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1

Laser Microdissection Unravels Cell-Type-Specific Transcription in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Roots, Including CAAT-Box Transcription Factor Gene Expression Correlating with Fungal Contact and Spread1[W  

PubMed Central

Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) are the most widespread symbioses on Earth, promoting nutrient supply of most terrestrial plant species. To unravel gene expression in defined stages of Medicago truncatula root colonization by AM fungi, we here combined genome-wide transcriptome profiling based on whole mycorrhizal roots with real-time reverse transcription-PCR experiments that relied on characteristic cell types obtained via laser microdissection. Our genome-wide approach delivered a core set of 512 genes significantly activated by the two mycorrhizal fungi Glomus intraradices and Glomus mossae. Focusing on 62 of these genes being related to membrane transport, signaling, and transcriptional regulation, we distinguished whether they are activated in arbuscule-containing or the neighboring cortical cells harboring fungal hyphae. In addition, cortical cells from nonmycorrhizal roots served as a reference for gene expression under noncolonized conditions. Our analysis identified 25 novel arbuscule-specific genes and 37 genes expressed both in the arbuscule-containing and the adjacent cortical cells colonized by fungal hyphae. Among the AM-induced genes specifying transcriptional regulators were two members encoding CAAT-box binding transcription factors (CBFs), designated MtCbf1 and MtCbf2. Promoter analyses demonstrated that both genes were already activated by the first physical contact between the symbionts. Subsequently, and corresponding to our cell-type expression patterns, they were progressively up-regulated in those cortical areas colonized by fungal hyphae, including the arbuscule-containing cells. The encoded CBFs thus represent excellent candidates for regulators that mediate a sequential reprogramming of root tissues during the establishment of an AM symbiosis. PMID:22034628

Hogekamp, Claudia; Arndt, Damaris; Pereira, Patrícia A.; Becker, Jörg D.; Hohnjec, Natalija; Küster, Helge

2011-01-01

2

Risk Factors for Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in Infectious Disease Patients, Including Patients Infected with HIV, and Molecular Typing of Colonizing Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Nasal carriage is an important risk factor for Staphylococcus aureus infection, particularly in HIV-infected individuals. In this analytical cross-sectional study, a variety of probable risk\\u000a factors associated with nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus were investigated. HIV-infected patients were examined within a larger cohort of infectious diseases patients. Staphylococcus aureus strains from HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected carriers were identified by molecular

D. Sissolak; A. Geusau; G. Heinze; W. Witte; M. Rotter

2002-01-01

3

Factors determining desert dune type  

Microsoft Academic Search

While most observers recognize four elemental types of desert dunes (longitudinal, transverse, barchan and star1-3) there is little agreement about which factors determine these types. The angular relationships between the resultant of sand shifting winds and both the crest and principal slipfaces of the elemental types have been discussed qualitatively for many decades. These relationships have been quantified but the

R. J. Wasson; R. Hyde

1983-01-01

4

Include All 4 Types of Exercise (Endurance, Strength, Balance, Flexibility)  

MedlinePLUS

... nih.gov/Go4Life ENDURANCE FLEXIBILITY STRENGTH BALANCE Include All 4 Types of Exercise Exercise generally falls into ... physical activity plan—this will help you incorporate all four types of exercise into your daily routine. ...

5

Risk Factors for Breast Cancer, Including Occupational Exposures  

PubMed Central

The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr). For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as "carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1): alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure). Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification "probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A) includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women. PMID:22953181

Meo, Margrethe; Vainio, Harri

2011-01-01

6

Photovoltaic Device Including A Boron Doping Profile In An I-Type Layer  

DOEpatents

A photovoltaic cell for use in a single junction or multijunction photovoltaic device, which includes a p-type layer of a semiconductor compound including silicon, an i-type layer of an amorphous semiconductor compound including silicon, and an n-type layer of a semiconductor compound including silicon formed on the i-type layer. The i-type layer including an undoped first sublayer formed on the p-type layer, and a boron-doped second sublayer formed on the first sublayer.

Yang, Liyou (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1993-10-26

7

Faddeev-type calculation of three-body nuclear reactions including core excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The core excitation, being an important reaction mechanism, so far is not properly included in most calculations of three-body nuclear reactions. We aim to include the excitation of the core nucleus using an exact Faddeev-type framework for nuclear reactions in the three-body (core+neutron+proton) system. We employ Alt, Grassberger, and Sandhas (AGS) integral equations for the three-particle transition operators and solve them in the momentum-space framework. The Coulomb interaction is included via the method of screening and renormalization. We calculate elastic, inelastic, and transfer reactions involving 10Be and 24Mg nuclear cores. Important effects of the core excitation are found, often improving the description of the experimental data. In the neutron transfer reactions the core excitation effect is by far not just a simple reduction of the cross section by the respective spectroscopic factor. This indicates that widely used extraction of the spectroscopic factors from the ratio of the experimental and theoretical transfer cross sections is an unreliable approach.

Deltuva, A.

2013-07-01

8

25 CFR 1000.86 - What types of programs may be included in an AFA?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What types of programs may be included in an AFA...Bureau of Indian Affairs Programs Determining What Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.86 What types of programs may be included in an...

2011-04-01

9

48 CFR 16.104 - Factors in selecting contract types.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Factors in selecting contract types. 16.104 Section 16.104 Federal...ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Selecting Contract Types 16.104...

2012-10-01

10

48 CFR 16.104 - Factors in selecting contract types.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Factors in selecting contract types. 16.104 Section 16.104 Federal...ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Selecting Contract Types 16.104...

2013-10-01

11

48 CFR 16.104 - Factors in selecting contract types.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...types. There are many factors that the contracting...performance and their possible impact upon costs be identified...urgency is a primary factor, the Government may...contract type. This factor may be critical when...other contracts, the impact of those...

2010-10-01

12

A Study of Factors Promoting Success in Computer Science Including Gender Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine factors that promote success in an introductory college computer science course and to determine what, if any, differences appear between genders on those factors. The model included math background, attribution for success\\/failure, self-efficacy, encouragement, comfort level in the course, work style preference, previous programming exp- erience, previous non-programming computer experience, and gender as possible

Brenda Cantwell Wilson

2002-01-01

13

Analytical expressions for the gate utilization factors of passive multiplicity counters including signal build-up  

SciTech Connect

In the realm of nuclear safeguards, passive neutron multiplicity counting using shift register pulse train analysis to nondestructively quantify Pu in product materials is a familiar and widely applied technique. The approach most commonly taken is to construct a neutron detector consisting of {sup 3}He filled cylindrical proportional counters embedded in a high density polyethylene moderator. Fast neutrons from the item enter the moderator and are quickly slowed down, on timescales of the order of 1-2 {micro}s, creating a thermal population which then persists typically for several 10's {micro}s and is sampled by the {sup 3}He detectors. Because the initial transient is of comparatively short duration it has been traditional to treat it as instantaneous and furthermore to approximate the subsequent capture time distribution as exponential in shape. With these approximations simple expressions for the various Gate Utilization Factors (GUFs) can be obtained. These factors represent the proportion of time correlated events i.e. Doubles and Triples signal present in the pulse train that is detected by the coincidence gate structure chosen (predelay and gate width settings of the multiplicity shift register). More complicated expressions can be derived by generalizing the capture time distribution to multiple time components or harmonics typically present in real systems. When it comes to applying passive neutron multiplicity methods to extremely intense (i.e. high emission rate and highly multiplying) neutron sources there is a drive to use detector types with very fast response characteristics in order to cope with the high rates. In addition to short pulse width, detectors with a short capture time profile are also desirable so that a short coincidence gate width can be set in order to reduce the chance or Accidental coincidence signal. In extreme cases, such as might be realized using boron loaded scintillators, the dieaway time may be so short that the build-up (thermalization transient) within the detector cannot be ignored. Another example where signal build-up might be observed is when a {sup 3}He based system is used to track the evolution of the time correlated signal created by a higher multiplying item within a reflective configuration such as the measurement of a spent fuel assembly. In this work we develop expressions for the GUFs which include signal build-up.

Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Evans, Louise G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schear, Melissa A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

14

Behavioral factors to include in guidelines for lifelong oral healthiness: an observational study in Japanese adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine which behavioral factors to include in guidelines for the Japanese public to achieve an acceptable level of oral healthiness. The objective was to determine the relationship between oral health related behaviors and symptoms related to oral disease and tooth loss in a Japanese adult community. METHODS: Oral health status and lifestyle

Ichizo Morita; Haruo Nakagaki; Atsushi Toyama; Matsumi Hayashi; Miho Shimozato; Tsuyoshi Watanabe; Shimpei Tohmatsu; Junko Igo; Aubrey Sheiham

2006-01-01

15

A Study of Factors Promoting Success in Computer Science Including Gender Differences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was conducted to determine factors that promote success in an introductory college computer science course and to determine what, if any, differences appear between genders on those factors. The model included math background, attribution for success/failure, self-efficacy, encouragement, comfort level in the course, work style preference, previous programming experience, previous non-programming computer experience, and gender as possible predictive factors for success in the computer science course. Subjects included 105 students enrolled in an introductory computer science course. The study revealed three predictive factors in the following order of importance: comfort level (with a positive influence), math background (with a positive influence), and attribution to luck (with a negative influence). No significant gender differences were found in these three factors. The study also revealed that both a formal class in programming (which had a positive correlation) and game playing (which had a negative correlation) were predictive of success. The study revealed a significant gender difference in game playing with males reporting more experience with playing games on the computer than females reported.

Cantwell Wilson, Brenda

2002-03-01

16

DNA Damage Response Factors from Diverse Pathways, Including DNA Crosslink Repair, Mediate Alternative End Joining  

PubMed Central

Alternative end joining (Alt-EJ) chromosomal break repair involves bypassing classical non-homologous end joining (c-NHEJ), and such repair causes mutations often with microhomology at the repair junction. Since the mediators of Alt-EJ are not well understood, we have sought to identify DNA damage response (DDR) factors important for this repair event. Using chromosomal break reporter assays, we surveyed an RNAi library targeting known DDR factors for siRNAs that cause a specific decrease in Alt-EJ, relative to an EJ event that is a composite of Alt-EJ and c-NHEJ (Distal-EJ between two tandem breaks). From this analysis, we identified several DDR factors that are specifically important for Alt-EJ relative to Distal-EJ. While these factors are from diverse pathways, we also found that most of them also promote homologous recombination (HR), including factors important for DNA crosslink repair, such as the Fanconi Anemia factor, FANCA. Since bypass of c-NHEJ is likely important for both Alt-EJ and HR, we disrupted the c-NHEJ factor Ku70 in Fanca-deficient mouse cells and found that Ku70 loss significantly diminishes the influence of Fanca on Alt-EJ. In contrast, an inhibitor of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) causes a decrease in Alt-EJ that is enhanced by Ku70 loss. Additionally, the helicase/nuclease DNA2 appears to have distinct effects from FANCA and PARP on both Alt-EJ, as well as end resection. Finally, we found that the proteasome inhibitor Bortezomib, a cancer therapeutic that has been shown to disrupt FANC signaling, causes a significant reduction in both Alt-EJ and HR, relative to Distal-EJ, as well as a substantial loss of end resection. We suggest that several distinct DDR functions are important for Alt-EJ, which include promoting bypass of c-NHEJ and end resection. PMID:25629353

Howard, Sean M.; Yanez, Diana A.; Stark, Jeremy M.

2015-01-01

17

Amplification of progenitors in the mammalian telencephalon includes a new radial glial cell type  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms governing the expansion of neuron number in specific brain regions are still poorly understood. Enlarged neuron numbers in different species are often anticipated by increased numbers of progenitors dividing in the subventricular zone. Here we present live imaging analysis of radial glial cells and their progeny in the ventral telencephalon, the region with the largest subventricular zone in the murine brain during neurogenesis. We observe lineage amplification by a new type of progenitor, including bipolar radial glial cells dividing at subapical positions and generating further proliferating progeny. The frequency of this new type of progenitor is increased not only in larger clones of the mouse lateral ganglionic eminence but also in cerebral cortices of gyrated species, and upon inducing gyrification in the murine cerebral cortex. This implies key roles of this new type of radial glia in ontogeny and phylogeny. PMID:23839311

Pilz, Gregor-Alexander; Shitamukai, Atsunori; Reillo, Isabel; Pacary, Emilie; Schwausch, Julia; Stahl, Ronny; Ninkovic, Jovica; Snippert, Hugo J.; Clevers, Hans; Godinho, Leanne; Guillemot, Francois; Borrell, Victor; Matsuzaki, Fumio; Götz, Magdalena

2013-01-01

18

Active proliferation of different cell types, including lymphocytes, in human atherosclerotic plaques.  

PubMed Central

Cell proliferation, an important mechanism of atherosclerotic plaque growth, occurs among smooth muscle, inflammatory cell, and other cell types. We have identified different topographical patterns of cell proliferation in human carotid plaques, based on cell type. Cell proliferation was determined with an antibody to the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), combined with cell type-specific antibodies. Despite low levels of overall proliferative activity, the intima displayed more proliferative activity than the underlying media (1.61 +/- 0.35% in intima versus 0.05 +/- 0.03% in media; P < 0.01). The preponderant proliferative cell type in the intima was the monocyte/macrophage (46.0% of PCNA-positive cells), with a minority being smooth muscle alpha-actin-positive (9.7%), microvascular endothelial (14.3%), and T cells (13.1%). Smooth muscle cells were the dominant proliferating cell type in the media (44.4% of PCNA-positive cells versus 20% endothelial cells, 13.0% monocyte/macrophages, and 14.3% T cells). Within the plaque, foam-cell-rich regions mostly displayed proliferation among macrophages (66.5%), whereas in vascularized fields PCNA positivity was almost equally shared by endothelial cells (23.8%), monocyte/macrophages (26.3%), smooth muscle alpha-actin-positive cells (14.0%), and to a lesser extent, T cells (8.2%). Logistic and linear regression analyses also demonstrated that location in foam-cell-rich regions was a significant predictor of proliferation only among monocyte/macrophages, whereas location in vascularized regions was a good predictor of PCNA positivity among both inflammatory and noninflammatory cells. These different patterns of cell type proliferation suggest possibly different distributions of putative responsible growth regulatory factors in human atherosclerosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7677178

Rekhter, M. D.; Gordon, D.

1995-01-01

19

Type 2 Diabetes in Children: Clinical Aspects and Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, type 2 diabetes mellitus was considered a disease of adults and older individuals, not a paediatric condition. Over the last decade, however, in the USA and the rest of the world there has been a disturbing trend of increasing cases of type 2 diabetes in children, mirroring increasing rates of obesity. The risk factors for paediatric type

Silva Arslanian

2002-01-01

20

Humanized mouse models for type 1 diabetes including pancreatic islet transplantation.  

PubMed

We comment here on the suitability of available mouse models for type 1 diabetes research including research on therapeutic pancreatic islet transplantation. The major emphasis will be laid on models that require minimal invasive procedures.Most biological processes are too complex for a complete recapitulation in a test tube. The study of innate or even adaptive immune responses involves a number of different cell types and organs making in vitro studies unreliable but also providing extreme challenges for the use of surrogate model organisms. Studying these processes directly in humans is impossible due to ethical and technical constraints. To resolve this problem small animal models such as mice or rats are frequently used to study mechanisms of complex diseases. This has brought much insight into hematopoiesis and immune cell function including type 1 diabetes (T1D); however, 65 million years of evolution introduced striking differences between mice and humans 1. In fact, none of the many suggested therapies arising from studies using mice 2 3 that have promised prevention or even reversion of T1D made it into the clinic yet 4 5 6. The reason for this are major species-specific differences between rodents and humans regarding the immune system and beta cells. PMID:25369071

Rahmig, S; Bornstein, S R; Chavakis, T; Jaeckel, E; Waskow, C

2015-01-01

21

25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include? 170...Policy and Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?...

2014-04-01

22

25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include? 170...Policy and Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?...

2013-04-01

23

25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include? 170...Policy and Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?...

2012-04-01

24

P and n-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including band gap widening elements, devices utilizing same  

DOEpatents

An n-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including a band gap widening element; a method of fabricating p-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including a band gap widening element; and electronic and photovoltaic devices incorporating said n-type and p-type materials.

Guha, Subhendu (Troy, MI); Ovshinsky, Stanford R. (Bloomfield Hills, MI)

1988-10-04

25

A Configuration and Control Method of DC Loop Type Distribution System Including Distributed Generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the large-scale factories like ironworks, many power electronic inverter loads exist, and these inverter loads are connected into ac systems by using rectifiers. On the other hand, DGs (Distributed Generators) such as photovoltaic generators and fuel cells, or ESSs (Energy Storage Systems) such as secondary batteries and SMESs (Superconducting Magnetic Energy Strages), which are dc power sources will be introduced to distribution systems more and more. These are connected into ac systems by using inverters. Therefore, it is expected that some countermeasures to achieve a dc distribution system which can reduce power losses due to rectifiers and inverters, should be developed. In this paper, a dc loop type distribution system is proposed as one of the new dc distribution system configurations. The calculation results of power losses for the dc loop type distribution system are compared with those for an ac distribution system. Moreover, this paper shows configurations and simulation results of the inverter, bi-directional rectifier and PFC (Power Factor Corrector) used in this system.

Saisho, Masaki; Ise, Toshifumi; Tsuji, Kiichiro

26

Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling Factors Including Ran and CRM1 Mediate Nuclear Export of NFAT In Vitro  

PubMed Central

We have developed a permeabilized cell assay to study the nuclear export of the shuttling transcription factor NFAT, which contains a leucine-rich export signal. The assay uses HeLa cells that are stably transfected with NFAT fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Nuclear export of GFP–NFAT in digitonin-permeabilized cells occurs in a temperature- and ATP-dependent manner and can be quantified by flow cytometry. In vitro NFAT export requires the GTPase Ran, which is released from cells during the digitonin permeabilization. At least one additional rate-limiting export factor is depleted from permeabilized cells by a preincubation at 30°C in the absence of cytosol. This activity can be provided by cytosolic or nucleoplasmic extracts in a subsequent export step. Using this assay, we have purified a second major export activity from cytosol. We found that it corresponds to CRM1, a protein recently reported to be a receptor for certain leucine-rich export sequences. CRM1 appears to be imported into the nucleus by a Ran-dependent mechanism that is distinct from conventional signaling pathways. Considered together, our studies directly demonstrate by fractionation and reconstitution that nuclear export of NFAT is mediated by multiple nucleocytoplasmic shuttling factors, including Ran and CRM1. PMID:9585406

Kehlenbach, Ralph H.; Dickmanns, Achim; Gerace, Larry

1998-01-01

27

Impact of early psychosocial factors (childhood socioeconomic factors and adversities) on future risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic disturbances and obesity: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES) have a notable impact on health disparities, including type 2 diabetes risk. However, the link between childhood psychosocial factors, such as childhood adversities or parental SES, and metabolic disturbances is less well established. In addition, the lifetime perspective including adult socioeconomic factors remains of further interest. We carried out a systematic review with

Teresa Tamayo; Christian Herder; Wolfgang Rathmann

2010-01-01

28

Compact pulley-type microring resonator with high quality factor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pulley-type microring resonator with ultra-small dimensions and ultra-high quality factor on a silicon-on-insulator wafer is fabricated and characterized. Simulation results show that the bending loss of the pulley-type microring resonator can be diminished by wrapping the curved waveguide around the microring, and that the energy loss from the output port can be decreased by tuning the width of the bus waveguide to achieve destructive interference. A quality factor of 1.73 × 105 is obtained in this experiment. The compact size of the pulley-type microring resonator with low bending loss is suitable for an integrated optical circuit.

Cai, Dong-Po; Lu, Jyun-Hong; Chen, Chii-Chang; Lee, Chien-Chieh; Lin, Chu-En; Yen, Ta-Jen

2014-11-01

29

Defining a nonconcrete recursive type in HOL which includes Tanja Vos and Doaitse Swierstra  

E-print Network

The general approach for defining a new type in HOL 2 2 The general approach for defining a new type in HOL The approach to defining a new logical type as described in [Mel89], involves the following three steps: 1. find an appropriate non­empty subset of an existing type to represent the new type 2. extend the syntax

Utrecht, Universiteit

30

Defining a non-concrete recursive type in HOL which includes Tanja Vos and Doaitse Swierstra  

E-print Network

approach for defining a new type in HOL 2 2 The general approach for defining a new type in HOL The approach to defining a new logical type as described in [Mel89], involves the following three steps: 1. find an appropriate non-empty subset of an existing type to represent the new type 2. extend the syntax

Utrecht, Universiteit

31

10 CFR 719.6 - Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part...719.6 Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part? Matters not covered by this part include:...

2012-01-01

32

10 CFR 719.6 - Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part...719.6 Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part? Legal matters not covered by this part include:...

2014-01-01

33

10 CFR 719.6 - Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part...719.6 Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part? Matters not covered by this part include:...

2013-01-01

34

10 CFR 719.6 - Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part...719.6 Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part? Matters not covered by this part include:...

2010-01-01

35

10 CFR 719.6 - Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part...719.6 Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part? Matters not covered by this part include:...

2011-01-01

36

A decision support system prototype including human factors based on the TOGA meta-theory approach  

SciTech Connect

The human contribution to the risk of operation of complex technological systems is often not negligible and sometimes tends to become significant, as shown by many reports on incidents and accidents occurred in the past inside Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). An error of a human operator of a NPP can derive by both omission and commission. For instance, complex commission errors can also lead to significant catastrophic technological accidents, as for the case of the Three Mile Island accident. Typically, the problem is analyzed by focusing on the single event chain that has provoked the incident or accident. What is needed is a general framework able to include as many parameters as possible, i.e. both technological and human factors. Such a general model could allow to envisage an omission or commission error before it can happen or, alternatively, suggest preferred actions to do in order to take countermeasures to neutralize the effect of the error before it becomes critical. In this paper, a preliminary Decision Support System (DSS) based on the so-called (-) TOGA meta-theory approach is presented. The application of such a theory to the management of nuclear power plants has been presented in the previous ICAPP 2011. Here, a human factor simulator prototype is proposed in order to include the effect of human errors in the decision path. The DSS has been developed using a TRIGA research reactor as reference plant, and implemented using the LabVIEW programming environment and the Finite State Machine (FSM) model The proposed DSS shows how to apply the Universal Reasoning Paradigm (URP) and the Universal Management Paradigm (UMP) to a real plant context. The DSS receives inputs from instrumentation data and gives as output a suggested decision. It is obtained as the result of an internal elaborating process based on a performance function. The latter, describes the degree of satisfaction and efficiency, which are dependent on the level of responsibility related to each professional role. As an application, we present the simulation of the discussed error, e.g. the unchecked extraction of the control rods during a power variation maneuver and we show how the effect of human errors can affect the performance function, giving rise to different countermeasures which could call different operator figures into play, potentially not envisaged in the standard procedure. (authors)

Cappelli, M.; Memmi, F. [UTFISST, ENEA Casaccia, via Anguillarese 301, Rome (Italy); Gadomski, A. M. [ECONA, Centro Interuniv. Elaborazione Cognitiva Sistemi Naturali e Artificiali, via dei Marsi 47, Rome (Italy); Sepielli, M. [UTFISST, ENEA Casaccia, via Anguillarese 301, Rome (Italy)

2012-07-01

37

78 FR 26847 - Including Specific Pavement Types in Federal-aid Highway Traffic Noise Analyses  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...three pavement types: dense-graded asphaltic concrete (DGAC), open-graded asphaltic concrete (OGAC), and Portland cement concrete (PCC). Prediction of future noise levels is based on the ``average'' pavement type, calculated as the...

2013-05-08

38

The Cognitive Phenotype in Klinefelter Syndrome: A Review of the Literature Including Genetic and Hormonal Factors  

PubMed Central

Klinefelter syndrome (KS) or 47,XXY occurs in ?1 in 650 males. Individuals with KS often present with physical characteristics including tall stature, hypogonadism, and fertility problems. In addition to medical findings, the presence of the extra X chromosome can lead to characteristic cognitive and language deficits of varying severity. While a small, but significant downward shift in mean overall IQ has been reported, the general cognitive abilities of patients with KS are not typically in the intellectual disability range. Most studies support that males with KS have an increased risk of language disorders and reading disabilities. Results of other studies investigating the relationship between verbal and nonverbal/spatial cognitive abilities have been mixed, with differing results based on the age and ascertainment method of the cohort studied. Executive function deficits have been identified in children and adults with KS, however, the research in this area is limited and further investigation of the neuropsychological profile is needed. In this article, we review the strengths and weaknesses of previous cognitive and neuropsychological studies in males with KS in childhood and adulthood, provide historical perspective of these studies, and review what is known about how hormonal and genetic factors influence cognitive features in 47,XXY/KS. PMID:20014369

Boada, Richard; Janusz, Jennifer; Hutaff-Lee, Christa; Tartaglia, Nicole

2011-01-01

39

Thermoelectric material including a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure  

DOEpatents

A thermoelectric material includes a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure having the formula A.sub.8TM.sub.y.sub.1.sup.1TM.sub.y.sub.2.sup.2 . . . TM.sub.y.sub.n.sup.nM.sub.zX.sub.46-y.sub.1.sub.-y.sub.2.sub.- . . . -y.sub.n.sub.-z. In the formula, A is selected from the group consisting of barium, strontium, and europium; X is selected from the group consisting of silicon, germanium, and tin; M is selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, and indium; TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, and TM.sup.n are independently selected from the group consisting of 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metals; and y.sub.1, y.sub.2, y.sub.n and Z are actual compositions of TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, TM.sup.n, and M, respectively. The actual compositions are based upon nominal compositions derived from the following equation: z=8q.sub.A-|.DELTA.q.sub.1|y.sub.1-|.DELTA.q.sub.2|y.sub.2- . . . -|.DELTA.q.sub.n|y.sub.n, wherein q.sub.A is a charge state of A, and wherein .DELTA.q.sub.1, .DELTA.q.sub.2, .DELTA.q.sub.n are, respectively, the nominal charge state of the first, second, and n-th TM.

Yang, Jihui (Lakeshore, CA); Shi, Xun (Troy, MI); Bai, Shengqiang (Shanghai, CN); Zhang, Wenqing (Shanghai, CN); Chen, Lidong (Shanghai, CN); Yang, Jiong (Shanghai, CN)

2012-01-17

40

Lucky drift estimation of excess noise factor for conventional avalanche photodiodes including the dead space effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for estimating the excess noise factor in conventional avalanche photodiodes has been developed. It is based upon a computer simulation of carrier motion using the lucky drift concept. The importance of the impact ionization dead space is demonstrated, and an established theory is shown to overestimate the excess noise factor due to the neglect of the dead space

John S. Marsland; R. C. Woods; C. A. Brownhill

1992-01-01

41

Type I and II Endometrial Cancers: Have They Different Risk Factors?  

PubMed Central

Purpose Endometrial cancers have long been divided into estrogen-dependent type I and the less common clinically aggressive estrogen-independent type II. Little is known about risk factors for type II tumors because most studies lack sufficient cases to study these much less common tumors separately. We examined whether so-called classical endometrial cancer risk factors also influence the risk of type II tumors. Patients and Methods Individual-level data from 10 cohort and 14 case-control studies from the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium were pooled. A total of 14,069 endometrial cancer cases and 35,312 controls were included. We classified endometrioid (n = 7,246), adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified (n = 4,830), and adenocarcinoma with squamous differentiation (n = 777) as type I tumors and serous (n = 508) and mixed cell (n = 346) as type II tumors. Results Parity, oral contraceptive use, cigarette smoking, age at menarche, and diabetes were associated with type I and type II tumors to similar extents. Body mass index, however, had a greater effect on type I tumors than on type II tumors: odds ratio (OR) per 2 kg/m2 increase was 1.20 (95% CI, 1.19 to 1.21) for type I and 1.12 (95% CI, 1.09 to 1.14) for type II tumors (Pheterogeneity < .0001). Risk factor patterns for high-grade endometrioid tumors and type II tumors were similar. Conclusion The results of this pooled analysis suggest that the two endometrial cancer types share many common etiologic factors. The etiology of type II tumors may, therefore, not be completely estrogen independent, as previously believed. PMID:23733771

Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Yang, Hannah P.; Pike, Malcolm C.; McCann, Susan E.; Yu, Herbert; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Wolk, Alicja; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Weiss, Noel S.; Webb, Penelope M.; van den Brandt, Piet A.; van de Vijver, Koen; Thompson, Pamela J.; Strom, Brian L.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Soslow, Robert A.; Shu, Xiao-ou; Schairer, Catherine; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Rohan, Thomas E.; Robien, Kim; Risch, Harvey A.; Ricceri, Fulvio; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Rastogi, Radhai; Prescott, Jennifer; Polidoro, Silvia; Park, Yikyung; Olson, Sara H.; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Miller, Anthony B.; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Matsuno, Rayna K.; Magliocco, Anthony M.; Lurie, Galina; Lu, Lingeng; Lissowska, Jolanta; Liang, Xiaolin; Lacey, James V.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Håkansson, Niclas; Goodman, Marc T.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Doherty, Jennifer; De Vivo, Immaculata; Courneya, Kerry S.; Cook, Linda S.; Chen, Chu; Cerhan, James R.; Cai, Hui; Brinton, Louise A.; Bernstein, Leslie; Anderson, Kristin E.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Schouten, Leo J.; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.

2013-01-01

42

Method of fabricating n-type and p-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including band gap widening elements  

DOEpatents

A method of fabricating doped microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material which includes a band gap widening element through a glow discharge deposition process by subjecting a precursor mixture which includes a diluent gas to an a.c. glow discharge in the absence of a magnetic field of sufficient strength to induce electron cyclotron resonance.

Guha, Subhendu (Troy, MI); Ovshinsky, Stanford R. (Bloomfield Hills, MI)

1990-02-02

43

36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS GUIDANCE FOR INTERPRETATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRESIDENT JOHN F. KENNEDY ASSASSINATION RECORDS COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope...

2010-07-01

44

School Factors Associated with Mainstream Progress in Secondary Education for Included Pupils with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examined the factors promoting inclusion of young people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in mainstream secondary schools, and noted high levels of behavioral difficulties in these pupils. The size of the secondary school, and the class size, impacted positively on the pupils with Autism, and the number of other pupils with…

Osborne, Lisa A.; Reed, Phil

2011-01-01

45

CHEMICAL WASTE RECYCLING PROGRAM All types of batteries are collected by Chemical Waste Services (CWS) for recycling. These include  

E-print Network

CHEMICAL WASTE RECYCLING PROGRAM BATTERIES All types of batteries are collected by Chemical Waste Services (CWS) for recycling. These include alkaline, lithium, rechargeable, coin batteries, lead-acid and all other types. Uninterruptible Power Source (UPS) batteries must be removed from the UPS casing

Baker, Chris I.

46

Effect of fuels and domestic heating appliance types on emission factors of selected organic pollutants.  

PubMed

This study reports on the first complex data set of emission factors (EFs) of selected pollutants from combustion of five fuel types (lignite, bituminous coal, spruce, beech, and maize) in six different domestic heating appliances of various combustion designs. The effect of fuel as well as the effect of boiler type was studied. In total, 46 combustion runs were performed, during which numerous EFs were measured, including the EFs of particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), etc. The highest EFs of nonchlorinated pollutants were measured for old-type boilers with over-fire and under-fire designs and with manual stoking and natural draft. Emissions of the above-mentioned pollutants from modern-type boilers (automatic, downdraft) were 10 times lower or more. The decisive factor for emission rate of nonchlorinated pollutants was the type of appliance; the type of fuel plays only a minor role. Emissions of chlorinated pollutants were proportional mainly to the chlorine content in fuel, but the type of appliance also influenced the rate of emissions significantly. Surprisingly, higher EFs of PCDD/F from combustion of chlorinated bituminous coal were observed for modern-type boilers (downdraft, automatic) than for old-type ones. On the other hand, when bituminous coal was burned, higher emissions of HxCBz were found for old-type boilers than for modern-type ones. PMID:21932830

Šyc, Michal; Horák, Ji?í; Hopan, František; Krpec, Kamil; Tomšej, Tomáš; Ocelka, Tomáš; Pekárek, Vladimír

2011-11-01

47

Should Global Burden of Disease Estimates Include Depression as a Risk Factor for Coronary Heart Disease?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study estimates the premature mortality and disability of all major diseases and injuries.\\u000a In addition it aims to quantify the risk that diseases and other factors play in the aetiology of disease and injuries. Mental\\u000a disorders and coronary heart disease are both significant public health issues due to their high prevalence and considerable\\u000a contribution

Fiona J Charlson; Nicholas JC Stapelberg; Amanda J Baxter; Harvey A Whiteford

2011-01-01

48

Linkage Map of the Human Major Histocompatibility Complex Including the Tumor Necrosis Factor Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha and beta gene pair has been linked in the human major histocompatibility complex to HLA-B, HLA-C, and, tentatively, HLA-E and HLA-A on one side and to the class III complement\\/steroid 21-hydroxylase gene cluster on the other by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The TNF genes are located 200 kilobases (kb) centromeric of HLA-B and about 350

Michael C. Carroll; Philip Katzman; Elizabeth M. Alicot; Beverly H. Koller; Daniel E. Geraghty; Harry T. Orr; Jack L. Strominger; Thomas Spies

1987-01-01

49

Meat Consumption as a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Disease risk factors identified in epidemiological studies serve as important public health tools, helping clinicians identify individuals who may benefit from more aggressive screening or risk-modification procedures, allowing policymakers to prioritize intervention programs, and encouraging at-risk individuals to modify behavior and improve their health. These factors have been based primarily on evidence from cross-sectional and prospective studies, as most do not lend themselves to randomized trials. While some risk factors are not modifiable, eating habits are subject to change through both individual action and broader policy initiatives. Meat consumption has been frequently investigated as a variable associated with diabetes risk, but it has not yet been described as a diabetes risk factor. In this article, we evaluate the evidence supporting the use of meat consumption as a clinically useful risk factor for type 2 diabetes, based on studies evaluating the risks associated with meat consumption as a categorical dietary characteristic (i.e., meat consumption versus no meat consumption), as a scalar variable (i.e., gradations of meat consumption), or as part of a broader dietary pattern. PMID:24566443

Barnard, Neal; Levin, Susan; Trapp, Caroline

2014-01-01

50

Robert Riding Authigenic seafloor carbonate crusts include fenestrate microbialite, thrombolite, and four types here designated  

E-print Network

Archaean-Mesoproterozoic. It includes botryoidal fans and other crystal pseudomorphs, microdigitate at the open sediment-water interface rather than as void-fills. Two of them in particular, isopachous laminite occur in some speleothem, hot spring, and splash-zone marine crusts, and of Fine-grained Crust

Riding, Robert

51

Computational Prediction and Experimental Verification of New MAP Kinase Docking Sites and Substrates Including Gli Transcription Factors  

PubMed Central

In order to fully understand protein kinase networks, new methods are needed to identify regulators and substrates of kinases, especially for weakly expressed proteins. Here we have developed a hybrid computational search algorithm that combines machine learning and expert knowledge to identify kinase docking sites, and used this algorithm to search the human genome for novel MAP kinase substrates and regulators focused on the JNK family of MAP kinases. Predictions were tested by peptide array followed by rigorous biochemical verification with in vitro binding and kinase assays on wild-type and mutant proteins. Using this procedure, we found new ‘D-site’ class docking sites in previously known JNK substrates (hnRNP-K, PPM1J/PP2Czeta), as well as new JNK-interacting proteins (MLL4, NEIL1). Finally, we identified new D-site-dependent MAPK substrates, including the hedgehog-regulated transcription factors Gli1 and Gli3, suggesting that a direct connection between MAP kinase and hedgehog signaling may occur at the level of these key regulators. These results demonstrate that a genome-wide search for MAP kinase docking sites can be used to find new docking sites and substrates. PMID:20865152

Whisenant, Thomas C.; Ho, David T.; Benz, Ryan W.; Rogers, Jeffrey S.; Kaake, Robyn M.; Gordon, Elizabeth A.; Huang, Lan; Baldi, Pierre; Bardwell, Lee

2010-01-01

52

Profiling the transcription factor regulatory networks of human cell types.  

PubMed

Neph et al. (2012) (Circuitry and dynamics of human transcription factor regulatory networks. Cell, 150: 1274-1286) reported the transcription factor (TF) regulatory networks of 41 human cell types using the DNaseI footprinting technique. This provides a valuable resource for uncovering regulation principles in different human cells. In this paper, the architectures of the 41 regulatory networks and the distributions of housekeeping and specific regulatory interactions are investigated. The TF regulatory networks of different human cell types demonstrate similar global three-layer (top, core and bottom) hierarchical architectures, which are greatly different from the yeast TF regulatory network. However, they have distinguishable local organizations, as suggested by the fact that wiring patterns of only a few TFs are enough to distinguish cell identities. The TF regulatory network of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is dense and enriched with interactions that are unseen in the networks of other cell types. The examination of specific regulatory interactions suggests that specific interactions play important roles in hESCs. PMID:25300490

Zhang, Shihua; Tian, Dechao; Tran, Ngoc Hieu; Choi, Kwok Pui; Zhang, Louxin

2014-11-10

53

Profiling the transcription factor regulatory networks of human cell types  

PubMed Central

Neph et al. (2012) (Circuitry and dynamics of human transcription factor regulatory networks. Cell, 150: 1274–1286) reported the transcription factor (TF) regulatory networks of 41 human cell types using the DNaseI footprinting technique. This provides a valuable resource for uncovering regulation principles in different human cells. In this paper, the architectures of the 41 regulatory networks and the distributions of housekeeping and specific regulatory interactions are investigated. The TF regulatory networks of different human cell types demonstrate similar global three-layer (top, core and bottom) hierarchical architectures, which are greatly different from the yeast TF regulatory network. However, they have distinguishable local organizations, as suggested by the fact that wiring patterns of only a few TFs are enough to distinguish cell identities. The TF regulatory network of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is dense and enriched with interactions that are unseen in the networks of other cell types. The examination of specific regulatory interactions suggests that specific interactions play important roles in hESCs. PMID:25300490

Zhang, Shihua; Tian, Dechao; Tran, Ngoc Hieu; Choi, Kwok Pui; Zhang, Louxin

2014-01-01

54

Epidemiological profiles of hand, foot, and mouth disease, including meteorological factors, in Suzhou, China.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the epidemiological profiles of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) activity in Suzhou, China, and the relationship between meteorological factors and enterovirus71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CoxA16) infection. Children < 14 years old with probable HFMD at Soochow University Affiliated Children's Hospital were enrolled during January 2008 to December 2013. Samples from hospitalized children with HFMD were collected and tested using real-time reverse transcription PCR. Correlations between probable HFMD, laboratory-confirmed HFMD, and meteorological factors were analyzed using bivariate correlation, stepwise regression and time series analysis. A total of 29,530 probable cases were diagnosed with HFMD, and 1090 hospitalized cases were confirmed in the laboratory. The median age of individuals with HFMD was 28.6 months (interquartile range, 18-46.9 months), and the incidence was highest in children aged 12-36 months. Children infected with other enteroviruses were younger than those infected with EV71 and CoxA16. Mean temperature and total rainfall were strongly correlated with probable HFMD. In terms of the specific pathogen, only EV71 cases were associated with mean temperature during the study period of 2012-2013. Based on a simple seasonal model with a good fit, a seasonal pattern of HFMD activity could be predicted. This study provides quantitative evidence that probable HFMD was associated with mean temperature and total rainfall. Furthermore, a seasonal model could be used as an early and reliable monitoring system to predict seasonal pattern of HFMD in Suzhou, China. PMID:25430907

Chen, Zhengrong; Sun, Hongpeng; Yan, Yongdong; Wang, Yuqing; Zhu, Canhong; Zhou, Weifang; Huang, Li; Wang, Meijuan; Mize, Maximillion; Tian, Jianmei; Ji, Wei

2014-11-29

55

Cerebrospinal fluid markers including trefoil factor 3 are associated with neurodegeneration in amyloid-positive individuals.  

PubMed

We aimed to identify cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers associated with neurodegeneration in individuals with and without CSF evidence of Alzheimer pathology. We investigated 287 Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) subjects (age=74.9±6.9; 22/48/30% with Alzheimer's disease/mild cognitive impairment/controls) with CSF multiplex analyte data and serial volumetric MRI. We calculated brain and hippocampal atrophy rates, ventricular expansion and Mini Mental State Examination decline. We used false discovery rate corrected regression analyses to assess associations between CSF variables and atrophy rates in individuals with and without amyloid pathology, adjusting in stages for tau, baseline volume, p-tau, age, sex, ApoE4 status and diagnosis. Analytes showing statistically significant independent relationships were entered into reverse stepwise analyses. Adjusting for tau, baseline volume, p-tau, age, sex and ApoE4, 4/83 analytes were significantly independently associated with brain atrophy rate, 1/83 with ventricular expansion and 2/83 with hippocampal atrophy. The strongest CSF predictor for the three atrophy measures was low trefoil factor 3 (TFF3). High cystatin C (CysC) was associated with higher whole brain atrophy and hippocampal atrophy rates. Lower levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and chromogranin A (CrA) were associated with higher whole brain atrophy. In exploratory reverse stepwise analyses, lower TFF3 was associated with higher rates of whole brain, hippocampal atrophy and ventricular expansion. Lower levels of CrA were associated with higher whole brain atrophy rate. The relationship between low TFF3 and increased hippocampal atrophy rate remained after adjustment for diagnosis. We identified a series of CSF markers that are independently associated with rate of neurodegeneration in amyloid-positive individuals. TFF3, a substrate for NOTCH processing may be an important biomarker of neurodegeneration across the Alzheimer spectrum. PMID:25072324

Paterson, R W; Bartlett, J W; Blennow, K; Fox, N C; Shaw, L M; Trojanowski, J Q; Zetterberg, H; Schott, J M

2014-01-01

56

Genetic factors influencing C-type RNA virus induction  

E-print Network

There is now considerable evidence that spontaneous leukemias in mice are caused by C-type RNA viruses. These viruses appear to be capable of existing in the animal in an unexpressed form for many generations. In inbred mouse strains such as C58 and AKR, in which virus can be detected early in life, leukemia develops at high frequency in young animals (1, 2). In other strains such as BALB/c or C57BL/6, virus is first detectable in older mice; in these strains leukemia appears at a much lower frequency in late life (2, 3) or after exposure to X-irradiation or chemical carcinogens (3, 4). Some strains such as NIH Swiss have a very low incidence of leukemia; and C-type viruses have yet to be isolated. In tissue culture, evidence that an endogenous C-type viral genome can exist in an unexpressed state in mouse cells was presented in studies of BALB/c and random-bred Swiss mouse embryo cells (5). Certain cell lines derived from virus-negative primary embryos were shown to produce virus spontaneously after many generations in culture. More recent studies have shown that activation of virus production can be greatly enhanced by treatment of mouse cells with certain chemical andphysical agents (6, 7) ; these studies demonstrate that C-type viruses are present in an unexpressed form in all AKR (6, 7) and BALB/c cells (8, 9). The genetic factors influencing the induction process in tissue culture might be expected to b eimportant in the expression of virus and development of leukemia ill the animal. In the present studies, we have investigated some of these factors in cells from high and low leukemia strains and their F1 hybrids. Materials and Methods Mice.--C57BL/6N, NIH/N, and BALB/cN mice were obtained from the colonies of the

R. Stephenson; Stuart; A. Aaronson

1972-01-01

57

Obesity as a risk factor for certain types of cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary and Conclusions  In conclusion, obesity has been associated with increased risk for a number of different types of cancer. The evidence has\\u000a been most consistent for endometrial cancer, breast cancer in postmenopausal women, and renal cell cancer. More variable results\\u000a have been reported for colorectal, prostate and pancreatic cancer.\\u000a \\u000a Possible mechanisms by which obesity may influence cancer risk include alteration

K. K. Carroll

1998-01-01

58

Synergistic and multidimensional regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 expression by transforming growth factor type ? and epidermal growth factor  

SciTech Connect

The major physiological inhibitor of plasminogen activator, type I plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), controls blood clotting and tissue remodeling events that involve cell migration. Transforming growth factor type ? (TGF?) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) interact synergistically to increase PAI-1 mRNA and protein levels in human HepG2 and mink Mv1Lu cells. Other growth factors that activate tyrosine kinase receptors can substitute for EGF. EGF and TGF? regulate PAI-1 by synergistically activating transcription, which is further amplified by a decrease in the rate of mRNA degradation, the latter being regulated only by EGF. The combined effect of transcriptional activation and mRNA stabilization results in a rapid 2-order of magnitude increase in the level of PAI-1. TGF? also increases the sensitivity of the cells to EGF, thereby recruiting the cooperation of EGF at lower than normally effective concentrations. The contribution of EGF to the regulation of PAI-1 involves the MAPK pathway, and the synergistic interface with the TGF? pathway is downstream of MEK1/2 and involves phosphorylation of neither ERK1/2 nor Smad2/3. Synergism requires the presence of both Smad and AP-1 recognition sites in the promoter. This work demonstrates the existence of a multidimensional cellular mechanism by which EGF and TGF? are able to promote large and rapid changes in PAI-1 expression.

Song, Xiaoling; Thalacker, F.W.; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit

2012-04-06

59

Sequence and chromatin determinants of cell-type–specific transcription factor binding  

PubMed Central

Gene regulatory programs in distinct cell types are maintained in large part through the cell-type–specific binding of transcription factors (TFs). The determinants of TF binding include direct DNA sequence preferences, DNA sequence preferences of cofactors, and the local cell-dependent chromatin context. To explore the contribution of DNA sequence signal, histone modifications, and DNase accessibility to cell-type–specific binding, we analyzed 286 ChIP-seq experiments performed by the ENCODE Consortium. This analysis included experiments for 67 transcriptional regulators, 15 of which were profiled in both the GM12878 (lymphoblastoid) and K562 (erythroleukemic) human hematopoietic cell lines. To model TF-bound regions, we trained support vector machines (SVMs) that use flexible k-mer patterns to capture DNA sequence signals more accurately than traditional motif approaches. In addition, we trained SVM spatial chromatin signatures to model local histone modifications and DNase accessibility, obtaining significantly more accurate TF occupancy predictions than simpler approaches. Consistent with previous studies, we find that DNase accessibility can explain cell-line–specific binding for many factors. However, we also find that of the 10 factors with prominent cell-type–specific binding patterns, four display distinct cell-type–specific DNA sequence preferences according to our models. Moreover, for two factors we identify cell-specific binding sites that are accessible in both cell types but bound only in one. For these sites, cell-type–specific sequence models, rather than DNase accessibility, are better able to explain differential binding. Our results suggest that using a single motif for each TF and filtering for chromatin accessible loci is not always sufficient to accurately account for cell-type–specific binding profiles. PMID:22955984

Arvey, Aaron; Agius, Phaedra; Noble, William Stafford; Leslie, Christina

2012-01-01

60

Comparative study of plasma proteins including haptoglobin and serum amyloid A in different types of traumatic reticuloperitonitis in cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumatic reticuloperitonitis (TRP) is a relatively common disorder in adult cattle which could appear in various forms including\\u000a local peritonitis, diffuse peritonitis, acute pericarditis, and chronic peritonitis. The objective of the present study was\\u000a to compare the changes of plasma proteins including haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA) as acute phase proteins (APPs)\\u000a in various types of TRP in

M. Ansari-Lari; S. Nazifi; M. Rezaei; J. Asadi-Fardaqi

2008-01-01

61

Immunohistochemical expression of Type IV Collagen and Autocrine Motility Factor Receptor in Odontogenic Tumours  

PubMed Central

Background: Autocrine motility factor receptor (AMFR) is a tumour motility stimulating protein secreted by tumour cells. The protein encoded by this gene is a glycosylated transmembrane protein and a receptor for autocrine motility factor. It has been known to play a role in progression of neoplastic lesions. Basement membranes are specialized extracellular matrices that serve as structural barriers as well as substrates for cellular interactions. The network of type IV collagen is thought to define the scaffold integrating other components such as laminins and perlecan into highly organized supramolecular architecture. The aim of this study was to determine and evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of Type IV Collagen and Autocrine motility factor receptor in odontogenic lesions. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical expression of Type IV Collagen and Autocrine motility factor receptor was evaluated in 31 odontogenic lesions, including unicystic ameloblastoma, multicystic ameloblastoma, keratocystic odontogenic tumour and ameloblastic carcinoma. Normal follicular tissue formed the control. Results: Maximum expression for Type IV Collagen was seen in multicystic ameloblastoma and minimum expression in keratocystic odontogenic tumour. The maximum expression of AMFR was seen in ameloblastic carcinoma and minimum expression in multicystic ameloblastoma. Conclusion: The results of this study suggested an association of loss of expression of type IV Collagen with progression of lesion. AMFR expression was found to be associated with the aggressive potential of tumours. PMID:25478440

Sethi, Sneha

2014-01-01

62

Directional reflectance factor distributions for cover types of Northern Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Directional reflectance factors that spanned the entire exitance hemisphere were collected on the ground throughout the morning period for common cover types in Tunisia, Africa. NOAA 7/8 AVHRR bands 1(0.58-0.68 micron) and 2 (0.7301.1 micron) were used in data collection. The cover types reported were a plowed field, annual grassland, steppe grassland, hard wheat, salt plain, and irrigated wheat. Several of these cover types had geometric structures that are extreme as compared to those reported in the literature. Comparisons were made between the dynamics of the observed reflectance distributions and those reported in the literature. It was found that the dynamics of the measured data could be explained by a combination of soil and vegetation scattering components. The data and analysis further validated physical principles that cause the reflectance distribution dynamics as proposed by field and simulation studies in the literature. Finally, the normalized difference transformation (Band 2 - Band 1)/(Band 1 + Band 2), which is useful in monitoring vegetation cover, generally decreased the variation in signal with changing view angle. However, several exceptions were noted.

Kimes, D. S.; Newcomb, W. W.; Tucker, C. J.; Zonneveld, I. S.; Van Wijngaarden, W.

1985-01-01

63

Spectral, spatial and radiometric factors in cover type discrimination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of spatial, spectral, and radiometric resolutions on the utilization of Thematic Mapper (TM) and Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data is assessed quantitatively using a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design experiment. Eight possible factor combinations were examined for agricultural, urban, forestry, range, and water types of land covers for three levels of information. Spectral bandwidths were configured to simulate all four Landsat MSS channels and Landsat TM channels 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7. By means of bar charts and tables it is shown that the 8-bit radiometric and 75-meter spatial resolutions provide a higher overall accuracy than the 6-bit radiometric and 25-meter spatial resolutions. Spectrally, the difference between the four MSS channels and five TM channel configurations is noted to be insignificant.

Alexander, D.; Buis, J.; Acevedo, W.; Wrigley, R.

1983-01-01

64

Air pollution as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

Recent studies in both humans and animals suggest that air pollution is an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the mechanism by which air pollution mediates propensity to diabetes is not fully understood. While a number of epidemiologic studies have shown a positive association between ambient air pollution exposure and risk for T2DM, some studies have not found such a relationship. Experimental studies in susceptible disease models do support this association and suggest the involvement of tissues involved in the pathogenesis of T2DM such as the immune system, adipose, liver, and central nervous system. This review summarizes the epidemiologic and experimental evidence between ambient outdoor air pollution and T2DM. PMID:25628401

Rao, Xiaoquan; Patel, Priti; Puett, Robin; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

2015-02-01

65

Risk factors and primary prevention trials for type 1 diabetes.  

PubMed

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic autoimmune disease resulting in the designated immune destruction of insulin producing ?-cells, usually diagnosed in youth, and associated with important psychological, familial, and social disorders. Once diagnosed, patients need lifelong insulin treatment and will experience multiple disease-associated complications. There is no cure for T1DM currently. The last decade has witnessed great progress in elucidating the causes and treatment of the disease based on numerous researches both in rodent models of spontaneous diabetes and in humans. This article summarises our current understanding of the pathogenesis of T1DM, the roles of the immune system, genes, environment and other factors in the continuing and rapid increase in T1DM incidence at younger ages in humans. In addition, we discuss the strategies for primary and secondary prevention trials of T1DM. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of this disorder's pathogenesis, risk factors that cause the disease, as well as to bring forward an ideal approach to prevent and cure the disorder. PMID:23904791

Wu, Yan-Ling; Ding, Yan-Ping; Gao, Jian; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Zhang, Wen

2013-01-01

66

Activation of Statl by mutant fibroblast growth-factor receptor in thanatophoric dysplasia type II dwarfism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The achondroplasia class of chondrodysplasias comprises the most common genetic forms of dwarfism in humans and includes achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia and thanatophoric dysplasia types I and II (TDI and TDII), which are caused by different mutations in a fibroblast growth-factor receptor FGFR3 (ref. 1). The molecular mechanism and the mediators of these FGFR3-related growth abnormalities are not known. Here we show

Wu-Chou S. Su; Motoo Kitagawa; Ninrong Xue; Bing Xie; Silvio Garofalo; Jay Cho; Chuxia Deng; William A. Horton; Xin-Yuan Fu

1997-01-01

67

Factor Analysis of Linear Type Traits and Their Relation with Longevity in Brazilian Holstein Cattle  

PubMed Central

In this study we aimed to evaluate the reduction in dimensionality of 20 linear type traits and more final score in 14,943 Holstein cows in Brazil using factor analysis, and indicate their relationship with longevity and 305 d first lactation milk production. Low partial correlations (?0.19 to 0.38), the medium to high Kaiser sampling mean (0.79) and the significance of the Bartlett sphericity test (p<0.001), indicated correlations between type traits and the suitability of these data for a factor analysis, after the elimination of seven traits. Two factors had autovalues greater than one. The first included width and height of posterior udder, udder texture, udder cleft, loin strength, bone quality and final score. The second included stature, top line, chest width, body depth, fore udder attachment, angularity and final score. The linear regression of the factors on several measures of longevity and 305 d milk production showed that selection considering only the first factor should lead to improvements in longevity and 305 milk production. PMID:25050015

Kern, Elisandra Lurdes; Cobuci, Jaime Araújo; Costa, Cláudio Napolis; Pimentel, Concepta Margaret McManus

2014-01-01

68

The Benefits of Including Clinical Factors in Rectal Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To study the impact of clinical predisposing factors on rectal normal tissue complication probability modeling using the updated results of the Dutch prostate dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: Toxicity data of 512 patients (conformally treated to 68 Gy [n = 284] and 78 Gy [n = 228]) with complete follow-up at 3 years after radiotherapy were studied. Scored end points were rectal bleeding, high stool frequency, and fecal incontinence. Two traditional dose-based models (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) and Relative Seriality (RS) and a logistic model were fitted using a maximum likelihood approach. Furthermore, these model fits were improved by including the most significant clinical factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminating ability of all fits. Results: Including clinical factors significantly increased the predictive power of the models for all end points. In the optimal LKB, RS, and logistic models for rectal bleeding and fecal incontinence, the first significant (p = 0.011-0.013) clinical factor was 'previous abdominal surgery.' As second significant (p = 0.012-0.016) factor, 'cardiac history' was included in all three rectal bleeding fits, whereas including 'diabetes' was significant (p = 0.039-0.048) in fecal incontinence modeling but only in the LKB and logistic models. High stool frequency fits only benefitted significantly (p = 0.003-0.006) from the inclusion of the baseline toxicity score. For all models rectal bleeding fits had the highest AUC (0.77) where it was 0.63 and 0.68 for high stool frequency and fecal incontinence, respectively. LKB and logistic model fits resulted in similar values for the volume parameter. The steepness parameter was somewhat higher in the logistic model, also resulting in a slightly lower D{sub 50}. Anal wall DVHs were used for fecal incontinence, whereas anorectal wall dose best described the other two endpoints. Conclusions: Comparable prediction models were obtained with LKB, RS, and logistic NTCP models. Including clinical factors improved the predictive power of all models significantly.

Defraene, Gilles, E-mail: gilles.defraene@uzleuven.be [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Van den Bergh, Laura [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Al-Mamgani, Abrahim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Haustermans, Karin [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Heemsbergen, Wilma [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van den Heuvel, Frank [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Lebesque, Joos V. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2012-03-01

69

Type II diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular risk factors: Current therapeutic approaches  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, approximately 200 million people currently have type II diabetes mellitus (DM), a prevalence that has been predicted to increase to 366 million by 2030. Rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and morbidity are particularly high in this population, representing a significant cost for health care systems. Type II DM patients generally carry a number of risk factors for CVD, including hyperglycemia, abnormal lipid profiles, alterations in inflammatory mediators and coagulation/thrombolytic parameters, as well as other ‘nontraditional’ risk factors, many of which may be closely associated with insulin resistance. Therefore, successful management of CVD associated with diabetes represents a major challenge to the clinicians. An effective way of tackling this problem is to detect the associated risk factors and to target treatment toward their improvement. Targeting hyperglycemia alone does not reduce the excess risk in diabetes, highlighting the need for aggressive treatment of other risk factors. Although the current use of statin therapy is effective at reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, residual risk remains for other independent lipid and nonlipid factors. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? appears to be closely involved in regulating risk markers at multiple levels. A relatively new class of therapeutic agents that activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?, the thiazolidinedione insulin-sensitizing agents, is currently used to manage type II DM. These agents display a number of potential antiatherogenic properties, including effects on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as other beneficial nonlipid effects, such as regulating levels of mediators involved in inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Research data suggest that simple strategies combining thiazolidinediones and statins could have complementary effects on CVD risk-factor profiles in diabetes, alongside the ability to control glycemia. PMID:18650975

Kalofoutis, Christos; Piperi, Christina; Kalofoutis, Anastasios; Harris, Fred; Phoenix, David; Singh, Jaipaul

2007-01-01

70

SWI/SNF factors required for cellular resistance to DNA damage include ARID1A and ARID1B and show interdependent protein stability.  

PubMed

The SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling family contains various protein complexes, which regulate gene expression during cellular development and influence DNA damage response in an ATP- and complex-dependent manner, of which details remain elusive. Recent human genome sequencing of various cancer cells revealed frequent mutations in SWI/SNF factors, especially ARID1A, a variant subunit in the BRG1-associated factor (BAF) complex of the SWI/SNF family. We combined live-cell analysis and gene-suppression experiments to show that suppression of either ARID1A or its paralog ARID1B led to reduced nonhomologous end joining activity of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), decreased accumulation of KU70/KU80 proteins at DSB, and sensitivity to ionizing radiation, as well as to cisplatin and UV. Thus, in contrast to transcriptional regulation, both ARID1 proteins are required for cellular resistance to various types of DNA damage, including DSB. The suppression of other SWI/SNF factors, namely SNF5, BAF60a, BAF60c, BAF155, or BAF170, exhibits a similar phenotype. Of these factors, ARID1A, ARID1B, SNF5, and BAF60c are necessary for the immediate recruitment of the ATPase subunit of the SWI/SNF complex to DSB, arguing that both ARID1 proteins facilitate the damage response of the complex. Finally, we found interdependent protein stability among the SWI/SNF factors, suggesting their direct interaction within the complex and the reason why multiple factors are frequently lost in parallel in cancer cells. Taken together, we show that cancer cells lacking in the expression of certain SWI/SNF factors, including ARID1A, are deficient in DNA repair and potentially vulnerable to DNA damage. PMID:24788099

Watanabe, Reiko; Ui, Ayako; Kanno, Shin-Ichiro; Ogiwara, Hideaki; Nagase, Takahiro; Kohno, Takashi; Yasui, Akira

2014-05-01

71

Risk Factors for Group B Streptococcal Colonization: Potential for Different Transmission Systems by Capsular Type  

PubMed Central

Purpose Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a common inhabitant of the bowel and vaginal flora, with known transmission routes including sexual contact and vertical transmission from mother to infant. Foodborne transmission is also possible, as GBS is a known fish and bovine pathogen. We conducted a prospective cohort study in order to identify risk factors for acquisition. Methods We identified risk factors for GBS acquisition among college women (n=129) and men (n=128) followed at 3-week intervals for 3 months. Results A doubling in sex acts significantly increased incidence of capsular type V by 80% (95% CI: 1.19, 2.58), and other non-Ia or Ib types combined by 40% (95% CI: 1.00, 2.06; incidence of capsular type Ia (OR=1.2; 95% CI: 0.71, 1.88 p=0.57) and Ib (OR=1.5, 95% CI: 0.75, 2.86, p=0.27) were elevated although not significantly. After adjustment for sexual activity and sexual history, gender, and eating venue, fish consumption increased risk of acquiring capsular types Ia and Ib combined 7.3 fold (95% CI: 2.34, 19.50), but not other capsular types. Beef and milk were not associated with GBS incidence. Conclusions Different GBS capsular types may have different transmission routes. PMID:17689259

Foxman, B.; Gillespie, B. W.; Manning, S. D.; Marrs, C. F.

2007-01-01

72

Oxytocin and Psychological Factors Affecting Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of oxytocin with trait and state psychological factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods. OXT and psychological variables were analyzed from 86 controlled diabetic patients (glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) < 7%) from 45 uncontrolled diabetic patients (HbA1c ? 7). Psychological characteristics were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), while state psychological characteristics were measured with the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL 90-R). Blood samples were taken for measuring oxytocin in both subgroups during the initial phase of the study. One year later, the uncontrolled diabetic patients were reevaluated with the use of the same psychometric instruments. Results. During the first evaluation of the uncontrolled diabetic patients, a statistically significant positive relationship between the levels of OXT and psychoticism in EPQ rating scale (P < 0.013) was observed. For controlled diabetic patients, a statistically significant negative relationship between oxytocin and somatization (P < 0.030), as well as obsessive-compulsive scores (P < 0.047) in SCL-90 rating scale, was observed. During the second assessment, the values of OXT decreased when the patients managed to control their metabolic profile. Conclusions. The OXT is in association with psychoticism, somatization, and obsessionality may be implicated in T2DM. PMID:22997507

Kontoangelos, K.; Raptis, A. E.; Papageorgiou, C. C.; Tsiotra, P. C.; Papadimitriou, G. N.; Rabavilas, A. D.; Dimitriadis, G.; Raptis, S. A.

2012-01-01

73

A predator-prey model with a holling type I functional response including a predator mutual interference  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The most widely used functional response in describing predator-prey relationships is the Holling type II functional response, where per capita predation is a smooth, increasing, and saturating function of prey density. Beddington and DeAngelis modified the Holling type II response to include interference of predators that increases with predator density. Here we introduce a predator-interference term into a Holling type I functional response. We explain the ecological rationale for the response and note that the phase plane configuration of the predator and prey isoclines differs greatly from that of the Beddington-DeAngelis response; for example, in having three possible interior equilibria rather than one. In fact, this new functional response seems to be quite unique. We used analytical and numerical methods to show that the resulting system shows a much richer dynamical behavior than the Beddington-DeAngelis response, or other typically used functional responses. For example, cyclic-fold, saddle-fold, homoclinic saddle connection, and multiple crossing bifurcations can all occur. We then use a smooth approximation to the Holling type I functional response with predator mutual interference to show that these dynamical properties do not result from the lack of smoothness, but rather from subtle differences in the functional responses. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Seo, G.; DeAngelis, D.L.

2011-01-01

74

Evidence Gap on the Prevalence of Non-conventional Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes in Iran  

PubMed Central

Objectives Robust scientific evidence exists about the role of non-conventional risk factors in type 2 diabetes worldwide. The current epidemiological pattern of the disease in Iran suggests a precipitating role for these non-conventional risk factors. This review was performed to examine the research evidence suggesting a higher prevalence of non-conventional type 2 diabetes risk factors in Iran. Methods MeSH keywords were applied to search several databases, including PUBMED, MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE, Iran DOC, and the Scientific Information Database without a time limit from inception to September 2011. The quality of the non-interventional and population-based studies on Iranians included in these databases was assessed by the authors and any disagreement was resolved with consensus. Results The literature search yielded 1847 publications, of which 62 were included in this study after eliminating non-relevant and overlapping papers. No study was found that verified a higher prevalence of the non-conventional type 2 diabetes risk factors in the Iranian population. Conclusion The identified evidence gap about the role of prominent non-conventional risk factors of type 2 diabetes in the Iranian population could be a major caveat in the application of an evidence-based approach to endorse or reject existing hypothesis about these risk factors. Studies on the prevalence of non-conventional biomarkers of type 2 diabetes among Iranians could be a promising area of research. PMID:25389516

Shaghaghi, Abdolreza; Ahmadi, Ali

2014-01-01

75

Keratinocyte growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor are heparin-binding growth factors for alveolar type II cells in fibroblast-conditioned medium.  

PubMed Central

Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions mediate aspects of normal lung growth and development and are important in the restoration of normal alveolar architecture after lung injury. To determine if fibroblasts are a source of soluble growth factors for alveolar type II cells, we investigated the effect of fibroblast-conditioned medium (CM) on alveolar type II cell DNA synthesis. Serum-free CM from confluent adult human lung fibroblasts was concentrated fivefold by lyophilization. Type II cells were isolated from adult rats by elastase dissociation and incubated with [3H]thymidine and varying dilutions of concentrated CM and serum from day 1 to 3 of culture. Stimulation of type II cell DNA synthesis by fibroblast-CM was maximal after 48 h of conditioning and required the presence of serum. The activity of the CM was eliminated by boiling and by treatment with trypsin, pepsin, or dithiothreitol and was additive with saturating concentrations of acidic fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, and insulin. The growth factor activity bound to heparin-Sepharose and was eluted with 0.6 and 1.0 M NaCl. Neutralizing antibody studies demonstrated that the primary mitogens isolated in the 0.6 and 1.0 M NaCl fractions were keratinocyte growth factor (KGF, fibroblast growth factor 7) and hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF), respectively. HGF/SF was demonstrated in the crude CM and KGF was detected in the 0.6 M NaCl eluent by immunoblotting. Northern blot analysis confirmed that the lung fibroblasts expressed both KGF and HGF/SF transcripts. Human recombinant KGF and HGF/SF induced a concentration- and serum-dependent increase in rat alveolar type II cell DNA synthesis. We conclude that adult human lung fibroblasts produce at least two soluble heparin-binding growth factors, KGF and HGF/SF, which promote DNA synthesis and proliferation of rat alveolar type II cells in primary culture. KGF and HGF/SF may be important stimuli for alveolar type II cell proliferation during lung growth and after lung injury. Images PMID:7688769

Panos, R J; Rubin, J S; Csaky, K G; Aaronson, S A; Mason, R J

1993-01-01

76

Overview of the Taxonomy of Environmental Types and the Factor Structure of the Salter Environmental Type Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Salter Environmental Type Assessment (SETA) was created to be a commensurate measure for the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and to improve the efficacy of the person-environmental interaction paradigm to student affairs. A confirmatory factor analysis of SETA profiles supported the four dimensions in environmental type theory. The utility of this…

Salter, Daniel W.; Vandiver, Beverly J.

2002-01-01

77

School factors as barriers to and facilitators of a preventive intervention for pediatric type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

School-based interventions are essential to prevent pediatric obesity and type 2 diabetes. School environmental factors influence implementation of these interventions. This article examines how school factors acted as barriers to and facilitators of the HEALTHY intervention. The HEALTHY study was a cluster-randomized trial of a multicomponent intervention implemented in 21 schools. Interview data were analyzed to identify barriers and facilitators. Barriers included teacher frustration that intervention activities detracted from tested subjects, student resistance and misbehavior, classroom management problems, communication equipment problems, lack of teacher/staff engagement, high cost and limited availability of nutritious products, inadequate facility space, and large class sizes. Facilitators included teacher/staff engagement, effective classroom management, student engagement, schools with direct control over food service, support from school leaders, and adequate facilities and equipment. Contextual barriers and facilitators must be taken into account in the design and implementation of school-based health interventions. PMID:24904696

Hall, William J; Schneider, Margaret; Thompson, Deborah; Volpe, Stella L; Steckler, Allan; Hall, John M; Fisher, M Randall

2014-06-01

78

The Type Series of 'Sinemys' Wuerhoensis, a Problematic Turtlefrom the Lower Cretaceous of China, Includes at Least Three Taxa  

SciTech Connect

We re-examine the type series of 'Sinemys' wuerhoensis Yeh(at least 20 specimens, including several shells and skulls on threeslabs of matrix and one isolated skull) from the Early Cretaceous TuguluGroup of China. Our study shows that the type series of 'S.'wuerhoensisis actually a chimera made up of at least three distinct taxa. Theholotype of this taxon should be assigned to the basal eucryptodire genusXinjiangchelys Yeh. As there are no characters that distinguish'S.'wuerhoensis from Xinjiangchelys species, we consider it to be a nomendubium. This new assignment of 'S.'wuerhoensis expands the temporal rangeof Xinjiangchelys from the Late Jurassic into the Early Cretaceous inAsia. The majority of the paratypes of 'S.'wuerhoensis (several shells indorsal and ventral aspect and skulls) are referred to the basaleucryptodire genus Ordosemys Brinkman and Peng. We establish a new namefor these specimens, Ordosemys brinkmania sp. nov. One additionalspecimen in the type series of 'S.'wuerhoensis, a skull, is referred tocf. Pantrionychia Joyce, Parham and Gauthier indet.

Danilov, Igor G.; Parham, James F.

2007-03-01

79

Prospective Study of Social and Other Risk Factors for Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes  

E-print Network

Prospective Study of Social and Other Risk Factors for Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in the incidence of type 2 diabetes and the relation of health behaviors and psy- chosocial factors to the incidence of type 2 diabetes are not well established. Methods: Prospective occupational cohort study

Brown, Lucy L.

80

The location of the Myers-Briggs type indicator in personality factor space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two factor analyses were performed to investigate the validity of the Italian version of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Form F by locating the MBTI scales and factors in personality factor space in order to establish their meaning. In the first analysis the four continuous scores of the MBTI were subjected to a factor analysis together with the scales of

Aristide Saggino; Paul Kline

1996-01-01

81

Master Transcription Factors Determine Cell-Type-Specific Responses to TGF-? Signaling  

E-print Network

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) signaling, mediated through the transcription factors Smad2 and Smad3 (Smad2/3), directs different responses in different cell types. Here we report that Smad3 co-occupies the genome ...

Mullen, Alan C.

82

8q12 microduplication including CHD7: clinical report on a new patient with Duane retraction syndrome type 3  

PubMed Central

Background A novel multiple congenital anomalies syndrome has been recently identified in four patients carrying a 8q12 microduplication sharing the smallest region of overlap (SRO, size 1.6 Mb) including five genes CA8, ASPH, RAB2B, CLVS1 and CDH7. The phenotype is mainly characterized by neurodevelopmental delay, heart defects, facial features and Type 1 Duane anomaly. Increasing dosage of CDH7 was proposed to be responsible for the recurrent pattern of MCA. Results High resolution array-CGH analysis identified a 4.2 Mb de novo interstitial duplication of the 8q12.1-q12.3 chromosome region in a boy with developmental delay, dysmorphic features, type 3 Duane anomaly. This duplication includes several genes and spans the SRO. Discussion The present case represents a further patient with an interstitial duplication of chromosome 8q12 and several shared clinical features. Although more cases are needed to delineate the full-blown phenotype of 8q12 duplication syndrome, published data and present observations suggest that it results in a clinically recognizable phenotype. The presence of Duane anomaly in four out of five described patients with a 8q12 duplication definitely rules against the possibility of its being a chance finding unrelated to the imbalance and points toward a pathogenic role. Gene content analysis of the duplicated region and review of the literature suggest that gain-of-dosage of the CHD7 gene may be a good candidate for the main clinical features of the syndrome. PMID:24206642

2013-01-01

83

Bayesian Ages for Early-Type Stars from Isochrones Including Rotation, and a Possible Old Age for the Hyades  

E-print Network

We combine recently computed models of stellar evolution using a new treatment of rotation with a Bayesian statistical framework to constrain the ages and other properties of early-type stars. We find good agreement for early-type stars and clusters with known young ages, including beta Pictoris and the Pleiades. However, we derive a slightly older age for the Ursa Majoris moving group (600+/-100 Myr compared to 500+/-100 Myr), and a much older age for the Hyades open cluster (950+/-100 Myr compared to 625+/-50 Myr). These older ages result from both the increase in main-sequence lifetime with stellar rotation and from the fact that rotating models near the main-sequence turnoff are more luminous, overlapping with slightly more massive (and shorter-lived) nonrotating ones. The dramatically older age inferred for the Hyades requires a major reevaluation either of the cluster age or of the rotating stellar models. Our method uses a large grid of nonrotating models to interpolate between a much sparser rotating ...

Brandt, Timothy D

2015-01-01

84

Risk factors for exposure to influenza a viruses, including subtype H5 viruses, in Thai free-grazing ducks.  

PubMed

Free-grazing ducks (FGD) have been associated with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks and may be a viral reservoir. In July-August 2010, we assessed influenza exposure of Thai FGD and risk factors thereof. Serum from 6254 ducks was analysed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies to influenza A nucleoprotein (NP), and haemagglutinin H5 protein. Eighty-five per cent (5305 ducks) were seropositive for influenza A. Of the NP-seropositive sera tested with H5 assays (n = 1423), 553 (39%) were H5 ELISA positive and 57 (4%) suspect. Twelve per cent (74 of 610) of H5 ELISA-positive/suspect ducks had H5 titres ? 1 : 20 by haemagglutination inhibition. Risk factors for influenza A seropositivity include older age, poultry contact, flock visitors and older purchase age. Study flocks had H5 virus exposure as recently as March 2010, but no HPAI H5N1 outbreaks have been identified in Thailand since 2008, highlighting a need for rigorous FGD surveillance. PMID:23279757

Beaudoin, A L; Kitikoon, P; Schreiner, P J; Singer, R S; Sasipreeyajan, J; Amonsin, A; Gramer, M R; Pakinsee, S; Bender, J B

2014-08-01

85

[Alimentary trigger factors that provoke migraine and tension-type headache].  

PubMed

Based on a review of the literature the authors discuss the role of nutrition in the precipitation of migraine and tension-type headache (TTH). The available information relies largely on the subjective assessment of the patients. Controlled trials suggest that alcohol and caffeine withdrawal are the most important nutritional precipitating factors of migraine and TTH. In addition, there is some evidence that missing meals is also an important factor. Dehydration seems to deserve more attention. A selective sensitivity to red wine has been shown in some patients, the importance of chocolate has been doubted seriously, and scientific evidence for cheese as a precipitating factor is lacking. Despite a series of experimental studies demonstrating that NO donors such as nitroglycerin and parenteral histamine cause headache the role of histamine, nitrates, and nitrites in food remains unclear. Similarly, other biogenic amines and aspartame have not been proven to precipitate headache. Sodium glutamate causes adverse reactions including headache probably at large doses ingested on an empty stomach. Therefore, patients should be advised that food plays a limited role as a precipitating factor of migraine and TTH. Subjective sensitivity to certain foods should be examined critically, and proven precipitating factors should be avoided. General dietary restrictions have not been proven to be useful. PMID:15806385

Holzhammer, J; Wöber, C

2006-04-01

86

Effects of botulinum toxin type D on secretion of tumor necrosis factor from human monocytes  

SciTech Connect

Botulinum toxins are potent neurotoxins which block the release of neurotransmitters. The effects of these toxins on hematopoietic cells, however, are unknown. Monocytes secrete a variety of polypeptide growth factors, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF). In the study reported here, the effects of botulinum toxin type D on the secretion of TNF from human monocytes were examined. The results demonstrate that biotulinum toxin type D inhibits the release of TNF from monocytes activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) but not by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. Botulinum toxin type D had no detectable effect on intracellular TNF levels in LPS-treated monocytes, indicating that the effects of this toxin involve the secretory process. This inhibitory effect of botulinum toxin type D on TNF secretion from LPS-treated monocytes was partially reversed by treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate or introduction of guanosine 5'-(/gamma/-thio)t-riphosphate into these cells. The results demonstrate that TNF secretion is regulated by at least two distinct guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, one responsible for the activation of phospholiphase C and another which acts as a substrate for botulinum toxin type D. ADP-ribosylation of monocyte membranes by botulinum toxin type D demonstrated the presence of three substrates with M/sub r/s of 45,000, 21,000, and 17,000. While the role of these substrates in exocytosis is unknown, the results suggest that the M/sub r/ 21,000 substrate is involved in a process other than TNF secretion.

Imamura, K.; Spriggs, D.; Ohno, T.; Kufe, D.

1989-05-01

87

43 CFR 404.10 - Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included in a rural...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that...certain types of infrastructure and facilities that...include: (a) Any infrastructure or facilities that...water for commercial irrigation; and (b)...

2010-10-01

88

42 CFR 137.202 - What types of information will Self-Governance Tribes be expected to include in the reports?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false What types of information will Self-Governance Tribes be expected to include...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions...202 What types of information will Self-Governance Tribes be expected to...

2014-10-01

89

42 CFR 137.202 - What types of information will Self-Governance Tribes be expected to include in the reports?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false What types of information will Self-Governance Tribes be expected to include...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions...202 What types of information will Self-Governance Tribes be expected to...

2011-10-01

90

Morphological relationships of von Willebrand factor, type VI collagen, and fibrillin in human vascular subendothelium.  

PubMed

von Willebrand factor (vWF) plays an important role in the process of platelet adhesion after endothelial injury by serving as a bridge between constituents of the vascular subendothelium and platelet membrane receptors. We previously presented evidence that type VI collagen microfibrils serve as a binding site for vWF in human vascular subendothelium. However, others have proposed that vWF is not associated with type VI collagen but rather with the thicker elastin-associated microfibrils, which contain several proteins including fibrillin. We therefore investigated the relationships among vWF, type VI collagen, and fibrillin in human vascular subendothelium by immunoelectron microscopy using single- and double-labeling immunogold localization techniques. In addition, we observed the three-dimensional ultrastructure of vWF-microfibril complexes by stereo paired micrographs and stereo viewer. We found that vWF co-localizes only with the type VI collagen microfibrils in subendothelium but not with fibrillin microfibrils or striated collagen. The vWF is present in subendothelium in the form of electron-dense aggregates having diameters varying between 65 and 80 nm that are closely associated with, and enmesh, the type VI collagen microfibrils and have structural similarities to intracellular Weibel-Palade bodies. The occasional co-localization of type VI collagen and fibrillin adjacent to internal elastic lamina was observed. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that type VI collagen, but not fibrillin-containing microfibrils, serves as a physiologically relevant binding site for vWF in the vascular subendothelium, where the type VI collagen-vWF complex may play an important role modulating the hemostatic response to vascular injury. PMID:8686752

Wu, X X; Gordon, R E; Glanville, R W; Kuo, H J; Uson, R R; Rand, J H

1996-07-01

91

Urokinase-type plasminogen activator increases hepatocyte growth factor activity required for skeletal muscle regeneration.  

PubMed

The plasminogen system plays a crucial role in the repair of a variety of tissues, including skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) promotes muscle regeneration by activating hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which, in turn, stimulates proliferation of myoblasts required for regeneration. In our studies, levels of active HGF and phosphorylation of the HGF receptor c-met were increased after muscle injury in wild-type mice. Compared with wild-type animals, mice deficient in uPA (uPA(-/-)) had markedly reduced HGF levels and c-met activation after muscle damage. This reduced HGF activity in uPA(-/-) animals was associated with decreased cell proliferation, myoblast accumulation, and new muscle fiber formation. On the other hand, HGF activity was enhanced at early time points in PAI-1(-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice and the PAI-1(-/-) animals exhibited accelerated muscle fiber regeneration. Furthermore, administration of exogenous uPA rescued HGF levels and muscle regeneration in uPA(-/-) mice, and an HGF-blocking antibody reduced HGF activity and muscle regeneration in wild-type mice. We also found that uPA promotes myoblast proliferation in vitro through its proteolytic activity, and this process was inhibited by an HGF-blocking antibody. Together, our findings demonstrate that uPA promotes muscle regeneration through HGF activation and subsequent myoblast proliferation. PMID:19812386

Sisson, Thomas H; Nguyen, Mai-Huong; Yu, Bi; Novak, Margaret L; Simon, Richard H; Koh, Timothy J

2009-12-01

92

Sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with antidepressant type in a national sample of the home health care elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe study examined in home health care (HHC) the demographic, functional and clinical factors by antidepressant (AD) type including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and “Other” ADs such as bupropion and mirtazapine.

Judith Weissman; Barnett S. Meyers; Samiran Ghosh; Martha L. Bruce

2011-01-01

93

Item factor analysis of the seventy-one experimental items of the Italian version of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 166 items of the Italian version of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Form F, which includes 71 experimental items, were subjected to a rotated, simple-structure factor analysis with a sample of 1798 subjects to see if some of the experimental items have relevant loadings on the main factors. Six factors were obtained, of which four resembled the four MBTI

A. Saggino; P. Kline

1996-01-01

94

Curriculum Type as a Differentiating Factor in Medical Licensing Examinations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the effects of the type of medical curriculum on differential item functioning (DIF) and group differences at the test level in Level 1 of the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examinations (COMLEX). The study also explored the relationship of the DIF and group differences at the test level. There are generally two…

Shen, Linjun

95

Predictive Factors for a Kyphosis Recurrence Following Short-Segment Pedicle Screw Fixation Including Fractured Vertebral Body in Unstable Thoracolumbar Burst Fractures  

PubMed Central

Objective The technique of short segment pedicle screw fixation (SSPSF) has been widely used for stabilization in thoracolumbar burst fractures (TLBFs), but some studies reported high rate of kyphosis recurrence or hardware failure. This study was to evaluate the results of SSPSF including fractured level and to find the risk factors concerned with the kyphosis recurrence in TLBFs. Methods This study included 42 patients, including 25 males and 17 females, who underwent SSPSF for stabilization of TLBFs between January 2003 and December 2010. For radiologic assessments, Cobb angle (CA), vertebral wedge angle (VWA), vertebral body compression ratio (VBCR), and difference between VWA and Cobb angle (DbVC) were measured. The relationships between kyphosis recurrence and radiologic parameters or demographic features were investigated. Frankel classification and low back outcome score (LBOS) were used for assessment of clinical outcomes. Results The mean follow-up period was 38.6 months. CA, VWA, and VBCR were improved after SSPSF, and these parameters were well maintained at the final follow-up with minimal degree of correction loss. Kyphosis recurrence showed a significant increase in patients with Denis burst type A, load-sharing classification (LSC) score >6 or DbVC >6 (p<0.05). There were no patients who worsened to clinical outcome, and there was no significant correlation between kyphosis recurrence and clinical outcome in this series. Conclusion SSPSF including the fractured vertebra is an effective surgical method for restoration and maintenance of vertebral column stability in TLBFs. However, kyphosis recurrence was significantly associated with Denis burst type A fracture, LSC score >6, or DbVC >6. PMID:25368766

Kim, Gun-Woo; Hur, Hyuk; Lee, Jung-Kil; Kim, Jae-Hyoo; Kim, Soo-Han

2014-01-01

96

Cardiovascular risk factors in Turkish immigrants with type 2 diabetes mellitus: Comparison with Dutch patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Based on recent epidemiological studies the need for a similar approach towards management of cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetics with different ethnic background can be questioned. We compared the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and 10-year absolute risk for a coronary heart disease between Turkish and Dutch type 2 diabetes patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed

Paul J. M. Uitewaal; Alex N. Goudswaard; Lielith J. Ubnik-veltmaat; Marc A. Bruijnzeels; Arno W. Hoes; Siep Thomas

2004-01-01

97

Association of depression with type 2 diabetes and relevant factors  

PubMed Central

Background: Based on the high prevalence of diabetes and depression in Rasht, we conducted a study to evaluate the prevalence of depression in type 2 diabetic patients, and its association with glycemic control, chronic complications, and some clinical and paraclinical parameters in this northern state of Iran. Materials and Methods: Beck depression inventory was used for evaluating depression on 90 type 2 diabetics and 90 healthy controls selected. Information on demographic and clinical and paraclinical characteristics was collected by interviews and from medical records. Results: This cross-sectional study was performed on 90 type 2 diabetic patients (63 female and 27 male with a mean age of 54.17 ± 10.57 years) and 90 healthy matched controls. Overall, depression was significantly more prevalent in case group [37.8% vs. 16%, odds ratio (OR) = 3.29, P = 0.001]. The prevalence of depression in diabetic women was significantly higher than nondiabetic ones (39.7% vs. 15%, P = 0.002). We could not find any significant correlation between depression and positive family history of depression, duration of diabetes, HBA1c level, and body mass index. The prevalence of depression was prominently more in diabetic patients with retinopathy than in those without this complication (55.6% vs. 24%, P = 0.015). Logistic regression analysis indicated that diabetes itself was the only significant determinant of having depression (OR = 3.29, P = 0.005, 95% confidence interval: 0.118-0.667). Conclusion: There was a prominent prevalence of depression in type 2 diabetics overall. Depression was not correlated with duration of diabetes and glycemic control. There was a significant association between depression and retinopathy in diabetic patients. Diabetes itself was the only significant determinant of having depression after matching with other variables. PMID:25538930

Kalantari, Saeed; Jafarinezhad, Alireza; Zohrevand, Behzad

2014-01-01

98

Item factor analysis of the Italian version of the Myers-Briggs type indicator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 95 scored items of the Italian version of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Form F were subjected to a rotated, simple-structure factor analysis with a sample of 1798 subjects. Five factors were obtained of which four resembled the four MBTI scales. Cronbach ?-coefficients are reported for the scales and factors together with their intercorrelations. The results support the scale

Aristide Saggino; Paul Kline

1995-01-01

99

A PID type fuzzy controller with self-tuning scaling factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

By relating to the conventional PID control theory, we propose a new fuzzy controller structure, namely PID type fuzzy controller. In order to improve further the performance of the transient state and the steady state of the PID type controller, we develop a method to tune the scaling factors of the PID type fuzzy controller on line. Simulation of the

Zhi-Wei Woo; Hung-Yuan Chung; Jin-Jye Lin

2000-01-01

100

Risk factors for the development of retroprosthetic membranes with Boston Keratoprosthesis type 1: multicenter study results  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to identify possible risk factors for retroprosthetic membrane (RPM) development in a large multicenter cohort of patients receiving a Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis. Design Cohort study. Participants The final analysis included 265 eyes of 265 patients who underwent implantation of a Boston Keratoprosthesis Type I device between January 2003 and July 2008 by one of 19 surgeons at 18 medical centers. Methods Forms reporting preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative parameters were prospectively collected and subsequently analyzed at a central data collection site. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome was the presence or absence of a retroprosthetic membrane (RPM) during the follow-up period. Results 265 Boston Type 1 keratoprosthesis surgical procedures (265 patients) from 19 surgeons at 18 surgical centers were included in the analysis. The average age of patients was 63.3±19.1 years, 48.5% of the patients were female, and 52.5% of procedures were performed on the right eye. The mean follow-up time was 17.8±14.9 months. The majority (85.4%; n=222) had undergone an average of 2.2±1.2 (range 1–8) penetrating keratoplasties prior to keratoprosthesis implantation, and 38 eyes (14.6%) received a primary keratoprosthesis. The overall RPM formation rate was 31.7% (n=84). The most significant risk factor for RPM development was infectious keratitis (as a surgical indication for keratoprosthesis surgery itself), resulting in a rate of RPM formation of 70.6%. As an independent risk factor, the hazard ratio (HR) of RPM development in these eyes was 3.20 (95% confidence interval: 1.66, 6.17). Aniridia was also an independent risk factor for RPM development (HR=3.13; 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 8.89). Conclusions RPM formation is a common complication of keratoprosthesis surgery, occurring in approximately one third of cases. Eyes at the highest risk of RPM development are those receiving corneal replacement for infectious keratitis and aniridia. PMID:22361316

Rudnisky, Christopher J.; Belin, Michael W.; Al-Arfaj, Khalid; Ament, Jared D.; Zerbe, Brian J.; Ciolino, Joseph B.

2011-01-01

101

An Examination of the Factor Structure of Four of the Cognitive Abilities Included in the Educational Testing Service Kit of Factor-Referenced Cognitive Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Educational Testing Service Kit of Factor-Referenced Cognitive Tests contains 72 tests that are supposed to be markers of 23 latent cognitive constructs. Examination of the factor structure of four of these tests with 165 undergraduates suggests caution in using the measures as markers of distinct factors. (SLD)

Babcock, Renee L.; Laguna, Kerrie

1997-01-01

102

Body Mass Index: A Risk Factor for Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to investigate whether body mass index (BMI) independently or in correlation with other risk factors is associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) progression. The study included 545 patients with type 2 diabetes. According to DR status, they were divided into three groups: group 1 (no retinopathy; n = 296), group 2 (mild/moderate nonproliferative DR; n = 118), and group 3 (severe/very severe NPDR or proliferative DR; n = 131). Patients without DR were younger than those with signs of retinopathy at time of diabetes onset whilst diabetes duration was longer in groups with severe NPDR and PDR. DR progression was correlated with diabetes duration, BMI, HbA1c, hypertension, and cholesterol. Statistical analyses showed that the progression of retinopathy increased significantly with higher BMI (gr. 1: 26.50 ± 2.70, gr. 2: 28.11 ± 3.00, gr. 3: 28.69 ± 2.50; P < 0.01). We observed a significant deterioration of HbA1c and a significant increase in cholesterol and hypertension with an increase in BMI. Correlation between BMI and triglycerides was not significant. Thus, BMI in correlation with HbA1c cholesterol and hypertension appears to be associated with the progression of DR in type 2 diabetes and may serve as a predictive factor for the development of this important cause of visual loss in developed countries. PMID:24347825

Kaštelan, Snježana; Tomi?, Martina; Gverovi? Antunica, Antonela; Ljubi?, Spomenka; Salopek Rabati?, Jasminka; Karabati?, Mirela

2013-01-01

103

Intratracheal administration of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor stimulates rat alveolar type II cell proliferation in vivo.  

PubMed

Alveolar epithelial injury occurs universally in common respiratory illnesses associated with diffuse lung damage. After alveolar injury, type II cells proliferate and reestablish epithelial integrity, thereby restoring normal lung structure and function. However, the regulation of type II cell proliferation and alveolar epithelial repair is poorly understood. Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) is a heparin-binding growth factor that has been shown to be mitogenic for cultured alveolar type II cells. In this study, we determined the effect of intratracheal instillation of rhHGF/SF on type II cell proliferation in vivo. To quantify the alveolar type II cell proliferative response, we developed a double-label immunohistochemical technique to detect replicating alveolar type II cells in formalin-fixed lung sections that utilized the identification of proliferating cells by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) incorporation into DNA and alveolar type II cells by 3F9 immunoreactivity. BrdUrd detection was optimized by enzymatic antigen recovery and silver intensification of the horseradish peroxidase reaction product. Intratracheal instillation of rhHGF/SF induced a time- and dose-dependent increase in type II cell proliferation. The type II cell labeling index increased to 12.3 +/- 6.0% 48 h after 1.0 mg/kg rhHGF/SF administration, compared with 2.6 +/- 0.9% after PBS instillation. To compare the normal type II cell reparative response with the level of proliferation after exogenous rhHGF/SF administration, we measured the specific alveolar type II cell labeling index in rat lung sections obtained from animals exposed to hyperoxia for 50 h and then allowed to recover in room air. After 1 day of recovery, the alveolar type II cell labeling index was 0.45 +/- 0.2%. The specific labeling index increased to 5.4 +/- 1.3% at 2 days and then declined to 0.31 +/- 0.16% 5 days after hyperoxia exposure. In animals not exposed to hyperoxia, the alveolar type II cell labeling index was 0.6 +/- 0.14%. These studies demonstrated that intratracheal instillation of rhHGF/SF promoted alveolar type II cell proliferation in vivo. The maximal level of type II cell proliferation after rhHGF/SF administration was more than twice that reached during recovery from hyperoxia exposure. Thus, intratracheal instillation of HGF/SF may provide a potential strategy to promote type II cell proliferation and augment alveolar epithelial repair after lung injury. PMID:8918364

Panos, R J; Patel, R; Bak, P M

1996-11-01

104

Hydrogeomorphic Classification of Wetlands on Mt. Desert Island, Maine, Including Hydrologic Susceptibility Factors for Wetlands in Acadia National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, developed a hydrogeomorphic (HGM) classification system for wetlands greater than 0.4 hectares (ha) on Mt. Desert Island, Maine, and applied this classification using map-scale data to more than 1,200 mapped wetland units on the island. In addition, two hydrologic susceptibility factors were defined for a subset of these wetlands, using 11 variables derived from landscape-scale characteristics of the catchment areas of these wetlands. The hydrologic susceptibility factors, one related to the potential hydrologic pathways for contaminants and the other to the susceptibility of wetlands to disruptions in water supply from projected future changes in climate, were used to indicate which wetlands (greater than 1 ha) in Acadia National Park (ANP) may warrant further investigation or monitoring. The HGM classification system consists of 13 categories: Riverine-Upper Perennial, Riverine-Nonperennial, Riverine- Tidal, Depressional-Closed, Depressional-Semiclosed, Depressional-Open, Depressional-No Ground-Water Input, Mineral Soil Flat, Organic Soil Flat, Tidal Fringe, Lacustrine Fringe, Slope, and Hilltop/Upper Hillslope. A dichotomous key was developed to aid in the classification of wetlands. The National Wetland Inventory maps produced by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service provided the wetland mapping units used for this classification. On the basis of topographic map information and geographic information system (GIS) layers at a scale of 1:24,000 or larger, 1,202 wetland units were assigned a preliminary HGM classification. Two of the 13 HGM classes (Riverine-Tidal and Depressional-No Ground-Water Input) were not assigned to any wetlands because criteria for determining those classes are not available at that map scale, and must be determined by more site-specific information. Of the 1,202 wetland polygons classified, which cover 1,830 ha in ANP, 327 were classified as Slope, 258 were Depressional (Open, Semiclosed, and Closed), 231 were Riverine (Upper Perennial and Nonperennial), 210 were Soil Flat (Mineral and Organic), 68 were Lacustrine Fringe, 51 were Tidal Fringe, 22 were Hilltop/Upper Hillslope, and another 35 were small open water bodies. Most small, isolated wetlands classified on the island are Slope wetlands. The least common, Hilltop/Upper Hillslope wetlands, only occur on a few hilltops and shoulders of hills and mountains. Large wetland complexes generally consist of groups of Depressional wetlands and Mineral Soil Flat or Organic Soil Flat wetlands, often with fringing Slope wetlands at their edges and Riverine wetlands near streams flowing through them. The two analyses of wetland hydrologic susceptibility on Mt. Desert Island were applied to 186 wetlands located partially or entirely within ANP. These analyses were conducted using individually mapped catchments for each wetland. The 186 wetlands were aggregated from the original 1,202 mapped wetland polygons on the basis of their HGM classes. Landscape-level hydrologic, geomorphic, and soil variables were defined for the catchments of the wetlands, and transformed into scaled scores from 0 to 10 for each variable. The variables included area of the wetland, area of the catchment, area of the wetland divided by the area of the catchment, the average topographic slope of the catchment, the amount of the catchment where bedrock crops out with no soil cover or excessively thin soil cover, the amount of storage (in lakes and wetlands) in the catchment, the topographic relief of the catchment, the amount of clay-rich soil in the catchment, the amount of manmade impervious surface, whether the wetland had a stream inflow, and whether the wetland had a hydraulic connection to a lake or estuary. These data were determined using a GIS and data layers mapped at a scale of 1:24,000 or larger. These landscape variables were combined in different ways for the two hydrologic susceptibility fact

Nielsen, Martha G.

2006-01-01

105

Combining Erlotinib and Cetuximab is Associated with Activity in Patients with Non Small Cell Lung Cancer (including Squamous Cell Carcinomas) and Wild-Type EGFR or Resistant Mutations  

PubMed Central

Preclinical data suggest that combined epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeting with an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor and an anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody may be superior over single-agent targeting. Therefore, as part of a phase I study, we analyzed the outcome of 20 patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated with the combination of erlotinib and cetuximab. EGFR mutation status was ascertained in a CLIA-approved lab. There were 10 men; median number of prior therapies, 5. Overall, 2 of 20 patients (10%) achieved partial response (PR), one of whom had a TKI-resistant EGFR insertion in exon 20, time to treatment failure (TTF) = 24+ months; and, the other patient had squamous cell histology (EGFR wild-type), TTF=7.4 months. In addition, 3 of 20 patients (15%) achieved stable disease (SD) ?6 months (one of whom had wild-type EGFR and squamous cell histology, and two patients had an EGFR TKI-sensitive mutation, one of whom had failed prior erlotinib therapy). Combination therapy with ertotinib plus cetuximab was well tolerated. The most common toxicities were rash, diarrhea, and hypomagnesemia. The recommended phase II dose was erlotinib 150 mg oral daily and cetuximab 250 mg/m2 IV weekly. In summary, erlotinib and cetuximab treatment was associated with SD ?6 months/PR in 5 of 20 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (25%), including individuals with squamous histology, TKI-resistant EGFR mutations, and wild-type EGFR, and those who had progressed on prior erlotinib after an initial response. This combination warrants further study in select populations of non-small cell lung cancer. PMID:23963360

Wheler, Jennifer J.; Tsimberidou, Apostolia M.; Falchook, Gerald S.; Zinner, Ralph G.; Hong, David S.; Fok, Jansina Y.; Fu, Siqing; Piha-Paul, Sarina A.; Naing, Aung; Kurzrock, Razelle

2014-01-01

106

THE FURTHER SEPARATION OF TYPES AMONG THE PNEUMOCOCCI HITHERTO INCLUDED IN GROUP IV AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF THERAPEUTIC ANTISERA FOR THESE TYPES.  

PubMed

The unclassified strains known as Group IV have been separated into twenty-nine types which are designated by the Roman numerals IV and XXXII. Only a small percentage of the pneumococcus strains isolated in New York City for this study were left unclassified. The majority of the types gave very slight cross-reactions, the exceptions being Types II and V, III and VIII, VII and XVIII and XV and XXX. In the series of cases studied, Types IV, V, VII and VIII were found more prevalent in the lobar pneumonia of adults and Types V, VI a and XIV in children. The majority of the types were also found in normal individuals and in persons having respiratory infections other than pneumonia. Types VI a and XIX were most prevalent in the limited number of strains studied by us. Fourteen of the types were found in pneumococcus meningitis; Type XVIII was found most often. Antisera suitable for clinical trial have been prepared for fourteen types. From the majority of the horses inoculated for more than a year, antisera having 500 to 1000 units per cc. were obtained. Antisera of lower potency were concentrated and preparations obtained equal to or stronger than high grade unconcentrated serum. Potent bivalent antisera have been prepared for types which were found to give marked cross-agglutination reactions. The results with each type as to prevalence, severity of cases, presence in normal individuals, and in spinal meningitis, potency of antisera produced for therapeutic trial and virulence of strains for mice have been considered under the different type headings. PMID:19870011

Cooper, G; Rosenstein, C; Walter, A; Peizer, L

1932-03-31

107

29 CFR 37.34 - What type of notice must a recipient include in publications, broadcasts, and other communications?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...publications, broadcasts, and other communications? 37.34 Section 37...of Recipients Notice and Communication § 37.34 What type...broadcasts, and other communications? (a) Recipients must...or on paper, to staff, clients, or the public at...

2014-07-01

108

29 CFR 37.34 - What type of notice must a recipient include in publications, broadcasts, and other communications?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...publications, broadcasts, and other communications? 37.34 Section 37...of Recipients Notice and Communication § 37.34 What type...broadcasts, and other communications? (a) Recipients must...or on paper, to staff, clients, or the public at...

2012-07-01

109

29 CFR 37.34 - What type of notice must a recipient include in publications, broadcasts, and other communications?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...publications, broadcasts, and other communications? 37.34 Section 37...of Recipients Notice and Communication § 37.34 What type...broadcasts, and other communications? (a) Recipients must...or on paper, to staff, clients, or the public at...

2010-07-01

110

29 CFR 37.34 - What type of notice must a recipient include in publications, broadcasts, and other communications?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...publications, broadcasts, and other communications? 37.34 Section 37...of Recipients Notice and Communication § 37.34 What type...broadcasts, and other communications? (a) Recipients must...or on paper, to staff, clients, or the public at...

2013-07-01

111

29 CFR 37.34 - What type of notice must a recipient include in publications, broadcasts, and other communications?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...publications, broadcasts, and other communications? 37.34 Section 37...of Recipients Notice and Communication § 37.34 What type...broadcasts, and other communications? (a) Recipients must...or on paper, to staff, clients, or the public at...

2011-07-01

112

Diabetic foot risk factors in type 2 diabetes patients: a cross-sectional case control study  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetic foot is a serious condition in patients with a long lasting diabetes mellitus. Diabetic foot treated improperly may lead not only to delayed ulceration healing, generalized inflammation, unnecessary surgical intervention, but also to the lower limb amputation. The aim of this study was to compare diabetic foot risk factors in population with type 2 diabetes and risk factors for diabetes in healthy subjects. Methods The study included 900 subjects: 145 with diabetic foot, 293 with type 2 diabetes without diabetic foot and 462 healthy controls matched in terms of mean age, gender structure and cardiovascular diseases absence. Study was conducted in Gastroenterology and Metabolic Diseases Department, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland. In statistical analysis a logistic regression model, U Mann-Whitney’s and t-Student test were used. Results The binomial logit models analysis showed that the risk of diabetic foot in patients with type 2 diabetes was decreased by patient’s age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.92-0.96; p = 0.00001) and hyperlipidaemia (OR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.36-0.81; p = 0.01). In contrast, male gender (OR = 2.83; 95% CI: 1.86-4.28; p = 0.00001) diabetes duration (OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 1.03-1.06; p = 0.0003), weight (OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 1.03-1.06; p = 0.00001), height (OR = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.05-1.11; p = 0.00001) and waist circumference (OR = 1.028; 95% CI: 1.007-1.050; p = 0.006) increase the risk of diabetic foot. The onset of type 2 diabetes in healthy subjects was increased by weight (OR = 1.035; 95% CI: 1.024-1.046; p = 0.00001), WC (OR = 1.075; 95% CI: 1.055-1.096; p = 00001), hip circumference (OR = 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05; p = 0.005), overweight defined with body mass index (BMI) above 24,9 kg/m2 (OR = 2.49; 95% CI: 1.77-3.51; p = 0.00001) and hyperlipidaemia (OR = 3.53; 95% CI: 2.57-4.84; p = 0.00001). Conclusions Risk factors for Type 2 diabetes and diabetic foot are only partially common. Study proved that patients who are prone to developing diabetic foot experience different risk factors than patients who are at risk of diabetes. Identification of relationship between diabetic foot and diabetes risk factors in appropriate groups may help clinicians to focus on certain factors in diabetic foot prevention. PMID:25114882

2014-01-01

113

Wild-type p53 is required for apoptosis induced by growth factor deprivation in factor-dependent leukaemic cells.  

PubMed Central

The p53 gene is a growth control gene, abnormalities of which have been implicated in a variety of cancers. Recently wild-type p53 has been shown to exist in two interchangeable conformational variants, which can be distinguished by specific p53 monoclonal antibodies. One conformation acts as a suppressor (PAb240-/PAb1620+) and one acts as a promoter (PAb240+/PAb1620-) of cell proliferation; the latter conformation is also that of mutant p53. We have previously shown that acute myeloblastic leukaemia (AML) blasts which proliferate autonomously in vitro express only p53 in the promoter conformation. In contrast, expression of PAb1620 was found only in blasts with non-autocrine growth in vitro and was diminished following stimulation by exogenous growth factors when there was a switch to p53 in the promoter (PAb240+) conformation. As AML blasts with non-autocrine growth undergo apoptosis when deprived of exogenous growth factors, we studied whether this was mediated by wild-type p53. Antisense oligonucleotides to p53 were used to suppress p53 protein expression in blasts with non-autocrine growth and also the factor-dependent human erythroleukaemia cell line TF-1. Following growth factor deprivation for 48 h, 20.6-53.6% of control blasts were apoptotic and demonstrated a typical 'ladder' on DNA electrophoresis characteristic of internucleosomal degradation of DNA. In the presence of p53 antisense, apoptosis was suppressed despite the absence of growth factor, however cell proliferation was not stimulated. We conclude that apoptosis occurring in factor-dependent AML blasts following growth factor deprivation is mediated by wild-type p53 (PAb1620+), and that conformational change of p53 to the PAb240+ conformation occurring either by mutation or by the action of autocrine growth factors would permit leukaemic cell survival by suppressing apoptosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:8123475

Zhu, Y. M.; Bradbury, D. A.; Russell, N. H.

1994-01-01

114

Patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) exhibit substantial cerebrovascular damage, including the accumulation of -amyloid (A) peptides within the vessel wall. Mid-life vascular risk factors increase the  

E-print Network

, including the accumulation of -amyloid (A) peptides within the vessel wall. Mid-life vascular risk factors and direct pharmacological manipulation of apoA-I to delineate its CNS transport, regulation and therapeutic

Michelson, David G.

115

43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? 404.9 Section 404...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.9...facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? A rural water...

2014-10-01

116

Aging is the primary risk factor for the majority of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). There are almost 40 million  

E-print Network

and genetics that promote healthy aging will decrease the incidence of these diseases in the general population inevitable beyond a certain age. That being said, both genetic and environmental factors influence the onsetAging is the primary risk factor for the majority of neurodegenerative diseases, including

Liu, Taosheng

117

Dynamic shape factors for hydox-generated plutonium dioxide-type non-sperical objects.  

E-print Network

??The dynamic shape factors of HYDOX-generated plutonium dioxide-type non-spherical objects were estimated with computational methods. Leith's empirical methods were used to modify classical Stokes's law… (more)

Lohaus, James Harold

2012-01-01

118

25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Transportation planning for tourism and recreation travel; (2) Adjacent vehicle parking areas; (3) Development of tourist information and interpretative signs; (4) Provision for non-motorized trail activities including pedestrians and...

2011-04-01

119

25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transportation planning for tourism and recreation travel; (2) Adjacent vehicle parking areas; (3) Development of tourist information and interpretative signs; (4) Provision for non-motorized trail activities including pedestrians and...

2010-04-01

120

Keratinocyte Growth Factor Enhances Maturation of Fetal Rat Lung Type II Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) or fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-7, a peptide produced by stromal cells and in particular by lung mesenchyme, has recently been shown to influence early lung morphogenesis and to be a mitogen for fetal and adult alveolar type II cells. Although contradictory findings have been re- ported regarding its effects on surfactant protein expression, its effects on

Nadia Chelly; Oumel-Banine Mouhieddine-Gueddiche; Anne-Marie Barlier-Mur; Bernadette Chailley-Heu; Jacques R. Bourbon

1999-01-01

121

School factors as barriers to and facilitators of a preventive intervention for pediatric type 2 diabetes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

School-based interventions are essential to prevent pediatric obesity and type 2 diabetes. School environmental factors influence implementation of these interventions. This article examines how school factors acted as barriers to and facilitators of the HEALTHY intervention. The HEALTHY study was a...

122

Duration of participation in continuous quality improvement: a key factor explaining improved delivery of Type 2 diabetes services.  

PubMed

BackgroundIt is generally recognised that continuous quality improvement (CQI) programs support development of high quality primary health care systems. However, there is limited evidence demonstrating their system-wide effectiveness. We examined variation in quality of Type 2 diabetes service delivery in over 100 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care centres participating in a wide-scale CQI project over the past decade, and determined the influence of health centre and patient level factors on quality of care, with specific attention to health centre duration of participation in a CQI program.MethodsWe analysed over 10,000 clinical audit records to assess quality of Type 2 diabetes care of patients in 132 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community health centres in five states/territories participating in the ABCD project for varying periods between 2005 and 2012. Process indicators of quality of care for each patient were calculated by determining the proportion of recommended guideline scheduled services that were documented as delivered. Multilevel regression models were used to quantify the amount of variation in Type 2 diabetes service delivery attributable to health centre or patient level factors and to identify those factors associated with greater adherence to best practice guidelines.ResultsHealth centre factors that were independently associated with adherence to best practice guidelines included longer participation in the CQI program, remoteness of health centres, and regularity of client attendance. Significantly associated patient level variables included greater age, and number of co-morbidities and disease complications. Health centre factors explained 37% of the differences in level of service delivery between jurisdictions with patient factors explaining only a further 1%.ConclusionsAt the health centre level, Type 2 diabetes service delivery could be improved through long term commitment to CQI, encouraging regular attendance (for example, through patient reminder systems) and improved recording and coordination of patient care in the complex service provider environments that are characteristic of non-remote areas. PMID:25408165

Matthews, Veronica; Schierhout, Gill; McBroom, James; Connors, Christine; Kennedy, Catherine; Kwedza, Ru; Larkins, Sarah; Moore, Elizabeth; Thompson, Sandra; Scrimgeour, David; Bailie, Ross

2014-11-19

123

A confirmatory factor analysis of the Myers–Briggs Type Indicator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 95×95 covariance matrix of the Italian edition of the Myers–Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Form F was subjected to a series of three maximum likelihood confirmatory factor analyses using EQS 3.0 (Bentler, 1989) on a sample of 1798 subjects. The purpose was to try to test the fit of three plausible correlated non-nested factor models: the traditional four-factor model assumed

Aristide Saggino; Colin Cooper; Paul Kline

2001-01-01

124

Optimizing Staining Protocols for Laser Microdissection of Specific Cell Types from the Testis Including Carcinoma In Situ  

PubMed Central

Microarray and RT-PCR based methods are important tools for analysis of gene expression; however, in tissues containing many different cells types, such as the testis, characterization of gene expression in specific cell types can be severely hampered by noise from other cells. The laser microdissection technology allows for enrichment of specific cell types. However, when the cells are not morphologically distinguishable, it is necessary to use a specific staining method for the target cells. In this study we have tested different fixatives, storage conditions for frozen sections and staining protocols, and present two staining protocols for frozen sections, one for fast and specific staining of fetal germ cells, testicular carcinoma in situ cells, and other cells with embryonic stem cell-like properties that express the alkaline phosphatase, and one for specific staining of lipid droplet-containing cells, which is useful for isolation of the androgen-producing Leydig cells. Both protocols retain a morphology that is compatible with laser microdissection and yield RNA of a quality suitable for PCR and microarray analysis. PMID:19436754

Nielsen, John Erik; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E.; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Gjerdrum, Lise Mette; Leffers, Henrik

2009-01-01

125

Novel mutations including deletions of the entire OFD1 gene in 30 families with type 1 orofaciodigital syndrome: a study of the extensive clinical variability.  

PubMed

OFD1, now recognized as a ciliopathy, is characterized by malformations of the face, oral cavity and digits, and is transmitted as an X-linked condition with lethality in males. Mutations in OFD1 also cause X-linked Joubert syndrome (JBTS10) and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 2 (SGBS2). We have studied 55 sporadic and six familial cases of suspected OFD1. Comprehensive mutation analysis in OFD1 revealed mutations in 37 female patients from 30 families; 22 mutations have not been previously described including two heterozygous deletions spanning OFD1 and neighbouring genes. Analysis of clinical findings in patients with mutations revealed that oral features are the most reliable diagnostic criteria. A first, detailed evaluation of brain MRIs from seven patients with cognitive defects illustrated extensive variability with the complete brain phenotype consisting of complete agenesis of the corpus callosum, large single or multiple interhemispheric cysts, striking cortical infolding of gyri, ventriculomegaly, mild molar tooth malformation and moderate to severe cerebellar vermis hypoplasia. Although the OFD1 gene apparently escapes X-inactivation, skewed inactivation was observed in seven of 14 patients. The direction of skewing did not correlate with disease severity, reinforcing the hypothesis that additional factors contribute to the extensive intrafamilial variability. PMID:23033313

Bisschoff, Izak J; Zeschnigk, Christine; Horn, Denise; Wellek, Brigitte; Rieß, Angelika; Wessels, Maja; Willems, Patrick; Jensen, Peter; Busche, Andreas; Bekkebraten, Jens; Chopra, Maya; Hove, Hanne Dahlgaard; Evers, Christina; Heimdal, Ketil; Kaiser, Ann-Sophie; Kunstmann, Erdmut; Robinson, Kristina Lagerstedt; Linné, Maja; Martin, Patricia; McGrath, James; Pradel, Winnie; Prescott, Katrina E; Roesler, Bernd; Rudolf, Gorazd; Siebers-Renelt, Ulrike; Tyshchenko, Nataliya; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Wolff, Gerhard; Dobyns, William B; Morris-Rosendahl, Deborah J

2013-01-01

126

Factors Associated with Beta-Cell Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes: The BETADECLINE Study  

PubMed Central

Aims Beta-cell dysfunction is an early event in the natural history of type 2 diabetes. However, its progression is variable and potentially influenced by several clinical factors. We report the baseline data of the BetaDecline study, an Italian prospective multicenter study on clinical predictors of beta-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods Clinical, lifestyle, and laboratory data, including circulating levels of inflammatory markers and non-esterified fatty acids, were collected in 507 type 2 diabetic outpatients on stable treatment with oral hypoglycemic drugs or diet for more than 1 year. Beta-cell dysfunction was evaluated by calculating the proinsulin/insulin ratio (P/I). Results At baseline, the subjects in the upper PI/I ratio quartile were more likely to be men and receiving secretagogue drugs; they also showed a borderline longer diabetes duration (P?=?0.06) and higher serum levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose, and triglycerides. An inverse trend across all PI/I quartiles was noted for BMI and serum levels of total cholesterol (T-C), LDL-C, HDL-C and C reactive protein (CRP), and with homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-B) and HOMA of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values (P<0.05 for all). At multivariate analysis, the risk of having a P/I ratio in the upper quartile was higher in the subjects on secretagogue drugs (odds ratio [OR] 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.6–6.9) and in the males (OR 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1–2.9). Conclusions In the BetaDecline study population, baseline higher PI/I values, a marker of beta-cell dysfunction, were more frequent in men and in patients on secretagogues drugs. Follow-up of this cohort will allow the identification of clinical predictors of beta-cell failure in type 2 diabetic outpatients. PMID:25347846

Russo, Giuseppina T.; Giorda, Carlo Bruno; Cercone, Stefania; Nicolucci, Antonio; Cucinotta, Domenico

2014-01-01

127

Suicide, Schizophrenia, and Schizoid-Type Psychosis: Role of Life Events and Childhood Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first objective was to identify the provoking events of suicide in patients with schizophrenia or schizoid-type disorder, and to assess the humiliation component of these events. The second objective was to verify if quality of care during childhood is a vulnerability factor for suicide in patients with schizophrenia or schizoid-type

Tousignant, Michel; Pouliot, Louise; Routhier, Danielle; Vrakas, Georgia; McGirr, Alexander; Turecki, Gustavo

2011-01-01

128

Therapies for type 2 diabetes: lowering HbA1c and associated cardiovascular risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To summarize data supporting the effects of antidiabetes agents on glucose control and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Studies reporting on the effects of antidiabetes agents on glycemic control, body weight, lipid levels, and blood pressure parameters are reviewed and summarized for the purpose of selecting optimal therapeutic regimens for patients with type 2

L. Romayne Kurukulasuriya; James R Sowers

2010-01-01

129

Genetic and environmental factors associated with type 2 diabetes and diabetic vascular complications  

PubMed Central

Faced with a global epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2D), it is critical that researchers improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of T2D and related vascular complications. These findings may ultimately lead to novel treatment options for disease prevention or delaying progression. Two major paradigms jointly underlie the development of T2D and related coronary artery disease, diabetic nephropathy, and diabetic retinopathy. These paradigms include the genetic risk variants and behavioral/environmental factors. This article systematically reviews the literature supporting genetic determinants in the pathogenesis of T2D and diabetic vasculopathy, and the functional implications of these gene variants on the regulation of beta-cell function and glucose homeostasis. We update the discovery of diabetes and diabetic vasculopathy risk variants, and describe the genetic technologies that have uncovered them. Also, genomic linkage between obesity and T2D is discussed. There is a complementary role for behavioral and environmental factors modulating the genetic susceptibility and diabetes risk. Epidemiological and clinical data demonstrating the effects of behavioral and novel environmental exposures on disease expression are reviewed. Finally, a succinct overview of recent landmark clinical trials addressing glycemic control and its impact on rates of vascular complications is presented. It is expected that novel strategies to exploit the gene- and exposure-related underpinnings of T2D will soon result. PMID:22972441

Murea, Mariana; Ma, Lijun; Freedman, Barry I.

2012-01-01

130

Multiple risk factor intervention reduces carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with rapid progression of carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) were shown to have a higher future risk for cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of multiple risk factor intervention on CIMT progression and to establish whether new cardiovascular surrogate measurements would allow prediction of CIMT changes. Materials and methods In this prospective, open, 2-years study, we included 97 patients with type 2 diabetes and at least two insufficiently treated cardiovascular risk factors, i.e. HbA1c > 7.5% (58 mmol/mol); LDL-cholesterol >3.1 mmol/l or blood pressure >140/90 mmHg. Treatment was intensified according to current guidelines over 3 months with the aim to maintain intensification over 2 years. The primary outcome was the change in CIMT after 2 years. We also assessed markers of mechanical and biochemical endothelial function and endothelial progenitor cells before and after 3 months of treatment intensification. For testing differences between before and after multifactorial treatment measurements we used either the paired student’s t-test or the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, depending on the distribution of the data. Additional, explorative statistical data analysis was done on CIMT progression building a linear multivariate regression model. Results Blood glucose, lipids and blood pressure significantly improved during the first 3 months of intensified treatment, which was sustained over the 2-year study duration. Mean CIMT significantly decreased from baseline to 2 year (0.883 ± 0.120 mm vs. 0.860 ± 0.130 mm; p = 0.021). None of the investigated surrogate measures, however, was able to predict changes in IMT early after treatment intensification. Conclusions Intensification of risk factor intervention in type 2 diabetes results in CIMT regression over a period of 2 years. None of the biomarkers used including endothelial function parameters or endothelial progenitor cells turned out to be useful to predict CIMT changes. Trial registration Clinical Trial Registration – Unique identifier: NCT00660790 PMID:24884694

2014-01-01

131

Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease: Have all risk factors the same strength?  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition that occurs when the body cannot produce enough or effectively use of insulin. Compared with individuals without diabetes, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have a considerably higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease. Most of this excess risk is it associated with an augmented prevalence of well-known risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia and obesity in these patients. However the improved cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients can not be attributed solely to the higher prevalence of traditional risk factors. Therefore other non-traditional risk factors may be important in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cardiovascular disease is increased in type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects due to a complex combination of various traditional and non-traditional risk factors that have an important role to play in the beginning and the evolution of atherosclerosis over its long natural history from endothelial function to clinical events. Many of these risk factors could be common history for both diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, reinforcing the postulate that both disorders come independently from “common soil”. The objective of this review is to highlight the weight of traditional and non-traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the setting of type 2 diabetes mellitus and discuss their position in the pathogenesis of the excess cardiovascular disease mortality and morbidity in these patients. PMID:25126392

Martín-Timón, Iciar; Sevillano-Collantes, Cristina; Segura-Galindo, Amparo; del Cañizo-Gómez, Francisco Javier

2014-01-01

132

Signatures of resistance to Lepeophtheirus salmonis include a TH2-type response at the louse-salmon interface.  

PubMed

Disease outbreaks with the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis cause significant economic losses in mariculture operations worldwide. Variable innate immune responses at the louse-attachment site contribute to differences in susceptibility among species such that members of Salmo spp. are more susceptible to infection than those of some Oncorhynchus spp. Relatively little is known about the mechanisms that contribute to disease resistance or susceptibility to L.?salmonis in salmon. Here, we utilize histochemistry and transcriptomics in a comparative infection model with susceptible (Atlantic, sockeye) and resistant (coho) salmon. At least three cell populations (MHII?+, IL1?+, TNF?+) were activated in coho salmon skin during L.?salmonis infection. Locally elevated expression of several pro-inflammatory mediators (e.g. IL1?, IL8, TNF?, COX2, C/EBP?), and tissue repair enzymes (MMP9, MMP13) were detected in susceptible and resistant species. However, responses specific to coho salmon (e.g. IL4, IL6, TGF?) or responses shared among susceptible salmon (e.g. SAP, TRF, Cath in Atlantic and sockeye salmon) provide evidence for species-specific pathways contributing to resistance or susceptibility, respectively. Our results confirm the importance of an early pro-inflammatory TH1-type pathway as an initial host response during infection with Pacific sea lice, and demonstrate subsequent regulatory TH2-type processes as candidate defense mechanisms in the skin of resistant coho salmon. PMID:25453579

Braden, Laura M; Koop, Ben F; Jones, Simon R M

2015-01-01

133

Serum factors inhibit melanoma cell surface expression of type I and type II IGF receptors.  

PubMed

We have identified one class of IGF-I-binding sites and two classes of IGF-II-binding sites at the surface of the melanoma cell line IGR39. By means of affinity labeling with 125I-IGF-I, 290-300 kDa form was characterized. Using 125I-IGF-II, a 270 kDa polypeptide was labeled, corresponding to the type II IGF receptor. In the two serials of experiments, the order of potency in inhibiting 125I-IGF-I or 125I-IGF-II labeling of IGF-related peptides and alpha IR3, an antibody directed against type I receptor alpha subunit, was the same as in competition experiments. When IGR39 cells were cultured in a serum-free medium, the number of both high affinity IGF-II and IGF-I binding sites was increased, by 8- and 5-fold respectively, without any significant change in Kd values. In both culture conditions, we found IGFBP-2, -3 -4 and a 30 kDa form which Mr was consistent with IGFBP-5 or -6. Except for IGFBP-2, the amount of secreted IGFBPs was modified depending on culture conditions: in conditioned medium from cells cultured with 10% FCS, the amount of IGFBP-3 or -4 was higher, and the amount of the 30 kDa IGFBP was lower when compared to conditioned medium from cells cultured in serum-free medium. PMID:8771534

Bellan, C; Remacle-Bonnet, M; Garrouste, F; Secchi, J; Luis, J; Pommier, G; Marvaldi, J

1996-01-01

134

Modulation of collagen gene expression by cytokines: Stimulatory effect of transforming growth factor-?1, with divergent effects of epidermal growth factor and tumor necrosis factor-? on collagen type I and collagen type IV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) is well recognized as a potent mediator of both fibrillar (collagen type I) and basement membrane (collagen type IV) production. However, tissue injury is characterized by the concomitant expression of many cytokines and\\/or growth factors in addition to TGF-?1, and the ultimate extent of extracellular-matrix (ECM) deposition may reflect the interacting effects of TGF-?1 and these

Joseph P. Grande; Deborah C. Melder; Alan R. Zinsmeister

1997-01-01

135

Health-related quality of life and hand eczema--a comparison of two instruments, including factor analysis.  

PubMed

Hand eczema is a disease of long duration, affecting the individual and society. The purpose of this study of 100 patients (51 females and 49 males) at an occupational dermatology clinic was to investigate whether the generic questionnaire Short Form-36 (SF-36), and the dermatology-specific Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) are appropriate for assessing health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with hand eczema, and whether gender differences in HRQL could be detected. HRQL was affected by hand eczema, measured with both SF-36 and DLQI. The SF-36 showed more impaired HRQL for females than for males, in the mental health dimension, whereas no gender-related differences were detected with the DLQI. To compare the instruments we used factor analysis, with a polychoric correlation matrix as input, thus taking the ordinal aspect of the data into account. There was a high correlation between the instruments for physical health, but lower for mental health. In this context our interpretation of the factor analysis is that the SF-36 measures mental health better than the DLQI. The SF-36 therefore appears suitable for use in future studies for measuring HRQL, and gender differences in HRQL, in persons with reported hand eczema. PMID:15175027

Wallenhammar, Lena-Marie; Nyfjäll, Mats; Lindberg, Magnus; Meding, Birgitta

2004-06-01

136

Improvement of Surface Functionalities, Including Allergenicity Attenuation, of Whole Buckwheat Protein Fraction by Maillard-Type Glycation with Dextran  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of the introduction of polysaccharide chains onto the molecular surface of buckwheat proteins on buckwheat protein surface functionality. The whole buckwheat protein fraction (WBP) was prepared using 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) containing 0.5 M NaCl and covalently linked with 6 kDa, 17.5 kDa, 40 kDa, 70 kDa, or 200 kDa dextran by Maillard-type glycation through controlled dry-heating at 60°C and 79% relative humidity for two weeks. Conjugation with 40 kDa dextran improved the water solubility and emulsifying properties of WBP without causing a serious loss of available lysine; 84.9% of the free amino groups were conserved. In addition, we found that the introduction of dextran chains onto the molecular surfaces of WBP attenuated the antigenicity of WBP. PMID:25580398

Tazawa, Shigeru; Katayama, Shigeru; Hirabayashi, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Nakamura, Soichiro

2014-01-01

137

Factors associated with glycemic control in adult type 1 diabetes patients treated with insulin pump therapy.  

PubMed

Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) by insulin pump seems to improve glycemia and quality of life as compared to conventional insulin therapy in type 1 diabetes (T1DM). However, while many T1DM subjects achieve excellent glycemic control, some others cannot reach recommended goals. In a retrospective analysis, we searched for factors associated with glycemic control in T1DM patients treated with insulin pump therapy. Data from 192 patients (133 women and 59 men) treated with personal insulin pumps at the Department of Metabolic Diseases, University Hospital, Krakow, Poland were analyzed. Sources of information included medical records, memory read-outs from insulin pumps and data from glucose meters. Univariate, multivariate linear and logistic regression analysis for the association with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level were performed. The mean age of the subjects was 28.9 (±11.2) years, the mean duration of T1DM-14.6 (±7.6) years, mean body mass index-23.5 (±3.1) kg/m(2). The mean HbA1c level in the entire study group was 7.4 % (57 mmol/mol). In the multivariate linear regression analysis, HbA1c correlated with the mean number of daily blood glucose measurements, number of hypoglycemic episodes per 100 blood glucose measurements, age at the examination, and continuous glucose monitoring system use. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for reaching the therapeutic target of HbA1c < 7.0 % (53 mmol/mol) showed that the independent predictors of achieving this goal included the same four variables. In a large clinical observation, we identified that patient-related and technological factors associated with glycemic control in adult pump-treated T1DM subjects. PMID:24798448

Matejko, Bart?omiej; Skupien, Jan; Mrozi?ska, Sandra; Grzanka, Ma?gorzata; Cyganek, Katarzyna; Kiec-Wilk, Beata; Malecki, Maciej T; Klupa, Tomasz

2014-05-01

138

Enhanced Hepatocyte Growth Factor Signaling by Type II Transforming Growth Factor-B Receptor Knockout Fibroblasts Promotes Mammary Tumorigenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transforming growth factor-B (TGF-B) plays complex dual roles as an inhibitor and promoter of tumor progression. Although the influence of the stromal microenvironment on tumor progression is well recognized, little is known about the functions of TGF-B signaling in the stroma during tumor progression. Using cre-lox technology, expression of the type II TGF-B receptor was selectively knocked out in fibroblasts

Nikki Cheng; Anna Chytil; Yu Shyr; Alison Joly

2007-01-01

139

Incineration of different types of medical wastes: emission factors for gaseous emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous research works showed that to protect public health, the hospital incinerators should be provided with air pollution control devices. As most hospital incinerators do not possess such equipment, efficient methodologies should be developed to evaluate the safety of incineration procedure. Emission factors (EF) can be used for an easy estimation of legal parameters. Nevertheless, the actual knowledge is yet very scarce, mainly because EF previously published do not include enough information about the incinerated waste composition, besides considering many different waste classifications. This paper reports the first EF estimated for CO, SO 2, NO x and HCl, associated to the incineration of medical waste, segregated in different types according to the classification of the Portuguese legislation. The results showed that those EF are strongly influenced by incinerated waste composition, directly affected by incinerated waste type, waste classification, segregation practice and management methodology. The correspondence between different waste classifications was analysed comparing the estimated EF with the sole results previously published for specific waste types, being observed that the correspondence is not always possible. The legal limit for pollutant concentrations could be obeyed for NO x, but concentrations were higher than the limit for CO (11-24 times), SO 2 (2-5 times), and HCl (9-200 times), confirming that air pollution control devices must be used to protect human health. The small heating value of medical wastes with compulsory incineration implied the requirement of a bigger amount of auxiliary fuel for their incineration, which affects the emitted amounts of CO, NO x and SO 2 (28, 20 and practically 100% of the respective values were related with fuel combustion). Nevertheless, the incineration of those wastes lead to the smallest amount of emitted pollutants, the emitted amount of SO 2 and NO x reducing to 93% and the emitted amount of CO and HCl to more than 99%.

Alvim-Ferraz, M. C. M.; Afonso, S. A. V.

140

Anthropomorphic Measurements That Include Central Fat Distribution Are More Closely Related with Key Risk Factors than BMI in CKD Stage 3  

PubMed Central

Background Body Mass Index (BMI) as a marker of obesity is an established risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, BMI can overestimate obesity. Anthropomorphic measurements that include central fat deposition are emerging as a more important risk factor. We studied BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and conicity index (CI) in a cohort of patients with CKD stage 3 and compared the associations with other known risk factors for CKD progression and CVD. Methods 1740 patients with CKD stage 3 were recruited from primary care for the Renal Risk in Derby study. Each participant underwent clinical assessment, including anthropomorphic measurements and pulse wave velocity (PWV), as well as urine and serum biochemistry tests. Results The mean age of the cohort was 72.9±9 years with 60% females. The mean eGFR was 52.5±10.4 ml/min/1.73 m2 and 16.9% of the cohort had diabetes. With the cohort divided into normal and increased risk of morbidity and mortality using each anthropomorphic measurement, those measurements that included increased central fat distribution were significantly associated with more risk factors for CKD progression and CVD than increased BMI. Univariable analysis demonstrated central fat distribution was correlated with more risk factors than BMI. Subgroup analyses using recognised BMI cut-offs to define obesity and quartiles of WHR and CI demonstrated that increasing central fat distribution was significantly associated with more CKD and CVD risk factors than increasing BMI. Conclusion Anthropomorphic measurements that include a measure of central fat deposition are related to more key risk factors in CKD stage 3 patients than BMI. Central fat deposition may be of greater importance as a risk factor in CKD than BMI and reliance on BMI alone may therefore underestimate the associated risk. PMID:22511960

Evans, Philip D.; McIntyre, Natasha J.; Fluck, Richard J.; McIntyre, Christopher W.; Taal, Maarten W.

2012-01-01

141

Patterns of regulatory activity across diverse human cell types predict tissue identity, transcription factor binding, and long-range interactions.  

PubMed

Regulatory elements recruit transcription factors that modulate gene expression distinctly across cell types, but the relationships among these remains elusive. To address this, we analyzed matched DNase-seq and gene expression data for 112 human samples representing 72 cell types. We first defined more than 1800 clusters of DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) with similar tissue specificity of DNase-seq signal patterns. We then used these to uncover distinct associations between DHSs and promoters, CpG islands, conserved elements, and transcription factor motif enrichment. Motif analysis within clusters identified known and novel motifs in cell-type-specific and ubiquitous regulatory elements and supports a role for AP-1 regulating open chromatin. We developed a classifier that accurately predicts cell-type lineage based on only 43 DHSs and evaluated the tissue of origin for cancer cell types. A similar classifier identified three sex-specific loci on the X chromosome, including the XIST lincRNA locus. By correlating DNase I signal and gene expression, we predicted regulated genes for more than 500K DHSs. Finally, we introduce a web resource to enable researchers to use these results to explore these regulatory patterns and better understand how expression is modulated within and across human cell types. PMID:23482648

Sheffield, Nathan C; Thurman, Robert E; Song, Lingyun; Safi, Alexias; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Lenhard, Boris; Crawford, Gregory E; Furey, Terrence S

2013-05-01

142

Patterns of regulatory activity across diverse human cell types predict tissue identity, transcription factor binding, and long-range interactions  

PubMed Central

Regulatory elements recruit transcription factors that modulate gene expression distinctly across cell types, but the relationships among these remains elusive. To address this, we analyzed matched DNase-seq and gene expression data for 112 human samples representing 72 cell types. We first defined more than 1800 clusters of DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) with similar tissue specificity of DNase-seq signal patterns. We then used these to uncover distinct associations between DHSs and promoters, CpG islands, conserved elements, and transcription factor motif enrichment. Motif analysis within clusters identified known and novel motifs in cell-type-specific and ubiquitous regulatory elements and supports a role for AP-1 regulating open chromatin. We developed a classifier that accurately predicts cell-type lineage based on only 43 DHSs and evaluated the tissue of origin for cancer cell types. A similar classifier identified three sex-specific loci on the X chromosome, including the XIST lincRNA locus. By correlating DNase I signal and gene expression, we predicted regulated genes for more than 500K DHSs. Finally, we introduce a web resource to enable researchers to use these results to explore these regulatory patterns and better understand how expression is modulated within and across human cell types. PMID:23482648

Sheffield, Nathan C.; Thurman, Robert E.; Song, Lingyun; Safi, Alexias; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.; Lenhard, Boris; Crawford, Gregory E.; Furey, Terrence S.

2013-01-01

143

Statistical analysis, optimization, and prioritization of virtual screening parameters for zinc enzymes including the anthrax toxin lethal factor.  

PubMed

The anthrax toxin lethal factor (LF) and matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3, stromelysin-1) are popular zinc metalloenzyme drug targets, with LF primarily responsible for anthrax-related toxicity and host death, while MMP-3 is involved in cancer- and rheumatic disease-related tissue remodeling. A number of in silico screening techniques, most notably docking and scoring, have proven useful for identifying new potential drug scaffolds targeting LF and MMP-3, as well as for optimizing lead compounds and investigating mechanisms of action. However, virtual screening outcomes can vary significantly depending on the specific docking parameters chosen, and systematic statistical significance analyses are needed to prioritize key parameters for screening small molecules against these zinc systems. In the current work, we present a series of chi-square statistical analyses of virtual screening outcomes for cocrystallized LF and MMP-3 inhibitors docked into their respective targets, evaluated by predicted enzyme-inhibitor dissociation constant and root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) between predicted and experimental bound configurations, and we present a series of preferred parameters for use with these systems in the industry-standard Surflex-Dock screening program, for use by researchers utilizing in silico techniques to discover and optimize new scaffolds. PMID:25373478

Maize, Kimberly M; Zhang, Xia; Amin, Elizabeth Ambrose

2014-01-01

144

Potential Risk Factors for Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma include Oral Contraceptives: Results of a Nested Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Recently, a population-based case-control study observed a 60% increased odds ratio (OR) for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) among women who had ever used oral contraceptives (OCs) compared with non users (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0–2.5). To further characterize the putative association between OC use and SCC risk, we conducted a nested case-control study using a large retrospective cohort of 111,521 Kaiser Permanente Northern California members. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to estimate ORs and CIs adjusting for known and hypothesized SCC risk factors. Pre-diagnostic OC use was associated with a statistically significant increased OR for SCC in univariate analysis (OR = 2.4, CI = 1.2–4.8), with borderline statistical significance in multivariable analysis (CI = 2.0, CI = 0.91–4.5). Given the high incidence of SCC in the general population and the prevalent use of OCs among women in the United States, there is a need for more large, carefully designed epidemiologic studies to determine whether the observed association between OC use and SCC can be replicated and to better understand the etiologic basis of an association if one exists. PMID:20616983

Asgari, Maryam M.; Efird, Jimmy T.; Warton, E. Margaret; Friedman, Gary D.

2010-01-01

145

Risk Factors Contributing to Type 2 Diabetes and Recent Advances in the Treatment and Prevention  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes is a serious and common chronic disease resulting from a complex inheritance-environment interaction along with other risk factors such as obesity and sedentary lifestyle. Type 2 diabetes and its complications constitute a major worldwide public health problem, affecting almost all populations in both developed and developing countries with high rates of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has been increasing exponentially, and a high prevalence rate has been observed in developing countries and in populations undergoing “westernization” or modernization. Multiple risk factors of diabetes, delayed diagnosis until micro- and macro-vascular complications arise, life-threatening complications, failure of the current therapies, and financial costs for the treatment of this disease, make it necessary to develop new efficient therapy strategies and appropriate prevention measures for the control of type 2 diabetes. Herein, we summarize our current understanding about the epidemiology of type 2 diabetes, the roles of genes, lifestyle and other factors contributing to rapid increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes. The core aims are to bring forward the new therapy strategies and cost-effective intervention trials of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25249787

Wu, Yanling; Ding, Yanping; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Zhang, Wen

2014-01-01

146

Factorize  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive applet allows a student to visually explore the concept of factors by creating different rectangular arrays for a number. The user constructs the array by clicking and dragging on a grid. The length and width of the array are factors of the number. A student can elect an option of a randomly selected number or the student selects his own number between 2 and 50. Exploration questions are included to promote student discovery of mathematical concepts with factors.

2000-01-01

147

Biosynthesis of Dictyostelium discoideum differentiation-inducing factor by a hybrid type I fatty acid–type III polyketide synthase  

PubMed Central

Differentiation-inducing factors (DIFs) are well known to modulate formation of distinct communal cell types from identical Dictyostelium discoideum amoebas, but DIF biosynthesis remains obscure. We report complimentary in vivo and in vitro experiments identifying one of two ~3,000-residue D. discoideum proteins, termed ‘steely’, as responsible for biosynthesis of the DIF acylphloroglucinol scaffold. Steely proteins possess six catalytic domains homologous to metazoan type I fatty acid synthases (FASs) but feature an iterative type III polyketide synthase (PKS) in place of the expected FAS C-terminal thioesterase used to off load fatty acid products. This new domain arrangement likely facilitates covalent transfer of steely N-terminal acyl products directly to the C-terminal type III PKS active sites, which catalyze both iterative polyketide extension and cyclization. The crystal structure of a steely C-terminal domain confirms conservation of the homodimeric type III PKS fold. These findings suggest new bioengineering strategies for expanding the scope of fatty acid and polyketide biosynthesis. PMID:16906151

Austin, Michael B; Saito, Tamao; Bowman, Marianne E; Haydock, Stephen; Kato, Atsushi; Moore, Bradley S; Kay, Robert R; Noel, Joseph P

2010-01-01

148

Risk Factors for Fractures and Falls in Older Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with an increased risk of hip fractures despite patients with this condition having\\u000a normal to high bone mineral density (BMD). Therefore, nonskeletal risk factors may be important in the etiology of fractures\\u000a in these patients. The aim of this cross-sectional retrospective study was to determine risk factors for falling and fracture\\u000a in older

Sanjeev Patel; Steve Hyer; Karen Tweed; Sally Kerry; Kathryn Allan; Andrew Rodin; Jeffrey Barron

2008-01-01

149

T-cell responses in two unrelated hemophilia A inhibitor subjects include an epitope at the factor VIII R593C missense site  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Development of neutralizing anti-factor (F)VIII antibodies (‘inhibitors’) is a serious clinical problem in hemophilia A. Increased inhibitor risk has been associated with certain FVIII missense substitutions, including R593C in the A2 domain. Objectives The aim of the present study was to identify T-cell epitopes in FVIII and characterize T-cell responses in two unrelated hemophilia A subjects sharing F8-R593C andHLA-DRB1*1101 genotypes. We hypothesized that the hemophilic substitution site coincides with an important T-cell epitope. Patients/methods The binding affinities of peptides for recombinant HLA-DR proteins were measured and compared with epitope prediction results. CD4+ T cells were stimulated using peptides and stained with fluorescent, peptide-loaded tetramers. Results The inhibitor subjects, but not HLA-matched controls, had high-avidity HLA-DRB1* 1101-restricted T-cell responses against FVIII589–608, which contains the hemophilic missense site. Antigen-specific T cells secreted Th1 and Th2 cytokines and proliferated in response to FVIII and FVIII592–603. FVIII589–608 bound with physiologically relevant (micromolar) IC50 values to recombinant DR0101, DR1101 and DR1501 proteins. Conclusions Hemophilia A patients with R593C missense substitutions and these HLA haplotypes had an increased incidence of inhibitors in our cohorts, supporting a paradigm in which presentation of FVIII epitopes containing the wild-type R593 influences inhibitor risk in this hemophilia A sub-population. PMID:21251204

JAMES, E. A.; VAN HAREN, S. D.; ETTINGER, R. A.; FIJNVANDRAAT, K.; LIBERMAN, J. A.; KWOK, W. W.; VOORBERG, J.; PRATT, K. P.

2014-01-01

150

Aging is the primary risk factor for the majority of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). There are almost 40 million  

E-print Network

and genetics that promote healthy aging will decrease the incidence of these diseases in the general population2012 Aging is the primary risk factor for the majority of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). There are almost 40 million people aged 65

Liu, Taosheng

151

Aging is the primary risk factor for the majority of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). There are almost 40 million  

E-print Network

and genetics that promote healthy aging will decrease the incidence of these diseases in the general populationAging is the primary risk factor for the majority of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). There are almost 40 million people aged 65

Liu, Taosheng

152

43 CFR 404.10 - Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included in a rural...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

43 ? Public Lands: Interior ? 1 ? 2013-10-01 ? 2013-10-01 ? false ? Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included in a rural water supply project? ? 404.10 ? Section 404.10 ? Public Lands: Interior ? Regulations Relating to Public Lands ? BUREAU OF...

2013-10-01

153

Identification of molecular and cytogenetic risk factors for unfavorable core-binding factor-positive adult AML with post-remission treatment outcome analysis including transplantation.  

PubMed

Emerging molecular studies have identified a subgroup of patients with unfavorable core-binding factor-positive (CBF)-AML who should be treated by intensified post-remission treatments. We analyzed 264 adults with CBF-AML from 2002 to 2011, and focused on 206 patients who achieved CR after standard '3+7' induction chemotherapy. Patients who achieved CR with an available donor were treated with allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (allo-HSCT, n=115) and the rest were treated with autologous (auto) HSCT (n=72) or chemotherapy alone (n=19). OS was not significantly different between CBF?/MYH11 (n=62) and RUNX1/RUNX1T1 (n=144), and auto-HSCT showed favorable OS compared with allo-HSCT or chemotherapy alone. Cytogenetic analysis identified that inv(16) without trisomy had a favorable OS and t(8;21) with additional chromosomes had an unfavorable OS, but multivariate analysis revealed those were NS. Patients with c-kit mutation showed inferior OS. For transplanted patients, residual post-transplant CBF-minimal residual disease quantitative PCR with higher WT1 expression at D+60 showed the worst OS with a higher incidence of relapse. Conclusively, we found that unfavorable CBF-AML can be defined with risk stratification using cytogenetic and molecular studies, and a careful risk-adapted treatment approach using frontline transplantation with novel therapies should be evaluated for this particular risk subgroup. PMID:25111512

Yoon, J-H; Kim, H-J; Kim, J-W; Jeon, Y-W; Shin, S-H; Lee, S-E; Cho, B-S; Eom, K-S; Kim, Y-J; Lee, S; Min, C-K; Cho, S-G; Lee, J-W; Min, W-S; Park, C-W

2014-12-01

154

Differences between Juvenile Offenders with and without Intellectual Disability in Offense Type and Risk Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aimed to examine differences between American juvenile offenders with and without intellectual disability (ID) in offense type and risk factors. The sample consisted of adolescents with ID (n = 102) and without ID (n = 526) who appeared before the courts for a criminal act and for whom the Washington State Juvenile Court…

Asscher, Jessica J.; van der Put, Claudia E.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.

2012-01-01

155

Mexican American Parents' Perceptions of Childhood Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to identify the norms, values, and perceptions of urban immigrant Mexican American (MA) parents of school children relative to physical activity, healthy eating, and child risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Investigators facilitated five focus groups in an urban elementary school setting and analyzed data using qualitative…

Head, Barbara J.; Barr, Kathleen L.; Baker, Sharon K.

2011-01-01

156

A Computer Program to Calculate Regression Equations on Any of Several Types of Factor Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several advantages to the use of different kinds of factor scores as independent variables in a multiple regression equation are reported. To aid the researcher in implementing these results, a FORTRAN IV computer program is presented which will calculate a regression equation on any one of five types of \\

John D. Morris

1979-01-01

157

Gene Ther . Author manuscript Coagulation factor X mediates adenovirus type 5 liver gene transfer in  

E-print Network

Gene Ther . Author manuscript Page /1 4 Coagulation factor X mediates adenovirus type 5 liver gene. Ad5 vectors accumulated in and mediated gene transfer predominantly to the liver while FX-binding ablated vectors primarily targeted the spleen but showed negligible liver gene transfer. Therefore, the Ad

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

158

An investigation of factors contributing to major crash types in Japan based on naturalistic driving data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traffic accident statistics suggest that the human errors contributing to major crash types in Japan are predominantly failures in safety confirmation and hazard recognition that result in delayed response. A naturalistic driving data acquisition system was developed to investigate the human factors that contribute to such accidents. A preliminary analysis was performed to evaluate the efficiency of the collected naturalistic

Nobuyuki Uchida; Maki Kawakoshi; Takashi Tagawa; Tsutomu Mochida

2010-01-01

159

Neuronal growth factor regulation of two different sodium channel types through distinct signal transduction pathways  

PubMed Central

Neuronal growth factors regulate the expression of voltage-activated sodium current in differentiating sympathetic neurons and PC12 cells. We show that, in PC12 cells, the NGF- and FGF-induced sodium current results from increased expression of two distinct sodium channel types. Sodium current results from the rapid induction of a novel sodium channel transcript, also found in peripheral neurons, and from the long term induction of brain type II/IIA mRNA. Expression of the type II/IIA sodium channel requires activation of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (A-kinase), whereas induction of the peripheral neuron type sodium channel occurs through an A-kinase-independent signal transduction pathway. These findings suggest that the two sodium channel types act in concert to ensure the generation of action potentials during neuronal differentiation. PMID:8394370

1993-01-01

160

40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C - Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel C ...Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel Fuel type Default high heat value Default CO2 emission factor...

2012-07-01

161

40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel C ...Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel Fuel type Default high heat value Default CO2 emission factor...

2011-07-01

162

Cross-Sectional Associations of Blood Elements, Clotting Factors, Nephropathy, and Retinal Outcomes in Long Duration Type 1 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the association of blood elements, selected clotting factors, and nephropathy with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and macular edema (ME) in those with long duration type 1 diabetes. Methods Participants (n=442) were seen in 2005–2007 at the 25-year follow-up of a population-based study of diabetic retinopathy, and were eligible for this analysis. Fundus photographs were graded using a standard retinopathy severity scheme. Laboratory measures included hematocrit, white blood cell and platelet counts, serum fibrinogen, interleukin-6, and von Willebrand factor. Results In models including duration of diabetes, hypertension, and diabetic nephropathy, only hematocrit was marginally associated (odds ratio; 95% confidence interval; P value for trend per quintile) with decreased odds of PDR (0.87; 0.74–1.01; P=0.06). Stratifying by nephropathy status, in those with and without nephropathy, there were no significant associations of any laboratory measures with PDR or ME. None of the variables we examined were associated with ME in individuals with or without nephropathy. Conclusion In persons with long duration type 1 diabetes, none of the blood elements or clotting factors was associated with increased odds of PDR or ME. Investigation of common pathways that lead to diabetic nephropathy and diabetic retinal outcomes should be a research priority in efforts to prevent vision-threatening complications of diabetes and nephropathy. PMID:22568424

Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Howard, Kerri P.; Lee, Kristine E.

2012-01-01

163

Method Of Bonding A Metal Connection To An Electrode Including A Core Having A Fiber Or Foam Type Structure For An Electrochemical Cell, An  

DOEpatents

A method of bonding a metal connection to an electrode including a core having a fiber or foam-type structure for an electrochemical cell, in which method at least one metal strip is pressed against one edge of the core and is welded thereto under compression, wherein, at least in line with the region in which said strip is welded to the core, which is referred to as the "main core", a retaining core of a type analogous to that of the main core is disposed prior to the welding.

Loustau, Marie-Therese (Bordeaux, FR); Verhoog, Roelof (Bordeaux, FR); Precigout, Claude (Lormont, FR)

1996-09-24

164

Migraine and tension-type headache in Croatia: a population-based survey of precipitating factors.  

PubMed

The careful monitoring of the trigger factors of headache could be an important step in treatment, because their avoidance may lessen the frequency and severity of attacks. Furthermore, they may provide a clue to the aetiology of headache. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of tension-type headache (TTH) and to establish the frequency of precipitating factors in subjects with migraine and TTH in the adult population of Bakar, County of the Coast and Gorski Kotar, Croatia. Another important purpose of the study was to examine the relationship of the precipitating factors with migraine and TTH, and with migraine subtypes: migraine with aura (MA) and migraine without aura (MO). We performed a population-based survey using a 'face-to-face door-to-door' interview method. The surveyed population consisted of 5173 residents aged between 15 and 65 years. The 3794 participants (73.3%) were screened for headache history according to the International Headache Society (IHS) criteria. Headache screen-positive responders, 2475 (65.2%), were interviewed by trained medical students with a structured detailed interview focused on the precipitating factors. The following precipitating factors in lifetime migraineurs and tension-type headachers have been assessed: stress, sleep disturbances, eating habits, menstrual cycle, oral contraceptives, food items, afferent stimulation, changes in weather conditions and temperature, frequent travelling and physical activity. A total of 720 lifetime migraineurs and 1319 tension-type headachers have been identified. The most common precipitants for both migraine and TTH were stress and frequent travelling. Stress (odds ratio (OR) 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17, 1.69) was associated with migraine, whereas physical activity (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.59, 0.87) was related to TTH. Considering MA and MO, frequent travelling (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.59, 2.99), food items (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.35, 3.51) and changes in weather conditions and temperature (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.27, 2.41) exhibited a significant positive association with MA. The present study demonstrated that precipitant-dependent attacks are frequent among both migraineurs and tension-type headachers. Lifetime migraineurs experienced headache attacks preceded by triggering factors more frequently than tension-type headachers. MA was more frequently associated with precipitating factors than MO. We suggest that some triggering factors may contribute to the higher occurrence of precipitant-dependent headache attacks in susceptible individuals. PMID:12780762

Zivadinov, R; Willheim, K; Sepic-Grahovac, D; Jurjevic, A; Bucuk, M; Brnabic-Razmilic, O; Relja, G; Zorzon, M

2003-06-01

165

Risk factors for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in college students: association with sociodemographic variables1  

PubMed Central

Objective identify the modifiable risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus in college students and associate these factors with their sociodemographic variables. Method cross-sectional study, involving 702 college students from Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, physical exercise data and blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose levels were collected. Results the most prevalent risk factor was sedentariness, followed by overweight, central obesity, high fasting plasma glucose and arterial hypertension. A statistically significant association was found between overweight and sex (p=0.000), age (p=0.004) and marital status (p=0.012), as well as between central obesity and age (p=0.018) and marital status (p=0.007) and between high fasting plasma glucose and sex (p=0.033). Conclusion distinct risk factors were present in the study population, particularly sedentariness and overweight. PMID:25029061

Lima, Adman Câmara Soares; Araújo, Márcio Flávio Moura; de Freitas, Roberto Wagner Júnior Freire; Zanetti, Maria Lúcia; de Almeida, Paulo César; Damasceno, Marta Maria Coelho

2014-01-01

166

The effect of cell type on surgico-pathologic risk factors in endometrial cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective In this study the effect of histologic subtype as a surgicopathologic risk factor in endometrial cancer is evaluated. Material and Methods We evaluated 182 patients who underwent systematic lymphadenectomy up to the level of the renal vessels and at least 15 lymph nodes were dissected from the pelvic area and 10 lymph nodes from the para-aortic area. investigation of whether endometrioid and aggressive cell types (serous papillary cell and clear cell) affect the distribution of surgicopathologic risk factors among endometrial cancer cases was carried out. Results Patients in the aggressive cell type group were older and the tumor size was significantly smaller. There was no difference between the two groups for the total number of dissected lymph nodes except for the external iliac area. Although the difference is not statistically significant, the total number of lymph nodes dissected in the aggressive group was less (54.3 vs 62.9, p=0.067) than that of the endometrioid cell type group. While the incidence of pelvic lymph node metastasis in the aggressive group was 59.1% the incidence was 15.6% in the endometrioid cell type group (p>0.001). The possibility of lymph node metastasis for aggressive cell type endometrial carcinoma in the para-aortic area was twice the endometrioid cell type group. It was found that the presence and type (stromal/glandular) of cervical invasion, depth of myometrial invasion and presence of lymphovascular space invasion were not affected by cell type. Conclusion Aggressive cell types significantly increase the adnexial and lymph node metastasis in endometrial cancer. PMID:24591950

Turan, Ahmet Taner; Dündar, Betül; Gündo?du, Burcu; Boztosun, Abdullah; Özgül, Nejat; Boran, Nurettin; Tulunay, Gökhan; Özfuttu, Ahmet; Köse, Mehmet Faruk

2011-01-01

167

Control of Cell Type Proportioning in Dictyostelium discoideum by Differentiation-Inducing Factor as Determined by In Situ Hybridization  

PubMed Central

We have determined the proportions of the prespore and prestalk regions in Dictyostelium discoideum slugs by in situ hybridization with a large number of prespore- and prestalk-specific genes. Microarrays were used to discover genes expressed in a cell type-specific manner. Fifty-four prespore-specific genes were verified by in situ hybridization, including 18 that had been previously shown to be cell type specific. The 36 new genes more than doubles the number of available prespore markers. At the slug stage, the prespore genes hybridized to cells uniformly in the posterior 80% of wild-type slugs but hybridized to the posterior 90% of slugs lacking the secreted alkylphenone differentiation-inducing factor 1 (DIF-1). There was a compensatory twofold decrease in prestalk cells in DIF-less slugs. Removal of prespore cells resulted in cell type conversion in both wild-type and DIF-less anterior fragments. Thus, DIF-1 appears to act in concert with other processes to establish cell type proportions. PMID:15470253

Maruo, Toshinari; Sakamoto, Haruyo; Iranfar, Negin; Fuller, Danny; Morio, Takahiro; Urushihara, Hideko; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Maeda, Mineko; Loomis, William F.

2004-01-01

168

Clinical relevance of vascular endothelial growth factor type A (VEGFA) and VEGF receptor type 2 (VEGFR2) gene polymorphism in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.  

PubMed

Vascular endothelial growth factor type A (VEGFA) is a key regulator of angiogenesis and vascular permeability. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells are able to secrete VEGFA and express VEGFA receptors, thus it can be hypothesized that VEGFA-mediated signaling influences CLL clone survival. In this case-control study we verified whether inherited differences in activities of VEGFA and its main receptor VEGFR2 impact predisposition to CLL or the course of the disease. Four functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including two SNPs in VEGFA gene, namely rs2010963 (+405G>C) and rs3025039 (+936C>T) and two SNPs in VEGFR2 gene including rs7667298 (-271G>A) and rs1870377 (+1719A>T) were genotyped using PCR-based assays in 223 Caucasian CLL patients and 150 matched controls. Regarding VEGF rs2010963 SNP, we observed an association between CLL and allele C distribution with an OR of 1.52 (95% CI, 1.002-2.312), p=0.04. The distribution of other genotypes and alleles was similar in CLL and control groups. No genotype or allele was significantly associated with important prognostic factors in CLL including clinical stage, IgVH mutational status, ZAP-70 expression and FISH cytogenetic abnormalities. In conclusion, the results of our study indicate that genetic polymorphisms in VEGFA mediated pathway may influence the susceptibility to CLL. PMID:25488616

Góra-Tybor, Joanna; Szemraj, Janusz; Robak, Tadeusz; Jamroziak, Krzysztof

2015-02-01

169

Genome-wide analyses of transcription factor GATA3-mediated gene regulation in distinct T cell types  

PubMed Central

Summary The transcription factor GATA3 plays an essential role during T cell development and T helper 2 (Th2) cell differentiation. To understand GATA3-mediated gene regulation, we identified genome-wide GATA3 binding sites in ten well-defined developmental and effector T lymphocyte lineages. In the thymus, GATA3 directly regulated many critical factors, including Th-POK, Notch1 and T cell receptor subunits. In the periphery, GATA3 induced a large number of Th2 cell-specific as well as Th2 cell non-specific genes, including several transcription factors. Our data also indicate that GATA3 regulates both active and repressive histone modifications of many target genes at their regulatory elements near GATA3 binding sites. Overall, although GATA3 binding exhibited both shared and cell-specific patterns among various T cell lineages, many genes were either positively or negatively regulated by GATA3 in a cell type-specific manner, suggesting that GATA3-mediated gene regulation depends strongly on co-factors existing in different T cells. PMID:21867929

Wei, Gang; Abraham, Brian J.; Yagi, Ryoji; Jothi, Raja; Cui, Kairong; Sharma, Suveena; Narlikar, Leelavati; Northrup, Daniel L.; Tang, Qingsong; Paul, William E.; Zhu, Jinfang; Zhao, Keji

2011-01-01

170

Virulence factors associated with cytotoxic necrotizing factor type two in bovine diarrheic and septicemic strains of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

Forty-three bovine isolates of Escherichia coli producing a second type of cytotoxic necrotizing factor (CNF2) and three K-12 strains carrying different Vir plasmids coding for CNF2 were tested for the presence of several virulence factors. Most of the strains were serum resistant (79%), produced an aerobactin (70%), and adhered to calf villi (53%); some of them produced a colicin (32%) and a hemolysin (9%). These strains were also tested by a colony hybridization assay with gene probes for six toxins (classical heat-stable [STaP and STb] and heat-labile [LT-I and LT-IIa] enterotoxins and Shiga-like toxins [SLT-I and SLT-II]) and five adhesion factors (K99, K88, 987P, F17, and F41). Only two gene probes, LT-IIa (9%) and F17A (53%), hybridized with the CNF2 strains. However, antibodies raised against F17 fimbriae did not agglutinate the strains hybridizing with the F17A probe. In contrast, all except one of these strains adhered to calf villi. Interestingly, these two properties, F17A positivity and adherence to calf villi, were the only ones expressed by the K-12 strains carrying different Vir plasmids. In conclusion, this study confirmed that CNF2-producing strains are unrelated to previously described toxigenic E. coli strains and also demonstrated that in half of the strains the production of CNF2 was associated with an adhesion factor genetically related to, but different from, F17, which is more than likely encoded by Vir plasmids. PMID:1774259

Oswald, E; de Rycke, J; Lintermans, P; van Muylem, K; Mainil, J; Daube, G; Pohl, P

1991-01-01

171

Source apportionment of PM10 in a North-Western Europe regional urban background site (Lens, France) using Positive Matrix Factorization and including primary biogenic emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the source of ambient particulate matter (PM10) collected over a one year period at an urban background site in Lens (France) were determined and investigated using a~Positive Matrix Factorization receptor model (US EPA PMF v3.0). In addition, a Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) was performed by means of the Hysplit v4.9 model to assess prevailing geographical origins of the identified sources. A selective iteration process was followed for the qualification of the more robust and meaningful PMF solution. Components measured and used in the PMF include inorganic and organic species: soluble ionic species, trace elements, elemental carbon (EC), sugars alcohols, sugar anhydride, and organic carbon (OC). The mean PM10 concentration measured from March 2011 to March 2012 was about 21 ?g m-3 with typically OM, nitrate and sulfate contributing to most of the mass and accounting respectively for 5.8, 4.5 and 2.3 ?g m-3 on a yearly basis. Accordingly, PMF outputs showed that the main emission sources were (in a decreasing order of contribution): secondary inorganic aerosols (28% of the total PM10 mass), aged marine emissions (19%), with probably predominant contribution of shipping activities, biomass burning (13%), mineral dust (13%), primary biogenic emissions (9%), fresh sea salts (8%), primary traffic emissions (6%) and heavy oil combustion (4%). Significant temporal variations were observed for most of the identified sources. In particular, biomass burning emissions were negligible in summer but responsible for about 25% of total PM10 and 50% of total OC at wintertime. Conversely, primary biogenic emissions were found to be negligible in winter but to represent about 20% of total PM10 and 40% of total OC in summer. The latter result calls for more investigations of primary biogenic aerosols using source apportionment studies, which quite usually disregards this type of sources. This study furthermore underlines the major influence of secondary processes during daily threshold exceedances. Finally, apparent discrepancies that could be generally observed between filter-based studies (such as the present one) and Aerosol Mass Spectrometer-based PMF analyses (organic fractions) are also discussed here.

Waked, A.; Favez, O.; Alleman, L. Y.; Piot, C.; Petit, J.-E.; Delaunay, T.; Verlinden, E.; Golly, B.; Besombes, J.-L.; Jaffrezo, J.-L.; Leoz-Garziandia, E.

2013-10-01

172

Source apportionment of PM10 in a north-western Europe regional urban background site (Lens, France) using positive matrix factorization and including primary biogenic emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the source of ambient particulate matter (PM10) collected over a one-year period at an urban background site in Lens (France) was determined and investigated using a positive matrix factorization receptor model (US EPA PMF v3.0). In addition, a potential source contribution function (PSCF) was performed by means of the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (Hysplit) v4.9 model to assess prevailing geographical origins of the identified sources. A selective iteration process was followed for the qualification of the more robust and meaningful PMF solution. Components measured and used in the PMF included inorganic and organic species: soluble ionic species, trace elements, elemental carbon (EC), sugar alcohols, sugar anhydride, and organic carbon (OC). The mean PM10 concentration measured from March 2011 to March 2012 was about 21 ?g m-3 with typically OM, nitrate and sulfate contributing to most of the mass and accounting respectively for 5.8, 4.5 and 2.3 ?g m-3 on a yearly basis. Accordingly, PMF outputs showed that the main emission sources were (in decreasing order of contribution) secondary inorganic aerosols (28% of the total PM10 mass), aged marine emissions (19%), with probably predominant contribution of shipping activities, biomass burning (13%), mineral dust (13%), primary biogenic emissions (9%), fresh sea salts (8%), primary traffic emissions (6%) and heavy oil combustion (4%). Significant temporal variations were observed for most of the identified sources. In particular, biomass burning emissions were negligible in summer but responsible for about 25% of total PM10 and 50% of total OC in wintertime. Conversely, primary biogenic emissions were found to be negligible in winter but to represent about 20% of total PM10 and 40% of total OC in summer. The latter result calls for more investigations of primary biogenic aerosols using source apportionment studies, which quite usually disregard this type of source. This study further underlines the major influence of secondary processes during daily threshold exceedances. Finally, apparent discrepancies that could be generally observed between filter-based studies (such as the present one) and aerosol mass spectrometer-based PMF analyses (organic fractions) are also discussed.

Waked, A.; Favez, O.; Alleman, L. Y.; Piot, C.; Petit, J.-E.; Delaunay, T.; Verlinden, E.; Golly, B.; Besombes, J.-L.; Jaffrezo, J.-L.; Leoz-Garziandia, E.

2014-04-01

173

Distribution Patterns of Infection with Multiple Types of Human Papillomaviruses and Their Association with Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

Background Infection with multiple types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the main risk factors associated with the development of cervical lesions. In this study, cervical samples collected from 1,810 women with diverse sociocultural backgrounds, who attended to their cervical screening program in different geographical regions of Colombia, were examined for the presence of cervical lesions and HPV by Papanicolau testing and DNA PCR detection, respectively. Principal Findings The negative binomial distribution model used in this study showed differences between the observed and expected values within some risk factor categories analyzed. Particularly in the case of single infection and coinfection with more than 4 HPV types, observed frequencies were smaller than expected, while the number of women infected with 2 to 4 viral types were higher than expected. Data analysis according to a negative binomial regression showed an increase in the risk of acquiring more HPV types in women who were of indigenous ethnicity (+37.8%), while this risk decreased in women who had given birth more than 4 times (?31.1%), or were of mestizo (?24.6%) or black (?40.9%) ethnicity. Conclusions According to a theoretical probability distribution, the observed number of women having either a single infection or more than 4 viral types was smaller than expected, while for those infected with 2–4 HPV types it was larger than expected. Taking into account that this study showed a higher HPV coinfection rate in the indigenous ethnicity, the role of underlying factors should be assessed in detail in future studies. PMID:21379574

Soto-De Leon, Sara; Camargo, Milena; Sanchez, Ricardo; Munoz, Marina; Perez-Prados, Antonio; Purroy, Antonio; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso

2011-01-01

174

STAT3 transcription factor is constitutively activated and is oncogenic in nasal-type NK/T-cell lymphoma  

E-print Network

STAT3 transcription factor is constitutively activated and is oncogenic in nasal-type NK in the oncogenic process of nasal-type NK cell lymphomas, and may represent a promising therapeutical target. 3

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

175

EFFECTS OF OXIDATIVE STRESS ON INTESTINAL TYPE I INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR EXPRESSION  

PubMed Central

Introduction Oxidative stress activates multiple signal transduction pathways, including the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), in injured intestine such as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We have previously shown that H2O2-induced PI3-K activation is significantly enhanced with exogenous insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 in intestinal epithelial cells. However, the effects of oxidative stress on IGF receptor type I (IGF-IR) activation and expression in neonatal intestine during NEC are unknown. Material and Methods Intestinal sections from neonates undergoing bowel resections (control=3, NEC=20) were analyzed for IGF-IR expression. NEC was induced in newborn mouse pups using hypoxia and hyperosmolar feeds, and distal small bowel segments were analyzed for IGF-IR expression (control=3, NEC=7). H2O2 was used to induce oxidative stress in rat (RIE-1) and fetal human (FHs74 Int) intestinal epithelial cells. Phosphorylation of IGF-IR, Akt, a downstream effector of PI3-K, and IGF-IR levels were determined by Western blotting. Flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, IGF-IR tyrosine phosphorylation array, Cell Death ELISA and Western blotting were used to determine the IGF-IR expression. Results An increased IGF-IR expression was noted in intestinal sections from NEC as well as murine model of NEC. H2O2 treatment rapidly activated IGF-IR and increased expression in RIE-1 and FHs74 Int cells. Inhibition of IGF-IR resulted in significant RIE-1 cell apoptosis during oxidative stress. IGF-IR tyrosine phosphorylation array showed recruitment of several key SH2 domain-containing proteins and oncogenes to IGF-IR tyrosine kinase domain in H2O2-treated RIE-1 cells. Conclusion IGF-IR-mediated activation of intracellular signaling may play a critical role during oxidative stress-induced apoptosis during NEC. PMID:22434232

Baregamian, Naira; Song, Jun; Chung, Dai H.

2015-01-01

176

Bone mineral density and factors influencing it in Asian Indian population with type 2 diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess bone mineral density (BMD) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and its relation, if any, to clinical, hormonal and metabolic factors. Materials and Methods: A prospective evaluation of 194 T2DM patients (97 men and 97 women) was carried out. BMD was done with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the lumbar spine and total hip. Physical activity, nutritional intake and sunlight exposure were calculated. Biochemical and hormonal tests included serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH) D], parathyroid hormone, estrogen, testosterone and urinary calcium-creatinine ratio. Glycosylated hemoglobin and complete lipid profiles were done in patients with diabetes. Five hundred and seventy one non-diabetic controls (262 males and 309 females) were evaluated for BMD alone. Results: BMD was normal (Z score > -2) in 156 (80.5%) and low (Z score ? -2) in 38 (19.5%) patients in the diabetes study group. BMD in the diabetes group was significantly higher than the control group in both sexes at the hip and spine. The difference was no longer significant on analysis of a BMI matched control subgroup. Weight and BMI showed significant correlation to BMD. Duration of T2DM, degree of glycemic control, use of drugs like statins and thiazolidinediones, 25(OH) D levels, calcium intake, sunlight exposure and physical activity did not significantly affect BMD in this cohort of individuals with diabetes. Conclusions: Bone mineral density of Asian Indian T2DM subjects was similar to that of healthy volunteers in this study. PMID:25364679

Kamalanathan, Sadishkumar; Nambiar, Vimal; Shivane, Vyankatesh; Bandgar, Tushar; Menon, Padmavathy; Shah, Nalini

2014-01-01

177

Hypoxia Regulates Basal and Induced DNA Synthesis and Collagen Type I Production in Human Cardiac Fibroblasts: Effects of Transforming Growth Factor ? 1, Thyroid Hormone, Angiotensin II and Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of post-infarct ventricular remodeling consistently shows the accumulation of collagen in failing heart. The goal of this study was to gain insights into the underlying mechanisms of this event. We determined the effect of hypoxia, caused as the result of ischemia, on biological responses including cell viability, basal and growth factor-stimulated proliferative capacity and collagen type I production in

Augustine Agocha; Hyeon-Woo Lee; Mahboubeh Eghbali-Webb

1997-01-01

178

Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator-Expanded Analysis Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MBTI-Expanded Analysis is a new personality test based upon the Myers Briggs Type Indicator Form J, which provides 5 subscale scores for each of the four bipolar indices (E\\/I, S\\/N, T\\/F, and J\\/P) of the MBTI. Confirmatory factor analysis using LISREL 7.13 was performed on test scores from 500 participants in organizational development and career development workshops. Results were

Donald A. Johnson; David R. Saunders

1990-01-01

179

Specific DNA probes to detect Escherichia coli strains producing cytotoxic necrotising factor type 1 or type 2.  

PubMed

Cytotoxic necrotising factors type 1 (CNF1) and type 2 (CNF2) are produced by many Escherichia coli strains isolated from man and animals with intestinal or extra-intestinal colibacillosis. In most laboratories, CNF-producing strains are detected by a cell cytotoxicity assay and confirmed with a neutralisation assay or a mouse footpad assay. In this study, we sought to determine whether DNA probes could detect clinical isolates of E. coli producing CNF2 or CNF1, or both, without the need for cell cultures or animal assays. Two internal fragments of the gene encoding CNF2 were used as DNA probes: a 875-bp XhoI-PstI DNA fragment and an adjacent 335-bp PstI-ClaI fragment. A positive response with both DNA probes was associated with CNF2-producing strains, whereas a positive response with only the 335-bp probe was associated with CNF1-producing strains. Results of colony hybridisation experiments with 185 clinical isolates of E. coli demonstrated that these DNA probes detected CNF2-producing strains with a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and CNF1-producing strains with a sensitivity and specificity of 99%. These two DNA probes should greatly facilitate epidemiological studies to assess the importance of CNF-producing strains as agents of diarrhoea and septicaemia. PMID:8006936

Oswald, E; Pohl, P; Jacquemin, E; Lintermans, P; Van Muylem, K; O'Brien, A D; Mainil, J

1994-06-01

180

Hereditary porcine membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type II is caused by factor H deficiency.  

PubMed Central

We have recently described hereditary membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type II in the pig. All affected animals had excessive complement activation, revealed as low plasma C3, elevated plasma terminal complement complex, and massive deposits of complement in the renal glomeruli, and eventually died of renal failure within 11 wk of birth. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cause of complement activation in this disease. Transfusion of normal porcine plasma to affected piglets inhibited complement activation and increased survival. Plasma was successively fractionated and the complement inhibitory effect of each fraction tested in vivo. A single chain 150-kD protein which showed the same complement inhibitory effect as whole plasma was finally isolated. Immunologic cross-reactivity, functional properties, and NH2-terminal sequence identified the protein as factor H. By Western blotting and enzyme immunoassay, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis-affected piglets were demonstrated to be subtotally deficient in factor H. At 1 wk of age, median (range) factor H concentration was 1.6 mg/liter (1.1-2.3) in deficient animals (n = 13) and 51 mg/liter (26-98) in healthy littermates (n = 52). Our data show that hereditary porcine membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis type II is caused by factor H deficiency. Images PMID:7883953

Høgåsen, K; Jansen, J H; Mollnes, T E; Hovdenes, J; Harboe, M

1995-01-01

181

Emission factors from biomass burning in three types of appliances: fireplace, woodstove and pellet stove  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last years, the importance of biomass fuels has increased mainly for two reasons. One of them is the effort to control the emissions of greenhouse gases, and on the other hand, the increasing costs associated with fossil fuels. Besides that, biomass burning is now recognised as one of the major sources contributing to high concentrations of particulate matter, especially during winter time. Southern European countries have a lack of information regarding emission profiles from biomass burning. Because of that, in most source apportionment studies, the information used comes from northern and alpine countries, whose combustion appliances, fuels and habits are different from those in Mediterranean countries. Due to this lack of information, series of tests using different types of equipment, as well as fuels, were carried out in order to obtain emission profiles and emission factors that correspond to the reality in southern European countries. Tests involved three types of biomass appliances used in Portugal, a fireplace, a woodstove and a modern pellet stove. Emission factors (mg.kg-1 fuel, dry basis) for CO, THC and PM10 were obtained. CO emission factors ranged from 38, for pine on the woodstove, to 84 for eucalyptus in the fireplace. THC emissions were between 4 and 24, for pine in the woodstove and eucalyptus in the fireplace, respectively. PM10 emission factors were in the range from 3.99, for pine in the woodstove, to 17.3 for eucalyptus in the fireplace. On average, the emission factors obtained for the fireplace are 1.5 (CO) to 4 (THC) times higher than those of the woodstove. The fireplace has emission factors for CO, THC and PM10 10, 35 and 32 times, respectively, higher than the pellet stove.

Duarte, Márcio; Vicente, Estela; Calvo, Ana; Nunes, Teresa; Tarelho, Luis; Alves, Célia

2014-05-01

182

Functional roles and clinical values of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-5 in different types of cancers  

PubMed Central

Insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins (IGFBPs) are critical regulators of the mitogenic activity of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). IGFBP5, one of these IGFBPs, has special structural features, including a nuclear transport domain, heparin-binding motif, and IGF/extracellular matrix/acid-labile subunit-binding sites. Furthermore, IGFBP5 has several functional effects on carcinogenesis and even normal cell processes, such as cell growth, death, motility, and tissue remodeling. These biological effects are sometimes related with IGF (IGF-dependent effects) and sometimes not (IGF-independent effects). The functional role of IGFBP5 is most likely determined in a cell-type and tissue-type specific manner but also depends on cell context, especially in terms of the diversity of interacting proteins and the potential for nuclear localization. Clinical findings show that IGFBP5 has the potential to be a useful clinical biomarker for predicting response to therapy and clinical outcome of cancer patients. In this review, we summarize the functional diversity and clinical importance of IGFBP5 in different types of cancers. PMID:22313597

Güllü, Gökçe; Karabulut, Sevgi; Akkiprik, Mustafa

2012-01-01

183

MicroRNA-145 is a potential prognostic factor of scirrhous type gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. In particular, scirrhous type GC is highly metastatic and is characterized clinically by rapid disease progression and poor prognosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in cancer development and progression. We previously demonstrated by microarray analysis that microRNA-145 (miR-145) is one of the more highly expressed miRNAs in scirrhous type GC vs. non-scirrhous types of GC. In the present study, we investigated the role of miR-145 in scirrhous type GC. The expression levels of miR-145 assessed by quantitative RT-PCR were higher in scirrhous type GC tissue samples than in non-scirrhous type GC and corresponding normal tissues. GC patients with high miR-145 expression were at a more advanced tumor stage (P=0.0156) and had more scirrhous type histology (P=0.0054) than those with low miR-145 expression. Furthermore, miR-145 expression was significantly associated with poor prognosis in GC patients (P=0.0438). miR-145 expression was localized in stromal fibroblasts of scirrhous type GC but not in cancer cells. miR-145 was induced by treatment by transforming growth factor-?, and it enhanced the expression of ?-smooth muscle actin, a marker of myofibroblasts, in both normal gastric fibroblasts and cancer-associated fibroblasts. These data suggest that miR-145 may contribute to the progression of scirrhous type GC by regulating activation of peri-tumoral fibroblasts. PMID:25051317

Naito, Yutaka; Yasuno, Kyohei; Tagawa, Hiroko; Sakamoto, Naoya; Oue, Naohide; Yashiro, Masakazu; Sentani, Kazuhiro; Goto, Keisuke; Shinmei, Shunsuke; Oo, Htoo Zarni; Yanagihara, Kazuyoshi; Hirakawa, Kosei; Yasui, Wataru

2014-10-01

184

Conversion of Type I 4:6 to 3:5 -Turn Types in Human Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor: Effects upon Structure,  

E-print Network

, Florida 32306-4300 ABSTRACT Human acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1) is a member of the -trefoil at three symmetry- related locations. The relative uniqueness of the type I 4:6 turn in the FGF-1 structure be designed utilizing a single turn type (type I 3:5), a type I 4:6 turn at turn 1 of FGF-1 appears essential

Blaber, Michael

185

Down-regulation of pancreatic transcription factors and incretin receptors in type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes is one of the most prevalent and serious metabolic diseases. Under diabetic conditions, chronic hyperglycemia and subsequent induction of oxidative stress deteriorate pancreatic ?-cell function, which leads to the aggravation of type 2 diabetes. Although such phenomena are well known as glucose toxicity, its molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this review article, we describe the possible molecular mechanism for ?-cell dysfunction found in type 2 diabetes, focusing on (1) oxidative stress, (2) pancreatic transcription factors (PDX-1 and MafA) and (3) incretin receptors (GLP-1 and GIP receptors). Under such conditions, nuclear expression levels of PDX-1 and MafA are decreased, which leads to suppression of insulin biosynthesis and secretion. In addition, expression levels of GLP-1 and GIP receptors are decreased, which likely contributes to the impaired incretin effects found in diabetes. Taken together, it is likely that down-regulation of pancreatic transcription factors (PDX-1 and MafA) and down-regulation of incretin receptors (GLP-1 and GIP receptors) explain, at least in part, the molecular mechanism for ?-cell dysfunction found in type 2 diabetes. PMID:24379916

Kaneto, Hideaki; Matsuoka, Taka-aki

2013-01-01

186

Involvement of plant C(2)H(2)-type zinc finger transcription factors in stress responses.  

PubMed

Abiotic and biotic stresses frequently impose constraints on plant distribution and affect agricultural productivity. Various aspects of the multiplicity and the complexity of stress responsive gene networks have been previously studied. Many of individual transcription factors in plants and their family classes that regulate the expression of several genes in responses to environmental stresses have been identified. One such class of transcription regulators is the C(2)H(2) class of zinc finger proteins. Numerous members of the C(2)H(2)-type zinc finger family have been shown to play diverse roles in the plant stress response and the hormone signal transduction. Transcription profiling analyses have demonstrated that the transcript level of many C(2)H(2)-type zinc finger proteins is elevated under different abiotic stress conditions such as low temperature, salt, drought, osmotic stress and oxidative stress. Some C(2)H(2)-type proteins are additionally involved in the biotic stress signaling pathway. Moreover, it has been reported that overexpression of some C(2)H(2)-type zinc finger protein genes resulted in both the activation of some stress-related genes and enhanced tolerance to various stresses. Current genetic studies have focused on possible interactions between different zinc finger transcription factors during stresses to regulate transcription. This review highlights the role of the C(2)H(2) class of the zinc finger proteins in regulating abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in the plants. PMID:22325868

Kie?bowicz-Matuk, Agnieszka

2012-04-01

187

Mannose-binding lectin and its associated proteases (MASPs) mediate coagulation and its deficiency is a risk factor in developing complications from infection, including disseminated intravascular coagulation  

PubMed Central

The first line of host defense is the innate immune system that includes coagulation factors and pattern recognition molecules, one of which is mannose-binding lectin (MBL). Previous studies have demonstrated that MBL deficiency increases susceptibility to infection. Several mechanisms are associated with increased susceptibility to infection, including reduced opsonophagocytic killing and reduced lectin complement pathway activation. In this study, we demonstrate that MBL and MBL-associated serine protease (MASP)-1/3 together mediate coagulation factor-like activities, including thrombin-like activity. MBL and/or MASP-1/3 deficient hosts demonstrate in vivo evidence that MBL and MASP-1/3 are involved with hemostasis following injury. Staphylococcus aureus infected MBL null mice developed disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), which was associated with elevated blood IL-6 levels (but not TNF-? and multi-organ inflammatory responses). Infected MBL null mice also develop liver injury. These findings suggest that MBL deficiency may manifest into DIC and organ failure during infectious diseases. PMID:20399528

Takahashi, Kazue; Chang, Wei-Chuan; Takahashi, Minoru; Pavlov, Vasile; Ishida, Yumi; La Bonte, Laura; Shi, Lei; Fujita, Teizo; Stahl, Gregory L.; Van Cott, Elizabeth M.

2010-01-01

188

Risk factor management in stable, insulin-treated patients with Type 2 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Describe the methodologies and study population of the Diabetes Outcomes in Veterans Study (DOVES). Research Design and Methods: Prospective, multicenter, observational study of Southwestern veterans with stable, insulin-treated Type 2 diabetes. Subjects were randomly selected from pharmacy records and were required to be using at least one long-acting insulin preparation daily. Baseline psychosocial evaluations included psychological status, social and

Glen H Murata; Jayendra H Shah; Christopher S Wendel; Richard M Hoffman; Karen D Adam; Syed U Bokhari; Patricia A Solvas; William C Duckworth

2003-01-01

189

Potential Risk Factors for the Onset of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1: A Systematic Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Anaesthetists in the acute and chronic pain teams are often involved in treating Complex Regional Pain Syndromes. Current literature about the risk factors for the onset of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 (CRPS 1) remains sparse. This syndrome has a low prevalence, a highly variable presentation, and no gold standard for diagnosis. In the research setting, the pathogenesis of the syndrome continues to be elusive. There is a growing body of literature that addresses efficacy of a wide range of interventions as well as the likely mechanisms that contribute to the onset of CRPS 1. The objective for this systematic search of the literature focuses on determining the potential risk factors for the onset of CRPS 1. Eligible articles were analysed, dated 1996 to April 2014, and potential risk factors for the onset of CRPS 1 were identified from 10 prospective and 6 retrospective studies. Potential risk factors for the onset of CRPS 1 were found to include being female, particularly postmenopausal female, ankle dislocation or intra-articular fracture, immobilisation, and a report of higher than usual levels of pain in the early phases of trauma. It is not possible to draw definite conclusions as this evidence is heterogeneous and of mixed quality, relevance, and weighting strength against bias and has not been confirmed across multiple trials or in homogenous studies.

Shipton, Edward A.; Mulder, Roger T.

2015-01-01

190

The Presence of Family History and the Development of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Risk Factors in Rural Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is reaching epidemic proportions among children and adolescents. School health fairs offer an opportunity to identify children with risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study identified selected risk factors (i.e., high-risk racial/ethnic group, obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated…

Adams, Marsha Howell; Barnett Lammon, Carol Ann

2007-01-01

191

The first familial case of inherited 2q37.3 interstitial deletion with isolated skeletal abnormalities including brachydactyly type E and short stature.  

PubMed

Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO)-like syndrome is also known as brachydactyly-mental retardation syndrome (BDMR; OMIM 60040). This disorder includes intellectual disability in all patients, skeletal abnormalities, including brachydactyly E (BDE) in approximately half, obesity, and facial dysmorphism. Patients with 2q37 microdeletion or HDAC4 mutation are defined as having an AHO-like phenotype with normal stimulatory G (Gs) function. HDAC4 is involved in neurological, cardiac, and skeletal function. This paper reports the first familial case of 2q37.3 interstitial deletion affecting two genes, HDAC4 and TWIST2. Patients presented with BDE and short stature without intellectual disability, showing that haploinsufficiency of the HDAC4 critical region may lead to a spectrum of phenotypes, ranging from isolated brachydactyly type E to BDMR. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25402011

Jean-Marçais, Nolwenn; Decamp, Matthieu; Gérard, Marion; Ribault, Virginie; Andrieux, Joris; Kottler, Marie-Laure; Plessis, Ghislaine

2015-01-01

192

Identification of rep-associated factors in herpes simplex virus type 1-induced adeno-associated virus type 2 replication compartments.  

PubMed

Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a human parvovirus that replicates only in cells coinfected with a helper virus, such as adenovirus or herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). We previously showed that nine HSV-1 factors are able to support AAV rep gene expression and genome replication. To elucidate the strategy of AAV replication in the presence of HSV-1, we undertook a proteomic analysis of cellular and HSV-1 factors associated with Rep proteins and thus potentially recruited within AAV replication compartments (AAV RCs). This study resulted in the identification of approximately 60 cellular proteins, among which factors involved in DNA and RNA metabolism represented the largest functional categories. Validation analyses indicated that the cellular DNA replication enzymes RPA, RFC, and PCNA were recruited within HSV-1-induced AAV RCs. Polymerase delta was not identified but subsequently was shown to colocalize with Rep within AAV RCs even in the presence of the HSV-1 polymerase complex. In addition, we found that AAV replication is associated with the recruitment of components of the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 complex, Ku70 and -86, and the mismatch repair proteins MSH2, -3, and -6. Finally, several HSV-1 factors were also found to be associated with Rep, including UL12. We demonstrated for the first time that this protein plays a role during AAV replication by enhancing the resolution of AAV replicative forms and AAV particle production. Altogether, these analyses provide the basis to understand how AAV adapts its replication strategy to the nuclear environment induced by the helper virus. PMID:20573815

Nicolas, Armel; Alazard-Dany, Nathalie; Biollay, Coline; Arata, Loredana; Jolinon, Nelly; Kuhn, Lauriane; Ferro, Myriam; Weller, Sandra K; Epstein, Alberto L; Salvetti, Anna; Greco, Anna

2010-09-01

193

Incidence of and risk factors for ischemic-type biliary lesions following orthotopic liver transplantation.  

PubMed

Ischemic-type biliary lesions (ITBL) account for a major part of patients' morbidity and mortality after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). The exact origin of this type of biliary complication remains unknown. This study retrospectively evaluated 1843 patients. Patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis were excluded from this study. The diagnosis of ITBL was established only when all other causes of destruction of the biliary tree were ruled out. Donor age (P = 0.028) and cold ischemic time (CIT) (P = 0.002) were found to be significant risk factors for the development of ITBL. Organs that were perfused with University of Wisconsin (UW) solution developed ITBL significantly more often than Histidine-Tryptophan-Ketoglutarate (HTK)-perfused organs (P = 0.036). The same applied to organs harvested externally and shipped to our center versus those that were procured locally by our harvest teams (P < 0.001). Pressure perfusion via the hepatic artery significantly reduced the risk of ITBL (P = 0.001). The only recipient factor that showed a significant influence was Child-Pugh score status C (P = 0.021). Immunologic factors had no significant impact on ITBL. The clinical consequences of this study for our institution have been the strict limitation of CIT to <10 h and the exclusive use of HTK solution. We further advocate that all organ procurement teams perform pressure perfusion on harvested organs. PMID:19691661

Heidenhain, Christoph; Pratschke, Johann; Puhl, Gero; Neumann, Ulf; Pascher, Andreas; Veltzke-Schlieker, Winfried; Neuhaus, Peter

2010-01-01

194

Association of constitutional type of Ayurveda with cardiovascular risk factors, inflammatory markers and insulin resistance  

PubMed Central

Context: Ayurveda propounds that diseases manifest from imbalance of doshas. There, have been attempts to indicate biochemical basis of constitutional types described in Ayurveda. Aims: The study was intended to assess the association of constitutional types (Prakriti) with cardiovascular risk factors, inflammatory markers and insulin resistance in subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD). Settings and Design: Hospital based cross sectional study. Materials and Methods: Three hundred patients with CAD >25 years were studied. Assessment of Prakriti was done by using Ayusoft software. Biochemical parameters, inflammatory markers (hsCRP, TNF-alpha and IL-6) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured. Statistical Analysis: Was done using EPI INFO, version 3.5.3. Results: Mean age of patients was 60.97±12.5 years. Triglyceride, VLDL and LDL was significantly higher (P<0.0001, P<0.0001 and 0.0355, respectively) and HDL cholesterol (P<0.0001) significantly lower in vatta kapha (VK) Prakriti when compared with other constitution type. VK Prakriti was correlated with diabetes mellitus (r=0.169, P=0.003), hypertension (r=0.211, P?0.0001) and dyslipidemia (r=0.541, P?0.0001). Inflammatory markers; IL6, TNF alpha, hsCRP and HOMA IR was highest in VK Prakriti. Inflammatory markers were correlated positively with both VK and Kapha group. Conclusions: There is strong relation of risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia), insulin resistance, and inflammatory markers with Vata Kapha and Kapha Prakriti. PMID:23125512

Mahalle, Namita P.; Kulkarni, Mohan V.; Pendse, Narendra M.; Naik, Sadanand S.

2012-01-01

195

Types or Modes of Malingering? A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Performance and Symptom Validity Tests.  

PubMed

Recently, the dichotomy between performance validity tests (PVT) and symptom validity tests (SVT) has been suggested to differentiate between invalid performance and invalid self-report, respectively. PVTs are typically used to identify malingered cognitive impairment, while SVTs identify malingered psychological or somatic symptoms. It is assumed that people can malinger different types of problems, but the impact of modes of reporting invalidly has been largely unexplored. A mixed neurological sample (n = 130) was tested with the Test of Memory Malingering, the Forced Recognition part of the California Verbal Learning Test, and the self-report Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptoms (SIMS). Confirmatory factor analyses testing both method- and content-based factor models found best fit for the method-based division. Regression analyses of other self-rating and performance-based tests provided further support for the importance of type of methods used to collect information. While acknowledging the types of symptoms malingered, the clinician is advised also to consider how information is gathered by using both PVTs and SVTs. SIMS is a good candidate for a stand-alone SVT, although the utility of the Low Intelligence subscale is questionable as a validity measure. PMID:25275555

Egeland, Jens; Andersson, Stein; Sundseth, Oyvind Østberg; Schanke, Anne-Kristine

2014-10-01

196

Signature-Tagged Mutagenesis of Edwardsiella ictaluri Identifies Virulence-Related Genes, Including a Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2 Class of Type III Secretion Systems?  

PubMed Central

Edwardsiella ictaluri is the leading cause of mortality in channel catfish culture, but little is known about its pathogenesis. The use of signature-tagged mutagenesis in a waterborne infection model resulted in the identification of 50 mutants that were unable to infect/survive in catfish. Nineteen had minitransposon insertions in miscellaneous genes in the chromosome, 10 were in genes that matched to hypothetical proteins, and 13 were in genes that had no significant matches in the NCBI databases. Eight insertions were in genes encoding proteins associated with virulence in other pathogens, including three in genes involved in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, three in genes involved in type III secretion systems (TTSS), and two in genes involved in urease activity. With the use of a sequence from a lambda clone carrying several TTSS genes, Blastn analysis of the partially completed E. ictaluri genome identified a 26,135-bp pathogenicity island containing 33 genes of a TTSS with similarity to the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 class of TTSS. The characterization of a TTSS apparatus mutant indicated that it retained its ability to invade catfish cell lines and macrophages but was defective in intracellular replication. The mutant also invaded catfish tissues in numbers equal to those of invading wild-type E. ictaluri bacteria but replicated poorly and was slowly cleared from the tissues, while the wild type increased in number. PMID:17965213

Thune, Ronald L.; Fernandez, Denise H.; Benoit, Jennifer L.; Kelly-Smith, Maria; Rogge, Matthew L.; Booth, Natha J.; Landry, Christie A.; Bologna, Rachel A.

2007-01-01

197

Molecular Characterization of Enteroviruses Including a New Type EV-C99 Isolated from Xinjiang Students in Shandong, China in 2011  

PubMed Central

The last case of infection with wild-type poliovirus indigenous to China was reported in 1994. In 2011, a poliomyelitis outbreak caused by imported wide-type poliovirus occurred in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region. Here, we report the results of enterovirus (EV) isolation from Xinjiang students that returned to school in Shandong after summer vacation during this outbreak. Stool specimens from 376 students were collected and 10?EV strains were isolated including 4 polioviruses (All Sabin strains), 1 coxsackievirus (CV) A13, 3 CVA17 and 2 EV-C99. VP1 sequence analysis revealed these CVA13, CVA17 and EV-C99 strains had 71.3–81.8%, 76.5–84.6% and 74.2–82.9% nucleotide similarity with strains from other countries within a serotype, respectively. EV-C99 strains had 82.7–92.8% VP1 similarity with two previously reported Xinjiang strains. Complete genome analysis on EV-C99 strains revealed intra-serotypic genetic recombination events. These findings reflect great genetic divergence between Chinese strains and strains from other countries of the three types, and provide valuable information on monitoring EV transmission over long distance. PMID:25298041

Tao, Zexin; Yuan, Qun; Lin, Xiaojuan; Wang, Suting; Liu, Yao; Ji, Feng; Xiong, Ping; Cui, Ning; Song, Lizhi; Wang, Mei; Xu, Aiqiang

2014-01-01

198

Molecular characterization of enteroviruses including a new type EV-C99 isolated from Xinjiang students in Shandong, China in 2011.  

PubMed

The last case of infection with wild-type poliovirus indigenous to China was reported in 1994. In 2011, a poliomyelitis outbreak caused by imported wide-type poliovirus occurred in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region. Here, we report the results of enterovirus (EV) isolation from Xinjiang students that returned to school in Shandong after summer vacation during this outbreak. Stool specimens from 376 students were collected and 10?EV strains were isolated including 4 polioviruses (All Sabin strains), 1 coxsackievirus (CV) A13, 3 CVA17 and 2 EV-C99. VP1 sequence analysis revealed these CVA13, CVA17 and EV-C99 strains had 71.3-81.8%, 76.5-84.6% and 74.2-82.9% nucleotide similarity with strains from other countries within a serotype, respectively. EV-C99 strains had 82.7-92.8% VP1 similarity with two previously reported Xinjiang strains. Complete genome analysis on EV-C99 strains revealed intra-serotypic genetic recombination events. These findings reflect great genetic divergence between Chinese strains and strains from other countries of the three types, and provide valuable information on monitoring EV transmission over long distance. PMID:25298041

Tao, Zexin; Yuan, Qun; Lin, Xiaojuan; Wang, Suting; Liu, Yao; Ji, Feng; Xiong, Ping; Cui, Ning; Song, Lizhi; Wang, Mei; Xu, Aiqiang

2014-01-01

199

A systematic analysis of host factors reveals a Med23-interferon-? regulatory axis against herpes simplex virus type 1 replication.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic virus causing vesicular oral or genital skin lesions, meningitis and other diseases particularly harmful in immunocompromised individuals. To comprehensively investigate the complex interaction between HSV-1 and its host we combined two genome-scale screens for host factors (HFs) involved in virus replication. A yeast two-hybrid screen for protein interactions and a RNA interference (RNAi) screen with a druggable genome small interfering RNA (siRNA) library confirmed existing and identified novel HFs which functionally influence HSV-1 infection. Bioinformatic analyses found the 358 HFs were enriched for several pathways and multi-protein complexes. Of particular interest was the identification of Med23 as a strongly anti-viral component of the largely pro-viral Mediator complex, which links specific transcription factors to RNA polymerase II. The anti-viral effect of Med23 on HSV-1 replication was confirmed in gain-of-function gene overexpression experiments, and this inhibitory effect was specific to HSV-1, as a range of other viruses including Vaccinia virus and Semliki Forest virus were unaffected by Med23 depletion. We found Med23 significantly upregulated expression of the type III interferon family (IFN-?) at the mRNA and protein level by directly interacting with the transcription factor IRF7. The synergistic effect of Med23 and IRF7 on IFN-? induction suggests this is the major transcription factor for IFN-? expression. Genotypic analysis of patients suffering recurrent orofacial HSV-1 outbreaks, previously shown to be deficient in IFN-? secretion, found a significant correlation with a single nucleotide polymorphism in the IFN-?3 (IL28b) promoter strongly linked to Hepatitis C disease and treatment outcome. This paper describes a link between Med23 and IFN-?, provides evidence for the crucial role of IFN-? in HSV-1 immune control, and highlights the power of integrative genome-scale approaches to identify HFs critical for disease progression and outcome. PMID:23950709

Griffiths, Samantha J; Koegl, Manfred; Boutell, Chris; Zenner, Helen L; Crump, Colin M; Pica, Francesca; Gonzalez, Orland; Friedel, Caroline C; Barry, Gerald; Martin, Kim; Craigon, Marie H; Chen, Rui; Kaza, Lakshmi N; Fossum, Even; Fazakerley, John K; Efstathiou, Stacey; Volpi, Antonio; Zimmer, Ralf; Ghazal, Peter; Haas, Jürgen

2013-01-01

200

A Systematic Analysis of Host Factors Reveals a Med23-Interferon-? Regulatory Axis against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Replication  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic virus causing vesicular oral or genital skin lesions, meningitis and other diseases particularly harmful in immunocompromised individuals. To comprehensively investigate the complex interaction between HSV-1 and its host we combined two genome-scale screens for host factors (HFs) involved in virus replication. A yeast two-hybrid screen for protein interactions and a RNA interference (RNAi) screen with a druggable genome small interfering RNA (siRNA) library confirmed existing and identified novel HFs which functionally influence HSV-1 infection. Bioinformatic analyses found the 358 HFs were enriched for several pathways and multi-protein complexes. Of particular interest was the identification of Med23 as a strongly anti-viral component of the largely pro-viral Mediator complex, which links specific transcription factors to RNA polymerase II. The anti-viral effect of Med23 on HSV-1 replication was confirmed in gain-of-function gene overexpression experiments, and this inhibitory effect was specific to HSV-1, as a range of other viruses including Vaccinia virus and Semliki Forest virus were unaffected by Med23 depletion. We found Med23 significantly upregulated expression of the type III interferon family (IFN-?) at the mRNA and protein level by directly interacting with the transcription factor IRF7. The synergistic effect of Med23 and IRF7 on IFN-? induction suggests this is the major transcription factor for IFN-? expression. Genotypic analysis of patients suffering recurrent orofacial HSV-1 outbreaks, previously shown to be deficient in IFN-? secretion, found a significant correlation with a single nucleotide polymorphism in the IFN-?3 (IL28b) promoter strongly linked to Hepatitis C disease and treatment outcome. This paper describes a link between Med23 and IFN-?, provides evidence for the crucial role of IFN-? in HSV-1 immune control, and highlights the power of integrative genome-scale approaches to identify HFs critical for disease progression and outcome. PMID:23950709

Griffiths, Samantha J.; Koegl, Manfred; Boutell, Chris; Zenner, Helen L.; Crump, Colin M.; Pica, Francesca; Gonzalez, Orland; Friedel, Caroline C.; Barry, Gerald; Martin, Kim; Craigon, Marie H.; Chen, Rui; Kaza, Lakshmi N.; Fossum, Even; Fazakerley, John K.; Efstathiou, Stacey; Volpi, Antonio; Zimmer, Ralf; Ghazal, Peter; Haas, Jürgen

2013-01-01

201

Predominant factor determining wear properties of ?-type and (?+?)-type titanium alloys in metal-to-metal contact for biomedical applications.  

PubMed

The predominant factor determining the wear properties of a new titanium alloy, Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr (TNTZ) and a conventional titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V extra-low interstitial (Ti64) was investigated for TNTZ and Ti64 combinations in metal-to-metal contacting bio-implant applications. The worn surfaces, wear debris, and subsurface damages were analyzed using a scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive spectroscopy and electron-back scattered diffraction analysis. The volume loss of TNTZ is found to be larger than that of Ti64, regardless of the mating material. The wear track of TNTZ exhibits the galled regions and severe plastic deformation with large flake-like debris, indicative of delamination wear, which strongly suggests the occurrence of adhesive wear. Whereas, the wear track of Ti64 have a large number of regular grooves and microcuttings with cutting chip-like wear debris and microfragmentation of fine oxide debris, indicative of abrasive wear combined with oxidative wear. This difference in the wear type is caused by severe and mild subsurface deformations of TNTZ and Ti64, respectively. The lower resistance to plastic shearing for TNTZ compared to that of Ti64 induces delamination, resulting in a higher wear rate. PMID:25460417

Lee, Yoon-Seok; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Nakai, Masaaki; Narita, Kengo; Cho, Ken

2015-01-01

202

Expression and secretion of type beta transforming growth factor by activated human macrophages.  

PubMed Central

Alveolar macrophages activated with concanavalin A and peripheral blood monocytes activated with lipopolysaccharide secrete type beta transforming growth factor (TGF-beta). There is minimal TGF-beta secretion in unactivated monocytes, even though TGF-beta mRNA is expressed in these cells at a level similar to that in activated, lipopolysaccharide-treated cultures. U937 lymphoma cells, which have monocytic characteristics, also express mRNA for TGF-beta. Freshly isolated monocytes, both control and lipopolysaccharide-treated, secrete an acid-labile binding protein that inhibits TGF-beta action. We conclude the following: (i) that expression of TGF-beta mRNA is unrelated to monocyte activation, (ii) that secretion of TGF-beta is induced by monocyte activation, and (iii) that cosecretion of TGF-beta and its monocyte/macrophage-derived binding protein may modulate growth factor action. In contrast, monocytic expression of other growth factor genes, such as the B chain of platelet-derived growth factor, is not constitutive and requires activation. Images PMID:2888109

Assoian, R K; Fleurdelys, B E; Stevenson, H C; Miller, P J; Madtes, D K; Raines, E W; Ross, R; Sporn, M B

1987-01-01

203

Macaque-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1: breaking out of the host restriction factors  

PubMed Central

Macaque monkeys serve as important animal models for understanding the pathogenesis of lentiviral infections. Since human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) hardly replicates in macaque cells, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or chimeric viruses between HIV-1 and SIV (SHIV) have been used as challenge viruses in this research field. These viruses, however, are genetically distant from HIV-1. Therefore, in order to evaluate the efficacy of anti-HIV-1 drugs and vaccines in macaques, the development of a macaque-tropic HIV-1 (HIV-1mt) having the ability to replicate efficiently in macaques has long been desired. Recent studies have demonstrated that host restriction factors, such as APOBEC3 family and TRIM5, impose a strong barrier against HIV-1 replication in macaque cells. By evading these restriction factors, others and we have succeeded in developing an HIV-1mt that is able to replicate in macaques. In this review, we have attempted to shed light on the role of host factors that affect the susceptibility of macaques to HIV-1mt infection, especially by focusing on TRIM5-related factors. PMID:23847610

Saito, Akatsuki; Akari, Hirofumi

2013-01-01

204

Prediction of Giant Thermoelectric Power Factor in Type-VIII Clathrate Si46.  

PubMed

Clathrate materials have been the subject of intense interest and research for thermoelectric application. Nevertheless, from the very large number of conceivable clathrate structures, only a small fraction of them have been examined. Since the thermal conductivity of clathrates is inherently small due to their large unit cell size and open-framework structure, the current research on clathrates is focused on finding the ones with large thermoelectric power factor. Here we predict an extraordinarily large power factor for type-VIII clathrate Si46. We show the existence of a large density of closely packed elongated ellipsoidal carrier pockets near the band edges of this so far hypothetical material structure, which is higher than that of the best thermoelectric materials known today. The high crystallographic symmetry near the energy band edges for Si46-VIII clathrates is responsible for the formation of such a large number of carrier pockets. PMID:25391971

Norouzzadeh, Payam; Myles, Charles W; Vashaee, Daryoosh

2014-01-01

205

Prediction of Giant Thermoelectric Power Factor in Type-VIII Clathrate Si46  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clathrate materials have been the subject of intense interest and research for thermoelectric application. Nevertheless, from the very large number of conceivable clathrate structures, only a small fraction of them have been examined. Since the thermal conductivity of clathrates is inherently small due to their large unit cell size and open-framework structure, the current research on clathrates is focused on finding the ones with large thermoelectric power factor. Here we predict an extraordinarily large power factor for type-VIII clathrate Si46. We show the existence of a large density of closely packed elongated ellipsoidal carrier pockets near the band edges of this so far hypothetical material structure, which is higher than that of the best thermoelectric materials known today. The high crystallographic symmetry near the energy band edges for Si46-VIII clathrates is responsible for the formation of such a large number of carrier pockets.

Norouzzadeh, Payam; Myles, Charles W.; Vashaee, Daryoosh

2014-11-01

206

[Type 1 Diabetes mellitus: Brief review of the main associated psychological factors].  

PubMed

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is a widespread chronic disease among children and adolescents. Diagnosis and evolution usually involves a significant burden on the patient, and their families must change various aspects of their lifestyle to fulfill the demands of treatment. This study aims to identify the main psychological, family, and adjustment to illness features of children and adolescents diagnosed with DM1 and, in particular to highlight the associated psychopathological factors. The methodology involved a systematic literature search in the main scientific databases. Due to the biopsychosocial impact of DM1 usually assumed in the life of the child and family, and how it may compromise the quality of life and emotional well-being of both, different studies have agreed on the importance of identifying the set of psychological factors involved in healthy adjustment to illness in the child and adolescent with DM1. PMID:24809830

Gómez-Rico, I; Pérez-Marín, M; Montoya-Castilla, I

2015-01-01

207

Transforming Growth Factor ? Receptor Type 1 Is Essential for Female Reproductive Tract Integrity and Function  

PubMed Central

The transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) superfamily proteins are principle regulators of numerous biological functions. Although recent studies have gained tremendous insights into this growth factor family in female reproduction, the functions of the receptors in vivo remain poorly defined. TGF? type 1 receptor (TGFBR1), also known as activin receptor-like kinase 5, is the major type 1 receptor for TGF? ligands. Tgfbr1 null mice die embryonically, precluding functional characterization of TGFBR1 postnatally. To study TGFBR1–mediated signaling in female reproduction, we generated a mouse model with conditional knockout (cKO) of Tgfbr1 in the female reproductive tract using anti-Müllerian hormone receptor type 2 promoter-driven Cre recombinase. We found that Tgfbr1 cKO females are sterile. However, unlike its role in growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) signaling in vitro, TGFBR1 seems to be dispensable for GDF9 signaling in vivo. Strikingly, we discovered that the Tgfbr1 cKO females develop oviductal diverticula, which impair embryo development and transit of embryos to the uterus. Molecular analysis further demonstrated the dysregulation of several cell differentiation and migration genes (e.g., Krt12, Ace2, and MyoR) that are potentially associated with female reproductive tract development. Moreover, defective smooth muscle development was also revealed in the uteri of the Tgfbr1 cKO mice. Thus, TGFBR1 is required for female reproductive tract integrity and function, and disruption of TGFBR1–mediated signaling leads to catastrophic structural and functional consequences in the oviduct and uterus. PMID:22028666

Li, Qinglei; Agno, Julio E.; Edson, Mark A.; Nagaraja, Ankur K.; Nagashima, Takashi; Matzuk, Martin M.

2011-01-01

208

Early onset type 2 diabetes: risk factors, clinical impact and management  

PubMed Central

Early onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasingly prevalent with a significant impact on the individual, healthcare service delivery and planning. The individuals are likely to be obese, lead a sedentary lifestyle, have a strong family history of T2DM, be of black and minority ethnic (BME) origin and come from a less affluent socioeconomic group. They have a heightened risk of developing microvascular and macrovascular complications, often at an earlier stage and with greater frequency than seen in type 1 diabetes. As such, early and aggressive risk factor management is warranted. Early onset T2DM is complex and impacts on service delivery with a need for multidisciplinary care of complications and comorbidities’, in addition to adequate educational and psychological support. This review on the impact of early onset T2DM provides the latest insights into this emerging epidemic. PMID:25364491

Idris, Iskandar

2014-01-01

209

Chemokine Receptor-5Delta32 Mutation is No Risk Factor for Ischemic-Type Biliary Lesion in Liver Transplantation.  

PubMed

It has been shown that certain chemokine receptor polymorphisms may correspond to certain complications after organ transplantation. Ischemic-type biliary lesion (ITBL) encounters for major morbidity and mortality in liver transplant recipients. So far, the exact cause for ITBL remains unclear. Certain risk factors for the development of ITBL like donor age and cold ischemic time are well described. In a previous study, a 32-nucleotide deletion of the chemokine receptor-5Delta32 (CCR-5Delta32) was strongly associated with the incidence of ITBL in adult liver transplantation. This study re-evaluates the association of CCR-5Delta32 gene polymorphism and the incidence of ITBL. 169 patients were included into this retrospective analysis. 134 patients were homozygous for wild-type CCR-5, 33 patients heterozygous, and 2 patients were homozygous for CCR-5Delta32 mutation. There were no major differences in donor or recipients demographics. No association was found between CCR-5Delta32 mutation and the development of ITBL. We conclude that CCR-5Delta32 is no risk factor for the development of ITBL in our patient cohort. PMID:20107582

Heidenhain, Christoph; Puhl, Gero; Moench, Christian; Lautem, Anja; Neuhaus, Peter

2009-01-01

210

Impact of Walking on Glycemic Control and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Walking is the most popular and most preferred exercise among type 2 diabetes patients, yet compelling evidence regarding its beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors is still lacking. The aim of this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was to evaluate the association between walking and glycemic control and other cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes patients. Methods Three databases were searched up to August 2014. English-language RCTs were eligible for inclusion if they had assessed the walking effects (duration ?8 weeks) on glycemic control or other cardiovascular risk factors among type 2 diabetes patients. Data were pooled using a random-effects model. Subgroup analyses based on supervision status and meta-regression analyses of variables regarding characteristics of participants and walking were performed to investigate their association with glycemic control. Results Eighteen studies involving 20 RCTs (866 participants) were included. Walking significantly decreased glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) by 0.50% (95% confidence intervals [CI]: ?0.78% to ?0.21%). Supervised walking was associated with a pronounced decrease in HbA1c (WMD ?0.58%, 95% CI: ?0.93% to ?0.23%), whereas non-supervised walking was not. Further subgroup analysis suggested non-supervised walking using motivational strategies is also effective in decreasing HbA1c (WMD ?0.53%, 95% CI: ?1.05% to ?0.02%). Effects of covariates on HbA1c change were generally unclear. For other cardiovascular risk factors, walking significantly reduced body mass index (BMI) and lowered diastolic blood pressure (DBP), but non-significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP), or changed high-density or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Conclusions This meta-analysis supports that walking decreases HbA1c among type 2 diabetes patients. Supervision or the use of motivational strategies should be suggested when prescribed walking to ensure optimal glycemic control. Walking also reduces BMI and lowers DBP, however, it remains insufficient regarding the association of walking with lowered SBP or improved lipoprotein profiles. Trial Registration PROSPERO CRD42014009515 PMID:25329391

Qiu, Shanhu; Cai, Xue; Schumann, Uwe; Velders, Martina; Sun, Zilin; Steinacker, Jürgen Michael

2014-01-01

211

The tumor necrosis factor type 2 receptor plays a protective role in tumor necrosis factor-?-induced bone resorption lacunae on mouse calvariae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? exerts its biological function via TNF type 1 and type 2 receptors (TNFR1 and TNFR2). We have\\u000a previously reported that bone resorption induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in TNFR2-deficient mice is accelerated compared\\u000a to that in wild-type (WT) mice. Although these results suggested that TNFR2 might have a protective role in bone resorption,\\u000a we could not exclude

Kenichi NaganoNeil; Neil Alles; Anower Hussain Mian; Asako Shimoda; Nobuyuki Morimoto; Yukihiko Tamura; Hitoyata Shimokawa; Kazunari Akiyoshi; Keiichi Ohya; Kazuhiro Aoki

212

Identifying risk factors for clinically significant diabetic macula edema in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

It is known that clinic blood pressure (BP), gender, cigarette smoking, dyslipidemia, anemia and thiazolidenediones (TZD) treatment are predictors for clinically significant diabetic macula edema (CSDME). We examined a most risky factor for CSDME in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) confirmed using optical coherence tomography by multiple regression analysis (MRA). As the risk factors, wakening-up BP was added to such factors. Seven diabetic Japanese patients with CSDME (group 1) and 124 subjects without CSDME (group 2) assonated with DR using optical coherence tomography were studied. The durations of T2DM in groups 1 and 2 were 15±10 years and 20±15 years, respectively. There was no statistically difference in means of gender, duration, age, body mass index (BMI), HbA1c, TC, LDL and TC/HDL, serum creatinine, urinary albumin excretion rate, and clinic BP between two groups. Morning systolic home BP (MSHBP), cigarette smoking and foveal thickness were significantly (p<0.001) higher in group 1 than group 2, whereas visual acuity was significantly (p<0.00?) lower in group 1 than in group 2. The patients in both groups had received various kinds of drugs for hyperglycemia, hypertension and others. There were no significant differences in the variables in both groups. MRA revealed that MSHBP, cigarette smoking and pioglitazone as TZD treatment were significantly positive predictors for CSDME, while BMI had a significantly negative predictor. Other variables were not significantly correlated to CSDME. The review summarizes a multiple regression analysis revealed that MSHBP makes an addition to predictive factors for CSDME among risk factors reported previously in patient with T2DM. PMID:23363297

Kamoi, Kyuzi; Takeda, Keiji; Hashimoto, Kaoru; Tanaka, Reiko; Okuyama, Shinya

2013-05-01

213

Opposing Roles for Interferon Regulatory Factor-3 (IRF-3) and Type I Interferon Signaling during Plague  

PubMed Central

Type I interferons (IFN-I) broadly control innate immunity and are typically transcriptionally induced by Interferon Regulatory Factors (IRFs) following stimulation of pattern recognition receptors within the cytosol of host cells. For bacterial infection, IFN-I signaling can result in widely variant responses, in some cases contributing to the pathogenesis of disease while in others contributing to host defense. In this work, we addressed the role of type I IFN during Yersinia pestis infection in a murine model of septicemic plague. Transcription of IFN-? was induced in vitro and in vivo and contributed to pathogenesis. Mice lacking the IFN-I receptor, Ifnar, were less sensitive to disease and harbored more neutrophils in the later stage of infection which correlated with protection from lethality. In contrast, IRF-3, a transcription factor commonly involved in inducing IFN-? following bacterial infection, was not necessary for IFN production but instead contributed to host defense. In vitro, phagocytosis of Y. pestis by macrophages and neutrophils was more effective in the presence of IRF-3 and was not affected by IFN-? signaling. This activity correlated with limited bacterial growth in vivo in the presence of IRF-3. Together the data demonstrate that IRF-3 is able to activate pathways of innate immunity against bacterial infection that extend beyond regulation of IFN-? production. PMID:22911267

Patel, Ami A.; Lee-Lewis, Hanni; Anderson, Deborah M.

2012-01-01

214

Autoradiographic localization of epidermal growth factor receptors to all major uterine cell types  

SciTech Connect

We have recently studied the structure and function of the uterine epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, its hormonal regulation, and its possible role in estrogen-induced uterine DNA synthesis. Since the uterus is composed of multiple cell types, we sought, in the work reported here, to localize EGF binding in this organ by autoradiography. Prior to the actual autoradiography, we performed a companion series of experiments to insure that EGF binding to uterine tissue in situ represented a true receptor interaction. Uteri from immature female rats were incubated in vitro with 125I-EGF at 25 degrees C. Tissue binding was maximal within 120 min and remained constant for at least an additional 120 min. This binding of labeled EGF was largely abolished by excess unlabeled EGF but not by other growth factors, indicating that binding was to specific receptors. The binding of 125I-EGF was saturable and reached a plateau at 4-8 nM; specific binding was half-maximal at 1-2 nM EGF. In situ cross-linking studies revealed that 125I-EGF was bound predominantly to a 170,000 MW EGF receptor similar to that seen in isolated uterine membranes. Incubation of uteri with 125I-EGF followed by autoradiography revealed binding to epithelial cells, stroma, and myometrium. These results provide evidence for the presence of specific EGF receptors in all major uterine cell types of the immature rat.

Lin, T.H.; Mukku, V.R.; Verner, G.; Kirkland, J.L.; Stancel, G.M.

1988-03-01

215

Austrian Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Gynäkologische Onkologie (AGO) guideline for prophylaxis with granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF) in gynecologic malignancies, including breast cancer.  

PubMed

The current knowledge and recommendations on the clinical use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF) in gynecologic cancers including breast cancer, along with the clinical experience of the members of the working group of the Austrian Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Gynäkologische Onkologie (AGO), have been summarized. G-CSF is either administered as primary or secondary prophylaxis of febrile neutropenia. The term "primary prophylaxis" denotes the prophylactic use of G-CSF as early as during the first cycle of a new chemotherapeutic regimen. Secondary prophylaxis, on the other hand, defines the use of G-CSF after development of grade 4 neutropenia or febrile neutropenia in a preceding cycle of a particular chemotherapeutic regimen. When chemotherapy regimens are associated with a > 20 % risk of febrile neutropenia such as TAC (docetaxel-doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide), primary prophylaxis with G-CSF is indicated. When chemotherapy regimens are associated with a 10-20 % risk of febrile neutropenia, the decision for primary prophylaxis with G-CSF is based upon patient-related risk factors such as age > 65 years, previous cytotoxic treatment(s) and/or radiation therapy, preexisting tumor-related neutropenia or bone marrow involvement, preexisting neutropenia, infections/open sores, reduced Karnofsky performance status/WHO performance status and reduced nutritional status, advanced malignant disease, history of prior febrile neutropenia, impaired kidney function, and hepatic failure particularly with hyperbilirubinaemia. The patient's individual overall febrile neutropenia risk should be assessed prior to each chemotherapy cycle. PMID:22739650

Petru, Edgar; Zeimet, Alain Gustave; Sevelda, Paul; Seifert, Michael; Singer, Christian; Hubalek, Michael; Angleitner-Boubenizek, Lukas; Speiser, Paul; Benedicic, Christoph; Stummvoll, Wolfgang; Reinthaller, Alexander

2012-06-01

216

Microalbuminuria: a common, independent cardiovascular risk factor, especially but not exclusively in type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

Microalbuminuria (defined as an albumin-creatinine ratio of 10-25 mg/mmol on the first-morning urine sample, or an albumin excretion rate of 20-200 microg/min on a timed collection) is present in 20-30% of all patients with type 2 diabetes, and is especially common in those with hypertension, endothelial dysfunction and other features of insulin resistance. Although microalbuminuria is predictive of worsening microvascular disease in the kidney (5-10% per year progress to overt diabetic nephropathy), an increased albumin excretion rate (AER) reflects a generalized abnormality of vascular function and is associated with 2-4-fold increases in cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. The extent to which microalbuminuria is a risk factor independent of other variables in type 2 diabetes, e.g. blood pressure and smoking, has been highlighted by recent cohort studies, e.g. the Heart Outcome Prevention Evaluation study and the Wisconsin Epidemiological Study of Diabetic Retinopathy. In the former study, for example, microalbuminuria at baseline increased the adjusted relative risks (RR) of a major cardiovascular event (RR 1.83), all-cause death (RR 2.09) and hospitalization for heart failure (RR 3.23) in both diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. These studies also highlighted that AER is a continuous risk factor, and that levels of AER below the arbitrary threshold for defining microalbuminuria are associated with relatively increased cardiovascular risk. Similarly, microalbuminuria affects 10-15% of middle-aged non-diabetics and is associated with coronary, peripheral and cerebral vascular complications. Detection of microalbuminuria, especially in type 2 diabetes, signifies the need to intensify blood pressure control as part of a multiple risk factor intervention strategy in a high-risk group. As hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes are frequently treated by more than one antihypertensive agent, ACE inhibitors and low-dose diuretics are preferably recommended in order to provide sufficient blood pressure control and target organ protection. PMID:12769161

Donnelly, Richard; Yeung, Justin M C; Manning, Gillian

2003-03-01

217

Genetic and epigenetic factors in etiology of diabetes mellitus type 1.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1D) is a complex disease resulting from the interplay of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. Recent progress in understanding the genetic basis of T1D has resulted in an increased recognition of childhood diabetes heterogeneity. After the initial success of family-based linkage analyses, which uncovered the strong linkage and association between HLA gene variants and T1D, genome-wide association studies performed with high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping platforms provided evidence for a number of novel loci, although fine mapping and characterization of these new regions remains to be performed. T1D is one of the most heritable common diseases, and among autoimmune diseases it has the largest range of concordance rates in monozygotic twins. This fact, coupled with evidence of various epigenetic modifications of gene expression, provides convincing proof of the complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. In T1D, epigenetic phenomena, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, and microRNA dysregulation, have been associated with altered gene expression. Increasing epidemiologic and experimental evidence supports the role of genetic and epigenetic alterations in the etiopathology of diabetes. We discuss recent results related to the role of genetic and epigenetic factors involved in development of T1D. PMID:24190679

Stankov, Karmen; Benc, Damir; Draskovic, Dragan

2013-12-01

218

Identification of risk factors for suffering fear of hypoglycemia in type 1 Diabetes Mellitus patients.  

PubMed

Hypoglycemia is one of the main burdens for type I Diabetes Mellitus (DM I) patients. The consequences of hypoglycemia can be quite unpleasant due to the variety of disagreeable physical and psychological symptoms it triggers. The patient's previous experience with hypoglycemia episodes will condition his psychological reaction to future episodes, promoting behavioral modifications that associate with poor glycemic control and worse prognosis, and even with developing psychological disorders, leading to fear of hypoglycemia (FH). To be able to provide tailored prevention and treatment of patients with FH it is necessary to identify the risk factors in DM I patients. We developed and validated the FH-15 scale, a novel instrument to assess FH, which showed good concurrent and predictive validity in DM I patients. In this work we aim to identify the risk factors for suffering FH by detecting DM I patients with FH using the FH-15 scale and then analyzing the association of clinical and sociodemographic variables. We found that age, needing help to resolve an episode of hypoglycemia, and a perceived lack of social support are risk factors for suffering FH. PMID:25251286

Anarte, María Teresa; Carreira, Mónica; Machado, Alberto; Domínguez, Marta; Tapia, María José; Valdés, Sergio; Ruiz de Adana, María Soledad; Soriguer, Federico

2014-12-01

219

Zirconium-titanium placers of the Voronezh Anteclise: Types, epochs and factors of formation, and forecast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early and late Frasnian, Barremian-Aptian, Cenomanian, early Santonian, early Campanian, and Oligocene-Miocene epochs of the formation of various types of zirconium-titanium placers are distinguished in the Voronezh Anteclise. The factors of their formation are considered, and a forecast of prospecting has been made. Lower Frasnian sedimentary rocks occur in the southeast, where the placers are related to the ilmenite-bearing volcanosedimentary rocks of the Yastrebovo Sequence. The upper Frasnian productive quartz sand of the Petino Sequence occurs in the central part of the Voronezh Anteclise. The Barremian-Aptian productive quartz sand and kaolinite clay occur in the northern and northeastern parts of the anteclise (Ryazan and Lipetsk oblasts). The placers formed in the Cenomanian are known in the Tambov oblast in the northeast of the Voronezh Anteclise and are related to phosphate-bearing glauconite-quartz sand. The early Campanian phosphorite-glauconite-quartz formation is widespread in the northwest of the Voronezh Anteclise at the junction with the northeastern wall of the Dnieper-Donets Basin (Bryansk oblast). The Oligocene-Miocene epoch was characterized by quartz sands abundant in the northwestern and south-western areas. The formation of zirconium-titanium placers is controlled by structural-tectonic, facies, volcanic, paleogeographic, stratigraphic, and evolutional factors. The indispensable condition for heavy mineral concentration is existence of positive forms of underwater topography. These are mostly structural elements of the third and fourth orders on the slopes of the Voronezh Anteclise at the boundaries of the adjacent negative structures. As concerns the facies factor, the occurrence of coastal and shallow-water marine facies with alternating and medium hydrodynamic activity and predominance of sand fractions 0.25-0.05 mm are criteria of elevated concentration of heavy minerals in sand. One of the conditions providing concentration of heavy minerals is a multiple rewashing of sands close to a relatively stable shoreline. The volcanic factor is determinant for the lower Frasnian marine placers fed by volcanic sources. The Cretaceous and Paleogene zirconium-titanium placers were formed owing to scouring of the older Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks of the Voronezh Anteclise, as well as the Baltic Shield, Moscow Syneclise, and the Volga-Ural Anteclise. The age of placers was estimated with accuracy up to substages (lower Aptian, lower Santonian, lower Campanian). The evolution factor is expressed in variation of localization and composition of placers in time and space. The forecast of potentially ore-bearing areas is based on optimal combinations of favorable factors.

Savko, A. D.; Zvonarev, A. E.; Ivanov, D. A.

2012-02-01

220

Trefoil factor 2 rapidly induces interleukin 33 to promote type 2 immunity during allergic asthma and hookworm infection  

E-print Network

The molecular mechanisms that drive mucosal T helper type 2 (T[subscript H]2) responses against parasitic helminths and allergens remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate in mice that TFF2 (trefoil factor 2), an ...

Wills-Karp, Marsha

221

Chronic Activation of Wild-Type Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Loss of Cdkn2a Cause Mouse Glioblastoma Formation  

E-print Network

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is characterized by overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and loss of the tumor suppressors Ink4a/Arf. Efforts at modeling GBM using wild-type EGFR in mice have proven ...

Whittaker, Charles A.

222

Daintain/AIF-1 (Allograft Inflammatory Factor-1) accelerates type 1 diabetes in NOD mice  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 is over-expressed in the blood of NOD mice suffering from insulitis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 stimulates white blood cell proliferation in NOD mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 increases blood glucose levels and triggers type 1 diabetes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 accelerates insulitis, while its antibody prevents insulitis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 enhances the levels of nitric oxide in the pancreases of NOD mice. -- Abstract: A large body of experimental evidence suggests that cytokines trigger pancreatic {beta}-cell death in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Daintain/AIF-1 (Allograft Inflammatory Factor-1), a specific marker for activated macrophages, is accumulated in the pancreatic islets of pre-diabetic BB rats. In the present study, we demonstrate that daintain/AIF-1 is released into blood and the levels of daintain/AIF-1 in the blood of type 1 diabetes-prone non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice suffering from insulitis are significantly higher than that in healthy NOD mice. When injected intravenously into NOD mice, daintain/AIF-1 stimulates white blood cell proliferation, increases the concentrations of blood glucose, impairs insulin expression, up-regulates nitric oxide (NO) production in pancreases and accelerates diabetes in NOD mice, while the antibody against daintain/AIF-1 delays or prevents insulitis in NOD mice. These results imply daintain/AIF-1 triggers type 1 diabetes probably via arousing immune cells activation and induction of NO production in pancreas of NOD mice.

Zhao, Yan-Ying, E-mail: biozyy@163.com [College of Life Science and Technology, Southwest University for Nationalities, Chengdu 610041 (China)] [College of Life Science and Technology, Southwest University for Nationalities, Chengdu 610041 (China); Huang, Xin-Yuan [College of Life Science and Technology, Hubei Engineering University, Xiaogan 432000 (China)] [College of Life Science and Technology, Hubei Engineering University, Xiaogan 432000 (China); Chen, Zheng-Wang [Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

2012-10-26

223

The TAL Effector PthA4 Interacts with Nuclear Factors Involved in RNA-Dependent Processes Including a HMG Protein That Selectively Binds Poly(U) RNA  

PubMed Central

Plant pathogenic bacteria utilize an array of effector proteins to cause disease. Among them, transcriptional activator-like (TAL) effectors are unusual in the sense that they modulate transcription in the host. Although target genes and DNA specificity of TAL effectors have been elucidated, how TAL proteins control host transcription is poorly understood. Previously, we showed that the Xanthomonas citri TAL effectors, PthAs 2 and 3, preferentially targeted a citrus protein complex associated with transcription control and DNA repair. To extend our knowledge on the mode of action of PthAs, we have identified new protein targets of the PthA4 variant, required to elicit canker on citrus. Here we show that all the PthA4-interacting proteins are DNA and/or RNA-binding factors implicated in chromatin remodeling and repair, gene regulation and mRNA stabilization/modification. The majority of these proteins, including a structural maintenance of chromosomes protein (CsSMC), a translin-associated factor X (CsTRAX), a VirE2-interacting protein (CsVIP2), a high mobility group (CsHMG) and two poly(A)-binding proteins (CsPABP1 and 2), interacted with each other, suggesting that they assemble into a multiprotein complex. CsHMG was shown to bind DNA and to interact with the invariable leucine-rich repeat region of PthAs. Surprisingly, both CsHMG and PthA4 interacted with PABP1 and 2 and showed selective binding to poly(U) RNA, a property that is novel among HMGs and TAL effectors. Given that homologs of CsHMG, CsPABP1, CsPABP2, CsSMC and CsTRAX in other organisms assemble into protein complexes to regulate mRNA stability and translation, we suggest a novel role of TAL effectors in mRNA processing and translational control. PMID:22384209

de Lira, Nayara Patricia Vieira; Quaresma, Alexandre José Christino; Pauletti, Bianca Alves; Leme, Adriana Franco Paes; Benedetti, Celso Eduardo

2012-01-01

224

Estimating the Latent Trait from Likert-Type Data: A Comparison of Factor Analysis, Item Response Theory, and Multidimensional Scaling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following seven statistical procedures are compared in terms of the ability to recover a unidimensional latent trait from Likert-type data: (1) factor analysis based on Pearson correlations (FA-PR); (2) factor analysis based on polychoric correlations (FA-PL); (3) the graded response model in item response theory (IRT-GRM); (4) internal…

Chan, Jason C.

225

The influence of vertical magnetic field gradients on the measured field strength and filling factor in late-type stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of a vertical gradient of the magnetic field in late type stars on the measurement of magnetic field strengths and filling factors is studied. Line profiles and contribution functions of spectral lines with large Lande factors are calculated in model stellar atmospheres in the presence of a magnetic field with a vertical gradient. It is found that the

U. Grossmann-Doerth; S. K. Solanki

1990-01-01

226

Induction of diverse cardiac cell types by reprogramming fibroblasts with cardiac transcription factors.  

PubMed

Various combinations of cardiogenic transcription factors, including Gata4 (G), Hand2 (H), Mef2c (M) and Tbx5 (T), can reprogram fibroblasts into induced cardiac-like myocytes (iCLMs) in vitro and in vivo. Given that optimal cardiac function relies on distinct yet functionally interconnected atrial, ventricular and pacemaker (PM) cardiomyocytes (CMs), it remains to be seen which subtypes are generated by direct reprogramming and whether this process can be harnessed to produce a specific CM of interest. Here, we employ a PM-specific Hcn4-GFP reporter mouse and a spectrum of CM subtype-specific markers to investigate the range of cellular phenotypes generated by reprogramming of primary fibroblasts. Unexpectedly, we find that a combination of four transcription factors (4F) optimized for Hcn4-GFP expression does not generate beating PM cells due to inadequate sarcomeric protein expression and organization. However, applying strict single-cell criteria to GHMT-reprogrammed cells, we observe induction of diverse cellular phenotypes, including those resembling immature forms of all three major cardiac subtypes (i.e. atrial, ventricular and pacemaker). In addition, we demonstrate that cells induced by GHMT are directly reprogrammed and do not arise from an Nxk2.5(+) progenitor cell intermediate. Taken together, our results suggest a remarkable degree of plasticity inherent to GHMT reprogramming and provide a starting point for optimization of CM subtype-specific reprogramming protocols. PMID:25344074

Nam, Young-Jae; Lubczyk, Christina; Bhakta, Minoti; Zang, Tong; Fernandez-Perez, Antonio; McAnally, John; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N; Munshi, Nikhil V

2014-11-01

227

Liver-type fatty acid binding protein interacts with hepatocyte nuclear factor 4?.  

PubMed

Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4? (HNF4?) regulates liver type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) gene expression. Conversely as shown herein, L-FABP structurally and functionally also interacts with HNF4?. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between Cy3-HNF4? (donor) and Cy5-L-FABP (acceptor) as well as FRET microscopy detected L-FABP in close proximity (~80 Å) to HNF4?, binding with high affinity Kd ~250-300 nM. Circular dichroism (CD) determined that the HNF4?/L-FABP interaction altered protein secondary structure. Finally, L-FABP potentiated transactivation of HNF4? in COS7 cells. Taken together, these data suggest that L-FABP provides a signaling path to HNF4? activation in the nucleus. PMID:24140341

McIntosh, Avery L; Petrescu, Anca D; Hostetler, Heather A; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

2013-11-29

228

Liver-type fatty acid binding protein interacts with hepatocyte nuclear factor 4?  

PubMed Central

Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4? (HNF4?) regulates liver type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) gene expression. Conversely as shown herein, L-FABP structurally and functionally also interacts with HNF4?. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between Cy3-HNF4? (donor) and Cy5-L-FABP (acceptor) as well as FRET microscopy detected L-FABP in close proximity (~80 Å) to HNF4?, binding with high affinity Kd ~250–300 nM. Circular dichroism (CD) determined that the HNF4?/L-FABP interaction altered protein secondary structure. Finally, L-FABP potentiated transactivation of HNF4? in COS7 cells. Taken together, these data suggest that L-FABP provides a signaling path to HNF4? activation in the nucleus. PMID:24140341

McIntosh, Avery L.; Petrescu, Anca D.; Hostetler, Heather A.; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

2013-01-01

229

Antidepressant-like activity of corticotropin-releasing factor type-1 receptor antagonists in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of selective corticotropin-releasing factor type-1 (CRF1) receptor antagonists represents a potential novel treatment for depression. These studies evaluated CRF1 receptor antagonists for antidepressant-like activity in mice. Subchronic dosing of both R 121919 (3-[6-(dimethylamino)-4-methyl-pyrid-3-yl]-2,5-dimethyl-N,N-dipropyl-pyrazolo[2,3-a]pyrimidin-7-amine) and DMP 696 (4-(1,3-dimethoxyprop-2-ylamino)-2,7-dimethyl-8-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-pyrazolo[1,5-a]-1,3,5-triazine) significantly decreased immobility time in the tail suspension test (at 30 and at 3 and 10 mg\\/kg, i.p., respectively). These antidepressant-like

Darci M. Nielsen; Galen J. Carey; Lisa H. Gold

2004-01-01

230

MTHFR C677T genotype as a risk factor for epilepsy including post-traumatic epilepsy in a representative military cohort.  

PubMed

The well-studied C677T variant in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme is a biologically plausible genetic risk factor for seizures or epilepsy. First, plasma/serum levels of homocysteine, a pro-convulsant, are moderately elevated in individuals with the homozygote TT genotype. Furthermore, the TT genotype has been previously linked with migraine with aura-a comorbid condition-and with alcohol withdrawal seizures. Finally, several small studies have suggested that the TT genotype may be overrepresented in epilepsy patients. In this study, we consider whether the MTHFR C677T or A1298C variants are associated with risk of epilepsy including post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) in a representative military cohort. Study subjects were selected from the cohort of military personnel on active duty during the years 2003 through 2007 who had archived serum samples at the DoD Serum Repository, essentially all active duty personnel during this time frame. We randomly selected 800 epilepsy patients and 800 matched controls based on ICD-9-CM diagnostic codes. We were able to isolate sufficient genetic material from the archived sera to genotype approximately 85% of our study subjects. The odds of epilepsy were increased in subjects with the TT versus CC genotype (crude OR=1.52 [1.04-2.22], p=0.031; adjusted OR=1.57 [1.07-2.32], p=0.023). In our sensitivity analysis, risk was most evident for patients with repeated rather than single medical encounters for epilepsy (crude OR=1.85 [1.14-2.97], p=0.011, adjusted OR=1.95 [1.19-3.19], p=0.008), and particularly for PTE (crude OR=3.14 [1.41-6.99], p=0.005; adjusted OR=2.55 [1.12-5.80], p=0.026). Our early results suggest a role for the common MTHFR C677T variant as a predisposing factors for epilepsy including PTE. Further exploration of baseline homocysteine and folate levels as predictors of seizure risk following traumatic brain injury is warranted. PMID:21787169

Scher, Ann I; Wu, Holly; Tsao, Jack W; Blom, Henk J; Feit, Preethy; Nevin, Remington L; Schwab, Karen A

2011-09-01

231

Factors associated with adherence to oral antihyperglycemic monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Aim To estimate the rate of adherence to oral antihyperglycemic monotherapy for patients with type 2 diabetes in the US and describe factors associated with adherence in these patients. Materials and methods In this retrospective cohort analysis, patients aged 18 years or older with a type 2 diabetes diagnosis received between 1 January 2007 and 31 March 2010 were identified using a large US-based health care claims database. The index date was defined as the date of the first prescription for oral antihyperglycemic monotherapy during this period. Patients had to have continuous enrollment in the claims database for 12 months before and after the index date. Adherence was assessed using proportion of days covered (PDC) and an adjusted logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate factors associated with adherence (PDC ?80%). Results Of the 133,449 eligible patients, the mean age was 61 years and 51% were men. Mean PDC was 75% and the proportion of patients adherent to oral antihyperglycemic monotherapy was 59%. Both mean PDC and PDC ?80% increased with increasing age and the number of concomitant medications, and were slightly higher in men compared to women. Results from the logistic regression demonstrate an increased likelihood of non-adherence for patients who were younger, new to therapy, on a twice-daily dose, female, or on fewer than three concomitant medications compared to their reference groups. Higher average daily out-of-pocket pharmacy expense was also associated with an increased likelihood of non-adherence. All results were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Patient characteristics, treatment regimens, and out-of-pocket expenses were associated with adherence to oral antihyperglycemic monotherapy in our study.

Tunceli, Kaan; Zhao, Changgeng; Davies, Michael J; Brodovicz, Kimberly G; Alexander, Charles M; Iglay, Kristy; Radican, Larry

2015-01-01

232

Mutations in Niemann Pick type C gene are risk factor for Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia characterized by deterioration of memory and other cognitive domains which leads to death in 3-9years after diagnosis. In addition to mutations in APP, PSEN1 and PSEN2 genes, that cause early onset autosomal dominant AD, several genetic risk factors for late onset AD are now known. There is another distinctive neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder - Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) that is sometimes referred to as "Childhood Alzheimer's". NPC is autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the NPC1 or NPC2 genes. NPC and AD share some biochemical and pathological similarities which are discussed in this paper. On the other hand, there is a well documented connection between other autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder - Gaucher's disease (GD) and neurodegenerative disorder - Parkinson's disease (PD). It has been shown that GD patients have 20-fold increased life-time risk of developing PD. Surprisingly, even heterozygous carriers of mutations in glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA) have increased risk for developing PD. Having in mind above mentioned correlations, we hypothesized that heterozygous mutations in the NPC gene may act as an independent risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. If true, this would expand link between lysosomal disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Also, if heterozygous NPC1/2 mutation carriers develop AD we assume it would be worth trying with miglustat-specific therapy recommended for NPC disease. PMID:25220527

Kresojevi?, Nikola; Dobri?i?, Valerija; Svetel, Marina; Kosti?, Vladimir

2014-11-01

233

Canine pancreatic islet cell tumours secreting insulin-like growth factor type 2: a rare entity.  

PubMed

Insulin-like growth factor type II (IGF-II) is the main cause of non-islet cell tumour hypoglycaemia (NICTH) and insulin is thought to be the only factor causing hypoglycaemia in insulinomas. However, two case reports of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PNETs) producing IGF-II have been previously published: a human and a canine patient. In this study, we investigated clinical, histopathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features, and biological behaviour of canine pancreatic IGF-II-omas, a subgroup of PNETs that has not been previously characterized. Case records of 58 dogs with confirmed PNETs and hypoglycaemia were reviewed: six patients were affected by IGF-II-omas. Surgery was performed in all cases and two dogs had metastases. Four patients remained alive and in remission at 370, 440, 560 and 890?days post-diagnosis; two died of non-tumour-related causes. IGF-II-omas can be differentiated from insulinomas through hypoinsulinaemia, IGF-II positive and insulin negative immunostaining. The prevalence of this neoplasia is low, accounting for just 6% of PNETs. PMID:24428588

Finotello, R; Ressel, L; Arvigo, M; Baroni, G; Marchetti, V; Romanelli, G; Burrow, R; Mignacca, D; Blackwood, L

2014-01-16

234

Racial/ethnic Differences in Clinical and Biochemical Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Risk Factors in Children  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine whether peri-adolescent children demonstrate the significant racial/ethnic differences in body fatness relative to BMI and in the prevalence and relationship of body composition to risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as in adults. Design and Methods We examined family history of obesity and T2DM, anthropometry, insulin sensitivity and secretory capacity, lipids, and cytokines (IL-6, CRP, TNF-?, and adiponectin) in a cohort of 994 middle school students (47% male, 53%, female; 12% African American, 14% East Asian, 13% South Asian, 9% Caucasian, 44% Hispanic, and 8% other). Results Fractional body fat content was significantly greater at any BMI among South Asians. There were racial/ethnic specific differences in lipid profiles, insulin secretory capacity, insulin sensitivity, and inflammatory markers corrected for body fatness that are similar to those seen in adults. Family history of T2DM was associated with lower insulin secretory capacity while family history of obesity was more associated with insulin resistance. Conclusion Children show some of the same racial/ethnic differences in risk factors for adiposity-related co-morbidities as adults. BMI and waist circumference cutoffs to identify children at-risk for adiposity-related co-morbidities should be adjusted by racial/ethnic group as well as other variables such as birthweight and family history. PMID:23596082

Rosenbaum, Michael; Fennoy, Ilene; Accacha, Siham; Altshuler, Lisa; Carey, Dennis E.; Holleran, Steven; Rapaport, Robert; Shelov, Steven P.; Speiser, Phyllis W.; Ten, S.; Bhangoo, Amrit; Boucher-Berry, Claudia; Espinal, Yomery; Gupta, Rishi; Hassoun, Abeer A.; Iazetti, Loretta.; Jacques, Fabien J.; Jean, Amy M.; Klein, Michelle. L.; Levine, Robert; Lowell, Barbara; Michel, Lesley; Rosenfeld, Warren

2013-01-01

235

TACO: a general-purpose tool for predicting cell-type–specific transcription factor dimers  

PubMed Central

Background Cooperative binding of transcription factor (TF) dimers to DNA is increasingly recognized as a major contributor to binding specificity. However, it is likely that the set of known TF dimers is highly incomplete, given that they were discovered using ad hoc approaches, or through computational analyses of limited datasets. Results Here, we present TACO (Transcription factor Association from Complex Overrepresentation), a general-purpose standalone software tool that takes as input any genome-wide set of regulatory elements and predicts cell-type–specific TF dimers based on enrichment of motif complexes. TACO is the first tool that can accommodate motif complexes composed of overlapping motifs, a characteristic feature of many known TF dimers. Our method comprehensively outperforms existing tools when benchmarked on a reference set of 29 known dimers. We demonstrate the utility and consistency of TACO by applying it to 152 DNase-seq datasets and 94 ChIP-seq datasets. Conclusions Based on these results, we uncover a general principle governing the structure of TF-TF-DNA ternary complexes, namely that the flexibility of the complex is correlated with, and most likely a consequence of, inter-motif spacing. PMID:24640962

2014-01-01

236

A new type of protein lysine methyltransferase trimethylates Lys-79 of elongation factor 1A.  

PubMed

The elongation factors of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are extensively methylated, containing a total of ten methyllysine residues. Elongation factor methyltransferases (Efm1, Efm2, Efm3, and Efm4) catalyze at least four of these modifications. Here we report the identification of a new type of protein lysine methyltransferase, Efm5 (Ygr001c), which was initially classified as N6-adenine DNA methyltransferase-like. Efm5 is required for trimethylation of Lys-79 on EF1A. We directly show the loss of this modification in efm5? strains by both mass spectrometry and amino acid analysis. Close homologs of Efm5 are found in vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants, although some fungal species apparently lack this enzyme. This suggests possible unique functions of this modification in S. cerevisiae and higher eukaryotes. The misannotation of Efm5 was due to the presence of a DPPF sequence in post-Motif II, typically associated with DNA methylation. Further analysis of this motif and others like it demonstrates a potential consensus sequence for N-methyltransferases. PMID:25446118

Dzialo, Maria C; Travaglini, Kyle J; Shen, Sean; Loo, Joseph A; Clarke, Steven G

2014-12-12

237

New insight into improvement of cardiovascular outcomes with intensive glycemic control in patients with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus included.  

PubMed

The epidemiology of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is very concerning since this is a widespread chronic disease in adult and elderly population. Different epidemiological studies confirmed strong relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) inclusive MetS and the occurrence of microvascular and macrovascular complications in these patients. Therefore, we are discussing molecular mechanisms and pathways recently introduced and intensively researched. These molecules have been held responsible for direct and indirect correlative trends important in the assessment of potential benefit of intensive glycemic control. Novel substances may improve patient's outcome in recent future regarding cardiovascular complications though their acting mechanisms have not been completely elucidated. We are reviewing whether it would intensive glycemic control be a reasonable approach in patients with MetS when DM2 is included and which recommendations are currently widely applied. The aim was therefore to emphasize current need for further investigations in the field since the utility of intensive glycemic control in all DM/MetS patients as mean for reduction of cardiovascular complications still remains controversial. PMID:25113641

Pei, Fei; Sun, Jian

2015-01-01

238

Effects of two types of cobra venom factor on porcine complement activation and pulmonary artery pressure.  

PubMed Central

Autologous porcine plasma that has been incubated with cuprophan haemodialysis membranes causes pulmonary hypertension and peripheral leucopenia following reinfusion into swine. These effects appear to be mediated by biologically active fragments of C3 and C5 that are generated as a consequence of ex vivo activation of complement. Putatively, C5a induces the leucopenia; however, the specific contributions of products of C3 and C5 activation to the pulmonary vasoconstriction have not been elucidated. In the present study, the effects of in vivo infusion of two different types of cobra venom factor (CVF) on peripheral leucocyte count and pulmonary artery pressure in the swine are reported. The CVF from Naja n. naja (CVF(TN)) was shown to activate both porcine C3 and C5, whereas the CVF from Naja h. haje (CVF(NH)) activated only C3. Both types of CVF produced pulmonary hypertension. Significant peripheral leucopenia, however, was observed only with CVF(TN). These results suggest that activation products of C3 contribute to the pulmonary hypertension but not to the peripheral leucopenia observed during haemodialysis using dialysis membranes that activate complement. PMID:12412765

Cheung, A K; Parker, C J; Wilcox, L

1989-01-01

239

Vitamin D deficiency: a new risk factor for type 2 diabetes?.  

PubMed

Recent compelling evidence suggests a role of vitamin D deficiency in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and insulin secretion derangements, with a consequent possible interference with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanism of this link is incompletely understood. In fact, vitamin D deficiency is usually detected in obesity in which insulin resistance is also a common finding. The coexistence of insulin resistance and vitamin D deficiency has generated several hypotheses. Some cross-sectional and prospective studies have suggested that vitamin D deficiency may play a role in worsening insulin resistance; others have identified obesity as a risk factor predisposing individuals to exhibit both vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance. The available data from intervention studies are largely confounded, and inadequate considerations of seasonal effects on 25(OH)D concentrations are also a common design flaw in many studies. On the contrary, there is strong evidence that obesity might cause both vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance, leaving open the possibility that vitamin D and diabetes are not related at all. Although it might seem premature to draw firm conclusions on the role of vitamin D supplementation in reducing insulin resistance and preventing type 2 diabetes, this manuscript will review the circumstances leading to vitamin D deficiency and how such a deficiency can eventually independently affect insulin sensitivity. PMID:23208163

Mezza, T; Muscogiuri, G; Sorice, G P; Prioletta, A; Salomone, E; Pontecorvi, A; Giaccari, A

2012-01-01

240

Maternal perception of fetal movement type: the effect of gestational age and maternal factors.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: To assess maternal perception of fetal movement types and its association with maternal factors in normal pregnancies with good pregnancy outcome. Methods: This study was conducted on 729 normotensive singleton pregnant women with good pregnancy outcome who had referred for prenatal visit. After completing a questionnaire, the participants were asked to count fetal movements for 1?h/3 times/day. They were also asked to identify the type of fetal movement: general body movement (GBM) (rolling and stretching/strong), isolated limb movement (ILM; simple flutter or kicks/weak), trunk movement (TM) (strong jab, startle/strong), or hiccup movement (HM) (high frequency and rapid/weak). All the participants were followed till delivery to exclude pregnant women with preterm birth and/or small for gestational age from the study. Results: 90.8% of participants perceived GBM, which was independently associated with maternal unemployment (OR?=?2.28, 95% CI?=?1.18-4.4). 74.2% of participants perceived TM, which was associated with multiparity (OR?=?1.69, 95% CI?=?1.18-2.4). 86.3% perceived ILM, which was independently associated with maternal unemployment (OR?=?2.67, 95% CI?=?1.53-4.68), lower gestational age (OR?=?2.17, 95% CI?=?1.28-3.67), perception of fetal movements at night (OR?=?2.05, 95% CI?=?1.27-3.32), and multiparity (OR?=?1.68, 95% CI?=?1.04-2.72). 36.6% perceived HM, which was independently associated with higher gestational age (OR?=?1.71, 95% CI?=?1.2-2.44). Conclusions: Most pregnant women could discriminate changes in fetal movement type that follow a general pattern through the third gestational trimester, however this can be affected by maternal employment, parity and time of perception. PMID:24871458

Hantoushzadeh, Sedigheh; Sheikh, Mahdi; Shariat, Mamak; Farahani, Zahra

2014-06-30

241

Factors Associated with Utilization of Dipeptidyl-4 Inhibitors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Retrospective Study  

PubMed Central

Dipeptidyl-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are oral antidiabetic agents recently introduced to Malaysia. Thus, limited data is available on their utilization patterns and factors associated with their use. This study aims to analyse the utilization patterns of DPP-4 inhibitors, factors that influenced the choice of agent, and the rationale for treatment with DPP-4 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This retrospective study was conducted to address the utilization pattern of DPP-4 inhibitors and factors that influence choice in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. 299 subjects taking either sitagliptin or vildagliptin from September 2008 to September 2012 were included in the study. Sitagliptin was more frequently prescribed than vildagliptin. Of the patients prescribed DPP-4 inhibitors, 95% received combinations of these and other agents, whereas only 5% were prescribed DPP-4 inhibitors as monotherapy. Factors affecting the utilization of DPP-4 inhibitors included age (P = 0.049) and concomitant use of beta blockers (P = 0.045) and aspirin (P = 0.008). Early identification of factors associated with DPP-4 inhibitors is essential to enhance quality use of the drugs. PMID:25258626

Zaman Huri, Hasniza; Selamat, NorFarahen; Vethakkan, Shireene Ratna

2014-01-01

242

Suppression of Dendritic Cell Activation by Anthrax Lethal Toxin and Edema Toxin Depends on Multiple Factors Including Cell Source, Stimulus Used, and Function Tested  

PubMed Central

Bacillus anthracis produces lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin (ET), and they suppress the function of LPS-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs). Because DCs respond differently to various microbial stimuli, we compared toxin effects in bone marrow DCs stimulated with either LPS or Legionella pneumophila (Lp). LT, not ET, was more toxic for cells from BALB/c than from C57BL/6 (B6) as measured by 7-AAD uptake; however, ET suppressed CD11c expression. LT suppressed IL-12, IL-6, and TNF-? in cells from BALB/c and B6 mice but increased IL-1? in LPS-stimulated cultures. ET also suppressed IL-12 and TNF-?, but increased IL-6 and IL-1? in Lp-stimulated cells from B6. Regarding maturation marker expression, LT increased MHCII and CD86 while suppressing CD40 and CD80; ET generally decreased marker expression across all groups. We conclude that the suppression of cytokine production by anthrax toxins is dependent on variables, including the source of the DCs, the type of stimulus and cytokine measured, and the individual toxin tested. However, LT and ET enhancement or suppression of maturation marker expression is more related to the marker studied than the stimuli or cell source. Anthrax toxins are not uniformly suppressive of DC function but instead can increase function under defined conditions. PMID:18821847

Newton, Catherine A.; Perkins, Izabella; Friedman, Herman; Klein, Thomas W.

2008-01-01

243

Factoring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Test your factoring skills Factors and Multiples Jeopardy How much do you know about factoring and multiples? Play Jeopardy and find out! Prime Factoring Turkey Shoot Blast these turkeys using your factoring skills. Help the Professor Super save the planet by "cooking" the Giant Frozen Turkeys of Destruction. Math Lines 12 X-Factor Shoot the ball at the other factors to get a product of 12. You can also ...

Mr Clark

2012-10-31

244

The Quality of Different Types of Child Care at 10 and 18 Months: A Comparison between Types and Factors Related to Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The quality of care offered in four different types of non-parental child care to 307 infants at 10 months old and 331 infants at 18 months old was compared and factors associated with higher quality were identified. Observed quality was lowest in nurseries at each age point, except that at 18 months they offered more learning activities. There…

Leach, Penelope; Barnes, Jacqueline; Malmberg, Lars-Erik; Sylva, Kathy; Stein, Alan

2008-01-01

245

40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel C...Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel...

2014-07-01

246

40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel C...Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel...

2013-07-01

247

Diabetes-Enhanced Tumor Necrosis Factor-? Production Promotes Apoptosis and the Loss of Retinal Microvascular Cells in Type 1 and Type 2 Models of Diabetic Retinopathy  

PubMed Central

Retinal microvascular cell loss plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. To examine this further, type 1 streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and type 2 Zucker diabetic fatty rats were treated by intravitreal injection of the tumor necrosis factor-specific inhibitor pegsunercept, and the impact was measured by analysis of retinal trypsin digests. For type 2 diabetic rats, the number of endothelial cells and pericytes positive for diabetes-enhanced activated caspase-3 decreased by 81% and 86%, respectively, when treated with pegsunercept (P < 0.05). Similarly, the number of diabetes-enhanced terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling-positive endothelial cells and pericytes decreased by 81% and 67% respectively when treated with pegsunercept (P < 0.05). Diabetes-increased activated caspase-3- and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling-positive microvascular cell numbers were both reduced by 81% and 80%, respectively, in pegsunercept-treated type 1 diabetic rats (P < 0.05). Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor reduced type 1 diabetes-enhanced pericyte ghost formation by 87% and the number of type 2 diabetes-enhanced pericyte ghosts by 62% (P < 0.05). Similarly, increased acellular capillary formation caused by type 1 and type 2 diabetes was reduced by 68% and 67%, respectively, when treated with pegsunercept (P < 0.05). These results demonstrate a previously unrecognized role of tumor necrosis factor-? in promoting the early pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy leading to loss of retinal microvascular cells and demonstrate the potential therapeutic benefit of modulating its activity. PMID:18403591

Behl, Yugal; Krothapalli, Padmaja; Desta, Tesfahun; DiPiazza, Amanda; Roy, Sayon; Graves, Dana T.

2008-01-01

248

Translational control of the activation of transcription factor NF-?B and production of type I interferon by phosphorylation of the translation factor eIF4E  

PubMed Central

Type I interferon is an integral component of the antiviral response, and its production is tightly controlled at the levels of transcription and translation. The translation-initiation factor eIF4E is a rate-limiting factor whose activity is regulated by phosphorylation of Ser209. Here we found that mice and fibroblasts in which eIF4E cannot be phosphorylated were less susceptible to virus infection. More production of type I interferon, resulting from less translation of Nfkbia mRNA (which encodes the inhibitor I?B?), largely explained this phenotype. The lower abundance of I?B? resulted in enhanced activity of the transcription factor NF-?B, which promoted the production of IFN-?. Thus, phosphorylation of eIF4E has a key role in antiviral host defense by selectively stimulating the translation of mRNA that encodes a critical suppressor of the innate antiviral response. PMID:22544393

Svitkin, Yuri V; Rosenfeld, Amy B; Kobayashi, Mariko; Walsh, Derek; Alain, Tommy; Sean, Polen; Robichaud, Nathaniel; Topisirovic, Ivan; Furic, Luc; Dowling, Ryan J O; Sylvestre, Annie; Rong, Liwei; Colina, Rodney; Costa-Mattioli, Mauro; Fritz, Jörg H; Olivier, Martin; Brown, Earl; Mohr, Ian; Sonenberg, Nahum

2014-01-01

249

Comparing Factor, Class, and Mixture Models of Cannabis Initiation and DSM Cannabis Use Disorder Criteria, Including Craving, in the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidence suggests that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnostic criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence are best represented by a single underlying factor. However, it remains possible that models with additional factors, or latent class models or hybrid models, may better explain the data. Using structured interviews, 626 adult male and female twins provided complete data on symptoms of cannabis abuse and dependence, plus a craving criterion. We compared latent factor analysis, latent class analysis, and factor mixture modeling using normal theory marginal maximum likelihood for ordinal data. Our aim was to derive a parsimonious, best-fitting cannabis use disorder (CUD) phenotype based on DSM-IV criteria and determine whether DSM-5 craving loads onto a general factor. When compared with latent class and mixture models, factor models provided a better fit to the data. When conditioned on initiation and cannabis use, the association between criteria for abuse, dependence, withdrawal, and craving were best explained by two correlated latent factors for males and females: a general risk factor to CUD and a factor capturing the symptoms of social and occupational impairment as a consequence of frequent use. Secondary analyses revealed a modest increase in the prevalence of DSM-5 CUD compared with DSM-IV cannabis abuse or dependence. It is concluded that, in addition to a general factor with loadings on cannabis use and symptoms of abuse, dependence, withdrawal, and craving, a second clinically relevant factor defined by features of social and occupational impairment was also found for frequent cannabis use. PMID:24588857

Kubarych, Thomas S.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Aggen, Steven H.; Estabrook, Ryne; Edwards, Alexis C.; Clark, Shaunna L.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Hickie, Ian B.; Neale, Michael C.; Gillespie, Nathan A.

2014-01-01

250

Assessment of the Common Risk Factors Associated with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Jeddah  

PubMed Central

Risk factor management is important in avoiding life-threatening complications and preventing new-onset diabetes. We performed a case-control study in 2013 at ten primary health care centers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia to determine the common risk factors of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and the demographic background of adult Saudi patients with DM2. Known diabetic patients were recruited as cases, while nondiabetic attendants were selected as controls. A pretested designed questionnaire was used to collect data from 159 cases and 128 controls. Cases were more likely than controls to be men (P < 0.0001), less educated (P < 0.0001), natives of eastern Saudi Arabia (P < 0.0001), retired (P < 0.0001), lower-salaried (P < 0.0001), or married or divorced (P < 0.0001). By univariate analysis cases were likely to be current smokers (P < 0.0001), hypertensive (P < 0.0001), or overweight/obese (P < 0.0001). Cases were also more likely to have a history of DM in a first-degree relative (P = 0.020). By multivariate analysis, cases were more likely to be older than 40 years (P < 0.0001), less educated (P = 0.05), married or divorced (P = 0.04), jobless/housewives (P < 0.0001), or current smokers (P = 0.002). They were also more likely to have salaries <7000 Saudi riyals (P = 0.01). Overall, prediabetic and high risk groups should be identified and counseled early before the occurrence of diabetes. PMID:25548563

Murad, Manal A.; Abdulmageed, Samia S.; Iftikhar, Rahila; Sagga, Bayan Khaled

2014-01-01

251

Wild Type p53 Transcriptionally Represses the SALL2 Transcription Factor under Genotoxic Stress  

PubMed Central

SALL2- a member of the Spalt gene family- is a poorly characterized transcription factor found deregulated in various cancers, which suggests it plays a role in the disease. We previously identified SALL2 as a novel interacting protein of neurotrophin receptors and showed that it plays a role in neuronal function, which does not necessarily explain why or how SALL2 is deregulated in cancer. Previous evidences indicate that SALL2 gene is regulated by the WT1 and AP4 transcription factors. Here, we identified SALL2 as a novel downstream target of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. Bioinformatic analysis of the SALL2 gene revealed several putative p53 half sites along the promoter region. Either overexpression of wild-type p53 or induction of the endogenous p53 by the genotoxic agent doxorubicin repressed SALL2 promoter activity in various cell lines. However R175H, R249S, and R248W p53 mutants, frequently found in the tumors of cancer patients, were unable to repress SALL2 promoter activity, suggesting that p53 specific binding to DNA is important for the regulation of SALL2. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated binding of p53 to one of the identified p53 half sites in the Sall2 promoter, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed in vivo interaction of p53 with the promoter region of Sall2 containing this half site. Importantly, by using a p53ERTAM knockin model expressing a variant of p53 that is completely dependent on 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen for its activity, we show that p53 activation diminished SALL2 RNA and protein levels during genotoxic cellular stress in primary mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) and radiosensitive tissues in vivo. Thus, our finding indicates that p53 represses SALL2 expression in a context-specific manner, adding knowledge to the understanding of SALL2 gene regulation, and to a potential mechanism for its deregulation in cancer. PMID:24040083

Farkas, Carlos; Martins, Carla P.; Escobar, David; Hepp, Matias I.; Donner, David B.; Castro, Ariel F.; Evan, Gerard; Gutiérrez, José L.; Warren, Robert; Pincheira, Roxana

2013-01-01

252

Perturbations of Fibroblast Growth Factors 19 and 21 in Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Fibroblast growth factors 19 and 21 (FGF19 and FGF21) have been implicated, independently, in type 2 diabetes (T2D) but it is not known if their circulating levels correlate with each other or whether the associated hepatic signaling mechanisms that play a role in glucose metabolism are dysregulated in diabetes. We used a cross-sectional, case/control, experimental design involving Class III obese patients undergoing Roux-en-Y bariatric surgery (RYGB), and measured FGF19 and FGF21 serum levels and hepatic gene expression (mRNA) in perioperative liver wedge biopsies. We found that T2D patients had lower FGF19 and higher FGF21 serum levels. The latter was corroborated transcriptionally, whereby, FGF21, as well as CYP7A1, ?-Klotho, FGFR4, HNF4?, and glycogen synthase, but not of SHP or FXR mRNA levels in liver biopsies were higher in T2D patients that did not remit diabetes after RYGB surgery, compared to T2D patients that remitted diabetes after RYGB surgery or did not have diabetes. In a Phenome-wide association analysis using 205 clinical variables, higher FGF21 serum levels were associated with higher glucose levels and various cardiometabolic disease phenotypes. When serum levels of FGF19 were < 200 mg/mL and FGF21 > 500 mg/mL, 91% of patients had diabetes. These data suggest that FGF19/FGF21 circulating levels and hepatic gene expression of the associated signaling pathway are significantly dysregulated in type 2 diabetes. PMID:25664662

Roesch, Stephen L.; Styer, Amanda M.; Wood, G. Craig; Kosak, Zachary; Seiler, Jamie; Benotti, Peter; Petrick, Anthony T.; Gabrielsen, Jon; Strodel, William E.; Gerhard, Glenn S.; Still, Christopher D.; Argyropoulos, George

2015-01-01

253

Genotype Score in Addition to Common Risk Factors for Prediction of Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Multiple genetic loci have been convincingly associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We tested the hypothesis that knowledge of these loci allows better prediction of risk than knowledge of common phenotypic risk factors alone. METHODS We genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 18 loci associated with diabetes in 2377 participants of the Framingham Offspring Study. We created a genotype score from the number of risk alleles and used logistic regression to generate C statistics indicating the extent to which the genotype score can discriminate the risk of diabetes when used alone and in addition to clinical risk factors. RESULTS There were 255 new cases of diabetes during 28 years of follow-up. The mean (±SD) genotype score was 17.7±2.7 among subjects in whom diabetes developed and 17.1±2.6 among those in whom diabetes did not develop (P<0.001). The sex-adjusted odds ratio for diabetes was 1.12 per risk allele (95% confidence interval, 1.07 to 1.17). The C statistic was 0.534 without the genotype score and 0.581 with the score (P=0.01). In a model adjusted for sex and self-reported family history of diabetes, the C statistic was 0.595 without the genotype score and 0.615 with the score (P=0.11). In a model adjusted for age, sex, family history, body-mass index, fasting glucose level, systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and triglyceride level, the C statistic was 0.900 without the genotype score and 0.901 with the score (P=0.49). The genotype score resulted in the appropriate risk reclassification of, at most, 4% of the subjects. CONCLUSIONS A genotype score based on 18 risk alleles predicted new cases of diabetes in the community but provided only a slightly better prediction of risk than knowledge of common risk factors alone. PMID:19020323

Meigs, James B.; Shrader, Peter; Sullivan, Lisa M.; McAteer, Jarred B.; Fox, Caroline S.; Dupuis, Josée; Manning, Alisa K.; Florez, Jose C.; Wilson, Peter W.F.; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Cupples, L. Adrienne

2009-01-01

254

Enhanced expression of type 1 procollagen and transforming growth factor-beta in tuberculin induced delayed type hypersensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS--Tissue fibrosis is a common and serious consequence of chronic inflammation. The mechanism linking these two processes is poorly understood. The present study has utilised a human in vivo model of a delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction, the tuberculin Heaf reaction, induced by intradermal tuberculin in BCG immunised subjects, to dissect the relation between these two processes. METHODS--Punch skin biopsy

A Wangoo; H T Cook; G M Taylor; R J Shaw

1995-01-01

255

Atrial natriuretic factor stimulates renal dopamine uptake mediated by natriuretic peptide-type A receptor.  

PubMed

To determine the effects of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) on renal dopamine (DA) metabolism, 3H-DA and 3H-L-DOPA uptake by renal tubular cells was measured in experiments carried out in vitro in Sprague-Dawley rats. The receptor type involved was also analyzed. The results indicate that ANF increased at 30 min, DA uptake in a concentration-response fashion having 10 pM ANF as the threshold concentration. Conversely, the uptake of the precursor L-DOPA was not modified by the peptide. ANF effects were observed in tissues from external and juxtamedullar cortex and inner medulla. On this basis, 100 nM ANF was used to continue the studies in external cortex tissues. DA uptake was characterized as extraneuronal uptake, since 100 microM hydrocortisone blocked ANF-induced increase of DA uptake. Renal DA uptake was decreased at 0 degrees C and in sodium-free medium. The effects of ANF in these conditions were not present, confirming that renal DA uptake is mediated by temperature- and sodium-dependent transporters and that the peptide requires the presence of the ion to exhibit its actions on DA uptake. The biological natriuretic peptide type A receptor (NPR-A) mediates ANF effects, since 100 nM anantin, a specific blocker, reversed ANF-dependent increase of DA uptake. The natriuretic peptide type C receptor (NPR-C) is not involved, since the specific analogous 100 nM 4-23 ANF amide has no effect on renal DA uptake and does not alter the effects of 100 nM ANF. In conclusion, ANF stimulates DA uptake by kidney tubular cells. ANF effects are mediated by NPR-A receptors coupled to guanylate cyclase and cGMP as second messenger. The process involved was characterized as a typical extraneuronal uptake, and characterized as temperature- and sodium-dependent. This mechanism could be related to DA effects on sodium reabsorption and linked to ANF enhanced natriuresis in the kidney. The increment of endogenous DA into tubular cells, as a consequence of increased DA uptake, would permit D1 receptor recruitment and Na+,K+-ATPase activity inhibition, which results in decreased sodium reabsorption and increased natriuresis. PMID:15544851

Fernández, Belisario E; Correa, Alicia H; Choi, Marcelo R

2005-01-15

256

Factors in the Design of Centrifugal Type Injection Valves for Oil Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This research was undertaken in connection with a general study of the application of the fuel injection engine to aircraft. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the effect of four important factors in the design of a centrifugal type automatic injection valve on the penetration, general shape, and distribution of oil sprays. The general method employed was to record the development of single sprays by means of special high-speed photographic apparatus capable of taking 25 consecutive pictures of the moving spray at a rate of 4,000 per second. Investigations were made concerning the effects on spray characteristics, of the helix angle of helical grooves, the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the orifice to that of the grooves, the ratio of orifice length to diameter, and the position of the seat. Maximum spray penetration was obtained with a ratio of orifice length to diameter of about 1.5. Slightly greater penetration was obtained with the seat directly before the orifice.

Joachim, W F; Beardsley, E G

1928-01-01

257

Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor Type 1 Production by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Modulates Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Function  

PubMed Central

Many strains of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) produce cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1 (CNF1), a toxin that constitutively activates the Rho GTPases RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42. We previously showed that CNF1 contributes to the virulence of UPEC in a mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection and a rat model of acute prostatitis and that a striking feature of the histopathology of the mouse bladders and rat prostates infected with CNF1-positive strains is an elevation in levels of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). We also found that CNF1 synthesis leads to prolonged survival of UPEC in association with human neutrophils. Here, we tested the hypothesis that CNF1 production by UPEC diminishes the antimicrobial capacity of mouse PMNs by affecting phagocyte function through targeting Rho family GTPases that are critical to phagocytosis and the generation of reactive oxygen species. We found that, as with human neutrophils, CNF1 synthesis provided a survival advantage to UPEC incubated with mouse PMNs. We also observed that CNF1-positive UPEC down-regulated phagocytosis, altered the distribution of the complement receptor CR3 (CD11b/CD18), enhanced the intracellular respiratory burst, and increased levels of Rac2 activation in PMNs. From these results, we conclude that modulation of PMN function by CNF1 facilitates UPEC survival during the acute inflammatory response. PMID:16113245

Davis, Jon M.; Rasmussen, Susan B.; O'Brien, Alison D.

2005-01-01

258

Type 2 diabetes as a risk factor for cognitive impairment: current insights  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for cognitive dysfunction and dementia in the elderly. T2DM has been thought to be associated with vascular diseases, eventually leading to vascular dementia, but recent studies have established that T2DM is also associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). With the increase in the number of elderly individuals with T2DM, the number of diabetic patients with cognitive dysfunction has been increasing. T2DM may accelerate AD-associated pathologies through insulin resistance. Vascular pathologies may also be associated with cognitive dysfunction and dementia in T2DM subjects. Several other mechanisms also seem to be involved in T2DM-related cognitive dysfunction. More investigations to clarify the association of T2DM with cognitive impairment are warranted. These investigations may help to increase our understanding of AD and open a new door to the development of therapeutics. Recent pharmaceutical advancement in T2DM treatment has resulted in the availability of a wide range of antidiabetics. Some evidence has suggested that antidiabetic therapies help to prevent cognitive dysfunction. At present, however, the optimal level of blood glucose control and the best combination of medications to achieve it in terms of cognitive preservation have not been established. More investigation is warranted. Cognitive dysfunction is an emerging new complication of T2DM that requires further study. PMID:25061284

Umegaki, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

259

Null leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR) mutations in Stuve-Wiedemann/Schwartz-Jampel type 2 syndrome.  

PubMed

Stuve-Wiedemann syndrome (SWS) is a severe autosomal recessive condition characterized by bowing of the long bones, with cortical thickening, flared metaphyses with coarsened trabecular pattern, camptodactyly, respiratory distress, feeding difficulties, and hyperthermic episodes responsible for early lethality. Clinical overlap with Schwartz-Jampel type 2 syndrome (SJS2) has suggested that SWS and SJS2 could be allelic disorders. Through studying a series of 19 families with SWS/SJS2, we have mapped the disease gene to chromosome 5p13.1 at locus D5S418 (Zmax=10.66 at theta =0) and have identified null mutations in the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR or gp190 chain) gene. A total of 14 distinct mutations were identified in the 19 families. An identical frameshift insertion (653_654insT) was identified in families from the United Arab Emirates, suggesting a founder effect in that region. It is interesting that 12/14 mutations predicted premature termination of translation. Functional studies indicated that these mutations alter the stability of LIFR messenger RNA transcripts, resulting in the absence of the LIFR protein and in the impairment of the JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway in patient cells. We conclude, therefore, that SWS and SJS2 represent a single clinically and genetically homogeneous condition due to null mutations in the LIFR gene on chromosome 5p13. PMID:14740318

Dagoneau, Nathalie; Scheffer, Deborah; Huber, Céline; Al-Gazali, Lihadh I; Di Rocco, Maja; Godard, Anne; Martinovic, Jelena; Raas-Rothschild, Annick; Sigaudy, Sabine; Unger, Sheila; Nicole, Sophie; Fontaine, Bertrand; Taupin, Jean-Luc; Moreau, Jean-François; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Le Merrer, Martine; Bonaventure, Jacky; Munnich, Arnold; Legeai-Mallet, Laurence; Cormier-Daire, Valérie

2004-02-01

260

13 CFR 123.401 - What types of mitigation measures can your business include in an application for a pre-disaster...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...application for a pre-disaster mitigation loan? 123.401 Section 123.401 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS...DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Pre-Disaster Mitigation Loans § 123.401 What types of mitigation measures can...

2011-01-01

261

13 CFR 123.401 - What types of mitigation measures can your business include in an application for a pre-disaster...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...application for a pre-disaster mitigation loan? 123.401 Section 123.401 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS...DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Pre-Disaster Mitigation Loans § 123.401 What types of mitigation measures can...

2010-01-01

262

High prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a population-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  The risk of dying of cardiovascular disease (CVD) before the age of 40 years is increased nearly 20-fold in patients with\\u000a type 1 diabetes compared with non-diabetic persons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of CVD risk factors\\u000a in a population-based study of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  CVD risk factors were examined according to

H. D. Margeirsdottir; J. R. Larsen; C. Brunborg; N. C. Øverby; K. Dahl-Jørgensen

2008-01-01

263

Prevalence of HIV, human papillomavirus type 16 and herpes simplex virus type 2 among female sex workers in Guinea and associated factors.  

PubMed

Female sex workers are at high risk for HIV infection. Sexually transmitted infections are known to be co-factors for HIV infection. Our aims were (1) to assess the prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in this population; (2) to determine the association between sociodemographic characteristics, behavioural variables, and variables related to HIV prevention and HIV infection. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Conakry, Guinea, among a convenience sample of 223 female sex workers. A questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, risk factors, and exposure to prevention was administered. Screening for HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2, human papillomavirus type 16, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Chlamydia trachomatis was performed. Prevalences of HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2, human papillomavirus type 16, N. gonorrhoeae, and C. trachomatis were 35.3%, 84.1%, 12.2%, 9.0%, and 13.6%, respectively. Having a child, lubricant use, and human papillomavirus type 16 infection were associated with HIV infection. Interventions that promote screening and treatment of sexually transmitted infections are needed in order to achieve successful interventions to prevent HIV among female sex workers in resource-limited settings. PMID:24216036

Aho, Joséphine; Koushik, Anita; Coutlée, François; Diakité, Soumaïla Laye; Rashed, Sélim

2014-03-01

264

Vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors in the placenta of women with type 1 diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

We performed a morphological study of placentas from women with type 1 diabetes mellitus receiving insulin therapy (insulin pump). Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors (VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3) was demonstrated by immunohistochemical methods. Processes of branched angiogenesis predominated in the placentas from women with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Immunohistochemical study revealed more intensive reaction of VEGF and its receptors in syncytiotrophoblast and capillary endothelium of terminal villi. PMID:22803088

Dubova, E A; Pavlov, K A; Esayan, R M; Degtyareva, E I; Shestakova, M V; Shchegolev, A I; Sukhikh, G T

2012-01-01

265

Load effects on Nola-type induction motor power-factor controllers on fuel-cell inverters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tests performed on power inverters using Nola-type power factor controllers (PFC) and fractional horsepower single phase induction motors as loading devices are discussed. The inverters were designed for integral operation with fuel cell power plants and represented four differential developmental designs ranging in power ratings from 1.5 kW to 5 kW. In addition, a 1000 VA commercial aircraft-type inverter was also tested. Results are presented and discussed.

1982-12-01

266

Impact of Leisure-Time Physical Activity on Glycemic Control and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Japanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Fukuoka Diabetes Registry  

PubMed Central

Aims/hypothesis The effects of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) on glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors are not fully understood in Asian type 2 diabetic patients, who are typically non-obese. We studied associations between LTPA and glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Methods A total of 4,870 Japanese type 2 diabetic patients aged ?20 years were divided into eight groups according to their LTPA. We investigated associations between the amount and intensity levels of physical activity (PA) and glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, cardiovascular risk factors, and low-grade systemic inflammation in a cross-sectional study. Results LTPA was dose-dependently associated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and prevalence of metabolic syndrome, but not with blood pressure, low density lipoprotein cholesterol or adiponectin. The amount of PA required to lower HbA1c was greater than that required to improve cardiovascular risk factors. LTPA was inversely associated with HbA1c in non-obese participants but not in obese participants after multivariate adjustments for age, sex, duration of diabetes, current smoking, current drinking, energy intake, cardiovascular diseases, depressive symptoms, and treatment of diabetes. Higher-intensity LTPA, not lower-intensity LTPA was associated with HbA1c after multivariate adjustments with further adjustment including BMI. Conclusions/interpretation LTPA was dose-dependently associated with better glycemic control and amelioration of some cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. In addition, increased higher-intensity LTPA may be appropriate for glycemic control. PMID:24897110

Kaizu, Shinako; Kishimoto, Hiro; Iwase, Masanori; Fujii, Hiroki; Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Ide, Hitoshi; Jodai, Tamaki; Kikuchi, Yohei; Idewaki, Yasuhiro; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Nakamura, Udai; Kitazono, Takanari

2014-01-01

267

Orientation factor and number of fibers at failure plane in ring-type steel fiber reinforced concrete  

SciTech Connect

Considering the probabilistic distributions of fibers in ring-type steel fiber reinforced concrete, the orientation factor and the number of ring-type steel fibers crossing the failure plane were theoretically derived as a function of fiber geometry, specimen dimensions, and fiber volume fraction. A total number of 24 specimens were tested incorporating different fiber types, specimen geometry, and fiber volume fractions of 0.2% and 0.4%: 5 beams and 5 panels containing straight steel fibers; and 6 beams and 8 panels containing ring-type steel fibers. Measurements were made to assess the number of fibers at fractured surfaces of steel fiber reinforced concrete. The developed theoretical expressions reasonably predicted the orientation factor and the number of ring-type steel fibers at failure plane: the average and the standard deviation for the ratios of the test to theory were 1.03 and 0.26, respectively. Theoretical investigations and comparisons were made for the values of orientation factor and the number of fibers at failure plane for straight steel fibers and ring-type steel fibers.

Lee, C., E-mail: cdlee@cau.ac.k [School of Architecture and Building Science, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H. [School of Architecture and Building Science, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-05-15

268

Obstetric factors and mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: The French perinatal cohorts  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: We attempted to determine whether the risk of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is related to events in pregnancy, labor, and delivery. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective multicenter cohort study of human immunodeficiency virus type 1–infected mothers and their children, we studied pregnancy histories, labor (including gestational age, induction, membrane rupture, length of labor, intrapartum procedures,

Mayaux; Bongain; Berrebi; Moudoub-Jeanpetit; Bénifla; Ciraru-Vigneron; Le Chenadec; Blanche; Delfraissy

1996-01-01

269

Energy partitioning and environmental influence factors in different vegetation types in the GEWEX Asian Monsoon Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental influences upon energy balance in areas of different vegetation types (i.e., forest at Kog-Ma in Thailand and at Yakutsk in Russia, grassland at Amdo in Chinese Tibet and at Arvaikheer in Mongolia, and mixed farmland at Tak in Thailand) in the GEWEX Asian Monsoon Experiment were investigated. The sites we investigated are geographically and climatologically different; and consequently had quite large variations in temperature ( T), water vapor pressure deficit (VPD), soil moisture (SM), and precipitation (PPT). During May-October, the net radiation flux ( R n) (in W·m-2) was 406.21 at Tak, 365.57 at Kog-Ma, 390.97 at Amdo, 316.65 at Arvaikheer, and 287.10 at Yakutsk. During the growing period, the R n partitioned into latent heat flux ( ?E/ R n) was greater than that partitioned into sensible heat flux ( H/ R n) at Tak and at Kog-Ma. In contrast, ?E/ R n was lower than H/ R n at Arvaikheer, H/ R n was less than ?E/ R n between DOY 149 and DOY 270 at Amdo, and between DOY 165 and DOY 235 at Yakutsk. The R n partitioned into ground heat flux was generally less than 0.15. The short-wave albedo was 0.12, 0.18, and 0.20 at the forest, mixed land, and grass sites, respectively. At an hourly scale, energy partitions had no correlation with environmental factors, based on average summer halfhourly values. At a seasonal scale energy partitions were linearly correlated (usually p<0.05) with T, VPD, and SM. The ?E/ R n increased with increases in SM, T, and VPD at forest areas. At mixed farmlands, ?E/ R n generally had positive correlations with SM, T, and VPD, but was restrained at extremely high values of VPD and T. At grasslands, ?E/ R n was enhanced with increases of SM and T, but was decreased with VPD.

Liu, Fengshan; Tao, Fulu; Li, Shenggong; Zhang, Shuai; Xiao, Dengpan; Wang, Meng

2014-12-01

270

Serum prolactin concentrations as risk factor of metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes?  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate potential associations of serum prolactin concentration (PRL) with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), previously observed in small and selected study samples, in a large population-based cohort. Methods Data from 3,993 individuals (2,027 women) aged 20-79 years from the population-based Study of Health of Pomerania (SHIP) were used to analyse cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of PRL with MetS and T2DM risk in age- and multivariable-adjusted Poisson regression models. PRL were log-transformed and modelled as continuous (per standard deviation (SD) increase) and categorical predictor (sex-specific quartiles) variable, separately for men and woman. Results Cross-sectional analyses showed an inverse association between low PRL concentrations and prevalent T2DM risk in men and women after multivariable-adjustment (men: Q1 vs. Q4: relative risk (RR), 1.55; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.13 – 2.14; women: Q1 vs. Q4: RR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.10 – 2.62). Likewise, higher PRL concentrations were associated with significantly lower T2DM risk (RR per SD increase in log-PRL: 0.83; 95% CI, 0.72 – 0.95 in men, and 0.84; 95% CI, 0.71 – 0.98 in women, respectively). An inverse association between PRL and MetS risk was not retained after multivariable adjustment. Longitudinal analyses yielded no association of PRL with incident MetS or T2DM. Conclusion The present study is the first large population-based study reporting a cross-sectional inverse association between PRL and prevalent T2DM in both genders. But the absent longitudinal associations do not support a causal role of PRL as a risk factor of incident MetS or T2DM. PMID:23517652

2013-01-01

271

Targeting Angiogenesis Using a C-Type Atrial Natriuretic Factor–Conjugated Nanoprobe and PET  

PubMed Central

Sensitive, specific, and noninvasive detection of angiogenesis would be helpful in discovering new strategies for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Recently, we reported the 64Cu-labeled C-type atrial natriuretic factor (CANF) fragment for detecting the upregulation of natriuretic peptide clearance receptor (NPR-C) with PET on atherosclerosis-like lesions in an animal model. However, it is unknown whether NPR-C is present and overexpressed during angiogenesis. The goal of this study was to develop a novel CANF-integrated nanoprobe to prove the presence of NPR-C and offer sensitive detection with PET during development of angiogenesis in mouse hind limb. Methods We prepared a multifunctional, core-shell nanoparticle consisting of DOTA chelators attached to a poly(methyl methacrylate) core and CANF-targeting moieties attached to poly(ethylene glycol) chain ends in the shell of the nanoparticle. Labeling of this nanoparticle with 64Cu yielded a high-specific-activity nanoprobe for PET imaging NPR-C receptor in a mouse model of hind limb ischemia–induced angiogenesis. Histology and immunohistochemistry were performed to assess angiogenesis development and NPR-C localization. Results 15O-H2O imaging showed blood flow restoration in the previously ischemic hind limb, consistent with the development of angiogenesis. The targeted DOTA-CANF-comb nanoprobe showed optimized pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. PET imaging demonstrated significantly higher tracer accumulation for the targeted DOTA-CANF-comb nanoprobe than for either the CANF peptide tracer or the nontargeted control nanoprobe (P < 0.05, both). Immunohistochemistry confirmed NPR-C upregulation in the angiogenic lesion with colocalization in both endothelial and smooth muscle cells. PET and immunohistochemistry competitive receptor blocking verified the specificity of the targeted nanoprobe to NPR-C receptor. Conclusion As evidence of its translational potential, this customized DOTA-CANF-comb nanoprobe demonstrated superiority over the CANF peptide alone for imaging NPR-C receptor in angiogenesis. PMID:22049461

Liu, Yongjian; Pressly, Eric D.; Abendschein, Dana R.; Hawker, Craig J.; Woodard, Geoffrey E.; Woodard, Pamela K.; Welch, Michael J.

2014-01-01

272

Epigenetic analyses of the insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 gene in type 1 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical observations have demonstrated that high levels of circulating insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) are associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D), whereas low serum IGFBP-1 levels are associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recently, we reported that increased DNA methylation levels in the IGFBP1 gene were associated with T2D. In the present study, we evaluated the epigenetic changes of IGFBP1 in T1D and diabetic nephropathy (DN). Results In total, 778 Swedish individuals, including T1D patients with or without DN and subjects with the normal glucose tolerance (NGT), were involved in the study. IGFBP1 methylation levels in genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood were analyzed with bisulfite pyrosequencing. Serum IGFBP-1 levels were measured with radioimmunoassay. We found that DNA methylation levels in the IGFBP1 gene were decreased (15.6% versus 16.9%; P?

2014-01-01

273

TIL-type protease inhibitors may be used as targeted resistance factors to enhance silkworm defenses against invasive fungi.  

PubMed

Entomopathogenic fungi penetrate the insect cuticle using their abundant hydrolases. These hydrolases, which include cuticle-degrading proteases and chitinases, are important virulence factors. Our recent findings suggest that many serine protease inhibitors, especially TIL-type protease inhibitors, are involved in insect resistance to pathogenic microorganisms. To clarify the molecular mechanism underlying this resistance to entomopathogenic fungi and identify novel genes to improve the silkworm antifungal capacity, we conducted an in-depth study of serine protease inhibitors. Here, we cloned and expressed a novel silkworm TIL-type protease inhibitor, BmSPI39. In activity assays, BmSPI39 potently inhibited the virulence protease CDEP-1 of Beauveria bassiana, suggesting that it might suppress the fungal penetration of the silkworm integument by inhibiting the cuticle-degrading proteases secreted by the fungus. Phenol oxidase activation studies showed that melanization is involved in the insect immune response to fungal invasion, and that fungus-induced excessive melanization is suppressed by BmSPI39 by inhibiting the fungal cuticle-degrading proteases. To better understand the mechanism involved in the inhibition of fungal virulence by protease inhibitors, their effects on the germination of B. bassiana conidia was examined. BmSPI38 and BmSPI39 significantly inhibited the germination of B. bassiana conidia. Survival assays showed that BmSPI38 and BmSPI39 markedly improved the survival rates of silkworms, and can therefore be used as targeted resistance proteins in the silkworm. These results provided new insight into the molecular mechanisms whereby insect protease inhibitors confer resistance against entomopathogenic fungi, suggesting their potential application in medicinal or agricultural fields. PMID:25453359

Li, Youshan; Zhao, Ping; Liu, Huawei; Guo, Xiaomeng; He, Huawei; Zhu, Rui; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Xia, Qingyou

2015-02-01

274

Relationship between Levels of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Metabolic Parameters in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim. Studies have suggested that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a role in glucose and lipid metabolism and inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum BDNF levels and various metabolic parameters and inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Materials and Methods. The study included 88 T2DM patients and 33 healthy controls. Fasting blood samples were obtained from the patients and the control group. The serum levels of BDNF were measured with an ELISA kit. The current paper introduces a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) generalization curve to identify cut-off for the BDNF values in type 2 diabetes patients. Results. The serum levels of BDNF were significantly higher in T2DM patients than in the healthy controls (206.81?±?107.32?pg/mL versus 130.84?±?59.81?pg/mL; P < 0.001). They showed a positive correlation with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (r = 0.28; P < 0.05), the triglyceride level (r = 0.265; P < 0.05), and white blood cell (WBC) count (r = 0.35; P < 0.001). In logistic regression analysis, age (P < 0.05), body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.05), C-reactive protein (CRP) (P < 0.05), and BDNF (P < 0.01) were independently associated with T2DM. In ROC curve analysis, BDNF cut-off was 137. Conclusion. The serum BDNF level was higher in patients with T2DM. The BDNF had a cut-off value of 137. The findings suggest that BDNF may contribute to glucose and lipid metabolism and inflammation.

Boyuk, Banu; Degirmencioglu, Serife; Atalay, Hande; Guzel, Savas; Acar, Ayse; Celebi, Aslan; Ekizoglu, Ismail; Simsek, Caglar

2014-01-01

275

Human factors issues and approaches in the spatial layout of a space station control room, including the use of virtual reality as a design analysis tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human Factors Engineering support was provided for the 30% design review of the late Space Station Freedom Payload Control Area (PCA). The PCA was to be the payload operations control room, analogous to the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). This effort began with a systematic collection and refinement of the relevant requirements driving the spatial layout of the consoles and PCA. This information was used as input for specialized human factors analytical tools and techniques in the design and design analysis activities. Design concepts and configuration options were developed and reviewed using sketches, 2-D Computer-Aided Design (CAD) drawings, and immersive Virtual Reality (VR) mockups.

Hale, Joseph P., II

1994-01-01

276

Correlation between electrophoretic types B1 and B2 of carboxylesterase B and host-dependent factors in Escherichia coli septicaemia.  

PubMed

Electrophoretic types B1 and B2 of carboxylesterase B produced by strains of Escherichia coli isolated from 100 septicaemia cases were correlated with alpha-haemolysin and mannose resistant haemagglutinin (MRHA) production and with clinical data including eventual underlying diseases, origin of septicaemia and evolution. Electrophoretic type B2 was phenotypically linked with alpha-haemolysin and MRHA production. The proportion of type B2 isolates varied significantly with occurrence of an underlying illness (45% for patients without an underlying disease and 22% for compromised patients) and with the site of origin of the septicaemia (40% for those of urinary origin and 18% for infection of digestive origin). In the former infections, type B2 isolates were obtained in the majority from male patients while type B1 isolates predominated in women. The septicaemias associated with type B1 were characterized by a lower proportion of isolates producing alpha-haemolysin and MRHA and by a greater frequency of septic shock and death than those associated with type B2. These facts emphasize the importance of host-dependent factors in E. coli septicaemia. PMID:3276540

Picard, B; Goullet, P

1988-02-01

277

CT Findings of Risk Factors for Persistent Type II Endoleak from Inferior Mesenteric Artery to Determine Indicators of Preoperative IMA Embolization  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To identify the computed tomography (CT) findings of persistent type II endoleak from the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) which indicate the need for preoperative IMA embolization. Materials and Methods: Included were 120 patients (96 males, 49–93 years old, mean: 77.7) who underwent endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) between June 2007 and October 2010. The relationship between persistent type II endoleak and CT findings of IMA orifice was examined. Results: CT showed no type II endoleak from IMA in 106 patients (89%; Group N), and transient type II endoleak from IMA in 10 patients (8.3%; Group T). CT showed persistent type II endoleak from IMA in 4 patients (3.3%; Group P) and three of them underwent reintervention. Univariate Cox-Mantel test analysis indicated that stenosis (p = 0.0003) and thrombus (p = 0.043) in IMA orifice were significant factors for persistent type II endoleak. The ratios of patients with proximal IMA more than 2.5 mm diameter in Groups N, Y, and P were 26/106 (24%), 5/10 (50%) and 4/4 (100%), respectively. Conclusion: Indicators for embolization of IMA prior to EVAR for the prevention of type II endoleak appear to be: (1) more than 2.5 mm in diameter and (2) no stenosis due to calcification or mural thrombus in IMA orifice. PMID:25298829

Matsuda, Hitoshi; Sanda, Yoshihiro; Morita, Yoshiaki; Minatoya, Kenji; Kobayashi, Junjiro; Naito, Hiroaki

2014-01-01

278

Improved constants, Franck-Condon factors and r-centroids including vibration-rotation interaction for the B-X transition of ScO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report Franck-Condon factors, r-centroids and a new set of constants for the B-X transition of ScO (blue system) that correlate with observed band intensities and band origins. The vibration-rotation effect turns out to be of importance for some bands. A numerical calculation of centrifugal distortion constants agrees with experimental data.

Suárez, Carlos B.

1983-07-01

279

Effect of Simvastatin on Expression of Transforming Growth Factor-? and Collagen Type IV in Rat Mesangial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix in the glomerular mesangium as a result of an imbalance between matrix synthesis and degradation. Since simvastatin has been proposed to decrease renal interstitial fibrosis, we hypothesized that the protective effect of statins was related to the expression of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) and type IV collagen (Col IV).

Yan-Bo Li; Jia-Jing Yin; Hong-Jie Wang; Jun Wang; Hui Tian; Min Yang

2011-01-01

280

Coagulation factor X mediates adenovirus type 5 liver gene transfer in non-human primates (Microcebus murinus).  

E-print Network

Coagulation factor X mediates adenovirus type 5 liver gene transfer in non- human primates by Ad5 and FX-binding ablated Ad5 vectors in non-human primates. Ad5 vectors accumulated in and mediated particles predominantly accumulate in and transduce the liver in rodent and non-human primate models(5, 15

Boyer, Edmond

281

EFFECT OF GROWTH FACTOR-FIBRONECTIN MATRIX INTERACTION ON RAT TYPE II CELL ADHESION AND DNA SYTHESIS  

EPA Science Inventory

ABSTRACT Type II cells attach, migrate and proliferate on a provisional fibronectin-rich matrix during alveolar wall repair after lung injury. The combination of cell-substratum interactions via integrin receptors and exposure to local growth factors are likely to initiat...

282

Academic Skills in Children with Early-Onset Type 1 Diabetes: The Effects of Diabetes-Related Risk Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The study aimed to assess the effects of diabetes-related risk factors, especially severe hypoglycaemia, on the academic skills of children with early-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Method: The study comprised 63 children with T1DM (31 females, 32 males; mean age 9y 11mo, SD 4mo) and 92 comparison children without diabetes (40…

Hannonen, Riitta; Komulainen, Jorma; Riikonen, Raili; Ahonen, Timo; Eklund, Kenneth; Tolvanen, Asko; Keskinen, Paivi; Nuuja, Anja

2012-01-01

283

Cross-Sectional Versus Sequential Quality Indicators of Risk Factor Management in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The fairness of quality assessment methods is under debate. Quality indicators incorporating the longitudinal nature of care have been advocated but their usefulness in comparison to more commonly used cross-sectional measures is not clear. Aims: To compare cross-sectional and sequential quality indicators for risk factor management in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: The study population consisted of 1912

Jaco Voorham; Petra Denig; Bruce H. R. Wolffenbuttel; Flora M. Haaijer-Ruskamp

2008-01-01

284

Transforming growth factor ? 1 and collagen type 1 and III in myocardial tissue in obese and lean Zucker rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

High glucose concentration and insulin resistance states are both associated with a number of metabolic abnormalities in various tissues including myocardium. This study was to determine differences between obese (OZR) and lean (LZR) Zucker rats, which are a model of obesity and mild NIDDM, regarding morphological changes including immunostaining with TGF?1 and two different types of collagen (Col I and

Jorge E. Toblli; Graciela DeRosa; Gabriel Cao; Pablo Piorno

2002-01-01

285

Interleukin-10- and transforming growth factor ?-independent regulation of CD8? T cells expressing type 1 and type 2 cytokines in human lymphatic filariasis.  

PubMed

Lymphatic filariasis is known to be associated with diminished CD4? Th1 and elevated CD4? Th2 responses to parasite-specific antigens. The roles of cytokine-expressing CD8? T cells in immune responses to filarial infections are not well defined. To study the roles of CD8? T cells expressing type 1, type 2, and type 17 cytokines in filarial infections, we examined the frequencies of these cells in clinically asymptomatic, patently infected (INF) individuals, directly ex vivo and in response to parasite or nonparasite antigens; these frequencies were compared with the results for individuals with filarial lymphedema (i.e., clinical pathology [CP]) and those without active infection or pathology (i.e., endemic normal [EN]). INF individuals exhibited significant decreases in the frequencies of CD8? T cells expressing tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), gamma interferon (IFN-?), and interleukin-22 (IL-22) at baseline and/or in response to filarial antigens, compared with CP and EN individuals. In contrast, the same individuals exhibited significant increases in the frequencies of CD8? T cells expressing IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, and IL-21, compared with CP and/or EN individuals. Curative treatment resulted in significantly increased frequencies of CD8? T cells expressing IL-2 and significantly decreased frequencies of CD8? T cells expressing type 2 cytokines. Finally, the regulation of these responses appears to be independent of IL-10 and transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?), since blockade of IL-10 or TGF-? signaling did not significantly alter the frequencies of type 1 or type 2 cytokine-expressing CD8? T cells. Our findings suggest that alterations in the frequencies of cytokine-expressing CD8? T cells are characteristic features of lymphatic filarial infections. PMID:25253667

Anuradha, Rajamanickam; George, Parakkal Jovvian; Kumaran, Paul; Nutman, Thomas B; Babu, Subash

2014-12-01

286

TMC114, a Novel Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease Inhibitor Active against Protease Inhibitor-Resistant Viruses, Including a Broad Range of Clinical Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to characterize the antiviral activity, cytotoxicity, and mechanism of action of TMC114, a novel human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitor (PI). TMC114 exhibited potent anti-HIV activity with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 1 to 5 nM and a 90% effective concen- tration of 2.7 to 13 nM. TMC114 exhibited no cytotoxicity

Sandra De Meyer; Hilde Azijn; Dominique Surleraux; Dirk Jochmans; Abdellah Tahri; Rudi Pauwels; Piet Wigerinck; Marie-Pierre de Bethune

2005-01-01

287

A dynamic assembly of diverse transcription factors integrates activation and cell-type information for interleukin 2 gene regulation.  

PubMed Central

The interleukin 2 (IL-2) gene is subject to two types of regulation: its expression is T-lymphocyte-specific and it is acutely dependent on specific activation signals. The IL-2 transcriptional apparatus integrates multiple types of biochemical information in determining whether or not the gene will be expressed, using multiple diverse transcription factors that are each optimally activated or inhibited by different signaling pathways. When activation of one or two of these factors is blocked IL-2 expression is completely inhibited. The inability of the other, unaffected factors to work is explained by the striking finding that none of the factors interacts stably with its target site in the IL-2 enhancer unless all the factors are present. Coordinate occupancy of all the sites in the minimal enhancer is apparently maintained by continuous assembly and disassembly cycles that respond to the instantaneous levels of each factor in the nuclear compartment. In addition, the minimal enhancer undergoes specific increases in DNase I accessibility, consistent with dramatic changes in chromatin structure upon activation. Still to be resolved is what interaction(s) conveys T-lineage specificity. In the absence of activating signals, the minimal IL-2 enhancer region in mature T cells is apparently unoccupied, exactly as in non-T lineage cells. However, in a conserved but poorly studied upstream region, we have now mapped several novel sites of DNase I hypersensitivity in vivo that constitutively distinguish IL-2 producer type T cells from cell types that cannot express IL-2. Thus a distinct domain of the IL-2 regulatory sequence may contain sites for competence- or lineage-marking protein contacts. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8790334

Rothenberg, E V; Ward, S B

1996-01-01

288

T-helper cell type-1 transcription factor T-bet is upregulated in pulmonary sarcoidosis.  

PubMed

Upregulation of genes for interferon (IFN)-? and CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR)3 expression, two crucial molecules in sarcoid inflammation and granuloma formation, is directly controlled by the T-helper (Th)1 transcription factor T-bet (T-box, expressed in T-cells). However, there is no information on T-bet expression in sarcoidosis or its relationship with "sarcoidosis-associated" genes. Therefore, we investigated expression of T-bet mRNA and, in parallel, a spectrum of genes known to be involved in sarcoidosis pathogenesis. Transcripts were determined in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells from 62 sarcoidosis patients and 25 controls by quantitative RT-PCR; T-bet protein was localised by immunohistochemistry. Patient's BAL cells expressed higher mRNA T-bet levels than those of controls (mean ± sd fold change 3.64 ± 1.72; p = 0.00006). T-bet mRNA expression did not vary between clinical phenotypes as assessed by chest radiography stage, presence/absence of Löfgren's syndrome, extrapulmonary/pulmonary involvement or progressing/remitting disease (p > 0.05). T-bet mRNA expression correlated with expression of IFN-?, CC chemokine ligand 5, CXC chemokine ligand (CXC)10, interleukin (IL)-2 receptor/IL-15 receptor ?, CXCR3 and CXCR6 (p < 0.01). T-bet protein was localised to alveolar macrophages and lymphocytes, tissue multinucleated giant cells, macrophages and lymphocytes. In pulmonary sarcoidosis, T-bet upregulation is associated with changes in expression of IFN-?, CXCR3 and chemokines/receptors involved in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis, which suggests a role for T-bet in this Th1 disease, including modulation of some sarcoidosis-associated genes. PMID:21540308

Kriegova, E; Fillerova, R; Tomankova, T; Hutyrova, B; Mrazek, F; Tichy, T; Kolek, V; du Bois, R M; Petrek, M

2011-11-01

289

Risk factors for chronic kidney diseases may include periodontal diseases, as estimated by the correlations of plasma pentraxin-3 levels: a case–control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Pentraxins are classical mediators of inflammation and markers of acute-phase reactions. Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) is believed to\\u000a be a true independent indicator of disease activity. It has been associated with clinical outcomes in incident chronic kidney\\u000a disease (CKD) and periodontal diseases. Periodontitis is lately being considered as a risk factor for CKD. However, no data\\u000a are available on elevated PTX3 in

A. R. Pradeep; Rahul Kathariya; P. Arjun Raju; R. Sushma Rani; Anuj Sharma; N. M. Raghavendra

290

Histological mixed-type as an independent prognostic factor in stage?I?gastric carcinoma  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the clinicopathological features of mixed-type gastric cancer and their influence on prognosis of mixed-type stage?I?gastric cancer. METHODS: We analyzed 446 patients who underwent curative gastrectomy for stage?I?gastric cancer between 1999 and 2009. The patients were divided into two groups: those with differentiated or undifferentiated cancer (non-mixed-type, n = 333) and those with a mixture of differentiated and undifferentiated cancers (mixed-type, n = 113). RESULTS: The overall prevalence of mixed-type gastric cancer was 25.3% (113/446). Compared with patients with non-mixed-type gastric cancer, those with mixed-type gastric cancer tended to be older at onset (P = 0.1252) and have a higher incidence of lymph node metastasis (P = 0.1476). They also had significantly larger tumors (P < 0.0001), more aggressive lymphatic invasion (P = 0.0011), and deeper tumor invasion (P < 0.0001). In addition, they exhibited significantly worse overall survival rates than did patients with non-mixed-type gastric cancer (P = 0.0026). Furthermore, mixed-type gastric cancer was independently associated with a worse outcome in multivariate analysis [P = 0.0300, hazard ratio = 11.4 (1.265-102.7)]. CONCLUSION: Histological mixed-type of gastric cancer contributes to malignant outcomes and highlight its usefulness as a prognostic indicator in stage?I?gastric cancer. PMID:25593472

Komatsu, Shuhei; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Miyamae, Mahito; Shimizu, Hiroki; Konishi, Hirotaka; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Kazuma; Kishimoto, Mitsuo; Otsuji, Eigo

2015-01-01

291

Impact of dietary fiber intake on glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fukuoka Diabetes Registry  

PubMed Central

Background Dietary fiber is beneficial for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, although it is consumed differently in ethnic foods around the world. We investigated the association between dietary fiber intake and obesity, glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Methods A total of 4,399 patients were assessed for dietary fiber intake using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. The associations between dietary fiber intake and various cardiovascular risk factors were investigated cross-sectionally. Results Body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, triglyceride and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein negatively associated with dietary fiber intake after adjusting for age, sex, duration of diabetes, current smoking, current drinking, total energy intake, fat intake, saturated fatty acid intake, leisure-time physical activity and use of oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin. The homeostasis model assessment insulin sensitivity and HDL cholesterol positively associated with dietary fiber intake. Dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced prevalence of abdominal obesity, hypertension and metabolic syndrome after multivariate adjustments including obesity. Furthermore, dietary fiber intake was associated with lower prevalence of albuminuria, low estimated glomerular filtration rate and chronic kidney disease after multivariate adjustments including protein intake. Additional adjustments for obesity, hypertension or metabolic syndrome did not change these associations. Conclusion We demonstrated that increased dietary fiber intake was associated with better glycemic control and more favorable cardiovascular disease risk factors including chronic kidney disease in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetic patients should be encouraged to consume more dietary fiber in daily life. PMID:24330576

2013-01-01

292

INTERMEDIATE-TERM MORTALITY AND CARDIAC TRANSPLANTATION IN INFANTS WITH SINGLE-VENTRICLE LESIONS: RISK FACTORS AND THEIR INTERACTION WITH SHUNT TYPE  

PubMed Central

Objectives We sought to identify factors associated with death and cardiac transplantation in infants undergoing the Norwood procedure and to determine differences in associations that might favor either the modified Blalock-Taussig shunt (MBTS) or a right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery shunt (RVPAS). Methods We used competing risks methodology to analyze death without transplantation, cardiac transplantation, and survival without transplantation. Parametric time-to-event modeling and bootstrapping were used to identify independent predictors. Results Data from 549 subjects (follow-up, 2.7±0.9 years) were analyzed. Mortality risk was characterized by early and constant phases; transplant was characterized by only a constant phase. Early phase factors associated with death included lower socioeconomic status (SES; P=.01), obstructed pulmonary venous return (P<.001), smaller ascending aorta (P=.02), and anatomic subtype. Constant phase factors associated with death included genetic syndrome (P<.001) and lower gestational age (GA, P<.001). The RVPAS had better survival in the 51% who were full term with aortic atresia (P<.001). The MBTS was better among the 4% who were preterm with a patent aortic valve (P =.003). Lower pre-Norwood right ventricular fractional area change, pre-Norwood surgery, and anatomy other than hypoplastic left heart syndrome were independently associated with transplantation (all P<.03); but shunt type was not (P=.43). Conclusions Independent risk factors for intermediate-term mortality include lower SES, anatomy, genetic syndrome, and lower GA. Term infants with aortic atresia benefited from a RVPAS and preterm infants with a patent aortic valve benefited from a MBTS. Right ventricular function and anatomy, but not shunt type, were associated with transplantation. PMID:22341427

Tweddell, James S.; Sleeper, Lynn A.; Ohye, Richard G.; Williams, Ismee A.; Mahony, Lynn; Pizarro, Christian; Pemberton, Victoria L.; Frommelt, Peter C.; Bradley, Scott M.; Cnota, James F.; Hirsch, Jennifer; Kirshbom, Paul; Li, Jennifer S.; Pike, Nancy; Puchalski, Michael; Ravishankar, Chitra; Jacobs, Jeffrey P.; Laussen, Peter C.; McCrindle, Brian W.

2012-01-01

293

Impact of Plasmids, Including Those EncodingVirB4/D4 Type IV Secretion Systems, on Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg Virulence in Macrophages and Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg (S. Heidelberg) can cause foodborne illness in humans following the consumption of contaminated meat and poultry products. Recent studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that certain S. Heidelberg isolated from food-animal sources harbor multiple transmissible plasmids with genes that encode antimicrobial resistance, virulence and a VirB4/D4 type-IV secretion system. This study examines the potential role of these transmissible plasmids in bacterial uptake and survival in intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages, and the molecular basis of host immune system modulation that may be associated with disease progression. A series of transconjugant and transformant strains were developed with different combinations of the plasmids to determine the roles of the individual and combinations of plasmids on virulence. Overall the Salmonella strains containing the VirB/D4 T4SS plasmids entered and survived in epithelial cells and macrophages to a greater degree than those without the plasmid, even though they carried other plasmid types. During entry in macrophages, the VirB/D4 T4SS encoding genes are up-regulated in a time-dependent fashion. When the potential mechanisms for increased virulence were examined using an antibacterial Response PCR Array, the strain containing the T4SS down regulated several host innate immune response genes which likely contributed to the increased uptake and survival within macrophages and epithelial cells. PMID:24098597

Gokulan, Kuppan; Khare, Sangeeta; Rooney, Anthony W.; Han, Jing; Lynne, Aaron M.; Foley, Steven L.

2013-01-01

294

The InterAct Project: An Examination of the Interaction of Genetic and Lifestyle Factors on the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in the EPIC Study  

PubMed Central

Background Studying gene-lifestyle interaction may help to identify lifestyle factors that modify genetic susceptibility and uncover genetic loci exerting important subgroup effects. Adequately powered studies with prospective, unbiased, standardised assessment of key behavioural factors for gene-lifestyle studies are lacking. Objective To establish a type 2 diabetes case-cohort study designed to investigate how genetic and potentially modifiable lifestyle and behavioral factors, particularly diet and physical activity, interact in their influence on the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Methods Funded by the Sixth European Framework Programme, InterAct consortium partners ascertained and verified incident cases of type 2 diabetes occurring in European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohorts between 1991 and 2007 from 8 of the 10 EPIC countries. A pragmatic, high sensitivity approach was used for case ascertainment including multiple sources at each EPIC centre, followed by diagnostic verification. Prentice-weighted Cox regression and random effects meta-analyses were used to investigate differences in diabetes incidence by age and sex. Results A total of 12,403 verified incident cases of type 2 diabetes occurred during 3.99 million person-years of follow-up of 340,234 EPIC participants eligible for InterAct. We defined a centre stratified subcohort of 16,154 individuals for comparative analyses. Individuals with incident diabetes that were randomly selected into the subcohort (n=778) were included as cases in the analyses. All prevalent diabetes cases were excluded from the study. InterAct cases were followed-up for an average of 6.9 years, 49.7% were men. Mean baseline age and age at diagnosis were 55.6 and 62.5 years, mean BMI and waist were 29.4 kg/m2 and 102.7 cm in men, and 30.1 kg/m2 and 92.8 cm in women, respectively. Risk of type 2 diabetes increased linearly with age, with an overall hazard ratio (95% CI) of 1.56 (1.48; 1.64) for a 10 year age difference, adjusted for sex. A male excess in the risk of incident diabetes was consistently observed across all countries, with a pooled hazard ratio of 1.51 (1.39; 1.64), adjusted for age. Conclusions InterAct is a large, well powered, prospective study which will inform our understanding of the interplay between genes and lifestyle factors on the risk of type 2 diabetes development. PMID:21717116

Langenberg, C; Sharp, S; Forouhi, NG; Franks, P; Schulze, MB; Kerrison, N; Ekelund, U; Barroso, I; Panico, S; Tormo, M; Spranger, J; Griffin, S; van der Schouw, YT; Amiano, P; Ardanaz, E; Arriola, L; Balkau, B; Barricarte, A; Beulens, JWJ; Boeing, H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB; Buijsse, BB; Chirlaque Lopez, MD; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Crowe, FL; de Lauzon-Guillan, B; Deloukas, P; Dorronsoro, M; Drogan, DD; Froguel, P; Gonzalez, C; Grioni, S; Groop, L; Groves, C; Hainaut, P; Halkjaer, J; Hallmans, G; Hansen, T; Kaaks, R; Key, TJ; Khaw, K; Koulman, A; Mattiello, A; Navarro, C; Nilsson, P; Norat, T; Overvad, K; Palla, L; Palli, D; Pedersen, O; Peeters, PH; Quirós, JR; Ramachandran, A; Rodriguez-Suarez, L; Rolandsson, O; Romaguera, D; Romieu, I; Sacerdote, C; Sánchez, M; Sandbaek, A; Slimani, N; Sluijs, I; Spijkerman, AMW; Teucher, B; Tjonneland, A; Tumino, R; van der A, DL; Verschuren, WMM; Tuomilehto, J; Feskens, E; McCarthy, M; Riboli, E; Wareham, NJ

2014-01-01

295

Clinical Phenotypes of Different MPZ (P 0) Mutations May Include Charcot–Marie–Tooth Type 1B, Dejerine–Sottas, and Congenital Hypomyelination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hereditary demyelinating peripheral neuropathies consist of a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders that includes hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP), Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMT), Dejerine–Sottas syndrome (DSS), and congenital hypomyelination (CH). The clinical classification of these neuropathies into discrete categories can sometimes be difficult because there can be both clinical and pathologic variation and overlap between these disorders. We

Laura E Warner; Max J Hilz; Stanley H Appel; James M Killian; Edwin H Kolodny; George Karpati; Stirling Carpenter; Gordon V Watters; Calvin Wheeler; David Witt; Adria Bodell; Eva Nelis; Christine Van Broeckhoven; James R Lupski

1996-01-01

296

Cylinder head variable swirl siamese type intake port structure including biasing means diverting mixture flow towards diverting means which bypasses straight intake passage control valve  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a variable swirl siamese type intake port structure for an internal combustion engine cylinder head formed with a combustion chamber to which a spark plug having an ignition point is provided, comprising: a first generally straight intake passage which leads to a first intake port opening to the combustion chamber; a second generally helical intake passage which leads to a second intake port, also opening to the combustion chamber, formed with a helical end vortex portion; a control valve fitted in the first generally straight intake passage at an upstream portion thereof so as to control its flow resistance; a means, provided to the generally straight intake passage on the side thereof towards the generally helical intake passage.

Iwashita, Y.; Okumura, T.

1987-06-09

297

Four Variants of the Citrobacter freundii AmpC-Type Cephalosporinases, Including Novel Enzymes CMY-14 and CMY-15, in a Proteus mirabilis Clone Widespread in Poland  

PubMed Central

Twenty-nine Proteus mirabilis isolates from 17 Polish hospitals were analyzed. The isolates were resistant to a variety of antimicrobials, and their patterns of resistance to ?-lactams resembled those of the constitutive class C cephalosporinase (AmpC) producers. Indeed, ?-lactamases with a pI of ?9.0 were found in all of the isolates, and they were subsequently identified as four AmpC-type cephalosporinases, CMY-4, -12, -14, and -15, of which the two last ones were novel enzyme variants. The enzymes were of Citrobacter freundii origin and were closely related to each other, with CMY-4 likely being the evolutionary precursor of the remaining ones. The blaCMY genes were located exclusively in chromosomal DNA, within EcoRI restriction fragments of the same size of ?10 kb. In the CMY-12- and -15-producing isolates, an additional fragment of ?4.5 kb hybridized with the blaCMY probe as well, which could have arisen from a duplication event during the evolution of the genes. In all of the isolates, the ISEcp1 mobile element, which most probably is involved in mobilization of the C. freundii ampC gene, was placed at the same distance from the 5? ends of the blaCMY genes, and sequences located between them were identical in isolates carrying each of the four genes. These data suggested that a single chromosome-to-chromosome transfer of the ampC gene from C. freundii to P. mirabilis could have initiated the spread and evolution of the AmpC-producing P. mirabilis in Poland. The hypothesis seems to be confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing, which revealed several cases of close relatedness between the P. mirabilis isolates from distant centers and showed an overall similarity between the majority of the multiresistant isolates. PMID:15504832

Literacka, El?bieta; Empel, Joanna; Baraniak, Anna; Sadowy, Ewa; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Gniadkowski, Marek

2004-01-01

298

An investigation of the strains in an integral type oil-well tubing joint, and the factors affecting leakage  

E-print Network

AN INVESTIGATION OF THE STRAINS IN AN INTEGRAL TYPE OIL-WELL TUBING JOINT~ AND THE FA. CTORS AFFECTING LEAKAGE A Thesis JOHN HENRY ATTERBURY JR Approved as to style and content by AN INVESTIGATION OF THE STRAINS IN AN INTEGRAL TYPE OIL...-iVELL TUBING JOINT~ AND THE FACTORS AFFECTING ~GE JOHN HENRY ATTERBURY JR ~ A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Vechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of llASTER OF SCIENCE Ma...

Atterbury, John Henry

1950-01-01

299

Effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on cardiometabolic risk factors and risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

The effects of both the amount and quality of dietary fat have been studied intensively during the past decades. Previously, low-fat diets were recommended without much attention to the quality of fat, whereas there is general emphasis on the quality of fat in current guidelines. The objective of this systematic review (SR) was to assess the evidence of an effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on body weight (BW), risk factors, and risk of non-communicable diseases, that is, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and cancer in healthy subjects or subjects at risk for these diseases. This work was performed in the process of updating the fourth edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations from 2004. The literature search was performed in October 2010 covering articles published since January 2000. A complementary search was done in February 2012 covering literature until December 2011. Two authors independently selected articles for inclusion from a total of about 16,000 abstracts according to predefined criteria. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) and prospective cohort studies (PCS) were included as well as nested case–control studies. A few retrospective case–control studies were also included when limited or no data were available from other study types. Altogether 607 articles were quality graded and the observed effects in these papers were summarized. Convincing evidence was found that partial replacement of saturated fat (SFA) with polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) or monounsaturated fat (MUFA) lowers fasting serum/plasma total and LDL cholesterol concentrations. The evidence was probable for a decreasing effect of fish oil on concentration of serum/plasma total triglycerides as compared with MUFA. Beneficial effect of MUFA both on insulin sensitivity and fasting plasma/serum insulin concentration was considered as probable in comparisons of MUFA and carbohydrates versus SFA, whereas no effect was found on fasting glucose concentration in these comparisons. There was probable evidence for a moderate direct association between total fat intake and BW. Furthermore, there was convincing evidence that partial replacement of SFA with PUFA decreases the risk of CVD, especially in men. This finding was supported by an association with biomarkers of PUFA intake; the evidence of a beneficial effect of dietary total PUFA, n-6 PUFA, and linoleic acid (LA) on CVD mortality was limited suggestive. Evidence for a direct association between total fat intake and risk of T2DM was inconclusive, whereas there was limited-suggestive evidence from biomarker studies that LA is inversely associated with the risk of T2DM. However, there was limited-suggestive evidence in biomarker studies that odd-chain SFA found in milk fat and fish may be inversely related to T2DM, but these associations have not been supported by controlled studies. The evidence for an association between dietary n-3 PUFA and T2DM was inconclusive. Evidence for effects of fat on major types of cancer was inconclusive regarding both the amount and quality of dietary fat, except for prostate cancer where there was limited-suggestive evidence for an inverse association with intake of ALA and for ovarian cancer for which there was limited-suggestive evidence for a positive association with intake of SFA. This SR reviewed a large number of studies focusing on several different health outcomes. The time period covered by the search may not have allowed obtaining the full picture of the evidence in all areas covered by this SR. However, several SRs and meta-analyses that covered studies published before year 2000 were evaluated, which adds confidence to the results. Many of the investigated questions remain unresolved, mainly because of few studies on certain outcomes, conflicting results from studies, and lack of high quality–controlled studies. There is thus an evident need of highly controlled RCT and PCS with sufficient number of subjects and long enough duration, specifically regarding the effects of the amount and quality of diet

Schwab, Ursula; Lauritzen, Lotte; Tholstrup, Tine; Haldorsson, Thorhallur I.; Riserus, Ulf; Uusitupa, Matti; Becker, Wulf

2014-01-01

300

Factors influencing the sensitivity and specificity of conventional sequencing in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tropism testing.  

PubMed

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) V3 loop sequence can be used to infer viral coreceptor use. The effect of input copy number on population-based sequencing of the V3 loop of HIV-1 was examined through replicate deep and population-based sequencing of samples with known tropism, a heterogeneous clinical sample (624 population-based sequences and 47 deep-sequencing replicates), and a large cohort of clinical samples from phase III clinical trials of maraviroc including the MOTIVATE/A4001029 studies (n = 1,521). Proviral DNA from two independent samples from each of 101 patients from the MOTIVATE/A4001029 studies was also analyzed. Cumulative technical error occurred at a rate of 3 × 10(-4) mismatches/bp, without observed effect on inferred tropism. Increasing PCR replication increased minority species detection with an ~10% minority population detected in 18% of cases using a single replicate at a viral load of 1,072 copies/ml and in 44% of cases using three replicates. The nucleotide prevalence detected by population-based and deep sequencing were highly correlated (Spearman's ?, 0.73), and the accuracy increased with increasing input copy number (P < 0.001). Triplicate sequencing was able to predict tropism changes in the MOTIVATE/A4001029 studies for both low (P = 0.05) and high (P = 0.02) viral loads. Sequences derived from independently extracted and processed samples of proviral DNA for the same patient were equivalent to replicates from the same extraction (P = 0.45) and had correlated position-specific scoring matrix scores (Spearman's ?, 0.75; P < 0.001); however, concordance in tropism inference was only 83%. Input copy number and PCR replication are important factors in minority species detection in samples with significant heterogeneity. PMID:23175258

Knapp, David J H F; McGovern, Rachel A; Dong, Winnie; Poon, Art F Y; Swenson, Luke C; Zhong, Xiaoyin; Woods, Conan K; Harrigan, P Richard

2013-02-01

301

Factors Influencing the Sensitivity and Specificity of Conventional Sequencing in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Tropism Testing  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) V3 loop sequence can be used to infer viral coreceptor use. The effect of input copy number on population-based sequencing of the V3 loop of HIV-1 was examined through replicate deep and population-based sequencing of samples with known tropism, a heterogeneous clinical sample (624 population-based sequences and 47 deep-sequencing replicates), and a large cohort of clinical samples from phase III clinical trials of maraviroc including the MOTIVATE/A4001029 studies (n = 1,521). Proviral DNA from two independent samples from each of 101 patients from the MOTIVATE/A4001029 studies was also analyzed. Cumulative technical error occurred at a rate of 3 × 10?4 mismatches/bp, without observed effect on inferred tropism. Increasing PCR replication increased minority species detection with an ?10% minority population detected in 18% of cases using a single replicate at a viral load of 1,072 copies/ml and in 44% of cases using three replicates. The nucleotide prevalence detected by population-based and deep sequencing were highly correlated (Spearman's ?, 0.73), and the accuracy increased with increasing input copy number (P < 0.001). Triplicate sequencing was able to predict tropism changes in the MOTIVATE/A4001029 studies for both low (P = 0.05) and high (P = 0.02) viral loads. Sequences derived from independently extracted and processed samples of proviral DNA for the same patient were equivalent to replicates from the same extraction (P = 0.45) and had correlated position-specific scoring matrix scores (Spearman's ?, 0.75; P ? 0.001); however, concordance in tropism inference was only 83%. Input copy number and PCR replication are important factors in minority species detection in samples with significant heterogeneity. PMID:23175258

Knapp, David J. H. F.; McGovern, Rachel A.; Dong, Winnie; Poon, Art F. Y.; Swenson, Luke C.; Zhong, Xiaoyin; Woods, Conan K.

2013-01-01

302

Heterogeneity in the costs of type 1 diabetes in a developing country: what are the determining factors?  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Regional differences in the clinical care of Type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Brazil have been recently described. This study aimed to estimate the costs of T1D from the public health care system’s perspective across the regions of Brazil and to determine the components that influence these costs. Methods This was a retrospective, cross-sectional and nationwide multicenter study conducted between December 2008 and December 2010 in 28 public clinics in 20 Brazilian cities. The study included 3,180 T1D subjects receiving healthcare from the National Brazilian Healthcare System (NBHCS) with a follow-up of at least one year. The direct medical costs were derived from the costs of medications, supplies, examinations, visits to the center, medical procedures and hospitalizations that occurred during the previous year. Clinical and demographic factors that determined the differences in the cost across four geographic regions (southeast, south, north/northeast and mid-west) were investigated. Results The per capita mean annual direct medical costs of T1D in US$ were 1,466.36, 1,252.83, 1,148.09 and 1,396.30 in southeast, south, north/northeast and mid-west regions, respectively. The costs of T1D in the southeast region were higher compared to south (p < 0.001) and north/northeast regions (p = < 0.001), but not to the mid-west (p = 0.146) region. The frequency of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) was different across the regions as well as the daily number of SMBG, use of insulin pumps or basal or prandial insulin analogs. Age, ethnicity, duration of diabetes, level of care, socioeconomic status and the prevalence of chronic diabetic complications differed among the regions. In a regression model the determinants of the costs were the presence of microvascular diabetes-related complications (p?factors influenced directly the costs of T1D and should be considered for discussing future health policies. PMID:24373627

2013-01-01

303

Relationship among religious coping, psychosocial factors, and quality of life in individuals with type 2 diabetes  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among religious coping, acceptance of diabetes, social support, diabetes management, and quality of life among individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Religious coping, acceptance...

Lager, Julia M.

2009-06-02

304

Risk factors for cognitive decline in older people with type 2 diabetes   

E-print Network

People with type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of age-related cognitive impairment. Previous literature has focused on case-control studies comparing rates of cognitive impairment in patients with and without diabetes. ...

Feinkohl, Insa

2014-07-05

305

Dihydropyrimidinone positive modulation of delta-subunit-containing gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors, including an epilepsy-linked mutant variant.  

PubMed

Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABA(A) receptors) are ligand-gated chloride channels that play a central role in signal transmission within the mammalian central nervous system. Compounds that modulate specific GABA(A) receptor subtypes containing the delta-subunit are scarce but would be valuable research tools and starting points for potential therapeutic agents. Here we report a class of dihydropyrimidinone (DHPM) heterocycles that preferentially potentiate peak currents of recombinant GABA(A) receptor subtypes containing the delta-subunit expressed in HEK293T cells. Using the three-component Biginelli reaction, 13 DHPMs with structural features similar to those of the barbiturate phenobarbital were synthesized; one DHPM used (monastrol) is commercially available. An up to approximately 3-fold increase in the current from recombinant alpha1beta2delta receptors was observed with the DHPM compound JM-II-43A or monastrol when co-applied with saturating GABA concentrations, similar to the current potentiation observed with the nonselective potentiating compounds phenobarbital and tracazolate. No agonist activity was observed for the DHPMs at the concentrations tested. A kinetic model was used in conjunction with dose-dependent measurements to calculate apparent dissociation constant values for JM-II-43A (400 muM) and monastrol (200 microM) at saturating GABA concentrations. We examined recombinant receptors composed of combinations of subunits alpha1, alpha4, alpha5, alpha6, beta2, beta3, gamma2L, and delta with JM-II-43A to demonstrate the preference for potentiation of delta-subunit-containing receptors. Lastly, reduced currents from receptors containing the mutated delta(E177A) subunit, described by Dibbens et al. [(2004) Hum. Mol. Genet. 13, 1315-1319] as a heritable susceptibility allele for generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, are also potentiated by these DHPMs. PMID:20450160

Lewis, Ryan W; Mabry, John; Polisar, Jason G; Eagen, Kyle P; Ganem, Bruce; Hess, George P

2010-06-15

306

Influence of multiple factors on plant local adaptation: soil type and folivore effects in Ruellia nudiflora (Acanthaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different environmental factors can have contrasting effects on the extent of plant local adaptation (LA). Here we evaluate\\u000a the influence of folivory and soil type on LA in Ruellia nudiflora by performing reciprocal transplants at two sites in Yucatan (Mexico) while controlling for soil source and folivory level.\\u000a Soil samples were collected at each site and half of the plants

Ilka Ortegón-Campos; Luis Abdala-Roberts; Víctor Parra-Tabla; J. Carlos Cervera; Denis Marrufo-Zapata; Carlos M. Herrera

307

Deficiency in type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor in mice protects against oxygen-induced lung injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cellular responses to aging and oxidative stress are regulated by type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R). Oxidant injury, which is implicated in the pathophysiology of a number of respiratory diseases, acutely upregulates IGF-1R expression in the lung. This led us to suspect that reduction of IGF-1R levels in lung tissue could prevent deleterious effects of oxygen exposure. METHODS:

Karmene Ahamed; Ralph Epaud; Martin Holzenberger; Monique Bonora; Jean-François Flejou; Julien Puard; Annick Clement; Alexandra Henrion-Caude

2005-01-01

308

Regulation of Postsynaptic Structure and Protein Localization by the Rho-Type Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor dPix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations in dpix were recovered from a large-scale screen in Drosophila for genes that control synaptic structure. dpix encodes dPix, a Rho-type guanine nucleotide exchange factor (RtGEF) homologous to mammalian Pix. Here we show that dPix plays a major role in regulating postsynaptic structure and protein localization at the Drosophila glutamatergic neuromuscular junction. dpix mutations lead to decreased synaptic levels

Dorit Parnas; A. Pejmun Haghighi; Richard D Fetter; Sang W Kim; Corey S Goodman

2001-01-01

309

Increased DNA methylation levels of the insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 gene are associated with type 2 diabetes in Swedish men  

PubMed Central

Background Prospective studies have shown that low levels of circulating insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) are associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we investigated DNA methylation in the IGFBP1 gene to evaluate its changes in relation to serum IGFBP-1 levels in type 2 diabetes. Results A total of 406 Swedish men, including age-matched normal glucose tolerance subjects and type 2 diabetes patients either newly diagnosed or undergoing treatment, were selected from the Stockholm Diabetes Prevention Program. IGFBP1 methylation levels in genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood were analysed by bisulfite pyrosequencing. Serum IGFBP-1 levels were measured by radio-immunoassay. We found that IGFBP1 DNA methylation levels were higher in both newly diagnosed and treated type 2 diabetes patients with a mean diabetes duration of 3 years compared with subjects with normal glucose tolerance (19.8% and 20.2% vs. 16.9%, P?type 2 diabetes patients were lower compared with healthy individuals (18 ?g/l both vs. 24 ?g/l, P?=?0.011, P?type 2 diabetes patients were independent of body mass index. Newly diagnosed patients with a family history of diabetes (FHD) had higher IGFBP1 methylation levels than those without FHD (20.3% vs. 18.6%, P?=?0.017). Conclusions This study provides the first evidence that changes in DNA methylation of the IGFBP1 gene are associated with type 2 diabetes in Swedish men and suggests that increased IGFBP1 DNA methylation and decreased IGFBP-1 serum levels are features of type 2 diabetes with a short duration. PMID:24246027

2013-01-01

310

Incidence of cardiovascular diseases and associated risk factors among subjects with type 2 diabetes – An 11-year follow up study  

PubMed Central

Aims This study was planned to assess the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events over an 11-year period and to identify the associated risk factors that could predict the onset of CVD among subjects with type 2 diabetes. Methods Retrospective data of 249 patients (M:F 149:100) with type 2 diabetes, from a cohort of 7800 patients, attending a tertiary care center for diabetes from January 2000 to December 2011 were retrieved and analyzed for this study. Sociodemographic and habitual risk factors, baseline diabetes duration, HbA1c and time of onset of CVD and its risk factors were collected from case records. Person-years method was used to calculate incident rate of CVD. Binary logistic regression analyses were done to identify predictors associated with CVD and its risk factors. Results Incidence of CVD among subjects with diabetes was 5.6 cases/1000 person-years. Nearly 60% developed hypertension and dyslipidemia or both during the 11-year period. The most common complication was neuropathy (14.4%). Smoking [OR (95%CI)] [9.26 (1.6–54.9)] (p = 0.014) and heavy alcohol consumption [8.7 (1.1–69.8)] (p = 0.04) were significantly associated with CVD. Higher BMI was significantly associated with hypertension and dyslipidemia [2.4 (1.3–4.3)] (p = 0.003). Conclusions Smoking and heavy alcohol consumption were significantly associated with CVD, and increased BMI was significantly associated with hypertension and dyslipidemia among subjects with type 2 diabetes in this study population. These findings emphasize the need for early identification and modification of risk factors associated with CVD events in patients with diabetes. PMID:24581089

Umamahesh, K.; Vigneswari, A.; Surya Thejaswi, G.; Satyavani, K.; Viswanathan, Vijay

2014-01-01

311

Figure S1. Growth of the wild-type and agr mutant over time. This includes the 48 h data point shown in Fig. 1a. We grew the wild-type() and agr mutant() in  

E-print Network

. Expression of agr-dependent QS in Galleria mellonella. An RN6390B agr reporter strain was inoculated curves for Galleria infected with either the RN6390B wild type (), the agr mutant (), 96%agr (), 78.3%agr

West, Stuart

312

The Effects of 12 Weeks Regular Aerobic Exercise on Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor and Inflammatory Factors in Juvenile Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 12 weeks regular aerobic exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory factors in juvenile obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Obesity and T2DM, typically common among adults, have recently become more prevalent in the Korean juvenile population, affecting not only their lipid profiles and oxidant stress levels, but also their BDNF and inflammatory factor levels. [Subjects] This study enrolled 26 juveniles (boys = 15, girls = 9) who were assigned to a control group (CG, n = 11), obesity group (OG, n = 8), or T2DM group (TG, n = 7). [Methods] The outcome of a 40–60-minute aerobic exercise session that took place three times per week for 12 weeks at a maximum oxygen intake (VO2max) of 50~60% was investigated. [Results] The exercise resulted in a significant reduction in the resting serum BDNF and TrkB levels (baseline) among juveniles in the OG and TG as compared to those in the CG. Additionally, the 12 weeks of regular aerobic exercise led to significant reductions in body weight, body fat percentage, and body mass index in the OG and a significant increase of VO2max in the OG and TG. However, no significant differences in serum NGF or inflammatory factors were found among the three groups. There was a significant increase in resting serum BDNF levels following the 12 weeks regular exercise only in the OG. [Conclusion] While 12 weeks of regular aerobic exercise had a positive effect on body composition, and increased BDNF levels of juveniles in the OG, it did not affect the inflammatory factor levels and had no effect on the TG. PMID:25202180

Lee, Sung Soo; Yoo, Jae Ho; Kang, Sung; Woo, Jin Hee; Shin, Ki Ok; Kim, Kwi Beak; Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae; Kim, Young Il

2014-01-01

313

A Factor-Analytic Investigation of Role Types and Profiles of Higher Education Department Chairs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a study that investigated the role, attitudes, and behaviors of department chairs in higher education. Specifically, the study investigated four objectives: (1) to examine role factors of effective chair performance; (2) to assess the impact of antecedent variables such as individual characteristics (gender, marital status,…

Carroll, James B.; Gmelch, Walter H.

314

STAT3 transcription factor is constitutively activated and is oncogenic in nasal-type NK/T-cell lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Nasal-type natural killer (NK) cell lymphoma is an infrequent aggressive malignant disease with very poor prognosis. We aimed to explore the possible role of the transcription factor STAT3 in the pathophysiology of this malignancy, as it was involved in oncogenesis and chemoresistance. For this, we established and characterized a continuous interleukin 2-dependent NK cell line (MEC04) from a patient with a fatal nasal-type NK cell lymphoma. Cells harbored poor cytotoxic activity against K562 cells, and spontaneously secreted interferon-?, IL-10 and vascular-endothelium growth factor in vitro. STAT3 was phosphorylated in Y705 dimerization residue in MEC04 cells and restricted to the nucleus. Y705 STAT3 phosphorylation involved JAK2, since exposure of cells to AG490 inhibitor inhibited Y705 STAT3 phosphorylation. By using recombinant transducible TAT-STAT3? (?isoform), TAT-STAT3Y705F (a STAT3 protein mutated on Y705 residue which prevents STAT3 dimerization), and peptides inhibiting specifically STAT3 dimerization, we inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation and cell growth, with cell death induction. Finally, STAT3 was phosphorylated in Y705 residue in the nuclei of lymphoma cells in 8/9 patients with nasal-type NK/T cell lymphoma and in YT, another NK cell line. Our results suggest that STAT3 protein has a major role in the oncogenic process of nasal-type NK cell lymphomas, and may represent a promising therapeutical target. PMID:19421230

Coppo, Paul; Gouilleux-Gruart, Valérie; Huang, Yenlin; Bouhlal, Hicham; Bouamar, Hakim; Bouchet, Sandrine; Perrot, Christine; Vieillard, Vincent; Dartigues, Peggy; Gaulard, Philippe; Agbalika, Félix; Douay, Luc; Lassoued, Kaiss; Gorin, Norbert-Claude

2009-01-01

315

Risk of skin and soft tissue infections (including shingles) in patients exposed to anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy: results from the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register  

PubMed Central

Introduction Anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapy is a mainstay of treatment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In 2001, BSRBR was established to evaluate the safety of these agents. This paper addresses the safety of anti-TNF therapy in RA with specific reference to serious skin and soft tissue infections (SSSI) and shingles. Methods A cohort of anti-TNF-treated patients was recruited alongside a comparator group with active RA treated with non-biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (nbDMARD). 11 881 anti-TNF and 3673 nbDMARD patients were analysed. Follow-up was by 6-monthly questionnaires to patients and clinicians. Analyses considered SSSI and shingles separately. Incidence rates (IR) were calculated and then compared using survival analyses. Results The crude IR for SSSI were: anti-TNF 1.6/100 patient-years (95% CI 1.4 to 1.8); nbDMARD 0.7/100 patient-years (95% CI 0.5 to 1.0) and shingles: anti-TNF 1.6/100 patient-years (95% CI 1.3 to 2.0); nbDMARD 0.8/100 patient-years (95% CI 0.6 to 1.1). Adjusted HR were SSSI 1.4 (95% CI 0.9 to 2.4), shingles 1.8 (95% CI 1.2 to 2.8). For SSSI, no significant differences were seen between anti-TNF agents. For shingles, the lowest risk was observed for adalimumab (adjusted HR vs nbDMARD) 1.5 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.0) and highest for infliximab (HR 2.2; 95% CI 1.4 to 3.4)). Conclusion A significantly increased risk of shingles was observed in the anti-TNF-treated cohort. The risk of SSSI tended towards being greater with anti-TNF treatment but was not statistically significant. As with any observational dataset cause and effect cannot be established with certainty as residual confounding may remain. This finding would support the evaluation of zoster vaccination in this population. PMID:22532633

Galloway, James B; Mercer, Louise K; Moseley, Alison; Dixon, William G; Ustianowski, Andrew P; Helbert, Matthew; Watson, Kath D; Lunt, Mark; Hyrich, Kimme L; Symmons, Deborah PM

2013-01-01

316

Race and Type of Death as Factors in the Experience of Bereavement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research suggests that circumstances surrounding the death of a loved one and the characteristics of the survivor may affect the grief reaction. To investigate the effect of race and type of death (sudden or anticipated) on the bereavement experience, a true-false questionnaire and the Grief Experience Inventory were administered to 74…

Prouty, Beth N.; Mauger, Paul A.

317

Congestive Heart Failure in Type 2 Diabetes Prevalence, incidence, and risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

CHF. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS — We searched the inpatient and outpatient electronic medical records of 9,591 individuals diagnosed with type 2 diabetes before 1 January 1997 and those of an age- and sex-matched control group without diabetes for a diagnosis of CHF. Among those without a baseline diagnosis of CHF, we searched forward for 30 months for incident cases

GREGORY A. NICHOLS; TERESA A. HILLIER; JOHN R. ERBEY; JONATHAN B. BROWN

318

Metabolic factors, adipose tissue, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels in Type 2 diabetes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) production by adipose tissue is increased in obesity, and its circulating levels are high in type 2 diabetes. PAI-1 increases cardiovascular risk by favoring clot stability, interfering with vascular remodeling, or both. We investigated in obese diabetic per...

319

A Higher Order Analysis of the Factor Structure of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the higher order structure of Form G of the Myers Briggs Type Indicator. A third order component analysis of a sample (N=926) found two higher order components. This higher order analysis contributes to the research literature pertaining to the generalized structure of the personality measure. (Contains 44 references and 1 table.) (GCP)

Johnson, William L.; Mauzey, Edward; Johnson, Annabel M.; Murphy, Stanley D.; Zimmerman, Kurt J.

2001-01-01

320

Interplay Between Viral and Cellular Factors Determines the Fate of Herpes Simplex Virus type I Infection  

E-print Network

The herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) is a major human pathogen that infects the majority of the world's population. The life cycle of HSV-1 is controlled by interactions with its hosts. Understanding virus-host interactions will be necessary...

Mabrouk-Mostafa, Heba

2014-05-31

321

Type I Diabetes Mellitus: Genetic Factors and Presumptive Enteroviral Etiology or Protection  

PubMed Central

We review type 1 diabetes and host genetic components, as well as epigenetics and viruses associated with type 1 diabetes, with added emphasis on the enteroviruses, which are often associated with triggering the disease. Genus Enterovirus is classified into twelve species of which seven (Enterovirus A, Enterovirus B, Enterovirus C, and Enterovirus D and Rhinovirus A, Rhinovirus B, and Rhinovirus C) are human pathogens. These viruses are transmitted mainly by the fecal-oral route; they may also spread via the nasopharyngeal route. Enterovirus infections are highly prevalent, but these infections are usually subclinical or cause a mild flu-like illness. However, infections caused by enteroviruses can sometimes be serious, with manifestations of meningoencephalitis, paralysis, myocarditis, and in neonates a fulminant sepsis-like syndrome. These viruses are often implicated in chronic (inflammatory) diseases as chronic myocarditis, chronic pancreatitis, and type 1 diabetes. In this review we discuss the currently suggested mechanisms involved in the viral induction of type 1 diabetes. We recapitulate current basic knowledge and definitions. PMID:25574400

Precechtelova, Jana; Borsanyiova, Maria; Sarmirova, Sona

2014-01-01

322

Strigolactone Biosynthesis in Medicago truncatula and Rice Requires the Symbiotic GRAS-Type Transcription Factors NSP1 and NSP2[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Legume GRAS (GAI, RGA, SCR)-type transcription factors NODULATION SIGNALING PATHWAY1 (NSP1) and NSP2 are essential for rhizobium Nod factor-induced nodulation. Both proteins are considered to be Nod factor response factors regulating gene expression after symbiotic signaling. However, legume NSP1 and NSP2 can be functionally replaced by nonlegume orthologs, including rice (Oryza sativa) NSP1 and NSP2, indicating that both proteins are functionally conserved in higher plants. Here, we show that NSP1 and NSP2 are indispensable for strigolactone (SL) biosynthesis in the legume Medicago truncatula and in rice. Mutant nsp1 plants do not produce SLs, whereas in M. truncatula, NSP2 is essential for conversion of orobanchol into didehydro-orobanchol, which is the main SL produced by this species. The disturbed SL biosynthesis in nsp1 nsp2 mutant backgrounds correlates with reduced expression of DWARF27, a gene essential for SL biosynthesis. Rice and M. truncatula represent distinct phylogenetic lineages that split approximately 150 million years ago. Therefore, we conclude that regulation of SL biosynthesis by NSP1 and NSP2 is an ancestral function conserved in higher plants. NSP1 and NSP2 are single-copy genes in legumes, which implies that both proteins fulfill dual regulatory functions to control downstream targets after rhizobium-induced signaling as well as SL biosynthesis in nonsymbiotic conditions. PMID:22039214

Liu, Wei; Kohlen, Wouter; Lillo, Alessandra; Op den Camp, Rik; Ivanov, Sergey; Hartog, Marijke; Limpens, Erik; Jamil, Muhammad; Smaczniak, Cezary; Kaufmann, Kerstin; Yang, Wei-Cai; Hooiveld, Guido J.E.J.; Charnikhova, Tatsiana; Bouwmeester, Harro J.; Bisseling, Ton; Geurts, René

2011-01-01

323

Large Thermoelectric Power Factor in P-type Si (110)/[110] Ultra-Thin-Layers Compared to Differently Oriented Channels  

E-print Network

1 Large Thermoelectric Power Factor in P-type Si (110)/[110] Ultra-Thin-Layers Compared the thermoelectric power factor of ultra-thin-body p-type Si layers of thicknesses from W=3nm up to 10nm. We show improvement in 2D thin- layers of zincblende semiconductors. Keywords: low-dimensional thermoelectrics

324

Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Isolation of Escherichia coli Producing CTX-M-Type Extended-Spectrum ?-Lactamase in a Large U.S. Medical Center  

PubMed Central

A case-case-control study was conducted to identify independent risk factors for recovery of Escherichia coli strains producing CTX-M-type extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (CTX-M E. coli) within a large Southeastern Michigan medical center. Unique cases with isolation of ESBL-producing E. coli from February 2010 through July 2011 were analyzed by PCR for blaCTX-M, blaTEM, and blaSHV genes. Patients with CTX-M E. coli were compared to patients with E. coli strains not producing CTX-M-type ESBLs (non-CTX-M E. coli) and uninfected controls. Of 575 patients with ESBL-producing E. coli, 491 (85.4%) isolates contained a CTX-M ESBL gene. A total of 319 (84.6%) patients with CTX-M E. coli (282 [74.8%] CTX-M-15 type) were compared to 58 (15.4%) non-CTX-M E. coli patients and to uninfected controls. Independent risk factors for CTX-M E. coli isolation compared to non-CTX-M E. coli included male gender, impaired consciousness, H2 blocker use, immunosuppression, and exposure to penicillins and/or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Compared to uninfected controls, independent risk factors for isolation of CTX-M E. coli included presence of a urinary catheter, previous urinary tract infection, exposure to oxyimino-cephalosporins, dependent functional status, non-home residence, and multiple comorbid conditions. Within 48 h of admission, community-acquired CTX-M E. coli (n = 51 [16%]) and non-CTX-M E coli (n = 11 [19%]) strains were isolated from patients with no recent health care contacts. CTX-M E. coli strains were more resistant to multiple antibiotics than non-CTX-M E. coli strains. CTX-M-encoding genes, especially blaCTX-M-15 type, represented the most common ESBL determinants from ESBL-producing E. coli, the majority of which were present upon admission. Septic patients with risk factors for isolation of CTX-M E. coli should be empirically treated with appropriate agents. Regional infection control efforts and judicious antibiotic use are needed to control the spread of these organisms. PMID:23752516

Gattu, Sureka; Marchaim, Dror; Bhargava, Ashish; Palla, Mohan; Alshabani, Khaled; Gudur, Uma Mahesh; Pulluru, Harish; Bathina, Pradeep; Sundaragiri, Pranathi Rao; Sarkar, Moumita; Kakarlapudi, Hari; Ramasamy, Balaji; Nanjireddy, Priyanka; Mohin, Shah; Dasagi, Meenakshi; Datla, Satya; Kuchipudi, Vamsi; Reddy, Swetha; Shahani, Shobha; Upputuri, Vijaya; Marrey, Satya; Gannamani, Vedavyas; Madhanagopal, Nandhini; Annangi, Srinadh; Sudha, Busani; Muppavarapu, Kalyan Srinivas; Moshos, Judy A.; Lephart, Paul R.; Pogue, Jason M.; Bush, Karen; Kaye, Keith S.

2013-01-01

325

Mutations in VKORC1 cause warfarin resistance and multiple coagulation factor deficiency type 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coumarin derivatives such as warfarin represent the therapy of choice for the long-term treatment and prevention of thromboembolic events. Coumarins target blood coagulation by inhibiting the vitamin K epoxide reductase multiprotein complex (VKOR). This complex recycles vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to vitamin K hydroquinone, a cofactor that is essential for the post-translational gamma-carboxylation of several blood coagulation factors. Despite extensive efforts,

Simone Rost; Andreas Fregin; Vytautas Ivaskevicius; Ernst Conzelmann; Konstanze Hörtnagel; Hans-Joachim Pelz; Knut Lappegard; Erhard Seifried; Inge Scharrer; Edward G. D. Tuddenham; Clemens R. Müller; Tim M. Strom; Johannes Oldenburg

2004-01-01

326

Fluoride Affects Calcium Homeostasis and Osteogenic Transcription Factor Expressions Through L-type Calcium Channels in Osteoblast Cell Line.  

PubMed

Osteoblast L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCC) play important roles in maintaining intracellular homeostasis and influencing multiple cellular processes. In particular, they contribute to the activities and functions of osteoblasts (OBs). In order to study how L-type VDCC modulate calcium ion (Ca(2+)) homeostasis and the expression of osteogenic transcription factors in OBs exposed to fluoride, MC3T3-E1 cells were exposed to a gradient of concentrations of fluoride (0, 2.0, 5.0, 10.0 mg/L) in combination with 10 ?M nifedipine, a specific inhibitor of VDCC, for 48 h. We examined messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of Cav1.2, the main subunit of VDCC, and c-fos, c-jun, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osterix (OSX), and intracellular free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) concentrations in MC3T3-E1 cells. Our results showed that [Ca(2+)]i levels increased in a dose-dependent manner with increase in concentration of fluoride. Meantime, results indicated that lower concentrations of fluoride (less than 5 mg/L, especially 2 mg/L) can lead to high expression of Cav1.2 and enhance osteogenic function, while high concentration of fluoride (10 mg/L) can induce decreased Cav1.2 and osteogenic transcriptional factors in MC3T3E1 cells exposed to fluoride. However, the levels of [Ca(2+)]i, Cav1.2, c-fos, c-jun, Runx2, and OSX induced by fluoride were significantly altered and even reversed in the presence of nifedipine. These results demonstrate that L-type calcium channels play a crucial role in Ca(2+) homeostasis and they affect the expression of osteogenic transcription factors in fluoride-treated osteoblasts. PMID:25201340

Duan, Xiao-Qin; Zhao, Zhi-Tao; Zhang, Xiu-Yun; Wang, Ying; Wang, Huan; Liu, Da-Wei; Li, Guang-Sheng; Jing, Ling

2014-12-01

327

New challenges in dietary pattern analysis: combined dietary patterns and calorie adjusted factor analysis in type 2 diabetic patients  

PubMed Central

Background Some variability for dietary pattern analysis due to subjective procedures (e.g. arbitrary food categorization and number of factors extraction) was reported. The aim of this study was to present or design a new approach to challenge the conventional dietary pattern analysis through new classification of dietary patterns according to the possibility of the high adherence to more than one dietary pattern and calorie adjusted factor extracting. Methods This cross-sectional study conducted on 734 type2 diabetic patients. Factor analysis defined three major dietary patterns (Western like, Asian like and Traditional like) and the associations of each pattern were assessed with glycemic control and lipid profiles among tertiles of each pattern. In order to compare variables in highest tertile of three defined dietary patterns, eight new different groups were classified according to the high adherence to one or more patterns and ANOVA and ANCOVA were used to compare them. Also, calorie adjusted factor extracting were done to find out if the same factor loadings would be extract. Results Among three major dietary patterns, only Western like showed a significant association with fasting blood sugar (p?=?0.03, 12.49?±?5.99), serum total cholesterol (p?=?0.02, 8.71?±?3.81) and LDL cholesterol (p?=?0.04, 5.04?±?2.40). While comparison of new classified patterns, showed no significant differences, except a high blood glucose in Western like- Asian like versus traditional like dietary pattern (p?=?0.04). Also, calorie adjusted factor extracting showed different factor loadings. Conclusions Results showed that the conventional dietary pattern analysis method may have substantial limitations in interpreting the results and may lead to inappropriate conclusions. PMID:25032128

2014-01-01

328

Human herpesvirus 8-encoded vGPCR activates nuclear factor of activated T cells and collaborates with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat.  

PubMed

Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), the etiologic agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), encodes a chemokine receptor homologue, the viral G protein-coupled receptor (vGPCR), that has been implicated in KS pathogenesis. Expression of vGPCR constitutively activates several signaling pathways, including NF-kappa B, and induces the expression of proinflammatory and angiogenic factors, consistent with the inflammatory hyperproliferative nature of KS lesions. Here we show that vGPCR also constitutively activates the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF-AT), another transcription factor important in regulation of the expression of inflammatory cytokines and related factors. NF-AT activation by vGPCR depended upon signaling through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt-glycogen synthetase kinase 3 (PI3-K/Akt/GSK-3) pathway and resulted in increased expression of NF-AT-dependent cell surface molecules (CD25, CD29, Fas ligand), proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-2 [IL-2], IL-4), and proangiogenic factors (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor GMCSF and TNF alpha). vGPCR expression also increased endothelial cell-T-cell adhesion. Although infection with HHV-8 is necessary to cause KS, coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), in the absence of antiretroviral suppressive therapy, increases the risk of KS by many orders of magnitude. NF-AT and NF-kappa B activation by vGPCR was greatly increased by the HIV-1 Tat protein, although Tat alone had little effect on NF-AT. The enhancement of NF-AT by Tat appears to be mediated through collaborative stimulation of the PI3-K/Akt/GSK-3 pathway by vGPCR and Tat. Our data further support the idea that vGPCR contributes to the pathogenesis of KS by a paracrine mechanism and, in addition, provide the first evidence of collaboration between an HIV-1 protein and an HHV-8 protein. PMID:12719569

Pati, Shibani; Foulke, James S; Barabitskaya, Oxana; Kim, Jynho; Nair, B C; Hone, David; Smart, Jennifer; Feldman, Ricardo A; Reitz, Marvin

2003-05-01

329

Factors affecting salamander density and distribution within four forest types in the Southern Appalachian Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used a terrestrial vacuum to sample known area plots in order to obtain density estimates of salamanders and their primary prey, invertebrates of the forest floor. We sampled leaf litter and measured various vegetative and topographic parameters within four forest types (oak–pine, oak–hickory, mixed mesophytic and northern hardwoods) and three age classes (0–12, 13–39, and ?40 years) over two

Craig A Harper; David C Guynn

1999-01-01

330

Factors influencing plant succession following fire in Ashe juniper woodland types in Real County, Texas  

E-print Network

Germination 10 12 12 PHYSIOGRAPHIC TYPES J ND THETR "EG "TATION Divide Flintrock Divide Divide Hsrgin Slopes Steep Rocky Slopes Outlying Foothills Hill Toi!s Valley Stream Channel Age Analysis of Ashe Juniper SUCCESSIONAL i'ATTaRNS FOLLOMIUG... as related to degree of slope. 72 LIST OF FIGS!KS Figure Page Apparatus for recording temperatures during fire in tests of fire-induced gemination. 13 Threeawn litter burning in a flat in test of i'ire in- duced germination...

Huss, Donald Lee

1954-01-01

331

Expression of type I, but not type II insulin-like growth factor receptor on both undifferentiated and differentiated HT29 human colon carcinoma cell line.  

PubMed

The HT29 human colonic carcinoma cell line secretes insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II. We have examined these cells for expression of IGF receptors. Competitive binding assays as affinity cross-linking experiments using 125I-IGF-II fail to reveal type II IGF receptors at the cell surface. In contrast, cross-linking studies with either 125I-IGF-I or 125I-IGF-II reveal an M(r) 135,000 protein that follows a peptide binding specificity characteristic of the alpha-subunit of the type I IGF receptor. However, 125I-IGF-II binding to this receptor is not inhibited at 4 C by alpha IR-3, a monoclonal antibody to the type I IGF receptor. Analysis of the competitive binding curves with each one of these radioligands suggests that HT29 cells express both a classical type I IGF receptor (about 6,000/cell; KdIGF-I = 0.48 nmol) and a variant one whose 125I-IGF-II binding is not blocked by alpha IR-3 (about 15,000/cell; KdIGF-II = 4.0 nmol). Endocytosis studies of specific cell-bound 125I-IGF-I or 125I-IGF-II suggest that ligand interaction with the classical, but not the variant, binding site is only able to induce receptor internalization. An identical IGF receptors pattern is observed with HT29-D4 clonal cells induced to differentiate by culture in a glucose-free medium. PMID:1322432

Remacle-Bonnet, M M; Culouscou, J M; Garrouste, F L; Rabenandrasana, C; Marvaldi, J L; Pommier, G J

1992-08-01

332

Monogenic diabetes mellitus includes a heterogeneous group of diabetes types that are caused by mutations in single genes. It is estimated that the monogenic forms of diabetes could represent as much as 12% of all cases  

E-print Network

3/13 Monogenic diabetes mellitus includes a heterogeneous group of diabetes types that are caused by mutations in single genes. It is estimated that the monogenic forms of diabetes could represent as much as 1­2% of all cases of diabetes mellitus (1). The main phenotypes suggestive of an underlying monogenic cause

Das, Soma

333

GEOL 103 Writing Assignment 2. Rock Cycle 1. How do each of the three major rock types form? Include the source of the material and the rock-forming  

E-print Network

GEOL 103 Writing Assignment 2. Rock Cycle 1. How do each of the three major rock types form? Include the source of the material and the rock-forming process. · Igneous rocks form from the hi-temperature (650-1200 °C) melting of other rocks (ign. mmorphic, or sed), following by cooling, possibly

Kirby, Carl S.

334

Energetic factors determining the binding of type I inhibitors to c-Met kinase: experimental studies and quantum mechanical calculations  

PubMed Central

Aim: To decipher the molecular interactions between c-Met and its type I inhibitors and to facilitate the design of novel c-Met inhibitors. Methods: Based on the prototype model inhibitor 1, four ligands with subtle differences in the fused aromatic rings were synthesized. Quantum chemistry was employed to calculate the binding free energy for each ligand. Symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) was used to decompose the binding energy into several fundamental forces to elucidate the determinant factors. Results: Binding free energies calculated from quantum chemistry were correlated well with experimental data. SAPT calculations showed that the predominant driving force for binding was derived from a sandwich ?–? interaction with Tyr-1230. Arg-1208 was the differentiating factor, interacting with the 6-position of the fused aromatic ring system through the backbone carbonyl with a force pattern similar to hydrogen bonding. Therefore, a hydrogen atom must be attached at the 6-position, and changing the carbon atom to nitrogen caused unfavorable electrostatic interactions. Conclusion: The theoretical studies have elucidated the determinant factors involved in the binding of type I inhibitors to c-Met. PMID:24056705

Yu, Zhe; Ma, Yu-chi; Ai, Jing; Chen, Dan-qi; Zhao, Dong-mei; Wang, Xin; Chen, Yue-lei; Geng, Mei-yu; Xiong, Bing; Cheng, Mao-sheng; Shen, Jing-kang

2013-01-01

335

Role of resection for Bismuth type IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma and analysis of determining factors for curative resection  

PubMed Central

Purpose Extended liver resection may provide long-term survival in selected patients with Bismuth type IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA). The purpose of this study was to identify anatomical factors that predict curative-intended resection. Methods Thirty-three of 159 patients with Bismuth type IV HCCA underwent major hepato-biliary resection with curative intent (CIR) between 2000 and 2010. Disease extent and anatomical variations were analyzed as factors enabling CIR. Results CIR ratio with hilar trifurcation bile duct variation (13/16) was significantly higher than that with other bile duct variation types (18/25). Hilum to left second bile duct confluence and tumor infiltration over left second bile duct confluence lengths in right-sided CIR were significantly shorter than those lengths in left-sided CIR (10.8 ± 4.9 and 2.7 ± 0.8 mm vs. 16.5 ± 8.4 and 7.0 ± 5.3 mm, respectively). Left-sided CIR patients had a marginally higher proportion of tumors invading ?5 mm over the right second confluence than that in right-sided CIR patients (13/17 vs. 6/16; P = 0.061). The 3-year survival rate after CIR (28%) was significantly higher than after non-CIR (6.1%). Conclusion We recommend the criteria of CIR as bile duct variation type, length of hilum to contralateral second bile duct confluence, and extent of tumor infiltration over the second confluence for Bismuth type IV HCCA. PMID:25114888

Han, In Woong; Kang, Mee Joo; Kwon, Wooil; Park, Jae Woo; Chang, Ye Rim; Kim, Sun-Whe

2014-01-01

336

Lifestyle Factors Associated with Type 2 Diabetes and Use of Different Glucose-Lowering Drugs: Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Aims To examine the lifestyle profile among persons with and without Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and among users of different glucose-lowering drugs. Methods We used questionnaire data from a Danish health survey and identified presence of Type 2 DM and use of medications through medical databases. We calculated age- and gender-standardized prevalence ratios (PRs) of lifestyle factors according to Type 2 DM and different glucose-lowering drugs. Results Of 21,637 survey participants aged 25–79 years, 680 (3%) had Type 2 DM (median age 63 years) with a median diabetes duration of 5 years. Participants with Type 2 DM had a substantially higher prevalence of obesity (36% vs. 13%, PR: 3.1, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.8–3.6), yet more reported to eat a very healthy diet (25% vs. 21%, PR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0–1.4) and to exercise regularly (67% vs. 53%, PR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.2–1.4). Also, fewer were current smokers or had high alcohol intake. When compared with metformin users, obesity was substantially less prevalent in users of sulfonylurea (PR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.4–0-8), and insulin and analogues (PR: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.3–0.7). Tobacco smoking was more prevalent in sulfonylurea users (PR: 1.4, 95% CI: 0.9–2.1) compared with metformin users. We found no material differences in physical exercise, diet or alcohol intake according to type of glucose-lowering drug. Conclusions Type 2 DM patients are substantially more obese than other individuals, but otherwise report to have a healthier lifestyle. Metformin use is strongly associated with obesity, whereas sulfonylurea use tends to be associated with tobacco smoking. PMID:25369331

Ulrichsen, Sinna P.; Mor, Anil; Svensson, Elisabeth; Larsen, Finn B.; Thomsen, Reimar W.

2014-01-01

337

Herpes simplex virus type 1-encoded glycoprotein C contributes to direct coagulation Factor X–virus binding  

PubMed Central

The HSV1 (herpes simplex virus type 1) surface has been shown recently to initiate blood coagulation by FVIIa (activated Factor VII)-dependent proteolytic activation of FX (Factor X). At least two types of direct FX–HSV1 interactions were suggested by observing that host cell-encoded tissue factor and virus-encoded gC (glycoprotein C) independently enhance FVIIa function on the virus. Using differential sedimentation to separate bound from free 125I-ligand, we report in the present study that, in the presence of Ca2+, FX binds directly to purified wild-type HSV1 with an apparent dissociation constant (Kd) of 1.5±0.4 ?M and 206±24 sites per virus at saturation. The number of FX-binding sites on gC-deficient virus was reduced to 43±5, and the remaining binding had a lower Kd (0.7±0.2 ?M), demonstrating an involvement of gC. Engineering gC back into the deficient strain or addition of a truncated soluble recombinant form of gC (sgC), increased the Kd and the number of binding sites. Consistent with a gC/FX stoichiometry of approximately 1:1, 121±6 125I-sgC molecules were found to bind per wild-type HSV1. In the absence of Ca2+, the number of FX-binding sites on the wild-type virus was similar to the gC-deficient strain in the presence of Ca2+. Furthermore, in the absence of Ca2+, direct sgC binding to HSV1 was insignificant, although sgC was observed to inhibit the FX–virus association, suggesting a Ca2+-independent solution-phase FX–sgC interaction. Cumulatively, these data demonstrate that gC constitutes one type of direct FX–HSV1 interaction, possibly providing a molecular basis for clinical correlations between recurrent infection and vascular pathology. PMID:16212554

Livingston, Joel R.; Sutherland, Michael R.; Friedman, Harvey M.; Pryzdial, Edward L. G.

2005-01-01

338

Prevalence of Osteoporosis and Its Associated Factors among Older Men with Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the prevalence of osteoporosis and its associated factors in old men with T2DM to identify risk factors for low BMD. We enrolled 93 old men (?60 years of age) with T2DM and 125 healthy old men (controls) and collected data of their lifestyle, medical history, bone densitometry, body weight, height, and blood pressure. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analyses. Urine samples were collected to determine 24?h urinary creatinine, albumin, and protein. Although no differences in age, blood pressure, waist-to-hip ratio, body mass index (BMI), and testosterone levels were observed, the prevalence of low BMD was significantly higher in the T2DM group compared to the control group. The risk of developing low BMD and fracture in T2DM subjects was increased by 46- and 26-fold, respectively, compared to control subjects. BMD of total spine and hip was positively correlated with BMI and negatively correlated with age, duration of diabetes, creatinine, and 24?h urinary albumin. So old men with T2DM have a greater risk of developing low BMD than old men without T2DM. PMID:23401682

Chen, Hai-ling; Deng, Li-li; Li, Ju-fen

2013-01-01

339

Immunologic and biochemical factors of coincident celiac disease and type 1 diabetes mellitus in children.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to investigate whether immunologic and biochemical events occurring in the course of type 1 diabetes mellitus might play a role in the development of the celiac disease. The study was carried out on 223 children with long-standing diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1). All the patients had TSH, fT4, fT3, urinary albumin secretion rate, IgA, level of antigliadin antibodies (AGA) IgA and IgG, antitissue transglutaminase IgA antibodies, antiendomysium (EmA) IgA and IgG antibodies and antitireoglobulin antibodies, antithyroid peroxidase antibodies evaluated. Serum TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-10 levels were also measured. The group of children with coincident DM1 and celiac disease and without autoimmune thyroiditis was characterized by significantly higher glycosylated hemoglobin, higher serum TNF-alpha, IL-6 but lower serum IL-10 in relation to the remaining diabetic patients. A statistically significant positive correlation was observed between IgA-anti-tTG and serum TNF-alpha (R = 0.28, p = 0.026); between IgG AGA and serum IL-6 (R = 0.31, p = 0.023); and between glycosylated hemoglobin and IgA-anti-tTG (R = 0.21, p = 0.001) and IgA antiendomysium (R = 0.22, p = 0.001). Poor metabolic control, persistent elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines, and decreased level of antiinflammatory cytokines occurring in the course of type 1 diabetes mellitus might influence the incidence of celiac disease. PMID:18679158

My?liwiec, Ma?gorzata; Balcerska, Anna; Zorena, Katarzyna; My?liwska, Jolanta; Wi?niewski, Piotr

2008-12-01

340

Tumor necrosis factor receptor I from patients with tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome interacts with wild-type tumor necrosis factor receptor I and induces ligand-independent NF-?B activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To investigate the molecular conse- quences of expressing mutated forms of tumor necrosis factor receptor I (TNFRI) as found in patients with TNFR-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS). Methods. We cloned and expressed full-length wild-type (WT) and T50K and P46L variants of TNFRI using a new tightly regulated doxycycline-dependent expression system. This system enabled the study of molecular interactions between these

Nasim Yousaf; David J. Gould; Ebun Aganna; Linda Hammond; Rita M. Mirakian; Mark D. Turner; Graham A. Hitman; Michael F. McDermott; Yuti Chernajovsky

2005-01-01

341

Phosphorylation factors control neurotransmitter and neuromodulator actions at the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor.  

PubMed

Whole-cell and patch-voltage clamp experiments were carried out on cultured chick spinal cord neurons to investigate the dependence of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor function on intracellular phosphorylation factors. Without ATP in the intracellular solution, repeated application of 30 microM GABA results in a progressive decline (run-down) of the currents evoked by GABA in standard whole-cell recordings but not when the nystatin-perforated patch method is used. Run-down is also observed in outside-out excised patch recordings, indicating that any enzymatic factors required for run-down must be closely associated with the plasma membrane. Run-down is associated with decreases in both the maximum GABA-induced current and the GABA EC50. Inclusion of magnesium adenosine-5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate in the intracellular buffer prevents the decline in the maximum GABA response but the GABA EC50 still decreases, resulting in a "run-up" of the response at low (3 microM) GABA concentrations. Run-down is use dependent, requiring repeated activation of the GABAA receptor by high (30 microM) GABA concentrations. However, use-independent run-down can be induced by the inclusion of alkaline phosphatase in the intracellular buffer. The response to 3 microM GABA does not normally run down, but run-down is observed when the response to 3 microM GABA is potentiated with pentobarbital or allopregnanolone, suggesting that run-down is consequence of GABA receptor activation and/or desensitization. Run-down of the potentiated GABA response can be prevented by addition of magnesium adenosine-5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate to the intracellular solution. Strikingly, run-down results in a significant decrease in the potentiating effects of positive modulators, whereas the inhibitory effects of negative modulators such as pregnenolone sulfate and ZnCl2 are unchanged. The results demonstrate that phosphorylation factors have the capacity to control GABAA receptor pharmacology, affecting the potency and efficacy of GABA, the kinetics of GABAA receptor desensitization, and the sensitivity of the receptor to modulators such as steroids, benzodiazepines, and barbiturates. PMID:7935336

Gyenes, M; Wang, Q; Gibbs, T T; Farb, D H

1994-09-01

342

Expression of collagen and related growth factors in rat tendon and skeletal muscle in response to specific contraction types  

PubMed Central

Acute exercise induces collagen synthesis in both tendon and muscle, indicating an adaptive response in the connective tissue of the muscle–tendon unit. However, the mechanisms of this adaptation, potentially involving collagen-inducing growth factors (such as transforming growth factor-?-1 (TGF-?-1)), as well as enzymes related to collagen processing, are not clear. Furthermore, possible differential effects of specific contraction types on collagen regulation have not been investigated. Female Sprague–Dawley rats were subjected to 4 days of concentric, eccentric or isometric training (n = 7–9 per group) of the medial gastrocnemius, by stimulation of the sciatic nerve. RNA was extracted from medial gastrocnemius and Achilles tendon tissue 24 h after the last training bout, and mRNA levels for collagens I and III, TGF-?-1, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), lysyl oxidase (LOX), metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and -9) and their inhibitors (TIMP-1 and 2) were measured by Northern blotting and/or real-time PCR. In tendon, expression of TGF-?-1 and collagens I and III (but not CTGF) increased in response to all types of training. Similarly, enzymes/factors involved in collagen processing were induced in tendon, especially LOX (up to 37-fold), which could indicate a loading-induced increase in cross-linking of tendon collagen. In skeletal muscle, a similar regulation of gene expression was observed, but in contrast to the tendon response, the effect of eccentric training was significantly greater than the effect of concentric training on the expression of several transcripts. In conclusion, the study supports an involvement of TGF-?-1 in loading-induced collagen synthesis in the muscle–tendon unit and importantly, it indicates that muscle tissue is more sensitive than tendon to the specific mechanical stimulus. PMID:17540706

Heinemeier, K M; Olesen, J L; Haddad, F; Langberg, H; Kjaer, M; Baldwin, K M; Schjerling, P

2007-01-01

343

An erythroid specific enhancer upstream to the gene encoding the cell-type specific transcription factor GATA-1.  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor GATA-1 is expressed in a subset of hemopoietic cells, where it mediates the cell-type specific expression of several genes. We have cloned the mouse and human GATA-1 genes. A region upstream to the first exon, and highly conserved between mouse and man, acts as an erythroid specific enhancer in transient assays, if linked to the GATA-1 or to the SV40 promoter. The activity of the enhancer is almost completely dependent on the integrity of a dimeric GATA-1 binding site. Images PMID:1656391

Nicolis, S; Bertini, C; Ronchi, A; Crotta, S; Lanfranco, L; Moroni, E; Giglioni, B; Ottolenghi, S

1991-01-01

344

Trefoil factor 2 rapidly induces interleukin 33 to promote type 2 immunity during allergic asthma and hookworm infection  

PubMed Central

The molecular mechanisms that drive mucosal T helper type 2 (TH2) responses against parasitic helminths and allergens remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate in mice that TFF2 (trefoil factor 2), an epithelial cell–derived repair molecule, is needed for the control of lung injury caused by the hookworm parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and for type 2 immunity after infection. TFF2 is also necessary for the rapid production of IL-33, a TH2-promoting cytokine, by lung epithelia, alveolar macrophages, and inflammatory dendritic cells in infected mice. TFF2 also increases the severity of allergic lung disease caused by house dust mite antigens or IL-13. Moreover, TFF2 messenger RNA expression is significantly increased in nasal mucosal brushings during asthma exacerbations in children. These experiments extend the biological functions of TFF2 from tissue repair to the initiation and maintenance of mucosal TH2 responses. PMID:22329990

Wills-Karp, Marsha; Rani, Reena; Dienger, Krista; Lewkowich, Ian; Fox, James G.; Perkins, Charles; Lewis, Lauren; Finkelman, Fred D.; Smith, Dirk E.; Bryce, Paul J.; Kurt-Jones, Evelyn A.; Wang, Timothy C.; Sivaprasad, Umasundari; Hershey, Gurjit K.

2012-01-01

345

Multiple transcription factors directly regulate Hox gene lin-39 expression in ventral hypodermal cells of the C. elegans embryo and larva, including the hypodermal fate regulators LIN-26 and ELT-6  

PubMed Central

Background Hox genes encode master regulators of regional fate specification during early metazoan development. Much is known about the initiation and regulation of Hox gene expression in Drosophila and vertebrates, but less is known in the non-arthropod invertebrate model system, C. elegans. The C. elegans Hox gene lin-39 is required for correct fate specification in the midbody region, including the Vulval Precursor Cells (VPCs). To better understand lin-39 regulation and function, we aimed to identify transcription factors necessary for lin-39 expression in the VPCs, and in particular sought factors that initiate lin-39 expression in the embryo. Results We used the yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) method to screen for factors that bound to 13 fragments from the lin-39 region: twelve fragments contained sequences conserved between C. elegans and two other nematode species, while one fragment was known to drive reporter gene expression in the early embryo in cells that generate the VPCs. Sixteen transcription factors that bind to eight lin-39 genomic fragments were identified in yeast, and we characterized several factors by verifying their physical interactions in vitro, and showing that reduction of their function leads to alterations in lin-39 levels and lin-39::GFP reporter expression in vivo. Three factors, the orphan nuclear hormone receptor NHR-43, the hypodermal fate regulator LIN-26, and the GATA factor ELT-6 positively regulate lin-39 expression in the embryonic precursors to the VPCs. In particular, ELT-6 interacts with an enhancer that drives GFP expression in the early embryo, and the ELT-6 site we identified is necessary for proper embryonic expression. These three factors, along with the factors ZTF-17, BED-3 and TBX-9, also positively regulate lin-39 expression in the larval VPCs. Conclusions These results significantly expand the number of factors known to directly bind and regulate lin-39 expression, identify the first factors required for lin-39 expression in the embryo, and hint at a positive feedback mechanism involving GATA factors that maintains lin-39 expression in the vulval lineage. This work indicates that, as in other organisms, the regulation of Hox gene expression in C. elegans is complicated, redundant and robust. PMID:24885717

2014-01-01

346

The Arabidopsis NAC Transcription Factor ANAC096 Cooperates with bZIP-Type Transcription Factors in Dehydration and Osmotic Stress Responses[W  

PubMed Central

Multiple transcription factors (TFs) play essential roles in plants under abiotic stress, but how these multiple TFs cooperate in abiotic stress responses remains largely unknown. In this study, we provide evidence that the NAC (for NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) TF ANAC096 cooperates with the bZIP-type TFs ABRE binding factor and ABRE binding protein (ABF/AREB) to help plants survive under dehydration and osmotic stress conditions. ANAC096 directly interacts with ABF2 and ABF4, but not with ABF3, both in vitro and in vivo. ANAC096 and ABF2 synergistically activate RD29A transcription. Our genome-wide gene expression analysis revealed that a major proportion of abscisic acid (ABA)–responsive genes are under the transcriptional regulation of ANAC096. We found that the Arabidopsis thaliana anac096 mutant is hyposensitive to exogenous ABA and shows impaired ABA-induced stomatal closure and increased water loss under dehydration stress conditions. Furthermore, we found the anac096 abf2 abf4 triple mutant is much more sensitive to dehydration and osmotic stresses than the anac096 single mutant or the abf2 abf4 double mutant. Based on these results, we propose that ANAC096 is involved in a synergistic relationship with a subset of ABFs for the transcriptional activation of ABA-inducible genes in response to dehydration and osmotic stresses. PMID:24285786

Xu, Zheng-Yi; Kim, Soo Youn; Hyeon, Do Young; Kim, Dae Heon; Dong, Ting; Park, Youngmin; Jin, Jing Bo; Joo, Se-Hwan; Kim, Seong-Ki; Hong, Jong Chan; Hwang, Daehee; Hwang, Inhwan

2013-01-01

347

Identification of myelin transcription factor 1 (MyT1) as a subunit of the neural cell type-specific lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) complex.  

PubMed

Regulation of spatiotemporal gene expression in higher eukaryotic cells is critical for the precise and orderly development of undifferentiated progenitors into committed cell types of the adult. It is well known that dynamic epigenomic regulation (including chromatin remodeling and histone modifications by transcriptional coregulator complexes) is involved in transcriptional regulation. Precisely how these coregulator complexes exert their cell type and developing stage-specific activity is largely unknown. In this study we aimed to isolate the histone demethylase lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) complex from neural cells by biochemical purification. In so doing, we identified myelin transcription factor 1 (MyT1) as a novel LSD1 complex component. MyT1 is a neural cell-specific zinc finger factor, and it forms a stable multiprotein complex with LSD1 through direct interaction. Target gene analysis using microarray and ChIP assays revealed that the Pten gene was directly regulated by the LSD1-MyT1 complex. Knockdown of either LSD1 or MyT1 derepressed the expression of endogenous target genes and inhibited cell proliferation of a neuroblastoma cell line, Neuro2a. We propose that formation of tissue-specific combinations of coregulator complexes is a critical mechanism for tissue-specific transcriptional regulation. PMID:24828497

Yokoyama, Atsushi; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Sato, Tetsuya; Takagi, Kiyoshi; Otsuka I, Maky; Shishido, Yurina; Baba, Takashi; Ito, Ryo; Kanno, Jun; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Morohashi, Ken-Ichirou; Sugawara, Akira

2014-06-27

348

Xenopus kielin: A dorsalizing factor containing multiple chordin-type repeats secreted from the embryonic midline.  

PubMed

The midline tissues are important inductive centers of early vertebrate embryos. By signal peptide selection screening, we isolated a secreted factor, Kielin, which contains multiple cys-rich repeats similar to those in chordin (Chd). Expression of Kielin starts at midgastrula stages in the notochord and is detected in the floor plate of neurula embryos. Kielin is induced in mesoderm and in ectoderm by nodal-related genes. Chd is sufficient to activate Kielin expression in mesoderm whereas Shh or HNF-3beta in addition to Chd is required for induction in ectoderm. Kielin has a distinct biological activity from that of Chd. Injection of Kielin mRNA causes dorsalization of ventral marginal zone explants and expansion of MyoD expression in neurula embryos. Unlike Chd, Kielin does not efficiently induce neural differentiation of animal cap ectoderm, suggesting that the activity of Kielin is not simply caused by BMP4 blockade. Kielin is a signaling molecule that mediates inductive activities of the embryonic midline. PMID:10779551

Matsui, M; Mizuseki, K; Nakatani, J; Nakanishi, S; Sasai, Y

2000-05-01

349

Is Obsessive-Compulsive symptomatology a risk factor for Alzheimer-type dementia?  

PubMed

In the present study, we hypothesized that lifetime Obsessive-Compulsive (OC) symptomatology would be risk factors for the development of Alzheimer?s disease (AD). For this aim, first we compared 39 patients with AD and 30 age and gender matched control subjects. We have found that lifetime and current OC symptoms (OCs) and comorbid diagnosis of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder in AD patients were significantly more prevalent than in control group. AD patients had more likely to have lifetime and current hoarding, and checking obsessions compared to controls. The rate of lifetime and current hoarding, and checking compulsions also appeared to be higher in AD patients in comparison to control subjects. Hoarding and checking obsessions, and compulsions seemed to proceed through the dementia in contrast to other OCs. The mean number of lifetime compulsions seemed to predict the diagnosis of AD. When we compared AD patients with and without OCs, we have found that OC symptomatology prior to AD did not cause an earlier onset of dementia and more severe cognitive impairment. Further longitudinal clinical, genetic and neuroimaging investigations are required to determine if lifetime presence of OCs would predispose to the development of later AD. PMID:25576369

Dondu, Ayse; Sevincoka, Levent; Akyol, Ali; Tataroglu, Cengiz

2015-02-28

350

The phenotypic spectrum of GLI3 morphopathies includes autosomal dominant preaxial polydactyly type-IV and postaxial polydactyly type-A/B; No phenotype prediction from the position of GLI3 mutations.  

PubMed Central

Functional characterization of a gene often requires the discovery of the full spectrum of its associated phenotypes. Mutations in the human GLI3 gene have been identified in Greig cepalopolysyndactyly, Pallister-Hall syndrome (PHS), and postaxial polydactyly type-A (PAP-A). We studied the involvement of GLI3 in additional phenotypes of digital abnormalities in one family (UR003) with preaxial polydactyly type-IV (PPD-IV), three families (UR014, UR015, and UR016) with dominant PAP-A/B (with PPD-A and -B in the same family), and one family with PHS. Linkage analysis showed no recombination with GLI3-linked polymorphisms. Family UR003 had a 1-nt frameshift insertion, resulting in a truncated protein of 1,245 amino acids. A frameshift mutation due to a 1-nt deletion was found in family UR014, resulting in a truncated protein of 1,280 amino acids. Family UR015 had a nonsense mutation, R643X, and family UR016 had a missense mutation, G727R, in a highly conserved amino acid of domain 3. The patient with PHS had a nonsense mutation, E1147X. These results add two phenotypes to the phenotypic spectrum caused by GLI3 mutations: the combined PAP-A/B and PPD-IV. These mutations do not support the suggested association between the mutations in GLI3 and the resulting phenotypes. We propose that all phenotypes associated with GLI3 mutations be called "GLI3 morphopathies," since the phenotypic borders of the resulting syndromes are not well defined and there is no apparent genotype-phenotype correlation. PMID:10441570

Radhakrishna, U; Bornholdt, D; Scott, H S; Patel, U C; Rossier, C; Engel, H; Bottani, A; Chandal, D; Blouin, J L; Solanki, J V; Grzeschik, K H; Antonarakis, S E

1999-01-01

351

Effects of milk type and consumer factors on the acceptance of milk among Korean female consumers.  

PubMed

Despite an overall increase in the consumption of milk products, the consumption of plain processed milk in South Korea is decreasing. One of the major reasons for this phenomenon is that consumers in Korea find the taste of plain milk unpalatable. The principal objective of this study was to identify the internal and external drivers of liking for milk among Korean consumers. The results of descriptive analysis (Chung and others 2008) were correlated to the results of consumer taste tests to identify the sensory characteristics that positively and negatively affect consumers' liking of milk. Consumers' health and food-related attitudes were surveyed as well as their daily milk consumption patterns to investigate the effects of these attitudes and consumption patterns on the liking for various types of milk. Consumers' liking of milk samples was positively correlated with sweetness, sweet cream flavor, and smooth texture. Grassy odor, raw milk flavor, artificial milk flavor, and rancid flavor were the negative drivers of liking. Consumers who frequently drink plain processed milk, in particular, preferred the UHT-processed whole milk samples, whereas infrequent drinkers preferred lactose-free milk samples. Consumers with strong food neophobic tendency significantly rated lower than consumers with weak tendency for most of the liking categories and some of the attribute intensities. Finally, when the consumers were grouped based on their common preference for milk samples, plain processed milk consumption frequency was the major determinant affecting the preference for milk. PMID:19723235

Chung, Seo-Jin

2009-08-01

352

Factors driving carbon mineralization priming effect in a soil amended with different types of biochar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of biochar on soil carbon mineralization priming effect depends on the characteristics of the raw materials, production method and pyrolysis conditions. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the impact of three different types of biochar on soil CO2 emissions and in different physicochemical properties. For this purpose, a sandy-loam soil was amended with the three biochars (BI, BII and BIII) at a rate of 8 wt % and soil CO2 emissions were measured for 45 days. BI is produced from a mixed wood sieving's from wood chip production, BII from a mixture of paper sludge and wheat husks and BIII from sewage sludge. Cumulative CO2 emissions of biochars, soil and amended soil were well fit to a simple first-order kinetic model with correlation coefficients (r2) greater than 0.97. Results shown a negative priming effect in the soil after addition of BI and a positive priming effect in the case of soil amended with BII and BIII. These results can be related with different biochar properties such as ash content, volatile matter, fixed carbon, organic carbon oxidised with dichromate, soluble carbon and metal and phenolic substances content in addition to surface biochar properties. Three biochars increased the values of soil field capacity and wilting point, while effects over pH and cation exchange capacity were not observed.

Cely, P.; Tarquis, A. M.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Méndez, A.; Gascó, G.

2014-03-01

353

Factors affecting health adaptation of Chinese adolescents with type 1 diabetes: A path model testing.  

PubMed

Glycemic control and quality of life (QoL) are both considered indicators of health adaptation among adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). The purpose of this study was to construct a path model addressing the influences of individual characteristics, school support, resilience, and self-care behaviors on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and QoL among adolescents with T1D in Taiwan. This was a cross-sectional design study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on individual characteristics, school support, resilience, self-care behaviors, and QoL. The latest HbA1c was collected from medical records. Data from 238 adolescents with T1D were analyzed using structural equation modeling to test the hypothesized path model. The findings indicated that self-care behaviors and resilience both directly influenced HbA1c and QoL. School support directly influenced QoL but indirectly influenced HbA1c. We suggest that improving self-care behaviors and resilience could be considered an appropriate intervention for enhancing the health adaptation of adolescents with T1D. Increasing school support might be a strategy to improve QoL among adolescents with T1D. PMID:25013129

Lo, Fu-Sung; Hsu, Hsiu-Yueh; Chen, Bai-Hsiun; Lee, Yann-Jinn; Chen, Yu-Tsung; Wang, Ruey-Hsia

2014-07-01

354

Clearance function of type C receptors of atrial natriuretic factor in rats  

SciTech Connect

The overwhelming majority of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) receptors in kidney and vascular tissues do not mediate any of the known functional effects of the hormone. To test whether these receptors (C-ANF receptors) function as clearance receptors for circulating ANF-(1-28), we determined the effects of C-ANF-(4-23) (des(Gln18Ser19Gly20Leu21Gly22)rANF-(3-23)-NH2), a specific ligand of C-ANF receptors, on the pharmacokinetics and hydrolysis of 125I-labeled ANF-(1-28) in anesthetized rats. Radioactivity in plasma was characterized by trichloroacetic acid solubility and high-pressure liquid chromatography. C-ANF-(4-23) (1 and 10 micrograms.min-1.kg body wt-1) led to marked dose-dependent increases in initial plasma concentration of administered 125I-ANF-(1-28) and decreases in its volume of distribution at steady state (Vss), metabolic clearance rate (MCR), and appearance of hydrolytic products ((125I)monoiodotyrosine and free 125I) in plasma (Pm). At the highest dose, C-ANF-(4-23) decreased Vss from 97 +/- 12 to 36 +/- 2 ml/100 g body wt, MCR from 50 +/- 4 to 12 +/- 1 ml.min-1.100 g body wt-1, and Pm from 54 +/- 8 to 11 +/- 2% of initial plasma 125I-ANF-(1-28). The data demonstrate that C-ANF receptors are mainly responsible for the very large volume of distribution and fast MCR of ANF in the rat. In this manner, C-ANF receptors are likely to play an important role in the homeostasis of circulating ANF.

Almeida, F.A.; Suzuki, M.; Scarborough, R.M.; Lewicki, J.A.; Maack, T.

1989-02-01

355

Small field in-air output factors: The role of miniphantom design and dosimeter type  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The commissioning of treatment planning systems and beam modeling requires measured input parameters. The measurement of relative output in-air, S{sub c} is particularly difficult for small fields. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of miniphantom design and detector selection on measured S{sub c} values for small fields and to validate the measurements against Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: Measurements were performed using brass caps (with sidewalls) or tops (no sidewalls) of varying heights and widths. The performance of two unshielded diodes (60012 and SFD), EBT2 radiochromic film, and a fiber optic dosimeter (FOD) were compared for fields defined by MLCs (5–100 mm) and SRS cones (4–30 mm) on a Varian Novalis linear accelerator. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to theoretically predict S{sub c} as measured by the FOD. Results: For all detectors, S{sub c} agreed to within 1% for fields larger than 10 mm and to within 2.3% for smaller fields. Monte Carlo simulation matched the FOD measurements for all size of cone defined fields to within 0.5%. Conclusions: Miniphantom design is the most important variable for reproducible and accurate measurements of the in-air output ratio, S{sub c}, in small photon fields (less than 30 mm). Sidewalls are not required for fields ? 30 mm and tops are therefore preferred over the larger caps. Unlike output measurements in water, S{sub cp,} the selection of detector type for S{sub c} is not critical, provided the active dosimeter volume is small relative to the field size.

Warrener, Kirbie, E-mail: kirbie.warrener@sesiahs.health.nsw.gov.au [Illawarra Cancer Care Centre, Wollongong Hospital, Wollongong, New South Wales 2521, Australia and Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia)] [Illawarra Cancer Care Centre, Wollongong Hospital, Wollongong, New South Wales 2521, Australia and Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia); Hug, Benjamin; Ebert, Martin A. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia and Department of Radiation Oncology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, Western Australia 6009 (Australia)] [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia and Department of Radiation Oncology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, Western Australia 6009 (Australia); Liu, Paul; McKenzie, David R. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Darlington, New South Wales 2008 (Australia)] [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Darlington, New South Wales 2008 (Australia); Ralston, Anna [Chris O'Brien Lifehouse, Radiation Oncology, Sydney, New South Wales 2050 (Australia)] [Chris O'Brien Lifehouse, Radiation Oncology, Sydney, New South Wales 2050 (Australia); Suchowerska, Natalka [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Darlington, New South Wales 2008, Australia and Chris O'Brien Lifehouse, Radiation Oncology, Sydney, New South Wales 2050 (Australia)] [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Darlington, New South Wales 2008, Australia and Chris O'Brien Lifehouse, Radiation Oncology, Sydney, New South Wales 2050 (Australia)

2014-02-15

356

Factors that influence the response of the LysR type transcriptional regulators to aromatic compounds  

PubMed Central

Background The transcriptional regulators DntR, NagR and NtdR have a high sequence identity and belong to the large family of LysR type transcriptional regulators (LTTRs). These three regulators are all involved in regulation of genes identified in pathways for degradation of aromatic compounds. They activate the transcription of these genes in the presence of an inducer, but the inducer specificity profiles are different. Results The results from this study show that NtdR has the broadest inducer specificity, responding to several nitro-aromatic compounds. Mutational studies of residues that differ between DntR, NagR and NtdR suggest that a number of specific residues are involved in the broader inducer specificity of NtdR when compared to DntR and NagR. The inducer response was also investigated as a function of the experimental conditions and a number of parameters such as the growth media, plasmid arrangement of the LTTR-encoding genes, promoter and gfp reporter gene, and the presence of a His6-tag were shown to affect the inducer response in E.coli DH5?. Furthermore, the response upon addition of both salicylate and 4-nitrobenzoate to the growth media was larger than the sum of responses upon addition of each of the compounds, which suggests the presence of a secondary binding site, as previously reported for other LTTRs. Conclusions Optimization of the growth conditions and gene arrangement resulted in improved responses to nitro-aromatic inducers. The data also suggests the presence of a previously unknown secondary binding site in DntR, analogous to that of BenM. PMID:21884597

2011-01-01

357

Tumor Necrosis Factor Type ? , a Potent Inhibitor of Endothelial Cell Growth in vitro, is Angiogenic in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tumor necrosis factor type ? (TNF-? ) inhibits endothelial cell proliferation in vitro. Basal cell growth (in the absence of exogenously added growth factor) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-stimulated cell proliferation are inhibited in a dose-dependent manner from 0.1 to 10 ng/ml with half-maximal inhibition occurring at 0.5-1.0 ng of TNF-? per ml. Bovine aortic and brain capillary endothelial and smooth muscle cells are similarly affected. TNF-? is a noncompetitive antagonist of FGF-stimulated cell proliferation. Its action on endothelial cells is reversible and noncytotoxic. Surprisingly, TNF-? does not seem to inhibit endothelial cell proliferation in vivo. In the rabbit cornea, even a high dose of TNF-? (10 ? g) does not suppress angiogenesis induced by basic FGF. On the contrary, in this model system TNF-? stimulates neovascularization. The inflammatory response that is seen in the cornea after TNF-? implantation suggests that the angiogenic properties of this agent may be a consequence of leukocyte infiltration.

Frater-Schroder, Marijke; Risau, Werner; Hallmann, Rupert; Gautschi, Peter; Bohlen, Peter

1987-08-01

358

Transforming Growth Factor-Beta and Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator: Dangerous Partners in Tumorigenesis—Implications in Skin Cancer  

PubMed Central

Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) is a pleiotropic factor, with several different roles in health and disease. TGF-? has been postulated as a dual factor in tumor progression, since it represses epithelial tumor development in early stages, whereas it stimulates tumor progression in advanced stages. During tumorigenesis, cancer cells acquire the capacity to migrate and invade surrounding tissues and to metastasize different organs. The urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) system, comprising uPA, the uPA cell surface receptor, and plasminogen-plasmin, is involved in the proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix and regulates key cellular events by activating intracellular signal pathways, which together allow cancer cells to survive, thus, enhancing cell malignance during tumor progression. Due to their importance, uPA and its receptor are tightly transcriptionally regulated in normal development, but are deregulated in cancer, when their activity and expression are related to further development of cancer. TGF-? regulates uPA expression in cancer cells, while uPA, by plasminogen activation, may activate the secreted latent TGF-?, thus, producing a pernicious cycle which contributes to the enhancement of tumor progression. Here we review the specific roles and the interplay between TGF-? and uPA system in cancer cells and their implication in skin cancer. PMID:23984088

Santibanez, Juan F.

2013-01-01

359

A Comparative Study of Age-Related Hearing Loss in Wild Type and Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Deficient Mice  

PubMed Central

Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) belongs to the family of insulin-related peptides that fulfils a key role during the late development of the nervous system. Human IGF1 mutations cause profound deafness, poor growth and mental retardation. Accordingly, Igf1?/? null mice are dwarfs that have low survival rates, cochlear alterations and severe sensorineural deafness. Presbycusis (age-related hearing loss) is a common disorder associated with aging that causes social and cognitive problems. Aging is also associated with a decrease in circulating IGF-I levels and this reduction has been related to cognitive and brain alterations, although there is no information as yet regarding the relationship between presbycusis and IGF-I biodisponibility. Here we present a longitudinal study of wild type Igf1+/+ and null Igf1?/? mice from 2 to 12?months of age comparing the temporal progression of several parameters: hearing, brain morphology, cochlear cytoarchitecture, insulin-related factors and IGF gene expression and IGF-I serum levels. Complementary invasive and non-invasive techniques were used, including auditory brainstem-evoked response (ABR) recordings and in vivo MRI brain imaging. Igf1?/? null mice presented profound deafness at all the ages studied, without any obvious worsening of hearing parameters with aging. Igf1+/+ wild type mice suffered significant age-related hearing loss, their auditory thresholds and peak I latencies augmenting as they aged, in parallel with a decrease in the circulating levels of IGF-I. Accordingly, there was an age-related spiral ganglion degeneration in wild type mice that was not evident in the Igf1 null mice. However, the Igf1?/? null mice in turn developed a prematurely aged stria vascularis reminiscent of the diabetic strial phenotype. Our data indicate that IGF-I is required for the correct development and maintenance of hearing, supporting the idea that IGF-I-based therapies could contribute to prevent or ameliorate age-related hearing loss. PMID:20661454

Riquelme, Raquel; Cediel, Rafael; Contreras, Julio; Lourdes, Rodriguez-de la Rosa; Murillo-Cuesta, Silvia; Hernandez-Sanchez, Catalina; Zubeldia, Jose M.; Cerdan, Sebastian; Varela-Nieto, Isabel

2010-01-01

360

Mapping of the ligand binding domain of the transforming growth factor beta receptor type III by deletion mutagenesis.  

PubMed Central

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) receptor type III is a membrane-anchored proteoglycan that binds TGF-beta via the core protein. We have determined, by deletion mutagenesis of the receptor type III, the minimal essential region of the extracellular domain that is capable of binding TGF-beta. Nine deletion mutants were produced, six of which are expressed on the cell surface and bind TGF-beta. We find that the shortest of these active mutants, which retains only 253 of the 785 amino acids of the extracellular domain, binds TGF-beta with the same affinity as the full-length receptor. These results indicate that the ligand binding domain lies proximal to the transmembrane domain and is functionally independent from the rest of the extracellular domain. We have determined from the mutants that one of the potential glycosaminoglycan attachment sites in the receptor type III is not utilized. Results from the nonglycosylated mutants confirm that the glycosaminoglycan chains are not required for the folding, targeting, and TGF-beta binding activity of the receptor. Moreover, we present evidence for dimerization and multimerization of the receptor. Images PMID:8041735

Pepin, M C; Beauchemin, M; Plamondon, J; O'Connor-McCourt, M D

1994-01-01

361

Characterization of Recessive Severe Type 1 and 3 von Willebrand Disease (VWD), Asymptomatic Heterozygous Carriers Versus Bloodgroup O-Related von Willebrand Factor Deficiency, and Dominant Type 1 VWD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recessive type 3 von Willebrand disease (VWD) is caused by homozygosity or double heterozygosity for two non-sense mutations (null alleles). Type 3 VWD is easy to diagnose by the combination of a strongly prolonged bleeding time (BT), absence of ristocetine-induced platelet aggregation (RIPA), absence of von Willebrand factor (VWF) protein, and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) due to factor

Jan Jacques Michiels; Zwi Berneman; Alain Gadisseur; Marc van der Planken; Wilfried Schroyens; Ann van de Velde; Huub van Vliet

2006-01-01

362

Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4? Contributes to Thyroid Hormone Homeostasis by Cooperatively Regulating the Type 1 Iodothyronine Deiodinase Gene with GATA4 and Krüppel-Like Transcription Factor 9? †  

PubMed Central

Type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio1), a selenoenzyme catalyzing the bioactivation of thyroid hormone, is highly expressed in the liver. Dio1 mRNA and enzyme activity levels are markedly reduced in the livers of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4? (HNF4?)-null mice, thus accounting for its liver-specific expression. Consistent with this deficiency, serum T4 and rT3 concentrations are elevated in these mice compared with those in HNF4?-floxed control littermates; however, serum T3 levels are unchanged. Promoter analysis of the mouse Dio1 gene demonstrated that HNF4? plays a key role in the transactivation of the mouse Dio1 gene. Deletion and substitution mutation analyses demonstrated that a proximal HNF4? site (direct repeat 1 [TGGACAAAGGTGC]; HNF4?-RE) is crucial for transactivation of the mouse Dio1 gene by HNF4?. Mouse Dio1 is also stimulated by thyroid hormone signaling, but a direct role for thyroid hormone receptor action has not been reported. We also showed that thyroid hormone-inducible Krüppel-like factor 9 (KLF9) stimulates the mouse Dio1 promoter very efficiently through two CACCC sequences that are located on either side of HNF4?-RE. Furthermore, KLF9 functions together with HNF4? and GATA4 to synergistically activate the mouse Dio1 promoter, suggesting that Dio1 is regulated by thyroid hormone in the mouse through an indirect mechanism requiring prior KLF9 induction. In addition, we showed that physical interactions between the C-terminal zinc finger domain (Cf) of GATA4 and activation function 2 of HNF4? and between the basic domain adjacent to Cf of GATA4 and a C-terminal domain of KLF9 are both required for this synergistic response. Taken together, these results suggest that HNF4? regulates thyroid hormone homeostasis through transcriptional regulation of the mouse Dio1 gene with GATA4 and KLF9. PMID:18426912

Ohguchi, Hiroto; Tanaka, Toshiya; Uchida, Aoi; Magoori, Kenta; Kudo, Hiromi; Kim, Insook; Daigo, Kenji; Sakakibara, Iori; Okamura, Masashi; Harigae, Hideo; Sasaki, Takeshi; Osborne, Timothy F.; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Hamakubo, Takao; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Sakai, Juro

2008-01-01

363

Reduction of specific circulating lymphocyte populations with metabolic risk factors in patients at risk to develop type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

Low-grade inflammation, characterized by increased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, is present in patients with obesity-linked insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia and considered to play a leading role to progression into type 2 diabetes (T2D). In adipose tissue in obese patients and in pancreatic islets in T2D patients cellular inflammation is present. However, the systemic leukocyte compartment and the circulating endothelial/precursor compartment in patients at risk to develop T2D has so far not been analyzed in detail. To address this, peripheral blood cells from a cohort of 20 subjects at risk to develop diabetes with normal to impaired glucose tolerance were analyzed by flow cytometry using a wide range of cellular markers and correlated to known metabolic risk factors for T2D i.e. fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h plasma glucose (2 h PG), HbA1c, body mass index (BMI), homeostasis model assessment of ?-cell function (HOMA-B), homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS) and fasting insulin (FI). The four highest ranked cell markers for each risk factor were identified by random forest analysis. In the cohort, a significant negative correlation between the number of TLR4(+) CD4 T cells and increased FPG was demonstrated. Similarly, with increased BMI the frequency of TLR4(+) B cells was significantly decreased, as was the frequency of IL-21R(+) CD4 T cells. Unlinked to metabolic risk factors, the frequency of regulatory T cells was reduced and TLR4(+) CD4 T cells were increased with age. Taken together, in this small cohort of subjects at risk to develop T2D, a modulation of the circulating immune cell pool was demonstrated to correlate with risk factors like FPG and BMI. This may provide novel insights into the inflammatory mechanisms involved in the progression to diabetes in subjects at risk. PMID:25254631

Cucak, Helena; Vistisen, Dorte; Witte, Daniel; Philipsen, Annelotte; Rosendahl, Alexander

2014-01-01

364

Reduction of Specific Circulating Lymphocyte Populations with Metabolic Risk Factors in Patients at Risk to Develop Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Low-grade inflammation, characterized by increased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, is present in patients with obesity-linked insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia and considered to play a leading role to progression into type 2 diabetes (T2D). In adipose tissue in obese patients and in pancreatic islets in T2D patients cellular inflammation is present. However, the systemic leukocyte compartment and the circulating endothelial/precursor compartment in patients at risk to develop T2D has so far not been analyzed in detail. To address this, peripheral blood cells from a cohort of 20 subjects at risk to develop diabetes with normal to impaired glucose tolerance were analyzed by flow cytometry using a wide range of cellular markers and correlated to known metabolic risk factors for T2D i.e. fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h plasma glucose (2 h PG), HbA1c, body mass index (BMI), homeostasis model assessment of ?-cell function (HOMA-B), homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS) and fasting insulin (FI). The four highest ranked cell markers for each risk factor were identified by random forest analysis. In the cohort, a significant negative correlation between the number of TLR4+ CD4 T cells and increased FPG was demonstrated. Similarly, with increased BMI the frequency of TLR4+ B cells was significantly decreased, as was the frequency of IL-21R+ CD4 T cells. Unlinked to metabolic risk factors, the frequency of regulatory T cells was reduced and TLR4+ CD4 T cells were increased with age. Taken together, in this small cohort of subjects at risk to develop T2D, a modulation of the circulating immune cell pool was demonstrated to correlate with risk factors like FPG and BMI. This may provide novel insights into the inflammatory mechanisms involved in the progression to diabetes in subjects at risk. PMID:25254631

Cucak, Helena; Vistisen, Dorte; Witte, Daniel; Philipsen, Annelotte; Rosendahl, Alexander

2014-01-01

365

Discovery, linkage disequilibrium and association analyses of polymorphisms of the immune complement inhibitor, decay-accelerating factor gene (DAF/CD55) in type 1 diabetes  

E-print Network

Abstract Background Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a common autoimmune disease resulting from T-cell mediated destruction of pancreatic beta cells. Decay accelerating factor (DAF, CD55), a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein, is a...

Taniguchi, Hidenori; Lowe, Christopher E; Cooper, Jason D; Smyth, Deborah J; Bailey, Rebecca; Nutland, Sarah; Healy, Barry C; Lam, Alex C; Burren, Oliver; Walker, Neil M; Smink, Luc J; Wicker, Linda S; Todd, John A

2006-04-20

366

Small dense low-density lipoprotein as a potential risk factor of nephropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background: The risk for diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes is about 30-40%, and it is considered the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Small dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL) particles are believed to be atherogenic, and its predominance has been accepted as an emerging cardiovascular risk factor. This study aimed to assess small dense LDL as a potential risk factor and a possible predictor for diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients. Patients and Methods: According to microalbuminuria test, 40 diabetic patients were categorized into two groups: Diabetic patients without nephropathy (microalbuminuria negative group) and diabetic patients with nephropathy (microalbuminuria positive group), each group consists of 20 patients and all were non-obese and normotensive. The patients were re-classified into three sub-groups depending on the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Results: The mean of small dense LDL level in the microalbuminuria positive group was higher than that in the microalbuminuria negative group, but without statistical significance. It was significantly higher in patients with either mild or moderate decrease in estimated GFR than in patients with normal estimated GFR. There was statistically significant correlation between small dense LDL and albuminuria and significant inverse correlation between small dense LDL and estimated GFR in all patients in the study. Based on microalbuminuria, the sensitivity and specificity of small dense LDL in the diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy was 40% and 80%, respectively, with cutoff values of small dense LDL >55.14 mg/dl. On the other hand, based on GFR, the sensitivity and specificity were 88.24% and 73.91% respectively, with cutoff values of small dense LDL >41.89 mg/dl. Conclusion: Small dense LDL is correlated with the incidence and severity of diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients. It should be considered as a potential risk factor and as a diagnostic biomarker to be used in conjunction with other biochemical markers for early diagnosis, assessment, and follow-up of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:24701437

Abd-Allha, Essam; Hassan, Basma Badr; Abduo, Mohamad; Omar, Seham Ahmed; Sliem, Hamdy

2014-01-01

367

Foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase inhibits dsRNA-induced type I interferon transcription by decreasing interferon regulatory factor 3/7 in protein levels  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} FMDV L{sup pro} inhibits poly(I:C)-induced IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} mRNA expression. {yields} L{sup pro} inhibits MDA5-mediated activation of the IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} promoter. {yields} L{sup pro} significantly reduced the transcription of multiple IRF-responsive genes. {yields} L{sup pro} inhibits IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} promoter activation by decreasing IRF-3/7 in protein levels. {yields} The ability to process eIF-4G of L{sup pro} is not necessary to inhibit IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} activation. -- Abstract: The leader proteinase (L{sup pro}) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) has been identified as an interferon-{beta} (IFN-{beta}) antagonist that disrupts the integrity of transcription factor nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). In this study, we showed that the reduction of double stranded RNA (dsRNA)-induced IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} expression caused by L{sup pro} was also associated with a decrease of interferon regulatory factor 3/7 (IRF-3/7) in protein levels, two critical transcription factors for activation of IFN-{alpha}/{beta}. Furthermore, overexpression of L{sup pro} significantly reduced the transcription of multiple IRF-responsive genes including 2',5'-OAS, ISG54, IP-10, and RANTES. Screening L{sup pro} mutants indicated that the ability to process eIF-4G of L{sup pro} is not required for suppressing dsRNA-induced activation of the IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} promoter and decreasing IRF-3/7 expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that, in addition to disrupting NF-{kappa}B, L{sup pro} also decreases IRF-3/7 expression to suppress dsRNA-induced type I IFN production, suggesting multiple strategies used by FMDV to counteract the immune response to viral infection.

Wang, Dang; Fang, Liurong; Luo, Rui; Ye, Rui; Fang, Ying; Xie, Lilan; Chen, Huanchun [Division of Animal Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China)] [Division of Animal Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Xiao, Shaobo, E-mail: shaoboxiao@yahoo.com [Division of Animal Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China)] [Division of Animal Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China)

2010-08-13

368

Utility of genetic and non-genetic risk factors in prediction of type 2 diabetes: Whitehall II prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess the performance of a panel of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (genotypes) associated with type 2 diabetes in distinguishing incident cases of future type 2 diabetes (discrimination), and to examine the effect of adding genetic information to previously validated non-genetic (phenotype based) models developed to estimate the absolute risk of type 2 diabetes. Design Workplace based prospective cohort study with three 5 yearly medical screenings. Participants 5535 initially healthy people (mean age 49 years; 33% women), of whom 302 developed new onset type 2 diabetes over 10 years. Outcome measures Non-genetic variables included in two established risk models—the Cambridge type 2 diabetes risk score (age, sex, drug treatment, family history of type 2 diabetes, body mass index, smoking status) and the Framingham offspring study type 2 diabetes risk score (age, sex, parental history of type 2 diabetes, body mass index, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose)—and 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes. Cases of incident type 2 diabetes were defined on the basis of a standard oral glucose tolerance test, self report of a doctor’s diagnosis, or the use of anti-diabetic drugs. Results A genetic score based on the number of risk alleles carried (range 0-40; area under receiver operating characteristics curve 0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.50 to 0.58) and a genetic risk function in which carriage of risk alleles was weighted according to the summary odds ratios of their effect from meta-analyses of genetic studies (area under receiver operating characteristics curve 0.55, 0.51 to 0.59) did not effectively discriminate cases of diabetes. The Cambridge risk score (area under curve 0.72, 0.69 to 0.76) and the Framingham offspring risk score (area under curve 0.78, 0.75 to 0.82) led to better discrimination of cases than did genotype based tests. Adding genetic information to phenotype based risk models did not improve discrimination and provided only a small improvement in model calibration and a modest net reclassification improvement of about 5% when added to the Cambridge risk score but not when added to the Framingham offspring risk score. Conclusion The phenotype based risk models provided greater discrimination for type 2 diabetes than did models based on 20 common independently inherited diabetes risk alleles. The addition of genotypes to phenotype based risk models produced only minimal improvement in accuracy of risk estimation assessed by recalibration and, at best, a minor net reclassification improvement. The major translational application of the currently known common, small effect genetic variants influencing susceptibility to type 2 diabetes is likely to come from the insight they provide on causes of disease and potential therapeutic targets. PMID:20075150

2010-01-01

369

Transforming growth factor-beta and interleukin-10 subvert alloreactive delayed type hypersensitivity in cardiac allograft acceptor mice.  

PubMed

We have previously reported that temporary treatment of cardiac allograft recipients with gallium nitrate (GN) results in indefinite graft survival, and the inability to mount donor-reactive delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses. We report that antibodies to either transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) or interleukin-10 (IL10) can uncover DTH responses to donor alloantigens in cardiac allograft acceptor mice. The DTH responses uncovered with TGFbeta-reactive antibodies can be blocked by exogenous IL10, and those uncovered with IL10-reactive antibodies can be blocked by exogenous TGFbeta. These data demonstrate that allograft acceptor mice are fully allosensitized, and poised to make donor-reactive cell-mediated immune responses. However, such responses are subverted by a donor alloantigen-dependent mechanism that involves TGFbeta and IL10, which in turn interfere with local cell-mediated immune responses. PMID:10798784

Bickerstaff, A A; VanBuskirk, A M; Wakely, E; Orosz, C G

2000-04-15

370

An evaluation of patients’ adherence with hypoglycemic medications among Papua New Guineans with type 2 diabetes: influencing factors  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aims of this study were to evaluate the extent of adherence to hypoglycemic medications, assess the relationship between adherence and glycemic control, and evaluate factors affecting adherence. Research design and methods This was a cross-sectional study of patients with established type 2 diabetes attending the Port Moresby General Hospital Diabetes Clinic. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a questionnaire designed for the study and data were collected concerning the 3 months prior to interview. The questionnaire covered demographic details, lifestyle, biochemical and physical measurements, and medication management. Glycemic control was investigated among patients adhering to their medications (not missing doses) to different degrees (100%, 95%, 90%, and 80%). Results Of a total of 356 participants who were prescribed hypoglycemic medications, 59.6% omitted some of their doses. Age appeared to have a significant impact on adherence at some levels of adherence, with those aged >60 years being more likely to be adherent (logistic regression). Those who were 95%–99% and those who were <80% adherent had a statistically significant risk of a high glycated hemoglobin of >10% (85.5 mmol/mol). Multiple factors were identified as contributors to nonadherence, with patient-based issues (86.0%) and the health care system (21.7%) being the most common. Conclusion This study showed a significant level of nonadherence among patients with type 2 diabetes in Papua New Guinea. Nonadherence to medication appeared to be associated with poor glycemic control and was due to a variety of reasons. Future interventions aimed at improving adherence will need to take these into account. PMID:25258517

Pihau-Tulo, Stella Tilu; Parsons, Richard W; Hughes, Jeffery D

2014-01-01

371

The Putative Assembly Factor CcoH Is Stably Associated with the cbb3-Type Cytochrome Oxidase ?  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome oxidases are perfect model substrates for analyzing the assembly of multisubunit complexes because the need for cofactor incorporation adds an additional level of complexity to their assembly. cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidases (cbb3-Cox) consist of the catalytic subunit CcoN, the membrane-bound c-type cytochrome subunits CcoO and CcoP, and the CcoQ subunit, which is required for cbb3-Cox stability. Biogenesis of cbb3-Cox proceeds via CcoQP and CcoNO subcomplexes, which assemble into the active cbb3-Cox. Most bacteria expressing cbb3-Cox also contain the ccoGHIS genes, which encode putative cbb3-Cox assembly factors. Their exact function, however, has remained unknown. Here we analyzed the role of CcoH in cbb3-Cox assembly and showed that CcoH is a single spanning-membrane protein with an N-terminus-out-C-terminus-in (Nout-Cin) topology. In its absence, neither the fully assembled cbb3-Cox nor the CcoQP or CcoNO subcomplex was detectable. By chemical cross-linking, we demonstrated that CcoH binds primarily via its transmembrane domain to the CcoP subunit of cbb3-Cox. A second hydrophobic stretch, which is located at the C terminus of CcoH, appears not to be required for contacting CcoP, but deleting it prevents the formation of the active cbb3-Cox. This suggests that the second hydrophobic domain is required for merging the CcoNO and CcoPQ subcomplexes into the active cbb3-Cox. Surprisingly, CcoH does not seem to interact only transiently with the cbb3-Cox but appears to stay tightly associated with the active, fully assembled complex. Thus, CcoH behaves more like a bona fide subunit of the cbb3-Cox than an assembly factor per se. PMID:20952576

Pawlik, Grzegorz; Kulajta, Carmen; Sachelaru, Ilie; Schröder, Sebastian; Waidner, Barbara; Hellwig, Petra; Daldal, Fevzi; Koch, Hans-Georg

2010-01-01

372

Factors Associated With Sexual Function in Iranian Women With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Partner Relationship as the Most Important Predictor  

PubMed Central

Background: No comprehensive study has been conducted on risk factors of sexual dysfunction in women with diabetes mellitus. Objectives: The aim of this study was to consider all possible influencing variables including hormonal, physical and, psychological status, socioeconomic status, and dietary intake to get more accurate and reliable results. Patients and Methods: Sexual function was assessed by Iranian validated female sexual function index (FSFI).The variables of the study were demographic and diabetes-related factors, stress-depression, physical activity, blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, lipid profile, cortisol, sex and thyroid hormones, 25-hydroxy vitamin D, and dietary intake. Results: Among all investigated variables, partner relationship showed a strong positive association with FSFI (? = 1.93 ± 0.41, P < 0.0001). In addition, not considering partner relationship, FSFI showed a significant negative association with age (? = -0.19 ± 0.20, P = 0.04), stress-depression score (? = -0.08 ± 0.04, P = 0.04), DD (? = -0.03 ± 0.01, P = 0.04), and systolic blood pressure (? = -0.14 ± 0.06, P = 0.03). Significant associations between FSFI and serum sex hormones and other biochemical were found in neither postmenopausal nor non-menopausal women. The means of SFSI in postmenopausal women were greater than non-menopausal (P = 0.02). Conclusions: It seems that in our population, female sexual function was much more than just a hormonal or physical problem and psychological factors, especially partner relationship and stress-depression, are the most determinants. In addition, age, duration of challenging with disease, and the lack of controlling systolic blood pressure were common factors that decreased sexual function. PMID:24829778

Shadman, Zhaleh; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Larijani, Bagher; Arzaghi, Seyed Masoud; Khoshniat, Mohsen

2014-01-01

373

Porcine circovirus type 2 induces the activation of nuclear factor kappa B by I{kappa}B{alpha} degradation  

SciTech Connect

The transcription factor NF-{kappa}B is commonly activated upon virus infection and a key player in the induction and regulation of the host immune response. The present study demonstrated for the first time that porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), which is the primary causative agent of an emerging swine disease, postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, can activate NF-{kappa}B in PCV2-infected PK15 cells. In PCV2-infected cells, NF-{kappa}B was activated concomitantly with viral replication, which was characterized by increased DNA binding activity, translocation of NF-{kappa}B p65 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, as well as degradation and phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha} protein. We further demonstrated PCV2-induced activation of NF-{kappa}B and colocalization of p65 nuclear translocation with virus replication in cultured cells. Treatment of cells with CAPE, a selective inhibitor of NF-{kappa}B activation, reduced virus protein expression and progeny production followed by decreasing PCV2-induced apoptotic caspase activity, indicating the involvement of this transcription factor in induction of cell death. Taken together, these data suggest that NF-{kappa}B activation is important for PCV2 replication and contributes to virus-mediated changes in host cells. The results presented here provide a basis for understanding molecular mechanism of PCV2 infection.

Wei Li [Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Beijing Municipal Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, No.9 Shuguang Garden Central Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100097 (China); Kwang, Jimmy [Animal Health Biotechnology Group, Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, National University of Singapore, 1 Research Link, Singapore 117604 (Singapore); Wang Jin; Shi Lei; Yang Bing; Li Yongqing [Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Beijing Municipal Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, No.9 Shuguang Garden Central Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100097 (China); Liu Jue [Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Beijing Municipal Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, No.9 Shuguang Garden Central Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100097 (China)], E-mail: liujue@263.net

2008-08-15

374

Seropositivity and Risk Factors for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection among Female Sex Workers in Guangxi, China  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine seropositivity of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection and associated risk factors among female sex workers (FSWs) in Guangxi, China. Methods A convenience sample of FSWs was recruited from different types of sex work venues in two cities (Wuzhou and Hezhou) in Guangxi. Blood specimens were collected for ELISA-based detection of HSV-2 antibodies to examine the seropositivity of HSV-2 infection. Socio-demographic and behavioral data were collected through a structured questionnaire interview. Association of HSV-2 seropositivity with socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics and HIV status was analyzed. Results The overall prevalence of HSV-2 seropositivity among 2453 FSWs was 54.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 52.9–56.9%). The HSV-2 seropositivity was independently associated with older age, low education level, non-Han minority, migration status, working in lower-tier venues and positive HIV status. Conclusions The study indicates a high prevalence of HSV-2 infection among FSWs, particularly in those working in low-tier venues in study areas, suggesting the needs to further emphasize the inclusion of HSV-2 in surveillance and intervention programs in this population. PMID:23894526

Chen, Shaochun; Yin, Yueping; Chen, Xiangsheng; Wang, Hongchun; Yu, Yanhua; Wei, Wanhui; Han, Yan; Jiang, Ning; Wang, Baoxi

2013-01-01

375

Defective dimerization of von Willebrand factor subunits due to a Cys-> Arg mutation in type IID von Willebrand disease.  

PubMed Central

The same heterozygous T -> C transition at nt 8567 of the von Willebrand factor (vWF) transcript was found in two unrelated patients with type III) von Willebrand disease, with no other apparent abnormality. In one family, both alleles were normal in the parents and one sister; thus, the mutation originated de novo in the proposita. The second patient also had asymptomatic parents who, however, were not available for study. The structural consequences of the identified mutation, resulting in the CyS2010 -> Arg substitution, were evaluated by expression of the vWF carboxyl-terminal domain containing residues 1366-2050. Insect cells infected with recombinant baculovirus expressing normal vWF sequence secreted a disulfide linked dimeric molecule with an apparent molecular mass of 150 kDa before reduction, yielding a single band of 80 kDa after disulfide bond reduction. In contrast, cells expressing the mutant fragment secreted a monomeric molecule of apparent molecular mass of 80 kDa, which remained unchanged after reduction. We conclude that CyS2010 is essential for normal dimerization of vWF subunits through disulfide bonding of carboxyl-terminal domains and that a heterozygous mutation in the corresponding codon is responsible for defective multimer formation in type III) von Willebrand disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:8622978

Schneppenheim, R; Brassard, J; Krey, S; Budde, U; Kunicki, T J; Holmberg, L; Ware, J; Ruggeri, Z M

1996-01-01

376

Two distinct types of neuronal asymmetries are controlled by the Caenorhabditis elegans zinc finger transcription factor die-1  

PubMed Central

Left/right asymmetric features of animals are either randomly distributed on either the left or right side within a population (“antisymmetries”) or found stereotypically on one particular side of an animal (“directional asymmetries”). Both types of asymmetries can be found in nervous systems, but whether the regulatory programs that establish these asymmetries share any mechanistic features is not known. We describe here an unprecedented molecular link between these two types of asymmetries in Caenorhabditis elegans. The zinc finger transcription factor die-1 is expressed in a directionally asymmetric manner in the gustatory neuron pair ASE left (ASEL) and ASE right (ASER), while it is expressed in an antisymmetric manner in the olfactory neuron pair AWC left (AWCL) and AWC right (AWCR). Asymmetric die-1 expression is controlled in a fundamentally distinct manner in these two neuron pairs. Importantly, asymmetric die-1 expression controls the directionally asymmetric expression of gustatory receptor proteins in the ASE neurons and the antisymmetric expression of olfactory receptor proteins in the AWC neurons. These asymmetries serve to increase the ability of the animal to discriminate distinct chemosensory inputs. PMID:24361693

Cochella, Luisa; Tursun, Baris; Hsieh, Yi-Wen; Galindo, Samantha; Johnston, Robert J.; Chuang, Chiou-Fen; Hobert, Oliver

2014-01-01

377

Impact of Blood Type, Functional Polymorphism (T-1676C) of the COX-1 Gene Promoter and Clinical Factors on the Development of Peptic Ulcer during Cardiovascular Prophylaxis with Low-Dose Aspirin  

PubMed Central

Aims. To investigate the impact of blood type, functional polymorphism (T-1676C) of the COX-1 gene promoter, and clinical factors on the development of peptic ulcer during cardiovascular prophylaxis with low-dose aspirin. Methods. In a case-control study including 111 low-dose aspirin users with peptic ulcers and 109 controls (asymptomatic aspirin users), the polymorphism (T-1676C) of the COX-1 gene promoter was genotyped, and blood type, H pylori status, and clinical factors were assessed. Results. Univariate analysis showed no significant differences in genotype frequencies of the COX-1 gene at position -1676 between the peptic ulcer group and control group. Multivariate analysis revealed that blood type O, advanced age, history of peptic ulcer, and concomitant use of NSAID were the independent risk factors for the development of peptic ulcer with the odds ratios of the 2.1, 3.1, 27.6, and 2.9, respectively. Conclusion. The C-1676T polymorphism in the COX-1 gene promoter is not a risk factor for ulcer formation during treatment with low-dose aspirin. Blood type O, advanced age, history of peptic ulcer, and concomitant use of NSAID are of independent significance in predicting peptic ulcer development during treatment with low-dose aspirin. PMID:25243161

Wang, Pin-Yao; Chen, Hsiu-Ping; Chen, Angela; Tsay, Feng-Woei; Kao, Sung-Shuo; Peng, Nan-Jing; Tseng, Hui-Hwa; Hsu, Ping-I

2014-01-01

378

Characteristics of haemolytic Escherichia coli with particular reference to production of cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1 (CNF1).  

PubMed

A total of 1,106 Escherichia coli strains isolated in Spain between 1986 and 1991 from extraintestinal infections and faeces of healthy controls were examined for production of alpha-haemolysin (Hly). Among strains causing urinary tract infections, sepsis and other extraintestinal infections, Hly production was detected in 51% (P < 0.001), 32% (P < 0.001) and 18% (P < 0.02), respectively. In contrast, only 9% of faecal isolates from healthy individuals synthesized Hly. The 356 haemolytic E. coli strains characterized in this study belonged to 28 different serogroups. However, 284 (80%) were of one of eight serogroups (02, 04, 06, 08, 018, 022, 075 and 083); 40% and 31% of haemolytic strains expressed P fimbriae and mannose-resistant haemagglutination (MRHA) type III, respectively. We have found that haemolytic isolates of E. coli may clearly be divided into two categories on the basis of the ability to produce cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1 (CNF1). The serogroups and adhesins determined in Hly+CNF1+ strains were generally different from those found in Hly+CNF1- strains. Thus, serogroups 02, 06 and 075 were associated with haemolytic E. coli producing CNF1+, whereas serogroups 01, 08, 018, 028 and 086 were established more frequently among Hly+CNF1- strains. While expression of P fimbriae was more frequently detected in Hly+CNF1- strains (70 versus 29%, P < 0.001), MRHA type III was usually identified in Hly+CNF1+ E. coli (42 versus 1%, P < 0.001). Furthermore, the sonic extracts of Hly+CNF1+ strains caused necrosis in rabbit skin (96 versus 25%, P < 0.001) and death in intraperitoneally injected mice (73 versus 11%, P < 0.001) more frequently than sonic extracts of Hly+CNF1- strains. PMID:1363736

Blanco, J; Blanco, M; Alonso, M P; Blanco, J E; González, E A; Garabal, J I

1992-01-01

379

C2H2 type of zinc finger transcription factors in foxtail millet define response to abiotic stresses.  

PubMed

C2H2 type of zinc finger transcription factors (TFs) play crucial roles in plant stress response and hormone signal transduction. Hence considering its importance, genome-wide investigation and characterization of C2H2 zinc finger proteins were performed in Arabidopsis, rice and poplar but no such study was conducted in foxtail millet which is a C4 Panicoid model crop well known for its abiotic stress tolerance. The present study identified 124 C2H2-type zinc finger TFs in foxtail millet (SiC2H2) and physically mapped them onto the genome. The gene duplication analysis revealed that SiC2H2s primarily expanded in the genome through tandem duplication. The phylogenetic tree classified these TFs into five groups (I-V). Further, miRNAs targeting SiC2H2 transcripts in foxtail millet were identified. Heat map demonstrated differential and tissue-specific expression patterns of these SiC2H2 genes. Comparative physical mapping between foxtail millet SiC2H2 genes and its orthologs of sorghum, maize and rice revealed the evolutionary relationships of C2H2 type of zinc finger TFs. The duplication and divergence data provided novel insight into the evolutionary aspects of these TFs in foxtail millet and related grass species. Expression profiling of candidate SiC2H2 genes in response to salinity, dehydration and cold stress showed differential expression pattern of these genes at different time points of stresses. PMID:24915771

Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Bonthala, Venkata Suresh; Mishra, Awdhesh Kumar; Khandelwal, Rohit; Khan, Yusuf; Roy, Riti; Prasad, Manoj

2014-09-01

380

Cooperation Between Two Growth Factors Promotes Extended Self-Renewal and Inhibits Differentiation of Oligodendrocyte-Type-2 Astrocyte (O-2A) Progenitor Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biopotential oligodendrocyte-type-2 astrocyte (O-2A) progenitor cells, which give rise to oligodendrocytes and type-2 astrocytes in cultures of rat optic nerve, are one of the few cell types in which most aspects of proliferation and differentiation can be manipulated in a defined in vitro environment. Previous studies have shown that O-2A progenitors exposed to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) divide as migratory

Oliver Bogler; Damian Wren; Susan C. Barnett; Hartmut Land; Mark Noble

1990-01-01

381

Measurements of -factor in 22.5 m type-I In,,Al...GaAsSbGaSb high power diode lasers  

E-print Network

Measurements of -factor in 2­2.5 m type-I In,,Al...GaAsSb�GaSb high power diode lasers L-temperature-operated high-power 2­2.5 m In Al GaAsSb/GaSb type-I quantum-well QW lasers were measured using Hakki measured the current dependences of the -factor spectrum of type-I 2­2.5 m In Al GaAsSb/GaSb diode lasers

382

Binding of host-cell factors to DNA sequences in the long terminal repeat of human T-cell leukemia virus type I: implications for viral gene expression  

SciTech Connect

Efficient expression of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) genes requires both host and viral proteins and is dependent on DNA sequences in the proviral long terminal repeats (LTRs). The authors have used DNase I-protection assays (footprinting) to construct a map of protein-DNA interactions over a 250-nucleotide region of the LTR upstream of the start site for viral RNA synthesis. They find that a host factor (host expression factor 1, or HEF-1) binds to the imperfect 21-nucleotide repeats that have previously been implicated in HTLV-I gene expression. HEF-1 binding activity is present in preparations from both lymphoid and nonlymphoid cells lines. However, the boundaries of the protected regions and the presence of a flanking DNase-hypersensitive site vary with cell type. Several regions of binding are detected in addition to the HEF-1 sites, including a complex group of sites 40-90 nucleotides upstream of the RNA start site. A comparison of HTLV-I transformed T lymphocytes that do and do not express the viral trans-activating protein p40/sup xI/ shows that none of the observed features of the DNase I footprint pattern correlate directly with the presence of this protein in the extract. These results suggest (i) that the primary recognition of promoter elements in the HTLV-I LTR involves specific interactions with host-cell proteins and (ii) that p40/sup xI/ influences the activity of one or more of these proteins, rather than interacting directly with the DNA.

Nyborg, J.K.; Dynan, W.S.; Chen, I.S.Y.; Wachsman, W.

1988-03-01

383

Development of a novel, short, self-completed questionnaire on empowerment for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and an analysis of factors affecting patient empowerment  

PubMed Central

Background Patient empowerment has recently been proposed as an important concept in self-management for effective glycemic control. A concise self-completed questionnaire for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was created to comprehensively evaluate their empowerment on the basis of self-managed dietary/exercise behaviors, psychological impact, and family support. The reliability and validity of this short questionnaire were tested and factors relating to patient empowerment were analyzed. Methods The self-completed empowerment questionnaire was based on questionnaires for self-managed dietary and exercise behaviors, the Appraisal of Diabetes Scale, and the Diabetes Family Behavior Checklist. The questionnaire was trialed on 338 male and female patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who lived with family. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were investigated and stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify factors that affect patient empowerment. Results The self-completed patient empowerment questionnaire included 13 questions on background data (e.g., age, gender, and HbA1c) and 18 questions within five scales to assess self-managed dietary behaviors, self-managed exercise behaviors, and psychological impact of diabetes, as well as positive and negative feedback in patient-family communication. The questionnaire showed sufficient internal consistency, construct validity, reproducibility, factorial construct validity, and concurrent validity. The results were generally satisfactory, and the questionnaire reflected the particular characteristics of treatment methods. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that patient empowerment was strongly affected by the number of disease-related symptoms, age, and gender. Conclusions The results suggest that the concise self-completed empowerment questionnaire developed here is useful for measuring the empowerment of individual patients and evaluating the impact of symptoms and therapies on empowerment. PMID:25183994

2014-01-01

384

Factor Trees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online activity, the learner finds the prime factorization of composite numbers by building factor trees. A second level includes finding the greatest common factor and the least common multiple by sorting factors using a Venn Diagram.

2010-01-01

385

Underreporting of energy intake and associated factors in a Latino population at risk of developing type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the extent of underreporting of total energy intake and associated factors in a low-income, low-literacy, predominantly Caribbean Latino community in Lawrence, MA. Two hundred fifteen Latinos participated in a diabetes prevention study, for which eligibility included a >or=30% risk of developing diabetes in 7.5 years. Dietary self-reported energy intake was assessed using three randomly selected days of 24-hour diet recalls. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) was estimated using the Mifflin-St Jeor equation. Underreporting was determined by computing a ratio of energy intake to BMR, with a ratio of 1.55 expected for sedentary populations. Linear regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with underreporting (energy intake:BMR ratio). The population was predominately women (77%), middle-aged (mean 52+/-11 years), obese (78% had a body mass index >or=30); low-literate (62% < high school education), unemployed (57% reported no job), married or living with partner (52%), and some had a family history of diabetes (37% had siblings with diabetes). Reported total daily energy intake was 1,540+/-599 kcal, whereas estimated BMR was 1,495.7+/-245.1 kcal/day. When multiplied by an activity factor (1.20 for sedentariness), expected energy intake was 1,794+/-294.0 per day, indicating underreporting by an average of 254 kcal/day. Mean energy intake:BMR was 1.03+/-0.37, and was lower for participants with higher body mass index, siblings with diabetes, sedentary lifestyle, and those who were unemployed. Energy intake underreporting is prevalent in this low-income, low-literacy Caribbean Latino population. Future studies are needed to develop dietary assessment measures that minimize underreporting in this population. PMID:18502234

Olendzki, Barbara C; Ma, Yunsheng; Hébert, James R; Pagoto, Sherry L; Merriam, Philip A; Rosal, Milagros C; Ockene, Ira S

2008-06-01

386

[High-altitude hypoxia induces disorders of the brain-endocrine-immune network through activation of corticotropin-releasing factor and its type-1 receptors].  

PubMed

High-altitude hypoxia can induce physiological dysfunction and mountain sickness, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and CRF type-i receptors (CRFR1) are members of the CRF family and the essential controllers of the physiological activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and modulators of endocrine and behavioral activity in response to various stressors. We have previously found that high-altitude hypoxia induces disorders of the brain-endocrine-immune network through activation of CRF and CRFR1 in the brain and periphery that include activation of the HPA axis in a time- and dose-dependent manner, impaired or improved learning and memory, and anxiety-like behavioral change. Meanwhile, hypoxia induces dysfunctions of the hypothalamo-pituitary-endocrine and immune systems, including suppression of growth and development, as well as inhibition of reproductive, metabolic and immune functions. In contrast, the small mammals that live on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau alpine meadow display low responsiveness to extreme high-altitude-hypoxia challenge, suggesting well-acclimatized genes and a physiological strategy that developed during evolution through interactions between the genes and environment. All the findings provide evidence for understanding the neuroendocrine mechanisms of hypoxia-induced physiological dysfunction. This review extends these findings. PMID:23581176

Chen, Xue-Qun; Kong, Fan-Ping; Zhao, Yang; Du, Ji-Zeng

2012-11-01

387

Nitrogen-source regulation of yeast gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase synthesis involves the regulatory network including the GATA zinc-finger factors Gln3, Nil1/Gat1 and Gzf3.  

PubMed Central

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the CIS2 gene encodes gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT; EC 2.3.2.2), the main GSH-degrading enzyme. The promoter region of CIS2 contains one stress-response element (CCCCT) and eight GAT(T/A)A core sequences, probably involved in nitrogen-regulated transcription. We show in the present study that expression of CIS2 is indeed regulated according to the nature of the nitrogen source. Expression is highest in cells growing on a poor nitrogen source such as urea. Under these conditions, the GATA zinc-finger transcription factors Nil1 and Gln3 are both required for CIS2 expression, Nil1 appearing as the more important factor. We further show that Gzf3, another GATA zinc-finger protein, acts as a negative regulator in nitrogen-source control of CIS2 expression. During growth on a preferred nitrogen source like NH(4)(+), CIS2 expression is repressed through a mechanism involving (at least) the Gln3-binding protein Ure2/GdhCR. Induction of CIS2 expression during nitrogen starvation is dependent on Gln3 and Nil1. Furthermore, rapamycin causes similar CIS2 activation, indicating that the target of rapamycin signalling pathway controls CIS2 expression via Gln3 and Nil1 in nitrogen-starved cells. Finally, our results show that CIS2 expression is induced mainly by nitrogen starvation but apparently not by other types of stress. PMID:12529169

Springael, Jean-Yves; Penninckx, Michel J

2003-01-01

388

Cell type-specific modifications of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and its type 1 receptor (CRF1) on startle behavior and sensorimotor gating.  

PubMed

The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family of peptides and receptors coordinates the mammalian endocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses to stress. Excessive CRF production has been implicated in the etiology of stress-sensitive psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is associated with alterations in startle plasticity. The CRF family of peptides and receptors mediate acute startle response changes during stress, and chronic CRF activation can induce startle abnormalities. To determine what neural circuits modulate startle in response to chronic CRF activation, transgenic mice overexpressing CRF throughout the central nervous system (CNS; CRF-COE(CNS)) or restricted to inhibitory GABAergic neurons (CRF-COE(GABA)) were compared across multiple domains of startle plasticity. CRF overexpression throughout the CNS increased startle magnitude and reduced ability to inhibit startle (decreased habituation and decreased prepulse inhibition (PPI)), similar to previous reports of exogenous effects of CRF. Conversely, CRF overexpression confined to inhibitory neurons decreased startle magnitude but had no effect on inhibitory measures. Acute CRF receptor 1 (CRF1) antagonist treatment attenuated only the effects on startle induced by CNS-specific CRF overexpression. Specific deletion of CRF1 receptors from forebrain principal neurons failed to alter the effects of exogenous CRF or stress on startle, suggesting that these CRF1 expressing neurons are not required for CRF-induced changes in startle behaviors. These data indicate that the effects of CRF activation on startle behavior utilize an extensive neural circuit that includes both forebrain and non-forebrain regions. Furthermore, these findings suggest that the neural source of increased CRF release determines the startle phenotype elicited. It is conceivable that this may explain why disorders characterized by increased CRF in cerebrospinal fluid (e.g. PTSD and major depressive disorder) have distinct symptom profiles in terms of startle reactivity. PMID:25575243

Flandreau, Elizabeth; Risbrough, Victoria; Lu, Ailing; Ableitner, Martin; Geyer, Mark A; Holsboer, Florian; Deussing, Jan M

2015-03-01

389

Alterations in insulin-like growth factor-1 gene and protein expression and type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptors in the brains of ageing rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ageing in mammals is characterized by a decline in plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 that appears to contribute to both structural and functional changes in a number of tissues. Although insulin-like growth factor-1 has been shown to provide trophic support for neurons and administration of insulin-like growth factor-1 to ageing animals reverses some aspects of brain ageing, age-related changes

W. E Sonntag; C. D Lynch; S. A Bennett; A. S Khan; P. L Thornton; P. T Cooney; R. L Ingram; T McShane; J. K Brunso-Bechtold

1999-01-01

390

Activation of human papillomavirus type 18 E6-E7 oncogene expression by transcription factor Sp1.  

PubMed Central

The human papillomavirus 18 (HPV18) E6 and E7 proteins are considered to be primarily responsive for the transforming activity of the virus. In order to analyse the molecular mechanisms resulting in viral oncoprotein expression, it is necessary to identify the factors involved in the transcriptional regulation of the E6/E7 genes. Here we define by gel retardation experiments a sequence aberrant Sp1 binding site present in the promoter proximal part of the viral transcriptional control region (Upstream Regulatory Region, URR). Functional analyses employing transient reporter assays reveal that this Sp1 element is required for an efficient stimulation of the HPV18 E6/E7-promoter. Mutation of the Sp1 element in the natural context of the HPV18 URR leads to a strong decrease in the activity of the E6/E7-promoter in several cell lines. The magnitude of reduction varies between different cell types and is higher in cell lines of epithelial origin when compared with nonepithelial cells. Cotransfection assays using Sp1 expression vector systems further define the promoter proximal HPV18 Sp1 binding motif as a functional Sp1 element in vivo and show that its integrity is essential for the stimulation of the E6/E7-promoter by augmented levels of Sp1. These results indicate, that the cellular transcription factor Sp1 plays an important role for the stimulation of the E6/E7-promoter by the viral URR and represents a major determinant for the expression of HPV18 transforming genes E6 and E7. Images PMID:1336181

Hoppe-Seyler, F; Butz, K

1992-01-01

391

Differential transcriptional and posttranslational transcription factor 7-like regulation among nondiabetic individuals and type 2 diabetic patients.  

PubMed

Human genetic studies have revealed that the T minor allele of single nucleotide polymorphism rs7903146 in the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene is strongly associated with an increased risk of diabetes by 30%-40%. Molecular and clinical studies are of great importance for understanding how this unique variation in TCF7L2 influences type 2 diabetes (T2D) onset and progression. At the molecular level, some studies have been performed in diabetic mice and pancreatic islets from healthy human donors. Whereas TCF7L2 mRNA levels are up-regulated in islets, protein levels are down-regulated. We performed studies on TCF7L2 splicing, mRNA expression, and protein levels in immortalized human lymphocytes from nondiabetic individuals and T2D patients carrying the C/C or the at-risk T/T genotype. Our results show differential expression of TCF7L2 splice variants between nondiabetic and T2D patients carrying the at-risk genotype, as well as differences in protein levels. Therefore, we investigated the regulation of splice variants, and our results propose that splicing of exon 4 is under control of the serine-arginine-rich factor transformer 2 ? (TRA2B). Finally, we studied the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways, looking for a posttranslational explanation. We saw a shift in the activation of these pathways between nondiabetic individuals and T2D patients carrying the at-risk genotype. These results suggest that, in human immortalized lymphocytes carrying the at-risk T/T genotype, first the differential expression of TCF7L2 splice variants implies a regulation, at least for exon 4, by TRA2B and second, the differential protein levels between both T/T carriers point to a different activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways. PMID:25058603

Pradas-Juni, M; Nicod, N; Fernández-Rebollo, E; Gomis, R

2014-09-01

392

Central urocortin 3 and type 2 corticotropin-releasing factor receptor in the regulation of energy homeostasis: critical involvement of the ventromedial hypothalamus  

PubMed Central

The vital role of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) peptide family in the brain in coordinating response to stress has been extensively documented. The effects of CRF are mediated by two G-protein-coupled receptors, type 1 and type 2 CRF receptors (CRF1 and CRF2). While the functional role of CRF1 in hormonal and behavioral adaptation to stress is well-known, the physiological significance of CRF2 remains to be fully appreciated. Accumulating evidence has indicated that CRF2 and its selective ligands including urocortin 3 (Ucn 3) are important molecular mediators in regulating energy balance. Ucn 3 is the latest addition of the CRF family of peptides and is highly selective for CRF2. Recent studies have shown that central Ucn 3 is important in a number of homeostatic functions including suppression of feeding, regulation of blood glucose levels, and thermoregulation, thus reinforcing the functional role of central CRF2 in metabolic regulation. The brain loci that mediate the central effects of Ucn 3 remain to be fully determined. Anatomical and functional evidence has suggested that the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), where CRF2 is prominently expressed, appears to be instrumental in mediating the effects of Ucn 3 on energy balance, permitting Ucn 3-mediated modulation of feeding and glycemic control. Thus, the Ucn 3-VMH CRF2 system is an important neural pathway in the regulation of energy homeostasis and potentially plays a critical role in energy adaptation in response to metabolic perturbations and stress to maintain energy balance. PMID:23316185

Chen, Peilin; Hover, Christine Van; Lindberg, Daniel; Li, Chien

2013-01-01

393

A qualitative description of falls in a neuro-rehabilitation unit: the use of a standardised fall report including the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) to describe activities and environmental factors.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: Falls are a recognised problem for people with long-term neurological conditions but less is known about fall risk in young adults. This study describes fallers' and falls' characteristics in adults less than 60 years old, in a neuro-rehabilitation unit. Methods: This single-centre, longitudinal, observational study included 114 consecutive admissions to a UK neuro-rehabilitation unit over 20 months. The demographic and clinical characteristics of eligible patients included age, sex, diagnosis, hospital length of stay and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). Falls were recorded prospectively in a fall report, using the activities and environmental domains of the International Classification of Functioning (ICF). Results: A total of 34 (30%) patients reported a fall, with 50% experiencing more than one fall. The majority of falls (60%) occurred during the first 2 weeks, during day-time (90%) and during mobile activities (70%). Overall, falls rate (95% confidence interval) was 1.33 (1.04 to 1.67) per 100?d of patient hospital stay. Factors associated with increased falls included becoming a walker during admission or being cognitively impaired. There were no serious fall-related injuries. Conclusion: The first 2 weeks of admission is a high risk time for fallers, in particular those who become walkers or are cognitively impaired. Prevention policies should be put in place based on fall characteristics. Implications for Rehabilitation The ICF is a valuable instrument for describing subject and environmental factors during a fall-event. Falls are frequent events but do not usually cause serious injuries during inpatient rehabilitation. There is an increased fall risk for subjects with cognitive impairments or those relearning how to walk. PMID:24865406

Saverino, Alessia; Moriarty, Amy; Rantell, Khadija; Waller, Denise; Ayres, Rachael; Playford, Diane

2014-05-28

394

Recombinant growth factor mixtures induce cell cycle progression and the upregulation of type I collagen in human skin fibroblasts, resulting in the acceleration of wound healing processes.  

PubMed

Application of growth factor mixtures has been used for wound healing and anti-wrinkles agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant growth factor mixtures (RGFM) on the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins, type I collagen, and wound healing processes of acute animal wound models. The results showed that RGFM induced increased rates of cell proliferation and cell migration of human skin fibroblasts (HSF). In addition, expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)4, and Cdk2 proteins was markedly increased with a growth factor mixtures treatment in fibroblasts. Expression of type I collagen was also increased in growth factor mixtures-treated HSF. Moreover, growth factor mixtures-induced the upregulation of type I collagen was associated with the activation of Smad2/3. In the animal model, RGFM-treated mice showed accelerated wound closure, with the closure rate increasing as early as on day 7, as well as re-epithelization and reduced inflammatory cell infiltration than phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-treated mice. In conclusion, the results indicated that RGFM has the potential to accelerate wound healing through the upregulation of type I collagen, which is partly mediated by activation of Smad2/3-dependent signaling pathway as well as cell cycle progression in HSF. The topical application of growth factor mixtures to acute and chronic skin wound may accelerate the epithelization process through these molecular mechanisms. PMID:24626875

Lee, Do Hyun; Choi, Kyung-Ha; Cho, Jae-We; Kim, So Young; Kwon, Tae Rin; Choi, Sun Young; Choi, Yoo Mi; Lee, Jay; Yoon, Ho Sang; Kim, Beom Joon

2014-05-01

395

Safety and efficacy of linagliptin in type 2 diabetes patients with common renal and cardiovascular risk factors.  

PubMed

Dipeptidyl-peptidase-IV (DPP-4) inhibitors have become an important orally active drug class for the treatment of type 2 diabetes as second-line therapy after metformin failure or as monotherapy or combination therapy with other drugs when metformin is not tolerated or contraindicated. DPP-4 inhibitors act mainly by increasing endogenous incretin hormone concentrations. They stimulate insulin secretion and inhibit glucagon secretion in a glucose-dependent manner with a significantly lower risk for hypoglycaemia than sulfonylureas. Furthermore, DPP-4 inhibitors are weight neutral. Linagliptin is a DPP-4 inhibitor that is eliminated by a hepatobiliary route, whereas the other DPP-4 inhibitors available today show a renal elimination. Therefore, it can be used in normal kidney function as well as in all stages of chronic kidney disease to stage 5 (glomerular filtration rate <15 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) without dose adjustments. Linagliptin was noninferior to metformin and sulfonylureas in clinical studies. In recent studies, it showed a superior safety profile over sulfonylurea treatment regarding hypoglycaemia and weight gain. More patients reached an HbA1c <7% without hypoglycaemia and weight gain with linagliptin compared with glimepiride. The safety profile with respect to a composite cardiovascular endpoint and stroke was also favourable for linagliptin, most likely due to a higher incidence of hypoglycaemia associated with glimepiride therapy and titration. This review gives an overview on the efficacy and safety of linagliptin in comparison with other antidiabetic drugs in type 2 diabetes patients with renal and cardiovascular risk factors as well as an outlook on the perspective for linagliptin in this patient population in the future. PMID:23730503

Gallwitz, Baptist

2013-06-01

396

Experimental Determination of the Recovery Factor and Analytical Solution of the Conical Flow Field for a 20 deg Included Angle Cone at Mach Numbers of 4.6 and 6.0 and Stagnation Temperatures to 2600 degree R  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The local recovery factor was determined experimentally along the surface of a thin-walled 20 deg included angle cone for Mach numbers near 6.0 at stagnation temperatures between 1200 deg R and 2600 deg R. In addition, a similar cone configuration was tested at Mach numbers near 4.5 at stagnation temperatures of approximately 612 deg R. The local Reynolds number based on flow properties at the edge of the boundary layer ranged between 0.1 x 10(exp 4) and 3.5 x 10(exp 4) for tests at temperatures above 1200 deg R and between 6 x 10(exp 4) and 25 x 10(exp 4) for tests at temperatures near 612 deg R. The results indicated, generally, that the recovery factor can be predicted satisfactorily using the square root of the Prandtl number. No conclusion could be made as to the necessity of evaluating the Prandtl number at a reference temperature given by an empirical equation, as opposed to evaluating the Prandtl number at the wall temperature or static temperature of the gas at the cone surface. For the tests at temperatures above 1200 deg R (indicated herein as the tests conducted in the slip-flow region), two definite trends in the recovery data were observed - one of increasing recovery factor with decreasing stagnation pressure, which was associated with slip-flow effects and one of decreasing recovery factor with increasing temperature. The true cause of the latter trend could not be ascertained, but it was shown that this trend was not appreciably altered by the sources of error of the magnitude considered herein. The real-gas equations of state were used to determine accurately the local stream properties at the outer edge of the boundary layer of the cone. Included in the report, therefore, is a general solution for the conical flow of a real gas using the Beattie-Bridgeman equation of state. The largest effect of temperature was seen to be in the terms which were dependent upon the internal energy of the gas. The pressure and hence the pressure drag terms were unaffected.

Pfyl, Frank A.; Presley, Leroy L.

1961-01-01

397

Inhibition equivalency factors for microcystin variants in recombinant and wild-type protein phosphatase 1 and 2A assays.  

PubMed

In this work, protein phosphatase inhibition assays (PPIAs) have been used to evaluate the performance of recombinant PP1 and recombinant and wild-type PP2As. The enzymes have been compared using microcystins-LR (MC-LR) as a model cyanotoxin. Whereas PP2ARec provides a limit of detection (LOD) of 3.1 ?g/L, PP1Rec and PP2AWild provide LODs of 0.6 and 0.5 ?g/L, respectively, lower than the guideline value proposed by the World Health Organization (1 ?g/L). The inhibitory potencies of seven MC variants (-LR, -RR, -dmLR, -YR, -LY, -LW and -LF) have been evaluated, resulting on 50 % inhibition coefficient (IC50) values ranging from 1.4 to 359.3 ?g/L depending on the MC variant and the PP. The PPIAs have been applied to the determination of MC equivalent contents in a natural cyanobacterial bloom and an artificially contaminated sample, with multi-MC profiles. The inhibition equivalency factors (IEFs) have been applied to the individual MC quantifications determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis, and the estimated MC-LR equivalent content has been compared to PPIA results. PPIAs have demonstrated to be applicable as MC screening tools for environmental applications and to protect human and animal health. PMID:24870287

Garibo, Diana; Flores, Cintia; Cetó, Xavier; Prieto-Simón, Beatriz; Del Valle, Manel; Caixach, Josep; Diogène, Jorge; Campàs, Mònica

2014-09-01

398

Serum insulin-like growth factor type 1 concentrations in healthy dogs and dogs with spontaneous primary hypothyroidism.  

PubMed

Circulating insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF-1) concentrations in dogs have been correlated with standard breed bodyweight (SBBW or breed size). Thyroid and somatotropic functions, which have common effects and regulatory mechanisms, were investigated in hypothyroid dogs. IGF-1 was measured in 495 adult healthy dogs (N) and in 220 primary hypothyroid dogs (HOT) with clinical and biological signs of primary hypothyroidism. IGF-1 was determined as a function of SBBW (kg): ?15 (group A); 1540 (group D). In HOT dogs, median fT4 and c-TSH values were 9pmol/L and 1.5ng/mL, respectively. A significant correlation between bodyweight (BW) and IGF-1 was observed in both HOT and N dogs. The median IGF-1 value (ng/mL) was significantly higher (P<0.01) in HOT dogs compared to N in groups B, C and D (230 vs. 182; 316 vs. 230; 606 vs. 306 respectively). In conclusion, IGF-1 concentration should be interpreted in the context of SBBW in dogs and increases in spontaneous primary hypothyroidism. However, it remains unclear if this association is directly due to hypothyroidism or is the result of the weight gain accompanying hypothyroidism. PMID:21546289

Jaillardon, Laetitia; Martin, Lucile; Nguyen, Patrick; Siliart, Brigitte

2011-11-01

399

Environmental factors affecting the expression of type IV pilus genes as well as piliation of Thermus thermophilus.  

PubMed

The thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB27 is known for its highly efficient natural transformation system, which has become a model system to study the structure and function of DNA transporter in thermophilic bacteria. The DNA transporter is functionally linked to type IV pili (T4P), which are essential for twitching motility and adhesion to solid surfaces. However, the pilus structures themselves are dispensable for natural transformation. Here, we report that the cellular mRNA levels of the major structural subunit of the T4P, PilA4, are regulated by environmental factors. Growth of T. thermophilus in minimal medium or low temperature (55 °C) leads to a significant increase in pilA4 transcripts. In contrast, the transcript levels of the minor pilin pilA1 as well as other T4P genes are nearly unaffected. The elevated pilA4 mRNA levels are accompanied by an increase in piliation of the cells but not by elevated natural transformation frequencies. Hyperpiliation leads to increased adhesion to plastic surfaces. The increased cell-surface interactions are suggested to represent an adaptive response to temperature stress and may be advantageous for survival of T. thermophilus. PMID:24935261

Salzer, Ralf; Kern, Timo; Joos, Friederike; Averhoff, Beate