/PKA in cortical astrocytes, leading to activation of AQP4 and cerebral edema. PMID:25146699

  18. Functional characterization of corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 receptor endogenously expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells.

    PubMed

    Dautzenberg, F M; Higelin, J; Teichert, U

    2000-02-25

    The endogenous expression in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors was detected. High-affinity binding sites for human CRF (K(i)=3.6 nM), ovine CRF (K(i)=4.6 nM), rat urocortin (K(i)=2.2 nM), sauvagine (K(i)=2.4 nM) and astressin (K(i)=4.3 nM) with the pharmacological characteristics for CRF type 1 (CRF(1)) receptors and B(max) values of approximately 30 fmol/mg protein were determined. The four CRF receptor agonists nonselectively stimulated cAMP production in HEK293 cells at low agonist concentrations, whereas the antagonist astressin shifted the dose-response curve for ovine CRF significantly rightward. Transfection of the pcDNA3 vector into HEK293 cells strongly reduced the expression of the endogenous CRF receptor. Northern blot analysis revealed the expression of a CRF(1) transcript in human neuronal tissues, HEK293, human NTera-2 (NT2) carcinoma, Y-79 retinoblastoma and African green monkey kidney (COS-7) cells. Neither by Northern blot analysis nor by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), the expression of CRF(2) could be detected. In cAMP stimulation experiments, functional CRF receptors were detected in these cell lines. These data show that HEK293 and other cell lines endogenously express CRF(1) receptors. PMID:10708706

  19. Interactions between Environmental Factors and Melatonin Receptor Type 1A Polymorphism in Relation to Oral Cancer Susceptibility and Clinicopathologic Development

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shun-Fa; Lee, Wei-Jiunn; Lin, Yung-Wei; Lee, Liang-Ming; Chang, Junn-Liang; Weng, Wei-Chun; Lin, Chien-Huang; Chien, Ming-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to explore the combined effect of melatonin receptor type 1A (MTNR1A) gene polymorphisms and exposure to environmental carcinogens on the susceptibility and clinicopathological characteristics of oral cancer. Methodology and Principal Findings Three polymorphisms of the MTNR1A gene from 618 patients with oral cancer and 560 non-cancer controls were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The CTA haplotype of the studied MTNR1A polymorphisms (rs2119882, rs13140012, rs6553010) was related to a higher risk of oral cancer. Moreover, MTNR1A gene polymorphisms exhibited synergistic effects of environmental factors (betel quid and tobacco use) on the susceptibility of oral cancer. Finally, oral-cancer patients with betel quid-chewing habit who had T/T allele of MTNR1A rs13140012 were at higher risk for developing an advanced clinical stage and lymph node metastasis. Conclusion These results support gene-environment interactions of MTNR1A polymorphisms with smoking and betel quid-chewing habits possibly altering oral-cancer susceptibility and metastasis. PMID:25806809

  20. Transactivation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeats by cell surface tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Tadmori, W; Mondal, D; Tadmori, I; Prakash, O

    1991-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is expressed in secreted and cell surface (csTNF-alpha) forms by activated monocytic and T cells. In this report, we demonstrate that csTNF-alpha may predominantly regulate the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) long terminal repeat (LTR) activation in the promonocytic cell line U937 and in the Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B-cell line BH1. Anti-TNF-alpha antibody suppressed both the constitutive expression of the HIV-1 LTR in BH1 cells and the expression induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in U937 cells. This suppression was found to be mediated via csTNF-alpha. No correlation between the HIV-1 LTR activation and the secretion of TNF-alpha was evident in these cell lines. Suppression of TNF-alpha secretion by cyclosporin A or by a serine protease inhibitor did not suppress the HIV-1 LTR activation. These observations suggest a novel biological role for csTNF-alpha in the immunopathogenesis of AIDS. PMID:1942242

  1. Factors influencing decision-making role preferences: A qualitative study of Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes during insulin initiation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yew Kong; Low, Wah Yun; Lee, Ping Yein; Ng, Chirk Jenn

    2015-05-01

    Patient decision-making role preference (DMRP) is a patient's preferred degree of control when making medical decisions. This descriptive qualitative study aimed to explore Malaysian patients' views on their DMRP. Between January 2011 and March 2012, 22 individual face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with patients with type 2 diabetes who were deciding about insulin initiation. The interviews were audio-recorded and analysed using a thematic approach. The age range of participants was 28-67 years old with 11 men. Ten patients preferred to make the decision themselves, six patients indicated that the clinician should make the decision and only one patient expressed a preference for a collaborative role. The following factors influenced DMRP: trust in clinicians, responsibility for diabetes care, level of knowledge and awareness, involvement of family and personal characteristics. In conclusion, the concept of shared decision-making is still alien, and a more participative communication style might help to facilitate patients' expression of DMRP. PMID:24804909

  2. Factors affecting the adsorptive removal of bisphenol A in landfill leachate by high silica Y-type zeolite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoqiang; Fujiwara, Taku; Fukahori, Shuji; Ishigaki, Tomonori

    2015-02-01

    Although bisphenol A (BPA), a representative endocrine-disrupting compound, has been detected frequently in landfill leachate, effective technologies for BPA removal from landfill leachates are limited. We used high silica Y-type zeolite (HSZ-385) for the selective adsorption of BPA from landfill leachate, and factors affecting this adsorption are discussed. Higher removal efficiencies at pH 5.0-9.0 imply that neutral BPA is adsorbed more easily onto HSZ-385 than monomeric or divalent BPA anions. An increase in ionic strength and sodium acetate concentration did not affect BPA adsorption significantly, while the removal efficiency decreased slightly when more than 50 mgC/L of humic acid was added. HSZ-385 was applied to synthetic leachates that simulate the composition of landfill leachate at various degradation stages. In young acidic leachates that contain sodium acetate, the use of HSZ-385 for the adsorptive removal of BPA appears to be more effective than in old alkaline leachates, which contain large amounts of humic acid. In addition, 82 % BPA removal was achieved from young raw leachates using HSZ-385, which demonstrates that selective BPA removal from actual landfill leachate has been achieved. PMID:25209542

  3. Role of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor Type 1 Receptor in the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Duo; Jiang, Shuang; Meng, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Defective cognitive function is common in patients with diabetes, suggesting that insulin normally exerts anabolic actions in neuron, namely, diabetic encephalopathy. However, because insulin can cross-activate the insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-1R), which also functions in most of tissues, such as muscle and bone, it has been difficult to establish the direct (IGF-1-independent) actions of insulin in the pathogenesis of diabetic encephalopathy. To overcome this problem, we examined insulin signaling and action in primary PC-12 cells engineered for conditional disruption of the IGF-1 receptor (?IGF-1R). The results showed that the lower glucose metabolism and high expression of IGF-1R occurred in the brain of the DE rat model. The results also showed the defect of IGF-1R could significantly improve the ability of glucose consumption and enhance sensitivity to insulin-induced IR and Akt phosphorylation in PC12 cells. And meanwhile, IGF-1R allele gene knockout (IGF-1Rneo) mice treated with HFD/STZ had better cognitive abilities than those of wild mice. Those results indicate that insulin exerts direct anabolic actions in neuron-like cells by activation of its cognate receptor and prove that IGF-1R plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic encephalopathy.

  4. SOCIAL DEFEAT STRESS ACTIVATES MEDIAL AMYGDALA CELLS THAT EXPRESS TYPE 2 CORTICOTROPIN-RELEASING FACTOR RECEPTOR mRNA

    PubMed Central

    FEKETE, É. M.; ZHAO, Y.; LI, C.; SABINO, V.; VALE, W. W.; ZORRILLA, E. P.

    2009-01-01

    Defeat is a social stressor involving subordination by a threatening conspecific. Type 2 corticotropin-releasing factor receptors (CRF2) are abundant in brain regions implicated in defeat responses and are putative stress-related molecules. The present study sought to determine whether neuroactivation and CRF2 expression co-occurred at brain region or cellular levels following acute defeat. Male “intruder” Wistar rats were placed into the cage of an aggressive “resident” Long-Evans rat (n=6). Upon defeat, intruders (n=6) were placed in a wire-mesh chamber and were returned to the resident’s cage for an additional 75 min. Controls (n=6) were handled and returned to their home cage for the same duration. Coronal brain sections were stained for an immediate early gene product, Fos, as a neuronal activation marker. Combined immunohistochemistry with in situ hybridization was performed on a subset of brain sections from defeated intruders to visualize Fos immunoreactivity and CRF2 mRNA jointly. Defeated rats had fivefold, sevenfold, and 10-fold more Fos-positive cells than controls in the arcuate, ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, and medial amygdala post-defeat. Significant colocalization of CRF2 mRNA and Fos-positive cells was observed in the posterior medial amygdala but not in the arcuate nucleus or ventromedial hypothalamus. The results indicate CRF2 receptor-positive neurons in the posterior medial amygdala are involved in the neural response to social defeat. PMID:19358876

  5. Psychosocial Factors Affecting the Therapeutic Decision-making and Postoperative Mood States in Japanese Breast Cancer Patients who underwent Various Types of Surgery: Body Image and Sexuality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keiichiro Adachi; Tokumi Ueno; Toshio Fujioka; Yutaka Fujitomi; Hiroaki Ueo; G. K. Rath; Masaki Tsuchiya; Motoki Iwasaki; Tetsuya Otani; Jun-ichi Nitadori; Koichi Goto; Yutaka Nishiwaki; Yosuke Uchitomi; Shoichiro Tsugane

    Objective: We conducted an empirical study to clarify how psychosocial factors (e.g. body image and sexuality) influence therapeutic decision-making and to identify the factors that affect post-operative mood states in Japanese women who underwent various types of surgery. Methods: One hundred and two patients who had undergone surgical treatment for breast cancer participated in this study. Twenty-five patients had undergone

  6. Antisense RNA to the Type I Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptor Suppresses Tumor Growth and Prevents Invasion by Rat Prostate Cancer Cells in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Burfeind; Cher Yl L. Chernicky; Frauke Rininsland; Joseph Ilan; Judith Ilan

    1996-01-01

    Prostate carcinoma is the second leading cause of death from malignancy in men in the United States. Prostate cancer cells express type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) and prostate cancer selectively metastazises to bone, which is an environment rich in insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), thereby supporting a paracrine action for cancer cell proliferation. We asked whether the IGF-IR is

  7. INTERFERENCE FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR RESISTANCE OF FORB-GRASS COVER TYPES TO TREE INVASION ON AN ELECTRIC UTILITY RIGHT OF-WAY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. C. Bramble; W. R. Byrnes; R. J. Hutnik; S. A. Liscinsky

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of factors responsible for re- sistance of forb-grass cover types to tree invasion was car- ried out from 1992 through 1994 on an electric transmission right-of-way (ROW) in central Pennsylvania. Unprotected seedspots and seedspots protected by wire cages were in- stalled on the ROW to investigate the effect of the important interference factors of wildlife depredation, plant competition,

  8. The linkage and association of the gene encoding upstream stimulatory factor 1 with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome in the Chinese population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Y. Ng; K. Miyake; W. Y. So; E. W. M. Poon; V. K. L. Lam; J. K. Y. Li; N. J. Cox; G. I. Bell; J. C. N. Chan

    2005-01-01

    Aims\\/hypothesis  The transcription factor upstream stimulatory factor 1 (USF1) regulates the expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism and has been associated with familial combined hyperlipidaemia. USF1 is located on chromosome 1q22–23, a region with evidence for linkage to type 2 diabetes and various traits of the metabolic syndrome in Chinese and other populations. The aim of this study

  9. Platelet-derived growth factor promotes division and motility and inhibits premature differentiation of the oligodendrocyte\\/type-2 astrocyte progenitor ceil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Noble; Kerren Murray; Paul Stroobant; Michael D. Waterfield; Peter Riddle

    1988-01-01

    The mitogens which modulate cell-cell interactions during development of the central nervous system are unknown. One of the few interactions sufficiently well understood to allow identification of such molecules involves the two glial lineages which make up the rat optic nerve. One population of glial cells in this tissue, the type-1 astrocytes1, secrete a soluble factor(s) which promotes division of

  10. Alkaline phosphatase expression in cultured endothelial cells of aorta and brain microvessels: induction by interleukin-6-type cytokines and suppression by transforming growth factor betas.

    PubMed

    Nakazato, H; Deguchi, M; Fujimoto, M; Fukushima, H

    1997-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity is markedly high in endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) type but absent from or low in those of the non-BBB type. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) has been identified as a glial cell line-derived factor that induces high ALP activity in cultured aortic endothelial cells. In the present study, we examined the effect of IL-6-type cytokines and transforming growth factor betas (TGF-betas) on ALP expression in cultures of calf pulmonary aortic endothelial (CPAE) cells and porcine brain microvascular endothelial (PBME) cells. Leukemia inhibitory factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor, and oncostatin M, which are known as IL-6-type cytokines, induced high ALP expression in the CPAE cells but not in the PBME cells. ALP levels in these cells were markedly suppressed by culture with TGF-betas. However, in cultured PBME cells, IL-6 and a derivative of cyclic adenosine monophosphate significantly increased ALP activity. Our findings raise the posibility that local concentrations of IL-6, IL-6-type cytokines, and TGF-betas affect the ALP levels in the endothelial cells of aorta and brain microvessels under normal development and also under inflammatory conditions. PMID:9366514

  11. Factors associated with Group A Streptococcus emm type diversification in a large urban setting in Brazil: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Group A Streptococcus (GAS) strain diversity varies across different regions of the world, according to low versus high-income countries. These differences may be related to geographic, environmental, socioeconomic, or host-related factors. However, local factors may also affect strain diversity. We compared the emm types of GAS isolates from children with and without sore throat in one large urban setting in Brazil. Methods Children 3-15 years of age were consecutively recruited from slum and non-slum pediatric outpatient clinics between April-October, 2008. Throat cultures were performed and data intake forms were completed. GAS isolates were typed by emm sequencing. Results From 2194 children, 254 (12%) GAS isolates were obtained. Of 238 GAS isolates that were emm-typed, 61 unique emm types were identified. Simpson's diversity index of the emm types was higher among isolates from slum children [97% (96%-98%)] than those of non-slum children [92% (89%-96%)]. Two emm types (66.0, 12.0) were more frequently isolated from children with sore throat (p < 0.05), and one emm type (27G.0) demonstrated a protective effect. Conclusions The emm type diversity from children attending slum clinics resembled the emm diversity of low income countries rather than that of children attending a non-slum clinic in the same city. Local factors, such as crowding, may enhance the frequency of GAS transmission and horizontal gene transfers that contribute to increased strain diversity in the slums. GAS vaccine coverage and control of GAS infections will need to take these local factors and strain differences into consideration. PMID:21070669

  12. Experimental Determination of the Recovery Factor and Analytical Solution of the Conical Flow Field for a 20 deg Included Angle Cone at Mach Numbers of 4.6 and 6.0 and Stagnation Temperatures to 2600 degree R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfyl, Frank A.; Presley, Leroy L.

    1961-01-01

    The local recovery factor was determined experimentally along the surface of a thin-walled 20 deg included angle cone for Mach numbers near 6.0 at stagnation temperatures between 1200 deg R and 2600 deg R. In addition, a similar cone configuration was tested at Mach numbers near 4.5 at stagnation temperatures of approximately 612 deg R. The local Reynolds number based on flow properties at the edge of the boundary layer ranged between 0.1 x 10(exp 4) and 3.5 x 10(exp 4) for tests at temperatures above 1200 deg R and between 6 x 10(exp 4) and 25 x 10(exp 4) for tests at temperatures near 612 deg R. The results indicated, generally, that the recovery factor can be predicted satisfactorily using the square root of the Prandtl number. No conclusion could be made as to the necessity of evaluating the Prandtl number at a reference temperature given by an empirical equation, as opposed to evaluating the Prandtl number at the wall temperature or static temperature of the gas at the cone surface. For the tests at temperatures above 1200 deg R (indicated herein as the tests conducted in the slip-flow region), two definite trends in the recovery data were observed - one of increasing recovery factor with decreasing stagnation pressure, which was associated with slip-flow effects and one of decreasing recovery factor with increasing temperature. The true cause of the latter trend could not be ascertained, but it was shown that this trend was not appreciably altered by the sources of error of the magnitude considered herein. The real-gas equations of state were used to determine accurately the local stream properties at the outer edge of the boundary layer of the cone. Included in the report, therefore, is a general solution for the conical flow of a real gas using the Beattie-Bridgeman equation of state. The largest effect of temperature was seen to be in the terms which were dependent upon the internal energy of the gas. The pressure and hence the pressure drag terms were unaffected.

  13. Spectral, thermal, XRD and SEM studies of charge-transfer complexation of hexamethylenediamine and three types of acceptors: ?-, ?- and vacant orbital acceptors that include quinol, picric acid, bromine, iodine, SnCl4 and ZnCl2 acceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Abdel Majid A.; Refat, Moamen S.; Saad, Hosam A.

    2013-11-01

    In this work, structural, thermal, morphological and pharmacological characterization was performed on the interactions between a hexamethylenediamine (HMDA) donor and three types of acceptors to understand the complexation behavior of diamines. The three types of acceptors include ?-acceptors (i.e., quinol (QL) and picric acid (PA)), ?-acceptors (i.e., bromine and iodine) and vacant orbital acceptors (i.e., tin(IV) tetrachloride (SnCl4) and zinc chloride (ZnCl2)). The characterization of the obtained CT complexes was performed using elemental analysis, infrared (IR), Raman, 1H NMR and electronic absorption spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. Their morphologies were studied using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX). The biological activities of the obtained CT complexes were tested for their antibacterial activities. The complex containing the QL acceptor exhibited a remarkable electronic spectrum with a strong, broad absorption band, which had an observed ?max that was at a much longer wavelength than those of the free reactants. In addition, this complex exhibited strong antimicrobial activities against various bacterial and fungal strains compared to standard drugs. The complexes containing the PA, iodine, Sn(IV) and Zn(II) acceptors exhibited good thermal stability up to 240, 330, 275 and 295 °C, respectively. The complexes containing bromine, Sn(IV) and Zn(II) acceptors exhibited good crystallinity. In addition to its good crystallinity properties, the complex containing the bromine acceptor exhibits a remarkable morphology feature.

  14. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Neutralizing Antibodies to Human Papillomavirus Types 16 and 18 in HIV-positive Men who have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rachna; Efird, Jimmy T.; Chein, Aung; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Krajden, Mel; Berry, Michael J.; Darragh, Teresa M.; Jay, Naomi; Palefsky, Joel M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective HPV vaccination is routinely recommended in HIV-positive MSM ? 26 years old. Levels of prior HPV exposure in older HIV-positive MSM are assumed to be too high to warrant routine HPV vaccination. However, little is known about the prevalence of and risk factors for neutralizing antibody seropositivity to HPV-16 or HPV-18, a key measure of prior exposure to these types. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of baseline visit for 296 HIV-positive MSM participating in a prospective cohort study of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASIL) at a university-based research clinic. Participants completed a questionnaire detailing behaviors and medical history. Phlebotomy, anal cytology, HPV DNA testing with quantitation, and high resolution anoscopy with biopsy were performed. A pseudovirion-based neutralizing antibody (PBNA) assay was used to measure HPV-16 and HPV-18 neutralizing antibodies. Results 132/296 (45%) men were HPV-16-seropositive and 141/296 (48%) were HPV-18-seropositive. 175/296 (59%) of the men were positive for HPV-16 antibodies or DNA, and 167/296 (56%) were positive for HPV-18 antibodies or DNA. In multivariable analysis, HPV-16 seropositivity did not correlate with age, years of HIV positivity, CD4+ level or HIV viral load. Significant risk factors included HPV-16 DNA positivity with higher DNA levels (ptrend<.001) and higher number of receptive sexual partners in the last year (ptrend=.012). Conclusions A high proportion of HIV-positive MSM >26 years are DNA-negative and seronegative to HPV-16 and HPV-18 even when using a sensitive PBNA assay. Prospective studies are needed to determine the clinical- and cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination in HIV-positive MSM > 26 years old. PMID:24231786

  15. The type III secretion determinants of the flagellar anti-transcription factor, FlgM, extend from the amino-terminus into the anti-sigma28 domain.

    PubMed

    Chilcott, G S; Hughes, K T

    1998-12-01

    The flagellar-specific anti-sigma factor, FIgM, inhibits the expression of late flagellar genes until the hook-basal body structure is assembled and competent for export of the flagellins and hook-associated proteins (flagellar late proteins). FIgM monitors this assembly checkpoint by being a substrate for export via the hook-basal body structure, which includes a type III protein secretion complex. Amino acid sequence alignment of late-secreted flagellar proteins identified a region of homology present in the amino-terminus of FIgM and the other late flagellar proteins, but not in flagellar proteins secreted earlier during flagellar biosynthesis. Single amino acid substitutions at specific positions within this motif decreased the export of FIgM. Deletion of this region (S3-P11) resulted in lower intracellular FIgM levels, but did not prevent recognition and export by the flagellar-specific secretion system. Mutations were isolated in a second region of FIgM spanning residues K27 to A65 that exhibited increased anti-sigma28 activity. These FIgM 'hyperinhibitor' mutants were secreted less than wild-type FIgM. Mutations that interfere with the secretion of FIgM without abolishing anti-sigma28 activity have a negative effect upon the secretion of a His-tagged FIgM mutant that lacks anti-sigma28 activity. Models are proposed to explain the dominant negative phenotype of the FIgM secretion mutants reported in this study. PMID:9988479

  16. Transcription factor PRDM8 is required for rod bipolar and type 2 OFF-cone bipolar cell survival and amacrine subtype identity.

    PubMed

    Jung, Cynthia C; Atan, Denize; Ng, David; Ploder, Lynda; Ross, Sarah E; Klein, Martin; Birch, David G; Diez, Eduardo; McInnes, Roderick R

    2015-06-01

    Retinal bipolar (BP) cells mediate the earliest steps in image processing in the visual system, but the genetic pathways that regulate their development and function are incompletely known. We identified PRDI-BF1 and RIZ homology domain containing 8 (PRDM8) as a highly conserved transcription factor that is abundantly expressed in mouse retina. During development and in maturity, PRDM8 is expressed strongly in BP cells and a fraction of amacrine and ganglion cells. To determine whether Prdm8 is essential to BP cell development or physiology, we targeted the gene in mice. Prdm8(EGFP/EGFP) mice showed nonprogressive b-wave deficits on electroretinograms, consistent with compromised BP cell function or circuitry resembling the incomplete form of human congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB). BP cell specification was normal in Prdm8(EGFP/EGFP) retina as determined by VSX2(+) cell numbers and retinal morphology at postnatal day 6. BP subtype differentiation was impaired, however, as indicated by absent or diminished expression of BP subtype-specific markers, including the putative PRDM8 regulatory target PKC? (Prkca) and its protein. By adulthood, rod bipolar (RB) and type 2 OFF-cone bipolar (CB) cells were nearly absent from Prdm8-null mice. Although no change was detected in total amacrine cell (AC) numbers, increased PRKCA(+) and cholinergic ACs and decreased GABAergic ACs were seen, suggesting an alteration in amacrine subtype identity. These findings establish that PRDM8 is required for RB and type 2 OFF-CB cell survival and amacrine subtype identity, and they present PRDM8 as a candidate gene for human CSNB. PMID:26023183

  17. Abstract Factor analysis (FA) has been pursued as a means to decompose dynamic cardiac PET images into different tissue types

    E-print Network

    Adler, Andy

    Abstract ­ Factor analysis (FA) has been pursued as a means to decompose dynamic cardiac PET images-activity profile (factor) and an associated spatial distribution (structure). Decomposition is based on non decomposition results in physiologically accurate factors and structures. I. INTRODUCTION actor analysis (FA

  18. Sandy Lake Health and Diabetes Project: A Community-Based Intervention Targeting Type 2 Diabetes and Its Risk Factors in a First Nations Community

    PubMed Central

    Kakekagumick, Kara E.; Naqshbandi Hayward, Mariam; Harris, Stewart B.; Saksvig, Brit; Gittelsohn, Joel; Manokeesic, Gary; Goodman, Starsky; Hanley, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    The Sandy Lake Health and Diabetes Project (SLHDP) was initiated in 1991 as a partnership between Sandy Lake First Nation and researchers interested in addressing the high rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the community. Following the expressed wishes of the community, the SLHDP has encompassed a variety of community-wide interventions and activities including: community surveys to document T2DM prevalence and risk factors, the Northern Store program aimed at increasing the availability and knowledge of healthy food options, a home visit program for the prevention and management of T2DM, a local diabetes radio show, a school diabetes curriculum for grades 3 and 4, a community-wide walking trail to encourage increased physical activity, youth diabetes summer camps, and a variety of community events focusing on nutrition and physical activity. Over the 22?year existence of the SLHDP, the community has taken ownership of the program and activities have evolved in alignment with community needs and priorities. This paper discusses the history, implementation, evaluation, and outcomes of the SLHDP and describes its sustainability. The SLHDP is a model of culturally appropriate participatory research that is iterative, with reciprocal capacity building for both key community stakeholders and academic partners. PMID:24302919

  19. Sandy lake health and diabetes project: a community-based intervention targeting type 2 diabetes and its risk factors in a first nations community.

    PubMed

    Kakekagumick, Kara E; Naqshbandi Hayward, Mariam; Harris, Stewart B; Saksvig, Brit; Gittelsohn, Joel; Manokeesic, Gary; Goodman, Starsky; Hanley, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    The Sandy Lake Health and Diabetes Project (SLHDP) was initiated in 1991 as a partnership between Sandy Lake First Nation and researchers interested in addressing the high rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the community. Following the expressed wishes of the community, the SLHDP has encompassed a variety of community-wide interventions and activities including: community surveys to document T2DM prevalence and risk factors, the Northern Store program aimed at increasing the availability and knowledge of healthy food options, a home visit program for the prevention and management of T2DM, a local diabetes radio show, a school diabetes curriculum for grades 3 and 4, a community-wide walking trail to encourage increased physical activity, youth diabetes summer camps, and a variety of community events focusing on nutrition and physical activity. Over the 22?year existence of the SLHDP, the community has taken ownership of the program and activities have evolved in alignment with community needs and priorities. This paper discusses the history, implementation, evaluation, and outcomes of the SLHDP and describes its sustainability. The SLHDP is a model of culturally appropriate participatory research that is iterative, with reciprocal capacity building for both key community stakeholders and academic partners. PMID:24302919

  20. Differential antagonism of activin, myostatin and growth and differentiation factor 11 by wild-type and mutant follistatin.

    PubMed

    Schneyer, Alan L; Sidis, Yisrael; Gulati, Anisha; Sun, Jie L; Keutmann, Henry; Krasney, Philip A

    2008-09-01

    Follistatin binds and neutralizes members of the TGFbeta superfamily including activin, myostatin, and growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF11). Crystal structure analysis of the follistatin-activin complex revealed extensive contacts between follistatin domain (FSD)-2 and activin that was critical for the high-affinity interaction. However, it remained unknown whether follistatin residues involved with myostatin and GDF11 binding were distinct from those involved with activin binding. If so, this would allow development of myostatin antagonists that would not inhibit activin actions, a desirable feature for development of myostatin antagonists for treatment of muscle-wasting disorders. We tested this hypothesis with our panel of point and domain swapping follistatin mutants using competitive binding analyses and in vitro bioassays. Our results demonstrate that activin binding and neutralization are mediated primarily by FSD2, whereas myostatin binding is more dependent on FSD1, such that deletion of FSD2 or adding an extra FSD1 in place of FSD2 creates myostatin antagonists with vastly reduced activin antagonism. However, these mutants also bind GDF11, indicating that further analysis is required for creation of myostatin antagonists that will not affect GDF11 activity that could potentially elicit GDF11-induced side effects in vivo. PMID:18535106

  1. Differential Antagonism of Activin, Myostatin and Growth and Differentiation Factor 11 by Wild-Type and Mutant Follistatin

    PubMed Central

    Schneyer, Alan L.; Sidis, Yisrael; Gulati, Anisha; Sun, Jie L.; Keutmann, Henry; Krasney, Philip A.

    2008-01-01

    Follistatin binds and neutralizes members of the TGF? superfamily including activin, myostatin, and growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF11). Crystal structure analysis of the follistatin-activin complex revealed extensive contacts between follistatin domain (FSD)-2 and activin that was critical for the high-affinity interaction. However, it remained unknown whether follistatin residues involved with myostatin and GDF11 binding were distinct from those involved with activin binding. If so, this would allow development of myostatin antagonists that would not inhibit activin actions, a desirable feature for development of myostatin antagonists for treatment of muscle-wasting disorders. We tested this hypothesis with our panel of point and domain swapping follistatin mutants using competitive binding analyses and in vitro bioassays. Our results demonstrate that activin binding and neutralization are mediated primarily by FSD2, whereas myostatin binding is more dependent on FSD1, such that deletion of FSD2 or adding an extra FSD1 in place of FSD2 creates myostatin antagonists with vastly reduced activin antagonism. However, these mutants also bind GDF11, indicating that further analysis is required for creation of myostatin antagonists that will not affect GDF11 activity that could potentially elicit GDF11-induced side effects in vivo. PMID:18535106

  2. P7, a novel antagonist of corticotropin releasing factor receptor type 1 (CRFR1) screened from phage display library.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jinmei; Zhuo, Rengong; Peng, Peng; Liu, Xiaoyan; Yan, Haitao; Zhang, Shuzhuo; Zheng, Jianquan; Wei, Xiaoli; Ma, Xiaoyun

    2015-07-31

    The corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) plays a central role in regulating the activities of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the presence of a variety of stressful stimuli via binding to its type 1 receptors (CRFR1). Despite that many peptidic or non-peptidic antagonists of CRFR1 have been developed to serve as therapeutic tools to CRF-related pathologies, none of them have been utilized clinically. Targeting the extracellular domain 1 (EC1) of CRFR1, the CRF-binding site, represents a new strategy to inhibit the function of the receptor. However, no such agents have been identified up to now. Herein, by using an 87-amino acid fragment corresponding to the EC1 region as the bait, we screened the binding polypeptides from a phage display (Ph.D.-12) peptide library. After 3-round biopanning, positive clones were selected and the polypeptides carried by them were identified. 5 polypeptides were found to bind with the target specifically. Among them, the P7 exhibited the highest affinity. By evaluating the cAMP accumulation in the CRFR1 or CRFR2-expressing HEK293 cells, we demonstrated that P7 blocking the function of CRFR1, but not CRFR2. In addition, we also found that P7 and CRF act on CRFR1 competitively. Taken together, we reveal that P7, a novel polypeptide identified from phage display library, inhibits the function of CRFR1 effectively and specifically by binding at its EC1 domain. The new polypeptide might provide a promising agent for diagnostic or therapeutic utilities in CRF-related disorders. PMID:25998380

  3. Nerve growth factor induces development of connective tissue-type mast cells in vitro from murine bone marrow cells

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    The effect of nerve growth factor (NGF) on proliferation/differentiation of mast cells was investigated in vitro. Although NGF alone neither supported colony formation of bone marrow- derived cultured mast cells (BMCMC) nor induced development of mast cell colonies from nonadherent bone marrow cells (NBMC), addition of NGF to the suboptimal dose of interleukin 3 (IL-3) significantly increased the numbers of mast cell colonies produced by BMCMC or NBMC in methylcellulose. When stimulated by IL-3 alone, cells in mast cell colonies were not stained by berberine sulfate, a fluorescent dye. In contrast, mast cells developing in methylcellulose cultures obtaining both IL-3 and NGF were stained by berberine sulfate. The fluorescence was abolished by the treatment of heparinase but not of chondroitinase ABC, suggesting that mast cells stimulated by IL-3 and NGF produced and stored heparin proteoglycan. The histamine content of BMCMC maintained by IL-3 was also increased by addition of NGF. Since BMCMC showed mucosal mast cell-like phenotype, NGF appeared to induce the phenotypic change to connective tissue-type mast cells (CTMC). In the culture containing BMCMC, 3T3 fibroblasts, and IL-3, the phenotypic change of BMCMC to CTMC was observed as well. Since NGF was detected in this coculture and since addition of anti-NGF monoclonal antibody suppressed the phenotypic change, NGF produced by fibroblasts appeared to induce the phenotypic change. Neither BMCMC alone nor IL-3 alone increased the concentration of NGF. Therefore, there is a possibility that BMCMC stimulated by IL-3 may induce the production and/or release of NGF by fibroblasts. PMID:1711569

  4. Practices of receptive and insertive anal sex among transgender women in relation to partner types, sociocultural factors, and background variables.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Tooru; Bödeker, Birte; Iwamoto, Mariko; Sakata, Maria

    2014-04-01

    It is urgent to develop efficacious HIV prevention programs to curb the reported extremely high HIV prevalence and incidence among transgender women (male-to-female transgender persons) who reside in large cities in the USA. This study aimed to describe unprotected receptive anal sex (URAS) and unprotected insertive anal sex (UIAS) among high-risk transgender women in relation to partner types, psychosocial factors, and background variables. Based on purposive sampling from the targeted communities and AIDS service organizations in San Francisco and Oakland, a total of 573 transgender women who had a history of sex work were recruited and individually interviewed using a structured survey questionnaire. Significant correlates with URAS with primary, casual, and commercial sex partners were found (e.g., needs for social support, frequency of social support received, exposure to transphobia, self-esteem, economic pressure, norms toward practicing healthy behaviors, and self-efficacy toward practicing safe sex). Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that transgender women who had engaged in URAS with commercial partners were more likely to have higher levels of transphobia or lower levels of the norms or self-efficacy to practice safe sex. Among the participants who did not have vaginoplasty (preoperative transgender women), 16.4% had engaged in insertive anal sex (IAS) with commercial partners in the past 30 days. The participants who were HIV positive and had engaged in IAS were more likely to be African-American or Caucasians, coinfected with sexually transmitted infections, or identified themselves as homosexual. Practices of IAS among transgender women have not been thoroughly investigated in relation to sexual and gender identity. UIAS with homosexual and bisexual men in addition to URAS may be a cause for high HIV incidence among transgender women. An HIV prevention intervention study must be developed and evaluated, which aims to reduce HIV-positive and -negative transgender women's URAS and UIAS. PMID:24160715

  5. Vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for obesity and diabetes type 2 in women at late reproductive age

    PubMed Central

    Grineva, EN; Karonova, T; Micheeva, E; Belyaeva, O; Nikitina, IL

    2013-01-01

    It was suggested that glucose metabolism and body fat content depend on serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. We studied 320 healthy women at late reproductive age of 40 to 52 years old (mean age 46.1±4.5) from St. Petersburg (North-West region of Russia). 25(OH)D levels were from 19.4 to 134.0 nMol/L (mean 52.9±22.7). Vitamin D deficiency (lower than 50 nMol/L) and insufficiency (50-75 nMol/L) was revealed in 59.1% and 27.8% of women, respectively. The study showed that low 25(OH)D levels were associated with obesity (r=-0.35, p<0.01), increased plasma glucose levels after OGTT (r=-0.31, p<0.01) and decreased insulin sensitivity index (r=-0.28, p<0.01). We found that 25(OH)D levels below 50 nMol/L were associated with obesity risk (OR 2.25[1.05-3.95], CI 95%) but not with risk of impaired glucose metabolism (1.07[0.54-2.12],CI95%). Our results showed that vitamin D insufficiency is highly prevalent in the population of healthy women. Low 25(OH)D levels correlated with high body fat, glucose levels and decreased insulin sensitivity. We conclude that vitamin D deficiency is a potential risk factor for obesity and development of insulin resistance leading to diabetes type 2. PMID:23924693

  6. SuperCAT: a supertree database for combined and integrative multilocus sequence typing analysis of the Bacillus cereus group of bacteria (including B. cereus, B. anthracis and B. thuringiensis).

    PubMed

    Tourasse, Nicolas J; Kolstø, Anne-Brit

    2008-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus group of bacteria is an important group including mammalian and insect pathogens, such as B. anthracis, the anthrax bacterium, B. thuringiensis, used as a biological pesticide and B. cereus, often involved in food poisoning incidents. To characterize the population structure and epidemiology of these bacteria, five separate multilocus sequence typing (MLST) schemes have been developed, which makes results difficult to compare. Therefore, we have developed a database that compiles and integrates MLST data from all five schemes for the B. cereus group, accessible at http://mlstoslo.uio.no/. Supertree techniques were used to combine the phylogenetic information from analysis of all schemes and datasets, in order to produce an integrated view of the B. cereus group population. The database currently contains strain information and sequence data for 1029 isolates and 26 housekeeping gene fragments, which can be searched by keywords, MLST scheme, or sequence similarity. Supertrees can be browsed according to various criteria such as species, isolate source, or genetic distance, and subtrees containing strains of interest can be extracted. Besides analysis of the available data, the user has the possibility to enter her/his own sequences and compare them to the database and/or include them into the supertree reconstructions. PMID:17982177

  7. Dietary risk factors in intestinal and diffuse types of stomach cancer: a multicenter case-control study in Poland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Boeing; W. Jedrychowski; J. Wahrendorf; T. Popiela; B. Tobiasz-Adamczyk; A. Kulig

    1991-01-01

    A hospital-based, multicenter, case-control study has been performed in Poland covering 741 incident stomach-cancer cases (520 males and 221 females) and the same number of controls. All stomach-cancer diagnoses were evaluated for histologic type according to the Lauren criteria. Fifty-one percent were of the intestinal type, 35 percent of the diffuse type, and 8.5 percent of the mixed type. The

  8. First Genome-Wide Association Study in an Australian Aboriginal Population Provides Insights into Genetic Risk Factors for Body Mass Index and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Richard W.; Syn, Genevieve; Scaman, Elizabeth S. H.; Davis, Elizabeth; Miles, Simon J.; McLeay, Toby; Jamieson, Sarra E.; Blackwell, Jenefer M.

    2015-01-01

    A body mass index (BMI) >22kg/m2 is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Aboriginal Australians. To identify loci associated with BMI and T2D we undertook a genome-wide association study using 1,075,436 quality-controlled single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped (Illumina 2.5M Duo Beadchip) in 402 individuals in extended pedigrees from a Western Australian Aboriginal community. Imputation using the thousand genomes (1000G) reference panel extended the analysis to 6,724,284 post quality-control autosomal SNPs. No associations achieved genome-wide significance, commonly accepted as P<5x10-8. Nevertheless, genes/pathways in common with other ethnicities were identified despite the arrival of Aboriginal people in Australia >45,000 years ago. The top hit (rs10868204 Pgenotyped = 1.50x10-6; rs11140653 Pimputed_1000G = 2.90x10-7) for BMI lies 5’ of NTRK2, the type 2 neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) that regulates energy balance downstream of melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R). PIK3C2G (rs12816270 Pgenotyped = 8.06x10-6; rs10841048 Pimputed_1000G = 6.28x10-7) was associated with BMI, but not with T2D as reported elsewhere. BMI also associated with CNTNAP2 (rs6960319 Pgenotyped = 4.65x10-5; rs13225016 Pimputed_1000G = 6.57x10-5), previously identified as the strongest gene-by-environment interaction for BMI in African-Americans. The top hit (rs11240074 Pgenotyped = 5.59x10-6, Pimputed_1000G = 5.73x10-6) for T2D lies 5’ of BCL9 that, along with TCF7L2, promotes beta-catenin’s transcriptional activity in the WNT signaling pathway. Additional hits occurred in genes affecting pancreatic (KCNJ6, KCNA1) and/or GABA (GABRR1, KCNA1) functions. Notable associations observed for genes previously identified at genome-wide significance in other populations included MC4R (Pgenotyped = 4.49x10-4) for BMI and IGF2BP2 Pimputed_1000G = 2.55x10-6) for T2D. Our results may provide novel functional leads in understanding disease pathogenesis in this Australian Aboriginal population. PMID:25760438

  9. Hyperketonemia Increases Tumor Necrosis Factor Secretion in Cultured U937 Monocytes and Type 1 Diabetic Patients and Is Apparently Mediated by Oxidative Stress and cAMP Deficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sushil K. Jain; Krishnaswamy Kannan; Gideon Lim; Robert McVie; Joseph A. Bocchini

    2002-01-01

    An elevated blood level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- is a validated marker of vascular inflammation, which can result in the development of vascular disease and atherosclerosis. This study examined the hypothe- sis that ketosis increases the TNF- secretion, both in a cell culture model using U937 monocytes and in type 1 diabetic patients in vivo. U937 cells were cultured

  10. Reduction in weight and cardiovascular diasease risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes: One-year results of the Look AHEAD trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of intentional weight loss in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in type 2 diabetes is unknown. This report describes 1-year changes in CVD risk factors in a trial designed to examine the long-term effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention on the incidence of major C...

  11. Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Multitrait-Multimethod Data To Assess the Psychometrical Equivalence of 4-Point and 6-Point Likert-Type Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Lei

    Equivalence in reliability and validity across 4-point and 6-point scales was assessed by fitting different measurement models through confirmatory factor analysis of a multitrait-multimethod covariance matrix. Responses to nine Likert-type items designed to measure perceived quantitative ability, self-perceived usefulness of quantitative…

  12. Analyses of microsatellite instability and the transforming growth factor?? receptor type II gene mutation in sporadic breast cancer and their correlation with clinicopathological features

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuji Tomita; Shigeru Deguchi; Takao Miyaguni; Yoshihiro Muto; Tohru Tamamoto; Takayoshi Toda

    1999-01-01

    To determine the incidence of microsatellite instability (MSI) and its relationship with both clinicopathologic parameters and patient survival, 101 cases of breast cancer were investigated. In addition, transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) receptor type II (RII) gene mutation was also examined to clarify the relation to MSI in breast cancer development. MSI and RII gene mutation were screened by single strand

  13. Pediatric diabetes consortium type 1 diabetes new onset (NeOn) study: Factors associated with HbA1c levels one year after diagnosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To identify determinants of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels 1 yr after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in participants in the Pediatric Diabetes Consortium (PDC) T1D New Onset (NeOn) Study. Diabetes-specific as well as socioeconomic factors during the first year following diagnosis were analyze...

  14. [Prevalence, risk factors and genetic characterization of human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in the cities of Ribeirão Preto and São Paulo].

    PubMed

    Kleine Neto, Walter; Sanabani, Sabri Saeed; Jamal, Leda Fátima; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of human T cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 in patients who were positive for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. We evaluated 319 individuals infected with HIV type 1 who were attended at specialized clinics in two cities (Ribeirão Preto and São Paulo). The patients were interviewed and tested for antibodies against HTLV types 1 and 2 (Orthoâ HTLV-1/HTLV-2 Ab-Capture enzyme immunoassay). Direct DNA sequencing of polymerase chain reaction products from the tax region of HTLV type 2 and the long terminal repeat region of HTLV types 1 and 2 were performed to differentiate and determine the subtypes. The overall prevalence of anti-HTLV type 1 and 2 antibodies was 7.5% (24/319; 95% CI: 5.2-11.5). HTLV type 1 and 2 infection was associated with a history of injected drug use and with antibodies for hepatitis C virus (p < 0.001), but not with age (p = 0.2), sex (p = 0.9), sexual behavior or serological markers for sexually transmitted diseases (anti-Treponema pallidum, anti-human herpesvirus type 8 or anti-hepatitis B virus antibodies) (p > 0.05). HTLV DNA was detected in 13 out of 24 samples, of which 12 were characterized as HTLV subtype 2c and one as HTLV subtype 1a. Among the 12 HTLV type 2 samples, seven were from injected drug users, thus indicating that this route is an important risk factor for HTLV type 2 transmission among our population infected with HIV type 1. PMID:19684973

  15. Type I and Type II Error Rates and Overall Accuracy of the Revised Parallel Analysis Method for Determining the Number of Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Samuel B.; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Levy, Roy; Lo, Wen-Juo

    2015-01-01

    Traditional parallel analysis (T-PA) estimates the number of factors by sequentially comparing sample eigenvalues with eigenvalues for randomly generated data. Revised parallel analysis (R-PA) sequentially compares the "k"th eigenvalue for sample data to the "k"th eigenvalue for generated data sets, conditioned on"k"-…

  16. Control of Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease Among Adults with Previously Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Descriptive Study from a Middle Eastern Arab Population

    PubMed Central

    Al-Lawati, Jawad A; N. Barakat, Mohammed; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Elsayed, Medhat K.; Al-Maskari, Masoud; M Al-Lawati, Nawar; Mohammed, Ali Jaffer

    2012-01-01

    Background: Despite the high burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Oman, there are scarce data from a nationally representative sample on the level of glycaemia and other cardiovascular (CVD) risk factor control. Objective: To estimate the proportion of patients with T2DM at goal for glycaemia and CVD risk factors using the National Diabetes Guidelines (NDG) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) clinical care guidelines; and to assess the quality of selected services provided to patients with T2DM. Methods: A sample of 2,551 patients (47% men) aged ?20 years with T2DM treated at primary health care centers was selected. Patient characteristics, medical history and treatment were collected from case notes, Diabetes Registers and computer frameworks including the use of the last 3 laboratory investigations results and blood pressure (BP) readings recorded in 2007. Results: The overall mean age of the cohort was 54±13 years with an average median duration of diabetes of 4 (range 2 to 6) years. Over 80% of patients were overweight or obese (body mass index (BMI) of ?25 Kg/m2). Sixty-nine percent were on oral anti-diabetic medication, 52% on anti-hypertensives and 40% on lipid lowering drugs. Thirty percent of patients were at goal for glycosylated haemoglobin level (<7%), 26% for BP (systolic/diastolic <130/80 mmHg), 55% for total cholesterol (<5.2 mmol/l), 4.5% for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (<1.8 mmol/l), 52% for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (>1 mmol/l for men, >1.3 mmol/l for women), and 61% for triglycerides (<1.7 mmol/l). Over 37% had micro-albuminuria and 5% had diabetic nephropathy. Conclusion: Control of hyperglycaemia and other CVD risk factor appears to be suboptimal in Omani patients with T2DM and need to be addressed in the triad of patient, physician and health system. PMID:23166566

  17. Colony-stimulating factor-1 mediates macrophage-related neural damage in a model for Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 1X

    PubMed Central

    Groh, Janos; Weis, Joachim; Zieger, Hanna; Stanley, E. Richard; Heuer, Heike

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that in models for three distinct forms of the inherited and incurable nerve disorder, Charcot–Marie–Tooth neuropathy, low-grade inflammation implicating phagocytosing macrophages mediates demyelination and perturbation of axons. In the present study, we focus on colony-stimulating factor-1, a cytokine implicated in macrophage differentiation, activation and proliferation and fostering neural damage in a model for Charcot–Marie–Tooth neuropathy 1B. By crossbreeding a model for the X-linked form of Charcot–Marie–Tooth neuropathy with osteopetrotic mice, a spontaneous null mutant for colony-stimulating factor-1, we demonstrate a robust and persistent amelioration of demyelination and axon perturbation. Furthermore, functionally important domains of the peripheral nervous system, such as juxtaparanodes and presynaptic terminals, were preserved in the absence of colony-stimulating factor-1-dependent macrophage activation. As opposed to other Schwann cell-derived cytokines, colony-stimulating factor-1 is expressed by endoneurial fibroblasts, as revealed by in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry and detection of ?-galactosidase expression driven by the colony-stimulating factor-1 promoter. By both light and electron microscopic studies, we detected extended cell–cell contacts between the colony-stimulating factor-1-expressing fibroblasts and endoneurial macrophages as a putative prerequisite for the effective and constant activation of macrophages by fibroblasts in the chronically diseased nerve. Interestingly, in human biopsies from patients with Charcot–Marie–Tooth type 1, we also found frequent cell–cell contacts between macrophages and endoneurial fibroblasts and identified the latter as main source for colony-stimulating factor-1. Therefore, our study provides strong evidence for a similarly pathogenic role of colony-stimulating factor-1 in genetically mediated demyelination in mice and Charcot–Marie–Tooth type 1 disease in humans. Thus, colony-stimulating factor-1 or its cognate receptor are promising target molecules for treating the detrimental, low-grade inflammation of several inherited neuropathies in humans. PMID:22094537

  18. Predicting Changes in Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetes in the Post-UKPDS Era: Longitudinal Analysis of the Swedish National Diabetes Register

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad Kiadaliri, Aliasghar; Clarke, Philip M.; Gerdtham, Ulf-G.; Nilsson, Peter; Eliasson, Björn; Gudbjörnsdottir, Soffia; Steen Carlsson, Katarina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to provide updated time-path equations for risk factors of type-2-diabetes-related cardiovascular complications for application in risk calculators and health economic models. Observational data from the Swedish National Diabetes Register were analysed using Generalized Method of Moments estimation for dynamic panel models (N = 5,043, aged 25–70 years at diagnosis in 2001–2004). Validation was performed using persons diagnosed in 2005 (n = 414). Results were compared with the UKPDS outcome model. The value of the risk factor in the previous year was the main predictor of the current value of the risk factor. People with high (low) values of risk factor in the year of diagnosis experienced a decreasing (increasing) trend over time. BMI was associated with elevations in all risk factors, while older age at diagnosis and being female generally corresponded to lower levels of risk factors. Updated time-path equations predicted risk factors more precisely than UKPDS outcome model equations in a Swedish population. Findings indicate new time paths for cardiovascular risk factors in the post-UKPDS era. The validation analysis confirmed the importance of updating the equations as new data become available; otherwise, the results of health economic analyses may be biased. PMID:23671860

  19. Multi-Faceted Proteomic Characterization of Host Protein Complement of Rift Valley Fever Virus Virions and Identification of Specific Heat Shock Proteins, Including HSP90, as Important Viral Host Factors

    PubMed Central

    Nuss, Jonathan E.; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Benedict, Ashwini; Costantino, Julie; Ward, Michael; Peyser, Brian D.; Retterer, Cary J.; Tressler, Lyal E.; Wanner, Laura M.; McGovern, Hugh F.; Zaidi, Anum; Anthony, Scott M.; Kota, Krishna P.; Bavari, Sina; Hakami, Ramin M.

    2014-01-01

    Rift Valley fever is a potentially fatal disease of humans and domestic animals caused by Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Infection with RVFV in ruminants can cause near 100% abortion rates and recent outbreaks in naïve human populations have suggested case fatality rates of greater than thirty percent. To elucidate the roles that host proteins play during RVFV infection, proteomic analysis of RVFV virions was conducted using complementary analytical approaches, followed by functional validation studies of select identified host factors. Coupling the more traditional Gel LC/MS/MS approach (SDS PAGE followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry) with an alternative technique that preserves protein complexes allowed the protein complement of these viral particles to be thoroughly examined. In addition to viral proteins present within the virions and virion-associated host proteins, multiple macromolecular complexes were identified. Bioinformatic analysis showed that host chaperones were among over-represented protein families associated with virions, and functional experiments using siRNA gene silencing and small molecule inhibitors identified several of these heat shock proteins, including heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), as important viral host factors. Further analysis indicated that HSP inhibition effects occur during the replication/transcription phase of the virus life cycle, leading to significant lowering of viral titers without compromising the functional capacity of released virions. Overall, these studies provide much needed further insight into interactions between RVFV and host cells, increasing our understanding of the infection process and suggesting novel strategies for anti-viral development. In particular, considering that several HSP90 inhibitors have been advancing through clinical trials for cancer treatment, these results also highlight the exciting potential of repurposing HSP90 inhibitors to treat RVF. PMID:24809507

  20. A double-blind, randomized trial, including frequent patient–physician contacts and Ramadan-focused advice, assessing vildagliptin and gliclazide in patients with type 2 diabetes fasting during Ramadan: the STEADFAST study

    PubMed Central

    Hassanein, Mohamed; Abdallah, Khalifa; Schweizer, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Background Several observational studies were conducted with vildagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) fasting during Ramadan, showing significantly lower incidences of hypoglycemia with vildagliptin versus sulfonylureas, including gliclazide. It was of interest to complement the existing real-life evidence with data from a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial. Clinical Trials Identifier NCT01758380. Methods This multiregional, double-blind study randomized 557 patients with T2DM (mean glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c], 6.9%), previously treated with metformin and any sulfonylurea to receive either vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily) or gliclazide plus metformin. The study included four office visits (three pre-Ramadan) and multiple telephone contacts, as well as Ramadan-focused advice. Hypoglycemic events were assessed during Ramadan; HbA1c and weight were analyzed before and after Ramadan. Results The proportion of patients reporting confirmed (<3.9 mmol/L and/or severe) hypoglycemic events during Ramadan was 3.0% with vildagliptin and 7.0% with gliclazide (P=0.039; one-sided test), and this was 6.0% and 8.7%, respectively, for any hypoglycemic events (P=0.173). The adjusted mean change pre- to post-Ramadan in HbA1c was 0.05%±0.04% with vildagliptin and ?0.03%±0.04% with gliclazide, from baselines of 6.84% and 6.79%, respectively (P=0.165). In both groups, the adjusted mean decrease in weight was ?1.1±0.2 kg (P=0.987). Overall safety was similar between the treatments. Conclusion In line with the results from previous observational studies, vildagliptin was shown in this interventional study to be an effective, safe, and well-tolerated treatment in patients with T2DM fasting during Ramadan, with a consistently low incidence of hypoglycemia across studies, accompanied by good glycemic and weight control. In contrast, gliclazide showed a lower incidence of hypoglycemia in the present interventional than the previous observational studies. This is suggested to be linked to the specific circumstances of this study, including frequent patient–physician contacts, Ramadan-focused advice, a recent switch in treatment, and very well-controlled patients, which is different from what is often seen in real life. PMID:24920915

  1. Type A behavior pattern in Japanese employees: Cross-cultural comparison of major factors in Jenkins Activity Survey (JAS) responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junichiro Hayano; Satoshi Takeuchi; Sanae Yoshida; Hajime Jozuka; Norio Mishima; Takao Fujinami

    1989-01-01

    The responses to the Japanese edition of the Jenkins Activity Survey (JAS) (Form C) were analyzed in 1682 male employees of a Japanese enterprise to investigate the characteristics of the Type A behavior pattern (TABP) in Japan. When the occupational level was controlled, the mean values of the Type A score were found to be quite similar to those of

  2. Simultaneous up-regulation of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and uPA receptor by hepatocyte growth factor\\/scatter factor in human glioma cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takuzou Moriyama; Hiroaki Kataoka; Ryouichi Hamasuna; Etsuo Yoshida; Tetsuro Sameshima; Tsutomu Iseda; Kiyotaka Yokogami; Shinichi Nakano; Masashi Koono; Shinichiro Wakisaka

    1999-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that hepatocyte growth factor\\/scatter factor (HGF\\/SF) and its receptor, c-Met, may play\\u000a an important role in progression of human glioma. In this study, effects of HGF\\/SF on urokinase- type plasminogen activator\\u000a (uPA)-mediated proteolysis network were examined in c-Met-positive human glioma cell lines. Treatment of the glioma cells\\u000a with various concentrations of HGF\\/SF resulted in an

  3. The effect of cardiovascular risk factors on the longitudinal evolution of the carotid intima medial thickness in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Dalla Pozza; Andreas Beyerlein; Claude Thilmany; Claudia Weissenbacher; Heinrich Netz; Heinrich Schmidt; Susanne Bechtold

    2011-01-01

    Background  Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a generally accepted atherogenic risk factor. The aim of this prospective longitudinal study was\\u000a to evaluate changes in carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM)\\u000a using standardized methods.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We re-evaluated cIMT in 70 (38 f) of initial 150 (80 f) patients with T1DM after 4 years. At

  4. Transforming growth factor-? type I receptor\\/ALK5 contributes to doxazosin-induced apoptosis in H9C2 cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-Fan Yang; Chau-Chung Wu; Wen-Pin Chen; Ming-Jai Su

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism of doxazosin-induced apoptosis through ?1-adrenoceptor-independent pathway has been reported in various types of cell models. However, the molecular events involved\\u000a in this effect are still not fully discovered. In present study, we proposed that the transforming growth factor-? type I\\u000a receptor (T?RI\\/ALK5) may contribute to the doxazosin-induced apoptosis in H9C2 cardiomyoblasts. Via the detection of cell\\u000a viability, apoptotic

  5. Hypoxia upregulates adhesion ability to peritoneum through a transforming growth factor-beta-dependent mechanism in diffuse-type gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Noda, Satoru; Yashiro, Masakazu; Nshii, Takafumi; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2010-03-01

    Gastric cancer cells leaving the primary tumour are exposed to low oxygen levels in the peritoneal cavity; however, peritoneal metastatic phenotypes of hypoxic cancer cells remain unclear. We used 6 gastric cancer cell lines, including 3 diffuse-type gastric cancer (DGC) and 3 non-DGC cell lines. Using adhesion assay, we examined the effect of hypoxic conditions on their ability to adhere to peritoneal components. The expression level of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and integrins mRNA of cancer cells was examined using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. We further examined the effect of anti-integrin neutralising antibodies and a TGF-beta receptor inhibitor on the adhesion ability of hypoxic cancer cells. The binding ability of DGC cells was higher than that of non-DGC cells; it was significantly increased by hypoxic (1% O2) conditions compared to normoxic (21% O2) conditions. In contrast, no remarkable change in adhesion ability was observed in the non-DGC cells under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Integrins and TGF-beta expression of hypoxic DGC cells was significantly higher than that of normoxic cells. TGF-beta increased the adhesion ability and alpha2-, alpha3- and alpha5-integrin expression of hypoxic DGC cells, whereas the TGF-beta receptor inhibitor decreased them. Neutralising antibodies against alpha2-, alpha3- and alpha5-integrin inhibited the adhesion ability of DGC cells. These findings suggested that hypoxic conditions promote the adhesion of DGC cells to the peritoneum. The upregulation of alpha2-, alpha3- and alpha5-integrin by TGF-beta under hypoxic conditions may be one of the mechanisms responsible for the high metastatic potential of hypoxic DGC cells to the peritoneum. PMID:20144860

  6. Nature and prevalence of risk factors associated to type B and C acute viral hepatitis cases in Bucharest, 1998-2000.

    PubMed

    Ion-Nedelcu, N; Velea, L; Ulmeanu, V; Dragomirescu, C; Dumitrache-Marian, R; Gherasim, P; Iord?chescu, C; Mihailovici, R; Radu, L

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to calculate and report the prevalence of probable risk factors involved in the transmission of pathogenic agents among type B and C acute viral hepatitis cases confirmed in Bucharest (1998-2000). The standardized values of the risks detected in the 45-180 days preceding the onset of illness suggest that in both types of acute viral hepatitis considered in our study transmission associated to the individuals' behaviour (19.0%-hepatitis B and 20.1%-hepatitis C) seems more frequent than "iatrogenic" transmission; in case of hepatitis B, sexual contacts with more than one partner coming first (15.7%), whilst in case of hepatitis C the use of i.v. drugs (heroine) was most frequently incriminated (12.4%). The study reviews the present knowledge of the risk factors involved in the transmission of the disease and approaches prevention strategies. PMID:11850898

  7. Evaluation of environmental and physiological factors of a whole ceiling-type air conditioner using a salivary biomarker

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yusuke Tahara; Naomi Morito; Hajime Nishimiya; Hideyuki Yamagishi; Masaki Yamaguchi

    2009-01-01

    In order to improve environmental condition such as humidity and airflow in living spaces, a whole ceiling-type air conditioner is proposed. This novel air conditioner exhaust dispersed airflow from the whole ceiling by using a 3-dimensional knit fabric. The purpose of this paper is to reveal the effects when controlling humidity and airflow using the whole ceiling-type air conditioner compared

  8. Impact of tissue type and content of neoplastic cells of samples on the quality of epidermal growth factor receptor mutation analysis among patients with lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    PALIOGIANNIS, PANAGIOTIS; ATTENE, FEDERICO; COSSU, ANTONIO; DEFRAIA, EFISIO; PORCU, GIUSEPPE; CARTA, ANNAMARIA; SOTGIU, MARIA IGNAZIA; PAZZOLA, ANTONIO; CORDERO, LORENZO; CAPELLI, FRANCESCA; FADDA, GIOVANNI MARIA; ORTU, SALVATORE; SOTGIU, GIOVANNI; PALOMBA, GRAZIA; SINI, MARIA CRISTINA; PALMIERI, GIUSEPPE; COLOMBINO, MARIA

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutational status has become crucial in recent years in the molecular classification of patients with lung cancer. The impact of the type and quantity of malignant cells of the neoplastic specimen on the quality of mutation analysis remains to be elucidated, and only empirical and sporadic data are available. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of tissue type and content of neoplastic cells in the specimen on the quality of EGFR mutation analysis among patients with lung adenocarcinoma. A total of 515 patients with histologically-confirmed disease were included in the present study. Formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue samples were used for the mutation analysis and the content of the neoplastic cells was evaluated using light microscopy. Genomic DNA was isolated using a standard protocol. The coding sequences and splice junctions of exons 18, 19 and 21 in the EGFR gene were then screened for mutations by direct automated sequencing. The mean age of the patients examined was 64.9 years and 357 (69.3%) were male. A total of 429 tissue samples (83.3%) were obtained by biopsy and the remaining samples were obtained by surgery. A total of 456 samples (88.5%) were observed from primary lung adenocarcinomas, while 59 (11.5%) were from metastatic lesions. EGFR mutations occurred in 59 cases (11.5%); exon 18 mutations were detected in one case (1.7%), whereas exon 19 and 21 mutations were detected in 30 (51%) and 28 (47.3%) cases, respectively. EGFR mutations were more frequent in females and patients that had never smoked. The distribution of the mutations among primary and metastatic tissues exhibited no significant differences in the proportions of EGFR mutations detected. However, a statistically significant difference in the number of mutations detected was found between samples with at least 50% of neoplastic cells (450 cases-57 mutations; 12.7%) and those with <50% of neoplastic cells (65 cases-2 mutations; 3.1%). PMID:25683726

  9. trans activation by the full-length E2 proteins of human papillomavirus type 16 and bovine papillomavirus type 1 in vitro and in vivo: cooperation with activation domains of cellular transcription factors.

    PubMed Central

    Ushikai, M; Lace, M J; Yamakawa, Y; Kono, M; Anson, J; Ishiji, T; Parkkinen, S; Wicker, N; Valentine, M E; Davidson, I

    1994-01-01

    Papillomaviral E2 genes encode proteins that regulate viral transcription. While the full-length bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) E2 peptide is a strong trans activator, the homologous full-length E2 product of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) appeared to vary in function in previous studies. Here we show that when expressed from comparable constructs, the full-length E2 products of HPV-16 and BPV-1 trans activate a simple E2- and Sp1-dependent promoter up to approximately 100-fold in human keratinocytes and other epithelial cells as well as human and animal fibroblasts. Vaccinia virus-expressed, purified full-length HPV-16 and BPV-1 E2 proteins bound a consensus E2 site with high specific affinities (Kd = approximately 10(-9) M) and stimulated in vitro transcription up to six- to eightfold. In vivo and in vitro trans activation by either E2 protein required cooperation with another activator, such as Sp1, or other factors that interact with papillomavirus promoters, such as AP-1, Oct-1, nuclear factor 1/CTF, transcriptional enhancer factor 1, or USF. The glutamine-rich domain B of Sp1 or the mutually unrelated activation domains of other transcription factors were necessary and sufficient for cooperation with either E2 factor. We conclude that like BPV-1 E2, the HPV-16 E2 protein has the potential to function as a strong activator of viral gene expression in cooperation with cellular transcription factors. Images PMID:8083999

  10. Relationships between Myers-Briggs type indicator measure of psychological type and neo measure of big five personality factors in Polish University students: a preliminary cross-cultural comparison.

    PubMed

    Tobacyk, Jerome J; Livingston, Mary M; Robbins, James E

    2008-10-01

    English-language versions of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Form G) measure of psychological type and the NEO-FFI measure of the Big Five personality factors were completed by 57 Polish university students fluent in the English language. The pattern of correlations between MBTI and NEO-FFI scales for the Polish sample was compared to the pattern of correlations for measures of these same constructs reported for Americans. Four of the five significant relationships between MBTI and NEO-FFI scales reported in the American sample were also recorded in the Polish sample: MBTI Extraversion-Introversion with NEO Extraversion, MBTI Sensing-Intuition and MBTI Judging-Perceiving with NEO-Openness, and MBTI Judging-Perceiving with NEO Conscientiousness. Pending replication with a larger, more representative sample, this preliminary study supports the validity of psychological type in Polish society. PMID:19102483

  11. Activating transcription factor 6 poly morphisms and haplotypes ars associated with impaired glucose homeostasis ans type 2 diabetis in dutch Caucasians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Meex; M. M. J. Greevenbroek; T. A. Ayoubi; R. Vlietinck; J. V. Vliet-Ostaptchouk; M. H. Hofker; V. Vermeulen; C. G. Schalkwijk; E. J. M. Feskens; J. M. A. Boer; C. D. A. Stehouwer; Kallen van der C. J. H; Bruin de T. W. A

    2007-01-01

    Context: Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) is critical for initiation and full activation of the unfolded protein response. An association between genetic variation in ATF6 and type 2 diabetes (DM2) was recently reported in Pima Indians. Objectives: To investigate the broader significance of this association for DM2, replication studies in distinct ethic populations are required. We investigated ATF6 for its

  12. A GATA-type transcription factor regulates expression of the high-affinity iron uptake system in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rossella Miele; Donatella Barra; Maria Carmela Bonaccorsi di Patti

    2007-01-01

    The ferroxidase Fet3 and the permease Ftr1 constitute a well-conserved high-affinity iron uptake system in yeast. We have investigated the mechanism of transcriptional regulation of Fet3 in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Isolation and functional analysis of the Fet3 promoter indicate that a GATA sequence element plays a role in iron-dependent expression of Fet3. A GATA-type transcription factor, which we

  13. Expression of Rod-Derived Cone Viability Factor: Dual Role of CRX in Regulating Promoter Activity and Cell-Type Specificity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophie Lambard; Sacha Reichman; Cynthia Berlinicke; Marie-Laure Niepon; Olivier Goureau; José-Alain Sahel; Thierry Léveillard; Donald J. Zack

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundRdCVF and RdCVF2, encoded by the nucleoredoxin-like genes NXNL1 and NXNL2, are trophic factors with therapeutic potential that are involved in cone photoreceptor survival. Studying how their expression is regulated in the retina has implications for understanding both their activity and the mechanisms determining cell-type specificity within the retina.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsIn order to define and characterize their promoters, a series of

  14. Racial and ethnic disparities in the control of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Southwest American veterans with type 2 diabetes: the Diabetes Outcomes in Veterans Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher S Wendel; Jayendra H Shah; William C Duckworth; Richard M Hoffman; M Jane Mohler; Glen H Murata

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Racial\\/ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease complications have been observed in diabetic patients. We examined the association between race\\/ethnicity and cardiovascular disease risk factor control in a large cohort of insulin-treated veterans with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional observational study at 3 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers in the American Southwest. Using electronic pharmacy databases, we randomly selected

  15. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II mRNA Binding Protein 1 Associates with Gag Protein of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1, and Its Overexpression Affects Virus Assembly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongdong Zhou; Liwei Rong; Jennifer Lu; Qinghua Pan; Chen Liang

    2008-01-01

    The assembly of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particles is driven by viral Gag protein. This function of Gag not only benefits from its self-multimerization property but also depends on its interaction with a number of cellular factors such as TSG101 and ALIX\\/AIP1 that promote virus budding and release from cell surfaces. However, interaction with Gag also allows some

  16. CAZFP1 , Cys 2 \\/His 2 -type zinc-finger transcription factor gene functions as a pathogen-induced early-defense gene in Capsicum annuum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang Hee Kim; Jeum Kyu Hong; Sung Chul Lee; Kee Hoon Sohn; Ho Won Jung; Byung Kook Hwang

    2004-01-01

    A pepper zinc-finger protein gene, CAZFP1, encoding the Cys2\\/His2-type zinc-finger transcription factor was isolated from pepper leaves inoculated with an avirulent strain Bv5-4a of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. The CAZFP1 protein is a nuclear targeting protein, which functions as a transcriptional regulator. The full-length CAZFP1 had no transcriptional activation activity, whereas the C-terminal region of CAZFP1 had transactivation activity. The

  17. CAZFP1 , Cys 2 \\/His 2 -type zinc-finger transcription factor gene functions as a pathogen-induced early-defense gene in Capsicum annuum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang Hee Kim; Jeum Kyu Hong; Sung Chul Lee; Kee Hoon Sohn; Ho Won Jung; Byung Kook Hwang

    2004-01-01

    Apepper zinc-finger protein gene, CAZFP1, encoding the Cys2\\/His2-type zinc-finger transcription factor was isolated from pepper leaves inoculated with an avirulent strain Bv5-4a of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. The CAZFP1 protein is a nuclear targeting protein, which functions as a transcriptional regulator. The full-length CAZFP1 had no transcriptional activation activity, whereas the C-terminal region of CAZFP1 had transactivation activity. The CAZFP1

  18. The big five versus the big four: the relationship between the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and NEO-PI five factor model of personality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian Furnham

    1996-01-01

    This study sets out examine the relationship between two personality measures—most popularly used measure in the consultancy and training world (the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) and one of the most heavily used measures in the academic research area on personality (the five factor NEO-PI). One hundred and sixty adults completed the NEO-PI and the MBTI. The NEO-PI Agreeableness score was correlated

  19. Mediating factors in martial arts and combat sports: an analysis of the type of martial art, characteristics, and social background of young participants.

    PubMed

    Vertonghen, Jikkemien; Theeboom, Marc; Pieter, Willy

    2014-02-01

    To date, most studies regarding the social-psychological effects of martial arts and combat sports (MA&CS) on young people focus on measuring effects without considering mediating factors. The aim of the present study was to analyze three mediating factors that might be influential when examining outcomes of MA&CS for youth (i.e., the type of MA&CS, participants' characteristics, and social background). Young MA&CS participants (N = 477, M age = 14.0 yr., SD = 2.13) practicing judo, aikido, kick-/Thai boxing or karate, as well as their parents (N = 307), were assessed in terms of their goal orientations, aggressiveness, psychosocial behavior, and social background. It was concluded that differences exist in the characteristics and social background of participants depending on the type of MA&CS being practiced. The fact that differences in these mediating factors can be identified indicates that in future research these and possible other mediating factors should be considered when trying to determine social-psychological outcomes of MA&CS. PMID:24724512

  20. The Value "Social Responsibility" as a Motivating Factor for Adolescents' Readiness to Participate in Different Types of Political Actions, and Its Socialization in Parent and Peer Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Based on a sample of tetrads (N = 839), including 16 year-old adolescents, their mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends, it was analyzed in which way the value social responsibility is related to adolescents' readiness for different types of political participation. Results showed that social responsibility was positively linked to readiness for…

  1. Factors Predicting the Type of Tactics Used to Resist Sexual Assault: A Prospective Study of College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turchik, Jessica A.; Probst, Danielle R.; Chau, Minna; Nigoff, Amy; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine how women's intentions, as well as psychological and situational factors, predicted the actual use of resistance tactics in response to a sexual assault situation over a 2-month follow-up period. Twenty-eight percent of the 378 undergraduate women who participated at the baseline assessment and…

  2. Repression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 through the novel cooperation of human factors YY1 and LSF.

    PubMed Central

    Romerio, F; Gabriel, M N; Margolis, D M

    1997-01-01

    A subpopulation of stably infected CD4+ cells capable of producing virus upon stimulation has been identified in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals (T.-W. Chun, D. Finzi, J. Margolick, K. Chadwick, D. Schwartz, and R. F. Siliciano, Nat. Med. 1:1284-1290, 1995). Few host factors that directly limit HIV-1 transcription and could support this state of nonproductive HIV-1 infection have been described. YY1, a widely distributed human transcription factor, is known to inhibit HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) transcription and virus production. LSF (also known as LBP-1, UBP, and CP-2) has been shown to repress LTR transcription in vitro, but transient expression of LSF has no effect on LTR activity in vivo. We report that both YY1 and LSF participate in the formation of a complex that recognizes the initiation region of the HIV-1 LTR. Further, we have found that these factors cooperate in the repression of LTR expression and viral replication. This cooperative function may account for the divergent effects of LSF previously observed in vitro and in vivo. Thus, the cooperation of two general cellular transcription factors may allow for the selective downregulation of HIV transcription. Through this mechanism of gene regulation, YY1 and LSF could contribute to the establishment and maintenance of a population of cells stably but nonproductively infected with HIV-1. PMID:9371597

  3. MBTI Personality Type and Other Factors that Relate to Preference for Online versus Face-to-Face Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Rick; Loffredo, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Online college classes are being offered at a rate that far exceeds the growth of overall higher education classes. However, much can still be learned about how to create a better online classroom environment by determining why a large percentage of students continue to prefer face-to-face classes. One factor among many that may have an influence…

  4. A factor that regulates the class II major histocompatibility complex gene DPA is a member of a subfamily of zinc finger proteins that includes a Drosophila developmental control protein.

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara, M; Scholl, T; Ponath, P D; Strominger, J L

    1994-01-01

    A novel DNA sequence element termed the J element involved in the regulated expression of class II major histocompatibility complex genes was recently described. To study this element and its role in class II gene regulation further, a cDNA library was screened with oligonucleotide probes containing both the S element and the nearby J element of the human DPA gene. Several DNA clones were obtained by this procedure, one of which, clone 18, is reported and characterized here. It encodes a protein predicted to contain 688 amino acid residues, including 11 zinc finger motifs of the C2H2 type in the C-terminal region, that are Krüppel-like in the conservation of the H/C link sequence connecting them. The 160 N-terminal amino acids in the nonfinger region of clone 18 are highly homologous with similar regions of several other human, mouse, and Drosophila sequences, defining a subfamily of Krüppel-like zinc finger proteins termed TAB (tramtrack [ttk]-associated box) here. One of the Drosophila sequences, ttk, is a developmental control gene, while a second does not contain a zinc finger region but encodes a structure important in oocyte development. An acidic activation domain is located between the N-terminal conserved region of clone 18 and its zinc fingers. This protein appears to require both the S and J elements, which are separated by 10 bp for optimal binding. Antisense cDNA to clone 18 inhibited the expression of a reporter construct containing the DPA promoter, indicating its functional importance in the expression of this class II gene. Images PMID:7969177

  5. Interferon. beta. /sub 2//B-cell stimulatory factor type 2 shares identity with monocyte-derived hepatocyte-stimulating factor and regulates the major acute phase protein response in liver cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gauldie, J.; Richards, C.; Harnish, D.; Lansdorp, P.; Baumann, H.

    1987-10-01

    One of the oldest and most preserved of the homeostatic responses of the body to injury is the acute phase protein response associated with inflammation. The liver responds to hormone-like mediators by the increased synthesis of a series of plasma proteins called acute phase reactants. In these studies, the authors examined the relationship of hepatocyte-stimulating factor derived from peripheral blood monocytes to interferon ..beta../sub 2/ (IFN-..beta../sub 2/), which has been cloned. Antibodies raised against fibroblast-derived IFN-..beta.. having neutralizing activity against both IFN-..beta../sub 1/ and ..beta../sub 2/ inhibited the major hepatocyte-stimulating activity derived from monocytes. Fibroblast-derived mediator elicited the identical stimulated response in human HepG2 cells and primary rat hepatocytes as the monocyte cytokine. Finally, recombinant-derived human B-cell stimulatory factor type 2 (IFN-..beta../sub 2/) from Escherichia coli induced the synthesis of all major acute phase proteins studied in human hepatoma HepG2 and primary rat hepatocyte cultures. These data demonstrate that monocyte-derived hepatocyte-stimulating factor and IFN-..beta../sub 2/ share immunological and functional identity and that IFN-..beta../sub 2/, also known as B-cell stimulatory factor and hybridoma plasmacytoma growth factor, has the hepatocyte as a major physiologic target and thereby is essential in controlling the hepatic acute phase response.

  6. Environmental Factors in the Stress Corrosion Cracking of Type 316L Stainless Steel and Alloy 825 in Chloride Solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Cragnolino; N. Sridhar; D. S. Dunn

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental studies conducted to date to investigate the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of candidate container materials for the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The effects of environmental variables, such as chloride concentration, the addition of thiosulfate, and temperature on the SCC susceptibility of type 316L, stainless steel (SS) and alloy 825 (Ni-29%

  7. Type D personality is associated with increased levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-? and TNF-? receptors in chronic heart failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viviane M. Conraads; Johan Denollet; Luc S. De Clerck; Wim J. Stevens; Chris Bridts; Christiaan J. Vrints

    2006-01-01

    BackgroundPro-inflammatory cytokines and their circulating receptors are powerful predictors of poor outcome in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). We hypothesized that Type D personality, known to independently predict long-term mortality in patients with coronary heart disease, would relate to immune activation in CHF.

  8. Benefits of modest weight loss in improving cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese individuals with Type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Overweight and obese individuals are encouraged to lose 5–10% of their body weight to improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but data supporting this recommendation are limited, particularly for individuals with type 2 diabetes. We conducted an observational analysis of participants in the Look ...

  9. Genetic Parameters and Environmental Factors Associated with Type Traits Scored on an Ordered Scale During First Lactation1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. Smith; F. R. Allaire; W. R. Taylor; H. E. Kaeser; J. Conley

    1985-01-01

    Sixty subjective and linearized type data were recorded on 7375 first lactation Holstein cows. Data were analyzed by paternal half-sister analysis for genetic parameters. One hundred and six sires were represented. Two kinds of herit- ability estimates were obtained; the first was a method 3-derived estimate for the raw scale and the second was a \\

  10. An Investigation of the Problematic Internet Use of Teacher Candidates Based on Personality Types, Shyness and Demographic Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Ebru; Kaymak Ozmen, Suna

    2011-01-01

    Researches proved that a new psychological disorder of problematic Internet use was associated with individual characteristics as loneliness, shyness, anxiety, depression, personality type, and self-cognition. But there appears to be little consensus about Problematic Internet Use disorder. Consequently the aim of study was to investigate…

  11. Factors Predicting the Type of Tactics Used to Resist Sexual Assault: A Prospective Study of College Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica A. Turchik; Danielle R. Probst; Minna Chau; Amy Nigoff; Christine A. Gidycz

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine how women's intentions, as well as psychological and situational factors, predicted the actual use of resistance tactics in response to a sexual assault situation over a 2-month follow-up period. Twenty-eight percent of the 378 undergraduate women who participated at the baseline assessment and returned for the follow-up session 8 weeks later

  12. IN1130, a novel transforming growth factor-? type I receptor kinase (ALK5) inhibitor, suppresses renal fibrosis in obstructive nephropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J-A Moon; H-T Kim; I-S Cho; Y Y Sheen; D-K Kim

    2006-01-01

    The transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) plays a central role in the progression of renal fibrosis. TGF-? transduces its signal through the activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)5. IN-1130, a novel small molecule ALK5 inhibitor, inhibited the purified kinase domain of ALK5-mediated Smad3 phosphorylation with an IC50 value of 5.3 nM. IN-1130 proved to be highly selective in a panel of 27 serine\\/threonine

  13. Von Willebrand Factor, ADAMTS13 and D-Dimer Are Correlated with Different Levels of Nephropathy in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Domingueti, Caroline Pereira; Dusse, Luci Maria S.; Fóscolo, Rodrigo Bastos; Reis, Janice Sepúlveda; Annichino-Bizzacchi, Joyce Maria; Orsi, Fernanda Loureiro de Andrade; Mazetto, Bruna de Moraes; Carvalho, Maria das Graças; Gomes, Karina Braga; Fernandes, Ana Paula

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated whether von Willebrand factor, ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13), and D-Dimer were associated with different levels of renal function in patients with type 1 diabetes. Patients were classified according to level of renal function through estimated glomerular filtration rate: ?90 and <130mL/min/1,73m2, n=52 (control group), ?60 and <90mL/min/1,73m2, n=29 (mild renal dysfunction group), <60mL/min/1,73m2, n=28 (severe renal dysfunction group); and through urinary albumin excretion: normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria. Von Willebrand factor, ADAMTS13, and D-Dimer plasma levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. ADAMTS13 activity was determined by fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay. Von Willebrand factor levels were increased in patients with mild (P=0.001) and severe (P<0.001) renal dysfunction as compared to the control group. ADAMTS13 levels were also increased in mild (P=0.029) and severe (P=0.002) renal dysfunction groups in comparison to the control group, while ADAMTS13 activity was increased only in the severe renal dysfunction group as compared to the control group (P=0.006). No significant differences were observed among the groups regarding von Willebrand factor/ADAMTS13 ratio. ADAMTS13 activity/ADAMTS13 levels ratio was reduced in patients with mild (P=0.013) and severe (P=0.015) renal dysfunction as compared to the control group. D-Dimer levels were increased in patients with mild (P=0.006) and severe (P<0.001) renal dysfunction as compared to the control group; it was also higher in patients with severe renal dysfunction as compared to the mild renal dysfunction group (P=0.019). Similar results were found for albuminuria classification. Increased von Willebrand factor, ADAMTS13, and D-Dimer levels and decreased ADAMTS13 activity/ADAMTS13 levels ratio are associated with renal dysfunction in patients with type 1 diabetes, suggesting that endothelial dysfunction and hypercoagulability are associated with nephropathy in type 1 diabetes. PMID:26168189

  14. Analysis of Risk Factors for Acute Kidney Injury after Ascending Aortic Replacement Combined with Open Placement of Triple-Branched Stent Graft in Type A Aortic Dissection: A New Technique versus the Traditional Method in a Single Chinese Center

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Zhihuang; Chen, Liangwan; Cao, Hua; Zhang, Guican; Xu, Fan; Chen, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to analyze the risk factors and prognosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) after aortic arch repair in type A aortic dissection. Material/Methods We included 155 patients undergoing arch repair surgery for type A aortic dissection from January 2009 to January 2014 in our hospital. Ninety-three patients underwent ascending aortic replacement combined with open placement of triple-branched stent graft and 62 underwent arch replacement with 4-branched Dacron graft combined with stented elephant trunk implantation into the descending aorta. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression were performed to evaluate possible parameters associated with AKI according to the AKI Network (AKIN). Results Postoperative AKI occurred in 56 patients, with a morbidity of 36.13%. Advanced age (OR=2.32 per decade, 95% CI; range, 1.47–3.67); aortic arch replacement with 4-branched Dacron graft combined with stented elephant trunk implantation (OR=3.29, 95% CI; range, 1.12–9.67); cardiopulmonary bypass time >180 min (OR=3.91, 95% CI; range, 1.35–11.35) and packed red blood cells >10 U (OR=4.88, 95% CI; range, 2.03–11.76) were independent risk factors. Conclusions AKI is a complication after arch repair in type A aortic dissection. Advanced age; aortic arch replacement with 4-branched Dacron graft combined with stented elephant trunk implantation; cardiopulmonary bypass time >180 min; and packed red blood cells >10 U were independent risk factors for AKI. Ascending aortic replacement combined with open triple-branched stent graft placement could reduce the occurrence of AKI and protect renal function. PMID:25737240

  15. Role of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in Obesity, Insulin Resistance, Type 2 Diabetes, and Associated Hepatic Co-Morbidities: A Comprehensive Review of Human and Rodent Studies

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Martine C.; Kleemann, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a chronic low-grade inflammatory state that drives the ­development of obesity-related co-morbidities such as insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and cardiovascular disease. This metabolic inflammation is thought to originate in the adipose tissue, which becomes inflamed and insulin resistant when it is no longer able to expand in response to excess caloric and nutrient intake. The production of inflammatory mediators by dysfunctional adipose tissue is thought to drive the development of more complex forms of disease such as type 2 diabetes and NAFLD. An important factor that may contribute to metabolic inflammation is the cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). Increasing evidence suggests that MIF is released by adipose tissue in obesity and that it is also involved in metabolic and inflammatory processes that underlie the development of obesity-related pathologies. This review provides a comprehensive summary of our current knowledge on the role of MIF in obesity, its production by adipose tissue, and its involvement in the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and NAFLD. We discuss the main findings from recent clinical studies in obese subjects and weight-loss intervention studies as well as results from clinical studies in patients with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we summarize findings from experimental disease models studying the contribution of MIF in obesity and insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and hepatic lipid accumulation and fibrosis. Although many of the findings support a pro-inflammatory role of MIF in disease development, recent reports also provide indications that MIF may exert protective effects under certain conditions.

  16. Environmental factors in the stress corrosion cracking of type 316L stainless steel and alloy 825 in chloride solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Cragnolino, G.; Dunn, D.S.; Sridhar, N. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes the experimental studies conducted to date to investigate the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of candidate container materials for the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The effects of environmental variables, such as chloride concentration, the addition of thiosulfate, and temperature on the SCC susceptibility of type 316L, stainless steel (SS) and alloy 825 (Ni-29% Fe-22% Cr-3.0% Mo-2.0% Cu-1.0% Ti) were studied at temperatures from 95 C to 120 C. Results of slow strain rate tests (SSRT) at various potentials were compared to those obtained under constant deflection conditions using U-bend specimens to determine the existence of a critical potential for SCC. While not conclusive, results generated thus far have been consistent with the hypothesis that the repassivation potential for localized corrosion is also the critical potential for SCC in these environments. It was confirmed that alloy 825 was significantly more resistant to SCC than type 316L SS, using both constant deflection tests and SSRT, over a wide range of Cl{sup {minus}} concentrations. In contrast deflection tests, type 316 L SS exhibited cracks above the vapor-solution interface in solutions containing 1,000 ppm Cl{sup {minus}}, indicating that the local environment created as a liquid film on the specimen surface could be more detrimental than the bulk environment. SCC of type 316L SS was observed in SSRT only at Cl{sup {minus}} concentrations > {approximately}6 molal, whereas U-bend tests indicated cracking in 0.03 molal Cl{sup {minus}} solutions.

  17. MxiE Regulates Intracellular Expression of Factors Secreted by the Shigella flexneri 2a Type III Secretion System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colleen D. Kane; Raymond Schuch; William A. Day; A. T. Maurelli

    2002-01-01

    The mxi-spa locus on the virulence plasmid of Shigella flexneri encodes components of the type III secretion system. mxiE, a gene within this locus, encodes a protein that is homologous to the AraC\\/XylS family of transcriptional regulators, but currently its role in pathogenesis remains undefined. We characterized the virulence phenotype of a nonpolar mxiE mutant and found that this mutant

  18. Identification of the transcription factor ARNTL2 as a candidate gene for the type 1 diabetes locus Idd6

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Shiu Hung; Philip Avner; Ute Christine Rogner

    2006-01-01

    The Idd6 murine type 1 diabetes locus has been shown to control diabetes by regulating the protective activity of the peripheral immune system, as demonstrated by diabetes transfer assays using splenocytes. The analysis of three novel subcongenic (NOD.C3H nonobese. C3H) diabetes strains has confirmed the pre- sence of at least two diabetes-related genes within the 5.8 Mb Idd6 interval with

  19. Comprehensive Investigation of Important Factors Governing Metal-Ion Adsorption by an H-Type Granular Activated Carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. PAUL CHEN; MINSHENG LIN

    2000-01-01

    A comprehensive experimental investigation of metal ion adsorption by Filtrasorb 200, an H-type activated carbon, was carried out. Potentiometric titration of the carbon showed that surface charge was increased with a decrease in pH. Its absolute value increased with an increase in ionic strength. Higher pH and ionic strength and lower initial concentration increased the metal-ion removal percentage. The removal

  20. cag, a Pathogenicity Island of Helicobacter pylori, Encodes Type I-Specific and Disease-Associated Virulence Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Censini; Christina Lange; Zhaoying Xiang; Jean E. Crabtree; Paolo Ghiara; Mark Borodovsky; Rino Rappuoli; Antonello Covacci

    1996-01-01

    cagA, a gene that codes for an immunodominant antigen, is present only in Helicobacter pylori strains that are associated with severe forms of gastroduodenal disease (type I strains). We found that the genetic locus that contains cagA (cag) is part of a 40-kb DNA insertion that likely was acquired horizontally and integrated into the chromosomal glutamate racemase gene. This pathogenicity

  1. Environmental factors in the stress corrosion cracking of type 316L stainless steel and alloy 825 in chloride solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Cragnolino, G.; Dunn, D.; Sridhar, N. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes the experimental studies conducted to date to investigate the stress corrosion cracking of candidate container materials for the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The effects of environmental variables, such as chloride concentration, the addition of thiosulfate, and temperature, on the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of type 316L stainless steel and alloy 825 (Ni29Fe-22Cr-3.0Mo-2.0Cu-1.0Ti) were studied at temperatures ranging from 95 to 120 C. Results of slow strain rate tests (SSRT) at various potentials were compared to those obtained under constant deflection conditions using U-bend specimens to determine the existence of a critical potential for stress corrosion cracking. Results generated thus far, while not conclusive, are consistent with the hypothesis that the repassivation potential for localized corrosion is also the critical potential for stress corrosion cracking in these environments. It was confirmed that alloy 825 is significantly more resistant to stress corrosion cracking than type 316L stainless steel using both constant deflection tests and SSRT, over a wide range of chloride concentrations. In constant deflection tests, type 316L stainless steel exhibited cracks above the vapor/solution interface in solutions containing 1,000 ppm chloride, indicating that the local environment created as a liquid film on the specimen surface could be more detrimental than the bulk environment. Stress corrosion cracking of type 316L SS was observed in SSRT only at chloride concentrations above about 6 molal, whereas U-bend tests indicated cracking in 0.03 molar chloride solutions.

  2. Kinetic modeling of Fluorine vacancy/F center creation in LiF:Mg,Ti including vacancy-interstitial recombination: Evaluating the factors leading to the lack of supralinearity in the optical absorption F center concentration dose response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliyahu, I.; Horowitz, Y. S.; Oster, L.; Mardor, I.; Druzhyna, S.; Biderman, S.

    2015-01-01

    Kinetic model simulations of charge carrier transport following irradiation of LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) including Fluorine vacancy/F center creation by the radiation and dose-dependent vacancy-interstitial recombination are presented which describe the experimentally measured linear/exponentially saturating optical absorption dose response of the electron trapping centers at 4.0 eV, 4.77 eV, 5.08 eV (F band) and 5.45 eV. Linear/exponentially saturating dose response is commonly observed for centers which are not created by the radiation. The creation of Fluorine vacancies by the radiation could therefore be expected to lead to a supralinear dose response of the F center before the onset of saturation. Nonetheless, the dose response is linear from 10 Gy to 500 Gy and can be fitted with a dose-filling constant ? = 6.1 · 10-5 Gy-1 corresponding to a 5% and 25% decrease from linearity at 103 Gy and 5 · 103 Gy respectively. The model attempts to resolve a central question concerning the mechanisms leading to the linear/exponentially saturating dose response of the F band even though Fluorine vacancies are being continuously created during the irradiation. The electron-trapping characteristics of the created vacancies are assumed to differ somewhat from the vacancies originally present in un-irradiated samples due to differences in their immediate environment. Vacancy-interstitial recombination for separation distances less than a critical distance, dc is demonstrated to be significant for D > 500 Gy (dc = 36 Å) and is an important mechanism contributing to the F center saturation at high dose-levels. The kinetic model accurately simulates the experimentally observed F center dose response over the entire investigated dose range of 10-105 Gy under the following conditions: (i) The concentration of vacancies initially present is unexpectedly high at ?1023 m-3, possibly due to the highly doped, non-crystalline and hot-pressed nature of the LiF:Mg,Ti samples. (ii) The transition probability, An4o, for electron capture into the initially-present vacancies is ?40 times greater than An4, the transition probability for the radiation-created vacancies. These two factors marginalize the effect of the created vacancies at low dose resulting in a linear dose response.

  3. Perioperative Management of Type 2N Von Willebrand's Disease with Recombinant Factor VIII in a Patient Undergoing Knee-Replacement Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Dukka, Srivasavi; Allsup, David John

    2013-01-01

    Type 2N Von Willebrand's disease (2N VWD) is a rare, recessively inherited bleeding disorder, comprising 1-2% of all VWD patients, usually manifesting as a mild bleeding diathesis. Treatment includes desmopressin (DDAVP) or intermediate purity plasma-derived FVIII concentrates containing residual VWF. We present a case of a 75-year-old gentleman, incidentally diagnosed with type 2N VWD in 2002 on routine blood testing before surgery with an ISTH bleeding score of 1-2, who was treated with recombinant FVIII preoperatively. PMID:23431487

  4. Triiodothyronine regulates angiogenic growth factor and cytokine secretion by isolated human decidual cells in a cell-type specific and gestational age-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Vasilopoulou, E.; Loubière, L.S.; Lash, G.E.; Ohizua, O.; McCabe, C.J.; Franklyn, J.A.; Kilby, M.D.; Chan, S.Y.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Does triiodothyronine (T3) regulate the secretion of angiogenic growth factors and cytokines by human decidual cells isolated from early pregnancy? SUMMARY ANSWER T3 modulates the secretion of specific angiogenic growth factors and cytokines, with different regulatory patterns observed amongst various isolated subpopulations of human decidual cells and with a distinct change between the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Maternal thyroid dysfunction during early pregnancy is associated with complications of malplacentation including miscarriage and pre-eclampsia. T3 regulates the proliferation and apoptosis of fetal-derived trophoblasts, as well as promotes the invasive capability of extravillous trophoblasts (EVT). We hypothesize that T3 may also have a direct impact on human maternal-derived decidual cells, which are known to exert paracrine regulation upon trophoblast behaviour and vascular development at the uteroplacental interface. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This laboratory-based study used human decidua from first (8–11 weeks; n = 18) and second (12–16 weeks; n = 12) trimester surgical terminations of apparently uncomplicated pregnancies. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Primary cultures of total decidual cells, and immunomagnetic bead-isolated populations of stromal-enriched (CD10+) and stromal-depleted (CD10?) cells, uterine natural killer cells (uNK cells; CD56+) and macrophages (CD14+) were assessed for thyroid hormone receptors and transporters by immunocytochemistry. Each cell population was treated with T3 (0, 1, 10, 100 nM) and assessments were made of cell viability (MTT assay) and angiogenic growth factor and cytokine secretion (immunomediated assay). The effect of decidual cell-conditioned media on EVT invasion through Matrigel® was evaluated. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Immunocytochemistry showed the expression of thyroid hormone transporters (MCT8, MCT10) and receptors (TR?1, TR?1) required for thyroid hormone-responsiveness in uNK cells and macrophages from the first trimester. The viability of total decidual cells and the different cell isolates were unaffected by T3 so changes in cell numbers could not account for any observed effects. In the first trimester, T3 decreased VEGF-A secretion by total decidual cells (P < 0.05) and increased angiopoietin-2 secretion by stromal-depleted cells (P < 0.05) but in the second trimester total decidual cells showed only increased angiogenin secretion (P < 0.05). In the first trimester, T3 reduced IL-10 secretion by total decidual cells (P < 0.05), and reduced granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (P < 0.01), IL-8 (P < 0.05), IL-10 (P < 0.01), IL-1? (P < 0.05) and monocyte chemotactic protein -1 (P < 0.001) secretion by macrophages, but increased tumour necrosis factor-? secretion by stromal-depleted cells (P < 0.05) and increased IL-6 by uNK cells (P < 0.05). In contrast, in the second trimester T3 increased IL-10 secretion by total decidual cells (P < 0.01) but did not affect cytokine secretion by uNK cells and macrophages. Conditioned media from first trimester T3-treated total decidual cells and macrophages did not alter EVT invasion compared with untreated controls. Thus, treatment of decidual cells with T3 resulted in changes in both angiogenic growth factor and cytokine secretion in a cell type-specific and gestational age-dependent manner, with first trimester decidual macrophages being the most responsive to T3 treatment, but these changes in decidual cell secretome did not affect EVT invasion in vitro. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Our results are based on in vitro findings and we cannot be certain if a similar response occurs in human pregnancy in vivo. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS Optimal maternal thyroid hormone concentrations could play a critical role in maintaining a balanced inflammatory response in early pregnancy to prevent fetal immune rejection and promote normal placental dev

  5. Photolithographically defined deposition of attachment factors as a versatile method for patterning the growth of different cell types in culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan Rohr; Regula Flückiger-Labrada; Jan P. Kucera

    2003-01-01

    Spatially defined growth of cells in culture is a useful model for studies ranging from the characterization of cellular motility to the analysis of network behaviour in structurally defined ensembles of excitable cells. Current methodological approaches for obtaining patterned growth include sophisticated modifications of surface chemistry, stamping techniques and microfluidics. The implementation of most of these techniques requires the availability

  6. Identification of key factors influencing primary productivity in two river-type reservoirs by using principal component regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeonjung; Ha, Sun-Yong; Park, Hae-Kyung; Han, Myung-Soo; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2015-04-01

    To understand the factors controlling algal production in two lakes located on the Han River in South Korea, Lake Cheongpyeong and Lake Paldang, a principal component regression model study was conducted using environmental monitoring and primary productivity data. Although the two lakes were geographically close and located along the same river system, the main factors controlling primary productivity in each lake were different: hydraulic retention time and light conditions predominantly influenced algal productivity in Lake Cheongpyeong, while hydraulic retention time, chlorophyll a-specific productivity, and zooplankton grazing rate were most important in Lake Paldang. This investigation confirmed the utility of principal component regression analysis using environmental monitoring data for predicting complex biological processes such as primary productivity; in addition, the study also increased the understanding of explicit interactions between environmental variables. The findings obtained in this research will be useful for the adaptive management of water reservoirs. The results will also aid in the development of management strategies for water resources, thereby improving total environmental conservation. PMID:25813033

  7. Different combinations of perceptual, emotional, and cognitive factors predict three different types of delusional ideation during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, Niall D; Manktelow, Ken I; Chen-Wilson, Chao-Hwa; Harris, Rachael A; Nevill, Alan

    2014-09-01

    Although adolescence is a particularly sensitive period for the development of schizotypy (Walker and Bollini [Schizophr Res 54:17-23, 2002]), there has been relatively limited research on the psychological factors that specifically predict delusional beliefs during adolescence. We studied 392 school students aged 11 to 16 years with a battery of behavioral and psychometric measures. Anxiety and negative-other schemas mediated the relationship between hallucinatory experiences and paranoid beliefs; anxiety mediated the relationship between hallucinatory experiences and grandiose beliefs; anxiety and self-negative schemas mediated the relationship between hallucinatory experiences and "other delusions" (Schneiderian/reference/misidentification). Furthermore, a jump-to-conclusions (JTC) bias moderated the relation between anxiety and other delusions: scores in the other delusions category were highest in adolescents who had both high anxiety and a JTC bias. Sex and age had only weak effects upon delusional belief. Our findings provide novel data by highlighting the different factors that underpin three delusional subtypes during the vulnerable period of adolescence. PMID:25099297

  8. Experimental Proof of Voltage-Current Waveform Sensor Output of Resin Molded Type for Measurement of Power Factor and Harmonics in General Power Distribution System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Tatsuya; Hirakawa, Masahito; Fukumoto, Hisao; Yoshino, Shinya; Ohchi, Masashi

    We have proposed the voltage-current sensor of resin molded type for measurement of the power factor and harmonics. To grasp the characteristics of the conventional prototype sensor and the problem in its practical use, we have conducted the finite element analysis for that. There occurred problems on the cost and the practical usage in making use of the sensor consequently. Therefore we have redesigned the prototype sensor, where the current sensor designed based on the FEM and a ready-made voltage sensor have been incorporated. In this paper, we will describe the feasibility field experiment of the present sensor in the practical 6.6kV distribution system and show that the sensor can measure the power factor and harmonics for the horizontal and vertical power line systems successfully.

  9. The upper limit of thermoelectric power factors in the metal-band-insulator crossover of the perovskite-type oxygen deficient system SrTiO(?- ?/?).

    PubMed

    Onoda, Masashige; Tsukahara, Shuichi

    2011-02-01

    The electronic properties and the thermoelectric power factors in the metal-band-insulator crossover of the perovskite-type oxygen deficient system SrTiO(3 - ?/2) with 0.0046 ? ? < 0.06 are explored through measurements of x-ray diffraction, electrical resistivity, thermoelectric power, Hall coefficient and magnetic susceptibility. The metallic transport is confirmed to be basically explained through scattering by electron correlations, acoustic phonons and polar optical phonons, where each scattering coefficient is almost linear in the inverse of the effective carrier concentration estimated from the Hall coefficient. The upper limit of the thermoelectric power factor is 2 × 10( - 3) W m( - 1) K( - 2) with the carrier concentration of 2 × 10(20) cm( - 3) at around the Fermi energy comparable to the Debye temperature. PMID:21406892

  10. Transforming growth factor-beta induced by live or ultraviolet-inactivated equid herpes virus type-1 mediates immunosuppression in the horse.

    PubMed Central

    Charan, S; Palmer, K; Chester, P; Mire-Sluis, A R; Meager, A; Edington, N

    1997-01-01

    Up to 21 days after exposure to live or ultraviolet-inactivated equid herpesvirus type-1 (EHV-1) autologous serum from ponies caused an immunosuppressive effect if incorporated into T-cell proliferation assays to EHV-1. The suppressive factor in the sera of ponies also inhibited T-cell response to phytohaemagglutinin. Increased levels of circulating activated transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) were detected, and the suppressive activity of the serum could be reversed by antibody to TGF-beta 1. In a challenge experiment the ponies which exhibited circulating TGF-beta 1 activity succumbed to infection while the ones with similar magnitudes of T-cell responses, but no TGF-beta 1 activity, were protected. A definition of this immunosuppressive mechanism and its mode of induction must be central to the design of vaccines and to an understanding of the pathogenesis of EHV-1. Images Figure 5 PMID:9176113

  11. Correlation and phonon effects for the electronic transport and thermoelectric power factors in the metal-band-insulator crossover of perovskite-type titanates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masashige Onoda; Ikuo Goto

    2009-01-01

    The structural and electronic properties in the metal-band-insulator crossover of the perovskite-type oxygen deficient system SrTiO3-delta\\/2 and the Sr-rare-earth element substituted systems Sr1-xCexTiO3-deltan\\/2 and Sr1-xLaxTiO3-deltan\\/2, deltan being the nominal value, are explored in order to clarify the transport mechanisms and to determine the thermoelectric power factors, through measurements of the x-ray diffraction, electrical resistivity, thermoelectric power, Hall coefficient and magnetic

  12. Steady State Analysis of Resin Molded Type Voltage-Current Sensor for Real-Time Observation of Power Factor in Power Distribution System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Tatsuya; Ashikawa, Manabu; Ohchi, Masashi

    We have proposed the voltage-current sensor embedded in a ceramic insulator for the real-time observation of the power factor in three-phase power distribution systems and carried out the finite element analysis to investigate its characteristics and verify its feasibility. However, the ceramic sensor has problems in cost and a burning process in manufacturing to result in the deformation from the designed form. In the paper, we propose a resin molded type of voltage-current sensor with dual search coils for the current sensor part based on the finite element analysis and discuss its steady state electromagnetic behaviors theoretically and experimentally.

  13. Comprehensive analysis of rice DREB2 -type genes that encode transcription factors involved in the expression of abiotic stress-responsive genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoko Matsukura; Junya Mizoi; Takumi Yoshida; Daisuke Todaka; Yusuke Ito; Kyonoshin Maruyama; Kazuo Shinozaki; Kazuko Yamaguchi-Shinozaki

    2010-01-01

    DREB2s (dehydration-responsive element-binding protein 2s) are transcription factors that interact with a cis-acting DRE (dehydration-responsive element)\\/CRT (C-repeat) sequence and activate the expression of downstream genes involved\\u000a in water- and heat-shock stress responses and tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of all five DREB2-type genes in rice (OsDREB2\\u000a s: OsDREB2A, OsDREB2B, OsDREB2C, OsDREB2E and OsABI4)

  14. A genetic variation of the transcription factor 7-like 2 gene is associated with risk of type 2 diabetes in the Japanese population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Horikoshi; K. Hara; C. Ito; R. Nagai; P. Froguel; T. Kadowaki

    2007-01-01

    Aims\\/hypothesis  It has been suggested that transcription factor 7-like 2 protein (TCF7L2) plays an important role in glucose metabolism by\\u000a regulating the production level of glucagon-like peptide-1, a hormone which modifies glucose-dependent insulin secretion.\\u000a Recently, variants of TCF7L2 gene were reported to confer an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in three different samples from European and European-origin\\u000a populations. We studied

  15. Peripheral pain is enhanced by insulin-like growth factor 1 through a G protein-mediated stimulation of T-type calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Qin, Wenjuan; Qian, Zhiyuan; Liu, Xingjun; Wang, Hua; Gong, Shan; Sun, Yan-Gang; Snutch, Terrance P; Jiang, Xinghong; Tao, Jin

    2014-10-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is implicated in the nociceptive (pain) sensitivity of primary afferent neurons. We found that the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) functionally stimulated voltage-gated T-type Ca(2+) (CaV3) channels in mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons through a mechanism dependent on heterotrimeric G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein) signaling. IGF-1 increased T-type channel currents in small-diameter DRG neurons in a manner dependent on IGF-1 concentration and IGF-1R but independent of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). The intracellular subunit of IGF-1R coimmunoprecipitated with G?o. Blocking G protein signaling by the intracellular application of guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-?-S or with pertussis toxin abolished the stimulatory effects of IGF-1. Antagonists of protein kinase C? (PKC?), but not of PKC?, abolished the IGF-1-induced T-type channel current increase. Application of IGF-1 increased membrane abundance of PKC?, and PKC? inhibition (either pharmacologically or genetically) abolished the increase in T-type channel currents stimulated by IGF-1. IGF-1 increased action potential firing in DRG neurons and increased the sensitivity of mice to both thermal and mechanical stimuli applied to the hindpaw, both of which were attenuated by intraplantar injection of a T-type channel inhibitor. Furthermore, inhibiting IGF-1R signaling or knocking down CaV3.2 or PKC? in DRG neurons abolished the increased mechanical and thermal sensitivity that mice exhibited under conditions modeling chronic hindpaw inflammation. Together, our results showed that IGF-1 enhances T-type channel currents through the activation of IGF-1R that is coupled to a G protein-dependent PKC? pathway, thereby increasing the excitability of DRG neurons and the sensitivity to pain. PMID:25292213

  16. Localization of type I procollagen gene expression in silica-induced granulomatous lung disease and implication of transforming growth factor-beta as a mediator of fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Mariani, T. J.; Roby, J. D.; Mecham, R. P.; Parks, W. C.; Crouch, E.; Pierce, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    We have used the silica-induced model of pulmonary injury in the rat to study the pattern of collagen expression in granulomatous lung inflammation. A single intratracheal instillation of silica into adult rats resulted in granulomatous inflammation leading to fibrosis and alveolar proteinosis. The development of disease in these animals was characterized over a 27-day period after treatment by means of histological, biochemical, and molecular analyses. Biochemical analyses indicated that significant increases in the weights of silicotic lungs were due to elevated amounts of DNA and total protein. Analysis of hydroxyproline content showed a 15-fold increase in this amino acid in silicotic lungs, confirming the development of a fibrotic reaction. In situ hybridization for type I procollagen mRNA displayed increased gene expression in the parenchyma, conducting airways, and vasculature of silicotic rats. Within the parenchyma, type I procollagen was expressed uniquely within granulomatous lesions. Immunohistochemistry indicated type I procollagen was being expressed by an alpha-smooth muscle actin-negative population of cells. Immunolocalization of extra-cellular transforming growth factor-beta showed coincident temporal and spatial overlap with type I procollagen expression, implicating this cytokine as a mediator of collagen gene expression in this model. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8546202

  17. Haemophilus influenzae type b disease in an Amish population: studies of the effects of genetic factors, immunization, and rifampin prophylaxis on the course of an outbreak.

    PubMed

    Granoff, D M; McKinney, T; Boies, E G; Steele, N P; Oldfather, J; Pandey, J P; Suarez, B K

    1986-03-01

    In 1982, an outbreak of Haemophilus influenzae type b disease occurred in a 379-member Amish community. In an attempt to control the outbreak after the occurrence of the second case of disease, we investigated the combination of (1) rifampin chemoprophylaxis of all carriers of H influenzae type b and their household contacts from 1 month to 5 years of age and (2) H influenzae type b polysaccharide vaccine immunoprophylaxis of all community members 12 months of age and older. Despite our intervention, two additional cases of bacteremic H influenzae type b disease occurred in the ensuing 5 months, one in a 22-month-old infant who had been immunized at 19 months of age and the other in a child who had not been immunized because she was younger than 12 months of age. The outbreak ended following rifampin prophylaxis of all community members younger than 15 years of age. All of the children with disease were genetically related to one another, and three of the four were inbred. However, analysis of their coancestry revealed that neither the average level of kinship nor the average inbreeding level of the affected children differed significantly from those of the other children in the community. Furthermore, none of the four children with disease shared a human leukocyte antigen haplotype. Our observations suggest that inbreeding was not a risk factor in this community.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3485275

  18. Genetic linkage of two intragenic restriction fragment length polymorphisms with von Willebrand's disease type IIA. Evidence for a defect in the von Willebrand factor gene.

    PubMed Central

    Verweij, C L; Quadt, R; Briët, E; Dubbeldam, K; van Ommen, G B; Pannekoek, H

    1988-01-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), using the enzymes Bgl II and Xba I in conjunction with human von Willebrand factor (vWF) cDNA probes, have been described previously. In the present study we demonstrate the localization of both genetic markers within the vWF gene. The RFLPs were used to study the segregation of alleles associated with von Willebrand's disease (vWD) type IIA in a comprehensive, affected family. Individuals of this family were tested for their bleeding time and their plasma was analyzed for vWF antigen concentration and vWF ristocetin-cofactor activity. Based on these data, the affected members were diagnosed as vWD type-IIA patients; this conclusion was confirmed by the analysis of the multimeric vWF pattern of some of the patients. It was demonstrated that both RFLPs are completely linked with the vWD type-IIA trait. From this finding, we conclude that the defect that causes the vWD type IIA is most likely due to a mutation in the vWF gene and not to a mutation in a gene involved in posttranslational processing of the vWF protein. Images PMID:2895123

  19. N-Acetylcysteine Protects Murine Alveolar Type II Cells from Cigarette Smoke Injury in a Nuclear Erythroid 2–Related Factor–2–Independent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Messier, Elise M.; Day, Brian J.; Kleeberger, Steven R.; Tuder, Rubin M.; Bowler, Russell P.; Chu, Hong Wei; Mason, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Emphysema is caused by the cigarette smoke (CS)–induced destruction of alveolar wall septa, and CS is the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To study the mechanisms of response to this insult, we focused on oxidant-induced lung injury and the potential role of nuclear erythroid 2–related factor–2 (Nrf2), which is a key regulator of the antioxidant defense system. We studied the protective role of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against the injury of alveolar type II (ATII) cells induced by CS in vivo and in vitro. ATII cells were isolated and purified using magnetic MicroBeads (Miltenyi Biotec, Auburn, CA) from Nrf2?/? mice and wild-type mice. We analyzed pulmonary injury, inflammation, glutathione (GSH) concentrations, the expression of glutathione cysteine ligase catalytic subunit mRNA, glutathione cysteine ligase modifier subunit mRNA, and glutathione reductase mRNA, and Nrf2, heme oxygenase–1, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate–reduced:quinone oxireductase levels by Western blotting, TUNEL assay, and immunocytofluorescence for 4-hydroxynonenal as a marker of oxidative stress. We found that CS induced greater injury in ATII cells obtained from Nrf2?/? mice than from wild-type mice. Furthermore, NAC attenuated the injuries by CS in ATII cells obtained from wild-type mice both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, NAC decreased the injury of ATII cells obtained from Nrf2?/? mice. Our results suggest that Nrf2–GSH signaling is important for the protective activity of NAC. In addition, in ATII cells deficient in Nrf2, this compound can provide partial protection through its reactive oxygen species–scavenging activities. Targeting the antioxidant system regulated by Nrf2 may provide an effective strategy against lung injury in COPD. PMID:23492188

  20. Are the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Associated With Reduced Risk of Type 2 Diabetes and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors?

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, Daisy; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; He, Ka; Jacobs, David R.; Shikany, James M.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the prospective association between accordance with the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) and subsequent diabetes incidence and changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The sample consisted of 4,381 black and white young adults examined repeatedly from 1985 to 2005. We used the 2005 Diet Quality Index (DQI) to rate participants’ diets based on meeting key dietary recommendations conveyed by the 2005 DGA. RESULTS Overall, we found no association between DQI score and diabetes risk using Cox models adjusted for potential confounders. Higher DQI scores were associated with favorable changes in HDL cholesterol and blood pressure overall (P for trend <0.05), but with increased insulin resistance among blacks (P for trend <0.01). CONCLUSIONS Our findings highlight the need for evaluation of the DGA’s effectiveness, particularly among ethnic minority populations. Clinicians should be aware that following the DGA might not lower diabetes risk. PMID:21478463