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  1. The Lyme Disease Spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi Utilizes Multiple Ligands, Including RNA, for Interferon Regulatory Factor 3-Dependent Induction of Type I Interferon-Responsive Genes ▿

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jennifer C.; Maylor-Hagen, Heather; Ma, Ying; Weis, John H.; Weis, Janis J.

    2010-01-01

    We recently discovered a critical role for type I interferon (IFN) in the development of murine Lyme arthritis. Borrelia burgdorferi-mediated induction of IFN-responsive genes by bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) was dependent upon a functional type I IFN receptor but independent of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4, TLR9, and the adapter molecule MyD88. We now demonstrate that induction of the IFN transcriptional profile in B. burgdorferi-stimulated BMDMs occurs independently of the adapter TRIF and of the cytoplasmic sensor NOD2. In contrast, B. burgdorferi-induced transcription of these genes was dependent upon a rapid STAT1 feedback amplification pathway. IFN profile gene transcription was IRF3 dependent but did not utilize B. burgdorferi-derived DNA or DNase-sensitive ligands. Instead, IFN-responsive gene expression could be induced by B. burgdorferi-derived RNA. Interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3)-dependent IFN profile gene transcription was also induced by sonicated bacteria, by the lipoprotein OspA, and by factors released into the BSKII medium during culture of B. burgdorferi. The IFN-stimulatory activity of B. burgdorferi culture supernatants was not destroyed by nuclease treatment. Nuclease digestion also had no effect on IFN profile induction mediated by sonicated B. burgdorferi. Thus, B. burgdorferi-derived RNA, OspA, and non-nucleic acid ligands present in both sonicated bacteria and B. burgdorferi culture medium contribute to type I IFN-responsive gene induction. These findings suggest that B. burgdorferi invasion of joint tissue and the resultant type I IFN induction associated with Lyme arthritis development may involve multiple triggering ligands. PMID:20404081

  2. The chromosome 16q region associated with ankylosing spondylitis includes the candidate gene tumour necrosis factor receptor type 1-associated death domain (TRADD)

    PubMed Central

    Pointon, Jennifer J; Harvey, David; Karaderi, Tugce; Appleton, Louise H; Farrar, Claire; Stone, Millicent A; Sturrock, Roger D; Reveille, John D; Weisman, Michael H; Ward, Michael M; Brown, Matthew A; Wordsworth, B Paul

    2010-01-01

    Objective To replicate and refine the reported association of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) with two non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) on chromosome 16q22.1. Methods Firstly, 730 independent UK patients with AS were genotyped for rs9939768 and rs6979 and allele frequencies were compared with 2879 previously typed historic disease controls. Secondly, the two data sets were combined in meta-analyses. Finally, 5 tagging SNPs, located between rs9939768 and rs6979, were analysed in 1604 cases and 1020 controls. Results The association of rs6979 with AS was replicated, p=0.03, OR=1.14 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.28), and a trend for association with rs9939768 detected, p=0.06, OR=1.25 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.57). Meta-analyses revealed association of both SNPs with AS, p=0.0008, OR=1.31 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.54) and p=0.0009, OR=1.15 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.23) for rs9939768 and rs6979, respectively. New associations with rs9033 and rs868213 (p=0.00002, OR=1.23 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.36) and p=0.00002 OR=1.45 (95% CI 1.22 to 1.72), respectively, were identified. Conclusions The region on chromosome 16 that has been replicated in the present work is interesting as the highly plausible candidate gene, tumour necrosis factor receptor type 1 (TNFR1)-associated death domain (TRADD), is located between rs9033 and rs868213. It will require additional work to identify the primary genetic association(s) with AS. PMID:19854717

  3. Cholesterol synthesis is the trigger and isoprenoid dependent interleukin-6 mediated inflammation is the common causative factor and therapeutic target for atherosclerotic vascular disease and age-related disorders including osteoporosis and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Omoigui, Sota

    2005-01-01

    This is a unifying theory that cholesterol metabolites (isoprenoids) are an integral component of the signaling pathway for interleukin-6 (IL-6) mediated inflammation. IL-6 inflammation is the common causative origin for atherosclerosis, peripheral vascular disease, coronary artery disease, and age-related disorders including osteoporosis, dementia, Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes. Therapeutic effects of bisphosphonates and statins are mediated by isoprenoid depletion. Statins and bisphosphonates act in the cholesterol pathway to deplete isoprenoids. Anti-inflammatory properties of statins and bisphosphonates are due to isoprenoid depletion with subsequent inhibition of IL-6 mediated inflammation. Therapeutic targets for the prevention and control of all the above diseases should focus on cholesterol metabolites and IL-6 mediated inflammation. Prevention of atherosclerotic vascular disease and age-related disorders will be by utilization of cholesterol lowering agents or techniques and/or treatment with statins and/or bisphosphonates to inhibit IL-6 inflammation through regulation of cholesterol metabolism. PMID:15935563

  4. Include All 4 Types of Exercise (Endurance, Strength, Balance, Flexibility)

    MedlinePlus

    ... generally falls into four main types: endurance, strength, balance, and flexibility. Some activities fit into more than ... build strength, and some flexibility exercises also improve balance. ENDURANCE Your goal is to be creative and ...

  5. Important factors included in nondestructive readout of GMR MRAM (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Wang, Z.

    1996-04-01

    We proposed a new type of magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM) using a weakly coupled GMR effect. It operates on the general principle of storing a binary digit in hard component and sensing its remanent state by switching the soft component in such a way that the magnetic state of the hard component is unaltered. It is believed that this structure could have nondestructive readout (NDRO) characteristics. However, in experiments we found that NDRO was not always achieved; i.e., NDRO was dependent on the polarity of the excitation field. We take an example for mode ``0'' (corresponding to a + remanent state). Although tests involving 3×108 plus excitation pulses indicated that the element was still stable, stability against minus disturb pulses could not be expected. The remanent state of 0 was degrading gradually and was finally destroyed after nenormous numbers of readout switching. An analytical model, in which the hard component follows the Rayleigh law, can explain the above phenomenon. It is because the irreversible magnetization processes cause disturbed states (0' or 1'). Obviously the worst case for mode 0 is being excited by continous minus pulses whereas the worst case for mode 1 is being excited by continous plus pulses. We think that two methods will be effective to eliminate the unstability. One is to obtain a rectangular hysteresis loop for the hard component. The other is to imporve the excitation method, for example, to employ bipolar pulses for excitation signals.

  6. Photovoltaic Device Including A Boron Doping Profile In An I-Type Layer

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Liyou

    1993-10-26

    A photovoltaic cell for use in a single junction or multijunction photovoltaic device, which includes a p-type layer of a semiconductor compound including silicon, an i-type layer of an amorphous semiconductor compound including silicon, and an n-type layer of a semiconductor compound including silicon formed on the i-type layer. The i-type layer including an undoped first sublayer formed on the p-type layer, and a boron-doped second sublayer formed on the first sublayer.

  7. The spindle-shaped cells in cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma. Histologic simulators include factor XIIIa dermal dendrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Nickoloff, B. J.; Griffiths, C. E.

    1989-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma is a neoplasm that develops as multifocal lesions, often involving the skin, characterized by a complex histologic picture including numerous vascular spaces, perivascular and interstitial spindle-shaped cells, and extravasated erythrocytes, lymphocytes, and plasma cells. Using an antibody against factor XIIIa, which identifies dermal dendrocytes, numerous factor XIIIa-positive dermal dendrocytes were detected among the spindle-shaped cells in 12 acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated, and five non-AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma lesions. The factor XIIIa-positive dermal dendrocytes were also increased in histologic simulators of Kaposi's sarcoma such as dermatofibroma, angiomatoid malignant fibrous histiocytoma, granuloma annulare, and early wound healing, but were absent in keloids. The increased number of dermal dendrocytes, which are often in an angiocentric configuration and which also express CD4, lymphocyte function associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), and Leu M3 in Kaposi's sarcoma, may be important to the angioproliferative response. The results suggested that the spindle-shaped cells that are present in a variety of cutaneous lesions are dermal dendrocytes and belong to the reticuloendothelial system, unlike other mesenchymal cell types such as the endothelial cell. Apparently a diverse array of stimuli, including human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection and trauma, can stimulate the accumulation of factor XIIIa expressing dermal dendrocytes in the skin. These cells can then participate in different stages of a variety of cutaneous alterations including Kaposi's sarcoma, dermatofibroma, granuloma annulare, and early wound healing. Thus, the factor XIIIa-positive dermal dendrocyte is a common cellular denominator among diverse clinical entities that share some histologic features. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 p797-a PMID:2573283

  8. The spindle-shaped cells in cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma. Histologic simulators include factor XIIIa dermal dendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Nickoloff, B J; Griffiths, C E

    1989-11-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma is a neoplasm that develops as multifocal lesions, often involving the skin, characterized by a complex histologic picture including numerous vascular spaces, perivascular and interstitial spindle-shaped cells, and extravasated erythrocytes, lymphocytes, and plasma cells. Using an antibody against factor XIIIa, which identifies dermal dendrocytes, numerous factor XIIIa-positive dermal dendrocytes were detected among the spindle-shaped cells in 12 acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated, and five non-AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma lesions. The factor XIIIa-positive dermal dendrocytes were also increased in histologic simulators of Kaposi's sarcoma such as dermatofibroma, angiomatoid malignant fibrous histiocytoma, granuloma annulare, and early wound healing, but were absent in keloids. The increased number of dermal dendrocytes, which are often in an angiocentric configuration and which also express CD4, lymphocyte function associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), and Leu M3 in Kaposi's sarcoma, may be important to the angioproliferative response. The results suggested that the spindle-shaped cells that are present in a variety of cutaneous lesions are dermal dendrocytes and belong to the reticuloendothelial system, unlike other mesenchymal cell types such as the endothelial cell. Apparently a diverse array of stimuli, including human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection and trauma, can stimulate the accumulation of factor XIIIa expressing dermal dendrocytes in the skin. These cells can then participate in different stages of a variety of cutaneous alterations including Kaposi's sarcoma, dermatofibroma, granuloma annulare, and early wound healing. Thus, the factor XIIIa-positive dermal dendrocyte is a common cellular denominator among diverse clinical entities that share some histologic features. PMID:2573283

  9. Environmental risk factors for type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rewers, Marian; Ludvigsson, Johnny

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of type 1 diabetes has risen considerably in the past 30 years due to changes in the environment that have been only partially identified. In this Series paper, we critically discuss candidate triggers of islet autoimmunity and factors thought to promote progression from autoimmunity to overt type 1 diabetes. We revisit previously proposed hypotheses to explain the growth in the incidence of type 1 diabetes in light of current data. Finally, we suggest a unified model in which immune tolerance to β cells can be broken by several environmental exposures that induce generation of hybrid peptides acting as neoautoantigens. PMID:27302273

  10. Risk Factors for Early Colonoscopic Perforation Include Non-Gastroenterologist Endoscopists: a Multivariable Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bielawska, Barbara; Day, Andrew G; Lieberman, David A; Hookey, Lawrence C

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Bowel perforation is a rare but serious complication of colonoscopy. Its prevalence is increasing with the rapidly growing volume of procedures performed. Although colonoscopies have been performed for decades, the risk factors for perforation are not completely understood. We investigated risk factors for perforation during colonoscopy, assessing variables that included sedation type and endoscopist specialty and level of training. Methods We performed a retrospective multivariate analysis of risk factors for early perforation (occurring at any point during the colonoscopy but recognized during or immediately after the procedure) in adult patients using the Clinical Outcomes Research Initiative National Endoscopic Database. Risk factors were determined from published articles. Additional variables assessed included endoscopist specialty and years of experience, trainee involvement, and sedation with propofol. Results We identified 192 perforation events during 1,144,900 colonoscopies from 85 centers entered into the database from January 2000 through March 2011. On multivariate analysis, increasing age, American Society of Anesthesia class, female sex, hospital setting, any therapy, and polyps >10 mm were significantly associated with increased risk of early perforation. Colonoscopies performed by surgeons and endoscopists of unknown specialty had higher rates of perforation than those performed by gastroenterologists (odds ratio, 2.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.30–3.08). Propofol sedation did not significantly affect risk for perforation. Conclusions In addition to previously established risk factors, non-gastroenterologist specialty was found to affect risk for perforations detected during or immediately after colonoscopy. This finding could result from differences in volume and style of endoscopy training. Further investigation into these observed associations is warranted. PMID:23891916

  11. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Youth With Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: Implications of a Factor Analysis of Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Ma, Bo; Lawson, Andrew; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Liese, Angela D.; Dabelea, Dana; Dolan, Lawrence; Pettitt, David J.; Rodriguez, Beatriz L.; Williams, Desmond

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The extent to which cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors cluster in youth with a diagnosis of type 1 (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate potential clustering of traditional CVD risk factors that may reflect an unmeasured but unifying single pathology that may explain the phenomenon of the metabolic syndrome in these youths. Methods Youths who participated in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study with diabetes diagnosed <20 years, with current age >10 years (maximum current age, 22 years) were included. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed to determine statistical associations among CVD risk factors, including obesity, blood pressure, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Diabetes type was defined by diabetes autoantibodies (DAA) and fasting C-peptide (FCP); type 1 (T1DM, DAA positive, and FCP <0.8 ng/mL, n = 1198) and type 2 (T2DM, DAA negative, and FCP >2.9 ng/mL, n = 95). For T1DM, the sample was split randomly and analyses were conducted separately in each split sample. Results Among five prespecified data structures ranging from a single underlying factor to a hierarchical structure of factors, the worst-fitting model for both of the T1DM split samples was the single-factor structure and the best-fitting model was a three-correlated-factor structure. The three correlated factors identified were obesity, lipids, and blood pressure. Results were very similar for youths with T2DM. Conclusion There is little evidence that a single factor underlies the CVD risk factor pattern in youths with diabetes. The concept of the metabolic syndrome provides a useful description of clinical characteristics but does not efficiently capture a single target for etiologic research among youths with diabetes. PMID:18847385

  12. Robust Programming Problems Based on the Mean-Variance Model Including Uncertainty Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasuike, Takashi; Ishii, Hiroaki

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers robust programming problems based on the mean-variance model including uncertainty sets and fuzzy factors. Since these problems are not well-defined problems due to fuzzy factors, it is hard to solve them directly. Therefore, introducing chance constraints, fuzzy goals and possibility measures, the proposed models are transformed into the deterministic equivalent problems. Furthermore, in order to solve these equivalent problems efficiently, the solution method is constructed introducing the mean-absolute deviation and doing the equivalent transformations.

  13. Analytical expressions for the gate utilization factors of passive multiplicity counters including signal build-up

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, Stephen; Evans, Louise G; Schear, Melissa A

    2010-01-01

    In the realm of nuclear safeguards, passive neutron multiplicity counting using shift register pulse train analysis to nondestructively quantify Pu in product materials is a familiar and widely applied technique. The approach most commonly taken is to construct a neutron detector consisting of {sup 3}He filled cylindrical proportional counters embedded in a high density polyethylene moderator. Fast neutrons from the item enter the moderator and are quickly slowed down, on timescales of the order of 1-2 {micro}s, creating a thermal population which then persists typically for several 10's {micro}s and is sampled by the {sup 3}He detectors. Because the initial transient is of comparatively short duration it has been traditional to treat it as instantaneous and furthermore to approximate the subsequent capture time distribution as exponential in shape. With these approximations simple expressions for the various Gate Utilization Factors (GUFs) can be obtained. These factors represent the proportion of time correlated events i.e. Doubles and Triples signal present in the pulse train that is detected by the coincidence gate structure chosen (predelay and gate width settings of the multiplicity shift register). More complicated expressions can be derived by generalizing the capture time distribution to multiple time components or harmonics typically present in real systems. When it comes to applying passive neutron multiplicity methods to extremely intense (i.e. high emission rate and highly multiplying) neutron sources there is a drive to use detector types with very fast response characteristics in order to cope with the high rates. In addition to short pulse width, detectors with a short capture time profile are also desirable so that a short coincidence gate width can be set in order to reduce the chance or Accidental coincidence signal. In extreme cases, such as might be realized using boron loaded scintillators, the dieaway time may be so short that the build

  14. Systematic chromatin state comparison of epigenomes associated with diverse properties including sex and tissue type

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Angela; Kellis, Manolis

    2015-01-01

    Epigenomic data sets provide critical information about the dynamic role of chromatin states in gene regulation, but a key question of how chromatin state segmentations vary under different conditions across the genome has remained unaddressed. Here we present ChromDiff, a group-wise chromatin state comparison method that generates an information-theoretic representation of epigenomes and corrects for external covariate factors to better isolate relevant chromatin state changes. By applying ChromDiff to the 127 epigenomes from the Roadmap Epigenomics and ENCODE projects, we provide novel group-wise comparative analyses across sex, tissue type, state and developmental age. Remarkably, we find that distinct sets of epigenomic features are maximally discriminative for different group-wise comparisons, in each case revealing distinct enriched pathways, many of which do not show gene expression differences. Our methodology should be broadly applicable for epigenomic comparisons and provides a powerful new tool for studying chromatin state differences at the genome scale. PMID:26282110

  15. A Study of Factors Promoting Success in Computer Science Including Gender Differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantwell Wilson, Brenda

    2002-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine factors that promote success in an introductory college computer science course and to determine what, if any, differences appear between genders on those factors. The model included math background, attribution for success/failure, self-efficacy, encouragement, comfort level in the course, work style preference, previous programming experience, previous non-programming computer experience, and gender as possible predictive factors for success in the computer science course. Subjects included 105 students enrolled in an introductory computer science course. The study revealed three predictive factors in the following order of importance: comfort level (with a positive influence), math background (with a positive influence), and attribution to luck (with a negative influence). No significant gender differences were found in these three factors. The study also revealed that both a formal class in programming (which had a positive correlation) and game playing (which had a negative correlation) were predictive of success. The study revealed a significant gender difference in game playing with males reporting more experience with playing games on the computer than females reported.

  16. P and n-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including band gap widening elements, devices utilizing same

    DOEpatents

    Guha, Subhendu; Ovshinsky, Stanford R.

    1988-10-04

    An n-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including a band gap widening element; a method of fabricating p-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including a band gap widening element; and electronic and photovoltaic devices incorporating said n-type and p-type materials.

  17. DNA Damage Response Factors from Diverse Pathways, Including DNA Crosslink Repair, Mediate Alternative End Joining

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Sean M.; Yanez, Diana A.; Stark, Jeremy M.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative end joining (Alt-EJ) chromosomal break repair involves bypassing classical non-homologous end joining (c-NHEJ), and such repair causes mutations often with microhomology at the repair junction. Since the mediators of Alt-EJ are not well understood, we have sought to identify DNA damage response (DDR) factors important for this repair event. Using chromosomal break reporter assays, we surveyed an RNAi library targeting known DDR factors for siRNAs that cause a specific decrease in Alt-EJ, relative to an EJ event that is a composite of Alt-EJ and c-NHEJ (Distal-EJ between two tandem breaks). From this analysis, we identified several DDR factors that are specifically important for Alt-EJ relative to Distal-EJ. While these factors are from diverse pathways, we also found that most of them also promote homologous recombination (HR), including factors important for DNA crosslink repair, such as the Fanconi Anemia factor, FANCA. Since bypass of c-NHEJ is likely important for both Alt-EJ and HR, we disrupted the c-NHEJ factor Ku70 in Fanca-deficient mouse cells and found that Ku70 loss significantly diminishes the influence of Fanca on Alt-EJ. In contrast, an inhibitor of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) causes a decrease in Alt-EJ that is enhanced by Ku70 loss. Additionally, the helicase/nuclease DNA2 appears to have distinct effects from FANCA and PARP on both Alt-EJ, as well as end resection. Finally, we found that the proteasome inhibitor Bortezomib, a cancer therapeutic that has been shown to disrupt FANC signaling, causes a significant reduction in both Alt-EJ and HR, relative to Distal-EJ, as well as a substantial loss of end resection. We suggest that several distinct DDR functions are important for Alt-EJ, which include promoting bypass of c-NHEJ and end resection. PMID:25629353

  18. Type IV pili mechanochemically regulate virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Persat, Alexandre; Inclan, Yuki F.; Engel, Joanne N.; Stone, Howard A.; Gitai, Zemer

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria have evolved a wide range of sensing systems to appropriately respond to environmental signals. Here we demonstrate that the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa detects contact with surfaces on short timescales using the mechanical activity of its type IV pili, a major surface adhesin. This signal transduction mechanism requires attachment of type IV pili to a solid surface, followed by pilus retraction and signal transduction through the Chp chemosensory system, a chemotaxis-like sensory system that regulates cAMP production and transcription of hundreds of genes, including key virulence factors. Like other chemotaxis pathways, pili-mediated surface sensing results in a transient response amplified by a positive feedback that increases type IV pili activity, thereby promoting long-term surface attachment that can stimulate additional virulence and biofilm-inducing pathways. The methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein-like chemosensor PilJ directly interacts with the major pilin subunit PilA. Our results thus support a mechanochemical model where a chemosensory system measures the mechanically induced conformational changes in stretched type IV pili. These findings demonstrate that P. aeruginosa not only uses type IV pili for surface-specific twitching motility, but also as a sensor regulating surface-induced gene expression and pathogenicity. PMID:26041805

  19. Q-Type Factor Analysis of Healthy Aged Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleban, Morton H.

    Q-type factor analysis was used to re-analyze baseline data collected in 1957, on 47 men aged 65-91. Q-type analysis is the use of factor methods to study persons rather than tests. Although 550 variables were originally studied involving psychiatry, medicine, cerebral metabolism and chemistry, personality, audiometry, dichotic and diotic memory,…

  20. Children and adolescents' internal models of food-sharing behavior include complex evaluations of contextual factors.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Benenson, Joyce F; Kramer, Donald L

    2003-01-01

    This study examined internal representations of food sharing in 589 children and adolescents (8-19 years of age). Questionnaires, depicting a variety of contexts in which one person was asked to share a resource with another, were used to examine participants' expectations of food-sharing behavior. Factors that were varied included the value of the resource, the relation between the two depicted actors, the quality of this relation, and gender. Results indicate that internal models of food-sharing behavior showed systematic patterns of variation, demonstrating that individuals have complex contextually based internal models at all ages, including the youngest. Examination of developmental changes in use of individual patterns is consistent with the idea that internal models reflect age-specific patterns of interactions while undergoing a process of progressive consolidation. PMID:14669890

  1. Early life factors and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xinli; Ma, Huijie; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multifactorial disease, and its aetiology involves a complex interplay between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. In recent years, evidences from both human and animal experiments have correlated early life factors with programming diabetes risk in adult life. Fetal and neonatal period is crucial for organ development. Many maternal factors during pregnancy may increase the risk of diabetes of offsprings in later life, which include malnutrition, healthy (hyperglycemia and obesity), behavior (smoking, drinking, and junk food diet), hormone administration, and even stress. In neonates, catch-up growth, lactation, glucocorticoids administration, and stress have all been found to increase the risk of insulin resistance or T2DM. Unfavorable environments (socioeconomic situation and famine) or obesity also has long-term negative effects on children by causing increased susceptibility to T2DM in adults. We also address the potential mechanisms that may underlie the developmental programming of T2DM. Therefore, it might be possible to prevent or delay the risk for T2DM by improving pre- and/or postnatal factors. PMID:24455747

  2. Environmental factors and primary prevention in type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ilonen, Jorma; Vaarala, Outi; Åkerblom, Hans K.; Knip, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of type 1 diabetes has been increasing rapidly among children in most European countries over the last decades. Despite of the known strong genetic component in the disease only environmental factors can explain such a rapid change. The increase in incidence has been most conspicuous in the youngest age group, which emphasizes the importance of infancy and early environmental exposures. Nutritional and infectious factors affecting the young child or even the mother during pregnancy have been implicated to be important in the pathogenesis. The identification of single factors has been extremely difficult as reflected by many controversial reports on their importance. This difficulty may also be due to the heterogeneity of the disease mechanisms. Multiple mechanisms in different pathways may ultimately be responsible for beta-cell destruction. In most cases the disease is probably caused by a complex interplay between multiple factors including distinct genetic polymorphisms and environmental effects. Exploration of these pathways is needed for the development of effective preventive measures. The implementation of primary prevention trials will ultimately prove the value of various concepts generated for the disease pathogenesis. PMID:20455416

  3. Rotating bits including a plurality of types of preferential cutting elements

    SciTech Connect

    Bidegaray, D. A.

    1985-04-23

    A rotating bit, particularly a rotary bit, is provided with a plurality of teeth incorporating diamond cutting elements of a first and second type. Each type of tooth is particularly adapted to cut a particular type of rock formation. For example, the plurality of the first type of teeth are particularly designed to cut soft to medium-hard rock formations, and the plurality of the second type of teeth are particularly adapted to cut hard or abrasive rock formations. In one embodiment, the first type of teeth are set on the bit face to have a greater exposure from the bit face than the second type of teeth. In that case, the first type of teeth will engage the rock formation first. A second embodiment has the relative disposition of the first and second types of teeth as measured by their disposition from the axis of rotation on the bit reversed. In the case where the teeth, which are adapted for hard rock cutting, extend furthermost from the bit, the rock formation first comes into contact with these teeth and if it should be a hard rock formation, primary cutting action will be accomplished with the hard rock cutting teeth, while the soft rock cutting teeth are held out of contact from the formation to minimize wear of these softer rock cutting teeth. However, when a soft rock formation is encountered, the hard rock teeth will fully embed into the softer rock formation, thereby allowing full engagement of the softer rock formation cutting teeth.

  4. Thermoelectric material including a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Jihui; Shi, Xun; Bai, Shengqiang; Zhang, Wenqing; Chen, Lidong; Yang, Jiong

    2012-01-17

    A thermoelectric material includes a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure having the formula A.sub.8TM.sub.y.sub.1.sup.1TM.sub.y.sub.2.sup.2 . . . TM.sub.y.sub.n.sup.nM.sub.zX.sub.46-y.sub.1.sub.-y.sub.2.sub.- . . . -y.sub.n.sub.-z. In the formula, A is selected from the group consisting of barium, strontium, and europium; X is selected from the group consisting of silicon, germanium, and tin; M is selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, and indium; TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, and TM.sup.n are independently selected from the group consisting of 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metals; and y.sub.1, y.sub.2, y.sub.n and Z are actual compositions of TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, TM.sup.n, and M, respectively. The actual compositions are based upon nominal compositions derived from the following equation: z=8q.sub.A-|.DELTA.q.sub.1|y.sub.1-|.DELTA.q.sub.2|y.sub.2- . . . -|.DELTA.q.sub.n|y.sub.n, wherein q.sub.A is a charge state of A, and wherein .DELTA.q.sub.1, .DELTA.q.sub.2, .DELTA.q.sub.n are, respectively, the nominal charge state of the first, second, and n-th TM.

  5. Genetic diversity of bovine papillomavirus types, including two putative new types, in teat warts from dairy cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Lunardi, Michele; de Camargo Tozato, Claudia; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; de Alcântara, Brígida Kussumoto; Vilas-Boas, Laurival Antonio; Otonel, Rodrigo Alejandro Arellano; Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2016-06-01

    Teat papillomatosis affects dairy cows worldwide. Milking can become difficult due to teat warts, and maintaining affected cows in the herds may diminish economic profit in the dairy industry. Currently, 13 bovine papillomavirus (BPV) types have been fully characterized, and numerous putative BPV types have been identified through partial L1 gene PCR. In order to identify the viral types present in warts on the udders of dairy cows, 40 teat lesions from 24 cows from 13 cattle farms in three States of Brazil were evaluated by PV L1 gene PCR. The warts that were evaluated contained sequences from BPVs 6-10, the putative BPV types BAPV9 and BAPV4, and two unreported putative papillomavirus (PV) types, named BPV/BR-UEL6 and BPV/BR-UEL7. In addition, mixed infections and coinfections were identified, since more than one lesion was observed on the udders of 13 cows. Phylogenetic analysis showed that BPV/BR-UEL6 is closely related to BPVs belonging to the genus Xipapillomavirus, while BPV/BR-UEL7 clustered with the previously reported strains Cervus timorensis and Pudu puda PVs, which represent a putative new PV type, and it was only distantly related to xi-, epsilon-, delta- and dyoxi-PVs. These results provide information that will assist in the understanding of the association of BPVs 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10, as well as putative BPV types BAPV4 and BAPV9, with mammary papillomatosis. This is the first characterization of putative novel PV types BPV/BR-UEL6 and BPV/BR-UEL7 in teat warts of dairy cows, highlighting the high genetic diversity of BPVs associated with teat papillomatosis. PMID:26997614

  6. ‘LONESOME TOWN’? IS LONELINESS ASSOCIATED WITH THE RESIDENTIAL ENVIRONMENT, INCLUDING HOUSING AND NEIGHBORHOOD FACTORS?

    PubMed Central

    Whitley, Elise; Tannahill, Carol; Ellaway, Anne

    2015-01-01

    This article considers whether feelings of loneliness are associated with aspects of the home and neighborhood of residence. Multinominal logistic regression models were used to explore associations between residential environment and loneliness in 4,000 residents across deprived areas of Glasgow. People who rated their neighborhood environment of higher quality and who used more local amenities were less likely to report loneliness. Respondents who knew more people within the local area were less likely to report loneliness. Those who reported more antisocial behavior problems, who had a weak perception of collective efficacy, and who felt unsafe walking alone at nighttime were more likely to report loneliness. Length of residence and dwelling type were not associated with reported loneliness. The findings indicate the potential importance of several dimensions of the neighborhood physical, service, and social environment, including aspects of both quality and trust, in protecting against or reducing loneliness in deprived areas. PMID:26740728

  7. Method of fabricating n-type and p-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including band gap widening elements

    DOEpatents

    Guha, Subhendu; Ovshinsky, Stanford R.

    1990-02-02

    A method of fabricating doped microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material which includes a band gap widening element through a glow discharge deposition process by subjecting a precursor mixture which includes a diluent gas to an a.c. glow discharge in the absence of a magnetic field of sufficient strength to induce electron cyclotron resonance.

  8. Benefits of caloric restriction for cardiometabolic health, including type 2 diabetes mellitus risk.

    PubMed

    Soare, Andreea; Weiss, Edward P; Pozzilli, Paolo

    2014-03-01

    In the United States, life expectancy has markedly increased during the past century, and population ageing is expected to double within the next 25 years. The process of ageing in a population is associated with the development of chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, that can be prevented, and even reversed, with the implementation of healthy lifestyle interventions. The evidence to date, consolidated by the numerous epidemiological studies and clinical trials conducted, suggests that caloric restriction is an effective nutritional intervention for preventing most of these age-related conditions. At a metabolic level, caloric restriction with adequate nutrition has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity, reduce fasting glucose and insulin concentration and prevent obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and chronic inflammation. The purpose of this article is to review current knowledge of the metabolic and clinical implications of caloric restriction with adequate nutrition for the prevention of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:24532291

  9. 78 FR 26847 - Including Specific Pavement Types in Federal-aid Highway Traffic Noise Analyses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... data from three pavement types: dense-graded asphaltic concrete (DGAC), open-graded asphaltic concrete (OGAC), and Portland cement concrete (PCC). Prediction of future noise levels is based on the ``average... to consider a wider range of asphaltic concrete and PCC pavements within the agency's traffic...

  10. Globular Cluster Populations: Results Including S4G Late-type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaritsky, Dennis; McCabe, Kelsey; Aravena, Manuel; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert; Comerón, Sébastien; Courtois, Helene M.; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Elmegreen, Debra M.; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Hinz, Joannah L.; Ho, Luis C.; Holwerda, Benne; Kim, Taehyun; Knapen, Johan H.; Laine, Jarkko; Laurikainen, Eija; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos; Salo, Heikki; Sheth, Kartik

    2016-02-01

    Using 3.6 and 4.5 μm images of 73 late-type, edge-on galaxies from the S4G survey, we compare the richness of the globular cluster populations of these galaxies to those of early-type galaxies that we measured previously. In general, the galaxies presented here fill in the distribution for galaxies with lower stellar mass, M*, specifically {log}({M}*/{M}⊙ )\\lt 10, overlap the results for early-type galaxies of similar masses, and, by doing so, strengthen the case for a dependence of the number of globular clusters per 109M⊙ of galaxy stellar mass, TN, on M*. For 8.5\\lt {log}({M}*/{M}⊙ )\\lt 10.5 we find the relationship can be satisfactorily described as {T}{{N}}={({M}*/{10}6.7)}-0.56 when M* is expressed in solar masses. The functional form of the relationship is only weakly constrained, and extrapolation outside this range is not advised. Our late-type galaxies, in contrast to our early types, do not show the tendency for low-mass galaxies to split into two TN families. Using these results and a galaxy stellar mass function from the literature, we calculate that, in a volume-limited, local universe sample, clusters are most likely to be found around fairly massive galaxies (M* ˜ 1010.8M⊙) and present a fitting function for the volume number density of clusters as a function of parent-galaxy stellar mass. We find no correlation between TN and large-scale environment, but we do find a tendency for galaxies of fixed M* to have larger TN if they have converted a larger proportion of their baryons into stars.

  11. Of mice and (wo)men: factors influencing successful implantation including endocannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Melford, Sarah E; Taylor, Anthony H; Konje, Justin C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND One in six couples suffer from infertility problems requiring in vitro fertilization therapy; however, the average birth rates in the past decade per IVF-embryo transfer cycle have remained static at around 25%. Although implantation failure is considered a major cause of infertility in otherwise healthy women, inadequate uterine receptivity is considered to be responsible for only two-thirds of implantation failures and problems with the embryo itself are responsible for the other third, such that only 30% of oocytes that are contacted by sperm result in successful human term pregnancies. Due to technical and ethical considerations, most research into the factors affecting the success of embryo implantation has been performed in mice, but this may be less than ideal. METHODS Selected relevant literature detailing the similarities and differences between rodent and human reproductive physiology surrounding implantation were nominated for inclusion. Primary papers and review articles (and primary sources within these), published between 1975 and 2012, with a clear indication for a particular ligand or cell being involved in the implantation process or placentation in the mouse or woman, were thoroughly examined and used to construct the review. RESULTS Mice have been identified as suitable models for investigating the processes of early pregnancy in women, for many reasons including their predictable, relatively short gestation and the ability to deliberately breed mice with the absence of a desired gene. There is, however, increasing evidence to suggest that the reproductive systems of humans and mice differ considerably when considering early pregnancy events. CONCLUSIONS In this review, we examine what is already known about the normal implantation process and the intrinsic factors that affect implantation, and then compare the differences between mice models and women in the context of early pregnancy. We highlight numerous differences between the

  12. Determination of the petrologic type of CV3 chondrites by Raman spectroscopy of included organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonal, Lydie; Quirico, Eric; Bourot-Denise, Michèle; Montagnac, Gilles

    2006-04-01

    This paper reports the first reliable quantitative determination of the thermal metamorphism grade of a series of nine CV3 chondrites: Allende, Axtell, Bali, Mokoia, Grosnaja, Efremovka, Vigarano, Leoville, and Kaba. The maturity of the organic matter in matrix, determined by Raman spectroscopy, has been used as a powerful metamorphic tracer, independent of the mineralogical context and extent of aqueous alteration. This tracer has been used along with other metamorphic tracers such as Fe zoning in type-I chondrules of olivine phenocrysts, presolar grain abundance and noble gas abundance (bulk and P3 component). The study shows that the petrologic types determined earlier by Induced ThermoLuminescence were underestimated and suggests the following values: PT (Allende-Axtell) >3.6; PT (Bali-Mokoia-Grosnaja) ˜3.6; PT (Efremovka-Leoville-Vigarano) = 3.1-3.4; PT (Kaba) ˜3.1. The most commonly studied CV3, Allende, is also the most metamorphosed. Bali is a breccia containing clasts of different petrologic types. The attribution suggested by this study is that of clasts of the highest petrologic types, as pointed out by IOM maturity and noble gas bulk abundance. CV3 chondrites have complex asteroidal backgrounds, with various degrees of aqueous alteration and/or thermal metamorphism leading to complex mineralogical and petrologic patterns. (Fe,Mg) chemical zoning in olivine phenocrysts, on the borders of type I chondrules of porphyritic olivine- and pyroxene-rich textural types, has been found to correlate with the metamorphism grade. This suggests that chemical zoning in some chondrules, often interpreted as exchanges between chondrules and nebular gas, may well have an asteroidal origin. Furthermore, the compositional range of olivine matrix is controlled both by thermal metamorphism and aqueous alteration. This does not support evidence of a nebular origin and does not necessarily mirror the metamorphism grade through (Fe,Mg) equilibration. On the other hand, it may

  13. A decision support system prototype including human factors based on the TOGA meta-theory approach

    SciTech Connect

    Cappelli, M.; Memmi, F.; Gadomski, A. M.; Sepielli, M.

    2012-07-01

    The human contribution to the risk of operation of complex technological systems is often not negligible and sometimes tends to become significant, as shown by many reports on incidents and accidents occurred in the past inside Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). An error of a human operator of a NPP can derive by both omission and commission. For instance, complex commission errors can also lead to significant catastrophic technological accidents, as for the case of the Three Mile Island accident. Typically, the problem is analyzed by focusing on the single event chain that has provoked the incident or accident. What is needed is a general framework able to include as many parameters as possible, i.e. both technological and human factors. Such a general model could allow to envisage an omission or commission error before it can happen or, alternatively, suggest preferred actions to do in order to take countermeasures to neutralize the effect of the error before it becomes critical. In this paper, a preliminary Decision Support System (DSS) based on the so-called (-) TOGA meta-theory approach is presented. The application of such a theory to the management of nuclear power plants has been presented in the previous ICAPP 2011. Here, a human factor simulator prototype is proposed in order to include the effect of human errors in the decision path. The DSS has been developed using a TRIGA research reactor as reference plant, and implemented using the LabVIEW programming environment and the Finite State Machine (FSM) model The proposed DSS shows how to apply the Universal Reasoning Paradigm (URP) and the Universal Management Paradigm (UMP) to a real plant context. The DSS receives inputs from instrumentation data and gives as output a suggested decision. It is obtained as the result of an internal elaborating process based on a performance function. The latter, describes the degree of satisfaction and efficiency, which are dependent on the level of responsibility related to

  14. 43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? 404.9 Section 404.9 Public Lands... RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.9 What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? A rural water supply project may include, but is...

  15. 43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? 404.9 Section 404.9 Public Lands... RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.9 What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? A rural water supply project may include, but is...

  16. 43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? 404.9 Section 404.9 Public Lands... RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.9 What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? A rural water supply project may include, but is...

  17. 20 CFR 641.507 - What types of income are included and excluded for participant eligibility determinations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE SENIOR COMMUNITY SERVICE EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM Services to Participants § 641.507 What types of income are included and excluded...

  18. Gleason-Type Theorem for Projective Measurements, Including Qubits: The Born Rule Beyond Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Zela, F.

    2016-05-01

    Born's quantum probability rule is traditionally included among the quantum postulates as being given by the squared amplitude projection of a measured state over a prepared state, or else as a trace formula for density operators. Both Gleason's theorem and Busch's theorem derive the quantum probability rule starting from very general assumptions about probability measures. Remarkably, Gleason's theorem holds only under the physically unsound restriction that the dimension of the underlying Hilbert space H must be larger than two. Busch's theorem lifted this restriction, thereby including qubits in its domain of validity. However, while Gleason assumed that observables are given by complete sets of orthogonal projectors, Busch made the mathematically stronger assumption that observables are given by positive operator-valued measures. The theorem we present here applies, similarly to the quantum postulate, without restricting the dimension of H and for observables given by complete sets of orthogonal projectors. We also show that the Born rule applies beyond the quantum domain, thereby exhibiting the common root shared by some quantum and classical phenomena.

  19. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and... information includes, for purposes of interpreting and implementing the JFK Act: (a) Papers, maps, and...

  20. Latina Resilience in Higher Education: Contributing Factors Including Seasonal Farmworker Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Cristina Santamaria; McCain, Terrence; Gomez-Vilchis, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Many Latina students overcome multiple obstacles to earn university degrees. Five married Latina women with children and seasonal farmworker backgrounds are the focus of this study which is analyzed through resiliency theory to understand factors contributing to their academic resilience. Variables connected to academic success are explored and…

  1. Accurate expressions for solar cell fill factors including series and shunt resistances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Martin A.

    2016-02-01

    Together with open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current, fill factor is a key solar cell parameter. In their classic paper on limiting efficiency, Shockley and Queisser first investigated this factor's analytical properties showing, for ideal cells, it could be expressed implicitly in terms of the maximum power point voltage. Subsequently, fill factors usually have been calculated iteratively from such implicit expressions or from analytical approximations. In the absence of detrimental series and shunt resistances, analytical fill factor expressions have recently been published in terms of the Lambert W function available in most mathematical computing software. Using a recently identified perturbative relationship, exact expressions in terms of this function are derived in technically interesting cases when both series and shunt resistances are present but have limited impact, allowing a better understanding of their effect individually and in combination. Approximate expressions for arbitrary shunt and series resistances are then deduced, which are significantly more accurate than any previously published. A method based on the insights developed is also reported for deducing one-diode fits to experimental data.

  2. School Factors Associated with Mainstream Progress in Secondary Education for Included Pupils with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Lisa A.; Reed, Phil

    2011-01-01

    This research examined the factors promoting inclusion of young people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in mainstream secondary schools, and noted high levels of behavioral difficulties in these pupils. The size of the secondary school, and the class size, impacted positively on the pupils with Autism, and the number of other pupils with…

  3. Genetic susceptibility factors of Type 1 diabetes in Asians.

    PubMed

    Park, Y; Eisenbarth, G S

    2001-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is a multifactorial disease in which the insulin producing beta-cells of the pancreas are destroyed by the immune system, a process determined by the activity of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted T lymphocytes. Progress has been made in elucidating genetic factors involved in Type 1 diabetes in Caucasians, with less data available from Asia. For Asians, the human MHC locus (HLA region), especially the class II region, is the major susceptibility interval. The role of IDDM2, the insulin locus, has been questioned in Asia. In contrast to Caucasians, Asian populations have a very low incidence of Type 1 diabetes (0.4-1.1 cases/year/100 000 individuals). This low incidence rate in the Asian population may be related to the population frequency distribution of susceptible Type 1 diabetes genes, especially of HLA. The overall risk for Type 1 diabetes from HLA DR and DQ is determined by polymorphic residues (alleles) and particular combinations of alleles (haplotypes and genotypes) in a given individual. In Asians, it is very common that a protective DR4 allele is associated with susceptible DQ alleles while neutral/protective DQ alleles are associated with the susceptible DR4 alleles. Our analyses indicate that the counterbalancing between susceptible DRB1 and protective DQB1, and vice versa, is a factor that may contribute to the low incidence of diabetes in Asians. We find that identical HLA DRB1-DQB1 haplotypes of Asians and Caucasians have similar transmission to diabetic children and similar associations with diabetes. Moreover, the association with diabetes and transmission to a diabetic offspring of DR4 haplotypes varies depending on the haplotype borne on the homologous chromosome. This might contribute not only to the synergistic effect of DR3/4, but also to the susceptibility influence of DQB1*0401 haplotypes confined to DR4/X. High-risk DR4 subtypes were predominant in DR4/X, whereas protective DR4 subtypes were observed mainly

  4. Factors that affect postdialysis rebound in serum urea concentration, including the rate of dialysis: results from the HEMO Study.

    PubMed

    Daugirdas, John T; Greene, Tom; Depner, Thomas A; Leypoldt, John; Gotch, Frank; Schulman, Gerald; Star, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that postdialysis urea rebound is related to K/V, the rate of dialysis, but a systematic analysis of factors that affect rebound has not been reported. With the use of 30-min and, in a subset, 60-min postdialysis samples, postdialysis urea rebound was measured to (1) determine how well previously proposed equations based on the rate of dialysis (K/V) predict rebound in a large sample of patients with varying characteristics, (2) determine whether other factors besides K/V affect rebound, and (3) estimate more precise values for coefficients in prediction equations for rebound. Rebound was calculated relative to both immediate and 20-s postdialysis samples to study early components of rebound unrelated to access recirculation. The equilibrated Kt/V (eKt/V) computed by fitting the two-pool variable volume model to the 30-min postdialysis sample agreed well with eKt/V based on the 60-min postdialysis sample. Using the pre-, post-, and 30-min postdialysis samples for 1245 patients with arteriovenous (AV) accesses, the median intercompartmental mass transfer coefficient (Kc) was 797 ml/min for rebound computed relative to the 20-s postdialysis samples and 592 ml/min relative to the immediate postdialysis samples. K/V was the strongest predictor of rebound among 22 factors considered. Other factors associated with greater rebound for 1331 patients using AV accesses or venous catheters included access type, black race, male gender, absence of congestive heart failure, greater age, ultrafiltration rate, and low predialysis or intradialysis systolic BP. Equations of the form eKt/V = single-pool Kt/V - B x (K/V) were fit to the data. With AV access, the optimum values for the slope term (B) were 0.39 and 0.46 (in h(-1)) for single-pool Kt/V calculated based on 20-s postdialysis or immediate postdialysis samples, respectively. For patients using venous catheters, the respective values for B were 0.22 and 0.29. Postdialysis urea rebound can be

  5. Current Changes in Pubertal Timing: Revised Vision in Relation with Environmental Factors Including Endocrine Disruptors.

    PubMed

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Franssen, Delphine; Fudvoye, Julie; Pinson, Anneline; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to revise some common views on changes in pubertal timing. This revision is based on recent epidemiological findings on the clinical indicators of pubertal timing and data on environmental factor effects and underlying mechanisms. A current advancement in timing of female puberty is usually emphasized. It appears, however, that timing is also changing in males. Moreover, the changes are towards earliness for initial pubertal stages and towards lateness for final stages in both sexes. Such observations indicate the complexity of environmental influences on pubertal timing. The mechanisms of changes in pubertal timing may involve both the central neuroendocrine control and peripheral effects at tissues targeted by gonadal steroids. While sufficient energy availability is a clue to the mechanism of pubertal development, changes in the control of both energy balance and reproduction may vary under the influence of common determinants such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). These effects can take place right before puberty as well as much earlier, during fetal and neonatal life. Finally, environmental factors can interact with genetic factors in determining changes in pubertal timing. Therefore, the variance in pubertal timing is no longer to be considered under absolutely separate control by environmental and genetic determinants. Some recommendations are provided for evaluation of EDC impact in the management of pubertal disorders and for possible reduction of EDC exposure along the precautionary principle. PMID:26680578

  6. Experiences with new European standards for calculation of flanged joints including necessary gasket factors

    SciTech Connect

    Bartonicek, J.; Kockelmann, H.; Schoeckle, F.

    1996-12-01

    The correct function of a flanged joint in a given construction (flanges, bolts) and with given loads (pressure, temperature, additional forces) depends on the following: (1) choice of the gasket for the operation environment; (2) determination of the gasket stress for assembly conditions; and (3) gasket stress in operation, i.e., the conditions when leakage has to be minimized. For the correct choice of a gasket it is necessary to have gasket factors available, as given by DIN 28090 (Sept. 95) together with the test procedures. These gasket factors determine the tightening characteristics as well as the deformation capability of the gaskets. Furthermore, these gasket factors must be available for use in calculations. On the basis of calculations a stress analysis (i.e. a limitation of the stresses in flanges and bolts) must be possible as well as the determination of the bolt forces for the assembly state and of the gasket stress for operating conditions. This is one of the goals of the standard pr DIN EN 1591. The paper first introduces the actual European standards. Calculations are reviewed using test data from special test rigs and from real flanged joints. The calculations were made according to DIN 2505 (initial German standard for flanged joints) and pr DIN EN 1591. Additionally, 2D and 3D Finite Element analysis calculations were performed.

  7. Factors Related to Amount and Type of Leisure Time Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaney, Vincent; Quinn, John

    Diaries showing how 920 Irish fifth graders spent their leisure time on three designated days within one week augmented data about the children's personal, school, and home characteristics to aid in determining the primary factors related to the amount and type of leisure time reading. The children reported spending a median time of 60 minutes per…

  8. Using Situational Factors to Predict Types of Prison Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinke, Pamela

    1991-01-01

    Tested situational factors as predictors of types of individual aggressive incidents in male prison population. Categorized incidents of violence by whether occurrence of infraction involved aggressive behavior directed at staff, another inmate, self, or property. Found that situational variables did serve as predictors of these categories of…

  9. Factors affecting numerical typing performance of young adults in a hear-and-type task.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Jhe; Wu, Changxu

    2011-12-01

    Numerical hear-and-type tasks, i.e. making immediate keypresses according to verbally presented numbers, possess both practical and theoretical importance but received relatively little attention. Effects of speech rates (500-ms vs. 1000-ms interval), urgency (urgent condition: performance-based monetary incentive plus time limit vs. non-urgent condition: flat-rate compensation) and finger strategies (single vs. multi-finger typing) on typing speed and accuracy were investigated. Fast speech rate and multi-finger typing produced more errors and slower typing speed. Urgency improved typing speed but decreased accuracy. Errors were almost doubled under urgent condition, while urgency effect on speed was similar to that of speech rate. Examination of error patterns did not fully support Salthouse's (1986) speculations about error-making mechanisms. The results implied that urgency could play a more important role in error-making than task demands. Numerical keyboard design and error detection could benefit from spatial incidence of errors found in this study. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study revealed that classic speculations about error-making mechanisms in alphabetical typing do not necessarily translate to numerical typing. Factors other than external task demands such as urgency can affect typing performance to a similar or greater extent. Investigations of intrinsic error-making factors in non-traditional typing tasks are encouraged. PMID:22103724

  10. Role of vascular factors, including angiogenesis, in the mechanisms of action of sucralfate.

    PubMed

    Szabo, S; Vattay, P; Scarbrough, E; Folkman, J

    1991-08-01

    This brief overview of our recent results implicates vascular factors in the mechanisms of acute and chronic actions of sucralfate. Pretreatment of rats with sucralfate and its components, such as SOS and sodium sulfate, prevented the ethanol-induced microvascular injury and maintained blood flow in the gastric mucosa. Thus, preservation of microvascular integrity seems to be one of the mechanisms of acute gastroprotection by sucralfate. Chronic experiments with subcutaneously implanted sponges containing sucralfate or SOS revealed that both compounds stimulated angiogenesis, whereas only sucralfate enhanced the area of granulation tissue. These processes may have a role in the ulcer-healing action of sucralfate. PMID:1715670

  11. Including Social Factors in the Analysis of Reminiscence in Elderly Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamme, Simone; Baars, Jan

    1993-01-01

    Contends that developmental, determinist, and contextualist psychologists, although all studying reminiscence in older adults, have not fully acknowledged the role the environment plays in establishing reminiscent behavior in elderly people. Suggests including sociological life course theory in the analyses and interpretation of this behavior.…

  12. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... scope of assassination record and additional records and information. 1290.4 Section 1290.4 Parks... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information. The term record in assassination record and additional records...

  13. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in scope of assassination record and additional records and information. 1290.4 Section 1290.4 Parks... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information. The term record in assassination record and additional records...

  14. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in scope of assassination record and additional records and information. 1290.4 Section 1290.4 Parks... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information. The term record in assassination record and additional records...

  15. 10 CFR 719.6 - Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... insurance carrier; (b) Routine intellectual property law support services; (c) Routine workers and... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part? 719.6 Section 719.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTOR LEGAL...

  16. 10 CFR 719.6 - Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... insurance carrier; (b) Routine intellectual property law support services; (c) Routine workers and... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part? 719.6 Section 719.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTOR LEGAL...

  17. 10 CFR 719.6 - Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... intellectual property law support services; and (c) Routine workers and unemployment compensation matters. ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part? 719.6 Section 719.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTOR LEGAL...

  18. 10 CFR 719.6 - Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... insurance carrier; (b) Routine intellectual property law support services; (c) Routine workers and... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part? 719.6 Section 719.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTOR LEGAL...

  19. 29 CFR 37.34 - What type of notice must a recipient include in publications, broadcasts, and other communications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What type of notice must a recipient include in publications, broadcasts, and other communications? 37.34 Section 37.34 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NONDISCRIMINATION AND EQUAL OPPORTUNITY PROVISIONS OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT OF 1998 (WIA) Recordkeeping and...

  20. 43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? 404.9 Section 404.9 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview §...

  1. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include? 170.137 Section 170.137 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails...

  2. Cerebrospinal fluid markers including trefoil factor 3 are associated with neurodegeneration in amyloid-positive individuals.

    PubMed

    Paterson, R W; Bartlett, J W; Blennow, K; Fox, N C; Shaw, L M; Trojanowski, J Q; Zetterberg, H; Schott, J M

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to identify cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers associated with neurodegeneration in individuals with and without CSF evidence of Alzheimer pathology. We investigated 287 Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) subjects (age=74.9±6.9; 22/48/30% with Alzheimer's disease/mild cognitive impairment/controls) with CSF multiplex analyte data and serial volumetric MRI. We calculated brain and hippocampal atrophy rates, ventricular expansion and Mini Mental State Examination decline. We used false discovery rate corrected regression analyses to assess associations between CSF variables and atrophy rates in individuals with and without amyloid pathology, adjusting in stages for tau, baseline volume, p-tau, age, sex, ApoE4 status and diagnosis. Analytes showing statistically significant independent relationships were entered into reverse stepwise analyses. Adjusting for tau, baseline volume, p-tau, age, sex and ApoE4, 4/83 analytes were significantly independently associated with brain atrophy rate, 1/83 with ventricular expansion and 2/83 with hippocampal atrophy. The strongest CSF predictor for the three atrophy measures was low trefoil factor 3 (TFF3). High cystatin C (CysC) was associated with higher whole brain atrophy and hippocampal atrophy rates. Lower levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and chromogranin A (CrA) were associated with higher whole brain atrophy. In exploratory reverse stepwise analyses, lower TFF3 was associated with higher rates of whole brain, hippocampal atrophy and ventricular expansion. Lower levels of CrA were associated with higher whole brain atrophy rate. The relationship between low TFF3 and increased hippocampal atrophy rate remained after adjustment for diagnosis. We identified a series of CSF markers that are independently associated with rate of neurodegeneration in amyloid-positive individuals. TFF3, a substrate for NOTCH processing may be an important biomarker of neurodegeneration across the Alzheimer

  3. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Staphylococci Isolates from Patients with Chronic Conjunctivitis: Including Associated Factors and Clinical Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Núñez, María Ximena

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To determine species of staphylococci in chronic conjunctivitis, their antibiotic susceptibility pattern, patient treatments, clinical course, and clinical conditions. Methods In this prospective study, 243 conjunctival cultures were taken from 191 patients with chronic conjunctivitis, we obtained staphylococci susceptibility patterns with E-test, and they were analyzed in coagulase-positive and negative. The minimum inhibitory concentration for 90% of isolates (MIC90) was determined for Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Additionally, clinical follow-up and associated factors of all patients were analyzed depending on methicillin resistance (MR) or susceptibility (MS) bacterial state. Results One hundred and eight (44%) cultures were positive; 81 positive cultures were Gram-positive of which, 77 were staphylococci, 29 coagulase-positive with S. aureus as the most prevalent, 89% MS, and 11% MR. And 48 were coagulase-negative with S. epidermidis as the most isolated with 36% of MS and 64% of MR. Poor susceptibility was found in the staphylococcus coagulase-negative/MR group. Moxifloxacin and vancomycin show the best in vitro activity for all isolates. The MIC90 of moxifloxacin and vancomycin were 0.064/1.5, 0.64/3.0, and 1/3.0 for S. aureus-MS, S. epidermidis-MS, and S. epidermidis-MR, respectively. The most frequently associated factors found in patients with positive culture for staphylococcus were exposure to the health care system 23 (29.87%) of 77 patients and dry eye 23 (29.87%) of 77 patients. Both with a proportion of 3 in 10. Conclusion Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most frequently isolated from the conjunctiva with 58.33% of MR; even though multiresistance was detected, their susceptibility to a fourth-generation fluoroquinolone, commonly used, such as moxifloxacin, was preserved. PMID:23944906

  4. Targets of the StBEL5 Transcription Factor Include the FT Ortholog StSP6A1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The BEL1-like family of transcription factors is ubiquitous in plants and plays important roles in regulating development. They function in tandem with KNOTTED1 types to bind to a double TTGAC motif in the upstream sequence of target genes. StBEL5 of potato (Solanum tuberosum) functions as a mobile RNA signal that is transcribed in leaves, moves down into stolons in response to short days, and induces tuber formation. Despite their importance, however, very little is known about the targets of BEL1-like transcription factors. To better understand this network, we made use of a phloem-mobile BEL5 induction model, an ethanol-inducible system coupled with RNA sequencing analysis, and a screen for tandem TTGAC cis-elements in the upstream sequence to catalog StBEL5 target genes. Induction of StBEL5 activated several genes that are also induced by StSP6A (S. tuberosum SELF-PRUNING 6A), a FLOWERING LOCUS T coregulator that functions as a signal for tuberization. Both enhancement and suppression of StBEL5 expression were also closely linked to StSP6A transcriptional activity. Site mutagenesis in tandem TTGAC motifs located in the upstream sequence of StSP6A suppressed the short day-induced activity of its promoter in both young tubers and leaves. The expression profile of StBEL5 induced in stolons from plants grown under long-day conditions revealed almost 10,000 differentially expressed genes, including important tuber marker genes and genes involved in cell growth, transcription, floral development, and hormone metabolism. In a random screen of 200 differentially expressed targets of StBEL5, 92% contained tandem TTGAC motifs in the upstream sequence within 3 kb of the transcription start site. PMID:26553650

  5. Risk Factors for Severity and Type of the Hip Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Cauley, Jane A.; Lui, Li-Yung; Genant, Harry K.; Salamone, Loran; Browner, Warren; Fink, Howard A.; Cohen, Peter; Hillier, Teresa; Bauer, Doug C.; Cummings, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    More severe hip fractures such as displaced femoral neck (FN) fractures and unstable intertrochanteric (IT) fractures lead to poorer outcomes, but risk factors for severe fractures have not been studied. To identify risk factors for severe types of hip fracture, we performed a prospective cohort study and obtained preoperative hip radiographs from women who sustained an incident hip fracture (excluding traumatic fractures). A single radiologist scored the severity of FN fractures by the Garden System: grades I and II, undisplaced; grades III and IV, displaced. The severity of IT hip fractures was rated by the Kyle System: grades I and II, stable; grades III and IV, unstable. A total of 249 women had FN fractures: 75 (30%) were undisplaced. A total of 213 women had IT fractures: 59 (28%) were stable. Both types of hip fracture increased with age, but older age was even more strongly associated with more severe hip fractures. Low BMD was more strongly related to undisplaced FN fractures (p interaction BMD × FN type, p = 0.0008) and stable IT fractures (p interaction BMD × IT type, p = 0.04). Similar findings were observed for estimated volumetric BMD and hip geometric parameters. Corticosteroid use was only associated with displaced FN fractures, and Parkinson's disease was only associated with stable IT fractures. Little difference was reported in the self-reported circumstances surrounding each type of fracture. In conclusion, the lower the BMD, the greater the likelihood of experiencing a hip fracture that is less displaced and more stable. PMID:19113930

  6. Computational Prediction and Experimental Verification of New MAP Kinase Docking Sites and Substrates Including Gli Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Whisenant, Thomas C.; Ho, David T.; Benz, Ryan W.; Rogers, Jeffrey S.; Kaake, Robyn M.; Gordon, Elizabeth A.; Huang, Lan; Baldi, Pierre; Bardwell, Lee

    2010-01-01

    In order to fully understand protein kinase networks, new methods are needed to identify regulators and substrates of kinases, especially for weakly expressed proteins. Here we have developed a hybrid computational search algorithm that combines machine learning and expert knowledge to identify kinase docking sites, and used this algorithm to search the human genome for novel MAP kinase substrates and regulators focused on the JNK family of MAP kinases. Predictions were tested by peptide array followed by rigorous biochemical verification with in vitro binding and kinase assays on wild-type and mutant proteins. Using this procedure, we found new ‘D-site’ class docking sites in previously known JNK substrates (hnRNP-K, PPM1J/PP2Czeta), as well as new JNK-interacting proteins (MLL4, NEIL1). Finally, we identified new D-site-dependent MAPK substrates, including the hedgehog-regulated transcription factors Gli1 and Gli3, suggesting that a direct connection between MAP kinase and hedgehog signaling may occur at the level of these key regulators. These results demonstrate that a genome-wide search for MAP kinase docking sites can be used to find new docking sites and substrates. PMID:20865152

  7. Early-Life Events, Including Mode of Delivery and Type of Feeding, Siblings and Gender, Shape the Developing Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Cetinyurek Yavuz, Aysun; Ben-Amor, Kaouther; Roelofs, Mieke; Ishikawa, Eiji; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Swinkels, Sophie; Sakai, Takafumi; Oishi, Kenji; Kushiro, Akira; Knol, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of the infant gut is believed to be critically important for a healthy growth as it influences gut maturation, metabolic, immune and brain development in early life. Understanding factors that influence this process is important, since an altered colonization has been associated with a higher risk of diseases later in life. Fecal samples were collected from 108 healthy neonates in the first half year of life. The composition and functionality of the microbiota was characterized by measuring 33 different bacterial taxa by qPCR/RT qPCR, and 8 bacterial metabolites. Information regarding gender, place and mode of birth, presence of siblings or pets; feeding pattern and antibiotic use was collected by using questionnaires. Regression analysis techniques were used to study associations between microbiota parameters and confounding factors over time. Bacterial DNA was detected in most meconium samples, suggesting bacterial exposure occurs in utero. After birth, colonization by species of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Bacteroides was influenced by mode of delivery, type of feeding and presence of siblings, with differences found at species level and over time. Interestingly, infant-type bifidobacterial species such as B. breve or B. longum subsp infantis were confirmed as early colonizers apparently independent of the factors studied here, while B. animalis subsp. lactis presence was found to be dependent solely on the type of feeding, indicating that it might not be a common infant gut inhabitant. One interesting and rather unexpected confounding factor was gender. This study contributes to our understanding of the composition of the microbiota in early life and the succession process and the evolution of the microbial community as a function of time and events occurring during the first 6 months of life. Our results provide new insights that could be taken into consideration when selecting nutritional supplementation strategies to support the

  8. Early-Life Events, Including Mode of Delivery and Type of Feeding, Siblings and Gender, Shape the Developing Gut Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Martin, Rocio; Makino, Hiroshi; Cetinyurek Yavuz, Aysun; Ben-Amor, Kaouther; Roelofs, Mieke; Ishikawa, Eiji; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Swinkels, Sophie; Sakai, Takafumi; Oishi, Kenji; Kushiro, Akira; Knol, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of the infant gut is believed to be critically important for a healthy growth as it influences gut maturation, metabolic, immune and brain development in early life. Understanding factors that influence this process is important, since an altered colonization has been associated with a higher risk of diseases later in life. Fecal samples were collected from 108 healthy neonates in the first half year of life. The composition and functionality of the microbiota was characterized by measuring 33 different bacterial taxa by qPCR/RT qPCR, and 8 bacterial metabolites. Information regarding gender, place and mode of birth, presence of siblings or pets; feeding pattern and antibiotic use was collected by using questionnaires. Regression analysis techniques were used to study associations between microbiota parameters and confounding factors over time. Bacterial DNA was detected in most meconium samples, suggesting bacterial exposure occurs in utero. After birth, colonization by species of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Bacteroides was influenced by mode of delivery, type of feeding and presence of siblings, with differences found at species level and over time. Interestingly, infant-type bifidobacterial species such as B. breve or B. longum subsp infantis were confirmed as early colonizers apparently independent of the factors studied here, while B. animalis subsp. lactis presence was found to be dependent solely on the type of feeding, indicating that it might not be a common infant gut inhabitant. One interesting and rather unexpected confounding factor was gender. This study contributes to our understanding of the composition of the microbiota in early life and the succession process and the evolution of the microbial community as a function of time and events occurring during the first 6 months of life. Our results provide new insights that could be taken into consideration when selecting nutritional supplementation strategies to support the

  9. 40 CFR 273.81 - Factors for petitions to include other wastes under 40 CFR part 273.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... wastes under 40 CFR part 273. 273.81 Section 273.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Petitions To Include Other Wastes Under 40 CFR Part 273 § 273.81 Factors for petitions to include other wastes under 40...

  10. Reactions of human and hog intrinsic factors with type I antibody to intrinsic factor

    PubMed Central

    Gullberg, R.

    1970-01-01

    A simple and rapid small-scale gel filtration method was applied in studies of type I antibody to intrinsic factor using radioactive vitamin B12 of high specific activity and purified human and hog intrinsic factor preparations, taking into account the unsaturated B12-binding capacity of the individual pernicious anaemia sera. This procedure allows the use of small amounts of reagents. Evidence was obtained for a close antigenic similarity of determinants of human and hog intrinsic factor. The use of purified intrinsic-factor preparations is important. PMID:4097742

  11. An efficient algorithm for solving coupled Schroedinger type ODE`s, whose potentials include {delta}-functions

    SciTech Connect

    Gousheh, S.S.

    1996-01-01

    I have used the shooting method to find the eigenvalues (bound state energies) of a set of strongly coupled Schroedinger type equations. I have discussed the advantages of the shooting method when the potentials include {delta}-functions. I have also discussed some points which are universal in these kind of problems, whose use make the algorithm much more efficient. These points include mapping the domain of the ODE into a finite one, using the asymptotic form of the solutions, best use of the normalization freedom, and converting the {delta}-functions into boundary conditions.

  12. Nonobese, insulin-deficient Ins2Akita mice develop type 2 diabetes phenotypes including insulin resistance and cardiac remodeling.

    PubMed

    Hong, Eun-Gyoung; Jung, Dae Young; Ko, Hwi Jin; Zhang, Zhiyou; Ma, Zhexi; Jun, John Y; Kim, Jae Hyeong; Sumner, Andrew D; Vary, Thomas C; Gardner, Thomas W; Bronson, Sarah K; Kim, Jason K

    2007-12-01

    Although insulin resistance has been traditionally associated with type 2 diabetes, recent evidence in humans and animal models indicates that insulin resistance may also develop in type 1 diabetes. A point mutation of insulin 2 gene in Ins2(Akita) mice leads to pancreatic beta-cell apoptosis and hyperglycemia, and these mice are commonly used to investigate type 1 diabetes and complications. Since insulin resistance plays an important role in diabetic complications, we performed hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps in awake Ins2(Akita) and wild-type mice to measure insulin action and glucose metabolism in vivo. Nonobese Ins2(Akita) mice developed insulin resistance, as indicated by an approximately 80% reduction in glucose infusion rate during clamps. Insulin resistance was due to approximately 50% decreases in glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue as well as hepatic insulin action. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance was associated with a 40% reduction in total GLUT4 and a threefold increase in PKCepsilon levels in Ins2(Akita) mice. Chronic phloridzin treatment lowered systemic glucose levels and normalized muscle insulin action, GLUT4 and PKCepsilon levels in Ins2(Akita) mice, indicating that hyperglycemia plays a role in insulin resistance. Echocardiography showed significant cardiac remodeling with ventricular hypertrophy that was ameliorated following chronic phloridzin treatment in Ins2(Akita) mice. Overall, we report for the first time that nonobese, insulin-deficient Ins2(Akita) mice develop type 2 diabetes phenotypes including peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance and cardiac remodeling. Our findings provide important insights into the pathogenesis of metabolic abnormalities and complications affecting type 1 diabetes and lean type 2 diabetes subjects. PMID:17911348

  13. Dietary factors in the development of type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Suvi M

    2016-07-01

    There are several indicators concerning the putative importance of dietary factors during the fetal period lactation, infancy and childhood in the etiology of type 1 diabetes. Among foods, cow's milk consumption has been associated with an increased risk of preclinical and/or clinical type 1 diabetes and sugars with a progression from preclinical to clinical disease. Breast milk, on the other hand, may be protective. Processed foods may be related to a greater risk of type 1 diabetes because they contain higher amounts of advanced glycation end-products. Nitrites or N-nitroso compounds in processed meat products could increase the risk of this disease. Among nutrients, n-3 fatty acids, vitamins D and E, and zinc may protect from preclinical and/or clinical type 1 diabetes. The microbial composition of foods or food's other effects on gut microbiota are receiving increasing attention, also due to their putative role in the development of type 1 diabetes. Still the number of prospective studies in this research field is limited and most of the findings remain to be replicated. PMID:27411437

  14. Meat consumption as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Neal; Levin, Susan; Trapp, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Disease risk factors identified in epidemiological studies serve as important public health tools, helping clinicians identify individuals who may benefit from more aggressive screening or risk-modification procedures, allowing policymakers to prioritize intervention programs, and encouraging at-risk individuals to modify behavior and improve their health. These factors have been based primarily on evidence from cross-sectional and prospective studies, as most do not lend themselves to randomized trials. While some risk factors are not modifiable, eating habits are subject to change through both individual action and broader policy initiatives. Meat consumption has been frequently investigated as a variable associated with diabetes risk, but it has not yet been described as a diabetes risk factor. In this article, we evaluate the evidence supporting the use of meat consumption as a clinically useful risk factor for type 2 diabetes, based on studies evaluating the risks associated with meat consumption as a categorical dietary characteristic (i.e., meat consumption versus no meat consumption), as a scalar variable (i.e., gradations of meat consumption), or as part of a broader dietary pattern. PMID:24566443

  15. Meat Consumption as a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, Neal; Levin, Susan; Trapp, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Disease risk factors identified in epidemiological studies serve as important public health tools, helping clinicians identify individuals who may benefit from more aggressive screening or risk-modification procedures, allowing policymakers to prioritize intervention programs, and encouraging at-risk individuals to modify behavior and improve their health. These factors have been based primarily on evidence from cross-sectional and prospective studies, as most do not lend themselves to randomized trials. While some risk factors are not modifiable, eating habits are subject to change through both individual action and broader policy initiatives. Meat consumption has been frequently investigated as a variable associated with diabetes risk, but it has not yet been described as a diabetes risk factor. In this article, we evaluate the evidence supporting the use of meat consumption as a clinically useful risk factor for type 2 diabetes, based on studies evaluating the risks associated with meat consumption as a categorical dietary characteristic (i.e., meat consumption versus no meat consumption), as a scalar variable (i.e., gradations of meat consumption), or as part of a broader dietary pattern. PMID:24566443

  16. Eating Disorders in children and adolescents with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: prevalence, risk factors, warning signs.

    PubMed

    Racicka, Ewa; Bryńska, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is associated with increased risk for eating disorders, various dependent on type of diabetes. Binge eating disorder is more common in patient with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Whereas, intentional omission of insulin doses for the purpose of weight loss occurs mainly in patient with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), however, in some patients with type 2 diabetes omission of oral hypoglycemic drugs can be present. Risk factors for the development of eating disorders in patients with diabetes include: age, female gender, greater body weight, body image dissatisfaction, history of dieting and history of depression. Poor glycemic control, recurrent episodes of ketoacidosis or recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia, secondary to intentional insulin overdose, missed clinical appointments, dietary manipulation and low self-esteem should raise concern. The consequence of eating disorders or disordered eating patterns in patients with diabetes is poor glycemic control and hence higher possibility of complications such as nephropathy, retinopathy and premature death. PMID:26688851

  17. Bayesian Ages for Early-type Stars from Isochrones Including Rotation, and a Possible Old Age for the Hyades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Timothy D.; Huang, Chelsea X.

    2015-07-01

    We combine recently computed models of stellar evolution using a new treatment of rotation with a Bayesian statistical framework to constrain the ages and other properties of early-type stars. We find good agreement for early-type stars and clusters with known young ages, including β Pictoris, the Pleiades, and the Ursa Majoris moving group. However, we derive a substantially older age for the Hyades open cluster (750 ± 100 Myr compared to 625 ± 50 Myr). This older age results from both the increase in main-sequence lifetime with stellar rotation and from the fact that rotating models near the main-sequence turnoff are more luminous, overlapping with slightly more massive (and shorter-lived) nonrotating ones. Our method uses a large grid of nonrotating models to interpolate between a much sparser rotating grid, and also includes a detailed calculation of synthetic magnitudes as a function of orientation. We provide a web interface at http://www.bayesianstellarparameters.info, where the results of our analysis may be downloaded for individual early-type (B-V≲ 0.25) Hipparcos stars. The web interface accepts user-supplied parameters for a Gaussian metallicity prior and returns posterior probability distributions on mass, age, and orientation.

  18. A predator-prey model with a holling type I functional response including a predator mutual interference

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seo, G.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    The most widely used functional response in describing predator-prey relationships is the Holling type II functional response, where per capita predation is a smooth, increasing, and saturating function of prey density. Beddington and DeAngelis modified the Holling type II response to include interference of predators that increases with predator density. Here we introduce a predator-interference term into a Holling type I functional response. We explain the ecological rationale for the response and note that the phase plane configuration of the predator and prey isoclines differs greatly from that of the Beddington-DeAngelis response; for example, in having three possible interior equilibria rather than one. In fact, this new functional response seems to be quite unique. We used analytical and numerical methods to show that the resulting system shows a much richer dynamical behavior than the Beddington-DeAngelis response, or other typically used functional responses. For example, cyclic-fold, saddle-fold, homoclinic saddle connection, and multiple crossing bifurcations can all occur. We then use a smooth approximation to the Holling type I functional response with predator mutual interference to show that these dynamical properties do not result from the lack of smoothness, but rather from subtle differences in the functional responses. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  19. Correlation between B type natriuretic peptide and metabolic risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wen-Hua; Chen, Li-Ying; Dai, Hong-Lei; Chen, Jian-Hua; Chen, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction It has been shown that B type natriuretic peptide (BNP) level can indicate cardiovascular disease. However, the association between BNP and metabolic risk factors is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and metabolic risk factors. Material and methods A total of 11,508 subjects were selected from those who underwent health examinations in our hospital. NT-proBNP, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and lipid profile were measured. The level of NT-proBNP was measured and classified into four stratifications (BNP ≥ 20 pg/ml, ≥ 40 pg/ml, ≥ 60 pg/ml, and ≥ 80 pg/ml) to analyze the relationship between BNP and metabolic risk factors. Results B type natriuretic peptide increased gradually with increasing age (p < 0.001). The BNP levels were significantly higher in women than in men (p < 0.001). Multivariate regression analysis showed a positive association between NT-proBNP levels and systolic blood pressure (p < 0.001), fasting plasma glucose (p < 0.05), and total cholesterol (p < 0.001 in women). The NT-proBNP levels were inversely associated with diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, and LDL cholesterol. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated a close relationship between NT-proBNP and systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and total cholesterol. In the BNP ≥ 60 pg/ml group, odds ratio (OR) values were 1.80, 1.56 and 1.54 (female) and 3.74, 1.59 and 1.51 (male), respectively. In the BNP ≥ 80 pg/ml group, OR values were 2.45, 1.65 and 1.84 (female) and 4.61, 1.66 and 1.75 (male), respectively. Conclusions NT-proBNP was independently associated with the main metabolic risk factors (systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and total cholesterol). These findings suggest that the combined determination of NT-proBNP and the main metabolic risk factors could be

  20. 40 CFR 273.81 - Factors for petitions to include other wastes under 40 CFR part 273.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... wastes under 40 CFR part 273. 273.81 Section 273.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Other Wastes Under 40 CFR Part 273 § 273.81 Factors for petitions to include other wastes under 40 CFR... requirements appropriate to be added to 40 CFR 273.13, 273.33, and 273.52; and/or applicable Department...

  1. 40 CFR 273.81 - Factors for petitions to include other wastes under 40 CFR part 273.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... wastes under 40 CFR part 273. 273.81 Section 273.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Other Wastes Under 40 CFR Part 273 § 273.81 Factors for petitions to include other wastes under 40 CFR... generic name to identify the waste category (e.g., batteries), the definition of universal waste in §...

  2. 40 CFR 273.81 - Factors for petitions to include other wastes under 40 CFR part 273.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... wastes under 40 CFR part 273. 273.81 Section 273.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Other Wastes Under 40 CFR Part 273 § 273.81 Factors for petitions to include other wastes under 40 CFR... requirements appropriate to be added to 40 CFR 273.13, 273.33, and 273.52; and/or applicable Department...

  3. Increased activity of coagulation factor XII (Hageman factor) causes hereditary angioedema type III.

    PubMed

    Cichon, Sven; Martin, Ludovic; Hennies, Hans Christian; Müller, Felicitas; Van Driessche, Karen; Karpushova, Anna; Stevens, Wim; Colombo, Roberto; Renné, Thomas; Drouet, Christian; Bork, Konrad; Nöthen, Markus M

    2006-12-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is characterized clinically by recurrent acute skin swelling, abdominal pain, and potentially life-threatening laryngeal edema. Three forms of HAE have been described. The classic forms, HAE types I and II, occur as a consequence of mutations in the C1-inhibitor gene. In contrast to HAE types I and II, HAE type III has been observed exclusively in women, where it appears to be correlated with conditions of high estrogen levels--for example, pregnancy or the use of oral contraceptives. A recent report proposed two missense mutations (c.1032C-->A and c.1032C-->G) in F12, the gene encoding human coagulation factor XII (FXII, or Hageman factor) as a possible cause of HAE type III. Here, we report the occurrence of the c.1032C-->A (p.Thr328Lys) mutation in an HAE type III-affected family of French origin. Investigation of the F12 gene in a large German family did not reveal a coding mutation. Haplotype analysis with use of microsatellite markers is compatible with locus heterogeneity in HAE type III. To shed more light on the pathogenic relevance of the HAE type III-associated p.Thr328Lys mutation, we compared FXII activity and plasma levels in patients carrying the mutation with that of healthy control individuals. Our data strongly suggest that p.Thr328Lys is a gain-of-function mutation that markedly increases FXII amidolytic activity but that does not alter FXII plasma levels. We conclude that enhanced FXII enzymatic plasma activity in female mutation carriers leads to enhanced kinin production, which results in angioedema. Transcription of F12 is positively regulated by estrogens, which may explain why only women are affected with HAE type III. The results of our study represent an important step toward an understanding of the molecular processes involved in HAE type III and provide diagnostic and possibly new therapeutic opportunities. PMID:17186468

  4. The Type Series of 'Sinemys' Wuerhoensis, a Problematic Turtlefrom the Lower Cretaceous of China, Includes at Least Three Taxa

    SciTech Connect

    Danilov, Igor G.; Parham, James F.

    2007-03-01

    We re-examine the type series of 'Sinemys' wuerhoensis Yeh(at least 20 specimens, including several shells and skulls on threeslabs of matrix and one isolated skull) from the Early Cretaceous TuguluGroup of China. Our study shows that the type series of 'S.'wuerhoensisis actually a chimera made up of at least three distinct taxa. Theholotype of this taxon should be assigned to the basal eucryptodire genusXinjiangchelys Yeh. As there are no characters that distinguish'S.'wuerhoensis from Xinjiangchelys species, we consider it to be a nomendubium. This new assignment of 'S.'wuerhoensis expands the temporal rangeof Xinjiangchelys from the Late Jurassic into the Early Cretaceous inAsia. The majority of the paratypes of 'S.'wuerhoensis (several shells indorsal and ventral aspect and skulls) are referred to the basaleucryptodire genus Ordosemys Brinkman and Peng. We establish a new namefor these specimens, Ordosemys brinkmania sp. nov. One additionalspecimen in the type series of 'S.'wuerhoensis, a skull, is referred tocf. Pantrionychia Joyce, Parham and Gauthier indet.

  5. Directional reflectance factor distributions for cover types of Northern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimes, D. S.; Newcomb, W. W.; Tucker, C. J.; Zonneveld, I. S.; Van Wijngaarden, W.

    1985-01-01

    Directional reflectance factors that spanned the entire exitance hemisphere were collected on the ground throughout the morning period for common cover types in Tunisia, Africa. NOAA 7/8 AVHRR bands 1(0.58-0.68 micron) and 2 (0.7301.1 micron) were used in data collection. The cover types reported were a plowed field, annual grassland, steppe grassland, hard wheat, salt plain, and irrigated wheat. Several of these cover types had geometric structures that are extreme as compared to those reported in the literature. Comparisons were made between the dynamics of the observed reflectance distributions and those reported in the literature. It was found that the dynamics of the measured data could be explained by a combination of soil and vegetation scattering components. The data and analysis further validated physical principles that cause the reflectance distribution dynamics as proposed by field and simulation studies in the literature. Finally, the normalized difference transformation (Band 2 - Band 1)/(Band 1 + Band 2), which is useful in monitoring vegetation cover, generally decreased the variation in signal with changing view angle. However, several exceptions were noted.

  6. Visible and near infrared spectroscopic investigation of E-type asteroids, including 2867 Steins, a target of the Rosetta mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornasier, S.; Migliorini, A.; Dotto, E.; Barucci, M. A.

    2008-07-01

    We present the results of a visible spectroscopic survey of igneous asteroids belonging to the small and intriguing E-class, including 2867 Steins, a target of the Rosetta mission. The survey was carried out at the 3.5 m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), and at the 3.5 m New Technology Telescope (NTT) of the European Southern Observatory. We obtained new visible spectra for eighteen E-type asteroids, and near infrared spectra for eight of them. We confirm the presence of three different mineralogies in the small E-type populations. We classify each object in the E[I], E[II] or E[III] subgroups [Gaffey, M.J., Kelley, M.S., 2004. Lunar Planet. Sci. XXXV. Abstract 1812] on the basis of the spectral behavior and of the eventual presence of absorption features attributed to sulfides (such the 0.49 μm band, on E[II]), or to iron bearing silicates (0.9 μm band, on E[III]). We suggest that some asteroids (i.e. 64 Angelina, 317 Roxane, and 434 Hungaria), which show different spectral behavior comparing our data with those available in literature, have an inhomogeneous surface composition. 2867 Steins, a target of the Rosetta mission, shows a spectral behavior typical of the E[II] subgroup, as already suggested by Barucci et al. [Barucci, M.A., Fulchignoni, M., Fornasier, S., Dotto, E., Vernazza, P., Birlan, M., Binzel, R.P., Carvano, J., Merlin, F., Barbieri, C., Belskaya, I., 2005. Astron. Astrophys. 430, 313-317] and Fornasier et al. [Fornasier, S., Marzari, F., Dotto, E., Barucci, M.A., Migliorini, A., 2007. Astron. Astrophys. 474, 29-32]. Litva and 1990 TN1, initially classified as E-types, show a visible and near infrared behavior consistent with the olivine rich A-class asteroids, while 5806 Archieroy, also supposed to belong to the E-class, has a spectral behavior consistent with the S(V) classification following the Gaffey et al. [Gaffey, M.J., Burbine, T.H., Piatek, J.L., Reed, K.L., Chaky, D.A., Bell, J.F., Brown, R.H., 1993. Icarus 106, 573

  7. The Benefits of Including Clinical Factors in Rectal Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Defraene, Gilles; Van den Bergh, Laura; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Haustermans, Karin; Heemsbergen, Wilma; Van den Heuvel, Frank; Lebesque, Joos V.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To study the impact of clinical predisposing factors on rectal normal tissue complication probability modeling using the updated results of the Dutch prostate dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: Toxicity data of 512 patients (conformally treated to 68 Gy [n = 284] and 78 Gy [n = 228]) with complete follow-up at 3 years after radiotherapy were studied. Scored end points were rectal bleeding, high stool frequency, and fecal incontinence. Two traditional dose-based models (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) and Relative Seriality (RS) and a logistic model were fitted using a maximum likelihood approach. Furthermore, these model fits were improved by including the most significant clinical factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminating ability of all fits. Results: Including clinical factors significantly increased the predictive power of the models for all end points. In the optimal LKB, RS, and logistic models for rectal bleeding and fecal incontinence, the first significant (p = 0.011-0.013) clinical factor was 'previous abdominal surgery.' As second significant (p = 0.012-0.016) factor, 'cardiac history' was included in all three rectal bleeding fits, whereas including 'diabetes' was significant (p = 0.039-0.048) in fecal incontinence modeling but only in the LKB and logistic models. High stool frequency fits only benefitted significantly (p = 0.003-0.006) from the inclusion of the baseline toxicity score. For all models rectal bleeding fits had the highest AUC (0.77) where it was 0.63 and 0.68 for high stool frequency and fecal incontinence, respectively. LKB and logistic model fits resulted in similar values for the volume parameter. The steepness parameter was somewhat higher in the logistic model, also resulting in a slightly lower D{sub 50}. Anal wall DVHs were used for fecal incontinence, whereas anorectal wall dose best described the other two endpoints. Conclusions: Comparable

  8. Sequence and chromatin determinants of cell-type-specific transcription factor binding.

    PubMed

    Arvey, Aaron; Agius, Phaedra; Noble, William Stafford; Leslie, Christina

    2012-09-01

    Gene regulatory programs in distinct cell types are maintained in large part through the cell-type-specific binding of transcription factors (TFs). The determinants of TF binding include direct DNA sequence preferences, DNA sequence preferences of cofactors, and the local cell-dependent chromatin context. To explore the contribution of DNA sequence signal, histone modifications, and DNase accessibility to cell-type-specific binding, we analyzed 286 ChIP-seq experiments performed by the ENCODE Consortium. This analysis included experiments for 67 transcriptional regulators, 15 of which were profiled in both the GM12878 (lymphoblastoid) and K562 (erythroleukemic) human hematopoietic cell lines. To model TF-bound regions, we trained support vector machines (SVMs) that use flexible k-mer patterns to capture DNA sequence signals more accurately than traditional motif approaches. In addition, we trained SVM spatial chromatin signatures to model local histone modifications and DNase accessibility, obtaining significantly more accurate TF occupancy predictions than simpler approaches. Consistent with previous studies, we find that DNase accessibility can explain cell-line-specific binding for many factors. However, we also find that of the 10 factors with prominent cell-type-specific binding patterns, four display distinct cell-type-specific DNA sequence preferences according to our models. Moreover, for two factors we identify cell-specific binding sites that are accessible in both cell types but bound only in one. For these sites, cell-type-specific sequence models, rather than DNase accessibility, are better able to explain differential binding. Our results suggest that using a single motif for each TF and filtering for chromatin accessible loci is not always sufficient to accurately account for cell-type-specific binding profiles. PMID:22955984

  9. Air Pollution as a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Xiaoquan; Patel, Priti; Puett, Robin; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies in both humans and animals suggest that air pollution is an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the mechanism by which air pollution mediates propensity to diabetes is not fully understood. While a number of epidemiologic studies have shown a positive association between ambient air pollution exposure and risk for T2DM, some studies have not found such a relationship. Experimental studies in susceptible disease models do support this association and suggest the involvement of tissues involved in the pathogenesis of T2DM such as the immune system, adipose, liver, and central nervous system. This review summarizes the epidemiologic and experimental evidence between ambient outdoor air pollution and T2DM. PMID:25628401

  10. Spectral, spatial and radiometric factors in cover type discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, D.; Buis, J.; Acevedo, W.; Wrigley, R.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of spatial, spectral, and radiometric resolutions on the utilization of Thematic Mapper (TM) and Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data is assessed quantitatively using a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design experiment. Eight possible factor combinations were examined for agricultural, urban, forestry, range, and water types of land covers for three levels of information. Spectral bandwidths were configured to simulate all four Landsat MSS channels and Landsat TM channels 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7. By means of bar charts and tables it is shown that the 8-bit radiometric and 75-meter spatial resolutions provide a higher overall accuracy than the 6-bit radiometric and 25-meter spatial resolutions. Spectrally, the difference between the four MSS channels and five TM channel configurations is noted to be insignificant.

  11. Therapies for type 2 diabetes: lowering HbA1c and associated cardiovascular risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To summarize data supporting the effects of antidiabetes agents on glucose control and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Studies reporting on the effects of antidiabetes agents on glycemic control, body weight, lipid levels, and blood pressure parameters are reviewed and summarized for the purpose of selecting optimal therapeutic regimens for patients with type 2 diabetes. Results National guidelines recommend the aggressive management of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes, including weight loss and achieving lipid and blood pressure treatment goals. All antidiabetes pharmacotherapies lower glucose; however, effects on cardiovascular risk factors vary greatly among agents. While thiazolidinediones, sulfonylureas, and insulin are associated with weight gain, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors are considered weight neutral and metformin can be weight neutral or associated with a small weight loss. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and amylinomimetics (e.g. pramlintide) result in weight loss. Additionally, metformin, thiazolidinediones, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists have demonstrated beneficial effects on lipid and blood pressure parameters. Conclusion Management of the cardiovascular risk factors experienced by patients with type 2 diabetes requires a multidisciplinary approach with implementation of treatment strategies to achieve not only glycemic goals but to improve and/or correct the underlying cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:20804556

  12. Growing TiO2 nanowires by solid-liquid-solid mechanism including two factors (Ti and O)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pishekloo, S. Piri; Dariani, R. S.

    2016-04-01

    Identifying the growth factors of nanowires helps in controlling their structure and morphology and determining their optimal growth conditions. This study investigates the effect of titanium substrate in growing TiO2 nanowires (NWs) with evaporation method. It reveals that the titanium in substrate is indeed the main source of growth. Using the substrate as the only source of growth with regulated amount of accessible oxygen in the furnace, NWs with lengths ranging from 1 to 70 µm were obtained. The results of the experiments show that the nanowires' growth is mainly controlled by diffusion of titanium atoms from the substrate through TiO2 grain boundaries and surface diffusion toward NWs' tips rather than adsorption from vapor phase. The solid-liquid-solid mechanism including two factors (Ti and O) is proposed and discussed for growth of TiO2 NWs.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF RISK FACTORS FOR DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 2

    PubMed Central

    Begic, Edin; Arnautovic, Amira; Masic, Izet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia, and represents a disease of the modern age, disease of the 21st century. Prevention of this disease is listed as imperative. Aim of this article was to evaluate questionnaires on the assessment of risk factors for Diabetes Mellitus type 2. Material and Methods: A total of 540 questionnaires handed out randomly to citizens of Canton Sarajevo of all ages, sexes and educational levels (in January 2016) were analyzed. Results: Analyzed questionnaires showed relatively low risk of getting diabetes in the next ten years in the majority of the population. These results are rather encouraging but may in some way be in confrontation with the statistics which show a rapid outburst of diabetes. Conclusion: The life-style is the main reason for such a thing to happen, and looking at these questionnaires, we might get the feeling that we really do live in a, conditionally speaking, physically active society. That, from our everyday experience is not entirely true. It would be wise to continue doing research on this topic on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina. PMID:27482159

  14. Effects of benchmarking on the quality of type 2 diabetes care: results of the OPTIMISE (Optimal Type 2 Diabetes Management Including Benchmarking and Standard Treatment) study in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Tsimihodimos, Vasilis; Kostapanos, Michael S.; Moulis, Alexandros; Nikas, Nikos; Elisaf, Moses S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of benchmarking on the quality of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) care in Greece. Methods: The OPTIMISE (Optimal Type 2 Diabetes Management Including Benchmarking and Standard Treatment) study [ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00681850] was an international multicenter, prospective cohort study. It included physicians randomized 3:1 to either receive benchmarking for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) treatment targets (benchmarking group) or not (control group). The proportions of patients achieving the targets of the above-mentioned parameters were compared between groups after 12 months of treatment. Also, the proportions of patients achieving those targets at 12 months were compared with baseline in the benchmarking group. Results: In the Greek region, the OPTIMISE study included 797 adults with T2DM (570 in the benchmarking group). At month 12 the proportion of patients within the predefined targets for SBP and LDL-C was greater in the benchmarking compared with the control group (50.6 versus 35.8%, and 45.3 versus 36.1%, respectively). However, these differences were not statistically significant. No difference between groups was noted in the percentage of patients achieving the predefined target for HbA1c. At month 12 the increase in the percentage of patients achieving all three targets was greater in the benchmarking (5.9–15.0%) than in the control group (2.7–8.1%). In the benchmarking group more patients were on target regarding SBP (50.6% versus 29.8%), LDL-C (45.3% versus 31.3%) and HbA1c (63.8% versus 51.2%) at 12 months compared with baseline (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Conclusion: Benchmarking may comprise a promising tool for improving the quality of T2DM care. Nevertheless, target achievement rates of each, and of all three, quality indicators were suboptimal, indicating there are still unmet needs in the management of T2DM. PMID:26445642

  15. Factor Analysis of Linear Type Traits and Their Relation with Longevity in Brazilian Holstein Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Elisandra Lurdes; Cobuci, Jaime Araújo; Costa, Cláudio Napolis; Pimentel, Concepta Margaret McManus

    2014-01-01

    In this study we aimed to evaluate the reduction in dimensionality of 20 linear type traits and more final score in 14,943 Holstein cows in Brazil using factor analysis, and indicate their relationship with longevity and 305 d first lactation milk production. Low partial correlations (−0.19 to 0.38), the medium to high Kaiser sampling mean (0.79) and the significance of the Bartlett sphericity test (p<0.001), indicated correlations between type traits and the suitability of these data for a factor analysis, after the elimination of seven traits. Two factors had autovalues greater than one. The first included width and height of posterior udder, udder texture, udder cleft, loin strength, bone quality and final score. The second included stature, top line, chest width, body depth, fore udder attachment, angularity and final score. The linear regression of the factors on several measures of longevity and 305 d milk production showed that selection considering only the first factor should lead to improvements in longevity and 305 milk production. PMID:25050015

  16. Staphylococcus aureus strains associated with food poisoning outbreaks in France: comparison of different molecular typing methods, including MLVA

    PubMed Central

    Roussel, Sophie; Felix, Benjamin; Vingadassalon, Noémie; Grout, Joël; Hennekinne, Jacques-Antoine; Guillier, Laurent; Brisabois, Anne; Auvray, Fréderic

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks (SFPOs) are frequently reported in France. However, most of them remain unconfirmed, highlighting a need for a better characterization of isolated strains. Here we analyzed the genetic diversity of 112 Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from 76 distinct SFPOs that occurred in France over the last 30 years. We used a recently developed multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) protocol and compared this method with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa-typing and carriage of genes (se genes) coding for 11 staphylococcal enterotoxins (i.e., SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, SEE, SEG, SEH, SEI, SEJ, SEP, SER). The strains known to have an epidemiological association with one another had identical MLVA types, PFGE profiles, spa-types or se gene carriage. MLVA, PFGE and spa-typing divided 103 epidemiologically unrelated strains into 84, 80, and 50 types respectively demonstrating the high genetic diversity of S. aureus strains involved in SFPOs. Each MLVA type shared by more than one strain corresponded to a single spa-type except for one MLVA type represented by four strains that showed two different-but closely related-spa-types. The 87 enterotoxigenic strains were distributed across 68 distinct MLVA types that correlated all with se gene carriage except for four MLVA types. The most frequent se gene detected was sea, followed by seg and sei and the most frequently associated se genes were sea-seh and sea-sed-sej-ser. The discriminatory ability of MLVA was similar to that of PFGE and higher than that of spa-typing. This MLVA protocol was found to be compatible with high throughput analysis, and was also faster and less labor-intensive than PFGE. MLVA holds promise as a suitable method for investigating SFPOs and tracking the source of contamination in food processing facilities in real time. PMID:26441849

  17. Clinical factors, including All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Group severity, as predictors of early rehospitalization after COPD exacerbation

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Melissa H; Mapel, Douglas W; Von Worley, Ann; Beene, Janice

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients hospitalized for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations carry a high risk for early rehospitalization. We wished to identify the basic clinical factors associated with a high risk of rehospitalization, and to see how well the standardized All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Group (APR-DRG) severity of illness (SOI) subclassification predicted rehospitalization if combined with other simple clinical measures. Methods: We identified adult patients aged ≥40 years discharged from a major hospital in the Southwestern USA with a COPD discharge diagnosis during the study index period (1 October 2009 to 30 September 2010). Patients readmitted within 30 days (“early rehospitalization”) and 90 days (“any rehospitalization”) were each compared with those not rehospitalized. Clinical parameters (including demographics, comorbidities) and recent healthcare utilization were examined for their association with rehospitalization. Factors independently associated with rehospitalization were then combined with the index admission APR-DRG SOI assessment using conditional linear regression to find the best models in terms of the highest C-statistic. Results: Among 306 patients hospitalized for COPD, 62 (20.3%) had a rehospitalization within 90 days and 28 (9.2%), an early readmission. An APR-DRG SOI subclassification ≥3 was a modest independent predictor of early or any readmission, with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 2.09 to 3.33. Models that combined the APR-DRG SOI subclassification with clinical factors present before the index hospitalization had strong C-statistics of ≥0.80. Good models without the APR-DRG SOI subclassification but including a history of recent hospitalizations before the index hospitalization were also identified. Conclusions: An APR-DRG SOI subclassification of ≥3 for the index COPD admission is associated with an increased risk of early rehospitalizations, and can be combined with a few historical

  18. Carriage and acquisition rates of Clostridium difficile in hospitalized horses, including molecular characterization, multilocus sequence typing and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, C; Taminiau, B; Brévers, B; Avesani, V; Van Broeck, J; Leroux, A A; Amory, H; Delmée, M; Daube, G

    2014-08-01

    Clostridium difficile has been identified as a significant agent of diarrhoea and enterocolitis in both foals and adult horses. Hospitalization, antibiotic therapy or changes in diet may contribute to the development of C. difficile infection. Horses admitted to a care unit are therefore at greater risk of being colonized. The aim of this study was to investigate the carriage of C. difficile in hospitalized horses and the possible influence of some risk factors in colonization. During a seven-month period, faecal samples and data relating the clinical history of horses admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital were collected. C. difficile isolates were characterized through toxin profiles, cytotoxicity activity, PCR-ribotyping, antimicrobial resistance and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Ten isolates were obtained with a total of seven different PCR-ribotypes, including PCR-ribotype 014. Five of them were identified as toxinogenic. A high resistance to gentamicin, clindamycin and ceftiofur was found. MLST revealed four different sequencing types (ST), which included ST11, ST26, ST2 and ST15, and phylogenetic analysis showed that most of the isolates clustered in the same lineage. Clinical history suggests that horses frequently harbour toxigenic and non-toxigenic C. difficile and that in most cases they are colonized regardless of the reason for hospitalization; the development of diarrhoea is more unusual. PMID:24894133

  19. Nonsense mutations of the von Willebrand factor gene in patients with von Willebrand disease type III and type I

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.P.; Lindstedt, M.; Falk, G.; Blombaeck, M.; Egberg, N.; Anvret, M. )

    1992-10-01

    von Willebrand disease (vWD) is the most common inherited bleeding disorder in humans. The disease is caused by qualitative and quantitative abnormalities of the von Willebrand factor (vWF). Genomic DNA from 25 patients with vWD type III, the most severe form of the disease, was studied using PCR followed by restriction-enzyme analysis and direct sequencing of the products. Nonsense mutations (CGA[yields]TGA) were detected in exons 28, 32, and 45 by screening of all 11 CGA arginine codons of the vWF gene. Two patients were found to be homozygous and five heterozygous for the mutation. Both parents and some of the relatives of the homozygous patients carry the mutation. These are the first reported examples of homozygous point mutations associated with the severe form of vWD. In the three heterozygous probands, one of the parents carried the mutation and had vWD type I. Family studies including parents and family members with or without vWD type I indicted that these three heterozygous patients are likely to be compound heterozygous. Twenty-one individuals from these seven families with vWD type I found to be heterozygous for the mutation. 21 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Overview of the Taxonomy of Environmental Types and the Factor Structure of the Salter Environmental Type Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Daniel W.; Vandiver, Beverly J.

    2002-01-01

    The Salter Environmental Type Assessment (SETA) was created to be a commensurate measure for the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and to improve the efficacy of the person-environmental interaction paradigm to student affairs. A confirmatory factor analysis of SETA profiles supported the four dimensions in environmental type theory. The utility of this…

  1. Parental concern about vaccine safety in Canadian children partially immunized at age 2: A multivariable model including system level factors

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Shannon E; Schopflocher, Donald P; Vaudry, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Children who begin but do not fully complete the recommended series of childhood vaccines by 2 y of age are a much larger group than those who receive no vaccines. While parents who refuse all vaccines typically express concern about vaccine safety, it is critical to determine what influences parents of ‘partially’ immunized children. This case-control study examined whether parental concern about vaccine safety was responsible for partial immunization, and whether other personal or system-level factors played an important role. A random sample of parents of partially and completely immunized 2 y old children were selected from a Canadian regional immunization registry and completed a postal survey assessing various personal and system-level factors. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and adjusted ORs (aOR) were calculated with logistic regression. While vaccine safety concern was associated with partial immunization (OR 7.338, 95% CI 4.138– 13.012), other variables were more strongly associated and reduced the strength of the relationship between concern and partial immunization in multivariable analysis (aOR 2.829, 95% CI 1.151 – 6.957). Other important factors included perceived disease susceptibility and severity (aOR 4.629, 95% CI 2.017 – 10.625), residential mobility (aOR 3.908, 95% CI 2.075 – 7.358), daycare use (aOR 0.310, 95% CI 0.144 - 0.671), number of needles administered at each visit (aOR 7.734, 95% CI 2.598 – 23.025) and access to a regular physician (aOR 0.219, 95% CI 0.057 – 0.846). While concern about vaccine safety may be addressed through educational strategies, this study suggests that additional program and policy-level strategies may positively impact immunization uptake. PMID:25483477

  2. High processed meat consumption is a risk factor of type 2 diabetes in the ATBC study

    PubMed Central

    Männistö, Satu; Kontto, Jukka; Kataja-Tuomola, Merja; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo

    2012-01-01

    Relatively small lifestyle modifications related to weight reduction, physical activity and diet has been shown to decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes. Connected with diet, low consumption of meat has been suggested as a protective factor of diabetes. The aim was to examine the association between the consumption of total meat or the specific types of meat and risk of type 2 diabetes. The ATBC cohort included middle aged male smokers. During up to 12 years of follow-up, 1098 incident cases of diabetes were diagnosed from 24,845 participants through the nationwide register. Food consumption was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. In the age and intervention group adjusted model, high total meat consumption was a risk factor of type 2 diabetes (relative risk (RR) 1.50, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23, 1.82, highest vs. lowest quintile). The result was similar after adjustment for environmental factors and foods related to diabetes and meat consumption. The RR of type 2 diabetes was 1.37 for processed meat (95% CI: 1.11, 1.71) in the multivariate model. The results were explained more by intakes of sodium than intakes of saturated fatty acids, protein, cholesterol, heme iron, magnesium and nitrate, and were not modified by obesity. No association was found between red meat, poultry and the risk of type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, it may help to prevent the global epidemic of type 2 diabetes by reducing the consumption of processed meat. It seems that sodium of processed meat may explain the association. PMID:20187985

  3. Type specimens in the Port Elizabeth Museum, South Africa, including the historically important Albany Museum collection. Part 1: Amphibians.

    PubMed

    Conradie, Werner; Branch, William R; Watson, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    The Port Elizabeth Museum houses the consolidated herpetological collections of three provincial museums of the Eastern Cape, South Africa: the Port Elizabeth Museum (Port Elizabeth), the Amatole (previously Kaffarian) Museum (King Williams Town), and the Albany Museum (Grahamstown). Under John Hewitt, Albany Museum was the main centre of herpetological research in South Africa from 1910-1940, and he described numerous new species, many based on material in the museum collection. The types and other material from the Albany Museum are now incorporated into the Port Elizabeth Museum Herpetology collection (PEM). Due to the vague typification of much of Hewitt's material, the loss of the original catalogues in a fire and the subsequent deterioration of specimen labels, the identification of this type material is often troublesome. Significant herpetological research has been undertaken at the PEM in the last 35 years, and the collection has grown to be the third largest in Africa. During this period, numerous additional types have been deposited in the PEM collection, generated by active taxonomic research in the museum. As a consequence, 43 different amphibian taxa are represented by 37 primary and 151 secondary type specimens in the collection. This catalogue provides the first documentation of these types. It provides the original name, the original publication date, journal number and pagination, reference to illustrations, current name, museum collection number, type locality, notes on the type status, and photographs of all holotypes and lectotypes. Where necessary to maintain nomenclatural stability, and where confused type series are housed in the PEM collection, lectotypes and paralectotypes are nominated. PMID:25947420

  4. Mutations in cardiac T-box factor gene TBX20 are associated with diverse cardiac pathologies, including defects of septation and valvulogenesis and cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Edwin P; Sunde, Margaret; Costa, Mauro W; Rankin, Scott A; Wolstein, Orit; Castro, M Leticia; Butler, Tanya L; Hyun, Changbaig; Guo, Guanglan; Otway, Robyn; Mackay, Joel P; Waddell, Leigh B; Cole, Andrew D; Hayward, Christopher; Keogh, Anne; Macdonald, Peter; Griffiths, Lyn; Fatkin, Diane; Sholler, Gary F; Zorn, Aaron M; Feneley, Michael P; Winlaw, David S; Harvey, Richard P

    2007-08-01

    The T-box family transcription factor gene TBX20 acts in a conserved regulatory network, guiding heart formation and patterning in diverse species. Mouse Tbx20 is expressed in cardiac progenitor cells, differentiating cardiomyocytes, and developing valvular tissue, and its deletion or RNA interference-mediated knockdown is catastrophic for heart development. TBX20 interacts physically, functionally, and genetically with other cardiac transcription factors, including NKX2-5, GATA4, and TBX5, mutations of which cause congenital heart disease (CHD). Here, we report nonsense (Q195X) and missense (I152M) germline mutations within the T-box DNA-binding domain of human TBX20 that were associated with a family history of CHD and a complex spectrum of developmental anomalies, including defects in septation, chamber growth, and valvulogenesis. Biophysical characterization of wild-type and mutant proteins indicated how the missense mutation disrupts the structure and function of the TBX20 T-box. Dilated cardiomyopathy was a feature of the TBX20 mutant phenotype in humans and mice, suggesting that mutations in developmental transcription factors can provide a sensitized template for adult-onset heart disease. Our findings are the first to link TBX20 mutations to human pathology. They provide insights into how mutation of different genes in an interactive regulatory circuit lead to diverse clinical phenotypes, with implications for diagnosis, genetic screening, and patient follow-up. PMID:17668378

  5. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... interpretative signs; (4) Provision for non-motorized trail activities including pedestrians and bicycles; (5) Provision for motorized trail activities including all terrain vehicles, motorcycles, snowmobiles, etc.; (6...; (8) Maintenance and restoration of existing recreational trails; (9) Development and...

  6. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... interpretative signs; (4) Provision for non-motorized trail activities including pedestrians and bicycles; (5) Provision for motorized trail activities including all terrain vehicles, motorcycles, snowmobiles, etc.; (6...; (8) Maintenance and restoration of existing recreational trails; (9) Development and...

  7. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... interpretative signs; (4) Provision for non-motorized trail activities including pedestrians and bicycles; (5) Provision for motorized trail activities including all terrain vehicles, motorcycles, snowmobiles, etc.; (6...; (8) Maintenance and restoration of existing recreational trails; (9) Development and...

  8. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... interpretative signs; (4) Provision for non-motorized trail activities including pedestrians and bicycles; (5) Provision for motorized trail activities including all terrain vehicles, motorcycles, snowmobiles, etc.; (6...; (8) Maintenance and restoration of existing recreational trails; (9) Development and...

  9. Factors determining insulin requirements in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus during pregnancy: a review

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Harold David; Callaway, Leonie

    2014-01-01

    Most women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) have increased insulin requirements during pregnancy. However, a minority of women have a fall in insulin requirements. When this occurs in late gestation, it often provokes concern regarding possible compromise of the feto-placental unit. In some centres, this is considered as an indication for delivery, including premature delivery. There are, however, many other factors that affect insulin requirements in pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus and the decline in insulin requirements may represent a variant of normal pregnancy. If there is no underlying pathological process, expedited delivery in these women is not warranted and confers increased risks to the newborn. We will explore the factors affecting insulin requirements in gestation in this review. We will also discuss some novel concepts regarding beta-cell function in pregnancy.

  10. Biochemical and proteomic analysis of spliceosome factors interacting with intron-1 of human papillomavirus type-16.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Salazar, Martha; López-Urrutia, Eduardo; Arechaga-Ocampo, Elena; Bonilla-Moreno, Raul; Martínez-Castillo, Macario; Díaz-Hernández, Job; Del Moral-Hernández, Oscar; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; Martines-Juarez, Víctor; De Nova-Ocampo, Monica; Valdes, Jesús; Berumen, Jaime; Villegas-Sepúlveda, Nicolás

    2014-12-01

    The human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E6/E7 spliced transcripts are heterogeneously expressed in cervical carcinoma. The heterogeneity of the E6/E7 splicing profile might be in part due to the intrinsic variation of splicing factors in tumor cells. However, the splicing factors that bind the E6/E7 intron 1 (In-1) have not been defined. Therefore, we aimed to identify these factors; we used HeLa nuclear extracts (NE) for in vitro spliceosome assembly. The proteins were allowed to bind to an RNA/DNA hybrid formed by the In-1 transcript and a 5'-biotinylated DNA oligonucleotide complementary to the upstream exon sequence, which prevented interference in protein binding to the intron. The hybrid probes bound with the nuclear proteins were coupled to streptavidin magnetic beads for chromatography affinity purification. Proteins were eluted and identified by mass spectrometry (MS). Approximately 170 proteins were identified by MS, 80% of which were RNA binding proteins, including canonical spliceosome core components, helicases and regulatory splicing factors. The canonical factors were identified as components of the spliceosomal B-complex. Although 35-40 of the identified factors were cognate splicing factors or helicases, they have not been previously detected in spliceosome complexes that were assembled using in vivo or in vitro models. PMID:25108200

  11. Estimation of Cell-Type Composition Including T and B Cell Subtypes for Whole Blood Methylation Microarray Data

    PubMed Central

    Waite, Lindsay L.; Weaver, Benjamin; Day, Kenneth; Li, Xinrui; Roberts, Kevin; Gibson, Andrew W.; Edberg, Jeffrey C.; Kimberly, Robert P.; Absher, Devin M.; Tiwari, Hemant K.

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation levels vary markedly by cell-type makeup of a sample. Understanding these differences and estimating the cell-type makeup of a sample is an important aspect of studying DNA methylation. DNA from leukocytes in whole blood is simple to obtain and pervasive in research. However, leukocytes contain many distinct cell types and subtypes. We propose a two-stage model that estimates the proportions of six main cell types in whole blood (CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, monocytes, B cells, granulocytes, and natural killer cells) as well as subtypes of T and B cells. Unlike previous methods that only estimate overall proportions of CD4+ T cell, CD8+ T cells, and B cells, our model is able to estimate proportions of naïve, memory, and regulatory CD4+ T cells as well as naïve and memory CD8+ T cells and naïve and memory B cells. Using real and simulated data, we are able to demonstrate that our model is able to reliably estimate proportions of these cell types and subtypes. In studies with DNA methylation data from Illumina's HumanMethylation450k arrays, our estimates will be useful both for testing for associations of cell type and subtype composition with phenotypes of interest as well as for adjustment purposes to prevent confounding in epigenetic association studies. Additionally, our method can be easily adapted for use with whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) data or any other genome-wide methylation data platform. PMID:26925097

  12. Some flow phenomena in a constant area duct with a Borda type inlet including the critical region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Simoneau, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    Mass limiting flow characteristics for a 55 L/D tube with a Borda type inlet were assessed over large ranges of temperature and pressure, using fluid nitrogen. Under certain conditions, separation and pressure drop at the inlet was sufficiently strong to permit partial vaporization and the remaining fluid flowed through the tube as if it were a free jet. An empirical relation was determined which defines conditions under which this type of flow can occur. A flow coefficient is presented which enables estimations of flow rates over the experimental range. A flow rate stagnation pressure map for selected stagnation isotherms and pressure profiles document these flow phenomena.

  13. Keratinocyte growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor are heparin-binding growth factors for alveolar type II cells in fibroblast-conditioned medium.

    PubMed Central

    Panos, R J; Rubin, J S; Csaky, K G; Aaronson, S A; Mason, R J

    1993-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions mediate aspects of normal lung growth and development and are important in the restoration of normal alveolar architecture after lung injury. To determine if fibroblasts are a source of soluble growth factors for alveolar type II cells, we investigated the effect of fibroblast-conditioned medium (CM) on alveolar type II cell DNA synthesis. Serum-free CM from confluent adult human lung fibroblasts was concentrated fivefold by lyophilization. Type II cells were isolated from adult rats by elastase dissociation and incubated with [3H]thymidine and varying dilutions of concentrated CM and serum from day 1 to 3 of culture. Stimulation of type II cell DNA synthesis by fibroblast-CM was maximal after 48 h of conditioning and required the presence of serum. The activity of the CM was eliminated by boiling and by treatment with trypsin, pepsin, or dithiothreitol and was additive with saturating concentrations of acidic fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, and insulin. The growth factor activity bound to heparin-Sepharose and was eluted with 0.6 and 1.0 M NaCl. Neutralizing antibody studies demonstrated that the primary mitogens isolated in the 0.6 and 1.0 M NaCl fractions were keratinocyte growth factor (KGF, fibroblast growth factor 7) and hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF), respectively. HGF/SF was demonstrated in the crude CM and KGF was detected in the 0.6 M NaCl eluent by immunoblotting. Northern blot analysis confirmed that the lung fibroblasts expressed both KGF and HGF/SF transcripts. Human recombinant KGF and HGF/SF induced a concentration- and serum-dependent increase in rat alveolar type II cell DNA synthesis. We conclude that adult human lung fibroblasts produce at least two soluble heparin-binding growth factors, KGF and HGF/SF, which promote DNA synthesis and proliferation of rat alveolar type II cells in primary culture. KGF and HGF/SF may be important stimuli for alveolar type II cell

  14. 43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? 404.9 Section 404.9 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER... eligible rural water supply project? A rural water supply project may include, but is not limited to,...

  15. Upstream stimulatory factor activates the vasopressin promoter via multiple motifs, including a non-canonical E-box.

    PubMed Central

    Coulson, Judy M; Edgson, Jodie L; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V; Mulgrew, Robert; Quinn, John P; Woll, Penella J

    2003-01-01

    We have described previously a complex E-box enhancer (-147) of the vasopressin promoter in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) extracts [Coulson, Fiskerstrand, Woll and Quinn, (1999) Biochem. J. 344, 961-970]. Upstream stimulatory factor (USF) heterodimers were one of the complexes binding to this site in vitro. We now report that USF overexpression in non-SCLC (NSCLC) cells can functionally activate vasopressin promoter-driven reporters that are otherwise inactive in this type of lung cancer cell. Site-directed mutagenesis and electrophoretic mobility-shift analysis demonstrate that although the -147 E-box contributes, none of the previously predicted E-boxes (-147, -135, -34) wholly account for this USF-mediated activation in NSCLC. 5' Deletion showed the key promoter region as -52 to +42; however, USF-2 binding was not reliant on the -34 E-box, but on a novel adjacent CACGGG non-canonical E-box at -42 (motif E). This mediated USF binding in both SCLC and USF-2-transfected NSCLC cells. Mutation of motif E or the non-canonical TATA box abolished activity, implying both are required for transcriptional initiation on overexpression of USF-2. Co-transfected dominant negative USF confirmed that binding was required through motif E for function, but that the classical activation domain of USF was not essential. USF-2 bound motif E with 10-fold lower affinity than the -147 E-box. In NSCLC, endogenous USF-2 expression is low, and this basal level appears to be insufficient to activate transcription of arginine vasopressin (AVP). In summary, we have demonstrated a novel mechanism for USF activation, which contributes to differential vasopressin expression in lung cancer. PMID:12403649

  16. School factors as barriers to and facilitators of a preventive intervention for pediatric type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hall, William J; Schneider, Margaret; Thompson, Deborah; Volpe, Stella L; Steckler, Allan; Hall, John M; Fisher, M Randall

    2014-06-01

    School-based interventions are essential to prevent pediatric obesity and type 2 diabetes. School environmental factors influence implementation of these interventions. This article examines how school factors acted as barriers to and facilitators of the HEALTHY intervention. The HEALTHY study was a cluster-randomized trial of a multicomponent intervention implemented in 21 schools. Interview data were analyzed to identify barriers and facilitators. Barriers included teacher frustration that intervention activities detracted from tested subjects, student resistance and misbehavior, classroom management problems, communication equipment problems, lack of teacher/staff engagement, high cost and limited availability of nutritious products, inadequate facility space, and large class sizes. Facilitators included teacher/staff engagement, effective classroom management, student engagement, schools with direct control over food service, support from school leaders, and adequate facilities and equipment. Contextual barriers and facilitators must be taken into account in the design and implementation of school-based health interventions. PMID:24904696

  17. A patient with refractory shock induced by several factors, including obstruction because of a posterior mediastinal hematoma.

    PubMed

    Obinata, Mariko; Ishikawa, Kouhei; Osaka, Hiromichi; Mishima, Kentaro; Omori, Kazuhiko; Oode, Yasumasa; Yanagawa, Youichi

    2015-06-01

    A 44-year-old man who drove a motorcycle experienced a collision with the side of another motorcycle. Because he had sustained a high-energy injury to the spinal cord, he was transferred to our hospital. His circulation was unstable, and received tracheal intubation in addition to thoracostomy for the hemothorax. Whole-body computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple fractures, right hemopneumothorax with pulmonary contusion, and minor liver injury. After infusing 5000 mL of lactated Ringer's solution and 10 units of blood, his circulation remained unstable. On a repeat CT examination, the left atrium was found to be compressed by a posterior mediastinal hematoma induced by the fracture of the thoracic spine, and a diagnosis of shock induced by multiple factors, including hemorrhagic, neurogenic, and obstructive mechanisms, was made. After obtaining stable circulation and respirations, internal fixation of the extremities and extubation were performed on the 12th hospital day. Chest CT performed on the 27th day showed the disappearance of compression of the left atrium by the hematoma. PMID:25572646

  18. Spanish public awareness regarding DNA profile databases in forensic genetics: what type of DNA profiles should be included?

    PubMed Central

    Gamero, Joaquín J; Romero, Jose‐Luis; Peralta, Juan‐Luis; Carvalho, Mónica; Corte‐Real, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    The importance of non‐codifying DNA polymorphism for the administration of justice is now well known. In Spain, however, this type of test has given rise to questions in recent years: (a) Should consent be obtained before biological samples are taken from an individual for DNA analysis? (b) Does society perceive these techniques and methods of analysis as being reliable? (c) There appears to be lack of knowledge concerning the basic norms that regulate databases containing private or personal information and the protection that information of this type must be given. This opinion survey and the subsequent analysis of the results in ethical terms may serve to reveal the criteria and the degree of information that society has with regard to DNA databases. In the study, 73.20% (SE 1.12%) of the population surveyed was in favour of specific legislation for computer files in which DNA analysis results for forensic purposes are stored. PMID:17906059

  19. Optimizing staining protocols for laser microdissection of specific cell types from the testis including carcinoma in situ.

    PubMed

    Sonne, Si Brask; Dalgaard, Marlene D; Nielsen, John Erik; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Gjerdrum, Lise Mette; Leffers, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Microarray and RT-PCR based methods are important tools for analysis of gene expression; however, in tissues containing many different cells types, such as the testis, characterization of gene expression in specific cell types can be severely hampered by noise from other cells. The laser microdissection technology allows for enrichment of specific cell types. However, when the cells are not morphologically distinguishable, it is necessary to use a specific staining method for the target cells. In this study we have tested different fixatives, storage conditions for frozen sections and staining protocols, and present two staining protocols for frozen sections, one for fast and specific staining of fetal germ cells, testicular carcinoma in situ cells, and other cells with embryonic stem cell-like properties that express the alkaline phosphatase, and one for specific staining of lipid droplet-containing cells, which is useful for isolation of the androgen-producing Leydig cells. Both protocols retain a morphology that is compatible with laser microdissection and yield RNA of a quality suitable for PCR and microarray analysis. PMID:19436754

  20. Use of Q-Type Factor Analysis with the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleban, Morton H.; And Others

    This paper explores Q-Factor Analysis as a method of organizing data on a large array of variables to describe a group of aged Ss. Forty-seven males, specially selected for their good health (Mean Age: 71.5; SD: 4.8) were measured on 550 biological and behavioral variables. A Q-Factor Analysis was calculated, using a S by variable matrix, which is…

  1. Transcription factor Bcl11b controls identity and function of mature innate lymphoid cells type II

    PubMed Central

    Califano, Danielle; Cho, Jonathan J.; Uddin, Mohammad N.; Lorentsen, Kyle J.; Yang, Qi; Bhandoola, Avinash; Li, Hongmin; Avram, Dorina

    2015-01-01

    Summary Type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) promote anti-helminth responses and contribute to allergies. Here we report that Bcl11b, previously considered a T-cell lineage identity transcription factor, acts directly upstream of the key ILC2 transcription factor Gfi1 to maintain its expression in mature ILC2s. Consequently, Bcl11b−/− ILC2s downregulated Gata3 and downstream genes, including Il1rl1, encoding IL-33 receptor, and upregulated Rorc and type-3 ILC (ILC3) genes. Additionally, independent of Gfi1, Bcl11b directly repressed expression of the ILC3 transcription factor Ahr, further contributing to silencing of ILC3 genes in ILC2s. Thus, Bcl11b−/− ILC2s lost their functions and gained ILC3 functions, expanding in response to the protease allergen papain, while at the same time producing ILC3, and not ILC2 cytokines, and causing increased airway infiltration of neutrophils instead of eosinophils. Our results broaden Bcl11b's role from a T-cell only transcription factor, and establish that Bcl11b sustains mature ILC2 genetic and functional programs and lineage fidelity. PMID:26231117

  2. The functions of the A1A2A3 domains in von Willebrand factor include multimerin 1 binding.

    PubMed

    Parker, D'Andra N; Tasneem, Subia; Farndale, Richard W; Bihan, Dominique; Sadler, J Evan; Sebastian, Silvie; de Groot, Philip G; Hayward, Catherine P M

    2016-07-01

    Multimerin 1 (MMRN1) is a massive, homopolymeric protein that is stored in platelets and endothelial cells for activation-induced release. In vitro, MMRN1 binds to the outer surfaces of activated platelets and endothelial cells, the extracellular matrix (including collagen) and von Willebrand factor (VWF) to support platelet adhesive functions. VWF associates with MMRN1 at high shear, not static conditions, suggesting that shear exposes cryptic sites within VWF that support MMRN1 binding. Modified ELISA and surface plasmon resonance were used to study the structural features of VWF that support MMRN1 binding, and determine the affinities for VWF-MMRN1 binding. High shear microfluidic platelet adhesion assays determined the functional consequences for VWF-MMRN1 binding. VWF binding to MMRN1 was enhanced by shear exposure and ristocetin, and required VWF A1A2A3 region, specifically the A1 and A3 domains. VWF A1A2A3 bound to MMRN1 with a physiologically relevant binding affinity (KD: 2.0 ± 0.4 nM), whereas the individual VWF A1 (KD: 39.3 ± 7.7 nM) and A3 domains (KD: 229 ± 114 nM) bound to MMRN1 with lower affinities. VWF A1A2A3 was also sufficient to support the adhesion of resting platelets to MMRN1 at high shear, by a mechanism dependent on VWF-GPIbα binding. Our study provides new information on the molecular basis of MMRN1 binding to VWF, and its role in supporting platelet adhesion at high shear. We propose that at sites of vessel injury, MMRN1 that is released following activation of platelets and endothelial cells, binds to VWF A1A2A3 region to support platelet adhesion at arterial shear rates. PMID:27052467

  3. P-Type Factor Analyses of Individuals' Thought Sampling Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurlburt, Russell T.; Melancon, Susan M.

    Recently, interest in research measuring stream of consciousness or thought has increased. A study was conducted, based on a previous study by Hurlburt, Lech, and Saltman, in which subjects were randomly interrupted to rate their thoughts and moods on a Likert-type scale. Thought samples were collected from 27 subjects who carried random-tone…

  4. Curriculum Type as a Differentiating Factor in Medical Licensing Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Linjun

    This study assessed the effects of the type of medical curriculum on differential item functioning (DIF) and group differences at the test level in Level 1 of the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examinations (COMLEX). The study also explored the relationship of the DIF and group differences at the test level. There are generally two…

  5. The Role of Economic Factors, Including the Level of Tuition, in Individual University Participation Decisions in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David R.; Rahman, Fiona T.

    2005-01-01

    The study uses individual data from the Canadian Labour Force Survey to consider economic factors in university participation decisions by persons aged 17-24 from 1976 to 2003. The level of real tuition is one economic factor that may affect the university participation decision. There is also regional variation in the opportunity cost of…

  6. Effects of botulinum toxin type D on secretion of tumor necrosis factor from human monocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Imamura, K.; Spriggs, D.; Ohno, T.; Kufe, D.

    1989-05-01

    Botulinum toxins are potent neurotoxins which block the release of neurotransmitters. The effects of these toxins on hematopoietic cells, however, are unknown. Monocytes secrete a variety of polypeptide growth factors, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF). In the study reported here, the effects of botulinum toxin type D on the secretion of TNF from human monocytes were examined. The results demonstrate that biotulinum toxin type D inhibits the release of TNF from monocytes activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) but not by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. Botulinum toxin type D had no detectable effect on intracellular TNF levels in LPS-treated monocytes, indicating that the effects of this toxin involve the secretory process. This inhibitory effect of botulinum toxin type D on TNF secretion from LPS-treated monocytes was partially reversed by treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate or introduction of guanosine 5'-(/gamma/-thio)t-riphosphate into these cells. The results demonstrate that TNF secretion is regulated by at least two distinct guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, one responsible for the activation of phospholiphase C and another which acts as a substrate for botulinum toxin type D. ADP-ribosylation of monocyte membranes by botulinum toxin type D demonstrated the presence of three substrates with M/sub r/s of 45,000, 21,000, and 17,000. While the role of these substrates in exocytosis is unknown, the results suggest that the M/sub r/ 21,000 substrate is involved in a process other than TNF secretion.

  7. 43 CFR 404.10 - Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included in a rural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Are there certain types of infrastructure... RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.10 Are there certain types of infrastructure and... not include: (a) Any infrastructure or facilities that would deliver water for commercial...

  8. 43 CFR 404.10 - Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included in a rural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Are there certain types of infrastructure... RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.10 Are there certain types of infrastructure and... not include: (a) Any infrastructure or facilities that would deliver water for commercial...

  9. 43 CFR 404.10 - Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included in a rural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are there certain types of infrastructure... RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.10 Are there certain types of infrastructure and... not include: (a) Any infrastructure or facilities that would deliver water for commercial...

  10. 43 CFR 404.10 - Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included in a rural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Are there certain types of infrastructure... RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.10 Are there certain types of infrastructure and... not include: (a) Any infrastructure or facilities that would deliver water for commercial...

  11. 42 CFR 137.202 - What types of information will Self-Governance Tribes be expected to include in the reports?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What types of information will Self-Governance... SELF-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Health Status Reports § 137.202 What types of information will Self-Governance Tribes be expected to include in the reports? Reports will be derived from...

  12. 42 CFR 137.202 - What types of information will Self-Governance Tribes be expected to include in the reports?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What types of information will Self-Governance... SELF-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Health Status Reports § 137.202 What types of information will Self-Governance Tribes be expected to include in the reports? Reports will be derived from...

  13. 42 CFR 137.202 - What types of information will Self-Governance Tribes be expected to include in the reports?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What types of information will Self-Governance... SELF-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Health Status Reports § 137.202 What types of information will Self-Governance Tribes be expected to include in the reports? Reports will be derived from...

  14. 42 CFR 137.202 - What types of information will Self-Governance Tribes be expected to include in the reports?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What types of information will Self-Governance... SELF-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Health Status Reports § 137.202 What types of information will Self-Governance Tribes be expected to include in the reports? Reports will be derived from...

  15. 42 CFR 137.202 - What types of information will Self-Governance Tribes be expected to include in the reports?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What types of information will Self-Governance... SELF-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Health Status Reports § 137.202 What types of information will Self-Governance Tribes be expected to include in the reports? Reports will be derived from...

  16. Phenotype of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 Ser351Cys mutation: Pfeiffer syndrome type III.

    PubMed

    Gripp, K W; Stolle, C A; McDonald-McGinn, D M; Markowitz, R I; Bartlett, S P; Katowitz, J A; Muenke, M; Zackai, E H

    1998-07-24

    We present a patient with pansynostosis, hydrocephalus, seizures, extreme proptosis with luxation of the eyes out of the lids, apnea and airway obstruction, intestinal non-rotation, and severe developmental delay. His skeletal abnormalities include bilateral elbow ankylosis, radial head dislocation, and unilateral broad and deviated first toe. The phenotype of this patient is consistent with that previously reported in Pfeiffer syndrome type III, but is unusual for the lack of broad thumbs. Our patient most closely resembles the case described by Kerr et al. [1996: Am J Med Genet 66:138-143] as Pfeiffer syndrome type III with normal thumbs. Mutations in the genes for fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) 1 and 2 have previously been seen in patients with Pfeiffer syndrome type I. The mutation identified in our patient, Ser351Cys in FGFR2, represents the first reported cause of Pfeiffer syndrome type III. An identical mutation was described once previously by Pulleyn et al., in a patient whose brief clinical description included cloverleaf skull, significant developmental delay, and normal hands and feet [Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 4: 283-291, 1996]. In our patient, previously performed single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis failed to detect a band shift; the mutation was identified only after independent sequence analysis. PMID:9714439

  17. Hydrogeomorphic Classification of Wetlands on Mt. Desert Island, Maine, Including Hydrologic Susceptibility Factors for Wetlands in Acadia National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, Martha G.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, developed a hydrogeomorphic (HGM) classification system for wetlands greater than 0.4 hectares (ha) on Mt. Desert Island, Maine, and applied this classification using map-scale data to more than 1,200 mapped wetland units on the island. In addition, two hydrologic susceptibility factors were defined for a subset of these wetlands, using 11 variables derived from landscape-scale characteristics of the catchment areas of these wetlands. The hydrologic susceptibility factors, one related to the potential hydrologic pathways for contaminants and the other to the susceptibility of wetlands to disruptions in water supply from projected future changes in climate, were used to indicate which wetlands (greater than 1 ha) in Acadia National Park (ANP) may warrant further investigation or monitoring. The HGM classification system consists of 13 categories: Riverine-Upper Perennial, Riverine-Nonperennial, Riverine- Tidal, Depressional-Closed, Depressional-Semiclosed, Depressional-Open, Depressional-No Ground-Water Input, Mineral Soil Flat, Organic Soil Flat, Tidal Fringe, Lacustrine Fringe, Slope, and Hilltop/Upper Hillslope. A dichotomous key was developed to aid in the classification of wetlands. The National Wetland Inventory maps produced by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service provided the wetland mapping units used for this classification. On the basis of topographic map information and geographic information system (GIS) layers at a scale of 1:24,000 or larger, 1,202 wetland units were assigned a preliminary HGM classification. Two of the 13 HGM classes (Riverine-Tidal and Depressional-No Ground-Water Input) were not assigned to any wetlands because criteria for determining those classes are not available at that map scale, and must be determined by more site-specific information. Of the 1,202 wetland polygons classified, which cover 1,830 ha in ANP, 327 were classified as Slope, 258 were

  18. Improvement of surface functionalities, including allergenicity attenuation, of whole buckwheat protein fraction by maillard-type glycation with dextran.

    PubMed

    Tazawa, Shigeru; Katayama, Shigeru; Hirabayashi, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Nakamura, Soichiro

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of the introduction of polysaccharide chains onto the molecular surface of buckwheat proteins on buckwheat protein surface functionality. The whole buckwheat protein fraction (WBP) was prepared using 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) containing 0.5 M NaCl and covalently linked with 6 kDa, 17.5 kDa, 40 kDa, 70 kDa, or 200 kDa dextran by Maillard-type glycation through controlled dry-heating at 60°C and 79% relative humidity for two weeks. Conjugation with 40 kDa dextran improved the water solubility and emulsifying properties of WBP without causing a serious loss of available lysine; 84.9% of the free amino groups were conserved. In addition, we found that the introduction of dextran chains onto the molecular surfaces of WBP attenuated the antigenicity of WBP. PMID:25580398

  19. [Alimentary trigger factors that provoke migraine and tension-type headache].

    PubMed

    Holzhammer, J; Wöber, C

    2006-04-01

    Based on a review of the literature the authors discuss the role of nutrition in the precipitation of migraine and tension-type headache (TTH). The available information relies largely on the subjective assessment of the patients. Controlled trials suggest that alcohol and caffeine withdrawal are the most important nutritional precipitating factors of migraine and TTH. In addition, there is some evidence that missing meals is also an important factor. Dehydration seems to deserve more attention. A selective sensitivity to red wine has been shown in some patients, the importance of chocolate has been doubted seriously, and scientific evidence for cheese as a precipitating factor is lacking. Despite a series of experimental studies demonstrating that NO donors such as nitroglycerin and parenteral histamine cause headache the role of histamine, nitrates, and nitrites in food remains unclear. Similarly, other biogenic amines and aspartame have not been proven to precipitate headache. Sodium glutamate causes adverse reactions including headache probably at large doses ingested on an empty stomach. Therefore, patients should be advised that food plays a limited role as a precipitating factor of migraine and TTH. Subjective sensitivity to certain foods should be examined critically, and proven precipitating factors should be avoided. General dietary restrictions have not been proven to be useful. PMID:15806385

  20. The Insulin-Like Growth Factor System in Obesity, Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Lewitt, Moira S.; Dent, Mairi S.; Hall, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system, acting in concert with other hormone axes, is important in normal metabolism. In obesity, the hyperinsulinaemia that accompanies peripheral insulin resistance leads to reduced growth hormone (GH) secretion, while total IGF-I levels are relatively unchanged due to increased hepatic GH sensitivity. IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-1 levels are suppressed in relation to the increase in insulin levels in obesity and low levels predict the development of type 2 diabetes several years later. Visceral adiposity and hepatic steatosis, along with a chronic inflammation, contribute to the IGF system phenotype in individuals with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus, including changes in the normal inverse relationship between IGFBP-1 and insulin, with IGFBP-1 concentrations that are inappropriately normal or elevated. The IGF system is implicated in the vascular and other complications of these disorders and is therefore a potential therapeutic target. PMID:26237614

  1. Innate and Adaptive Factors Regulating Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Genomic Activation

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sonia; Nonnemacher, Michael R.; Pirrone, Vanessa; Wigdahl, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, antiretroviral therapy targeting the viral entry process, reverse transcriptase, integrase, and protease, has prolonged the lives of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). However, despite the development of more effective therapeutic strategies, reservoirs of viral infection remain. This review discusses molecular mechanisms surrounding the development of latency from the site of integration to pre- and post-integration maintenance of latency, including epigenetic factors. In addition, an overview of innate and adaptive cells important to HIV-1 infection are examined from the viewpoint of cytokines released and cytokines that act on these cells to explore an overall understanding of HIV-1 proviral genome activation. Finally, this review is discussed from the viewpoint of how an understanding of the interplay of all of these factors will help guide the next generation of therapies. PMID:20387125

  2. An Examination of the Factor Structure of Four of the Cognitive Abilities Included in the Educational Testing Service Kit of Factor-Referenced Cognitive Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, Renee L.; Laguna, Kerrie

    1997-01-01

    The Educational Testing Service Kit of Factor-Referenced Cognitive Tests contains 72 tests that are supposed to be markers of 23 latent cognitive constructs. Examination of the factor structure of four of these tests with 165 undergraduates suggests caution in using the measures as markers of distinct factors. (SLD)

  3. Practical ranges of loudness levels of various types of environmental noise, including traffic noise, aircraft noise, and industrial noise.

    PubMed

    Salomons, Erik M; Janssen, Sabine A

    2011-06-01

    In environmental noise control one commonly employs the A-weighted sound level as an approximate measure of the effect of noise on people. A measure that is more closely related to direct human perception of noise is the loudness level. At constant A-weighted sound level, the loudness level of a noise signal varies considerably with the shape of the frequency spectrum of the noise signal. In particular the bandwidth of the spectrum has a large effect on the loudness level, due to the effect of critical bands in the human hearing system. The low-frequency content of the spectrum also has an effect on the loudness level. In this note the relation between loudness level and A-weighted sound level is analyzed for various environmental noise spectra, including spectra of traffic noise, aircraft noise, and industrial noise. From loudness levels calculated for these environmental noise spectra, diagrams are constructed that show the relation between loudness level, A-weighted sound level, and shape of the spectrum. The diagrams show that the upper limits of the loudness level for broadband environmental noise spectra are about 20 to 40 phon higher than the lower limits for narrowband spectra, which correspond to the loudness levels of pure tones. The diagrams are useful for assessing limitations and potential improvements of environmental noise control methods and policy based on A-weighted sound levels. PMID:21776205

  4. Calculation of heat transfer on shuttle type configurations including the effects of variable entropy at boundary layer edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejarnette, F. R.

    1972-01-01

    A relatively simple method is presented for including the effect of variable entropy at the boundary-layer edge in a heat transfer method developed previously. For each inviscid surface streamline an approximate shockwave shape is calculated using a modified form of Maslen's method for inviscid axisymmetric flows. The entropy for the streamline at the edge of the boundary layer is determined by equating the mass flux through the shock wave to that inside the boundary layer. Approximations used in this technique allow the heating rates along each inviscid surface streamline to be calculated independent of the other streamlines. The shock standoff distances computed by the present method are found to compare well with those computed by Maslen's asymmetric method. Heating rates are presented for blunted circular and elliptical cones and a typical space shuttle orbiter at angles of attack. Variable entropy effects are found to increase heating rates downstream of the nose significantly higher than those computed using normal-shock entropy, and turbulent heating rates increased more than laminar rates. Effects of Reynolds number and angles of attack are also shown.

  5. Practical Ranges of Loudness Levels of Various Types of Environmental Noise, Including Traffic Noise, Aircraft Noise, and Industrial Noise

    PubMed Central

    Salomons, Erik M.; Janssen, Sabine A.

    2011-01-01

    In environmental noise control one commonly employs the A-weighted sound level as an approximate measure of the effect of noise on people. A measure that is more closely related to direct human perception of noise is the loudness level. At constant A-weighted sound level, the loudness level of a noise signal varies considerably with the shape of the frequency spectrum of the noise signal. In particular the bandwidth of the spectrum has a large effect on the loudness level, due to the effect of critical bands in the human hearing system. The low-frequency content of the spectrum also has an effect on the loudness level. In this note the relation between loudness level and A-weighted sound level is analyzed for various environmental noise spectra, including spectra of traffic noise, aircraft noise, and industrial noise. From loudness levels calculated for these environmental noise spectra, diagrams are constructed that show the relation between loudness level, A-weighted sound level, and shape of the spectrum. The diagrams show that the upper limits of the loudness level for broadband environmental noise spectra are about 20 to 40 phon higher than the lower limits for narrowband spectra, which correspond to the loudness levels of pure tones. The diagrams are useful for assessing limitations and potential improvements of environmental noise control methods and policy based on A-weighted sound levels. PMID:21776205

  6. Relationship of Food Security with Type 2 Diabetes and Its Risk Factors in Tehranian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hasan-Ghomi, Majid; Ejtahed, Hanieh-Sadat; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hosseini-Esfahani, Firozeh; Sarbazi, Narges; Azizi, Fereidoun; Sadeghian, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Background: As food insecurity has negative effects on health, the aim of this study was to determine tahe relationship between household food security and type 2 diabetes mellitus and its related risk factors. Methods: In this case-control study, 200 individuals with and 200 individuals without type 2 diabetes mellitus, aged over 40 years, were randomly selected from among participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. The questionnaire on household food security proposed by the United States Department of Agriculture was completed for them by trained personnel. Logistic regression was used to determine the variable that had the most significant relationship with food security status. Results: The average of food security score was 2.38 ± 2.0 in non-diabetic and 2.25 ± 2.0 in diabetic individuals (P = 0.6). In both groups, the risk for food insecurity in women was more than in men. In the diabetic group, being single and having education levels below high school increased the risk of food insecurity. In the non-diabetic group, the risk of food insecurity in obese individuals was 3.3 times higher than normal individuals (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.2–4.1). Conclusions: There were no significant differences in food security levels of diabetic and non-diabetic groups. However, some risk factors of type 2 diabetes including sex, marital status, educational level, and obesity were associated with food insecurity. PMID:26605019

  7. Ultrasound measurement of peripheral endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients: correlation with risk factors.

    PubMed

    Bosevski, Marijan; Georgievska-Ismail, Ljubica

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the endothelial dysfunction (ED) in type 2 diabetic patients ultrasonographically and estimate the correlation of ED with glycemia and other cardio-metabolic risk factors. 171 patient (age 60.0 + 8.5 years) with diagnosed type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease (CAD) were randomly included in a cross sectional study. B-mode ultrasound system with a linear transducer of 7.5 MHz was used for evaluation of flow-mediated vasodilation in brachial artery (FMV). FMV was presented as a change of brachial artery diameter at rest and after limb ischemia, previously provoked by cuff inflation. Peripheral ED was found in 77.2% (132 patients). Multivariate logistic regression model defined: age (OR 1.071, 95% CI 1.003 1,143) and plasma cholesterol (OR 4.083 95% CI 1.080 17,017) as determinants for ED. Linear multivariate analysis presented duration of diabetes (Beta 0.173, Sig 0.024), and glycemia (Beta 0.132, Sig 0.044) to be associated independently with FMV value. Estimated factors influencing FMV, might be potential therapeutic targets for presented endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients with coronary artery disease. PMID:20507285

  8. Receptor modelling of fine particles in Southern England using CMB including comparison with AMS-PMF factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, J.; Cumberland, S. A.; Harrison, R. M.; Allan, J.; Young, D. E.; Williams, P. I.; Coe, H.

    2014-09-01

    PM2.5 was collected during a winter campaign at two southern England sites, urban background North Kensington (NK) and rural Harwell (HAR), in January-February 2012. Multiple organic and inorganic source tracers were analysed and used in a Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model, which apportioned seven separate primary sources, that explained on average 53% (NK) and 56% (HAR) of the organic carbon (OC), including traffic, woodsmoke, food cooking, coal combustion, vegetative detritus, natural gas and dust/soil. With the addition of source tracers for secondary biogenic aerosol at the NK site, 79% of organic carbon was accounted for. Secondary biogenic sources were represented by oxidation products of α-pinene and isoprene, but only the former made a substantial contribution to OC. Particle source contribution estimates for PM2.5 mass were obtained by the conversion of the OC estimates and combining with inorganic components ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate and sea salt. Good mass closure was achieved with 8% (92% with the addition of the secondary biogenic source) and 83% of the PM2.5 mass explained at NK and HAR respectively, with the remainder being secondary organic matter. While the most important sources of OC are vehicle exhaust (21 and 16%) and woodsmoke (15% and 28%) at NK and HAR respectively, food cooking emissions are also significant, particularly at the urban NK site (11% of OC), in addition to the secondary biogenic source, only measured at NK, which represented about 26%. In comparison, the major source components for PM2.5 at NK and HAR are inorganic ammonium salts (51 and 56%), vehicle exhaust emissions (8 and 6%), secondary biogenic (10% measured at NK only), woodsmoke (4 and 7%) and sea salt (7 and 8%), whereas food cooking (4% and 1%) showed relatively smaller contributions to PM2.5. Results from the CMB model were compared with source contribution estimates derived from the AMS-PMF method. The overall mass of organic matter accounted for is

  9. Receptor modelling of fine particles in southern England using CMB including comparison with AMS-PMF factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, J.; Cumberland, S. A.; Harrison, R. M.; Allan, J.; Young, D. E.; Williams, P. I.; Coe, H.

    2015-02-01

    PM2.5 was collected during a winter campaign at two southern England sites, urban background North Kensington (NK) and rural Harwell (HAR), in January-February 2012. Multiple organic and inorganic source tracers were analysed and used in a Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model, which apportioned seven separate primary sources, that explained on average 53% (NK) and 56% (HAR) of the organic carbon (OC), including traffic, woodsmoke, food cooking, coal combustion, vegetative detritus, natural gas and dust/soil. With the addition of source tracers for secondary biogenic aerosol at the NK site, 79% of organic carbon was accounted for. Secondary biogenic sources were represented by oxidation products of α-pinene and isoprene, but only the former made a substantial contribution to OC. Particle source contribution estimates for PM2.5 mass were obtained by the conversion of the OC estimates and combining with inorganic components ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and sea salt. Good mass closure was achieved with 81% (92% with the addition of the secondary biogenic source) and 83% of the PM2.5 mass explained at NK and HAR respectively, with the remainder being secondary organic matter. While the most important sources of OC are vehicle exhaust (21 and 16%) and woodsmoke (15 and 28%) at NK and HAR respectively, food cooking emissions are also significant, particularly at the urban NK site (11% of OC), in addition to the secondary biogenic source, only measured at NK, which represented about 26%. In comparison, the major source components for PM2.5 at NK and HAR are inorganic ammonium salts (51 and 56%), vehicle exhaust emissions (8 and 6%), secondary biogenic (10% measured at NK only), woodsmoke (4 and 7%) and sea salt (7 and 8%), whereas food cooking (4 and 1%) showed relatively smaller contributions to PM2.5. Results from the CMB model were compared with source contribution estimates derived from the AMS-PMF method. The overall mass of organic matter accounted for is rather

  10. Systematic identification of type I and type II interferon-induced antiviral factors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Su-Yang; Sanchez, David Jesse; Aliyari, Roghiyh; Lu, Sun; Cheng, Genhong

    2012-03-13

    Type I and type II interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that establish the cellular antiviral state through the induction of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). We sought to understand the basis of the antiviral activity induced by type I and II IFNs in relation to the functions of their ISGs. Based on gene expression studies, we systematically identified antiviral ISGs by performing blinded, functional screens on 288 type I and type II ISGs. We assessed and validated the antiviral activity of these ISGs against an RNA virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and a DNA virus, murine gammaherpes virus (MHV-68). Overall, we identified 34 ISGs that elicited an antiviral effect on the replication of either one or both viruses. Fourteen ISGs have uncharacterized antiviral functions. We further defined ISGs that affect critical life-cycle processes in expression of VSV protein and MHV-68 immediate-early genes. Two previously undescribed antiviral ISGs, TAP1 and BMP2, were further validated. TAP1-deficient fibroblasts were more susceptible to VSV infection but less so to MHV-68 infection. On the other hand, exogenous BMP2 inhibits MHV-68 lytic growth but did not affect VSV growth. These results delineate common and distinct sets of type I and type II IFN-induced genes as well as identify unique ISGs that have either broad or specific antiviral effects on these viruses. PMID:22371602

  11. Type 2 diabetes in children: Clinical aspects and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Rao, P. V.

    2015-01-01

    A strong link between obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome has been reported with development of a new paradigm to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), with some evidence suggesting that beta-cell dysfunction is present before the onset of impaired glucose tolerance. Differentiating type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) from T2DM is actually not very easy and there exists a number of overlapping characteristics. The autoantibody frequencies of seven antigens in T1DM patients may turn out to be actually having T2DM patients (pre-T2DM). T2DM patients generally have increased C-peptide levels (may be normal at time of diagnosis), usually no auto-antibodies, strong family history of diabetes, obese and show signs of insulin resistance (hypertension, acanthosis, PCOS). The American Academy of Paediatrics recommends lifestyle modifications ± metformin when blood glucose is 126–200 mg/dL and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) <8.5. Insulin is recommended when blood glucose is >200 mg/dL and HbA1c >8.5, with or without ketosis. Metformin is not recommended if the patient is ketotic, because this increases the risk of lactic acidosis. Metformin is currently the only oral hypoglycemic that has been approved for use in children. Knowing these subtle differences in mechanism, and knowing how to test patients for which mechanism (s) are causing their diabetes mellitus, may help us eventually tailor treatment programs on an individual basis. PMID:25941651

  12. Temperature factor for magnetic instability conditions of type - II superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanovskii, V.

    2014-10-01

    The macroscopic development of interrelated electrodynamics and thermal states taking place both before and after instability onset in type-II superconductors are studied using the critical state and the flux creep concepts. The physical mechanisms of the non-isothermal formation of the critical state are discussed solving the set of unsteady thermo-electrodynamics equations taking into consideration the unknown moving penetration boundary of the magnetic flux. To make it, the numerical method, which allows to study diffusion phenomena with unknown moving phase-two boundary, is developed. The corresponding non-isothermal flux jump criteria are written. It is proved for the first time that, first, the diffusion phenomena in superconductors have the fission-chain-reaction nature, second, the stability conditions, losses in superconductor and its stable overheating before instability onset are mutually dependent. The results are compared with those following from the existing magnetic instability theory, which does not take into consideration the stable temperature increase of superconductor before the instability onset. It is shown that errors of isothermal approximation are significant for modes closed to adiabatic ones. Therefore, the well-known adiabatic flux jump criterion limits the range of possible stable superconducting states since a correct determination of their stability states must take into account the thermal prehistory of the stable magnetic flux penetration. As a result, the calculation errors in the isothermal approximation will rise when the sweep rate of an external magnetic field or the size of the superconductor’s cross-sectional area increase. The basic conclusions formulated in the framework of the critical state model are verified comparing the experimental results and the numerical analysis of the stability conditions and the temperature dynamics of the helicoid-type superconducting current-carrying element having real voltage

  13. Risk Factor Analysis in Clinical Isolates of ESBL and MBL (Including NDM-1) Producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella Species in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Renu; Saxena, Sonal; Singhal, Smita

    2015-01-01

    Background Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) producing Gram negative organisms are emerging as a worldwide public health concern. Aim To elucidate risk factors for infection with ESBL and MBL (also NDM-1) producing E. coli and Klebsiella spp. Materials and Methods A prospective observational study was conducted from November 2010 to March 2012. ESBL production was detected using ESBL E-test, MBL by MBL E-test and NDM-1 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Risk factors analysed includes age, sex, clinical specimen, type of infection, duration of hospital stay prior to collection of sample, admitting ward, antimicrobial susceptibility, previous antibiotics used, co-morbid illnesses like diabetes mellitus, immunodeficiency, low birth weight, respiratory/neurological/cardiac/haematological/liver diseases, malignancy, urinary or central venous catheter, ventilatory support, surgical procedures and dialysis. Statistical analysis z-test or Fisher’s exact test. Results E. coli – ESBL producing isolates E. coli revealed female preponderance, equal incidence of hospital and community acquired infections, mostly from surgical wards, isolated from urine, age group among females >20-30 years and among males >28 days-1 year. They showed high resistance to cephalosporins, monobactam, penicillin but low resistance to carbapenems and aminoglycosides. Co-morbid conditions observed were surgery, urinary catheterisation, haematological disease, ventilatory support, diabetes mellitus and neurological disease. MBL producing strains were mainly from females, surgical wards, (including both NDM-1 isolates), hospital acquired infections, isolated from body fluids (NDM-1 positive), female genital tract specimen and urine (one NDM-1 positive). NDM-1 positive isolates belonged to age groups >5-10 year and >0-28 days and underwent surgery and urinary catheterisation. Klebsiella spp.- ESBL producing isolates showed female preponderance, hospital acquired

  14. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Vietnam: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Chung T; Pham, Ngoc Minh; Lee, Andy H; Binns, Colin W

    2015-09-01

    This systematic review examined trends in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and identified its risk factors among adults in Vietnam. PubMed, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library, and Scopus databases were searched to identify relevant literature. The search yielded 10 studies, including 2 national surveys and 8 regional investigations. National prevalence estimates of T2DM were 2.7% in 2002 and 5.4% in 2012. The estimates for the northern region were 1.4% in 1994 and 3.7% in 2012 and those for the southern region were 3.8% in 2004, 7.0% in 2008, and 12.4% in 2010. The major determinants of T2DM included older age, urban residence, high levels of body and abdominal fat, physical inactivity, sedentary lifestyle, genetic factors, and hypertension. The prevalence rate by gender was variable in both national and regional studies. There was insufficient information available on some potentially important risk factors such as smoking, dietary intake, income, and educational level. Our review signifies a rapidly growing prevalence of T2DM in Vietnam and suggests that extra effort is required to prevent and control this disease. PMID:26187848

  15. Persistent organic pollutants as risk factors for type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ngwa, Elvis Ndonwi; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Tiedeu-Atogho, Barbara; Mofo-Mato, Edith-Pascale; Sobngwi, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major and fast growing public health problem. Although obesity is considered to be the main driver of the pandemic of T2DM, a possible contribution of some environmental contaminants, of which persistent organic pollutants (POPs) form a particular class, has been suggested. POPs are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes which enable them to persist in the environment, to be capable of long-range transport, bio accumulate in human and animal tissue, bio accumulate in food chains, and to have potential significant impacts on human health and the environment. Several epidemiological studies have reported an association between persistent organic pollutants and diabetes risk. These findings have been replicated in experimental studies both in human (in-vitro) and animals (in-vivo and in-vitro), and patho-physiological derangements through which these pollutants exercise their harmful effect on diabetes risk postulated. This review summarizes available studies, emphasises on limitations so as to enable subsequent studies to be centralized on possible pathways and bring out clearly the role of POPs on diabetes risk. PMID:25987904

  16. Prevalence, risk factors and complications associated with type 2 diabetes in migrant South Asians.

    PubMed

    Garduño-Diaz, Sara D; Khokhar, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    It is estimated that type 2 diabetes (T2D) currently affects about 246 million people worldwide, with South Asians, especially Indians, having both the largest number of cases and the fastest growing prevalence. South Asian ethnicity has been identified as a major risk factor for the development of T2D with central adiposity, insulin resistance and an unfavourable lipid profile being identified as predominant signals of alarm. Leading databases, including Web of Science, Medline, PubMed and Science Direct, were consulted and manual searches were conducted for cited references in leading diabetes-related journals. In all, 152 articles were included for the final assessment reported in this review. Genetic predisposition, central adiposity and unfavourable lifestyle, including physical inactivity and an unhealthy diet, were associated with the prevalence of T2D in migrant South Asians. 'Westernization', acculturation, socio-economic factors and lack of knowledge about the disease have also been identified as contributors to the development of T2D in this population. Higher prevalence of T2D in migrant South Asians may not be entirely attributed to genetic predisposition; hence, ethnicity and associated modifiable risk factors need further investigation. Preventive measures and appropriate interventions are currently limited by the lack of ethnic-specific cut-off points for anthropometric and biological markers, as well as by the absence of reliable methods for dietary and physical activity assessment. This article describes the prevalence rate, risk factors and complications associated with T2D in migrant South Asians living in different countries. PMID:21591242

  17. Impact of early psychosocial factors (childhood socioeconomic factors and adversities) on future risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic disturbances and obesity: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES) have a notable impact on health disparities, including type 2 diabetes risk. However, the link between childhood psychosocial factors, such as childhood adversities or parental SES, and metabolic disturbances is less well established. In addition, the lifetime perspective including adult socioeconomic factors remains of further interest. We carried out a systematic review with the main question if there is evidence in population- or community-based studies that childhood adversities (like neglect, traumata and deprivation) have considerable impact on type 2 diabetes incidence and other metabolic disturbances. Also, parental SES was included in the search as risk factor for both, diabetes and adverse childhood experiences. Finally, we assumed that obesity might be a mediator for the association of childhood adversities with diabetes incidence. Therefore, we carried out a second review on obesity, applying a similar search strategy. Methods Two systematic reviews were carried out. Longitudinal, population- or community-based studies were included if they contained data on psychosocial factors in childhood and either diabetes incidence or obesity risk. Results We included ten studies comprising a total of 200,381 individuals. Eight out of ten studies indicated that low parental status was associated with type 2 diabetes incidence or the development of metabolic abnormalities. Adjustment for adult SES and obesity tended to attenuate the childhood SES-attributable risk but the association remained. For obesity, eleven studies were included with a total sample size of 70,420 participants. Four out of eleven studies observed an independent association of low childhood SES on the risk for overweight and obesity later in life. Conclusions Taken together, there is evidence that childhood SES is associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity in later life. The database on the role of psychological factors such as

  18. The mouse protein synthesis initiation factor 4A gene family includes two related functional genes which are differentially expressed.

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, P J; Trachsel, H

    1988-01-01

    We have cloned and characterized a family of mouse genomic sequences hybridizing to mouse cDNA probes coding for eIF-4A, one of the protein synthesis initiation factors involved in the binding of mRNA to the ribosome. We estimate that there is a total of approximately 9-13 eIF-4A pseudogenes. We also found an eIF-4A intronless retroposon which, when compared to the cDNA, contains a single nucleotide difference. This possibly functional gene contains a mouse repetitive B1 element integrated in the promoter region. Furthermore, we have cloned two intron-containing eIF-4A genes (termed eIF-4AI and eIF-4AII). The eIF-4AII gene codes for a previously unknown form of eIF-4A. Northern blot hybridization with RNA from several mouse organs shows a variation in eIF-4AI expression within a factor of 7. In contrast, relative to liver, eIF-4AII expression is 20- to 30-times higher in brain and kidney, 10- to 17-fold higher in lung and heart, and is about equally abundant in liver, spleen and thymus. These data suggest that the relative efficiency of protein synthesis initiation for different mRNAs, as reflected by discrimination in messenger 5'-terminal cap recognition and binding to ribosomes, varies in different tissues. Images PMID:3046931

  19. Translationally invariant calculations of form factors, nucleon densities and momentum distributions for finite nuclei with short-range correlations included

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shebeko, A. V.; Grigorov, P. A.; Iurasov, V. S.

    2012-11-01

    Relying upon our previous treatment of the density matrices for nuclei (in general, nonrelativistic self-bound finite systems) we are studying a combined effect of center-of-mass motion and short-range nucleon-nucleon correlations on the nucleon density and momentum distributions in light nuclei (4He and 16O). Their intrinsic ground-state wave functions are constructed in the so-called fixed center-of-mass approximation, starting with mean-field Slater determinants modified by some correlator ( e.g., after Jastrow or Villars). We develop the formalism based upon the Cartesian or boson representation, in which the coordinate and momentum operators are linear combinations of the creation and annihilation operators for oscillatory quanta in the three different space directions, and get the own "Tassie-Barker" factors for each distribution and point out other model-independent results. After this separation of the center-of-mass motion effects we propose additional analytic means in order to simplify the subsequent calculations ( e.g., within the Jastrow approach or the unitary correlation operator method). The charge form factors, densities and momentum distributions of 4He and 16O evaluated by using the well-known cluster expansions are compared with data, our exact (numerical) results and microscopic calculations.

  20. Viewpoint: factors involved in type I interferon responses during porcine virus infections.

    PubMed

    Summerfield, Artur

    2012-07-15

    Since type I interferon (IFN-I) is considered a potent antiviral defence mechanism, it is not surprising that during evolution viruses have development of various mechanisms to counteract IFN-I induction or release. Despite this, certain virus infections are associated with very high levels of systemic IFN-I. One explanation for this observation is the presence of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC), which are able to produce high levels of IFN-I despite the presence of viral IFN-I antagonists. Examples of virus infection in pigs including classical swine fever virus, influenza virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and porcine circo virus type 2 highlight factors involved in controlling such responses and illustrate potential negative and positive effects for the host. Based on published data, we propose that in addition to the ability to activate pDC, the ability to spread systemically, and the tropism for lymphoid tissue also represent important factors contributing to strong systemic IFN-I responses during certain virus infections. PMID:21458079

  1. The transforming growth factor beta type II receptor can replace the activin type II receptor in inducing mesoderm.

    PubMed Central

    Bhushan, A; Lin, H Y; Lodish, H F; Kintner, C R

    1994-01-01

    The type II receptors for the polypeptide growth factors transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and activin belong to a new family of predicted serine/threonine protein kinases. In Xenopus embryos, the biological effects of activin and TGF-beta 1 are strikingly different; activin induces a full range of mesodermal cell types in the animal cap assay, while TGF-beta 1 has no effects, presumably because of the lack of functional TGF-beta receptors. In order to assess the biological activities of exogenously added TGF-beta 1, RNA encoding the TGF-beta type II receptor was introduced into Xenopus embryos. In animal caps from these embryos, TGF-beta 1 and activin show similar potencies for induction of mesoderm-specific mRNAs, and both elicit the same types of mesodermal tissues. In addition, the response of animal caps to TGF-beta 1, as well as to activin, is blocked by a dominant inhibitory ras mutant, p21(Asn-17)Ha-ras. These results indicate that the activin and TGF-beta type II receptors can couple to similar signalling pathways and that the biological specificities of these growth factors lie in their different ligand-binding domains and in different competences of the responding cells. Images PMID:8196664

  2. SREB, a GATA Transcription Factor That Directs Disparate Fates in Blastomyces dermatitidis Including Morphogenesis and Siderophore Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Gregory M.; Sullivan, Thomas D.; Gallardo, Sergio S.; Brandhorst, T. Tristan; Vanden Wymelenberg, Amber J.; Cuomo, Christina A.; Suen, Garret; Currie, Cameron R.; Klein, Bruce S.

    2010-01-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis belongs to a group of human pathogenic fungi that exhibit thermal dimorphism. At 22°C, these fungi grow as mold that produce conidia or infectious particles, whereas at 37°C they convert to budding yeast. The ability to switch between these forms is essential for virulence in mammals and may enable these organisms to survive in the soil. To identify genes that regulate this phase transition, we used Agrobacterium tumefaciens to mutagenize B. dermatitidis conidia and screened transformants for defects in morphogenesis. We found that the GATA transcription factor SREB governs multiple fates in B. dermatitidis: phase transition from yeast to mold, cell growth at 22°C, and biosynthesis of siderophores under iron-replete conditions. Insertional and null mutants fail to convert to mold, do not accumulate significant biomass at 22°C, and are unable to suppress siderophore biosynthesis under iron-replete conditions. The defect in morphogenesis in the SREB mutant was independent of exogenous iron concentration, suggesting that SREB promotes the phase transition by altering the expression of genes that are unrelated to siderophore biosynthesis. Using bioinformatic and gene expression analyses, we identified candidate genes with upstream GATA sites whose expression is altered in the null mutant that may be direct or indirect targets of SREB and promote the phase transition. We conclude that SREB functions as a transcription factor that promotes morphogenesis and regulates siderophore biosynthesis. To our knowledge, this is the first gene identified that promotes the conversion from yeast to mold in the dimorphic fungi, and may shed light on environmental persistence of these pathogens. PMID:20368971

  3. Risk factors for diabetic retinopathy in northern Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhi-Peng; Ma, Jing-Xue

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in northern Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS This retrospective cross-sectional study was performed between May 2011 and April 2012. A total of 1100 patients (male/female, 483/617) were included in this study. DR was defined following the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) severity scale. All included patients accepted a comprehensive ophthalmic examination including retinal photographs. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) after adjusting for age and gender. RESULTS Retinopathy was present in 307 patients with a prevalence of 27.9%. In univariate logistic analysis, presence of DR was associated with longer duration of diabetes (OR, 5.70; 95%CI, 2.91-12.56), higher concentration of fasting blood glucose (OR, 12.94; 95%CI, 2.40-67.71), higher level of glycosylated hemoglobin HbA1c (OR, 5.50; 95%CI, 3.78-11.97) and insulin treatment (OR, 6.99; 95%CI, 1.39-35.12). The lifestyle of patients with T2DM including smoking, alcohol consumption and regular exercise seemed not associated with the development of DR. CONCLUSION Our study suggests that fasting serum glucose concentration, HbA1c level, duration of diabetes and insulin treatment are potential risk factors for DR in northern Chinese patients with T2DM, while the lifestyle of included patients seems not associated with DR. PMID:27588275

  4. Prognostic effect of hENT1, dCK and HuR expression by morphological type in periampullary adenocarcinoma, including pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Elebro, Jacob; Ben Dror, Liv; Heby, Margareta; Nodin, Björn; Jirström, Karin; Eberhard, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Putative biomarkers of gemcitabine response have been extensively studied in pancreatic cancer, but less so in other types of periampullary adenocarcinoma. The most studied biomarker is human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1), and the activating enzyme deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) has also been linked to treatment response. The RNA-binding protein human antigen R (HuR) has been demonstrated to confer increased dCK levels in vitro and to predict gemcitabine response in vivo. Here, we investigated the prognostic impact of hENT1, dCK and HuR in pancreatobiliary (PB) and intestinal (I) type periampullary cancers, respectively. Material and methods: Immunohistochemical expression of hENT1, dCK and HuR was evaluated in tissue microarrays with all primary tumours and 103 paired lymph node metastases from a consecutive retrospective cohort of 175 patients with resected periampullary adenocarcinomas. Results: In patients with PB-type tumours, neither hENT1 nor dCK expression was prognostic. A high HuR cytoplasmic/nuclear ratio was associated with a significantly reduced five-year overall survival (OS) in patients receiving adjuvant gemcitabine (HR 2.07, 95% CI 1.03–4.17) but not in untreated patients (pinteraction = 0.028). In patients with I-type tumours receiving adjuvant chemotherapy, high dCK expression was significantly associated with a prolonged recurrence-free survival (RFS) (HR 0.09, 95% CI 0.01–0.73, pinteraction = 0.023). Furthermore, HuR expression was associated with a prolonged OS and RFS in unadjusted but not in adjusted analysis and hENT1 expression was an independent predictor of a prolonged RFS (HR 0.24, 95% CI 0.10–0.59), regardless of adjuvant treatment. Conclusion: hENT1 expression is a favourable prognostic factor in I-type, but not in PB-type tumours. High dCK expression is a favourable prognostic factor in patients with I-type tumours receiving adjuvant treatment and a high cytoplasmic/nuclear HuR ratio

  5. What are the most important factors determining different vegetation types in the Chapada Diamantina, Brazil?

    PubMed

    Neves, S P S; Funch, R; Conceição, A A; Miranda, L A P; Funch, L S

    2016-06-01

    A transect was used to examine the environmental and biological descriptors of a compact vegetation mosaic in the Chapada Diamantina in northeastern Brazil, including the floristic composition, spectrum of plant life forms, rainfall, and soil properties that defined areas of cerrado (Brazilian savanna), caatinga (seasonally dry tropical forest thorny, deciduous shrub/arboreal vegetation) and cerrado-caatinga transition vegetation. The floristic survey was made monthly from April/2009 to March/2012. A dendrogram of similarity was generated using the Jaccard Index based on a matrix of the species that occurred in at least two of the vegetation types examined. The proportions of life forms in each vegetation type were compared using the chi-square test. Composite soil samples were analyzed by simple variance (ANOVA) to examine relationships between soil parameters of each vegetation type and the transition area. The monthly precipitation levels in each vegetation type were measured and compared using the chi-square test. A total of 323 species of angiosperms were collected distributed in 193 genera and 54 families. The dendrogram demonstrated strong difference between the floristic compositions of the cerrado and caatinga, sharing 2% similarity. The chi-square test did not demonstrate any significant statistical differences between the monthly values of recorded rainfall. The organic matter and clay contents of the soilsin the caatinga increased while sand decreased, and the proportions of therophyte, hemicryptophyte, and chamaephyte life forms decreased and phanerophytes increased. We can therefore conclude that the floristic composition and the spectrum of life forms combined to define the cerrado and caatinga vegetation along the transect examined, with soil being the principal conditioning factor determining the different vegetation types, independent of precipitation levels. PMID:26934155

  6. 43 CFR 404.10 - Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included in a rural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included in a rural water supply project? 404.10 Section 404.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY...

  7. Reserve, thin form-factor, hypochlorite-based cells for powering portable systems: Manufacture (including MEMS processes), performance and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenas-Valencia, Andres M.; Biver, Carl J.; Langebrake, Larry

    This work focuses on fabrication routes and performance evaluation of thin form-factors, reserve cells, as a powering alternative for expendable and/or remotely operated systems. The catalytic decomposition of sodium hypochlorite solutions is revisited herein with two cost-effective anodes: zinc and aluminum. Aluminum, even though the most expensive of the utilized anodes, constituted cells with double the energy content (up to 55 Wh kg -1) than those fabricated with zinc. Even though the hypochlorite concentration in the solution limits the cells' operational life, attractive performances (1.0 V with a current of 10 mA) for the manufactured cells are obtained. It is shown that micro fabrication processes, allowing for close electrodes interspacing, provided high faradic and columbic efficiencies of up to 70 and 100%, respectively. Obtained specific energies (50-120 Wh kg -1) are in the same order of magnitude than batteries currently used for powering deployable systems. Experimental results show that a simple model that linearly relates over potentials and the electrical load, adequately describe all the cell designs. A mathematical model based on a kinetic-mechanistic scheme that relates the current output as a function of time agrees fairly well with results obtained activating cells with various concentrations of NaOCl solutions.

  8. Correlations Between the Incidence of National Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Public Open Data, Including Meteorological Factors and Medical Facility Resources

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jin-Hwa; Lee, Ji-Hae; Je, Mi-Kyung; Cho, Myeong-Ji; Bae, Young Mee; Son, Hyeon Seok; Ahn, Insung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study was performed to investigate the relationship between the incidence of national notifiable infectious diseases (NNIDs) and meteorological factors, air pollution levels, and hospital resources in Korea. Methods: We collected and stored 660 000 pieces of publicly available data associated with infectious diseases from public data portals and the Diseases Web Statistics System of Korea. We analyzed correlations between the monthly incidence of these diseases and monthly average temperatures and monthly average relative humidity, as well as vaccination rates, number of hospitals, and number of hospital beds by district in Seoul. Results: Of the 34 NNIDs, malaria showed the most significant correlation with temperature (r=0.949, p<0.01) and concentration of nitrogen dioxide (r=-0.884, p<0.01). We also found a strong correlation between the incidence of NNIDs and the number of hospital beds in 25 districts in Seoul (r=0.606, p<0.01). In particular, Geumcheon-gu was found to have the lowest incidence rate of NNIDs and the highest number of hospital beds per patient. Conclusions: In this study, we conducted a correlational analysis of public data from Korean government portals that can be used as parameters to forecast the spread of outbreaks. PMID:26265666

  9. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor-producing gallbladder carcinoma-include analysis all case reports: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Izumo, Wataru; Furukawa, Kenji; Katsuragawa, Hideo; Tezuka, Toru; Furukawa, Tatsuya; Hataji, Kenichirou; Komatsu, Akio; Shigematsu, Kyousuke; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction It is extremely rare for gallbladder carcinoma to produce granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and such tumors have a poor prognosis. Presentation of case A 67-year-old man was admitted with continuous fever. Laboratory tests showed a leukocyte count of 27,980/μL, serum C-reactive protein (CRP) of 9.2 mg/dL and serum G-CSF of 225 pg/mL. Imaging revealed an irregular gallbladder mass about 90 mm in diameter with peripheral enhancement that also involved the liver and transverse colon. G-CSF producing gallbladder carcinoma was diagnosed. We performed cholecystectomy, partial resection of segments 4 and 5 of the liver, partial resection of the transverse colon, and gastrostomy. Histopathological examination showed gallbladder carcinoma (pT3, pN0, M0, G2, and pStage IIIA by the UICC classification, version 7). On immunohistochemical staining, tumor cells were positive for G-CSF. The leukocyte count was normalized postoperatively and fever subsided immediately after surgery. Two months later, the leukocyte count rose to 56,820/μL and metastases to the liver and lymph nodes were detected by CT. Chemotherapy (gemcitabine plus cisplatin) was started and the leukocyte count was normalized after the first course. The patient has continued chemotherapy and has survived for 16 months postoperatively. Discussion G-CSF producing gallbladder carcinoma has a poor prognosis and most patients die within 12 months of starting therapy. It is rare for patients with recurrence to survive for 16 months after surgery, as in the present case. Conclusion Multidisciplinary therapy (surgery and chemotherapy) may prolong the survival of patients with G-CSF producing gallbladder carcinoma, especially those with recurrence. PMID:26945490

  10. Diabetic foot risk factors in type 2 diabetes patients: a cross-sectional case control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetic foot is a serious condition in patients with a long lasting diabetes mellitus. Diabetic foot treated improperly may lead not only to delayed ulceration healing, generalized inflammation, unnecessary surgical intervention, but also to the lower limb amputation. The aim of this study was to compare diabetic foot risk factors in population with type 2 diabetes and risk factors for diabetes in healthy subjects. Methods The study included 900 subjects: 145 with diabetic foot, 293 with type 2 diabetes without diabetic foot and 462 healthy controls matched in terms of mean age, gender structure and cardiovascular diseases absence. Study was conducted in Gastroenterology and Metabolic Diseases Department, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland. In statistical analysis a logistic regression model, U Mann-Whitney’s and t-Student test were used. Results The binomial logit models analysis showed that the risk of diabetic foot in patients with type 2 diabetes was decreased by patient’s age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.92-0.96; p = 0.00001) and hyperlipidaemia (OR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.36-0.81; p = 0.01). In contrast, male gender (OR = 2.83; 95% CI: 1.86-4.28; p = 0.00001) diabetes duration (OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 1.03-1.06; p = 0.0003), weight (OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 1.03-1.06; p = 0.00001), height (OR = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.05-1.11; p = 0.00001) and waist circumference (OR = 1.028; 95% CI: 1.007-1.050; p = 0.006) increase the risk of diabetic foot. The onset of type 2 diabetes in healthy subjects was increased by weight (OR = 1.035; 95% CI: 1.024-1.046; p = 0.00001), WC (OR = 1.075; 95% CI: 1.055-1.096; p = 00001), hip circumference (OR = 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05; p = 0.005), overweight defined with body mass index (BMI) above 24,9 kg/m2 (OR = 2.49; 95% CI: 1.77-3.51; p = 0.00001) and hyperlipidaemia (OR = 3.53; 95% CI: 2.57-4.84; p = 0.00001). Conclusions Risk factors for Type 2 diabetes and diabetic foot are only partially common. Study proved

  11. Incidence of Depression and Associated Factors in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes in Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Lunghi, Carlotta; Moisan, Jocelyne; Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Guénette, Line

    2016-01-01

    Abstract It has been reported that the risk of depression is higher among people with type 2 diabetes compared with a nondiabetic population. Among diabetic patients, depression has been associated with worse self-care behaviors, poor glycemic control, and an increased risk of diabetes complications. Identifying factors associated with the occurrence of depression may help physicians identify earlier diabetic patients at a high risk of developing depression, improve prevention, and accelerate proper treatment. To our knowledge, very few population-based studies have reported on the incidence of clinically diagnosed depression as a consequence of type 2 diabetes over a long follow-up period. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of clinically diagnosed depression among type 2 diabetic patients newly treated with oral antidiabetic drugs (ADs) and to identify factors associated with the occurrence of depression. Administrative claims data from the public health insurance plan were used to identify a cohort of new oral AD users aged ≥18 years between 2000 and 2006. Patients were followed from oral AD treatment initiation until the diagnosis of depression, ineligibility for the public drug plan, death, or the end of the study, whichever came first. Incidence rates were determined using person-time analysis. Factors associated with depression were identified using multivariable Cox regression analysis. We identified 114,366 new oral AD users, of which 4808 had a diagnosis of depression. The overall incidence rate of depression was 9.47/1000 person-years (PYs) (10.72/1000 PYs for women and 8.27/1000 PYs for men). The incidence of depression was higher during the year after oral AD treatment initiation. Independent factors associated with depression included having had mental disorders other than depression, hospitalization, a higher number of different drugs taken and of physicians visited during the year before oral AD initiation. Moreover, we

  12. Risk factors associated with elder abuse: the importance of differentiating by type of elder maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Shelly L; Hafemeister, Thomas L

    2011-01-01

    Elder abuse research rarely differentiates by the type of elder maltreatment involved when identifying risk factors. The purpose of this study was to compare risk factors across four predominant types of elder maltreatment (financial exploitation, physical abuse, neglect by others, and hybrid financial exploitation [HFE]). Data were collected from two sources: interviews with victims of substantiated elder abuse, responding adult protective services (APS) caseworkers (N = 71), and third-party informants; and a statewide database that contained all substantiated cases over a corresponding 2-year period (N = 2,142). Using chi-square (interview data) and logistic regressions (Adult Services/Adult Protective Services [ASAPS] data), significant differences across the four types of elder maltreatment were found. These two datasets provide converging evidence for the importance of differentiating by type of maltreatment when identifying risk factors for elder maltreatment and for the importance of considering both the elderly victim and the abusive individual when predicting type of elder maltreatment. PMID:22288093

  13. Method Of Bonding A Metal Connection To An Electrode Including A Core Having A Fiber Or Foam Type Structure For An Electrochemical Cell, An

    DOEpatents

    Loustau, Marie-Therese; Verhoog, Roelof; Precigout, Claude

    1996-09-24

    A method of bonding a metal connection to an electrode including a core having a fiber or foam-type structure for an electrochemical cell, in which method at least one metal strip is pressed against one edge of the core and is welded thereto under compression, wherein, at least in line with the region in which said strip is welded to the core, which is referred to as the "main core", a retaining core of a type analogous to that of the main core is disposed prior to the welding.

  14. Analysis of the Potent Prognostic Factors in Luminal-Type Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Han-Sung; Park, Inseok; Cho, Hyun Jin; Yang, Keunho; Bae, Byung Noe; Kim, Ki Whan; Han, Sehwan; Kim, Hong-Joo; Kim, Young-Duck

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Luminal-type breast cancer has a good prognosis compared to other types, such as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and triple negative types. Luminal-type breast cancer is classified into luminal A and B, according to the proliferation index. We investigated the clinicopathological factors that affect the prognosis of the luminal-type subgroups. Methods We reviewed the medical records and the pathologic reports of 159 luminal-type breast cancer patients who were treated between February 2005 and November 2007. We divided luminal-type breast cancer into luminal A and B, according to Ki-67 (cutoff value, 14%) and analyzed the clinicopathologic factors, such as age at diagnosis, intensity score of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, histologic grade, and Bcl-2. Moreover, we compared the disease-free survival (DFS) of each group. Results In the univariate analysis, age (p=0.004), tumor size (p=0.010), lymph node metastasis (p=0.001), and Bcl-2 (p=0.002) were statistically significant factors in luminal-type breast cancer. In the multivariate analysis, lymph node (p=0.049) and Bcl-2 (p=0.034) were significant relevant factors in luminal-type breast cancer. In the subgroup analysis, the increased Bcl-2 (cutoff value, 33%) was related with a longer DFS in the luminal B group (p=0.004). Conclusion In our study, luminal A breast cancer showed a longer DFS than luminal B breast cancer, further, Bcl-2 may be a potent prognostic factor in luminal-type breast cancer. PMID:23346168

  15. School factors as barriers to and facilitators of a preventive intervention for pediatric type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    School-based interventions are essential to prevent pediatric obesity and type 2 diabetes. School environmental factors influence implementation of these interventions. This article examines how school factors acted as barriers to and facilitators of the HEALTHY intervention. The HEALTHY study was a...

  16. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Jun Ouk; Lee, Tae Hee; Park, Ja Young; Choi, Seong Ho; Park, Hee Seung; Lee, Jae Seung; Lee, Seung Heon; Seo, Eun Hee; Kim, Young Hwan; Kang, Young Woo

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal symptoms are common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in Korea appears to be increasing. Some studies have shown that T2DM is a risk factor for symptomatic GERD. However, this possibility is still debated, and the pathogenesis of GERD in T2DM is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence and risk factors (including autonomic neuropathy) of GERD in patients with T2DM. Methods This cross-sectional case-control study enrolled T2DM patients (n=258) and healthy controls (n=184). All participants underwent physical examinations and laboratory tests. We evaluated medical records and long-term diabetes complications, including peripheral and autonomic neuropathy in patients with T2DM. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed in all patients. The Los Angeles (LA) classification was used to grade GERD. GERD was defined as LA grade A (or higher) or minimal change with GERD symptoms. GERD symptoms were examined using a frequency scale. Data were expressed as mean±standard error. Independent t-tests or chi-square tests were used to make comparisons between groups. Results The prevalence of GERD (32.6% vs. 35.9%, P=0.266) and GERD symptoms (58.8% vs. 59.2%, P=0.503) was not significantly different between T2DM patients and controls. We found no significant differences between T2DM patients with GERD and T2DM patients without GERD with respect to diabetic complications, including autonomic neuropathy, peripheral neuropathy, duration of DM, and glucose control. Conclusion The prevalence of GERD in patients with T2DM showed no difference from that of controls. GERD was also not associated with peripheral and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, age, or duration of DM in patients with T2DM. PMID:27352149

  17. Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease: Have all risk factors the same strength?

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Timón, Iciar; Sevillano-Collantes, Cristina; Segura-Galindo, Amparo; del Cañizo-Gómez, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition that occurs when the body cannot produce enough or effectively use of insulin. Compared with individuals without diabetes, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have a considerably higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease. Most of this excess risk is it associated with an augmented prevalence of well-known risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia and obesity in these patients. However the improved cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients can not be attributed solely to the higher prevalence of traditional risk factors. Therefore other non-traditional risk factors may be important in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cardiovascular disease is increased in type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects due to a complex combination of various traditional and non-traditional risk factors that have an important role to play in the beginning and the evolution of atherosclerosis over its long natural history from endothelial function to clinical events. Many of these risk factors could be common history for both diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, reinforcing the postulate that both disorders come independently from “common soil”. The objective of this review is to highlight the weight of traditional and non-traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the setting of type 2 diabetes mellitus and discuss their position in the pathogenesis of the excess cardiovascular disease mortality and morbidity in these patients. PMID:25126392

  18. Body fat, fat distribution, and psychosocial factors among patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bell, R A; Summerson, J H; Spangler, J G; Konen, J C

    1998-01-01

    Diabetes, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, requires lifestyle modifications (diet, exercise, weight loss). The relations between body mass index, waist-hip ratio (WHR), and psychosocial indicators, such as affect and stress, among 302 diabetic patients from a clinic and a neighborhood health center were analyzed. Data included stress and mood scale responses, body size (height, weight, and WHR) and potential confounders (physical activity, energy intake, and diabetes duration). In univariate analyses, body mass index was positively associated with stress and inversely associated with positive affect only in women. Multiple regression analyses indicated that stress was associated with body mass index and negative mood was associated with the WHR. The findings suggested that stress and affect may be important correlates of body fat among women with Type 2 diabetes, leading to more complications. Healthcare providers can help women with Type 2 diabetes lose weight and lower the risk of cardiovascular disease by recognizing and helping them deal with these psychosocial issues. PMID:9850808

  19. In vivo demonstration of cell types in bone that harbor epidermal growth factor receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Martineau-Doize, B.; Lai, W.H.; Warshawsky, H.; Bergeron, J.J.

    1988-08-01

    The binding and internalization of (/sup 125/I)iodoepidermal growth factor (EGF) by bone cells of the rat was demonstrated in situ by quantitative radioautography. Specific binding sites were observed on a cell profile enriched in endocytic components, including lysosome-like structures, a rough endoplasmic reticulum-rich cell profile, and a cell profile that histologically resembles an undifferentiated precursor cell. By the criteria of gel filtration and precipitability by trichloroacetic acid, most of the bound (/sup 125/I)iodo-EGF was considered intact. By morphological criteria none of the cell profiles that bound (/sup 125/I)iodo-EGF corresponded to fully formed osteoclasts or osteoblasts. The endocytic cell was found in the epiphyseal plate between the invading capillary and the transverse and longitudinal cartilage septa as well as near osteoclasts in the zone of mixed spicules. The rough endoplasmic reticulum-rich cell was present in vacated chondrocyte lacunae of the epiphyseal plate close to the metaphysis, and the poorly differentiated cell was observed between the mixed spicules of the metaphysis. Similar cell types were also found in the alveolar bone surrounding the incisors. These cells may be the origin of established bone cell lines that harbor high concentrations of EGF receptors and may also be responsible for the humoral hypercalcemia in response to the reported actions of injected EGF or transforming growth factor-alpha as well as that of malignancy.

  20. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Screening and Risk Factors Using Decision Tree: Results of Data Mining

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Shafi; Ahmadi, Maryam; Alizadeh, Somayeh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine a predictive model using features related to the diabetes type 2 risk factors. Methods: The data were obtained from a database in a diabetes control system in Tabriz, Iran. The data included all people referred for diabetes screening between 2009 and 2011. The features considered as “Inputs” were: age, sex, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, family history of diabetes, and body mass index (BMI). Moreover, we used diagnosis as “Class”. We applied the “Decision Tree” technique and “J48” algorithm in the WEKA (3.6.10 version) software to develop the model. Results: After data preprocessing and preparation, we used 22,398 records for data mining. The model precision to identify patients was 0.717. The age factor was placed in the root node of the tree as a result of higher information gain. The ROC curve indicates the model function in identification of patients and those individuals who are healthy. The curve indicates high capability of the model, especially in identification of the healthy persons. Conclusions: We developed a model using the decision tree for screening T2DM which did not require laboratory tests for T2DM diagnosis. PMID:26156928

  1. Genetic and environmental factors associated with type 2 diabetes and diabetic vascular complications

    PubMed Central

    Murea, Mariana; Ma, Lijun; Freedman, Barry I.

    2012-01-01

    Faced with a global epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2D), it is critical that researchers improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of T2D and related vascular complications. These findings may ultimately lead to novel treatment options for disease prevention or delaying progression. Two major paradigms jointly underlie the development of T2D and related coronary artery disease, diabetic nephropathy, and diabetic retinopathy. These paradigms include the genetic risk variants and behavioral/environmental factors. This article systematically reviews the literature supporting genetic determinants in the pathogenesis of T2D and diabetic vasculopathy, and the functional implications of these gene variants on the regulation of beta-cell function and glucose homeostasis. We update the discovery of diabetes and diabetic vasculopathy risk variants, and describe the genetic technologies that have uncovered them. Also, genomic linkage between obesity and T2D is discussed. There is a complementary role for behavioral and environmental factors modulating the genetic susceptibility and diabetes risk. Epidemiological and clinical data demonstrating the effects of behavioral and novel environmental exposures on disease expression are reviewed. Finally, a succinct overview of recent landmark clinical trials addressing glycemic control and its impact on rates of vascular complications is presented. It is expected that novel strategies to exploit the gene- and exposure-related underpinnings of T2D will soon result. PMID:22972441

  2. Cellular transcription factors enhance herpes simplex virus type 1 oriS-dependent DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Huynh, A T; Schaffer, P A

    1998-05-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) origin of DNA replication, oriS, contains three binding sites for the viral origin binding protein (OBP) flanked by transcriptional regulatory elements of the immediate-early genes encoding ICP4 and ICP22/47. To assess the role of flanking sequences in oriS function, plasmids containing oriS and either wild-type or mutant flanking sequences were tested in transient DNA replication assays. Although the ICP4 and ICP22/47 regulatory regions were shown to enhance oriS function, most individual elements in these regions, including the VP16-responsive TAATGARAT elements, were found to be dispensable for oriS function. In contrast, two oriS core-adjacent regulatory (Oscar) elements, OscarL and OscarR, at the base of the oriS palindrome were shown to enhance oriS function significantly and additively. Specifically, mutational disruption of either element reduced oriS-dependent DNA replication by 60 to 70%, and disruption of both elements reduced replication by 90%. The properties of protein-DNA complexes formed in gel mobility shift assays using uninfected and HSV-1-infected Vero cell nuclear extracts demonstrated that both OscarL and OscarR are binding sites for cellular proteins. Whereas OscarR does not correspond to the consensus binding site of any known transcription factor, OscarL contains a consensus binding site for the transcription factor Sp1. Gel mobility shift and supershift experiments using antibodies directed against members of the Sp1 family of transcription factors demonstrated the presence of Sp1 and Sp3, but not Sp2 or Sp4, in the protein-DNA complexes formed at OscarL. The abilities of OscarL and OscarR to bind their respective cellular proteins correlated directly with the efficiency of oriS-dependent DNA replication. Cooperative interactions between the Oscar-binding factors and proteins binding to adjacent OBP binding sites were not observed. Notably, Oscar element mutations that impaired oriS-dependent DNA

  3. Biosynthesis of Dictyostelium discoideum differentiation-inducing factor by a hybrid type I fatty acid-type III polyketide synthase.

    PubMed

    Austin, Michael B; Saito, Tamao; Bowman, Marianne E; Haydock, Stephen; Kato, Atsushi; Moore, Bradley S; Kay, Robert R; Noel, Joseph P

    2006-09-01

    Differentiation-inducing factors (DIFs) are well known to modulate formation of distinct communal cell types from identical Dictyostelium discoideum amoebas, but DIF biosynthesis remains obscure. We report complimentary in vivo and in vitro experiments identifying one of two approximately 3,000-residue D. discoideum proteins, termed 'steely', as responsible for biosynthesis of the DIF acylphloroglucinol scaffold. Steely proteins possess six catalytic domains homologous to metazoan type I fatty acid synthases (FASs) but feature an iterative type III polyketide synthase (PKS) in place of the expected FAS C-terminal thioesterase used to off load fatty acid products. This new domain arrangement likely facilitates covalent transfer of steely N-terminal acyl products directly to the C-terminal type III PKS active sites, which catalyze both iterative polyketide extension and cyclization. The crystal structure of a steely C-terminal domain confirms conservation of the homodimeric type III PKS fold. These findings suggest new bioengineering strategies for expanding the scope of fatty acid and polyketide biosynthesis. PMID:16906151

  4. Biosynthesis of Dictyostelium discoideum differentiation-inducing factor by a hybrid type I fatty acid–type III polyketide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Michael B; Saito, Tamao; Bowman, Marianne E; Haydock, Stephen; Kato, Atsushi; Moore, Bradley S; Kay, Robert R; Noel, Joseph P

    2010-01-01

    Differentiation-inducing factors (DIFs) are well known to modulate formation of distinct communal cell types from identical Dictyostelium discoideum amoebas, but DIF biosynthesis remains obscure. We report complimentary in vivo and in vitro experiments identifying one of two ~3,000-residue D. discoideum proteins, termed ‘steely’, as responsible for biosynthesis of the DIF acylphloroglucinol scaffold. Steely proteins possess six catalytic domains homologous to metazoan type I fatty acid synthases (FASs) but feature an iterative type III polyketide synthase (PKS) in place of the expected FAS C-terminal thioesterase used to off load fatty acid products. This new domain arrangement likely facilitates covalent transfer of steely N-terminal acyl products directly to the C-terminal type III PKS active sites, which catalyze both iterative polyketide extension and cyclization. The crystal structure of a steely C-terminal domain confirms conservation of the homodimeric type III PKS fold. These findings suggest new bioengineering strategies for expanding the scope of fatty acid and polyketide biosynthesis. PMID:16906151

  5. A Csr-type regulatory system, including small non-coding RNAs, regulates the global virulence regulator RovA of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis through RovM.

    PubMed

    Heroven, Ann Kathrin; Böhme, Katja; Rohde, Manfred; Dersch, Petra

    2008-06-01

    The MarR-type regulator RovA controls expression of virulence genes of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in response to environmental signals. Using a genetic strategy to discover components that influence rovA expression, we identified new regulatory factors with homology to components of the carbon storage regulator system (Csr). We showed that overexpression of a CsrB- or a CsrC-type RNA activates rovA, whereas a CsrA-like protein represses RovA synthesis. We further demonstrate that influence of the Csr system on rovA is indirect and occurs through control of the LysR regulator RovM, which inhibits rovA transcription. The CsrA protein had also a major influence on the motility of Yersinia, which was independent of RovM. The CsrB and CsrC RNAs are differentially expressed in Yersinia. CsrC is highly induced in complex but not in minimal media, indicating that medium-dependent rovM expression is mediated through CsrC. CsrB synthesis is generally very low. However, overexpression of the response regulator UvrY was found to activate CsrB production, which in turn represses CsrC synthesis independent of the growth medium. In summary, the post-transcriptional Csr-type components were shown to be key regulators in the co-ordinated environmental control of physiological processes and virulence factors, which are crucial for the initiation of Yersinia infections. PMID:18430141

  6. Type of gambling as an independent risk factor for suicidal events in pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Bischof, Anja; Meyer, Christian; Bischof, Gallus; John, Ulrich; Wurst, Friedrich Martin; Thon, Natasha; Lucht, Michael; Grabe, Hans-Joergen; Rumpf, Hans-Juergen

    2016-03-01

    Individuals with pathological gambling have an increased risk for suicidal events. Additionally, the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders is high among pathological gamblers. This study analyzes whether the type of gambling is associated with suicidal events in pathological gamblers independently from comorbidity. Participants were recruited in 4 different ways: via random telephone sample from the general population, via individual invitation for study participation in gambling locations, through various media and the distribution of a leaflet in various settings, and via inpatient treatment facilities for pathological gambling. The final sample included 442 participants with a lifetime diagnosis of pathological gambling. A standardized clinical interview was conducted. High financial losses were associated with suicidal events (odds ratio [OR] = 1.94, 95% 95% confidence interval [CI], [1.11, 3.37]), as were mood disorders (OR = 7.70, 95% CI, [4.44, 13.37]) and female gender (OR = 2.52, 95% CI, [1.20, 5.28]). Gambling on electronic gambling machines in gambling halls or bars was associated with increased odds of suicidal events (OR = 2.94, 95% CI, [1.38, 6.24]). Other types of gambling, such as casino games or betting on sports, or the number of DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling were not associated independently with suicidal events. Our findings suggest that gambling on electronic gambling machines in gambling halls or bars is associated with suicidal events in pathological gamblers independently of comorbidity. This result shows that the type of gambling needs to be considered as a relevant factor in gambling research. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26795395

  7. Incineration of different types of medical wastes: emission factors for gaseous emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvim-Ferraz, M. C. M.; Afonso, S. A. V.

    Previous research works showed that to protect public health, the hospital incinerators should be provided with air pollution control devices. As most hospital incinerators do not possess such equipment, efficient methodologies should be developed to evaluate the safety of incineration procedure. Emission factors (EF) can be used for an easy estimation of legal parameters. Nevertheless, the actual knowledge is yet very scarce, mainly because EF previously published do not include enough information about the incinerated waste composition, besides considering many different waste classifications. This paper reports the first EF estimated for CO, SO 2, NO x and HCl, associated to the incineration of medical waste, segregated in different types according to the classification of the Portuguese legislation. The results showed that those EF are strongly influenced by incinerated waste composition, directly affected by incinerated waste type, waste classification, segregation practice and management methodology. The correspondence between different waste classifications was analysed comparing the estimated EF with the sole results previously published for specific waste types, being observed that the correspondence is not always possible. The legal limit for pollutant concentrations could be obeyed for NO x, but concentrations were higher than the limit for CO (11-24 times), SO 2 (2-5 times), and HCl (9-200 times), confirming that air pollution control devices must be used to protect human health. The small heating value of medical wastes with compulsory incineration implied the requirement of a bigger amount of auxiliary fuel for their incineration, which affects the emitted amounts of CO, NO x and SO 2 (28, 20 and practically 100% of the respective values were related with fuel combustion). Nevertheless, the incineration of those wastes lead to the smallest amount of emitted pollutants, the emitted amount of SO 2 and NO x reducing to 93% and the emitted amount of CO

  8. Depression in romanian patients with type 2 diabetes: prevalence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    MOCAN, ANDREIA S.; IANCU, SILVIA S.; DUMA, LIVIA; MURESEANU, CAMELIA; BABAN, ADRIANA S.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Co-existing major depression was found to have a negative impact on the diabetes outcome and the quality of life. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of depressive symptoms in Romanian diabetes patients and to identify the risk factors associated with depression. Methods A total of 144 type 2 diabetes patients were included in the study. Five models of presumed predictors were used to assess the risk factors for depressive symptoms, using hierarchical regression analysis. Together with demographics, disease, lifestyle predictors, previous depressive symptoms and diabetes distress were taken into account. Results In our sample the prevalence of depression was 12.6%. Main risk factors for depressive symptoms were previous depressive symptoms which were associated with depression in both Model 4 (β=0.297, p=0.013) and Model 5 (β=0.239, p=0.017) and diabetes distress in Model 5 (β=0.540, p≤0.001). Employment (β =−0.276, p=0.029) and increased number of diabetes complications (β=0.236, p=0.017) became significant when diabetes distress was added to the analysis. Conclusions The overall prevalence of depressive symptoms was found to be in range with the prevalence identified in the literature. Previous depression and diabetes distress were both independently associated with depression, confirming the bidirectional relationship between depression and diabetes distress. Due to the consequences for daily living, screening for diabetes distress and depression should be done in primary care units both by physicians and trained nurses. PMID:27547056

  9. Hypoxia-inducible factor regulates expression of surfactant protein in alveolar type II cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yoko; Ahmad, Aftab; Kewley, Emily; Mason, Robert J

    2011-11-01

    Alveolar type II (ATII) cells cultured at an air-liquid (A/L) interface maintain differentiation, but they lose these properties when they are submerged. Others showed that an oxygen tension gradient develops in the culture medium as ATII cells consume oxygen. Therefore, we wondered whether hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) signaling could explain differences in the phenotypes of ATII cells cultured under A/L interface or submerged conditions. ATII cells were isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats and cultured on inserts coated with a mixture of rat-tail collagen and Matrigel, in medium including 5% rat serum and 10 ng/ml keratinocyte growth factor, with their apical surfaces either exposed to air or submerged. The A/L interface condition maintained the expression of surfactant proteins, whereas that expression was down-regulated under the submerged condition, and the effect was rapid and reversible. Under submerged conditions, there was an increase in HIF1α and HIF2α in nuclear extracts, mRNA levels of HIF inducible genes, vascular endothelial growth factor, glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1), and the protein level of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isozyme-1. The expression of surfactant proteins was suppressed and GLUT1 mRNA levels were induced when cells were cultured with 1 mM dimethyloxalyl glycine. The expression of surfactant proteins was restored under submerged conditions with supplemented 60% oxygen. HIF signaling and oxygen tension at the surface of cells appears to be important in regulating the phenotype of rat ATII cells. PMID:21454802

  10. Factors Associated with Consumption of Diabetic Diet among Type 2 Diabetic Subjects from Ahmedabad, Western India

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mayur; Patel, Ina M.; Patel, Yash M.

    2012-01-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed the current situation of and factors associated with consumption of diabetic diet among 399 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects from Ahmedabad, Western India. The study was performed with diagnosed (at least one year old) diabetic subjects who attended the Department of Diabetology, All India Institute of Diabetes and Research and Yash Diabetes Specialties Centre (Swasthya Hospital), Ahmedabad during July 2010–November 2010. The subjects completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire included variables, such as sociodemographic factors, family history of diabetes, behavioural profile, risk profile (glycaemic status, hypertension, and obesity), and diet-related history (consumption of diabetic diet, consumption of low fat/skimmed milk, method of cooking, and sources for diet advice). Blood pressure, body mass index, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level, and fasting lipid profile were measured. All analyses including multivariate logistic regression were conducted using SPSS, version 11.5. In total, 399 T2DM subjects (65% male, 35% female) with mean age of 53.16±7.95 years were studied. Although 73% of T2DM subjects were consuming diabetic diet, the good glycaemic control (HbA1c level <7%) was achieved only in 35% of the subjects. The majority (75%) of the subjects had a positive family history of diabetes, and 52% were obese. In 77%, the main source of dietary advice was doctor. In 36%, the main methods of cooking were: boiling and roasting. The final multivariate model showed that visit to dietician, level of education, intake of low fat, and family history of diabetes were independent predictors for diabetic diet consumption among T2DM subjects. However, longitudinal and cohort studies are required to establish the association between consumption of diabetic diet and glycaemic control. PMID:23304911

  11. Factors affecting the motivation of healthcare professionals providing care to Emiratis with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Alhyas, Layla; Nielsen, Jessica D Jones; Dawoud, Dalia; Majeed, Azeem

    2013-01-01

    Objective We aimed to identify facilitators of and barriers to healthcare professionals' motivation in a diabetes centre in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Design A qualitative research approach was employed using semistructured interviews to assess perception of and attitudes regarding healthcare professionals' motivation in providing good quality diabetes care. Setting A diabetes centre located in Abu-Dhabi, UAE. Participants Healthcare professionals including specialist physicians, dieticians, podiatrists, health educators and nurses were recruited through purposive sampling. Main outcome measures After data collection, the audiotaped interviews were transcribed verbatim and subjected to content analysis. Results Nine semistructured interviews were conducted with healthcare professionals of various professional backgrounds. Important facilitators and barriers related to patient, professional, organization and cultural factors were identified. Barriers that related to heavy workload, disjointed care, lack of patient compliance and awareness, and cultural beliefs and attitudes about diabetes were common. Key facilitators included the patient's role in achieving therapeutic outcomes as well as compliance, cooperation and communication. Conclusion This qualitative study provides some unique insights about factors affecting healthcare professionals' motivation in providing good quality care. To improve the motivation of healthcare professionals in the management of diabetes and therefore the quality of diabetes care, several steps are needed. Importantly, the role of primary care should be reinforced and strengthened regarding the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus, privacy of the consultation time should be highly protected and regulated, and awareness of the Emirate culture and its impact on health should be disseminated to the healthcare professionals providing care to Emirates with diabetes. Also, greater emphasis should be placed on educating Emiratis with

  12. Empowerment assessment and influential factors among patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetic patients need high awareness of disease prevention to adopt self-management behaviors in their daily life. Central to this activity is patients’ empowerment. Current study was conducted to assess empowerment score and its related factors among type 2 diabetic patients. Method A cross-sectional study carried out over a period of nine months during 2010–2011. All patients with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes including those referring to four hospitals affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences were recruited. A total of 688 diabetic patients were identified who met the inclusion criteria and were all included in the study. Patients’ empowerment was measured by Diabetes Empowerment Scale reflecting three dimensions including managing psychosocial aspect of diabetes, assessing dissatisfaction and readiness to change and Setting and achieving diabetes goal. Collected data was analysed using SPSS software version 11.5. Results As total, 688 were available for analysis, ranging from 37–81 years old with mean of 54.41 years (SD = 8.22). The Mean duration of the disease was approximately 6.67 years (SD = 4.58). Dimensions of ‘managing the psychosocial aspect of diabetes’, ‘assessing dissatisfaction and readiness to change’ and ‘setting and achieving diabetes goal’ were all measured and scored for each patient. The mean score for each domain was 25.75 ± 5.55, 24.78 ± 7.54, 27.63 ± 7.90, respectively. Data analysis revealed a statistically significant reverse relationship between age and ‘assessing dissatisfaction and readiness to change’ and ‘setting and achieving diabetes goal’. In addition, disease duration had a statistically significant reverse relationship with ‘assessing dissatisfaction and readiness to change’. Conclusion Patients with type 2 diabetes have the potential to be empowered to manage their chronic disease if they are actively informed and educated. PMID:23497631

  13. Risk Factors Contributing to Type 2 Diabetes and Recent Advances in the Treatment and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanling; Ding, Yanping; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Zhang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a serious and common chronic disease resulting from a complex inheritance-environment interaction along with other risk factors such as obesity and sedentary lifestyle. Type 2 diabetes and its complications constitute a major worldwide public health problem, affecting almost all populations in both developed and developing countries with high rates of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has been increasing exponentially, and a high prevalence rate has been observed in developing countries and in populations undergoing “westernization” or modernization. Multiple risk factors of diabetes, delayed diagnosis until micro- and macro-vascular complications arise, life-threatening complications, failure of the current therapies, and financial costs for the treatment of this disease, make it necessary to develop new efficient therapy strategies and appropriate prevention measures for the control of type 2 diabetes. Herein, we summarize our current understanding about the epidemiology of type 2 diabetes, the roles of genes, lifestyle and other factors contributing to rapid increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes. The core aims are to bring forward the new therapy strategies and cost-effective intervention trials of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25249787

  14. Risk factors contributing to type 2 diabetes and recent advances in the treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanling; Ding, Yanping; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Zhang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a serious and common chronic disease resulting from a complex inheritance-environment interaction along with other risk factors such as obesity and sedentary lifestyle. Type 2 diabetes and its complications constitute a major worldwide public health problem, affecting almost all populations in both developed and developing countries with high rates of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has been increasing exponentially, and a high prevalence rate has been observed in developing countries and in populations undergoing "westernization" or modernization. Multiple risk factors of diabetes, delayed diagnosis until micro- and macro-vascular complications arise, life-threatening complications, failure of the current therapies, and financial costs for the treatment of this disease, make it necessary to develop new efficient therapy strategies and appropriate prevention measures for the control of type 2 diabetes. Herein, we summarize our current understanding about the epidemiology of type 2 diabetes, the roles of genes, lifestyle and other factors contributing to rapid increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes. The core aims are to bring forward the new therapy strategies and cost-effective intervention trials of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25249787

  15. Synergistic and multidimensional regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 expression by transforming growth factor type β and epidermal growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Xiaoling; Thalacker, F.W.; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit

    2012-04-06

    The major physiological inhibitor of plasminogen activator, type I plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), controls blood clotting and tissue remodeling events that involve cell migration. Transforming growth factor type β (TGFβ) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) interact synergistically to increase PAI-1 mRNA and protein levels in human HepG2 and mink Mv1Lu cells. Other growth factors that activate tyrosine kinase receptors can substitute for EGF. EGF and TGFβ regulate PAI-1 by synergistically activating transcription, which is further amplified by a decrease in the rate of mRNA degradation, the latter being regulated only by EGF. The combined effect of transcriptional activation and mRNA stabilization results in a rapid 2-order of magnitude increase in the level of PAI-1. TGFβ also increases the sensitivity of the cells to EGF, thereby recruiting the cooperation of EGF at lower than normally effective concentrations. The contribution of EGF to the regulation of PAI-1 involves the MAPK pathway, and the synergistic interface with the TGFβ pathway is downstream of MEK1/2 and involves phosphorylation of neither ERK1/2 nor Smad2/3. Synergism requires the presence of both Smad and AP-1 recognition sites in the promoter. This work demonstrates the existence of a multidimensional cellular mechanism by which EGF and TGFβ are able to promote large and rapid changes in PAI-1 expression.

  16. Approximate analytical solutions of the relativistic equations with the Deng-Fan molecular potential including a Pekeris-type approximation to the (pseudo or) centrifugal term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oluwadare, O. J.; Oyewumi, K. J.; Akoshile, C. O.; Babalola, O. A.

    2012-09-01

    By employing the Pekeris-type (or a new improved approximation) to deal with the (pseudo or) centrifugal term, we solve the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations with equally mixed scalar and vector Deng-Fan molecular potentials for all values of l (orbital the angular momentum quantum number) and κ (spin-orbit coupling quantum number), respectively. Using the formalism of the Nikiforov-Uvarov method, the approximate analytical bound state energy equations and the associated two-component spinors corresponding to the two relativistic equations are obtained. Also, special cases including the non-relativistic limits of the relativistic equation are obtained.

  17. The first familial case of inherited 2q37.3 interstitial deletion with isolated skeletal abnormalities including brachydactyly type E and short stature.

    PubMed

    Jean-Marçais, Nolwenn; Decamp, Matthieu; Gérard, Marion; Ribault, Virginie; Andrieux, Joris; Kottler, Marie-Laure; Plessis, Ghislaine

    2015-01-01

    Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO)-like syndrome is also known as brachydactyly-mental retardation syndrome (BDMR; OMIM 60040). This disorder includes intellectual disability in all patients, skeletal abnormalities, including brachydactyly E (BDE) in approximately half, obesity, and facial dysmorphism. Patients with 2q37 microdeletion or HDAC4 mutation are defined as having an AHO-like phenotype with normal stimulatory G (Gs) function. HDAC4 is involved in neurological, cardiac, and skeletal function. This paper reports the first familial case of 2q37.3 interstitial deletion affecting two genes, HDAC4 and TWIST2. Patients presented with BDE and short stature without intellectual disability, showing that haploinsufficiency of the HDAC4 critical region may lead to a spectrum of phenotypes, ranging from isolated brachydactyly type E to BDMR. PMID:25402011

  18. [Type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular risk factors: is comprehensive treatment required?].

    PubMed

    Nadal, Josep Franch; Gutiérrez, Pedro Conthe

    2013-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus, especially type 2, is a metabolic disease involving the coexistence of several cardiovascular risk factors. Affected patients are therefore at high cardiovascular risk (2-3 times higher than that of men in the general population and 2-6 times higher than that of women). Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of death in the diabetic population, followed by cancer. Cardiovascular risk cannot be compared between diabetic patients and persons who have already shown one or more manifestations of cardiovascular disease (such as myocardial infarction). Single risk factors should be evaluated in combination with other risk factors and a person's cardiovascular risk should be individually assessed. Cardiovascular risk assessment in patients with diabetes through current calculations methods is complex because their ability to predict risk in individuals is very low. Studies such as that by Steno have demonstrated the validity of a comprehensive strategy to control all the risk factors present in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus, which can reduce the development of micro- and macrovascular complications and mortality by almost 50%. The present article reviews each of the classical cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking, obesity, sedentariness) in relation to diabetes, as well as their recommended targets and the benefits of their control. In view of the above, a comprehensive approach is recommended to control the multiple risk factors that can coexist in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:24444518

  19. Aroma types of flue-cured tobacco in China: spatial distribution and association with climatic factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao; Wu, Wei; Wu, Shu-Cheng; Liu, Hong-Bin; Peng, Qing

    2014-02-01

    Aroma types of flue-cured tobacco (FCT) are classified into light, medium, and heavy in China. However, the spatial distribution of FCT aroma types and the relationships among aroma types, chemical parameters, and climatic variables were still unknown at national scale. In the current study, multi-year averaged chemical parameters (total sugars, reducing sugars, nicotine, total nitrogen, chloride, and K2O) of FCT samples with grade of C3F and climatic variables (mean, minimum and maximum temperatures, rainfall, relative humidity, and sunshine hours) during the growth periods were collected from main planting areas across China. Significant relationships were found between chemical parameters and climatic variables ( p < 0.05). A spatial distribution map of FCT aroma types were produced using support vector machine algorithms and chemical parameters. Significant differences in chemical parameters and climatic variables were observed among the three aroma types based on one-way analysis of variance ( p < 0.05). Areas with light aroma type had significantly lower values of mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures than regions with medium and heavy aroma types ( p < 0.05). Areas with heavy aroma type had significantly lower values of rainfall and relative humidity and higher values of sunshine hours than regions with light and medium aroma types ( p < 0.05). The output produced by classification and regression trees showed that sunshine hours, rainfall, and maximum temperature were the most important factors affecting FCT aroma types at national scale.

  20. Risk factors for adolescent sex offender recidivism: evaluation of predictive factors and comparison of three groups based upon victim type.

    PubMed

    Parks, Gregory A; Bard, David E

    2006-10-01

    This study investigated differences in recidivism risk factors and traits associated with psychopathy among 3 groups of male adolescent sexual offenders (N=156): offenders against children, offenders against peers or adults, and mixed type offenders. Furthermore, those same variables were examined for their association with sexual and nonsexual recidivism and the 3 groups were compared for differences in rates of recidivism. Based upon both juvenile and adult recidivism data, 6.4% of the sample reoffended sexually and 30.1% reoffended nonsexually. Retrospective risk assessments were completed using the Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol-II (JSOAP-II) and the Psychopathy Checklist:Youth Version (PCL:YV). Comparisons of the 3 preexisting groups for differences on scale and factor scores were conducted using analyses of variance (ANOVAs). Differences among groups for recidivism were measured using survival curve analysis. Associations between risk scales and recidivism were measured using Cox regression analyses. Results suggest significant differences among the 3 offender groups on multiple scales of the JSOAP-II and PCL:YV, with mixed type offenders consistently producing higher risk scores as compared to those who exclusively offend against children or peers/adults. The Impulsive/Antisocial Behavior scale of the JSOAP-II and the Interpersonal and Antisocial factors of the PCL:YV were significant predictors of sexual recidivism. The Behavioral and Antisocial factors of the PCL:YV were significant predictors of nonsexual recidivism. Results supported previous research indicating that most adolescents who sexually offend do not continue offending into adulthood. Such results can lead to improved treatment by targeting specific risk factors for intervention and better use of risk management resources in the community, while preserving the most restrictive treatment options for the highest risk offenders. PMID:17136626

  1. Source apportionment of PM10 in a North-Western Europe regional urban background site (Lens, France) using Positive Matrix Factorization and including primary biogenic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waked, A.; Favez, O.; Alleman, L. Y.; Piot, C.; Petit, J.-E.; Delaunay, T.; Verlinden, E.; Golly, B.; Besombes, J.-L.; Jaffrezo, J.-L.; Leoz-Garziandia, E.

    2013-10-01

    In this work, the source of ambient particulate matter (PM10) collected over a one year period at an urban background site in Lens (France) were determined and investigated using a~Positive Matrix Factorization receptor model (US EPA PMF v3.0). In addition, a Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) was performed by means of the Hysplit v4.9 model to assess prevailing geographical origins of the identified sources. A selective iteration process was followed for the qualification of the more robust and meaningful PMF solution. Components measured and used in the PMF include inorganic and organic species: soluble ionic species, trace elements, elemental carbon (EC), sugars alcohols, sugar anhydride, and organic carbon (OC). The mean PM10 concentration measured from March 2011 to March 2012 was about 21 μg m-3 with typically OM, nitrate and sulfate contributing to most of the mass and accounting respectively for 5.8, 4.5 and 2.3 μg m-3 on a yearly basis. Accordingly, PMF outputs showed that the main emission sources were (in a decreasing order of contribution): secondary inorganic aerosols (28% of the total PM10 mass), aged marine emissions (19%), with probably predominant contribution of shipping activities, biomass burning (13%), mineral dust (13%), primary biogenic emissions (9%), fresh sea salts (8%), primary traffic emissions (6%) and heavy oil combustion (4%). Significant temporal variations were observed for most of the identified sources. In particular, biomass burning emissions were negligible in summer but responsible for about 25% of total PM10 and 50% of total OC at wintertime. Conversely, primary biogenic emissions were found to be negligible in winter but to represent about 20% of total PM10 and 40% of total OC in summer. The latter result calls for more investigations of primary biogenic aerosols using source apportionment studies, which quite usually disregards this type of sources. This study furthermore underlines the major influence of

  2. Source apportionment of PM10 in a north-western Europe regional urban background site (Lens, France) using positive matrix factorization and including primary biogenic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waked, A.; Favez, O.; Alleman, L. Y.; Piot, C.; Petit, J.-E.; Delaunay, T.; Verlinden, E.; Golly, B.; Besombes, J.-L.; Jaffrezo, J.-L.; Leoz-Garziandia, E.

    2014-04-01

    In this work, the source of ambient particulate matter (PM10) collected over a one-year period at an urban background site in Lens (France) was determined and investigated using a positive matrix factorization receptor model (US EPA PMF v3.0). In addition, a potential source contribution function (PSCF) was performed by means of the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (Hysplit) v4.9 model to assess prevailing geographical origins of the identified sources. A selective iteration process was followed for the qualification of the more robust and meaningful PMF solution. Components measured and used in the PMF included inorganic and organic species: soluble ionic species, trace elements, elemental carbon (EC), sugar alcohols, sugar anhydride, and organic carbon (OC). The mean PM10 concentration measured from March 2011 to March 2012 was about 21 μg m-3 with typically OM, nitrate and sulfate contributing to most of the mass and accounting respectively for 5.8, 4.5 and 2.3 μg m-3 on a yearly basis. Accordingly, PMF outputs showed that the main emission sources were (in decreasing order of contribution) secondary inorganic aerosols (28% of the total PM10 mass), aged marine emissions (19%), with probably predominant contribution of shipping activities, biomass burning (13%), mineral dust (13%), primary biogenic emissions (9%), fresh sea salts (8%), primary traffic emissions (6%) and heavy oil combustion (4%). Significant temporal variations were observed for most of the identified sources. In particular, biomass burning emissions were negligible in summer but responsible for about 25% of total PM10 and 50% of total OC in wintertime. Conversely, primary biogenic emissions were found to be negligible in winter but to represent about 20% of total PM10 and 40% of total OC in summer. The latter result calls for more investigations of primary biogenic aerosols using source apportionment studies, which quite usually disregard this type of source. This study

  3. HLA typing with monoclonal antibodies: evaluation of 356 HLA monoclonal antibodies including 181 studied during the 10th International Histocompatibility Workshop.

    PubMed

    Colombani, J; Lepage, V; Raffoux, C; Colombani, M

    1989-08-01

    During the 10th International Histocompatibility Workshop (10th WS), 181 HLA MoAbs were studied using lymphocytotoxicity micro-technique (LCT) and/or enzyme immuno-assay (EIA), and their capacity to serve as typing reagents was evaluated. 129 MoAbs were tested by both techniques. Results obtained with 92 class I and 86 class II polymorphic MoAbs (10th WS) were compared to published data concerning 180 class I and 176 class II polymorphic MoAbs, listed in an HLA-MoAbs Register maintained in our laboratory. The following conclusions can be proposed: 1/HLA-A, B typing by LCT with MoAbs is possible for about 14 specificities. Some specificities are clearly recognized (HLA-A3, B8, B13, Bw4, Bw6), others are recognized as cross-reacting groups (B7+27+w22+40), others are not currently recognized by any MoAb with restricted specificity (B5, B15). Several MoAbs confirmed the existence of shared epitopes between products from a single locus (A2-A28, A25-A32), or from A and B loci (A2-B17, Bw4-A9-A32). A single HLA-Cw MoAb has been described. 2/HLA class II typing by LCT with MoAbs is more difficult than class I typing. DR2, DR3, DR4, DR5 and DR7 as well as DRw52 and DRw53 are well defined; other DR specificities are poorly or not at all defined. Particular associations (DR1+DR4, DR3+DRw6, all DR except DR7) are recognized by several MoAbs. All DQw specificities are well recognized, including new specificities defined only by MoAbs: WA (DQw4), TA10 (DQw7), 2B3 (DQw6+w8+w9). Only two HLA-DP MoAbs have been described. 3/Satisfactory results, similar to those of LCT, were obtained with EIA using lymphoid cell lines as targets. 4/Human MoAbs (12 in the Register) are satisfactory typing reagents. They could represent in the future a significant contribution to HLA typing with MoAbs. PMID:2609328

  4. Noninvasive Screening for Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes in Young, Rural, Caucasian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Sharon; Sheffer, Sarah; Long Roth, Sara; Bennett, Paul A.; Lloyd, Les

    2010-01-01

    School nurses play an important role in identifying students who are at risk for Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Few studies have screened Caucasian students, and none have targeted rural, low-income, elementary children. The five noninvasive risk factors used for this study were family history, high body mass index (BMI) for age/sex,…

  5. Mexican American Parents' Perceptions of Childhood Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, Barbara J.; Barr, Kathleen L.; Baker, Sharon K.

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify the norms, values, and perceptions of urban immigrant Mexican American (MA) parents of school children relative to physical activity, healthy eating, and child risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Investigators facilitated five focus groups in an urban elementary school setting and analyzed data using qualitative…

  6. Suicide, Schizophrenia, and Schizoid-Type Psychosis: Role of Life Events and Childhood Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tousignant, Michel; Pouliot, Louise; Routhier, Danielle; Vrakas, Georgia; McGirr, Alexander; Turecki, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    The first objective was to identify the provoking events of suicide in patients with schizophrenia or schizoid-type disorder, and to assess the humiliation component of these events. The second objective was to verify if quality of care during childhood is a vulnerability factor for suicide in patients with schizophrenia or schizoid-type…

  7. Putative paternal factors controlling chilling tolerance in Korean market-type cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilling temperatures (<10 degrees C) may cause damage to Korean market-type cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants during winter and early spring growing seasons. Inheritance to chilling in U.S. processing cucumber is controlled by cytoplasmic (maternally) and nuclear factors. To understand inherit...

  8. Differences between Juvenile Offenders with and without Intellectual Disability in Offense Type and Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asscher, Jessica J.; van der Put, Claudia E.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine differences between American juvenile offenders with and without intellectual disability (ID) in offense type and risk factors. The sample consisted of adolescents with ID (n = 102) and without ID (n = 526) who appeared before the courts for a criminal act and for whom the Washington State Juvenile Court…

  9. Contribution of the Nurses’ Health Studies to Uncovering Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes: Diet, Lifestyle, Biomarkers, and Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Sylvia H.; Ardisson Korat, Andres V.; Sun, Qi; Tobias, Deirdre K.; Zhang, Cuilin; Qi, Lu; Willett, Walter C.; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and the NHS II to addressing hypotheses regarding risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Methods. We carried out a narrative review of 1976 to 2016 NHS and NHS II publications. Results. The NHS and NHS II have uncovered important roles in type 2 diabetes for individual nutrients, foods, dietary patterns, and physical activity independent of excess body weight. Up to 90% of type 2 diabetes cases are potentially preventable if individuals follow a healthy diet and lifestyle. The NHS investigations have also identified novel biomarkers for diabetes, including adipokines, inflammatory cytokines, nutrition metabolites, and environmental pollutants, offering new insights into the pathophysiology of the disease. Global collaborative efforts have uncovered many common genetic variants associated with type 2 diabetes and improved our understanding of gene–environment interactions. Continued efforts to identify epigenetic, metagenomic, and metabolomic risk factors for type 2 diabetes have the potential to reveal new pathways and improve prediction and prevention. Conclusions. Over the past several decades, the NHS and NHS II have made major contributions to public health recommendations and strategies designed to reduce the global burden of diabetes. PMID:27459454

  10. Risk factors affecting fatal bus accident severity: Their impact on different types of bus drivers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Ci, Yusheng; Zhang, Guohui

    2016-01-01

    While the bus is generally considered to be a relatively safe means of transportation, the property losses and casualties caused by bus accidents, especially fatal ones, are far from negligible. The reasons for a driver to incur fatalities are different in each case, and it is essential to discover the underlying risk factors of bus fatality severity for different types of drivers in order to improve bus safety. The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of fatal bus accident severity to different types of drivers in the U.S. by estimating an ordered logistic model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) database from the USA for the years 2006-2010. Accidents are divided into three levels by counting their equivalent fatalities, and the drivers are classified into three clusters by the K-means cluster analysis. The analysis shows that some risk factors have the same impact on different types of drivers, they are: (a) season; (b) day of week; (c) time period; (d) number of vehicles involved; (e) land use; (f) manner of collision; (g) speed limit; (h) snow or ice surface condition; (i) school bus; (j) bus type and seating capacity; (k) driver's age; (l) driver's gender; (m) risky behaviors; and (n) restraint system. Results also show that some risk factors only have impact on the "young and elder drivers with history of traffic violations", they are: (a) section type; (b) number of lanes per direction; (c) roadway profile; (d) wet road surface; and (e) cyclist-bus accident. Notably, history of traffic violations has different impact on different types of bus drivers. PMID:26513334

  11. Source geometry factors for HDR 192Ir brachytherapy secondary standard well-type ionization chamber calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipley, D. R.; Sander, T.; Nutbrown, R. F.

    2015-03-01

    Well-type ionization chambers are used for measuring the source strength of radioactive brachytherapy sources before clinical use. Initially, the well chambers are calibrated against a suitable national standard. For high dose rate (HDR) 192Ir, this calibration is usually a two-step process. Firstly, the calibration source is traceably calibrated against an air kerma primary standard in terms of either reference air kerma rate or air kerma strength. The calibrated 192Ir source is then used to calibrate the secondary standard well-type ionization chamber. Calibration laboratories are usually only equipped with one type of HDR 192Ir source. If the clinical source type is different from that used for the calibration of the well chamber at the standards laboratory, a source geometry factor, ksg, is required to correct the calibration coefficient for any change of the well chamber response due to geometric differences between the sources. In this work we present source geometry factors for six different HDR 192Ir brachytherapy sources which have been determined using Monte Carlo techniques for a specific ionization chamber, the Standard Imaging HDR 1000 Plus well chamber with a type 70010 HDR iridium source holder. The calculated correction factors were normalized to the old and new type of calibration source used at the National Physical Laboratory. With the old Nucletron microSelectron-v1 (classic) HDR 192Ir calibration source, ksg was found to be in the range 0.983 to 0.999 and with the new Isodose Control HDR 192Ir Flexisource ksg was found to be in the range 0.987 to 1.004 with a relative uncertainty of 0.4% (k = 2). Source geometry factors for different combinations of calibration sources, clinical sources, well chambers and associated source holders, can be calculated with the formalism discussed in this paper.

  12. Causes of Death and Prognostic Factors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Tetsuhide; Igarashi, Hisato; Uehara, Hirotsugu; Berna, Marc J.; Jensen, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is classically characterized by the development of functional or nonfunctional hyperplasia or tumors in endocrine tissues (parathyroid, pancreas, pituitary, adrenal). Because effective treatments have been developed for the hormone excess state, which was a major cause of death in these patients in the past, coupled with the recognition that nonendocrine tumors increasingly develop late in the disease course, the natural history of the disease has changed. An understanding of the current causes of death is important to tailor treatment for these patients and to help identify prognostic factors; however, it is generally lacking. To add to our understanding, we conducted a detailed analysis of the causes of death and prognostic factors from a prospective long-term National Institutes of Health (NIH) study of 106 MEN1 patients with pancreatic endocrine tumors with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (MEN1/ZES patients) and compared our results to those from the pooled literature data of 227 patients with MEN1 with pancreatic endocrine tumors (MEN1/PET patients) reported in case reports or small series, and to 1386 patients reported in large MEN1 literature series. In the NIH series over a mean follow-up of 24.5 years, 24 (23%) patients died (14 MEN1-related and 10 non-MEN1-related deaths). Comparing the causes of death with the results from the 227 patients in the pooled literature series, we found that no patients died of acute complications due to acid hypersecretion, and 8%–14% died of other hormone excess causes, which is similar to the results in 10 large MEN1 literature series published since 1995. In the 2 series (the NIH and pooled literature series), two-thirds of patients died from an MEN1-related cause and one-third from a non-MEN1-related cause, which agrees with the mean values reported in 10 large MEN1 series in the literature, although in the literature the causes of death varied widely. In the NIH and pooled

  13. [New recurrent extended deletion, including GJB2 and GJB6 genes, results in isolated sensorineural hearing impairment with autosomal recessive type of inheritance].

    PubMed

    Bliznets, E A; Makienko, O N; Okuneva, E G; Markova, T G; Poliakov, A V

    2014-04-01

    Hereditary hearing loss with the autosomal recessive type of inheritance of the DFNB 1 genetic type, caused by mutations in the GJB2 gene, is the main reason of innate non-syndromal hearing impairment in most developed countries of the world (including Russia). Intragenic point mutations prevail among the GJB2 gene defectors; however, extended deletions in the DFNB1 locus are also found with considerable frequency in some populations (for example, Spain, Great Britain, France, United States, and Brazil). Among the four known extended deletions, only one deletion affects directly the GJB2 gene sequence and was described in a single family. A new extended deletion in the GJB2 and GJB6 gene sequences (approximately 101 kb in size; NC_000013.10:g.20,757,021_20,858,394del), detected in three unrelated Russian patients, was described and characterized. Ingush origin of this mutation is assumed. If the new deletion is frequent, its detection is very important for the genetic consulting of families with hereditary hearing impairment. PMID:25715449

  14. [Hand eczema. The clinical classification of the roles of exogenous and endogenous factors in each type].

    PubMed

    Tamiya, Y

    1994-08-01

    Hand eczema is one of the most common dermatological disorders. Although it is a general term referring to eczematous dermatitis of the hands, it actually covers a wide range of diseases. The classification of hand eczema is controversial even now, as definitions of individual diseases have not yet been established. It is well-known that exogenous factors, such as chemicals or water, are associated with the occurrence of hand eczema. In this study, we focused on endogenous factors, especially personal or family history of atopy as a causative factor in hand eczema. According to exogenous and endogenous factors, we classified hand eczema into three types: atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis and dysidrosis. This classification is useful because it makes the definition of each disease clear. Skin-humidity and sebum measurement are simple and rapid methods of determining personal atopy, skin condition and the effect of treatment on hand eczema patients. PMID:8083333

  15. Risk factors for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in college students: association with sociodemographic variables1

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Adman Câmara Soares; Araújo, Márcio Flávio Moura; de Freitas, Roberto Wagner Júnior Freire; Zanetti, Maria Lúcia; de Almeida, Paulo César; Damasceno, Marta Maria Coelho

    2014-01-01

    Objective identify the modifiable risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus in college students and associate these factors with their sociodemographic variables. Method cross-sectional study, involving 702 college students from Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, physical exercise data and blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose levels were collected. Results the most prevalent risk factor was sedentariness, followed by overweight, central obesity, high fasting plasma glucose and arterial hypertension. A statistically significant association was found between overweight and sex (p=0.000), age (p=0.004) and marital status (p=0.012), as well as between central obesity and age (p=0.018) and marital status (p=0.007) and between high fasting plasma glucose and sex (p=0.033). Conclusion distinct risk factors were present in the study population, particularly sedentariness and overweight. PMID:25029061

  16. Simultaneous determination of multiclass preservatives including isothiazolinones and benzophenone-type UV filters in household and personal care products by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Gazpio, Josu; Garcia-Arrona, Rosa; Millán, Esmeralda

    2015-04-01

    In this work, a simple and reliable micellar electrokinetic chromatography method for the separation and quantification of 14 preservatives, including isothiazolinones, and two benzophenone-type UV filters in household, cosmetic and personal care products was developed. The selected priority compounds are widely used as ingredients in many personal care products, and are included in the European Regulation concerning cosmetic products. The electrophoretic separation parameters were optimized by means of a modified chromatographic response function in combination with an experimental design, namely a central composite design. After optimization of experimental conditions, the BGE selected for the separation of the targets consisted of 60 mM SDS, 18 mM sodium tetraborate, pH 9.4 and 10% v/v methanol. The MEKC method was checked in terms of linearity, LODs and quantification, repeatability, intermediate precision, and accuracy, providing appropriate values (i.e. R(2) ≥ 0.992, repeatability RSD values ˂9%, and accuracy 90-115%). Applicability of the validated method was successfully assessed by quantifying preservatives and UV filters in commercial consumer products. PMID:25598506

  17. Peroxiredoxin isoforms are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    El Eter, E; Al-Masri, A A

    2015-05-01

    The production of oxygen free radicals in type 2 diabetes mellitus contributes to the development of complications, especially the cardiovascular-related ones. Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) are antioxidant enzymes that combat oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the levels of PRDX isoforms (1, 2, 4, and 6) and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Fifty-three patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (28F/25M) and 25 healthy control subjects (7F/18M) were enrolled. We measured the plasma levels of each PRDX isoform and analyzed their correlations with cardiovascular risk factors. The plasma PRDX1, -2, -4, and -6 levels were higher in the diabetic patients than in the healthy control subjects. PRDX2 and -6 levels were negatively correlated with diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, and hemoglobin A1c. In contrast, PRDX1 levels were positively correlated with low-density lipoprotein and C-reactive protein levels. PRDX4 levels were negatively correlated with triglycerides. In conclusion, PRDX1, -2, -4, and -6 showed differential correlations with a variety of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. These results should encourage further research into the crosstalk between PRDX isoforms and cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25742636

  18. Mannose-binding lectin and its associated proteases (MASPs) mediate coagulation and its deficiency is a risk factor in developing complications from infection, including disseminated intravascular coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kazue; Chang, Wei-Chuan; Takahashi, Minoru; Pavlov, Vasile; Ishida, Yumi; La Bonte, Laura; Shi, Lei; Fujita, Teizo; Stahl, Gregory L.; Van Cott, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    The first line of host defense is the innate immune system that includes coagulation factors and pattern recognition molecules, one of which is mannose-binding lectin (MBL). Previous studies have demonstrated that MBL deficiency increases susceptibility to infection. Several mechanisms are associated with increased susceptibility to infection, including reduced opsonophagocytic killing and reduced lectin complement pathway activation. In this study, we demonstrate that MBL and MBL-associated serine protease (MASP)-1/3 together mediate coagulation factor-like activities, including thrombin-like activity. MBL and/or MASP-1/3 deficient hosts demonstrate in vivo evidence that MBL and MASP-1/3 are involved with hemostasis following injury. Staphylococcus aureus infected MBL null mice developed disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), which was associated with elevated blood IL-6 levels (but not TNF-α and multi-organ inflammatory responses). Infected MBL null mice also develop liver injury. These findings suggest that MBL deficiency may manifest into DIC and organ failure during infectious diseases. PMID:20399528

  19. The LysR-type transcription factor PacR is a global regulator of photosynthetic carbon assimilation in Anabaena.

    PubMed

    Picossi, Silvia; Flores, Enrique; Herrero, Antonia

    2015-09-01

    Cyanobacteria perform water-splitting photosynthesis and are important primary producers impacting the carbon and nitrogen cycles at global scale. They fix CO2 through ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCo) and have evolved a distinct CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM) that builds high CO2 concentrations in the vicinity of RuBisCo favouring its carboxylase activity. Filamentous cyanobacteria such as Anabaena fix CO2 in photosynthetic vegetative cells, which donate photosynthate to heterocysts that rely on a heterotrophic metabolism to fix N2 . CCM elements are induced in response to inorganic carbon limitation, a cue that exposes the photosynthetic apparatus to photodamage by over-reduction. An Anabaena mutant lacking the LysR-type transcription factor All3953 grew poorly and dies under high light. The rbcL operon encoding RuBisCo was induced upon carbon limitation in the wild type but not in the mutant. ChIP-Seq analysis was used to globally identify All3953 targets under carbon limitation. Targets include, besides rbcL, genes encoding CCM elements, photorespiratory pathway- photosystem- and electron transport-related components, and factors, including flavodiiron proteins, with a demonstrated or putative function in photoprotection. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of selected All3953 targets showed regulation in the wild type but not in the mutant. All3953 (PacR) is a global regulator of carbon assimilation in an oxygenic photoautotroph. PMID:25684321

  20. Distribution Patterns of Infection with Multiple Types of Human Papillomaviruses and Their Association with Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Soto-De Leon, Sara; Camargo, Milena; Sanchez, Ricardo; Munoz, Marina; Perez-Prados, Antonio; Purroy, Antonio; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Background Infection with multiple types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the main risk factors associated with the development of cervical lesions. In this study, cervical samples collected from 1,810 women with diverse sociocultural backgrounds, who attended to their cervical screening program in different geographical regions of Colombia, were examined for the presence of cervical lesions and HPV by Papanicolau testing and DNA PCR detection, respectively. Principal Findings The negative binomial distribution model used in this study showed differences between the observed and expected values within some risk factor categories analyzed. Particularly in the case of single infection and coinfection with more than 4 HPV types, observed frequencies were smaller than expected, while the number of women infected with 2 to 4 viral types were higher than expected. Data analysis according to a negative binomial regression showed an increase in the risk of acquiring more HPV types in women who were of indigenous ethnicity (+37.8%), while this risk decreased in women who had given birth more than 4 times (−31.1%), or were of mestizo (−24.6%) or black (−40.9%) ethnicity. Conclusions According to a theoretical probability distribution, the observed number of women having either a single infection or more than 4 viral types was smaller than expected, while for those infected with 2–4 HPV types it was larger than expected. Taking into account that this study showed a higher HPV coinfection rate in the indigenous ethnicity, the role of underlying factors should be assessed in detail in future studies. PMID:21379574

  1. Gauge factors of fibre Bragg grating strain sensors in different types of optical fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jülich, Florian; Aulbach, Laura; Wilfert, Andre; Kratzer, Peter; Kuttler, Rolf; Roths, Johannes

    2013-09-01

    Gauge factors of fibre Bragg grating (FBG)-based strain sensors that had been inscribed into three different types of optical fibres, which differ in core diameters and doping concentrations, were determined at room temperature with high accuracy. Repeated measurements were carried out with several samples of each type of fibre to allow statistical evaluations. For each type, the gauge factors were measured in two configurations: when the bare fibres were glued on a specimen at the location of the FBG and when they were vertically suspended and not bonded to any structure at the location of the FBG. By combining the results of both configurations, the strain transfer ratio of the gluing process and the strain-optic coefficient, peff, of the different types of fibres were determined. The strain-optic coefficient was found to vary up to 1.5% for the different types of optical fibres. The strain transfer ratio was obtained to be close to unity (>99%), showing the high quality of the gluing technique employed. The investigations demonstrate that highly accurate strain sensing is possible with fibre-optic strain sensors. The results are important for the development of accurate and reliable attaching techniques for coated sensor fibres and fibre-optic sensor patches.

  2. Differential sensitivities of transcription factor target genes underlie cell type-specific gene expression profiles

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kirby D.; Kim, Shin-Il; Bresnick, Emery H.

    2006-01-01

    Changes in transcription factor levels and activities dictate developmental fate. Such a change might affect the full ensemble of target genes for a factor or only uniquely sensitive targets. We investigated the relationship among activity of the hematopoietic transcription factor GATA-1, chromatin occupancy, and target gene sensitivity. Graded activation of GATA-1 in GATA-1-null cells revealed high-, intermediate-, and low-sensitivity targets. GATA-1 activity requirements for occupancy and transcription often correlated. A GATA-1 amino-terminal deletion mutant severely deregulated the low-sensitivity gene Tac-2. Thus, cells expressing different levels of a cell type-specific activator can have qualitatively distinct target gene expression patterns, and factor mutations preferentially deregulate low-sensitivity genes. Unlike other target genes, GATA-1-mediated Tac-2 regulation was bimodal, with activation followed by repression, and the coregulator Friend of GATA-1 (FOG-1) selectively mediated repression. A GATA-1 mutant defective in FOG-1 binding occupied a Tac-2 regulatory region at levels higher than wild-type GATA-1, whereas FOG-1 facilitated chromatin occupancy at a distinct target site. These results indicate that FOG-1 is a determinant of GATA factor target gene sensitivity by either facilitating or opposing chromatin occupancy. PMID:17043224

  3. Does high sugar consumption exacerbate cardiometabolic risk factors and increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease?

    PubMed Central

    Sonestedt, Emily; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Laaksonen, David E.; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of sugar has been relatively high in the Nordic countries; the impact of sugar intake on metabolic risk factors and related diseases has been debated. The objectives were to assess the effect of sugar intake (sugar-sweetened beverages, sucrose and fructose) on association with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and related metabolic risk factors (impaired glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia, blood pressure, uric acid, inflammation markers), and on all-cause mortality, through a systematic review of prospective cohort studies and randomised controlled intervention studies published between January 2000 and search dates. The methods adopted were as follows: the first search was run in PubMed in October 2010. A second search with uric acid as risk marker was run in April 2011. The total search strategy was rerun in April 2011 in SveMed+. An update was run in PubMed in January 2012. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion from the 2,743 abstracts according to predefined eligibility criteria. The outcome was that out of the 17 studies extracted, 15 were prospective cohort studies and two were randomised controlled crossover trials. All of the studies included only adults. With respect to incident type 2 diabetes (nine studies), four of six prospective cohort studies found a significant positive association for sugar-sweetened beverage intake. In general, larger cohort studies with longer follow-up more often reported positive associations, and BMI seemed to mediate part of the increased risk. For other metabolic or cardiovascular risk factors or outcomes, too few studies have been published to draw conclusions. In conclusion, data from prospective cohort studies published in the years 2000–2011 suggest that sugar-sweetened beverages probably increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. For related metabolic risk factors, cardiovascular disease or all-cause mortality and other types of sugars, too few studies were available

  4. Population-Level Prediction of Type 2 Diabetes From Claims Data and Analysis of Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Razavian, Narges; Blecker, Saul; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Smith-McLallen, Aaron; Nigam, Somesh; Sontag, David

    2015-12-01

    We present a new approach to population health, in which data-driven predictive models are learned for outcomes such as type 2 diabetes. Our approach enables risk assessment from readily available electronic claims data on large populations, without additional screening cost. Proposed model uncovers early and late-stage risk factors. Using administrative claims, pharmacy records, healthcare utilization, and laboratory results of 4.1 million individuals between 2005 and 2009, an initial set of 42,000 variables were derived that together describe the full health status and history of every individual. Machine learning was then used to methodically enhance predictive variable set and fit models predicting onset of type 2 diabetes in 2009-2011, 2010-2012, and 2011-2013. We compared the enhanced model with a parsimonious model consisting of known diabetes risk factors in a real-world environment, where missing values are common and prevalent. Furthermore, we analyzed novel and known risk factors emerging from the model at different age groups at different stages before the onset. Parsimonious model using 21 classic diabetes risk factors resulted in area under ROC curve (AUC) of 0.75 for diabetes prediction within a 2-year window following the baseline. The enhanced model increased the AUC to 0.80, with about 900 variables selected as predictive (p < 0.0001 for differences between AUCs). Similar improvements were observed for models predicting diabetes onset 1-3 years and 2-4 years after baseline. The enhanced model improved positive predictive value by at least 50% and identified novel surrogate risk factors for type 2 diabetes, such as chronic liver disease (odds ratio [OR] 3.71), high alanine aminotransferase (OR 2.26), esophageal reflux (OR 1.85), and history of acute bronchitis (OR 1.45). Liver risk factors emerge later in the process of diabetes development compared with obesity-related factors such as hypertension and high hemoglobin A1c. In conclusion

  5. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor-induced psoriasis or psoriasiform exanthemata: first 120 cases from the literature including a series of six new patients.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe; Hansel, Gesina; Koch, André; Schönlebe, Jaqueline; Köstler, Erich; Haroske, Gunter

    2008-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) inhibition is effective in the treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis. We report on 120 patients from the literature including six new patients (three women and three men) who developed pustular lesions during treatment with TNFalpha inhibitors. We identified 72 women and 36 men (several papers did not specify the gender of patients) with an age range of 13-78 years (mean 42.3 years). The primary diagnoses were rheumatoid arthritis (n = 61), ankylosing spondylitis (n = 21), psoriasis (n = 10), Crohn disease (n = 8), SAPHO (synovitis acne pustulosis hyperostosis osteitis) syndrome (n = 3), psoriatic arthritis (n = 2), and other diagnoses (n = 15). Psoriasis (except palmoplantar pustular type) was the most common adverse effect during anti-TNFalpha treatment (n = 73), followed by palmoplantar pustular psoriasis (n = 37) and psoriasis of the nail (n = 6), sometimes combined in the same patient. Palmoplantar pustulosis and psoriasiform exanthema was the diagnosis in ten patients each. A positive personal history of psoriasis was recorded in 25 patients. A positive family history was noted in eight patients. No data about personal (n = 7) or family history (n = 46) were available in a number of patients. Newly induced psoriasis was diagnosed in 74 patients whereas an exacerbation or aggravation of a pre-existing psoriasis was noted in another 25 patients. All three TNFalpha inhibitors available on the market were involved: infliximab (63 patients), etanercept (37 patients), and adalimumab (26 patients). Several patients were treated with more than a single TFNalpha inhibitor. The timing of cutaneous adverse effects (psoriasis and psoriasiform rash) varied considerably among patients, ranging from after a single application to a delayed response of up to 63 months after initiation of treatment. The mean time to appearance of the cutaneous adverse effect for all TNFalpha inhibitors was 9.5 months. Cessation of the responsible

  6. Severe hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes: impact of the renin-angiotensin system and other risk factors.

    PubMed

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik

    2009-11-01

    Hypoglycaemia is an unavoidable side effect to insulin therapy of diabetes. In daily life some hypoglycaemic episodes are recognised by the patients and corrected by ingestion of glucose, but occasionally unrecognised episodes progress into severe hypoglycaemia with cognitive impairment and the need for assistance from other persons in order to manage the situation. Such episodes represent the most feared side effect to insulin treatment and are regarded as the major limiting factor for achievement of recommended glycaemic targets in type 1 diabetes. The series of studies that constitute this thesis was conducted to assess the significance of severe hypoglycaemia as a clinical problem in the type 1 diabetic population, to evaluate the impact of known risk factors on occurrence of severe hypoglycaemia, and to identify new markers that could contribute to improved prediction of, and inspire to novel preventive measures of, severe hypoglycaemia. Our studies confirm that severe hypoglycaemia is still a major clinical problem in type 1 diabetes. The individual susceptibility to severe hypoglycaemia is highly varying and conventional risk factors - with major contribution from hypoglycaemia unawareness - only account for a limited part of this variation. Results from a case-series suggest that the use of psychoactive substances may be as significant as alcohol for promotion of risk of severe hypoglycaemia - a finding which needs to be confirmed by case-control studies. We identified elevated renin-angiotensin system activity as a novel predictor of risk of severe hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes with potential clinical significance. Thus, three sequential renin-angiotensin system-related risk factors were associated with severe hypoglycaemia, and by including these factors in a common model both subjects at low and at high risk within a one-year period were identified. Preliminary data suggest that this is explained by impaired capability of subjects with high renin

  7. Stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits in persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention: the Norwegian study in RENEWING HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Holmen, Heidi; Wahl, Astrid; Torbjørnsen, Astrid; Jenum, Anne Karen; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Ribu, Lis

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits using baseline data from persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention. We examined the associations between stages of change for physical activity change and dietary change, and between stages of change for each behavior and individual characteristics, health-related quality of life, self-management, depressive symptoms, and lifestyle. Research design and methods We examined 151 persons with type 2 diabetes with an glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥7.1%, aged ≥18 years at baseline of a randomized controlled trial, before testing a mobile app with or without health counseling. Stages of change were dichotomized into ‘pre-action’ and ‘action’. Self-management was measured using the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ) where a higher score reflects increased self-management, and health-related quality of life was measured with the Short-Form-36 (SF-36). Logistic regression modeling was performed. Results The median HbA1c level was 7.9% (7.1–12.4), 90% were overweight or obese, and 20% had ≥3 comorbidities. 58% were in the preaction stage for physical activity change and 79% in the preaction stage for dietary change. Higher scores of self-management were associated with an increased chance of being in the action stage for both dietary change and physical activity change. Higher body mass index was associated with an 8% reduced chance of being in the action stage for physical activity change (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99). Conclusions Being in the action stage was associated with higher scores of self-management, crucial for type 2 diabetes. Over half of the participants were in the preaction stage for physical activity and dietary change, and many had a high disease burden with comorbidities and overweight. Trial registration number NCT01315756. PMID:27239317

  8. Lifestyle risk factors for atherosclerosis in adults with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Franziska K; Maahs, David M; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K; Ogden, Lorraine G; Kinney, Greg L; Rewers, Marian

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the amount of self-reported physical activity, alcohol and tobacco use in a large sample of adults with type 1 diabetes and non-diabetic subjects. A second aim is to test the hypothesis that these lifestyle risk factors are associated cross-sectionally with coronary artery calcification. In 2000-2002, the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes (CACTI) study applied validated questionnaires for smoking, alcohol and physical activity to 582 type 1 diabetes subjects and 724 non-diabetic subjects. More type 1 diabetes subjects reported current smoking than non-diabetic subjects (12.3% versus 8.6%, p=0.027). Overall, reported physical activity did not differ by diabetes status (p=0.79). More type 1 diabetes subjects reported never having consumed alcohol (10% versus 4%, p<0.0001) and those who drank consumed less alcohol (p=0.0015) than non-diabetic subjects. Physical activity and smoking were significantly associated with the presence of coronary artery calcification (adjusted OR=0.9, 95% CI: 0.8-0.996, p=0.045, and OR=1.7, CI: 1.1-2.6, p=0.03, respectively). Type 1 diabetes was independently associated with increased odds of coronary artery calcification (OR=3.5, 95% CI: 2.5-5.0, p<0.0001). Differences exist in lifestyle-related cardiovascular risk factors in men and women with type 1 diabetes compared with non-diabetic subjects in the CACTI study. PMID:20368221

  9. Multi-Biomarkers for Early Detection of Type 2 Diabetes, Including 10- and 12-(Z,E)-Hydroxyoctadecadienoic Acids, Insulin, Leptin, and Adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Umeno, Aya; Yoshino, Kohzoh; Hashimoto, Yoshiko; Shichiri, Mototada; Kataoka, Masatoshi; Yoshida, Yasukazu

    2015-01-01

    We have previously found that fasting plasma levels of totally assessed 10- and 12-(Z,E)-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HODE) correlated well with levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and glucose during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT); these levels were determined via liquid chromatography—mass spectrometry after reduction and saponification. However, 10- and 12-(Z,E)-HODE alone cannot perfectly detect early impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and/or insulin resistance, which ultimately lead to diabetes. In this study, we randomly recruited healthy volunteers (n = 57) who had no known history of any diseases, and who were evaluated using the OGTT, the HODE biomarkers, and several additional proposed biomarkers, including retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), adiponectin, leptin, insulin, glycoalbumin, and high sensitivity-C-reactive protein. The OGTT revealed that our volunteers included normal individuals (n = 44; Group N), “high-normal” individuals (fasting plasma glucose 100–109 mg/dL) with IGT (n = 11; Group HN+IGT), and diabetic individuals (n = 2; Group D). We then used these groups to evaluate the potential biomarkers for the early detection of type 2 diabetes. Plasma levels of RBP4 and glycoalbumin were higher in Group HN+IGT, compared to those in Group N, and fasting levels of 10- and 12-(Z,E)-HODE/linoleic acids were significantly correlated with levels of RBP4 (p = 0.003, r = 0.380) and glycoalbumin (p = 0.006, r = 0.316). Furthermore, we developed a stepwise multiple linear regression models to predict the individuals’ insulin resistance index (the Matsuda Index 3). Fasting plasma levels of 10- and 12-(Z,E)-HODE/linoleic acids, glucose, insulin, and leptin/adiponectin were selected as the explanatory variables for the models. The risks of type 2 diabetes, early IGT, and insulin resistance were perfectly predicted by comparing fasting glucose levels to the estimated Matsuda Index 3 (fasting levels of 10- and 12-(Z,E)-HODE/linoleic acids, insulin

  10. CFD-based method of determining form factor k for different ship types and different drafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinbao; Yu, Hai; Zhang, Yuefeng; Xiong, Xiaoqing

    2016-07-01

    The value of form factor k at different drafts is important in predicting full-scale total resistance and speed for different types of ships. In the ITTC community, most organizations predict form factor k using a low-speed model test. However, this method is problematic for ships with bulbous bows and transom. In this article, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)-based method is introduced to obtain k for different type of ships at different drafts, and a comparison is made between the CFD method and the model test. The results show that the CFD method produces reasonable k values. A grid generating method and turbulence model are briefly discussed in the context of obtaining a consistent k using CFD.

  11. Bone mineral density and factors influencing it in Asian Indian population with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Kamalanathan, Sadishkumar; Nambiar, Vimal; Shivane, Vyankatesh; Bandgar, Tushar; Menon, Padmavathy; Shah, Nalini

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess bone mineral density (BMD) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and its relation, if any, to clinical, hormonal and metabolic factors. Materials and Methods: A prospective evaluation of 194 T2DM patients (97 men and 97 women) was carried out. BMD was done with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the lumbar spine and total hip. Physical activity, nutritional intake and sunlight exposure were calculated. Biochemical and hormonal tests included serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH) D], parathyroid hormone, estrogen, testosterone and urinary calcium-creatinine ratio. Glycosylated hemoglobin and complete lipid profiles were done in patients with diabetes. Five hundred and seventy one non-diabetic controls (262 males and 309 females) were evaluated for BMD alone. Results: BMD was normal (Z score > -2) in 156 (80.5%) and low (Z score ≤ -2) in 38 (19.5%) patients in the diabetes study group. BMD in the diabetes group was significantly higher than the control group in both sexes at the hip and spine. The difference was no longer significant on analysis of a BMI matched control subgroup. Weight and BMI showed significant correlation to BMD. Duration of T2DM, degree of glycemic control, use of drugs like statins and thiazolidinediones, 25(OH) D levels, calcium intake, sunlight exposure and physical activity did not significantly affect BMD in this cohort of individuals with diabetes. Conclusions: Bone mineral density of Asian Indian T2DM subjects was similar to that of healthy volunteers in this study. PMID:25364679

  12. Arabidopsis GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR7 Functions as a Transcriptional Repressor of Abscisic Acid– and Osmotic Stress–Responsive Genes, Including DREB2A[W

    PubMed Central

    Kim, June-Sik; Mizoi, Junya; Kidokoro, Satoshi; Maruyama, Kyonoshin; Nakajima, Jun; Nakashima, Kazuo; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Takiguchi, Yuko; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Kondou, Youichi; Yoshizumi, Takeshi; Matsui, Minami; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2012-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana DEHYDRATION-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING PROTEIN2A (DREB2A) functions as a transcriptional activator that increases tolerance to osmotic and heat stresses; however, its expression also leads to growth retardation and reduced reproduction. To avoid these adverse effects, the expression of DREB2A is predicted to be tightly regulated. We identified a short promoter region of DREB2A that represses its expression under nonstress conditions. Yeast one-hybrid screening for interacting factors identified GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR7 (GRF7). GRF7 bound to the DREB2A promoter and repressed its expression. In both artificial miRNA-silenced lines and a T-DNA insertion line of GRF7, DREB2A transcription was increased compared with the wild type under nonstress conditions. A previously undiscovered cis-element, GRF7-targeting cis-element (TGTCAGG), was identified as a target sequence of GRF7 in the short promoter region of DREB2A via electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Microarray analysis of GRF7 knockout plants showed that a large number of the upregulated genes in the mutant plants were also responsive to osmotic stress and/or abscisic acid. These results suggest that GRF7 functions as a repressor of a broad range of osmotic stress–responsive genes to prevent growth inhibition under normal conditions. PMID:22942381

  13. Seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and 2 in Taiwan and Risk Factor Analysis, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Chao-Yu, Chen; Chen, Chih-Jung; Lin, Tzou-Yien; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2015-01-01

    Background Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) are common human pathogens and might cause severe illness. Following primary infection, the viruses establish lifelong latent infection and are transmitted by close contact, both sexual and nonsexual. However, the information about the seroprevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 across all age groups is limited. Methods Residual sera collected during the nationwide serosurvey in 2007 in Taiwan were selected for the study. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect anti-HSV-1 and anti-HSV-2 type-specific glycoprotein IgG. Demographics and personal health data were used for risk analysis. Results A total of 1411 and 1072 serum samples were included for anti-HSV-1 and anti-HSV-2 seroprevalence analysis, respectively. The weighted overall seroprevalence was 63.2% for HSV-1, and 7.7% for HSV-2, respectively. The HSV-1 seropositive rate was 19.2% for those less than 5 years old, increased to 46.4% for those aged 5–13 years, 60.9% for those aged 14–29 years, and reached as much as 95.0% for those aged over 30 years. In contrast, the HSV-2 seropositve rate was 1.6% for those less than 30 years old, rose to 10.1% for those age 30–39 years, and was up to 31.2% for those aged over 60 years. A significantly higher HSV-2 seropositive rate was noted in females than males aged over 40 years (26.3% v.s. 16.8%), and the overall HSV-2 seropositive rate was almost twice higher in females than males. Smoking history, drinking habit, and educational level were associated with the HSV-1 seropositivity. Female gender and rural residence were independent factors for the HSV-2 seropositivity. Conclusions An obvious increase of primary HSV-1 infection occurred in late adolescents and young adults, joined by the rise of HSV-2 infection in middle-aged adults, especially females. The acquistion and transmission of HSV warrant further studies in the susceptible population. PMID:26252011

  14. Factors associated with psychological and behavioral functioning in people with type 2 diabetes living in France

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To identify demographic and clinical factors associated with psychological and behavioral functioning (PBF) in people with type 2 diabetes living in France. Methods In March 2002, approximately 10,000 adults, who had been reimbursed for at least one hypoglycemic treatment or insulin dose during the last quarter of 2001, received a questionnaire about their health status and PBF (3,646 responders). For this analysis, the 3,090 persons with type 2 diabetes, aged 18-85 years old were selected. PBF was measured with the adapted version of the Diabetes Health Profile for people with type 2 diabetes. This permitted the calculation of three functional scores - psychological distress (PD), barriers to activity (BA), and disinhibited eating (DE) - from 0 (worst) to 100 (best). Results Major negative associations were observed with PBF for microvascular complications (a difference of 6.7 in the BA score between persons with and without microvascular complications) and severe hypoglycemia (difference of 7.9 in the BA score), insulin treatment (-8.5 & -9.5 in the PD & BA scores respectively, as compared to treatment with oral hypoglycemic agents), non-adherence to treatment (-12.3 in the DE score for persons forgetting their weekly treatment), increasing weight (-8.5 & -9.7 in the PD & DE scores respectively, as compared to stable weight), at least one psychiatrist visit in 2001 (-8.9 in the DE score), and universal medical insurance coverage (-7.9 in the PD score) (due to low income). Conclusion Prevention and management of microvascular complications or adherence to treatment (modifiable factors) could be essential to preserving or improving PBF among people with type 2 diabetes. A specific approach to type 2 diabetes management may be required in groups with a low socioeconomic profile (particularly people with universal medical insurance coverage), or other non modifiable factors. PMID:21044345

  15. [Relationship between main vegetation types and climatic factors in Inner Mongolia].

    PubMed

    Niu, J

    2000-02-01

    The relationship between main vegetation types and climate factors in Inner Mongolia was analyzed by using up-to-date vegetation map, statistics, modeling and spatial simulation of regional climatic factors under the support of GIS. The feasible climatic range of spatial distribution of plant communities was derived from overlaying vegetation map and climate maps. The results showed that the vegetation distribution was obviously in accordance with climate. On the one hand, all the types, not only zonal vegetation, but also mountain, sandy land and low land communities changed gradually from east to west due to the distance to oceans, with a zonal differentiation, Precipitation played an important role in determining this regulation. On the other hand, latitudinal replacement of plant communities occurred with the change of temperature from north to south. In addition, temperature was also the key factor controlling the spatial distribution of vegetation types, such as meadow, steppe, shrub and low land communities on the east and west sides of Daxinganling Mountains. PMID:11766587

  16. Risk Factors for Hypogonadism in Male Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Rendong; Cao, Lin; Cao, Wen; Chu, Xiaoqiu; Hu, Yongxin; Zhang, Huifeng; Xu, Juan; Sun, Hongping; Bao, Weiping; Liu, Kemian; Liu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Background. Male hypogonadism is an endocrine disease characterized by low levels of serum testosterone and is closely related to the development of diabetes. The purpose of the present study was to observe the risk factors for hypogonadism in male patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. A total of 213 patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled and divided into a low total testosterone (TT) group (=75) and a normal TT group (=138). The patients' blood glucose, blood lipids, serum insulin, and sex hormones were measured. The correlations between the patients' metabolic index and sex hormone levels were analyzed. Results. Compared with the normal TT group, body mass index (BMI), fasting insulin (FINS), and HOMA insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) levels were significantly higher, but the luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were significantly lower in the low TT group (p < 0.05). Correlation analyses found that TT was negatively correlated with BMI, waist circumference (WC), FINS, and HOMA-IR. TT was positively correlated with LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Conclusions. Several risk factors of diabetes associated closely with hypogonadism. BMI, metabolic syndrome (MS), HOMA-IR, and LH are independent risk factors for hypogonadism in male patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:27006953

  17. Evaluation of the predisposing factors and involved outcome of surgical treatment in bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw cases including bone biopsies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the statistical relevance of whether the systemic predisposing factors affect the prognosis of surgical treatment of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). All cases had undergone bone biopsies to determine the characteristics of the mechanisms of BRONJ by optical microscopy. Materials and Methods The data included 54 BRONJ cases who underwent surgery and in whom bone biopsies were performed. The results of surgery were evaluated and the results were classified into 3 categories: normal recovery, delayed recovery, and recurrence after surgery. The medical history, such as diabetes mellitus, medication of steroids, malignancies on other sites was investigated for an evaluation of the systemic predisposing factors in relation to the prognosis. The three factors involved with the medication of bisphosphonate (BP) were the medication route, medication period, and drug holiday of BP before surgery. The serum C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide (CTX) value and presence of microorganism colony in bone biopsy specimens were also checked. Statistical analysis was then carried out to determine the relationship between these factors and the results of surgery. Results The group of patients suffering from diabetes and on steroids tended to show poorer results after surgery. Parenteral medication of BP made the patients have a poorer prognosis after surgery than oral medication. In contrast, the medication period and drug holiday of BP before surgery did not have significance with the results of surgery nor did the serum CTX value and presence of microorganism colony. Necrotic bone specimens in this study typically showed disappearing new bone formation around the osteocytic lacunae and destroyed Howship's lacunae. Conclusion Although many variables exist, this study could in part, predict the prognosis of surgical treatment of BRONJ by taking the patient's medical history. PMID:27595086

  18. Observational calibration of the projection factor of Cepheids. I. The type II Cepheid κ Pavonis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitfelder, J.; Kervella, P.; Mérand, A.; Gallenne, A.; Szabados, L.; Anderson, R. I.; Willson, M.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.

    2015-04-01

    Context. The distance of pulsating stars, in particular Cepheids, are commonly measured using the parallax of pulsation technique. The different versions of this technique combine measurements of the linear diameter variation (from spectroscopy) and the angular diameter variation (from photometry or interferometry) amplitudes, to retrieve the distance in a quasi-geometrical way. However, the linear diameter amplitude is directly proportional to the projection factor (hereafter p-factor), which is used to convert spectroscopic radial velocities (i.e., disk integrated) into pulsating (i.e., photospheric) velocities. The value of the p-factor and its possible dependence on the pulsation period are still widely debated. Aims: Our goal is to measure an observational value of the p-factor of the type-II Cepheid κ Pavonis. Methods: The parallax of the type-II Cepheid κ Pav was measured with an accuracy of 5% using HST/FGS. We used this parallax as a starting point to derive the p-factor of κ Pav, using the SPIPS technique (Spectro-Photo-Interferometry of Pulsating Stars), which is a robust version of the parallax-of-pulsation method that employs radial velocity, interferometric and photometric data. We applied this technique to a combination of new VLTI/PIONIER optical interferometric angular diameters, new CORALIE and HARPS radial velocities, as well as multi-colour photometry and radial velocities from the literature. Results: We obtain a value of p = 1.26 ± 0.07 for the p-factor of κ Pav. This result agrees with several of the recently derived Period-p-factor relationships from the literature, as well as previous observational determinations for Cepheids. Conclusions: Individual estimates of the p-factor are fundamental to calibrating the parallax of pulsation distances of Cepheids. Together with previous observational estimates, the projection factor we obtain points to a weak dependence of the p-factor on period. Based on observations realized with ESO

  19. Modeling Occurrence of Urban Mosquitos Based on Land Use Types and Meteorological Factors in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yong-Su; Bae, Mi-Jung; Chung, Namil; Lee, Yeo-Rang; Hwang, Suntae; Kim, Sang-Ae; Choi, Young Jean; Park, Young-Seuk

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes are a public health concern because they are vectors of pathogen, which cause human-related diseases. It is well known that the occurrence of mosquitoes is highly influenced by meteorological conditions (e.g., temperature and precipitation) and land use, but there are insufficient studies quantifying their impacts. Therefore, three analytical methods were applied to determine the relationships between urban mosquito occurrence, land use type, and meteorological factors: cluster analysis based on land use types; principal component analysis (PCA) based on mosquito occurrence; and three prediction models, support vector machine (SVM), classification and regression tree (CART), and random forest (RF). We used mosquito data collected at 12 sites from 2011 to 2012. Mosquito abundance was highest from August to September in both years. The monitoring sites were differentiated into three clusters based on differences in land use type such as culture and sport areas, inland water, artificial grasslands, and traffic areas. These clusters were well reflected in PCA ordinations, indicating that mosquito occurrence was highly influenced by land use types. Lastly, the RF represented the highest predictive power for mosquito occurrence and temperature-related factors were the most influential. Our study will contribute to effective control and management of mosquito occurrences. PMID:26492260

  20. Factors Predictive of Type of Powered Mobility Received by Veterans with Disability

    PubMed Central

    Rabadi, Meheroz H.; Vincent, Andrea S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The goal of this observational study was to determine factors predictive of the type of powered mobility prescribed to veterans with disability. Material/Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted for all veterans (n=170) who received powered mobility from a designated power mobility clinic. Logistic regression analysis was used to determined factors predictive of the type of powered mobility provided. Results Sixty-four (38%) veterans were provided powered wheelchairs and 106 (62%) were provided powered scooters. Of the variables examined, only primary medical conditions for referral and disability severity (as measured by the 2-minute timed walk test; 2-MWT) were predictive of the types of powered mobility prescribed. Veterans who were able to walk longer distances were more likely to be prescribed powered scooters. Age, gender, race, level of education, marital and employment status, number of chronic medical conditions, and upper and lower limb muscle strength were not significant predictors. Conclusions This study suggests that the primary medical conditions for referral and 2-MWT can assist clinicians in the determination of the type of powered mobility to prescribe to veterans with disability. PMID:25955214

  1. Modeling Occurrence of Urban Mosquitos Based on Land Use Types and Meteorological Factors in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yong-Su; Bae, Mi-Jung; Chung, Namil; Lee, Yeo-Rang; Hwang, Suntae; Kim, Sang-Ae; Choi, Young Jean; Park, Young-Seuk

    2015-10-01

    Mosquitoes are a public health concern because they are vectors of pathogen, which cause human-related diseases. It is well known that the occurrence of mosquitoes is highly influenced by meteorological conditions (e.g., temperature and precipitation) and land use, but there are insufficient studies quantifying their impacts. Therefore, three analytical methods were applied to determine the relationships between urban mosquito occurrence, land use type, and meteorological factors: cluster analysis based on land use types; principal component analysis (PCA) based on mosquito occurrence; and three prediction models, support vector machine (SVM), classification and regression tree (CART), and random forest (RF). We used mosquito data collected at 12 sites from 2011 to 2012. Mosquito abundance was highest from August to September in both years. The monitoring sites were differentiated into three clusters based on differences in land use type such as culture and sport areas, inland water, artificial grasslands, and traffic areas. These clusters were well reflected in PCA ordinations, indicating that mosquito occurrence was highly influenced by land use types. Lastly, the RF represented the highest predictive power for mosquito occurrence and temperature-related factors were the most influential. Our study will contribute to effective control and management of mosquito occurrences. PMID:26492260

  2. Flux line lattice form factor and paramagnetic effects in type II superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichioka, Masanori; Machida, Kazushige

    2009-03-01

    Based on the quasiclassical Eilenberger theory, we investigate the vortex structure in type II superconductors with strong Pauli-paramagnetic contributions due to the Zeeman effect. We quantitatively study how the paramagnetic effect suppresses the superconductivity, and evaluate the flux line lattice (FLL) form factor from the calculated internal field distribution both in the s-wave and d-wave pairings. When the paramagnetic effects are strong, the intensity of the FLL form factor increases toward Hc2 as a function of an applied field, instead of exponential decay. This anomalous field dependence is due to the induced paramagnetic moments around the vortex core. We discuss the anomalous field-dependence of the FLL form factor observed by the small angle neutron scattering in CeCoIn5.

  3. Emission factors from biomass burning in three types of appliances: fireplace, woodstove and pellet stove

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Márcio; Vicente, Estela; Calvo, Ana; Nunes, Teresa; Tarelho, Luis; Alves, Célia

    2014-05-01

    In the last years, the importance of biomass fuels has increased mainly for two reasons. One of them is the effort to control the emissions of greenhouse gases, and on the other hand, the increasing costs associated with fossil fuels. Besides that, biomass burning is now recognised as one of the major sources contributing to high concentrations of particulate matter, especially during winter time. Southern European countries have a lack of information regarding emission profiles from biomass burning. Because of that, in most source apportionment studies, the information used comes from northern and alpine countries, whose combustion appliances, fuels and habits are different from those in Mediterranean countries. Due to this lack of information, series of tests using different types of equipment, as well as fuels, were carried out in order to obtain emission profiles and emission factors that correspond to the reality in southern European countries. Tests involved three types of biomass appliances used in Portugal, a fireplace, a woodstove and a modern pellet stove. Emission factors (mg.kg-1 fuel, dry basis) for CO, THC and PM10 were obtained. CO emission factors ranged from 38, for pine on the woodstove, to 84 for eucalyptus in the fireplace. THC emissions were between 4 and 24, for pine in the woodstove and eucalyptus in the fireplace, respectively. PM10 emission factors were in the range from 3.99, for pine in the woodstove, to 17.3 for eucalyptus in the fireplace. On average, the emission factors obtained for the fireplace are 1.5 (CO) to 4 (THC) times higher than those of the woodstove. The fireplace has emission factors for CO, THC and PM10 10, 35 and 32 times, respectively, higher than the pellet stove.

  4. A bHLH-Type Transcription Factor, ABA-INDUCIBLE BHLH-TYPE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR/JA-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1, Acts as a Repressor to Negatively Regulate Jasmonate Signaling in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Masaru; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Herde, Marco; Koo, Abraham J.K.; Moreno, Javier E.; Suzuki, Kaoru; Howe, Gregg A.; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are plant hormones that regulate the balance between plant growth and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although recent studies have uncovered the mechanisms for JA-induced responses in Arabidopsis thaliana, the mechanisms by which plants attenuate the JA-induced responses remain elusive. Here, we report that a basic helix-loop-helix–type transcription factor, ABA-INDUCIBLE BHLH-TYPE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR/JA-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), acts as a transcriptional repressor and negatively regulates JA signaling. Gain-of-function transgenic plants expressing the chimeric repressor for JAM1 exhibited substantial reduction of JA responses, including JA-induced inhibition of root growth, accumulation of anthocyanin, and male fertility. These plants were also compromised in resistance to attack by the insect herbivore Spodoptera exigua. Conversely, jam1 loss-of-function mutants showed enhanced JA responsiveness, including increased resistance to insect attack. JAM1 and MYC2 competitively bind to the target sequence of MYC2, which likely provides the mechanism for negative regulation of JA signaling and suppression of MYC2 functions by JAM1. These results indicate that JAM1 negatively regulates JA signaling, thereby playing a pivotal role in fine-tuning of JA-mediated stress responses and plant growth. PMID:23673982

  5. The global impact factors of net primary production in different land cover types from 2005 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bo; Chen, Fang

    2016-01-01

    With the seriously polluted environment due to social development, the sustainability of net primary production (NPP), which is used to feed most lives on the earth, has become one of the biggest concerns that we have to consider for the sake of food shortage. There have been many researches analyzing one or two potential impact factors of NPP based on field observation data, which brings about many uncertainties for further calculation. Moreover, the frequently used process-based models heavily depend on the understandings of researchers about the NPP process. The premises of such models hinder the impact factor analysis from being objective and confident. To overcome such shortages, we collected 27 potential impact factors of global NPP in terms of eight land cover types. The feature variables include atmosphere, biosphere, anthroposphere and lithosphere parameters, which can be obtained from public available remote sensed products. The experiment shows that latitude, irradiance ultraviolet and normalized difference vegetation index are dominant factors impacting global NPP. Anthropogenic activities, precipitation and surface emissivity are influencing NPP calculation largely. However, some commonly used biosphere parameters in process-based models are actually not playing that important roles in NPP estimation. This work provides a new insight in analyzing NPP impact factors, being more objective and comprehensive compared with frequently used process-based models. PMID:27536518

  6. Adiponectin as a Protective Factor Against the Progression Toward Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Darabi, Hossein; Raeisi, Alireza; Kalantarhormozi, Mohammad Reza; Ostovar, Afshin; Assadi, Majid; Asadipooya, Kamyar; Vahdat, Katayoun; Dobaradaran, Sina; Nabipour, Iraj

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Serum adiponectin levels have been suggested to be predictors of type 2 diabetes mellitus in diverse populations. However, the relationship between circulating adiponectin levels and the risk of development of type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal women has not been investigated. A total of 382 healthy postmenopausal women who participated in a prospective cohort study were followed for 5.8 years. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was defined according to the criteria set out by the American Diabetes Association. Adiponectin, osteoprotegerin (OPG), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were measured using ELISA. Of 195 women who did not have diabetes at baseline and who were reexamined in the second phase of the study for diabetic status, 35 subjects (17.9%) developed type 2 diabetes mellitus during the 5.8 years follow-up period. The women with type 2 diabetes had lower adiponectin levels than the healthy postmenopausal women. Multiple regression analysis showed that, after adjustments were made for age, cardiovascular risk factors, OPG, and hs-CRP levels, higher baseline adiponectin levels were associated with a lower relative risk (RR) of having type 2 (RR = 0.07, confidence interval [CI]: 0.01–0.66, P = 0.021). Higher baseline adiponectin levels functioned as a predictor of a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus among postmenopausal women during a 5.8 years follow-up study. Therefore, it is suggested that elevated adiponectin levels may offer protection against the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus after the menopause. PMID:26287420

  7. Optimal Design of Rotary-Type Voice Coil Motor Using Multisegmented Magnet Array for Small Form Factor Optical Disk Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jaehwa; Gweon, Dae-Gab

    2007-05-01

    For a small form factor optical disk drive (SFFODD), a high-performance actuator satisfying the requirements for small size, high speed, and low-power consumption simultaneously is required. In this paper, we propose a rotary-type voice coil motor (VCM) using a multisegmented magnet array (MSMA) for the SFFODD. The VCM is designed to move the entire system including miniaturized optical components, which are necessary in reading and writing data. To increase the actuating force of the VCM, the MSMA, a novel magnetic circuit, is adopted because it can provide a higher flux density than a conventional magnet array in the rotary-type VCM. To obtain the best performance from the VCM in the limit of actuator size, design optimization is performed. The manufactured actuator with optimally designed parameters is described and the potential performance of track seeking is evaluated and presented.

  8. Type of body fat distribution in postmenopausal women and its related factors

    PubMed Central

    Noroozi, Mahnaz; Rastegari, Zahra; Paknahad, Zamzam

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The type of body fat distribution has an important role for identifying risk of diseases. One of the simple anthropometric indexes for estimating type of body fat distribution is waist circumference index. This study is aimed to determine the type of body fat distribution in postmenopausal women and its related factors. METHODS: This is a cross sectional descriptive analytical study. Samples were 278 postmenopausal women in Isfahan who were selected by stratified sampling and then were invited to 64 health centers of Isfahan. Data was gathered using a questionnaire and standard meter. Data was analyzed using SPSS software and descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS: Results showed that in postmenopausal women the mean of waist circumference index was 93.63 (10.66) and its range was 54 to 119 cm. There was a meaningful relation between job, educational status, total pregnancies, total deliveries, age of first pregnancy, lactation history and menopausal age with waist circumference index. CONCLUSIONS: Results showed that the type of body fat distribution of postmenopausal women is of android type. Considering side effects of this kind of distribution, necessary teachings about healthy eating, movement and exercises must be given to women of these ages. PMID:21589746

  9. Chronic Kidney Disease and Associated Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Chinese with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Qing-Lin; Ouyang, Xiao-Jun; Gu, Liu-Bao; Mo, Yong-Zhen; Ma, Ronald; Nan, Jennifer; Kong, Alice; So, Wing-Yee; Ko, Gary; Chan, Juliana; Chow, Chun-Chung

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine the frequency of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its associated risk factors in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients, we conducted a cross-sectional study in Nanjing, China, in the period between January 2008 and December 2009. Methods Patients with type 2 diabetes under the care by Jiangsu Province Official Hospital, Nanjing, China were invited for assessment. CKD was defined as the presence of albuminuria or estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Albuminuria was defined as urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g. Results We recruited 1,521 urban Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes (mean age, 63.9±12.0 years). The frequency of CKD and albuminuria was 31.0% and 28.9%, respectively. After adjusted by age and sex, hypertension, anemia and duration of diabetes were significantly associated with CKD with odds ratio (95% confidence interval) being 1.93 (1.28 to 2.93), 1.70 (1.09 to 2.64), and 1.03 (1.00 to 1.06), respectively. Conclusion In conclusion, CKD was common in the urban Nanjing Chinese with type 2 diabetes. Strategies to prevent or delay progression of kidney disease in diabetes should be carried out at the early disease course of type 2 diabetes. PMID:23275937

  10. Low-sodium Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension-type diet including lean red meat lowers blood pressure in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Nowson, Caryl A; Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Pachett, Annabelle

    2009-01-01

    Low-sodium Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets are base producing but restrict red meat without clear justification. We hypothesized that a vitality diet (VD), a low-sodium DASH-type diet with a low dietary acid load containing 6 servings of 100 g cooked lean red meat per week, would be more effective in reducing blood pressure (BP) compared with a higher acid load reference healthy diet (RHD) based on general dietary guidelines to reduce fat intake and increase intake of breads and cereals. A randomized, parallel dietary intervention study was conducted to compare the BP-lowering effect of these 2 diets in postmenopausal women with high/normal BP. Women were randomly assigned to follow either VD or RHD for 14 weeks. Home BP was measured daily with an automated BP monitor under standard conditions. Of 111 women commencing the study, 95 completed (46 VD, 49 RHD). Systolic BP (SBP) throughout the intervention was lower in the VD group compared to the RHD group (repeated-measures analysis of variance time by diet, P = .04), such that at the end of the study, the VD had a fall of SBP by 5.6 +/- 1.3 mm Hg (mean +/- SEM) compared with a fall of 2.7 +/- 1.0 mm Hg in the RHD (group difference, P = .08). When only those taking antihypertensive medications were assessed, the VD (n = 17) had a significant fall of 6.5 +/- 2.5 mm Hg SBP (P = .02) and 4.6 +/- 1.4 mm Hg diastolic BP (P = .005) after 14 weeks, and their BP was lower than that of the RHD group (n = 18) throughout the study (P < .05). We concluded that a low-sodium DASH diet with a low dietary acid load, which also included lean red meat on most days of the week, was effective in reducing BP in older women, particularly in those taking antihypertensive medications. PMID:19185772