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1

Laser Microdissection Unravels Cell-Type-Specific Transcription in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Roots, Including CAAT-Box Transcription Factor Gene Expression Correlating with Fungal Contact and Spread1[W  

PubMed Central

Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) are the most widespread symbioses on Earth, promoting nutrient supply of most terrestrial plant species. To unravel gene expression in defined stages of Medicago truncatula root colonization by AM fungi, we here combined genome-wide transcriptome profiling based on whole mycorrhizal roots with real-time reverse transcription-PCR experiments that relied on characteristic cell types obtained via laser microdissection. Our genome-wide approach delivered a core set of 512 genes significantly activated by the two mycorrhizal fungi Glomus intraradices and Glomus mossae. Focusing on 62 of these genes being related to membrane transport, signaling, and transcriptional regulation, we distinguished whether they are activated in arbuscule-containing or the neighboring cortical cells harboring fungal hyphae. In addition, cortical cells from nonmycorrhizal roots served as a reference for gene expression under noncolonized conditions. Our analysis identified 25 novel arbuscule-specific genes and 37 genes expressed both in the arbuscule-containing and the adjacent cortical cells colonized by fungal hyphae. Among the AM-induced genes specifying transcriptional regulators were two members encoding CAAT-box binding transcription factors (CBFs), designated MtCbf1 and MtCbf2. Promoter analyses demonstrated that both genes were already activated by the first physical contact between the symbionts. Subsequently, and corresponding to our cell-type expression patterns, they were progressively up-regulated in those cortical areas colonized by fungal hyphae, including the arbuscule-containing cells. The encoded CBFs thus represent excellent candidates for regulators that mediate a sequential reprogramming of root tissues during the establishment of an AM symbiosis. PMID:22034628

Hogekamp, Claudia; Arndt, Damaris; Pereira, Patrícia A.; Becker, Jörg D.; Hohnjec, Natalija; Küster, Helge

2011-01-01

2

Factors determining desert dune type  

Microsoft Academic Search

While most observers recognize four elemental types of desert dunes (longitudinal, transverse, barchan and star1-3) there is little agreement about which factors determine these types. The angular relationships between the resultant of sand shifting winds and both the crest and principal slipfaces of the elemental types have been discussed qualitatively for many decades. These relationships have been quantified but the

R. J. Wasson; R. Hyde

1983-01-01

3

Include All 4 Types of Exercise (Endurance, Strength, Balance, Flexibility)  

MedlinePLUS

... nih.gov/Go4Life ENDURANCE FLEXIBILITY STRENGTH BALANCE Include All 4 Types of Exercise Exercise generally falls into ... physical activity plan—this will help you incorporate all four types of exercise into your daily routine. ...

4

INTRODUCTION Embryonic development is sensitive to many factors, including  

E-print Network

1346 INTRODUCTION Embryonic development is sensitive to many factors, including hormones, toxins., 2008; DuRant et al., 2010), behavior (Sakata and Crews, 2003) and even sex determination (Ewert et al is temporally variable (Andrews, 2004) with differentiation (e.g. the establishment of the neuroendocrine axis

Denardo, Dale

5

78 FR 26847 - Including Specific Pavement Types in Federal-aid Highway Traffic Noise Analyses  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Including Specific Pavement Types in Federal-aid Highway Traffic Noise Analyses AGENCY...specific pavement types used in Federal-aid highway traffic noise analyses. Current...include additional pavement types in Federal-aid highway traffic noise analyses....

2013-05-08

6

Important factors included in nondestructive readout of GMR MRAM (abstract)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We proposed a new type of magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM) using a weakly coupled GMR effect. It operates on the general principle of storing a binary digit in hard component and sensing its remanent state by switching the soft component in such a way that the magnetic state of the hard component is unaltered. It is believed that this structure could have nondestructive readout (NDRO) characteristics. However, in experiments we found that NDRO was not always achieved; i.e., NDRO was dependent on the polarity of the excitation field. We take an example for mode ``0'' (corresponding to a + remanent state). Although tests involving 3×108 plus excitation pulses indicated that the element was still stable, stability against minus disturb pulses could not be expected. The remanent state of 0 was degrading gradually and was finally destroyed after nenormous numbers of readout switching. An analytical model, in which the hard component follows the Rayleigh law, can explain the above phenomenon. It is because the irreversible magnetization processes cause disturbed states (0' or 1'). Obviously the worst case for mode 0 is being excited by continous minus pulses whereas the worst case for mode 1 is being excited by continous plus pulses. We think that two methods will be effective to eliminate the unstability. One is to obtain a rectangular hysteresis loop for the hard component. The other is to imporve the excitation method, for example, to employ bipolar pulses for excitation signals.

Nakamura, Y.; Wang, Z.

1996-04-01

7

Lifetime of an emitting dipole near various types of interfaces including magnetic and negative refractive materials  

E-print Network

Lifetime of an emitting dipole near various types of interfaces including magnetic and negative known case of metallic reflectors, but also to magnetic reflectors and to negative refractive index.1063/1.1812742 I. INTRODUCTION The modification of molecular fluorescence near a metal surface has been the subject

Floreano, Dario

8

TNF, TNF receptor type 1, and allograft inflammatory factor-1 gene polymorphisms in Japanese patients with type 1 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class III region, located on chromosome 6p21, has been regarded as one of the susceptible loci for type 1 diabetes. Because it contains many genes related to inflammatory and immune responses, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF), lymphotoxin-? (LT-?), and allograft inflammatory factor 1 (AIF-1) genes, it is unclear which gene within the class III region

Masataka Nishimura; Hiroshi Obayashi; Ikuko Mizuta; Hirokazu Hara; Tetsuo Adachi; Mitsuhiro Ohta; Hisataka Tegoshi; Michiaki Fukui; Goji Hasegawa; Hirofumi Shigeta; Yoshihiro Kitagawa; Koji Nakano; Ryuji Kaji; Naoto Nakamura

2003-01-01

9

Efficacy assessment of a new clotting factor concentrate in haemophilia A patients, including prophylactic treatment.  

PubMed

Currently, efficacy of a new factor concentrate is mostly judged by its ability to achieve haemostasis after a bleeding episode. However, in patients on prophylaxis, the effectiveness in preventing bleeds, and thus joint damage, is most important. An albumin-free recombinant factor VIII (FVIII) concentrate was introduced in the Netherlands in 2004. In this study, the efficacy of a new recombinant plasma/albumin-free FVIII concentrate (rAHF-PFM, Advate) was assessed by comparing bleeding frequency and factor consumption before and after switching to the new product, on both prophylactic and on-demand treatment. Eighty-two previously treated haemophilia A patients with at least 1-year clinical follow-up were included in this study. Data on 410 patient-years were analysed, including 165 patient-years on other clotting factor products, and 245 patient-years on the new concentrate. In total, 19 628 368 IU of other factor concentrates were administered, to treat 839 bleeds, including 578 joint bleeds and cover 104 years of prophylactic treatment. For rAHF-PFM 33 082 250 IU FVIII, were used to treat 1144 bleeds, including 734 joint bleeds and cover 175 years of prophylactic treatment. No inhibitors, seroconversions or other serious adverse events were observed. Annual FVIII consumption per kg and annual number of joint bleeds before and after switching to the new albumin-free recombinant factor concentrate were similar in all patients. In conclusion, rAHF-PFM is equally effective as other clotting factor concentrates for prophylactic treatment in severe haemophilia. PMID:19686467

Den Uijl, I; Mauser-Bunschoten, E P; Roosendaal, G; Schutgens, R; Fischer, K

2009-11-01

10

Analytical expressions for the gate utilization factors of passive multiplicity counters including signal build-up  

SciTech Connect

In the realm of nuclear safeguards, passive neutron multiplicity counting using shift register pulse train analysis to nondestructively quantify Pu in product materials is a familiar and widely applied technique. The approach most commonly taken is to construct a neutron detector consisting of {sup 3}He filled cylindrical proportional counters embedded in a high density polyethylene moderator. Fast neutrons from the item enter the moderator and are quickly slowed down, on timescales of the order of 1-2 {micro}s, creating a thermal population which then persists typically for several 10's {micro}s and is sampled by the {sup 3}He detectors. Because the initial transient is of comparatively short duration it has been traditional to treat it as instantaneous and furthermore to approximate the subsequent capture time distribution as exponential in shape. With these approximations simple expressions for the various Gate Utilization Factors (GUFs) can be obtained. These factors represent the proportion of time correlated events i.e. Doubles and Triples signal present in the pulse train that is detected by the coincidence gate structure chosen (predelay and gate width settings of the multiplicity shift register). More complicated expressions can be derived by generalizing the capture time distribution to multiple time components or harmonics typically present in real systems. When it comes to applying passive neutron multiplicity methods to extremely intense (i.e. high emission rate and highly multiplying) neutron sources there is a drive to use detector types with very fast response characteristics in order to cope with the high rates. In addition to short pulse width, detectors with a short capture time profile are also desirable so that a short coincidence gate width can be set in order to reduce the chance or Accidental coincidence signal. In extreme cases, such as might be realized using boron loaded scintillators, the dieaway time may be so short that the build-up (thermalization transient) within the detector cannot be ignored. Another example where signal build-up might be observed is when a {sup 3}He based system is used to track the evolution of the time correlated signal created by a higher multiplying item within a reflective configuration such as the measurement of a spent fuel assembly. In this work we develop expressions for the GUFs which include signal build-up.

Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Evans, Louise G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schear, Melissa A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

11

Q-Type Factor Analysis of Healthy Aged Men.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Q-type factor analysis was used to re-analyze baseline data collected in 1957, on 47 men aged 65-91. Q-type analysis is the use of factor methods to study persons rather than tests. Although 550 variables were originally studied involving psychiatry, medicine, cerebral metabolism and chemistry, personality, audiometry, dichotic and diotic memory,…

Kleban, Morton H.

12

Early Life Factors and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multifactorial disease, and its aetiology involves a complex interplay between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. In recent years, evidences from both human and animal experiments have correlated early life factors with programming diabetes risk in adult life. Fetal and neonatal period is crucial for organ development. Many maternal factors during pregnancy may increase the risk of diabetes of offsprings in later life, which include malnutrition, healthy (hyperglycemia and obesity), behavior (smoking, drinking, and junk food diet), hormone administration, and even stress. In neonates, catch-up growth, lactation, glucocorticoids administration, and stress have all been found to increase the risk of insulin resistance or T2DM. Unfavorable environments (socioeconomic situation and famine) or obesity also has long-term negative effects on children by causing increased susceptibility to T2DM in adults. We also address the potential mechanisms that may underlie the developmental programming of T2DM. Therefore, it might be possible to prevent or delay the risk for T2DM by improving pre- and/or postnatal factors. PMID:24455747

Jiang, Xinli; Ma, Huijie; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yan

2013-01-01

13

Peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus in Isfahan, Iran: prevalence and risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To estimate the prevalence and risk factors of peripheral neuropathy (PN) in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: 810 patients with type 2 diabetes (289 male and 521 female) from Isfahan Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Centre outpatient clinics, Iran , were examined. Part of the examination included an assessment of neurological function including neuropathic symptoms and physical signs,

Mohsen Janghorbani; Hasan Rezvanian; Ali Kachooei; Abbas Ghorbani; Ahmad Chitsaz; Farzad Izadi; Masoud Amini

2006-01-01

14

Prevalence of occupational asthma in spray painters exposed to several types of isocyanates, including polymethylene polyphenylisocyanate.  

PubMed

The prevalence of occupational asthma was assessed in four paint shops of a large assembly plant where 51 employees were exposed to several types of isocyanates, including polymethylene polyphenylisocyanate (PPI). Three employees were first referred by their physician for asthma symptoms. A questionnaire was administered to the other 48 employees. Seven of these were suspected of having work-related asthma. Airway hyperexcitability to inhaled histamine was demonstrated in these ten subjects (three referred and seven screened). The diagnosis of occupational asthma was confirmed in six subjects (three referred and three screened) through specific inhalation challenges in the laboratory to a paint system component containing PPI. Thus, the prevalence of occupational asthma was 11.8% in these paint shops using several types of isocyanates, including PPI. PMID:3585565

Séguin, P; Allard, A; Cartier, A; Malo, J L

1987-04-01

15

DNA Damage Response Factors from Diverse Pathways, Including DNA Crosslink Repair, Mediate Alternative End Joining  

PubMed Central

Alternative end joining (Alt-EJ) chromosomal break repair involves bypassing classical non-homologous end joining (c-NHEJ), and such repair causes mutations often with microhomology at the repair junction. Since the mediators of Alt-EJ are not well understood, we have sought to identify DNA damage response (DDR) factors important for this repair event. Using chromosomal break reporter assays, we surveyed an RNAi library targeting known DDR factors for siRNAs that cause a specific decrease in Alt-EJ, relative to an EJ event that is a composite of Alt-EJ and c-NHEJ (Distal-EJ between two tandem breaks). From this analysis, we identified several DDR factors that are specifically important for Alt-EJ relative to Distal-EJ. While these factors are from diverse pathways, we also found that most of them also promote homologous recombination (HR), including factors important for DNA crosslink repair, such as the Fanconi Anemia factor, FANCA. Since bypass of c-NHEJ is likely important for both Alt-EJ and HR, we disrupted the c-NHEJ factor Ku70 in Fanca-deficient mouse cells and found that Ku70 loss significantly diminishes the influence of Fanca on Alt-EJ. In contrast, an inhibitor of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) causes a decrease in Alt-EJ that is enhanced by Ku70 loss. Additionally, the helicase/nuclease DNA2 appears to have distinct effects from FANCA and PARP on both Alt-EJ, as well as end resection. Finally, we found that the proteasome inhibitor Bortezomib, a cancer therapeutic that has been shown to disrupt FANC signaling, causes a significant reduction in both Alt-EJ and HR, relative to Distal-EJ, as well as a substantial loss of end resection. We suggest that several distinct DDR functions are important for Alt-EJ, which include promoting bypass of c-NHEJ and end resection. PMID:25629353

Howard, Sean M.; Yanez, Diana A.; Stark, Jeremy M.

2015-01-01

16

Buildup factors of gamma rays including Bremsstrahlung and annihilation radiation for water, concrete, iron, and lead  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma-ray exposure buildup factors are calculated using a discrete ordinates direct integration code, PALLAS-PL, SP-Br, for water, concrete, iron, and lead, typifying materials of low, medium, and high atomic number. The radiation sources considered were both plane, at normal incidence, and at plane-isotropic. These data include the effects of secondary photon sources arising from Compton scattering, bremsstrahlung, and annihilation. Inclusion

K. Takeuchi; S. I. Tanaka

1984-01-01

17

Wirebond profiles characterized by a modified linkage-spring model which includes a looping speed factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The linkage-spring model based on a quasi-static looping has been used to determine the design rules to reduce the loop heights and the sagging altitude of gold wire in the package. In order to further simulating the capillary trajectory which includes a looping speed factor from the first bond to the second bond stages, a linkage-spring model is modified in

Yu-lung Lo; Chih-chiang Tsao

2002-01-01

18

Maculopathy in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2: associations with risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMTo examine possible relation between diabetic maculopathy and various risk factors for diabetic complications in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2.METHODSCross sectional study of two cohorts of diabetic patients, comprising 1796 patients with type 1 diabetes (mean age 47 years, mean duration of diabetes 24 years) and 1563 patients with type 2 diabetes (mean age 62 years,

Eckhard Zander; Sabine Herfurth; Beate Bohl; Peter Heinke; Uwe Herrmann; Klaus-Dieter Kohnert; Wolfgang Kerner

2000-01-01

19

Effective environmental factors in the distribution of vegetation types in Poshtkouh rangelands of Yazd Province (Iran)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to study the relationships between environmental factors and vegetation in order to find the most effective factors in the separation of the vegetation types in Poshtkou rangelands of Yazd province. Sampling of soil and vegetation were performed with randomized-systematic method. Vegetation data including density and cover percentage were estimated quantitatively within each quadrat, and

M Jafari; M. A. Zare Chahouki; A Tavili; H Azarnivand; Gh. Zahedi Amiri

2004-01-01

20

Compact pulley-type microring resonator with high quality factor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pulley-type microring resonator with ultra-small dimensions and ultra-high quality factor on a silicon-on-insulator wafer is fabricated and characterized. Simulation results show that the bending loss of the pulley-type microring resonator can be diminished by wrapping the curved waveguide around the microring, and that the energy loss from the output port can be decreased by tuning the width of the bus waveguide to achieve destructive interference. A quality factor of 1.73 × 105 is obtained in this experiment. The compact size of the pulley-type microring resonator with low bending loss is suitable for an integrated optical circuit.

Cai, Dong-Po; Lu, Jyun-Hong; Chen, Chii-Chang; Lee, Chien-Chieh; Lin, Chu-En; Yen, Ta-Jen

2014-11-01

21

A decision support system prototype including human factors based on the TOGA meta-theory approach  

SciTech Connect

The human contribution to the risk of operation of complex technological systems is often not negligible and sometimes tends to become significant, as shown by many reports on incidents and accidents occurred in the past inside Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). An error of a human operator of a NPP can derive by both omission and commission. For instance, complex commission errors can also lead to significant catastrophic technological accidents, as for the case of the Three Mile Island accident. Typically, the problem is analyzed by focusing on the single event chain that has provoked the incident or accident. What is needed is a general framework able to include as many parameters as possible, i.e. both technological and human factors. Such a general model could allow to envisage an omission or commission error before it can happen or, alternatively, suggest preferred actions to do in order to take countermeasures to neutralize the effect of the error before it becomes critical. In this paper, a preliminary Decision Support System (DSS) based on the so-called (-) TOGA meta-theory approach is presented. The application of such a theory to the management of nuclear power plants has been presented in the previous ICAPP 2011. Here, a human factor simulator prototype is proposed in order to include the effect of human errors in the decision path. The DSS has been developed using a TRIGA research reactor as reference plant, and implemented using the LabVIEW programming environment and the Finite State Machine (FSM) model The proposed DSS shows how to apply the Universal Reasoning Paradigm (URP) and the Universal Management Paradigm (UMP) to a real plant context. The DSS receives inputs from instrumentation data and gives as output a suggested decision. It is obtained as the result of an internal elaborating process based on a performance function. The latter, describes the degree of satisfaction and efficiency, which are dependent on the level of responsibility related to each professional role. As an application, we present the simulation of the discussed error, e.g. the unchecked extraction of the control rods during a power variation maneuver and we show how the effect of human errors can affect the performance function, giving rise to different countermeasures which could call different operator figures into play, potentially not envisaged in the standard procedure. (authors)

Cappelli, M.; Memmi, F. [UTFISST, ENEA Casaccia, via Anguillarese 301, Rome (Italy); Gadomski, A. M. [ECONA, Centro Interuniv. Elaborazione Cognitiva Sistemi Naturali e Artificiali, via dei Marsi 47, Rome (Italy); Sepielli, M. [UTFISST, ENEA Casaccia, via Anguillarese 301, Rome (Italy)

2012-07-01

22

Apolipoprotein E4: A causative factor and therapeutic target in neuropathology, including Alzheimer’s disease  

PubMed Central

The premise of this review is that apolipoprotein (apo) E4 is much more than a contributing factor to neurodegeneration. ApoE has critical functions in redistributing lipids among CNS cells for normal lipid homeostasis, repairing injured neurons, maintaining synapto-dendritic connections, and scavenging toxins. In multiple pathways affecting neuropathology, including Alzheimer’s disease, apoE acts directly or in concert with age, head injury, oxidative stress, ischemia, inflammation, and excess amyloid ? peptide production to cause neurological disorders, accelerating progression, altering prognosis, or lowering age of onset. We envision that unique structural features of apoE4 are responsible for apoE4-associated neuropathology. Although the structures of apoE2, apoE3, and apoE4 are in dynamic equilibrium, apoE4, which is detrimental in a variety of neurological disorders, is more likely to assume a pathological conformation. Importantly, apoE4 displays domain interaction (an interaction between the N- and C-terminal domains of the protein that results in a compact structure) and molten globule formation (the formation of stable, reactive intermediates with potentially pathological activities). In response to CNS stress or injury, neurons can synthesize apoE. ApoE4 uniquely undergoes neuron-specific proteolysis, resulting in bioactive toxic fragments that enter the cytosol, alter the cytoskeleton, disrupt mitochondrial energy balance, and cause cell death. Our findings suggest potential therapeutic strategies, including the use of “structure correctors” to convert apoE4 to an “apoE3-like” molecule, protease inhibitors to prevent the generation of toxic apoE4 fragments, and “mitochondrial protectors” to prevent cellular energy disruption. PMID:16567625

Mahley, Robert W.; Weisgraber, Karl H.; Huang, Yadong

2006-01-01

23

Thermoelectric material including a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure  

DOEpatents

A thermoelectric material includes a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure having the formula A.sub.8TM.sub.y.sub.1.sup.1TM.sub.y.sub.2.sup.2 . . . TM.sub.y.sub.n.sup.nM.sub.zX.sub.46-y.sub.1.sub.-y.sub.2.sub.- . . . -y.sub.n.sub.-z. In the formula, A is selected from the group consisting of barium, strontium, and europium; X is selected from the group consisting of silicon, germanium, and tin; M is selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, and indium; TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, and TM.sup.n are independently selected from the group consisting of 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metals; and y.sub.1, y.sub.2, y.sub.n and Z are actual compositions of TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, TM.sup.n, and M, respectively. The actual compositions are based upon nominal compositions derived from the following equation: z=8q.sub.A-|.DELTA.q.sub.1|y.sub.1-|.DELTA.q.sub.2|y.sub.2- . . . -|.DELTA.q.sub.n|y.sub.n, wherein q.sub.A is a charge state of A, and wherein .DELTA.q.sub.1, .DELTA.q.sub.2, .DELTA.q.sub.n are, respectively, the nominal charge state of the first, second, and n-th TM.

Yang, Jihui (Lakeshore, CA); Shi, Xun (Troy, MI); Bai, Shengqiang (Shanghai, CN); Zhang, Wenqing (Shanghai, CN); Chen, Lidong (Shanghai, CN); Yang, Jiong (Shanghai, CN)

2012-01-17

24

Method of fabricating n-type and p-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including band gap widening elements  

DOEpatents

A method of fabricating doped microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material which includes a band gap widening element through a glow discharge deposition process by subjecting a precursor mixture which includes a diluent gas to an a.c. glow discharge in the absence of a magnetic field of sufficient strength to induce electron cyclotron resonance.

Guha, Subhendu (Troy, MI); Ovshinsky, Stanford R. (Bloomfield Hills, MI)

1990-02-02

25

Lucky drift estimation of excess noise factor for conventional avalanche photodiodes including the dead space effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for estimating the excess noise factor in conventional avalanche photodiodes has been developed. It is based upon a computer simulation of carrier motion using the lucky drift concept. The importance of the impact ionization dead space is demonstrated, and an established theory is shown to overestimate the excess noise factor due to the neglect of the dead space

John S. Marsland; R. C. Woods; C. A. Brownhill

1992-01-01

26

Prognostic factors in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Risk factors of metachronous liver metastases and death are not well known in patients with the Zollinger–Ellison syndrome and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. These factors were retrospectively determined in 77 patients. Methods: Data chart review was performed. Results: Median follow-up was 102 months (range, 12–366). Surgery was performed on 48 patients, including 9 of the 10

Guillaume Cadiot; Albert Vuagnat; Isabelle Doukhan; Arnaud Murat; Guillaume Bonnaud; Brigitte Delemer; Gérard Thiéfin; Albert Beckers; Michel Veyrac; Charles Proye; Philippe Ruszniewski; Michel Mignon

1999-01-01

27

Tenascin C promiscuously binds growth factors via its fifth fibronectin type III-like domain.  

PubMed

Tenascin C (TNC) is an extracellular matrix protein that is upregulated during development as well as tissue remodeling. TNC is comprised of multiple independent folding domains, including 15 fibronectin type III-like (TNCIII) domains. The fifth TNCIII domain (TNCIII5) has previously been shown to bind heparin. Our group has shown that the heparin-binding fibronectin type III domains of fibronectin (FNIII), specifically FNIII12-14, possess affinity towards a large number of growth factors. Here, we show that TNCIII5 binds growth factors promiscuously and with high affinity. We produced recombinant fragments of TNC representing the first five TNCIII repeats (TNCIII1-5), as well as subdomains, including TNCIII5, to study interactions with various growth factors. Multiple growth factors of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) family, the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) superfamily, the insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGF-BPs), and neurotrophins were found to bind with high affinity to this region of TNC, specifically to TNCIII5. Surface plasmon resonance was performed to analyze the kinetics of binding of TNCIII1-5 with TGF-?1, PDGF-BB, NT-3, and FGF-2. The promiscuous yet high affinity of TNC for a wide array of growth factors, mediated mainly by TNCIII5, may play a role in multiple physiological and pathological processes involving TNC. PMID:23637968

De Laporte, Laura; Rice, Jeffrey J; Tortelli, Federico; Hubbell, Jeffrey A

2013-01-01

28

Prevalence and risk factors of Type 2 diabetes in an urbanizing rural community of Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

This cross-sectional study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its' risk factors in an urbanizing rural community of Bangladesh. Two villages were randomly selected from the rural areas of Gazipur district and total 975 subjects (>20 years), were included following simple random procedure. Capillary blood glucose levels, fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels and

Abdur Rahim

2007-01-01

29

Recycle Batteries CSM recycles a variety of battery types including automotive, sealed lead acid, nickel  

E-print Network

, nickel cadmium (Nicad), nickel metal hydride, lithium ion, silver button, mercury, magnesium carbon. Recycling rechargeable batteries Rechargeable batteries are often referred to as nickel cadmium, nickel Battery Per Bag Please sort the batteries by battery type, using a separate receptacle for nickel cadmium

30

Risk factors and type of dementia: vascular or Alzheimer?  

PubMed

The most efficient strategy for combating Alzheimer's disease (AD) is to prevent the onset of clinically significant symptoms. Determining the clinical characteristics, risk factors, and indices of cognitive reserve would help in achieving this goal. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for AD and vascular dementia (VD) in the elderly and to highlight the importance of risk factor modification in the early diagnosis. Consecutive 1436 patients (mean age=72.7+/-6.9 years, 34.2% male) were enrolled in the study. After a comprehensive geriatric and cognitive assessment, patients were grouped as AD group (n=203), VD group (n=73) and normal cognitive status (NCS) group (n=1160). Thirty-three possibly related factors including demographic characteristics, co-existing diseases and laboratory parameters were examined. The results revealed that female sex, advanced age, depression, and intake of vitamin supplements were independent related factors for AD; whereas depression and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were independent related factors for VD. For every geriatric patient admitted for any reason, cognitive assessment should be performed, risk factors should be determined and the patients at high risk should be followed up carefully. PMID:17692938

Cankurtaran, Mustafa; Yavuz, Burcu Balam; Cankurtaran, Eylem Sahin; Halil, Meltem; Ulger, Zekeriya; Ariogul, Servet

2008-01-01

31

Cellular factors regulate transactivation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.  

PubMed Central

It is hypothesized that the immediate-early (IE) gene products of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) and the transactivator (TAT) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) regulate HIV-1 gene expression through mechanisms involving host cell factors. By using transient transfection assays with the gene for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) under the transcriptional control of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR), we examined transactivation of the LTR by plasmids that express either the HIV-1 gene for TAT or human CMV IE. The ratio of the level of transactivation by CMV IE to the level of transactivation by TAT varied up to 1,000-fold between cell types. The difference in the activities of these transactivators in various cell types was not a consequence of differential expression of the transactivator gene. Analysis of RNA species initiated in the HIV-1 LTR supports the conclusion that cellular factors regulate the level of elongation of the transcription complex on the LTR. Furthermore, evidence that in some cell types the predominant mechanism of transactivation by HIV-1 TAT involves posttranscriptional processes is presented. Images PMID:1995949

Barry, P A; Pratt-Lowe, E; Unger, R E; Luciw, P A

1991-01-01

32

Determination of the petrologic type of CV3 chondrites by Raman spectroscopy of included organic matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the first reliable quantitative determination of the thermal metamorphism grade of a series of nine CV3 chondrites: Allende, Axtell, Bali, Mokoia, Grosnaja, Efremovka, Vigarano, Leoville, and Kaba. The maturity of the organic matter in matrix, determined by Raman spectroscopy, has been used as a powerful metamorphic tracer, independent of the mineralogical context and extent of aqueous alteration. This tracer has been used along with other metamorphic tracers such as Fe zoning in type-I chondrules of olivine phenocrysts, presolar grain abundance and noble gas abundance (bulk and P3 component). The study shows that the petrologic types determined earlier by Induced ThermoLuminescence were underestimated and suggests the following values: PT (Allende-Axtell) >3.6; PT (Bali-Mokoia-Grosnaja) ˜3.6; PT (Efremovka-Leoville-Vigarano) = 3.1-3.4; PT (Kaba) ˜3.1. The most commonly studied CV3, Allende, is also the most metamorphosed. Bali is a breccia containing clasts of different petrologic types. The attribution suggested by this study is that of clasts of the highest petrologic types, as pointed out by IOM maturity and noble gas bulk abundance. CV3 chondrites have complex asteroidal backgrounds, with various degrees of aqueous alteration and/or thermal metamorphism leading to complex mineralogical and petrologic patterns. (Fe,Mg) chemical zoning in olivine phenocrysts, on the borders of type I chondrules of porphyritic olivine- and pyroxene-rich textural types, has been found to correlate with the metamorphism grade. This suggests that chemical zoning in some chondrules, often interpreted as exchanges between chondrules and nebular gas, may well have an asteroidal origin. Furthermore, the compositional range of olivine matrix is controlled both by thermal metamorphism and aqueous alteration. This does not support evidence of a nebular origin and does not necessarily mirror the metamorphism grade through (Fe,Mg) equilibration. On the other hand, it may provide clues on the degree of aqueous alteration vs. thermal metamorphism and on the timing of both processes. In particular, Mokoia experienced significant aqueous alteration after the metamorphism peak, whereas Grosnaja, which has similar metamorphism grade, did not.

Bonal, Lydie; Quirico, Eric; Bourot-Denise, Michèle; Montagnac, Gilles

2006-04-01

33

Variant Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Proteases and Response to Combination Therapy Including a Protease Inhibitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this observational study was to assess the genetic variability in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease gene from HIV type 1 (HIV-1)-positive (clade B), protease inhibitor-naive patients and to evaluate its association with the subsequent effectiveness of a protease inhibitor-containing triple-drug regi- men. The protease gene was sequenced from plasma-derived virus from 116 protease inhibitor-naive patients. The

JEAN SERVAIS; CHRISTINE LAMBERT; ELODIE FONTAINE; JEAN-MARC PLESSERIA; ISABELLE ROBERT; VIC ARENDT; THERESE STAUB; FRANCOIS SCHNEIDER; ROBERT HEMMER; GUY BURTONBOY; JEAN-CLAUDE SCHMIT

2001-01-01

34

Latina Resilience in Higher Education: Contributing Factors Including Seasonal Farmworker Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many Latina students overcome multiple obstacles to earn university degrees. Five married Latina women with children and seasonal farmworker backgrounds are the focus of this study which is analyzed through resiliency theory to understand factors contributing to their academic resilience. Variables connected to academic success are explored and…

Graff, Cristina Santamaria; McCain, Terrence; Gomez-Vilchis, Veronica

2013-01-01

35

Calculation of gamma-ray buildup factors including the contribution of bremsstrahlung  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buildup factors for gamma rays traversing slab shields have been ; obtained using the Monte Carlo method. Secondary particles produced inside the ; shield were taken into account, with special attention given to the contribution ; of bremsstrahlung which is produced by electrons and positrons. The results ; indicate that annihilation gamma rays from pair production do increase the ;

J. P. Kuspa; N. Tsoulfanidis

1973-01-01

36

Abstract Successful transformation of plant tissue using Agrobacterium relies on several factors including bacterial  

E-print Network

Abstract Successful transformation of plant tissue using Agrobacterium relies on several factors Introduction Transgenic soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] plants have been obtained using both Agrobacterium and McMullen 1991). DNA integration patterns in transformed plant tissue ob- tained via particle

Finer, John J.

37

Meson Electro-Magnetic Form Factors in an Extended Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model including Heavy Quark Flavors  

E-print Network

Based on an extended NJL model including heavy quark flavors, we calculate the form factors of pseudo-scalar and vector mesons. After take into account of the vector-meson-dominance effect which introduce a form factor correction to the quark vector coupling vertices, the form factors and electric radii of $\\pi^+$ and $K^+$ of pseudo-scalar meson in light flavor sector fit the experimental data well. Also the magnetic moments of light vector meson $\\rho^+$ and $K^{*+}$ are comparable with other theoretical calculation. The form factors in light-heavy flavor sector are presented to confront with future experiments or theoretical calculations.

Luan, Yi-Long; Deng, Wei-Zhen

2015-01-01

38

Variant Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Proteases and Response to Combination Therapy Including a Protease Inhibitor  

PubMed Central

The objective of this observational study was to assess the genetic variability in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease gene from HIV type 1 (HIV-1)-positive (clade B), protease inhibitor-naïve patients and to evaluate its association with the subsequent effectiveness of a protease inhibitor-containing triple-drug regimen. The protease gene was sequenced from plasma-derived virus from 116 protease inhibitor-naïve patients. The virological response to a triple-drug regimen containing indinavir, ritonavir, or saquinavir was evaluated every 3 months for as long as 2 years (n = 40). A total of 36 different amino acid substitutions compared to the reference sequence (HIV-1 HXB2) were detected. No substitutions at the active site similar to the primary resistance mutations were found. The most frequent substitutions (prevalence, >10%) at baseline were located at codons 15, 13, 12, 62, 36, 64, 41, 35, 3, 93, 77, 63, and 37 (in ascending order of frequency). The mean number of polymorphisms was 4.2. A relatively poorer response to therapy was associated with a high number of baseline polymorphisms and, to a lesser extent, with the presence of I93L at baseline in comparison with the wild-type virus. A71V/T was slightly associated with a poorer response to first-line ritonavir-based therapy. In summary, within clade B viruses, protease gene natural polymorphisms are common. There is evidence suggesting that treatment response is associated with this genetic background, but most of the specific contributors could not be firmly identified. I93L, occurring in about 30% of untreated patients, may play a role, as A71V/T possibly does in ritonavir-treated patients. PMID:11181376

Servais, Jean; Lambert, Christine; Fontaine, Elodie; Plesséria, Jean-Marc; Robert, Isabelle; Arendt, Vic; Staub, Thérèse; Schneider, François; Hemmer, Robert; Burtonboy, Guy; Schmit, Jean-Claude

2001-01-01

39

The development of Myxobolus pavlovskii (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) includes an echinactinomyxon-type actinospore.  

PubMed

Echinactinomyxon-type actinospores were found in a mixed-species oligochaete culture originating from the Temperate Water Fish Hatchery near Budapest, Hungary. On the basis of DNA sequence analysis, the actinospores were identified as Myxobolus pavlovskii (Akhmerov, 1954), the 18S rDNA sequence from myxospores of which is available in GenBank. Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes) fry specimens were successfully infected by cohabitation with the echinactinomyxon-releasing oligochaetes, which confirmed the molecular data congruence. The echinactinomyxons and the myxospores that developed in the gills of exposed fish fry were analysed morphologically and on DNA basis. The infected gill tissue was examined histologically. As typical characters of M. pavlovskii, numerous small plasmodia were observed in the epithelia of gill lamellae. Plasmodia contained thousands of myxospores with polar capsules unequal in size and witl; large intercapsular processes. The 18S rDNA sequence from actinospores and those from myxospores originating from the experimentally infected fish were identical. The oligochaete species releasing actinospores was morphologically determined as Limnodrilus sp. This is the first record of an echinactinomyxon as an alternate stage within the genus Myxobolus. PMID:21776895

Marton, Szilvia; Eszterbauer, Edit

2011-06-01

40

Cerebrospinal fluid markers including trefoil factor 3 are associated with neurodegeneration in amyloid-positive individuals.  

PubMed

We aimed to identify cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers associated with neurodegeneration in individuals with and without CSF evidence of Alzheimer pathology. We investigated 287 Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) subjects (age=74.9±6.9; 22/48/30% with Alzheimer's disease/mild cognitive impairment/controls) with CSF multiplex analyte data and serial volumetric MRI. We calculated brain and hippocampal atrophy rates, ventricular expansion and Mini Mental State Examination decline. We used false discovery rate corrected regression analyses to assess associations between CSF variables and atrophy rates in individuals with and without amyloid pathology, adjusting in stages for tau, baseline volume, p-tau, age, sex, ApoE4 status and diagnosis. Analytes showing statistically significant independent relationships were entered into reverse stepwise analyses. Adjusting for tau, baseline volume, p-tau, age, sex and ApoE4, 4/83 analytes were significantly independently associated with brain atrophy rate, 1/83 with ventricular expansion and 2/83 with hippocampal atrophy. The strongest CSF predictor for the three atrophy measures was low trefoil factor 3 (TFF3). High cystatin C (CysC) was associated with higher whole brain atrophy and hippocampal atrophy rates. Lower levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and chromogranin A (CrA) were associated with higher whole brain atrophy. In exploratory reverse stepwise analyses, lower TFF3 was associated with higher rates of whole brain, hippocampal atrophy and ventricular expansion. Lower levels of CrA were associated with higher whole brain atrophy rate. The relationship between low TFF3 and increased hippocampal atrophy rate remained after adjustment for diagnosis. We identified a series of CSF markers that are independently associated with rate of neurodegeneration in amyloid-positive individuals. TFF3, a substrate for NOTCH processing may be an important biomarker of neurodegeneration across the Alzheimer spectrum. PMID:25072324

Paterson, R W; Bartlett, J W; Blennow, K; Fox, N C; Shaw, L M; Trojanowski, J Q; Zetterberg, H; Schott, J M

2014-01-01

41

Telehealth among US hospitals: several factors, including state reimbursement and licensure policies, influence adoption.  

PubMed

Telehealth is widely believed to hold great potential to improve access to, and increase the value of, health care. Gaining a better understanding of why some hospitals adopt telehealth technologies while others do not is critically important. We examined factors associated with telehealth adoption among US hospitals. Data from the Information Technology Supplement to the American Hospital Association's 2012 annual survey of acute care hospitals show that 42 percent of US hospitals have telehealth capabilities. Hospitals more likely to have telehealth capabilities are teaching hospitals, those equipped with additional advanced medical technology, those that are members of a larger system, and those that are nonprofit institutions. Rates of hospital telehealth adoption by state vary substantially and are associated with differences in state policy. Policies that promote private payer reimbursement for telehealth are associated with greater likelihood of telehealth adoption, while policies that require out-of-state providers to have a special license to provide telehealth services reduce the likelihood of adoption. Our findings suggest steps that policy makers can take to achieve greater adoption of telehealth by hospitals. PMID:24493762

Adler-Milstein, Julia; Kvedar, Joseph; Bates, David W

2014-02-01

42

Modulation of Innate Host Factors by Mycobacterium avium Complex in Human Macrophages Includes Interleukin 17  

PubMed Central

Background.?Although opportunistic infections due to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) have been less common since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy, globally, human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)–positive patients remain predisposed to these infections. Absence of a properly functioning acquired immune response allows MAC persistence within macrophages localized in lymph nodes coinfected with HIV and MAC. Although a deficiency in interferon ? appears to play a part in the ability of MAC to deflect the macrophage-associated antimicrobial attack, questions about this process remain. Our study examines the ability of MAC to regulate interleukin 17 (IL-17), a proinflammatory cytokine involved in host cell recruitment. Methods.?Coinfected lymph nodes were examined for IL-17 by immunohistochemical analysis. In vitro, macrophages exposed to mycobacteria were evaluated for transcription activities, proteins, and signaling pathways responsible for IL-17 expression. Infected macrophages were also analyzed for expression of interleukin 21 (IL-21) and negative regulators of immune responses. Results.?Infection of macrophages triggered synthesis of IL-17, correlating with IL-17 expression by macrophages in coinfected lymph nodes. Infected macrophages exposed to exogenous IL-17 expressed CXCL10, which favors recruitment of new macrophages as targets for infection. Blockade of nuclear factor ?-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways suppressed mycobacteria-induced IL-17 expression. MAC triggered expression of IL-21, IRF4, and STAT3 genes related to IL-17 regulation, as well as expression of the negative immunoregulators CD274(PD-L1) and suppressors of cytokine signaling. Conclusions.?MAC-infected macrophages can provide an alternative source for IL-17 that favors accumulation of new targets for perpetuating bacterial and viral infection while suppressing host antimicrobial immune responses. PMID:22930805

Vázquez, Nancy; Rekka, Sofia; Gliozzi, Maria; Feng, Carl G.; Amarnath, Shoba; Orenstein, Jan M.; Wahl, Sharon M.

2012-01-01

43

Air pollution as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

Recent studies in both humans and animals suggest that air pollution is an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the mechanism by which air pollution mediates propensity to diabetes is not fully understood. While a number of epidemiologic studies have shown a positive association between ambient air pollution exposure and risk for T2DM, some studies have not found such a relationship. Experimental studies in susceptible disease models do support this association and suggest the involvement of tissues involved in the pathogenesis of T2DM such as the immune system, adipose, liver, and central nervous system. This review summarizes the epidemiologic and experimental evidence between ambient outdoor air pollution and T2DM. PMID:25628401

Rao, Xiaoquan; Patel, Priti; Puett, Robin; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

2015-02-01

44

Risk Factors and Primary Prevention Trials for Type 1 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic autoimmune disease resulting in the designated immune destruction of insulin producing ?-cells, usually diagnosed in youth, and associated with important psychological, familial, and social disorders. Once diagnosed, patients need lifelong insulin treatment and will experience multiple disease-associated complications. There is no cure for T1DM currently. The last decade has witnessed great progress in elucidating the causes and treatment of the disease based on numerous researches both in rodent models of spontaneous diabetes and in humans. This article summarises our current understanding of the pathogenesis of T1DM, the roles of the immune system, genes, environment and other factors in the continuing and rapid increase in T1DM incidence at younger ages in humans. In addition, we discuss the strategies for primary and secondary prevention trials of T1DM. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of this disorder's pathogenesis, risk factors that cause the disease, as well as to bring forward an ideal approach to prevent and cure the disorder. PMID:23904791

Wu, Yan-Ling; Ding, Yan-Ping; Gao, Jian; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Zhang, Wen

2013-01-01

45

Risk factors and primary prevention trials for type 1 diabetes.  

PubMed

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic autoimmune disease resulting in the designated immune destruction of insulin producing ?-cells, usually diagnosed in youth, and associated with important psychological, familial, and social disorders. Once diagnosed, patients need lifelong insulin treatment and will experience multiple disease-associated complications. There is no cure for T1DM currently. The last decade has witnessed great progress in elucidating the causes and treatment of the disease based on numerous researches both in rodent models of spontaneous diabetes and in humans. This article summarises our current understanding of the pathogenesis of T1DM, the roles of the immune system, genes, environment and other factors in the continuing and rapid increase in T1DM incidence at younger ages in humans. In addition, we discuss the strategies for primary and secondary prevention trials of T1DM. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of this disorder's pathogenesis, risk factors that cause the disease, as well as to bring forward an ideal approach to prevent and cure the disorder. PMID:23904791

Wu, Yan-Ling; Ding, Yan-Ping; Gao, Jian; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Zhang, Wen

2013-01-01

46

Factors Predictive of Severe Hypoglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Identify factors predictive of severe hypoglycemia (SH) and assess the clinical utility of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) to warn of impending SH. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a multicenter randomized clinical trial, 436 children and adults with type 1 diabetes were randomized to a treatment group that used CGM (N = 224), or a control group that used standard home blood glucose monitoring (N = 212) and completed 12 months of follow-up. After 6 months, the original control group initiated CGM while the treatment group continued use of CGM for 6 months. Baseline risk factors for SH were evaluated over 12 months of follow-up using proportional hazards regression. CGM-derived indices of hypoglycemia were used to predict episodes of SH over a 24-h time horizon. RESULTS The SH rate was 17.9 per 100 person-years, and a higher rate was associated with the occurrence of SH in the prior 6 months and female sex. SH frequency increased eightfold when 30% of CGM values were ?70 mg/dL on the prior day (4.5 vs. 0.5%; P < 0.001), but the positive predictive value (PPV) was low (<5%). Results were similar for hypoglycemic area under the curve and the low blood glucose index calculated by CGM. CONCLUSIONS SH in the 6 months prior to the study was the strongest predictor of SH during the study. CGM-measured hypoglycemia over a 24-h span is highly associated with SH the following day (P < 0.001), but the PPV is low. PMID:21266651

2011-01-01

47

The Benefits of Including Clinical Factors in Rectal Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To study the impact of clinical predisposing factors on rectal normal tissue complication probability modeling using the updated results of the Dutch prostate dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: Toxicity data of 512 patients (conformally treated to 68 Gy [n = 284] and 78 Gy [n = 228]) with complete follow-up at 3 years after radiotherapy were studied. Scored end points were rectal bleeding, high stool frequency, and fecal incontinence. Two traditional dose-based models (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) and Relative Seriality (RS) and a logistic model were fitted using a maximum likelihood approach. Furthermore, these model fits were improved by including the most significant clinical factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminating ability of all fits. Results: Including clinical factors significantly increased the predictive power of the models for all end points. In the optimal LKB, RS, and logistic models for rectal bleeding and fecal incontinence, the first significant (p = 0.011-0.013) clinical factor was 'previous abdominal surgery.' As second significant (p = 0.012-0.016) factor, 'cardiac history' was included in all three rectal bleeding fits, whereas including 'diabetes' was significant (p = 0.039-0.048) in fecal incontinence modeling but only in the LKB and logistic models. High stool frequency fits only benefitted significantly (p = 0.003-0.006) from the inclusion of the baseline toxicity score. For all models rectal bleeding fits had the highest AUC (0.77) where it was 0.63 and 0.68 for high stool frequency and fecal incontinence, respectively. LKB and logistic model fits resulted in similar values for the volume parameter. The steepness parameter was somewhat higher in the logistic model, also resulting in a slightly lower D{sub 50}. Anal wall DVHs were used for fecal incontinence, whereas anorectal wall dose best described the other two endpoints. Conclusions: Comparable prediction models were obtained with LKB, RS, and logistic NTCP models. Including clinical factors improved the predictive power of all models significantly.

Defraene, Gilles, E-mail: gilles.defraene@uzleuven.be [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Van den Bergh, Laura [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Al-Mamgani, Abrahim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Haustermans, Karin [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Heemsbergen, Wilma [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van den Heuvel, Frank [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Lebesque, Joos V. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2012-03-01

48

Oxytocin and Psychological Factors Affecting Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of oxytocin with trait and state psychological factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods. OXT and psychological variables were analyzed from 86 controlled diabetic patients (glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) < 7%) from 45 uncontrolled diabetic patients (HbA1c ? 7). Psychological characteristics were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), while state psychological characteristics were measured with the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL 90-R). Blood samples were taken for measuring oxytocin in both subgroups during the initial phase of the study. One year later, the uncontrolled diabetic patients were reevaluated with the use of the same psychometric instruments. Results. During the first evaluation of the uncontrolled diabetic patients, a statistically significant positive relationship between the levels of OXT and psychoticism in EPQ rating scale (P < 0.013) was observed. For controlled diabetic patients, a statistically significant negative relationship between oxytocin and somatization (P < 0.030), as well as obsessive-compulsive scores (P < 0.047) in SCL-90 rating scale, was observed. During the second assessment, the values of OXT decreased when the patients managed to control their metabolic profile. Conclusions. The OXT is in association with psychoticism, somatization, and obsessionality may be implicated in T2DM. PMID:22997507

Kontoangelos, K.; Raptis, A. E.; Papageorgiou, C. C.; Tsiotra, P. C.; Papadimitriou, G. N.; Rabavilas, A. D.; Dimitriadis, G.; Raptis, S. A.

2012-01-01

49

Cardiovascular risk factors, change in risk factors over 7 years, and the risk of clinical diabetes mellitus type 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a large longitudinal study, we examined the relationships between cardiovascular risk factors (blood lipids, blood pressure, smoking, and physical activity), and change in these risk factors over a 7-year period, and the risk of clinical diabetes mellitus type 2. There were 73 verified new cases of clinical diabetes mellitus type 2 (diagnosed between 1987 and 1995) and 9,982 controls

Bjarne K Jacobsen; Kaare H Bønaa; Inger Njølstad

2002-01-01

50

Nonsense mutations of the von Willebrand factor gene in patients with von Willebrand disease type III and type I  

SciTech Connect

von Willebrand disease (vWD) is the most common inherited bleeding disorder in humans. The disease is caused by qualitative and quantitative abnormalities of the von Willebrand factor (vWF). Genomic DNA from 25 patients with vWD type III, the most severe form of the disease, was studied using PCR followed by restriction-enzyme analysis and direct sequencing of the products. Nonsense mutations (CGA[yields]TGA) were detected in exons 28, 32, and 45 by screening of all 11 CGA arginine codons of the vWF gene. Two patients were found to be homozygous and five heterozygous for the mutation. Both parents and some of the relatives of the homozygous patients carry the mutation. These are the first reported examples of homozygous point mutations associated with the severe form of vWD. In the three heterozygous probands, one of the parents carried the mutation and had vWD type I. Family studies including parents and family members with or without vWD type I indicted that these three heterozygous patients are likely to be compound heterozygous. Twenty-one individuals from these seven families with vWD type I found to be heterozygous for the mutation. 21 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Zhang, Z.P.; Lindstedt, M.; Falk, G.; Blombaeck, M.; Egberg, N.; Anvret, M. (Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden))

1992-10-01

51

Multilocus Sequence Typing Reveals Three Genetic Subpopulations of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii (Serotype A), Including a Unique Population in Botswana  

PubMed Central

We applied multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to investigate the population structure and mode of reproduction of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii (serotype A). This MLST system utilizes 12 unlinked polymorphic loci, which are dispersed on nine different chromosomes, and allows the unambiguous identification of closely related strains of serotype A. We compared MLST analyses with the conventional genotyping method of detecting amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), and there was excellent correlation between the MLST and AFLP results. However, MLST differentiated a larger number of strains. We analyzed a global collection of isolates of serotype A using both methods, and the results identified at least three genetically distinct subpopulations, designated groups VNI, VNII, and VNB. Groups VNI and VNII are widespread, dominated by isolates with the MAT? mating type, and predominantly clonal. Conversely, isolates of group VNB are unique to Botswana, include a significant proportion of fertile strains with the MATa mating type, and manifest compelling evidence of recombination. We have AFLP genotyped >1000 strains of serotype A from different parts of the world, including isolates from several African countries, and, to date, haploid serotype A isolates of group VNB have been found only in Botswana. PMID:16322524

Litvintseva, Anastasia P.; Thakur, Rameshwari; Vilgalys, Rytas; Mitchell, Thomas G.

2006-01-01

52

A predator-prey model with a holling type I functional response including a predator mutual interference  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The most widely used functional response in describing predator-prey relationships is the Holling type II functional response, where per capita predation is a smooth, increasing, and saturating function of prey density. Beddington and DeAngelis modified the Holling type II response to include interference of predators that increases with predator density. Here we introduce a predator-interference term into a Holling type I functional response. We explain the ecological rationale for the response and note that the phase plane configuration of the predator and prey isoclines differs greatly from that of the Beddington-DeAngelis response; for example, in having three possible interior equilibria rather than one. In fact, this new functional response seems to be quite unique. We used analytical and numerical methods to show that the resulting system shows a much richer dynamical behavior than the Beddington-DeAngelis response, or other typically used functional responses. For example, cyclic-fold, saddle-fold, homoclinic saddle connection, and multiple crossing bifurcations can all occur. We then use a smooth approximation to the Holling type I functional response with predator mutual interference to show that these dynamical properties do not result from the lack of smoothness, but rather from subtle differences in the functional responses. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Seo, G.; DeAngelis, D.L.

2011-01-01

53

Keratinocyte growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor are heparin-binding growth factors for alveolar type II cells in fibroblast-conditioned medium.  

PubMed Central

Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions mediate aspects of normal lung growth and development and are important in the restoration of normal alveolar architecture after lung injury. To determine if fibroblasts are a source of soluble growth factors for alveolar type II cells, we investigated the effect of fibroblast-conditioned medium (CM) on alveolar type II cell DNA synthesis. Serum-free CM from confluent adult human lung fibroblasts was concentrated fivefold by lyophilization. Type II cells were isolated from adult rats by elastase dissociation and incubated with [3H]thymidine and varying dilutions of concentrated CM and serum from day 1 to 3 of culture. Stimulation of type II cell DNA synthesis by fibroblast-CM was maximal after 48 h of conditioning and required the presence of serum. The activity of the CM was eliminated by boiling and by treatment with trypsin, pepsin, or dithiothreitol and was additive with saturating concentrations of acidic fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, and insulin. The growth factor activity bound to heparin-Sepharose and was eluted with 0.6 and 1.0 M NaCl. Neutralizing antibody studies demonstrated that the primary mitogens isolated in the 0.6 and 1.0 M NaCl fractions were keratinocyte growth factor (KGF, fibroblast growth factor 7) and hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF), respectively. HGF/SF was demonstrated in the crude CM and KGF was detected in the 0.6 M NaCl eluent by immunoblotting. Northern blot analysis confirmed that the lung fibroblasts expressed both KGF and HGF/SF transcripts. Human recombinant KGF and HGF/SF induced a concentration- and serum-dependent increase in rat alveolar type II cell DNA synthesis. We conclude that adult human lung fibroblasts produce at least two soluble heparin-binding growth factors, KGF and HGF/SF, which promote DNA synthesis and proliferation of rat alveolar type II cells in primary culture. KGF and HGF/SF may be important stimuli for alveolar type II cell proliferation during lung growth and after lung injury. Images PMID:7688769

Panos, R J; Rubin, J S; Csaky, K G; Aaronson, S A; Mason, R J

1993-01-01

54

Clinical factors, including All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Group severity, as predictors of early rehospitalization after COPD exacerbation  

PubMed Central

Background: Patients hospitalized for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations carry a high risk for early rehospitalization. We wished to identify the basic clinical factors associated with a high risk of rehospitalization, and to see how well the standardized All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Group (APR-DRG) severity of illness (SOI) subclassification predicted rehospitalization if combined with other simple clinical measures. Methods: We identified adult patients aged ?40 years discharged from a major hospital in the Southwestern USA with a COPD discharge diagnosis during the study index period (1 October 2009 to 30 September 2010). Patients readmitted within 30 days (“early rehospitalization”) and 90 days (“any rehospitalization”) were each compared with those not rehospitalized. Clinical parameters (including demographics, comorbidities) and recent healthcare utilization were examined for their association with rehospitalization. Factors independently associated with rehospitalization were then combined with the index admission APR-DRG SOI assessment using conditional linear regression to find the best models in terms of the highest C-statistic. Results: Among 306 patients hospitalized for COPD, 62 (20.3%) had a rehospitalization within 90 days and 28 (9.2%), an early readmission. An APR-DRG SOI subclassification ?3 was a modest independent predictor of early or any readmission, with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 2.09 to 3.33. Models that combined the APR-DRG SOI subclassification with clinical factors present before the index hospitalization had strong C-statistics of ?0.80. Good models without the APR-DRG SOI subclassification but including a history of recent hospitalizations before the index hospitalization were also identified. Conclusions: An APR-DRG SOI subclassification of ?3 for the index COPD admission is associated with an increased risk of early rehospitalizations, and can be combined with a few historical clinical factors to create strong predictive models for rehospitalization. This study demonstrates that hospitals can use commonly collected clinical information to help identify COPD patients at a high risk of failure after discharge.

Roberts, Melissa H; Mapel, Douglas W; Von Worley, Ann; Beene, Janice

2015-01-01

55

The Type Series of 'Sinemys' Wuerhoensis, a Problematic Turtlefrom the Lower Cretaceous of China, Includes at Least Three Taxa  

SciTech Connect

We re-examine the type series of 'Sinemys' wuerhoensis Yeh(at least 20 specimens, including several shells and skulls on threeslabs of matrix and one isolated skull) from the Early Cretaceous TuguluGroup of China. Our study shows that the type series of 'S.'wuerhoensisis actually a chimera made up of at least three distinct taxa. Theholotype of this taxon should be assigned to the basal eucryptodire genusXinjiangchelys Yeh. As there are no characters that distinguish'S.'wuerhoensis from Xinjiangchelys species, we consider it to be a nomendubium. This new assignment of 'S.'wuerhoensis expands the temporal rangeof Xinjiangchelys from the Late Jurassic into the Early Cretaceous inAsia. The majority of the paratypes of 'S.'wuerhoensis (several shells indorsal and ventral aspect and skulls) are referred to the basaleucryptodire genus Ordosemys Brinkman and Peng. We establish a new namefor these specimens, Ordosemys brinkmania sp. nov. One additionalspecimen in the type series of 'S.'wuerhoensis, a skull, is referred tocf. Pantrionychia Joyce, Parham and Gauthier indet.

Danilov, Igor G.; Parham, James F.

2007-03-01

56

Analysis of factors inducing different type of landslide in apparently similar environmental contexts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landslides frequently hit the hilly region of the Vicenza province (North-Eastern Italian Alps) exposing human activities to damage. The region includes Lessini Mountains and Marostica hills. These two areas are separated by a portion of the upper Vicenza plain. They have the same lithological framework, with the predominance of Tertiary volcanic rocks (Basalts and Tuffs) and most of landslides are earth slides and earth flows which affect the altered volcanic bedrock. At first glance, only considering these two type of movements, it seems that the predisposing conditions, as well as triggering factors (i.e. rainfall) are the same. The aim of this work is to find the factors that determine earth slides rather than earth flows. In other words, we checked if there are any anomalies due to particular lithological and morphological constraints attributable to a type of movement. The research was performed both at large and small scale. At large scale, we decide to perform spatial analysis of four numerical and seven categorical factors. Numerical factors are elevation, provided by the Veneto Region, slope gradient, slope aspect and surface curvature, derived from elevation. Categorical data are: soils map and land-use map, both provided by the Veneto Region; lithological map provided by the Vicenza province; IFFI (Inventory of Landslide Phenomena in Italy) project data. We also consider factors such as roads, rivers network and civil buildings. Spatial analysis was performed using a simple probabilistic method that compares spatial distribution of landslides with numerical and categorical factors. At small-scale, we performed mineralogical and geotechnical analyses of samples collected from an earth slide and an earth flow. In order to define the mineralogical phases we use x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) of whole sample and of thin portion. Geotechnical indexes were obtained by Atterber Limits and sieve analyses. We also determined the rheological and swelling properties of the materials. In particular we investigated the variation of those properties as a function of water content. At large-scale, we identified which are the main factors (morphological, lithological and anthropic factors) that determine the different types of landslides. At small-scale, we found significant differences in geotechnical and mineralogical properties of materials involved in the two type of landslide.

Busnardo, Enrico; Secco, Michele; Salbego, Giorgio; Toaldo, Miriam; Lampo, Chiara; Artioli, Gilberto; Floris, Mario

2014-05-01

57

Genetic Interactions between Brn3 Transcription Factors in Retinal Ganglion Cell Type Specification  

PubMed Central

Background Visual information is conveyed from the retina to the brain via 15–20 Retinal Ganglion Cell (RGC) types. The developmental mechanisms by which RGC types acquire their distinct molecular, morphological, physiological and circuit properties are essentially unknown, but may involve combinatorial transcriptional regulation. Brn3 transcription factors are expressed in RGCs from early developmental stages, and are restricted in adults to distinct, partially overlapping populations of RGC types. Previously, we described cell autonomous effects of Brn3b (Pou4f2) and Brn3a (Pou4f1) on RGC axon and dendrites development. Methods and Findings We now have investigated genetic interactions between Brn3 transcription factors with respect to RGC development, by crossing conventional knock-out alleles of each Brn3 gene with conditional knock-in reporter alleles of a second Brn3 gene, and analyzing the effects of single or double Brn3 knockouts on RGC survival and morphology. We find that Brn3b loss results in axon defects and dendritic arbor area and lamination defects in Brn3a positive RGCs, and selectively affects survival and morphology of specific Brn3c (Pou4f3) positive RGC types. Brn3a and Brn3b interact synergistically to control RGC numbers. Melanopsin positive ipRGCs are resistant to combined Brn3 loss but are under the transcriptional control of Isl1, expanding the combinatorial code of RGC specification. Conclusions Taken together these results complete our knowledge on the mechanisms of transcriptional control of RGC type specification. They demonstrate that Brn3b is required for the correct development of more RGC cell types than suggested by its expression pattern in the adult, but that several cell types, including some Brn3a, Brn3c or Melanopsin positive RGCs are Brn3b independent. PMID:24116103

Kretschmer, Friedrich; Mu, Xiuqian; Badea, Tudor C.

2013-01-01

58

Factors Associated with Types of Mathematics Anxiety in College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Factor analysis of a version of the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (MARS) and the Study Process Questionnaire (SPQ) given to (n=173) introductory statistics students found 6 factors: general evaluation anxiety, everyday numerical anxiety, passive observation anxiety, performance anxiety, mathematics test anxiety, and problem-solving anxiety. (39…

Bessant, Kenneth C.

1995-01-01

59

Mutations in Cardiac T-Box Factor Gene TBX20 Are Associated with Diverse Cardiac Pathologies, Including Defects of Septation and Valvulogenesis and Cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

The T-box family transcription factor gene TBX20 acts in a conserved regulatory network, guiding heart formation and patterning in diverse species. Mouse Tbx20 is expressed in cardiac progenitor cells, differentiating cardiomyocytes, and developing valvular tissue, and its deletion or RNA interference–mediated knockdown is catastrophic for heart development. TBX20 interacts physically, functionally, and genetically with other cardiac transcription factors, including NKX2-5, GATA4, and TBX5, mutations of which cause congenital heart disease (CHD). Here, we report nonsense (Q195X) and missense (I152M) germline mutations within the T-box DNA-binding domain of human TBX20 that were associated with a family history of CHD and a complex spectrum of developmental anomalies, including defects in septation, chamber growth, and valvulogenesis. Biophysical characterization of wild-type and mutant proteins indicated how the missense mutation disrupts the structure and function of the TBX20 T-box. Dilated cardiomyopathy was a feature of the TBX20 mutant phenotype in humans and mice, suggesting that mutations in developmental transcription factors can provide a sensitized template for adult-onset heart disease. Our findings are the first to link TBX20 mutations to human pathology. They provide insights into how mutation of different genes in an interactive regulatory circuit lead to diverse clinical phenotypes, with implications for diagnosis, genetic screening, and patient follow-up. PMID:17668378

Kirk, Edwin P. ; Sunde, Margaret ; Costa, Mauro W. ; Rankin, Scott A. ; Wolstein, Orit ; Castro, M. Leticia ; Butler, Tanya L. ; Hyun, Changbaig ; Guo, Guanglan ; Otway, Robyn ; Mackay, Joel P. ; Waddell, Leigh B. ; Cole, Andrew D. ; Hayward, Christopher ; Keogh, Anne ; Macdonald, Peter ; Griffiths, Lyn ; Fatkin, Diane ; Sholler, Gary F. ; Zorn, Aaron M. ; Feneley, Michael P. ; Winlaw, David S. ; Harvey, Richard P. 

2007-01-01

60

Linewidth enhancement factor of a type-II quantum-cascade laser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We measured directly the optical gain, refractive index change, and the linewidth enhancement factor of a type-II quantum-cascade laser. We obtained very low linewidth enhancement factor of 0.8 near threshold.

Lerttamrab, M.; Chuang, S. L.; Yang, R. Q.; Hill, C. J.

2004-01-01

61

Master Transcription Factors Determine Cell-Type-Specific Responses to TGF-? Signaling  

E-print Network

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) signaling, mediated through the transcription factors Smad2 and Smad3 (Smad2/3), directs different responses in different cell types. Here we report that Smad3 co-occupies the genome ...

Mullen, Alan C.

62

Elevated serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations and bioactivity in Type 2 diabetics and patients with android type obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in insulin resistance has been studied in 59 patients with Type 2 diabetes, 28 with android type obesity and 35 healthy lean controls. Immunoreactive concentrations and bioactivity of serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha have repeatedly been determined in 8 weeks intervals for 12 months, five times per patients, by using ELISA and L929 cell cytotoxicity

G. Winkler; F. Salamon; G. Harmos; D. Salamon; G. Speer; O. Szekeres; P. Hajós; M. Kovács; K. Simon; K. Cseh

1998-01-01

63

Proteomic analysis of the Vibrio cholerae type II secretome reveals new proteins, including three related serine proteases.  

PubMed

The type II secretion (T2S) system is responsible for extracellular secretion of a broad range of proteins, including toxins and degradative enzymes that play important roles in the pathogenesis and life cycle of many gram-negative bacteria. In Vibrio cholerae, the etiological agent of cholera, the T2S machinery transports cholera toxin, which induces profuse watery diarrhea, a hallmark of this life-threatening disease. Besides cholera toxin, four other proteins have been shown to be transported by the T2S machinery, including hemagglutinin protease, chitinase, GbpA, and lipase. Here, for the first time, we have applied proteomic approaches, including isotope tagging for relative and absolute quantification coupled with multidimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry, to perform an unbiased and comprehensive analysis of proteins secreted by the T2S apparatus of the V. cholerae El Tor strain N16961 under standard laboratory growth conditions. This analysis identified 16 new putative T2S substrates, including sialidase, several proteins participating in chitin utilization, two aminopeptidases, TagA-related protein, cytolysin, RbmC, three hypothetical proteins encoded by VCA0583, VCA0738, and VC2298, and three serine proteases VesA, VesB, and VesC. Focusing on the initial characterization of VesA, VesB, and VesC, we have confirmed enzymatic activities and T2S-dependent transport for each of these proteases. In addition, analysis of single, double, and triple protease knock-out strains indicated that VesA is the primary protease responsible for processing the A subunit of cholera toxin during in vitro growth of the V. cholerae strain N16961. PMID:21385872

Sikora, Aleksandra E; Zielke, Ryszard A; Lawrence, Daniel A; Andrews, Philip C; Sandkvist, Maria

2011-05-13

64

Proteomic Analysis of the Vibrio cholerae Type II Secretome Reveals New Proteins, Including Three Related Serine Proteases*  

PubMed Central

The type II secretion (T2S) system is responsible for extracellular secretion of a broad range of proteins, including toxins and degradative enzymes that play important roles in the pathogenesis and life cycle of many Gram-negative bacteria. In Vibrio cholerae, the etiological agent of cholera, the T2S machinery transports cholera toxin, which induces profuse watery diarrhea, a hallmark of this life-threatening disease. Besides cholera toxin, four other proteins have been shown to be transported by the T2S machinery, including hemagglutinin protease, chitinase, GbpA, and lipase. Here, for the first time, we have applied proteomic approaches, including isotope tagging for relative and absolute quantification coupled with multidimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry, to perform an unbiased and comprehensive analysis of proteins secreted by the T2S apparatus of the V. cholerae El Tor strain N16961 under standard laboratory growth conditions. This analysis identified 16 new putative T2S substrates, including sialidase, several proteins participating in chitin utilization, two aminopeptidases, TagA-related protein, cytolysin, RbmC, three hypothetical proteins encoded by VCA0583, VCA0738, and VC2298, and three serine proteases VesA, VesB, and VesC. Focusing on the initial characterization of VesA, VesB, and VesC, we have confirmed enzymatic activities and T2S-dependent transport for each of these proteases. In addition, analysis of single, double, and triple protease knock-out strains indicated that VesA is the primary protease responsible for processing the A subunit of cholera toxin during in vitro growth of the V. cholerae strain N16961. PMID:21385872

Sikora, Aleksandra E.; Zielke, Ryszard A.; Lawrence, Daniel A.; Andrews, Philip C.; Sandkvist, Maria

2011-01-01

65

Bayesian Ages for Early-Type Stars from Isochrones Including Rotation, and a Possible Old Age for the Hyades  

E-print Network

We combine recently computed models of stellar evolution using a new treatment of rotation with a Bayesian statistical framework to constrain the ages and other properties of early-type stars. We find good agreement for early-type stars and clusters with known young ages, including beta Pictoris and the Pleiades. However, we derive a slightly older age for the Ursa Majoris moving group (600+/-100 Myr compared to 500+/-100 Myr), and a much older age for the Hyades open cluster (950+/-100 Myr compared to 625+/-50 Myr). These older ages result from both the increase in main-sequence lifetime with stellar rotation and from the fact that rotating models near the main-sequence turnoff are more luminous, overlapping with slightly more massive (and shorter-lived) nonrotating ones. The dramatically older age inferred for the Hyades requires a major reevaluation either of the cluster age or of the rotating stellar models. Our method uses a large grid of nonrotating models to interpolate between a much sparser rotating ...

Brandt, Timothy D

2015-01-01

66

Type 2 diabetes mellitus as risk factor for colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

Colorectal cancer occurs more frequently in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The hyperinsulinemia-hypothesis suggests that elevated levels of insulin and free IGF-1 promote proliferation of colon cells and lead to a survival benefit of transformed cells, ultimately resulting in colorectal cancer. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, epidemiological studies show an increased risk for colorectal cancer and an even higher risk if patients are treated with sulphonylureas or insulin. Moreover, tumour progression at hyperinsulinemia is more rapid and tumour-associated mortality is increased. Colorectal cancer can be avoided by screening. Recommendations for colorectal cancer screening should employ the recent epidemiologic evidence. All patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus should be recommended to undergo colonoscopy before starting insulin therapy, and screening intervals should not exceed 5 years. For this concept, a review of the evidence is presented, and a screening algorithm for colorectal cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is proposed. PMID:18465362

Berster, Jutta M; Göke, Burkhard

2008-02-01

67

Decreased plasma concentration of von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:Ag) in patients with glycogen storage disease type Ia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Despite highly increased blood lipids, patients with glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD Ia) do not develop premature vascular\\u000a complications. Since this could be due to changes of coagulation factors, coagulation tests (including von Willebrand factor\\u000a (VWF) antigen (VWF:Ag) ELISA, VWF:collagen binding activity (VWF:CB) and VWF multimer analysis) were performed in 10 GSD Ia\\u000a patients, single cases of other GSD

C. MÜHlhausen; R. Schneppenheim; U. Budde; M. Merkel; N. Muschol; K. Ullrich; R. Santer

2005-01-01

68

Parental concern about vaccine safety in Canadian children partially immunized at age 2: a multivariable model including system level factors.  

PubMed

Children who begin but do not fully complete the recommended series of childhood vaccines by 2 y of age are a much larger group than those who receive no vaccines. While parents who refuse all vaccines typically express concern about vaccine safety, it is critical to determine what influences parents of 'partially' immunized children. This case-control study examined whether parental concern about vaccine safety was responsible for partial immunization, and whether other personal or system-level factors played an important role. A random sample of parents of partially and completely immunized 2 y old children were selected from a Canadian regional immunization registry and completed a postal survey assessing various personal and system-level factors. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and adjusted ORs (aOR) were calculated with logistic regression. While vaccine safety concern was associated with partial immunization (OR 7.338, 95% CI 4.138-13.012), other variables were more strongly associated and reduced the strength of the relationship between concern and partial immunization in multivariable analysis (aOR 2.829, 95% CI 1.151-6.957). Other important factors included perceived disease susceptibility and severity (aOR 4.629, 95% CI 2.017-10.625), residential mobility (aOR 3.908, 95% CI 2.075-7.358), daycare use (aOR 0.310, 95% CI 0.144-0.671), number of needles administered at each visit (aOR 7.734, 95% CI 2.598-23.025) and access to a regular physician (aOR 0.219, 95% CI 0.057-0.846). While concern about vaccine safety may be addressed through educational strategies, this study suggests that additional program and policy-level strategies may positively impact immunization uptake. PMID:25483477

MacDonald, Shannon E; Schopflocher, Donald P; Vaudry, Wendy

2014-01-01

69

Key factors for the encapsulation of Keggin-type heteropoly acids in the supercages of Y-type zeolite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influences of the properties of the zeolite support on the amount of encapsulation of Keggin-type heteropoly acid (HPA) molecules in the supercages of Y-type zeolite were investigated to clarify the key factors for the production of a solid acid catalyst which maintains activity in aqueous solutions. The investigated properties were the SiO2\\/Al2O3 ratio and the type and amount of

S. R Mukai; L Lin; T Masuda; K Hashimoto

2001-01-01

70

Carriage and acquisition rates of Clostridium difficile in hospitalized horses, including molecular characterization, multilocus sequence typing and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates.  

PubMed

Clostridium difficile has been identified as a significant agent of diarrhoea and enterocolitis in both foals and adult horses. Hospitalization, antibiotic therapy or changes in diet may contribute to the development of C. difficile infection. Horses admitted to a care unit are therefore at greater risk of being colonized. The aim of this study was to investigate the carriage of C. difficile in hospitalized horses and the possible influence of some risk factors in colonization. During a seven-month period, faecal samples and data relating the clinical history of horses admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital were collected. C. difficile isolates were characterized through toxin profiles, cytotoxicity activity, PCR-ribotyping, antimicrobial resistance and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Ten isolates were obtained with a total of seven different PCR-ribotypes, including PCR-ribotype 014. Five of them were identified as toxinogenic. A high resistance to gentamicin, clindamycin and ceftiofur was found. MLST revealed four different sequencing types (ST), which included ST11, ST26, ST2 and ST15, and phylogenetic analysis showed that most of the isolates clustered in the same lineage. Clinical history suggests that horses frequently harbour toxigenic and non-toxigenic C. difficile and that in most cases they are colonized regardless of the reason for hospitalization; the development of diarrhoea is more unusual. PMID:24894133

Rodriguez, C; Taminiau, B; Brévers, B; Avesani, V; Van Broeck, J; Leroux, A A; Amory, H; Delmée, M; Daube, G

2014-08-01

71

Elevated plasma homocysteine in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases  

PubMed Central

Background Elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentration has been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetic individuals independent of conventional risk factors. Available study in Nigerian-Africans is scare. Methods Seventy (30 males) and (40 females) type 2 diabetes mellitus, with age mean of 54 ± 11.52 years were selected for this study and thirty apparently healthy volunteers were included as controls. The biochemical parameters and anthropometric indices were determined using standard procedures. Results Significant increases were obtained in body weight, body mass index (p<0.001) and waist circumference (p<0.012) when compared with the corresponding control values respectively. The fasting plasma glucose (p<0.01), tHcy (p<0.02), and triglyceride (p<0.03) were significantly higher in the diabetes group when compared with the corresponding control values. The plasma folic acid and vitamin B12 (p<0.05) were significantly reduced compared to the control values. The tHcy (p<0.01) was significantly higher in the males when compared with the corresponding female value. Significant decrease was obtained in the plasma triglyceride (p<0.003) in the male patients when compared with the female patients. Conclusion Our result showed increased plasma tHcy, triglyceride and waist circumference as well as decreased folic acid and vitamin B12 in type 2 diabetes mellitus. These alterations are risk factors for premature CVD events. PMID:22937188

Ebesunun, Maria Onomhaguan; Obajobi, Esther Odunayo

2012-01-01

72

Curriculum Type as a Differentiating Factor in Medical Licensing Examinations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the effects of the type of medical curriculum on differential item functioning (DIF) and group differences at the test level in Level 1 of the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examinations (COMLEX). The study also explored the relationship of the DIF and group differences at the test level. There are generally two…

Shen, Linjun

73

Association of depression with type 2 diabetes and relevant factors  

PubMed Central

Background: Based on the high prevalence of diabetes and depression in Rasht, we conducted a study to evaluate the prevalence of depression in type 2 diabetic patients, and its association with glycemic control, chronic complications, and some clinical and paraclinical parameters in this northern state of Iran. Materials and Methods: Beck depression inventory was used for evaluating depression on 90 type 2 diabetics and 90 healthy controls selected. Information on demographic and clinical and paraclinical characteristics was collected by interviews and from medical records. Results: This cross-sectional study was performed on 90 type 2 diabetic patients (63 female and 27 male with a mean age of 54.17 ± 10.57 years) and 90 healthy matched controls. Overall, depression was significantly more prevalent in case group [37.8% vs. 16%, odds ratio (OR) = 3.29, P = 0.001]. The prevalence of depression in diabetic women was significantly higher than nondiabetic ones (39.7% vs. 15%, P = 0.002). We could not find any significant correlation between depression and positive family history of depression, duration of diabetes, HBA1c level, and body mass index. The prevalence of depression was prominently more in diabetic patients with retinopathy than in those without this complication (55.6% vs. 24%, P = 0.015). Logistic regression analysis indicated that diabetes itself was the only significant determinant of having depression (OR = 3.29, P = 0.005, 95% confidence interval: 0.118-0.667). Conclusion: There was a prominent prevalence of depression in type 2 diabetics overall. Depression was not correlated with duration of diabetes and glycemic control. There was a significant association between depression and retinopathy in diabetic patients. Diabetes itself was the only significant determinant of having depression after matching with other variables. PMID:25538930

Kalantari, Saeed; Jafarinezhad, Alireza; Zohrevand, Behzad

2014-01-01

74

Taste impairment and related factors in type I diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

To study taste in type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, 57 consecutive diabetic outpatients (mean +/- SE duration of diabetes 11.4 +/- 0.4 yr) and 38 control subjects were screened for taste disorders with electrogustometry and chemical gustometry. Both groups were comparable for all subject characteristics except body mass index, which was higher in the diabetic group (P less than .05). A taste impairment was found in the diabetic group relative to the control group with electrogustometry (mean threshold 184.3 +/- 15.8 vs. 58.7 +/- 9.2 microA; P less than .001) and chemical gustometry (mean score 13.2 +/- 0.7 vs. 17.1 +/- 0.8; P less than .001). Hypogeusia was found among 73% of the diabetic patients versus 16% of the control subjects (P less than .001). The four primary tastes were involved in taste impairment. With multivariate analysis, taste disorders were related to diabetic status and tobacco and alcohol consumption. In the diabetic group, taste impairment was significantly associated with complications and duration of disease. With multivariate analysis, peripheral neuropathy had the strongest association with taste disorders. These results suggest that taste is impaired during the course of type I diabetes mellitus and that taste impairment could be a complication of the disease. A mechanism of the neuropathic type could be involved. PMID:2702907

Le Floch, J P; Le Lievre, G; Sadoun, J; Perlemuter, L; Peynegre, R; Hazard, J

1989-03-01

75

Type 2 von Willebrand disease causing defective von Willebrand factor-dependent platelet function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type 2 von Willebrand disease causing defective von Willebrand factor-dependent platelet function comprises mainly subtypes 2A, 2B and 2M. The diagnosis of type 2 von Willebrand disease may be guided by the observation of a disproportionately low level of ristocetin co-factor activity or collagen-binding activity relative to the von Willebrand factor antigen level. The decreased platelet-dependent function is often associated

Dominique Meyer; Edith Fressinaud; Lysiane Hilbert; Anne-Sophie Ribba; Jean-Maurice Lavergne; Claudine Mazurier

2001-01-01

76

MDM2 and p53 expression in gliomas: a multivariate survival analysis including proliferation markers and epidermal growth factor receptor.  

PubMed Central

p53 and the murine double minute 2 (MDM2) oncoprotein expression was evaluated in paraffin-embedded tissue from 61 patients with central nervous system gliomas (53 astrocytomas and eight oligodendrogliomas) and related to proliferation-associated markers [i.e. proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Ki-67 and nuclear organizer regions (NORs)] and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We used the monoclonal antibodies PC-10, MIB-1, DO-1, 1B1O and EGFR 113 and the colloid silver nitrate (AgNOR) technique. MDM2 and p53 were co-expressed in 28% of cases. A p53-positive/MDM2-negative phenotype was observed in 15% and a p53-negative/MDM2-positive phenotype in 20% of cases. There was a positive correlation of p53 and MDM2 expression with grade and proliferation indices. Univariate analysis in the group of diffuse astrocytomas showed that older age, high histological grade, high PCNA labelling index (LI) and high AgNOR score were associated with reduced overall survival (P < 0.05). p53 LI, Ki-67 LI, AgNOR score, tumour location and grade influenced disease-free survival (P < 0.05), whereas the only parameters affecting post-relapse survival were histological grade and Ki-67 LI (P < 0.1). Multivariate analysis revealed that age, radiotherapy, PCNA LI and p53 LI were the independent predictors of overall survival. p53 LI, Ki-67 LI, MDM2 LI, EGFR LI, grade and type of therapy were independent predictors of disease-free survival, and grade was the only independent predictor of post-relapse survival. Our results indicate that p53 LI and MDM2 LI, EGFR expression as well as proliferation markers (PCNA and Ki-67) are useful indicators of overall and disease-free survival in diffuse astrocytoma patients. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9155045

Korkolopoulou, P.; Christodoulou, P.; Kouzelis, K.; Hadjiyannakis, M.; Priftis, A.; Stamoulis, G.; Seretis, A.; Thomas-Tsagli, E.

1997-01-01

77

Effect of yoga practices on pulmonary function tests including transfer factor of lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO) in asthma patients.  

PubMed

Prana is the energy, when the self-energizing force embraces the body with extension and expansion and control, it is pranayama. It may affect the milieu at the bronchioles and the alveoli particularly at the alveolo-capillary membrane to facilitate diffusion and transport of gases. It may also increase oxygenation at tissue level. Aim of our study is to compare pulmonary functions and diffusion capacity in patients of bronchial asthma before and after yogic intervention of 2 months. Sixty stable asthmatic-patients were randomized into two groups i.e group 1 (Yoga training group) and group 2 (control group). Each group included thirty patients. Lung functions were recorded on all patients at baseline, and then after two months. Group 1 subjects showed a statistically significant improvement (P<0.001) in Transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1st sec (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) and slow vital capacity (SVC) after yoga practice. Quality of life also increased significantly. It was concluded that pranayama & yoga breathing and stretching postures are used to increase respiratory stamina, relax the chest muscles, expand the lungs, raise energy levels, and calm the body. PMID:23029966

Singh, Savita; Soni, Ritu; Singh, K P; Tandon, O P

2012-01-01

78

Genetic deletion of growth differentiation factor 15 augments renal damage in both type 1 and type 2 models of diabetes.  

PubMed

Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is emerging as valuable biomarker in cardiovascular disease and diabetic kidney disease. Also, GDF15 represents an early response gene induced after tissue injury and studies performed in GDF15 knockout (KO) mice suggest that GDF15 plays a protective role after injury. In the current study, we investigated the role of GDF15 in the development of diabetic kidney damage in type 1 and type 2 models of diabetes. Renal damage was assessed in GDF15 KO mice and wild-type (WT) mice in streptozotocin type 1 and db/db type 2 diabetic models. Genetic deletion of GDF15 augmented tubular and interstitial damage in both models of diabetes, despite similar diabetic states in KO and WT mice. Increased tubular damage in KO animals was associated with increased glucosuria and polyuria in both type 1 and type 2 models of diabetes. In both models of diabetes, KO mice showed increased interstitial damage as indicated by increased ?-smooth muscle actin staining and collagen type 1 expression. In contrast, glomerular damage was similarly elevated in diabetic KO and WT mice. In type 1 diabetes, GDF15 KO mice demonstrated increased expression of inflammatory markers. In type 2 diabetes, elevated levels of plasma creatinine indicated impaired kidney function in KO mice. GDF15 protects the renal interstitium and tubular compartment in experimental type 1 and 2 diabetes without affecting glomerular damage. PMID:23986522

Mazagova, Magdalena; Buikema, Hendrik; van Buiten, Azuwerus; Duin, Marry; Goris, Maaike; Sandovici, Maria; Henning, Robert H; Deelman, Leo E

2013-11-01

79

Systematic identification of type I and type II interferon-induced antiviral factors.  

PubMed

Type I and type II interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that establish the cellular antiviral state through the induction of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). We sought to understand the basis of the antiviral activity induced by type I and II IFNs in relation to the functions of their ISGs. Based on gene expression studies, we systematically identified antiviral ISGs by performing blinded, functional screens on 288 type I and type II ISGs. We assessed and validated the antiviral activity of these ISGs against an RNA virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and a DNA virus, murine gammaherpes virus (MHV-68). Overall, we identified 34 ISGs that elicited an antiviral effect on the replication of either one or both viruses. Fourteen ISGs have uncharacterized antiviral functions. We further defined ISGs that affect critical life-cycle processes in expression of VSV protein and MHV-68 immediate-early genes. Two previously undescribed antiviral ISGs, TAP1 and BMP2, were further validated. TAP1-deficient fibroblasts were more susceptible to VSV infection but less so to MHV-68 infection. On the other hand, exogenous BMP2 inhibits MHV-68 lytic growth but did not affect VSV growth. These results delineate common and distinct sets of type I and type II IFN-induced genes as well as identify unique ISGs that have either broad or specific antiviral effects on these viruses. PMID:22371602

Liu, Su-Yang; Sanchez, David Jesse; Aliyari, Roghiyh; Lu, Sun; Cheng, Genhong

2012-03-13

80

Temperature factor for magnetic instability conditions of type - II superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The macroscopic development of interrelated electrodynamics and thermal states taking place both before and after instability onset in type-II superconductors are studied using the critical state and the flux creep concepts. The physical mechanisms of the non-isothermal formation of the critical state are discussed solving the set of unsteady thermo-electrodynamics equations taking into consideration the unknown moving penetration boundary of the magnetic flux. To make it, the numerical method, which allows to study diffusion phenomena with unknown moving phase-two boundary, is developed. The corresponding non-isothermal flux jump criteria are written. It is proved for the first time that, first, the diffusion phenomena in superconductors have the fission-chain-reaction nature, second, the stability conditions, losses in superconductor and its stable overheating before instability onset are mutually dependent. The results are compared with those following from the existing magnetic instability theory, which does not take into consideration the stable temperature increase of superconductor before the instability onset. It is shown that errors of isothermal approximation are significant for modes closed to adiabatic ones. Therefore, the well-known adiabatic flux jump criterion limits the range of possible stable superconducting states since a correct determination of their stability states must take into account the thermal prehistory of the stable magnetic flux penetration. As a result, the calculation errors in the isothermal approximation will rise when the sweep rate of an external magnetic field or the size of the superconductor’s cross-sectional area increase. The basic conclusions formulated in the framework of the critical state model are verified comparing the experimental results and the numerical analysis of the stability conditions and the temperature dynamics of the helicoid-type superconducting current-carrying element having real voltage-current characteristic. On the whole, the non-isothermal stability conditions expand the existence of allowable stable superconducting states. The non-isothermal approximation permits also to link the theories of the losses, the magnetic instability and the thermal stabilization of superconductors, which are independently developed.

Romanovskii, V.

2014-10-01

81

THE FURTHER SEPARATION OF TYPES AMONG THE PNEUMOCOCCI HITHERTO INCLUDED IN GROUP IV AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF THERAPEUTIC ANTISERA FOR THESE TYPES.  

PubMed

The unclassified strains known as Group IV have been separated into twenty-nine types which are designated by the Roman numerals IV and XXXII. Only a small percentage of the pneumococcus strains isolated in New York City for this study were left unclassified. The majority of the types gave very slight cross-reactions, the exceptions being Types II and V, III and VIII, VII and XVIII and XV and XXX. In the series of cases studied, Types IV, V, VII and VIII were found more prevalent in the lobar pneumonia of adults and Types V, VI a and XIV in children. The majority of the types were also found in normal individuals and in persons having respiratory infections other than pneumonia. Types VI a and XIX were most prevalent in the limited number of strains studied by us. Fourteen of the types were found in pneumococcus meningitis; Type XVIII was found most often. Antisera suitable for clinical trial have been prepared for fourteen types. From the majority of the horses inoculated for more than a year, antisera having 500 to 1000 units per cc. were obtained. Antisera of lower potency were concentrated and preparations obtained equal to or stronger than high grade unconcentrated serum. Potent bivalent antisera have been prepared for types which were found to give marked cross-agglutination reactions. The results with each type as to prevalence, severity of cases, presence in normal individuals, and in spinal meningitis, potency of antisera produced for therapeutic trial and virulence of strains for mice have been considered under the different type headings. PMID:19870011

Cooper, G; Rosenstein, C; Walter, A; Peizer, L

1932-03-31

82

43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? 404.9 Section 404.9 Public Lands...facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? A rural water supply project may include, but is not limited to,...

2013-10-01

83

43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? 404.9 Section 404.9 Public Lands...facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? A rural water supply project may include, but is not limited to,...

2012-10-01

84

43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? 404.9 Section 404.9 Public Lands...facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? A rural water supply project may include, but is not limited to,...

2014-10-01

85

43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? 404.9 Section 404.9 Public Lands...facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? A rural water supply project may include, but is not limited to,...

2010-10-01

86

43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? 404.9 Section 404.9 Public Lands...facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? A rural water supply project may include, but is not limited to,...

2011-10-01

87

Risk factors of retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus at a tertiary care hospital, Bahawalpur Pakistan.  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To find out the risk factors of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methodology: It was a cross-sectional study involving 300 patients of type 2 diabetes. Clinical history, relevant examination including fundoscopy and lab investigations were done. Data was analysed with SPSS 17.0. T-test and chi square/Fischer exact were applied to determine significance. Results: Mean age of the patients was 49.04 ± 0.69 years with slight female predominance with male to female ratio of 3:4. Average duration of disease was 7.17 ± 0.38 years. Diabetic retinopathy was diagnosed in (74, 23.9%). Mean HbA1c was 8.15% in patients with retinopathy and 8.884% in those who had no retinopathy (p=0.08). However, duration of DM, age of patients, male gender, high total cholesterol, high LDL and microalbuminuria were significantly associated with the development of retinopathy. Conclusions: Diabetic retinopathy was found in 23.9% of type 2 diabetics. It was associated with duration of disease, age at presentation, male gender, high total cholesterol, high LDL and microalbuminuria. A single high level of HbA1c was not associated with retinopathy. PMID:24353572

Hussain, Sadiq; Qamar, Muhammad Rashad; Iqbal, Muhammad Arshad; Ahmad, Ameer; Ullah, Ehsan

2013-01-01

88

29 CFR 37.34 - What type of notice must a recipient include in publications, broadcasts, and other communications?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...publications, broadcasts, and other communications? 37.34 Section 37...of Recipients Notice and Communication § 37.34 What type...broadcasts, and other communications? (a) Recipients must...communicated in written and/or oral form,...

2011-07-01

89

29 CFR 37.34 - What type of notice must a recipient include in publications, broadcasts, and other communications?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...publications, broadcasts, and other communications? 37.34 Section 37...of Recipients Notice and Communication § 37.34 What type...broadcasts, and other communications? (a) Recipients must...communicated in written and/or oral form,...

2012-07-01

90

29 CFR 37.34 - What type of notice must a recipient include in publications, broadcasts, and other communications?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...publications, broadcasts, and other communications? 37.34 Section 37...of Recipients Notice and Communication § 37.34 What type...broadcasts, and other communications? (a) Recipients must...communicated in written and/or oral form,...

2010-07-01

91

29 CFR 37.34 - What type of notice must a recipient include in publications, broadcasts, and other communications?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...publications, broadcasts, and other communications? 37.34 Section 37.34 Labor...Obligations of Recipients Notice and Communication § 37.34 What type of notice...publications, broadcasts, and other communications? (a) Recipients must...

2014-07-01

92

NFI is an essential positive transcription factor for human papillomavirus type 16 early gene expression.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is the primary etiologic agent for greater than 50% of all cervical carcinomas. Expression of the HPV16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins is under control of the upstream regulatory region (URR), which contains a myriad of transcription factor binding sites, including 7 half sites for NFI. These NFI binding sites were used as probes in electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs), and mutational analysis of individual and multiple NFI binding sites was performed in order to demonstrate the relative importance of particular NFI sites to URR activity. By using 5 NFI half sites as an enhancer, we were able to detect a 4-fold increase in URR activity. Our results define the role and relative contribution of NFI binding sites to the basal activity of the HPV16 promoter, and demonstrate that NFI binding sites can act independently to enhance HPV16 URR activity in immortalized keratinocytes. PMID:19440457

Baldwin, Amy; Hypes, Melissa K; Pirisi, Lucia; Creek, Kim E

2007-01-01

93

Diabetic foot risk factors in type 2 diabetes patients: a cross-sectional case control study  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetic foot is a serious condition in patients with a long lasting diabetes mellitus. Diabetic foot treated improperly may lead not only to delayed ulceration healing, generalized inflammation, unnecessary surgical intervention, but also to the lower limb amputation. The aim of this study was to compare diabetic foot risk factors in population with type 2 diabetes and risk factors for diabetes in healthy subjects. Methods The study included 900 subjects: 145 with diabetic foot, 293 with type 2 diabetes without diabetic foot and 462 healthy controls matched in terms of mean age, gender structure and cardiovascular diseases absence. Study was conducted in Gastroenterology and Metabolic Diseases Department, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland. In statistical analysis a logistic regression model, U Mann-Whitney’s and t-Student test were used. Results The binomial logit models analysis showed that the risk of diabetic foot in patients with type 2 diabetes was decreased by patient’s age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.92-0.96; p = 0.00001) and hyperlipidaemia (OR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.36-0.81; p = 0.01). In contrast, male gender (OR = 2.83; 95% CI: 1.86-4.28; p = 0.00001) diabetes duration (OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 1.03-1.06; p = 0.0003), weight (OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 1.03-1.06; p = 0.00001), height (OR = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.05-1.11; p = 0.00001) and waist circumference (OR = 1.028; 95% CI: 1.007-1.050; p = 0.006) increase the risk of diabetic foot. The onset of type 2 diabetes in healthy subjects was increased by weight (OR = 1.035; 95% CI: 1.024-1.046; p = 0.00001), WC (OR = 1.075; 95% CI: 1.055-1.096; p = 00001), hip circumference (OR = 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05; p = 0.005), overweight defined with body mass index (BMI) above 24,9 kg/m2 (OR = 2.49; 95% CI: 1.77-3.51; p = 0.00001) and hyperlipidaemia (OR = 3.53; 95% CI: 2.57-4.84; p = 0.00001). Conclusions Risk factors for Type 2 diabetes and diabetic foot are only partially common. Study proved that patients who are prone to developing diabetic foot experience different risk factors than patients who are at risk of diabetes. Identification of relationship between diabetic foot and diabetes risk factors in appropriate groups may help clinicians to focus on certain factors in diabetic foot prevention. PMID:25114882

2014-01-01

94

The Opportunistic Pathogen Propionibacterium acnes: Insights into Typing, Human Disease, Clonal Diversification and CAMP Factor Evolution  

PubMed Central

We previously described a Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) scheme based on eight genes that facilitates population genetic and evolutionary analysis of P. acnes. While MLST is a portable method for unambiguous typing of bacteria, it is expensive and labour intensive. Against this background, we now describe a refined version of this scheme based on two housekeeping (aroE; guaA) and two putative virulence (tly; camp2) genes (MLST4) that correctly predicted the phylogroup (IA1, IA2, IB, IC, II, III), clonal complex (CC) and sequence type (ST) (novel or described) status for 91% isolates (n?=?372) via cross-referencing of the four gene allelic profiles to the full eight gene versions available in the MLST database (http://pubmlst.org/pacnes/). Even in the small number of cases where specific STs were not completely resolved, the MLST4 method still correctly determined phylogroup and CC membership. Examination of nucleotide changes within all the MLST loci provides evidence that point mutations generate new alleles approximately 1.5 times as frequently as recombination; although the latter still plays an important role in the bacterium's evolution. The secreted/cell-associated ‘virulence’ factors tly and camp2 show no clear evidence of episodic or pervasive positive selection and have diversified at a rate similar to housekeeping loci. The co-evolution of these genes with the core genome might also indicate a role in commensal/normal existence constraining their diversity and preventing their loss from the P. acnes population. The possibility that members of the expanded CAMP factor protein family, including camp2, may have been lost from other propionibacteria, but not P. acnes, would further argue for a possible role in niche/host adaption leading to their retention within the genome. These evolutionary insights may prove important for discussions surrounding camp2 as an immunotherapy target for acne, and the effect such treatments may have on commensal lineages. PMID:24058439

McDowell, Andrew; Nagy, István; Magyari, Márta; Barnard, Emma; Patrick, Sheila

2013-01-01

95

Factors associated with non-adherence to insulin in patients with type 1 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To find out the various factors associated with non-adherence to diet, physical activity and insulin among patients with type 1 diabetes. (T1DM). Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted among T1DM subjects attending the Baqai Institute of Diabetology & Endocrinology (BIDE) and Diabetic Association of Pakistan (DAP), from July 2011 to June 2012.Clinical characteristics, anthropometric measurements, knowledge regarding type 1 diabetes along with adherence to dietary advice, physical activity and insulin were noted on a predesigned questionnaire and score was assigned to each question. Patients were categorized as adherent or non-adherent on the basis of scores obtained. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for windows version 17.0 was used to analyze the data. Results: A total of 194 patients (Male 94, Female 100), with mean age of 17.9± 6.4 years, mean duration of diabetes 5.37±4.96 years (38.1% >5 yrs, 61.9% <5 yrs) were included in the study. One hundred and fourteen (58.5%) patients were non adherent to dietary advice, 82(42.3%) non adherent to physical activity while 88.1% respondents were non adherent to their prescribed insulin regimen. Factors associated with non-compliance were family type, occupation & educational level of respondent’s parents, duration of T1DM, family history of diabetes, frequency of visits to diabetic clinic, knowledge regarding diabetes, lack of family support and fear of hypoglycemia. Conclusion: Non adherence to prescribed treatment regimen in patient with TIDM is quite high. There is need to design strategies to help patients and their family members understand their treatment regimen in order to improve their adherence. PMID:24772118

Riaz, Musarrat; Basit, Abdul; Fawwad, Asher; Yakoob Ahmedani, Muhammad; Ali Rizvi, Zahara

2014-01-01

96

Hydrogeomorphic Classification of Wetlands on Mt. Desert Island, Maine, Including Hydrologic Susceptibility Factors for Wetlands in Acadia National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, developed a hydrogeomorphic (HGM) classification system for wetlands greater than 0.4 hectares (ha) on Mt. Desert Island, Maine, and applied this classification using map-scale data to more than 1,200 mapped wetland units on the island. In addition, two hydrologic susceptibility factors were defined for a subset of these wetlands, using 11 variables derived from landscape-scale characteristics of the catchment areas of these wetlands. The hydrologic susceptibility factors, one related to the potential hydrologic pathways for contaminants and the other to the susceptibility of wetlands to disruptions in water supply from projected future changes in climate, were used to indicate which wetlands (greater than 1 ha) in Acadia National Park (ANP) may warrant further investigation or monitoring. The HGM classification system consists of 13 categories: Riverine-Upper Perennial, Riverine-Nonperennial, Riverine- Tidal, Depressional-Closed, Depressional-Semiclosed, Depressional-Open, Depressional-No Ground-Water Input, Mineral Soil Flat, Organic Soil Flat, Tidal Fringe, Lacustrine Fringe, Slope, and Hilltop/Upper Hillslope. A dichotomous key was developed to aid in the classification of wetlands. The National Wetland Inventory maps produced by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service provided the wetland mapping units used for this classification. On the basis of topographic map information and geographic information system (GIS) layers at a scale of 1:24,000 or larger, 1,202 wetland units were assigned a preliminary HGM classification. Two of the 13 HGM classes (Riverine-Tidal and Depressional-No Ground-Water Input) were not assigned to any wetlands because criteria for determining those classes are not available at that map scale, and must be determined by more site-specific information. Of the 1,202 wetland polygons classified, which cover 1,830 ha in ANP, 327 were classified as Slope, 258 were Depressional (Open, Semiclosed, and Closed), 231 were Riverine (Upper Perennial and Nonperennial), 210 were Soil Flat (Mineral and Organic), 68 were Lacustrine Fringe, 51 were Tidal Fringe, 22 were Hilltop/Upper Hillslope, and another 35 were small open water bodies. Most small, isolated wetlands classified on the island are Slope wetlands. The least common, Hilltop/Upper Hillslope wetlands, only occur on a few hilltops and shoulders of hills and mountains. Large wetland complexes generally consist of groups of Depressional wetlands and Mineral Soil Flat or Organic Soil Flat wetlands, often with fringing Slope wetlands at their edges and Riverine wetlands near streams flowing through them. The two analyses of wetland hydrologic susceptibility on Mt. Desert Island were applied to 186 wetlands located partially or entirely within ANP. These analyses were conducted using individually mapped catchments for each wetland. The 186 wetlands were aggregated from the original 1,202 mapped wetland polygons on the basis of their HGM classes. Landscape-level hydrologic, geomorphic, and soil variables were defined for the catchments of the wetlands, and transformed into scaled scores from 0 to 10 for each variable. The variables included area of the wetland, area of the catchment, area of the wetland divided by the area of the catchment, the average topographic slope of the catchment, the amount of the catchment where bedrock crops out with no soil cover or excessively thin soil cover, the amount of storage (in lakes and wetlands) in the catchment, the topographic relief of the catchment, the amount of clay-rich soil in the catchment, the amount of manmade impervious surface, whether the wetland had a stream inflow, and whether the wetland had a hydraulic connection to a lake or estuary. These data were determined using a GIS and data layers mapped at a scale of 1:24,000 or larger. These landscape variables were combined in different ways for the two hydrologic susceptibility fact

Nielsen, Martha G.

2006-01-01

97

Comparison of breath gases, including acetone, with blood glucose and blood ketones in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.  

PubMed

Previous studies have suggested that breath gases may be related to simultaneous blood glucose and blood ketone levels in adults with type 2 and type 1 diabetes. The aims of this study were to investigate these relationships in children and young people with type 1 diabetes in order to assess the efficacy of a simple breath test as a non-invasive means of diabetes management. Gases were collected in breath bags and measurements were compared with capillary blood glucose and ketone levels taken at the same time on a single visit to a routine hospital clinic in 113 subjects (59 male, age 7?years 11?months-18?years 3?months) with type 1 diabetes. The patients were well-controlled with relatively low concentrations of the blood ketone measured (? hydroxybutyrate, 0-0.4?mmol?l(-1)). Breath acetone levels were found to increase with blood ? hydroxybutyrate levels and a significant relationship was found between the two (Spearman's rank correlation ? = 0.364, p < 10(-4)). A weak positive relationship was found between blood glucose and breath acetone (? = 0.16, p = 0.1), but led to the conclusion that single breath measurements of acetone do not provide a good measure of blood glucose levels in this cohort. This result suggests a potential to develop breath gas analysis to provide an alternative to blood testing for ketone measurement, for example to assist with the management of type 1 diabetes. PMID:25422916

Blaikie, Tom P J; Edge, Julie A; Hancock, Gus; Lunn, Daniel; Megson, Clare; Peverall, Rob; Richmond, Graham; Ritchie, Grant A D; Taylor, David

2014-12-01

98

Some flow phenomena in a constant area duct with a Borda type inlet including the critical region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mass limiting flow characteristics for a 55 L/D tube with a Borda type inlet were assessed over large ranges of temperature and pressure, using fluid nitrogen. Under certain conditions, separation and pressure drop at the inlet was sufficiently strong to permit partial vaporization and the remaining fluid flowed through the tube as if it were a free jet. An empirical relation was determined which defines conditions under which this type of flow can occur. A flow coefficient is presented which enables estimations of flow rates over the experimental range. A flow rate stagnation pressure map for selected stagnation isotherms and pressure profiles document these flow phenomena.

Hendricks, R. C.; Simoneau, R. J.

1978-01-01

99

Expression of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Activator Inhibitor Type 1 in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Postoperative Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 (HAI-1), one of the Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors, has an important\\u000a role in cancer progression through regulation of the activity of hepatocyte growth factor. HAI-1 is expressed in hepatocellular\\u000a carcinoma (HCC) to various degrees. Investigation of the relationship between HAI-1 expression and clinicopathological features\\u000a of HCC may contribute to improved treatment outcomes for

Mayumi Funagayama; Kazuhiro Kondo; Kazuo Chijiiwa; Hiroaki Kataoka

2010-01-01

100

Factors affecting the adoption of recommended agricultural practices by three different types of farmers in Mexico  

E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING THE ADOPTION OF RECOMMENDED AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES BY THREE DIFFERENT TYPES OF FARMERS IN MEXICO A Thesis by GILBERTO S ~ GARZA-FALCON Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&K University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May, 1968 Major Subject: Agricultural Education FACTORS AFFECTING THE ADOPTION OF RECO?NENDED AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES BY THREE DIFFERENT TYPES OF FARNERS IN HEXICO A Thesis by GILBERTO S. GARZA...

Garza-Falcon, Gilberto Severino

1968-01-01

101

Changing Impact of Modifiable Risk Factors on the Incidence of Major Outcomes of Type 1 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The incidence of type 1 diabetes complications appears to be decreasing, but relative contributions of risk factors are unclear. We thus estimated the effect of modifiable risk factors on the incidence of a composite end point, major outcomes of diabetes (MOD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications (EDC) Study was used to derive two cohorts based on diabetes diagnosis year (1960–1969 and 1970–1980). Baseline exam data in the current analysis for the 1960s group were collected in 1986–1988 and for the 1970s in 1996–1998. Each group was followed for 8 years for MOD incidence (diabetes-related death, myocardial infarction, revascularization procedure/blockage ?50%, stroke, end-stage renal disease, blindness, and amputation). Assessed risk factors include the following: HbA1c, hypertension, microalbuminuria, BMI, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking. Accelerated failure time models were used to estimate the acceleration factor. RESULTS MOD incidence decreased in the 1970s cohort (15.8% [95% CI 11.6–21.4]) compared with the 1960s (22.6% [17.0–29.1]) over the 8-year follow-up (P = 0.06). Hypertension and microalbuminuria were associated with significantly accelerated MOD incidence in both cohorts (P < 0.01 for both). High HbA1c (P = 0.0005), hypercholesterolemia (P = 0.01), and current smoking (P = 0.003) significantly accelerated the incidence of MOD in the 1960s but not 1970s cohort. BMI was not associated with MOD in either cohort. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that hypertension and microalbuminuria remain important predictors of complications that are not being adequately addressed. PMID:24170748

Miller, Rachel G.; Secrest, Aaron M.; Ellis, Demetrius; Becker, Dorothy J.; Orchard, Trevor J.

2013-01-01

102

Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for pulmonary fibrosis.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the clinical and histopathological relationship between pulmonary fibrosis and type 1 diabetes. We examined clinical pulmonary function parameters and transbronchial lung biopsies to assess associated histopathological changes in 12 type 1 diabetic patients presenting with dyspnea. Lung CT images pulmonary function tests from 12 diabetic patients without dyspnea and from 12 matched normal subjects served as controls. A similar histopathological analysis, including cytokine levels and pro-fibrotic markers, was performed on lung tissues in mice after the induction of experimental diabetes in an attempt to strengthen the link between diabetes and pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary function parameters (FVC, FEV1, TLC, and DLco/VA) were significantly reduced in diabetic patients with dyspnea and without dyspnea, compared to controls. Both patient groups also had increased lung CT scores and symptoms compared to normal controls, though the greatest increases were in the diabetic patients with dyspnea. Chronic hyperglycemia induced in mice led to histopathological changes in the lungs that were similar to those found in the human diabetic subjects and included alveoli compression by hyperplastic interstitium infiltrated with inflammatory cells and fibrotic in nature. Two inflammatory related genes, TNF-? and PAI-1, and two fibrosis-related genes, CTGF and fibronectin, demonstrated increased mRNA and protein expression in diabetic mouse lungs. In conclusion, there were significant clinical and histopathological correlations between pulmonary fibrosis and the presence of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes was clinically associated with pulmonary fibrosis and dysfunction in humans, and diabetes induction led to a similar pulmonary fibrosis in an experimental model. These clinical and non-clinical data suggest that diabetes is an independent risk factor for pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:24938900

Hu, Yuxin; Ma, Zhongsen; Guo, Zhimin; Zhao, Fenglian; Wang, Yuan; Cai, Lu; Yang, Junling

2014-11-01

103

School factors as barriers to and facilitators of a preventive intervention for pediatric type 2 diabetes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

School-based interventions are essential to prevent pediatric obesity and type 2 diabetes. School environmental factors influence implementation of these interventions. This article examines how school factors acted as barriers to and facilitators of the HEALTHY intervention. The HEALTHY study was a...

104

Factors Associated with Beta-Cell Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes: The BETADECLINE Study  

PubMed Central

Aims Beta-cell dysfunction is an early event in the natural history of type 2 diabetes. However, its progression is variable and potentially influenced by several clinical factors. We report the baseline data of the BetaDecline study, an Italian prospective multicenter study on clinical predictors of beta-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods Clinical, lifestyle, and laboratory data, including circulating levels of inflammatory markers and non-esterified fatty acids, were collected in 507 type 2 diabetic outpatients on stable treatment with oral hypoglycemic drugs or diet for more than 1 year. Beta-cell dysfunction was evaluated by calculating the proinsulin/insulin ratio (P/I). Results At baseline, the subjects in the upper PI/I ratio quartile were more likely to be men and receiving secretagogue drugs; they also showed a borderline longer diabetes duration (P?=?0.06) and higher serum levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose, and triglycerides. An inverse trend across all PI/I quartiles was noted for BMI and serum levels of total cholesterol (T-C), LDL-C, HDL-C and C reactive protein (CRP), and with homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-B) and HOMA of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values (P<0.05 for all). At multivariate analysis, the risk of having a P/I ratio in the upper quartile was higher in the subjects on secretagogue drugs (odds ratio [OR] 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.6–6.9) and in the males (OR 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1–2.9). Conclusions In the BetaDecline study population, baseline higher PI/I values, a marker of beta-cell dysfunction, were more frequent in men and in patients on secretagogues drugs. Follow-up of this cohort will allow the identification of clinical predictors of beta-cell failure in type 2 diabetic outpatients. PMID:25347846

Russo, Giuseppina T.; Giorda, Carlo Bruno; Cercone, Stefania; Nicolucci, Antonio; Cucinotta, Domenico

2014-01-01

105

Duration of participation in continuous quality improvement: a key factor explaining improved delivery of Type 2 diabetes services.  

PubMed

BackgroundIt is generally recognised that continuous quality improvement (CQI) programs support development of high quality primary health care systems. However, there is limited evidence demonstrating their system-wide effectiveness. We examined variation in quality of Type 2 diabetes service delivery in over 100 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care centres participating in a wide-scale CQI project over the past decade, and determined the influence of health centre and patient level factors on quality of care, with specific attention to health centre duration of participation in a CQI program.MethodsWe analysed over 10,000 clinical audit records to assess quality of Type 2 diabetes care of patients in 132 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community health centres in five states/territories participating in the ABCD project for varying periods between 2005 and 2012. Process indicators of quality of care for each patient were calculated by determining the proportion of recommended guideline scheduled services that were documented as delivered. Multilevel regression models were used to quantify the amount of variation in Type 2 diabetes service delivery attributable to health centre or patient level factors and to identify those factors associated with greater adherence to best practice guidelines.ResultsHealth centre factors that were independently associated with adherence to best practice guidelines included longer participation in the CQI program, remoteness of health centres, and regularity of client attendance. Significantly associated patient level variables included greater age, and number of co-morbidities and disease complications. Health centre factors explained 37% of the differences in level of service delivery between jurisdictions with patient factors explaining only a further 1%.ConclusionsAt the health centre level, Type 2 diabetes service delivery could be improved through long term commitment to CQI, encouraging regular attendance (for example, through patient reminder systems) and improved recording and coordination of patient care in the complex service provider environments that are characteristic of non-remote areas. PMID:25408165

Matthews, Veronica; Schierhout, Gill; McBroom, James; Connors, Christine; Kennedy, Catherine; Kwedza, Ru; Larkins, Sarah; Moore, Elizabeth; Thompson, Sandra; Scrimgeour, David; Bailie, Ross

2014-11-19

106

Aging is the primary risk factor for the majority of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). There are almost 40 million  

E-print Network

's, obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, Huntington's disease and dystonia. For this comprehensive exam disorders caused or influenced by multiple factors (e.g., specific genes, susceptibility alleles array of neurobiological disorders, including Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, essential tremor, Tourette

Liu, Taosheng

107

25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include...perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for tourism and recreation travel; ...vehicle parking areas; (3) Development of tourist information...

2012-04-01

108

25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include...perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for tourism and recreation travel; ...vehicle parking areas; (3) Development of tourist information...

2014-04-01

109

25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include...perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for tourism and recreation travel; ...vehicle parking areas; (3) Development of tourist information...

2013-04-01

110

25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include...perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for tourism and recreation travel; ...vehicle parking areas; (3) Development of tourist information...

2011-04-01

111

25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include...perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for tourism and recreation travel; ...vehicle parking areas; (3) Development of tourist information...

2010-04-01

112

Risk factor analysis for proximal and distal reoperations after surgery for acute type A aortic dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was undertaken to determine significant risk factors for proximal or distal reoperations after surgical correction of acute type A aortic dissection. Methods: Between 1980 and 2000, a total of 160 consecutive patients (mean age 57.5 ± 13.3 years, 126 men) underwent surgery for acute type A aortic dissection. Proximal repair was performed by means of ascending aorta

Matthias Kirsch; Céline Soustelle; Rémi Houël; Marie Line Hillion; Daniel Loisance

2002-01-01

113

Reduced von Willebrand factor survival in type Vicenza von Willebrand disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type Vicenza variant of von Willebrand disease (VWD) is characterized by a low plasma von Willebrand factor (VWF) level and supranormal VWF multimers. Two candidate mutations, G2470A and G3864A at exons 17 and 27, respectively, of the VWF gene were recently reported to be present in this disorder. Four additional families, originating from northeast Italy, with both mutations of type

Alessandra Casonato; Elena Pontara; Francesca Sartorello; Maria Grazia Cattini; Maria Teresa Sartori; Roberto Padrini; Antonio Girolami

114

Suicide, Schizophrenia, and Schizoid-Type Psychosis: Role of Life Events and Childhood Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first objective was to identify the provoking events of suicide in patients with schizophrenia or schizoid-type disorder, and to assess the humiliation component of these events. The second objective was to verify if quality of care during childhood is a vulnerability factor for suicide in patients with schizophrenia or schizoid-type

Tousignant, Michel; Pouliot, Louise; Routhier, Danielle; Vrakas, Georgia; McGirr, Alexander; Turecki, Gustavo

2011-01-01

115

Evaluation of risk factors for development of complications in Type II diabetes in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis. The Cost of Diabetes in Europe - Type II study is the first large coordinated attempt to measure the current standard of care and determine the costs of managing patients with Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Methods. The study evaluated glycaemic control, blood lipid levels and blood pressure, all of which are risk factors for complications. Records of these

A. Liebl; M. Mata; E. Eschwège

2002-01-01

116

Prevalence of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria and Associated Host Factors in Women with Diabetes type 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is common among women with diabetes. The aim of this study was determine the prevalence of and risk factors for ASB in women with diabetes type 2 in Shahre-kord city of Iran. Methods: In a six months period (April- September 2005), a total of 100 women with diabetes (type 2) and 100 healthy women without diabetes

Moezzi M

117

Comparison of Gamma-Ray Point Isotropic Buildup Factors Including Fluorescence and Bremsstrahlung in Lead Using Discrete Ordinates and Point Monte Carlo Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure buildup factors and energy spectra of ?-rays, including fluorescence or bremsstrahlung radiations, in Pb for a point isotropic source have been calculated in the vicinity of the K edge and at 10 MeV using a discrete ordinate code, PALLAS. Comparisons of PALLAS results with those by the point Monte Carlo code, EGS4 showed good agreement for exposure buildup factors

Hideo HIRAYAMA; Shun-ichi TANAKA; Yukio SAKAMOTO; K. V. SUBBAIAH; Yoshiko HARIMA

1990-01-01

118

High Quality Power Supply Method for Islanding Microgrid by use of Several Types of DG Systems including Rotating Machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a microgrid is operated in the islanding mode, the operator must satisfy the power quality demand by compensating the active and reactive power using several types of distributed power generation (DG) systems. In this paper, a method to stabilize the system frequency fluctuations and voltage fluctuations of the islanding microgrid is suggested. Extending the suggested “combined cascade control method” which can realize the power compensation without interferences between several types of DGs, “hybrid control” strucuture is proposed and negative effects of control and measurement signal delays on a control are reduced. Moreover, a control of the state of charge (SoC) of energy storage devices is added. For the stabilization of the system voltage, the energy storage is driven by “STATCOM model control”. Experiments have been carried out to confirm the effects of these methods by use of the model microgrid system, and satisfying results were received.

Kikuchi, Takuro; Baba, Jumpei; Kawachi, Shunsuke; Shimoda, Eisuke; Numata, Shigeo; Yamane, Toshihiro; Masada, Eisuke; Nitta, Tanzo

119

Joint association of coffee consumption and other factors to the risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective study in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To examine joint associations of coffee consumption and other factors (including physical activity, obesity and alcohol consumption) with the risk of type 2 diabetes.Design:Prospective follow-up study.Subjects:In all, 10 188 Finnish men and 11 197 women aged 35–74 years without a history of stroke, coronary heart disease or diabetes at baseline.Measurement:A self-administered questionnaire data on coffee, tea, alcohol and other food

G Hu; P Jousilahti; M Peltonen; S Bidel; J Tuomilehto

2006-01-01

120

Three-Input Type Single-Chip Inverter IC including a Function to Generate Six Signals and Dead Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a three-input type single-chip inverter IC for the sine wave drive system in air-conditioner fan motors. The inverter IC integrates a function to generate six signals and dead time. This function generates short dead times, typically 1.5us, to suppress distortion of motor current waveforms. These short dead-times are sufficient to prevent upper and lower arm short-circuits because

Kenji Sakurai; Daisuke Maeda; Hiroyuki Hasegawa

2008-01-01

121

Receptor modelling of fine particles in Southern England using CMB including comparison with AMS-PMF factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PM2.5 was collected during a winter campaign at two southern England sites, urban background North Kensington (NK) and rural Harwell (HAR), in January-February 2012. Multiple organic and inorganic source tracers were analysed and used in a Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model, which apportioned seven separate primary sources, that explained on average 53% (NK) and 56% (HAR) of the organic carbon (OC), including traffic, woodsmoke, food cooking, coal combustion, vegetative detritus, natural gas and dust/soil. With the addition of source tracers for secondary biogenic aerosol at the NK site, 79% of organic carbon was accounted for. Secondary biogenic sources were represented by oxidation products of ?-pinene and isoprene, but only the former made a substantial contribution to OC. Particle source contribution estimates for PM2.5 mass were obtained by the conversion of the OC estimates and combining with inorganic components ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate and sea salt. Good mass closure was achieved with 8% (92% with the addition of the secondary biogenic source) and 83% of the PM2.5 mass explained at NK and HAR respectively, with the remainder being secondary organic matter. While the most important sources of OC are vehicle exhaust (21 and 16%) and woodsmoke (15% and 28%) at NK and HAR respectively, food cooking emissions are also significant, particularly at the urban NK site (11% of OC), in addition to the secondary biogenic source, only measured at NK, which represented about 26%. In comparison, the major source components for PM2.5 at NK and HAR are inorganic ammonium salts (51 and 56%), vehicle exhaust emissions (8 and 6%), secondary biogenic (10% measured at NK only), woodsmoke (4 and 7%) and sea salt (7 and 8%), whereas food cooking (4% and 1%) showed relatively smaller contributions to PM2.5. Results from the CMB model were compared with source contribution estimates derived from the AMS-PMF method. The overall mass of organic matter accounted for is rather similar for the two methods. However, appreciably different concentrations were calculated for the individual primary organic matter contributions, although for most source categories the CMB and AMS-PMF results were highly correlated (r2 = 0.69-0.91). In comparison with the CMB model, the AMS appears to over-estimate the biomass burning/coal and food cooking sources by a factor of around 1.5 to 2 while estimates of the traffic source are rather similar for each model. The largest divergence is in the primary/secondary organic matter split, with the AMS estimating an appreciably smaller secondary component. Possible reasons for these discrepancies are discussed, but despite these substantial divergences, the strong correlation of the two methods gives some confidence in their application.

Yin, J.; Cumberland, S. A.; Harrison, R. M.; Allan, J.; Young, D. E.; Williams, P. I.; Coe, H.

2014-09-01

122

Receptor modelling of fine particles in southern England using CMB including comparison with AMS-PMF factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PM2.5 was collected during a winter campaign at two southern England sites, urban background North Kensington (NK) and rural Harwell (HAR), in January-February 2012. Multiple organic and inorganic source tracers were analysed and used in a Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model, which apportioned seven separate primary sources, that explained on average 53% (NK) and 56% (HAR) of the organic carbon (OC), including traffic, woodsmoke, food cooking, coal combustion, vegetative detritus, natural gas and dust/soil. With the addition of source tracers for secondary biogenic aerosol at the NK site, 79% of organic carbon was accounted for. Secondary biogenic sources were represented by oxidation products of ?-pinene and isoprene, but only the former made a substantial contribution to OC. Particle source contribution estimates for PM2.5 mass were obtained by the conversion of the OC estimates and combining with inorganic components ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and sea salt. Good mass closure was achieved with 81% (92% with the addition of the secondary biogenic source) and 83% of the PM2.5 mass explained at NK and HAR respectively, with the remainder being secondary organic matter. While the most important sources of OC are vehicle exhaust (21 and 16%) and woodsmoke (15 and 28%) at NK and HAR respectively, food cooking emissions are also significant, particularly at the urban NK site (11% of OC), in addition to the secondary biogenic source, only measured at NK, which represented about 26%. In comparison, the major source components for PM2.5 at NK and HAR are inorganic ammonium salts (51 and 56%), vehicle exhaust emissions (8 and 6%), secondary biogenic (10% measured at NK only), woodsmoke (4 and 7%) and sea salt (7 and 8%), whereas food cooking (4 and 1%) showed relatively smaller contributions to PM2.5. Results from the CMB model were compared with source contribution estimates derived from the AMS-PMF method. The overall mass of organic matter accounted for is rather similar for the two methods. However, appreciably different concentrations were calculated for the individual primary organic matter contributions, although for most source categories the CMB and AMS-PMF results were highly correlated (r2 = 0.69-0.91). In comparison with the CMB model, the AMS appears to overestimate the biomass burning/coal and food cooking sources by a factor of around 1.5 to 2 while estimates of the traffic source are rather similar for each model. The largest divergence is in the primary/secondary organic matter split, with the AMS estimating an appreciably smaller secondary component. Possible reasons for these discrepancies are discussed, but despite these substantial divergences, the strong correlation of the two methods gives some confidence in their application.

Yin, J.; Cumberland, S. A.; Harrison, R. M.; Allan, J.; Young, D. E.; Williams, P. I.; Coe, H.

2015-02-01

123

Novel mutations including deletions of the entire OFD1 gene in 30 families with type 1 orofaciodigital syndrome: a study of the extensive clinical variability.  

PubMed

OFD1, now recognized as a ciliopathy, is characterized by malformations of the face, oral cavity and digits, and is transmitted as an X-linked condition with lethality in males. Mutations in OFD1 also cause X-linked Joubert syndrome (JBTS10) and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 2 (SGBS2). We have studied 55 sporadic and six familial cases of suspected OFD1. Comprehensive mutation analysis in OFD1 revealed mutations in 37 female patients from 30 families; 22 mutations have not been previously described including two heterozygous deletions spanning OFD1 and neighbouring genes. Analysis of clinical findings in patients with mutations revealed that oral features are the most reliable diagnostic criteria. A first, detailed evaluation of brain MRIs from seven patients with cognitive defects illustrated extensive variability with the complete brain phenotype consisting of complete agenesis of the corpus callosum, large single or multiple interhemispheric cysts, striking cortical infolding of gyri, ventriculomegaly, mild molar tooth malformation and moderate to severe cerebellar vermis hypoplasia. Although the OFD1 gene apparently escapes X-inactivation, skewed inactivation was observed in seven of 14 patients. The direction of skewing did not correlate with disease severity, reinforcing the hypothesis that additional factors contribute to the extensive intrafamilial variability. PMID:23033313

Bisschoff, Izak J; Zeschnigk, Christine; Horn, Denise; Wellek, Brigitte; Rieß, Angelika; Wessels, Maja; Willems, Patrick; Jensen, Peter; Busche, Andreas; Bekkebraten, Jens; Chopra, Maya; Hove, Hanne Dahlgaard; Evers, Christina; Heimdal, Ketil; Kaiser, Ann-Sophie; Kunstmann, Erdmut; Robinson, Kristina Lagerstedt; Linné, Maja; Martin, Patricia; McGrath, James; Pradel, Winnie; Prescott, Katrina E; Roesler, Bernd; Rudolf, Gorazd; Siebers-Renelt, Ulrike; Tyshchenko, Nataliya; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Wolff, Gerhard; Dobyns, William B; Morris-Rosendahl, Deborah J

2013-01-01

124

The Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Genotypes in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers of Nonimmunosuppressed Individuals Identifies High-Risk Genital Types as Possible Risk Factors1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonmelanoma skin cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignant disease in Caucasians. Known risk factors include fair skin, sun exposure, male gender, advancing age, and the presence of solar keratosis. No viral risk factors have been established thus far. To examine the association between nonmelanoma skin cancer and infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) types, we performed a retrospective study

Angelika Iftner; Stefanie J. Klug; Claus Garbe; Andreas Blum; Alice Stancu; Sharon P. Wilczynski; Thomas Iftner

2003-01-01

125

Risk factors of type 2 diabetes in population of Jammu and Kashmir, India.  

PubMed

We sought to identify risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Jammu and Kashmir populations, India. A total of 424 diabetic and 226 non-diabetic subjects from Jammu, and 161 diabetic and 100 non-diabetic subjects from Kashmir were screened for various parameters including fasting blood glucose level, 2 hour glucose level, urea, creatinine, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-C), uric acid, systolic and diastolic blood pressure level. We found that subjects aged 40-49 years had the highest rate of diabetes, with family income playing not much of a role. Kashmiri migrants or populations with rapid cultural, environmental, social or lifestyle change along with reduced physical activity, obesity and unhealthy lifestyle (smoking and alcohol consumption) were found to have higher rates of diabetes. High blood glucose, triglycerides and low HDL-C levels were found to be contributing to disease outcome. High blood pressure also contributed to a higher risk of developing T2D. Our study supports earlier reports confirming the contribution of comfortable life style, Western dietary habits and rapid life style change along with many other factors to the prevalence of diabetes. This may contribute to the epidemic proportion of diabetes in Jammu and Kashmir. Early diagnosis and routine screening for undiagnosed diabetes in obese subjects and subjects with parental diabetes history is expected to decrease the burden of chronic diabetic complications worldwide. PMID:24086170

Mahajan, Ankit; Sharma, Swarkar; Dhar, Manoj K; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K

2013-09-01

126

Physician and patient management of type 2 diabetes and factors related to glycemic control in Spain  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to assess current treatment patterns, blood glucose test strip usage, and treatment compliance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in primary care centers in Spain, and to assess factors related to glycemic control. We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients with T2DM and measured treatment compliance using the Morisky-Green questionnaire. 294 patients were included in the study from a population of patients attending 30 primary care centers throughout Spain. Results showed that the majority of patients were treated with oral monotherapy (36%) and oral combination therapy (35%). Less than half of the patients had good glycemic control (HbA1c ? 6.5%). Half of the patients treated pharmacologically reported good compliance with treatment. Logistic regression analyses performed to identify factors associated with glycemic control showed that high body mass index (BMI) and poor compliance were the strongest predictors of poor HbA1c control (OR: 2.198 and 1.789, respectively, p < 0.05). In conclusion, in the course of managing diabetes, physicians and patients should attempt to improve compliance and lower BMI, which could lead to better glycemic control. PMID:19920948

Yurgin, Nicole Rae; Boye, Kristina Secnik; Dilla, Tatiana; Suriñach, Núria Lara; Llach, Xavier Badia

2008-01-01

127

Factors that correlate with teachers' perceptions of student outcomes of children with autism included in general education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the factors that correlate with how 30 elementary school children with autism responded in the general education setting known as inclusion. The primary purpose of the study was to determine whether the teachers' attitudes toward inclusion were related to their perceptions of the progress made by the students over the period of the study. Nine special education

Myra Kelly

2004-01-01

128

Time to clearance of mycoplasma mastitis: The effect of management factors including milking time hygiene and preferential culling  

PubMed Central

Factors associated with time to clearance of mycoplasma mastitis were studied in 18 dairy cattle herds. Most herds cleared mycoplasma mastitis within 1 month; < 50% of the herds culled diseased cows preferentially, yet culling was not associated with hastened clearance. Other known mastitis biosecurity and management practices were not associated with clearance time. PMID:23543934

Punyapornwithaya, Veerasak; Fox, Lawrence K.; Hancock, Dale D.; Gay, John M.; Alldredge, J. Richard

2012-01-01

129

Static form factor of a plasma-like medium including a model of the short-range interaction  

SciTech Connect

The integral equations for the two-particle distributions are used to calculate the single-time form factors and the effective particle interaction potentials for a plasma-like medium, modeled by charged hard spheres. It is shown that critical phenomena can occur in such systems. 20 refs.

Gerasimov, O.I.; Zagorodnii, A.G.; Klimontovich, Yu.L.

1993-02-01

130

Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease: Have all risk factors the same strength?  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition that occurs when the body cannot produce enough or effectively use of insulin. Compared with individuals without diabetes, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have a considerably higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease. Most of this excess risk is it associated with an augmented prevalence of well-known risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia and obesity in these patients. However the improved cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients can not be attributed solely to the higher prevalence of traditional risk factors. Therefore other non-traditional risk factors may be important in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cardiovascular disease is increased in type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects due to a complex combination of various traditional and non-traditional risk factors that have an important role to play in the beginning and the evolution of atherosclerosis over its long natural history from endothelial function to clinical events. Many of these risk factors could be common history for both diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, reinforcing the postulate that both disorders come independently from "common soil". The objective of this review is to highlight the weight of traditional and non-traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the setting of type 2 diabetes mellitus and discuss their position in the pathogenesis of the excess cardiovascular disease mortality and morbidity in these patients. PMID:25126392

Martín-Timón, Iciar; Sevillano-Collantes, Cristina; Segura-Galindo, Amparo; Del Cañizo-Gómez, Francisco Javier

2014-08-15

131

Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease: Have all risk factors the same strength?  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition that occurs when the body cannot produce enough or effectively use of insulin. Compared with individuals without diabetes, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have a considerably higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease. Most of this excess risk is it associated with an augmented prevalence of well-known risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia and obesity in these patients. However the improved cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients can not be attributed solely to the higher prevalence of traditional risk factors. Therefore other non-traditional risk factors may be important in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cardiovascular disease is increased in type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects due to a complex combination of various traditional and non-traditional risk factors that have an important role to play in the beginning and the evolution of atherosclerosis over its long natural history from endothelial function to clinical events. Many of these risk factors could be common history for both diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, reinforcing the postulate that both disorders come independently from “common soil”. The objective of this review is to highlight the weight of traditional and non-traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the setting of type 2 diabetes mellitus and discuss their position in the pathogenesis of the excess cardiovascular disease mortality and morbidity in these patients. PMID:25126392

Martín-Timón, Iciar; Sevillano-Collantes, Cristina; Segura-Galindo, Amparo; del Cañizo-Gómez, Francisco Javier

2014-01-01

132

Multiple risk factor intervention reduces carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with rapid progression of carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) were shown to have a higher future risk for cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of multiple risk factor intervention on CIMT progression and to establish whether new cardiovascular surrogate measurements would allow prediction of CIMT changes. Materials and methods In this prospective, open, 2-years study, we included 97 patients with type 2 diabetes and at least two insufficiently treated cardiovascular risk factors, i.e. HbA1c > 7.5% (58 mmol/mol); LDL-cholesterol >3.1 mmol/l or blood pressure >140/90 mmHg. Treatment was intensified according to current guidelines over 3 months with the aim to maintain intensification over 2 years. The primary outcome was the change in CIMT after 2 years. We also assessed markers of mechanical and biochemical endothelial function and endothelial progenitor cells before and after 3 months of treatment intensification. For testing differences between before and after multifactorial treatment measurements we used either the paired student’s t-test or the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, depending on the distribution of the data. Additional, explorative statistical data analysis was done on CIMT progression building a linear multivariate regression model. Results Blood glucose, lipids and blood pressure significantly improved during the first 3 months of intensified treatment, which was sustained over the 2-year study duration. Mean CIMT significantly decreased from baseline to 2 year (0.883 ± 0.120 mm vs. 0.860 ± 0.130 mm; p = 0.021). None of the investigated surrogate measures, however, was able to predict changes in IMT early after treatment intensification. Conclusions Intensification of risk factor intervention in type 2 diabetes results in CIMT regression over a period of 2 years. None of the biomarkers used including endothelial function parameters or endothelial progenitor cells turned out to be useful to predict CIMT changes. Trial registration Clinical Trial Registration – Unique identifier: NCT00660790 PMID:24884694

2014-01-01

133

Cellular transcription factors enhance herpes simplex virus type 1 oriS-dependent DNA replication.  

PubMed

The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) origin of DNA replication, oriS, contains three binding sites for the viral origin binding protein (OBP) flanked by transcriptional regulatory elements of the immediate-early genes encoding ICP4 and ICP22/47. To assess the role of flanking sequences in oriS function, plasmids containing oriS and either wild-type or mutant flanking sequences were tested in transient DNA replication assays. Although the ICP4 and ICP22/47 regulatory regions were shown to enhance oriS function, most individual elements in these regions, including the VP16-responsive TAATGARAT elements, were found to be dispensable for oriS function. In contrast, two oriS core-adjacent regulatory (Oscar) elements, OscarL and OscarR, at the base of the oriS palindrome were shown to enhance oriS function significantly and additively. Specifically, mutational disruption of either element reduced oriS-dependent DNA replication by 60 to 70%, and disruption of both elements reduced replication by 90%. The properties of protein-DNA complexes formed in gel mobility shift assays using uninfected and HSV-1-infected Vero cell nuclear extracts demonstrated that both OscarL and OscarR are binding sites for cellular proteins. Whereas OscarR does not correspond to the consensus binding site of any known transcription factor, OscarL contains a consensus binding site for the transcription factor Sp1. Gel mobility shift and supershift experiments using antibodies directed against members of the Sp1 family of transcription factors demonstrated the presence of Sp1 and Sp3, but not Sp2 or Sp4, in the protein-DNA complexes formed at OscarL. The abilities of OscarL and OscarR to bind their respective cellular proteins correlated directly with the efficiency of oriS-dependent DNA replication. Cooperative interactions between the Oscar-binding factors and proteins binding to adjacent OBP binding sites were not observed. Notably, Oscar element mutations that impaired oriS-dependent DNA replication had no detectable effect on either basal or induced levels of transcription from the ICP4 and ICP22/47 promoters, as determined by RNase protection assays. The Oscar elements thus appear to provide binding sites for cellular proteins that facilitate oriS-dependent DNA replication but have no effect on transcription of oriS-flanking genes. PMID:9557644

Nguyen-Huynh, A T; Schaffer, P A

1998-05-01

134

Genetic defects at the UGT1 locus associated with Crigler-Najjar type I disease, including a prenatal diagnosis  

SciTech Connect

Characterization of the UGT1 gene complex locus encoding both multiple bilirubin and phenol UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (transferases) has been critical in identifying mutations in the bilirubin isoforms. This study utilizes this information to identify the bases of deficient bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity encoded by the UGT1A gene for the major bilirubin isozyme, HUG-Br1, in 3 Crigler-Najjar type I individuals and the genotype of an at-risk unborn sibling of one patient. A homozygous and heterozygous two-base mutation (CCC to CGT) created the HUG-Br1P387R mutant of the major bilirubin transferase in 2 different Crigler-Najjar type I patients, B.G. and G.D., respectively. Both parents of B.G. and his unborn sibling, J.G., were determined to be carriers of the P387R mutation. G.D. also contains the CAA to TAA nonsense mutation (G1n357st). Y.A. has a homozygous CT deletion in codons 40/41. The HUG-Br1P387R mutant protein was totally inactive at the major pH optimum, but retained 26% normal activity at the minor pH optimum (7.6), which was 5.4% of the combined activities measured at the two pH values. 27 refs., 5 figs.

Ciotti, M.; Obaray, R.; Owens, I.S. [National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Martin, M.G. [Univ. of California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1997-01-20

135

40 CFR 273.81 - Factors for petitions to include other wastes under 40 CFR part 273.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Petitions To Include Other...by the petitioner (e.g., waste management requirements appropriate to...diverted from non-hazardous waste management systems (e.g., the...

2011-07-01

136

40 CFR 273.81 - Factors for petitions to include other wastes under 40 CFR part 273.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Petitions To Include Other...by the petitioner (e.g., waste management requirements appropriate to...diverted from non-hazardous waste management systems (e.g., the...

2010-07-01

137

40 CFR 273.81 - Factors for petitions to include other wastes under 40 CFR part 273.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Petitions To Include Other...by the petitioner (e.g., waste management requirements appropriate to...diverted from non-hazardous waste management systems (e.g., the...

2013-07-01

138

40 CFR 273.81 - Factors for petitions to include other wastes under 40 CFR part 273.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Petitions To Include Other...by the petitioner (e.g., waste management requirements appropriate to...diverted from non-hazardous waste management systems (e.g., the...

2012-07-01

139

40 CFR 273.81 - Factors for petitions to include other wastes under 40 CFR part 273.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Petitions To Include Other...by the petitioner (e.g., waste management requirements appropriate to...diverted from non-hazardous waste management systems (e.g., the...

2014-07-01

140

Clinical, immunohistochemical and phenotypic features of aggressive nodal cytotoxic lymphomas, including ?\\/?, ?\\/? T-cell and natural killer cell types  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytotoxic cells include natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic ?? and ?? T lymphocytes (CTLs). These cells express cytotoxic\\u000a molecules of T-cell restricted intracellular antigen(TIA-1), and activated cytotoxic molecules of perforin, granzyme B, and\\u000a FasL. Recent studies suggest that most extranodal T-cell lymphomas are derived from CTLs, and that NK cell lymphomas are extranodal.\\u000a However, only a few nodal NK

Koichi Ohshima; Junji Suzumiya; Midori Sugihara; Motomu Kanda; Kae Shimazaki; Chika Kawasaki; Seiji Haraoka; Masahiro Kikuchi

1999-01-01

141

Genetic Variation in Genes for Host Resistance to Disease Genomic variation is clearly a major factor in host resistance to pathogens in mammals including cattle and humans. Identification  

E-print Network

factor in host resistance to pathogens in mammals including cattle and humans. Identification of specific-initiated epidemics, and to developing models of human gene/pathogen interaction. The cattle genome project has resistance to specific pathogens. Specific genes targeted include the Toll-like receptor (TLR) gene family

142

Improvement of Surface Functionalities, Including Allergenicity Attenuation, of Whole Buckwheat Protein Fraction by Maillard-Type Glycation with Dextran  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of the introduction of polysaccharide chains onto the molecular surface of buckwheat proteins on buckwheat protein surface functionality. The whole buckwheat protein fraction (WBP) was prepared using 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) containing 0.5 M NaCl and covalently linked with 6 kDa, 17.5 kDa, 40 kDa, 70 kDa, or 200 kDa dextran by Maillard-type glycation through controlled dry-heating at 60°C and 79% relative humidity for two weeks. Conjugation with 40 kDa dextran improved the water solubility and emulsifying properties of WBP without causing a serious loss of available lysine; 84.9% of the free amino groups were conserved. In addition, we found that the introduction of dextran chains onto the molecular surfaces of WBP attenuated the antigenicity of WBP. PMID:25580398

Tazawa, Shigeru; Katayama, Shigeru; Hirabayashi, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Nakamura, Soichiro

2014-01-01

143

Effects of Exercise on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Exercise is a cornerstone of diabetes management and the prevention of incident diabetes. However, the impact of the mode of exercise on cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in type 2 diabetes is unclear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a systematic review of the literature between 1970 and October 2009 in representative databases for the effect of aerobic or resistance exercise training on clinical markers of CV risk, including glycemic control, dyslipidemia, blood pressure, and body composition in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESULTS Of 645 articles retrieved, 34 met our inclusion criteria; most investigated aerobic exercise alone, and 10 reported combined exercise training. Aerobic alone or combined with resistance training (RT) significantly improved HbA1c ?0.6 and ?0.67%, respectively (95% CI ?0.98 to ?0.27 and ?0.93 to ?0.40, respectively), systolic blood pressure (SBP) ?6.08 and ?3.59 mmHg, respectively (95% CI ?10.79 to ?1.36 and ?6.93 to ?0.24, respectively), and triglycerides ?0.3 mmol/L (95% CI ?0.48 to ?0.11 and ?0.57 to ?0.02, respectively). Waist circumference was significantly improved ?3.1 cm (95% CI ?10.3 to ?1.2) with combined aerobic and resistance exercise, although fewer studies and more heterogeneity of the responses were observed in the latter two markers. Resistance exercise alone or combined with any other form of exercise was not found to have any significant effect on CV markers. CONCLUSIONS Aerobic exercise alone or combined with RT improves glycemic control, SBP, triglycerides, and waist circumference. The impact of resistance exercise alone on CV risk markers in type 2 diabetes remains unclear. PMID:21525503

Chudyk, Anna; Petrella, Robert J.

2011-01-01

144

Hypertension Is a Conditional Factor for the Development of Cardiac Hypertrophy in Type 2 Diabetic Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Type 2 diabetes is frequently associated with co-morbidities, including hypertension. Here we investigated if hypertension is a critical factor in myocardial remodeling and the development of cardiac dysfunction in type 2 diabetic db/db mice. Methods Thereto, 14-wks-old male db/db mice and non-diabetic db/+ mice received vehicle or angiotensin II (AngII) for 4 wks to induce mild hypertension (n?=?9–10 per group). Left ventricular (LV) function was assessed by serial echocardiography and during a dobutamine stress test. LV tissue was subjected to molecular and (immuno)histochemical analysis to assess effects on hypertrophy, fibrosis and inflammation. Results Vehicle-treated diabetic mice neither displayed marked myocardial structural remodeling nor cardiac dysfunction. AngII-treatment did not affect body weight and fasting glucose levels, and induced a comparable increase in blood pressure in diabetic and control mice. Nonetheless, AngII-induced LV hypertrophy was significantly more pronounced in diabetic than in control mice as assessed by LV mass (increase +51% and +34%, respectively, p<0.01) and cardiomyocyte size (+53% and +31%, p<0.001). This was associated with enhanced LV mRNA expression of markers of hypertrophy and fibrosis and reduced activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), while accumulation of Advanced Glycation End products (AGEs) and the expression levels of markers of inflammation were not altered. Moreover, AngII-treatment reduced LV fractional shortening and contractility in diabetic mice, but not in control mice. Conclusions Collectively, the present findings indicate that type 2 diabetes in its early stage is not yet associated with adverse cardiac structural changes, but already renders the heart more susceptible to hypertension-induced hypertrophic remodeling. PMID:24416343

Brouwers, Olaf; Janssen, Ben J. A.; Derks, Wouter J. A.; Brouns, Agnieszka E.; Munts, Chantal; Schalkwijk, Casper G.; van der Vusse, Ger J.; van Nieuwenhoven, Frans A.

2014-01-01

145

Patterns of regulatory activity across diverse human cell types predict tissue identity, transcription factor binding, and long-range interactions  

PubMed Central

Regulatory elements recruit transcription factors that modulate gene expression distinctly across cell types, but the relationships among these remains elusive. To address this, we analyzed matched DNase-seq and gene expression data for 112 human samples representing 72 cell types. We first defined more than 1800 clusters of DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) with similar tissue specificity of DNase-seq signal patterns. We then used these to uncover distinct associations between DHSs and promoters, CpG islands, conserved elements, and transcription factor motif enrichment. Motif analysis within clusters identified known and novel motifs in cell-type-specific and ubiquitous regulatory elements and supports a role for AP-1 regulating open chromatin. We developed a classifier that accurately predicts cell-type lineage based on only 43 DHSs and evaluated the tissue of origin for cancer cell types. A similar classifier identified three sex-specific loci on the X chromosome, including the XIST lincRNA locus. By correlating DNase I signal and gene expression, we predicted regulated genes for more than 500K DHSs. Finally, we introduce a web resource to enable researchers to use these results to explore these regulatory patterns and better understand how expression is modulated within and across human cell types. PMID:23482648

Sheffield, Nathan C.; Thurman, Robert E.; Song, Lingyun; Safi, Alexias; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.; Lenhard, Boris; Crawford, Gregory E.; Furey, Terrence S.

2013-01-01

146

Early B-cell factors are required for specifying multiple retinal cell types and subtypes from postmitotic precursors.  

PubMed

The establishment of functional retinal circuits in the mammalian retina depends critically on the proper generation and assembly of six classes of neurons, five of which consist of two or more subtypes that differ in morphologies, physiological properties, and/or sublaminar positions. How these diverse neuronal types and subtypes arise during retinogenesis still remains largely to be defined at the molecular level. Here we show that all four family members of the early B-cell factor (Ebf) helix-loop-helix transcription factors are similarly expressed during mouse retinogenesis in several neuronal types and subtypes including ganglion, amacrine, bipolar, and horizontal cells, and that their expression in ganglion cells depends on the ganglion cell specification factor Brn3b. Misexpressed Ebfs bias retinal precursors toward the fates of non-AII glycinergic amacrine, type 2 OFF-cone bipolar and horizontal cells, whereas a dominant-negative Ebf suppresses the differentiation of these cells as well as ganglion cells. Reducing Ebf1 expression by RNA interference (RNAi) leads to an inhibitory effect similar to that of the dominant-negative Ebf, effectively neutralizes the promotive effect of wild-type Ebf1, but has no impact on the promotive effect of an RNAi-resistant Ebf1. These data indicate that Ebfs are both necessary and sufficient for specifying non-AII glycinergic amacrine, type 2 OFF-cone bipolar and horizontal cells, whereas they are only necessary but not sufficient for specifying ganglion cells; and further suggest that Ebfs may coordinate and cooperate with other retinogenic factors to ensure proper specification and differentiation of diverse retinal cell types and subtypes. PMID:20826655

Jin, Kangxin; Jiang, Haisong; Mo, Zeqian; Xiang, Mengqing

2010-09-01

147

Enlarging the scope of cell penetrating prenylated peptides to include farnesylated “CAAX” box sequences and diverse cell types  

PubMed Central

Protein prenylation is a post-translational modification that is present in a large number of proteins; it has been proposed to be responsible for membrane association and protein-protein interactions which contribute to its role in signal transduction pathways. Research has been aimed at inhibiting prenylation with farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) based on the finding that the farnesylated protein Ras is implicated in 30% of human cancers. Despite numerous studies on the enzymology of prenylation in vitro, many questions remain about the process of prenylation as it occurs in living cells. Here we describe the preparation of a series of farnesylated peptides that contain sequences recognized by protein farnesyltransferase. Using a combination of flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, we show that these peptides enter a variety of different cell types. A related peptide where the farnesyl group has been replaced by a disulfide-linked decyl group is also shown to be able to efficiently enter cells. These results highlight the applicability of these peptides as a platform for further study of protein prenylation and subsequent processing in live cells. PMID:20584014

Ochocki, Joshua D.; Igbavboa, Urule; Wood, W. Gibson; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V.; Distefano, Mark D.

2010-01-01

148

Surface photochemistry: Ketones included within a channel type solid support, the aluminophosphate AlPO 4-5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffuse reflectance and laser-induced techniques were used to study the inclusion of an aromatic ketone, benzophenone (BZP) and also of aryl alkyl ketones such as ?-phenylpropiophenone (?-PP) and ?-phenylbutyrophenone (?-PB) into a channel type solid powdered substrate, the aluminophosphate AlPO 4-5. AlPO 4-5 solid support exhibits a surprisingly hydrophilic character which was shown by a blue shift of the (n, ? ?) ground state absorption band of BZP and a red shift of the (?, ? ?) ground state absorption band of ?-PB, when compared with the inclusion within silicalite, a hydrophobic support. Furthermore, the phosphorescence emission of BZP within AlPO 4-5 was broad and a non-structured emission band of hydrogen bonded BZP centred about 440 nm was observed in a nanosecond time scale. This emission shifts up to 470 nm and was assigned to protonated excited BZP, BZPH +*, suggesting the presence of Brönsted acid sites in the substrate. In the 7.3 Å diameter aluminophosphate's channels, ?-PP shows no room temperature phosphorescence as consequence of intramolecular quenching, while the larger ?-PB exhibits a structured phosphorescence emission peaking at 452 nm. A lifetime distribution analysis for BZP/AlPO 4-5 case shows a single wide band, peaking at 630 ?s. The transient absorption spectra of argon purged samples revealed, superimposed on the triplet-triplet absorption of BZP, the hydroxyl-benzophenone radical (BZP rad OH) absorption as the main transient species in the millisecond time scale.

Machado, Isabel Ferreira; Vieira Ferreira, Luís F.; Branco, Tiago J. F.; Fernandes, Auguste; Ribeiro, Filipa

2007-04-01

149

Generating induced pluripotent stem cells from common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) fetal liver cells using defined factors, including Lin28  

PubMed Central

Although embryonic stem (ES) cell–like induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have potential therapeutic applications in humans, they are also useful for creating genetically modified human disease models in nonhuman primates. In this study, we generated common marmoset iPS cells from fetal liver cells via the retrovirus-mediated introduction of six human transcription factors: Oct-3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog, and Lin28. Four to five weeks after introduction, several colonies resembling marmoset ES cells were observed and picked for further expansion in ES cell medium. Eight cell lines were established, and validation analyses of the marmoset iPS cells followed. We detected the expression of ES cell–specific surface markers. Reverse transcription-PCR showed that these iPS cells expressed endogenous Oct-3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog and Lin28 genes, whereas all of the transgenes were silenced. Karyotype analysis showed that two of three iPS cell lines retained a normal karyotype after a 2-month culture. Both embryoid body and teratoma formation showed that marmoset iPS cells had the developmental potential to give rise to differentiated derivatives of all three primary germ layers. In summary, we generated marmoset iPS cells via the transduction of six transcription factors; this provides a powerful preclinical model for studies in regenerative medicine. PMID:20670273

Tomioka, Ikuo; Maeda, Takuji; Shimada, Hiroko; Kawai, Kenji; Okada, Yohei; Igarashi, Hiroshi; Oiwa, Ryo; Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi; Aoki, Mikio; Kimura, Toru; Shiozawa, Seiji; Shinohara, Haruka; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Erika; Okano, Hideyuki

2010-01-01

150

CREB Binding Protein Coordinates the Function of Multiple Transcription Factors Including Nuclear Factor I to Regulate Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase (GTP) Gene Transcription  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear factor I (NFI) binds to a region of the phos- phoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) (PEPCK) gene promoter adjacent to the cAMP regulatory element (CRE) and inhibits the induction of transcription from the gene promoter caused by the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A. In vivo footprinting studies demon- strated that both the CRE and the NFI-binding site are occupied by

Patrick Leahy; Deborah R. Crawford; Gregory Grossman; Richard M. Gronostajski; Richard W. Hanson

1999-01-01

151

The iron stimulon of Xylella fastidiosa includes genes for type IV pilus and colicin V-like bacteriocins.  

PubMed

Xylella fastidiosa is the etiologic agent of a wide range of plant diseases, including citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), a major threat to citrus industry. The genomes of several strains of this phytopathogen were completely sequenced, enabling large-scale functional studies. DNA microarrays representing 2,608 (91.6%) coding sequences (CDS) of X. fastidiosa CVC strain 9a5c were used to investigate transcript levels during growth with different iron availabilities. When treated with the iron chelator 2,2'-dipyridyl, 193 CDS were considered up-regulated and 216 were considered down-regulated. Upon incubation with 100 microM ferric pyrophosphate, 218 and 256 CDS were considered up- and down-regulated, respectively. Differential expression for a subset of 44 CDS was further evaluated by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Several CDS involved with regulatory functions, pathogenicity, and cell structure were modulated under both conditions assayed, suggesting that major changes in cell architecture and metabolism occur when X. fastidiosa cells are exposed to extreme variations in iron concentration. Interestingly, the modulated CDS include those related to colicin V-like bacteriocin synthesis and secretion and to functions of pili/fimbriae. We also investigated the contribution of the ferric uptake regulator Fur to the iron stimulon of X. fastidiosa. The promoter regions of the strain 9a5c genome were screened for putative Fur boxes, and candidates were analyzed by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Taken together, our data support the hypothesis that Fur is not solely responsible for the modulation of the iron stimulon of X. fastidiosa, and they present novel evidence for iron regulation of pathogenicity determinants. PMID:18223091

Zaini, Paulo A; Fogaça, Andréa C; Lupo, Fernanda G N; Nakaya, Helder I; Vêncio, Ricardo Z N; da Silva, Aline M

2008-04-01

152

Risk Factors Contributing to Type 2 Diabetes and Recent Advances in the Treatment and Prevention  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes is a serious and common chronic disease resulting from a complex inheritance-environment interaction along with other risk factors such as obesity and sedentary lifestyle. Type 2 diabetes and its complications constitute a major worldwide public health problem, affecting almost all populations in both developed and developing countries with high rates of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has been increasing exponentially, and a high prevalence rate has been observed in developing countries and in populations undergoing “westernization” or modernization. Multiple risk factors of diabetes, delayed diagnosis until micro- and macro-vascular complications arise, life-threatening complications, failure of the current therapies, and financial costs for the treatment of this disease, make it necessary to develop new efficient therapy strategies and appropriate prevention measures for the control of type 2 diabetes. Herein, we summarize our current understanding about the epidemiology of type 2 diabetes, the roles of genes, lifestyle and other factors contributing to rapid increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes. The core aims are to bring forward the new therapy strategies and cost-effective intervention trials of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25249787

Wu, Yanling; Ding, Yanping; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Zhang, Wen

2014-01-01

153

Mouse ovarian tumors--a review including classification and induction of neoplastic lesions and description of several previously unreported types.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to review the pertinent literature on the incidence, methods of induction and pathogenesis of ovarian tumors of mice. Strains of mice with a high incidence of spontaneously occurring granulosa cell tumors (gct) and tubular adenomas (ta) are the C3HeB/Fe and C3HeB/De; strain HAN:NMRI developed Sertoli cell tumors and (DBA x Ce)F1 hybrids had a high incidence gct. Ninety-five percent of hybrid (C57BL/6J x C3H/HeJ)F1 WxWv mice which lack germ cells develop complex tubular adenomas. Strain LT, in which a high percentage of ovarian ova develop parthenogenetically, develops has a high incidence of teratomas. The use of hormones, castration and transplantation of the ovaries in a number of inbred strains results in a high incidence of ovarian tumors; in strain Maf/Sp gct and luteomas were induced in 82%. Irradiation with gamma rays produced a similar incidence of ovarian tumors in (C57L x A)F1 hybrids. The chemical inducing the highest incidence (92%) of ovarian tumors of mice is 9,10 Dimethyl 1,2 benzanthracene (DMBA). Recently, 4-Vinylcyclohexene was shown to induce a high incidence of ovarian tumors. A number of rare ovarian tumors were reported. Described are five androblastomas composed of either Leydig or Sertoli cells or a combination of the two cell types and a single undifferentiated androblastoma. Seven teratomas were described, three of which contained large amounts of neural tissue; another was classified as a teratoma with a parieto-visceral yolk-sac carcinoma component. PMID:2826730

Liebelt, A G; Sass, B; Lombard, L S

1987-01-01

154

Synthesis and reactions of cubane-type iron-sulfur-phosphine clusters, including soluble clusters of nuclearities 8 and 16.  

PubMed

A family of soluble, reduced iron-sulfur clusters with nuclearities 4, 8, and 16 having tertiary phosphine ligation and based on the Fe(4)S(4) cubane-type structural motif has been synthesized. The results of this investigation substantially extend and improve the results of our original work on iron-sulfur-phosphine clusters (Goh, C.; Segal, B. M.; Huang, J.; Long, J. R.; Holm, R. H. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1996, 118, 11844). A general property of this cluster family is facile phosphine substitution. The clusters [Fe(4)S(4)(PR(3))(4)](+) are precursors to monosubstituted [Fe(4)S(4)(PR(3))(3)X] (X = Cl-, RS-), homoleptic [Fe(4)S(4)(SR)(4)](3-), and all-ferrous monocubanes [Fe(4)S(4)(PR(3))(4)] (R = Pr(i), Cy, Bu(t); generated in solution). In turn, [Fe(4)S(4)(PPr(i)()(3))(3)(SSiPh(3))] and [Fe(4)S(4)(PPr(i)(3))(4)] can be transformed into the dicubanes [Fe(8)S(8)(PPr(i)()(3))(4)(SSiPh(3))(2)] and [Fe(8)S(8)(PPr(i)((3))(6)], respectively. Further, the tetracubanes [Fe(16)S(16)(PR(3))(8)] are also accessible from [Fe(4)S(4)(PR(3))(4)] under different conditions. X-ray structures are described for [Fe(4)S(4)(PCy(3))(3)X] (X = Cl-, PhS-), [Fe(8)S(8)(PPr(i)(3))(4)(SSiPh(3))(2)], [Fe(8)S(8)(PPr(i)()(3))(6)], and [Fe(16)S(16)(PCy(3))(8)]. The monosubstituted clusters show different distortions of the [Fe(4)S(4)](+) cores from idealized cubic symmetry. The dicubanes possess edge-bridged double cubane structures with an Fe(2)(mu(4)-S)(2) bridge rhomb and idealized C(2)(h)() symmetry. The ready cleavage of these clusters into single cubanes is considered a probable consequence of strained bond angles at the mu(4)-S atoms. Tetracubanes contain four individual cubanes, each of which is implicated in two bridge rhombs so as to generate a cyclic structure of idealized D(4) symmetry. Redox properties and Mössbauer spectroscopic parameters are reported. The species [Fe(4)S(4)(PR(3))(4)] (in solution), [Fe(8)S(8)(PR(3))(6)], and [Fe(16)S(16)(PR(3))(8)] are the only synthetic all-ferrous clusters with tetrahedral iron sites that have been isolated. Their utility as precursors to other highly reduced iron-sulfur clusters is under investigation. PMID:12513073

Zhou, Hong-Cai; Holm, R H

2003-01-13

155

Relationship among religious coping, psychosocial factors, and quality of life in individuals with type 2 diabetes  

E-print Network

RELATIONSHIP AMONG RELIGIOUS COPING, PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS, AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN INDIVIDUALS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES A Dissertation by JULIA M. LAGER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY August 2006 Major Subject: Health Education RELATIONSHIP AMONG RELIGIOUS COPING, PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS, AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN INDIVIDUALS...

Lager, Julia M.

2009-06-02

156

Analysis of KLF transcription factor family gene variants in type 2 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Krüppel-like factor (KLF) family consists of transcription factors that can activate or repress different genes implicated in processes such as differentiation, development, and cell cycle progression. Moreover, several of these proteins have been implicated in glucose homeostasis, making them candidate genes for involvement in type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: Variants of nine KLF genes were genotyped in T2D

Ruth Gutiérrez-Aguilar; Yamina Benmezroua; Emmanuel Vaillant; Beverley Balkau; Michel Marre; Guillaume Charpentier; Rob Sladek; Philippe Froguel; Bernadette Neve

2007-01-01

157

Some Factors Associated with Children's Solving Performance on Four Types of Mathematical Open Sentences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated three factors associated with third grade children's ability to solve open sentences of the types N + a = b, a + N = b, a - N = b, and N - a = b, where a and b are given whole numbers and N is to be found. Two factors were: (1) the size of the numbers a and b; and (2) the context of the sentence, whether presented alone or…

Grouws, Douglas A.

158

Localization of hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 in Langhans' cells of human placenta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activation of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a crucial limiting step in HGF-induced signaling pathway. The HGF activator inhibitor type 1 (HAI-1) was identified as a potent inhibitor of HGF activator (HGFA), a serine proteinase that is responsible for the activation of HGF in vivo. HAI-1 is an integral membrane Kunitz-type serine proteinase inhibitor, and its mRNA has been reported

Hiroaki Kataoka; Jing-Yan Meng; Hiroshi Itoh; Ryouichi Hamasuna; Takeshi Shimomura; Tatsuo Suganuma; Masashi Koono

2000-01-01

159

Aroma types of flue-cured tobacco in China: spatial distribution and association with climatic factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aroma types of flue-cured tobacco (FCT) are classified into light, medium, and heavy in China. However, the spatial distribution of FCT aroma types and the relationships among aroma types, chemical parameters, and climatic variables were still unknown at national scale. In the current study, multi-year averaged chemical parameters (total sugars, reducing sugars, nicotine, total nitrogen, chloride, and K2O) of FCT samples with grade of C3F and climatic variables (mean, minimum and maximum temperatures, rainfall, relative humidity, and sunshine hours) during the growth periods were collected from main planting areas across China. Significant relationships were found between chemical parameters and climatic variables ( p < 0.05). A spatial distribution map of FCT aroma types were produced using support vector machine algorithms and chemical parameters. Significant differences in chemical parameters and climatic variables were observed among the three aroma types based on one-way analysis of variance ( p < 0.05). Areas with light aroma type had significantly lower values of mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures than regions with medium and heavy aroma types ( p < 0.05). Areas with heavy aroma type had significantly lower values of rainfall and relative humidity and higher values of sunshine hours than regions with light and medium aroma types ( p < 0.05). The output produced by classification and regression trees showed that sunshine hours, rainfall, and maximum temperature were the most important factors affecting FCT aroma types at national scale.

Yang, Chao; Wu, Wei; Wu, Shu-Cheng; Liu, Hong-Bin; Peng, Qing

2014-02-01

160

Heel bone strength is related to lifestyle factors in Okinawan men with type 2 diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Aims/Introduction Although male diabetic patients have an increased risk of fracture, there is little information about this in the literature. The association between heel bone stiffness and the lifestyle of male patients with diabetes was evaluated. Materials and Methods The study included 108 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and 168 age-adjusted, healthy male volunteers. None of the participants had a history of osteoporosis or other severe diseases. Heel bone stiffness was examined by quantitative ultrasound, and each participant completed a health interview survey questionnaire. Bone stiffness was taken as an indicator of bone strength. Stepwise regression analysis was used to investigate associations between bone stiffness and lifestyle-related factors, such as sunlight exposure, intake of milk or small fish, regular exercise, cigarette smoking, consumption of alcohol, and number of remaining teeth. Results Bone stiffness showed a significant negative association with cigarette smoking [standardized coefficient (SC) = ?0.297, F-value (F) = 10.059] and age (SC = ?0.207, F = 7.565) in diabetic patients. Bone stiffness showed a significant negative association with age (SC = ?0.371, F = 12.076) and height (SC = ?0.193, F = 7.898), as well as a significant positive association with sunlight exposure (SC = 0.182, F = 9.589) and intake of small fish (SC = 0.170, F = 7.393) in controls. Conclusions These findings suggest that cigarette smoking and age are negatively associated with bone stiffness in Okinawan male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Gushiken, Michiko; Komiya, Ichiro; Ueda, Shinichiro; Kobayashi, Jun

2015-01-01

161

Factorize  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive applet allows a student to visually explore the concept of factors by creating different rectangular arrays for a number. The user constructs the array by clicking and dragging on a grid. The length and width of the array are factors of the number. A student can elect an option of a randomly selected number or the student selects his own number between 2 and 50. Exploration questions are included to promote student discovery of mathematical concepts with factors.

2000-01-01

162

Financial evidence for Tier 4 student visa applications This guidance note includes information about the type of financial evidence you can use to  

E-print Network

_Rules_-_Appendix_P.pdf If you use financial evidence from a bank which does not meet the UK Visas and Immigration requirementsFinancial evidence for Tier 4 student visa applications This guidance note includes information about the type of financial evidence you can use to prove that you meet the maintenance requirement

Evans, Paul

163

Cutaneous Lesions in the Rat Following Administration of an Irreversible Inhibitor of erbB Receptors, Including the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

CI-1033 (canertinib) is an irreversible inhibitor of the erbB family of transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptors, including the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. Various inhibitors of the EGF receptor, including CI-1033, have resulted in cutaneous toxicity in humans as a common adverse event. In a chronic toxicity study in rats, CI-1033 produced cutaneous lesions with morphologic characteristics similar to that reported

ALAN P. B ROWN; R OBERT W. D UNSTAN; L. COURTNEY; K AY A. CRISWELL; MICHAEL J. GRAZIANO

2010-01-01

164

Dominant risk factors for retinopathy at clinical diagnosis in patients with type II diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of 270 newly presenting, previously untreated, type II diabetic patents revealed that 38 patients (14%) had already developed diabetic retinopathy (DR). Among this group, 26 patients had lesions of background diabetic retinopathy and 12 patients already had maculopathy or preproliferative changes. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors influencing susceptibility to retinopathy, and to

Hung T. Nguyen; Stephen D. Luzio; John Dolben; James West; Lyn Beck; Philip A. Coates; David R. Owens

1996-01-01

165

Risk factors of coronary heart disease and correlates of type 2 diabetes among Cuban Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cuban Americans, a minority Hispanic subgroup, have a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Persons with diabetes experience a higher rate of coronary heart disease (CHD) compared to those without diabetes. The objectives of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (NIDDK) are to investigate the risk factors of CHD and the etiology of diabetes among diabetics

Subrata Deb Nath

2004-01-01

166

Mutational Inactivation of Transforming Growth Factor b Receptor Type II in Microsatellite Stable Colon Cancers1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously demonstrated that mutational inactivation of transform- ing growth factor b type II receptors (RIIs) is very common among the 13% of human colon cancers with microsatellite instability. These muta- tions principally cluster in the BAT-RII polyadenine sequence repeat. Among microsatellite stable (MSS) colon cancers, we now find that non- BAT-RII point mutations inactivate RII in another 15% of

William M. Grady; Lois L. Myeroff; Sandra E. Swinler; Ashwani Rajput; Sam Thiagalingam; James D. Lutterbaugh; Aaron Neumann; Michael G. Brattain; Jay Chang; Seong-Jin Kim; Ken W. Kinzler; Bert Vogelstein; James K. V. Willson; Sanford Markowitz

167

Differences between Juvenile Offenders with and without Intellectual Disability in Offense Type and Risk Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aimed to examine differences between American juvenile offenders with and without intellectual disability (ID) in offense type and risk factors. The sample consisted of adolescents with ID (n = 102) and without ID (n = 526) who appeared before the courts for a criminal act and for whom the Washington State Juvenile Court…

Asscher, Jessica J.; van der Put, Claudia E.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.

2012-01-01

168

Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Is a Portal of Cellular Entry for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitous pathogen responsible for considerable morbidity in the general population. The results presented herein establish the basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor as a means of entry of HSVI into vertebrate ceils. Inhibitors of basic FGF binding to its receptor and competitive polypeptide antagonists of basic FGF prevented HSV-1 uptake. Chinese hamster

Robert J. Kaner; Andrew Baird; Alka Mansukhani; Claudio Basilico; Barbara D. Summers; Robert Z. Florkiewicz; David P. Hajjar

1990-01-01

169

Putative paternal factors controlling chilling tolerance in Korean market-type cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chilling temperatures (<10 degrees C) may cause damage to Korean market-type cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants during winter and early spring growing seasons. Inheritance to chilling in U.S. processing cucumber is controlled by cytoplasmic (maternally) and nuclear factors. To understand inherit...

170

Prospective Study of Social and Other Risk Factors for Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes  

E-print Network

), and 5 (1997-1999) and glucose tolerance tests in phases 3 and 5. Results: Participants working was related to incidence of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance (OR, 1.25 [95% CI, 1Prospective Study of Social and Other Risk Factors for Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes

Brown, Lucy L.

171

Noninvasive Screening for Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes in Young, Rural, Caucasian Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School nurses play an important role in identifying students who are at risk for Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Few studies have screened Caucasian students, and none have targeted rural, low-income, elementary children. The five noninvasive risk factors used for this study were family history, high body mass index (BMI) for age/sex,…

Peterson, Sharon; Sheffer, Sarah; Long Roth, Sara; Bennett, Paul A.; Lloyd, Les

2010-01-01

172

Mexican American Parents' Perceptions of Childhood Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to identify the norms, values, and perceptions of urban immigrant Mexican American (MA) parents of school children relative to physical activity, healthy eating, and child risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Investigators facilitated five focus groups in an urban elementary school setting and analyzed data using qualitative…

Head, Barbara J.; Barr, Kathleen L.; Baker, Sharon K.

2011-01-01

173

Factors associated with psychological and behavioral functioning in people with type 2 diabetes living in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To identify demographic and clinical factors associated with psychological and behavioral functioning (PBF) in people with type 2 diabetes living in France. METHODS: In March 2002, approximately 10,000 adults, who had been reimbursed for at least one hypoglycemic treatment or insulin dose during the last quarter of 2001, received a questionnaire about their health status and PBF (3,646 responders).

Stephanie Boini; Marie-Line Erpelding; Anne Fagot-Campagna; Mounir Mesbah; Judith Chwalow; Alfred Penfornis; Vincent Coliche; Etienne Mollet; Keith Meadows; Serge Briançon

2010-01-01

174

Gene Ther . Author manuscript Coagulation factor X mediates adenovirus type 5 liver gene transfer in  

E-print Network

Gene Ther . Author manuscript Page /1 4 Coagulation factor X mediates adenovirus type 5 liver gene viral genomes and gene transfer mediated by Ad5 and FX-binding ablated Ad5 vectors in non-human primates. Ad5 vectors accumulated in and mediated gene transfer predominantly to the liver while FX

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

175

40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel C ...Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel Fuel type Default high heat value Default CO2 emission factor...

2011-07-01

176

40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING General Stationary... Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of... Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types...

2014-07-01

177

40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING General Stationary... Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of... Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types...

2013-07-01

178

Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Predicts the Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes in Caucasians  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The incidence of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is rising worldwide. Liver-derived fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21 affects glucose and lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to analyze the predictive value of FGF-21 on the incidence of T2DM and the metabolic syndrome. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Metabolic Syndrome Berlin Potsdam (MeSyBePo) recall study includes 440 individuals. Glucose metabolism was analyzed using an oral glucose tolerance test, including insulin measurements. FGF-21 was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Primary study outcome was diabetes and the metabolic syndrome incidence and change of glucose subtraits. RESULTS During a mean follow-up of 5.30 ± 0.1 years, 54 individuals developed the metabolic syndrome, 35 developed T2DM, and 69 with normal glucose tolerance at baseline progressed to impaired glucose metabolism, defined as impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or T2DM. FGF-21 predicted incident metabolic syndrome (lnFGF-21 odds ratio [OR] 2.6 [95% CI 1.5 – 4.5]; P = 0.001), T2DM (2.4 [1.2–4.7]; P = 0.01), and progression to impaired glucose metabolism (2.2 [1.3 – 3.6]; P = 0.002) after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and follow-up time. Additional adjustment for waist-to-hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting glucose did not substantially modify the predictive value of FGF-21. CONCLUSIONS FGF-21 is an independent predictor of the metabolic syndrome and T2DM in apparently healthy Caucasians. These results may indicate FGF-21 resistance precedes the onset of the metabolic syndrome and T2DM. PMID:22933429

Bobbert, Thomas; Schwarz, Franziska; Fischer-Rosinsky, Antje; Pfeiffer, Andreas F.H.; Möhlig, Matthias; Mai, Knut; Spranger, Joachim

2013-01-01

179

Aging is the primary risk factor for the majority of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). There are almost 40 million  

E-print Network

Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). There are almost 40 million people aged 65 James Parkinson first described the clinical symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) in his 1817 monographAging is the primary risk factor for the majority of neurodegenerative diseases, including

Liu, Taosheng

180

Comparison of Cardiovascular Risk Factors Between Slavic Immigrant Women with Type 2 Diabetes and Non-Immigrant, Non-Hispanic White Women with Type 2 Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study compares cardiovascular risk factors among immigrant women with type 2 diabetes. The study sample consists of women immigrants from the former Soviet Union (Slavic immigrants) and non-immigrant, non-Hispanic, white women with type 2 diabetes. Method: Lifestyle behaviors and healthcare access were assessed using questions from the 2002 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System interview. Pharmacological regimes were analyzed

Allan Sanders; Cynthia Corbett; Stephen M. Setter; PharmD CDE CGP FASCP; Jason L. Iltz PharmD; Carol Allen; Lorna Schumann; Natalia Barko

2009-01-01

181

Prevalence and risk factors of peripheral arterial obstructive disease in Taiwanese type 2 diabetic patients.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of peripheral arterial obstructive disease (PAD) in Taiwanese type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 610 patients (268 men and 342 women), aged 63.3 +/- 10.8 years, were recruited from a diabetic clinic in a teaching hospital. PAD was diagnosed by an ankle-brachial index (ABI) < 0.9 on either leg. Risk factors studied were age, sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking, diabetes duration, hypertension, insulin therapy, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), serum total cholesterol (TC), and triglyceride (TG). Overall prevalence of PAD was 10.0% without significant sexual difference. Univariate analyses disclosed age, BMI (inverse association), diabetes duration, hypertension, insulin therapy, and SBP as significant risk factors. In stepwise logistic regression, age, SBP, BMI, and insulin therapy were independent risk factors with respective odds ratios (95% confidence intervals, CI) of 1.09 (1.05-1.13), 1.02 (1.01-1.04), 0.88 (0.80-0.96), and 3.37 (1.83-6.19). In conclusion, prevalence of PAD in Taiwanese type 2 diabetic patients was 10.0% and the major risk factors were older age, lower BMI, higher SBP, and insulin therapy. The inverse association between PAD and BMI is contradictory to the general impression that obesity is a risk factor for PAD. PMID:12785026

Tseng, Chin-Hsiao

2003-01-01

182

TMPRSS13, a type II transmembrane serine protease, is inhibited by hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 and activates pro-hepatocyte growth factor.  

PubMed

Type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs) are structurally defined by the presence of a transmembrane domain located near the N-terminus and a C-terminal extracellular serine protease domain. The human TTSP family consists of 17 members. Some members of the family have pivotal functions in development and homeostasis, and are involved in tumorigenesis and viral infections. The activities of TTSPs are regulated by endogenous protease inhibitors. However, protease inhibitors of most TTSPs have not yet been identified. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 (HAI-1), a Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor, on several members of the TTSP family. We found that the protease activity of a member, TMPRSS13, was inhibited by HAI-1. A detailed analysis revealed that a soluble form of HAI-1 with one Kunitz domain (NK1) more strongly inhibited TMPRSS13 than another soluble form of HAI-1 with two Kunitz domains (NK1LK2). In addition, an in vitro protein binding assay showed that NK1 formed complexes with TMPRSS13, but NK1LK2 did not. TMPRSS13 converted single-chain pro-hepatocyte growth factor (pro-HGF) to a two-chain form in vitro, and the pro-HGF converting activity of TMPRSS13 was inhibited by NK1. The two-chain form of HGF exhibited biological activity, assessed by phosphorylation of the HGF receptor (c-Met) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and scattered morphology in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. These results suggest that TMPRSS13 functions as an HGF-converting protease, the activity of which may be regulated by HAI-1. PMID:20977675

Hashimoto, Tomio; Kato, Minoru; Shimomura, Takeshi; Kitamura, Naomi

2010-12-01

183

Mother, Infant, and Household Factors Associated with the Type of Food Infants Receive in Developing Countries  

PubMed Central

Objectives: We explore the complex factors associated with infant feeding by analyzing what mother, infant, and household factors are associated with the types of food given to infants. We seek to quantify associations in order to inform public health policy about the importance of target populations for infant feeding programs. Methods: We used data from the Demographic Health Survey in 20 developing countries for multiple years to examine mother, infant, and household factors associated with six types of food given to infants (exclusive breastfeeding, non-exclusive breastfeeding, infant formula, milk liquids, non-milk liquids, and solid foods). We performed a seemingly unrelated regressions analysis with community-year fixed effects to account for correlation between food types and control for confounding factors associated with community resources, culture, time period, and geography in the pooled analysis. Results: We found that several mother, infant, and household characteristics were associated with each of the feeding types. Most notably, mother’s education, working status, and weight are significantly associated with the type of food given to infants. We provide quantified estimates of the association of each of these variables with six types of food given to infants. Conclusion: By identifying maternal characteristics associated with infant feeding and quantifying those associations, we help public health policymakers generate priorities for targeting infant feeding programs to specific populations that are at greatest risk. Higher educated, working mothers are best to target with exclusive breastfeeding programs for young infants. Mothers with lower education are best to target with complementary feeding programs in infants older than 1?year. Finally, while maternal weight is associated with higher levels of exclusive breastfeeding the association is too weak to merit targeting of breastfeeding programs to low-weight mothers. PMID:24616887

Yarnoff, Benjamin; Allaire, Benjamin; Detzel, Patrick

2014-01-01

184

Source geometry factors for HDR (192)Ir brachytherapy secondary standard well-type ionization chamber calibrations.  

PubMed

Well-type ionization chambers are used for measuring the source strength of radioactive brachytherapy sources before clinical use. Initially, the well chambers are calibrated against a suitable national standard. For high dose rate (HDR) (192)Ir, this calibration is usually a two-step process. Firstly, the calibration source is traceably calibrated against an air kerma primary standard in terms of either reference air kerma rate or air kerma strength. The calibrated (192)Ir source is then used to calibrate the secondary standard well-type ionization chamber.Calibration laboratories are usually only equipped with one type of HDR (192)Ir source. If the clinical source type is different from that used for the calibration of the well chamber at the standards laboratory, a source geometry factor, ksg, is required to correct the calibration coefficient for any change of the well chamber response due to geometric differences between the sources.In this work we present source geometry factors for six different HDR (192)Ir brachytherapy sources which have been determined using Monte Carlo techniques for a specific ionization chamber, the Standard Imaging HDR 1000?Plus well chamber with a type 70010?HDR iridium source holder. The calculated correction factors were normalized to the old and new type of calibration source used at the National Physical Laboratory. With the old Nucletron microSelectron-v1 (classic) HDR (192)Ir calibration source, ksg was found to be in the range 0.983 to 0.999 and with the new Isodose Control HDR (192)Ir Flexisource ksg was found to be in the range 0.987 to 1.004 with a relative uncertainty of 0.4% (k = 2). Source geometry factors for different combinations of calibration sources, clinical sources, well chambers and associated source holders, can be calculated with the formalism discussed in this paper. PMID:25761529

Shipley, D R; Sander, T; Nutbrown, R F

2015-03-21

185

Source geometry factors for HDR 192Ir brachytherapy secondary standard well-type ionization chamber calibrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Well-type ionization chambers are used for measuring the source strength of radioactive brachytherapy sources before clinical use. Initially, the well chambers are calibrated against a suitable national standard. For high dose rate (HDR) 192Ir, this calibration is usually a two-step process. Firstly, the calibration source is traceably calibrated against an air kerma primary standard in terms of either reference air kerma rate or air kerma strength. The calibrated 192Ir source is then used to calibrate the secondary standard well-type ionization chamber. Calibration laboratories are usually only equipped with one type of HDR 192Ir source. If the clinical source type is different from that used for the calibration of the well chamber at the standards laboratory, a source geometry factor, ksg, is required to correct the calibration coefficient for any change of the well chamber response due to geometric differences between the sources. In this work we present source geometry factors for six different HDR 192Ir brachytherapy sources which have been determined using Monte Carlo techniques for a specific ionization chamber, the Standard Imaging HDR 1000?Plus well chamber with a type 70010?HDR iridium source holder. The calculated correction factors were normalized to the old and new type of calibration source used at the National Physical Laboratory. With the old Nucletron microSelectron-v1 (classic) HDR 192Ir calibration source, ksg was found to be in the range 0.983 to 0.999 and with the new Isodose Control HDR 192Ir Flexisource ksg was found to be in the range 0.987 to 1.004 with a relative uncertainty of 0.4% (k = 2). Source geometry factors for different combinations of calibration sources, clinical sources, well chambers and associated source holders, can be calculated with the formalism discussed in this paper.

Shipley, D. R.; Sander, T.; Nutbrown, R. F.

2015-03-01

186

Control of Cell Type Proportioning in Dictyostelium discoideum by Differentiation-Inducing Factor as Determined by In Situ Hybridization  

PubMed Central

We have determined the proportions of the prespore and prestalk regions in Dictyostelium discoideum slugs by in situ hybridization with a large number of prespore- and prestalk-specific genes. Microarrays were used to discover genes expressed in a cell type-specific manner. Fifty-four prespore-specific genes were verified by in situ hybridization, including 18 that had been previously shown to be cell type specific. The 36 new genes more than doubles the number of available prespore markers. At the slug stage, the prespore genes hybridized to cells uniformly in the posterior 80% of wild-type slugs but hybridized to the posterior 90% of slugs lacking the secreted alkylphenone differentiation-inducing factor 1 (DIF-1). There was a compensatory twofold decrease in prestalk cells in DIF-less slugs. Removal of prespore cells resulted in cell type conversion in both wild-type and DIF-less anterior fragments. Thus, DIF-1 appears to act in concert with other processes to establish cell type proportions. PMID:15470253

Maruo, Toshinari; Sakamoto, Haruyo; Iranfar, Negin; Fuller, Danny; Morio, Takahiro; Urushihara, Hideko; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Maeda, Mineko; Loomis, William F.

2004-01-01

187

Platelet-derived growth factor ?-receptor, transforming growth factor ? type I receptor, and CD44 protein modulate each other's signaling and stability.  

PubMed

Growth factors, such as platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) and transforming growth factor ? (TGF?), are key regulators of cellular functions, including proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Growth factor signaling is modulated by context-dependent cross-talk between different signaling pathways. We demonstrate in this study that PDGF-BB induces phosphorylation of Smad2, a downstream mediator of the canonical TGF? pathway, in primary dermal fibroblasts. The PDGF-BB-mediated Smad2 phosphorylation was dependent on the kinase activities of both TGF? type I receptor (T?RI) and PDGF ?-receptor (PDGFR?), and it was prevented by inhibitory antibodies against TGF?. Inhibition of the activity of the T?RI kinase greatly reduced the PDGF-BB-dependent migration in dermal fibroblasts. Moreover, we demonstrate that the receptors for PDGF-BB and TGF? interact physically in primary dermal fibroblasts and that stimulation with PDGF-BB induces internalization not only of PDGFR? but also of T?RI. In addition, silencing of PDGFR? by siRNA decreased the stability of T?RI and delayed TGF?-induced signaling. We further show that the hyaluronan receptor CD44 interacts with both PDGFR? and T?RI. Depletion of CD44 by siRNA increased signaling via PDGFR? and T?RI by stabilizing the receptor proteins. Our data suggest that cross-talk between PDGFR? and T?RI occurs in dermal fibroblasts and that CD44 negatively modulates signaling via these receptors. PMID:24860093

Porsch, Helena; Mehi?, Merima; Olofsson, Berit; Heldin, Paraskevi; Heldin, Carl-Henrik

2014-07-11

188

Risk factors for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in college students: association with sociodemographic variables1  

PubMed Central

Objective identify the modifiable risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus in college students and associate these factors with their sociodemographic variables. Method cross-sectional study, involving 702 college students from Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, physical exercise data and blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose levels were collected. Results the most prevalent risk factor was sedentariness, followed by overweight, central obesity, high fasting plasma glucose and arterial hypertension. A statistically significant association was found between overweight and sex (p=0.000), age (p=0.004) and marital status (p=0.012), as well as between central obesity and age (p=0.018) and marital status (p=0.007) and between high fasting plasma glucose and sex (p=0.033). Conclusion distinct risk factors were present in the study population, particularly sedentariness and overweight. PMID:25029061

Lima, Adman Câmara Soares; Araújo, Márcio Flávio Moura; de Freitas, Roberto Wagner Júnior Freire; Zanetti, Maria Lúcia; de Almeida, Paulo César; Damasceno, Marta Maria Coelho

2014-01-01

189

Clinical relevance of vascular endothelial growth factor type A (VEGFA) and VEGF receptor type 2 (VEGFR2) gene polymorphism in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.  

PubMed

Vascular endothelial growth factor type A (VEGFA) is a key regulator of angiogenesis and vascular permeability. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells are able to secrete VEGFA and express VEGFA receptors, thus it can be hypothesized that VEGFA-mediated signaling influences CLL clone survival. In this case-control study we verified whether inherited differences in activities of VEGFA and its main receptor VEGFR2 impact predisposition to CLL or the course of the disease. Four functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including two SNPs in VEGFA gene, namely rs2010963 (+405G>C) and rs3025039 (+936C>T) and two SNPs in VEGFR2 gene including rs7667298 (-271G>A) and rs1870377 (+1719A>T) were genotyped using PCR-based assays in 223 Caucasian CLL patients and 150 matched controls. Regarding VEGF rs2010963 SNP, we observed an association between CLL and allele C distribution with an OR of 1.52 (95% CI, 1.002-2.312), p=0.04. The distribution of other genotypes and alleles was similar in CLL and control groups. No genotype or allele was significantly associated with important prognostic factors in CLL including clinical stage, IgVH mutational status, ZAP-70 expression and FISH cytogenetic abnormalities. In conclusion, the results of our study indicate that genetic polymorphisms in VEGFA mediated pathway may influence the susceptibility to CLL. PMID:25488616

Góra-Tybor, Joanna; Szemraj, Janusz; Robak, Tadeusz; Jamroziak, Krzysztof

2015-02-01

190

Two factors that bind to highly conserved sequences in mammalian type C retroviral enhancers.  

PubMed Central

The transcriptional enhancers of the Moloney and Friend murine leukemia viruses (MLV) are important determinants of viral pathogenicity. We used electrophoretic mobility shift and methylation interference assays to study nuclear factors which bind to a region of these enhancers whose sequence is identical between Moloney and Friend viruses and particularly highly conserved among 35 mammalian type C retroviruses whose enhancer sequences have been aligned (E. Golemis, N. A. Speck, and N. Hopkins, J. Virol. 64:534-542, 1990). Previous studies identified sites for the leukemia virus factor b (LVb) and core proteins in this region (N. A. Speck and D. Baltimore, Mol. Cell. Biol. 7:1101-1110, 1987) as well as a site, overlapping those for LVb and core, for a third factor (N. R. Manley, M. A. O'Connell, P. A. Sharp, and N. Hopkins, J. Virol. 63:4210-4223, 1989). Surprisingly, the latter factor appeared to also bind two sites identified in the Friend MLV enhancer, Friend virus factor a and b1 (FVa and FVb1) sites, although the sequence basis for the ability of the protein to bind these diverse sites was not apparent. Here we describe the further characterization of this binding activity, termed MCREF-1 (for mammalian type C retrovirus enhancer factor 1), and the identification of a consensus sequence for its binding, GGN8GG. We also identify a factor, abundant in mouse T-cell lines and designated LVt, which binds to two sites in the Moloney MLV enhancer, overlapping the previously identified LVb and LVc binding sites. These sites contain the consensus binding site for the Ets family of proteins. We speculate on how distinct arrays of these factors may influence the disease-inducing phenotype. Images PMID:8445718

Manley, N R; O'Connell, M; Sun, W; Speck, N A; Hopkins, N

1993-01-01

191

STAT3 transcription factor is constitutively activated and is oncogenic in nasal-type NK/T-cell lymphoma  

E-print Network

STAT3 transcription factor is constitutively activated and is oncogenic in nasal-type NK in the oncogenic process of nasal-type NK cell lymphomas, and may represent a promising therapeutical target. 3

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

192

Distribution Patterns of Infection with Multiple Types of Human Papillomaviruses and Their Association with Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

Background Infection with multiple types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the main risk factors associated with the development of cervical lesions. In this study, cervical samples collected from 1,810 women with diverse sociocultural backgrounds, who attended to their cervical screening program in different geographical regions of Colombia, were examined for the presence of cervical lesions and HPV by Papanicolau testing and DNA PCR detection, respectively. Principal Findings The negative binomial distribution model used in this study showed differences between the observed and expected values within some risk factor categories analyzed. Particularly in the case of single infection and coinfection with more than 4 HPV types, observed frequencies were smaller than expected, while the number of women infected with 2 to 4 viral types were higher than expected. Data analysis according to a negative binomial regression showed an increase in the risk of acquiring more HPV types in women who were of indigenous ethnicity (+37.8%), while this risk decreased in women who had given birth more than 4 times (?31.1%), or were of mestizo (?24.6%) or black (?40.9%) ethnicity. Conclusions According to a theoretical probability distribution, the observed number of women having either a single infection or more than 4 viral types was smaller than expected, while for those infected with 2–4 HPV types it was larger than expected. Taking into account that this study showed a higher HPV coinfection rate in the indigenous ethnicity, the role of underlying factors should be assessed in detail in future studies. PMID:21379574

Soto-De Leon, Sara; Camargo, Milena; Sanchez, Ricardo; Munoz, Marina; Perez-Prados, Antonio; Purroy, Antonio; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso

2011-01-01

193

A bHLH-Type Transcription Factor, ABA-INDUCIBLE BHLH-TYPE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR/JA-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1, Acts as a Repressor to Negatively Regulate Jasmonate Signaling in Arabidopsis[C][W  

PubMed Central

Jasmonates (JAs) are plant hormones that regulate the balance between plant growth and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although recent studies have uncovered the mechanisms for JA-induced responses in Arabidopsis thaliana, the mechanisms by which plants attenuate the JA-induced responses remain elusive. Here, we report that a basic helix-loop-helix–type transcription factor, ABA-INDUCIBLE BHLH-TYPE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR/JA-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), acts as a transcriptional repressor and negatively regulates JA signaling. Gain-of-function transgenic plants expressing the chimeric repressor for JAM1 exhibited substantial reduction of JA responses, including JA-induced inhibition of root growth, accumulation of anthocyanin, and male fertility. These plants were also compromised in resistance to attack by the insect herbivore Spodoptera exigua. Conversely, jam1 loss-of-function mutants showed enhanced JA responsiveness, including increased resistance to insect attack. JAM1 and MYC2 competitively bind to the target sequence of MYC2, which likely provides the mechanism for negative regulation of JA signaling and suppression of MYC2 functions by JAM1. These results indicate that JAM1 negatively regulates JA signaling, thereby playing a pivotal role in fine-tuning of JA-mediated stress responses and plant growth. PMID:23673982

Nakata, Masaru; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Herde, Marco; Koo, Abraham J.K.; Moreno, Javier E.; Suzuki, Kaoru; Howe, Gregg A.; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

2013-01-01

194

What Preoperative Factors, Including a Bone Bruise, are Associated with Knee Pain/Symptoms at Index ACLR? A MOON Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Increased knee pain at the time of ACL reconstruction may potentially predict more difficult rehabilitation, prolonged recovery, and/or be predictive of increased knee pain at two years. HYPOTHESIS We hypothesize that a bone bruise and/or other preoperative factors are associated with more knee pain/symptoms at the time of index ACL reconstruction, and the presence of a bone bruise would be associated with specific demographic and injury-related factors. STUDY DESIGN Prospective cohort. METHODS In 2007, the Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcomes Network (MOON) database began to prospectively collect surgeon-reported MRI bone bruise status. A multivariable analysis was performed to: 1) determine if a bone bruise, among other preoperative factors, is associated with more knee symptoms/pain, and 2) examine the association of factors related to bone bruise. To evaluate the association of a bone bruise with knee pain/symptoms, linear multiple regression models were fit using the continuous scores of the KOOS symptoms and pain subscales and the SF-36 bodily pain subscale as dependent variables. To examine the association between a bone bruise and risk factors, a logistic regression model was used in which the dependent variable was the presence or absence of a bone bruise. RESULTS Baseline data for 525 subjects was used for analysis, and a bone bruise was present in 419 (80%). The cohort is 58% male, median age 23 yrs. Median Marx activity level was 13. Factors associated with more pain were higher body mass index (p< 0.0001), female sex (p= 0.001), lateral collateral ligament injury (p=0.012), and older age (p= 0.038). Factors associated with more symptoms were a concomitant lateral collateral ligament injury (p=0.014), higher body mass index (p< 0.0001), and female sex (p< 0.0001). Bone bruise is not associated with symptoms/pain at the time of index ACL reconstruction. None of the factors included in the SF-36 bodily pain model were found to be significant. After controlling for other baseline factors, the following factors were associated with a bone bruise: younger age (p=0.034) and not jumping at the time of injury (p=0.006). CONCLUSION Following ACL injury, risk factors associated with a bone bruise are younger age and not jumping at the time of injury. Bone bruise is not associated with symptoms/pain at the time of index ACL reconstruction. PMID:20595556

Dunn, Warren R.; Spindler, Kurt P.; Amendola, Annunziato; Andrish, Jack T.; Brophy, Robert H.; Flanigan, David C.; Jones, Morgan H.; Kaeding, Christopher C.; Marx, Robert G.; Matava, Matthew J.; McCarty, Eric C.; Parker, Richard D.; Wolcott, Michelle L.; Vidal, Armando F.; Wolf, Brian R.; Huston, Laura J.; Harrell, Frank E.; An, Angel Qi; Wright, Rick W.

2013-01-01

195

Expression of hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 on the epithelial cell surface is regulated by hypoxic and oxidative stresses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 (HAI-1)\\/spint-1 is a membrane-bound protease inhibitor that is thought to regulate the activities of hepatocyte growth factor activator,\\u000a matriptase, hepsin, and prostasin. In this study, we show that the membrane form of HAI-1 was significantly upregulated immunohistochemically\\u000a in epithelial cells under adverse conditions including tissue injury, necroinflammatory reactions, and invasion of carcinomas.\\u000a To

Wataru Komaki; Tsuyoshi Fukushima; Hiroyuki Tanaka; Hiroshi Itoh; Etsuo Chosa; Hiroaki Kataoka

2008-01-01

196

Type VIII Si based clathrates: prospects for a giant thermoelectric power factor.  

PubMed

Although clathrate materials are known for their small thermal conductivity, they have not shown a large thermoelectric power factor so far. We present the band structures of type VIII Si, Ge, and Sn clathrates as well as the alkali and alkaline-earth intercalated type VIII Si clathrates. Our calculations revealed that this group of materials has potentially large power factors due to the existence of a large number of carrier pockets near their band edges. In particular, we calculated the charge carrier transport properties of Si46-VIII both for n-type and p-type materials. The exceptionally high multi-valley band structure of Si46-VIII near the Fermi energy due to the high crystallographic symmetry resulted in a giant power factor in this material. It was shown that the intercalation of Si46-VIII with alkali and alkaline-earth guest atoms shifts the Fermi energy close to the conduction band edge and, except for Be8Si46 and Mg8Si46, they weakly influence the band structure of Si46. Among these clathrate systems, Ca8Si46, Sr8Si46, and Ba8Si46 showed negative formation energy, which should facilitate their synthesis. Our results imply that the intercalation affects the conduction band of Si46-VIII more than its valence band. Also, interestingly, the type VIII clathrates of Si46 and its derivatives (except Be8Si46 and Mg8Si46), Sn46, and Ge46 all have 26 carrier pockets near their valence band edge. Among the different derivatives of Si46-VIII, Rb8Si46 and Ba8Si46 have the highest number of electron pockets near their band edges. The thermoelectric power factor was predicted using a multiband Boltzmann transport equation linked with parameters extracted from density functional calculations. It was shown that both the increment of charge mobility and the existence of multiple band extrema contribute to the enhancement of the thermoelectric power factor considerably. Such a large power factor along with their inherently low thermal conductivity can make this group of clathrates promising thermoelectric materials. PMID:25744661

Norouzzadeh, Payam; Krasinski, Jerzy S; Myles, Charles W; Vashaee, Daryoosh

2015-04-14

197

Factors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to develop students' abilities to find factors of whole numbers. The lesson also introduces prime numbers. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to factors as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one. Note, reading level is not indicated because the lesson does not include student reading material.

2011-05-24

198

Theory of phonon-limited resistivity of metals including the effects of anharmonicity, Debye-Waller factor, and the multiphonon term  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of phonon-limited resistivity rho of metals is extended to include the effects of anharmonicity, Debye-Waller factor, and the first term of the multiphonon series. The double-time temperature-dependent Green's-function approach is used. All the relevant Green's functions involving two-, three-, and fourphonon operators are obtained exactly. The contribution to rho from the third-order correlation functions are identified with the

R. C. Shukla; E. R. Muller

1980-01-01

199

An Essential Role for Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in the Tuberculin Delayed-type Hypersensitivity Reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

SulTlmal-y 30 years ago, investigations into the molecular basis of the delayed-type hypersensitivity reac- tion (DTH) provided evidence for the first lymphokine activity: a lymphocyte-derived media- tor called macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), which inhibited the random migra- tion of peritoneal macrophages. Despite the long-standing association of MIF with the DTH reaction and the cloning of a human protein with

Jfirgen Bernhagen; Michael Bacher; Thierry Calandra; Christine N. Metz; Steven B. Doty; Thomas DonneHy; Richard Bucala

1996-01-01

200

Multistage Regulation of Th1Type Immune Responses by the Transcription Factor IRF-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eradication of a given pathogen is dependent on the selective differentiation of T helper (Th) cells into Th1 or Th2 types. We show here that T cells from mice lacking the transcription factor IRF-1 fail to mount Th1 responses and instead exclusively undergo Th2 differentiation in vitro. Compromised Th1 differentiation is found to be associated with defects in multiple cell

Shinsuke Taki; Takeo Sato; Kouetsu Ogasawara; Taeko Fukuda; Mitsuharu Sato; Shigeaki Hida; Gen Suzuki; Masao Mitsuyama; Eun-Hee Shin; Soumei Kojima; Tadatsugu Taniguchi; Yoshihiro Asano

1997-01-01

201

Expression and secretion of type. beta. transforming growth factor by activated human macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alveolar macrophages activated with concanavalin A and peripheral blood monocytes activated with lipopolysaccharide secrete type ..beta.. transforming growth factor (TGF-..beta..). There is minimal TGF-..beta.. secretion in unactivated monocytes, even though TGF-..beta.. mRNA is expressed in these cells at a level similar to that in activated, lipopolysaccharide-treated cultures. U937 lymphoma cells, which have momocytic characteristics, also express mRNA for TGF-..beta... Freshly

R. K. Assoian; B. E. Fleurdelys; H. C. Stevenson; P. J. Miller; D. K. Madtes; E. W. Raines; R. Ross; M. B. Sporn

1987-01-01

202

Risk factors for cardiac autonomic neuropathy in type 1 diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in type 1 diabetes. Apart from glycaemic control, risk factors for CAN have not been extensively studied.Methods  As part of the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study, CAN—defined as either a loss of heart rate variability or postural hypotension on standing—was assessed at baseline and follow-up (7.3±0.6 years from baseline) in patients

D. R. Witte; S. Tesfaye; N. Chaturvedi; S. E. M. Eaton; P. Kempler; J. H. Fuller

2005-01-01

203

Reproductive factors and specific histological types of breast cancer: prospective study and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about how reproductive factors affect the risk of breast cancers of different histology. In an analysis of prospective data on 1.2 million middle-aged UK women, we used proportional hazards models to estimate the relative risks of six histological types in relation to menarche, childbearing and menopause. During 8.7 million person-years of follow-up, 17 923 ductal, 3332 lobular,

G K Reeves; K Pirie; J Green; D Bull; V Beral

2009-01-01

204

Racial Disparities in the Control Status of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in an Underinsured Population with Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Aims To investigate the race-specific trend in attainment of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) cardiovascular risk factors control goals of patients with type 2 diabetes (HbA1c <53 mmol/mol [7.0%], blood pressure <130/80 mmHg, and low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol <2.6 mmol/L). Methods The study sample included 14,946 African American and 12,758 White patients who were newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes between 2001 and 2009 in the Louisiana State University Hospital System. The race-specific percentages of patients’ attainment of ADA goals were calculated using the baseline and follow-up measurements of HbA1c, blood pressure, and LDL-cholesterol levels. Logistic regression was used to test the difference between African American and White patients. Results The percentage of patients who met all three ADA goals increased from 8.2% in 2001 to 10.2% in 2009 (increased by 24.4%) in this cohort. Compared with African American patients, White patients had better attainment of the following ADA goals: HbA1c goal (61.4 vs. 55.1%), blood pressure goal (25.8 vs. 20.4%), LDL-cholesterol goal (40.1 vs. 37.7%), and all three goals (7.3 vs. 5.1%). African American and White patients generally had improved CVD risk factors profile during follow-up when we assessed attainment of the ADA goals by using means of HbA1c, blood pressure and LDL cholesterol. Conclusions During 2001–2009, this low income cohort with type 2 diabetes generally experienced improved control of CVD risk factors. White patients had better attainment of the ADA cardiovascular risk factors control goals than their African American counterparts. PMID:24750373

Wang, Y.; Katzmarzyk, P.T.; Horswell, R.; Zhao, W.; Li, W.; Johnson, J.; Ryan, D.H.; Hu, G

2014-01-01

205

Genetic control of the circulating concentration of transforming growth factor type beta1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) in plasma has been correlated with the develop- ment of several diseases, including atherosclerosis and certain forms of cancer. However, the mechanisms that control the concentration of TGF-? in plasma are poorly understood. In a study of 170 pairs of female twins (average age 57.7 years) we show that the con- centration

David J. Grainger; Kirsten Heathcote; Mathias Chiano; Harold Snieder; Paul R. Kemp; James C. Metcalfe; Nicholas D. Carter; Tim D. Spector

1999-01-01

206

Observational calibration of the projection factor of Cepheids. I. The type II Cepheid ? Pavonis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The distance of pulsating stars, in particular Cepheids, are commonly measured using the parallax of pulsation technique. The different versions of this technique combine measurements of the linear diameter variation (from spectroscopy) and the angular diameter variation (from photometry or interferometry) amplitudes, to retrieve the distance in a quasi-geometrical way. However, the linear diameter amplitude is directly proportional to the projection factor (hereafter p-factor), which is used to convert spectroscopic radial velocities (i.e., disk integrated) into pulsating (i.e., photospheric) velocities. The value of the p-factor and its possible dependence on the pulsation period are still widely debated. Aims: Our goal is to measure an observational value of the p-factor of the type-II Cepheid ? Pavonis. Methods: The parallax of the type-II Cepheid ? Pav was measured with an accuracy of 5% using HST/FGS. We used this parallax as a starting point to derive the p-factor of ? Pav, using the SPIPS technique (Spectro-Photo-Interferometry of Pulsating Stars), which is a robust version of the parallax-of-pulsation method that employs radial velocity, interferometric and photometric data. We applied this technique to a combination of new VLTI/PIONIER optical interferometric angular diameters, new CORALIE and HARPS radial velocities, as well as multi-colour photometry and radial velocities from the literature. Results: We obtain a value of p = 1.26 ± 0.07 for the p-factor of ? Pav. This result agrees with several of the recently derived Period-p-factor relationships from the literature, as well as previous observational determinations for Cepheids. Conclusions: Individual estimates of the p-factor are fundamental to calibrating the parallax of pulsation distances of Cepheids. Together with previous observational estimates, the projection factor we obtain points to a weak dependence of the p-factor on period. Based on observations realized with ESO facilities at Paranal Observatory under program IDs 091.D-0020 and 093.D-0316.Based on observations collected at ESO La Silla Observatory using the Coralie spectrograph mounted to the Swiss 1.2 m Euler telescope, under program CNTAC2014A-5.

Breitfelder, J.; Kervella, P.; Mérand, A.; Gallenne, A.; Szabados, L.; Anderson, R. I.; Willson, M.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.

2015-04-01

207

Risk factors for hospital death after surgery for type A aortic dissection.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to identify perioperative risk factors for hospital death in patients undergoing surgery for acute type A aortic dissection. Between 2000 and 2009, 101 consecutive patients underwent emergency surgery for acute type A aortic dissection. Four patients died before institution of cardiopulmonary bypass or completion of the procedure. In the remaining 97 (68 men; mean age, 63.4±16.7 years), proximal repair was performed using ascending aortic replacement with valve re-suspension in 52 (53.6%) and composite valve graft replacement in 44 (45.4%). Distal repair required hemi- or total arch replacement in 42 (43.3%) patients. Overall hospital mortality reached 25.8% (25/97 patients). Logistic regression analysis revealed that advanced age, location of an intimal tear in the arch or more distally, and preoperative coronary malperfusion were significant independent risk factors for hospital death. No procedure-related variables were significant risk factors. Current hospital mortality in patients undergoing emergency surgery for acute type A aortic dissection remains high, but seems to be mainly determined by preoperative variables. More aggressive proximal or distal repairs were not associated with increased mortality. PMID:22718714

Legras, Antoine; Bruzzi, Matthieu; Nakashima, Kuniki; Hillion, Marie-Line; Loisance, Daniel; Kirsch, Matthias

2012-06-01

208

A novel human antimicrobial factor targets Pseudomonas aeruginosa through its type III secretion system.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic bacterial pathogen. Despite its metabolic and virulence versatility, it has not been shown to infect articular joints, which are areas that are rarely infected with bacteria in general. We hypothesized that articular joints possess antimicrobial activity that limits bacterial survival in these environments. We report that cartilages secrete a novel antimicrobial factor, henceforth referred to as the cartilage-associated antimicrobial factor (CA-AMF), with potent antimicrobial activity. Importantly, CA-AMF exhibited significantly more antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa strains with a functional type III secretion system (T3SS). We propose that CA-AMF represents a new class of human antimicrobial factors in innate immunity, one which has evolved to selectively target pathogenic bacteria among the beneficial and commensal microflora. The T3SS is the first example, to the best of our knowledge, of a pathogen-specific molecular target in this antimicrobial defence system. PMID:23288430

Mahmood, Fareeha; Hakimiyan, Arnavaz; Jayaraman, Vijayakumar; Wood, Stephen; Sivaramakrishnan, Gayathri; Rehman, Tooba; Reuhs, Bradley L; Chubinskaya, Susanna; Shafikhani, Sasha H

2013-04-01

209

Factors influencing the development of jugular thrombophlebitis in cattle and comparison of 2 types of catheter  

PubMed Central

Two studies were conducted to evaluate the factors associated with the development of thrombophlebitis in cattle following intravenous catheterization of the jugular vein. In study 1, 20 healthy animals were catheterized with 2 different types of catheter (polytetrafluoroethylene (PTE) versus polyvinylchloride (PVC)) for a period of 120 hours. In study 2, 50 dairy cows referred for treatment to the Large Animal Veterinary Teaching Hospital at the University of Montréal were catheterized with a commercial PTE catheter, using a standardized technique, for a period varying from 3 to 6 days, and inherent risk factors were evaluated. A clinical and echographical evaluation of the 2 groups in study 1 demonstrated a higher frequency of thrombosis in the PTE group than in the PVC group. In study 2, the primary factors associated with the development of thrombophlebitis in sick cows were the experience of the manipulator and the severity of the disease. PMID:12757131

Rouleau, Guylaine; Babkine, Marie; Dubreuil, Pascal

2003-01-01

210

Functional roles and clinical values of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-5 in different types of cancers  

PubMed Central

Insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins (IGFBPs) are critical regulators of the mitogenic activity of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). IGFBP5, one of these IGFBPs, has special structural features, including a nuclear transport domain, heparin-binding motif, and IGF/extracellular matrix/acid-labile subunit-binding sites. Furthermore, IGFBP5 has several functional effects on carcinogenesis and even normal cell processes, such as cell growth, death, motility, and tissue remodeling. These biological effects are sometimes related with IGF (IGF-dependent effects) and sometimes not (IGF-independent effects). The functional role of IGFBP5 is most likely determined in a cell-type and tissue-type specific manner but also depends on cell context, especially in terms of the diversity of interacting proteins and the potential for nuclear localization. Clinical findings show that IGFBP5 has the potential to be a useful clinical biomarker for predicting response to therapy and clinical outcome of cancer patients. In this review, we summarize the functional diversity and clinical importance of IGFBP5 in different types of cancers. PMID:22313597

Güllü, Gökçe; Karabulut, Sevgi; Akkiprik, Mustafa

2012-01-01

211

Emission factors from biomass burning in three types of appliances: fireplace, woodstove and pellet stove  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last years, the importance of biomass fuels has increased mainly for two reasons. One of them is the effort to control the emissions of greenhouse gases, and on the other hand, the increasing costs associated with fossil fuels. Besides that, biomass burning is now recognised as one of the major sources contributing to high concentrations of particulate matter, especially during winter time. Southern European countries have a lack of information regarding emission profiles from biomass burning. Because of that, in most source apportionment studies, the information used comes from northern and alpine countries, whose combustion appliances, fuels and habits are different from those in Mediterranean countries. Due to this lack of information, series of tests using different types of equipment, as well as fuels, were carried out in order to obtain emission profiles and emission factors that correspond to the reality in southern European countries. Tests involved three types of biomass appliances used in Portugal, a fireplace, a woodstove and a modern pellet stove. Emission factors (mg.kg-1 fuel, dry basis) for CO, THC and PM10 were obtained. CO emission factors ranged from 38, for pine on the woodstove, to 84 for eucalyptus in the fireplace. THC emissions were between 4 and 24, for pine in the woodstove and eucalyptus in the fireplace, respectively. PM10 emission factors were in the range from 3.99, for pine in the woodstove, to 17.3 for eucalyptus in the fireplace. On average, the emission factors obtained for the fireplace are 1.5 (CO) to 4 (THC) times higher than those of the woodstove. The fireplace has emission factors for CO, THC and PM10 10, 35 and 32 times, respectively, higher than the pellet stove.

Duarte, Márcio; Vicente, Estela; Calvo, Ana; Nunes, Teresa; Tarelho, Luis; Alves, Célia

2014-05-01

212

Efficacy of interventions that include diet, aerobic and resistance training components for type 2 diabetes prevention: a systematic review with meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Current recommendations for the prevention of type 2 diabetes advise modification of diet and exercise behaviors including both aerobic and resistance training. However, the efficacy of multi-component interventions involving a combination of these three components has not been established. The aims of this review were to systematically review and meta-analyze the evidence on multi-component (diet?+?aerobic exercise?+?resistance training) lifestyle interventions for type 2 diabetes prevention. Eight electronic databases (Medline, Embase, SportDiscus, Web of Science, CINAHL, Informit health collection, Cochrane library and Scopus) were searched up to June 2013. Eligible studies 1) recruited prediabetic adults or individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes; 2) conducted diet and exercise [including both physical activity/aerobic and resistance training] programs; and 3) reported weight and plasma glucose outcomes. In total, 23 articles from eight studies were eligible including five randomized controlled trials, one quasi-experimental, one two-group comparison and one single-group pre-post study. Four studies had a low risk of bias (score???6/10). Median intervention length was 12 months (range 4-48 months) with a follow-up of 18 months (range 6.5-48 months). The diet and exercise interventions varied slightly in terms of their specific prescriptions. Meta-analysis favored interventions over controls for weight loss (-3.79 kg [-6.13, -1.46; 95% CI], Z?=?3.19, P?=?0.001) and fasting plasma glucose (-0.13 mmol.L?¹ [-0.24, -0.02; 95% CI], Z?=?2.42, P?=?0.02). Diabetes incidence was only reported in two studies, with reductions of 58% and 56% versus control groups. In summary, multi-component lifestyle type 2 diabetes prevention interventions that include diet and both aerobic and resistance exercise training are modestly effective in inducing weight loss and improving impaired fasting glucose, glucose tolerance, dietary and exercise outcomes in at risk and prediabetic adult populations. These results support the current exercise guidelines for the inclusion of resistance training in type 2 diabetes prevention, however there remains a need for more rigorous studies, with long-term follow-up evaluating program efficacy, muscular fitness outcomes, diabetes incidence and risk reduction. PMID:24423095

Aguiar, Elroy J; Morgan, Philip J; Collins, Clare E; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Callister, Robin

2014-01-01

213

Efficacy of interventions that include diet, aerobic and resistance training components for type 2 diabetes prevention: a systematic review with meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Current recommendations for the prevention of type 2 diabetes advise modification of diet and exercise behaviors including both aerobic and resistance training. However, the efficacy of multi-component interventions involving a combination of these three components has not been established. The aims of this review were to systematically review and meta-analyze the evidence on multi-component (diet?+?aerobic exercise?+?resistance training) lifestyle interventions for type 2 diabetes prevention. Eight electronic databases (Medline, Embase, SportDiscus, Web of Science, CINAHL, Informit health collection, Cochrane library and Scopus) were searched up to June 2013. Eligible studies 1) recruited prediabetic adults or individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes; 2) conducted diet and exercise [including both physical activity/aerobic and resistance training] programs; and 3) reported weight and plasma glucose outcomes. In total, 23 articles from eight studies were eligible including five randomized controlled trials, one quasi-experimental, one two-group comparison and one single-group pre-post study. Four studies had a low risk of bias (score???6/10). Median intervention length was 12 months (range 4–48 months) with a follow-up of 18 months (range 6.5 - 48 months). The diet and exercise interventions varied slightly in terms of their specific prescriptions. Meta-analysis favored interventions over controls for weight loss (-3.79 kg [-6.13, -1.46; 95% CI], Z?=?3.19, P?=?0.001) and fasting plasma glucose (-0.13 mmol.L-1 [-0.24, -0.02; 95% CI], Z?=?2.42, P?=?0.02). Diabetes incidence was only reported in two studies, with reductions of 58% and 56% versus control groups. In summary, multi-component lifestyle type 2 diabetes prevention interventions that include diet and both aerobic and resistance exercise training are modestly effective in inducing weight loss and improving impaired fasting glucose, glucose tolerance, dietary and exercise outcomes in at risk and prediabetic adult populations. These results support the current exercise guidelines for the inclusion of resistance training in type 2 diabetes prevention, however there remains a need for more rigorous studies, with long-term follow-up evaluating program efficacy, muscular fitness outcomes, diabetes incidence and risk reduction. PMID:24423095

2014-01-01

214

Loss of Drosophila A-type lamin C initially causes tendon abnormality including disintegration of cytoskeleton and nuclear lamina in muscular defects.  

PubMed

Lamins are the major components of nuclear envelope architecture, being required for both the structural and informational roles of the nuclei. Mutations of lamins cause a spectrum of diseases in humans, including muscular dystrophy. We report here that the loss of the A-type lamin gene, lamin C in Drosophila resulted in pupal metamorphic lethality caused by tendon defects, matching the characteristics of human A-type lamin revealed by Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD). In tendon cells lacking lamin C activity, overall cell morphology was affected and organization of the spectraplakin family cytoskeletal protein Shortstop which is prominently expressed in tendon cells gradually disintegrated, notably around the nucleus and in a manner correlating well with the degradation of musculature. Furthermore, lamin C null mutants were efficiently rescued by restoring lamin C expression to shortstop-expressing cells, which include tendon cells but exclude skeletal muscle cells. Thus the critical function of A-type lamin C proteins in Drosophila musculature is to maintain proper function and morphology of tendon cells. PMID:22982669

Uchino, Ryo; Nonaka, Yu-Ki; Horigome, Tuneyoshi; Sugiyama, Shin; Furukawa, Kazuhiro

2013-01-01

215

The Presence of Family History and the Development of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Risk Factors in Rural Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is reaching epidemic proportions among children and adolescents. School health fairs offer an opportunity to identify children with risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study identified selected risk factors (i.e., high-risk racial/ethnic group, obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated…

Adams, Marsha Howell; Barnett Lammon, Carol Ann

2007-01-01

216

Observational calibration of the projection factor of Cepheids I. The Type II Cepheid kappa Pavonis  

E-print Network

The distances of pulsating stars, in particular Cepheids, are commonly measured using the parallax of pulsation technique. The different versions of this technique combine measurements of the linear diameter variation (from spectroscopy) and the angular diameter variation (from photometry or interferometry) amplitudes, to retrieve the distance in a quasi-geometrical way. However, the linear diameter amplitude is directly proportional to the projection factor (hereafter p-factor), which is used to convert spectroscopic radial velocities (i.e., disk integrated) into pulsating (i.e., photospheric) velocities. The value of the p-factor and its possible dependence on the pulsation period are still widely debated. Our goal is to measure an observational value of the p-factor of the type-II Cepheid kappa Pavonis, whose parallax was measured with an accuracy of 5% using HST/FGS. We used this parallax as a starting point to derive the p-factor of kappa Pav, using the SPIPS technique, which is a robust version of the p...

Breitfelder, Joanne; Mérand, Antoine; Gallenne, Alexandre; Szabados, Laszlo; Anderson, Richard; Willson, Matthew; Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste Le

2015-01-01

217

Potential risk factors for the onset of complex regional pain syndrome type 1: a systematic literature review.  

PubMed

Anaesthetists in the acute and chronic pain teams are often involved in treating Complex Regional Pain Syndromes. Current literature about the risk factors for the onset of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 (CRPS 1) remains sparse. This syndrome has a low prevalence, a highly variable presentation, and no gold standard for diagnosis. In the research setting, the pathogenesis of the syndrome continues to be elusive. There is a growing body of literature that addresses efficacy of a wide range of interventions as well as the likely mechanisms that contribute to the onset of CRPS 1. The objective for this systematic search of the literature focuses on determining the potential risk factors for the onset of CRPS 1. Eligible articles were analysed, dated 1996 to April 2014, and potential risk factors for the onset of CRPS 1 were identified from 10 prospective and 6 retrospective studies. Potential risk factors for the onset of CRPS 1 were found to include being female, particularly postmenopausal female, ankle dislocation or intra-articular fracture, immobilisation, and a report of higher than usual levels of pain in the early phases of trauma. It is not possible to draw definite conclusions as this evidence is heterogeneous and of mixed quality, relevance, and weighting strength against bias and has not been confirmed across multiple trials or in homogenous studies. PMID:25688265

Pons, Tracey; Shipton, Edward A; Williman, Jonathan; Mulder, Roger T

2015-01-01

218

Potential Risk Factors for the Onset of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1: A Systematic Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Anaesthetists in the acute and chronic pain teams are often involved in treating Complex Regional Pain Syndromes. Current literature about the risk factors for the onset of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 (CRPS 1) remains sparse. This syndrome has a low prevalence, a highly variable presentation, and no gold standard for diagnosis. In the research setting, the pathogenesis of the syndrome continues to be elusive. There is a growing body of literature that addresses efficacy of a wide range of interventions as well as the likely mechanisms that contribute to the onset of CRPS 1. The objective for this systematic search of the literature focuses on determining the potential risk factors for the onset of CRPS 1. Eligible articles were analysed, dated 1996 to April 2014, and potential risk factors for the onset of CRPS 1 were identified from 10 prospective and 6 retrospective studies. Potential risk factors for the onset of CRPS 1 were found to include being female, particularly postmenopausal female, ankle dislocation or intra-articular fracture, immobilisation, and a report of higher than usual levels of pain in the early phases of trauma. It is not possible to draw definite conclusions as this evidence is heterogeneous and of mixed quality, relevance, and weighting strength against bias and has not been confirmed across multiple trials or in homogenous studies. PMID:25688265

Shipton, Edward A.; Mulder, Roger T.

2015-01-01

219

Risk factors for migraine and tension-type headache in 11 year old children  

PubMed Central

Background Though migraine and tension type headache are both commonly diagnosed in childhood, little is known about their determinants when diagnosed prior to puberty onset. Our aim was to determine psychosocial- and health-related risk factors of migraine and tension-type headache in 11 year old children. Methods 871 New Zealand European children were enrolled in a longitudinal study at birth and data were collected at birth, 1, 3.5, 7, and 11 years of age. Primary headache was determined at age 11 years based on the International Headache Society. Perinatal factors assessed were small for gestational age status, sex, maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal perceived stress, and maternal school leaving age. Childhood factors assessed were sleep duration, percent body fat, television watching, parent and self-reported total problem behaviour, being bullied, and depression. Results Prevalence of migraine and tension-type headache was 10.5% and 18.6%, respectively. Both migraine and TTH were significantly associated with self-reported problem behaviour in univariable logistic regression analyses. Additionally, migraine was associated with reduced sleep duration, and both sleep and behaviour problems remained significant after multivariable analyses. TTH was also significantly associated with antenatal maternal smoking, higher body fat, and being bullied. For TTH, problem behaviour measured at ages 3.5 and 11 years both remained significant after multivariable analysis. Being born small for gestational age was not associated with either headache group. Conclusions Although they share some commonality, migraine and tension-type headache are separate entities in childhood with different developmental characteristics. The association between primary headache and problem behaviour requires further investigation. PMID:25205384

2014-01-01

220

The insulin-like growth factor pathway is altered in Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 and type 7  

SciTech Connect

Polyglutamine diseases are inherited neurodegenerative disorders caused by expansion of CAG trinucleotide repeats encoding a polyglutamine tract in the disease-causing proteins. There are nine of these disorders each having distinct features but also clinical and pathological similarities. In particular, spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 and 7 (SCA1 and SCA7) patients manifest cerebellar ataxia with corresponding degeneration of Purkinje cells. Given this common phenotype, we asked whether the two disorders share common molecular pathogenic events. To address this question we studied two genetically accurate mouse models of SCA1 and SCA7—Sca1154Q/2Q and Sca7266Q/5Q knock-in mice—that express the glutamine-expanded proteins from the respective endogenous loci. We found common transcriptional changes in early symptomatic mice, with downregulation of Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 (Igfbp5) representing one of the most robust transcriptional changes that closely correlates with disease state. Interestingly, down-regulation of Igfbp5 occurred in granule neurons through a non-cell autonomous mechanism and was concomitant with activation of the Insulin-like growth factor I (Igf-I) pathway, and, in particular, the Igf-I receptor, expressed in part on Purkinje cells (PC). These data define a possible common pathogenic response in SCA1 and SCA7 and reveal the importance of neuron-neuron interactions in SCA1 and SCA7 pathogenesis. The sensitivity of Igfbp5 levels to disease state could render it and other components of its effector pathway useful as biomarkers in this class of diseases.

Gatchel, Jennifer R.; Watase, Kei; Thaller, Christina; Carson, James P.; Jafar-Nejad, Paymaan; Shaw, Chad A.; Zu, Tao; Orr, Harry T.; Zoghbi, Huda Yahya

2008-01-29

221

Beverage-consumption patterns and associations with metabolic risk factors among low-income Latinos with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

In the United States, Latinos experience disproportionately higher rates of type 2 diabetes and diabetes-related complications than non-Latino whites. Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is strongly associated with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Reducing caloric intake, particularly from energy-dense, low-nutrient foods or beverages, can be an effective and key strategy for metabolic and weight control. However, little is known about the contribution of various types of beverages, including but not limited to SSBs, to total caloric intake among Latinos with type 2 diabetes. Low-income Latinos (87.7% Puerto Rican) participating in a diabetes self-management intervention trial (N=238) provided cross-sectional, descriptive data on beverage-consumption patterns, anthropometric outcomes, and metabolic characteristics. Beverages accounted for one fifth of the total daily caloric intake. SSBs and milk beverages, respectively, contributed 9.6% of calories to overall daily caloric intake. Interventions directed at diabetes risk factors among low-income Latinos with diabetes can benefit from consideration of beverage-consumption behaviors as an important strategy to reduce caloric and sugar intake. PMID:23999278

Wang, Monica L; Lemon, Stephenie C; Olendzki, Barbara; Rosal, Milagros C

2013-12-01

222

Beverage Consumption Patterns and Associations with Metabolic Risk Factors Among Low-Income Latinos with Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

In the U.S., Latinos experience disproportionately higher rates of type 2 diabetes and diabetes-related complications than non-Latino whites. Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is strongly associated with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Reducing caloric intake, particularly from energy-dense, low-nutrient foods or beverages, can be an effective and key strategy for metabolic and weight control. However, little is known about the contribution of various types of beverages, including but not limited to SSBs, to total caloric intake among Latinos with type 2 diabetes. Low-income Latinos (87.7% Puerto Rican) participating in a diabetes self-management intervention trial (N=238) provided cross-sectional, descriptive data on beverage consumption patterns, anthropometric outcomes, and metabolic characteristics. Beverages accounted for one-fifth of the total daily caloric intake. SSBs and milk beverages, respectively, contributed 9.6% of calories to overall daily caloric intake. Interventions directed at diabetes risk factors among low-income Latinos with diabetes may benefit from consideration of beverage consumption behaviors as an important strategy to reduce caloric and sugar intake. PMID:23999278

Wang, Monica L.; Lemon, Stephenie C.; Olendzki, Barbara; Rosal, Milagros C.

2013-01-01

223

Lipid Profile and Correlation to Cardiac Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Function in Type 1 Adolescent Diabetics from a Developing Country  

PubMed Central

Objective. The adverse role of dyslipidemia in predicting cardiovascular outcomes has not been elucidated extensively among type 1 diabetics in the literature. Methods. We assessed dyslipidemia and its correlation to other cardiac risk factors in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Total thirty type 1 adolescent diabetics were evaluated for their metabolic profile, including serum lipids and echocardiography was performed. Results. The average age of the cohort was 14.3?±?3.09?yr with disease duration of 5.35?±?2.94?yr. The mean HbA1C was 8.01%. The mean serum cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglyceride were normal. Serum cholesterol was high in patients with longer disease duration (P = 0.011, r = 0.41), high systolic blood pressure (P = 0.04, r = 0.32), and elevated HbA1C > 8% (P = 0.038, r = 0.33). Higher lipid values were associated with poorer carotid artery distensibility (P > 0.05) and higher carotid artery intimomedial thickness (cIMT) (P < 0.05 for cholesterol and LDL). Hyperglycemia adversely affected ejection fractions, though serum lipids did not show any significant effect on left ventricular parameters. Conclusions. Dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia can serve as biomarkers for cardiovascular dysfunction in at-risk adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Carotid artery parameters are adjunctive tools which may be affected early in the course of macrovascular disease. PMID:24899904

Yadav, Sangeeta; Gupta, V. K.

2014-01-01

224

Subclavian central venous catheter-related thrombosis in trauma patients: incidence, risk factors and influence of polyurethane type  

PubMed Central

Introduction The incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) related to a central venous catheter varies considerably in ICUs depending on the population included. The aim of this study was to determine subclavian central venous catheter (SCVC)-related DVT risk factors in severely traumatized patients with regard to two kinds of polyurethane catheters. Methods Critically ill trauma patients needing a SCVC for their usual care were prospectively included in an observational study. Depending on the month of inclusion, patients received one of the two available products in the emergency unit: either an aromatic polyurethane SCVC or an aliphatic polyurethane SCVC. Patients were screened weekly by ultrasound for SCVC-related DVT. Potential risk factors were collected, including history-related, trauma-related and SCVC-related characteristics. Results A total of 186 patients were included with a median Injury Severity Sore of 30 and a high rate of severe brain injuries (21% of high intracranial pressure). Incidence of SCVC-related DVT was 37% (95% confidence interval: 26 to 40) in patients or 20/1,000 catheter-days. SCVC-related DVT occurred within 8 days in 65% of cases. There was no significant difference in DVT rates between the aromatic polyurethane and aliphatic polyurethane SCVC groups (38% vs. 36%). SCVC-related DVT independent risk factors were age >30 years, intracranial hypertension, massive transfusion (>10 packed red blood cell units), SCVC tip position in the internal jugular or in the innominate vein, and ipsilateral jugular catheter. Conclusion SCVC-related DVT concerned one-third of these severely traumatized patients and was mostly clinically silent. Incidence did not depend on the type of polyurethane but was related to age >30 years, intracranial hypertension or misplacement of the SCVC. Further studies are needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of routine screening in these patients in whom thromboprophylaxis may be hazardous. PMID:23718723

2013-01-01

225

Types or modes of malingering? A confirmatory factor analysis of performance and symptom validity tests.  

PubMed

Recently, the dichotomy between performance validity tests (PVT) and symptom validity tests (SVT) has been suggested to differentiate between invalid performance and invalid self-report, respectively. PVTs are typically used to identify malingered cognitive impairment, while SVTs identify malingered psychological or somatic symptoms. It is assumed that people can malinger different types of problems, but the impact of modes of reporting invalidly has been largely unexplored. A mixed neurological sample (n = 130) was tested with the Test of Memory Malingering, the Forced Recognition part of the California Verbal Learning Test, and the self-report Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptoms (SIMS). Confirmatory factor analyses testing both method- and content-based factor models found best fit for the method-based division. Regression analyses of other self-rating and performance-based tests provided further support for the importance of type of methods used to collect information. While acknowledging the types of symptoms malingered, the clinician is advised also to consider how information is gathered by using both PVTs and SVTs. SIMS is a good candidate for a stand-alone SVT, although the utility of the Low Intelligence subscale is questionable as a validity measure. PMID:25275555

Egeland, Jens; Andersson, Stein; Sundseth, Øyvind Østberg; Schanke, Anne-Kristine

2015-01-01

226

Association of constitutional type of Ayurveda with cardiovascular risk factors, inflammatory markers and insulin resistance  

PubMed Central

Context: Ayurveda propounds that diseases manifest from imbalance of doshas. There, have been attempts to indicate biochemical basis of constitutional types described in Ayurveda. Aims: The study was intended to assess the association of constitutional types (Prakriti) with cardiovascular risk factors, inflammatory markers and insulin resistance in subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD). Settings and Design: Hospital based cross sectional study. Materials and Methods: Three hundred patients with CAD >25 years were studied. Assessment of Prakriti was done by using Ayusoft software. Biochemical parameters, inflammatory markers (hsCRP, TNF-alpha and IL-6) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured. Statistical Analysis: Was done using EPI INFO, version 3.5.3. Results: Mean age of patients was 60.97±12.5 years. Triglyceride, VLDL and LDL was significantly higher (P<0.0001, P<0.0001 and 0.0355, respectively) and HDL cholesterol (P<0.0001) significantly lower in vatta kapha (VK) Prakriti when compared with other constitution type. VK Prakriti was correlated with diabetes mellitus (r=0.169, P=0.003), hypertension (r=0.211, P?0.0001) and dyslipidemia (r=0.541, P?0.0001). Inflammatory markers; IL6, TNF alpha, hsCRP and HOMA IR was highest in VK Prakriti. Inflammatory markers were correlated positively with both VK and Kapha group. Conclusions: There is strong relation of risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia), insulin resistance, and inflammatory markers with Vata Kapha and Kapha Prakriti. PMID:23125512

Mahalle, Namita P.; Kulkarni, Mohan V.; Pendse, Narendra M.; Naik, Sadanand S.

2012-01-01

227

Postdinner resistance exercise improves postprandial risk factors more effectively than predinner resistance exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

Abnormally elevated postprandial glucose and triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations are risk factors for cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes. The most effective time to exercise to lower postprandial glucose and TAG concentrations is unknown. Thus the aim of this study was to determine what time is more effective, either pre- or postdinner resistance exercise (RE), at improving postprandial risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. Thirteen obese patients with type 2 diabetes completed three trials in a random order in which they consumed a dinner meal with 1) no RE (NoRE), 2) predinner RE (RE ? M), and 3) postdinner RE beginning 45 min after dinner (M ? RE). Clinical outcome measures included postprandial glucose and TAG concentrations. In addition, postprandial acetaminophen (gastric emptying), endocrine responses, free fatty acids, and ?-cell function (mathematical modeling) were measured to determine whether these factors were related to changes in glucose and TAG. The TAG incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was ?92% lower (P ? 0.02) during M ? RE compared with NoRE and RE ? M, an effect due in part to lower very-low-density lipoprotein-1 TAG concentrations. The glucose iAUC was reduced (P = 0.02) by ?18 and 30% during the RE ? M and M ? RE trials, respectively, compared with NoRE, with no difference between RE trials. RE ? M and M ? RE reduced the insulin iAUC by 35 and 48%, respectively, compared with NoRE (P < 0.01). The glucagon-like peptide-1 iAUC was ?50% lower (P ? 0.02) during M ? RE compared with NoRE and RE ? M. Given that predinner RE only improves postprandial glucose concentrations, whereas postdinner RE improves both postprandial glucose and TAG concentrations, postdinner RE may lower the risk of cardiovascular disease more effectively. PMID:25539939

Heden, Timothy D; Winn, Nathan C; Mari, Andrea; Booth, Frank W; Rector, R Scott; Thyfault, John P; Kanaley, Jill A

2015-03-01

228

Illness Perception and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Cross-sectional Questionnaire Study  

PubMed Central

Aim To investigate illness perception in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and its association with the degree of control over relevant cardiovascular risk factors. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was performed from June 2007 to March 2008. A stratified random sample of 46 Croatian general practitioners was asked to select, using systematic sampling, the first 6 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus aged ?18 years who visited them for consultation during the study period. Data on 250 patients included patient illness perception assessment (Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, IPQ), cardiovascular risk factors, and socio-demographic data. Results The patients’ mean age was 63.0?±?10.9 years and mean duration of diabetes was 9.3?±?7.8 years. The patients’ illness perception assessment on an 11-point (0 to 10) scale showed the highest median scores (interquartile range): 10 (8 to 10) for “timeline” and 8 (7 to 9) for “treatment control,” followed by 7 (5 to 8) for “personal control,” 7 (5 to 9) for “understanding,” 5 (3 to 7) for “consequences,” 6 (4 to 7) for “concern,” and 5 (2 to 7) for “emotional response.” The lowest score was 3 (1 to 5) for “identity.” Multivariate logistic regression showed that the Brief IPQ item “concern” (P?factors, they should be included in routine clinical assessments. PMID:20017227

Petri?ek, Goranka; Vrci?-Keglevi?, Mladenka; Vuleti?, Gorka; Cerove?ki, Venija; Ožva?i?, Zlata; Murgi?, Lucija

2009-01-01

229

A New Variant of Type II von Willebrand Disease With Aberrant Multimeric Structure of Plasma but Not Platelet von Willebrand Factor (Type hF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A patient with a lifelong bleeding disorder was diagnosed as having Type II von Willebrand disease. The larger multimers of von Willebrand factor were absent from her plasma but present in platelets. A high-resolution electro- phoretic technique was used to study the complex struc- ture of individual von Willebrand factor multimers. In normal plasma. each multimer could be resolved into

Pier Mannuccio Mannucci; Rossana Lombardi; Augusto B. Federici; Judith A. Dent; Theodore S. Zimmerman; Zaverio M. Ruggeri

1986-01-01

230

Predominant factor determining wear properties of ?-type and (?+?)-type titanium alloys in metal-to-metal contact for biomedical applications.  

PubMed

The predominant factor determining the wear properties of a new titanium alloy, Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr (TNTZ) and a conventional titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V extra-low interstitial (Ti64) was investigated for TNTZ and Ti64 combinations in metal-to-metal contacting bio-implant applications. The worn surfaces, wear debris, and subsurface damages were analyzed using a scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive spectroscopy and electron-back scattered diffraction analysis. The volume loss of TNTZ is found to be larger than that of Ti64, regardless of the mating material. The wear track of TNTZ exhibits the galled regions and severe plastic deformation with large flake-like debris, indicative of delamination wear, which strongly suggests the occurrence of adhesive wear. Whereas, the wear track of Ti64 have a large number of regular grooves and microcuttings with cutting chip-like wear debris and microfragmentation of fine oxide debris, indicative of abrasive wear combined with oxidative wear. This difference in the wear type is caused by severe and mild subsurface deformations of TNTZ and Ti64, respectively. The lower resistance to plastic shearing for TNTZ compared to that of Ti64 induces delamination, resulting in a higher wear rate. PMID:25460417

Lee, Yoon-Seok; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Nakai, Masaaki; Narita, Kengo; Cho, Ken

2015-01-01

231

A systematic analysis of host factors reveals a Med23-interferon-? regulatory axis against herpes simplex virus type 1 replication.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic virus causing vesicular oral or genital skin lesions, meningitis and other diseases particularly harmful in immunocompromised individuals. To comprehensively investigate the complex interaction between HSV-1 and its host we combined two genome-scale screens for host factors (HFs) involved in virus replication. A yeast two-hybrid screen for protein interactions and a RNA interference (RNAi) screen with a druggable genome small interfering RNA (siRNA) library confirmed existing and identified novel HFs which functionally influence HSV-1 infection. Bioinformatic analyses found the 358 HFs were enriched for several pathways and multi-protein complexes. Of particular interest was the identification of Med23 as a strongly anti-viral component of the largely pro-viral Mediator complex, which links specific transcription factors to RNA polymerase II. The anti-viral effect of Med23 on HSV-1 replication was confirmed in gain-of-function gene overexpression experiments, and this inhibitory effect was specific to HSV-1, as a range of other viruses including Vaccinia virus and Semliki Forest virus were unaffected by Med23 depletion. We found Med23 significantly upregulated expression of the type III interferon family (IFN-?) at the mRNA and protein level by directly interacting with the transcription factor IRF7. The synergistic effect of Med23 and IRF7 on IFN-? induction suggests this is the major transcription factor for IFN-? expression. Genotypic analysis of patients suffering recurrent orofacial HSV-1 outbreaks, previously shown to be deficient in IFN-? secretion, found a significant correlation with a single nucleotide polymorphism in the IFN-?3 (IL28b) promoter strongly linked to Hepatitis C disease and treatment outcome. This paper describes a link between Med23 and IFN-?, provides evidence for the crucial role of IFN-? in HSV-1 immune control, and highlights the power of integrative genome-scale approaches to identify HFs critical for disease progression and outcome. PMID:23950709

Griffiths, Samantha J; Koegl, Manfred; Boutell, Chris; Zenner, Helen L; Crump, Colin M; Pica, Francesca; Gonzalez, Orland; Friedel, Caroline C; Barry, Gerald; Martin, Kim; Craigon, Marie H; Chen, Rui; Kaza, Lakshmi N; Fossum, Even; Fazakerley, John K; Efstathiou, Stacey; Volpi, Antonio; Zimmer, Ralf; Ghazal, Peter; Haas, Jürgen

2013-01-01

232

The protective effect of losartan in the nephropathy of the diabetic rat includes the control of monoamine oxidase type A activity.  

PubMed

Monoamine oxidase activity (MAO-A and B) levels, as intracellular source of reactive oxygen species, might increase in diabetic nephropathy (DN) contributing to reduce dopamine levels and to unbalance kidney redox state. We explored the hypothesis that beneficial effects of losartan, an angiotensin-II type 1 receptor (AT1) blocker, in DN included the control of MAO activity levels. In kidneys of normoglycemic and diabetic, streptozotocin-injected (55 mg/kg) rats, treated or untreated with losartan, an AT1 antagonist (20mg/kg/day in the drinking water), we investigated MAO activity radiochemically and antioxidant enzymes including catalase, aldehyde dehydrogenase and superoxide dysmuthase spectrophotometrically. In addition, we also evaluated malondialdehyde and carbonylated protein levels spectrophotometrically as indexes of oxidative attack to lipids and proteins. Diabetic rats showed signs of nephropathy, including renal hypertrophy, proteinuria, high acethylglucosaminidase and ?-glutamyltranspeptidase urinary levels. In diabetic kidneys, MAO-A and catalase activities as well as malondialdehyde levels, were found significantly higher than in normoglycemic ones. Interestingly, in diabetic kidneys, MAO-A activity correlated not only with catalase but also with ?-glutamyltranspeptidase urinary levels. Our results indicate that the control of MAO-A activity is to be included amongst the mechanisms of protection afforded by losartan in DN. In fact, the prevention of MAO-A raise might increase dopamine availability and, as suggested by the correlation with ?-GGT, reduce oxidative attack to tubular cells. PMID:22123499

Manni, Maria Elena; Bigagli, Elisabetta; Lodovici, Maura; Zazzeri, Marina; Raimondi, Laura

2012-04-01

233

Type II insulin-like growth factor receptor is present in rat serum.  

PubMed Central

We previously identified in fetal rat serum a component capable of specifically binding radiolabeled insulin-like growth factor type II (IGF-II) that is considerably larger than both the fetal (40 kDa) and the adult (150 kDa) carrier proteins. We now present immunologic and affinity crosslinking data to show that this binding species is the type II IGF receptor. Rat serum was gel-filtered on a Sephadex G-200 column (0.05 M NH4HCO3, pH 8), and 125I-labeled IGF-II (125I-IGF-II) binding was measured in individual column fractions. 125I-IGF-II binding activity was found in the void volume of the column in addition to the carrier protein regions. Competitive binding studies using 125I-IGF-II and binding activity from the Sephadex G-200 void volume showed the characteristics of the type II receptor: IGF-II was more potent than IGF-I, and insulin did not compete. Moreover, a specific anti-type II IGF receptor antibody (no. 3637) completely blocked 125I-IGF-II binding. 125I-IGF-I did not bind to the void volume pool, demonstrating the absence of the type I IGF receptor in rat serum. Affinity crosslinking of 125I-IGF-II to the Sephadex G-200 void volume material demonstrated a specific band at 210 kDa without reduction and at 240 kDa after reduction of disulfide bonds. The serum type II IGF receptor size was confirmed by immunoblotting the void volume material with antiserum 3637, which revealed a band slightly smaller (approximately 10 kDa) than the type II IGF receptor from rat placental membranes. Immunoquantitation by immunoblotting using pure type II IGF receptor from rat placental membranes as standard showed a developmental pattern. In fetal rat serum (19-days gestation) and in sera from 3-, 10-, and 20-day-old rats, the concentrations of receptor protein were similar (1-5 micrograms/ml). The level of the type II IGF receptor in serum declined dramatically between age 20 and 40 days, but the receptor was still measurable at age 12 mo. We conclude that the type II IGF receptor is present in rat serum and is developmentally regulated. Images PMID:2959961

Kiess, W; Greenstein, L A; White, R M; Lee, L; Rechler, M M; Nissley, S P

1987-01-01

234

Molecular Characterization of Enteroviruses Including a New Type EV-C99 Isolated from Xinjiang Students in Shandong, China in 2011  

PubMed Central

The last case of infection with wild-type poliovirus indigenous to China was reported in 1994. In 2011, a poliomyelitis outbreak caused by imported wide-type poliovirus occurred in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region. Here, we report the results of enterovirus (EV) isolation from Xinjiang students that returned to school in Shandong after summer vacation during this outbreak. Stool specimens from 376 students were collected and 10?EV strains were isolated including 4 polioviruses (All Sabin strains), 1 coxsackievirus (CV) A13, 3 CVA17 and 2 EV-C99. VP1 sequence analysis revealed these CVA13, CVA17 and EV-C99 strains had 71.3–81.8%, 76.5–84.6% and 74.2–82.9% nucleotide similarity with strains from other countries within a serotype, respectively. EV-C99 strains had 82.7–92.8% VP1 similarity with two previously reported Xinjiang strains. Complete genome analysis on EV-C99 strains revealed intra-serotypic genetic recombination events. These findings reflect great genetic divergence between Chinese strains and strains from other countries of the three types, and provide valuable information on monitoring EV transmission over long distance. PMID:25298041

Tao, Zexin; Yuan, Qun; Lin, Xiaojuan; Wang, Suting; Liu, Yao; Ji, Feng; Xiong, Ping; Cui, Ning; Song, Lizhi; Wang, Mei; Xu, Aiqiang

2014-01-01

235

Risk factors associated with diabetic retinopathy in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with microvascular complications, such as diabetic retinopathy (DR). DR is one of the main causes of visual loss in individuals aged 20-64 years old. This study aims to investigate the independent associations between the stage of DR and a variety of possible risk factors, including years since DM diagnosis, HbA1c levels, the coexistence of

Irini P Chatziralli; Theodoros N Sergentanis; Petros Keryttopoulos; Nikolaos Vatkalis; Antonis Agorastos; Leonidas Papazisis

2010-01-01

236

Factors Associated With Maternal-Reported Actions to Prevent Type 1 Diabetes in the First Year of the TEDDY Study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Mothers of children at risk for type 1 diabetes report engaging in preventive behaviors. The purpose of this study is to further document these actions in an international, longitudinal sample and examine variables that predict whether mothers engage in these behaviors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This study examined an international sample (from Finland, Germany, Sweden, and the U.S.) from the naturalistic, longitudinal The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study, which tracked children genetically at risk for type 1 diabetes from birth to age 15 years. Mothers of 7,613 infants aged 6 months and 6,503 infants aged 15 months completed questionnaires assessing psychosocial factors and actions intended to prevent diabetes. RESULTS Many mothers (29.9% at 6 months and 42.8% at 15 months) reported engaging in a behavior intended to prevent type 1 diabetes, with the largest percentages (20.9–29.2%) reporting making changes to their child’s diet (e.g., reducing the consumption of sweets and carbohydrates). Factors related to engaging in preventive behaviors include older maternal age; higher maternal education; minority status; having only one child; having a first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes; being from a country other than Sweden; having an accurate perception of the child’s increased risk for developing diabetes; having postpartum depression, maternal anxiety, and worry about the risk of diabetes; and believing that diabetes can be prevented. CONCLUSIONS The findings of this study suggest that many mothers engage in actions to prevent diabetes and highlight the importance of tracking these behaviors to ensure the validity of naturalistic observational studies. PMID:24041684

Smith, Laura B.; Lynch, Kristian F.; Baxter, Judith; Lernmark, Barbro; Roth, Roswith; Simell, Tuula; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett

2014-01-01

237

Beyond genetics. Influence of dietary factors and gut microbiota on type 1 diabetes.  

PubMed

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease ultimately leading to destruction of insulin secreting ?-cells in the pancreas. Genetic susceptibility plays an important role in T1D etiology, but even mono-zygotic twins only have a concordance rate of around 50%, underlining that other factors than purely genetic are involved in disease development. Here we review the influence of dietary and environmental factors on T1D development in humans as well as animal models. Even though data are still inconclusive, there are strong indications that gut microbiota dysbiosis plays an important role in T1D development and evidence from animal models suggests that gut microbiota manipulation might prove valuable in future prevention of T1D in genetically susceptible individuals. PMID:24746688

Nielsen, Dennis S; Krych, ?ukasz; Buschard, Karsten; Hansen, Camilla H F; Hansen, Axel K

2014-11-17

238

Primary focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis and soluble factor urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor  

PubMed Central

Primary focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) may be due to genetic or acquired etiologies and is a common cause of nephrotic syndrome with high morbidity that often leads to end-stage renal failure. The different available therapeutic approaches are unsuccessful, in part due to partially deciphered heterogeneous and complex pathophysiological mechanisms. Moreover, the term FSGS, even in its primary form, comprises a histological description shared by a number of different causes with completely different molecular pathways of disease. This review focuses on the latest developments regarding the pathophysiology of primary acquired FSGS caused by soluble factor urokinase type plasminogen activator receptor, a circulating permeability factor involved in proteinuria and edema formation, and describes recent advances with potential success in therapy. PMID:24255893

Trimarchi, Hernán

2013-01-01

239

Homocysteine, an additional factor, is linked to osteoporosis in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

We explored the relationship between plasma total homocysteine concentration and osteoporosis in postmenopausal patients with type 2 diabetes. Postmenopausal patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 258) were enrolled in a cross-sectional hospital-based study. Osteoporosis was documented by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Plasma total homocysteine concentration was measured using fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Risk factors for osteoporosis and determinants of homocysteine were obtained from blood samples and interviewer questionnaire. We found that plasma total homocysteine levels were higher in subjects with osteoporosis and diabetes than without [(9.5 ± 2.0) vs. (10.4 ± 2.4) ?mol/l, p = 0.001]. The association of homocysteine with osteoporosis was independent of possible risk factors for osteoporosis in diabetes (e.g., duration of diabetes, HbA1c, body mass index, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, thiazolidinediones, and retinopathy) and determinants of homocysteine concentration (age, serum folate and vitamin B12, renal status, and biguanide use) [OR 1.40 (1.02-1.90), p = 0.036]. In addition, bone mineral density was closely correlated with homocysteine as a continuous variable after adjusting for age [r = -0.64 (-0.69 to -0.58), p = 0.002]. Furthermore, per increase of 5.0 ?mol/l, plasma homocysteine was related to osteoporosis, after controlling for per unit increase of other factors [OR 1.42 (1.07-1.96), p = 0.027]. The optimal cut-off point for the plasma homocysteine level distinguishing diabetic patients with osteoporosis from without was 10.18 ?mol/l. The results suggest that plasma total homocysteine concentration is independently associated with the occurrence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal patients with type 2 diabetes. Future prospective studies are warranted to clarify the relationship. PMID:24366622

Jianbo, Li; Zhang, Hongman; Yan, Lingfei; Xie, Min; Mei, Yan; Jiawei, Chen

2014-11-01

240

Over-expression of Dof-type transcription factor increases lipid production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.  

PubMed

The high demand for less polluting, newer, and cheaper fuel resources has increased the search of the most innovative options for the production of the so-called biofuels. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a photosynthetic unicellular algae with multiple biotechnological advantages such as easy handling in the laboratory, a simple scale-up to industrial levels, as well as a feasible genetic modification at nuclear and chloroplast levels. Besides, its fatty acids can be used to produce biofuels. Previous studies in plants have found that the over expression of DOF-type transcription factor genes increases the synthesis and the accumulation of total lipids in seeds. In this context, the over-expression of a DOF-type transcription factor in C. reinhardtii was applied as approach to increase the amount of lipids. The results indicate higher amounts (around 2-fold) of total lipids, which are mainly fatty acids, in the genetically C. reinhardtii modified strains when compared with the non-genetically modified strain. In order to elucidate the possible function of the introduced Dof-type transcription factor, we performed a transcription profile of 8 genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and 6 genes involved in glycerolipid biosynthesis, by quantitative real time (qRT-PCR). Differential expression profile was observed, which can explain the increase in lipid accumulation. However, these strains did not show notable changes in the fatty acid profile. This work represents an early effort in generating a strategy to increase fatty acids production in C. reinhardtii and their use in biofuel synthesis. PMID:24844864

Ibáñez-Salazar, Alejandro; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Rocha-Uribe, Alejandro; Ramírez-Alonso, Jocelín Itzel; Lara-Hernández, Ignacio; Hernández-Torres, Araceli; Paz-Maldonado, Luz María Teresita; Silva-Ramírez, Ana Sonia; Bañuelos-Hernández, Bernardo; Martínez-Salgado, José Luis; Soria-Guerra, Ruth Elena

2014-08-20

241

Expression and secretion of type beta transforming growth factor by activated human macrophages.  

PubMed Central

Alveolar macrophages activated with concanavalin A and peripheral blood monocytes activated with lipopolysaccharide secrete type beta transforming growth factor (TGF-beta). There is minimal TGF-beta secretion in unactivated monocytes, even though TGF-beta mRNA is expressed in these cells at a level similar to that in activated, lipopolysaccharide-treated cultures. U937 lymphoma cells, which have monocytic characteristics, also express mRNA for TGF-beta. Freshly isolated monocytes, both control and lipopolysaccharide-treated, secrete an acid-labile binding protein that inhibits TGF-beta action. We conclude the following: (i) that expression of TGF-beta mRNA is unrelated to monocyte activation, (ii) that secretion of TGF-beta is induced by monocyte activation, and (iii) that cosecretion of TGF-beta and its monocyte/macrophage-derived binding protein may modulate growth factor action. In contrast, monocytic expression of other growth factor genes, such as the B chain of platelet-derived growth factor, is not constitutive and requires activation. Images PMID:2888109

Assoian, R K; Fleurdelys, B E; Stevenson, H C; Miller, P J; Madtes, D K; Raines, E W; Ross, R; Sporn, M B

1987-01-01

242

Macaque-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1: breaking out of the host restriction factors  

PubMed Central

Macaque monkeys serve as important animal models for understanding the pathogenesis of lentiviral infections. Since human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) hardly replicates in macaque cells, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or chimeric viruses between HIV-1 and SIV (SHIV) have been used as challenge viruses in this research field. These viruses, however, are genetically distant from HIV-1. Therefore, in order to evaluate the efficacy of anti-HIV-1 drugs and vaccines in macaques, the development of a macaque-tropic HIV-1 (HIV-1mt) having the ability to replicate efficiently in macaques has long been desired. Recent studies have demonstrated that host restriction factors, such as APOBEC3 family and TRIM5, impose a strong barrier against HIV-1 replication in macaque cells. By evading these restriction factors, others and we have succeeded in developing an HIV-1mt that is able to replicate in macaques. In this review, we have attempted to shed light on the role of host factors that affect the susceptibility of macaques to HIV-1mt infection, especially by focusing on TRIM5-related factors. PMID:23847610

Saito, Akatsuki; Akari, Hirofumi

2013-01-01

243

Expression and secretion of type. beta. transforming growth factor by activated human macrophages  

SciTech Connect

Alveolar macrophages activated with concanavalin A and peripheral blood monocytes activated with lipopolysaccharide secrete type ..beta.. transforming growth factor (TGF-..beta..). There is minimal TGF-..beta.. secretion in unactivated monocytes, even though TGF-..beta.. mRNA is expressed in these cells at a level similar to that in activated, lipopolysaccharide-treated cultures. U937 lymphoma cells, which have momocytic characteristics, also express mRNA for TGF-..beta... Freshly isolated monocytes, both control and lipopolysaccharide-treated, secrete an acid-labile binding protein that inhibits TGF-..beta.. action. They conclude the following: (i) that expression of TGF-..beta.. mRNA is unrelated to monocyte activation, (ii) that secretion of TGF-..beta.. is induced by monocyte activation, and (iii) that cosecretion of TGF-..beta.. and its monocyte/macrophage-derived binding protein may modulate growth factor action. In contrast, monocytic expression of other growth factor genes, such as the B chain of platelet-derived growth factor, is not constitutive and requires activation.

Assoian, R.K.; Fleurdelys, B.E.; Stevenson, H.C.; Miller, P.J.; Madtes, D.K.; Raines, E.W.; Ross, R.; Sporn, M.B.

1987-09-01

244

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor-induced psoriasis or psoriasiform exanthemata: first 120 cases from the literature including a series of six new patients.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) inhibition is effective in the treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis. We report on 120 patients from the literature including six new patients (three women and three men) who developed pustular lesions during treatment with TNFalpha inhibitors. We identified 72 women and 36 men (several papers did not specify the gender of patients) with an age range of 13-78 years (mean 42.3 years). The primary diagnoses were rheumatoid arthritis (n = 61), ankylosing spondylitis (n = 21), psoriasis (n = 10), Crohn disease (n = 8), SAPHO (synovitis acne pustulosis hyperostosis osteitis) syndrome (n = 3), psoriatic arthritis (n = 2), and other diagnoses (n = 15). Psoriasis (except palmoplantar pustular type) was the most common adverse effect during anti-TNFalpha treatment (n = 73), followed by palmoplantar pustular psoriasis (n = 37) and psoriasis of the nail (n = 6), sometimes combined in the same patient. Palmoplantar pustulosis and psoriasiform exanthema was the diagnosis in ten patients each. A positive personal history of psoriasis was recorded in 25 patients. A positive family history was noted in eight patients. No data about personal (n = 7) or family history (n = 46) were available in a number of patients. Newly induced psoriasis was diagnosed in 74 patients whereas an exacerbation or aggravation of a pre-existing psoriasis was noted in another 25 patients. All three TNFalpha inhibitors available on the market were involved: infliximab (63 patients), etanercept (37 patients), and adalimumab (26 patients). Several patients were treated with more than a single TFNalpha inhibitor. The timing of cutaneous adverse effects (psoriasis and psoriasiform rash) varied considerably among patients, ranging from after a single application to a delayed response of up to 63 months after initiation of treatment. The mean time to appearance of the cutaneous adverse effect for all TNFalpha inhibitors was 9.5 months. Cessation of the responsible TNFalpha inhibitor was carried out in 47 patients either alone or in association with adjuvant anti-psoriatic therapy (mostly topical). This resulted in complete remission in 21 patients, partial remission in 20 patients, and stable disease in another three patients; in the other three patients, the outcome was not reported. TNFalpha inhibition was continued in 47 patients but anti-psoriatic adjuvant therapy was introduced. The outcome in this group was complete remission in 22 patients, partial remission in 25 patients, and stable disease in 2 patients. The response rate (complete remission plus partial remission) was 93.2% and 95.9%, respectively, in each group. In six patients, switching from one TNFalpha inhibitor to another one immediately after cutaneous adverse effects occurred resulted in an improvement in five patients. In nine patients, a second TNFalpha inhibitor was initiated after a break in TNFalpha inhibition. The response to a second or third drug in these patients was mixed. The underlying pathomechanisms of induction of psoriasis or psoriasiform exanthemata by TNFalpha inhibitors remain elusive but there is reason to assume that induction of such adverse events has more than one pathophysiology. PMID:18092839

Wollina, Uwe; Hansel, Gesina; Koch, André; Schönlebe, Jaqueline; Köstler, Erich; Haroske, Gunter

2008-01-01

245

Factors influencing plant succession following fire in Ashe juniper woodland types in Real County, Texas  

E-print Network

FACTORS INFLUENCING PLANT SUCCESSION FOLLOWING FIRE IN ASHE JUHIPER WOODLAND TYPES IN REAL COUNTY& TEXAS By DONAID L. RUSS Approved as to style end content by: ~c-". '~ Z). 4:-. = Chairman of Committee Bead of Depantme Nay l954. LIBgARV A... in 1904 as it is today. Foster (1917) reported Ashe juniper in areas not previously observed. Palmer (l920) reported that the Edwards Pleteau was not a sparsely timbered region but that a "scrub juniper" was common on the foothills In 1939, Jenkins...

Huss, Donald Lee

1954-01-01

246

Regulation of Intestinal Epithelial Cell Growth by Transforming Growth Factor Type beta  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nontransformed rat jejunal crypt cell line (IEC-6) expresses transforming growth factor type beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) mRNA, secrets latent 125I-labeled TGF-beta 1 competing activity into culture medium, and binds 125I-labeled TGF-beta 1 to specific, high-affinity (Kd = 3.7 pM) cell surface receptors. IEC-6 cell growth is markedly inhibited by TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 with half-maximal inhibition occurring between

John A. Barnard; R. Daniel Beauchamp; Robert J. Coffey; Harold L. Moses

1989-01-01

247

Risk factors for aseptic loosening of Müller-type straight stems  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Even small differences in design variables for the femoral stem may influence the outcome of a hip arthroplasty. We performed a risk factor analysis for aseptic loosening of 4 different versions of cemented Müller-type straight stems with special emphasis on design modifications (2 shapes, MSS or SL, and 2 materials, CoNiCrMo (Co) or Ti-6Al-7Nb (Ti)). Methods We investigated 828 total hip replacements, which were followed prospectively in our in-house register. All stems were operated in the same setup, using Sulfix-6 bone cement and a second-generation cementing technique. Demographic and design-specific risk factors were analyzed using an adjusted Cox regression model. Results The 4 versions showed marked differences in 15-year stem survival with aseptic loosening as the endpoint: 94% (95% CI: 89–99) for MSS Co, 83% (CI: 75–91) for SL Co, 81% (CI: 76–87) for MSS Ti and 63% (CI: 56–71) for SL Ti. Cox regression analysis showed a relative risk (RR) for aseptic loosening of 3 (CI: 2–5) for stems made of Ti and of 2 (CI: 1–2) for the SL design. The RR for aseptic stem loosening increased to 8 (CI: 4–15) when comparing the most and the least successful designs (MSS Co and SL Ti). Interpretation Cemented Müller-type straight stems should be MSS-shaped and made of a material with high flexural strength (e.g. cobalt-chrome). The surface finish should be polished (Ra < 0.4 µm). These technical aspects combined with modern cementing techniques would improve the survival of Müller-type straight stems. This may be true for all types of cemented stems. PMID:23799347

Gersbach, Silke; Butscher, Andre; Ilchmann, Thomas

2013-01-01

248

Reduced expression of transforming growth factor-beta receptor type III in high stage neuroblastomas  

PubMed Central

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) is a powerful inhibitor of cell proliferation and a potent inducer of differentiation. Resistance to TGF-? action is a characteristic of many malignancies and has been attributed to alterations of TGF-? receptors as well as disturbance of downstream transduction pathways. To analyse the TGF-? response in neuroblastoma, the expression of TGF-?1 and TGF-? type I, II and III receptor genes was investigated in 61 cancer samples by means of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The specimens analysed belong to different stages, namely nine samples of stage 1, ten of stage 2, nine of stage 3 and 28 of stage 4. Moreover, five samples were of stage 4S, which represents a tumour form undergoing spontaneous regression. The results obtained show that TGF-?1 and TGF-? type I and II receptor genes appear to be almost equally expressed in neuroblastomas of all stages. Conversely, TGF-? type III receptor gene expression, which is required for an efficacious TGF-? binding and function, is strongly reduced exclusively in neuroblastomas of stages 3 and 4. These findings were directly confirmed by immunohistochemical analyses of ten neuroblastoma specimens. Our results suggest the occurrence of an altered TGF-? response in advanced neuroblastomas which might be an important mechanism for escaping growth control and for developing invasiveness. Moreover, our findings allow the proposal of a novel mechanism, namely down-regulation of TGF-? type III receptor gene expression, to avoid TGF-? inhibitory activity. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10735501

Iolascon, A; Giordani, L; Borriello, A; Carbone, R; Izzo, A; Tonini, G P; Gambini, C; Ragione, F Della

2000-01-01

249

Prevalence, components and associated demographic and lifestyle factors of the metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background Adults with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) are twice as likely to die from and three times as likely to have a heart attack or stroke compared with people without the syndrome. About 70-80% of type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) patients are diagnosed with the MetS. Investigating the occurrence of the MetS in type 2 DM patients is critical for cardiovascular disease prevention. We evaluated the prevalence and components of the MetS and its associated clinical and demographic factors in a Ghanaian adult population with DM 2. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 previously diagnosed type 2 DM patients receiving care from an outpatient clinic of the Tamale Teaching Hospital, Ghana. Anthropometric measurements of waist circumference (cm), weight (Kg) and height (m) were measured appropriately. Clinical data were obtained from the personal health record files of the participants. MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Results The prevalence of MetS was 24.0% (n=48). The prevalence was higher in women (27.3%, n= 42) compared to men (13.0%, n=6). The commonest occurring components of the MetS included abdominal obesity (77.0%) and elevated FPG (77.0%) denoting uncontrolled diabetes. The prevalence of elevated BP was found to be 44.0%(n=88) and was higher in men (56.5%) than in women (40.3%). Factors that were found to be associated to the MetS were being overweight/obese (Crude OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.43 – 5.90, p=0.004), ever tried to lose weight (Crude OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.24 – 4.94, p=0.015) and having diabetes for over 5 years (Crude OR = 11.3, 95% CI = 5.26 – 24.08, p<0.001). Other factors that were associated to the MetS were current smokers (Crude OR = 6.8, 95% CI = 1.21- 38.49, p=0.030) and alcohol drinkers (Crude OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.23 – 7.65, p=0.018). Conclusion A comparatively low prevalence of the MetS was found. More females than males had the MetS. Uncontrolled diabetes and abdominal obesity were prevalent. The factors identified by our univariate logistic regression model were not significant predictors of the MetS in our multivariate model. PMID:25054102

2014-01-01

250

Arabidopsis GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR7 Functions as a Transcriptional Repressor of Abscisic Acid– and Osmotic Stress–Responsive Genes, Including DREB2A[W  

PubMed Central

Arabidopsis thaliana DEHYDRATION-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING PROTEIN2A (DREB2A) functions as a transcriptional activator that increases tolerance to osmotic and heat stresses; however, its expression also leads to growth retardation and reduced reproduction. To avoid these adverse effects, the expression of DREB2A is predicted to be tightly regulated. We identified a short promoter region of DREB2A that represses its expression under nonstress conditions. Yeast one-hybrid screening for interacting factors identified GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR7 (GRF7). GRF7 bound to the DREB2A promoter and repressed its expression. In both artificial miRNA-silenced lines and a T-DNA insertion line of GRF7, DREB2A transcription was increased compared with the wild type under nonstress conditions. A previously undiscovered cis-element, GRF7-targeting cis-element (TGTCAGG), was identified as a target sequence of GRF7 in the short promoter region of DREB2A via electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Microarray analysis of GRF7 knockout plants showed that a large number of the upregulated genes in the mutant plants were also responsive to osmotic stress and/or abscisic acid. These results suggest that GRF7 functions as a repressor of a broad range of osmotic stress–responsive genes to prevent growth inhibition under normal conditions. PMID:22942381

Kim, June-Sik; Mizoi, Junya; Kidokoro, Satoshi; Maruyama, Kyonoshin; Nakajima, Jun; Nakashima, Kazuo; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Takiguchi, Yuko; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Kondou, Youichi; Yoshizumi, Takeshi; Matsui, Minami; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

2012-01-01

251

Bound states of the Klein-Gordon equation in D-dimensions with some physical scalar and vector exponential-type potentials including orbital centrifugal term  

E-print Network

The approximate analytic bound state solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation with equal scalar and vector exponential-type potentials including the centrifugal potential term are obtained for any arbitrary orbital angular momentum number l and dimensional space D. The relativistic/non-relativistic energy spectrum equation and the corresponding unnormalized radial wave functions, in terms of the Jacobi polynomials P_{n}^{({\\alpha},{\\beta})}(z), where {\\alpha}>-1, {\\beta}>-1 and z\\in[-1,+1] or the generalized hypergeometric functions _{2}F_{1}(a,b;c;z), are found. The Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU) method is used in the solution. The solutions of the Eckart, Rosen-Morse, Hulth\\'en and Woods-Saxon potential models can be easily obtained from these solutions. Our results are identical with those ones appearing in the literature. Finally, under the PT-symmetry, we can easily obtain the bound state solutions of the trigonometric Rosen-Morse potential.

Sameer M. Ikhdair

2011-10-05

252

Nuclear Translocation of Type I Transforming Growth Factor ? Receptor Confers a Novel Function in RNA Processing  

PubMed Central

Signaling of transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) is redirected in cancer to promote malignancy, but how TGF-? function is altered in a transformed cell is not fully understood. We investigated TGF-? signaling by profiling proteins that differentially bound to type I TGF-? receptor (T?RI) in nontransformed, HER2-transformed, and HER2-negative breast cancer cells using immunoprecipitation followed by protein identification. Interestingly, several nuclear proteins implicated in posttranscriptional RNA processing were uniquely identified in the T?RI coprecipitates from HER2-transformed cells. Ligand-inducible nuclear translocation of T?RI was observed only in transformed cells, and the translocation required importin ?1, nucleolin, and Smad2/3. This trafficking was dependent on the high Ran GTPase activity resulting from oncogenic transformation. In the nucleus, T?RI associated with purine-rich RNA sequences in a synergistic manner with the RNA-binding factor hnRNP A1. We further found that nuclear translocation of T?RI specifically induced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transcript isoform c, which encodes a soluble EGFR protein, through alternative splicing or 3?-end processing. Our study confirms a cancer-specific nuclear translocation of T?RI and demonstrates its potential function in regulating nuclear RNA processing, as well as a novel gain-of-function mechanism of TGF-? signaling in cancer. PMID:22473997

Chandra, Manasa; Zang, Shengbing; Li, Haiqing; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Champer, Jackson; Tsuyada, Akihiro; Chow, Amy; Zhou, Weiying; Yu, Yang; Gao, Harry; Ren, Xiubao; Lin, Ren-Jang

2012-01-01

253

[Health literacy in type 2 diabetics: associated factors and glycemic control].  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus patients must concentrate on self-care, with complex treatments and adequate health behavior in which such habits are a key factor. Due to the complexity of this issue, the importance of literacy in health arises. The goal of the study was to analyze factors associated with literacy in health and its relation with glycemic control in diabetic patients. It involved a study with 82 type 2 diabetic patients of both sexes and aged between 19 and 59 attended in the outpatient endocrinology ward of a public hospital, who filled out an abbreviated and translated version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (b-TOFHLA). Fasting glycaemia values and glycated hemoglobin were collected from the clinical history of the participants. Correlations, mean comparisons and linear regression models were tested. Inadequate literacy in health was encountered in 65.9% of the patients. The issues involved factors associated with the b-TOFHLA point scores were age and years of schooling. Global literacy did not explain the glycemic control, but the level of numeracy presented an association with this control. The results point to the need to improve the numeracy in health of the patients to obtain enhanced glycemic control, mainly in those with more advanced age and less years of schooling. PMID:25760126

Sampaio, Helena Alves de Carvalho; Carioca, Antônio Augusto Ferreira; Sabry, Maria Olganê Dantas; Santos, Patrícia Mariano Dos; Coelho, Maria Auristela Magalhães; Passamai, Maria da Penha Baião

2015-03-01

254

Recurrent subthreshold depression in type 2 diabetes: an important risk factor for poor health outcomes.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between recurrent subthreshold depressive episodes and functioning in a prospective community sample of people with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A prospective community study in Quebec, Canada, was carried out between 2008 and 2013 (n = 1,064). Five yearly follow-up assessments (telephone interviews) were conducted. Baseline and the first three follow-up assessments were used to identify recurrent subthreshold depressive episodes (Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ]-9). Functioning (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II [WHODAS-II]) and health-related quality of life (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] unhealthy days) at 4- and 5-year follow-up assessments were the outcome measures. RESULTS Nearly half of the participants suffered from at least one episode of subthreshold depressive symptoms. After adjusting for potentially confounding factors, the risk of poor functioning/impaired health-related quality of life was nearly three times higher (relative risk = 2.86) for participants with four subthreshold depressive episodes compared with participants with no/minimal depression. Results suggest a dose-response relationship: the risk of poor functioning/impaired health-related quality of life increased with the number of recurrent subthreshold depressive episodes even after controlling for potentially confounding variables (significant linear trend, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Recurrent subthreshold depressive symptoms might be an important risk factor for poor health outcomes in type 2 diabetes. Early identification, monitoring, and treatment of recurrent subthreshold depressive symptoms might improve functioning and quality of life in people with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24198303

Schmitz, Norbert; Gariépy, Geneviève; Smith, Kimberley J; Clyde, Matthew; Malla, Ashok; Boyer, Richard; Strychar, Irene; Lesage, Alain; Wang, Jianli

2014-04-01

255

Novel Inflammatory Markers, Clinical Risk Factors, and Virus Type Associated with Severe Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Background Virus-induced inflammation contributes to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) pathogenesis. We sought to determine the specific mediators that are associated with more severe illness in young children. Methods Children ? 5 yrs of age seen in our emergency department for respiratory symptoms from September 1998 to May 2008 were eligible for enrollment. Nasopharyngeal (NP) wash samples were collected from all eligible patients, and clinical data were recorded. Individuals were included in this study if NP wash samples were positive for RSV only. Patients enrolled in the study were stratified by disease severity, defined as mild (not hospitalized), moderate (hospitalized), or severe (requiring ICU stay). Concentrations of individual inflammatory biomarkers in NP wash fluids were determined using the Luminex human 30-plex assay. Results 851 patients met study criteria; 268 (31.5%) with mild, 503 (59.1%) with moderate, and 80 (9.4%) with severe illness. As expected, illness severity was directly associated with young age, prematurity, heart or lung disease, infection with RSV group A, and elevated concentrations of interleukin (IL)-2R, IL-6, CXCL8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interferon (IFN)-?, CCL3, CCL4, and CCL2. In addition, we report several novel and mechanistically important inflammatory biomarkers of severe RSV disease, including IL-1?, IL1-RA, IL-7, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Conclusions In a large, longitudinal study (10 years, 851 enrolled patients) limited to RSV infection only, in which well-known risk factors are confirmed, we identified five novel biomarkers specifically of severe disease. These markers may ultimately serve to elucidate disease mechanisms. PMID:23804121

Tabarani, Christy M.; Bonville, Cynthia A.; Suryadevara, Manika; Branigan, Patrick; Wang, Dongliang; Huang, Danning; Rosenberg, Helene F.; Domachowske, Joseph B.

2013-01-01

256

Rationale, design and baseline patient characteristics of the optimal type 2 diabetes management including benchmarking and standard treatment study in Greece  

PubMed Central

AIM: To describe baseline data of the optimal type 2 diabetes management including benchmarking and standard treatment (OPTIMISE) study in Greece. METHODS: “Benchmarking” is the process of receiving feedback comparing one’s performance with that of others. The OPTIMISE (NCT00681850) study is a multinational, multicenter study assessing, at a primary care level, whether using “benchmarking” can help to improve the quality of patient care, compared with a set of guideline-based reference values (“non-benchmarking”). In the Greek region, 797 outpatients (457 men, mean age 63.8 years) with type 2 diabetes were enrolled by 84 office-based physicians. Baseline characteristics of this population are presented. RESULTS: Hypertension was the most prevalent concomitant disorder (77.3%) and coronary heart disease was the most frequent macrovascular complication of diabetes (23.8%). Most patients were overweight or obese (body mass index 29.6 ± 5 kg/m2), exhibiting mostly abdominal obesity (waist circumference 102.6 ± 13.6 cm). Biguanides were the most prevalent prescribed drugs for the management of diabetes (70.1% of all prescriptions), whereas statins (93.5% of all prescriptions) and angiotensin receptor blockers (55.8% of all prescriptions) were the most prevalent prescribed drugs for hyperlipidemia and hypertension, respectively. Only 37.4% of patients were on aspirin. Despite treatment, pre-defined targets for fasting plasma glucose (< 110 mg/dL), glycated hemoglobin (< 7%), systolic blood pressure (< 130 mmHg and < 125 mmHg for patients with proteinuria) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (< 100 mg/dL and < 70 mg/dL for patients with coronary heart disease) were reached in a relatively small proportion of patients (29%, 53%, 27% and 31%, respectively). In a Greek population with type 2 diabetes, the control of glycemia or concomitant disorders which increase cardiovascular risk remains poor. CONCLUSION: Despite relevant treatment, there is a poor control of diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia in Greek outpatients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24567804

Kostapanos, Michael S; Tsimihodimos, Vasilis; Elisaf, Moses S; Tzouvelekis, Emmanouil; Nikas, Nikos

2014-01-01

257

Simultaneous determination of multiclass preservatives including isothiazolinones and benzophenone-type UV filters in household and personal care products by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.  

PubMed

In this work, a simple and reliable micellar electrokinetic chromatography method for the separation and quantification of 14 preservatives, including isothiazolinones, and two benzophenone-type UV filters in household, cosmetic and personal care products was developed. The selected priority compounds are widely used as ingredients in many personal care products, and are included in the European Regulation concerning cosmetic products. The electrophoretic separation parameters were optimized by means of a modified chromatographic response function in combination with an experimental design, namely a central composite design. After optimization of experimental conditions, the BGE selected for the separation of the targets consisted of 60 mM SDS, 18 mM sodium tetraborate, pH 9.4 and 10% v/v methanol. The MEKC method was checked in terms of linearity, LODs and quantification, repeatability, intermediate precision, and accuracy, providing appropriate values (i.e. R(2) ? 0.992, repeatability RSD values ?9%, and accuracy 90-115%). Applicability of the validated method was successfully assessed by quantifying preservatives and UV filters in commercial consumer products. PMID:25598506

Lopez-Gazpio, Josu; Garcia-Arrona, Rosa; Millán, Esmeralda

2015-04-01

258

Trefoil factor 2 rapidly induces interleukin 33 to promote type 2 immunity during allergic asthma and hookworm infection  

E-print Network

The molecular mechanisms that drive mucosal T helper type 2 (T[subscript H]2) responses against parasitic helminths and allergens remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate in mice that TFF2 (trefoil factor 2), an ...

Wills-Karp, Marsha

259

Chronic Activation of Wild-Type Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Loss of Cdkn2a Cause Mouse Glioblastoma Formation  

E-print Network

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is characterized by overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and loss of the tumor suppressors Ink4a/Arf. Efforts at modeling GBM using wild-type EGFR in mice have proven ...

Whittaker, Charles A.

260

The association of glutathione S-transferase gene mutations (including GSTT1 and GSTM1) with the prognostic factors and relapse in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.  

PubMed

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common malignancy in children. It accounts for one fourth of all childhood cancers and approximately 75% of all childhood leukemias. Some prognostic factors determine the outcome of therapy [e.g. age, sex, initial white blood cell count (WBC), etc.]; however, it is believed that other mechanisms such as glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene mutation, the expression of lung resistance protein (LRP), and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) also plays a role in treatment failure. In this study, GST gene mutations including GSTM1 and GSTT1 were evaluated in patients with leukemia. Thirty newly diagnosed ALL patients younger than 15 years of age participated in the present study. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy were evaluated for immune phenotyping and DNA was extracted for GST genotyping. All data plus sex, age, initial WBC count, central nervous system (CNS) or testicular involvement, immune phenotype, and outcome (relapse or not) were analyzed statistically. Genotyping showed that 46% were double null, 50% were M1 null and 93.3% were T1 null for GST mutations. There was no statistically significant relationship between GSTT1 and GSTM1 mutations, or between double null status, prognostic factors and relapse (P > .05). So, although the results of GST mutations were consistent, it seems that these mutations are not statistically significant. PMID:23444902

Zareifar, Soheila; Monabati, Ahmad; Saeed, Amir; Fakhraee, Farzaneh; Cohan, Nader

2013-09-01

261

Daintain/AIF-1 (Allograft Inflammatory Factor-1) accelerates type 1 diabetes in NOD mice  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 is over-expressed in the blood of NOD mice suffering from insulitis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 stimulates white blood cell proliferation in NOD mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 increases blood glucose levels and triggers type 1 diabetes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 accelerates insulitis, while its antibody prevents insulitis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 enhances the levels of nitric oxide in the pancreases of NOD mice. -- Abstract: A large body of experimental evidence suggests that cytokines trigger pancreatic {beta}-cell death in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Daintain/AIF-1 (Allograft Inflammatory Factor-1), a specific marker for activated macrophages, is accumulated in the pancreatic islets of pre-diabetic BB rats. In the present study, we demonstrate that daintain/AIF-1 is released into blood and the levels of daintain/AIF-1 in the blood of type 1 diabetes-prone non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice suffering from insulitis are significantly higher than that in healthy NOD mice. When injected intravenously into NOD mice, daintain/AIF-1 stimulates white blood cell proliferation, increases the concentrations of blood glucose, impairs insulin expression, up-regulates nitric oxide (NO) production in pancreases and accelerates diabetes in NOD mice, while the antibody against daintain/AIF-1 delays or prevents insulitis in NOD mice. These results imply daintain/AIF-1 triggers type 1 diabetes probably via arousing immune cells activation and induction of NO production in pancreas of NOD mice.

Zhao, Yan-Ying, E-mail: biozyy@163.com [College of Life Science and Technology, Southwest University for Nationalities, Chengdu 610041 (China)] [College of Life Science and Technology, Southwest University for Nationalities, Chengdu 610041 (China); Huang, Xin-Yuan [College of Life Science and Technology, Hubei Engineering University, Xiaogan 432000 (China)] [College of Life Science and Technology, Hubei Engineering University, Xiaogan 432000 (China); Chen, Zheng-Wang [Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

2012-10-26

262

Relationship between risk factors and mortality in type 1 diabetic patients in Europe : the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study (PCS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE—The purpose of this study was to examine risk factors for mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Baseline risk factors were measured in the EURODIAB Prospective Cohort Study with 2,787 type 1 diabetic patients (51% men and 49% women) recruited from 16 European countries. Mortality data were collected during a 7-year follow-up. RESULTS—There was an annual

S. S. Soedamah-Muthu; N. Chaturvedi; D. R. Witte; L. K. Stevens; M. Porta; J. H. Fuller

2008-01-01

263

Type 2 diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for the onset of depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Aims/hypothesis An earlier meta-analysis showed that diabetes is a risk factor for the development and/or recurrence of depression. Yet whether this risk is different for studies using questionnaires than for those relying on diagnostic criteria for depression has not been examined. This study examined the association of diabetes and the onset of depression by reviewing the literature and conducting a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies on this topic. Methods EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycInfo were searched for articles published up to September 2009. All studies that examined the relationship between type 2 diabetes and the onset of depression were included. Pooled relative risks were calculated using fixed and random effects models. Results Eleven studies met our inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis. Based on the pooled data, including 48,808 cases of type 2 diabetes without depression at baseline, the pooled relative risk was 1.24 (95% CI 1.09–1.40) for the random effects model. This risk was significantly higher for studies relying on diagnostic criteria of depression than for studies using questionnaires. However, this difference was no longer significant when controlled for year of publication. Conclusions/interpretation Compared with non-diabetic controls, people with type 2 diabetes have a 24% increased risk of developing depression. The mechanisms underlying this relationship are still unclear and warrant further research. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-010-1874-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorised users. PMID:20711716

Winkley, K.; Twisk, J.; Lloyd, C. E.; Peyrot, M.; Ismail, K.; Pouwer, F.

2010-01-01

264

Factors associated with changes in endothelin-1 gene expression in patients with diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Purpose To (i) investigate expression of the endothelin-1 (ET-1) gene in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and (ii) determine what correlations, if any, exist between expression of ET-1 in patients with type 2 DM and treatment, clinical features, and biochemical markers in diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods The study group included 58 patients with type 2 DM, subdivided into three subgroups: those without DR (n=19), those with nonproliferative DR (NPDR; n=28), and those with proliferative DR (PDR; n=11). The control group consisted of 60 individuals. In all groups the mRNA level of ET-1 was estimated using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Results The mRNA level of ET-1 in patients with NPDR was significantly higher than in those without DR. An increase in ET-1 expression was observed in patients with PDR as opposed to those without DR. Compared to controls, the mRNA level of ET-1 was significantly higher both in patients with NPDR and those with PDR. Duration of DM, insulin therapy, and serum creatinine levels were associated with increased mRNA level of ET-1, whereas medication with sulfonylurea or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors had the opposite effect. Conclusions Expression of ET-1 in PBMCs may be associated with severity of DR in patients with type 2 DM. Long-standing clinical course of DR; medication with insulin, sulfonylurea, or ACE inhibitors; and serum creatinine levels are factors possibly associated with changes in ET-1 expression in PBMCs. PMID:20664700

Nowak, Agnieszka; Gola, Joanna; Kowalczyk, Malgorzata; Kapral, Malgorzata; Mazurek, Urszula

2010-01-01

265

A trigonometric interpolation approach to mixed-type boundary problems associated with permeameter shape factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydraulic conductivity is a fundamental hydrogeological parameter, whose in situ measurement at a local scale is principally performed through injection tests from screened probes or using impermeable packers in screened wells. The shape factor F [L] is a proportionality constant required to estimate conductivity from observed flow rate to injection head ratios, and it depends on the geometric properties of the flow field. Existing approaches for determination of F are either based on geometric or mathematical simplifications and are limited to particular assumptions about the flow domain's external boundaries. The present work presents a general semianalytical solution to steady state axisymmetric flow problems, where external boundaries may be nearby and of arbitrary combinations of impermeable and constant head type. The inner boundary along the probe or well may consist of an arbitrary number of impermeable and constant head intervals resulting in a mixed-type boundary value problem, for which a novel and direct solution method based on trigonometric interpolation is presented. The approach is applied to generate practical nondimensional charts of F for different field and laboratory situations. Results show that F is affected by less than 5% if a minimum distance of 10 probe or well diameters is kept between the injection screen and a nearby boundary. Similarly, minimum packer lengths of two well diameters are required to avoid increasing F by more than 10%. Furthermore, F is determined for laboratory barrel experiments giving guidelines for achieving equal shape factors as in field situations without nearby boundaries. F for the theoretical case of infinitely short packers is shown to be infinitely large.

Klammler, Harald; Hatfield, Kirk; Nemer, Bassel; Mathias, Simon A.

2011-03-01

266

Factors associated with adherence to oral antihyperglycemic monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Aim To estimate the rate of adherence to oral antihyperglycemic monotherapy for patients with type 2 diabetes in the US and describe factors associated with adherence in these patients. Materials and methods In this retrospective cohort analysis, patients aged 18 years or older with a type 2 diabetes diagnosis received between 1 January 2007 and 31 March 2010 were identified using a large US-based health care claims database. The index date was defined as the date of the first prescription for oral antihyperglycemic monotherapy during this period. Patients had to have continuous enrollment in the claims database for 12 months before and after the index date. Adherence was assessed using proportion of days covered (PDC) and an adjusted logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate factors associated with adherence (PDC ?80%). Results Of the 133,449 eligible patients, the mean age was 61 years and 51% were men. Mean PDC was 75% and the proportion of patients adherent to oral antihyperglycemic monotherapy was 59%. Both mean PDC and PDC ?80% increased with increasing age and the number of concomitant medications, and were slightly higher in men compared to women. Results from the logistic regression demonstrate an increased likelihood of non-adherence for patients who were younger, new to therapy, on a twice-daily dose, female, or on fewer than three concomitant medications compared to their reference groups. Higher average daily out-of-pocket pharmacy expense was also associated with an increased likelihood of non-adherence. All results were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Patient characteristics, treatment regimens, and out-of-pocket expenses were associated with adherence to oral antihyperglycemic monotherapy in our study. PMID:25670888

Tunceli, Kaan; Zhao, Changgeng; Davies, Michael J; Brodovicz, Kimberly G; Alexander, Charles M; Iglay, Kristy; Radican, Larry

2015-01-01

267

Tumor Necrosis Factor Type alpha , a Potent Inhibitor of Endothelial Cell Growth in vitro, is Angiogenic in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor necrosis factor type alpha (TNF-alpha ) inhibits endothelial cell proliferation in vitro. Basal cell growth (in the absence of exogenously added growth factor) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-stimulated cell proliferation are inhibited in a dose-dependent manner from 0.1 to 10 ng\\/ml with half-maximal inhibition occurring at 0.5-1.0 ng of TNF-alpha per ml. Bovine aortic and brain capillary endothelial and

Marijke Frater-Schroder; Werner Risau; Rupert Hallmann; Peter Gautschi; Peter Bohlen

1987-01-01

268

Interaction analysis of grapevine MIKC(c)-type MADS transcription factors and heterologous expression of putative véraison regulators in tomato.  

PubMed

MIKC(c)-type MADS-domain transcription factors include important regulators of floral development that interact in protein complexes to control the development of floral organs, as described by the ABC model. Members of the SEPALLATA (SEP) and AGAMOUS (AG) MADS clades include proteins involved in stamen and carpel specification and certain members of these families, such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) SlRIN and SlTAGL1, have been shown to regulate fruit development and ripening initiation. A number of expression studies have shown that several floral homeotic MADS genes are expressed during grapevine (Vitis vinifera) berry development, including potential homologues of these characterized ripening regulators. To gain insight into the regulation of berry development and ripening in grapevine, we studied the interactions and functions of grapevine floral homeotic MADS genes. Using the yeast 2- and 3-hybrid systems, we determined that the complexes formed during fruit development and ripening may involve several classes of floral homeotic MADS proteins. We found that a heterologously expressed grapevine SEP gene, VviSEP4, is capable of partially complementing the non-ripening phenotype of the tomato rin mutant, indicating that a role for this gene in ripening regulation may be conserved in fleshy fruit ripening. We also found that ectopic expression of a grapevine AG clade gene, VviAG1, in tomato results in the development of fleshy sepals with the chemical characteristics of tomato fruit pericarp. Additionally, we performed 2-hybrid screens on a library prepared from Pinot noir véraison-stage berry and identified proteins that may interact with the MADS factors that are expressed during berry development and that may represent regulatory functions in grape berry development. PMID:23787144

Mellway, Robin D; Lund, Steven T

2013-11-01

269

Pharmacological Analysis of Nod Factor-Induced Calcium Spiking in Medicago truncatula. Evidence for the Requirement of Type IIA Calcium Pumps and Phosphoinositide Signaling1  

PubMed Central

Bacterial Nod factors trigger a number of cellular responses in root hairs of compatible legume hosts, which include periodic, transient increases in cytosolic calcium levels, termed calcium spiking. We screened 13 pharmaceutical modulators of eukaryotic signal transduction for effects on Nod factor-induced calcium spiking. The purpose of this screening was 2-fold: to implicate enzymes required for Nod factor-induced calcium spiking in Medicago sp., and to identify inhibitors of calcium spiking suitable for correlating calcium spiking to other Nod factor responses to begin to understand the function of calcium spiking in Nod factor signal transduction. 2-Aminoethoxydiphenylborate, caffeine, cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), 2,5-di-(t-butyl)-1,4-hydroquinone, and U-73122 inhibit Nod factor-induced calcium spiking. CPA and U-73122 are inhibitors of plant type IIA calcium pumps and phospholipase C, respectively, and implicate the requirement for these enzymes in Nod factor-induced calcium spiking. CPA and U-73122 inhibit Nod factor-induced calcium spiking robustly at concentrations with no apparent toxicity to root hairs, making CPA and U-73122 suitable for testing whether calcium spiking is causal to subsequent Nod factor responses. PMID:11950987

Engstrom, Eric M.; Ehrhardt, David W.; Mitra, Raka M.; Long, Sharon R.

2002-01-01

270

Patient and surgery related factors associated with fatigue type polyethylene wear on 49 PCA and DURACON retrievals at autopsy and revision  

PubMed Central

Background Polyethylene wear is an important factor for longevity of total knee arthroplasty. Proven and suspicious factors causing wear can be grouped as material, patient and surgery related. There are more studies correlating design and/or biomaterial factors to in vivo wear than those to patient and surgery related factors. Many retrieval studies just include revision implants and therefore may not be representative. This study is aimed to correlate patient- and surgery- related factors to visual wear score by minimizing design influence and include both autopsy and revision implants. Comparison between the groups was expected to unmask patient and surgery-related factors responsible for wear. Methods The amount of joint side wear on polyethylene retrievals was measured using a modification of an established visual wear score. Fatigue type wear was defined as summation of the most severe wear modes of delamination, pitting and cracks. Analysis of patient and surgery related variables suspicious to cause wear included prospectively sampled patient activity which was measured by self reported walking capacity. Statistical analysis was done by univariate analysis of variance. Activity level and implantation time were merged to an index of use and correlated to the wear score. Results Wear score after comparable implantation time was significantly less in the autopsy group. Even so, fatigue type wear accounted for 84 and 93 % of total wear score on autopsy and revision implants respectively. A highly significant influence on wear score was found in time of implantation (p = 0.002), level of activity (p = 0.025) and inserts belonging to revision group (p = 0.006). No influence was found for the kind of patella replacement (p = 0.483). Body mass index and accuracy of component alignment had no significant influence on visual wear score. Fatigue-type wear in the medial compartment was closely correlated to the index of use in the autopsy (R2 = 0.383) and the revision group (R2 = 0.813). Conclusion The present study's finding of substantial fatigue type wear in both autopsy and revision retrievals supports the theory that polyethylene fatigue strength is generally exceeded in this type of prosthesis. Furthermore, this study correlated fatigue-type polyethylene wear to an index of use as calculated by activity over time. Future retrieval studies may use activity over time as an important patient related factor correlated to the visual wear score. When evaluating total knee arthroplasty routine follow up, the surgeon must think of substantial wear present even without major clinical signs. PMID:18294372

Rohrbach, Markus; Lüem, Martin; Ochsner, Peter E

2008-01-01

271

A new type of protein lysine methyltransferase trimethylates Lys-79 of elongation factor 1A.  

PubMed

The elongation factors of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are extensively methylated, containing a total of ten methyllysine residues. Elongation factor methyltransferases (Efm1, Efm2, Efm3, and Efm4) catalyze at least four of these modifications. Here we report the identification of a new type of protein lysine methyltransferase, Efm5 (Ygr001c), which was initially classified as N6-adenine DNA methyltransferase-like. Efm5 is required for trimethylation of Lys-79 on EF1A. We directly show the loss of this modification in efm5? strains by both mass spectrometry and amino acid analysis. Close homologs of Efm5 are found in vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants, although some fungal species apparently lack this enzyme. This suggests possible unique functions of this modification in S. cerevisiae and higher eukaryotes. The misannotation of Efm5 was due to the presence of a DPPF sequence in post-Motif II, typically associated with DNA methylation. Further analysis of this motif and others like it demonstrates a potential consensus sequence for N-methyltransferases. PMID:25446118

Dzialo, Maria C; Travaglini, Kyle J; Shen, Sean; Loo, Joseph A; Clarke, Steven G

2014-12-12

272

TACO: a general-purpose tool for predicting cell-type–specific transcription factor dimers  

PubMed Central

Background Cooperative binding of transcription factor (TF) dimers to DNA is increasingly recognized as a major contributor to binding specificity. However, it is likely that the set of known TF dimers is highly incomplete, given that they were discovered using ad hoc approaches, or through computational analyses of limited datasets. Results Here, we present TACO (Transcription factor Association from Complex Overrepresentation), a general-purpose standalone software tool that takes as input any genome-wide set of regulatory elements and predicts cell-type–specific TF dimers based on enrichment of motif complexes. TACO is the first tool that can accommodate motif complexes composed of overlapping motifs, a characteristic feature of many known TF dimers. Our method comprehensively outperforms existing tools when benchmarked on a reference set of 29 known dimers. We demonstrate the utility and consistency of TACO by applying it to 152 DNase-seq datasets and 94 ChIP-seq datasets. Conclusions Based on these results, we uncover a general principle governing the structure of TF-TF-DNA ternary complexes, namely that the flexibility of the complex is correlated with, and most likely a consequence of, inter-motif spacing. PMID:24640962

2014-01-01

273

Risk factors and gene type for infections of MRSA in diabetic foot patients in Tianjin, China.  

PubMed

The objective was to study risk factors and gene type of DF patients infected with MRSA. A total of 429 DF patients were recruited. The patients with S aureus infections were divided into MRSA and MSSA groups. MRSA were genotyped by SCCmec. pvl and lukE-lukD were detected. A total of 559 pathogens were isolated from them, with G+ bacteria firstly(59.0%), followed G- bacilli (37.7%) and true fungi (3.3%). The 3 most frequently isolated pathogens were S aureus (35.2%), S epidermidis (12.3%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (11.2%). SCCmec III MRSA and SCCmec IVa MRSA had the same antibacterial spectrum. mecA positive rate was 100%. lukE-lukD and pvl positive rates were 100% and 0%, respectively. 28 strains belonged to SCCmec III and the others belonged to SCCmec IVa. The G+ cocci were the main pathogens, S aureus and S epidermidis were predominant among them. Antibiotic usage in 6 months prior to hospitalization, long course of ulcer, osteomyelitis and hypoproteinemia are risk factors for MRSA. SCCmec IVa is high in proportion to MRSA isolates, suggesting that CA-MRSA has become major pathogen of DF infection. All the MRSA were harboring lukE-lukD, which has been reported to present poor leucotoxin compared to pvl, and may be a response to atypical local inflammatory reaction in DF infection. PMID:23771611

Feng, Shu-Hong; Chu, Yue-Jie; Wang, Peng-Hua; Jun, Xu; Min, Ding; Li, Xue-Mei

2013-06-01

274

Mutations in Niemann Pick type C gene are risk factor for Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia characterized by deterioration of memory and other cognitive domains which leads to death in 3-9years after diagnosis. In addition to mutations in APP, PSEN1 and PSEN2 genes, that cause early onset autosomal dominant AD, several genetic risk factors for late onset AD are now known. There is another distinctive neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder - Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) that is sometimes referred to as "Childhood Alzheimer's". NPC is autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the NPC1 or NPC2 genes. NPC and AD share some biochemical and pathological similarities which are discussed in this paper. On the other hand, there is a well documented connection between other autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder - Gaucher's disease (GD) and neurodegenerative disorder - Parkinson's disease (PD). It has been shown that GD patients have 20-fold increased life-time risk of developing PD. Surprisingly, even heterozygous carriers of mutations in glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA) have increased risk for developing PD. Having in mind above mentioned correlations, we hypothesized that heterozygous mutations in the NPC gene may act as an independent risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. If true, this would expand link between lysosomal disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Also, if heterozygous NPC1/2 mutation carriers develop AD we assume it would be worth trying with miglustat-specific therapy recommended for NPC disease. PMID:25220527

Kresojevi?, Nikola; Dobri?i?, Valerija; Svetel, Marina; Kosti?, Vladimir

2014-11-01

275

Oligomeric state regulated trafficking of human platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase type-II.  

PubMed

The intracellular enzyme platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase type-II (PAFAH-II) hydrolyzes platelet-activating factor and oxidatively fragmented phospholipids. PAFAH-II in its resting state is mainly cytoplasmic, and it responds to oxidative stress by becoming increasingly bound to endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi membranes. Numerous studies have indicated that this enzyme is essential for protecting cells from oxidative stress induced apoptosis. However, the regulatory mechanism of the oxidative stress response by PAFAH-II has not been fully resolved. Here, changes to the oligomeric state of human PAFAH-II were investigated as a potential regulatory mechanism toward enzyme trafficking. Native PAGE analysis in vitro and photon counting histogram within live cells showed that PAFAH-II is both monomeric and dimeric. A Gly-2-Ala site-directed mutation of PAFAH-II demonstrated that the N-terminal myristoyl group is required for homodimerization. Additionally, the distribution of oligomeric PAFAH-II is distinct within the cell; homodimers of PAFAH-II were localized to the cytoplasm while monomers were associated to the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. We propose that the oligomeric state of PAFAH-II drives functional protein trafficking. PAFAH-II localization to the membrane is critical for substrate acquisition and effective oxidative stress protection. It is hypothesized that the balance between monomer and dimer serves as a regulatory mechanism of a PAFAH-II oxidative stress response. PMID:25707358

Monillas, Elizabeth S; Caplan, Jeffrey L; Thévenin, Anastasia F; Bahnson, Brian J

2015-05-01

276

The Complex Interplay of Genetic and Lifestyle Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetes: An Overview  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is one of the scourges of modern times, with many millions of people affected by the disease. Diabetes occurs most frequently in those who are overweight or obese. However, not all overweight and obese persons develop diabetes, and there are those who develop the disease who are lean and physically active. Certain ethnicities, especially indigenous populations, are at considerably higher risk of obesity and diabetes than those of white European ancestry. The patterns and distributions of diabetes have led some to speculate that the disease is caused by interactions between genetic and obesogenic lifestyle factors. Whilst to many this is a plausible explanation, remarkably little reliable evidence exists to support it. In this review, an overview of published literature relating to genetic and lifestyle risk factors for T2D is provided. The review also describes the concepts and rationale that have motivated the view that gene-lifestyle interactions cause diabetes and overviews the empirical evidence published to date to support this hypothesis. PMID:24278702

Franks, Paul W.

2012-01-01

277

Factors Associated for Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Korean Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in older Korean adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods A total of 226 older (age ?65 years) adults without a history of cerebrovascular disease or dementia participated in this study. Cognitive function was assessed with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Korean version (MoCA-K). A MoCA-K score <23 was defined as MCI. Results The prevalence of MCI was 32.7%. In a logistic regression analysis, age (?74 years old vs. 65-68 years old; odds ratio [OR], 3.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.55 to 8.82; P=0.003), educational background (college graduation vs. no school or elementary school graduation; OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.46; P=0.001), and systolic blood pressure (?135 mm Hg vs. ?120 mm Hg; OR, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.29 to 8.17; P=0.012) were associated with MCI. Conclusion More concentrated efforts focused on early detection and appropriate management of MCI may be required in older Korean adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:24851209

Lee, Yun Jeong; Kang, Hye Mi; Kim, Na Kyung; Yang, Ju Yeon; Noh, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo

2014-01-01

278

Quaternary Structure and Functional Unit of Energy Coupling Factor (ECF)-type Transporters*  

PubMed Central

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters mediate transport of diverse substrates across membranes. We have determined the quaternary structure and functional unit of the recently discovered ECF-type (energy coupling factor) of ABC transporters, which is widespread among prokaryotes. ECF transporters are protein complexes consisting of a conserved energizing module (two peripheral ATPases and the integral membrane protein EcfT) and a non-conserved integral membrane protein responsible for substrate specificity (S-component). S-components for different substrates are often unrelated in amino acid sequence but may associate with the same energizing module. Here, the energizing module from Lactococcus lactis was shown to form stable complexes with each of the eight predicted S-components found in the organism. The quaternary structures of three of these complexes were determined by light scattering. EcfT, the two ATPases (EcfA and EcfA?), and the S-components were found to be present in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. The complexes were reconstituted in proteoliposomes and shown to mediate ATP-dependent transport. ECF-type transporters are the smallest known ABC transporters. PMID:21135102

ter Beek, Josy; Duurkens, Ria H.; Erkens, Guus B.; Slotboom, Dirk Jan

2011-01-01

279

Effects of two types of cobra venom factor on porcine complement activation and pulmonary artery pressure.  

PubMed Central

Autologous porcine plasma that has been incubated with cuprophan haemodialysis membranes causes pulmonary hypertension and peripheral leucopenia following reinfusion into swine. These effects appear to be mediated by biologically active fragments of C3 and C5 that are generated as a consequence of ex vivo activation of complement. Putatively, C5a induces the leucopenia; however, the specific contributions of products of C3 and C5 activation to the pulmonary vasoconstriction have not been elucidated. In the present study, the effects of in vivo infusion of two different types of cobra venom factor (CVF) on peripheral leucocyte count and pulmonary artery pressure in the swine are reported. The CVF from Naja n. naja (CVF(TN)) was shown to activate both porcine C3 and C5, whereas the CVF from Naja h. haje (CVF(NH)) activated only C3. Both types of CVF produced pulmonary hypertension. Significant peripheral leucopenia, however, was observed only with CVF(TN). These results suggest that activation products of C3 contribute to the pulmonary hypertension but not to the peripheral leucopenia observed during haemodialysis using dialysis membranes that activate complement. PMID:12412765

Cheung, A K; Parker, C J; Wilcox, L

1989-01-01

280

Gene duplication of type-B ARR transcription factors systematically extends transcriptional regulatory structures in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Many of duplicated genes are enriched in signaling pathways. Recently, gene duplication of kinases has been shown to provide genetic buffering and functional diversification in cellular signaling. Transcription factors (TFs) are also often duplicated. However, how duplication of TFs affects their regulatory structures and functions of target genes has not been explored at the systems level. Here, we examined regulatory and functional roles of duplication of three major ARR TFs (ARR1, 10, and 12) in Arabidopsis cytokinin signaling using wild-type and single, double, and triple deletion mutants of the TFs. Comparative analysis of gene expression profiles obtained from Arabidopsis roots in wild-type and these mutants showed that duplication of ARR TFs systematically extended their transcriptional regulatory structures, leading to enhanced robustness and diversification in functions of target genes, as well as in regulation of cellular networks of target genes. Therefore, our results suggest that duplication of TFs contributes to robustness and diversification in functions of target genes by extending transcriptional regulatory structures. PMID:25425016

Choi, Seung Hee; Hyeon, Do Young; Lee, ll Hwan; Park, Su Jin; Han, Seungmin; Lee, In Chul; Hwang, Daehee; Nam, Hong Gil

2014-01-01

281

Marine Food Pollutants as a Risk Factor for Hypoinsulinemia and Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background Some persistent environmental chemicals are suspected of causing an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, a disease particularly common after age 70. This concern was examined in a cross-sectional study of elderly subjects in a population with elevated contaminant exposures from seafood species high in the food chain. Methods Clinical examinations of 713 Faroese residents aged 70-74 years (64% of eligible population) included fasting plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin, and glycosylated hemoglobin. Lifetime exposure to persistent environmental chemicals from pilot whale and other traditional food was estimated from a dietary questionnaire and by analysis of blood samples for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related food contaminants. Results Septuagenarians with type 2 diabetes or impaired fasting glycemia tended to have higher PCB concentrations and higher past intake of traditional foods, especially during childhood and adolescence. In non-diabetic subjects, the fasting insulin concentration decreased by 7% (95% CI= ?12% to ?2%) for each doubling of the PCB concentration after adjustment for sex and body mass index at age 20. Conversely, the fasting glucose concentration increased by 6% (?1% to 13%) for each doubling in PCB. Similar associations were seen in subjects without impaired fasting glycemia, while further adjustment for current body mass index and lipid metabolism parameters attenuated some of the associations. Conclusions Impaired insulin secretion appears to constitute an important part of the type 2 diabetes pathogenesis associated with exposure to persistent lipophilic food contaminants. PMID:21364465

Grandjean, Philippe; Henriksen, Jan Erik; Choi, Anna L.; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Dalgård, Christine; Nielsen, Flemming; Weihe, Pal

2011-01-01

282

Photolithographically defined deposition of attachment factors as a versatile method for patterning the growth of different cell types in culture.  

PubMed

Spatially defined growth of cells in culture is a useful model for studies ranging from the characterization of cellular motility to the analysis of network behaviour in structurally defined ensembles of excitable cells. Current methodological approaches for obtaining patterned growth include sophisticated modifications of surface chemistry, stamping techniques and microfluidics. The implementation of most of these techniques requires the availability of highly specialized apparatus and some of the methods are specific for certain cell types and/or substrate materials. The goal of the present study was to develop a cell-patterning technique that can be implemented by any laboratory working with cell culture and that is highly adaptable in terms of cell types and substrate materials. The method is based on a photolithographic process that permits the patterned deposition of attachment factors of choice on surfaces previously coated with agar with a spatial resolution (maximal deviation from a straight line) of +/-3 micro m. Because agar efficiently prevents cell adhesion, patterned growth obtained with this technique displays virtually no off-pattern cell attachment. The method permitted the patterning of cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts and HeLa cells on either glass substrates or polymer-coated materials with a spatial resolution of a few micrometers. PMID:12690471

Rohr, Stephan; Flückiger-Labrada, Regula; Kucera, Jan P

2003-04-01

283

Factors Associated with Utilization of Dipeptidyl-4 Inhibitors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Retrospective Study  

PubMed Central

Dipeptidyl-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are oral antidiabetic agents recently introduced to Malaysia. Thus, limited data is available on their utilization patterns and factors associated with their use. This study aims to analyse the utilization patterns of DPP-4 inhibitors, factors that influenced the choice of agent, and the rationale for treatment with DPP-4 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This retrospective study was conducted to address the utilization pattern of DPP-4 inhibitors and factors that influence choice in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. 299 subjects taking either sitagliptin or vildagliptin from September 2008 to September 2012 were included in the study. Sitagliptin was more frequently prescribed than vildagliptin. Of the patients prescribed DPP-4 inhibitors, 95% received combinations of these and other agents, whereas only 5% were prescribed DPP-4 inhibitors as monotherapy. Factors affecting the utilization of DPP-4 inhibitors included age (P = 0.049) and concomitant use of beta blockers (P = 0.045) and aspirin (P = 0.008). Early identification of factors associated with DPP-4 inhibitors is essential to enhance quality use of the drugs. PMID:25258626

Zaman Huri, Hasniza; Selamat, NorFarahen; Vethakkan, Shireene Ratna

2014-01-01

284

The PP2A-A? gene is regulated by multiple transcriptional factors including Ets-1, SP1/SP3, and RXR?/?.  

PubMed

Protein phosphatase-2A (PP-2A) is a major serine/threonine phosphatase abundantly expressed in eukaryotes. PP-2A is a heterotrimer that contains a 65 kD scaffold A subunit, a 36 kD catalytic C subunit, and a regulatory B subunit of variable isoforms ranging from 54-130 kDs. The scaffold subunits, PP2A-A?/?, act as platforms for both the C and B subunits to bind, and thus are key structural components for PP-2A activity. Mutations in both genes encoding PP2A-A? and PP2A-A? lead to carcinogenesis and likely other human diseases. Our previous work showed that the gene coding for PP2A-A? is positively regulated by multiple transcription factors including Ets-1, CREB, and AP-2? but negatively regulated by SP-1/SP-3. In the present study, we have functionally dissected the promoter of the mouse PP2A-A? gene. Our results demonstrate that three major cis-elements, including the binding sites for Ets-1, SP1/SP3, and RXR?/?, are present in the proximal promoter of the mouse PP2A-A? gene. Gel mobility shifting assays reveal that Ets-1, SP1/SP3, and RXR?/? all bind to PP2A-A? gene promoter. In vitro mutagenesis and reporter gene activity assays demonstrate that while Ets-1 displays negative regulation, SP1/SP3 and RXR?/? positively regulate the promoter of the PP2A-A? gene. Co-expression of the cDNAs encoding Ets-1, SP1/SP3, or RXR?/? and the luciferase reporter gene driven by PP2A-A? promoter further confirm their control over the PP2A-A? promoter. Finally, ChIP assays demonstrate that Ets-1, SP1/SP3, and RXR?/? can all bind to the PP2A-A? gene promoter. Together, our results reveal that multiple transcription factors regulate the PP2A-A? gene. Moreover, our results provide important information explaining why PP2A-A? and PP2A-A? display distinct expression levels. PMID:22827437

Liu, J; Ji, W; Sun, S; Zhang, L; Chen, H-G; Mao, Y; Liu, L; Zhang, X; Gong, L; Deng, M; Chen, L; Han, W-J; Chen, P-C; Hu, W-F; Hu, X; Woodward, Z; Liu, W-B; Xiao, Y-M; Liang, S-P; Liu, Y; Liu, S-J; Li, D W-C

2012-09-01

285

Monte Carlo calculations of electron beam quality conversion factors for several ion chamber types  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To provide a comprehensive investigation of electron beam reference dosimetry using Monte Carlo simulations of the response of 10 plane-parallel and 18 cylindrical ion chamber types. Specific emphasis is placed on the determination of the optimal shift of the chambers’ effective point of measurement (EPOM) and beam quality conversion factors. Methods: The EGSnrc system is used for calculations of the absorbed dose to gas in ion chamber models and the absorbed dose to water as a function of depth in a water phantom on which cobalt-60 and several electron beam source models are incident. The optimal EPOM shifts of the ion chambers are determined by comparing calculations of R{sub 50} converted from I{sub 50} (calculated using ion chamber simulations in phantom) to R{sub 50} calculated using simulations of the absorbed dose to water vs depth in water. Beam quality conversion factors are determined as the calculated ratio of the absorbed dose to water to the absorbed dose to air in the ion chamber at the reference depth in a cobalt-60 beam to that in electron beams. Results: For most plane-parallel chambers, the optimal EPOM shift is inside of the active cavity but different from the shift determined with water-equivalent scaling of the front window of the chamber. These optimal shifts for plane-parallel chambers also reduce the scatter of beam quality conversion factors, k{sub Q}, as a function of R{sub 50}. The optimal shift of cylindrical chambers is found to be less than the 0.5 r{sub cav} recommended by current dosimetry protocols. In most cases, the values of the optimal shift are close to 0.3 r{sub cav}. Values of k{sub ecal} are calculated and compared to those from the TG-51 protocol and differences are explained using accurate individual correction factors for a subset of ion chambers investigated. High-precision fits to beam quality conversion factors normalized to unity in a beam with R{sub 50} = 7.5 cm (k{sub Q}{sup ?}) are provided. These factors avoid the use of gradient correction factors as used in the TG-51 protocol although a chamber dependent optimal shift in the EPOM is required when using plane-parallel chambers while no shift is needed with cylindrical chambers. The sensitivity of these results to parameters used to model the ion chambers is discussed and the uncertainty related to the practical use of these results is evaluated. Conclusions: These results will prove useful as electron beam reference dosimetry protocols are being updated. The analysis of this work indicates that cylindrical ion chambers may be appropriate for use in low-energy electron beams but measurements are required to characterize their use in these beams.

Muir, B. R., E-mail: Bryan.Muir@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Measurement Science and Standards, National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Rogers, D. W. O., E-mail: drogers@physics.carleton.ca [Carleton Laboratory for Radiotherapy Physics, Physics Department, Carleton University, 1125 ColonelBy Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada)

2014-11-01

286

Factorize  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visualize factors through building rectangular areas on a grid. First enter all the factorizations of a number, then draw each factor set as an area on the grid. Factorize is one of the Interactivate assessment explorers.

287

Determination of point isotropic buildup factors of gamma rays including incoherent and coherent scattering for aluminum, iron, lead, and water by discrete ordinates method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure and energy absorption buildup factors for aluminum, iron, lead, and water are calculated by the SNID discrete ordinates code for an isotropic point source in a homogeneous medium. The calculation of the buildup factors takes into account the effects of both bound-electron Compton (incoherent) and coherent (Rayleigh) scattering. A comparison with buildup factors from the literature shows that these

S. Kitsos; A. Assad; C. M. Diop; J. C. Nimal; P. Ridoux

1994-01-01

288

Modifiable lifestyle and social factors affect chronic kidney disease in high-risk individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

This observational study examined the association between modifiable lifestyle and social factors on the incidence and progression of early chronic kidney disease (CKD) among those with type 2 diabetes. All 6972 people from the Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) with diabetes but without macroalbuminuria were studied. CKD progression was defined as decline in GFR of more than 5% per year, progression to end-stage renal disease, microalbuminuria, or macroalbuminuria at 5.5 years. Lifestyle/social factors included tobacco and alcohol use, physical activity, stress, financial worries, the size of the social network and education. Adjustments were made for known risks such as age, diabetes duration, GFR, albuminuria, gender, body mass index, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin-receptor blockers use. Competing risk of death was considered. At study end, 31% developed CKD and 15% had died. The social network score (SNS) was a significant independent risk factor of CKD and death, reducing the risk by 11 and 22% when comparing the third to the first tertile of the SNS (odds ratios of CKD 0.89 and death 0.78). Education showed a significant association with CKD but stress and financial worries did not. Those with moderate alcohol consumption had a significantly decreased CKD risk compared with nonusers. Regular physical activity significantly decreased the risk of CKD. Thus, lifestyle is a determinant of kidney health in people at high cardiovascular risk with diabetes.Kidney International advance online publication, 10 December 2014; doi:10.1038/ki.2014.370. PMID:25493953

Dunkler, Daniela; Kohl, Maria; Heinze, Georg; Teo, Koon K; Rosengren, Annika; Pogue, Janice; Gao, Peggy; Gerstein, Hertzel; Yusuf, Salim; Oberbauer, Rainer; Mann, Johannes F E

2014-12-10

289

Frequency and associated risk factors of recurrent diabetic ketoacidosis among Saudi adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To explore the frequency and associated risk factors of recurrent diabetic ketoacidosis (RDKA) among Saudi adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 103 T1DM adolescents (aged 13-18 years, 57 males) who were hospitalized for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) between January 2013 and May 2014 at Prince Sultan Military Medical City (PSMMC), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The respondents were purposively, conveniently selected, and interviewed using a structured Arabic questionnaire including clinical information and demographics. Results: Fifty-six participants had experienced one episode of DKA, 41 had 2 episodes, and 6 had ?3 episodes. Compared with adolescents who had hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ?9, mean difference in RDKA was found among adolescents with >9 HbA1c. Similarly, adolescents who stopped insulin and those with lipodystrophy at the injection site had a higher frequency of RDKA. Discontinuing insulin (67%) was the major reason for RDKA followed by infection (31%). Among adolescents who discontinued insulin treatment, 31 (46.3%) gave no reason for stopping, 25 (37.3%) reported feeling sick, 7 (10.4%) gave a combination of reasons, and 4 (6%) reported a lack of supplies or other reasons. Regression analysis revealed that a higher HbA1c level and the presence of lipodystrophy were independent risk factors for RDKA. Conclusion: The frequency of RDKA was significantly greater in the T1DM adolescents with a higher HbA1c level, lipodystrophy, and those who had discontinued insulin treatment. Comprehensive multidisciplinary diabetes education should be offered to control modifiable risk factors in these patients. PMID:25719588

Al-Hayek, Ayman A.; Robert, Asirvatham A.; Braham, Rim B.; Turki, Anoud S.; Al-Sabaan, Fahad S.

2015-01-01

290

HEPARIN MODULATES THE 99-LOOP OF FACTOR IXa: EFFECTS ON REACTIVITY WITH ISOLATED KUNITZ-TYPE INHIBITOR DOMAINS*  

PubMed Central

Reactivity of factor IXa with basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor is enhanced by low molecular weight heparin (enoxaparin). Previous studies by us have suggested that this effect involves allosteric modulation of factor IXa. We examined the reactivity of factor IXa with several isolated Kunitz-type inhibitor domains; basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, the Kunitz inhibitor domain of Protease Nexin-2 and the first two inhibitor domains of tissue factor pathway inhibitor. We find that enhancement of factor IXa reactivity by enoxaparin is greatest for basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (>10-fold), followed by the second tissue factor pathway inhibitor domain (1.7-fold) and the Kunitz inhibitor domain of Protease Nexin-2 (1.4-fold). Modeling studies of factor IXa with basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor suggest that binding of this inhibitor is sterically hindered by the 99-loop of factor IXa, specifically residue K98. Slow-binding kinetic studies support the formation of a weak initial enzyme-inhibitor complex between factor IXa and basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor that is facilitated by enoxaparin binding. Mutation of K98 to A in factor IXa results in enhanced reactivity with all inhibitors examined, while almost completely abrogating the enhancing effects of enoxaparin. The results implicate K98 and the 99-loop of factor IXa in defining enzyme inhibitor specificity. More importantly, these results demonstrate the ability of factor IXa to be allosterically modulated by occupation of the heparin-binding exosite. PMID:16766524

Neuenschwander, Pierre F.; Williamson, Stephen R.; Nalian, Armen; Baker-Deadmond, Kimberly J.

2006-01-01

291

Inhibition of macrophage migration inhibitory factor reduces diabetic nephropathy in type II diabetes mice.  

PubMed

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) plays a critical role in inflammation and is elevated in diabetic kidney. However, whether MIF plays a causative role in diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains unclear. In the present study, we have demonstrated that after treatment of 8-week-old diabetic db/db and nondiabetic db/m mice with the MIF inhibitor ISO-1 (20 mg/kg) for 8 weeks, there was a significant decrease in blood glucose, albuminuria, extracellular matrix accumulation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and macrophage activation in the kidney of db/db mice. Incubation of macrophages with MIF induced the production of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL) 6, IL-1?, tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?). The conditioned media (CM) of MIF-activated macrophages and TNF-? induced by MIF caused podocyte damage. Moreover, CM from MIF-activated macrophages induced EMT of renal tubular cells, and this effect was blocked by ISO-1. Thus, MIF inhibition may be a potential therapeutic strategy for DN. This effect may be attributable to its inhibitory effect on macrophage activation in the diabetic kidney. PMID:24958012

Wang, Zhigang; Wei, Meng; Wang, Meng; Chen, Lei; Liu, Hua; Ren, Yi; Shi, Kehui; Jiang, Hongli

2014-12-01

292

Wild Type p53 Transcriptionally Represses the SALL2 Transcription Factor under Genotoxic Stress  

PubMed Central

SALL2- a member of the Spalt gene family- is a poorly characterized transcription factor found deregulated in various cancers, which suggests it plays a role in the disease. We previously identified SALL2 as a novel interacting protein of neurotrophin receptors and showed that it plays a role in neuronal function, which does not necessarily explain why or how SALL2 is deregulated in cancer. Previous evidences indicate that SALL2 gene is regulated by the WT1 and AP4 transcription factors. Here, we identified SALL2 as a novel downstream target of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. Bioinformatic analysis of the SALL2 gene revealed several putative p53 half sites along the promoter region. Either overexpression of wild-type p53 or induction of the endogenous p53 by the genotoxic agent doxorubicin repressed SALL2 promoter activity in various cell lines. However R175H, R249S, and R248W p53 mutants, frequently found in the tumors of cancer patients, were unable to repress SALL2 promoter activity, suggesting that p53 specific binding to DNA is important for the regulation of SALL2. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated binding of p53 to one of the identified p53 half sites in the Sall2 promoter, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed in vivo interaction of p53 with the promoter region of Sall2 containing this half site. Importantly, by using a p53ERTAM knockin model expressing a variant of p53 that is completely dependent on 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen for its activity, we show that p53 activation diminished SALL2 RNA and protein levels during genotoxic cellular stress in primary mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) and radiosensitive tissues in vivo. Thus, our finding indicates that p53 represses SALL2 expression in a context-specific manner, adding knowledge to the understanding of SALL2 gene regulation, and to a potential mechanism for its deregulation in cancer. PMID:24040083

Farkas, Carlos; Martins, Carla P.; Escobar, David; Hepp, Matias I.; Donner, David B.; Castro, Ariel F.; Evan, Gerard; Gutiérrez, José L.; Warren, Robert; Pincheira, Roxana

2013-01-01

293

Health-risk behaviors among a sample of US pre- adolescents: Types, frequency, and predictive factors  

PubMed Central

Background Children as young as 10 years old report curiosity and participation in health-risk behaviors, yet most studies focus upon adolescent samples. Objective To document the types and frequencies of health risk behavior among pre-adolescents and to examine the child, family, and environment factors that predict them. Method A sample of 297 pre-adolescents (mean age = 10.5, SD = 0.6) from two Midwestern US cities and their parents (child-parent dyads) provided data about demographic characteristics, health risk behavior participation, child self-esteem, child pubertal development, child and adult perception of their neighborhood, and parent monitoring. Their participation was at intake to a 5-year clustered randomized controlled trial. Results Pre-adolescents participated in an average of 3.7 health-risk behaviors (SD = 2.0), primarily those that lead to unintentional (helmet and seatbelt use) and intentional (feeling unsafe, having something stolen, and physical fighting) injury. Factors predictive of unintentional injury risk behavior were self-esteem, pubertal development, parent monitoring, and parent perception of the neighborhood environment. Boys were 1.8 times less likely than girls to use helmets and seatbelts. Pre-adolescents whose parents were not partnered were 2.8 times more likely than pre-adolescents whose parents were partnered to report intentional risk behavior. Recommendations These data demonstrate trends that cannot be ignored. We recommend, focused specifically upon boys and non-partnered families, that (a) developmentally-appropriate, appealing prevention messages be developed and delivered for parents and pre-adolescents and community interventions targeting both parent and pre-adolescent together be provided to help them establish and monitor behavioral expectations and (b) organized nursing endorse policy in the US and globally that assures adequate family environments for children. PMID:23177901

Riesch, Susan K.; Kedrowski, Karen; Brown, Roger L.; Temkin, Barbara Myers; Wang, Kevin; Henriques, Jeffrey; Jacobson, Gloria; Giustino-Kluba, Nina

2012-01-01

294

Assessment of the Common Risk Factors Associated with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Jeddah  

PubMed Central

Risk factor management is important in avoiding life-threatening complications and preventing new-onset diabetes. We performed a case-control study in 2013 at ten primary health care centers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia to determine the common risk factors of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and the demographic background of adult Saudi patients with DM2. Known diabetic patients were recruited as cases, while nondiabetic attendants were selected as controls. A pretested designed questionnaire was used to collect data from 159 cases and 128 controls. Cases were more likely than controls to be men (P < 0.0001), less educated (P < 0.0001), natives of eastern Saudi Arabia (P < 0.0001), retired (P < 0.0001), lower-salaried (P < 0.0001), or married or divorced (P < 0.0001). By univariate analysis cases were likely to be current smokers (P < 0.0001), hypertensive (P < 0.0001), or overweight/obese (P < 0.0001). Cases were also more likely to have a history of DM in a first-degree relative (P = 0.020). By multivariate analysis, cases were more likely to be older than 40 years (P < 0.0001), less educated (P = 0.05), married or divorced (P = 0.04), jobless/housewives (P < 0.0001), or current smokers (P = 0.002). They were also more likely to have salaries <7000 Saudi riyals (P = 0.01). Overall, prediabetic and high risk groups should be identified and counseled early before the occurrence of diabetes. PMID:25548563

Murad, Manal A.; Abdulmageed, Samia S.; Iftikhar, Rahila; Sagga, Bayan Khaled

2014-01-01

295

Perturbations of Fibroblast Growth Factors 19 and 21 in Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Fibroblast growth factors 19 and 21 (FGF19 and FGF21) have been implicated, independently, in type 2 diabetes (T2D) but it is not known if their circulating levels correlate with each other or whether the associated hepatic signaling mechanisms that play a role in glucose metabolism are dysregulated in diabetes. We used a cross-sectional, case/control, experimental design involving Class III obese patients undergoing Roux-en-Y bariatric surgery (RYGB), and measured FGF19 and FGF21 serum levels and hepatic gene expression (mRNA) in perioperative liver wedge biopsies. We found that T2D patients had lower FGF19 and higher FGF21 serum levels. The latter was corroborated transcriptionally, whereby, FGF21, as well as CYP7A1, ?-Klotho, FGFR4, HNF4?, and glycogen synthase, but not of SHP or FXR mRNA levels in liver biopsies were higher in T2D patients that did not remit diabetes after RYGB surgery, compared to T2D patients that remitted diabetes after RYGB surgery or did not have diabetes. In a Phenome-wide association analysis using 205 clinical variables, higher FGF21 serum levels were associated with higher glucose levels and various cardiometabolic disease phenotypes. When serum levels of FGF19 were < 200 mg/mL and FGF21 > 500 mg/mL, 91% of patients had diabetes. These data suggest that FGF19/FGF21 circulating levels and hepatic gene expression of the associated signaling pathway are significantly dysregulated in type 2 diabetes. PMID:25664662

Roesch, Stephen L.; Styer, Amanda M.; Wood, G. Craig; Kosak, Zachary; Seiler, Jamie; Benotti, Peter; Petrick, Anthony T.; Gabrielsen, Jon; Strodel, William E.; Gerhard, Glenn S.; Still, Christopher D.; Argyropoulos, George

2015-01-01

296

Impact of Environmental Factors and Biological Soil Crust Types on Soil Respiration in a Desert Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

The responses of soil respiration to environmental conditions have been studied extensively in various ecosystems. However, little is known about the impacts of temperature and moisture on soils respiration under biological soil crusts. In this study, CO2 efflux from biologically-crusted soils was measured continuously with an automated chamber system in Ningxia, northwest China, from June to October 2012. The highest soil respiration was observed in lichen-crusted soil (0.93±0.43 µmol m?2 s?1) and the lowest values in algae-crusted soil (0.73±0.31 µmol m?2 s?1). Over the diurnal scale, soil respiration was highest in the morning whereas soil temperature was highest in the midday, which resulted in diurnal hysteresis between the two variables. In addition, the lag time between soil respiration and soil temperature was negatively correlated with the soil volumetric water content and was reduced as soil water content increased. Over the seasonal scale, daily mean nighttime soil respiration was positively correlated with soil temperature when moisture exceeded 0.075 and 0.085 m3 m?3 in lichen- and moss-crusted soil, respectively. However, moisture did not affect on soil respiration in algae-crusted soil during the study period. Daily mean nighttime soil respiration normalized by soil temperature increased with water content in lichen- and moss-crusted soil. Our results indicated that different types of biological soil crusts could affect response of soil respiration to environmental factors. There is a need to consider the spatial distribution of different types of biological soil crusts and their relative contributions to the total C budgets at the ecosystem or landscape level. PMID:25050837

Feng, Wei; Zhang, Yuqing; Jia, Xin; Wu, Bin; Zha, Tianshan; Qin, Shugao; Wang, Ben; Shao, Chenxi; Liu, Jiabin; Fa, Keyu

2014-01-01

297

DIFFERENTIAL ACTIVATION OF NEURONAL CELL TYPES IN THE BASOLATERAL AMYGDALA BY CORTICOTROPIN RELEASING FACTOR  

PubMed Central

Enhanced CRF release in the BLA is strongly associated with the generation of behavioral stress responses through activation of the CRF-R1 receptor subtype. Stress and anxiety-like behavior are modulated in part by the balance of peptide actions such as excitatory corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) and inhibitory neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor activation in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA). While the actions of CRF are clear, little is known about the cell type influenced by CRF receptor stimulation. These studies were designed to identify the cell types within the BLA activated by intra-BLA administration of CRF using multi-label immunohistochemistry for cFos and markers for pyramidal (CaMKII-immunopositive) and interneuronal [glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65)] cell populations. Administration of CRF into the BLA produced a dose-dependent increase in the expression of cFos-ir. Intra-BLA injection of CRF induced significant increases in cFos-ir in the CaMKII-ir population. Although increases in cFos-ir in GAD65-ir cells were observed, this did not reach statistical significance perhaps in part due to the decreased numbers of GAD65-ir cells within the BLA after CRF treatment. These findings demonstrate that CRF, when released into the BLA, activates projection neurons and that the activity of GABAergic interneurons is also altered by CRF treatment. Decreases in the number of GAD65-ir neurons could reflect either increased or decreased activity of these cells and future studies will more directly address these possibilities. The expression of increased of cFos is associated with longer term regulation of gene expression which may be involved in the profound long term effects of neuropeptides, such as CRF, on the activity and plasticity of BLA pyramidal neurons. PMID:23688647

Rostkowski, Amanda B.; Leitermann, Randy J.; Urban, Janice H.

2013-01-01

298

Impact of environmental factors and biological soil crust types on soil respiration in a desert ecosystem.  

PubMed

The responses of soil respiration to environmental conditions have been studied extensively in various ecosystems. However, little is known about the impacts of temperature and moisture on soils respiration under biological soil crusts. In this study, CO2 efflux from biologically-crusted soils was measured continuously with an automated chamber system in Ningxia, northwest China, from June to October 2012. The highest soil respiration was observed in lichen-crusted soil (0.93 ± 0.43 µmol m-2 s-1) and the lowest values in algae-crusted soil (0.73 ± 0.31 µmol m-2 s-1). Over the diurnal scale, soil respiration was highest in the morning whereas soil temperature was highest in the midday, which resulted in diurnal hysteresis between the two variables. In addition, the lag time between soil respiration and soil temperature was negatively correlated with the soil volumetric water content and was reduced as soil water content increased. Over the seasonal scale, daily mean nighttime soil respiration was positively correlated with soil temperature when moisture exceeded 0.075 and 0.085 m3 m-3 in lichen- and moss-crusted soil, respectively. However, moisture did not affect on soil respiration in algae-crusted soil during the study period. Daily mean nighttime soil respiration normalized by soil temperature increased with water content in lichen- and moss-crusted soil. Our results indicated that different types of biological soil crusts could affect response of soil respiration to environmental factors. There is a need to consider the spatial distribution of different types of biological soil crusts and their relative contributions to the total C budgets at the ecosystem or landscape level. PMID:25050837

Feng, Wei; Zhang, Yuqing; Jia, Xin; Wu, Bin; Zha, Tianshan; Qin, Shugao; Wang, Ben; Shao, Chenxi; Liu, Jiabin; Fa, Keyu

2014-01-01

299

Pharmacokinetics and hemostatic effect of different factor VIII\\/von Willebrand factor concentrates in von Willebrand's disease type III  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Four different plasma-derived concentrates composed of coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) of varying quality (Hemate-P, Behring; Profilate, Alpha; and FVIII-VHP-vWF, C.R.T.S Lille), or almost purified vWF (Facteur Willebrand, C.R.T.S Lille) and one recombinant FVIII concentrate (Recombinate, Baxter) were given, in doses of 30–60 IU VIII:C\\/kg or 70–110 IU RCof\\/kg, to five patients with von Willebrand's

S. Lethagen; E. Berntorp; I. M. Nilsson

1992-01-01

300

Factoring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Test your factoring skills Factors and Multiples Jeopardy How much do you know about factoring and multiples? Play Jeopardy and find out! Prime Factoring Turkey Shoot Blast these turkeys using your factoring skills. Help the Professor Super save the planet by "cooking" the Giant Frozen Turkeys of Destruction. Math Lines 12 X-Factor Shoot the ball at the other factors to get a product of 12. You can also ...

Mr Clark

2012-10-31

301

Inactivation of the transforming growth factor ? type II receptor in human small cell lung cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

Transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) exerts a growth inhibitory effect on many cell types through binding to two types of receptors, the type I and II receptors. Resistance to TGF-? due to lack of type II receptor (RII) has been described in some cancer types including small cell lung cancer (SCLC). The purpose of this study was to examine the cause of absent RII expression in SCLC cell lines. Northern blot analysis showed that RII RNA expression was very weak in 16 of 21 cell lines. To investigate if the absence of RII transcript was due to mutations, we screened the poly-A tract for mutations, but no mutations were detected. Additional screening for mutations of the RII gene revealed a GG to TT base substitution in one cell line, which did not express RII. This mutation generates a stop codon resulting in predicted synthesis of a truncated RII of 219 amino acids. The nature of the mutation, which has not previously been observed in RII, has been linked to exposure to benzo[a]-pyrene, a component of cigarette smoke. Since RII has been mapped to chromosome 3p22 and nearby loci are often hypermethylated in SCLC, it was examined whether the lack of RII expression was due to hypermethylation. Southern blot analysis of the RII promoter did not show altered methylation patterns. The restriction endonuclease pattern of the RII gene was altered in two SCLC cell lines when digested with Sma 1. However, treatment with 5-aza-2?-deoxycytidine did not induce expression of RII mRNA. Our results indicate that in SCLC lack of RII mRNA is not commonly due to mutations and inactivation of RII transcription was not due to hypermethylation of the RII promoter or gene. Thus, these data show that in most cases of the SCLC cell lines, the RII gene and promoter is intact in spite of absent RII expression. However, the nature of the mutation found could suggest that it was caused by cigarette smoking. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10098728

Hougaard, S; Nørgaard, P; Abrahamsen, N; Moses, H L; Spang-Thomsen, M; Skovgaard Poulsen, H

1999-01-01

302

Type 2 diabetes as a risk factor for cognitive impairment: current insights  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for cognitive dysfunction and dementia in the elderly. T2DM has been thought to be associated with vascular diseases, eventually leading to vascular dementia, but recent studies have established that T2DM is also associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). With the increase in the number of elderly individuals with T2DM, the number of diabetic patients with cognitive dysfunction has been increasing. T2DM may accelerate AD-associated pathologies through insulin resistance. Vascular pathologies may also be associated with cognitive dysfunction and dementia in T2DM subjects. Several other mechanisms also seem to be involved in T2DM-related cognitive dysfunction. More investigations to clarify the association of T2DM with cognitive impairment are warranted. These investigations may help to increase our understanding of AD and open a new door to the development of therapeutics. Recent pharmaceutical advancement in T2DM treatment has resulted in the availability of a wide range of antidiabetics. Some evidence has suggested that antidiabetic therapies help to prevent cognitive dysfunction. At present, however, the optimal level of blood glucose control and the best combination of medications to achieve it in terms of cognitive preservation have not been established. More investigation is warranted. Cognitive dysfunction is an emerging new complication of T2DM that requires further study. PMID:25061284

Umegaki, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

303

Epidermal growth factor receptor immunohistochemistry in different histological types of infiltrating breast carcinoma.  

PubMed Central

AIMS--To determine the immunohistochemical expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) in high grade, intermediate, and low grade tumours. METHODS--Specimens from 931 breast carcinomas were partly formalin fixed and paraffin wax embedded, to classify cases, and partly frozen in liquid nitrogen, cryostat sectioned, and immunostained using two monoclonal antibodies from clone 455 and 528 to demonstrate EGF-R positive cells. An avidin-biotin complex and peroxidase method was used after incubation with biotinylated anti-mouse antibody; colour was developed using a diaiminobenzidine solution. RESULTS--Low grade carcinomas seldom expressed EGF-R (n = 3) compared with 106 high grade infiltrating ductal carcinomas: EGF-R positive cases were much less common in infiltrating lobular than in infiltrating ductal carcinoma. Medullary carcinomas did not differ from infiltrating ductal carcinomas. CONCLUSIONS--The very low incidence of EGF-R positive cases in the "special type" group of breast carcinomas with a good prognosis is in line with the absence of the homologous c-erbB-2 and p53 oncoproteins, and the rarity of highly proliferating and oestrogen/progesterone negative cases. EGF-R expression in infiltrating lobular carcinoma was in keeping with the intermediate behaviour of this kind of tumour. EGF-R expression in cases of pure medullary carcinoma is the same as that of high grade tumours. PMID:8254086

Martinazzi, M; Crivelli, F; Zampatti, C; Martinazzi, S

1993-01-01

304

Action of platelet-activating factor on type 1 diabetic human platelets  

SciTech Connect

Platelets from patients with type 1 diabetes have exhibited more sensitivity to aggregation when compared with platelets from controls without diabetes after challenge with platelet-activating factor (PAF). The production of thromboxane B2 (TxB2) and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) and the release of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) were increased when the platelets were challenged by PAF (5.0 x 10(-6) mol/L and 1.0 x 10(-6) mol/L). The production of TxB2 and 12-HETE and the release of 5HT were related to the irreversible biphasic aggregation profiles observed in the patients with diabetes. Inhibition of thromboxane A2 (TxA2) production by acetylsalicylic acid abolished the secondary wave of aggregation of platelets from patients with diabetes, changing an irreversible aggregation to a reversible one. Inhibition of both TxA2 and 12-HETE production by eicosatetraenoic acid did not contribute further to the inhibition caused by acetylsalicylic acid alone, indicating that 12-HETE was not involved in the secondary wave of aggregation. These data show that the increased aggregation observed in the platelets from the group with diabetes in response to PAF results in part from their higher production of TxA2 and release of 5HT.

Greco, N.J.; Arnold, J.H.; O'Dorisio, T.M.; Cataland, S.; Panganamala, R.V.

1985-04-01

305

Tissue Factor Expression in Obese Type 2 Diabetic Subjects and Its Regulation by Antidiabetic Agents  

PubMed Central

Objective. Increased coagulation activation may contribute to the high incidence of cardiovascular complications observed in obese and type 2 diabetes (T2D) subjects. Although tissue factor (TF), the primary initiator of coagulation is increased in obesity, its expression in adipose tissues and its association with metabolic parameters are unclear. We sought to compare TF expression in plasma and adipose tissues of obese subjects with and without T2D, its correlation with metabolic parameters, and regulation in response to antidiabetic drugs. Methods Subjects were recruited from diabetes clinics and adipose tissue was obtained by needle biopsy of lower subcutaneous abdominal depot. For the intervention study, subjects were randomized into treatment groups with rosiglitazone or metformin for 4 months. Results. Plasma TF antigen, activity, and adipose TF mRNA were greater in obese T2D subjects compared with obese nondiabetics. Plasma TF activity correlated with fasting insulin, glucose, and free fatty acids, (FFAs), and adipose TF mRNA correlated with plasma FFA. Plasma TF activity was reduced by metformin and increased with rosiglitazone treatment. Conclusions. Specific diabetes-related metabolic parameters, but not obesity per se, are correlated with TF expression. Regulation of TF activity by different classes of antidiabetic drugs may relate to protective or adverse cardiovascular outcomes.

Wang, Jing; Ciaraldi, Theodore P.; Samad, Fahumiya

2015-01-01

306

The basic residues of placenta growth factor type 2 retrieve sequestered angiogenic factors into a soluble form: implications for tumor angiogenesis.  

PubMed Central

Placenta growth factor type 1 (PIGF-1) can be synthesized by neoplastic cells in an alternative form (PIGF-2) by the addition of basic amino acids to its classic sequence. Here we show that the basic residues of PIGF-2 compete for the binding of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to heparan sulfate proteoglycans of the cell surface and extracellular matrix. In doing so, PIGF-2 basic sequences inhibit the sequestering of VEGF and bFGF and maintain them in a highly diffusible form, thus enhancing their angiogenic effect. In agreement with these in vitro data, the presence of PIGF-2 transcripts in tumors correlates with their blood vessel number. These results suggest a mechanism by which growth factor isoforms produced by neoplastic cells enhance the formation of new blood vessels supporting tumor growth and progression. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:9588884

Barillari, G.; Albonici, L.; Franzese, O.; Modesti, A.; Liberati, F.; Barillari, P.; Ensoli, B.; Manzari, V.; Santeusanio, G.

1998-01-01

307

Simple self-reported behavioral or psychological characteristics as risk factors for future type 2 diabetes in Japanese individuals: Toranomon Hospital Health Management Center Study 14  

PubMed Central

Aims/Introduction Depression, anger, sleep disorders and cognitive impairment are regarded as presenting a high risk for diabetes. We investigated whether responses to single statements on a self-report questionnaire on the presence of each of these four factors were associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods We investigated 3,211 Japanese individuals without diabetes. Cumulative incidence rate and hazard ratios (HRs) for future type 2 diabetes over 7–13 years were evaluated according to the presence of lack of perseverance, anger, memory loss or sleep disorders. Results Results of Cox regression analysis showed that lack of perseverance (age- and sex-adjusted HR 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.07–1.84), anger, (HR 1.51, 95% confidence interval 1.07–2.12) or memory loss (HR 1.47, 95% confidence interval 1.14–1.90) was predictive of the development of diabetes. Even after adjustment for metabolic factors including glycemic measurements, anger was significantly associated with an increased risk of future diabetes. Individuals with both anger and memory loss had a 1.94-fold (95% confidence interval 1.19–3.15) increased risk of type 2 diabetes than those without those two symptoms. Conclusions Responses to a simple self-report questionnaire as to whether individuals were aware of anger or memory loss were associated with the development of type 2 diabetes independent of traditional risk factors for diabetes in this cohort of Japanese individuals.

Heianza, Yoriko; Arase, Yasuji; Kodama, Satoru; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Fujihara, Kazuya; Saito, Kazumi; Hara, Shigeko; Sone, Hirohito

2015-01-01

308

Comparing Factor, Class, and Mixture Models of Cannabis Initiation and DSM Cannabis Use Disorder Criteria, Including Craving, in the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidence suggests that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnostic criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence are best represented by a single underlying factor. However, it remains possible that models with additional factors, or latent class models or hybrid models, may better explain the data. Using structured interviews, 626 adult male and female twins provided complete data on symptoms of cannabis abuse and dependence, plus a craving criterion. We compared latent factor analysis, latent class analysis, and factor mixture modeling using normal theory marginal maximum likelihood for ordinal data. Our aim was to derive a parsimonious, best-fitting cannabis use disorder (CUD) phenotype based on DSM-IV criteria and determine whether DSM-5 craving loads onto a general factor. When compared with latent class and mixture models, factor models provided a better fit to the data. When conditioned on initiation and cannabis use, the association between criteria for abuse, dependence, withdrawal, and craving were best explained by two correlated latent factors for males and females: a general risk factor to CUD and a factor capturing the symptoms of social and occupational impairment as a consequence of frequent use. Secondary analyses revealed a modest increase in the prevalence of DSM-5 CUD compared with DSM-IV cannabis abuse or dependence. It is concluded that, in addition to a general factor with loadings on cannabis use and symptoms of abuse, dependence, withdrawal, and craving, a second clinically relevant factor defined by features of social and occupational impairment was also found for frequent cannabis use. PMID:24588857

Kubarych, Thomas S.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Aggen, Steven H.; Estabrook, Ryne; Edwards, Alexis C.; Clark, Shaunna L.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Hickie, Ian B.; Neale, Michael C.; Gillespie, Nathan A.

2014-01-01

309

Endocrine therapy considerations in postmenopausal patients with hormone receptor positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 negative advanced breast cancers.  

PubMed

The standard of care for patients with hormone receptor positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 negative advanced breast cancer is endocrine therapy. Endocrine agents, including aromatase inhibitors, tamoxifen, and fulvestrant, are often administered alone as first line treatment and demonstrate durable responses with limited side effects. Endocrine resistance represents a major clinical problem. In the future, poly-endocrine therapy and combination therapies with biological agents might become valuable options for the first line treatment of hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer. However, it will be critical to develop clinical tools that can reliably identify the subgroup of patients most likely to benefit from endocrine therapy alone, and those who might benefit from alternative approaches.Herein, we will review and discuss current issues in the endocrine treatment of postmenopausal patients with hormone receptor positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 negative advanced breast cancer. PMID:25779739

Migliaccio, Ilenia; Malorni, Luca; Hart, Christopher D; Guarducci, Cristina; Di Leo, Angelo

2015-12-01

310

The use of a simulator to include human factors issues in the interface design of a nuclear power plant control room  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technology plays an important role in advanced control rooms that relies on complex technical equipment and interfaces. Human error has many causes such as performance shaping factors, organizational factors and interface design. In the safe operation of nuclear power plant, the performance of the control room crew plays an important role. In this respect, a well-designed control room and human–system

Isaac José Antonio Luquetti dos Santos; Douglas Vidal Teixeira; Fernando Toledo Ferraz; Paulo Victor Rodrigues Carvalho

2008-01-01

311

43 CFR 404.10 - Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included in a rural...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...facilities that may not be included in a rural water supply project? 404.10 Section 404.10 Public...facilities that may not be included in a rural water supply project? Yes. A rural water supply project may not include: (a) Any...

2013-10-01

312

43 CFR 404.10 - Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included in a rural...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...facilities that may not be included in a rural water supply project? 404.10 Section 404.10 Public...facilities that may not be included in a rural water supply project? Yes. A rural water supply project may not include: (a) Any...

2011-10-01

313

43 CFR 404.10 - Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included in a rural...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...facilities that may not be included in a rural water supply project? 404.10 Section 404.10 Public...facilities that may not be included in a rural water supply project? Yes. A rural water supply project may not include: (a) Any...

2012-10-01

314

43 CFR 404.10 - Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included in a rural...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...facilities that may not be included in a rural water supply project? 404.10 Section 404.10 Public...facilities that may not be included in a rural water supply project? Yes. A rural water supply project may not include: (a) Any...

2014-10-01

315

43 CFR 404.10 - Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included in a rural...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...facilities that may not be included in a rural water supply project? 404.10 Section 404.10 Public...facilities that may not be included in a rural water supply project? Yes. A rural water supply project may not include: (a) Any...

2010-10-01

316

Identification of genomic binding sites for Candida glabrata Pdr1 transcription factor in wild-type and ?0 cells.  

PubMed

The fungal pathogen Candida glabrata is an emerging cause of candidiasis in part owing to its robust ability to acquire tolerance to the major clinical antifungal drug fluconazole. Similar to the related species Candida albicans, C. glabrata most typically gains azole tolerance via transcriptional induction of a suite of resistance genes, including a locus encoding an ABCG-type ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that is referred to as CDR1 in Candida species. In C. glabrata, CDR1 expression is controlled primarily by the activity of a transcriptional activator protein called Pdr1. Strains exhibiting reduced azole susceptibility often contain substitution mutations in PDR1 that in turn lead to elevated mRNA levels of target genes with associated azole resistance. Pdr1 activity is also induced upon loss of the mitochondrial genome status and upon challenge by azole drugs. While extensive analyses of the transcriptional effects of Pdr1 have identified a number of genes that are regulated by this factor, we cannot yet separate direct from indirect target genes. Here we used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) coupled with high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) to identify the promoters and associated genes directly regulated by Pdr1. These genes include many that are shared with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae but others that are unique to C. glabrata, including the ABC transporter-encoding locus YBT1, genes involved in DNA repair, and several others. These data provide the outline for understanding the primary response genes involved in production of Pdr1-dependent azole resistance in C. glabrata. PMID:25199772

Paul, Sanjoy; Bair, Thomas B; Moye-Rowley, W Scott

2014-11-01

317

Factors associated with probability of personal digital assistant-based dietary self-monitoring in those with type 2 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of factors associated with the use of technology could inform the design of technology-based behavioral interventions.\\u000a This study examined modifiable and nonmodifiable factors associated with technology-based self-monitoring. 123 participants\\u000a with type 2 diabetes self-monitored diet using a personal digital assistant in a 6-month behavioral intervention. Multinomial\\u000a logistic regression was used to examine probability of nonadherent and suboptimally adherent behavior

Mary Ann Sevick; Roslyn A. Stone; Susan Zickmund; Yuanyuan Wang; Mary Korytkowski; Lora E. Burke

2010-01-01

318

Risk factors for coronary heart disease in type 1 diabetic patients in Europe : The EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE—The goal of the study was to examine risk factors in the prediction of coronary heart disease (CHD) and differences in men and women in the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Baseline risk factors and CHD at follow-up were assessed in 2,329 type 1 diabetic patients without prior CHD. CHD was defined as physician-diagnosed myocardial infarction, angina pectoris,

S. S. Soedamah-Muthu; N. Chaturvedi; M. Toeller; B. Ferriss; P. Reboldi; G. Michel; C. Manes; J. H. Fuller

2004-01-01

319

Eye Color, Hair Color, Blood Type, and the Rhesus Factor: Exploring Possible Genetic Links to Sexual Orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study sought to expand the limited evidence that sexual orientation is influenced by genetic factors. This was\\u000a accomplished by seeking statistical differences between heterosexuals and homosexuals for four traits that are known to be\\u000a genetically determined: eye color, natural hair color, blood type, and the Rhesus factor. Using a sample of over 7,000 U.S.\\u000a and Canadian college students

Lee Ellis; Christopher Ficek; Donald Burke; Shyamal Das

2008-01-01

320

Nonsex Genes in the Mating Type Locus of Candida albicans Play Roles in a/? Biofilm Formation, Including Impermeability and Fluconazole Resistance  

PubMed Central

The mating type locus (MTL) of Candida albicans contains the mating type genes and has, therefore, been assumed to play an exclusive role in the mating process. In mating-incompetent a/? cells, two of the mating type genes, MTLa1 and MTL?2, encode components of the a1-?2 corepressor that suppresses mating and switching. But the MTL locus of C. albicans also contains three apparently unrelated “nonsex” genes (NSGs), PIK, PAP and OBP, the first two essential for growth. Since it had been previously demonstrated that deleting either the a/? copy of the entire MTL locus, or either MTLa1 or MTL?2, affected virulence, we hypothesized that the NSGs in the MTL locus may also play a role in pathogenesis. Here by mutational analysis, it is demonstrated that both the mating type and nonsex genes in the MTL locus play roles in a/? biofilm formation, and that OBP is essential for impermeability and fluconazole resistance. PMID:22253594

Pujol, Claude; Sahni, Nidhi; Yi, Song; Soll, David R.

2012-01-01

321

Simultaneous determination of local anesthetics including ester-type anesthetics in human plasma and urine by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry with solid-phase extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study describes the simultaneous determination of seven different kinds of local anesthetics and one metabolite by GC–MS with solid-state extraction: Mepivacaine, propitocaine, lidocaine, procaine (an ester-type local anesthetics), cocaine, tetracaine (an ester-type local anesthetics), dibucaine (Dib) and monoethylglycinexylidide (a metabolite of lidocaine) were clearly separated from each other and simultaneously determined by GC–MS using a DB-1 open tubular

Tohru Ohshima; Tatsunori Takayasu

1999-01-01

322

Load effects on Nola-type induction motor power-factor controllers on fuel-cell inverters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tests performed on power inverters using Nola-type power factor controllers (PFC) and fractional horsepower single phase induction motors as loading devices are discussed. The inverters were designed for integral operation with fuel cell power plants and represented four differential developmental designs ranging in power ratings from 1.5 kW to 5 kW. In addition, a 1000 VA commercial aircraft-type inverter was also tested. Results are presented and discussed.

1982-12-01

323

First-phase insulin release during the intravenous glucose tolerance test as a risk factor for type 1 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the relationship between first-phase (1 minute + 3 minutes) insulin production during the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IV-GTT) and risk factors for developing type 1 diabetes. Study Design: Relatives of persons with type 1 diabetes (n = 59,600) were screened for islet cell antibodies (ICAs). Subjects who had positive screening results underwent IV-GTT (?2 times), repeat ICA

H. Peter Chase; David D. Cuthbertson; Lawrence M. Dolan; Francine Kaufman; Jeffrey P. Krischer; Desmond A. Schatz; Neil H. White; Darrell M. Wilson; Joseph Wolfsdorf

2001-01-01

324

Depression as a risk factor for the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  Evidence strongly suggests that depression and type 2 diabetes are associated, but the direction of the association is still unclear. Depression may occur as a consequence of having diabetes, but may also be a risk factor for the onset of type 2 diabetes. This study examined the latter association by reviewing the literature and conducting a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies

M. J. Knol; J. W. R. Twisk; A. T. F. Beekman; R. J. Heine; F. J. Snoek; F. Pouwer

2006-01-01

325

MuRF1 is a muscle fiber type II associated factor and together with MuRF2 regulates type II fiber trophicity and maintenance  

PubMed Central

MuRF1 is a member of the RBCC (RING, B-box, coiled-coil) superfamily that has been proposed to act as an atrogin during muscle wasting. Here, we show that MuRF1 is preferentially expressed in type II muscle fibers. Five and 14 days after denervation, MuRF1 protein was further elevated but remained preferentially expressed in type-II muscle fibers. Consistent with a fiber-type dependent function of MuRF1, the tibialis anterior muscle (rich in type-II muscle fibers) was considerably more protected in MuRF1-KO mice from muscle wasting when compared to soleus muscle with mixed fiber-types. We also determined fiber type distributions in MuRF1/MuRF2 double deficient KO (dKO) mice, because MuRF2 is a close homolog of MuRF1. MuRF1/MuRF2 dKO mice showed a profound loss of type-II fibers in soleus muscle. As a potential mechanism we identified the interaction of MuRF1/MuRF2 with myozenin-1, a calcineurin/NFAT regulator and a factor required for maintenance of type-II muscle fibers. MuRF1/MuRF2 dKO mice had lost myozenin-1 expression in tibialis anterior muscle, implicating MuRF1/MuRF2 as regulators of the calcineurin/NFAT pathway. In summary, our data suggest that expression of MuRF1 is required for remodeling of type-II fibers under pathophysiological stress states, whereas MuRF1 and MuRF2 together are required for maintenance of type-II fibers, possibly via the regulation of myozenin-1. PMID:20149877

Moriscot, Anselmo; Baptista, Igor L.; Bogomolovas, Julius; Krohne, Christian; Hirner, Stephanie; Granzier, Henk; Labeit, Siegfried

2010-01-01

326

Basal and postprandial change in serum fibroblast growth factor-21 concentration in type 1 diabetic mellitus and in healthy controls.  

PubMed

Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) appears to have an important role in glucose and lipid metabolism. FGF-21 secretion is mainly determined by nutritional status. The aim of this study was to measure basal and postprandial FGF-21 and postprandial change of FGF-21 concentration in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients and in healthy controls, and to investigate the differences between the groups. The cross-sectional study included 30 C-peptide negative T1DM patients, median age 37 years (20-59), disease duration 22 years (3-45), and nine healthy controls, median age 30 years (27-47). Basal and postprandial FGF-21 concentrations were measured by ELISA. The associations of FGF-21 with glucose, lipids, and insulin were analyzed. Individuals with T1DM showed significantly lower basal FGF-21 concentration (P = 0.046) when compared with healthy controls (median value 28.2 vs 104 pg/mL) and had significantly different postprandial change (? 30'-0') of FGF-21 (P = 0.006) in comparison with healthy controls (median value -1.1 vs -20.5 pg/mL). The glucose and lipid status did not correlate with FGF-21. In healthy controls, postprandial insulin level correlated with basal FGF-21 (? = 0.7, P = 0.036). Multiple regression analysis showed that they are independently associated after adjustment for confounding factors (? = 1.824, P = 0.04). We describe the pathological pattern of basal and postprandial change of FGF-21 secretion not associated with glucose, lipid levels, or insulin therapy in patients with T1DM. Since FGF-21 has numerous protective metabolic effects in the experimental model, the lower basal FGF-21 concentration in T1DM patients opens the question about the potential role of recombinant FGF-21 therapy. PMID:25194937

Zibar, Karin; Blaslov, Kristina; Bulum, Tomislav; ?u?a, Jadranka Kneževi?; Smir?i?-Duvnjak, Lea

2015-04-01

327

Cell-type-specific expression of STAT transcription factors in tissue samples from patients with lymphocytic thyroiditis.  

PubMed

Expression of cytokine-regulated signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins was histochemically assessed in patients diagnosed as having Hashimoto's disease or focal lymphocytic thyroiditis (n = 10). All surgical specimens showed histological features of lymphocytic thyroiditis, including a diffuse infiltration with mononuclear cells and an incomplete loss of thyroid follicles, resulting in the destruction of glandular tissue architecture. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated differential expression patterns of the various members of the STAT transcription factors examined, indicating that each member of this conserved protein family has its distinct functions in the development of the disease. Using an antibody that specifically recognized the phosphorylated tyrosine residue in position 701, we detected activated STAT1 dimers in numerous germinal macrophages and infiltrating lymphocytes as well as in oncocytes. In contrast, STAT3 expression was restricted to epithelial cells and showed a clear colocalization with the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. Moreover, expression of phospho-STAT3 was associated with low levels of stromal fibrosis, suggesting that STAT3 serves as a protective factor in the remodeling of the inflamed thyroid gland. Phospho-STAT5 immunoreactivity was detected in numerous infiltrating cells of hematopoietic origin and, additionally, in hyperplastic follicular epithelia. This tissue distribution demonstrated that activated STAT5 molecules participate in both lymphocytopoiesis and possibly also in the buildup of regenerating thyroid follicles. Taken together, the cell-type-specific expression patterns of STAT proteins in human lymphocytic thyroiditis reflect their distinct and partially antagonistic roles in orchestrating the balance between degenerating and regenerating processes within a changing cytokine environment. PMID:22527947

Staab, Julia; Barth, Peter J; Meyer, Thomas

2012-09-01

328

Serum prolactin concentrations as risk factor of metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes?  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate potential associations of serum prolactin concentration (PRL) with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), previously observed in small and selected study samples, in a large population-based cohort. Methods Data from 3,993 individuals (2,027 women) aged 20-79 years from the population-based Study of Health of Pomerania (SHIP) were used to analyse cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of PRL with MetS and T2DM risk in age- and multivariable-adjusted Poisson regression models. PRL were log-transformed and modelled as continuous (per standard deviation (SD) increase) and categorical predictor (sex-specific quartiles) variable, separately for men and woman. Results Cross-sectional analyses showed an inverse association between low PRL concentrations and prevalent T2DM risk in men and women after multivariable-adjustment (men: Q1 vs. Q4: relative risk (RR), 1.55; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.13 – 2.14; women: Q1 vs. Q4: RR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.10 – 2.62). Likewise, higher PRL concentrations were associated with significantly lower T2DM risk (RR per SD increase in log-PRL: 0.83; 95% CI, 0.72 – 0.95 in men, and 0.84; 95% CI, 0.71 – 0.98 in women, respectively). An inverse association between PRL and MetS risk was not retained after multivariable adjustment. Longitudinal analyses yielded no association of PRL with incident MetS or T2DM. Conclusion The present study is the first large population-based study reporting a cross-sectional inverse association between PRL and prevalent T2DM in both genders. But the absent longitudinal associations do not support a causal role of PRL as a risk factor of incident MetS or T2DM. PMID:23517652

2013-01-01

329

Regulation of intestinal epithelial cell growth by transforming growth factor type beta.  

PubMed Central

A nontransformed rat jejunal crypt cell line (IEC-6) expresses transforming growth factor type beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) mRNA, secretes latent 125I-labeled TGF-beta 1 competing activity into culture medium, and binds 125I-labeled TGF-beta 1 to specific, high-affinity (Kd = 3.7 pM) cell surface receptors. IEC-6 cell growth is markedly inhibited by TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 with half-maximal inhibition occurring between 0.1 and 1.0 ng of TGF-beta 1 per ml. TGF-beta 1-mediated growth inhibition is not associated with the appearance of biochemical markers of enterocyte differentiation such as alkaline phosphatase expression and sucrase activity. TGF-beta 1 (10 ng/ml) increases steady-state levels of its own mRNA expression within 8 hr of treatment of rapidly growing IEC-6 cells. In freshly isolated rat jejunal enterocytes that are sequentially eluted from the crypt villus axis, TGF-beta 1 mRNA expression is most abundant in terminally differentiated villus tip cells and least abundant in the less differentiated, mitotically active crypt cells. We conclude that TGF-beta 1 is an autoregulated growth inhibitor in IEC-6 cells that potentially functions in an autocrine manner. In the rat jejunal epithelium, TGF-beta 1 expression is most prominently localized to the villus tip--i.e., the region of the crypt villus unit that is characterized by the terminally differentiated phenotype. These data suggest that TGF-beta 1 may function in coordination of the rapid cell turnover typical for the intestinal epithelium. Images PMID:2466294

Barnard, J A; Beauchamp, R D; Coffey, R J; Moses, H L

1989-01-01

330

Energy partitioning and environmental influence factors in different vegetation types in the GEWEX Asian Monsoon Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental influences upon energy balance in areas of different vegetation types (i.e., forest at Kog-Ma in Thailand and at Yakutsk in Russia, grassland at Amdo in Chinese Tibet and at Arvaikheer in Mongolia, and mixed farmland at Tak in Thailand) in the GEWEX Asian Monsoon Experiment were investigated. The sites we investigated are geographically and climatologically different; and consequently had quite large variations in temperature ( T), water vapor pressure deficit (VPD), soil moisture (SM), and precipitation (PPT). During May-October, the net radiation flux ( R n) (in W·m-2) was 406.21 at Tak, 365.57 at Kog-Ma, 390.97 at Amdo, 316.65 at Arvaikheer, and 287.10 at Yakutsk. During the growing period, the R n partitioned into latent heat flux ( ?E/ R n) was greater than that partitioned into sensible heat flux ( H/ R n) at Tak and at Kog-Ma. In contrast, ?E/ R n was lower than H/ R n at Arvaikheer, H/ R n was less than ?E/ R n between DOY 149 and DOY 270 at Amdo, and between DOY 165 and DOY 235 at Yakutsk. The R n partitioned into ground heat flux was generally less than 0.15. The short-wave albedo was 0.12, 0.18, and 0.20 at the forest, mixed land, and grass sites, respectively. At an hourly scale, energy partitions had no correlation with environmental factors, based on average summer halfhourly values. At a seasonal scale energy partitions were linearly correlated (usually p<0.05) with T, VPD, and SM. The ?E/ R n increased with increases in SM, T, and VPD at forest areas. At mixed farmlands, ?E/ R n generally had positive correlations with SM, T, and VPD, but was restrained at extremely high values of VPD and T. At grasslands, ?E/ R n was enhanced with increases of SM and T, but was decreased with VPD.

Liu, Fengshan; Tao, Fulu; Li, Shenggong; Zhang, Shuai; Xiao, Dengpan; Wang, Meng

2014-12-01

331

Negative Interference by Rheumatoid Factor of Plasma B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in Chemiluminescent Microparticle Immunoassays  

PubMed Central

Background The chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) is widely used for the quantitative determination of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in human ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid plasma. Rheumatoid factor (RF) is usually thought to result in a positive interference in immunoassays, but it is not clear whether its presence in plasma can lead to interferences in the CMIA of BNP. Methods The estimation of BNP recovery was carried out by diluting high-concentration BNP samples with RF-positive or RF-negative plasma at a ratio of 1?9. The diluted samples were then tested using the ARCHITECT i2000 System and ARCHITECT BNP Reagent Kits and the recovery was then calculated. Results When the RF level ranged from 48 to 1420 IU/mL, the average recovery of BNP was 79.29% and 91.61% in the RF-positive and RF-negative plasma samples, respectively, and was thus significantly lower in the group of RF-positive plasma samples than in the group of RF-negative plasma samples. At a dilution of 1?16, the measured BNP level increased by >36% in six of the seven RF-positive plasma samples. The recovery of BNP increased significantly in the RF-positive plasma samples after pretreatment with IgG-sensitive latex particles. In addition, The BNP recovery was not significantly related to the plasma RF at concentrations ranging from 48 to 2720 IU/mL. Conclusions Measurement of BNP by CMIA is susceptible to interference from RF leading to predominantly (but not exclusively) lower results. Pretreatment of samples with blocking reagents is advisable prior to the initiation of denying patient's necessary treatment. PMID:25144685

Xie, Liangcai; Yang, Decai; Liu, Xuezheng; Zhang, Jiajun; Li, Yirong; Yi, Cunjian

2014-01-01

332

Inadvertent Propagation of Factor VII Deficiency in a Canine Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I Research Breeding Colony  

PubMed Central

Issues of cost and genetics can result in inbreeding of canine genetic disease colonies. Beagles often are used to maintain such colonies, providing stock for outcrosses. Factor VII (FVII) deficiency is a hemostatic disorder found at increased frequency in beagles and has been characterized at the DNA level. Deficiency of FVII presents obstacles in colonies founded with beagles. An initial finding of a FVII-deficient pup from a longstanding colony prompted us to evaluate FVII deficiency fully in this colony. Current and archival records and tissues were used to reconstruct the colony pedigree, assess the contribution from beagles, and test samples to document the source and frequency of the mutant FVII allele. As part of this study we developed a PCR-based diagnostic assay that was simpler than what was previously available. Pedigree analysis revealed a founder effect implicating beagles that led to high frequency (55%) of the mutant allele. In addition, affected animals were identified. The complete picture of the clinical effect within the colony remains unclear, but unusual neonatal presentations, including hemoabdomen, have occurred in pups affected with FVII deficiency. Use of a PCR-based diagnostic assay to screen all potential beagle breeding stock will prevent similar occurrences of FVII deficiency in future canine research colonies. PMID:19712579

Carlstrom, Lucas P; Jens, Jackie K; Dobyns, Marley E; Passage, Merry; Dickson, Patricia I; Ellinwood, N Matthew

2009-01-01

333

Primary Hyperoxaluria Type III Gene HOGA1 (Formerly DHDPSL) as a Possible Risk Factor for Idiopathic Calcium Oxalate Urolithiasis  

PubMed Central

Summary Background and objectives Primary hyperoxaluria types I and II (PHI and PHII) are rare monogenic causes of hyperoxaluria and calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Recently, we described type III, due to mutations in HOGA1 (formerly DHDPSL), hypothesized to cause a gain of mitochondrial 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate aldolase activity, resulting in excess oxalate. Design, setting, participants, & measurements To further explore the pathophysiology of HOGA1, we screened additional non-PHI-PHII patients and performed reverse transcription PCR analysis. Postulating that HOGA1 may influence urine oxalate, we also screened 100 idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. Results Of 28 unrelated hyperoxaluric patients with marked hyperoxaluria not due to PHI, PHII, or any identifiable secondary cause, we identified 10 (36%) with two HOGA1 mutations (four novel, including a nonsense variant). Reverse transcription PCR of the stop codon and two common mutations showed stable expression. From the new and our previously described PHIII cohort, 25 patients were identified for study. Urine oxalate was lower and urine calcium and uric acid were higher when compared with PHI and PHII. After 7.2 years median follow-up, mean eGFR was 116 ml/min per 1.73 m2. HOGA1 heterozygosity was found in two patients with mild hyperoxaluria and in three of 100 idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. No HOGA1 variants were detected in 166 controls. Conclusions These findings, in the context of autosomal recessive inheritance for PHIII, support a loss-of-function mechanism for HOGA1, with potential for a dominant-negative effect. Detection of HOGA1 variants in idiopathic calcium oxalate urolithiasis also suggests HOGA1 may be a predisposing factor for this condition. PMID:21896830

Rossetti, Sandro; Belostotsky, Ruth; Cogal, Andrea G.; Herges, Regina M.; Seide, Barbara M.; Olson, Julie B.; Bergstrahl, Eric J.; Williams, Hugh J.; Haley, William E.; Frishberg, Yaacov; Milliner, Dawn S.

2011-01-01

334

Evaluation of dietary habits and related factors among type 2 diabetic patients: An innovative study in Iran  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess dietary habits and related factors among type 2 diabetic mellitus patients for designing an effective nutrition intervention. Materials and Methods: A descriptive–analytical study was performed on 480 diabetic patients referred to four selected teaching hospitals affiliated to the Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) in Tehran for a period of nine months in 2012. Patients’ dietary habits were measured by a 51-item self-report instrument with four general questions about dietary habits and four subscales reflecting domains including general diabetes information (12 items), planning, shopping for, and preparing meals (6 items), eating meals (17 items), and family influence on dietary habits (12 items). The collected data was analyzed by using SPSS software version 11.5. Results were considered significant at a conventional P < 0.05 level. Results: Mean age of the participants was 59.96 ± 11.53 years. Mean scores in the domains were (53.72 ± 19.83), (57.31 ± 23.82), (52.27 ± 12.13), and (64.72 ± 14.3), respectively. Family influence on dietary habits was highlighted as the most important domain in the dietary habits instrument. Study results revealed that there was a significant association between the four domains and socioeconomic and some variables related to dietary habits such as dietary self-management, planned healthy lifestyle and attending diabetes educational programs. Discussion: The important role of family on dietary habits among type 2 diabetic patients highlighted the role of perceived social support from the family. The results of the sociodemographic variables stressed the necessity of tailoring specific intervention programs accordingly. PMID:24741644

Tol, Azar; Mohebbi, Bahram; Sadeghi, Roya

2014-01-01

335

Relationship between Levels of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Metabolic Parameters in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim. Studies have suggested that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a role in glucose and lipid metabolism and inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum BDNF levels and various metabolic parameters and inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Materials and Methods. The study included 88 T2DM patients and 33 healthy controls. Fasting blood samples were obtained from the patients and the control group. The serum levels of BDNF were measured with an ELISA kit. The current paper introduces a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) generalization curve to identify cut-off for the BDNF values in type 2 diabetes patients. Results. The serum levels of BDNF were significantly higher in T2DM patients than in the healthy controls (206.81?±?107.32?pg/mL versus 130.84?±?59.81?pg/mL; P < 0.001). They showed a positive correlation with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (r = 0.28; P < 0.05), the triglyceride level (r = 0.265; P < 0.05), and white blood cell (WBC) count (r = 0.35; P < 0.001). In logistic regression analysis, age (P < 0.05), body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.05), C-reactive protein (CRP) (P < 0.05), and BDNF (P < 0.01) were independently associated with T2DM. In ROC curve analysis, BDNF cut-off was 137. Conclusion. The serum BDNF level was higher in patients with T2DM. The BDNF had a cut-off value of 137. The findings suggest that BDNF may contribute to glucose and lipid metabolism and inflammation. PMID:25587547

Boyuk, Banu; Degirmencioglu, Serife; Atalay, Hande; Guzel, Savas; Acar, Ayse; Celebi, Aslan; Ekizoglu, Ismail; Simsek, Caglar

2014-01-01

336

Fructose Intake and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes: SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study  

PubMed Central

Aims High consumption of dietary fructose has been shown to contribute to dyslipidemia and elevated blood pressure in adults, but there are few data in youth, particularly those at greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to examine the association between fructose intake and CVD risk factors in a diverse population of youth with type 1diabetes (T1D). Methods This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study, including 2085 youth ages 10–22 years with T1D, of which 22% were racial/ethnic minority and 50% were female. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess intake. Results Median daily fructose consumption was 7.9% of total calories. Fructose intake was positively associated with triglycerides (p<.01), but not with total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, or blood pressure after adjustment for physical activity and socio-demographic, clinical, and dietary covariates. An increase in fructose intake of 22 grams (equivalent to a 12 oz. can of soda) was associated with a 23% higher odds of borderline/ high versus low triglycerides (p<.005). Conclusion These data suggest that children with T1D should moderate their intake of fructose, particularly those with borderline or high triglycerides. PMID:23540682

Couch, Sarah C.; Crandell, Jamie L.; Shah, Amy S.; Dolan, Lawrence M.; Merchant, Anwar T.; Liese, Angela D.; Lawrence, Jean M.; Pihoker, Catherine; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

2013-01-01

337

Impaired Angiogenesis After Hindlimb Ischemia in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Differential Regulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 1 and Soluble Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deficient angiogenesis after ischemia may contribute to worse outcomes of peripheral arterial disease in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors promote angiogenesis. We hypothesized that in peripheral arterial disease, maladaptive changes in VEGF ligand\\/receptor expression could account for impaired angiogenesis in DM. Skeletal muscle from diet-induced, type 2 diabetic (DM) and age-matched normal

Surovi Hazarika; Ayotunde O. Dokun; Yongjun Li; Aleksander S. Popel; Christopher D. Kontos; Brian H. Annex

338

Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4  Contributes to Thyroid Hormone Homeostasis by Cooperatively Regulating the Type 1 Iodothyronine Deiodinase Gene with GATA4 and Kruppel-Like Transcription Factor 9  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio1), a selenoenzyme catalyzing the bioactivation of thyroid hormone, is highly expressed in the liver. Dio1 mRNA and enzyme activity levels are markedly reduced in the livers of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF4)-null mice, thus accounting for its liver-specific expression. Consistent with this deficiency, serum T4 and rT3 concentrations are elevated in these mice compared with

Hiroto Ohguchi; Toshiya Tanaka; Aoi Uchida; Kenta Magoori; Hiromi Kudo; Insook Kim; Kenji Daigo; Iori Sakakibara; Masashi Okamura; Hideo Harigae; Takeshi Sasaki; Timothy F. Osborne; Frank J. Gonzalez; Takao Hamakubo; Tatsuhiko Kodama; Juro Sakai

2008-01-01

339

EFFECT OF GROWTH FACTOR-FIBRONECTIN MATRIX INTERACTION ON RAT TYPE II CELL ADHESION AND DNA SYTHESIS  

EPA Science Inventory

ABSTRACT Type II cells attach, migrate and proliferate on a provisional fibronectin-rich matrix during alveolar wall repair after lung injury. The combination of cell-substratum interactions via integrin receptors and exposure to local growth factors are likely to initiat...

340

Genetical Homogeneity and the Stability of the Mating-type Factors of `Fairy Rings' of Marasmius oreacdes  

Microsoft Academic Search

EXAMINATIONS have been made of the distribution of multiple-allelomorphic mating-type factors (m.t.f.) carried by basidiospores and produced by adjacent carpophores of higher fungi. The spatial distribution patterns found have been interpreted to provide evidence concerning the disposition of the mycelium giving rise to the sporophores and its genetieal homogeneity or heterogeneity1.

J. H. Burnett; E. J. Evans

1966-01-01

341

Development of Rotary-Type Voice Coil Motor Actuator for Small-Form-Factor Optical Disk Drive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose the miniaturized rotary-type voice coil motor (VCM) actuator that has an effective focusing mechanism and a sufficient bandwidth for a small-form-factor (SFF) optical disk drive (ODD) based on Blu-ray disk (BD) 1× specifications.

Lee, Dong?Ju; Park, Se?June; Oh, Jeseung; Park, No?Cheol; Park, Young?Pil; Jung, Ho?Seop

2006-02-01

342

Metabolic and Vascular Effects of Tumor Necrosis Factor-? Blockade with Etanercept in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) impairs insulin action in insulin-sensitive tissues, such as fat, muscle and endothelium, and causes endothelial dysfunction. We hypothesized that TNF-? blockade with etanercept could reverse vascular and metabolic insulin resistance. Method and Results: Twenty obese patients with type 2 diabetes were randomized to etanercept treatment (25 mg subcutaneously twice weekly for 4

Helena Dominguez; Heidi Storgaard; Christian Rask-Madsen; Thomas Steffen Hermann; Nikolaj Ihlemann; Dorthe Baunbjerg Nielsen; Camilla Spohr; Lars Kober; Allan Vaag; Christian Torp-Pedersen

2005-01-01

343

Ascending aortic curvature as an independent risk factor for type A dissection, and ascending aortic aneurysm formation: a mathematical model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To develop a mathematical model to demonstrate that ascending aortic curvature is an independent risk factor for type A dissections, in addition to hypertension, bicuspid aortic valve, aneurysm of ascending aorta, and intrinsic aortic tissue abnormalities, like Marfan's syndrome. Methods: A steady state one-dimensional flow analysis was performed, utilising Newton's third law of motion. Five different clinical scenarios were

Michael P. Poullis; Richard Warwick; Aung Oo; Robert J. Poole

2010-01-01

344

Ascending aortic curvature as an independent risk factor for type A dissection, and ascending aortic aneurysm formation: a mathematical model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To develop a mathematical model to demonstrate that ascending aortic curvature is an independent risk factor for type A dissections, in addition to hypertension, bicuspid aortic valve, aneurysm of ascending aorta, and intrinsic aortic tissue abnormalities, like Marfan's syndrome. Methods: A steady state one-dimensional flow analysis was performed, utilising Newton's third law of motion. Five different clinical scenarios were

Michael P. Poullis; Richard Warwick; Aung Oo; Robert J. Poole

2008-01-01

345

Coagulation factor X mediates adenovirus type 5 liver gene transfer in non-human primates (Microcebus murinus).  

E-print Network

Coagulation factor X mediates adenovirus type 5 liver gene transfer in non- human primates by Ad5 and FX-binding ablated Ad5 vectors in non-human primates. Ad5 vectors accumulated in and mediated particles predominantly accumulate in and transduce the liver in rodent and non-human primate models(5, 15

Boyer, Edmond

346

Lessons learned from the HEALTHY primary prevention trial of risk factors for type 2 diabetes in middle school youth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The HEALTHY trial was designed to take a primary prevention approach to risk factors for type 2 diabetes in youth, primarily obesity. The study involved over 6,000 students at 42 middle schools across the U.S. Half received an integrated intervention program of components addressing the school food ...

347

Academic Skills in Children with Early-Onset Type 1 Diabetes: The Effects of Diabetes-Related Risk Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The study aimed to assess the effects of diabetes-related risk factors, especially severe hypoglycaemia, on the academic skills of children with early-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Method: The study comprised 63 children with T1DM (31 females, 32 males; mean age 9y 11mo, SD 4mo) and 92 comparison children without diabetes (40…

Hannonen, Riitta; Komulainen, Jorma; Riikonen, Raili; Ahonen, Timo; Eklund, Kenneth; Tolvanen, Asko; Keskinen, Paivi; Nuuja, Anja

2012-01-01

348

Excellent scalability including self-heating phenomena of vertical-channel field-effect-diode type capacitor-less one transistor dynamic random access memory cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scalability study and the impact of the self-heating effect (SHE) on memory operation of the bulk vertical-channel field effect diode (FED) type capacitorless one transistor (1T) dynamic random access memory (DRAM) cell are investigated via device simulator for the first time. The vertical-channel FED type 1T-DRAM cell shows the excellent hold characteristics (100 ms at 358 K of ambient temperature) with large enough read current margin (1 µA/cell) even when silicon pillar diameter (D) is scaled down from 20 to 12 nm. It is also shown that by employing the vertical-channel FED type, maximum lattice temperature in the memory cell due to SHE (T_{\\text{L}}^{\\text{Max}}) can be suppressed to a negligible small value and only reach 300.6 from 300 K ambient temperature due to the low lateral electric field, while the vertical-channel bipolar junction transistor (BJT) type 1T-DRAM shows significant SHE (T_{\\text{L}}^{\\text{Max}} = 330.6 K). Moreover, this excellent thermal characteristic can be maintained even when D is scaled down from 20 to 12 nm.

Imamoto, Takuya; Endoh, Tetsuo

2014-01-01

349

Regional Differences of Undiagnosed Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes Prevalence Are Not Explained by Known Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

Background We have previously found regional differences in the prevalence of known type 2 diabetes between northeastern and southern Germany. We aim to also provide prevalence estimates for prediabetes (isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG), isolated glucose intolerance (i-IGT), combined IFG and IGT) and unknown type 2 diabetes for both regions. Methods Prevalence (95%CI) of prediabetes (i-IFG: fasting glucose 5.6–6.9 mmol/l; i-IGT: 2 h postchallenge gluose 7.8–11.0 mmol/l, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), ?8 h overnight fasting) and unknown diabetes were analyzed in two regional population-based surveys (age group 35–79 years): SHIP-TREND (Study of Health in Pomerania (northeast), 2008–2012) and KORA F4 (Cooperative Health Research in the region of Augsburg (south), 2006–2008). Both studies used similar methods, questionnaires, and identical protocols for OGTT. Overall, 1,980 participants from SHIP-TREND and 2,617 participants from KORA F4 were included. Results Age-sex-standardized prevalence estimates (95%CI) of prediabetes and unknown diabetes were considerably higher in the northeast (SHIP-TREND: 43.1%; 40.9–45.3% and 7.1%; 5.9–8.2%) than in the south of Germany (KORA F4: 30.1%; 28.4–31.7% and 3.9%; 3.2–4.6%), respectively. In particular, i-IFG (26.4%; 24.5–28.3% vs. 17.2%; 15.7–18.6%) and IFG+IGT (11.2%; 9.8–12.6% vs. 6.6%; 5.7–7.5%) were more frequent in SHIP-TREND than in KORA. In comparison to normal glucose tolerance, the odds of having unknown diabetes (OR, 95%CI: 2.59; 1.84–3.65) or prediabetes (1.98; 1.70–2.31) was higher in the northeast than in the south after adjustment for known risk factors (obesity, lifestyle). Conclusions The regional differences of prediabetes and unknown diabetes are in line with the geographical pattern of known diabetes in Germany. The higher prevalences in the northeast were not explained by traditional risk factors. PMID:25402347

Tamayo, Teresa; Schipf, Sabine; Meisinger, Christine; Schunk, Michaela; Maier, Werner; Herder, Christian; Roden, Michael; Nauck, Matthias; Peters, Annette; Völzke, Henry; Rathmann, Wolfgang

2014-01-01

350

An Analysis of Factor Extraction Strategies: A Comparison of the Relative Strengths of Principal Axis, Ordinary Least Squares, and Maximum Likelihood in Research Contexts That Include Both Categorical and Continuous Variables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is intended to provide researchers with empirically derived guidelines for conducting factor analytic studies in research contexts that include dichotomous and continuous levels of measurement. This study is based on the hypotheses that ordinary least squares (OLS) factor analysis will yield more accurate parameter estimates than…

Coughlin, Kevin B.

2013-01-01

351

40 CFR Table C-2 to Subpart C of... - Default CH4 and N2O Emission Factors for Various Types of Fuel  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...N2O Emission Factors for Various Types of Fuel C Table C-2 to Subpart C of Part...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources Pt. 98, Subpt...O Emission Factors for Various Types of Fuel Fuel type Default CH4 emission...

2014-07-01

352

40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C - Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING General Stationary...CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel Fuel type Default high heat value Default CO2...

2012-07-01

353

Novel Risk Factors and the Prediction of Type 2 Diabetes in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to determine potential added value of novel risk factors in predicting the development of type 2 diabetes beyond that provided by standard clinical risk factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study is a population-based prospective cohort study in four U.S. communities. Novel risk factors were either measured in the full cohort or in a case-control sample nested within the cohort. We started with a basic prediction model, previously validated in ARIC, and evaluated 35 novel risk factors by adding them independently to the basic model. The area under the curve (AUC), net reclassification index (NRI), and integrated discrimination index (IDI) were calculated to determine if each of the novel risk factors improved risk prediction. RESULTS There were 1,457 incident cases of diabetes with a mean of >7.6 years of follow-up among 12,277 participants at risk. None of the novel risk factors significantly improved the AUC. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s was the only novel risk factor that resulted in a significant NRI (0.54%; 95% CI: 0.33–0.86%). Adiponectin, leptin, ?-glutamyl transferase, ferritin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, complement C3, white blood cell count, albumin, activated partial thromboplastin time, factor VIII, magnesium, hip circumference, heart rate, and a genetic risk score each significantly improved the IDI, but net changes were small. CONCLUSIONS Evaluation of a large panel of novel risk factors for type 2 diabetes indicated only small improvements in risk prediction, which are unlikely to meaningfully alter clinical risk reclassification or discrimination strategies. PMID:22933437

Raynor, L.A.; Pankow, James S.; Duncan, Bruce B.; Schmidt, Maria I.; Hoogeveen, Ron C.; Pereira, Mark A.; Young, J. Hunter; Ballantyne, Christie M.

2013-01-01

354

Histological mixed-type as an independent prognostic factor in stage?I?gastric carcinoma  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the clinicopathological features of mixed-type gastric cancer and their influence on prognosis of mixed-type stage?I?gastric cancer. METHODS: We analyzed 446 patients who underwent curative gastrectomy for stage?I?gastric cancer between 1999 and 2009. The patients were divided into two groups: those with differentiated or undifferentiated cancer (non-mixed-type, n = 333) and those with a mixture of differentiated and undifferentiated cancers (mixed-type, n = 113). RESULTS: The overall prevalence of mixed-type gastric cancer was 25.3% (113/446). Compared with patients with non-mixed-type gastric cancer, those with mixed-type gastric cancer tended to be older at onset (P = 0.1252) and have a higher incidence of lymph node metastasis (P = 0.1476). They also had significantly larger tumors (P < 0.0001), more aggressive lymphatic invasion (P = 0.0011), and deeper tumor invasion (P < 0.0001). In addition, they exhibited significantly worse overall survival rates than did patients with non-mixed-type gastric cancer (P = 0.0026). Furthermore, mixed-type gastric cancer was independently associated with a worse outcome in multivariate analysis [P = 0.0300, hazard ratio = 11.4 (1.265-102.7)]. CONCLUSION: Histological mixed-type of gastric cancer contributes to malignant outcomes and highlight its usefulness as a prognostic indicator in stage?I?gastric cancer. PMID:25593472

Komatsu, Shuhei; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Miyamae, Mahito; Shimizu, Hiroki; Konishi, Hirotaka; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Kazuma; Kishimoto, Mitsuo; Otsuji, Eigo

2015-01-01

355

Fusion power implosion of laser-type light-ion beam driven reactor-size inertial fusion targets including radiation transport effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Letter presents simulation results of compression, ignition and burn of an umtamped (laser-type) inertial confinement fusion target which may be used in a reactor system driven by 33 MeV Li+ ions. These simulations have been carried out using a one-dimensional, three-temperature (electron, ion and radiation), Lagrangian ion-beam fusion code MEDUSA-KAT. The importance of thermal radiation in the simulations of

N. A. Tahir

1989-01-01

356

Growth-Differentiation Factor 15 Predicts Worsening of Albuminuria in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Development of micro- or macroalbuminuria is associated with increased risk of cardiorenal complications, particularly in diabetes. For prevention of transition to micro- or macroalbuminuria, more accurate prediction markers on top of classical risk markers are needed. We studied a promising new marker, growth-differentiation factor (GDF)-15, to predict transition to increasing stage of albuminuria in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In addition, we looked at the GDF-15 potential in nondiabetic subjects with hypertension (HT). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Case and control subjects were selected from the PREVEND cohort, a large (n = 8,592), prospective general population study on the natural course of albuminuria, with >10 years of follow-up and repeated albuminuria measurements. We found 24 T2DM and 50 HT case subjects transitioning from normo- to macroalbuminuria and 9 T2DM and 25 HT case subjects transitioning from micro- to macroalbuminuria (average follow-up 2.8 years). Control subjects with stable albuminuria were pair matched for age, sex, albuminuria status, and diabetes duration. GDF-15 was measured in samples prior to albuminuria transition. RESULTS Prior to transition, GDF-15 was significantly higher in case subjects with T2DM than in control subjects (median [IQR] 1,288 pg/mL [885–1,546] vs. 948 pg/mL [660–1,016], P < 0.001). The odds ratio for transition in albuminuria increased significantly per SD of GDF-15 (2.9 [95% CI 1.1–7.5], P = 0.03). GDF-15 also improved prediction of albuminuria transition, with significant increases in C statistic (from 0.87 to 0.92, P = 0.03) and integrated discrimination improvement (0.148, P = 0.001). In HT, GDF-15 was also independently associated with transition in albuminuria stage (2.0 [1.1–3.5], P = 0.02) and improved prediction significantly. CONCLUSIONS We identified GDF-15 as a clinically valuable marker for predicting transition in albuminuria stage in T2DM beyond conventional risk markers. These findings were confirmed in nondiabetic HT subjects. PMID:22815297

Hellemons, Merel E.; Mazagova, Magdalena; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Henning, Robert H.; de Zeeuw, Dick; Bakker, Stephan J.L.; Lambers-Heerspink, Hiddo J.; Deelman, Leo E.

2012-01-01

357

Analysis of some predictive factors of quality of life among type 2 diabetic patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Considering the chronic nature of diabetes and its significant effect on quality of life of patients, the present study was conducted to evaluate predictors of quality of life in these patients in order to facilitate planning health promotion intervention programs. Materials and Methods: The present study was designed as a cross-sectional study on 140 type 2 diabetic patients of Om-ol-Banin Diabetes Center of Isfahan. Data collection tool was a multidimensional questionnaire including demographic and disease related data (12 items), the standard scale for diabetes distress (17 items), the standard scale for self-efficacy in diabetic patients (8 items), and standard scale for specific quality of life of diabetic patients (15 items). Collected data were evaluated by SPSS version 11.5 using the Chi-square test, Independent T-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation and multivariate regression analysis. Results: Results showed that the quality of life of diabetic patients had a statistically significant correlation with diabetes distress variable (P < 0.001) and self-efficacy variable (P < 0.001). In this study R2 (predictive power) was 0.66. Multivariate regression model indicated diabetes distress (? = -0.277, P = 0.01) and self-efficacy (? = -0.161, P < 0.001) as variables influencing adjusted self-management for other variables. Conclusion: The result of the present study urges that in planning health promotion interventions in the field of diabetes, more attention be paid to self-efficacy and diabetes distress variables in order to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the interventions carried out.

Tol, Azar; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Eslami, Ahmadali; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Alhani, Fatemeh; Tehrani, Mohamadreza Mohajeri

2015-01-01

358

The evaluation of the ? factor for lossy and composite (Langevin-type) piezoelectric elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important property of a piezoelectric material for practical applications is its ability to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy and vice versa. As it is well known, the electromechanical coupling factor ? fully characterize this energy conversion. In a previous work we demonstrated that, like in static conditions, it is possible to define the ? factor also in

Nicola Lamberti; A. Iula; R. Carotenuto; P. Di Rosa; Massimo Pappalardo

1999-01-01

359

The Transcription Factor Rbf1 Is the Master Regulator for b-Mating Type Controlled Pathogenic Development in Ustilago maydis  

PubMed Central

In the phytopathogenic basidiomycete Ustilago maydis, sexual and pathogenic development are tightly connected and controlled by the heterodimeric bE/bW transcription factor complex encoded by the b-mating type locus. The formation of the active bE/bW heterodimer leads to the formation of filaments, induces a G2 cell cycle arrest, and triggers pathogenicity. Here, we identify a set of 345 bE/bW responsive genes which show altered expression during these developmental changes; several of these genes are associated with cell cycle coordination, morphogenesis and pathogenicity. 90% of the genes that show altered expression upon bE/bW-activation require the zinc finger transcription factor Rbf1, one of the few factors directly regulated by the bE/bW heterodimer. Rbf1 is a novel master regulator in a multilayered network of transcription factors that facilitates the complex regulatory traits of sexual and pathogenic development. PMID:20700446

Vranes, Miroslav; Wahl, Ramon; Pothiratana, Chetsada; Schuler, David; Vincon, Volker; Finkernagel, Florian; Flor-Parra, Ignacio; Kämper, Jörg

2010-01-01

360

Virulence Factors and TEM-Type ?-Lactamases Produced by Two Isolates of an Epidemic Klebsiella pneumoniae Strain  

PubMed Central

Two Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates of the same strain, identified in Poland, produced either TEM-47 or TEM-68, which differed by the Arg275Leu substitution. They harbored a few virulence factors, including an iron-chelating factor and capsule overproduction, suggesting that these factors were sufficient to enhance their nosocomial potency. TEM-68 and TEM-47 had similar enzymatic activities, but TEM-68 was less susceptible to inhibitors than TEM-47. These results confirm the role of the Arg275Leu substitution in the evolution of TEM enzymes. PMID:22106220

Hennequin, Claire; Gniadkowski, Marek; Beyrouthy, Racha; Empel, Joanna; Gibold, Lucie; Bonnet, Richard

2012-01-01

361

Expanding the lens of evidence-based practice in psychotherapy to include a common factors perspective: comment on Laska, Gurman, and Wampold.  

PubMed

Laska, Gurman, and Wampold (2014, pp. 467-481) raise a number of interesting arguments for clinical practice that involves the integration of the Common Factors and Empirically Supported Therapies perspectives. The merits, validity, and weaknesses in these arguments are discussed from a conceptual and empirical viewpoint. While we agree that the division in the field between the 2 approaches is excessive and interferes in the delivery of effective patient care, we highlight the important reasons to use unbiased, replicable assessments of treatment effects and interpretation when choosing a treatment approach. We emphasize the need to conduct empirical comparisons using study designs that allow us to vigorously test the influence of common factors over and beyond specific treatment ingredients, before we can more widely advocate for their necessary inclusion in existing treatments. PMID:25419727

Asnaani, Anu; Foa, Edna B

2014-12-01

362

Impact of Plasmids, Including Those EncodingVirB4/D4 Type IV Secretion Systems, on Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg Virulence in Macrophages and Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg (S. Heidelberg) can cause foodborne illness in humans following the consumption of contaminated meat and poultry products. Recent studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that certain S. Heidelberg isolated from food-animal sources harbor multiple transmissible plasmids with genes that encode antimicrobial resistance, virulence and a VirB4/D4 type-IV secretion system. This study examines the potential role of these transmissible plasmids in bacterial uptake and survival in intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages, and the molecular basis of host immune system modulation that may be associated with disease progression. A series of transconjugant and transformant strains were developed with different combinations of the plasmids to determine the roles of the individual and combinations of plasmids on virulence. Overall the Salmonella strains containing the VirB/D4 T4SS plasmids entered and survived in epithelial cells and macrophages to a greater degree than those without the plasmid, even though they carried other plasmid types. During entry in macrophages, the VirB/D4 T4SS encoding genes are up-regulated in a time-dependent fashion. When the potential mechanisms for increased virulence were examined using an antibacterial Response PCR Array, the strain containing the T4SS down regulated several host innate immune response genes which likely contributed to the increased uptake and survival within macrophages and epithelial cells. PMID:24098597

Gokulan, Kuppan; Khare, Sangeeta; Rooney, Anthony W.; Han, Jing; Lynne, Aaron M.; Foley, Steven L.

2013-01-01

363

Risk factors for chronic kidney diseases may include periodontal diseases, as estimated by the correlations of plasma pentraxin-3 levels: a case–control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Pentraxins are classical mediators of inflammation and markers of acute-phase reactions. Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) is believed to\\u000a be a true independent indicator of disease activity. It has been associated with clinical outcomes in incident chronic kidney\\u000a disease (CKD) and periodontal diseases. Periodontitis is lately being considered as a risk factor for CKD. However, no data\\u000a are available on elevated PTX3 in

A. R. Pradeep; Rahul Kathariya; P. Arjun Raju; R. Sushma Rani; Anuj Sharma; N. M. Raghavendra

364

Clinical Phenotypes of Different MPZ (P 0) Mutations May Include Charcot–Marie–Tooth Type 1B, Dejerine–Sottas, and Congenital Hypomyelination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hereditary demyelinating peripheral neuropathies consist of a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders that includes hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP), Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMT), Dejerine–Sottas syndrome (DSS), and congenital hypomyelination (CH). The clinical classification of these neuropathies into discrete categories can sometimes be difficult because there can be both clinical and pathologic variation and overlap between these disorders. We

Laura E Warner; Max J Hilz; Stanley H Appel; James M Killian; Edwin H Kolodny; George Karpati; Stirling Carpenter; Gordon V Watters; Calvin Wheeler; David Witt; Adria Bodell; Eva Nelis; Christine Van Broeckhoven; James R Lupski

1996-01-01

365

Identification of 17 HrpX-Regulated Proteins Including Two Novel Type III Effectors, XOC_3956 and XOC_1550, in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola  

PubMed Central

The function of some hypothetical proteins, possibly regulated by key hrp regulators, in the pathogenicity of phytopathogenic bacteria remains largely unknown. In the present study, in silicon microarray data demonstrated that the expression of 17 HrpX-regulated protein (Xrp) genes of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc), which causes bacterial leaf streak in rice, were either positively or negatively regulated by HrpX or/and HrpG. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that five Xrps possess a putative type III secretion (T3S) signal in the first 50 N-terminal amino acids, six xrp genes contain a PIP-box-like sequence (TTCGB-NX-TTCGB, 9?X?25) in the promoter regions, and two Xrps have both motifs. Twelve Xrps are widely conserved in Xanthomonas spp., whereas four are specific for X. oryzae (Xrp6) or Xoc (Xrp8, Xrp14 and Xrp17). In addition to the regulation by HrpG/HrpX, some of the 17 genes were also modulated by another hrp regulator HrpD6. Mutagenesis of these 17 genes indicated that five Xrps (Xrp1, Xrp2, Xrp5, Xrp8 and Xrp14) were required for full virulence and bacterial growth in planta. Immunoblotting assays and fusion with N-terminally truncated AvrXa10 indicated that Xrp3 and Xrp5 were secreted and translocated into rice cells through the type-III secretion system (T3S), suggesting they are novel T3S effectors. Our results suggest that Xoc exploits an orchestra of proteins that are regulated by HrpG, HrpX and HrpD6, and these proteins facilitate both infection and metabolism. PMID:24675748

Xue, Xiao-bo; Zou, Li-fang; Ma, Wen-xiu; Liu, Zhi-yang; Chen, Gong-you

2014-01-01

366

Blood-typing of Indian Water Buffaloes with Reagents for Antigenic Factors of Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

MORE than eighty heritable antigenic factors have been detected on the erythrocytes (cells) of cattle by their reactions with blood-grouping reagents; the reagent being an antibody population made relatively specific for a particular factor by appropriate absorptions1. Using cattle reagents, it has been shown that at least nine genetic blood-group systems of cattle have their homologues in American bison, Bison

S. P. Datta; W. H. Stone

1963-01-01

367

An investigation of the strains in an integral type oil-well tubing joint, and the factors affecting leakage  

E-print Network

AN INVESTIGATION OF THE STRAINS IN AN INTEGRAL TYPE OIL-WELL TUBING JOINT~ AND THE FA. CTORS AFFECTING LEAKAGE A Thesis JOHN HENRY ATTERBURY JR Approved as to style and content by AN INVESTIGATION OF THE STRAINS IN AN INTEGRAL TYPE OIL...-iVELL TUBING JOINT~ AND THE FACTORS AFFECTING ~GE JOHN HENRY ATTERBURY JR ~ A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Vechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of llASTER OF SCIENCE Ma...

Atterbury, John Henry

1950-01-01

368

UV-B-Responsive Association of the Arabidopsis bZIP Transcription Factor ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 with Target Genes, Including Its Own Promoter[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

In plants subjected to UV-B radiation, responses are activated that minimize damage caused by UV-B. The bZIP transcription factor ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) acts downstream of the UV-B photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) and promotes UV-B-induced photomorphogenesis and acclimation. Expression of HY5 is induced by UV-B; however, the transcription factor(s) that regulate HY5 transcription in response to UV-B and the impact of UV-B on the association of HY5 with its target promoters are currently unclear. Here, we show that HY5 binding to the promoters of UV-B-responsive genes is enhanced by UV-B in a UVR8-dependent manner in Arabidopsis thaliana. In agreement, overexpression of REPRESSOR OF UV-B PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS2, a negative regulator of UVR8 function, blocks UV-B-responsive HY5 enrichment at target promoters. Moreover, we have identified a T/G-box in the HY5 promoter that is required for its UV-B responsiveness. We show that HY5 and its homolog HYH bind to the T/GHY5-box cis-acting element and that they act redundantly in the induction of HY5 expression upon UV-B exposure. Therefore, HY5 is enriched at target promoters in response to UV-B in a UVR8 photoreceptor-dependent manner, and HY5 and HYH interact directly with a T/G-box cis-acting element of the HY5 promoter, mediating the transcriptional activation of HY5 in response to UV-B. PMID:25351492

Binkert, Melanie; Kozma-Bognár, László; Terecskei, Kata; De Veylder, Lieven; Nagy, Ferenc; Ulm, Roman

2014-01-01

369

Risk factors for cognitive decline in older people with type 2 diabetes   

E-print Network

People with type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of age-related cognitive impairment. Previous literature has focused on case-control studies comparing rates of cognitive impairment in patients with and without diabetes. ...

Feinkohl, Insa

2014-07-05

370

Brush types of the Nueces River watershed as related to soil, climatic and geological factors  

E-print Network

, Acacia tortuosa; guayacan, Porlieria angusti- folia; and leatherstem, Jatropha spathulata. These species were generally found in the common mixture of the remaining vegetational types of the 22 mesquite complex. In specific areas, species which...

Huss, Donald Lee

1959-01-01

371

Cellular Transcription Factors Enhance Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 oriS-Dependent DNA Replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) origin of DNA replication, oriS, contains three binding sites for the viral origin binding protein (OBP) flanked by transcriptional regulatory elements of the immediate-early genes encoding ICP4 and ICP22\\/47. To assess the role of flanking sequences in oriS function, plasmids containing oriS and either wild-type or mutant flanking sequences were tested in transient

ANH TUAN NGUYEN-HUYNH; PRISCILLA A. SCHAFFER

1998-01-01

372

Heterogeneity in the costs of type 1 diabetes in a developing country: what are the determining factors?  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Regional differences in the clinical care of Type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Brazil have been recently described. This study aimed to estimate the costs of T1D from the public health care system’s perspective across the regions of Brazil and to determine the components that influence these costs. Methods This was a retrospective, cross-sectional and nationwide multicenter study conducted between December 2008 and December 2010 in 28 public clinics in 20 Brazilian cities. The study included 3,180 T1D subjects receiving healthcare from the National Brazilian Healthcare System (NBHCS) with a follow-up of at least one year. The direct medical costs were derived from the costs of medications, supplies, examinations, visits to the center, medical procedures and hospitalizations that occurred during the previous year. Clinical and demographic factors that determined the differences in the cost across four geographic regions (southeast, south, north/northeast and mid-west) were investigated. Results The per capita mean annual direct medical costs of T1D in US$ were 1,466.36, 1,252.83, 1,148.09 and 1,396.30 in southeast, south, north/northeast and mid-west regions, respectively. The costs of T1D in the southeast region were higher compared to south (p < 0.001) and north/northeast regions (p = < 0.001), but not to the mid-west (p = 0.146) region. The frequency of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) was different across the regions as well as the daily number of SMBG, use of insulin pumps or basal or prandial insulin analogs. Age, ethnicity, duration of diabetes, level of care, socioeconomic status and the prevalence of chronic diabetic complications differed among the regions. In a regression model the determinants of the costs were the presence of microvascular diabetes-related complications (p?factors influenced directly the costs of T1D and should be considered for discussing future health policies. PMID:24373627

2013-01-01

373

Management of cardiovascular disease risk factors in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: 2002-2012 literature review.  

PubMed

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common chronic conditions in older adults and is often accompanied by comorbidities and geriatric syndromes. The management of cardiovascular disease risk factors in older adults with DM is important to clinicians. The literature was reviewed from 2002 to 2012 to provide an American Geriatrics Society expert panel with an evidence base for updating and making new recommendations for improving the care of older adults with type 2 DM. This review includes only the domains of the management of blood pressure, lipid control, glycemic control, and use of aspirin. Over the last 10 years, new randomized controlled trials (RCT) designed to study different blood pressure treatment targets did not find evidence that intensive systolic blood pressure control (<130 mmHg) resulted in lower rates of myocardial infarction and mortality than less-intensive control. There are risks of side effects with achieving systolic blood pressure of less than 120 mmHg. Lipid-lowering statins are effective in reducing cardiovascular events in middle-aged and older adults, but data on niacin and fibrates is limited. Trials of statins and other lipid-lowering agents do not evaluate the cardiovascular effects on outcomes from treating lipids to different low-density lipoprotein cholesterol targets. No RCTs of lipid-lowering drugs enrolled significant numbers of adults aged 80 and older with or without DM. Three major RCTs that investigated intensive glycemic control did not find reductions in primary cardiovascular endpoints, and one study reported greater mortality with glycosylated hemoglobin of less than 6%. Two recently published RCTs were designed to study the cardiovascular benefits of aspirin use by individuals with DM. Neither trial found significantly fewer primary cardiovascular endpoints with aspirin than in control groups. Overall, RCTs enrolled few adults aged 80 and older or with significant comorbidities. More research is needed for clinicians to effectively customize care to older adults with DM because of heterogeneity in health status, comorbidities, duration of disease, frailty and functional status, and differences in life expectancy. PMID:24219205

Moreno, Gerardo; Mangione, Carol M

2013-11-01

374

Circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor-II\\/mannose-6-phosphate receptor in obesity and type 2 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe extracellular domain of the insulin-like growth factor II\\/mannose-6-phosphate receptor (IGF-II\\/M6P-R) is present in the circulation, but its relationship with plasma IGF-II is largely unknown. As IGF-II appears to be nutritionally regulated, we studied the impact of obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and weight loss on circulating levels of IGF-II and its soluble receptor.

Nilani Jeyaratnaganthan; Kurt Højlund; Jens Peter Kroustrup; Jens Fromholt Larsen; Mette Bjerre; Klavs Levin; Henning Beck-Nielsen; Susana Frago; A. Bassim Hassan; Allan Flyvbjerg; Jan Frystyk

2010-01-01

375

Risk factors for type ii diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in a mexican-american population: proyecto ver  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Risk factors for type II diabetes and diabetic retinopathy were determined in a population-based study of Mexican-Americans.DESIGN: Proyecto VER (Vision, Evaluation, and Research) is a cross-sectional study in a random sample of the self-described Hispanic populations in Tucson and Nogales, Arizona, age 40 and older.METHODS: Of 6,659 eligible subjects, 4,774 (72%) participated in the home questionnaire and clinic visit.

Sheila K West; Beatriz Munoz; Ronald Klein; Aimee T Broman; Rosario Sanchez; Jorge Rodriguez; Robert Snyder

2002-01-01

376

Heterogeneity of Type I von Willebrand Disease: Evidence for a Subgroup With an Abnormal von Willebrand Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type I von Willebrand disease (vWD) is characterized by equally low plasma concentrations of von Willebrand factor antigen (vWF:Ag) and ristocetin cofactor (RiCof) and by the presence of all vWF multimers in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-agarose gel electrophoresis. For 1 7 patients (13 kindreds) diagnosed with these criteria, we have studied the platelet contents of vWF:Ag and RiCof and the

P. M. Mannucci; R. Lombardi; A. Bader; L. Vianello; A. B. Federici; S. Solinas; M. G. Mazzucconi; G. Mariani

1985-01-01

377

Mitogenesis in fetal rat bone cells simultaneously exposed to type 3 transforming growth factor and other growth regulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type j3 transforming growth factor (TGF-(3)is found in large amounts in bone tissue, and is a potent mitogen for osteoblast-enriched cell cultures obtained from fetal rat parietal bone. Because other local and systemic fac- tors may be presented to bone cells simultaneously with TGF-$, it is important to understand the effects of this complex growth regulator in such circumstances. Un-

MICHAEL CENTRELLA; ERNESTO CANALIS

378

Obesity type and clustering of insulin resistance-associated cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To examine different clusterings of the insulin resistance-associated cardiovascular risk factors with respect to different types of obesity.DESIGN: A screening programme for obesity (body mass index; BMI?30 kg\\/m2) and abdominal adiposity (waist-to-hip ratio; WHR?1.00 in men and ?0.88 in women).SETTINGS: Pieksämäki District Health Centre and the Community Health Centre of the City of Tampere, Finland.SUBJECTS: All volunteers were either

MJ Vanhala; TK Pitkäjärvi; EA Kumpusalo; JK Takala

1998-01-01

379

A new approach to improve power factor and reduce harmonics in a three phase diode rectifier type utility interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel approach to improving power factor and reducing harmonics generated by a three-phase diode-rectifier-type utility interface is proposed. This approach is passive and consists of a novel interconnection of a star\\/delta power transformer between the AC and DC sides of the diode rectifier topology. This interconnection, in combination with the 120° conduction intervals of each diode, is shown to

S. Kim; P. Enjeti; P. Packebush; I. Pitel

1993-01-01

380

Postprandial blood glucose as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in Type II diabetes: the epidemiological evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   That cardiovascular disease occurs more frequently in patients with Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus has\\u000a been recognized for a long time. However, the extent to which hyperglycaemia contributes to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular\\u000a disease is still not clear. Epidemiological studies published in recent years suggest that postprandial blood glucose might\\u000a be an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease. The main

E. Bonora; M. Muggeo

2001-01-01

381

UKPDS 50: Risk factors for incidence and progression of retinopathy in Type II diabetes over 6 years from diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis. To determine risk factors related to the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy over 6 years from diagnosis of\\u000a Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Methods. This report describes 1919 patients from within the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS), with retinal photographs\\u000a taken at diagnosis and 6 years later and with complete data available. Photographs were centrally graded for

I. M. Stratton; E. M. Kohner; S. J. Aldington; R. C. Turner; R. R. Holman; S. E. Manley; D. R. Matthews

2001-01-01

382

Type II Diabetes Mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in Yemen: prevalence, associated metabolic changes and risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the prevalence of type II Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and identify the metabolic abnormalities and risk factors associated with these conditions in an urban city of Yemen. Research design and methods: Cross-sectional, population-based study investigating 498 adults (245 males and 253 females) aged 25–65 years. The 1999 modified World Health Organization criteria were

Molham Al-Habori; Mohamed Al-Mamari; Ali Al-Meeri

2004-01-01

383

Preimplantation factor (PIF) analog prevents type I diabetes mellitus (TIDM) development by preserving pancreatic function in NOD mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preimplantation factor (PIF) is a novel embryo-secreted immunomodulatory peptide. Its synthetic analog (sPIF) modulates maternal\\u000a immunity without suppression. There is an urgent need to develop agents that could prevent the development of type 1 diabetes\\u000a mellitus (TIDM). Herein, we examine sPIF’s preventive effect on TIDM development by using acute adoptive-transfer (ATDM) and\\u000a spontaneously developing (SDM) in non-obese diabetic (NOD) murine

Lola Weiss; Steve Bernstein; Richard Jones; Ravi Amunugama; David Krizman; Lellean JeBailey; Osnat Hazan; Janna Yachtin; Reut Shiner; Israel Reibstein; Elizabeth Triche; Shimon Slavin; Eytan R. Barnea

384

Petrographic and Geochemical Characterization of Ore-Bearing Intrusions of the Noril'sk type, Siberia; With Discussion of Their Origin, Including Additional Datasets and Core Logs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Noril'sk I, Talnakh, and Kharaelakh intrusions of the Noril'sk district host one of the outstanding metal concentrations in the world; contained Cu-Ni resources are comparable to the deposits at Sudbury, Ontario and the platinum group element (PGE) resource is second only to that of the Bushveld Complex. Our opportunity to cooperatively sample and study this district in Siberian Russia arose in 1990 through a memorandum of understanding between the U.S. Geological Survey and the former Ministry of Geology of the U.S.S.R. The world-class significance of these deposits and the possibility that understanding their geologic context, including construction of a credible 'ore-deposit model,' will lead to discovery of similar deposits elsewhere, inspired extensive studies of the ores, the mafic-intrusions which host them, and associated flood basalts.

Czamanske, Gerald K., (compiler)

2002-01-01

385

Systematic hole-shifting of L-type nanocavity with an ultrahigh Q factor.  

PubMed

We report simple systematic hole-shifting rules applicable to any Lx (x:2,3,4,5,…) nanocavity. The rules specify six sets of holes to be tuned with only two or three shift parameters. While keeping the same cavity wavelength and nearly the same mode volume, the new rule increases the Q factor by nearly one order of magnitude compared with an edge-hole-shifted Lx nanocavity. The Q factor of the high-order mode is also greatly increased. This merit is obvious from the maximum experimental Q factors of over 500,000 at L2 and of over 1,000,000 at L3, L4, and L5 achieved in Si photonic crystals. PMID:25360983

Kuramochi, Eiichi; Grossman, Elan; Nozaki, Kengo; Takeda, Koji; Shinya, Akihiko; Taniyama, Hideaki; Notomi, Masaya

2014-10-01

386

Response to Therapy and Outcomes in Oropharyngeal Cancer Are Associated With Biomarkers Including Human Papillomavirus, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, Gender, and Smoking  

SciTech Connect

Induction chemotherapy and concurrent chemoradiation for responders or immediate surgery for non-responders is an effective treatment strategy head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) of the larynx and oropharynx. Biomarkers that predict outcome would be valuable in selecting patients for therapy. In this study, the presence and titer of high risk human papilloma virus (HPV) and expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in pre-treatment biopsies, as well as smoking and gender were examined in oropharynx cancer patients enrolled in an organ sparing trial. HPV16 copy number was positively associated with response to therapy and with overall and disease specific survival, whereas EGFR expression, current or former smoking behavior, and female gender (in this cohort) were associated with poor response and poor survival in multivariate analysis. Smoking cessation and strategies to target EGFR may be useful adjuncts for therapy to improve outcome in the cases with the poorest biomarker profile.

Kumar, Bhavna [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Cordell, Kitrina G. [Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lee, Julia S. [Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Prince, Mark E.; Tran, Huong H.; Wolf, Gregory T. [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Urba, Susan G. [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Worden, Francis P. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Chepeha, Douglas B.; Teknos, Theodoros N. [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Eisbruch, Avraham; Tsien, Christina I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Taylor, Jeremy [Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); D'Silva, Nisha J. [Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Yang, Kun; Kurnit, David M. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bradford, Carol R. [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] (and others)

2007-10-01

387

Role of Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 in Type I Interferon Responses in Rotavirus-Infected Dendritic Cells and Fibroblasts?  

PubMed Central

The main pathway for the induction of type I interferons (IFN) by viruses is through the recognition of viral RNA by cytosolic receptors and the subsequent activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3), which drives IFN-?/? transcription. In addition to their role in inducing an antiviral state, type I IFN also play a role in modulating adaptive immune responses, in part via their effects on dendritic cells (DCs). Many viruses have evolved mechanisms to interfere with type I IFN induction, and one recently reported strategy for achieving this is by targeting IRF-3 for degradation, as shown for rotavirus nonstructural protein 1 (NSP1). It was therefore of interest to investigate whether rotavirus-exposed DCs would produce type I IFN and/or mature in response to the virus. Our results demonstrate that IRF-3 was rapidly degraded in rotavirus-infected mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and type I IFN was not detected in these cultures. In contrast, rotavirus induced type I IFN production in myeloid DCs (mDCs), resulting in their activation. Type I IFN induction in response to rotavirus was reduced in mDCs from IRF-3?/? mice, indicating that IRF-3 was important for mediating the response. Exposure of mDCs to UV-treated rotavirus induced significantly higher type I IFN levels, suggesting that rotavirus-encoded functions also antagonized the response in DCs. However, in contrast to MEFs, this action was not sufficient to completely abrogate type I IFN induction, consistent with a role for DCs as sentinels for virus infection. PMID:17215281

Douagi, Iyadh; McInerney, Gerald M.; Hidmark, Åsa S.; Miriallis, Vassoula; Johansen, Kari; Svensson, Lennart; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B.

2007-01-01

388

The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Adiposity, Blood Glycated Hemoglobin, Serum Leptin and Tumor Necrosis Factor-? in Type 2 Diabetic Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Since tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) could be one of the risk factors at the development of diabetes complications; as well as serum leptin deficiency is related to increased susceptibility to infections in diabetic patients, they are potential indices from the preventive medicine viewpoint. This study was conducted to represent the effect of supplemental vitamin D3 on serum leptin, TNF-? and adiposity in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, study sample was selected through type 2 diabetic patients (n = 51). A total of 26 patients were orally supplemented by vitamin D3 (400 IU/d) (vitamin D group) and 25 patients by placebo (placebo group) for 14 weeks. The blood glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and the serum ionized Ca, leptin, TNF-?, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH] D) were measured at the two groups in the baseline and postintervention stages. Results: It was shown that despite of theplacebo group, serum 25(OH) D and serum leptin was significantly increased (P = 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively), while serum TNF-? was decreased significantly (P = 0.001) in vitamin D group. The remaining parameters, including body fat mass and HbA1c had no alterations between baseline and postintervention stages in vitamin D group. Conclusions: This study may advocate vitamin D supplementation among type 2 diabetic patients due to its beneficial effects on prevention of diabetes complications. PMID:25317290

Ghavamzadeh, Saeid; Mobasseri, Majid; Mahdavi, Reza

2014-01-01

389

Association of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha polymorphisms with type 2 diabetes with or without metabolic syndrome in Malaysia.  

PubMed

This study investigated the association of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF4) alpha single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with type 2 diabetes with or without metabolic syndrome in Malaysia. Nine HNF4 alpha SNPs were genotyped in 390 type 2 diabetic subjects with metabolic syndrome, 135 type 2 diabetic subjects without metabolic syndrome, and 160 control subjects. The SNPs rs4810424, rs1884613, and rs2144908 were associated with protection against type 2 diabetes without metabolic syndrome (recessive P = 0.018, OR 0.32; P = 0.004, OR 0.25; P = 0.005, OR 0.24, respectively). The 6-SNP haplotype2 CCCGTC containing the risk genotype of these SNPs was associated with higher risk for type 2 diabetes with or without metabolic syndrome (P = 0.002, OR 2.2; P = 0.004, OR 3.1). These data suggest that HNF4 alpha SNPs and haplotypes contributed to increased type 2 diabetes risk in the Malaysian population. PMID:21983932

Saif-Ali, Riyadh; Harun, Roslan; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Al-Jassabi, Saad; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan

2012-04-01

390

Risk factors of type 2 diabetes among Korean adults: The 2001 Korean national health and nutrition examination survey  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to identify risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Korea, a rapidly changing country. Data of 5,132 adults aged 20-85 were used from the 2001 Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Multiple logistic regression was carried out to identify risk factors for T2D. Three models were specified: (i) socioeconomic and demographic factors (model 1: age, gender, education, poverty income ratio, employment), (ii) behavioral risk factors and covariates (model 2: obesity, physical activity, smoking, alcohol drinking, dietary quality, family history of T2D, co-morbidity) and (iii) socioeconomic, demographic, and behavioral factors (model 3). The prevalence of T2D was 7.4%. Less education (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.08-1.84), age (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.56-3.08 in 40-59 yrs, OR 4.05, 95% CI 2.76-5.95 in 60 yrs + comparing to 20-39 yrs) and abdominal obesity (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.79-2.82) were risk factors for T2D even after controlling for other factors simultaneously. There was a significant association of T2D with ever smoking (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.06-1.67). The relationship of age with T2D was modified by gender in model 1 and the relationship of smoking with T2D was modified by obesity in model 2. Less educated, older, obese or ever smokers were more likely to have T2D. Gender mediated the relationship of age, and obesity mediated the relationship of smoking, with T2D. Intervention programs for T2D in Korea should take the interactions among risk factors into account. PMID:20098581

Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

2009-01-01

391

Reduction in tumour cell invasion by pigment epithelium-derived factor is mediated by membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase downregulation.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer and breast cancer are major killers among males and females respectively. In this study, pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) was examined for its effect on commonly used human prostate cancer and human breast cancer cell lines. PEDF increased adhesion of cells to collagen-I, with decreased expression of phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (p-Fak) consistent between the two cell types. Invasion of both tumour cell types through collagen-I was also reduced by PEDF, with decreased expression of membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP). These results were confirmed with specific antibodies to MT-MMP1. This study provides some vital clues as to which molecular players are perturbed by PEDF treatment of human prostate and breast cancer cells, raising hope that PEDF can in future be trialled against these major cancers in attempts to procure safer yet effective therapies for cancer. PMID:23346765

Filiz, G; Dass, C R

2012-12-01

392

The Effects of 12 Weeks Regular Aerobic Exercise on Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor and Inflammatory Factors in Juvenile Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 12 weeks regular aerobic exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory factors in juvenile obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Obesity and T2DM, typically common among adults, have recently become more prevalent in the Korean juvenile population, affecting not only their lipid profiles and oxidant stress levels, but also their BDNF and inflammatory factor levels. [Subjects] This study enrolled 26 juveniles (boys = 15, girls = 9) who were assigned to a control group (CG, n = 11), obesity group (OG, n = 8), or T2DM group (TG, n = 7). [Methods] The outcome of a 40-60-minute aerobic exercise session that took place three times per week for 12 weeks at a maximum oxygen intake (VO2max) of 50~60% was investigated. [Results] The exercise resulted in a significant reduction in the resting serum BDNF and TrkB levels (baseline) among juveniles in the OG and TG as compared to those in the CG. Additionally, the 12 weeks of regular aerobic exercise led to significant reductions in body weight, body fat percentage, and body mass index in the OG and a significant increase of VO2max in the OG and TG. However, no significant differences in serum NGF or inflammatory factors were found among the three groups. There was a significant increase in resting serum BDNF levels following the 12 weeks regular exercise only in the OG. [Conclusion] While 12 weeks of regular aerobic exercise had a positive effect on body composition, and increased BDNF levels of juveniles in the OG, it did not affect the inflammatory factor levels and had no effect on the TG. PMID:25202180

Lee, Sung Soo; Yoo, Jae Ho; Kang, Sung; Woo, Jin Hee; Shin, Ki Ok; Kim, Kwi Beak; Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae; Kim, Young Il

2014-08-01

393

Cold Heat Storage Characteristics of O/W-type Latent Heat Emulsion Including Continuum Phase of Water Treated with a Freezing Point Depression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with flow and cold heat storage characteristics of the oil (tetradecane, C14H30, freezing point 278.9 K, Latent heat 229 kJ/kg)/water emulsion as a latent heat storage material having a low melting point. The test emulsion includes a water-urea solution as a continuum phase. The freezing point depression of the continuum phase permits enhancement of the heat transfer rate of the emulison, due to the large temperature difference between the latent heat storage material and water-urea solution. The velocity of emulsion flow and the inlet temperature of coolant in a coiled double tube heat exchanger are chosen as the experimental parameters. The pressure drop, the heat transfer coefficient of the emulsion in the coiled tube are measured in the temperture region over solid and liquid phase of the latent heat storage material. The finishing time of the cold heat storage is defined experimentally in the range of sensible and latent heat storage. It is clarified that the flow behavior of the emulsion as a non-Newtonian fluid has an important role in cold heat storage. The useful nondimentional correlation equations for the additional pressure loss coefficient, the heat transfer coefficient and the finishing time of the cold heat storage are derived in terms of Dean number and heat capacity ratio.

Inaba, Hideo; Morita, Shin-Ichi

394

Toward a Two-Factor Theory of One Type of Mathematics Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes a two-factor theory of mathematics disabilities based on the premise that weak cognitive representations lead to poorer retrieval of information from long term memory. Comparison of children with math disabilities alone (MD) and those with both math and reading disabilities (MD/RD) suggests that weak phonological processing…

Robinson, Carol S.; Menchetti, Bruce M.; Torgesen, Joseph K.

2002-01-01

395

Micro thermal design of swing arm type small form factor optical pick-up system  

Microsoft Academic Search

New multimedia information environment requires smaller optical data storage systems. However, one of the difficulties in the design of small form factor (SFF) optical pick-up is to emit the heat which is usually generated from laser diode (LD). The generated heat may reduce the optical performance of the system as well as the lifetime of LD. Therefore, it is important

Jee-Na Lee; Hongmin Kim; Young-Joo Kim; Shinill Kang

2006-01-01

396

Deoxyribonucleic Acid Methylation Controls Cell Type-Specific Expression of Steroidogenic Factor 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) is expressed in a time- and cell- specific manner in the endocrine system. In this study we present evidence to support that methylation of CpG sites located in the proximal promoter of the gene encoding SF1 contributes to the restricted expression pattern of this nu- clear receptor. DNA methylation analyses revealed a nearly perfect correlation between

Erling A. Hoivik; Linda Aumo; Reidun Aesoy; Haldis Lillefosse; Aurelia E. Lewis; Rebecca M. Perrett; Nancy R. Stallings; Neil A. Hanley; Marit Bakke

2008-01-01

397

GSK3 protein positively regulates type I insulin-like growth factor receptor through forkhead transcription factors FOXO1/3/4.  

PubMed

Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) has either tumor-suppressive roles or pro-tumor roles in different types of human tumors. A number of GSK3 targets in diverse signaling pathways have been uncovered, such as tuberous sclerosis complex subunit 2 and ?-catenin. The O subfamily of forkhead/winged helix transcription factors (FOXO) is known as tumor suppressors that induce apoptosis. In this study, we find that FOXO binds to type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) promoter and stimulates its transcription. GSK3 positively regulates the transactivation activity of FOXO and stimulates IGF-IR expression. Although kinase-dead GSK3? cannot up-regulate IGF-IR, the constitutively active GSK3? induces IGF-IR expression in a FOXO-dependent manner. Serum starvation or Akt inhibition leads to an increase in IGF-IR expression, which could be blunted by GSK3 inhibition. GSK3? knockdown or GSK3 inhibitor suppresses IGF-I-induced IGF-IR, Akt, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Moreover, knockdown of GSK3? or FOXO1/3/4 leads to a decrease in cellular proliferation and abrogates IGF-I-induced hepatoma cell proliferation. These results suggest that GSK3 and FOXO may positively regulate IGF-I signaling and hepatoma cell proliferation. PMID:25053419

Huo, Xiaodong; Liu, Shu; Shao, Ting; Hua, Hui; Kong, Qingbin; Wang, Jiao; Luo, Ting; Jiang, Yangfu

2014-09-01

398

Factoring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson we will explore prime numbers and factors A prime number has only two factors, 1 and itself. The Greek scholar, Eratosthenes of Cyrene lived from approximately 275 to 195 BC. He is know for being the first to have computed the size of the Earth and served as the director of the famous library in

Mrs. Taylor

2010-10-19

399

The mRNA decay factor PAT1 functions in a pathway including MAP kinase 4 and immune receptor SUMM2.  

PubMed

Multi-layered defense responses are activated in plants upon recognition of invading pathogens. Transmembrane receptors recognize conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and activate MAP kinase cascades, which regulate changes in gene expression to produce appropriate immune responses. For example, Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4 (MPK4) regulates the expression of a subset of defense genes via at least one WRKY transcription factor. We report here that MPK4 is found in complexes in vivo with PAT1, a component of the mRNA decapping machinery. PAT1 is also phosphorylated by MPK4 and, upon flagellin PAMP treatment, PAT1 accumulates and localizes to cytoplasmic processing (P) bodies which are sites for mRNA decay. Pat1 mutants exhibit dwarfism and de-repressed immunity dependent on the immune receptor SUMM2. Since mRNA decapping is a critical step in mRNA turnover, linking MPK4 to mRNA decay via PAT1 provides another mechanism by which MPK4 may rapidly instigate immune responses. PMID:25603932

Roux, Milena Edna; Rasmussen, Magnus Wohlfahrt; Palma, Kristoffer; Lolle, Signe; Regué, Àngels Mateu; Bethke, Gerit; Glazebrook, Jane; Zhang, Weiping; Sieburth, Leslie; Larsen, Martin R; Mundy, John; Petersen, Morten

2015-03-01

400

Kynurenine Pathway Pathologies: do Nicotinamide and Other Pathway Co-Factors have a Therapeutic Role in Reduction of Symptom Severity, Including Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) and Fibromyalgia (FM).  

PubMed

The definition of dual tryptophan pathways has increased the understanding of the mind-body, body-mind dichotomy. The serotonergic pathway highlights the primary (endogenous) psychiatric disorders. The up-regulation of the kynurenine pathway by physical illnesses can cause neuropathic and immunological disorders1 associated with secondary neuropsychiatric symptoms. Tryptophan and nicotinamide deficiencies fall within the protein energy malnutrition (PEM) spectrum. They can arise if the kynurenine pathway is stressed by primary or secondary inflammatory conditions and the consequent imbalance of available catabolic/anabolic substrates may adversely influence convalescent phase efficiency. The replacement of depleted or reduced NAD+ levels and other cofactors can perhaps improve the clinical management of these disorders. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia (FM) appear to meet the criteria of a tryptophan-kynurenine pathway disorder with potential neuroimmunological sequelae. Aspects of some of the putative precipitating factors have been previously outlined.2,3 An analysis of the areas of metabolic dysfunction will focus on future directions for research and management. PMID:23922501

Blankfield, Adele

2013-01-01

401

Translationally Invariant Calculations of Form Factors, Densities and Momentum Distributions for Finite Nuclei with Short-Range Correlations Included: A Fresh Look  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The approach proposed in the 70s (Dementiji et al. in Sov J Nucl Phys 22:6-9, 1976), when describing the elastic and inelastic electron scattering off 4 He, and elaborated in (Shebeko et al.in Eur Phys J A27:143-155, 2006) for calculations of the one-body, two-body and more complex density matrices of finite bound systems has been applied (Shebeko and Grigorov in Ukr J Phys 52:830-842, 2007; Shebeko et al. in Eur. Phys. J. A48:153-172, 2012) in studying a combined effect of the center-of-mass motion and nucleon-nucleon short-range correlations on the nucleon density and momentum distributions in light nuclei beyond the independent particle model. Unlike a common practice, suitable for infinite bound systems, these distributions are determined as expectation values of appropriate intrinsic operators that depend upon the relative coordinates and momenta (Jacobi variables) and act on the intrinsic ground-state wave functions (WFs). The latter are constructed in the so-called fixed center-of-mass approximation, starting with a mean-field Slater determinant modified by some correlator (e.g., after Jastrow or Villars). Our numerical calculations of the charge form factors ( F CH ( q)), densities and momentum distributions have been carried out for nuclei 4 He and 16 O choosing, respectively, the 1 s and 1 s-1 p Slater determinants of the harmonic oscillator model as trial, nontranslationally invariant WFs.

Shebeko, A.; Grigorov, P.; Iurasov, V.

2014-08-01

402

Metabolic factors, adipose tissue, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels in Type 2 diabetes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) production by adipose tissue is increased in obesity, and its circulating levels are high in type 2 diabetes. PAI-1 increases cardiovascular risk by favoring clot stability, interfering with vascular remodeling, or both. We investigated in obese diabetic per...

403

Interrelationship between coagulation factor VII and obesity in diabetes mellitus (type 2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explored the interrelationships of coagulation FVII activity levels with obesity, leptin and insulin resistance in diabetes mellitus (DM Type 2) and in non-diabetic control subjects. We found FVII hypercoagulant activity levels in DM not associated with obesity, leptin levels or insulin resistance. It was found independently associated with hypertriglyceridemia.

R. A. Karatela; G. S. Sainani

2009-01-01

404

Relevance of hemostatic risk factors on coronary morphology in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The influence hemostatitc parameters on the morphological extent and severity of coronary artery disease were studied in patients with and without DM type 2. BACKGROUND: It is known that patients with diabetes (DM) have abnormal metabolic and hemostatic parameters METHODS: Of 150 consecutive patients with angiographically proven coronary artery disease 29 presented with DM. Additionally to parameters of lipid-metabolism

Thomas W Jax; Ansgar J Peters; Gunnar Plehn; Frank-Chris Schoebel

2009-01-01

405

Self-rated health and factors influencing responses among young Egyptian type 1 diabetes patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Patients diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) face major daily challenges. Self-rated health (SRH) is a global measure\\u000a of an individual's health related quality of life (HRQoL) and is based on the question, \\

Heba Ismail

2011-01-01

406

Differential sensitivities of transcription factor target genes underlie cell type-specific gene  

E-print Network

-terminal deletion mutant severely dereg- ulated the low-sensitivity gene Tac-2. Thus, cells expressing different levels of a cell type-specific activator can have qualita- tively distinct target gene expression). GATA-1 increases histone acetylation, dimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (11­13), and RNA

Bresnick, Emery H.

407

Satisfaction with Life and Psychosocial Factors among Underserved Minorities with Type 2 Diabetes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to examine the association between biomedical markers of disease management and psychosocial constructs, while also assessing the correlates and predictors of variability for satisfaction with life (SWL) among African American and Hispanic participants with type 2 diabetes. Data were collected from 142 participants…

Phelps, Kenneth W.; Hodgson, Jennifer L.; Lamson, Angela L.; Swanson, Melvin S.; White, Mark B.

2012-01-01

408

Type I Diabetes Mellitus: Genetic Factors and Presumptive Enteroviral Etiology or Protection  

PubMed Central

We review type 1 diabetes and host genetic components, as well as epigenetics and viruses associated with type 1 diabetes, with added emphasis on the enteroviruses, which are often associated with triggering the disease. Genus Enterovirus is classified into twelve species of which seven (Enterovirus A, Enterovirus B, Enterovirus C, and Enterovirus D and Rhinovirus A, Rhinovirus B, and Rhinovirus C) are human pathogens. These viruses are transmitted mainly by the fecal-oral route; they may also spread via the nasopharyngeal route. Enterovirus infections are highly prevalent, but these infections are usually subclinical or cause a mild flu-like illness. However, infections caused by enteroviruses can sometimes be serious, with manifestations of meningoencephalitis, paralysis, myocarditis, and in neonates a fulminant sepsis-like syndrome. These viruses are often implicated in chronic (inflammatory) diseases as chronic myocarditis, chronic pancreatitis, and type 1 diabetes. In this review we discuss the currently suggested mechanisms involved in the viral induction of type 1 diabetes. We recapitulate current basic knowledge and definitions. PMID:25574400

Precechtelova, Jana; Borsanyiova, Maria; Sarmirova, Sona

2014-01-01

409

Platelet activation and aggregation induced by recombinant von Willebrand factors reproducing four type 2B von Willebrand disease missense mutations.  

PubMed

Type 2B of von Willebrand disease (vWD) refers to qualitative variants with increased affinity of von Willebrand factor (vWF) for platelet glycoprotein Ib (GPIb). All the mutations responsible for type 2B vWD have been located in the A1 domain of vWF. In this study, various recombinant von Willebrand factors (rvWF) reproducing four type 2B vWD missense mutations were compared to wild-type rvWF (WT-rvWF) for their spontaneous binding to platelets and their capacity to induce platelet activation and aggregation. Our data show that the multimeric pattern of each mutated rvWF is similar to that of WT-rvWF but the extent of spontaneous binding and the capacity to induce platelet activation and aggregation are more important for the R543Q and V553M mutations than for the L697V and A698V mutations. Both the binding of mutated rvWFs to platelets and platelet aggregation induced by type 2B rvWFs are inhibited by monoclonal anti-GPIb and anti-vWF antibodies, inhibitors of vWF binding to platelets in the presence of ristocetin, as well as by aurin tricarboxylic acid. On the other hand, EDTA and a monoclonal antibody directed against GPIIb/IIIa only inhibit platelet aggregation. Furthermore, the incubation of type 2B rvWFs with platelets, under stirring conditions, results in the decrease in high molecular weight vWF multimers in solution, the extent of which appears correlated with that of plasma vWF from type 2B vWD patients harboring the corresponding missense mutation. This study supports that the binding of different mutated type 2B vWFs onto platelet GPIb induces various degrees of platelet activation and aggregation and thus suggests that the phenotypic heterogeneity of type 2B vWD may be related to the nature and/or location of the causative point mutation. PMID:9459349

de Romeuf, C; Hilbert, L; Mazurier, C

1998-01-01

410

Cloning the promoter for transforming growth factor-beta type III receptor. Basal and conditional expression in fetal rat osteoblasts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transforming growth factor-beta binds to three high affinity cell surface molecules that directly or indirectly regulate its biological effects. The type III receptor (TRIII) is a proteoglycan that lacks significant intracellular signaling or enzymatic motifs but may facilitate transforming growth factor-beta binding to other receptors, stabilize multimeric receptor complexes, or segregate growth factor from activating receptors. Because various agents or events that regulate osteoblast function rapidly modulate TRIII expression, we cloned the 5' region of the rat TRIII gene to assess possible control elements. DNA fragments from this region directed high reporter gene expression in osteoblasts. Sequencing showed no consensus TATA or CCAAT boxes, whereas several nuclear factors binding sequences within the 3' region of the promoter co-mapped with multiple transcription initiation sites, DNase I footprints, gel mobility shift analysis, or loss of activity by deletion or mutation. An upstream enhancer was evident 5' proximal to nucleotide -979, and a silencer region occurred between nucleotides -2014 and -2194. Glucocorticoid sensitivity mapped between nucleotides -687 and -253, whereas bone morphogenetic protein 2 sensitivity co-mapped within the silencer region. Thus, the TRIII promoter contains cooperative basal elements and dispersed growth factor- and hormone-sensitive regulatory regions that can control TRIII expression by osteoblasts.

Ji, C.; Chen, Y.; McCarthy, T. L.; Centrella, M.

1999-01-01

411

Strigolactone Biosynthesis in Medicago truncatula and Rice Requires the Symbiotic GRAS-Type Transcription Factors NSP1 and NSP2[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Legume GRAS (GAI, RGA, SCR)-type transcription factors NODULATION SIGNALING PATHWAY1 (NSP1) and NSP2 are essential for rhizobium Nod factor-induced nodulation. Both proteins are considered to be Nod factor response factors regulating gene expression after symbiotic signaling. However, legume NSP1 and NSP2 can be functionally replaced by nonlegume orthologs, including rice (Oryza sativa) NSP1 and NSP2, indicating that both proteins are functionally conserved in higher plants. Here, we show that NSP1 and NSP2 are indispensable for strigolactone (SL) biosynthesis in the legume Medicago truncatula and in rice. Mutant nsp1 plants do not produce SLs, whereas in M. truncatula, NSP2 is essential for conversion of orobanchol into didehydro-orobanchol, which is the main SL produced by this species. The disturbed SL biosynthesis in nsp1 nsp2 mutant backgrounds correlates with reduced expression of DWARF27, a gene essential for SL biosynthesis. Rice and M. truncatula represent distinct phylogenetic lineages that split approximately 150 million years ago. Therefore, we conclude that regulation of SL biosynthesis by NSP1 and NSP2 is an ancestral function conserved in higher plants. NSP1 and NSP2 are single-copy genes in legumes, which implies that both proteins fulfill dual regulatory functions to control downstream targets after rhizobium-induced signaling as well as SL biosynthesis in nonsymbiotic conditions. PMID:22039214

Liu, Wei; Kohlen, Wouter; Lillo, Alessandra; Op den Camp, Rik; Ivanov, Sergey; Hartog, Marijke; Limpens, Erik; Jamil, Muhammad; Smaczniak, Cezary; Kaufmann, Kerstin; Yang, Wei-Cai; Hooiveld, Guido J.E.J.; Charnikhova, Tatsiana; Bouwmeester, Harro J.; Bisseling, Ton; Geurts, René

2011-01-01

412

Treatment outcome and prognostic factor analysis in transplant-eligible Chinese myeloma patients receiving bortezomib-based induction regimens including the staged approach, PAD or VTD  

PubMed Central

Background We have reported promising outcomes using a staged approach, in which bortezomib/thalidomide/dexamethasone was used only in 14 patients with suboptimal response to VAD (vincristine/adriamycin/dexamethasone) before autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Here we compared the outcomes of the staged approach with frontline PAD (bortezomib/doxorubicin/dexamethasone) or VTD (bortezomib/thalidomide/dexamethasone) induction, and analysed prognostic factors for outcome. Patients and methods Ninety-one transplant-eligible Chinese patients received three induction regimens prior to ASCT [staged approach (N?=?25), PAD (N?=?31), VTD (N?=?35)]. and received thalidomide maintenance for 2?years post-ASCT. Results 43 (47.3%) patients had International Staging System (ISS) III disease. By an intention-to-treat analysis, the overall CR/nCR rate were 37.4% post-induction, and 62.6% post-ASCT. Five-year overall (OS) and event-free (EFS) survivals were 66% and 45.1%. There was no difference of the post-induction CR/nCR rate, EFS or OS between patients induced by these three regimens. Moreover, ISS III disease did not affect CR/nCR rates. Multivariate analysis showed that ISS and post-ASCT CR/nCR impacted OS while ISS and post-induction CR/nCR impacted EFS. Conclusions These three induction regimens produced comparable and favorable outcomes in myeloma. The unfavorable outcome of ISS stage III persisted despite upfront/early use of bortezomib. CR/nCR predicted favorable survivals. PMID:22682027

2012-01-01

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