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1

Expression of serine\\/threonine kinase receptors including the bone morphogenetic factor type II receptor in the developing and adult rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expression patterns of serine\\/threonine kinase receptors in the central nervous system of the developing and adult rat were studied by in situ hybridization. The recently cloned bone morphogenetic factor receptor type II (BMPR-II) was compared with the ActR-II and several type I receptors including ActR-I, ActR-IB, BMPR-IA, BMPR-IB and T#R-I. We found that these receptors are spatially and temporally

Stine Söderström; Henrik Bengtsson; Ted Ebendal

1996-01-01

2

An epidemiological study to identify the risk factors with two different types of controls in high-grade cervical lesions including invasive cancer.  

PubMed

A multidisciplinary study on pre-cancerous and early cancerous lesions of uterine cervix was carried out at our Institute from which the subjects (cases and one group of control) for the present study were selected with the objective to identify the possible risk factors related to high-grade cervical lesions including invasive cancer through an epidemiological study by selecting two different types of controls and to assess the feasibility whether the cancers of other organs could be taken as controls at the same time studying the risk factors associated with cervical cancer. One group of control was women with negative Pap smear and second group of control was the women with breast cancer but negative Pap smear. A total of 100 biopsy-proven cases of high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesions and Invasive cancer were recruited. The results of the study show that some of the risk factors associated with the cervical cancer get exaggerated when breast cancer cases were used as controls because risk factors of both cancers are opposite to each other. So it is concluded that in order to remove any bias, normal hospital controls or controls selected from multiple cancers should be taken to study the risk factors involved in cervical carcinogenesis. PMID:19549283

Sardana, S; Sharma, S; Sodhani, P; Sehgal, A; DAS, B C

2009-11-01

3

Laser Microdissection Unravels Cell-Type-Specific Transcription in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Roots, Including CAAT-Box Transcription Factor Gene Expression Correlating with Fungal Contact and Spread1[W  

PubMed Central

Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) are the most widespread symbioses on Earth, promoting nutrient supply of most terrestrial plant species. To unravel gene expression in defined stages of Medicago truncatula root colonization by AM fungi, we here combined genome-wide transcriptome profiling based on whole mycorrhizal roots with real-time reverse transcription-PCR experiments that relied on characteristic cell types obtained via laser microdissection. Our genome-wide approach delivered a core set of 512 genes significantly activated by the two mycorrhizal fungi Glomus intraradices and Glomus mossae. Focusing on 62 of these genes being related to membrane transport, signaling, and transcriptional regulation, we distinguished whether they are activated in arbuscule-containing or the neighboring cortical cells harboring fungal hyphae. In addition, cortical cells from nonmycorrhizal roots served as a reference for gene expression under noncolonized conditions. Our analysis identified 25 novel arbuscule-specific genes and 37 genes expressed both in the arbuscule-containing and the adjacent cortical cells colonized by fungal hyphae. Among the AM-induced genes specifying transcriptional regulators were two members encoding CAAT-box binding transcription factors (CBFs), designated MtCbf1 and MtCbf2. Promoter analyses demonstrated that both genes were already activated by the first physical contact between the symbionts. Subsequently, and corresponding to our cell-type expression patterns, they were progressively up-regulated in those cortical areas colonized by fungal hyphae, including the arbuscule-containing cells. The encoded CBFs thus represent excellent candidates for regulators that mediate a sequential reprogramming of root tissues during the establishment of an AM symbiosis.

Hogekamp, Claudia; Arndt, Damaris; Pereira, Patricia A.; Becker, Jorg D.; Hohnjec, Natalija; Kuster, Helge

2011-01-01

4

Include All 4 Types of Exercise (Endurance, Strength, Balance, Flexibility)  

MedlinePLUS

... nih.gov/Go4Life ENDURANCE FLEXIBILITY STRENGTH BALANCE Include All 4 Types of Exercise Exercise generally falls into ... physical activity plan—this will help you incorporate all four types of exercise into your daily routine. ...

5

Factors of importance for dynamic balance impairment and frequency of falls in individuals with myotonic dystrophy type 1 - a cross-sectional study - including reference values of Timed Up & Go, 10m walk and step test.  

PubMed

Patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 suffer from gait difficulties including stumbles and falls. To identify factors of importance for balance impairment and fall-risk a mapping of functional balance was performed, in a cross-sectional study of 51 adults. Walking, balance, falls and muscle force were self-assessed and measured. Reference values of balance were established through measurements of 220 healthy subjects. Falls were more frequently observed in the patients who were more severely affected of muscle weakness than in mildly affected patients, p=0.014. The number of falls showed negative correlation with balance confidence (rs=-0.516, p<0.001). The ankle dorsiflexor force together with the time difference between comfortable and maximum speed in 10m-walk proved to be significant factors for fall frequency. A ten Newton muscle force decrease showed 15% increase in odds ratio for frequent falls. One-second increase in time difference between comfortable and maximum walking speed showed 42% increase in odds ratio for frequent falls. In conclusion, assessing the ankle muscle force and the time difference in different walking speeds is important to detect risk of falling. The activities-specific balance confidence score reflects the consequences of the muscle force decrease. Certain patient strategies to diminish risk of falling could be due. PMID:24412157

Hammarén, Elisabet; Kjellby-Wendt, Gunilla; Kowalski, Jan; Lindberg, Christopher

2014-03-01

6

Risk Factors for Breast Cancer, Including Occupational Exposures  

PubMed Central

The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr). For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as "carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1): alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure). Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification "probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A) includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.

Meo, Margrethe; Vainio, Harri

2011-01-01

7

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor3 (VEGFR-3): A Marker of Vascular Tumors with Presumed Lymphatic Differentiation, Including Kaposi's Sarcoma, Kaposiform and Dabska-Type Hemangioendotheliomas, and a Subset of Angiosarcomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, a novel monoclonal antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR-3), a tyrosine kinase receptor expressed almost exclusively by lymphatic endothelium in the adult, has been shown to react with a small number of cases of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and cutaneous lymphangiomas. We sought to extend these studies to a large number of well-characterized vascular neoplasms to evaluate

Andrew L. Folpe; Tanja Veikkola; Reija Valtola; Sharon W. Weiss

2000-01-01

8

Photovoltaic Device Including A Boron Doping Profile In An I-Type Layer  

DOEpatents

A photovoltaic cell for use in a single junction or multijunction photovoltaic device, which includes a p-type layer of a semiconductor compound including silicon, an i-type layer of an amorphous semiconductor compound including silicon, and an n-type layer of a semiconductor compound including silicon formed on the i-type layer. The i-type layer including an undoped first sublayer formed on the p-type layer, and a boron-doped second sublayer formed on the first sublayer.

Yang, Liyou (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1993-10-26

9

78 FR 26847 - Including Specific Pavement Types in Federal-aid Highway Traffic Noise Analyses  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration [FHWA Docket No. FHWA-2013-0014...Including Specific Pavement Types in Federal-aid Highway Traffic Noise Analyses AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION:...

2013-05-08

10

Braid monodromy factorizations and diffeomorphism types  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we prove that if two cuspidal plane curves B_1 and B_2 have equivalent braid monodromy factorizations, then B_1 and B_2 are smoothly isotopic in \\mathbb C\\mathbb P^2. As a consequence, we obtain that if S_1, S_2 are surfaces of general type embedded in a projective space by means of a multiple canonical class and if the discriminant curves (the branch curves) B_1, B_2 of some smooth projections of S_1, S_2 to \\mathbb{CP}^2 have equivalent braid monodromy factorizations, then S_1 and S_2 are diffeomorphic (as real four-dimensional manifolds).

Kulikov, Vik S.; Teicher, M.

2000-04-01

11

Efficacy assessment of a new clotting factor concentrate in haemophilia A patients, including prophylactic treatment.  

PubMed

Currently, efficacy of a new factor concentrate is mostly judged by its ability to achieve haemostasis after a bleeding episode. However, in patients on prophylaxis, the effectiveness in preventing bleeds, and thus joint damage, is most important. An albumin-free recombinant factor VIII (FVIII) concentrate was introduced in the Netherlands in 2004. In this study, the efficacy of a new recombinant plasma/albumin-free FVIII concentrate (rAHF-PFM, Advate) was assessed by comparing bleeding frequency and factor consumption before and after switching to the new product, on both prophylactic and on-demand treatment. Eighty-two previously treated haemophilia A patients with at least 1-year clinical follow-up were included in this study. Data on 410 patient-years were analysed, including 165 patient-years on other clotting factor products, and 245 patient-years on the new concentrate. In total, 19 628 368 IU of other factor concentrates were administered, to treat 839 bleeds, including 578 joint bleeds and cover 104 years of prophylactic treatment. For rAHF-PFM 33 082 250 IU FVIII, were used to treat 1144 bleeds, including 734 joint bleeds and cover 175 years of prophylactic treatment. No inhibitors, seroconversions or other serious adverse events were observed. Annual FVIII consumption per kg and annual number of joint bleeds before and after switching to the new albumin-free recombinant factor concentrate were similar in all patients. In conclusion, rAHF-PFM is equally effective as other clotting factor concentrates for prophylactic treatment in severe haemophilia. PMID:19686467

Den Uijl, I; Mauser-Bunschoten, E P; Roosendaal, G; Schutgens, R; Fischer, K

2009-11-01

12

Analytical expressions for the gate utilization factors of passive multiplicity counters including signal build-up  

SciTech Connect

In the realm of nuclear safeguards, passive neutron multiplicity counting using shift register pulse train analysis to nondestructively quantify Pu in product materials is a familiar and widely applied technique. The approach most commonly taken is to construct a neutron detector consisting of {sup 3}He filled cylindrical proportional counters embedded in a high density polyethylene moderator. Fast neutrons from the item enter the moderator and are quickly slowed down, on timescales of the order of 1-2 {micro}s, creating a thermal population which then persists typically for several 10's {micro}s and is sampled by the {sup 3}He detectors. Because the initial transient is of comparatively short duration it has been traditional to treat it as instantaneous and furthermore to approximate the subsequent capture time distribution as exponential in shape. With these approximations simple expressions for the various Gate Utilization Factors (GUFs) can be obtained. These factors represent the proportion of time correlated events i.e. Doubles and Triples signal present in the pulse train that is detected by the coincidence gate structure chosen (predelay and gate width settings of the multiplicity shift register). More complicated expressions can be derived by generalizing the capture time distribution to multiple time components or harmonics typically present in real systems. When it comes to applying passive neutron multiplicity methods to extremely intense (i.e. high emission rate and highly multiplying) neutron sources there is a drive to use detector types with very fast response characteristics in order to cope with the high rates. In addition to short pulse width, detectors with a short capture time profile are also desirable so that a short coincidence gate width can be set in order to reduce the chance or Accidental coincidence signal. In extreme cases, such as might be realized using boron loaded scintillators, the dieaway time may be so short that the build-up (thermalization transient) within the detector cannot be ignored. Another example where signal build-up might be observed is when a {sup 3}He based system is used to track the evolution of the time correlated signal created by a higher multiplying item within a reflective configuration such as the measurement of a spent fuel assembly. In this work we develop expressions for the GUFs which include signal build-up.

Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Evans, Louise G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schear, Melissa A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

13

Gas Deliverability Model: Version RDAFTX43 - Includes Economic Factors and Price Constraints (RDAFTX84).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gas Deliverability Model: Version RDAFTX43-Includes Economic Factors and Price Constraints (RDAFTX84). The RDAFTX84 Program serves as a model for estimating the additional nonassociated gas that might be recovered from existing U.S. fields if the wellhead...

S. Cohen C. Cranston

1985-01-01

14

Active proliferation of different cell types, including lymphocytes, in human atherosclerotic plaques.  

PubMed Central

Cell proliferation, an important mechanism of atherosclerotic plaque growth, occurs among smooth muscle, inflammatory cell, and other cell types. We have identified different topographical patterns of cell proliferation in human carotid plaques, based on cell type. Cell proliferation was determined with an antibody to the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), combined with cell type-specific antibodies. Despite low levels of overall proliferative activity, the intima displayed more proliferative activity than the underlying media (1.61 +/- 0.35% in intima versus 0.05 +/- 0.03% in media; P < 0.01). The preponderant proliferative cell type in the intima was the monocyte/macrophage (46.0% of PCNA-positive cells), with a minority being smooth muscle alpha-actin-positive (9.7%), microvascular endothelial (14.3%), and T cells (13.1%). Smooth muscle cells were the dominant proliferating cell type in the media (44.4% of PCNA-positive cells versus 20% endothelial cells, 13.0% monocyte/macrophages, and 14.3% T cells). Within the plaque, foam-cell-rich regions mostly displayed proliferation among macrophages (66.5%), whereas in vascularized fields PCNA positivity was almost equally shared by endothelial cells (23.8%), monocyte/macrophages (26.3%), smooth muscle alpha-actin-positive cells (14.0%), and to a lesser extent, T cells (8.2%). Logistic and linear regression analyses also demonstrated that location in foam-cell-rich regions was a significant predictor of proliferation only among monocyte/macrophages, whereas location in vascularized regions was a good predictor of PCNA positivity among both inflammatory and noninflammatory cells. These different patterns of cell type proliferation suggest possibly different distributions of putative responsible growth regulatory factors in human atherosclerosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

Rekhter, M. D.; Gordon, D.

1995-01-01

15

Including Magnetic Saturation in Voltage-Behind-Reactance Induction Machine Model for EMTP-Type Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A voltage-behind-reactance (VBR) machine model has been recently proposed for the electro-magnetic transient programs (EMTP)-type simulation programs. The VBR model greatly improves numerical accuracy and efficiency compared with the traditional qd and phase-domain (PD) models. This paper extends the previous research and presents an approach to include magnetic saturation into the VBR induction machine model. The presented method takes into

Liwei Wang; Juri Jatskevich

2010-01-01

16

A Study of Factors Promoting Success in Computer Science Including Gender Differences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was conducted to determine factors that promote success in an introductory college computer science course and to determine what, if any, differences appear between genders on those factors. The model included math background, attribution for success/failure, self-efficacy, encouragement, comfort level in the course, work style preference, previous programming experience, previous non-programming computer experience, and gender as possible predictive factors for success in the computer science course. Subjects included 105 students enrolled in an introductory computer science course. The study revealed three predictive factors in the following order of importance: comfort level (with a positive influence), math background (with a positive influence), and attribution to luck (with a negative influence). No significant gender differences were found in these three factors. The study also revealed that both a formal class in programming (which had a positive correlation) and game playing (which had a negative correlation) were predictive of success. The study revealed a significant gender difference in game playing with males reporting more experience with playing games on the computer than females reported.

Cantwell Wilson, Brenda

2002-03-01

17

A critical and comprehensive insight on heme oxygenase and related products including carbon monoxide, bilirubin, biliverdin and ferritin in type-1 and type-2 diabetes.  

PubMed

The increased prevalence of diabetes and associated complications presents a major health risk worldwide, and requires an efficient management protocol. Type-1 and type-2 diabetes have several common pathophysiological denominators including hyperglycemia, elevated oxidative stress, increased inflammation and apoptosis. These pathological factors are implicated in the progression and worsening of the disease, and the related cardiometabolic complications associated with it. Despite the advancement in management of type-1 and type-2 diabetes, the high incidence of diabetes and related complications calls for novel therapeutic strategies. Recent findings suggest that the pharmacological modulation of the microsomal heme oxygenase (HO) system may be an important therapeutic avenue to explore. The HO system and related products such as carbon monoxide, bilirubin, biliverdin, biliverdin reductase and ferritin have been shown to abate inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis and reduce hyperglycemia. In addition, the HO system also enhances insulin sensitivity and increase pancreatic beta cell insulin production in experimental models of type-1 and type-2 diabetes. This review is an effort to provide evidence of the regulatory and cytoprotective role of the HO system in type-1 and type-2 diabetes, and will highlight the multifaceted mechanisms implicated in the anti-diabetic effects of the HO system. PMID:23978098

Mishra, Manish; Ndisang, Joseph Fomusi

2014-01-01

18

The epidemiology of necrotizing fasciitis including factors associated with death and amputation.  

PubMed

The high morbidity and mortality of necrotizing fasciitis (NF) supports the need for epidemiological studies to characterize the disease and identify patient factors associated with adverse outcomes. A multi-site medical record review of patients diagnosed with NF was performed (n=80, mortality 15%). Variables collected were hypothesized to have association with adverse outcomes from NF, and multivariable analysis was used to detect any such association in this population. Select factors associated with mortality included evidence of underlying conditions (P=0.002), advanced age (P=0.04), young age (P=0.03), and evidence of sepsis (P=0.006). Select factors associated with amputation included diabetes mellitus (P=0.006), evidence of underlying conditions (P=0.03), and cutaneous gangrene noted on admission (P=0.006). These findings demonstrate the important association of NF and extremes of age with mortality and morbidity and support the value of early suspicion with prompt diagnosis and treatment in order to prevent adverse outcomes since the associated risk factors are not immediately modifiable. PMID:19351432

Dworkin, M S; Westercamp, M D; Park, L; McIntyre, A

2009-11-01

19

Buildup factors of gamma rays including Bremsstrahlung and annihilation radiation for water, concrete, iron, and lead  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma-ray exposure buildup factors are calculated using a discrete ordinates direct integration code, PALLAS-PL, SP-Br, for water, concrete, iron, and lead, typifying materials of low, medium, and high atomic number. The radiation sources considered were both plane, at normal incidence, and at plane-isotropic. These data include the effects of secondary photon sources arising from Compton scattering, bremsstrahlung, and annihilation. Inclusion

K. Takeuchi; S. I. Tanaka

1984-01-01

20

48 CFR 16.104 - Factors in selecting contract types.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Contract Types 16.104 Factors in selecting contract types. There are many factors that the contracting...performance and their possible impact upon costs be identified...contract type. This factor may be criticalâ ...other contracts, the impact of those...

2013-10-01

21

Outcome and Prognostic Factors in T4a Oropharyngeal Carcinoma, Including the Role of HPV Infection  

PubMed Central

Background. The prognosis of patients with advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPSCC) is generally poor. The aim of this study is to investigate the different therapeutic approaches and identify prognostic factors associated with a worse outcome for patients treated for T4a OPSCC, in order to improve treatment selection for the individual. Methods. A retrospective study was conducted on 426 patients with T4a OPC treated between 1980 and 2010. Eleven prognostic factors including treatment modality, lymph node staging, and p16 status as a surrogate marker for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection were analyzed. Results. Univariate analysis showed a significant difference in DSS between N0 and N+ (57.1% versus 26.9%, P < 0.001), primary surgical and primary nonsurgical treatment (52.7% versus 31.4%, P < 0.001), and perinodal invasion (51.7% versus 19.9%, P = 0.011). P16-negative patients tended towards a worse DSS than p16-positive patients (40.2% versus 64.6%, P = 0.126) but responded better to primary surgery than to nonsurgical treatment (71.4% versus 34.0%, P = 0.113). Multivariate analysis identified the N category as an independent prognostic factor for survival. Conclusion. The survival of p16-negative patients was worse than p16-positive patients, although they seem to respond better to primary surgery. The strongest independent prognostic factor for T4a carcinomas proved to be the presence of lymph node metastases.

Agaimy, Abbas; Mangold, Elisabeth; Zenk, Johannes; Iro, Heinrich

2014-01-01

22

P and n-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including band gap widening elements, devices utilizing same  

DOEpatents

An n-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including a band gap widening element; a method of fabricating p-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including a band gap widening element; and electronic and photovoltaic devices incorporating said n-type and p-type materials.

Guha, Subhendu (Troy, MI); Ovshinsky, Stanford R. (Bloomfield Hills, MI)

1988-10-04

23

Detrusor underactivity is prevalent after radical prostatectomy: A urodynamic study including risk factors  

PubMed Central

Introduction The objective was to determine the prevalence of, and factors that predict, detrusor underactivity (DU) in patients presenting with incontinence or lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) following radical prostatectomy (RP). We also determined the prevalence of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) and detrusor overactivity (DO) in this population. Methods: Patients who underwent urodynamics post-RP were identified. Detrusor underactivity was defined as a maximum flow rate (Qmax) of ?15 mL/s and detrusor pressure (Pdet) Qmax <20 cmH20 or maximum Pdet <20 cmH20 during attempted voiding. Abdominal voiding (AV) was defined as sustained increase in abdominal pressure during voiding. Bladder outlet obstruction and DO were identified using the Abrams-Griffiths nomogram and the International Continence Society criteria. Univariate logistic regression was used to determine factors predicting DU. The following factors were analyzed: age, year of RP, procedure type (minimally-invasive surgery [MIS] or open), postoperative radiation, nerve-sparing, clinical stage, biopsy Gleason grade and interval between RP and evaluation. Results: Between 2005 and 2008, 264 patients underwent urodynamics post-RP. Detrusor underactivity was observed in 108 patients (41%; 95% CI 35%, 47%), of whom 48% demonstrated AV. Overall, BOO and DO were present in 17% (95% CI 12%, 22%) and 27% (95% CI 22%, 33%), respectively. On univariate analysis, only MIS RP was predictive of DU (univariate odds ratio 2.05 for MIS vs. open; p = 0.009). Conclusions: Detrusor underactivity and AV are common in patients presenting for evaluation of incontinence or LUTS following RP. The etiology of DU in this setting is likely related to the surgical approach. Because DU may affect the success of male incontinence treatment with the male sling or artificial urinary sphincter, it is useful to document its presence prior to treatment. More studies are needed to elucidate the influence of DU on treatment success for male urinary incontinence following RP.

Chung, Doreen E.; Dillon, Benjamin; Kurta, Jordan; Maschino, Alexandra; Cronin, Angel; Sandhu, Jaspreet S.

2013-01-01

24

Detrusor underactivity is prevalent after radical prostatectomy: a urodynamic study including risk factors.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION: The objective was to determine the prevalence of, and factors that predict, detrusor underactivity (DU) in patients presenting with incontinence or lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) following radical prostatectomy (RP). We also determined the prevalence of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) and detrusor overactivity (DO) in this population. METHODS: Patients who underwent urodynamics post-RP were identified. Detrusor underactivity was defined as a maximum flow rate (Qmax) of ? 15 mL/s and detrusor pressure (Pdet) Qmax <20 cmH20 or maximum Pdet <20 cmH20 during attempted voiding. Abdominal voiding (AV) was defined as sustained increase in abdominal pressure during voiding. Bladder outlet obstruction and DO were identified using the Abrams-Griffiths nomogram and the International Continence Society criteria. Univariate logistic regression was used to determine factors predicting DU. The following factors were analyzed: age, year of RP, procedure type (minimally-invasive surgery [MIS] or open), postoperative radiation, nerve-sparing, clinical stage, biopsy Gleason grade and interval between RP and evaluation. RESULTS: Between 2005 and 2008, 264 patients underwent urodynamics post-RP. Detrusor underactivity was observed in 108 patients (41%; 95% CI 35%, 47%), of whom 48% demonstrated AV. Overall, BOO and DO were present in 17% (95% CI 12%, 22%) and 27% (95% CI 22%, 33%), respectively. On univariate analysis, only MIS RP was predictive of DU (univariate odds ratio 2.05 for MIS vs. open; p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Detrusor underactivity and AV are common in patients presenting for evaluation of incontinence or LUTS following RP. The etiology of DU in this setting is likely related to the surgical approach. Because DU may affect the success of male incontinence treatment with the male sling or artificial urinary sphincter, it is useful to document its presence prior to treatment. More studies are needed to elucidate the influence of DU on treatment success for male urinary incontinence following RP. PMID:22277630

Chung, Doreen E; Dillon, Benjamin; Kurta, Jordan; Maschino, Alexandra; Cronin, Angel; Sandhu, Jaspreet S

2012-01-24

25

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and type 2 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  Decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease\\u000a and depression. These disorders are associated with type 2 diabetes, and animal models suggest that BDNF plays a role in insulin\\u000a resistance. We therefore explored whether BDNF plays a role in human glucose metabolism.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Subjects and methods  We included (Study 1) 233 humans divided into

K. S. Krabbe; A. R. Nielsen; R. Krogh-Madsen; P. Plomgaard; P. Rasmussen; C. Erikstrup; C. P. Fischer; B. Lindegaard; A. M. W. Petersen; S. Taudorf; N. H. Secher; H. Pilegaard; H. Bruunsgaard; B. K. Pedersen

2007-01-01

26

Thermoelectric material including a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure  

DOEpatents

A thermoelectric material includes a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure having the formula A.sub.8TM.sub.y.sub.1.sup.1TM.sub.y.sub.2.sup.2 . . . TM.sub.y.sub.n.sup.nM.sub.zX.sub.46-y.sub.1.sub.-y.sub.2.sub.- . . . -y.sub.n.sub.-z. In the formula, A is selected from the group consisting of barium, strontium, and europium; X is selected from the group consisting of silicon, germanium, and tin; M is selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, and indium; TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, and TM.sup.n are independently selected from the group consisting of 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metals; and y.sub.1, y.sub.2, y.sub.n and Z are actual compositions of TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, TM.sup.n, and M, respectively. The actual compositions are based upon nominal compositions derived from the following equation: z=8q.sub.A-|.DELTA.q.sub.1|y.sub.1-|.DELTA.q.sub.2|y.sub.2- . . . -|.DELTA.q.sub.n|y.sub.n, wherein q.sub.A is a charge state of A, and wherein .DELTA.q.sub.1, .DELTA.q.sub.2, .DELTA.q.sub.n are, respectively, the nominal charge state of the first, second, and n-th TM.

Yang, Jihui (Lakeshore, CA); Shi, Xun (Troy, MI); Bai, Shengqiang (Shanghai, CN); Zhang, Wenqing (Shanghai, CN); Chen, Lidong (Shanghai, CN); Yang, Jiong (Shanghai, CN)

2012-01-17

27

Rotating bits including a plurality of types of preferential cutting elements  

SciTech Connect

A rotating bit, particularly a rotary bit, is provided with a plurality of teeth incorporating diamond cutting elements of a first and second type. Each type of tooth is particularly adapted to cut a particular type of rock formation. For example, the plurality of the first type of teeth are particularly designed to cut soft to medium-hard rock formations, and the plurality of the second type of teeth are particularly adapted to cut hard or abrasive rock formations. In one embodiment, the first type of teeth are set on the bit face to have a greater exposure from the bit face than the second type of teeth. In that case, the first type of teeth will engage the rock formation first. A second embodiment has the relative disposition of the first and second types of teeth as measured by their disposition from the axis of rotation on the bit reversed. In the case where the teeth, which are adapted for hard rock cutting, extend furthermost from the bit, the rock formation first comes into contact with these teeth and if it should be a hard rock formation, primary cutting action will be accomplished with the hard rock cutting teeth, while the soft rock cutting teeth are held out of contact from the formation to minimize wear of these softer rock cutting teeth. However, when a soft rock formation is encountered, the hard rock teeth will fully embed into the softer rock formation, thereby allowing full engagement of the softer rock formation cutting teeth.

Bidegaray, D. A.

1985-04-23

28

Of mice and (wo)men: factors influencing successful implantation including endocannabinoids.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND One in six couples suffer from infertility problems requiring in vitro fertilization therapy; however, the average birth rates in the past decade per IVF-embryo transfer cycle have remained static at around 25%. Although implantation failure is considered a major cause of infertility in otherwise healthy women, inadequate uterine receptivity is considered to be responsible for only two-thirds of implantation failures and problems with the embryo itself are responsible for the other third, such that only 30% of oocytes that are contacted by sperm result in successful human term pregnancies. Due to technical and ethical considerations, most research into the factors affecting the success of embryo implantation has been performed in mice, but this may be less than ideal. METHODS Selected relevant literature detailing the similarities and differences between rodent and human reproductive physiology surrounding implantation were nominated for inclusion. Primary papers and review articles (and primary sources within these), published between 1975 and 2012, with a clear indication for a particular ligand or cell being involved in the implantation process or placentation in the mouse or woman, were thoroughly examined and used to construct the review. RESULTS Mice have been identified as suitable models for investigating the processes of early pregnancy in women, for many reasons including their predictable, relatively short gestation and the ability to deliberately breed mice with the absence of a desired gene. There is, however, increasing evidence to suggest that the reproductive systems of humans and mice differ considerably when considering early pregnancy events. CONCLUSIONS In this review, we examine what is already known about the normal implantation process and the intrinsic factors that affect implantation, and then compare the differences between mice models and women in the context of early pregnancy. We highlight numerous differences between the mice and women and conclude it is becoming clear that all of the data from mouse studies cannot be confidently extrapolated to human reproduction. PMID:24306146

Melford, Sarah E; Taylor, Anthony H; Konje, Justin C

2014-01-01

29

Molecular characterization of human adenovirus type 8 (HAdV-8), including a novel genome type detected in Japan.  

PubMed

Human adenovirus type 8 (HAdV-8) is a common agent of severe epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC). Twenty-six strains were isolated from sporadic cases of EKC in the southern part of Japan between 1998 and 1999 and were identified as HAdV-8 by the neutralization method using type-specific antiserum against HAdV-8. A comparative analysis of different HAdV-8 genome types was performed using various molecular methods. Restriction enzyme analyses of genomic DNA were performed with BamHI, HindIII, PstI, SacI, SalI, and SmaI and identified 25 isolates as HAdV-8E and 1 isolate as HAdV-8J, a novel genome type. The genetic relatedness between HAdV-8J and the other genome types was calculated by pairwise comigrating restriction fragments. The new genome type was most genetically related to HAdV-8E. In a phylogram of both the hexon and fiber, HAdV-8J formed a monophyletic cluster with other genome types of HAdV-8. Although HAdV-8J was identified from a sporadic case of EKC, this strain may cause future outbreaks and thus warrants further monitoring. PMID:22116328

Adhikary, Arun Kumar; Banik, Urmila; Okabe, Nobuhiko; Fujimoto, Tsuguto

2011-01-01

30

Dynamic activity in the outer atmospheres of late-type stars including the sun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stars of solar type and cooler often display dramatic effects of magnetic fields in their atmosphere. These effects vary from relatively placid phenomena such as the dark photospheric spots and plages where there is enhanced emission in ionised calcium and magnesium to the much more energetic flares which erupt over short time scales. All of these aspects of magnetic activity are linked but their exact location in the atmosphere and the physical mechanism that lead to their existence remain uncertain. In this work we analyse and interpret observations of stellar and solar activity, including observations of flares and other activity-related processes. We report on spectrophotometric observations of a large flare on AT Mic and several flares on AD Leo. The latter flares were recorded with very high temporal resolution. A detailed analysis of the behaviour of the main chromospheric activity indicators is given. We also present high-resolution spectral observations of a solar flare observed during a multi-wavelength campaign. H? images, Ca II images and magnetograms obtained at BBSO are also used in the flare analysis. We observe stellar-like behaviour in the main solar chromospheric activity indicators, which show either filling-in or emission during the flare. We have used observations and models of Balmer decrements to trace the evolution of physical parameters such as the temperature and density of the flare plasma. We also test the reliability of the procedure used. We apply this procedure to several new high temporal resolution flares on AT Mic and AD Leo as well as to flares observed during the MUSICOS 2001 campaign and by other authors, and a medium solar optical flare, observed during our solar campaign. Finally, we search for a dependence between the different physical parameters for all the flares modelled. We present optical spectroscopic observations of the binary system HR 1099 (V711 Tau) from the MUSICOS 1998 campaign. Contemporary photometric and X-ray observations performed during the campaign are also analysed and Doppler images constructed. The resulting maximum entropy reconstructions are based on the least-squares deconvolved line profiles, derived from ˜2000 photospheric absorption lines. We have obtained maps for both components of the binary system for the first time. The result is verified by using two data sets independently. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Garcia-Alvarez, David

31

Apolipoprotein E4: A causative factor and therapeutic target in neuropathology, including Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

The premise of this review is that apolipoprotein (apo) E4 is much more than a contributing factor to neurodegeneration. ApoE has critical functions in redistributing lipids among CNS cells for normal lipid homeostasis, repairing injured neurons, maintaining synapto-dendritic connections, and scavenging toxins. In multiple pathways affecting neuropathology, including Alzheimer’s disease, apoE acts directly or in concert with age, head injury, oxidative stress, ischemia, inflammation, and excess amyloid ? peptide production to cause neurological disorders, accelerating progression, altering prognosis, or lowering age of onset. We envision that unique structural features of apoE4 are responsible for apoE4-associated neuropathology. Although the structures of apoE2, apoE3, and apoE4 are in dynamic equilibrium, apoE4, which is detrimental in a variety of neurological disorders, is more likely to assume a pathological conformation. Importantly, apoE4 displays domain interaction (an interaction between the N- and C-terminal domains of the protein that results in a compact structure) and molten globule formation (the formation of stable, reactive intermediates with potentially pathological activities). In response to CNS stress or injury, neurons can synthesize apoE. ApoE4 uniquely undergoes neuron-specific proteolysis, resulting in bioactive toxic fragments that enter the cytosol, alter the cytoskeleton, disrupt mitochondrial energy balance, and cause cell death. Our findings suggest potential therapeutic strategies, including the use of “structure correctors” to convert apoE4 to an “apoE3-like” molecule, protease inhibitors to prevent the generation of toxic apoE4 fragments, and “mitochondrial protectors” to prevent cellular energy disruption.

Mahley, Robert W.; Weisgraber, Karl H.; Huang, Yadong

2006-01-01

32

Q-Type Factor Analysis of Healthy Aged Men.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Q-type factor analysis was used to re-analyze baseline data collected in 1957, on 47 men aged 65-91. Q-type analysis is the use of factor methods to study persons rather than tests. Although 550 variables were originally studied involving psychiatry, medicine, cerebral metabolism and chemistry, personality, audiometry, dichotic and diotic memory,…

Kleban, Morton H.

33

Early life factors and type 2 diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multifactorial disease, and its aetiology involves a complex interplay between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. In recent years, evidences from both human and animal experiments have correlated early life factors with programming diabetes risk in adult life. Fetal and neonatal period is crucial for organ development. Many maternal factors during pregnancy may increase the risk of diabetes of offsprings in later life, which include malnutrition, healthy (hyperglycemia and obesity), behavior (smoking, drinking, and junk food diet), hormone administration, and even stress. In neonates, catch-up growth, lactation, glucocorticoids administration, and stress have all been found to increase the risk of insulin resistance or T2DM. Unfavorable environments (socioeconomic situation and famine) or obesity also has long-term negative effects on children by causing increased susceptibility to T2DM in adults. We also address the potential mechanisms that may underlie the developmental programming of T2DM. Therefore, it might be possible to prevent or delay the risk for T2DM by improving pre- and/or postnatal factors. PMID:24455747

Jiang, Xinli; Ma, Huijie; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yan

2013-01-01

34

Method of fabricating n-type and p-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including band gap widening elements  

DOEpatents

A method of fabricating doped microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material which includes a band gap widening element through a glow discharge deposition process by subjecting a precursor mixture which includes a diluent gas to an a.c. glow discharge in the absence of a magnetic field of sufficient strength to induce electron cyclotron resonance.

Guha, Subhendu (Troy, MI) [Troy, MI; Ovshinsky, Stanford R. (Bloomfield Hills, MI) [Bloomfield Hills, MI

1990-02-02

35

Differentiation of ruminant transmissible spongiform encephalopathy isolate types, including bovine spongiform encephalopathy and CH1641 scrapie.  

PubMed

With increased awareness of the diversity of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) strains in the ruminant population, comes an appreciation of the need for improved methods of differential diagnosis. Exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has been associated with the human TSE, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, emphasizing the necessity in distinguishing low-risk TSE types from BSE. TSE type discrimination in ruminants such as cattle, sheep, goats and deer, requires the application of several prion protein (PrP)-specific antibodies in parallel immunochemical tests on brain homogenates or tissue sections from infected animals. This study uses in a single incubation step, three PrP-specific antibodies and fluorescent Alexa dye-labelled anti-mouse Fabs on a Western blot. The usual amount of brain tissue needed is 0.5 mg. This multiplex application of antibodies directed towards three different PrP epitopes enabled differential diagnosis of all established main features of classical scrapie, BSE and Nor98-like scrapie in sheep and goats, as well as the currently known BSE types C, H and L in cattle. Moreover, due to an antibody-dependent dual PrP-banding pattern, for the first time CH1641 scrapie of sheep can be reliably discriminated from the other TSE isolate types in sheep. PMID:20943889

Jacobs, J G; Sauer, M; van Keulen, L J M; Tang, Y; Bossers, A; Langeveld, J P M

2011-01-01

36

A polyketide biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces antibioticus includes a LysR-type transcriptional regulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the search for Type II polyketide synthases (PKSs) a DNA fragment was isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus ATCC 11891 (a producer of oleandomycin). DNA sequencing of the cloned fragment revealed six complete ORFs whose deduced products showed similarities to those of other genes known to be involved in polyketide biosynthesis. Several S. coelicolor strains mutated in different steps of actinorhodin

Victoria Colombo; Maria Fern; Francisco Malpartida

2001-01-01

37

Confirmatory Factor Analysis with Different Correlation Types and Estimation Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), hypothesized factors that were less than the number of variables, and then examined how well the intercorrelations were reproduced. Results help explain that the type of correlation matrix and estimation method affect factor loadings and fit functions. Suggests some alternative approaches. (SLD)

Schumacker, Randall E.; Beyerlein, Susan T.

2000-01-01

38

Determination of the petrologic type of CV3 chondrites by Raman spectroscopy of included organic matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the first reliable quantitative determination of the thermal metamorphism grade of a series of nine CV3 chondrites: Allende, Axtell, Bali, Mokoia, Grosnaja, Efremovka, Vigarano, Leoville, and Kaba. The maturity of the organic matter in matrix, determined by Raman spectroscopy, has been used as a powerful metamorphic tracer, independent of the mineralogical context and extent of aqueous alteration. This tracer has been used along with other metamorphic tracers such as Fe zoning in type-I chondrules of olivine phenocrysts, presolar grain abundance and noble gas abundance (bulk and P3 component). The study shows that the petrologic types determined earlier by Induced ThermoLuminescence were underestimated and suggests the following values: PT (Allende-Axtell) >3.6; PT (Bali-Mokoia-Grosnaja) ˜3.6; PT (Efremovka-Leoville-Vigarano) = 3.1-3.4; PT (Kaba) ˜3.1. The most commonly studied CV3, Allende, is also the most metamorphosed. Bali is a breccia containing clasts of different petrologic types. The attribution suggested by this study is that of clasts of the highest petrologic types, as pointed out by IOM maturity and noble gas bulk abundance. CV3 chondrites have complex asteroidal backgrounds, with various degrees of aqueous alteration and/or thermal metamorphism leading to complex mineralogical and petrologic patterns. (Fe,Mg) chemical zoning in olivine phenocrysts, on the borders of type I chondrules of porphyritic olivine- and pyroxene-rich textural types, has been found to correlate with the metamorphism grade. This suggests that chemical zoning in some chondrules, often interpreted as exchanges between chondrules and nebular gas, may well have an asteroidal origin. Furthermore, the compositional range of olivine matrix is controlled both by thermal metamorphism and aqueous alteration. This does not support evidence of a nebular origin and does not necessarily mirror the metamorphism grade through (Fe,Mg) equilibration. On the other hand, it may provide clues on the degree of aqueous alteration vs. thermal metamorphism and on the timing of both processes. In particular, Mokoia experienced significant aqueous alteration after the metamorphism peak, whereas Grosnaja, which has similar metamorphism grade, did not.

Bonal, Lydie; Quirico, Eric; Bourot-Denise, Michèle; Montagnac, Gilles

2006-04-01

39

Variant Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Proteases and Response to Combination Therapy Including a Protease Inhibitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this observational study was to assess the genetic variability in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease gene from HIV type 1 (HIV-1)-positive (clade B), protease inhibitor-naive patients and to evaluate its association with the subsequent effectiveness of a protease inhibitor-containing triple-drug regi- men. The protease gene was sequenced from plasma-derived virus from 116 protease inhibitor-naive patients. The

JEAN SERVAIS; CHRISTINE LAMBERT; ELODIE FONTAINE; JEAN-MARC PLESSERIA; ISABELLE ROBERT; VIC ARENDT; THERESE STAUB; FRANCOIS SCHNEIDER; ROBERT HEMMER; GUY BURTONBOY; JEAN-CLAUDE SCHMIT

2001-01-01

40

[Primary cutaneous melanoma: prognostic factors not included in the classification of the American Joint Committee on Cancer].  

PubMed

Skin histopathology reports of melanoma routinely include important prognostic information used in the staging system of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). This information, which influences disease management, includes tumor depth, presence of ulceration, number of mitotic figures, and presence or absence of microsatellites. However, numerous studies have found many other factors that are not included in the AJCC classification but that are nevertheless of prognostic significance. We discuss these factors in this paper. PMID:21440241

Tejera-Vaquerizo, A; Solís-García, E; Ríos-Martín, J J; Moreno-Ramírez, D

2011-05-01

41

36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS GUIDANCE FOR INTERPRETATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRESIDENT JOHN F. KENNEDY ASSASSINATION RECORDS COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope...

2013-07-01

42

School Factors Associated with Mainstream Progress in Secondary Education for Included Pupils with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examined the factors promoting inclusion of young people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in mainstream secondary schools, and noted high levels of behavioral difficulties in these pupils. The size of the secondary school, and the class size, impacted positively on the pupils with Autism, and the number of other pupils with…

Osborne, Lisa A.; Reed, Phil

2011-01-01

43

School factors associated with mainstream progress in secondary education for included pupils with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined the factors promoting inclusion of young people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in mainstream secondary schools, and noted high levels of behavioral difficulties in these pupils. The size of the secondary school, and the class size, impacted positively on the pupils with Autism, and the number of other pupils with Special Educational Needs (SEN) statements and the

Lisa A. Osborne; Phil Reed

2011-01-01

44

Calculation of gamma-ray buildup factors including the contribution of bremsstrahlung  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buildup factors for gamma rays traversing slab shields have been ; obtained using the Monte Carlo method. Secondary particles produced inside the ; shield were taken into account, with special attention given to the contribution ; of bremsstrahlung which is produced by electrons and positrons. The results ; indicate that annihilation gamma rays from pair production do increase the ;

J. P. Kuspa; N. Tsoulfanidis

1973-01-01

45

Latina Resilience in Higher Education: Contributing Factors Including Seasonal Farmworker Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many Latina students overcome multiple obstacles to earn university degrees. Five married Latina women with children and seasonal farmworker backgrounds are the focus of this study which is analyzed through resiliency theory to understand factors contributing to their academic resilience. Variables connected to academic success are explored and…

Graff, Cristina Santamaria; McCain, Terrence; Gomez-Vilchis, Veronica

2013-01-01

46

Including transcription factor information in the superparamagnetic clustering of microarray data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we modify the superparamagnetic clustering algorithm (SPC) by adding an extra weight to the interaction formula that considers which genes are regulated by the same transcription factor. With this modified algorithm which we call SPCTF, we analyze the Spellman et al. microarray data for cell cycle genes in yeast, and find clusters with a higher number of

M. P. Monsiváis-Alonso; J. C. Navarro-Muñoz; L. Riego-Ruiz; R. López-Sandoval; H. C. Rosu

2010-01-01

47

The development of Myxobolus pavlovskii (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) includes an echinactinomyxon-type actinospore.  

PubMed

Echinactinomyxon-type actinospores were found in a mixed-species oligochaete culture originating from the Temperate Water Fish Hatchery near Budapest, Hungary. On the basis of DNA sequence analysis, the actinospores were identified as Myxobolus pavlovskii (Akhmerov, 1954), the 18S rDNA sequence from myxospores of which is available in GenBank. Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes) fry specimens were successfully infected by cohabitation with the echinactinomyxon-releasing oligochaetes, which confirmed the molecular data congruence. The echinactinomyxons and the myxospores that developed in the gills of exposed fish fry were analysed morphologically and on DNA basis. The infected gill tissue was examined histologically. As typical characters of M. pavlovskii, numerous small plasmodia were observed in the epithelia of gill lamellae. Plasmodia contained thousands of myxospores with polar capsules unequal in size and witl; large intercapsular processes. The 18S rDNA sequence from actinospores and those from myxospores originating from the experimentally infected fish were identical. The oligochaete species releasing actinospores was morphologically determined as Limnodrilus sp. This is the first record of an echinactinomyxon as an alternate stage within the genus Myxobolus. PMID:21776895

Marton, Szilvia; Eszterbauer, Edit

2011-06-01

48

Several factors including ITPA polymorphism influence ribavirin-induced anemia in chronic hepatitis C  

PubMed Central

AIM: To construct formulae for predicting the likelihood of ribavirin-induced anemia in pegylated interferon ? plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C. METHODS: Five hundred and sixty-one Japanese patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 1b who had received combination treatment were enrolled and assigned randomly to the derivation and confirmatory groups. Single nucleotide polymorphisms at or nearby ITPA were genotyped by real-time detection polymerase chain reaction. Factors influencing significant anemia (hemoglobin concentration < 10.0 g/dL at week 4 of treatment) and significant hemoglobin decline (declining concentrations > 3.0 g/dL at week 4) were analyzed using multiple regression analyses. Prediction formulae were constructed by significantly independent factors. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis for the derivation group identified four independent factors associated with significant hemoglobin decline: hemoglobin decline at week 2 [P = 3.29 × 10-17, odds ratio (OR) = 7.54 (g/dL)], estimated glomerular filtration rate [P = 2.16 × 10-4, OR = 0.962 (mL/min/1.73 m2)], rs1127354 (P = 5.75 × 10-4, OR = 10.94) and baseline hemoglobin [P = 7.86 × 10-4, OR = 1.50 (g/dL)]. Using the model constructed by these factors, positive and negative predictive values and predictive accuracy were 79.8%, 88.8% and 86.2%, respectively. For the confirmatory group, they were 83.3%, 91.0% and 88.3%. These factors were closely correlated with significant anemia. However, the model could not be constructed, because no patients with rs1127354 minor genotype CA/AA had significant anemia. CONCLUSION: Reliable formulae for predicting the likelihood of ribavirin-induced anemia were constructed. Such modeling may be useful in developing individual tailoring and optimization of ribavirin dosage.

Tsubota, Akihito; Shimada, Noritomo; Abe, Hiroshi; Yoshizawa, Kai; Agata, Rie; Yumoto, Yoko; Ika, Makiko; Namiki, Yoshihisa; Nagatsuma, Keisuke; Matsudaira, Hiroshi; Fujise, Kiyotaka; Tada, Norio; Aizawa, Yoshio

2012-01-01

49

Linkage map of the human major histocompatibility complex including the tumor necrosis factor genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. gene pair has been linked in the human major histocompatibility complex to HLA-B, HLA-C, and, tentatively, HLA-E and HLA-A on one side and to the class III complement\\/steroid 21-hydroxylase gene cluster on the other by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The TNF genes are located 200 kilobases (kb) centromeric of HLA-B and about

M. C. Carroll; P. Katzman; E. M. Alicot; B. H. Koller; D. E. Geraghty; H. T. Orr; J. L. Strominger; T. Spies

1987-01-01

50

Should Global Burden of Disease Estimates Include Depression as a Risk Factor for Coronary Heart Disease?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study estimates the premature mortality and disability of all major diseases and injuries.\\u000a In addition it aims to quantify the risk that diseases and other factors play in the aetiology of disease and injuries. Mental\\u000a disorders and coronary heart disease are both significant public health issues due to their high prevalence and considerable\\u000a contribution

Fiona J Charlson; Nicholas JC Stapelberg; Amanda J Baxter; Harvey A Whiteford

2011-01-01

51

"5. There are several types of smoke detector including point ionization smoke detectors point optical smoke detectors optical beam detectors and aspirating systems.Types of heat detector include point fixed heat detectors point rate of heat rise detectors combined detectors and beam-type heat detectors. Flame detectors may be used in applications where both smoke and heat detectors are unsuitable. Types of flame detector include ultraviolet flame detectors and infrared flame detectors. a. Compare the different types of fire detection devices"  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Did you mean: "5. There are several types of smoke detector including point ionization smoke detectors point optical smoke detectors optical beam detectors and aspirating systems.Types of heat detector include point fixed heat detectors point rate of heat rise detectors combined detectors and beam-type heat detectors. Flame detectors may be used in applications where both smoke and heat detectors are unsuitable. Types of flame detector include ultraviolet flame detectors and infrared flame detectors. a. Compare the different types of fire detection devices" ?

52

Compilation of air pollutant emission factors, third edition (including supplements 1-7) supplement 10  

SciTech Connect

In this Supplement to AP-42, new, revised and updated emissions data are presented for mobile sources; aircraft; transportation and marketing of petroleum liquids; waste solvent reclamation; tank and drum cleaning; hydrofluoric acid; phosphoric acid; sulfur recovery; wine making; harvesting of grain; primary lead smelting; coal cleaning; glass fiber manufacturing; phosphate rock processing; coal conversion; taconite ore processing; plywood veneer and layout operations; woodworking waste collection operations; and explosives detonation. There is also an expansion and revision of the Appendix A, miscellaneous data and conversion factors.

Not Available

1980-02-01

53

Myokines (muscle-derived cytokines and chemokines) including ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) inhibit osteoblast differentiation.  

PubMed

Muscle and bone are intimately linked by bi-directional signals regulating both muscle and bone cell gene expression and proliferation. It is generally accepted that muscle cells secrete factors (myokines) that influence adjacent bone cells, but these myokines are yet to be identified. We have previously shown that osteocyte-specific deletion of the co-receptor subunit utilized by IL-6 family cytokines, glycoprotein 130 (gp130), resulted in impaired bone formation in the trabecular bone, but enhanced periosteal expansion, suggesting a gp130-dependent periosteum-specific inhibition of osteoblast function, potentially induced by the local muscle fibres. We report here that differentiated primary calvarial osteoblasts cultured in myotube-conditioned media (CM) from myogenic C2C12 cells show reduced mRNA levels of genes associated with osteoblast differentiation. Alkaline phosphatase protein activity and all mRNA markers of osteoblast differentiation in the tested panel (runx2, osterix, alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptor, osteoprotegerin, osteocalcin, sclerostin) were reduced following culture with myotube CM. The exception was RANKL, which was significantly elevated in differentiated primary osteoblast cultures expressing osteocytic genes. A cytokine array of the C2C12 myotube-conditioned media identified TIMP-1 and MCP-1 as the most abundant myokines, but treatment with recombinant TIMP-1 or MCP-1 did not inhibit osteoblast gene expression. Rather, the IL-6 family cytokine ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), which we found abundantly expressed by mouse muscle at the transcript and protein level, reduced osteoblast gene expression, although not to the same extent as the myotube-conditioned media. These data indicate that muscle cells secrete abundant TIMP-1, MCP-1, and CNTF, and that of these, only CNTF has the ability to suppress osteoblast function and gene expression in a similar manner to myotube-conditioned medium. This suggests that CNTF is an inhibitory myokine for osteoblasts. PMID:24721701

Johnson, Rachelle W; White, Jason D; Walker, Emma C; Martin, T John; Sims, Natalie A

2014-07-01

54

Type 2 diabetes in children: clinical aspects and risk factors.  

PubMed

In the past, type 2 diabetes mellitus was considered a disease of adults and older individuals, not a paediatric condition. Over the last decade, however, in the USA and the rest of the world there has been a disturbing trend of increasing cases of type 2 diabetes in children, mirroring increasing rates of obesity. The risk factors for paediatric type 2 diabetes are: (1) obesity and increased body mass index; (2) family history of type 2 diabetes; (3) membership of ethnic minority; (4) puberty (mean age of diagnosis is approximately 13.5 years); (5) female gender; and (6) features of 'syndrome X'. The common link among these risk factors is insulin resistance, which plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Both insulin resistance and beta-cell failure are present in the fully established diabetes state. Data will be presented on how these risk factors impact on insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in childhood, ultimately leading to type 2 diabetes. The clinical presentation of type 2 diabetes in children and its distinction from type 1 diabetes will be discussed. PMID:11979018

Arslanian, Silva

2002-01-01

55

43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

43 Ç Public Lands: Interior Ç 1 Ç 2010-10-01 Ç 2010-10-01 Ç false Ç What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? Ç 404.9 Ç Section 404.9 Ç Public Lands: Interior Ç Regulations Relating to Public Lands Ç BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT...

2010-10-01

56

Precipitating and relieving factors of migraine versus tension type headache  

PubMed Central

Background To determine the differences of precipitating and relieving factors between migraine and tension type headache. Methods This is a cross sectional study. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 250 migraine patients and 250 patients diagnosed as tension type headache from the specialized headache clinic in Dept. of Neurology, Dhaka Medical College Hospital. Data were collected through a predesigned questionnaire containing information on age, sex, social status and a predetermined list of precipitating and relieving factors. Results In this study, the female patients predominated (67%). Most of the patients were within 21–30?years age group (58.6%). About 58% of them belonged to middle class families. The common precipitating factors like stress, anxiety, activity, journey, reading, cold and warm were well distributed among both the migraine and tension type headache (TTH) patients. But significant difference was demonstrated for fatigue (p?factors of pain, different maneuvers were commonly tried by migraineurs and significant difference were observed for both analgesic drug and massage (p?factors for headache appear to be identical for both migraine and TTH patients. Even though some factors like fatigue, sleep deprivation, sunlight and food significantly precipitate migraine and drug, massage are effective maneuver for relieving pain among migrianeurs.

2012-01-01

57

Sensitive test for antibody type I to intrinsic factor  

PubMed Central

The disturbing effect of vitamin B12 binding to test serum in assay of type I antibody to intrinsic factor was reduced by pre-treatment of the serum. The B12-binding sites of serum proteins were blocked by adding unlabelled cyanocobalamin, the unbound excess of which was adsorbed to albumin-coated charcoal. Using an earlier described sensitive small-scale gel filtration technique for antibody assay, it was possible to decrease the smallest amount of antibody demonstrable from 2 to 0·5 ng B12 units per ml of serum by the pre-treatment of serum. This four-fold increase in sensitivity implied that the positive results rose from 60% to 76% in a material of twenty-five pernicious-anaemia patients. No positive results were obtained in thirty-four control subjects or in a serum pool from twenty blood donors. The pre-treatment, including charcoal adsorption of unbound B12, also eliminated the risk of false-positive results because of recent B12 injection.

Gullberg, R.

1971-01-01

58

Environmental factors in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Type 1 diabetes mellitus is perceived as a chronic autoimmune disease with a subclinical prodrome characterized by selective loss of insulin producing beta cells in the pancreatic islets in genetically predisposed subjects. Less than 10% of those with increased genetic susceptibility progress to clinical disease suggesting a strong environmental modification of the prediabetic process. Various exogenous triggers, such as certain dietary factors and viruses, are thought to induce the autoimmune process leading in some individuals to extensive beta-cell destruction and ultimately to the clinical manifestation of type 1 diabetes. In addition to their role as triggers, environmental factors are also likely affecting the outcome of the process and the rate of progression to clinical disease in those who do develop Type 1 diabetes. The present review focuses on relatively recent data on environmental factors potentially involved in the pathogenesis of Type 1 diabetes with an emphasis on dietary factors, and cow's milk (CM) proteins in particular. The CM hypothesis has remained controversial for a decade, and therefore an intervention trial should be performed to settle the issue. Recent prospective studies have indicated that enterovirus infections may induce beta-cell autoimmunity and potentiate the humoral immune response to beta-cell antigens in subjects with an ongoing process. There are also very preliminary data suggesting a similar role for rotavirus infections. Although there may be a single trigger of beta-cell autoimmunity in a given individual, it is highly unlikely that there is only one exogenous determinant of Type 1 diabetes. Rather we have a complicated interaction between a series of environmental factors and between environmental factors and genetic disease predisposition resulting in progression to clinical Type 1 diabetes in those genetically susceptible individuals who experience an unfortunate timing and/or clustering of diabetogenic exogenous culprits and/or a lack of protective environmental modifiers. Ongoing prospective studies starting from birth provide an optimal setting for the identification of environmental factors affecting the risk of progression to clinical Type 1 diabetes. PMID:10522815

Knip, M; Akerblom, H K

1999-01-01

59

Transforming Growth Factor Antagonizes Alveolar Type II Cell Proliferation Induced by Keratinocyte Growth Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a mitogen for rat type II cells and also stimulates differentiation in vitro. Administration of KGF also protects the lung from a variety of injuries and subsequent development of fibrosis. Because transforming growth factor (TGF)- has been shown to inhibit epithelial cell proliferation and surfactant protein gene expression in other systems and is thought to

Feijie Zhang; Larry D. Nielsen; Joseph J. Lucas; Robert J. Mason

2004-01-01

60

ABO Genotype, 'Blood-Type' Diet and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

Background The ‘Blood-Type’ diet advises individuals to eat according to their ABO blood group to improve their health and decrease risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. However, the association between blood type-based dietary patterns and health outcomes has not been examined. The objective of this study was to determine the association between ‘blood-type’ diets and biomarkers of cardiometabolic health and whether an individual's ABO genotype modifies any associations. Methods Subjects (n?=?1,455) were participants of the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health study. Dietary intake was assessed using a one-month, 196-item food frequency questionnaire and a diet score was calculated to determine relative adherence to each of the four ‘Blood-Type’ diets. ABO blood group was determined by genotyping rs8176719 and rs8176746 in the ABO gene. ANCOVA, with age, sex, ethnicity, and energy intake as covariates, was used to compare cardiometabolic biomarkers across tertiles of each ‘Blood-Type’ diet score. Results Adherence to the Type-A diet was associated with lower BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, HOMA-IR and HOMA-Beta (P<0.05). Adherence to the Type-AB diet was also associated with lower levels of these biomarkers (P<0.05), except for BMI and waist circumference. Adherence to the Type-O diet was associated with lower triglycerides (P<0.0001). Matching the ‘Blood-Type’ diets with the corresponding blood group did not change the effect size of any of these associations. No significant association was found for the Type-B diet. Conclusions Adherence to certain ‘Blood-Type’ diets is associated with favorable effects on some cardiometabolic risk factors, but these associations were independent of an individual's ABO genotype, so the findings do not support the ‘Blood-Type’ diet hypothesis.

Wang, Jingzhou; Garcia-Bailo, Bibiana; Nielsen, Daiva E.; El-Sohemy, Ahmed

2014-01-01

61

Factors affecting numerical typing performance of young adults in a hear-and-type task.  

PubMed

Numerical hear-and-type tasks, i.e. making immediate keypresses according to verbally presented numbers, possess both practical and theoretical importance but received relatively little attention. Effects of speech rates (500-ms vs. 1000-ms interval), urgency (urgent condition: performance-based monetary incentive plus time limit vs. non-urgent condition: flat-rate compensation) and finger strategies (single vs. multi-finger typing) on typing speed and accuracy were investigated. Fast speech rate and multi-finger typing produced more errors and slower typing speed. Urgency improved typing speed but decreased accuracy. Errors were almost doubled under urgent condition, while urgency effect on speed was similar to that of speech rate. Examination of error patterns did not fully support Salthouse's (1986) speculations about error-making mechanisms. The results implied that urgency could play a more important role in error-making than task demands. Numerical keyboard design and error detection could benefit from spatial incidence of errors found in this study. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study revealed that classic speculations about error-making mechanisms in alphabetical typing do not necessarily translate to numerical typing. Factors other than external task demands such as urgency can affect typing performance to a similar or greater extent. Investigations of intrinsic error-making factors in non-traditional typing tasks are encouraged. PMID:22103724

Lin, Cheng-Jhe; Wu, Changxu

2011-12-01

62

Multilocus sequence typing reveals three genetic subpopulations of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii (serotype A), including a unique population in Botswana.  

PubMed

We applied multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to investigate the population structure and mode of reproduction of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii (serotype A). This MLST system utilizes 12 unlinked polymorphic loci, which are dispersed on nine different chromosomes, and allows the unambiguous identification of closely related strains of serotype A. We compared MLST analyses with the conventional genotyping method of detecting amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), and there was excellent correlation between the MLST and AFLP results. However, MLST differentiated a larger number of strains. We analyzed a global collection of isolates of serotype A using both methods, and the results identified at least three genetically distinct subpopulations, designated groups VNI, VNII, and VNB. Groups VNI and VNII are widespread, dominated by isolates with the MATalpha mating type, and predominantly clonal. Conversely, isolates of group VNB are unique to Botswana, include a significant proportion of fertile strains with the MATa mating type, and manifest compelling evidence of recombination. We have AFLP genotyped >1000 strains of serotype A from different parts of the world, including isolates from several African countries, and, to date, haploid serotype A isolates of group VNB have been found only in Botswana. PMID:16322524

Litvintseva, Anastasia P; Thakur, Rameshwari; Vilgalys, Rytas; Mitchell, Thomas G

2006-04-01

63

A Predator-Prey Model with a Holling Type I Functional Response Including a Predator Mutual Interference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most widely used functional response in describing predator-prey relationships is the Holling type II functional response, where per capita predation is a smooth, increasing, and saturating function of prey density. Beddington and DeAngelis modified the Holling type II response to include interference of predators that increases with predator density. Here we introduce a predator-interference term into a Holling type I functional response. We explain the ecological rationale for the response and note that the phase plane configuration of the predator and prey isoclines differs greatly from that of the Beddington-DeAngelis response; for example, in having three possible interior equilibria rather than one. In fact, this new functional response seems to be quite unique. We used analytical and numerical methods to show that the resulting system shows a much richer dynamical behavior than the Beddington-DeAngelis response, or other typically used functional responses. For example, cyclic-fold, saddle-fold, homoclinic saddle connection, and multiple crossing bifurcations can all occur. We then use a smooth approximation to the Holling type I functional response with predator mutual interference to show that these dynamical properties do not result from the lack of smoothness, but rather from subtle differences in the functional responses.

Seo, Gunog; Deangelis, Donald L.

2011-12-01

64

A predator-prey model with a holling type I functional response including a predator mutual interference  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The most widely used functional response in describing predator-prey relationships is the Holling type II functional response, where per capita predation is a smooth, increasing, and saturating function of prey density. Beddington and DeAngelis modified the Holling type II response to include interference of predators that increases with predator density. Here we introduce a predator-interference term into a Holling type I functional response. We explain the ecological rationale for the response and note that the phase plane configuration of the predator and prey isoclines differs greatly from that of the Beddington-DeAngelis response; for example, in having three possible interior equilibria rather than one. In fact, this new functional response seems to be quite unique. We used analytical and numerical methods to show that the resulting system shows a much richer dynamical behavior than the Beddington-DeAngelis response, or other typically used functional responses. For example, cyclic-fold, saddle-fold, homoclinic saddle connection, and multiple crossing bifurcations can all occur. We then use a smooth approximation to the Holling type I functional response with predator mutual interference to show that these dynamical properties do not result from the lack of smoothness, but rather from subtle differences in the functional responses. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Seo, G.; Deangelis, D. L.

2011-01-01

65

The Benefits of Including Clinical Factors in Rectal Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To study the impact of clinical predisposing factors on rectal normal tissue complication probability modeling using the updated results of the Dutch prostate dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: Toxicity data of 512 patients (conformally treated to 68 Gy [n = 284] and 78 Gy [n = 228]) with complete follow-up at 3 years after radiotherapy were studied. Scored end points were rectal bleeding, high stool frequency, and fecal incontinence. Two traditional dose-based models (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) and Relative Seriality (RS) and a logistic model were fitted using a maximum likelihood approach. Furthermore, these model fits were improved by including the most significant clinical factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminating ability of all fits. Results: Including clinical factors significantly increased the predictive power of the models for all end points. In the optimal LKB, RS, and logistic models for rectal bleeding and fecal incontinence, the first significant (p = 0.011-0.013) clinical factor was 'previous abdominal surgery.' As second significant (p = 0.012-0.016) factor, 'cardiac history' was included in all three rectal bleeding fits, whereas including 'diabetes' was significant (p = 0.039-0.048) in fecal incontinence modeling but only in the LKB and logistic models. High stool frequency fits only benefitted significantly (p = 0.003-0.006) from the inclusion of the baseline toxicity score. For all models rectal bleeding fits had the highest AUC (0.77) where it was 0.63 and 0.68 for high stool frequency and fecal incontinence, respectively. LKB and logistic model fits resulted in similar values for the volume parameter. The steepness parameter was somewhat higher in the logistic model, also resulting in a slightly lower D{sub 50}. Anal wall DVHs were used for fecal incontinence, whereas anorectal wall dose best described the other two endpoints. Conclusions: Comparable prediction models were obtained with LKB, RS, and logistic NTCP models. Including clinical factors improved the predictive power of all models significantly.

Defraene, Gilles, E-mail: gilles.defraene@uzleuven.be [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Van den Bergh, Laura [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Al-Mamgani, Abrahim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Haustermans, Karin [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Heemsbergen, Wilma [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van den Heuvel, Frank [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Lebesque, Joos V. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2012-03-01

66

Risk Factors for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus among Children and Adolescents in Basrah  

PubMed Central

Objectives Environmental factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus, many of these factors have been uncovered despite much research. A case-control study was carried out to determine the potential maternal, neonatal and early childhood risk factors for type 1 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents in Basrah. Methods A total of 96 diabetic patients who have been admitted to the pediatric wards at 3 main hospitals in Basrah, and those who have visited primary health care centers over the period from the 4th of November 2006 to the end of May 2007 were recruited. In addition, 299 non-diabetic children were included, their age ranged from 18 months to 17 years. Results Family history of type 1 diabetes mellitus and thyroid diseases in first and second degree relatives was found to be an independent risk factor for type 1 diabetes mellitus, (p<0.001). Regarding maternal habits and illnesses during pregnancy, the study has revealed that tea drinking during pregnancy is a risk factor for type 1 diabetes mellitus in their offspring, (p<0.05). In addition, maternal pre-eclampsia and infections were found to be significant risk factor for type 1 diabetes mellitus, (p<0.001). Neonatal infections, eczema and rhinitis during infancy were also significantly associated with development of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Moreover, the results revealed that duration of <6 months breast feeding is an important trigger of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Conclusion Exposure to environmental risk factors during pregnancy (tea drinking, pre-eclampsia, and infectious diseases), neonatal period (respiratory distress, jaundice and infections) and early infancy are thought to play an important role in triggering the immune process leading to B-cell destruction and the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Majeed, Athar Abdul Samad; Hassan, Kadhum

2011-01-01

67

Inversion charge modeling in n-type and p-type Double-Gate MOSFETs including quantum effects: The role of crystallographic orientation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed an advanced inversion charge model for both n-type and p-type symmetrical Double-Gate MOSFETs where quantum mechanical effects (QMEs) have been included. By doing so, the role of different crystallographic orientations was successfully taken into account. Self-consistent Poisson and Schrödinger simulators were used to check the accuracy of the model presented. As a starting point, a classical inversion charge centroid model was considered. Afterwards, an inversion charge model was developed including QMEs by means of a corrected oxide capacitance. The validity of the model was checked for the three common wafer orientations (1 0 0), (1 1 0) and (1 1 1) and for devices with different silicon layer ( tSi) and oxide ( tox) thicknesses. As it will be shown, the model reproduces correctly the simulation data both in the subthreshold and in the strong inversion operation regime.

Balaguer, M.; Roldán, J. B.; Donetti, L.; Gámiz, F.

2012-01-01

68

Type 2 Diabetes : An Independent Risk Factor for Tuberculosis: A Nationwide Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Tuberculosis continues to be a major global health problem. We wanted to investigate whether Type 2 diabetes was a risk factor for tuberculosis in an Asian population. Methods From Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database, we collected data from 31,237 female patients with type 2 diabetes and 92,642 female controls and 32,493 male patients with type 2 diabetes and 96,977 male controls. Cox proportional hazard regression was performed to evaluate independent risk factors for tuberculosis in all patients and to identify risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. Results During the study period, both female (standardized incidence ratio (SIR): 1.40, p<0.01) and male (SIR: 1.48, p<0.01) patients with type 2 diabetes were found to have a significantly higher rate of incident tuberculosis than the control group. Type 2 diabetes (HR:1.31, 1.23–1.39, p<0.001) was significantly associated with tuberculosis after adjusting sex, age, bronchiectasis, asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease. Conclusions Patients with type 2 diabetes have a higher risk of tuberculosis compared to control subjects after adjusting for confounding factors. The current diabetes epidemic may lead to a resurgence of tuberculosis in endemic regions. Therefore, preventive measures, including addressing the possibility that type 2 diabetes increase the individual’s susceptibility for incident TB, should be taken to further reduce the incidence of tuberculosis.

Kuo, Ming-Chun; Lin, Sheng-Hao; Lin, Ching-Hsiung; Mao, I-Chieh; Chang, Shun-Jen; Hsieh, Ming-Chia

2013-01-01

69

Tenascin C Promiscuously Binds Growth Factors via Its Fifth Fibronectin Type III-Like Domain  

PubMed Central

Tenascin C (TNC) is an extracellular matrix protein that is upregulated during development as well as tissue remodeling. TNC is comprised of multiple independent folding domains, including 15 fibronectin type III-like (TNCIII) domains. The fifth TNCIII domain (TNCIII5) has previously been shown to bind heparin. Our group has shown that the heparin-binding fibronectin type III domains of fibronectin (FNIII), specifically FNIII12–14, possess affinity towards a large number of growth factors. Here, we show that TNCIII5 binds growth factors promiscuously and with high affinity. We produced recombinant fragments of TNC representing the first five TNCIII repeats (TNCIII1–5), as well as subdomains, including TNCIII5, to study interactions with various growth factors. Multiple growth factors of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) family, the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) superfamily, the insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGF-BPs), and neurotrophins were found to bind with high affinity to this region of TNC, specifically to TNCIII5. Surface plasmon resonance was performed to analyze the kinetics of binding of TNCIII1–5 with TGF-?1, PDGF-BB, NT-3, and FGF-2. The promiscuous yet high affinity of TNC for a wide array of growth factors, mediated mainly by TNCIII5, may play a role in multiple physiological and pathological processes involving TNC.

Tortelli, Federico; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.

2013-01-01

70

The Type Series of 'Sinemys' Wuerhoensis, a Problematic Turtlefrom the Lower Cretaceous of China, Includes at Least Three Taxa  

SciTech Connect

We re-examine the type series of 'Sinemys' wuerhoensis Yeh(at least 20 specimens, including several shells and skulls on threeslabs of matrix and one isolated skull) from the Early Cretaceous TuguluGroup of China. Our study shows that the type series of 'S.'wuerhoensisis actually a chimera made up of at least three distinct taxa. Theholotype of this taxon should be assigned to the basal eucryptodire genusXinjiangchelys Yeh. As there are no characters that distinguish'S.'wuerhoensis from Xinjiangchelys species, we consider it to be a nomendubium. This new assignment of 'S.'wuerhoensis expands the temporal rangeof Xinjiangchelys from the Late Jurassic into the Early Cretaceous inAsia. The majority of the paratypes of 'S.'wuerhoensis (several shells indorsal and ventral aspect and skulls) are referred to the basaleucryptodire genus Ordosemys Brinkman and Peng. We establish a new namefor these specimens, Ordosemys brinkmania sp. nov. One additionalspecimen in the type series of 'S.'wuerhoensis, a skull, is referred tocf. Pantrionychia Joyce, Parham and Gauthier indet.

Danilov, Igor G.; Parham, James F.

2007-03-01

71

Meat Consumption as a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Disease risk factors identified in epidemiological studies serve as important public health tools, helping clinicians identify individuals who may benefit from more aggressive screening or risk-modification procedures, allowing policymakers to prioritize intervention programs, and encouraging at-risk individuals to modify behavior and improve their health. These factors have been based primarily on evidence from cross-sectional and prospective studies, as most do not lend themselves to randomized trials. While some risk factors are not modifiable, eating habits are subject to change through both individual action and broader policy initiatives. Meat consumption has been frequently investigated as a variable associated with diabetes risk, but it has not yet been described as a diabetes risk factor. In this article, we evaluate the evidence supporting the use of meat consumption as a clinically useful risk factor for type 2 diabetes, based on studies evaluating the risks associated with meat consumption as a categorical dietary characteristic (i.e., meat consumption versus no meat consumption), as a scalar variable (i.e., gradations of meat consumption), or as part of a broader dietary pattern.

Barnard, Neal; Levin, Susan; Trapp, Caroline

2014-01-01

72

Meat consumption as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

Disease risk factors identified in epidemiological studies serve as important public health tools, helping clinicians identify individuals who may benefit from more aggressive screening or risk-modification procedures, allowing policymakers to prioritize intervention programs, and encouraging at-risk individuals to modify behavior and improve their health. These factors have been based primarily on evidence from cross-sectional and prospective studies, as most do not lend themselves to randomized trials. While some risk factors are not modifiable, eating habits are subject to change through both individual action and broader policy initiatives. Meat consumption has been frequently investigated as a variable associated with diabetes risk, but it has not yet been described as a diabetes risk factor. In this article, we evaluate the evidence supporting the use of meat consumption as a clinically useful risk factor for type 2 diabetes, based on studies evaluating the risks associated with meat consumption as a categorical dietary characteristic (i.e., meat consumption versus no meat consumption), as a scalar variable (i.e., gradations of meat consumption), or as part of a broader dietary pattern. PMID:24566443

Barnard, Neal; Levin, Susan; Trapp, Caroline

2014-01-01

73

Factors related to frequency, type, and outcome of anal fistulas in Crohn's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Relation of clinical factors to frequency, type, and, in particular, outcome of anal fistulas in Crohn's disease was studied. METHODS: One hundred twelve patients seen in this hospital between January 1972 and June 1993 who suffered from Crohn's disease were included in the study. Those 35 (31 percent) with anal fistulas were reexamined or interviewed and asked about their

Leena Halme; A. Peter Sainio

1995-01-01

74

Visible and near infrared spectroscopic investigation of E-type asteroids, including 2867 Steins, a target of the Rosetta mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a visible spectroscopic survey of igneous asteroids belonging to the small and intriguing E-class, including 2867 Steins, a target of the Rosetta mission. The survey was carried out at the 3.5 m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), and at the 3.5 m New Technology Telescope (NTT) of the European Southern Observatory. We obtained new visible spectra for eighteen E-type asteroids, and near infrared spectra for eight of them. We confirm the presence of three different mineralogies in the small E-type populations. We classify each object in the E[I], E[II] or E[III] subgroups [Gaffey, M.J., Kelley, M.S., 2004. Lunar Planet. Sci. XXXV. Abstract 1812] on the basis of the spectral behavior and of the eventual presence of absorption features attributed to sulfides (such the 0.49 ?m band, on E[II]), or to iron bearing silicates (0.9 ?m band, on E[III]). We suggest that some asteroids (i.e. 64 Angelina, 317 Roxane, and 434 Hungaria), which show different spectral behavior comparing our data with those available in literature, have an inhomogeneous surface composition. 2867 Steins, a target of the Rosetta mission, shows a spectral behavior typical of the E[II] subgroup, as already suggested by Barucci et al. [Barucci, M.A., Fulchignoni, M., Fornasier, S., Dotto, E., Vernazza, P., Birlan, M., Binzel, R.P., Carvano, J., Merlin, F., Barbieri, C., Belskaya, I., 2005. Astron. Astrophys. 430, 313-317] and Fornasier et al. [Fornasier, S., Marzari, F., Dotto, E., Barucci, M.A., Migliorini, A., 2007. Astron. Astrophys. 474, 29-32]. Litva and 1990 TN1, initially classified as E-types, show a visible and near infrared behavior consistent with the olivine rich A-class asteroids, while 5806 Archieroy, also supposed to belong to the E-class, has a spectral behavior consistent with the S(V) classification following the Gaffey et al. [Gaffey, M.J., Burbine, T.H., Piatek, J.L., Reed, K.L., Chaky, D.A., Bell, J.F., Brown, R.H., 1993. Icarus 106, 573-602] classification scheme. To fully investigate the E-type population, we enlarged our sample including 6 E-type asteroids spectra available in literature, resulting in a total sample of 21 objects. The analysis of the spectral slope for the 3 different E-type subgroups versus the orbital elements show that E[III] members have the lowest mean spectral slope value inside the whole sample, and that they are located between 2.2-2.7 AU in low inclination orbits. E[II] members has the highest spectral slope inside the sample, half of them are located in the Hungaria region, 2 are NEA and 2 (64 Angelina and 2867 Steins), are in the main belt. A similar distribution is found for the 5 featureless E[I] members, located mainly in the Hungaria region (3 members), one in the middle main belt while one is a NEA (2004 VD17). Finally, for the five E-type asteroids observed both in the visible and near infrared range, plus 2867 Steins, we attempt to model their surface composition using linear geographical mixtures of no more than 3 components, selected from aubrite meteorites and correlated minerals. In particular we suggest that the aubrite Peña Blanca might have the E[III] Asteroid 317 Roxane as parent body, and that the aubrite ALH78113 might be related to the E[II] subgroup asteroids.

Fornasier, S.; Migliorini, A.; Dotto, E.; Barucci, M. A.

2008-07-01

75

Effect of fuels and domestic heating appliance types on emission factors of selected organic pollutants.  

PubMed

This study reports on the first complex data set of emission factors (EFs) of selected pollutants from combustion of five fuel types (lignite, bituminous coal, spruce, beech, and maize) in six different domestic heating appliances of various combustion designs. The effect of fuel as well as the effect of boiler type was studied. In total, 46 combustion runs were performed, during which numerous EFs were measured, including the EFs of particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), etc. The highest EFs of nonchlorinated pollutants were measured for old-type boilers with over-fire and under-fire designs and with manual stoking and natural draft. Emissions of the above-mentioned pollutants from modern-type boilers (automatic, downdraft) were 10 times lower or more. The decisive factor for emission rate of nonchlorinated pollutants was the type of appliance; the type of fuel plays only a minor role. Emissions of chlorinated pollutants were proportional mainly to the chlorine content in fuel, but the type of appliance also influenced the rate of emissions significantly. Surprisingly, higher EFs of PCDD/F from combustion of chlorinated bituminous coal were observed for modern-type boilers (downdraft, automatic) than for old-type ones. On the other hand, when bituminous coal was burned, higher emissions of HxCBz were found for old-type boilers than for modern-type ones. PMID:21932830

Šyc, Michal; Horák, Ji?í; Hopan, František; Krpec, Kamil; Tomšej, Tomáš; Ocelka, Tomáš; Pekárek, Vladimír

2011-11-01

76

Linear spectral unmixing-based method including extended nonnegative matrix factorization for pan-sharpening multispectral remote sensing images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new fusion approach for pan-sharpening multispectral remote sensing images. This approach, related to Linear Spectral Unmixing (LSU) techniques, includes Extended Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (ExNMF) for combining low spatial resolution multispectral and high spatial resolution panchromatic data. ExNMF is applied to different real multispectral and panchromatic data sets with different spatial resolutions and different number of spectral bands. The quality of pan-sharpened multispectral images is evaluated by the jointly spectral and spatial Quality with No Reference (QNR) index. Obtained results show that our proposed method outperforms the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Gram-Schmidt (GS)-based standard literature methods.

Karoui, Moussa Sofiane

2013-10-01

77

SWI/SNF factors required for cellular resistance to DNA damage include ARID1A and ARID1B and show interdependent protein stability.  

PubMed

The SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling family contains various protein complexes, which regulate gene expression during cellular development and influence DNA damage response in an ATP- and complex-dependent manner, of which details remain elusive. Recent human genome sequencing of various cancer cells revealed frequent mutations in SWI/SNF factors, especially ARID1A, a variant subunit in the BRG1-associated factor (BAF) complex of the SWI/SNF family. We combined live-cell analysis and gene-suppression experiments to show that suppression of either ARID1A or its paralog ARID1B led to reduced nonhomologous end joining activity of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), decreased accumulation of KU70/KU80 proteins at DSB, and sensitivity to ionizing radiation, as well as to cisplatin and UV. Thus, in contrast to transcriptional regulation, both ARID1 proteins are required for cellular resistance to various types of DNA damage, including DSB. The suppression of other SWI/SNF factors, namely SNF5, BAF60a, BAF60c, BAF155, or BAF170, exhibits a similar phenotype. Of these factors, ARID1A, ARID1B, SNF5, and BAF60c are necessary for the immediate recruitment of the ATPase subunit of the SWI/SNF complex to DSB, arguing that both ARID1 proteins facilitate the damage response of the complex. Finally, we found interdependent protein stability among the SWI/SNF factors, suggesting their direct interaction within the complex and the reason why multiple factors are frequently lost in parallel in cancer cells. Taken together, we show that cancer cells lacking in the expression of certain SWI/SNF factors, including ARID1A, are deficient in DNA repair and potentially vulnerable to DNA damage. PMID:24788099

Watanabe, Reiko; Ui, Ayako; Kanno, Shin-Ichiro; Ogiwara, Hideaki; Nagase, Takahiro; Kohno, Takashi; Yasui, Akira

2014-05-01

78

Proteomic analysis of the Vibrio cholerae type II secretome reveals new proteins, including three related serine proteases.  

PubMed

The type II secretion (T2S) system is responsible for extracellular secretion of a broad range of proteins, including toxins and degradative enzymes that play important roles in the pathogenesis and life cycle of many gram-negative bacteria. In Vibrio cholerae, the etiological agent of cholera, the T2S machinery transports cholera toxin, which induces profuse watery diarrhea, a hallmark of this life-threatening disease. Besides cholera toxin, four other proteins have been shown to be transported by the T2S machinery, including hemagglutinin protease, chitinase, GbpA, and lipase. Here, for the first time, we have applied proteomic approaches, including isotope tagging for relative and absolute quantification coupled with multidimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry, to perform an unbiased and comprehensive analysis of proteins secreted by the T2S apparatus of the V. cholerae El Tor strain N16961 under standard laboratory growth conditions. This analysis identified 16 new putative T2S substrates, including sialidase, several proteins participating in chitin utilization, two aminopeptidases, TagA-related protein, cytolysin, RbmC, three hypothetical proteins encoded by VCA0583, VCA0738, and VC2298, and three serine proteases VesA, VesB, and VesC. Focusing on the initial characterization of VesA, VesB, and VesC, we have confirmed enzymatic activities and T2S-dependent transport for each of these proteases. In addition, analysis of single, double, and triple protease knock-out strains indicated that VesA is the primary protease responsible for processing the A subunit of cholera toxin during in vitro growth of the V. cholerae strain N16961. PMID:21385872

Sikora, Aleksandra E; Zielke, Ryszard A; Lawrence, Daniel A; Andrews, Philip C; Sandkvist, Maria

2011-05-13

79

Intraoral Perineurioma, Soft Tissue Type: Report of Five Cases, Including 3 Intraosseous Examples, and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Soft tissue type perineuriomas (STP) are uncommon tumors, oral examples being very rare. They have been described in the mandible, gingiva, lips, retrotonsillar mucosa and maxillary vestibule. Herein, we report the clinicopathologic features of five STP, two affecting the buccal mucosa and three the mandible. Three patients were women and two men. All tumors were characterized by a proliferation of cytologically bland, mitotically inactive spindled cells with round, ovoid or spindled nuclei, embedded in a variably collagenous and myxoid matrix. Interestingly, two mandibular tumors featured psammoma bodies and one, in addition, contained irregular calcifications. Tumor cells showed the immunohistochemical profile of perineurial cells including epithelial membrane antigen, Glut-1, claudin-1 and collagen type IV. S100 and neurofilament proteins were not expressed by the tumor cells. A few minute, peripherally situated, entrapped nerves were identified. All tumors were reported gross-totally excised and no recurrences have taken place. The clinical characteristics of STP are summarized and its differential diagnosis relative to other spindle cells tumors and meningioma is discussed.

Scheithauer, Bernd W.; Folpe, Andrew L.

2010-01-01

80

Two types of heat shock factors in cultured tobacco cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated two types of complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences showing high similarity with the DNA-binding domain in heat\\u000a shock factors (HSFs) from a cDNA library of tobacco suspension-cultured cells (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. BY2). These two genes, NtHSF1 and NtHSF2, showed low similarity (37%) with each other. Both contained the typical conserved regions of HSFs (DNA-binding domains,\\u000a leucine zipper

T. Shoji; K. Kato; M. Sekine; K. Yoshida; A. Shinmyo

2000-01-01

81

Synergistic and Multidimensional Regulation of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 Expression by Transforming Growth Factor Type ? and Epidermal Growth Factor*  

PubMed Central

The major physiological inhibitor of plasminogen activator, type I plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), controls blood clotting and tissue remodeling events that involve cell migration. Transforming growth factor type ? (TGF?) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) interact synergistically to increase PAI-1 mRNA and protein levels in human HepG2 and mink Mv1Lu cells. Other growth factors that activate tyrosine kinase receptors can substitute for EGF. EGF and TGF? regulate PAI-1 by synergistically activating transcription, which is further amplified by a decrease in the rate of mRNA degradation, the latter being regulated only by EGF. The combined effect of transcriptional activation and mRNA stabilization results in a rapid 2-order of magnitude increase in the level of PAI-1. TGF? also increases the sensitivity of the cells to EGF, thereby recruiting the cooperation of EGF at lower than normally effective concentrations. The contribution of EGF to the regulation of PAI-1 involves the MAPK pathway, and the synergistic interface with the TGF? pathway is downstream of MEK1/2 and involves phosphorylation of neither ERK1/2 nor Smad2/3. Synergism requires the presence of both Smad and AP-1 recognition sites in the promoter. This work demonstrates the existence of a multidimensional cellular mechanism by which EGF and TGF? are able to promote large and rapid changes in PAI-1 expression.

Song, Xiaoling; Thalacker, Frederic W.; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit

2012-01-01

82

Binding of barrier to autointegration factor (BAF) to histone H3 and selected linker histones including H1.1.  

PubMed

Barrier to autointegration factor (BAF) is an essential conserved double-stranded DNA-binding protein in metazoans. BAF binds directly to LEM domain nuclear proteins (e.g. LAP2, Emerin, and MAN1), lamin A, homeodomain transcription factors, and human immunodeficiency virus type 1-encoded proteins. BAF influences higher order chromatin structure and is required to assemble nuclei. BAF also facilitates retroviral preintegration complex insertion into target DNA in vitro, through unknown mechanisms. We report that BAF binds directly and selectively to linker histone H1.1 (among three subtypes tested) and core histone H3 with affinities of approximately 700 nm and approximately 100-200 nm, respectively, in vitro and in vivo. Mutations at the bottom and top surfaces of the BAF dimer disrupted or enhanced, respectively, this binding and affected H1 and H3 similarly. Biochemical studies showed that C-terminal residues 108-215 of histone H1.1 and the N-terminal tail plus helix alphaN in the core of histone H3.1 were each necessary and sufficient to bind BAF. Based on its interactions with histones and DNA, we propose BAF might bind nucleosomes in vivo. PMID:16203725

Montes de Oca, Rocío; Lee, Kenneth K; Wilson, Katherine L

2005-12-23

83

Inactivation of specific ? cell transcription factors in type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) commonly arises from islet ? cell failure and insulin resistance. Here, we examined the sensitivity of key islet-enriched transcription factors to oxidative stress, a condition associated with ? cell dysfunction in both type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and T2DM. Hydrogen peroxide treatment of ? cell lines induced cytoplasmic translocation of MAFA and NKX6.1. In parallel, the ability of nuclear PDX1 to bind endogenous target gene promoters was also dramatically reduced, whereas the activity of other key ? cell transcriptional regulators was unaffected. MAFA levels were reduced, followed by a reduction in NKX6.1 upon development of hyperglycemia in db/db mice, a T2DM model. Transgenic expression of the glutathione peroxidase-1 antioxidant enzyme (GPX1) in db/db islet ? cells restored nuclear MAFA, nuclear NKX6.1, and ? cell function in vivo. Notably, the selective decrease in MAFA, NKX6.1, and PDX1 expression was found in human T2DM islets. MAFB, a MAFA-related transcription factor expressed in human ? cells, was also severely compromised. We propose that MAFA, MAFB, NKX6.1, and PDX1 activity provides a gauge of islet ? cell function, with loss of MAFA (and/or MAFB) representing an early indicator of ? cell inactivity and the subsequent deficit of more impactful NKX6.1 (and/or PDX1) resulting in overt dysfunction associated with T2DM.

Guo, Shuangli; Dai, Chunhua; Guo, Min; Taylor, Brandon; Harmon, Jamie S.; Sander, Maike; Robertson, R. Paul; Powers, Alvin C.; Stein, Roland

2013-01-01

84

A Telemedicine System That Includes a Personal Assistant Improves Glycemic Control in Pump-Treated Patients with Type 1 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background The DIABTel system, a Web-based telemedicine application, integrates a whole communication system (glucometer, insulin pump, wireless hand-held assistant) for medical remote advice. We sought to evaluate, in terms of glycemic control, the DIABTel system in a randomized crossover clinical study. Methods Ten patients with type 1 diabetes [5 women, age 40.6 (21–62) years, diabetes duration 14.7 (3–52) years] were included. During the 4-week active phase, data sent by patients were analyzed by the physician and modifications of the basal rate and bolus were advised in the following 24 hours. During the control phase, patients sent glucose data without any feedback from the medical center. Results The mean numbers of daily glucose values and bolus sent by patients during the active period were 4.46 ± 0.91 and 4.58 ± 0.89, respectively. The personal digital assistant functionalities used more frequently by patients were (times per week) data visualization (8.1 ± 6.8), data download from the insulin pump (6.8 ± 3.3), and synchronization with the telemedicine server (8.5 ± 4.9). After the experimental phase, serum fructosamine decreased significantly (393 ± 32 vs 366 ± 25 µmol/liter; p < 0.05) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) tended to decrease (8.0 ± 0.6 vs 7.78 ± 0.6; p = 0.073), whereas no changes were observed during the control phase. The number of treatment modifications proposed and performed by the patients correlated with the change observed in HbA1c during the active phase (r = ?0.729, p = 0.017). Conclusions The DIABTel system, a telemedicine system that includes a wireless personal assistant for remote treatment advising, allows better glycemic control in pump-treated patients with type 1 diabetes. To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates improved glycemic control with the use of a telemedicine system that incorporates insulin delivery data.

Rigla, Mercedes; Hernando, M. Elena; Gomez, Enrique J.; Brugues, Eulalia; Garcia-Saez, Gema; Torralba, Veronica; Prados, Agustina; Erdozain, Luisa; Vilaverde, Joana; de Leiva, Alberto

2007-01-01

85

A new method to calculate Franck-Condon factors of multidimensional harmonic oscillators including the Duschinsky effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calculations of Franck-Condon factors are crucial for interpreting vibronic spectra of molecules and studying nonradiative processes. We have developed a new method for calculating Franck-Condon factors of multidimensional harmonic oscillators including the Duschinsky effect. Closed-form formulas of two-, three-, and four-dimensional Franck-Condon factors were derived straightforwardly by using the properties of Hermite polynomials and Gaussian integrals. This new method was applied to study the photoelectron spectra of H2O+(B~ 2B2) and D2O+(B~ 2B2), whose equilibrium geometries and harmonic vibrational frequencies were calculated by using the coupled cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples [CCSD(T)] method together with the basis sets of 6-311++G(3df,2pd) and aug-cc-pVTZ. The adiabatic ionization energies were computed by using the CCSD(T) method extrapolated to the complete basis set limit with aug-cc-pVXZ (X=D,T,Q,5). It was found that the simulated photoelectron spectra were mainly composed of ?2 progressions and the combination bands of ?1 and ?2, whereas pure ?1 transitions should be too weak to be observable, contrary to the literature reports. It was also found that the first discernible peak in the experimental photoelectron spectra did not correspond to the adiabatic transition. The adiabatic ionization energies of H2O+(B~ 2B2) and D2O+(B~ 2B2) are proposed to be 16.78 and 16.83 eV, about 0.40 and 0.58 eV lower than the best experimental values, respectively. Conversely, the calculated ionization energies are in agreement with the proposed values within 0.02 eV.

Chang, Jia-Lin

2008-05-01

86

Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) transcript and protein in the testis of several vertebrates, including endangered species.  

PubMed

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to influence the testis function. To establish the role of VEGF in the testis of a variety of species, we analyzed the expression of VEGF transcript using human gene-specific primers by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis in the testes of 18 vertebrates, including a few endangered species. An amplicon of 566 bp representing VEGF(165) was identified in testis of all species in this study. Sequence analysis of these amplicons revealed 84 to 96% homology to available human VEGF sequence and to the VEGF sequences of other species in GenBank. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed expression of VEGF protein, primarily in Sertoli and Leydig cells and occasionally in the germ cells of the testis sections. It can be concluded from this study that expression of VEGF transcript is conserved in the testis of several vertebrates and may have a role in the process of spermatogenesis. PMID:22056013

Reddy, Niranjan; Kasukurthi, Kiran Babu; Mahla, Ranjeet Singh; Pawar, Rahul Mohanchandra; Goel, Sandeep

2012-02-01

87

Risk factors for exposure to influenza a viruses, including subtype h5 viruses, in thai free-grazing ducks.  

PubMed

Free-grazing ducks (FGD) have been associated with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks and may be a viral reservoir. In July-August 2010, we assessed influenza exposure of Thai FGD and risk factors thereof. Serum from 6254 ducks was analysed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies to influenza A nucleoprotein (NP), and haemagglutinin H5 protein. Eighty-five per cent (5305 ducks) were seropositive for influenza A. Of the NP-seropositive sera tested with H5 assays (n = 1423), 553 (39%) were H5 ELISA positive and 57 (4%) suspect. Twelve per cent (74 of 610) of H5 ELISA-positive/suspect ducks had H5 titres ? 1 : 20 by haemagglutination inhibition. Risk factors for influenza A seropositivity include older age, poultry contact, flock visitors and older purchase age. Study flocks had H5 virus exposure as recently as March 2010, but no HPAI H5N1 outbreaks have been identified in Thailand since 2008, highlighting a need for rigorous FGD surveillance. PMID:23279757

Beaudoin, A L; Kitikoon, P; Schreiner, P J; Singer, R S; Sasipreeyajan, J; Amonsin, A; Gramer, M R; Pakinsee, S; Bender, J B

2014-08-01

88

The Cellulosome System of Acetivibrio cellulolyticus Includes a Novel Type of Adaptor Protein and a Cell Surface Anchoring Protein  

PubMed Central

A scaffoldin gene cluster was identified in the mesophilic cellulolytic anaerobe Acetivibrio cellulolyticus. The previously described scaffoldin gene, cipV, encodes an N-terminal family 9 glycoside hydrolase, a family 3b cellulose-binding domain, seven cohesin domains, and a C-terminal dockerin. The gene immediately downstream of cipV was sequenced and designated scaB. The protein encoded by this gene has 942 amino acid residues and a calculated molecular weight of 100,358 and includes an N-terminal signal peptide, four type II cohesions, and a C-terminal dockerin. ScaB cohesins 1 and 2 are very closely linked. Similar, but not identical, 39-residue Thr-rich linker segments separate cohesin 2 from cohesin 3 and cohesin 3 from cohesin 4, and an 84-residue Thr-rich linker connects the fourth cohesin to a C-terminal dockerin. The scaC gene downstream of scaB codes for a 1,237-residue polypeptide that includes a signal peptide, three cohesins, and a C-terminal S-layer homology (SLH) module. A long, ca. 550-residue linker separates the third cohesin and the SLH module of ScaC and is characterized by an 18-residue Pro-Thr-Ala-Ser-rich segment that is repeated 27 times. The calculated molecular weight of the mature ScaC polypeptide (excluding the signal peptide) is 124,162. The presence of the cohesins and the conserved SLH module implies that ScaC acts as an anchoring protein. The ScaC cohesins are on a separate branch of the phylogenetic tree that is close to, but distinct from, the type I cohesins. Affinity blotting with representative recombinant probes revealed the following specific intermodular interactions: (i) an expressed CipV cohesin binds selectively to an enzyme-borne dockerin, (ii) a representative ScaB cohesin binds to the CipV band of the cell-free supernatant fraction, and (iii) a ScaC cohesin binds to the ScaB dockerin. The experimental evidence thus indicates that CipV acts as a primary (enzyme-recognizing) scaffoldin, and the protein was also designated ScaA. In addition, ScaB is thought to assume the role of an adaptor protein, which connects the primary scaffoldin (ScaA) to the cohesin-containing anchoring scaffoldin (ScaC). The cellulosome system of A. cellulolyticus thus appears to exhibit a special type of organization that reflects the function of the ScaB adaptor protein. The intercalation of three multiple cohesin-containing scaffoldins results in marked amplification of the number of enzyme subunits per cellulosome unit. At least 96 enzymes can apparently be incorporated into an individual A. cellulolyticus cellulosome. The role of such amplified enzyme incorporation and the resultant proximity of the enzymes within the cellulosome complex presumably contribute to the enhanced synergistic action and overall efficient digestion of recalcitrant forms of cellulose. Comparison of the emerging organization of the A. cellulolyticus cellulosome with the organizations in other cellulolytic bacteria revealed the diversity of the supramolecular architecture.

Xu, Qi; Gao, Wenchen; Ding, Shi-You; Kenig, Rina; Shoham, Yuval; Bayer, Edward A.; Lamed, Raphael

2003-01-01

89

Optimizing Staining Protocols for Laser Microdissection of Specific Cell Types from the Testis Including Carcinoma In Situ  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microarray and RT-PCR based methods are important tools for analysis of gene expression; however, in tissues containing many different cells types, such as the testis, characterization of gene expression in specific cell types can be severely hampered by noise from other cells. The laser microdissection technology allows for enrichment of specific cell types. However, when the cells are not morphologically

Si Brask Sonne; Marlene D. Dalgaard; John Erik Nielsen; Christina E. Hoei-Hansen; Ewa Rajpert-de Meyts; Lise Mette Gjerdrum; Henrik Leffers; Patrick Callaerts

2009-01-01

90

Strigolactone Biosynthesis in Medicago truncatula and Rice Requires the Symbiotic GRAS-Type Transcription Factors NSP1 and NSP2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legume GRAS (GAI, RGA, SCR)-type transcription factors NODULATION SIGNALING PATHWAY1 (NSP1) and NSP2 are essential for rhizobium Nod factor-induced nodulation. Both proteins are considered to be Nod factor response factors regulating gene expression after symbiotic signaling. However, legume NSP1 and NSP2 can be functionally replaced by nonlegume orthologs, including rice (Oryza sativa) NSP1 and NSP2, indicating that both proteins are

W. Liu; W. Kohlen; A. Lillo; Camp Op den R; S. Ivanov; M. Hartog; E. Limpens; M. Jamil; C. Smaczniak; K. Kaufmann; W. C. Yang; G. J. E. J. Hooiveld; T. Charnikhova; H. J. Bouwmeester; T. Bisseling; R. Geurts

2011-01-01

91

Spectral, spatial and radiometric factors in cover type discrimination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of spatial, spectral, and radiometric resolutions on the utilization of Thematic Mapper (TM) and Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data is assessed quantitatively using a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design experiment. Eight possible factor combinations were examined for agricultural, urban, forestry, range, and water types of land covers for three levels of information. Spectral bandwidths were configured to simulate all four Landsat MSS channels and Landsat TM channels 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7. By means of bar charts and tables it is shown that the 8-bit radiometric and 75-meter spatial resolutions provide a higher overall accuracy than the 6-bit radiometric and 25-meter spatial resolutions. Spectrally, the difference between the four MSS channels and five TM channel configurations is noted to be insignificant.

Alexander, D.; Buis, J.; Acevedo, W.; Wrigley, R.

1983-01-01

92

Intravenous DDAVP and Factor VIII-von Willebrand Factor Concentrate for the Treatment and Prophylaxis of Bleedings in Patients With von Willebrand Disease Type 1, 2 and 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current standard set of von Willebrand factor (VWF) parameters used to differentiate type 1 from type 2 VWD include bleeding times (BTs), factor VIII coagulant activity (FVIII:C), VWF antigen (VWF:Ag), VWF ristocetine cofactor activity (VWF:RCo), VWF collagen binding activity (VWF:CB), ristocetine induced platelet aggregation (RIPA), and analysis of VWF multimers in low and high resolution agarose gels and the

Jan Jacques Michiels; Huub H. D. M. van Vliet; Zwi Berneman; Alain Gadisseur; Marc van der Planken; Wilfried Schroyens; Ann van der Velden; Ulrich Budde

2007-01-01

93

Risk factors and primary prevention trials for type 1 diabetes.  

PubMed

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic autoimmune disease resulting in the designated immune destruction of insulin producing ?-cells, usually diagnosed in youth, and associated with important psychological, familial, and social disorders. Once diagnosed, patients need lifelong insulin treatment and will experience multiple disease-associated complications. There is no cure for T1DM currently. The last decade has witnessed great progress in elucidating the causes and treatment of the disease based on numerous researches both in rodent models of spontaneous diabetes and in humans. This article summarises our current understanding of the pathogenesis of T1DM, the roles of the immune system, genes, environment and other factors in the continuing and rapid increase in T1DM incidence at younger ages in humans. In addition, we discuss the strategies for primary and secondary prevention trials of T1DM. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of this disorder's pathogenesis, risk factors that cause the disease, as well as to bring forward an ideal approach to prevent and cure the disorder. PMID:23904791

Wu, Yan-Ling; Ding, Yan-Ping; Gao, Jian; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Zhang, Wen

2013-01-01

94

Carriage and acquisition rates of Clostridium difficile in hospitalized horses, including molecular characterization, multilocus sequence typing and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates.  

PubMed

Clostridium difficile has been identified as a significant agent of diarrhoea and enterocolitis in both foals and adult horses. Hospitalization, antibiotic therapy or changes in diet may contribute to the development of C. difficile infection. Horses admitted to a care unit are therefore at greater risk of being colonized. The aim of this study was to investigate the carriage of C. difficile in hospitalized horses and the possible influence of some risk factors in colonization. During a seven-month period, faecal samples and data relating the clinical history of horses admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital were collected. C. difficile isolates were characterized through toxin profiles, cytotoxicity activity, PCR-ribotyping, antimicrobial resistance and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Ten isolates were obtained with a total of seven different PCR-ribotypes, including PCR-ribotype 014. Five of them were identified as toxinogenic. A high resistance to gentamicin, clindamycin and ceftiofur was found. MLST revealed four different sequencing types (ST), which included ST11, ST26, ST2 and ST15, and phylogenetic analysis showed that most of the isolates clustered in the same lineage. Clinical history suggests that horses frequently harbour toxigenic and non-toxigenic C. difficile and that in most cases they are colonized regardless of the reason for hospitalization; the development of diarrhoea is more unusual. PMID:24894133

Rodriguez, C; Taminiau, B; Brévers, B; Avesani, V; Van Broeck, J; Leroux, A A; Amory, H; Delmée, M; Daube, G

2014-08-01

95

MDM2 and p53 expression in gliomas: a multivariate survival analysis including proliferation markers and epidermal growth factor receptor.  

PubMed Central

p53 and the murine double minute 2 (MDM2) oncoprotein expression was evaluated in paraffin-embedded tissue from 61 patients with central nervous system gliomas (53 astrocytomas and eight oligodendrogliomas) and related to proliferation-associated markers [i.e. proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Ki-67 and nuclear organizer regions (NORs)] and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We used the monoclonal antibodies PC-10, MIB-1, DO-1, 1B1O and EGFR 113 and the colloid silver nitrate (AgNOR) technique. MDM2 and p53 were co-expressed in 28% of cases. A p53-positive/MDM2-negative phenotype was observed in 15% and a p53-negative/MDM2-positive phenotype in 20% of cases. There was a positive correlation of p53 and MDM2 expression with grade and proliferation indices. Univariate analysis in the group of diffuse astrocytomas showed that older age, high histological grade, high PCNA labelling index (LI) and high AgNOR score were associated with reduced overall survival (P < 0.05). p53 LI, Ki-67 LI, AgNOR score, tumour location and grade influenced disease-free survival (P < 0.05), whereas the only parameters affecting post-relapse survival were histological grade and Ki-67 LI (P < 0.1). Multivariate analysis revealed that age, radiotherapy, PCNA LI and p53 LI were the independent predictors of overall survival. p53 LI, Ki-67 LI, MDM2 LI, EGFR LI, grade and type of therapy were independent predictors of disease-free survival, and grade was the only independent predictor of post-relapse survival. Our results indicate that p53 LI and MDM2 LI, EGFR expression as well as proliferation markers (PCNA and Ki-67) are useful indicators of overall and disease-free survival in diffuse astrocytoma patients. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6

Korkolopoulou, P.; Christodoulou, P.; Kouzelis, K.; Hadjiyannakis, M.; Priftis, A.; Stamoulis, G.; Seretis, A.; Thomas-Tsagli, E.

1997-01-01

96

MDM2 and p53 expression in gliomas: a multivariate survival analysis including proliferation markers and epidermal growth factor receptor.  

PubMed

p53 and the murine double minute 2 (MDM2) oncoprotein expression was evaluated in paraffin-embedded tissue from 61 patients with central nervous system gliomas (53 astrocytomas and eight oligodendrogliomas) and related to proliferation-associated markers [i.e. proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Ki-67 and nuclear organizer regions (NORs)] and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We used the monoclonal antibodies PC-10, MIB-1, DO-1, 1B1O and EGFR 113 and the colloid silver nitrate (AgNOR) technique. MDM2 and p53 were co-expressed in 28% of cases. A p53-positive/MDM2-negative phenotype was observed in 15% and a p53-negative/MDM2-positive phenotype in 20% of cases. There was a positive correlation of p53 and MDM2 expression with grade and proliferation indices. Univariate analysis in the group of diffuse astrocytomas showed that older age, high histological grade, high PCNA labelling index (LI) and high AgNOR score were associated with reduced overall survival (P < 0.05). p53 LI, Ki-67 LI, AgNOR score, tumour location and grade influenced disease-free survival (P < 0.05), whereas the only parameters affecting post-relapse survival were histological grade and Ki-67 LI (P < 0.1). Multivariate analysis revealed that age, radiotherapy, PCNA LI and p53 LI were the independent predictors of overall survival. p53 LI, Ki-67 LI, MDM2 LI, EGFR LI, grade and type of therapy were independent predictors of disease-free survival, and grade was the only independent predictor of post-relapse survival. Our results indicate that p53 LI and MDM2 LI, EGFR expression as well as proliferation markers (PCNA and Ki-67) are useful indicators of overall and disease-free survival in diffuse astrocytoma patients. PMID:9155045

Korkolopoulou, P; Christodoulou, P; Kouzelis, K; Hadjiyannakis, M; Priftis, A; Stamoulis, G; Seretis, A; Thomas-Tsagli, E

1997-01-01

97

Comparison of four methods, including semi-automated rep-PCR, for the typing of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium.  

PubMed

We have assessed the performance of semi-automated rep-PCR (Diversilab®) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) in comparison to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for typing a collection of 29 epidemiologically characterized vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE). Sixteen strains that harbored the Tn1546 element were typed by PCR mapping. The discriminative power of the typing methods was calculated by the Simpson's index of diversity, and the concordance between methods was evaluated by the Kendall's coefficient of concordance. Semi-automated rep-PCR appeared as discriminative as PFGE and was further compared with PFGE for typing 67 VRE isolated during a hospital outbreak. Rep-PCR appeared to be more discriminative than PFGE for this second set of strains. Reproducibility of DiversiLab® was also tested against 35 selected isolates. Only three showed less than 97% similarity, indicating high reproducibility at this level of discrimination. In conclusion, semi-automated rep-PCR is a useful tool for rapid screening of VRE isolates during an outbreak, although cost of the system may be limiting for routine implementation. PFGE, which remains the reference method, should be used for confirmation and evaluation of the genetic relatedness of epidemic isolates. PMID:21062634

Bourdon, Nancy; Lemire, Astrid; Fines-Guyon, Marguerite; Auzou, Michel; Périchon, Bruno; Courvalin, Patrice; Cattoir, Vincent; Leclercq, Roland

2011-01-01

98

Risk factors for foot blisters during road marching: tobacco use, ethnicity, foot type, previous illness, and other factors.  

PubMed

Three hundred thirty-nine freshmen participating in cadet basic training at the U.S. Military Academy completed a questionnaire that asked them about their previous military experience, gender, ethnicity, injuries and illness experienced in the last 12 months, foot type, cigarette smoking habits, smokeless tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and sleep habits. They then performed a 21-km road march in about 6.5 hours. Their feet were examined for blisters before and after the march. Univariate analysis showed that risk factors for foot blisters included ethnicity (blacks at lower risk than others), a sickness in the last 12 months, no previous active duty military experience, use of smokeless tobacco, and flat feet (pes planus). Logistic regression indicated that all of these were independent blister risk factors with the exception of no previous active duty military experience. PMID:10050563

Knapik, J J; Reynolds, K; Barson, J

1999-02-01

99

Type II diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular risk factors: Current therapeutic approaches  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, approximately 200 million people currently have type II diabetes mellitus (DM), a prevalence that has been predicted to increase to 366 million by 2030. Rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and morbidity are particularly high in this population, representing a significant cost for health care systems. Type II DM patients generally carry a number of risk factors for CVD, including hyperglycemia, abnormal lipid profiles, alterations in inflammatory mediators and coagulation/thrombolytic parameters, as well as other ‘nontraditional’ risk factors, many of which may be closely associated with insulin resistance. Therefore, successful management of CVD associated with diabetes represents a major challenge to the clinicians. An effective way of tackling this problem is to detect the associated risk factors and to target treatment toward their improvement. Targeting hyperglycemia alone does not reduce the excess risk in diabetes, highlighting the need for aggressive treatment of other risk factors. Although the current use of statin therapy is effective at reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, residual risk remains for other independent lipid and nonlipid factors. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? appears to be closely involved in regulating risk markers at multiple levels. A relatively new class of therapeutic agents that activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?, the thiazolidinedione insulin-sensitizing agents, is currently used to manage type II DM. These agents display a number of potential antiatherogenic properties, including effects on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as other beneficial nonlipid effects, such as regulating levels of mediators involved in inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Research data suggest that simple strategies combining thiazolidinediones and statins could have complementary effects on CVD risk-factor profiles in diabetes, alongside the ability to control glycemia.

Kalofoutis, Christos; Piperi, Christina; Kalofoutis, Anastasios; Harris, Fred; Phoenix, David; Singh, Jaipaul

2007-01-01

100

Towards a Four-Dimensional Model of Burnout: A Multigroup Factor-Analytic Study Including Depersonalization and Cynicism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigated whether cynicism and depersonalization are two different dimensions of burnout or whether they may be collapsed into one construct of mental distance. Using confirmatory factor analyses in two samples of teachers (n = 483) and blue-collar workers (n = 474), a superior fit was found for the four-factor model that contained…

Salanova, Marisa; Llorens, Susana; Garcia-Renedo, Monica; Burriel, Raul; Breso, Edgar; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

2005-01-01

101

Tae-Eum Type as an Independent Risk Factor for Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is prevalent and associated with several kinds of chronic diseases. There has been evidence that a specific type of Sasang constitution is a risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases that can be found in patients with OSA, but there are no studies that address the association between the Sasang constitution type (SCT) and OSA. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between the SCT and OSA. A total of 652 participants were included. All participants were examined for demographic information, medical history, and completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire on life style and sleep-related variables. Biochemical analyses were performed to determine the glucose and lipid profiles. An objective recording of OSA was done with an unattended home PSG using an Embla portable device. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and oxygen desaturation index (ODI) were significantly higher in the Tae-eum (TE) type as compared to the So-eum (SE) and the So-yang (SY) types. Even after adjusting for confounding variables, the TE type still had a 2.34-fold (95% CI, 1.11–4.94; P = 0.0262) increased risk for OSA. This population-based cohort study found that the TE constitutional type is an independent risk factor for the development of OSA.

Lee, Seung Ku; Yoon, Dae Wui; Yi, Hyeryeon; Lee, Si Woo; Kim, Jong Yeol; Shin, Chol

2013-01-01

102

Tumor necrosis factor-? receptor type 1, not type 2, mediates its acute responses in the kidney  

PubMed Central

Acute administration of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) resulted in decreases in renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) but induced diuretic and natriuretic responses in mice. To define the receptor subtypes involved in these renal responses, experiments were conducted to assess the responses to human recombinant TNF-? (0.3 ng·min?1·g body wt?1 iv infusion for 75 min) in gene knockout (KO) mice for TNF-? receptor type 1 (TNF?R1 KO, n = 5) or type 2 (TNF?R2 KO, n = 6), and the results were compared with those obtained in corresponding wild-type [WT (C57BL/6), n = 6] mice. Basal levels of RBF (PAH clearance) and GFR (inulin clearance) were similar in TNF?R1 KO, but were lower in TNF?R2 KO, than WT mice. TNF-? infusion in WT mice decreased RBF and GFR but caused a natriuretic response, as reported previously. In TNF?R1 KO mice, TNF-? infusion failed to cause such vasoconstrictor or natriuretic responses; rather, there was an increase in RBF and a decrease in renal vascular resistance. Similar responses were also observed with infusion of murine recombinant TNF-? in TNF?R1 KO mice (n = 5). However, TNF-? infusion in TNF?R2 KO mice caused changes in renal parameters qualitatively similar to those observed in WT mice. Immunohistochemical analysis in kidney slices from WT mice demonstrated that while both receptor types were generally located in the renal vascular and tubular cells, only TNF?R1 was located in vascular smooth muscle cells. There was an increase in TNF?R1 immunoreactivity in TNF?R2 KO mice, and vice versa, compared with WT mice. Collectively, these functional and immunohistological findings in the present study demonstrate that the activation of TNF?R1, not TNF?R2, is mainly involved in mediating the acute renal vasoconstrictor and natriuretic actions of TNF-?.

Castillo, Alexander; Islam, M. Toriqul; Prieto, Minolfa C.

2012-01-01

103

43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (b) Storage tanks and small impoundments; (c) Water treatment facilities for potable water supplies, including desalination facilities; (d) Buildings necessary to house equipment and serve as a center for operations; (e) Power...

2009-10-01

104

An Improved Reissner-Mindlin-Type Model for the Electromechanical Analysis of Multilayered Plates Including Piezo-Layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dealing with multilayered plates including piezo-layers, this paper presents a mechanical model which allows an accurate description of both the in-plane displacement (zig-zag effect is included) and the transverse shear stress fields (interlaminar equilibrium is fulfilled). Moreover, it preserves the computational advantages of the standard Reissner-Mindlin finite element formulation. The electrical stiffnesses are taken into account through assuming a quadratic

Erasmo Carrera

1997-01-01

105

Apolipoprotein E polymorphisms and type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis of 30 studies including 5423 cases and 8197 controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a highly complicated metabolic disorder for which there is worldwide effort for the identification of susceptibility genes. Polymorphisms of the Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene are associated with plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels and influence cardiovascular risk. Since insulin resistance is known to be strongly associated with metabolic dyslipidemia, ApoE polymorphisms have been implicated in

P. G. Anthopoulos; S. J. Hamodrakas; P. G. Bagos

2010-01-01

106

Overview of the Taxonomy of Environmental Types and the Factor Structure of the Salter Environmental Type Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Salter Environmental Type Assessment (SETA) was created to be a commensurate measure for the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and to improve the efficacy of the person-environmental interaction paradigm to student affairs. A confirmatory factor analysis of SETA profiles supported the four dimensions in environmental type theory. The utility of this…

Salter, Daniel W.; Vandiver, Beverly J.

2002-01-01

107

Blood pressure and lipid management fall far short in persons with type 2 diabetes: results from the DIAB-CORE Consortium including six German population-based studies  

PubMed Central

Background Although most deaths among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are attributable to cardiovascular disease, modifiable cardiovascular risk factors appear to be inadequately treated in medical practice. The aim of this study was to describe hypertension, dyslipidemia and medical treatment of these conditions in a large population-based sample. Methods The present analysis was based on the DIAB-CORE project, in which data from five regional population-based studies and one nationwide German study were pooled. All studies were conducted between 1997 and 2006. We assessed the frequencies of risk factors and co-morbidities, especially hypertension and dyslipidemia, in participants with and without T2D. The odds of no or insufficient treatment and the odds of pharmacotherapy were computed using multivariable logistic regression models. Types of medication regimens were described. Results The pooled data set comprised individual data of 15, 071 participants aged 45–74?years, including 1287 (8.5%) participants with T2D. Subjects with T2D were significantly more likely to have untreated or insufficiently treated hypertension, i.e. blood pressure of?>?= 140/90?mmHg (OR?=?1.43, 95% CI 1.26-1.61) and dyslipidemia i.e. a total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio?>?= 5 (OR?=?1.80, 95% CI 1.59-2.04) than participants without T2D. Untreated or insufficiently treated blood pressure was observed in 48.9% of participants without T2D and in 63.6% of participants with T2D. In this latter group, 28.0% did not receive anti-hypertensive medication and 72.0% were insufficiently treated. In non-T2D participants, 28.8% had untreated or insufficiently treated dyslipidemia. Of all participants with T2D 42.5% had currently elevated lipids, 80.3% of these were untreated and 19.7% were insufficiently treated. Conclusions Blood pressure and lipid management fall short especially in persons with T2D across Germany. The importance of sufficient risk factor control besides blood glucose monitoring in diabetes care needs to be emphasized in order to prevent cardiovascular sequelae and premature death.

2012-01-01

108

Alterations in circulating angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors in type 2 diabetic patients with neuropathy.  

PubMed

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common diabetic chronic complications. There is an increased attention directed towards the role of angiogenic factors including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and anti-angiogenic factors including soluble endoglin (sEng) as contributors to diabetic microvascular complications including neuropathy. The purposes of this study were to determine the role of these angiogenesis regulators in the prognosis of DPN. The study group included 60 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and 20 clinically healthy individuals. The patients were divided into two groups. Group I included 20 T2DM patients without peripheral neuropathy, and Group II consisted of 40 T2DM patients with DPN. In all groups, plasma VEGF, sEng and endothelin-1 (ET-1), nitric oxide and ET-1 mRNA were estimated. Plasma levels of VEGF, sEng, ET-1 and nitric oxide were significantly elevated in diabetic patients (Groups I and II) compared with healthy control subjects, with a higher increase in their levels in patients with DPN compared with diabetic patients without peripheral neuropathy. Measurement of plasma levels of angiogenesis-related biomarkers in high-risk diabetic patients might identify who later develop DPN, thus providing opportunities for early detection and targets for novel treatments. PMID:23913471

Motawi, Tarek Kamal; Rizk, Sherine Maher; Ibrahim, Ihab Abdel-Rahman; El-Emady, Yasmin Farid

2014-03-01

109

Genetic defects at the UGT1 locus associated with Crigler-Najjar type I disease, including a prenatal diagnosis  

SciTech Connect

Characterization of the UGT1 gene complex locus encoding both multiple bilirubin and phenol UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (transferases) has been critical in identifying mutations in the bilirubin isoforms. This study utilizes this information to identify the bases of deficient bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity encoded by the UGT1A gene for the major bilirubin isozyme, HUG-Br1, in 3 Crigler-Najjar type I individuals and the genotype of an at-risk unborn sibling of one patient. A homozygous and heterozygous two-base mutation (CCC to CGT) created the HUG-Br1P387R mutant of the major bilirubin transferase in 2 different Crigler-Najjar type I patients, B.G. and G.D., respectively. Both parents of B.G. and his unborn sibling, J.G., were determined to be carriers of the P387R mutation. G.D. also contains the CAA to TAA nonsense mutation (G1n357st). Y.A. has a homozygous CT deletion in codons 40/41. The HUG-Br1P387R mutant protein was totally inactive at the major pH optimum, but retained 26% normal activity at the minor pH optimum (7.6), which was 5.4% of the combined activities measured at the two pH values. 27 refs., 5 figs.

Ciotti, M.; Obaray, R.; Owens, I.S. [National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Martin, M.G. [Univ. of California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1997-01-20

110

Retinal image quality with the different types of intraocular lenses including new idea of the hybrid IOLs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cataract is one of the most frequent reasons of blindness all around the world. Its treatment relies on removing the pathologically altered crystalline lens and replacing it with an artificial intraocular lens (IOL). There exists plenty of types of such implants, which differ in the optical materials and designs (shapes). However one of the important features, which is rather overlooked in the development of the intraocular implants is the chromatic aberration and its influence on the retinal image quality. In this study authors try to estimate the influence of the design and optical material of the implant on the retinal image quality in the polychromatic light, taking into consideration several exemplary types of IOLs which are commercially available. Authors also propose the partially achromatized hybrid IOLs, the longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA)of which reduces the total LCA of the phakic eye to the level of a healthy eye's LCA. Several image characteristics, as the polychromatic Point Spread Function (PSF) and the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) and the polychromatic encircled energy are estimated. The results of the simulations show the significance of the partial chromatic aberration correction.

Siedlecki, D.; Zaj?c, M.; Nowak, J.

2007-06-01

111

The MC-DFT approach including the SCS-MP2 energies to the new minnesota-type functionals.  

PubMed

We have applied the multicoefficient density functional theory (MC-DFT) to four recent Minnesota functionals, including M06-2X, M08-HX, M11, and MN12-SX on the performance of thermochemical kinetics. The results indicated that the accuracy can be improved significantly using more than one basis set. We further included the SCS-MP2 energies into MC-DFT, and the resulting mean unsigned errors (MUEs) decreased by approximately 0.3 kcal/mol for the most accurate basis set combinations. The M06-2X functional with the simple [6-311+G(d,p)/6-311+G(2d,2p)] combination gave the best performance/cost ratios for the MC-DFT and MC-SCS-MP2|MC-DFT methods with MUE of 1.58 and 1.22 kcal/mol, respectively. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24923999

Liu, Po-Chun; Hu, Wei-Ping

2014-08-01

112

School factors as barriers to and facilitators of a preventive intervention for pediatric type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

School-based interventions are essential to prevent pediatric obesity and type 2 diabetes. School environmental factors influence implementation of these interventions. This article examines how school factors acted as barriers to and facilitators of the HEALTHY intervention. The HEALTHY study was a cluster-randomized trial of a multicomponent intervention implemented in 21 schools. Interview data were analyzed to identify barriers and facilitators. Barriers included teacher frustration that intervention activities detracted from tested subjects, student resistance and misbehavior, classroom management problems, communication equipment problems, lack of teacher/staff engagement, high cost and limited availability of nutritious products, inadequate facility space, and large class sizes. Facilitators included teacher/staff engagement, effective classroom management, student engagement, schools with direct control over food service, support from school leaders, and adequate facilities and equipment. Contextual barriers and facilitators must be taken into account in the design and implementation of school-based health interventions. PMID:24904696

Hall, William J; Schneider, Margaret; Thompson, Deborah; Volpe, Stella L; Steckler, Allan; Hall, John M; Fisher, M Randall

2014-06-01

113

Ebf Factors Are Required for Specifying Multiple Retinal Cell Types and Subtypes from Postmitotic Precursors  

PubMed Central

The establishment of functional retinal circuits in the mammalian retina depends critically on the proper generation and assembly of six classes of neurons, five of which consist of two or more subtypes that differ in morphologies, physiological properties and/or sublaminar positions. How these diverse neuronal types and subtypes arise during retinogenesis still remain largely to be defined at the molecular level. Here we show that all four family members of the Ebf helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription factors are similarly expressed during mouse retinogenesis in several neuronal types and subtypes including ganglion, amacrine, bipolar and horizontal cells, and that their expression in ganglion cells depends on the ganglion cell specification factor Brn3b. Misexpressed Ebfs bias retinal precursors toward the fates of non-AII glycinergic amacrine, Type 2 OFF-cone bipolar and horizontal cells whereas a dominant-negative Ebf suppresses the differentiation of these cells as well as ganglion cells. Reducing Ebf1 expression by RNAi leads to an inhibitory effect similar to that of the dominant-negative Ebf, effectively neutralizes the promotive effect of wild-type Ebf1 but has no impact on the promotive effect of an RNAi-resistant Ebf1. These data indicate that Ebfs are both necessary and sufficient for specifying non-AII glycinergic amacrine, Type 2 OFF-cone bipolar and horizontal cells, whereas they are only necessary but not sufficient for specifying ganglion cells; and further suggest that Ebfs may coordinate and cooperate with other retinogenic factors to ensure proper specification and differentiation of diverse retinal cell types and subtypes.

Jin, Kangxin; Jiang, Haisong; Mo, Zeqian; Xiang, Mengqing

2010-01-01

114

A New Variant of Dominant Type II von Willebrand's Disease With Aberrant Multimeric Pattern of Factor Vill-Related Antigen (Type lID)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type II variant form of von Willebrand's disease has been recognized in a mother and daughter who have bleeding manifestations typical of von Willebrand's dis- ease. Laboratory findings include consistently prolonged bleeding times. with normal levels of factor VIII procoagu- lant and antigen. but decreased ristocetin cofactor activity. Electrophoresis in SDS 1 .5% agarose gel and reaction with

Seiji Kinoshita; Janet Harrison; Jack Lazerson; Charles F. Abildgaard

1984-01-01

115

Connection between type B (or C) and F factorizations and construction of algebras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent paper (Del Sol Mesa A and Quesne C 2000 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 33 4059), we started a systematic study of the connections among different factorization types, suggested by Infeld and Hull, and their consequences for the construction of algebras. We devised a general procedure for constructing satellite algebras for all the Hamiltonians admitting a type E factorization by using the relationship between type A and E factorizations. Here we complete our analysis by showing that for Hamiltonians admitting a type F factorization, a similar method, starting from either type B or type C factorization, leads to other types of algebras. We therefore conclude that the existence of satellite algebras is a characteristic property of type E factorizable Hamiltonians. Our results are illustrated with the detailed discussion of the Coulomb problem.

DelSol Mesa, A.; Quesne, C.

2002-03-01

116

Epidemiology of community-acquired Mycoplasma Pneumoniae respiratory tract infections among hospitalized Chinese children, including relationships with meteorological factors  

PubMed Central

Background: Mycoplasma Pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) is a common cause of respiratory tract infections (RTIs), especially in children. Combined diagnostic techniques have provided more reliable information about the epidemiology of infections by this pathogen. The relationship between M. pneumoniae RTIs and climatic conditions is not well documented in the literature. Aims: To study the epidemiology of M. pneumoniae infections in hospitalized children with RTIs and its association with meteorological factors. Methods: Samples were obtained from children with RTIs and tested for M. pneumoniae by PCR and ELISA. Meanwhile, meteorological factors were recorded. Results: M. pneumoniae was identified in 11.02% of the 8,157 specimens. There were significant differences among the annual distribution of infections (?2 =130.13, P<0.0001) and among different seasons (?2 =93.59, P<0.0001). Of the total number of patients with M. pneumoniae infections, 14.5% were infected with more than one pathogen. M. pneumoniae infection strongly correlated with mean temperature. Children with a single M. pneumoniae infection had significantly higher neutrophil percentages and CRP levels than children with co-infections. Conclusions: M. pneumoniae is one of the most commonly held pathogens, according to the 5-year surveillance. M. pneumoniae infection has its own epidemic season, especially in the summer. Mean temperature is the main meteorological factor affecting the epidemiology of M. pneumoniae infections.

Chen, Z R; Yan, Y D; Wang, Y Q; Zhu, H; Shao, X J; Xu, J; Ji, W

2013-01-01

117

Extended PCR conditions to reduce drop-out frequencies in low template STR typing including unequal mixtures.  

PubMed

Forensic laboratories employ various approaches to obtain short tandem repeat (STR) profiles from minimal traces (<100 pg DNA input). Most approaches aim to sensitize DNA profiling by increasing the amplification level by a higher cycle number or enlarging the amount of PCR products analyzed during capillary electrophoresis. These methods have limitations when unequal mixtures are genotyped, since the major component will be over-amplified or over-loaded. This study explores an alternative strategy for improved detection of the minor components in low template (LT) DNA typing that may be better suited for the detection of the minor component in mixtures. The strategy increases the PCR amplification efficiency by extending the primer annealing time several folds. When the AmpF?STR(®) Identifiler(®) amplification parameters are changed to an annealing time of 20 min during all 28 cycles, the drop-out frequency is reduced for both pristine DNA and single or multiple donor mock case work samples. In addition, increased peak heights and slightly more drop-ins are observed while the heterozygous peak balance remains similar as with the conventional Identifiler protocol. By this extended protocol, full DNA profiles were obtained from only 12 sperm heads (which corresponds to 36 pg of DNA) that were collected by laser micro dissection. Notwithstanding the improved detection, allele drop-outs do persist, albeit in lower frequencies. Thus a LT interpretation strategy such as deducing consensus profiles from multiple independent amplifications is appropriate. The use of extended PCR conditions represents a general approach to improve detection of unequal mixtures as shown using four commercially available kits (AmpF?STR(®) Identifiler, SEfiler Plus, NGM and Yfiler). The extended PCR protocol seems to amplify more of the molecules in LT samples during PCR, which results in a lower drop-out frequency. PMID:21454145

Weiler, Natalie E C; Matai, Anuska S; Sijen, Titia

2012-01-01

118

Calculation of heat transfer on shuttle type configurations including the effects of variable entropy at boundary layer edge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A relatively simple method is presented for including the effect of variable entropy at the boundary-layer edge in a heat transfer method developed previously. For each inviscid surface streamline an approximate shockwave shape is calculated using a modified form of Maslen's method for inviscid axisymmetric flows. The entropy for the streamline at the edge of the boundary layer is determined by equating the mass flux through the shock wave to that inside the boundary layer. Approximations used in this technique allow the heating rates along each inviscid surface streamline to be calculated independent of the other streamlines. The shock standoff distances computed by the present method are found to compare well with those computed by Maslen's asymmetric method. Heating rates are presented for blunted circular and elliptical cones and a typical space shuttle orbiter at angles of attack. Variable entropy effects are found to increase heating rates downstream of the nose significantly higher than those computed using normal-shock entropy, and turbulent heating rates increased more than laminar rates. Effects of Reynolds number and angles of attack are also shown.

Dejarnette, F. R.

1972-01-01

119

Practical Ranges of Loudness Levels of Various Types of Environmental Noise, Including Traffic Noise, Aircraft Noise, and Industrial Noise  

PubMed Central

In environmental noise control one commonly employs the A-weighted sound level as an approximate measure of the effect of noise on people. A measure that is more closely related to direct human perception of noise is the loudness level. At constant A-weighted sound level, the loudness level of a noise signal varies considerably with the shape of the frequency spectrum of the noise signal. In particular the bandwidth of the spectrum has a large effect on the loudness level, due to the effect of critical bands in the human hearing system. The low-frequency content of the spectrum also has an effect on the loudness level. In this note the relation between loudness level and A-weighted sound level is analyzed for various environmental noise spectra, including spectra of traffic noise, aircraft noise, and industrial noise. From loudness levels calculated for these environmental noise spectra, diagrams are constructed that show the relation between loudness level, A-weighted sound level, and shape of the spectrum. The diagrams show that the upper limits of the loudness level for broadband environmental noise spectra are about 20 to 40 phon higher than the lower limits for narrowband spectra, which correspond to the loudness levels of pure tones. The diagrams are useful for assessing limitations and potential improvements of environmental noise control methods and policy based on A-weighted sound levels.

Salomons, Erik M.; Janssen, Sabine A.

2011-01-01

120

Comparison of Gamma-Ray Point Isotropic Buildup Factors Including Fluorescence and Bremsstrahlung in Lead Using Discrete Ordinates and Point Monte Carlo Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure buildup factors and energy spectra of ?-rays, including fluorescence or bremsstrahlung radiations, in Pb for a point isotropic source have been calculated in the vicinity of the K edge and at 10 MeV using a discrete ordinate code, PALLAS. Comparisons of PALLAS results with those by the point Monte Carlo code, EGS4 showed good agreement for exposure buildup factors

Hideo HIRAYAMA; Shun-ichi TANAKA; Yukio SAKAMOTO; K. V. SUBBAIAH; Yoshiko HARIMA

1990-01-01

121

Transcription factors interfering with dedifferentiation induce cell type-specific transcriptional profiles  

PubMed Central

Transcription factors (TFs) are able to regulate differentiation-related processes, including dedifferentiation and direct conversion, through the regulation of cell type-specific transcriptional profiles. However, the functional interactions between the TFs regulating different transcriptional profiles are not well understood. Here, we show that the TFs capable of inducing cell type-specific transcriptional profiles prevent the dedifferentiation induced by TFs for pluripotency. Of the large number of TFs expressed in a neural-lineage cell line, we identified a subset of TFs that, when overexpressed, strongly interfered with the dedifferentiation triggered by the procedure to generate induced pluripotent stem cells. This interference occurred through a maintenance mechanism of the cell type-specific transcriptional profile. Strikingly, the maintenance activity of the interfering TF set was strong enough to induce the cell line-specific transcriptional profile when overexpressed in a heterologous cell type. In addition, the TFs that interfered with dedifferentiation in hepatic-lineage cells involved TFs with known induction activity for hepatic-lineage cells. Our results suggest that dedifferentiation suppresses a cell type-specific transcriptional profile, which is primarily maintained by a small subset of TFs capable of inducing direct conversion. We anticipate that this functional correlation might be applicable in various cell types and might facilitate the identification of TFs with induction activity in efforts to understand differentiation.

Hikichi, Takafusa; Matoba, Ryo; Ikeda, Takashi; Watanabe, Akira; Yamamoto, Takuya; Yoshitake, Satoko; Tamura-Nakano, Miwa; Kimura, Takayuki; Kamon, Masayoshi; Shimura, Mari; Kawakami, Koichi; Okuda, Akihiko; Okochi, Hitoshi; Inoue, Takafumi; Suzuki, Atsushi; Masui, Shinji

2013-01-01

122

Linewidth enhancement factor of a type-II quantum-cascade laser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We measured directly the optical gain, refractive index change, and the linewidth enhancement factor of a type-II quantum-cascade laser. We obtained very low linewidth enhancement factor of 0.8 near threshold.

Lerttamrab, M.; Chuang, S. L.; Yang, R. Q.; Hill, C. J.

2004-01-01

123

[Alimentary trigger factors that provoke migraine and tension-type headache].  

PubMed

Based on a review of the literature the authors discuss the role of nutrition in the precipitation of migraine and tension-type headache (TTH). The available information relies largely on the subjective assessment of the patients. Controlled trials suggest that alcohol and caffeine withdrawal are the most important nutritional precipitating factors of migraine and TTH. In addition, there is some evidence that missing meals is also an important factor. Dehydration seems to deserve more attention. A selective sensitivity to red wine has been shown in some patients, the importance of chocolate has been doubted seriously, and scientific evidence for cheese as a precipitating factor is lacking. Despite a series of experimental studies demonstrating that NO donors such as nitroglycerin and parenteral histamine cause headache the role of histamine, nitrates, and nitrites in food remains unclear. Similarly, other biogenic amines and aspartame have not been proven to precipitate headache. Sodium glutamate causes adverse reactions including headache probably at large doses ingested on an empty stomach. Therefore, patients should be advised that food plays a limited role as a precipitating factor of migraine and TTH. Subjective sensitivity to certain foods should be examined critically, and proven precipitating factors should be avoided. General dietary restrictions have not been proven to be useful. PMID:15806385

Holzhammer, J; Wöber, C

2006-04-01

124

Type II1 factors satisfying the spatial isomorphism conjecture  

PubMed Central

This paper addresses a conjecture in the work by Kadison and Kastler [Kadison RV, Kastler D (1972) Am J Math 94:38–54] that a von Neumann algebra M on a Hilbert space should be unitarily equivalent to each sufficiently close von Neumann algebra N, and, moreover, the implementing unitary can be chosen to be close to the identity operator. This conjecture is known to be true for amenable von Neumann algebras, and in this paper, we describe classes of nonamenable factors for which the conjecture is valid. These classes are based on tensor products of the hyperfinite II1 factor with crossed products of abelian algebras by suitably chosen discrete groups.

Cameron, Jan; Christensen, Erik; Sinclair, Allan M.; Smith, Roger R.; White, Stuart A.; Wiggins, Alan D.

2012-01-01

125

Factors determining the 24-h blood pressure profile in normotensive patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some controversy still exists about factors involved in the abnormal circadian pattern of blood pressure (BP) in diabetes, while prognostic value of non-dipping condition is being increasingly recognised. This study was aimed at evaluating the relative influence of autonomic neuropathy (AN) and albumin excretion on 24-h BP profile in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. We measured AN cardiovascular tests,

V Spallone; Maiello; E Cicconetti; A Pannone; A Barini; S Gambardella; G Menzinger

2001-01-01

126

Forkhead Homeobox Type O Transcription Factors in the Responses to Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

Abstract Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular oxidative stress are involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes, including cellular and organismal aging, migration, proliferation, senescence or death of normal and cancer cells, and stress resistance of stem cells. The forkhead homeobox type O (FOXO) transcription factors FOXO1, FOXO3a, and FOXO4 are critical mediators of the cellular responses to oxidative stress and have been implicated in many of the above ROS-regulated processes. In cancer cells they converge oxidative stress signaling to cell cycle arrest and cell death or promote a motile phenotype. Dependent on their posttranslational modifications FOXOs can also actively regulate the detoxification of cells from ROS and promote stress resistance. Thus, FOXO transcription factors are of vital importance in processes regulating tumor survival or progression, stem cell maintenance, age-related pathological processes, and lifespan extension. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 593–605.

2011-01-01

127

Potential Risk Factors for Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma include Oral Contraceptives: Results of a Nested Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Recently, a population-based case-control study observed a 60% increased odds ratio (OR) for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) among women who had ever used oral contraceptives (OCs) compared with non users (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0–2.5). To further characterize the putative association between OC use and SCC risk, we conducted a nested case-control study using a large retrospective cohort of 111,521 Kaiser Permanente Northern California members. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to estimate ORs and CIs adjusting for known and hypothesized SCC risk factors. Pre-diagnostic OC use was associated with a statistically significant increased OR for SCC in univariate analysis (OR = 2.4, CI = 1.2–4.8), with borderline statistical significance in multivariable analysis (CI = 2.0, CI = 0.91–4.5). Given the high incidence of SCC in the general population and the prevalent use of OCs among women in the United States, there is a need for more large, carefully designed epidemiologic studies to determine whether the observed association between OC use and SCC can be replicated and to better understand the etiologic basis of an association if one exists.

Asgari, Maryam M.; Efird, Jimmy T.; Warton, E. Margaret; Friedman, Gary D.

2010-01-01

128

Morphological relationships of von Willebrand factor, type VI collagen, and fibrillin in human vascular subendothelium.  

PubMed

von Willebrand factor (vWF) plays an important role in the process of platelet adhesion after endothelial injury by serving as a bridge between constituents of the vascular subendothelium and platelet membrane receptors. We previously presented evidence that type VI collagen microfibrils serve as a binding site for vWF in human vascular subendothelium. However, others have proposed that vWF is not associated with type VI collagen but rather with the thicker elastin-associated microfibrils, which contain several proteins including fibrillin. We therefore investigated the relationships among vWF, type VI collagen, and fibrillin in human vascular subendothelium by immunoelectron microscopy using single- and double-labeling immunogold localization techniques. In addition, we observed the three-dimensional ultrastructure of vWF-microfibril complexes by stereo paired micrographs and stereo viewer. We found that vWF co-localizes only with the type VI collagen microfibrils in subendothelium but not with fibrillin microfibrils or striated collagen. The vWF is present in subendothelium in the form of electron-dense aggregates having diameters varying between 65 and 80 nm that are closely associated with, and enmesh, the type VI collagen microfibrils and have structural similarities to intracellular Weibel-Palade bodies. The occasional co-localization of type VI collagen and fibrillin adjacent to internal elastic lamina was observed. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that type VI collagen, but not fibrillin-containing microfibrils, serves as a physiologically relevant binding site for vWF in the vascular subendothelium, where the type VI collagen-vWF complex may play an important role modulating the hemostatic response to vascular injury. PMID:8686752

Wu, X X; Gordon, R E; Glanville, R W; Kuo, H J; Uson, R R; Rand, J H

1996-07-01

129

Exact solutions of coupled Liénard-type nonlinear systems using factorization technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

General solutions of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are in general difficult to find; although, powerful integrability techniques exist in the literature for this purpose. It has been shown that in some scalar cases particular solutions may be found with little effort if it is possible to factorize the equation in terms of first-order differential operators. In our present study, we use this factorization technique to address the problem of finding solutions of a system of general two-coupled Liénard-type nonlinear differential equations. We describe a generic algorithm to identify specific classes of Liénard-type systems for which solutions may be found. We demonstrate this method by identifying a class of two-coupled equations for which the particular solution can be found by solving a Bernoulli equation. This class of equations include coupled generalization of the modified Emden equation. We further deduce the general solution of a class of coupled ODEs using the factorization procedure discussed in this paper.

Hazra, Tamaghna; Chandrasekar, V. K.; Pradeep, R. Gladwin; Lakshmanan, M.

2012-02-01

130

Motor Carrier Type and Factors Associated with Fatal Bus Crashes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2000, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrations (FMCSA) regulatory responsibilities were extended to buses with seating for nine or more occupants, including the driver, transported for compensation. FMCSA has also begun supporting data collecti...

A. Matteson D. Blower M. Shrank

2004-01-01

131

Anxiety and depression among outpatients with type 2 diabetes: A multi-centre study of prevalence and associated factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depression contribute to poor disease outcomes among individuals with diabetes. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of anxiety and depression and to identify their associated factors including metabolic components among people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, multi-center study in four out-patient clinics in Karachi, Pakistan. In all, 889 adults with type-2 diabetes

Ali Khan Khuwaja; Saima Lalani; Raheem Dhanani; Iqbal Syed Azam; Ghazala Rafique; Franklin White

2010-01-01

132

Factors affecting numerical typing performance of young adults in a hear-and-type task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical hear-and-type tasks, i.e. making immediate keypresses according to verbally presented numbers, possess both practical and theoretical importance but received relatively little attention. Effects of speech rates (500-ms vs. 1000-ms interval), urgency (urgent condition: performance-based monetary incentive plus time limit vs. non-urgent condition: flat-rate compensation) and finger strategies (single vs. multi-finger typing) on typing speed and accuracy were investigated. Fast

Cheng-Jhe Lin; Changxu Wu

2011-01-01

133

43 CFR 404.10 - Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included in a rural...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

43 Ç Public Lands: Interior Ç 1 Ç 2013-10-01 Ç 2013-10-01 Ç false Ç Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included in a rural water supply project? Ç 404.10 Ç Section 404.10 Ç Public Lands: Interior Ç Regulations Relating to Public Lands Ç BUREAU OF...

2013-10-01

134

Impact of early psychosocial factors (childhood socioeconomic factors and adversities) on future risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic disturbances and obesity: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES) have a notable impact on health disparities, including type 2 diabetes risk. However, the link between childhood psychosocial factors, such as childhood adversities or parental SES, and metabolic disturbances is less well established. In addition, the lifetime perspective including adult socioeconomic factors remains of further interest. We carried out a systematic review with the main question if there is evidence in population- or community-based studies that childhood adversities (like neglect, traumata and deprivation) have considerable impact on type 2 diabetes incidence and other metabolic disturbances. Also, parental SES was included in the search as risk factor for both, diabetes and adverse childhood experiences. Finally, we assumed that obesity might be a mediator for the association of childhood adversities with diabetes incidence. Therefore, we carried out a second review on obesity, applying a similar search strategy. Methods Two systematic reviews were carried out. Longitudinal, population- or community-based studies were included if they contained data on psychosocial factors in childhood and either diabetes incidence or obesity risk. Results We included ten studies comprising a total of 200,381 individuals. Eight out of ten studies indicated that low parental status was associated with type 2 diabetes incidence or the development of metabolic abnormalities. Adjustment for adult SES and obesity tended to attenuate the childhood SES-attributable risk but the association remained. For obesity, eleven studies were included with a total sample size of 70,420 participants. Four out of eleven studies observed an independent association of low childhood SES on the risk for overweight and obesity later in life. Conclusions Taken together, there is evidence that childhood SES is associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity in later life. The database on the role of psychological factors such as traumata and childhood adversities for the future risk of type 2 diabetes or obesity is too small to draw conclusions. Thus, more population-based longitudinal studies and international standards to assess psychosocial factors are needed to clarify the mechanisms leading to the observed health disparities.

2010-01-01

135

Nongenetic factors influence severity of episodic ataxia type 1 in monozygotic twins(Video)  

PubMed Central

Objective: Episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1) is a monogenic channelopathy caused by mutations of the potassium channel gene KCNA1. Affected individuals carrying the same mutation can exhibit considerable variability in the severity of ataxia, neuromyotonia, and other associated features. We investigated the phenotypic heterogeneity of EA1 in 2 sets of identical twins to determine the contribution of environmental factors to disease severity. One of the mutations was also found in a distantly related family, providing evidence of the influence of genetic background on the EA1 phenotype. Methods: We evaluated 3 families with an EA1 phenotype, 2 of which included monozygotic twins. We sequenced the KCNA1 gene and studied the biophysical consequences of the mutations in HEK cells. Results: We identified a new KCNA1 mutation in each pair of twins. Both pairs reported striking differences in the clinical severity of symptoms. The F414S mutation identified in one set of twins also occurred in a distantly related family in which seizures complicated the EA1 phenotype. The other twins had an R307C mutation, the first EA1 mutation to affect an arginine residue in the voltage-sensor domain. Both mutants when expressed exerted a dominant-negative effect on wild-type channels. Conclusion: These results broaden the range of KCNA1 mutations and reveal an unexpectedly large contribution of nongenetic factors to phenotypic variability in EA1. The occurrence of epilepsy in 1 of 2 families with the F414S mutation suggests an interplay of KCNA1 with other genetic factors. GLOSSARY EA1 = episodic ataxia type 1.

Graves, T.D.; Rajakulendran, S.; Zuberi, S.M.; Morris, H.R.; Schorge, S.; Hanna, M.G.; Kullmann, D.M.

2010-01-01

136

Systematic identification of type I and type II interferon-induced antiviral factors  

PubMed Central

Type I and type II interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that establish the cellular antiviral state through the induction of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). We sought to understand the basis of the antiviral activity induced by type I and II IFNs in relation to the functions of their ISGs. Based on gene expression studies, we systematically identified antiviral ISGs by performing blinded, functional screens on 288 type I and type II ISGs. We assessed and validated the antiviral activity of these ISGs against an RNA virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and a DNA virus, murine gammaherpes virus (MHV-68). Overall, we identified 34 ISGs that elicited an antiviral effect on the replication of either one or both viruses. Fourteen ISGs have uncharacterized antiviral functions. We further defined ISGs that affect critical life-cycle processes in expression of VSV protein and MHV-68 immediate-early genes. Two previously undescribed antiviral ISGs, TAP1 and BMP2, were further validated. TAP1-deficient fibroblasts were more susceptible to VSV infection but less so to MHV-68 infection. On the other hand, exogenous BMP2 inhibits MHV-68 lytic growth but did not affect VSV growth. These results delineate common and distinct sets of type I and type II IFN-induced genes as well as identify unique ISGs that have either broad or specific antiviral effects on these viruses.

Liu, Su-Yang; Sanchez, David Jesse; Aliyari, Roghiyh; Lu, Sun; Cheng, Genhong

2012-01-01

137

A PID type fuzzy controller with self-tuning scaling factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

By relating to the conventional PID control theory, we propose a new fuzzy controller structure, namely PID type fuzzy controller. In order to improve further the performance of the transient state and the steady state of the PID type controller, we develop a method to tune the scaling factors of the PID type fuzzy controller on line. Simulation of the

Zhi-Wei Woo; Hung-Yuan Chung; Jin-Jye Lin

2000-01-01

138

Risk factors for the development of retroprosthetic membranes with Boston Keratoprosthesis type 1: multicenter study results  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to identify possible risk factors for retroprosthetic membrane (RPM) development in a large multicenter cohort of patients receiving a Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis. Design Cohort study. Participants The final analysis included 265 eyes of 265 patients who underwent implantation of a Boston Keratoprosthesis Type I device between January 2003 and July 2008 by one of 19 surgeons at 18 medical centers. Methods Forms reporting preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative parameters were prospectively collected and subsequently analyzed at a central data collection site. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome was the presence or absence of a retroprosthetic membrane (RPM) during the follow-up period. Results 265 Boston Type 1 keratoprosthesis surgical procedures (265 patients) from 19 surgeons at 18 surgical centers were included in the analysis. The average age of patients was 63.3±19.1 years, 48.5% of the patients were female, and 52.5% of procedures were performed on the right eye. The mean follow-up time was 17.8±14.9 months. The majority (85.4%; n=222) had undergone an average of 2.2±1.2 (range 1–8) penetrating keratoplasties prior to keratoprosthesis implantation, and 38 eyes (14.6%) received a primary keratoprosthesis. The overall RPM formation rate was 31.7% (n=84). The most significant risk factor for RPM development was infectious keratitis (as a surgical indication for keratoprosthesis surgery itself), resulting in a rate of RPM formation of 70.6%. As an independent risk factor, the hazard ratio (HR) of RPM development in these eyes was 3.20 (95% confidence interval: 1.66, 6.17). Aniridia was also an independent risk factor for RPM development (HR=3.13; 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 8.89). Conclusions RPM formation is a common complication of keratoprosthesis surgery, occurring in approximately one third of cases. Eyes at the highest risk of RPM development are those receiving corneal replacement for infectious keratitis and aniridia.

Rudnisky, Christopher J.; Belin, Michael W.; Al-Arfaj, Khalid; Ament, Jared D.; Zerbe, Brian J.; Ciolino, Joseph B.

2011-01-01

139

Method Of Bonding A Metal Connection To An Electrode Including A Core Having A Fiber Or Foam Type Structure For An Electrochemical Cell, An  

DOEpatents

A method of bonding a metal connection to an electrode including a core having a fiber or foam-type structure for an electrochemical cell, in which method at least one metal strip is pressed against one edge of the core and is welded thereto under compression, wherein, at least in line with the region in which said strip is welded to the core, which is referred to as the "main core", a retaining core of a type analogous to that of the main core is disposed prior to the welding.

Loustau, Marie-Therese (Bordeaux, FR); Verhoog, Roelof (Bordeaux, FR); Precigout, Claude (Lormont, FR)

1996-09-24

140

Body Mass Index: A Risk Factor for Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to investigate whether body mass index (BMI) independently or in correlation with other risk factors is associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) progression. The study included 545 patients with type 2 diabetes. According to DR status, they were divided into three groups: group 1 (no retinopathy; n = 296), group 2 (mild/moderate nonproliferative DR; n = 118), and group 3 (severe/very severe NPDR or proliferative DR; n = 131). Patients without DR were younger than those with signs of retinopathy at time of diabetes onset whilst diabetes duration was longer in groups with severe NPDR and PDR. DR progression was correlated with diabetes duration, BMI, HbA1c, hypertension, and cholesterol. Statistical analyses showed that the progression of retinopathy increased significantly with higher BMI (gr. 1: 26.50 ± 2.70, gr. 2: 28.11 ± 3.00, gr. 3: 28.69 ± 2.50; P < 0.01). We observed a significant deterioration of HbA1c and a significant increase in cholesterol and hypertension with an increase in BMI. Correlation between BMI and triglycerides was not significant. Thus, BMI in correlation with HbA1c cholesterol and hypertension appears to be associated with the progression of DR in type 2 diabetes and may serve as a predictive factor for the development of this important cause of visual loss in developed countries.

Kastelan, Snjezana; Tomic, Martina; Gverovic Antunica, Antonela; Ljubic, Spomenka; Salopek Rabatic, Jasminka; Karabatic, Mirela

2013-01-01

141

Non-HLA autoimmunity genetic factors contributing to Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome type II in Tunisian patients.  

PubMed

Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type II (APSII) is characterized by the co-occurrence of clinical insufficiency of at least two endocrine glands. Although, HLA determinants of APSII predisposition have been identified, little attention has been paid to non-HLA genes. Here, we used SNP genotyping in a Sequenom platform and genetic association tests to study a cohort of 60 APSII Tunisian patients presenting highly frequent co-occurrence of Autoimmune Thyroid Disease (AITD) and Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) and lower frequency of Addison's disease (AD). We tested the high a priori possibility that well-established non-HLA autoimmunity loci were involved in APSII and confirmed five association signals to APSII, namely: (1) two T1D-associated SNPs, in CTLA4 and IL2RA, suggest their involvement in T1D pathogenesis in this cohort; (2) two SNPs in STAT4 and IL15 not previously associated to endocrinopathies, are possibly involved in co-occurrence of organ autoimmunity in APSII, and; (3) one SNP in TNF alpha showed association to APSII irrespective of AD. While this work was performed in a relatively small cohort, these results support the notion that the non-HLA genetic component of APSII include genetic factors specific of particular autoimmune manifestations as well as genetic factors that promote the co-occurrence of multiple autoimmune endocrinopathies. PMID:22537753

Fourati, Hajer; Bouzid, Dorra; Abida, Olfa; Kharrat, Najla; Mnif, Fatma; Haddouk, Samy; Fesel, Constantin; Costa, João; Ben Ayed, Mourad; Abid, Mohamed; Rebai, Ahmed; Penha-Gonçalves, Carlos; Masmoudi, Hatem

2012-07-01

142

A New Sensitive Chromogenic Substrate Assay of Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor Type 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present assay is a modification of our previously published two-stage chromogenic substrate assay of tissue factor pathway inhibitor type-1 (TFPI) activity [1]. In the first stage, the reaction mixture was made with factor VIIa (FVIIa) molecules in excess of tissue factor (TF) binding sites and contained diluted plasma, recombinant FVIIa (10 nM), recombinant TF (1\\/400 vol\\/vol), bovine factor Xa

Bjørn Bendz; Trine O Andersen; Per Morten Sandset

2000-01-01

143

Two cellular single-strand-specific DNA-binding proteins interact with two regions of the bovine papillomavirus type 1 genome, including the origin of DNA replication.  

PubMed Central

We have identified and purified to near homogeneity two specific single-stranded DNA-binding factors (SPSF I and II) with molecular masses of 42 and 39 kDa, respectively, from calf thymus. Gel retention analysis and competition experiments demonstrate that the ubiquitous proteins SPSF I and II specifically interact with single-stranded DNA derived from the minimal in vitro origin of replication of bovine papillomavirus type 1 and a region of the viral genome proposed to be involved in plasmid maintenance. Bovine papillomavirus type 1 proteins do not interfere with DNA binding of SPSF I and II. The exact location of the binding domains of SPSF I and II on the DNA has been determined by methylation interference and T4 DNA polymerase footprinting. A potential cellular binding site for SPSF I and II is the major promoter (P2) of the human c-myc gene. Images

Habiger, C; Stelzer, G; Schwarz, U; Winnacker, E L

1992-01-01

144

Folate metabolite profiling of different cell types and embryos suggests variation in folate one-carbon metabolism, including developmental changes in human embryonic brain.  

PubMed

Folates act as co-factors for transfer of one-carbon units for nucleotide production, methylation and other biosynthetic reactions. Comprehensive profiling of multiple folates can be achieved using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, enabling determination of their relative abundance that may provide an indication of metabolic differences between cell types. For example, cell lines exposed to methotrexate showed a dose-dependent elevation of dihydrofolate, consistent with inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase. We analysed the folate profile of E. coli sub-types as well as cell lines and embryonic tissue from both human and mouse. The folate profile of bacteria differed markedly from those of all the mammalian samples, most notably in the greater abundance of formyl tetrahydrofolate. The overall profiles of mouse and human fibroblasts and mid-gestation mouse embryos were broadly similar, with specific differences. The major folate species in these cell types was 5-methyl tetrahydrofolate, in contrast to lymphoblastoid cell lines in which the predominant form was tetrahydrofolate. Analysis of embryonic human brain revealed a shift in folate profile with increasing developmental stage, with a decline in relative abundance of dihydrofolate and increase in 5-methyl tetrahydrofolate. These cell type-specific and developmental changes in folate profile may indicate differential requirements for the various outputs of folate metabolism. PMID:23483428

Leung, Kit-Yi; De Castro, Sandra C P; Cabreiro, Filipe; Gustavsson, Peter; Copp, Andrew J; Greene, Nicholas D E

2013-06-01

145

Phase Diagrams and the Non-Linear Dielectric Constant in the Landau-Type Potential Including the Linear-Quadratic Coupling between Order Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phase diagrams in the Landau-type thermodynamic potential including the linear-quadratic coupling between order parameters p and q, i.e., qp2, which is applicable to the phase transition in the benzil, phospholipid bilayers, and the isotropic-nematic phase transition in liquid crystals, are studied. It was found that the phase diagram in the extreme case has one tricritical point c1, one critical

Makoto Iwata; Hiroshi Orihara; Yoshihiro Ishibashi

1997-01-01

146

Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among Youth With and Without Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To compare cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among recently diagnosed youth with type 2 diabetes and nondiabetic youth and investigate whether demographic, behavioral, or metabolic factors might account for observed differences. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Data from 106 type 2 diabetic and 189 nondiabetic multiethnic youth, aged 10–22 years, were analyzed. Prevalence of CVD risk factors were age and race/ethnicity adjusted using direct standardization. Multiple linear regression models were sequentially adjusted for demographic, behavioral (dietary saturated fat intake and physical activity), and metabolic (body adiposity and glycemia) factors to explore possible mechanisms associated with differences in CVD risk factors between the case and control groups. RESULTS—Compared with control subjects, youth with type 2 diabetes had a higher prevalence of elevated blood pressure, obesity, large waist circumference, low HDL cholesterol, high triglycerides, and high albumin-to-creatinine ratio (P < 0.05 for each risk factor). Type 2 diabetic youth also had higher levels of apolipoprotein B, fibrinogen, interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein, and leptin; lower adiponectin levels; and denser LDL particles (P < 0.05 for each risk factor). Adjustment for BMI, waist circumference, and A1C substantially attenuated differences in the CVD risk factors between the case/control groups, except for fibrinogen and IL-6, which remained significantly higher in type 2 diabetic youth. CONCLUSIONS—Compared with control youth, type 2 diabetic youth have a less favorable CVD risk factor profile. Adiposity and glycemia are important contributors to differences in CVD risk profiles among type 2 diabetic and control youth. Inflammatory and prothrombotic factors may also play an important role.

West, Nancy A.; Hamman, Richard F.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Marcovina, Santica M.; Liese, Angela D.; Zeitler, Philip S.; Daniels, Stephen R.; Dabelea, Dana

2009-01-01

147

Factors associated with non-adherence to insulin in patients with type 1 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To find out the various factors associated with non-adherence to diet, physical activity and insulin among patients with type 1 diabetes. (T1DM). Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted among T1DM subjects attending the Baqai Institute of Diabetology & Endocrinology (BIDE) and Diabetic Association of Pakistan (DAP), from July 2011 to June 2012.Clinical characteristics, anthropometric measurements, knowledge regarding type 1 diabetes along with adherence to dietary advice, physical activity and insulin were noted on a predesigned questionnaire and score was assigned to each question. Patients were categorized as adherent or non-adherent on the basis of scores obtained. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for windows version 17.0 was used to analyze the data. Results: A total of 194 patients (Male 94, Female 100), with mean age of 17.9± 6.4 years, mean duration of diabetes 5.37±4.96 years (38.1% >5 yrs, 61.9% <5 yrs) were included in the study. One hundred and fourteen (58.5%) patients were non adherent to dietary advice, 82(42.3%) non adherent to physical activity while 88.1% respondents were non adherent to their prescribed insulin regimen. Factors associated with non-compliance were family type, occupation & educational level of respondent’s parents, duration of T1DM, family history of diabetes, frequency of visits to diabetic clinic, knowledge regarding diabetes, lack of family support and fear of hypoglycemia. Conclusion: Non adherence to prescribed treatment regimen in patient with TIDM is quite high. There is need to design strategies to help patients and their family members understand their treatment regimen in order to improve their adherence.

Riaz, Musarrat; Basit, Abdul; Fawwad, Asher; Yakoob Ahmedani, Muhammad; Ali Rizvi, Zahara

2014-01-01

148

Serum lipids and other risk factors for diabetic retinopathy in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients*  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the association of serum lipids and other risk factors with diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: Five hundred and twenty-three type 2 diabetic patients underwent ophthalmic examination by experienced retinal specialists to assess their DR. Serum lipids, including triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), were measured using Roche automated clinical chemistry analyzers. The concentration of very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDLC) was calculated based on total cholesterol, HDLC and LDLC. Hyperlipidemia was defined as a total cholesterol concentration of 6.2 mmol/L or higher or the use of lipid-lowering medications. The association of risk factors with any DR or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) was assessed using the odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI), calculated from logistic regression models. Results: In multivariate logistic regression models, hyperlipidemia (OR=2.39, 95% CI: 1.02–5.66), higher VLDLC (OR=1.59, 95% CI: 1.14–2.23), and higher triglyceride (OR=1.18, 95% CI: 1.03–1.37) were associated with increased risk of DR. A longer diabetic duration was associated with increased risk of DR (P<0.0001) and PDR (P=0.002) in a dose-response manner. Higher systolic blood pressure (P=0.02) and higher serum creatinine (P=0.01) were independently associated with increased risk of DR, and female gender was associated with increased risk of PDR (P=0.03). Conclusions: Among Chinese type 2 diabetic patients, hyperlipidemia, higher VLDLC, and higher triglyceride were independently associated with increased risk of DR, suggesting control of serum lipids may decrease the risk of DR.

Zhang, Hui-yan; Wang, Jian-yong; Ying, Gui-shuang; Shen, Li-ping; Zhang, Zhe

2013-01-01

149

Factors associated with non-adherence to insulin in patients with type 1 diabetes.  

PubMed

Objectives: To find out the various factors associated with non-adherence to diet, physical activity and insulin among patients with type 1 diabetes. (T1DM). Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted among T1DM subjects attending the Baqai Institute of Diabetology & Endocrinology (BIDE) and Diabetic Association of Pakistan (DAP), from July 2011 to June 2012.Clinical characteristics, anthropometric measurements, knowledge regarding type 1 diabetes along with adherence to dietary advice, physical activity and insulin were noted on a predesigned questionnaire and score was assigned to each question. Patients were categorized as adherent or non-adherent on the basis of scores obtained. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for windows version 17.0 was used to analyze the data. Results: A total of 194 patients (Male 94, Female 100), with mean age of 17.9± 6.4 years, mean duration of diabetes 5.37±4.96 years (38.1% >5 yrs, 61.9% <5 yrs) were included in the study. One hundred and fourteen (58.5%) patients were non adherent to dietary advice, 82(42.3%) non adherent to physical activity while 88.1% respondents were non adherent to their prescribed insulin regimen. Factors associated with non-compliance were family type, occupation & educational level of respondent's parents, duration of T1DM, family history of diabetes, frequency of visits to diabetic clinic, knowledge regarding diabetes, lack of family support and fear of hypoglycemia. Conclusion: Non adherence to prescribed treatment regimen in patient with TIDM is quite high. There is need to design strategies to help patients and their family members understand their treatment regimen in order to improve their adherence. PMID:24772118

Riaz, Musarrat; Basit, Abdul; Fawwad, Asher; Yakoob Ahmedani, Muhammad; Ali Rizvi, Zahara

2014-03-01

150

Initiation of Liver Growth by Tumor Necrosis Factor: Deficient Liver Regeneration in Mice Lacking Type I Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms that initiate liver regeneration after resection of liver tissue are not known. To determine whether cytokines are involved in the initiation of liver growth, we studied the regeneration of the liver after partial hepatectomy (PH) in mice lacking type I tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR-I). DNA synthesis after PH was severely impaired in these animals, and the expected

Yasuhiro Yamada; Irina Kirillova; Jacques J. Peschon; Nelson Fausto

1997-01-01

151

Gene enrichment profiles reveal T-cell development, differentiation, and lineage-specific transcription factors including ZBTB25 as a novel NF-AT repressor  

PubMed Central

The identification of transcriptional regulatory networks, which control tissue-specific development and function, is of central importance to the understanding of lymphocyte biology. To decipher transcriptional networks in T-cell development and differentiation we developed a browsable expression atlas and applied a novel quantitative method to define gene sets most specific to each of the represented cell subsets and tissues. Using this system, body atlas size datasets can be used to examine gene enrichment profiles from a cell/tissue perspective rather than gene perspective, thereby identifying highly enriched genes within a cell type, which are often key to cellular differentiation and function. A systems analysis of transcriptional regulators within T cells during different phases of development and differentiation resulted in the identification of known key regulators and uncharacterized coexpressed regulators. ZBTB25, a BTB-POZ family transcription factor, was identified as a highly T cell–enriched transcription factor. We provide evidence that ZBTB25 functions as a negative regulator of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF-AT) activation, such that RNA interference mediated knockdown resulted in enhanced activation of target genes. Together, these findings suggest a novel mechanism for NF-AT mediated gene expression and the compendium of expression data provides a quantitative platform to drive exploration of gene expression across a wide range of cell/tissue types.

Benita, Yair; Cao, Zhifang; Giallourakis, Cosmas; Li, Chun; Gardet, Agnes

2010-01-01

152

The transcription factor Egr1 is a direct regulator of multiple tumor suppressors including TGF?1, PTEN, p53 and fibronectin  

PubMed Central

Recent studies are reviewed indicating that the transcription factor Egr1 is a direct regulator of multiple tumor suppressors including TGF?1, PTEN, p53 and fibronectin. The downstream pathways of these factors display multiple nodes of interaction with each other suggesting the existence of a functional network of suppressor factors that serves to maintain normal growth regulation and resist the emergence of transformed variants. Paradoxically, Egr-1 is oncogenic in prostate cancer. In the majority of these cancers PTEN and/or p53 is inactive. It is suggested that these defects in the tumor suppressor network allow for the unopposed induction of TGF?1 and fibronectin, which favor transformation and survival of prostate tumor epithelial cells, explain the role of Egr1 in prostate cancer. Egr1 is a novel and logical target for intervention by gene therapy methods and targeting methods are discussed.

Baron, Veronique; Adamson, Eileen D.; Calogero, Antonella; Ragona, Giuseppe; Mercola, Dan

2008-01-01

153

What Preoperative Factors, Including a Bone Bruise, are Associated with Knee Pain/Symptoms at Index ACLR? A MOON Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Increased knee pain at the time of ACL reconstruction may potentially predict more difficult rehabilitation, prolonged recovery, and/or be predictive of increased knee pain at two years. HYPOTHESIS We hypothesize that a bone bruise and/or other preoperative factors are associated with more knee pain/symptoms at the time of index ACL reconstruction, and the presence of a bone bruise would be associated with specific demographic and injury-related factors. STUDY DESIGN Prospective cohort. METHODS In 2007, the Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcomes Network (MOON) database began to prospectively collect surgeon-reported MRI bone bruise status. A multivariable analysis was performed to: 1) determine if a bone bruise, among other preoperative factors, is associated with more knee symptoms/pain, and 2) examine the association of factors related to bone bruise. To evaluate the association of a bone bruise with knee pain/symptoms, linear multiple regression models were fit using the continuous scores of the KOOS symptoms and pain subscales and the SF-36 bodily pain subscale as dependent variables. To examine the association between a bone bruise and risk factors, a logistic regression model was used in which the dependent variable was the presence or absence of a bone bruise. RESULTS Baseline data for 525 subjects was used for analysis, and a bone bruise was present in 419 (80%). The cohort is 58% male, median age 23 yrs. Median Marx activity level was 13. Factors associated with more pain were higher body mass index (p< 0.0001), female sex (p= 0.001), lateral collateral ligament injury (p=0.012), and older age (p= 0.038). Factors associated with more symptoms were a concomitant lateral collateral ligament injury (p=0.014), higher body mass index (p< 0.0001), and female sex (p< 0.0001). Bone bruise is not associated with symptoms/pain at the time of index ACL reconstruction. None of the factors included in the SF-36 bodily pain model were found to be significant. After controlling for other baseline factors, the following factors were associated with a bone bruise: younger age (p=0.034) and not jumping at the time of injury (p=0.006). CONCLUSION Following ACL injury, risk factors associated with a bone bruise are younger age and not jumping at the time of injury. Bone bruise is not associated with symptoms/pain at the time of index ACL reconstruction.

Dunn, Warren R.; Spindler, Kurt P.; Amendola, Annunziato; Andrish, Jack T.; Brophy, Robert H.; Flanigan, David C.; Jones, Morgan H.; Kaeding, Christopher C.; Marx, Robert G.; Matava, Matthew J.; McCarty, Eric C.; Parker, Richard D.; Wolcott, Michelle L.; Vidal, Armando F.; Wolf, Brian R.; Huston, Laura J.; Harrell, Frank E.; An, Angel Qi; Wright, Rick W.

2013-01-01

154

Efficacy of interventions that include diet, aerobic and resistance training components for type 2 diabetes prevention: a systematic review with meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Current recommendations for the prevention of type 2 diabetes advise modification of diet and exercise behaviors including both aerobic and resistance training. However, the efficacy of multi-component interventions involving a combination of these three components has not been established. The aims of this review were to systematically review and meta-analyze the evidence on multi-component (diet?+?aerobic exercise?+?resistance training) lifestyle interventions for type 2 diabetes prevention. Eight electronic databases (Medline, Embase, SportDiscus, Web of Science, CINAHL, Informit health collection, Cochrane library and Scopus) were searched up to June 2013. Eligible studies 1) recruited prediabetic adults or individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes; 2) conducted diet and exercise [including both physical activity/aerobic and resistance training] programs; and 3) reported weight and plasma glucose outcomes. In total, 23 articles from eight studies were eligible including five randomized controlled trials, one quasi-experimental, one two-group comparison and one single-group pre-post study. Four studies had a low risk of bias (score???6/10). Median intervention length was 12 months (range 4–48 months) with a follow-up of 18 months (range 6.5 - 48 months). The diet and exercise interventions varied slightly in terms of their specific prescriptions. Meta-analysis favored interventions over controls for weight loss (-3.79 kg [-6.13, -1.46; 95% CI], Z?=?3.19, P?=?0.001) and fasting plasma glucose (-0.13 mmol.L-1 [-0.24, -0.02; 95% CI], Z?=?2.42, P?=?0.02). Diabetes incidence was only reported in two studies, with reductions of 58% and 56% versus control groups. In summary, multi-component lifestyle type 2 diabetes prevention interventions that include diet and both aerobic and resistance exercise training are modestly effective in inducing weight loss and improving impaired fasting glucose, glucose tolerance, dietary and exercise outcomes in at risk and prediabetic adult populations. These results support the current exercise guidelines for the inclusion of resistance training in type 2 diabetes prevention, however there remains a need for more rigorous studies, with long-term follow-up evaluating program efficacy, muscular fitness outcomes, diabetes incidence and risk reduction.

2014-01-01

155

Efficacy of interventions that include diet, aerobic and resistance training components for type 2 diabetes prevention: a systematic review with meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Current recommendations for the prevention of type 2 diabetes advise modification of diet and exercise behaviors including both aerobic and resistance training. However, the efficacy of multi-component interventions involving a combination of these three components has not been established. The aims of this review were to systematically review and meta-analyze the evidence on multi-component (diet?+?aerobic exercise?+?resistance training) lifestyle interventions for type 2 diabetes prevention. Eight electronic databases (Medline, Embase, SportDiscus, Web of Science, CINAHL, Informit health collection, Cochrane library and Scopus) were searched up to June 2013. Eligible studies 1) recruited prediabetic adults or individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes; 2) conducted diet and exercise [including both physical activity/aerobic and resistance training] programs; and 3) reported weight and plasma glucose outcomes. In total, 23 articles from eight studies were eligible including five randomized controlled trials, one quasi-experimental, one two-group comparison and one single-group pre-post study. Four studies had a low risk of bias (score???6/10). Median intervention length was 12 months (range 4-48 months) with a follow-up of 18 months (range 6.5-48 months). The diet and exercise interventions varied slightly in terms of their specific prescriptions. Meta-analysis favored interventions over controls for weight loss (-3.79 kg [-6.13, -1.46; 95% CI], Z?=?3.19, P?=?0.001) and fasting plasma glucose (-0.13 mmol.L?¹ [-0.24, -0.02; 95% CI], Z?=?2.42, P?=?0.02). Diabetes incidence was only reported in two studies, with reductions of 58% and 56% versus control groups. In summary, multi-component lifestyle type 2 diabetes prevention interventions that include diet and both aerobic and resistance exercise training are modestly effective in inducing weight loss and improving impaired fasting glucose, glucose tolerance, dietary and exercise outcomes in at risk and prediabetic adult populations. These results support the current exercise guidelines for the inclusion of resistance training in type 2 diabetes prevention, however there remains a need for more rigorous studies, with long-term follow-up evaluating program efficacy, muscular fitness outcomes, diabetes incidence and risk reduction. PMID:24423095

Aguiar, Elroy J; Morgan, Philip J; Collins, Clare E; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Callister, Robin

2014-01-01

156

Group A Streptococcus virulence factors genes in north India & their association with emm type in pharyngitis  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis, especially among children, leads to high prevalence of rheumatic fever (RF)/rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in India, as compared to the western world where invasive diseases are common. GAS encodes numerous virulence factors that cause diseases by exhibiting extraordinary biological diversity. Hence, we studied the virulence factors genes of GAS isolated from the throat of children with pharyngitis and also asymptomatic carriers. Methods: Fifty GAS isolates cultured from throats of north Indian children aged 5-15 yr with mild pharyngitis (20), severe pharyngitis (24) and asymptomatic pharyngeal carriers (6), during 2000-2003 along with reference M1 strain were emm typed and characterized for virulence factors genes by PCR. The presence of virulence factors was also checked for their association with emm type in pharyngitis. Results: Twenty emm types, six sequence types, and one non-typeable strain were found circulating in north India. The five most prevalent types were emm 74 (12%), 11 & StI129 (8% each) and emm 68 and NS292 (6% each). The spe B gene was found to be significantly higher (P=0.0007) in opacity factor (OF) negative isolates. emm 3, 11, 77, 86, 87, 109 and StI129 showed maximum virulence factors genes. Interpretation & conclusions: GAS isolates collected from throats of children from north India possess highly virulent antigens. This study also supports concept of isolate-associated virulence rather than type relatedness.

Dhanda, V.; Vohra, H.; Kumar, R.

2011-01-01

157

Mutation Analysis of NR5A1 Encoding Steroidogenic Factor 1 in 77 Patients with 46, XY Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) Including Hypospadias  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMutations of the NR5A1 gene encoding steroidogenic factor-1 have been reported in association with a wide spectrum of 46,XY DSD (Disorder of Sex Development) phenotypes including severe forms of hypospadias.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe evaluated the frequency of NR5A1 gene mutations in a large series of patients presenting with 46,XY DSD and hypospadias. Based on their clinical presentation 77 patients were classified either

Slimane Allali; Jean-Baptiste Muller; Raja Brauner; Diana Lourenço; Radia Boudjenah; Vasiliki Karageorgou; Christine Trivin; Henri Lottmann; Stephen Lortat-Jacob; Claire Nihoul-Fékété; Olivier de Dreuzy; Ken McElreavey; Anu Bashamboo; Joerg Gromoll

2011-01-01

158

Keratinocyte Growth Factor Enhances Maturation of Fetal Rat Lung Type II Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) or fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-7, a peptide produced by stromal cells and in particular by lung mesenchyme, has recently been shown to influence early lung morphogenesis and to be a mitogen for fetal and adult alveolar type II cells. Although contradictory findings have been re- ported regarding its effects on surfactant protein expression, its effects on

Nadia Chelly; Oumel-Banine Mouhieddine-Gueddiche; Anne-Marie Barlier-Mur; Bernadette Chailley-Heu; Jacques R. Bourbon

1999-01-01

159

High-Quality-Factor Light-Emitting Diodes with Modified Photonic Crystal Nanocavities Including Ge Self-Assembled Quantum Dots on Silicon-On-Insulator Substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-quality-factor room-temperature light-emitting diodes based on Ge self-assembled quantum dots are successfully fabricated by employing a lateral p--i--n diode structure and a modified L3-type photonic crystal nanocavity. Sharp resonant peaks with Q-factor larger than 800, corresponding to the cavity modes, are clearly observed in the electroluminescence spectrum under 50 ?A injected current, which exceeds the performances of previously reported devices [X. Xu et al.: Opt. Express 20 (2012) 14714]. The output power collected by a single-mode fiber is measured to be about 6 pW under 3 mA current, indicating a forward step towards silicon-based light sources for practical applications.

Xu, Xuejun; Chiba, Taichi; Nakama, Tatsuya; Maruizumi, Takuya; Shiraki, Yasuhiro

2012-10-01

160

RISK FACTORS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF PERIPHERAL AND CAROTID ARTERY DISEASE AMONG TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A b s t r a c t: The study was aimed to define the risk factors for development of peripheral arterial (PAD) and carotid artery disease (CARD) among type 2 diabetic patients (T2D). The study population consisted of 30 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and absent vascular disease. the mean age of the study population was 53.3 +

Georgievska-Ismail Lj

2009-01-01

161

Suicide, Schizophrenia, and Schizoid-Type Psychosis: Role of Life Events and Childhood Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first objective was to identify the provoking events of suicide in patients with schizophrenia or schizoid-type disorder, and to assess the humiliation component of these events. The second objective was to verify if quality of care during childhood is a vulnerability factor for suicide in patients with schizophrenia or schizoid-type

Tousignant, Michel; Pouliot, Louise; Routhier, Danielle; Vrakas, Georgia; McGirr, Alexander; Turecki, Gustavo

2011-01-01

162

Reduced von Willebrand factor survival in type Vicenza von Willebrand disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type Vicenza variant of von Willebrand disease (VWD) is characterized by a low plasma von Willebrand factor (VWF) level and supranormal VWF multimers. Two candidate mutations, G2470A and G3864A at exons 17 and 27, respectively, of the VWF gene were recently reported to be present in this disorder. Four additional families, originating from northeast Italy, with both mutations of type

Alessandra Casonato; Elena Pontara; Francesca Sartorello; Maria Grazia Cattini; Maria Teresa Sartori; Roberto Padrini; Antonio Girolami

163

Birth injury as a causative factor of syringomyelia with Chiari type I deformity.  

PubMed Central

The epidemiology of syringomyelia with Chiari type I deformity was investigated with particular reference to perinatal problems. All subjects in our study were born by vaginal delivery and had a high incidence of perinatal accidents (abnormal presentations, birth injuries, and neonatal asphyxia). This study suggests that these may be strong causative factors for syringomyelia associated with Chiari type I deformity.

Hida, K; Iwasaki, Y; Imamura, H; Abe, H

1994-01-01

164

Therapies for type 2 diabetes: lowering HbA1c and associated cardiovascular risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To summarize data supporting the effects of antidiabetes agents on glucose control and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Studies reporting on the effects of antidiabetes agents on glycemic control, body weight, lipid levels, and blood pressure parameters are reviewed and summarized for the purpose of selecting optimal therapeutic regimens for patients with type 2

L. Romayne Kurukulasuriya; James R Sowers

2010-01-01

165

Prevalence of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria and Associated Host Factors in Women with Diabetes type 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is common among women with diabetes. The aim of this study was determine the prevalence of and risk factors for ASB in women with diabetes type 2 in Shahre-kord city of Iran. Methods: In a six months period (April- September 2005), a total of 100 women with diabetes (type 2) and 100 healthy women without diabetes

Moezzi M

166

Preoperative risk factors for hospital mortality in acute type A aortic dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Acute type A dissection is associated with postoperative complications and a high mortality rate. This study was performed to determine the perioperative risk factors leading to hospital mortality in patients with acute type A aortic dissection.Methods. One hundred twenty-two patients with acute type A aortic dissection treated surgically within 48 hours after onset were enrolled in this study. Thirty-two

Koji Kawahito; Hideo Adachi; Atsushi Yamaguchi; Takashi Ino

2001-01-01

167

Blockade of nonhormonal fibroblast growth factors by FP-1039 inhibits growth of multiple types of cancer.  

PubMed

The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) pathway promotes tumor growth and angiogenesis in many solid tumors. Although there has long been interest in FGF pathway inhibitors, development has been complicated: An effective FGF inhibitor must block the activity of multiple mitogenic FGF ligands but must spare the metabolic hormone FGFs (FGF-19, FGF-21, and FGF-23) to avoid unacceptable toxicity. To achieve these design requirements, we engineered a soluble FGF receptor 1 Fc fusion protein, FP-1039. FP-1039 binds tightly to all of the mitogenic FGF ligands, inhibits FGF-stimulated cell proliferation in vitro, blocks FGF- and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis in vivo, and inhibits in vivo growth of a broad range of tumor types. FP-1039 antitumor response is positively correlated with RNA levels of FGF2, FGF18, FGFR1c, FGFR3c, and ETV4; models with genetic aberrations in the FGF pathway, including FGFR1-amplified lung cancer and FGFR2-mutated endometrial cancer, are particularly sensitive to FP-1039-mediated tumor inhibition. FP-1039 does not appreciably bind the hormonal FGFs, because these ligands require a cell surface co-receptor, klotho or ?-klotho, for high-affinity binding and signaling. Serum calcium and phosphate levels, which are regulated by FGF-23, are not altered by administration of FP-1039. By selectively blocking nonhormonal FGFs, FP-1039 treatment confers antitumor efficacy without the toxicities associated with other FGF pathway inhibitors. PMID:23536011

Harding, Thomas C; Long, Li; Palencia, Servando; Zhang, Hongbing; Sadra, Ali; Hestir, Kevin; Patil, Namrata; Levin, Anita; Hsu, Amy W; Charych, Deborah; Brennan, Thomas; Zanghi, James; Halenbeck, Robert; Marshall, Shannon A; Qin, Minmin; Doberstein, Stephen K; Hollenbaugh, Diane; Kavanaugh, W Michael; Williams, Lewis T; Baker, Kevin P

2013-03-27

168

Risk factors of type 2 diabetes in population of Jammu and Kashmir, India  

PubMed Central

We sought to identify risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Jammu and Kashmir populations, India. A total of 424 diabetic and 226 non-diabetic subjects from Jammu, and 161 diabetic and 100 non-diabetic subjects from Kashmir were screened for various parameters including fasting blood glucose level, 2 hour glucose level, urea, creatinine, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-C), uric acid, systolic and diastolic blood pressure level. We found that subjects aged 40-49 years had the highest rate of diabetes, with family income playing not much of a role. Kashmiri migrants or populations with rapid cultural, environmental, social or lifestyle change along with reduced physical activity, obesity and unhealthy lifestyle (smoking and alcohol consumption) were found to have higher rates of diabetes. High blood glucose, triglycerides and low HDL-C levels were found to be contributing to disease outcome. High blood pressure also contributed to a higher risk of developing T2D. Our study supports earlier reports confirming the contribution of comfortable life style, Western dietary habits and rapid life style change along with many other factors to the prevalence of diabetes. This may contribute to the epidemic proportion of diabetes in Jammu and Kashmir. Early diagnosis and routine screening for undiagnosed diabetes in obese subjects and subjects with parental diabetes history is expected to decrease the burden of chronic diabetic complications worldwide.

Mahajan, Ankit; Sharma, Swarkar; Dhar, Manoj K.; Bamezai, Rameshwar N.K.

2013-01-01

169

Resistance to human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-targeted therapies.  

PubMed

The overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER-2) is an independent prognostic factor of poor outcome in patients with breast cancer. Two compounds have been registered for HER-2-positive tumour treatment: trastuzumab, a humanised antibody directed against the HER-2 extracellular domain, and lapatinib, a small molecule acting as a dual EGF-R and HER-2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Although both drugs improve progression-free survival, many patients' tumours will exhibit primary resistance, or develop secondary resistance, to anti-HER-2 therapies. The recent significant improvement of survival gained with pertuzumab (an antibody disrupting dimerisation of the receptor) or trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1, a cytotoxic drug vectored by trastuzumab binding) opened the way for new registrations. This review describes the molecular mechanisms by which tumour cells may adapt to and evade HER-2 inhibition by HER-2-targeted therapies and discusses strategies to prevent and overcome resistance to trastuzumab and lapatinib. These strategies may include the establishment of predictive markers, exploration of combination therapies and modulation of nodal targets. PMID:24462377

Thery, Jean-Christophe; Spano, Jean-Philippe; Azria, David; Raymond, Eric; Penault Llorca, Frédérique

2014-03-01

170

Multiple risk factor intervention reduces carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with rapid progression of carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) were shown to have a higher future risk for cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of multiple risk factor intervention on CIMT progression and to establish whether new cardiovascular surrogate measurements would allow prediction of CIMT changes. Materials and methods In this prospective, open, 2-years study, we included 97 patients with type 2 diabetes and at least two insufficiently treated cardiovascular risk factors, i.e. HbA1c > 7.5% (58 mmol/mol); LDL-cholesterol >3.1 mmol/l or blood pressure >140/90 mmHg. Treatment was intensified according to current guidelines over 3 months with the aim to maintain intensification over 2 years. The primary outcome was the change in CIMT after 2 years. We also assessed markers of mechanical and biochemical endothelial function and endothelial progenitor cells before and after 3 months of treatment intensification. For testing differences between before and after multifactorial treatment measurements we used either the paired student’s t-test or the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, depending on the distribution of the data. Additional, explorative statistical data analysis was done on CIMT progression building a linear multivariate regression model. Results Blood glucose, lipids and blood pressure significantly improved during the first 3 months of intensified treatment, which was sustained over the 2-year study duration. Mean CIMT significantly decreased from baseline to 2 year (0.883 ± 0.120 mm vs. 0.860 ± 0.130 mm; p = 0.021). None of the investigated surrogate measures, however, was able to predict changes in IMT early after treatment intensification. Conclusions Intensification of risk factor intervention in type 2 diabetes results in CIMT regression over a period of 2 years. None of the biomarkers used including endothelial function parameters or endothelial progenitor cells turned out to be useful to predict CIMT changes. Trial registration Clinical Trial Registration – Unique identifier: NCT00660790

2014-01-01

171

Joint association of coffee consumption and other factors to the risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective study in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To examine joint associations of coffee consumption and other factors (including physical activity, obesity and alcohol consumption) with the risk of type 2 diabetes.Design:Prospective follow-up study.Subjects:In all, 10 188 Finnish men and 11 197 women aged 35–74 years without a history of stroke, coronary heart disease or diabetes at baseline.Measurement:A self-administered questionnaire data on coffee, tea, alcohol and other food

G Hu; P Jousilahti; M Peltonen; S Bidel; J Tuomilehto

2006-01-01

172

Risk Factors for Incident Peripheral Arterial Disease in Type 2 Diabetes: Results From the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation in Type 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) Trial.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE The aim of this article was to define risk factors for incidence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in a large cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), overall and within the context of differing glycemic control strategies. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation in Type 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) randomized controlled trial assigned participants to insulin-sensitizing (IS) therapy versus insulin-providing (IP) therapy. A total of 1,479 participants with normal ankle-brachial index (ABI) at study entry were eligible for analysis. PAD outcomes included new ABI ?0.9 with decrease at least 0.1 from baseline, lower extremity revascularization, or lower extremity amputation. Baseline risk factors within the overall cohort and time-varying risk factors within each assigned glycemic control arm were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS During an average 4.6 years of follow-up, 303 participants (20.5%) experienced an incident case of PAD. Age, sex, race, and baseline smoking status were all significantly associated with incident PAD in the BARI 2D cohort. Additional baseline risk factors included pulse pressure, HbA1c, and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (P < 0.05 for each). In stratified analyses of time-varying covariates, changes in BMI, LDL, HDL, systolic blood pressure, and pulse pressure were most predictive among IS patients, while change in HbA1c was most predictive among IP patients. CONCLUSIONS Among patients with T2DM, traditional cardiovascular risk factors were the main predictors of incident PAD cases. Stratified analyses showed different risk factors were predictive for patients treated with IS medications versus those treated with IP medications. PMID:24595631

Althouse, Andrew D; Abbott, J Dawn; Forker, Alan D; Bertolet, Marnie; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Thurston, Rebecca C; Mulukutla, Suresh; Aboyans, Victor; Brooks, Maria Mori

2014-05-01

173

Risk factors for microalbuminuria in black americans with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

We conducted a cross-sectional analysis to describe the prevalence of and risk factors for microalbuminuria among blacks with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Black adults with diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus of 2 years' duration or less who presented for care to the Grady Diabetes Clinic (Atlanta, GA) between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 1996, were eligible (n = 1,167). Information obtained at the initial visit included age; sex; body mass index (BMI); serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, C-peptide, serum creatinine, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA(1c)) levels; and seated systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Outcome was urine albumin-creatinine (Alb/Cr) ratio at the initial visit. Alb/Cr ratios were categorized as normal (Alb/Cr <25 microgram/mg), microalbuminuric (Alb/Cr, 25 to 250 microgram/mg), and macroalbuminuric (Alb/Cr >250 microgram/mg). Patients with macroalbuminuria or creatinine levels of 2 mg/dL or greater were excluded. We used multiple linear regression to assess the joint association between HbA(1c) level, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and log-transformed Alb/Cr, controlling for other covariates. Of 1,044 patients studied, macroalbuminuria was present in 3.8%, and microalbuminuria, in 23.4%. Alb/Cr was independently associated with increased HbA(1c) level (P = 0.0070), MAP (P = 0.0001), BMI (P = 0.0156), log-transformed triglyceride levels (P = 0.0031), C-peptide level of 6.5 ng/mL or greater (P = 0.0007), serum creatinine level (P: = 0.0068), and male sex (P = 0.0220). The relationship between HbA(1c) level and microalbuminuria was stronger in patients with lower BMIs. Microalbuminuria prevalence was high in this population of urban blacks with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Risk factors associated with increased Alb/Cr included male sex, poor glycemic control, endogenous hyperinsulinemia, high blood pressure, elevated triglyceride levels, and obesity. PMID:11054346

Kohler, K A; McClellan, W M; Ziemer, D C; Kleinbaum, D G; Boring, J R

2000-11-01

174

Albuminuria, cardiovascular risk factors and disease management in subjects with type 2 diabetes: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiological studies have shown that microalbuminuria is an important risk factor for arteriosclerosis, coronary heart disease and other vascular diseases in persons with type 2 diabetes. In the present study we examined the prevalence and risk factors for micro- and macroalbuminuria and examined glycemic control as well as treatment of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in persons with known type 2 diabetes in Germany. Methods The presented data were derived from the 'KORA Augsburg Diabetes Family Study', conducted between October 2001 and September 2002. Participants were adults aged 29 years and older with previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes (n = 581). Microalbuminuria was defined as an albumin-creatinine ratio of 30 to 300 mg/g, and macroalbuminuria as an albumin-creatinine ratio of more than 300 mg/g. Results Microalbuminuria was revealed in 27.2% and macroalbuminuria in 9.0% of the 581 included diabetic persons. Multivariable regression analysis identified HBA1c, duration of diabetes, systolic blood pressure, serum creatinine, smoking and waist circumference as independent risk factors associated with albuminuria (micro- or macroalbuminuria). Relatively few persons with type 2 diabetes achieved treatment targets of HbA1c < 7% (46.6%), total cholesterol < 200 mg/dl (44.1%), and LDL cholesterol < 100 mg/dl (16.0%). Optimal HDL cholesterol values (> 45 mg/dl in men, > 55 mg/dl in women) were found in 55.8%, and blood pressure values < 130 and < 85 mmHg in 31.3% of the persons Conclusion Albuminuria is common among German persons with known type 2 diabetes. Despite evidence-based guidelines, only a small proportion of type 2 diabetic persons achieved the recommended levels of glycemic control and control of cardiovascular risk factors.

Meisinger, Christa; Heier, Margit; Landgraf, Rudiger; Happich, Michael; Wichmann, H-Erich; Piehlmeier, Wolfgang

2008-01-01

175

Impact of Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors in First-Degree Relatives of Type 2 Diabetic Patients  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Family members of patients with an established diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are theoretically at risk of having the metabolic syndrome (MetS). A sample of these family members was studied from a population in a small township in Argentina, which has a high prevalence of T2DM. METHODS: We examined the clinical and metabolic characteristics of 132 first-degree relatives of T2DM patients (FDR) and 112 age-matched controls. The subjects were categorized according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria for MetS. RESULTS: The prevalence of MetS in the FDR group was 34.8 (IDF) and 26.5% (NCEP-ATPIII) respectively, which was significantly different to the prevalence in controls (p < 0.025). According to IDF criteria, the most prevalent factors among FDR subjects with MetS were low HDL-cholesterol (87%) followed by hypertriglyceridemia (69.5%). In the MetS group, which ranged between 20-29 years old (36%), the major risk factor in women was a low HDL-cholesterol serum level. In the MetS group, which ranged between 30-39 years old (44.4%), the most important risk factor in men was hypertriglyceridemia. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that the prevalence of MetS is high in young FDR adults, who need urgent preventive treatment, including lifestyle changes. The risk of developing T2DM is five times higher in non-diabetic people with MetS than in those without the syndrome.

Siewert, Susana; Filipuzzi, Sergio; Codazzi, Leticia; Gonzalez, Irma; Ojeda, Marta S.

2007-01-01

176

Factors Associated with Consumption of Diabetic Diet among Type 2 Diabetic Subjects from Ahmedabad, Western India  

PubMed Central

This cross-sectional study assessed the current situation of and factors associated with consumption of diabetic diet among 399 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects from Ahmedabad, Western India. The study was performed with diagnosed (at least one year old) diabetic subjects who attended the Department of Diabetology, All India Institute of Diabetes and Research and Yash Diabetes Specialties Centre (Swasthya Hospital), Ahmedabad during July 2010–November 2010. The subjects completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire included variables, such as sociodemographic factors, family history of diabetes, behavioural profile, risk profile (glycaemic status, hypertension, and obesity), and diet-related history (consumption of diabetic diet, consumption of low fat/skimmed milk, method of cooking, and sources for diet advice). Blood pressure, body mass index, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level, and fasting lipid profile were measured. All analyses including multivariate logistic regression were conducted using SPSS, version 11.5. In total, 399 T2DM subjects (65% male, 35% female) with mean age of 53.16±7.95 years were studied. Although 73% of T2DM subjects were consuming diabetic diet, the good glycaemic control (HbA1c level <7%) was achieved only in 35% of the subjects. The majority (75%) of the subjects had a positive family history of diabetes, and 52% were obese. In 77%, the main source of dietary advice was doctor. In 36%, the main methods of cooking were: boiling and roasting. The final multivariate model showed that visit to dietician, level of education, intake of low fat, and family history of diabetes were independent predictors for diabetic diet consumption among T2DM subjects. However, longitudinal and cohort studies are required to establish the association between consumption of diabetic diet and glycaemic control.

Patel, Mayur; Patel, Ina M.; Patel, Yash M.

2012-01-01

177

Incineration of different types of medical wastes: emission factors for gaseous emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous research works showed that to protect public health, the hospital incinerators should be provided with air pollution control devices. As most hospital incinerators do not possess such equipment, efficient methodologies should be developed to evaluate the safety of incineration procedure. Emission factors (EF) can be used for an easy estimation of legal parameters. Nevertheless, the actual knowledge is yet very scarce, mainly because EF previously published do not include enough information about the incinerated waste composition, besides considering many different waste classifications. This paper reports the first EF estimated for CO, SO 2, NO x and HCl, associated to the incineration of medical waste, segregated in different types according to the classification of the Portuguese legislation. The results showed that those EF are strongly influenced by incinerated waste composition, directly affected by incinerated waste type, waste classification, segregation practice and management methodology. The correspondence between different waste classifications was analysed comparing the estimated EF with the sole results previously published for specific waste types, being observed that the correspondence is not always possible. The legal limit for pollutant concentrations could be obeyed for NO x, but concentrations were higher than the limit for CO (11-24 times), SO 2 (2-5 times), and HCl (9-200 times), confirming that air pollution control devices must be used to protect human health. The small heating value of medical wastes with compulsory incineration implied the requirement of a bigger amount of auxiliary fuel for their incineration, which affects the emitted amounts of CO, NO x and SO 2 (28, 20 and practically 100% of the respective values were related with fuel combustion). Nevertheless, the incineration of those wastes lead to the smallest amount of emitted pollutants, the emitted amount of SO 2 and NO x reducing to 93% and the emitted amount of CO and HCl to more than 99%.

Alvim-Ferraz, M. C. M.; Afonso, S. A. V.

178

Effects of Exercise on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Exercise is a cornerstone of diabetes management and the prevention of incident diabetes. However, the impact of the mode of exercise on cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in type 2 diabetes is unclear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a systematic review of the literature between 1970 and October 2009 in representative databases for the effect of aerobic or resistance exercise training on clinical markers of CV risk, including glycemic control, dyslipidemia, blood pressure, and body composition in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESULTS Of 645 articles retrieved, 34 met our inclusion criteria; most investigated aerobic exercise alone, and 10 reported combined exercise training. Aerobic alone or combined with resistance training (RT) significantly improved HbA1c ?0.6 and ?0.67%, respectively (95% CI ?0.98 to ?0.27 and ?0.93 to ?0.40, respectively), systolic blood pressure (SBP) ?6.08 and ?3.59 mmHg, respectively (95% CI ?10.79 to ?1.36 and ?6.93 to ?0.24, respectively), and triglycerides ?0.3 mmol/L (95% CI ?0.48 to ?0.11 and ?0.57 to ?0.02, respectively). Waist circumference was significantly improved ?3.1 cm (95% CI ?10.3 to ?1.2) with combined aerobic and resistance exercise, although fewer studies and more heterogeneity of the responses were observed in the latter two markers. Resistance exercise alone or combined with any other form of exercise was not found to have any significant effect on CV markers. CONCLUSIONS Aerobic exercise alone or combined with RT improves glycemic control, SBP, triglycerides, and waist circumference. The impact of resistance exercise alone on CV risk markers in type 2 diabetes remains unclear.

Chudyk, Anna; Petrella, Robert J.

2011-01-01

179

Differential Regulation of Type I Interferon and Epidermal Growth Factor Pathways by a Human Respirovirus Virulence Factor  

PubMed Central

A number of paramyxoviruses are responsible for acute respiratory infections in children, elderly and immuno-compromised individuals, resulting in airway inflammation and exacerbation of chronic diseases like asthma. To understand the molecular pathogenesis of these infections, we searched for cellular targets of the virulence protein C of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (hPIV3-C). We found that hPIV3-C interacts directly through its C-terminal domain with STAT1 and GRB2, whereas C proteins from measles or Nipah viruses failed to do so. Binding to STAT1 explains the previously reported capacity of hPIV3-C to block type I interferon signaling, but the interaction with GRB2 was unexpected. This adaptor protein bridges Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) receptor to MAPK/ERK pathway, a signaling cascade recently found to be involved in airway inflammatory response. We report that either hPIV3 infection or transient expression of hPIV3-C both increase cellular response to EGF, as assessed by Elk1 transactivation and phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2, 40S ribosomal subunit protein S6 and translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E). Furthermore, inhibition of MAPK/ERK pathway with U0126 prevented viral protein expression in infected cells. Altogether, our data provide molecular basis to explain the role of hPIV3-C as a virulence factor and determinant of pathogenesis and demonstrate that Paramyxoviridae have evolved a single virulence factor to block type I interferon signaling and to boost simultaneous cellular response to growth factors.

Caignard, Gregory; Komarova, Anastassia V.; Bourai, Mehdi; Mourez, Thomas; Jacob, Yves; Jones, Louis M.; Rozenberg, Flore; Vabret, Astrid; Freymuth, Francois; Tangy, Frederic; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier

2009-01-01

180

Histological type-specific prognostic factors of cervical small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background The study aimed to determine the prognostic impact of clinical and pathological factors on survival among patients with small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SNEC), adenocarcinoma (ADC), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Methods Eligible participants were all patients with histologically confirmed cervical cancer treated at Chiang Mai University Hospital between 1995 and 2011. We included all patients with SNEC and randomly enrolled patients with ADC and SCC. We used competing-risk regression analysis to examine the risk of cancer-related death by histological type. Results We included 130 (6.2%) women with SNEC, 346 (16.4%) with ADC, and 1,632 (77.4%) with SCC. Age >60 years (hazard ratio [HR] 4.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.0–12.0) and lymph node involvement (HR 3.0, 95% CI 1.2–7.4) were prognostic factors among surgically-treated patients with SNEC. Deeper stromal invasion (HR 3.6, 95% CI 1.6–8.3) was a prognostic factor in patients with SCC. In patients with advanced SNEC, age >60 years had a strong prognostic impact (HR 2.6, 95% CI 1.0–6.5) while the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages III and IV were prognostic factors for patients with advanced stage ADC (HR 2.9, 95% CI 2.0–4.4 and HR 4.5, 95% CI 2.6–7.9, respectively) and SCC (HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.4–2.0 and HR 3.7, 95% CI 2.8–4.9, respectively) compared with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIB. Conclusion Clinical and pathological prognostic factors in cervical cancer differed according to histological type. Taking the important prognostic factors for each histological type into consideration may be beneficial for tailored treatment and follow-up planning.

Intaraphet, Suthida; Kasatpibal, Nongyao; S?gaard, Mette; Khunamornpong, Surapan; Patumanond, Jayanton; Chandacham, Anchalee; Chitapanarux, Imjai; Siriaunkgul, Sumalee

2014-01-01

181

Tumor Necrosis Factor Induces Tumor Necrosis via Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Type 1-Expressing Endothelial Cells of the Tumor Vasculature  

PubMed Central

Activation of endothelial cells, fibrin deposition, and coagulation within the tumor vasculature has been shown in vivo to correlate with the occurrence of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced tumor necrosis in mice. In the present study we investigated which target cells mediate the TNF-induced necrosis in fibrosarcomas grown in wild type (wt), TNF receptor type 1-deficient (TNFRp55?/?), and TNF receptor type 2-deficient (TNFRp75?/?) mice. TNF administration resulted in tumor necrosis exclusively in wt and TNFRp75?/?, but not in TNFRp55?/? mice, indicating a dependence of TNF-mediated tumor necrosis on the expression of TNF receptor type 1. However, using wt and TNFRp55?/? fibrosarcomas in wt mice, we found that TNF-mediated tumor necrosis was completely independent of TNF receptor type 1 expression in tumor cells. Thus we could exclude any direct tumoricidal effect of TNF in this model. Soluble TNF induced leukostasis in wt and TNFRp75?/? mice but not in TNFRp55?/? mice. TNF-induced leukostasis in TNFRp55?/? mice was restored by adoptive bone marrow transplantation of wt hematopoietic cells, but TNF failed to induce tumor necrosis in these chimeric mice. Because TNF administration resulted in both activation and focal damage of tumor endothelium, TNF receptor type 1-expressing cells of the tumor vasculature, likely to be endothelial cells, appear to be target cells for mediating TNF-induced tumor necrosis.

Stoelcker, Benjamin; Ruhland, Brigitte; Hehlgans, Thomas; Bluethmann, Horst; Luther, Thomas; Mannel, Daniela N.

2000-01-01

182

Biosynthesis of Dictyostelium discoideum differentiation-inducing factor by a hybrid type I fatty acid-type III polyketide synthase  

PubMed Central

Differentiation-inducing factors (DIFs) are well known to modulate formation of distinct communal cell types from identical Dictyostelium discoideum amoebas, but DIF biosynthesis remains obscure. We report complimentary in vivo and in vitro experiments identifying one of two ~3,000-residue D. discoideum proteins, termed ‘steely’, as responsible for biosynthesis of the DIF acylphloroglucinol scaffold. Steely proteins possess six catalytic domains homologous to metazoan type I fatty acid synthases (FASs) but feature an iterative type III polyketide synthase (PKS) in place of the expected FAS C-terminal thioesterase used to off load fatty acid products. This new domain arrangement likely facilitates covalent transfer of steely N-terminal acyl products directly to the C-terminal type III PKS active sites, which catalyze both iterative polyketide extension and cyclization. The crystal structure of a steely C-terminal domain confirms conservation of the homodimeric type III PKS fold. These findings suggest new bioengineering strategies for expanding the scope of fatty acid and polyketide biosynthesis.

Austin, Michael B; Saito, Tamao; Bowman, Marianne E; Haydock, Stephen; Kato, Atsushi; Moore, Bradley S; Kay, Robert R; Noel, Joseph P

2010-01-01

183

Patterns of regulatory activity across diverse human cell types predict tissue identity, transcription factor binding, and long-range interactions  

PubMed Central

Regulatory elements recruit transcription factors that modulate gene expression distinctly across cell types, but the relationships among these remains elusive. To address this, we analyzed matched DNase-seq and gene expression data for 112 human samples representing 72 cell types. We first defined more than 1800 clusters of DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) with similar tissue specificity of DNase-seq signal patterns. We then used these to uncover distinct associations between DHSs and promoters, CpG islands, conserved elements, and transcription factor motif enrichment. Motif analysis within clusters identified known and novel motifs in cell-type-specific and ubiquitous regulatory elements and supports a role for AP-1 regulating open chromatin. We developed a classifier that accurately predicts cell-type lineage based on only 43 DHSs and evaluated the tissue of origin for cancer cell types. A similar classifier identified three sex-specific loci on the X chromosome, including the XIST lincRNA locus. By correlating DNase I signal and gene expression, we predicted regulated genes for more than 500K DHSs. Finally, we introduce a web resource to enable researchers to use these results to explore these regulatory patterns and better understand how expression is modulated within and across human cell types.

Sheffield, Nathan C.; Thurman, Robert E.; Song, Lingyun; Safi, Alexias; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.; Lenhard, Boris; Crawford, Gregory E.; Furey, Terrence S.

2013-01-01

184

Injuries in epilepsy: a review of its prevalence, risk factors, type of injuries and prevention  

PubMed Central

Currently, there is intense clinical research into various aspects of the medical risks relating to epilepsy, including total and cause-specific mortality, accidents and injuries in patients with epilepsy and mortality related with seizures. Seizures occurring in precarious situations and resulting in injuries are still an important concern for patients with epilepsy, their employers and their care-givers. Submersion injuries, motor vehicle accidents, burns, and head injuries are among the most feared epilepsy-related injuries. These concerns seem valid because the hallmark of epilepsy, episodic impairment of consciousness and motor control, may occur during interictal EEG epileptiform discharges, even in the absence of a clinical seizure. In addition, psychomotor comorbidity and side effects of antiepileptic drugs may contribute to the risk of injuries in patients with epilepsy. Published risk factors for injuries include the number of antiepileptic drugs, history of generalized seizures, and seizure frequency. In general, epidemiological information about incidence of injuries has been conflicting and sparse. In general, studies focusing on populations with more severe forms of epilepsy tend to report substantially higher risks of injuries than those involving less selected populations. On the other hand, studies based on non-selected populations of people with epilepsy have not shown an increased frequency of injuries in people with epilepsy compared with the general population. Some studies have shown that patients with epilepsy are more frequently admitted to the hospital following an injury. Possible explanations include: more cautious attitude of clinicians toward injuries occurring in the setting of seizures; hospitalization required because of seizures and not to the injuries themselves; and hospitalization driven by other issues, such as comorbidities, which are highly prevalent in patients with epilepsy. Potentially the high rate of hospitalizations could be related with the severity of the injury. This article reviews the best available epidemiological information about injuries, including incidence and risk factors. Also this article reviews information about specific types of injuries such as fractures, burns, concussions, dislocations, etc. Information about accidents in people with epilepsy is also discussed.

Nguyen, Rita; Tellez Zenteno, Jose F.

2009-01-01

185

Genotype-phenotype analysis of F-helix mutations at the kinase domain of TGFBR2, including a type 2 Marfan syndrome familial study  

PubMed Central

Purpose Transforming growth factor beta receptor II (TGFBR2) gene mutations are associated with Marfan syndrome; however, the relationship between the mutations and clinical phenotypes are not clear. Methods Genomic DNA from peripheral blood leukocytes of a Chinese proband with Marfan syndrome, five of the proband’s relatives, and 100 unrelated Chinese control subjects were isolated and screened for fibrillin-1 (FBN1) and TGFBR2 gene mutations by direct sequencing, and a genotype-phenotype study was performed following a review of the literature on TGFBR2 mutations in the search area. Also, the structure of TGFBR2 protein before and after gene mutation was analyzed. Results The results identified a novel missense TGFBR2 mutation p.V453E (c.1358T>A) in the proband and two relatives that was located in the F-helix in the kinase domain of TGFBR2. No such genetic change was observed in the unrelated controls. No FBN1 mutation was detected in any of the subjects. Genotype-phenotype analyses indicated that F-helix mutations are related to type 2 Marfan syndrome and Loeys-Dietz syndrome, and these mutations can lead to severe cardiovascular (93.8%) and skeletal (81.3%) lesions and minor ocular lesions (25%). Losartan treatment can slow-down the progression of aortic lesions. Conclusions The ?ndings extend the mutation spectrum of Marfan syndrome, and that mutations at the F-helix in the kinase domain of TGFBR2 may be associated with the development of severe cardiovascular and skeletal lesions and minor ocular lesions. These findings have implications for genetic testing, diagnosis, and treatment in individuals with transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) signaling-related disorders.

Zhang, Lin; Gao, Ling-Gen; Zhang, Ming

2012-01-01

186

Factors influencing career decisions: perspectives of nursing students in three types of programs.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to describe the effects of motivating factors and characteristics of the nursing profession on students selecting nursing as a career. Students from three types of programs in North Carolina (N = 495) were asked to complete a survey during the first month of their nursing program. Motivating factors influencing the decision to become a nurse were past experience with a loved one or self being ill and/or hospitalized, past health care work experience, and having a family member or friend who was a nurse. Characteristics about the nursing profession influencing career decisions were care and concern for others, job security, and variety of work settings. None of the motivating factors nor characteristics of the nursing profession differed among students from each program type. Data from this survey can be used to developed appropriate recruitment strategies for each program type. PMID:12710808

Larsen, Pamala D; McGill, Joan S; Palmer, Stephanie J

2003-04-01

187

Resistance to the apoptotic effect of aggregated amyloid-beta peptide in several different cell types including neuronal- and hepatoma-derived cell lines.  

PubMed Central

There is a large body of literature indicating that aggregated amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) is toxic to neurons and suggesting that this neurotoxicity represents the final common pathway for neuronal degeneration in Alzheimer's disease. Previous studies have shown the outgrowth of a subclone of the rat neuronal cell line PC12 that is resistant to the toxic effect of aggregated Abeta peptide if the parent cell line is grown in the presence of aggregated Abeta peptide for a number of passages [Behl, Davis, Lesley and Schubert (1994) Cell 77, 817-827; Boland, Behrens, Choi, Manias and Perlmutter (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 18032-18044]. To begin to characterize the mechanism by which PC12 cells become resistant to the apoptotic effect of Abeta peptide, in the present study we examined whether the resistance was specific to aggregated peptides, specific to an apoptotic form of cell death, and specific in cell type or was a general resistance to cell death that could be elicited in diverse cell types. The results show that the resistance is specific to compounds that have apoptotic effects through the generation of hydroxyl radical or H2O2, including aggregated Abeta-(25-35), Abeta-(1-40), Abeta-(1-42), Abeta-(1-43), amylin, 6-hydroxydopamine and H2O2 itself. The resistant subclones of PC12 were not resistant to other forms of apoptotic cell death or to necrotic cell death. The resistant state was also identified in a human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, when it was grown in the presence of aggregated Abeta-(25-35) for several passages, indicating that the mechanism(s) or molecule(s) responsible for this resistance are not restricted to neuronal cells and may be relevant to the pathobiology of oxidative injury in other cell types.

Mazziotti, M; Perlmutter, D H

1998-01-01

188

Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in Austria.  

PubMed

Mortality of cardiovascular diseases in patients with type 1 diabetes is increased 2- to 20-fold compared to non-diabetic individuals. In young adults with type 1 diabetes, cardiovascular events are more often the cause of premature death than nephropathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and extent of cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in Austria. In a cross sectional study data of children with type 1 diabetes <18 years of age treated at the Children's department of the University Hospitals of Vienna and Graz were collected. We recorded body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, HbA1c, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol according to age, sex, age at manifestation, diabetes duration, and insulin requirement. From 264 patients (49.4% male) complete data were available. Of all patients, 76.1% had one or more risk factors, 20.8% had two or more, 10.2% had three or more, and 4.9% had four or more risk factors. Insufficient glycemic control was the most frequent risk factor, present in 60.6% of our patients, followed by elevated triglycerides (22.7%) and increased body mass index (20.1%). Higher prevalence of risk factors was correlated with increasing age, diabetes duration, HbA1c, and insulin requirement. In conclusion, children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes have a much higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors compared to non-diabetic individuals. To prevent future cardiovascular events, achieving the best possible glycemic control, early detection of further risk factors, and adequate intervention are highly important. PMID:22422191

Steigleder-Schweiger, Claudia; Rami-Merhar, Birgit; Waldhör, Thomas; Fröhlich-Reiterer, Elke; Schwarz, Ines; Fritsch, Maria; Borkenstein, Martin; Schober, Edith

2012-08-01

189

Analysis of KLF transcription factor family gene variants in type 2 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Krüppel-like factor (KLF) family consists of transcription factors that can activate or repress different genes implicated in processes such as differentiation, development, and cell cycle progression. Moreover, several of these proteins have been implicated in glucose homeostasis, making them candidate genes for involvement in type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: Variants of nine KLF genes were genotyped in T2D

Ruth Gutiérrez-Aguilar; Yamina Benmezroua; Emmanuel Vaillant; Beverley Balkau; Michel Marre; Guillaume Charpentier; Rob Sladek; Philippe Froguel; Bernadette Neve

2007-01-01

190

Retrospective review of prognostic factors, including 1p19q deletion, in low-grade oligodendrogliomas and a review of recent published works.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to investigate potential prognostic factors in low-grade oligodendrogliomas (LGOs), particularly 1p19q deletion, due to its proven prognostic significance in anaplastic oligodendrogliomas. We carried out a retrospective review of patients with a histological diagnosis of LGO between 1990 and 2000 in Auckland and Wellington, New Zealand. All cases underwent central histopathological review and FISH testing for 1p19q status. Univariate analysis of potential prognostic factors including 1p19q status, age, tumour size, tumour crossing midline, tumour enhancement, extent of surgery and seizures at diagnosis was carried out. Thirty-one patients were eligible and FISH testing was successful in 28 specimens (90%). Twenty-three specimens (82%) had 1p19q deletion; four (14%) had no 1p19q deletion; and one (4%) had 1p deletion alone. At a median follow-up of 87 months (0-147 months), median survival had not been reached and no significant difference in overall survival (OS) based on 1p19q status was detected (1p19q deletion OS 56%; 1p19q intact OS 0%; 1p deletion alone 100% (P = 0.38)). None of the other prognostic factors investigated reached statistical significance. We confirmed the high incidence (82%) of combined 1p19q deletion in LGOs and the feasibility of successful FISH testing in paraffin embedded specimens up to 10-years-old. Analysis of potential prognostic factors was limited by the lack of events during the follow-up period. PMID:19624298

Capelle, L; Oei, P; Teoh, H; Hamilton, D; Palmer, D; Low, I; Campbell, G

2009-06-01

191

Power Factor Enhancement in Solution-Processed Organic n-Type Thermoelectrics Through Molecular Design.  

PubMed

A new class of high-performance n-type organic thermoelectric materials, self-doping perylene diimide derivatives with modified side chains, is reported. These materials achieve the highest n-type thermoelectric performance of solution-processed organic materials reported to date, with power factors as high as 1.4 ?W/mK(2) . These results demonstrate that molecular design is a promising strategy for enhancing organic thermoelectric performance. PMID:24633973

Russ, Boris; Robb, Maxwell J; Brunetti, Fulvio G; Miller, P Levi; Perry, Erin E; Patel, Shrayesh N; Ho, Victor; Chang, William B; Urban, Jeffrey J; Chabinyc, Michael L; Hawker, Craig J; Segalman, Rachel A

2014-06-01

192

Maternal and neonatal risk factors for childhood type 1 diabetes: a matched case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background An interaction between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors is thought to be involved in the aetiology of type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate maternal and neonatal risk factors for type 1 diabetes in children under 15 years old in Grampian, Scotland. Methods A matched case-control study was conducted by record linkage. Cases (n = 361) were children born in Aberdeen Maternity Hospital from 1972 to 2002, inclusive, who developed type 1 diabetes, identified from the Scottish Study Group for the Care of Diabetes in the Young Register. Controls (n = 1083) were randomly selected from the Aberdeen Maternity Neonatal Databank, matched by year of birth. Exposure data were obtained from the Aberdeen Maternity Neonatal Databank. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between various maternal and neonatal factors and the risk of type 1 diabetes. Results There was no evidence of statistically significant associations between type 1 diabetes and maternal age, maternal body mass index, previous abortions, pre-eclampsia, amniocentesis, maternal deprivation, use of syntocinon, mode of delivery, antepartum haemorrhage, baby's sex, gestational age at birth, birth order, birth weight, jaundice, phototherapy, breast feeding, admission to neonatal unit and Apgar score (P > 0.05). A significantly decreased risk of type 1 diabetes was observed in children whose mothers smoked at the booking appointment compared to those whose mothers did not, with an adjusted OR of 0.67, 95% CI (0.46, 0.99). Conclusions This case-control study found limited evidence of a reduced risk of the development of type 1 diabetes in children whose mothers smoked, compared to children whose mothers did not. No evidence was found of a significant association between other maternal and neonatal factors and childhood type 1 diabetes.

2010-01-01

193

Type 2 diabetes mellitus in adolescence: Lipid and cardiovascular risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review discusses the important consequences of dyslipidemia and arteriosclerosis in type 2 diabetes as documented in\\u000a studies in adults. It then examines the relatively recent upsurge in type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents, its characteristics,\\u000a and its importance in directing our attention to cardiovascular risk factors in this age group. The discussion concludes with\\u000a an examination of the

Kenneth Lee Jones; Asheesh Kumar Dewan

2003-01-01

194

Rationale, design and baseline patient characteristics of the optimal type 2 diabetes management including benchmarking and standard treatment study in Greece  

PubMed Central

AIM: To describe baseline data of the optimal type 2 diabetes management including benchmarking and standard treatment (OPTIMISE) study in Greece. METHODS: “Benchmarking” is the process of receiving feedback comparing one’s performance with that of others. The OPTIMISE (NCT00681850) study is a multinational, multicenter study assessing, at a primary care level, whether using “benchmarking” can help to improve the quality of patient care, compared with a set of guideline-based reference values (“non-benchmarking”). In the Greek region, 797 outpatients (457 men, mean age 63.8 years) with type 2 diabetes were enrolled by 84 office-based physicians. Baseline characteristics of this population are presented. RESULTS: Hypertension was the most prevalent concomitant disorder (77.3%) and coronary heart disease was the most frequent macrovascular complication of diabetes (23.8%). Most patients were overweight or obese (body mass index 29.6 ± 5 kg/m2), exhibiting mostly abdominal obesity (waist circumference 102.6 ± 13.6 cm). Biguanides were the most prevalent prescribed drugs for the management of diabetes (70.1% of all prescriptions), whereas statins (93.5% of all prescriptions) and angiotensin receptor blockers (55.8% of all prescriptions) were the most prevalent prescribed drugs for hyperlipidemia and hypertension, respectively. Only 37.4% of patients were on aspirin. Despite treatment, pre-defined targets for fasting plasma glucose (< 110 mg/dL), glycated hemoglobin (< 7%), systolic blood pressure (< 130 mmHg and < 125 mmHg for patients with proteinuria) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (< 100 mg/dL and < 70 mg/dL for patients with coronary heart disease) were reached in a relatively small proportion of patients (29%, 53%, 27% and 31%, respectively). In a Greek population with type 2 diabetes, the control of glycemia or concomitant disorders which increase cardiovascular risk remains poor. CONCLUSION: Despite relevant treatment, there is a poor control of diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia in Greek outpatients with type 2 diabetes.

Kostapanos, Michael S; Tsimihodimos, Vasilis; Elisaf, Moses S; Tzouvelekis, Emmanouil; Nikas, Nikos

2014-01-01

195

Viral interferon regulatory factors decrease the induction of type I and type II interferon during rhesus macaque rhadinovirus infection.  

PubMed

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and rhesus macaque rhadinovirus (RRV), two closely related gammaherpesviruses, are unique in their expression of viral homologs of cellular interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), termed viral IRFs (vIRFs). To assess the role of vIRFs during de novo infection, we have utilized the bacterial artificial chromosome clone of wild-type RRV(17577) (WT(BAC) RRV) to generate a recombinant virus with all 8 of the vIRFs deleted (vIRF-ko RRV). The infection of primary rhesus fibroblasts and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with vIRF-ko RRV resulted in earlier and increased induction of type I interferon (IFN) (IFN-?/?) and type II IFN (IFN-?). Additionally, plasmacytoid dendritic cells maintained higher levels of IFN-? production in PBMC cultures infected with vIRF-ko RRV than in cultures infected with WT(BAC) RRV. Moreover, the nuclear accumulation of phosphorylated IRF-3, which is necessary for the induction of type I IFN, was also inhibited following WT(BAC) RRV infection. These findings demonstrate that during de novo RRV infection, vIRFs are inhibiting the induction of IFN at the transcriptional level, and one potential mechanism for this is the disruption of the activation and localization of IRF-3. PMID:22156526

Robinson, Bridget A; Estep, Ryan D; Messaoudi, Ilhem; Rogers, Kelsey S; Wong, Scott W

2012-02-01

196

Viral Interferon Regulatory Factors Decrease the Induction of Type I and Type II Interferon during Rhesus Macaque Rhadinovirus Infection  

PubMed Central

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and rhesus macaque rhadinovirus (RRV), two closely related gammaherpesviruses, are unique in their expression of viral homologs of cellular interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), termed viral IRFs (vIRFs). To assess the role of vIRFs during de novo infection, we have utilized the bacterial artificial chromosome clone of wild-type RRV17577 (WTBAC RRV) to generate a recombinant virus with all 8 of the vIRFs deleted (vIRF-ko RRV). The infection of primary rhesus fibroblasts and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with vIRF-ko RRV resulted in earlier and increased induction of type I interferon (IFN) (IFN-?/?) and type II IFN (IFN-?). Additionally, plasmacytoid dendritic cells maintained higher levels of IFN-? production in PBMC cultures infected with vIRF-ko RRV than in cultures infected with WTBAC RRV. Moreover, the nuclear accumulation of phosphorylated IRF-3, which is necessary for the induction of type I IFN, was also inhibited following WTBAC RRV infection. These findings demonstrate that during de novo RRV infection, vIRFs are inhibiting the induction of IFN at the transcriptional level, and one potential mechanism for this is the disruption of the activation and localization of IRF-3.

Robinson, Bridget A.; Estep, Ryan D.; Messaoudi, Ilhem; Rogers, Kelsey S.

2012-01-01

197

Multiple Legionella pneumophila Type II Secretion Substrates, Including a Novel Protein, Contribute to Differential Infection of the Amoebae Acanthamoeba castellanii, Hartmannella vermiformis, and Naegleria lovaniensis  

PubMed Central

Type II protein secretion (T2S) by Legionella pneumophila is required for intracellular infection of host cells, including macrophages and the amoebae Acanthamoeba castellanii and Hartmannella vermiformis. Previous proteomic analysis revealed that T2S by L. pneumophila 130b mediates the export of >25 proteins, including several that appeared to be novel. Following confirmation that they are unlike known proteins, T2S substrates NttA, NttB, and LegP were targeted for mutation. nttA mutants were impaired for intracellular multiplication in A. castellanii but not H. vermiformis or macrophages, suggesting that novel exoproteins which are specific to Legionella are especially important for infection. Because the importance of NttA was host cell dependent, we examined a panel of T2S substrate mutants that had not been tested before in more than one amoeba. As a result, RNase SrnA, acyltransferase PlaC, and metalloprotease ProA all proved to be required for optimal intracellular multiplication in H. vermiformis but not A. castellanii. Further examination of an lspF mutant lacking the T2S apparatus documented that T2S is also critical for infection of the amoeba Naegleria lovaniensis. Mutants lacking SrnA, PlaC, or ProA, but not those deficient for NttA, were defective in N. lovaniensis. Based upon analysis of a double mutant lacking PlaC and ProA, the role of ProA in H. vermiformis was connected to its ability to activate PlaC, whereas in N. lovaniensis, ProA appeared to have multiple functions. Together, these data document that the T2S system exports multiple effectors, including a novel one, which contribute in different ways to the broad host range of L. pneumophila.

Tyson, Jessica Y.; Pearce, Meghan M.; Vargas, Paloma; Bagchi, Sreya; Mulhern, Brendan J.

2013-01-01

198

A mammary cell-specific enhancer in mouse mammary tumor virus DNA is composed of multiple regulatory elements including binding sites for CTF/NFI and a novel transcription factor, mammary cell-activating factor.  

PubMed

Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is a milk-transmitted retrovirus involved in the neoplastic transformation of mouse mammary gland cells. The expression of this virus is regulated by mammary cell type-specific factors, steroid hormones, and polypeptide growth factors. Sequences for mammary cell-specific expression are located in an enhancer element in the extreme 5' end of the long terminal repeat region of this virus. This enhancer, when cloned in front of the herpes simplex thymidine kinase promoter, endows the promoter with mammary cell-specific response. Using functional and DNA-protein-binding studies with constructs mutated in the MMTV long terminal repeat enhancer, we have identified two main regulatory elements necessary for the mammary cell-specific response. These elements consist of binding sites for a transcription factor in the family of CTF/NFI proteins and the transcription factor mammary cell-activating factor (MAF) that recognizes the sequence G Pu Pu G C/G A A G G/T. Combinations of CTF/NFI- and MAF-binding sites or multiple copies of either one of these binding sites but not solitary binding sites mediate mammary cell-specific expression. The functional activities of these two regulatory elements are enhanced by another factor that binds to the core sequence ACAAAG. Interdigitated binding sites for CTF/NFI, MAF, and/or the ACAAAG factor are also found in the 5' upstream regions of genes encoding whey milk proteins from different species. These findings suggest that mammary cell-specific regulation is achieved by a concerted action of factors binding to multiple regulatory sites. PMID:1328867

Mink, S; Härtig, E; Jennewein, P; Doppler, W; Cato, A C

1992-11-01

199

A mammary cell-specific enhancer in mouse mammary tumor virus DNA is composed of multiple regulatory elements including binding sites for CTF/NFI and a novel transcription factor, mammary cell-activating factor.  

PubMed Central

Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is a milk-transmitted retrovirus involved in the neoplastic transformation of mouse mammary gland cells. The expression of this virus is regulated by mammary cell type-specific factors, steroid hormones, and polypeptide growth factors. Sequences for mammary cell-specific expression are located in an enhancer element in the extreme 5' end of the long terminal repeat region of this virus. This enhancer, when cloned in front of the herpes simplex thymidine kinase promoter, endows the promoter with mammary cell-specific response. Using functional and DNA-protein-binding studies with constructs mutated in the MMTV long terminal repeat enhancer, we have identified two main regulatory elements necessary for the mammary cell-specific response. These elements consist of binding sites for a transcription factor in the family of CTF/NFI proteins and the transcription factor mammary cell-activating factor (MAF) that recognizes the sequence G Pu Pu G C/G A A G G/T. Combinations of CTF/NFI- and MAF-binding sites or multiple copies of either one of these binding sites but not solitary binding sites mediate mammary cell-specific expression. The functional activities of these two regulatory elements are enhanced by another factor that binds to the core sequence ACAAAG. Interdigitated binding sites for CTF/NFI, MAF, and/or the ACAAAG factor are also found in the 5' upstream regions of genes encoding whey milk proteins from different species. These findings suggest that mammary cell-specific regulation is achieved by a concerted action of factors binding to multiple regulatory sites. Images

Mink, S; Hartig, E; Jennewein, P; Doppler, W; Cato, A C

1992-01-01

200

From genes to pain: nerve growth factor and hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V.  

PubMed

Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V (HSAN V) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the loss of deep pain perception. The anomalous pain and temperature sensations are due to the absence of nociceptive sensory innervation. The neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF), by binding to tropomyosin receptor A (TrkA) and p75NTR receptors, is essential for the development and survival of sensory neurons, and for pain perception during adulthood. Recently a homozygous missense mutation (R100W) in the NGF gene has been identified in HSAN V patients. Interestingly, alterations in NGF signalling, due to mutations in the NGF TRKA gene, have also been involved in another congenital insensitivity to pain, HSAN IV, characterized not only by absence of reaction to painful stimuli, but also anhidrosis and mental retardation. These symptoms are absent in HSAN V patients. Unravelling the mechanisms that underlie the differences between HSAN IV and V could assist in better understanding NGF biology. This review highlights the recent key findings in the understanding of HSAN V, including insights into the molecular mechanisms of the disease, derived from genetic studies of patients with this disorder. PMID:24494679

Capsoni, Simona

2014-02-01

201

The fibroblast growth factor receptor is not required for herpes simplex virus type 1 infection.  

PubMed Central

The early events mediating herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection include virion attachment to cell surface heparan sulfates and subsequent penetration. Recent evidence has suggested that the high-affinity fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor mediates HSV-1 entry. This report presents three lines of experimental evidence showing that the high-affinity FGF receptor is not required for HSV-1 infection. First, rat L6 myoblasts lacking FGF receptors were as susceptible to HSV-1 infection as L6 cells genetically engineered to express the FGF receptor. Second, a soluble FGF receptor fragment that inhibited FGF binding and receptor activation did not inhibit HSV-1 infection. Finally, basic FGF (but not acidic FGF) inhibited HSV-1 infection in L6 cells lacking FGF receptors, presumably by blocking cell surface heparan sulfates also required for HSV-1 infection. These results show that the high-affinity FGF receptor is not required for HSV-1 infection but instead that specific low-affinity basic FGF binding sites are used for HSV-1 infection. Images

Mirda, D P; Navarro, D; Paz, P; Lee, P L; Pereira, L; Williams, L T

1992-01-01

202

Type A behaviour pattern: specific coronary risk factor or general disease-prone condition?  

PubMed

While the association between Type A behaviour pattern and coronary heart disease (CHD) has been abundantly investigated, the question of the specificity of this association remains virtually unexplored. The present study addressed this question by examining, in a sample of 1949 male and female adults, the relationship between JAS Type A measurement and self-reported diseases (i.e. CHD, scarlatina, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, diseases of the liver, diseases of the gall-bladder, thyroid troubles, tuberculosis, peptic ulcer, renal disease, hypertension and diabetes). Type A subjects were found to report not only more CHD, but also more peptic ulcers, thyroid problems, asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. Globally, more Type A than Type B subjects reported having been ill, and the average number of reported diseases per person was higher among Type As than among Type Bs. These results were obtained in spite of the fact that Type A subjects in this study were markedly younger than Type Bs, and in spite of the empirically based reputation of the former to be symptom deniers rather than symptom reporters. Overall, the data supported the view that Type A behaviour pattern is a general disease-prone condition rather than merely a specific coronary risk factor. PMID:2789974

Rimé, B; Ucros, C G; Bestgen, Y; Jeanjean, M

1989-09-01

203

Aroma types of flue-cured tobacco in China: spatial distribution and association with climatic factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aroma types of flue-cured tobacco (FCT) are classified into light, medium, and heavy in China. However, the spatial distribution of FCT aroma types and the relationships among aroma types, chemical parameters, and climatic variables were still unknown at national scale. In the current study, multi-year averaged chemical parameters (total sugars, reducing sugars, nicotine, total nitrogen, chloride, and K2O) of FCT samples with grade of C3F and climatic variables (mean, minimum and maximum temperatures, rainfall, relative humidity, and sunshine hours) during the growth periods were collected from main planting areas across China. Significant relationships were found between chemical parameters and climatic variables (p < 0.05). A spatial distribution map of FCT aroma types were produced using support vector machine algorithms and chemical parameters. Significant differences in chemical parameters and climatic variables were observed among the three aroma types based on one-way analysis of variance (p < 0.05). Areas with light aroma type had significantly lower values of mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures than regions with medium and heavy aroma types (p < 0.05). Areas with heavy aroma type had significantly lower values of rainfall and relative humidity and higher values of sunshine hours than regions with light and medium aroma types (p < 0.05). The output produced by classification and regression trees showed that sunshine hours, rainfall, and maximum temperature were the most important factors affecting FCT aroma types at national scale.

Yang, Chao; Wu, Wei; Wu, Shu-Cheng; Liu, Hong-Bin; Peng, Qing

2013-05-01

204

Cytoplasmic CD24 Expression Is a Novel Prognostic Factor in Diffuse-Type Gastric Adenocarcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  CD24, a mucin like cell surface adhesion molecule and a ligand for P-selectin, has been reported as a prognostic factor in\\u000a a variety of human cancers. However, the role of CD24 in gastric adenocarcinoma remains largely unknown.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The expression pattern of CD24 in 103 gastric adenocarcinomas (31 diffuse type, 60 intestinal type, and 12 mixed type) was\\u000a analyzed by immunohistochemistry.

Yuh-Yu Chou; Yung-Ming Jeng; Tan-Tsao Lee; Fu-Chang Hu; Hsin-Lien Kao; Wei-Chou Lin; Po-Lin Lai; Rey-Heng Hu; Ray-Hwang Yuan

2007-01-01

205

Molecular line intensities as measures of cloud masses - II. Conversion factors for specific galaxy types  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present theoretically established values of the CO-to-H2 and C-to-H2 conversion factors that may be used to estimate the gas masses of external galaxies. We consider four distinct galaxy types, represented by M51, NGC 6946, M82 and SMC N27. The physical parameters that best represent the conditions within the molecular clouds in each of the galaxy types are estimated using a ?2 analysis of several observed atomic fine structure and CO rotational lines. This analysis is explored over a wide range of density, radiation field, extinction and other relevant parameters. Using these estimated physical conditions in methods that we have previously established, CO-to-H2 conversion factors are then computed for CO transitions up to J = 9 -> 8. For the conventional CO(1-0) transition, the computed conversion factor varies significantly below and above the canonical value for the Milky Way in the four galaxy types considered. Since atomic carbon emission is now frequently used as a probe of external galaxies, we also present, for the first time, the C-to-H2 conversion factor for this emission in the four galaxy types considered.

Bell, T. A.; Viti, S.; Williams, D. A.

2007-07-01

206

Factorization and Lie point symmetries of general Lienard-type equation in the complex plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a variational approach to a general Lienard-type equation in order to linearize it and, as an example, the Van der Pol oscillator is discussed. The new equation which is almost linear is factorized. The point symmetries of the deformed equation are also discussed and the two-dimensional Lie algebraic generators are obtained.

Ye?ilta?, Özlem

2009-11-01

207

The association of glutathione S-transferase gene mutations (including GSTT1 and GSTM1) with the prognostic factors and relapse in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.  

PubMed

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common malignancy in children. It accounts for one fourth of all childhood cancers and approximately 75% of all childhood leukemias. Some prognostic factors determine the outcome of therapy [e.g. age, sex, initial white blood cell count (WBC), etc.]; however, it is believed that other mechanisms such as glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene mutation, the expression of lung resistance protein (LRP), and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) also plays a role in treatment failure. In this study, GST gene mutations including GSTM1 and GSTT1 were evaluated in patients with leukemia. Thirty newly diagnosed ALL patients younger than 15 years of age participated in the present study. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy were evaluated for immune phenotyping and DNA was extracted for GST genotyping. All data plus sex, age, initial WBC count, central nervous system (CNS) or testicular involvement, immune phenotype, and outcome (relapse or not) were analyzed statistically. Genotyping showed that 46% were double null, 50% were M1 null and 93.3% were T1 null for GST mutations. There was no statistically significant relationship between GSTT1 and GSTM1 mutations, or between double null status, prognostic factors and relapse (P > .05). So, although the results of GST mutations were consistent, it seems that these mutations are not statistically significant. PMID:23444902

Zareifar, Soheila; Monabati, Ahmad; Saeed, Amir; Fakhraee, Farzaneh; Cohan, Nader

2013-09-01

208

Mediating factors of coping process in parents of children with type 1 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background Type 1 diabetes is a lifelong condition for children and their parents, the management for which imposes a vast responsibility. This study explores the mediating factors that affect Iranian parents’ coping processes with their children’s type 1 diabetes. Methods Research was conducted using the grounded theory method. Participants were selected purposefully, and we continued with theoretical sampling. Constant comparative analysis was used to analyze the data. Results The mediating factors of the parental coping process with their child’s diabetes consist of the child’s cooperation, crises and experiences, economic challenges, and parental participation in care. Conclusion Findings highlight the necessity of well-informed nurses with insightful understanding of the mediating factors in parental coping with juvenile diabetes in order to meet the particular needs of this group.

2013-01-01

209

Homozygous factor V Leiden mutation in type IV Ehlers-Danlos patient.  

PubMed

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a group of inherited connective tissue disorders caused by collagen synthesis defects. Several hemostatic abnormalities have been described in EDS patients that increase the bleeding tendencies of these patients. This case report illustrates a patient with an unusual presentation of a patient with type IV EDS, platelet ?-storage pool disease and factor V Leiden mutation. Young woman having previous bilateral deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary emboli coexisting with ruptured splenic aneurysm and multiple other aneurysms now presented with myocardial infarction. Presence of factor V Leiden mutation raises the possibility that the infarct was due to acute coronary thrombosis, although coronary artery aneurysm and dissection with myocardial infarction is known to occur in vascular type EDS. This is the first report in the medical literature of factor V Leiden mutation in an EDS patient which made the management of our patient challenging with propensity to both bleeding and clotting. PMID:24653990

Refaat, Marwan; Hotait, Mostafa; Winston, Brion

2014-03-16

210

Human Masseter Muscle Fiber Type Properties, Skeletal Malocclusions, and Muscle Growth Factor Expression  

PubMed Central

Purpose We identified masseter muscle fiber type property differences in subjects with dentofacial deformities. Patients and Methods Samples of masseter muscle were collected from 139 young adults during mandibular osteotomy procedures to assess mean fiber areas and percent tissue occupancies for the 4 fiber types that comprise the muscle. Subjects were classified into 1 of 6 malocclusion groups based on the presence of a skeletal Class II or III sagittal dimension malocclusion and either a skeletal open, deep, or normal bite vertical dimension malocclusion. In a subpopulation, relative quantities of the muscle growth factors IGF-I and GDF-8 gene expression were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results Fiber properties were not different in the sagittal malocclusion groups, but were very different in the vertical malocclusion groups (P ? .0004). There were significant mean fiber area differences for type II (P ? .0004) and type neonatal—atrial (P = .001) fiber types and for fiber percent occupancy differences for both type I–II hybrid fibers and type II fibers (P ? .0004). Growth factor expression differed by gender for IGF-I (P = .02) and GDF-8 (P < .01). The ratio of IGF-I:GDF-8 expression associates with type I and II mean fiber areas. Conclusion Fiber type properties are very closely associated with variations in vertical growth of the face, with statistical significance for overall comparisons at P ? .0004. An increase in masseter muscle type II fiber mean fiber areas and percent tissue occupancies is inversely related to increases in vertical facial dimension.

Sciote, James Joseph; Horton, Michael J.; Rowlerson, Anthea M.; Ferri, Joel; Close, John M.; Raoul, Gwenael

2013-01-01

211

Extracellular matrix-associated molecules collaborate with ciliary neurotrophic factor to induce type-2 astrocyte development  

PubMed Central

O-2A progenitor cells give rise to both oligodendrocytes and type-2 astrocytes in vitro. Whereas oligodendrocyte differentiation occurs constitutively, type-2 astrocyte differentiation requires extracellular signals, one of which is thought to be ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). CNTF, however, is insufficient by itself to induce the development of stable type-2 astrocytes. In this report we show the following: (a) that molecules associated with the extracellular matrix (ECM) cooperate with CNTF to induce stable type-2 astrocyte differentiation in serum-free cultures. The combination of CNTF and the ECM-associated molecules thus mimics the effect of FCS, which has been shown previously to induce stable type-2 astrocyte differentiation in vitro. (b) Both the ECM-associated molecules and CNTF act directly on O- 2A progenitor cells and can induce them to differentiate prematurely into type-2 astrocytes. (c) ECM-associated molecules also inhibit oligodendrocyte differentiation, even in the absence of CNTF, but this inhibition is not sufficient on its own to induce type-2 astrocyte differentiation. (d) Whereas the effect of ECM on oligodendrocyte differentiation is mimicked by basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), the effect of ECM on type-2 astrocyte differentiation is not. (e) The ECM-associated molecules that are responsible for inhibiting oligodendrocyte differentiation and for cooperating with CNTF to induce type-2 astrocyte differentiation are made by non-glial cells in vitro. (f) Molecules that have these activities and bind to ECM are present in the optic nerve at the time type-2 astrocytes are thought to be developing.

1990-01-01

212

Cochlin, a secreted von Willebrand factor type a domain-containing factor, is regulated by leukemia inhibitory factor in the uterus at the time of embryo implantation.  

PubMed

Embryo implantation is a required step in the reproduction of all mammals. In mice, a transient rise in the uterine expression of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) occurs on d 4 of pregnancy and is essential for embryo implantation. However, which genes are regulated by LIF in the uterus at implantation has not been determined. We performed a subtractive hybridization assay between luminal epithelial (LE) mRNAs from d 3 and 4 of pregnancy to find genes up-regulated on d 4 and which would be potentially regulated by LIF. One candidate, Coch-5b2, was up-regulated on the day of implantation. Coch mRNA localized to the LE of wild-type mice and was not detected in uteri from Lif-deficient mice. Treatment of LE with LIF, both in vitro and in vivo, resulted in the up-regulation of Coch. Coch is also highly expressed in other tissues, including the spleen and inner ear, but only in the uterus is Coch expression regulated by LIF. Mice were derived in which Coch was either deleted or tagged with a LacZ reporter. In mice carrying the tagged Coch gene, expression of Coch was detected in the LE and also at the site of embryo implantation. However, mice in which the Coch gene was deleted were normal, showing no overt defects in their reproduction. Although loss of Coch expression is not essential to reproduction in mice, it may serve as a useful marker for assessing the state of uterine receptivity in response to LIF at the onset of implantation. PMID:14657014

Rodriguez, Clara I; Cheng, Jr-Gang; Liu, Linda; Stewart, Colin L

2004-03-01

213

TMEFF2 Is a PDGF-AA Binding Protein with Methylation-Associated Gene Silencing in Multiple Cancer Types Including Glioma  

PubMed Central

Background TMEFF2 is a protein containing a single EGF-like domain and two follistatin-like modules. The biological function of TMEFF2 remains unclear with conflicting reports suggesting both a positive and a negative association between TMEFF2 expression and human cancers. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report that the extracellular domain of TMEFF2 interacts with PDGF-AA. This interaction requires the amino terminal region of the extracellular domain containing the follistatin modules and cannot be mediated by the EGF-like domain alone. Furthermore, the extracellular domain of TMEFF2 interferes with PDGF-AA–stimulated fibroblast proliferation in a dose–dependent manner. TMEFF2 expression is downregulated in human brain cancers and is negatively correlated with PDGF-AA expression. Suppressed expression of TMEFF2 is associated with its hypermethylation in several human tumor types, including glioblastoma and cancers of ovarian, rectal, colon and lung origins. Analysis of glioma subtypes indicates that TMEFF2 hypermethylation and decreased expression are associated with a subset of non-Proneural gliomas that do not display CpG island methylator phentoype. Conclusions/Significance These data provide the first evidence that TMEFF2 can function to regulate PDGF signaling and that it is hypermethylated and downregulated in glioma and several other cancers, thereby suggesting an important role for this protein in the etiology of human cancers.

Lin, Kui; Taylor, James R.; Wu, Thomas D.; Gutierrez, Johnny; Elliott, J. Michael; Vernes, Jean-Michel; Koeppen, Hartmut; Phillips, Heidi S.; de Sauvage, Frederic J.; Meng, Y. Gloria

2011-01-01

214

Comparison of Cardiovascular Risk Factors Between Slavic Immigrant Women with Type 2 Diabetes and Non-Immigrant, Non-Hispanic White Women with Type 2 Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study compares cardiovascular risk factors among immigrant women with type 2 diabetes. The study sample consists of women immigrants from the former Soviet Union (Slavic immigrants) and non-immigrant, non-Hispanic, white women with type 2 diabetes. Method: Lifestyle behaviors and healthcare access were assessed using questions from the 2002 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System interview. Pharmacological regimes were analyzed

Allan Sanders; Cynthia Corbett; Stephen M. Setter; PharmD CDE CGP FASCP; Jason L. Iltz PharmD; Carol Allen; Lorna Schumann; Natalia Barko

2009-01-01

215

Mother, infant, and household factors associated with the type of food infants receive in developing countries.  

PubMed

Objectives: We explore the complex factors associated with infant feeding by analyzing what mother, infant, and household factors are associated with the types of food given to infants. We seek to quantify associations in order to inform public health policy about the importance of target populations for infant feeding programs. Methods: We used data from the Demographic Health Survey in 20 developing countries for multiple years to examine mother, infant, and household factors associated with six types of food given to infants (exclusive breastfeeding, non-exclusive breastfeeding, infant formula, milk liquids, non-milk liquids, and solid foods). We performed a seemingly unrelated regressions analysis with community-year fixed effects to account for correlation between food types and control for confounding factors associated with community resources, culture, time period, and geography in the pooled analysis. Results: We found that several mother, infant, and household characteristics were associated with each of the feeding types. Most notably, mother's education, working status, and weight are significantly associated with the type of food given to infants. We provide quantified estimates of the association of each of these variables with six types of food given to infants. Conclusion: By identifying maternal characteristics associated with infant feeding and quantifying those associations, we help public health policymakers generate priorities for targeting infant feeding programs to specific populations that are at greatest risk. Higher educated, working mothers are best to target with exclusive breastfeeding programs for young infants. Mothers with lower education are best to target with complementary feeding programs in infants older than 1?year. Finally, while maternal weight is associated with higher levels of exclusive breastfeeding the association is too weak to merit targeting of breastfeeding programs to low-weight mothers. PMID:24616887

Yarnoff, Benjamin; Allaire, Benjamin; Detzel, Patrick

2014-01-01

216

Prediction of infinite dilution activity coefficients for systems including water based on the group contribution model with mixture-type groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach is proposed by introducing mixture-type groups to the modified universal functional activity coefficient (UNIFAC, Dortmund) model for prediction of infinite dilution activity coefficients in highly nonideal aqueous solutions. The mixture-type group means a hypothetical one that appears in a particular type of mixtures only, and is considered here to account for hydrophobic effects specially taking place in

Suojiang Zhang; Toshihiko Hiaki; Kazuo Kojima

1998-01-01

217

Albuminuria, cardiovascular risk factors and disease management in subjects with type 2 diabetes: a cross sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have shown that microalbuminuria is an important risk factor for arteriosclerosis, coronary heart disease and other vascular diseases in persons with type 2 diabetes. In the present study we examined the prevalence and risk factors for micro- and macroalbuminuria and examined glycemic control as well as treatment of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in persons with known type

Christa Meisinger; Margit Heier; Rüdiger Landgraf; Michael Happich; H-Erich Wichmann; Wolfgang Piehlmeier

2008-01-01

218

Novel biochemical risk factors for type 2 diabetes: pathogenic insights or prediction possibilities?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review critically appraises studies examining the association of novel factors with diabetes. We show that many of the\\u000a most studied novel and apparently ‘independent’ risk factors are correlated with each other by virtue of their common origins\\u000a or pathways, and that residual confounding is likely. Available studies also have other limitations, including differences\\u000a in methodology or inadequate statistical analyses.

N. Sattar; S. G. Wannamethee; N. G. Forouhi

2008-01-01

219

Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, includes cases of natural killer cell and ??, ??, and ??/?? T-cell origin: a comprehensive clinicopathologic and phenotypic study.  

PubMed

Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL), nasal type, may be of NK or T-cell origin; however, the proportion of T-ENKTLs and whether they are of ?? or ?? type remains uncertain. To elucidate the cell of origin and detailed phenotype of ENKTL and assess any clinicopathologic associations, 67 cases of ENKTL from Thailand were investigated, together with 5 ?? enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphomas (EATLs) for comparison. In all, 70% of the ENKTL were T-cell receptor (TCR) ?,? and, in cases tested, ? negative (presumptive NK origin); 5% were TCR ??, 3% were TCR ??, 1% were TCR ??/??, and 21% were indeterminate. Out of 17 presumptive NK-ENKTLs tested, 3 had clonal TCR rearrangements. All cases were EBV and TIA-1; >85% were positive for CD3, CD2, granzyme B, pSTAT3, and Lsk/MATK; and all were CD16. Presumptive NK-ENKTLs had significantly more frequent CD56 (83% vs. 33%) and CXCL13 (59% vs. 0%) but less frequent PD-1 (0% vs. 40%) compared with T-ENKTLs. Of the NK-ENKTLs, 38% were Oct-2 compared with 0% of T-ENKTLs, and 54% were IRF4/MUM1 compared with 20% of T-ENKTLs. Only ?? T-ENKTLs were CD5. Intestinal ENKTLs were EBV and had significantly more frequent CD30, pSTAT3, and IRF4/MUM1 expression but less frequent CD16 compared with ?? EATL. Significant adverse prognostic indicators included a primary non-upper aerodigestive tract site, high stage, bone marrow involvement, International Prognostic Index ?2, lack of radiotherapy, Ki67 >40%, and CD25 expression. The upper aerodigestive tract ENKTLs of T-cell origin compared with those of presumptive NK origin showed a trend for better survival. Thus, at least 11% of evaluable ENKTLs are of T-cell origin. Although T-ENKTLs have phenotypic and some possible clinical differences, they share many similarities with ENKTLs that lack TCR expression and are distinct from intestinal ?? EATL. PMID:22314189

Pongpruttipan, Tawatchai; Sukpanichnant, Sanya; Assanasen, Thamathorn; Wannakrairot, Pongsak; Boonsakan, Paisarn; Kanoksil, Wasana; Kayasut, Kanita; Mitarnun, Winyou; Khuhapinant, Archrob; Bunworasate, Udomsak; Puavilai, Teeraya; Bedavanija, Anan; Garcia-Herrera, Adriana; Campo, Elias; Cook, James R; Choi, John; Swerdlow, Steven H

2012-04-01

220

Evaluating the impacts of membrane type, coating, fouling, chemical properties and water chemistry on reverse osmosis rejection of seven nitrosoalklyamines, including NDMA.  

PubMed

Reverse osmosis (RO) treatment has been found to be effective for a wide range of organics but generally small, polar, uncharged molecules such as N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) can be poorly rejected. The rejection of seven N-nitrosoalkylamines with molecular masses in the range of 78-158Da, including NDMA, N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA), N-nitrosodipropylamine (NDPA), N-nitrosodibutylamine (NDBA), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPyr), N-nitrosopiperidine (NPip) by three commercial brackish-water reverse osmosis membranes was studied in flat-sheet cells under cross-flow conditions. The membranes used were ESPA3 (Hydranautics), LFC3 (Hydranautics) and BW-30 (Dow/Filmtec), commonly used in water reuse applications. The effects of varying ionic strength and pH, dip-coating membranes with PEBAX 1657, a hydrophilic polymer, and artificial fouling with alginate on nitrosamine rejection were quantified. Rejection in deionized (DI) water increased with molecular mass from 56 to 70% for NDMA, to 80-91% for NMEA, 89-97% for NPyr, 92-98% for NDEA, and to beyond the detection limits for NPip, NDPA and NDBA. For the nitrosamines with quantifiable transmission, linear correlations (r(2)>0.97) were found between the number of methyl groups and the log(transmission), with factor 0.35 to 0.55 decreases in transmission per added methyl group. A PEBAX coating lowered the ESPA3 rejection of NDMA by 11% but increased the LFC3 and BW30 rejection by 6% and 15%, respectively. Artificially fouling ESPA3 membrane coupons with 170g/m(2) alginate decreased the rejection of NDMA by 18%. A feed concentration of 100mM NaCl decreased rejection of NDMA by 15% and acidifying the DI water feed to pH=3 decreased the rejection by 5%, whereas increasing the pH to 10 did not have a significant (p<0.05) effect. PMID:17582457

Steinle-Darling, Eva; Zedda, Marco; Plumlee, Megan H; Ridgway, Harry F; Reinhard, Martin

2007-09-01

221

Comparing Type D personality and older age as correlates of tumor necrosis factor-alpha dysregulation in chronic heart failure.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and its soluble receptors 1 (sTNFR1) and 2 (sTNFR2) have been shown to be implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure (CHF). Ageing is accompanied by increased plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We hypothesized that Type D personality (joint tendency to experience negative emotions and to inhibit self-expression) and age may have similar pro-inflammatory effects in the context of CHF. Participants in this study were 130 consecutive outpatients with CHF (76% men); there were 70 relatively younger (or=60 years) patients. They all completed the 14-item Type D Scale (DS14); 43 patients (33%) had a Type D personality. A multivariate model of cytokine levels indicated an independent overall effect of both older age [F(1,128)=9.11, p=.003] and Type D personality [F(1,128)=8.28, p=.005]. Stratifying patients in age/personality subgroups showed that younger non-Type D patients had the lowest and older Type D patients the highest sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 levels (986+/-318 vs 1661+/-1128 pg/ml and 1838+/-777 vs 2823+/-1439 pg/ml, p<.0001). Importantly, the mean sTNFR1 level in younger Type D patients (1359+/-660 pg/ml) was equivalent to that in older non-Type D patients (1360+/-440 pg/ml, p=.99) who were on average 18 years older. Younger Type D and older non-Type D patients also had similar sTNFR2 levels (2406+/-1329 vs 2448+/-812 pg/ml, p=.88). Only older Type D patients had a higher mean TNF-alpha level as compared to patients who were younger or who were not Type D (5.4+/-2.9 vs 3.9+/-2.4 pg/ml, p=.008). A logistic regression model including sex, severity of CHF, systolic heart failure and ischemic etiology indicated that the combined risk category of older age or Type D was independently associated with substantially increased sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 levels. Hence, Type D personality was associated with increased TNF-alpha activity. This disease-promoting effect of Type D matched the pro-inflammatory effect of ageing. PMID:18068948

Denollet, Johan; Vrints, Christiaan J; Conraads, Viviane M

2008-07-01

222

The TAL Effector PthA4 Interacts with Nuclear Factors Involved in RNA-Dependent Processes Including a HMG Protein That Selectively Binds Poly(U) RNA  

PubMed Central

Plant pathogenic bacteria utilize an array of effector proteins to cause disease. Among them, transcriptional activator-like (TAL) effectors are unusual in the sense that they modulate transcription in the host. Although target genes and DNA specificity of TAL effectors have been elucidated, how TAL proteins control host transcription is poorly understood. Previously, we showed that the Xanthomonas citri TAL effectors, PthAs 2 and 3, preferentially targeted a citrus protein complex associated with transcription control and DNA repair. To extend our knowledge on the mode of action of PthAs, we have identified new protein targets of the PthA4 variant, required to elicit canker on citrus. Here we show that all the PthA4-interacting proteins are DNA and/or RNA-binding factors implicated in chromatin remodeling and repair, gene regulation and mRNA stabilization/modification. The majority of these proteins, including a structural maintenance of chromosomes protein (CsSMC), a translin-associated factor X (CsTRAX), a VirE2-interacting protein (CsVIP2), a high mobility group (CsHMG) and two poly(A)-binding proteins (CsPABP1 and 2), interacted with each other, suggesting that they assemble into a multiprotein complex. CsHMG was shown to bind DNA and to interact with the invariable leucine-rich repeat region of PthAs. Surprisingly, both CsHMG and PthA4 interacted with PABP1 and 2 and showed selective binding to poly(U) RNA, a property that is novel among HMGs and TAL effectors. Given that homologs of CsHMG, CsPABP1, CsPABP2, CsSMC and CsTRAX in other organisms assemble into protein complexes to regulate mRNA stability and translation, we suggest a novel role of TAL effectors in mRNA processing and translational control.

de Lira, Nayara Patricia Vieira; Quaresma, Alexandre Jose Christino; Pauletti, Bianca Alves; Leme, Adriana Franco Paes; Benedetti, Celso Eduardo

2012-01-01

223

The TAL effector PthA4 interacts with nuclear factors involved in RNA-dependent processes including a HMG protein that selectively binds poly(U) RNA.  

PubMed

Plant pathogenic bacteria utilize an array of effector proteins to cause disease. Among them, transcriptional activator-like (TAL) effectors are unusual in the sense that they modulate transcription in the host. Although target genes and DNA specificity of TAL effectors have been elucidated, how TAL proteins control host transcription is poorly understood. Previously, we showed that the Xanthomonas citri TAL effectors, PthAs 2 and 3, preferentially targeted a citrus protein complex associated with transcription control and DNA repair. To extend our knowledge on the mode of action of PthAs, we have identified new protein targets of the PthA4 variant, required to elicit canker on citrus. Here we show that all the PthA4-interacting proteins are DNA and/or RNA-binding factors implicated in chromatin remodeling and repair, gene regulation and mRNA stabilization/modification. The majority of these proteins, including a structural maintenance of chromosomes protein (CsSMC), a translin-associated factor X (CsTRAX), a VirE2-interacting protein (CsVIP2), a high mobility group (CsHMG) and two poly(A)-binding proteins (CsPABP1 and 2), interacted with each other, suggesting that they assemble into a multiprotein complex. CsHMG was shown to bind DNA and to interact with the invariable leucine-rich repeat region of PthAs. Surprisingly, both CsHMG and PthA4 interacted with PABP1 and 2 and showed selective binding to poly(U) RNA, a property that is novel among HMGs and TAL effectors. Given that homologs of CsHMG, CsPABP1, CsPABP2, CsSMC and CsTRAX in other organisms assemble into protein complexes to regulate mRNA stability and translation, we suggest a novel role of TAL effectors in mRNA processing and translational control. PMID:22384209

de Souza, Tiago Antonio; Soprano, Adriana Santos; de Lira, Nayara Patricia Vieira; Quaresma, Alexandre José Christino; Pauletti, Bianca Alves; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Benedetti, Celso Eduardo

2012-01-01

224

Keratinocyte growth factor-induced hyperplasia of rat alveolar type II cells in vivo is resolved by differentiation into type I cells and by apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keratinocyte growth factor-induced hyperplasia of rat alveolar type II cells in vivo is re- solved by differentiation into type I cells and by apoptosis. H. Fehrenbach, M. Kasper, T. Tschernig, T. Pan, D. Schuh, J.M. Shannon, M. Muller, R.J. Mason.#ERS Journals Ltd 1999. ABSTRACT: Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a potent mitogen of alveolar epi- thelial type II cells (AEII).

H. Fehrenbach; M. Kasper; T. Tschernig; T. Pan; D. Schuh; J. M. Shannon; M. Müller; R. J. Mason

1999-01-01

225

Histological type is not an independent prognostic factor for the risk pattern of breast cancer recurrences.  

PubMed

Invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC) is less common than invasive ductal breast cancer (IDC) and appears to have a distinct biology. Inconsistent findings regarding disease-free survival (DFS) are probably due to the fact that histologic type is related to hormone receptor status. This study aims to determine whether the type of the primary breast cancer histology is an independent prognostic factor for DFS, the risk pattern of loco-regional recurrences and distant metastases (DM), and whether it is a prognostic factor for the site of DM. All Dutch women diagnosed between 2003 and 2005 with ILC (n = 2,949) or IDC (n = 22,378) were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. DFS was assessed using proportional hazard regression analysis. Compared to patients with IDC, those with ILC were significantly older and more likely to have more than three positive lymph nodes and have larger, better differentiated, more multifocal, and hormone receptor positive tumors (all P < 0.001). ILC was more likely to metastasize to the gastrointestinal organs and bones and less likely to the lung, central nervous system, and lymph nodes. Within the ER+PR+ and ER+PR- subgroups ILC was still more likely to metastasize to gastrointestinal organs and less likely to the lung. The timing of recurrence was correlated to hormone receptor status, independent of histological type. Highest risks were observed among ER-PR- patients within 2 years of surgery. Multivariable analysis showed that histological type is not an independent significant prognostic factor of DFS for the first 3 years post-surgery and thereafter (<3 years HR 0.91, 95 % CI 0.78-1.06, >3 years HR 1.07, 95 % CI 0.88-1.30). Histological type should not be considered an important prognostic factor for the risk and risk pattern of recurrences. PMID:22810087

Kwast, Annemiek B G; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Karin C G M; Grandjean, Ilse; Ho, Vincent K Y; Voogd, Adri C; Menke-Pluymers, Marian B E; van der Sangen, Maurice J C; Tjan-Heijnen, Vivianne C G; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Siesling, Sabine

2012-08-01

226

Direct linkage of mitochondrial genome variation to risk factors for type 2 diabetes in conplastic strains  

PubMed Central

Recently, the relationship of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants to metabolic risk factors for diabetes and other common diseases has begun to attract increasing attention. However, progress in this area has been limited because (1) the phenotypic effects of variation in the mitochondrial genome are difficult to isolate owing to confounding variation in the nuclear genome, imprinting phenomena, and environmental factors; and (2) few animal models have been available for directly investigating the effects of mtDNA variants on complex metabolic phenotypes in vivo. Substitution of different mitochondrial genomes on the same nuclear genetic background in conplastic strains provides a way to unambiguously isolate effects of the mitochondrial genome on complex traits. Here we show that conplastic strains of rats with identical nuclear genomes but divergent mitochondrial genomes that encode amino acid differences in proteins of oxidative phosphorylation exhibit differences in major metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes. These results (1) provide the first direct evidence linking naturally occurring variation in the mitochondrial genome, independent of variation in the nuclear genome and other confounding factors, to inherited variation in known risk factors for type 2 diabetes; and (2) establish that spontaneous variation in the mitochondrial genome per se can promote systemic metabolic disturbances relevant to the pathogenesis of common diseases.

Pravenec, Michal; Hyakukoku, Masaya; Houstek, Josef; Zidek, Vaclav; Landa, Vladimir; Mlejnek, Petr; Miksik, Ivan; Dudova-Mothejzikova, Kristyna; Pecina, Petr; Vrbacky, Marek; Drahota, Zdenek; Vojtiskova, Alena; Mracek, Tomas; Kazdova, Ludmila; Oliyarnyk, Olena; Wang, Jiaming; Ho, Christopher; Qi, Nathan; Sugimoto, Ken; Kurtz, Theodore

2007-01-01

227

MTHFR C677T genotype as a risk factor for epilepsy including post-traumatic epilepsy in a representative military cohort.  

PubMed

The well-studied C677T variant in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme is a biologically plausible genetic risk factor for seizures or epilepsy. First, plasma/serum levels of homocysteine, a pro-convulsant, are moderately elevated in individuals with the homozygote TT genotype. Furthermore, the TT genotype has been previously linked with migraine with aura-a comorbid condition-and with alcohol withdrawal seizures. Finally, several small studies have suggested that the TT genotype may be overrepresented in epilepsy patients. In this study, we consider whether the MTHFR C677T or A1298C variants are associated with risk of epilepsy including post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) in a representative military cohort. Study subjects were selected from the cohort of military personnel on active duty during the years 2003 through 2007 who had archived serum samples at the DoD Serum Repository, essentially all active duty personnel during this time frame. We randomly selected 800 epilepsy patients and 800 matched controls based on ICD-9-CM diagnostic codes. We were able to isolate sufficient genetic material from the archived sera to genotype approximately 85% of our study subjects. The odds of epilepsy were increased in subjects with the TT versus CC genotype (crude OR=1.52 [1.04-2.22], p=0.031; adjusted OR=1.57 [1.07-2.32], p=0.023). In our sensitivity analysis, risk was most evident for patients with repeated rather than single medical encounters for epilepsy (crude OR=1.85 [1.14-2.97], p=0.011, adjusted OR=1.95 [1.19-3.19], p=0.008), and particularly for PTE (crude OR=3.14 [1.41-6.99], p=0.005; adjusted OR=2.55 [1.12-5.80], p=0.026). Our early results suggest a role for the common MTHFR C677T variant as a predisposing factors for epilepsy including PTE. Further exploration of baseline homocysteine and folate levels as predictors of seizure risk following traumatic brain injury is warranted. PMID:21787169

Scher, Ann I; Wu, Holly; Tsao, Jack W; Blom, Henk J; Feit, Preethy; Nevin, Remington L; Schwab, Karen A

2011-09-01

228

Surfactant Protein A Stimulates Release of Neutrophil Chemotactic Factors by Alveolar Type II Pneumocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucosal immunity is an important mechanism in the response to injury. Our hypothesis is that surfactant protein A (SP-A) is\\u000a an autocrine factor that stimulates alveolar type II epithelial cell release of neutrophil chemotactic factors by binding\\u000a to the SP-A receptor expressed by these cells. We examined (1) the effect of SP-A (20 ?g\\/ml) or IL-1? (10 ng\\/ml) on release\\u000a of neutrophil

Mitchell J. Kresch; Mitchell Block; Mohammed R. Karim; Li Zhu; Naveed Hussain; Roger S. Thrall; Ramadan I. Sha’afi

2010-01-01

229

Phenotypic and environmental factors associated with elevated autoantibodies at clinical onset of paediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

To examine possible determinants of autoantibody levels at type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) onset. We assessed levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 islet cell antigen (GADA) and anti-insulin antibodies (IAA) in 247 incident T1DM cases presenting <15 years of age in Melbourne from 1st March 2008 to 30th June 2010. 58.9% (142/241) of cases were GADA seropositive and 42.3% (94/222) were IAA seropositive. Factors associated with elevated IAA antibodies included younger age and red hair phenotype. Factors associated with elevated GAD antibodies included lower birthweight and recent eczema. Intriguingly, low recent or past sun exposure was only associated with elevated GADA levels among children presenting at age <5 years, not older (difference in effect, p<0.05 for 4 of 5 associations). These findings show that environmental and phenotypic factors are associated with autoantibody levels at time of presentation for T1DM. We recommend such environmental and phenoytypic factors should be examined in further detail. PMID:24371576

Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Pezic, Angela; Cameron, Fergus J; Rodda, Christine; Ellis, Justine A; Kemp, Andrew S; Carlin, John; Dwyer, Terence

2012-01-01

230

Mutation Analysis of NR5A1 Encoding Steroidogenic Factor 1 in 77 Patients with 46, XY Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) Including Hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Background Mutations of the NR5A1 gene encoding steroidogenic factor-1 have been reported in association with a wide spectrum of 46,XY DSD (Disorder of Sex Development) phenotypes including severe forms of hypospadias. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the frequency of NR5A1 gene mutations in a large series of patients presenting with 46,XY DSD and hypospadias. Based on their clinical presentation 77 patients were classified either as complete or partial gonadal dysgenesis (uterus seen at genitography and/or surgery, n?=?11), ambiguous external genitalia without uterus (n?=?33) or hypospadias (n?=?33). We identified heterozygous NR5A1 mutations in 4 cases of ambiguous external genitalia without uterus (12.1%; p.Trp279Arg, pArg39Pro, c.390delG, c140_141insCACG) and a de novo missense mutation in one case with distal hypospadias (3%; p.Arg313Cys). Mutant proteins showed reduced transactivation activity and mutants p.Arg39Pro and p.Arg313Cys did not synergize with the GATA4 cofactor to stimulate reporter gene activity, although they retained their ability to physically interact with the GATA4 protein. Conclusions/Significance Mutations in NR5A1 were observed in 5/77 (6.5%) cases of 46,XY DSD including hypospadias. Excluding the cases of 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis the incidence of NR5A1 mutations was 5/66 (7.6%). An individual with isolated distal hypopadias carried a de novo heterozygous missense mutation, thus extending the range of phenotypes associated with NR5A1 mutations and suggesting that this group of patients should be screened for NR5A1 mutations.

Brauner, Raja; Lourenco, Diana; Boudjenah, Radia; Karageorgou, Vasiliki; Trivin, Christine; Lottmann, Henri; Lortat-Jacob, Stephen; Nihoul-Fekete, Claire; De Dreuzy, Olivier; McElreavey, Ken; Bashamboo, Anu

2011-01-01

231

Determination of point isotropic buildup factors of gamma rays including incoherent and coherent scattering for aluminum, iron, lead, and water by discrete ordinates method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure and energy absorption buildup factors for aluminum, iron, lead, and water are calculated by the SNID discrete ordinates code for an isotropic point source in a homogeneous medium. The calculation of the buildup factors takes into account the effects of both bound-electron Compton (incoherent) and coherent (Rayleigh) scattering. A comparison with buildup factors from the literature shows that these

S. Kitsos; A. Assad; C. M. Diop; J. C. Nimal; P. Ridoux

1994-01-01

232

Ligand-independent transforming growth factor-? type I receptor signaling mediates type I collagen-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition  

PubMed Central

Evidence suggests epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as one potential source of fibroblasts in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. To assess the contribution of alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) EMT to fibroblast accumulation in vivo following lung injury and the influence of extracellular matrix on AEC phenotype in vitro, Nkx2.1-Cre;mT/mG mice were generated in which AEC permanently express green fluorescent protein (GFP). On days 17-21 following intratracheal bleomycin administration, ~4% of GFP-positive epithelial-derived cells expressed vimentin or ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA). Primary AEC from Nkx2.1-Cre;mT/mG mice cultured on laminin-5 or fibronectin maintained an epithelial phenotype. In contrast, on type I collagen, cells of epithelial origin displayed nuclear localization of Smad3, acquired spindle-shaped morphology, expressed ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and phospho-Smad3, consistent with activation of the transforming growth factor-? (TGF?) signaling pathway and EMT. ?-SMA induction and Smad3 nuclear localization were blocked by the TGF? type I receptor (T?RI, otherwise known as Alk5) inhibitor SB43154, while AEC derived from Nkx2.1-Cre;Alk5flox/KO mice did not undergo EMT on collagen, consistent with a requirement for signaling via Alk5 in collagen-induced EMT. Inability of a pan-specific TGF? neutralizing antibody to inhibit effects of collagen together with absence of active TGF? in culture supernatants is consistent with TGF? ligand-independent activation of Smad signaling. These results support the notion that AEC can acquire a mesenchymal phenotype following injury in vivo and implicate type I collagen as a key regulator of EMT in AEC through signaling via Alk5, likely in a TGF? ligand-independent manner.

DeMaio, Lucas; Buckley, Stephen T.; Krishnaveni, Manda S.; Flodby, Per; Dubourd, Mickael; Banfalvi, Agnes; Xing, Yiming; Ehrhardt, Carsten; Minoo, Parviz; Zhou, Beiyun; Crandall, Edward D.; Borok, Zea

2014-01-01

233

Ligand-independent transforming growth factor-? type I receptor signalling mediates type I collagen-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition.  

PubMed

Evidence suggests epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as one potential source of fibroblasts in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. To assess the contribution of alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) EMT to fibroblast accumulation in vivo following lung injury and the influence of extracellular matrix on AEC phenotype in vitro, Nkx2.1-Cre;mT/mG mice were generated in which AECs permanently express green fluorescent protein (GFP). On days 17-21 following intratracheal bleomycin administration, ~4% of GFP-positive epithelial-derived cells expressed vimentin or ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA). Primary AECs from Nkx2.1-Cre;mT/mG mice cultured on laminin-5 or fibronectin maintained an epithelial phenotype. In contrast, on type I collagen, cells of epithelial origin displayed nuclear localization of Smad3, acquired spindle-shaped morphology, expressed ?-SMA and phospho-Smad3, consistent with activation of the transforming growth factor-? (TGF?) signalling pathway and EMT. ?-SMA induction and Smad3 nuclear localization were blocked by the TGF? type I receptor (T?RI, otherwise known as Alk5) inhibitor SB431542, while AEC derived from Nkx2.1-Cre;Alk5(flox/KO) mice did not undergo EMT on collagen, consistent with a requirement for signalling via Alk5 in collagen-induced EMT. Inability of a pan-specific TGF? neutralizing antibody to inhibit effects of collagen together with absence of active TGF? in culture supernatants is consistent with TGF? ligand-independent activation of Smad signalling. These results support the notion that AECs can acquire a mesenchymal phenotype following injury in vivo and implicate type I collagen as a key regulator of EMT in AECs through signalling via Alk5, likely in a TGF? ligand-independent manner. PMID:21984393

DeMaio, Lucas; Buckley, Stephen T; Krishnaveni, Manda S; Flodby, Per; Dubourd, Mickael; Banfalvi, Agnes; Xing, Yiming; Ehrhardt, Carsten; Minoo, Parviz; Zhou, Beiyun; Crandall, Edward D; Borok, Zea

2012-03-01

234

Diabetes mellitus type 2 in urban Ghana: characteristics and associated factors  

PubMed Central

Background Sub-Saharan Africa faces a rapid spread of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) but its potentially specific characteristics are inadequately defined. In this hospital-based study in Kumasi, Ghana, we aimed at characterizing clinical, anthropometric, socio-economic, nutritional and behavioural parameters of DM2 patients and at identifying associated factors. Methods Between August 2007 and June 2008, 1466 individuals were recruited from diabetes and hypertension clinics, outpatients, community, and hospital staff. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), serum lipids and urinary albumin were measured. Physical examination, anthropometry, and interviews on medical history, socio-economic status (SES), physical activity and nutritional behaviour were performed. Results The majority of the 675 DM2 patients (mean FPG, 8.31 mmol/L) was female (75%) and aged 40-60 years (mean, 55 years). DM2 was known in 97% of patients, almost all were on medication. Many had hypertension (63%) and microalbuminuria (43%); diabetic complications occurred in 20%. Overweight (body mass index > 25 kg/m2), increased body fat (> 20% (male), > 33% (female)), and central adiposity (waist-to-hip ratio > 0.90 (male), > 0.85 (female)) were frequent occurring in 53%, 56%, and 75%, respectively. Triglycerides were increased (? 1.695 mmol/L) in 31% and cholesterol (? 5.17 mmol/L) in 65%. Illiteracy (46%) was high and SES indicators generally low. Factors independently associated with DM2 included a diabetes family history (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 3.8; 95% confidence interval (95%CI), 2.6-5.5), abdominal adiposity (aOR, 2.6; 95%CI, 1.8-3.9), increased triglycerides (aOR, 1.8; 95%CI, 1.1-3.0), and also several indicators of low SES. Conclusions In this study from urban Ghana, DM2 affects predominantly obese patients of rather low socio-economic status and frequently is accompanied by hypertension and hyperlipidaemia. Prevention and management need to account for a specific risk profile in this population.

2012-01-01

235

Managing Patients with von Willebrand Disease Type 1, 2 and 3 with Desmopressin and von Willebrand Factor-Factor VIII Concentrate in Surgical Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guidelines and recommendations for the acute and prophylactic treatment of bleeding in von Willebrand disease (VWD) patients with von Willebrand factor (VWF)\\/factor VIII (FVIII) concentrates should be based on the analysis of the content of VWF\\/FVIII concentrates and on pharmacokinetic studies in patients with different severity of VWD (type 1, type 2 or type 3). The VW\\/FVIII concentrates should be

Jan Jacques Michiels; Huub H. D. M. van Vliet; Zwi Berneman; Wilfried Schroyens; Alain Gadisseur

2009-01-01

236

Multistage Regulation of Th1Type Immune Responses by the Transcription Factor IRF-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eradication of a given pathogen is dependent on the selective differentiation of T helper (Th) cells into Th1 or Th2 types. We show here that T cells from mice lacking the transcription factor IRF-1 fail to mount Th1 responses and instead exclusively undergo Th2 differentiation in vitro. Compromised Th1 differentiation is found to be associated with defects in multiple cell

Shinsuke Taki; Takeo Sato; Kouetsu Ogasawara; Taeko Fukuda; Mitsuharu Sato; Shigeaki Hida; Gen Suzuki; Masao Mitsuyama; Eun-Hee Shin; Soumei Kojima; Tadatsugu Taniguchi; Yoshihiro Asano

1997-01-01

237

Coronoid plate fixation of type II and III coronoid process fractures: outcome and prognostic factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to determine the clinical outcome and prognostic factors after applying the coronoid\\u000a plate fixation technique who had sustained type II or III coronoid process fractures. Fifteen consecutive patients were enrolled\\u000a in this study. The mean arc of flexion–extension was 116° with a mean flexion and flexion contracture of 126° and 11°, respectively.\\u000a The

Sang Ki Lee; Ha Yong Kim; Kap Jung Kim; Dae Suk Yang; Won Sik Choy

238

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Peripheral Arterial Obstructive Disease in Taiwanese Type 2 Diabetic Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of peripheral arterial obstructive disease (PAD) in Taiwanese type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 610 patients (268 men and 342 women), aged 63.3 ± 10.8 years, were recruited from a diabetic clinic in a teaching hospital. PAD was diagnosed by an ankle-brachial index (ABI) < 0.9

Chin-Hsiao Tseng

2003-01-01

239

Tumor Necrosis Factor-a Upregulates Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptors on Cardiac Fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angiotensin II (Ang II) plays an important role in post-myocardial infarction (MI) remodeling. Most Ang II effects related to remodeling involve activation of the type 1 receptor (AT 1). Although the AT1 receptor is upregulated on cardiac fibroblasts post-MI, little is known about the mechanisms involved in the process. Consequently, we tested whether growth factors known to be present in

Devorah Gurantz; Randy T. Cowling; Francisco J. Villarreal; Barry H. Greenberg

240

Friction factors of power-law fluids in chevron-type plate heat exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work laminar flows of Newtonian and power-law fluids through cross-corrugated chevron-type plate heat exchangers (PHEs) are numerically studied in terms of the geometry of the channels. The plates area enlargement factor was a typical one (1.17), the corrugation angle, ?, varied between 30° and 60° and the flow index behaviour, n, between 0.25 and 1. Single friction

Carla S. Fernandes; Ricardo P. Dias; João M. Nóbrega; João M. Maia

2008-01-01

241

Diabetes risk factors and chromium intake in moderately obese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Many foods naturally contain dietary Cr, but lost during processing and cooking. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been associated with poor glycemic control and low Cr status. The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the dietary Cr intake and its relationship with diabetes risk factors in moderately obese subjects with T2DM. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Thirty-six subjects

Vijaya Juturu; Anne Daly; Jeff Geohas; Manley Finch; James R. Komorowski

2006-01-01

242

A bHLH-Type Transcription Factor, ABA-INDUCIBLE BHLH-TYPE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR/JA-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1, Acts as a Repressor to Negatively Regulate Jasmonate Signaling in Arabidopsis[C][W  

PubMed Central

Jasmonates (JAs) are plant hormones that regulate the balance between plant growth and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although recent studies have uncovered the mechanisms for JA-induced responses in Arabidopsis thaliana, the mechanisms by which plants attenuate the JA-induced responses remain elusive. Here, we report that a basic helix-loop-helix–type transcription factor, ABA-INDUCIBLE BHLH-TYPE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR/JA-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), acts as a transcriptional repressor and negatively regulates JA signaling. Gain-of-function transgenic plants expressing the chimeric repressor for JAM1 exhibited substantial reduction of JA responses, including JA-induced inhibition of root growth, accumulation of anthocyanin, and male fertility. These plants were also compromised in resistance to attack by the insect herbivore Spodoptera exigua. Conversely, jam1 loss-of-function mutants showed enhanced JA responsiveness, including increased resistance to insect attack. JAM1 and MYC2 competitively bind to the target sequence of MYC2, which likely provides the mechanism for negative regulation of JA signaling and suppression of MYC2 functions by JAM1. These results indicate that JAM1 negatively regulates JA signaling, thereby playing a pivotal role in fine-tuning of JA-mediated stress responses and plant growth.

Nakata, Masaru; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Herde, Marco; Koo, Abraham J.K.; Moreno, Javier E.; Suzuki, Kaoru; Howe, Gregg A.; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

2013-01-01

243

The inflammatory status score including IL-6, TNF-?, osteopontin, fractalkine, MCP-1 and adiponectin underlies whole-body insulin resistance and hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

A state of subclinical systemic inflammation is characteristically present in obesity/insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of the study was to develop an integrated measure of the circulating cytokines involved in the subclinical systemic inflammation and evaluate its relation with whole-body insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in T2DM. T2DM patients (n = 17, M/F 13/4, age = 55.0 ± 1.7 years, BMI = 33.5 ± 1.5 kg/m(2), HbA(1c) = 7.7 ± 0.3%) and normal glucose-tolerant (NGT) subjects (n = 15, M/F 7/8, age = 49.1 ± 2.5 years, BMI = 31.8 ± 1.2 kg/m(2), HbA(1c) = 5.6 ± 0.1%) were studied in a cross-sectional design. Whole-body insulin sensitivity was quantified by the euglycemic clamp. Beta-cell function [disposition index (DI)] was calculated using insulin and glucose values derived from an oral glucose tolerance test and the euglycemic clamp. Body fat mass was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Plasma cytokine [TNF-?, IL-6, MCP-1, osteopontin, fractalkine and adiponectin] values were divided into quintiles. A score ranging from 0 (lowest quintile) to 4 (highest quintile) was assigned. The inflammatory score (IS) was the sum of each cytokine score from which adiponectin score was subtracted in each study subject. Inflammatory cytokine levels were all higher in T2DM. IS was higher in T2DM as compared to NGT (10.0 ± 1.1 vs. 4.8 ± 0.8; p < 0.001). IS positively correlated with fasting plasma glucose (r = 0.638, p < 0.001), 1-h plasma glucose (r = 0.483, p = 0.005), 2-h plasma glucose (r = 0.611, p < 0.001) and HbA1c (r = 0.469, p = 0.007). IS was inversely correlated with insulin sensitivity (r = -0.478, p = 0.006) and DI (r = -0.523, p = 0.002). IS did not correlate with BMI and body fat mass. IS was an independent predictor of fasting plasma glucose and had a high sensibility and sensitivity to predict insulin resistance (M/I < 4). A state of subclinical inflammation defined and quantifiable by inflammatory score including TNF-?, IL-6, MCP-1, osteopontin, fractalkine and adiponectin is associated with both hyperglycemia and whole-body insulin resistance in T2DM. PMID:24370923

Daniele, G; Guardado Mendoza, R; Winnier, D; Fiorentino, T V; Pengou, Z; Cornell, J; Andreozzi, F; Jenkinson, C; Cersosimo, E; Federici, M; Tripathy, D; Folli, F

2014-02-01

244

Relationship Factors Associated with Gay Male Couples' Concordance on Aspects of Their Sexual Agreements: Establishment, Type, and Adherence  

PubMed Central

Factors associated with gay male couples’ concordance on aspects of sexual agreements remain understudied. The present study examined which relationship factors, self-reports of UAI, and patterns of HIV testing may be associated with men who were concordant about having a sexual agreement, the same type of sexual agreement, and adhering to their sexual agreement with their main partner. Various recruitment strategies were used to collect dyadic data from 142 gay male couples. Concordance on aspects of sexual agreements varied within the sample. Results indicated that relationship satisfaction was significantly associated with couples who were concordant about having and adhering to their sexual agreement. Predictability and faith of trusting a partner, and value in one’s sexual agreement were also positively associated with couples’ adhering to their sexual agreement. More research is needed to better understand how relationship dynamics, including sexual agreements, affect HIV risk among gay male couples in the U.S.

Mitchell, Jason W.; Harvey, S. Marie; Champeau, Donna; Moskowitz, David A.; Seal, David Wyatt

2014-01-01

245

Reproductive factors, age at maximum height, and risk of three histologic types of breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have evaluated the association between factors related to maturation and reproduction and breast cancer risk, but few have assessed how these factors are related to different histologic types of breast cancer among postmenopausal women. We used polytomous logistic regression to assess the effect of age at maximum height and reproductive factors on risk of invasive breast cancer by histologic type in three case groups (524 ductal, 324 lobular, 196 ductal-lobular) and 469 controls enrolled in a population-based case-control study of women aged 55–74 years residing in the Seattle-Puget Sound region of Washington State (2000–2004). Histologic type was determined by a centralized tissue review for 83% of cases. Age at menarche and age at maximum height were inversely associated with risk of ductal-lobular carcinoma (p-value for trend=0.04 for both exposures), but not ductal or lobular carcinoma. Relative to nulliparous women, parous women had a 50% reduced risk of all histologic types of breast cancer. We observed similar increases in risk across histologic types associated with having a first live birth at ?30 years of age compared to ?19 years of age. Compared to parous women who never breastfed, those who breastfed had a reduced risk of ductal carcinoma (odds ratio=0.7, 95% confidence interval: 0.5–0.9), but not lobular or ductal-lobular carcinoma. Further exploration of breast cancer risk by histology is merited in order to understand differences in the etiology of ductal, lobular, and ductal-lobular carcinoma.

Beaber, Elisabeth F.; Holt, Victoria L.; Malone, Kathleen E.; Porter, Peggy L.; Daling, Janet R.; Li, Christopher I.

2009-01-01

246

Reevaluation of histological type by immunohistochemical and genetic study of transcription factors (TFE3 and TFEB) of VHL gene mutation-negative clear cell renal cell carcinoma and other special types of renal tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Translocation-type renal carcinoma has been recently discovered, and it is possible that this tumor may have been previously\\u000a diagnosed as other types of renal tumor. We have subjected 41 renal tumors, including VHL gene mutation-negative clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC), papillary RCC, and chromophobe RCC, to immunohistochemistry\\u000a of transcription factor E3 (TFE3) and TFEB. All tumors were histologically evaluated

Naoto Kuroda; Chiaki Kawada; Kenji Tamura; Makoto Hiroi; Ondrej Hes; Michal Michal; Yukari Wada; Kaori Inoue; Masahiko Ohara; Keiko Mizuno; Taro Shuin; Gang-Hong Lee

2011-01-01

247

Hereditary porcine membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type II is caused by factor H deficiency.  

PubMed Central

We have recently described hereditary membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type II in the pig. All affected animals had excessive complement activation, revealed as low plasma C3, elevated plasma terminal complement complex, and massive deposits of complement in the renal glomeruli, and eventually died of renal failure within 11 wk of birth. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cause of complement activation in this disease. Transfusion of normal porcine plasma to affected piglets inhibited complement activation and increased survival. Plasma was successively fractionated and the complement inhibitory effect of each fraction tested in vivo. A single chain 150-kD protein which showed the same complement inhibitory effect as whole plasma was finally isolated. Immunologic cross-reactivity, functional properties, and NH2-terminal sequence identified the protein as factor H. By Western blotting and enzyme immunoassay, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis-affected piglets were demonstrated to be subtotally deficient in factor H. At 1 wk of age, median (range) factor H concentration was 1.6 mg/liter (1.1-2.3) in deficient animals (n = 13) and 51 mg/liter (26-98) in healthy littermates (n = 52). Our data show that hereditary porcine membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis type II is caused by factor H deficiency. Images

H?gasen, K; Jansen, J H; Mollnes, T E; Hovdenes, J; Harboe, M

1995-01-01

248

Expression of hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 in endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 (HAI-1) is an integral membrane Kunitz-type serine proteinase inhibitor initially identified as a potent inhibitor of hepatocyte growth factor activator (HGFA). HGFA is a serum proteinase that is critically involved in the activation of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) in injured tissue. Previous studies have shown that HAI-1 is expressed on the basolateral surface of various epithelial cells. In this study, we analyzed the expression of HAI-1 in human endothelial cells. Immunohistochemically, HAI-1 protein was observed in the endothelial cells of capillaries, venules and lymph vessels. On the other hand, arterial endothelial cells were poorly stained for HAI-1. Mesothelial cells on the serous surface were also positively immunostained. The endothelial expression of HAI-1 was also examined in cultured human endothelial cells of various origins, such as umbilical vein, microvessels and aorta. Notably, in accordance with the results of immunohistochemistry, HAI-1 mRNA and protein levels were high in the endothelial cells derived from umbilical vein and were hardly detectable in those derived from aorta. A low but distinct level of HAI-1 expression was also observed in endothelial cells from microvessels. As these HAI-1-positive endothelial cells also expressed MET tyrosine kinase, the specific receptor of HGF/SF, it is conceivable that HAI-1 might have an important regulatory role in the HGF/SF-MET signaling axis of endothelial cells, which could be involved in the process of angiogenesis. PMID:17204092

Akiyama, Yutaka; Nagai, Miyuki; Komaki, Wataru; Marutsuka, Kousuke; Asada, Yujiro; Kataoka, Hiroaki

2006-08-01

249

Diaper Type as a Risk Factor in Urinary Tract Infection of Children  

PubMed Central

Objective Urinary tract is one of the most common sources of infection in children under the age of two years. Many known and unknown risk factors predispose to this important disease in children. This study was conducted to determine whether using a specific type of diaper plays a role in urinary tract infection (UTI) in girls under the age of 2 years. Methods This case control study was performed in hospitalized children; girls with their first urinary tract infection were selected as cases, and those admitted for other reasons comprised the control group. Two groups were matched for age (±1 month), and other known risk factors for UTI. Type of diapers (superabsorbent, standard disposable and washable cotton), used for these children during six months, from October 2007 to March 2008, were compared in both groups. Findings 59 matched pair infant girls less than 2 years were selected. It was revealed that in cases with UTI superabsorbent diapers were used more frequently than in controls (Odds ratio=3.29, P-value=0.005) There were no significant differences in other factors like number of diapers used per day, the time between defecation and diaper change, mothers’ educational level, level of family income and mother's occupation. Conclusion The use of superabsorbent diapers could be a risk factor for urinary tract infection in infant girls.

Fahimzad, Alireza; Taherian, Masoomeh; Dalirani, Reza; Shamshiri, Ahmadreza

2010-01-01

250

Emission factors from biomass burning in three types of appliances: fireplace, woodstove and pellet stove  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last years, the importance of biomass fuels has increased mainly for two reasons. One of them is the effort to control the emissions of greenhouse gases, and on the other hand, the increasing costs associated with fossil fuels. Besides that, biomass burning is now recognised as one of the major sources contributing to high concentrations of particulate matter, especially during winter time. Southern European countries have a lack of information regarding emission profiles from biomass burning. Because of that, in most source apportionment studies, the information used comes from northern and alpine countries, whose combustion appliances, fuels and habits are different from those in Mediterranean countries. Due to this lack of information, series of tests using different types of equipment, as well as fuels, were carried out in order to obtain emission profiles and emission factors that correspond to the reality in southern European countries. Tests involved three types of biomass appliances used in Portugal, a fireplace, a woodstove and a modern pellet stove. Emission factors (mg.kg-1 fuel, dry basis) for CO, THC and PM10 were obtained. CO emission factors ranged from 38, for pine on the woodstove, to 84 for eucalyptus in the fireplace. THC emissions were between 4 and 24, for pine in the woodstove and eucalyptus in the fireplace, respectively. PM10 emission factors were in the range from 3.99, for pine in the woodstove, to 17.3 for eucalyptus in the fireplace. On average, the emission factors obtained for the fireplace are 1.5 (CO) to 4 (THC) times higher than those of the woodstove. The fireplace has emission factors for CO, THC and PM10 10, 35 and 32 times, respectively, higher than the pellet stove.

Duarte, Márcio; Vicente, Estela; Calvo, Ana; Nunes, Teresa; Tarelho, Luis; Alves, Célia

2014-05-01

251

Prediction of infinite dilution activity coefficients for systems including water based on the group contribution model with mixture-type groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Group contribution models such as ASOG or UNIFAC were known to be inaccurate in the prediction of infinite dilution activity coefficients (??) for most of the systems containing water. To overcome the weakness inherent with the UNIFAC models, Zhang et al. (Fluid Phase Equil. 149 (1998) 27) have recently proposed a group-contribution-based model with mixture-type groups, where the mixture-type group

Suojiang Zhang; Toshihiko Hiaki; Kazuo Kojima

2002-01-01

252

Membrane Type-1 Matrix Metalloproteinase Potentiates Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor-Induced Corneal Neovascularization  

PubMed Central

Corneal neovascularization is one of the leading causes of blindness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pro-angiogenic role of corneal fibroblast-derived membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) on basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced corneal neovascularization in vivo and in vitro. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that MT1-MMP was expressed in keratocytes and immortalized corneal fibroblast cell lines. Vascular endothelial growth factor protein levels were increased after bFGF-stimulation of wild-type fibroblast cells compared with MT1-MMP knockout fibroblast cells. Corneal vascularization was significantly increased after a combination of bFGF pellet implantation and naked MT1-MMP DNA injection in wild-type mouse corneas compared with either bFGF pellet implantation or naked MT1-MMP DNA-injected corneas. Western blotting analysis of the phosphorylation levels of the key signaling molecules (p38, JNK, and ERK) demonstrated that phosphorylation levels of both p38 and JNK were diminished after bFGF stimulation of MT1-MMP knockout cells compared with wild-type and MT1-MMP knockin cells. These results suggest that MT1-MMP potentiates bFGF-induced corneal neovascularization, likely by modulating the bFGF signal transduction pathway.

Onguchi, Tatsuya; Han, Kyu Yeon; Chang, Jin-Hong; Azar, Dimitri T.

2009-01-01

253

Brief Report: Disordered Eating and Psychosocial Factors in Adolescent Females with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate whether insulin pump therapy (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII)) is associated with a lower frequency of disordered eating, better glycemic control, and improved quality of life and self-efficacy compared to multiple daily injections (MDI) in adolescent females with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Methods This cross- sectional study included 22 adolescent females using CSII and 47 adolescent

Marissa R. Battaglia; Ramin Alemzadeh; Heidi Katte

2005-01-01

254

Special Listing of Current Cancer Research on Pathogenesis and Biology of Cancer of the Lower Respiratory Tract (Including Etiological Role of Smoking, Occupational and Environmental Factors).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Smoking and lung cancer; Occupational environmental factors in lung cancer, and related epidemiological studies; Biological studies of lung cancer and pulmonary carcinogenesis; Experimental models for pulmonary neoplasms.

1976-01-01

255

The insulin-like growth factor pathway is altered in Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 and type 7  

SciTech Connect

Polyglutamine diseases are inherited neurodegenerative disorders caused by expansion of CAG trinucleotide repeats encoding a polyglutamine tract in the disease-causing proteins. There are nine of these disorders each having distinct features but also clinical and pathological similarities. In particular, spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 and 7 (SCA1 and SCA7) patients manifest cerebellar ataxia with corresponding degeneration of Purkinje cells. Given this common phenotype, we asked whether the two disorders share common molecular pathogenic events. To address this question we studied two genetically accurate mouse models of SCA1 and SCA7—Sca1154Q/2Q and Sca7266Q/5Q knock-in mice—that express the glutamine-expanded proteins from the respective endogenous loci. We found common transcriptional changes in early symptomatic mice, with downregulation of Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 (Igfbp5) representing one of the most robust transcriptional changes that closely correlates with disease state. Interestingly, down-regulation of Igfbp5 occurred in granule neurons through a non-cell autonomous mechanism and was concomitant with activation of the Insulin-like growth factor I (Igf-I) pathway, and, in particular, the Igf-I receptor, expressed in part on Purkinje cells (PC). These data define a possible common pathogenic response in SCA1 and SCA7 and reveal the importance of neuron-neuron interactions in SCA1 and SCA7 pathogenesis. The sensitivity of Igfbp5 levels to disease state could render it and other components of its effector pathway useful as biomarkers in this class of diseases.

Gatchel, Jennifer R.; Watase, Kei; Thaller, Christina; Carson, James P.; Jafar-Nejad, Paymaan; Shaw, Chad A.; Zu, Tao; Orr, Harry T.; Zoghbi, Huda Yahya

2008-01-29

256

Factor-analytic models for genotype x environment type problems and structured covariance matrices  

PubMed Central

Background Analysis of data on genotypes with different expression in different environments is a classic problem in quantitative genetics. A review of models for data with genotype × environment interactions and related problems is given, linking early, analysis of variance based formulations to their modern, mixed model counterparts. Results It is shown that models developed for the analysis of multi-environment trials in plant breeding are directly applicable in animal breeding. In particular, the 'additive main effect, multiplicative interaction' models accommodate heterogeneity of variance and are characterised by a factor-analytic covariance structure. While this can be implemented in mixed models by imposing such structure on the genetic covariance matrix in a standard, multi-trait model, an equivalent model is obtained by fitting the common and specific factors genetic separately. Properties of the mixed model equations for alternative implementations of factor-analytic models are discussed, and extensions to structured modelling of covariance matrices for multi-trait, multi-environment scenarios are described. Conclusion Factor analytic models provide a natural framework for modelling genotype × environment interaction type problems. Mixed model analyses fitting such models are likely to see increasing use due to the parsimonious description of covariance structures available, the scope for direct interpretation of factors as well as computational advantages.

Meyer, Karin

2009-01-01

257

Quercetin Protects Cutaneous Tissue-Associated Cell Types Including Sensory Neurons From Oxidative Stress Induced By Glutathione Depletion: Cooperative Effects of Ascorbic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidation reactions are essential biological reactions necessary for the formation of high-energy compounds used to fuel metabolic processes, but can be injurious to cells when produced in excess. Cutaneous tissue is especially susceptible to damage mediated by reactive oxygen species and low-density lipoprotein oxidation, triggered by dysmetabolic diseases, inflammation, environmental factors, or aging. Here we have examined the ability of

Stephen D Skaper; Michele Fabris; Vanni Ferrari; Maurizio Dalle Carbonare; Alberta Leon

1996-01-01

258

Factorize  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java applet helps students explore the relationship between area and multiplication. First, users are asked to input all factor pairs of a given number. Then, selecting each of those factor pairs, the user draws the respective rectangular array by clicking and dragging across a grid. Options include the use of the commutative property (e.g., user must enter both 2x4 and 4x2 for factors of 8 and represent them with different arrays), entering a number of the user's own choice, and an optional scoring feature allowing the user to keep track of the number correct.

2004-01-01

259

Repressor- and activator-type ethylene response factors functioning in jasmonate signaling and disease resistance identified via a genome-wide screen of Arabidopsis transcription factor gene expression.  

PubMed

To identify transcription factors (TFs) involved in jasmonate (JA) signaling and plant defense, we screened 1,534 Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) TFs by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR for their altered transcript at 6 h following either methyl JA treatment or inoculation with the incompatible pathogen Alternaria brassicicola. We identified 134 TFs that showed a significant change in expression, including many APETALA2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF), MYB, WRKY, and NAC TF genes with unknown functions. Twenty TF genes were induced by both the pathogen and methyl JA and these included 10 members of the AP2/ERF TF family, primarily from the B1a and B3 subclusters. Functional analysis of the B1a TF AtERF4 revealed that AtERF4 acts as a novel negative regulator of JA-responsive defense gene expression and resistance to the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum and antagonizes JA inhibition of root elongation. In contrast, functional analysis of the B3 TF AtERF2 showed that AtERF2 is a positive regulator of JA-responsive defense genes and resistance to F. oxysporum and enhances JA inhibition of root elongation. Our results suggest that plants coordinately express multiple repressor- and activator-type AP2/ERFs during pathogen challenge to modulate defense gene expression and disease resistance. PMID:16183832

McGrath, Ken C; Dombrecht, Bruno; Manners, John M; Schenk, Peer M; Edgar, Cameron I; Maclean, Donald J; Scheible, Wolf-Rüdiger; Udvardi, Michael K; Kazan, Kemal

2005-10-01

260

Type of body fat distribution in postmenopausal women and its related factors  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The type of body fat distribution has an important role for identifying risk of diseases. One of the simple anthropometric indexes for estimating type of body fat distribution is waist circumference index. This study is aimed to determine the type of body fat distribution in postmenopausal women and its related factors. METHODS: This is a cross sectional descriptive analytical study. Samples were 278 postmenopausal women in Isfahan who were selected by stratified sampling and then were invited to 64 health centers of Isfahan. Data was gathered using a questionnaire and standard meter. Data was analyzed using SPSS software and descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS: Results showed that in postmenopausal women the mean of waist circumference index was 93.63 (10.66) and its range was 54 to 119 cm. There was a meaningful relation between job, educational status, total pregnancies, total deliveries, age of first pregnancy, lactation history and menopausal age with waist circumference index. CONCLUSIONS: Results showed that the type of body fat distribution of postmenopausal women is of android type. Considering side effects of this kind of distribution, necessary teachings about healthy eating, movement and exercises must be given to women of these ages.

Noroozi, Mahnaz; Rastegari, Zahra; Paknahad, Zamzam

2010-01-01

261

Common conformational changes induced in type 2 picornavirus IRESs by cognate trans-acting factors  

PubMed Central

Type 2 internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs) of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and other picornaviruses comprise five major domains H-L. Initiation of translation on these IRESs begins with specific binding of the central domain of initiation factor, eIF4G to the J-K domains, which is stimulated by eIF4A. eIF4G/eIF4A then restructure the region of ribosomal attachment on the IRES and promote recruitment of ribosomal 43S pre-initiation complexes. In addition to canonical translation factors, type 2 IRESs also require IRES trans-acting factors (ITAFs) that are hypothesized to stabilize the optimal IRES conformation that supports efficient ribosomal recruitment: the EMCV IRES is stimulated by pyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB), whereas the FMDV IRES requires PTB and ITAF45. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the effect of ITAFs on the conformations of EMCV and FMDV IRESs by comparing their influence on hydroxyl radical cleavage of these IRESs from the central domain of eIF4G. The observed changes in cleavage patterns suggest that cognate ITAFs promote similar conformational changes that are consistent with adoption by the IRESs of comparable, more compact structures, in which domain J undergoes local conformational changes and is brought into closer proximity to the base of domain I.

Yu, Yingpu; Abaeva, Irina S.; Marintchev, Assen; Pestova, Tatyana V.; Hellen, Christopher U. T.

2011-01-01

262

Ecologic analysis of some immune-related disorders, including type 1 diabetes, in Australia: latitude, regional ultraviolet radiation, and disease prevalence.  

PubMed Central

The apparent immune-suppressive effect of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has suggested that this environmental exposure may influence the development of immune-related disorders. Self-reported prevalence rates of type 1 diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), eczema/dermatitis, and asthma, from the 1995 Australian National Health Survey, were therefore examined by latitude and ambient level of UVR. A positive association of type 1 diabetes mellitus prevalence was found with both increasing southern latitude of residence (r = 0.77; p = 0.026) and decreasing regional annual ambient UVR (r= -0.80; p = 0.018); a 3-fold increase in prevalence from the northernmost region to the southernmost region was evident. In contrast, asthma correlated negatively with latitude (r = -0.72; p = 0.046), although the change in asthma prevalence from the north to the south of Australia was only 0.7-fold. For both RA and eczema/dermatitis, there were no statistically significant associations between latitude/UVR and disease prevalence. These ecologic data provide some support for a previously proposed beneficial effect of UVR on T-helper 1-mediated autoimmune disorders such as type 1 diabetes. The inverse association of type 1 diabetes prevalence with UVR is consistent with that previously reported for another autoimmune disease, multiple sclerosis, in Australia, and also with type 1 diabetes latitudinal gradients in the Northern Hemisphere. The finding also accords with photoimmunologic evidence of UVR-induced immunosuppression and may suggest a beneficial effect of UVR in reducing the incidence of such autoimmune conditions. In light of this study, analytic epidemiologic studies investigating risk of immune disorders in relation to personal UVR exposure in humans are required.

Staples, Judith A; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Lim, Lynette L-Y; McMichael, Anthony J

2003-01-01

263

A New Variant of Type II von Willebrand Disease With Aberrant Multimeric Structure of Plasma but Not Platelet von Willebrand Factor (Type hF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A patient with a lifelong bleeding disorder was diagnosed as having Type II von Willebrand disease. The larger multimers of von Willebrand factor were absent from her plasma but present in platelets. A high-resolution electro- phoretic technique was used to study the complex struc- ture of individual von Willebrand factor multimers. In normal plasma. each multimer could be resolved into

Pier Mannuccio Mannucci; Rossana Lombardi; Augusto B. Federici; Judith A. Dent; Theodore S. Zimmerman; Zaverio M. Ruggeri

1986-01-01

264

Lipid Profile and Correlation to Cardiac Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Function in Type 1 Adolescent Diabetics from a Developing Country  

PubMed Central

Objective. The adverse role of dyslipidemia in predicting cardiovascular outcomes has not been elucidated extensively among type 1 diabetics in the literature. Methods. We assessed dyslipidemia and its correlation to other cardiac risk factors in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Total thirty type 1 adolescent diabetics were evaluated for their metabolic profile, including serum lipids and echocardiography was performed. Results. The average age of the cohort was 14.3?±?3.09?yr with disease duration of 5.35?±?2.94?yr. The mean HbA1C was 8.01%. The mean serum cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglyceride were normal. Serum cholesterol was high in patients with longer disease duration (P = 0.011, r = 0.41), high systolic blood pressure (P = 0.04, r = 0.32), and elevated HbA1C > 8% (P = 0.038, r = 0.33). Higher lipid values were associated with poorer carotid artery distensibility (P > 0.05) and higher carotid artery intimomedial thickness (cIMT) (P < 0.05 for cholesterol and LDL). Hyperglycemia adversely affected ejection fractions, though serum lipids did not show any significant effect on left ventricular parameters. Conclusions. Dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia can serve as biomarkers for cardiovascular dysfunction in at-risk adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Carotid artery parameters are adjunctive tools which may be affected early in the course of macrovascular disease.

Yadav, Sangeeta; Gupta, V. K.

2014-01-01

265

Trigger factors of migraine and tension-type headache: experience and knowledge of the patients.  

PubMed

The objective was to examine potential trigger factors of migraine and tension-type headache (TTH) in clinic patients and in subjects from the population and to compare the patients' personal experience with their theoretical knowledge. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a headache centre. There were 120 subjects comprising 66 patients with migraine and 22 with TTH from a headache outpatient clinic and 32 persons with headache (migraine or TTH) from the population. A semistructured interview covering biographic data, lifestyle, medical history, headache characteristics and 25 potential trigger factors differentiating between the patients' personal experience and their theoretical knowledge was used. The most common trigger factors experienced by the patients were weather (82.5%), stress (66.7%), menstruation (51.4%) and relaxation after stress (50%). The vast majority of triggers occurred occasionally and not consistently. The patients experienced 8.9+/-4.3 trigger factors (range 0-20) and they knew 13.2+/-6.0 (range 1-27). The number of experienced triggers was smallest in the population group (p=0.002), whereas the number of triggers known did not differ in the three study groups. Comparing theoretical knowledge with personal experience showed the largest differences for oral contraceptives (65.0 vs. 14.7%, p<0.001), chocolate (61.7 vs. 14.3%, p>0.001) and cheese (52.5 vs. 8.4%, p<0.001). In conclusion, almost all trigger factors are experienced occasionally and not consistently by the majority of patients. Subjects from the population experience trigger factors less often than clinic patients. The difference between theoretical knowledge and personal experience is largest for oral contraceptives, chocolate and cheese. PMID:16897622

Wöber, Christian; Holzhammer, Julia; Zeitlhofer, Josef; Wessely, Peter; Wöber-Bingöl, Ciçek

2006-09-01

266

Subclavian central venous catheter-related thrombosis in trauma patients: incidence, risk factors and influence of polyurethane type  

PubMed Central

Introduction The incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) related to a central venous catheter varies considerably in ICUs depending on the population included. The aim of this study was to determine subclavian central venous catheter (SCVC)-related DVT risk factors in severely traumatized patients with regard to two kinds of polyurethane catheters. Methods Critically ill trauma patients needing a SCVC for their usual care were prospectively included in an observational study. Depending on the month of inclusion, patients received one of the two available products in the emergency unit: either an aromatic polyurethane SCVC or an aliphatic polyurethane SCVC. Patients were screened weekly by ultrasound for SCVC-related DVT. Potential risk factors were collected, including history-related, trauma-related and SCVC-related characteristics. Results A total of 186 patients were included with a median Injury Severity Sore of 30 and a high rate of severe brain injuries (21% of high intracranial pressure). Incidence of SCVC-related DVT was 37% (95% confidence interval: 26 to 40) in patients or 20/1,000 catheter-days. SCVC-related DVT occurred within 8 days in 65% of cases. There was no significant difference in DVT rates between the aromatic polyurethane and aliphatic polyurethane SCVC groups (38% vs. 36%). SCVC-related DVT independent risk factors were age >30 years, intracranial hypertension, massive transfusion (>10 packed red blood cell units), SCVC tip position in the internal jugular or in the innominate vein, and ipsilateral jugular catheter. Conclusion SCVC-related DVT concerned one-third of these severely traumatized patients and was mostly clinically silent. Incidence did not depend on the type of polyurethane but was related to age >30 years, intracranial hypertension or misplacement of the SCVC. Further studies are needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of routine screening in these patients in whom thromboprophylaxis may be hazardous.

2013-01-01

267

Attenuation of fibroblast growth factor signaling by poly-N-acatyllactosamine type glycans  

PubMed Central

Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors are expressed in a variety of mammalian tissues, playing a role in development and cell proliferation. While analyzing human sperm motility, we found that sperm treated with endo-?-galactosidase (EBG), which specifically hydrolyzes poly-N-acetyllactosamine type glycans (polyLacs), enhanced motility. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that sperm-associated polyLacs are heavily fucosylated, consistent with Lewis Y antigen. Immunohistochemistry of epididymis using an anti-Lewis Y antibody before and after EBG treatment suggested that polyLacs carrying the Lewis Y epitope are synthesized in epididymal epithelia and secreted to seminal fluid. EBG-treated sperm elevated cAMP levels and calcium influx, indicating activation of fibroblast growth factor signaling. Seminal fluid polyLacs bound to FGFs in vitro, and impaired FGF-mediated signaling in HEK293T cells.

Sugihara, Kazuhiro; Shibata, Toshiaki K.; Takata, Kayoko; Kimura, Takako; Kanayama, Naohiro; Williams, Roy; Hatakeyama, Shingo; Akama, Tomoya O.; Kuo, Chu-Wei; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Fukuda, Michiko N.

2014-01-01

268

Factors Predictive of Use and of Benefit From Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Type 1 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate factors associated with successful use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) among participants with intensively treated type 1 diabetes in the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation Continuous Glucose Monitoring Randomized Clinical Trial. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The 232 participants randomly assigned to the CGM group (165 with baseline A1C ?7.0% and 67 with A1C <7.0%) were asked to use CGM on a daily basis. The associations of baseline factors and early CGM use with CGM use ?6 days/week in the 6th month and with change in A1C from baseline to 6 months were evaluated in regression models. RESULTS The only baseline factors found to be associated with greater CGM use in month 6 were age ?25 years (P < 0.001) and more frequent self-reported prestudy blood glucose meter measurements per day (P < 0.001). CGM use and the percentage of CGM glucose values between 71 and 180 mg/dl during the 1st month were predictive of CGM use in month 6 (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively). More frequent CGM use was associated with a greater reduction in A1C from baseline to 6 months (P < 0.001), a finding present in all age-groups. CONCLUSIONS After 6 months, near-daily CGM use is more frequent in intensively treated adults with type 1 diabetes than in children and adolescents, although in all age-groups near-daily CGM use is associated with a similar reduction in A1C. Frequency of blood glucose meter monitoring and initial CGM use may help predict the likelihood of long-term CGM benefit in intensively treated patients with type 1 diabetes of all ages.

2009-01-01

269

Over-expression of Dof-type transcription factor increases lipid production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.  

PubMed

The high demand for less polluting, newer, and cheaper fuel resources has increased the search of the most innovative options for the production of the so-called biofuels. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a photosynthetic unicellular algae with multiple biotechnological advantages such as easy handling in the laboratory, a simple scale-up to industrial levels, as well as a feasible genetic modification at nuclear and chloroplast levels. Besides, its fatty acids can be used to produce biofuels. Previous studies in plants have found that the over expression of DOF-type transcription factor genes increases the synthesis and the accumulation of total lipids in seeds. In this context, the over-expression of a DOF-type transcription factor in C. reinhardtii was applied as approach to increase the amount of lipids. The results indicate higher amounts (around 2-fold) of total lipids, which are mainly fatty acids, in the genetically C. reinhardtii modified strains when compared with the non-genetically modified strain. In order to elucidate the possible function of the introduced Dof-type transcription factor, we performed a transcription profile of 8 genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and 6 genes involved in glycerolipid biosynthesis, by quantitative real time (qRT-PCR). Differential expression profile was observed, which can explain the increase in lipid accumulation. However, these strains did not show notable changes in the fatty acid profile. This work represents an early effort in generating a strategy to increase fatty acids production in C. reinhardtii and their use in biofuel synthesis. PMID:24844864

Ibáñez-Salazar, Alejandro; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Rocha-Uribe, Alejandro; Ramírez-Alonso, Jocelín Itzel; Lara-Hernández, Ignacio; Hernández-Torres, Araceli; Paz-Maldonado, Luz María Teresita; Silva-Ramírez, Ana Sonia; Bañuelos-Hernández, Bernardo; Martínez-Salgado, José Luis; Soria-Guerra, Ruth Elena

2014-08-20

270

Transforming Growth Factor ? Receptor Type 1 Is Essential for Female Reproductive Tract Integrity and Function  

PubMed Central

The transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) superfamily proteins are principle regulators of numerous biological functions. Although recent studies have gained tremendous insights into this growth factor family in female reproduction, the functions of the receptors in vivo remain poorly defined. TGF? type 1 receptor (TGFBR1), also known as activin receptor-like kinase 5, is the major type 1 receptor for TGF? ligands. Tgfbr1 null mice die embryonically, precluding functional characterization of TGFBR1 postnatally. To study TGFBR1–mediated signaling in female reproduction, we generated a mouse model with conditional knockout (cKO) of Tgfbr1 in the female reproductive tract using anti-Müllerian hormone receptor type 2 promoter-driven Cre recombinase. We found that Tgfbr1 cKO females are sterile. However, unlike its role in growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) signaling in vitro, TGFBR1 seems to be dispensable for GDF9 signaling in vivo. Strikingly, we discovered that the Tgfbr1 cKO females develop oviductal diverticula, which impair embryo development and transit of embryos to the uterus. Molecular analysis further demonstrated the dysregulation of several cell differentiation and migration genes (e.g., Krt12, Ace2, and MyoR) that are potentially associated with female reproductive tract development. Moreover, defective smooth muscle development was also revealed in the uteri of the Tgfbr1 cKO mice. Thus, TGFBR1 is required for female reproductive tract integrity and function, and disruption of TGFBR1–mediated signaling leads to catastrophic structural and functional consequences in the oviduct and uterus.

Li, Qinglei; Agno, Julio E.; Edson, Mark A.; Nagaraja, Ankur K.; Nagashima, Takashi; Matzuk, Martin M.

2011-01-01

271

Ketosis, Tumor Necrosis Factor-? and Cardiovascular Disease in Type1 Diabetic Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The molecular mechanisms by which ketosis promotes the vascular disease, morbidity and mortality in type-1 diabetic patients\\u000a are unclear. Elevated blood level of TNF-¦Á, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is a risk factor in the development of vascular\\u000a inflammation and cardiovascular disease. This chapter has focused on the following points: (1) Hyperke-tonemic diabetic patients\\u000a have significantly higher levels of TNF-¦Á compared with

Sushil K. Jain; Robert Mcvie; Joseph A. Bocchini

272

Targeting insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor in cancer therapy.  

PubMed

It is believed that the insulin-like growth factor receptor type 1 (IGF-1R) signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in cancer growth, progression, and resistance to anticancer therapies. Strategies are being developed to block IGF-1R as an anticancer treatment. We reviewed several potential strategies for disrupting the IGF axis. We also reviewed the effects of two drugs that target the IGF-1R: monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Preliminary results of studies involving these agents provided a foundation for ongoing clinical trials, whose results in the near future will help us understand how to incorporate anti IGF-1R strategies into the current anticancer armamentarium. PMID:19876700

Atzori, Francesco; Traina, Tiffany A; Ionta, Maria Teresa; Massidda, Bruno

2009-12-01

273

Type 2 diabetes: a protective factor for prostate cancer? An overview of proposed mechanisms.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus and prostate cancer are 2 of the most important public health concerns, especially in the elderly population. Although diabetes has been recognized as a potent risk factor for many types of cancers, there is a large amount of evidence that shows that it has a protective role against prostate cancer. The underlying cause of this protective role is not fully understood, however, some mechanisms have been proposed in this area. In the present study we have reviewed these mechanisms and some new mechanisms are also proposed. PMID:24513117

Rastmanesh, Reza; Hejazi, Jalal; Marotta, Francesco; Hara, Noboru

2014-06-01

274

Macrophage colony stimulating factor regulation by nuclear factor kappa B: a relevant pathway in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infected macrophages.  

PubMed

Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a cytokine that promotes monocyte differentiation and survival. When overexpressed, M-CSF contributes to pathology in a wide variety of diseases, including osteoporosis, obesity, certain human cancers, and in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, particularly with respect to monocyte/macrophage infection and the development of HIV-1 associated central nervous system disorders. In this study, our aim was to expand the current knowledge of M-CSF regulation, focusing on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B), a transcription factor playing a prominent role during inflammation and HIV-1 infection. Our results suggest that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) promotes M-CSF secretion in primary macrophages and activates the -1310/+48?bp M-CSF promoter in Mono-Mac 1 cells. Inhibitors of the NF-?B pathway diminish this response. We identified four putative NF-?B and four CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein beta binding sites within the M-CSF promoter. Our findings, using promoter constructs mutated at individual NF-?B sites within the M-CSF promoter region, suggest that these sites are redundant with respect to NF-?B regulation. TNF-? treatment promoted NF-?B p65 binding to the M-CSF promoter in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) treated U937 cells chronically infected with HIV-1 (U1 cells), but not in PMA treated uninfected U937 cells, suggesting that the presence of HIV-1 increases the NF-?B response. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that NF-?B induces M-CSF expression on a promoter level via multiple functional NF-?B binding sites and that this pathway is likely relevant in HIV-1 infection of macrophages. PMID:21895511

Kogan, Michael; Haine, Valerie; Ke, Yuxong; Wigdahl, Brian; Fischer-Smith, Tracy; Rappaport, Jay

2012-03-01

275

Socio-economic factors and diabetes consequences among patients with type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background: Considering the effect of socio-economic factors on the emergence of chronic diseases and the importance of this aspect of diseases for policy makers and authorities of health care organizations, this study tried to investigate the role of these factors in type 2 diabetes and its consequences, which can be used in health policy making for preventing from this disease. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 384 diabetic patients who were admitted to a diabetes center in the city of Isfahan. The participants were selected using simple random sampling. A questionnaire with 42 questions was used for gathering the data which were analyzed using chi-square and Fisher's statistical tests. Results: The studied population consisted of 52.1% male and 47.9% female participants. There was a statistically significant relationship between diabetes complications, age group, educational level, job status, relationship with family members, number of family visits and the reassurance provided by the family, type of leisure time activities, health status, years with diabetes, smoking, type of treatment, fried food consumption and income (P < 0.001), sense of security and communication in living environment (P < 0.002) and daily intake of vegetables (P < 0.02). Conclusion: It seems that the application of supportive resources and secondary strategies is an essential issue in the patients with chronic diseases, particularly diabetes. Empowering strategies can induce basic changes in order to increase positive expectations, hope, self-esteem and self- confidence in patients; this is the exact strategy which must be used to efficiently control diabetes and its different types of complications among patients.

Tol, Azar; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Shojaezadeh, Davoud; Tavasoli, Elahe; Azadbakht, Leila

2013-01-01

276

Risk factors for aseptic loosening of M?ller-type straight stems  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Even small differences in design variables for the femoral stem may influence the outcome of a hip arthroplasty. We performed a risk factor analysis for aseptic loosening of 4 different versions of cemented Müller-type straight stems with special emphasis on design modifications (2 shapes, MSS or SL, and 2 materials, CoNiCrMo (Co) or Ti-6Al-7Nb (Ti)). Methods We investigated 828 total hip replacements, which were followed prospectively in our in-house register. All stems were operated in the same setup, using Sulfix-6 bone cement and a second-generation cementing technique. Demographic and design-specific risk factors were analyzed using an adjusted Cox regression model. Results The 4 versions showed marked differences in 15-year stem survival with aseptic loosening as the endpoint: 94% (95% CI: 89–99) for MSS Co, 83% (CI: 75–91) for SL Co, 81% (CI: 76–87) for MSS Ti and 63% (CI: 56–71) for SL Ti. Cox regression analysis showed a relative risk (RR) for aseptic loosening of 3 (CI: 2–5) for stems made of Ti and of 2 (CI: 1–2) for the SL design. The RR for aseptic stem loosening increased to 8 (CI: 4–15) when comparing the most and the least successful designs (MSS Co and SL Ti). Interpretation Cemented Müller-type straight stems should be MSS-shaped and made of a material with high flexural strength (e.g. cobalt-chrome). The surface finish should be polished (Ra < 0.4 µm). These technical aspects combined with modern cementing techniques would improve the survival of Müller-type straight stems. This may be true for all types of cemented stems.

Gersbach, Silke; Butscher, Andre; Ilchmann, Thomas

2013-01-01

277

Orientation factor and number of fibers at failure plane in ring-type steel fiber reinforced concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the probabilistic distributions of fibers in ring-type steel fiber reinforced concrete, the orientation factor and the number of ring-type steel fibers crossing the failure plane were theoretically derived as a function of fiber geometry, specimen dimensions, and fiber volume fraction. A total number of 24 specimens were tested incorporating different fiber types, specimen geometry, and fiber volume fractions of

C. Lee; H. Kim

2010-01-01

278

Tumour necrosis factor alpha activates nuclear factor kappaB signalling to reduce N-type voltage-gated Ca2+ current in postganglionic sympathetic neurons.  

PubMed

Inflammation has profound effects on the innervation of affected tissues, including altered neuronal excitability and neurotransmitter release. As Ca(2+) influx through voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs) is a critical determinant of excitation-secretion coupling in nerve terminals, the aim of this study was to characterize the effect of overnight incubation in the inflammatory mediator tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha; 1 nM) on VGCCs in dissociated neurons from mouse superior mesenteric ganglia (SMG). Voltage-gated Ca(2+) currents (I(Ca)) were measured using the perforated patch clamp technique and the VGCC subtypes present in SMG neurons were estimated based on inhibition by selective VGCC blockers: omega-conotoxin GVIA (300 nM; N-type), nifedipine (10 microM; L-type), and omega-conotoxin MVIIC (300 nM; N-, P/Q-type). We used intracellular Ca(2+) imaging with Fura-2 AM to compare Ca(2+) influx during depolarizations in control and TNFalpha-treated neurons. TNF receptor and VGCC mRNA expression were measured using PCR, and channel alpha subunit (CaV2.2) was localized with immunohistochemistry. Incubation in TNFalpha significantly decreased I(Ca) amplitude and depolarization-induced Ca(2+) influx. The reduction in I(Ca) was limited to omega-conotoxin GVIA-sensitive N-type Ca(2+) channels. Depletion of glial cells by incubation in cytosine arabinoside (5 microM) did not affect I(Ca) inhibition by TNFalpha. Preincubation of neurons with SC-514 (20 microM) or BAY 11-7082 (1 microM), which both inhibit nuclear factor kappaB signalling, prevented the reduction in I(Ca) by TNFalpha. Inhibition of N-type VGCCs following TNFalpha incubation was associated with a decrease in CaV2.2 mRNA and reduced membrane localization of CaV2.2 immunoreactivity. These data suggest that TNFalpha inhibits I(Ca) in SMG neurons and identify a novel role for NF-kappaB in the regulation of neurotransmitter release during inflammatory conditions with elevated circulating TNFalpha, such as Crohn's disease and Guillain-Barré syndrome. PMID:19403618

Motagally, Mohamed A; Lukewich, Mark K; Chisholm, Susan P; Neshat, Shadia; Lomax, Alan E

2009-06-01

279

42 CFR 137.202 - What types of information will Self-Governance Tribes be expected to include in the reports?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Reports will be derived from existing minimal data elements currently collected by Self-Governance...include patient demographic and workload data. Not less than 60 days prior to the...will propose a list of recommended minimal data elements, along with justification...

2012-10-01

280

Human factors issues and approaches in the spatial layout of a space station control room, including the use of virtual reality as a design analysis tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human Factors Engineering support was provided for the 30% design review of the late Space Station Freedom Payload Control Area (PCA). The PCA was to be the payload operations control room, analogous to the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). This effort began with a systematic collection and refinement of the relevant requirements driving the spatial layout of the consoles and PCA. This information was used as input for specialized human factors analytical tools and techniques in the design and design analysis activities. Design concepts and configuration options were developed and reviewed using sketches, 2-D Computer-Aided Design (CAD) drawings, and immersive Virtual Reality (VR) mockups.

Hale, Joseph P., II

1994-01-01

281

Impact of Plasmids, Including Those EncodingVirB4/D4 Type IV Secretion Systems, on Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg Virulence in Macrophages and Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg (S. Heidelberg) can cause foodborne illness in humans following the consumption of contaminated meat and poultry products. Recent studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that certain S. Heidelberg isolated from food-animal sources harbor multiple transmissible plasmids with genes that encode antimicrobial resistance, virulence and a VirB4/D4 type-IV secretion system. This study examines the potential role of these transmissible plasmids in bacterial uptake and survival in intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages, and the molecular basis of host immune system modulation that may be associated with disease progression. A series of transconjugant and transformant strains were developed with different combinations of the plasmids to determine the roles of the individual and combinations of plasmids on virulence. Overall the Salmonella strains containing the VirB/D4 T4SS plasmids entered and survived in epithelial cells and macrophages to a greater degree than those without the plasmid, even though they carried other plasmid types. During entry in macrophages, the VirB/D4 T4SS encoding genes are up-regulated in a time-dependent fashion. When the potential mechanisms for increased virulence were examined using an antibacterial Response PCR Array, the strain containing the T4SS down regulated several host innate immune response genes which likely contributed to the increased uptake and survival within macrophages and epithelial cells.

Gokulan, Kuppan; Khare, Sangeeta; Rooney, Anthony W.; Han, Jing; Lynne, Aaron M.; Foley, Steven L.

2013-01-01

282

Identifying risk factors for clinically significant diabetic macula edema in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

It is known that clinic blood pressure (BP), gender, cigarette smoking, dyslipidemia, anemia and thiazolidenediones (TZD) treatment are predictors for clinically significant diabetic macula edema (CSDME). We examined a most risky factor for CSDME in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) confirmed using optical coherence tomography by multiple regression analysis (MRA). As the risk factors, wakening-up BP was added to such factors. Seven diabetic Japanese patients with CSDME (group 1) and 124 subjects without CSDME (group 2) assonated with DR using optical coherence tomography were studied. The durations of T2DM in groups 1 and 2 were 15±10 years and 20±15 years, respectively. There was no statistically difference in means of gender, duration, age, body mass index (BMI), HbA1c, TC, LDL and TC/HDL, serum creatinine, urinary albumin excretion rate, and clinic BP between two groups. Morning systolic home BP (MSHBP), cigarette smoking and foveal thickness were significantly (p<0.001) higher in group 1 than group 2, whereas visual acuity was significantly (p<0.00?) lower in group 1 than in group 2. The patients in both groups had received various kinds of drugs for hyperglycemia, hypertension and others. There were no significant differences in the variables in both groups. MRA revealed that MSHBP, cigarette smoking and pioglitazone as TZD treatment were significantly positive predictors for CSDME, while BMI had a significantly negative predictor. Other variables were not significantly correlated to CSDME. The review summarizes a multiple regression analysis revealed that MSHBP makes an addition to predictive factors for CSDME among risk factors reported previously in patient with T2DM. PMID:23363297

Kamoi, Kyuzi; Takeda, Keiji; Hashimoto, Kaoru; Tanaka, Reiko; Okuyama, Shinya

2013-05-01

283

Prevalence, components and associated demographic and lifestyle factors of the metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background Adults with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) are twice as likely to die from and three times as likely to have a heart attack or stroke compared with people without the syndrome. About 70-80% of type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) patients are diagnosed with the MetS. Investigating the occurrence of the MetS in type 2 DM patients is critical for cardiovascular disease prevention. We evaluated the prevalence and components of the MetS and its associated clinical and demographic factors in a Ghanaian adult population with DM 2. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 previously diagnosed type 2 DM patients receiving care from an outpatient clinic of the Tamale Teaching Hospital, Ghana. Anthropometric measurements of waist circumference (cm), weight (Kg) and height (m) were measured appropriately. Clinical data were obtained from the personal health record files of the participants. MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Results The prevalence of MetS was 24.0% (n=48). The prevalence was higher in women (27.3%, n= 42) compared to men (13.0%, n=6). The commonest occurring components of the MetS included abdominal obesity (77.0%) and elevated FPG (77.0%) denoting uncontrolled diabetes. The prevalence of elevated BP was found to be 44.0%(n=88) and was higher in men (56.5%) than in women (40.3%). Factors that were found to be associated to the MetS were being overweight/obese (Crude OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.43 – 5.90, p=0.004), ever tried to lose weight (Crude OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.24 – 4.94, p=0.015) and having diabetes for over 5 years (Crude OR = 11.3, 95% CI = 5.26 – 24.08, p<0.001). Other factors that were associated to the MetS were current smokers (Crude OR = 6.8, 95% CI = 1.21- 38.49, p=0.030) and alcohol drinkers (Crude OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.23 – 7.65, p=0.018). Conclusion A comparatively low prevalence of the MetS was found. More females than males had the MetS. Uncontrolled diabetes and abdominal obesity were prevalent. The factors identified by our univariate logistic regression model were not significant predictors of the MetS in our multivariate model.

2014-01-01

284

Evaluating the impacts of membrane type, coating, fouling, chemical properties and water chemistry on reverse osmosis rejection of seven nitrosoalklyamines, including NDMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reverse osmosis (RO) treatment has been found to be effective for a wide range of organics but generally small, polar, uncharged molecules such as N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) can be poorly rejected. The rejection of seven N-nitrosoalkylamines with molecular masses in the range of 78–158Da, including NDMA, N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA), N-nitrosodipropylamine (NDPA), N-nitrosodibutylamine (NDBA), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPyr), N-nitrosopiperidine (NPip) by three commercial

Eva Steinle-Darling; Marco Zedda; Megan H. Plumlee; Harry F. Ridgway; Martin Reinhard

2007-01-01

285

Confirmation of HLA class II independent type 1 diabetes associations in the major histocompatibility complex including HLA-B and HLA-A  

PubMed Central

Aim Until recently, human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class II-independent associations with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) region were not adequately characterized owing to insufficient map coverage, inadequate statistical approaches and strong linkage disequilibrium spanning the entire MHC. Here we test for HLA class II-independent associations in the MHC using fine mapping data generated by the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium (T1DGC). Methods We have applied recursive partitioning to the modelling of the class II loci and used stepwise conditional logistic regression to test ~1534 loci between 29 and 34 Mb on chromosome 6p21, typed in 2240 affected sibpair (ASP) families. Results Preliminary analyses confirm that HLA-B (at 31.4 Mb), HLA-A (at 30.0 Mb) are associated with T1D independently of the class II genes HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 (P = 6.0 × 10?17 and 8.8 × 10?13, respectively). In addition, a second class II region of association containing the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs439121, and the class II locus HLA-DPB1, was identified as a T1D susceptibility effect which is independent of HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQB1 and HLA-B (P = 9.2 × 10?8). A younger age-at-diagnosis of T1D was found for HLA-B*39 (P = 7.6 × 10?6), and HLA-B*38 was protective for T1D. Conclusions These analyses in the T1DGC families replicate our results obtained previously in ~2000 cases and controls and 850 families. Taking both studies together, there is evidence for four T1D-associated regions at 30.0 Mb (HLA-A), 31.4 Mb (HLA-B), 32.5 Mb (rs9268831/HLA-DRA) and 33.2 Mb (rs439121/HLA-DPB1) that are independent of HLA-DRB1/HLA-DQB1. Neither study found evidence of independent associations at HLA-C, HLA-DQA1 loci nor in the UBD/MAS1L or ITPR3 gene regions. These studies show that to find true class II-independent effects, large, well-powered sample collections are required and be genotyped with a dense map of markers. In addition, a robust statistical methodology that fully models the class II effects is necessary. Recursive partitioning is a useful tool for modelling these multiallelic systems.

Howson, J. M. M.; Walker, N. M.; Clayton, D.; Todd, J. A.

2009-01-01

286

Human endothelial cell-derived nuclear proteins that recognise polymorphic DNA elements in the von Willebrand factor gene promoter include YY1.  

PubMed

Four common base-change polymorphisms have been found in the von Willebrand factor gene promoter: (-1793 C/G, -1234 T/C, -1185 G/A and -1051 A/G). All four polymorphisms are in strong linkage disequilibrium and recent reports have indicated these polymorphisms are associated with plasma vWF:Ag levels suggesting that one or more of these elements influence regulation of the vWF gene. We report that human endothelial cell-derived trans-acting factors display allelic preferences in binding activity to each polymorphic site. The common A allele variant of the -1051 polymorphism and the rarer A allele variant of the -1185 polymorphism provided specific binding of nuclear proteins. The G allele counterpart of these two variants did not produce any complex formation indicating that the nucleotide substitution at these positions alters the DNA binding ability of nuclear factors. The two alleles of the -1234 polymorphism produced two complexes with a similar migration pattern however stronger binding was found to the common T variant of this allele. Two specific complexes associated with the rarer G allele of the -1793 polymorphism, but only one associated with the C allele. Supershift experiments revealed that the trans-acting factor YYI recognised the slower migrating complex formed on the -1234 T/C and the -1051 A polymorphic sites with a strong binding preference for the -1234 T allele variant. The identification of YY1 as a component of the factors that recognise these elements suggests that this ubiquitous nuclear protein may play a role in the regulation of the vWF promoter. PMID:11522021

Costa, M; Grant, P J; Rice, G I; Futers, T S; Medcalf, R L

2001-08-01

287

The Main Suppressing Factors of Dry Forage Intake in Large-type Goats  

PubMed Central

In large-type goats that were fed on dry forage twice daily, dry forage intake was markedly suppressed after 40 min of feeding had elapsed. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not marked decreases in dry forage intake after 40 min of feeding are mainly caused by the two factors, that is, ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality induced thirst produced by dry forage feeding. Six large-type male esophageal- and ruminal-fistulated goats (crossbred Japanese Saanen/Nubian, aged 2 to 6 years, weighing 85.1±4.89 kg) were used in two experiments. The animals were fed ad libitum a diet of roughly crushed alfalfa hay cubes for 2 h from 10:00 to 12:00 am during two experiments. Water was withheld during feeding in both experiments but was available for a period of 30 min after completion of the 2 h feeding period. In experiment 1, saliva lost via the esophageal fistula was replenished by an intraruminal infusion of artificial parotid saliva (RIAPS) in sham feeding conditions (SFC) control, and the treatment was maintained under normal feeding conditions (NFC). In experiment 2, a RIAPS and non-insertion of a balloon (RIAPS-NB) control was conducted in the same manner as the SFC control of experiment 1. The intraruminal infusion of hypertonic solution and insertion of a balloon (RIHS-IB) treatment was carried out simultaneously to reproduce the effects of changing salt content and ruminal distension due to feed entering the rumen. The results of experiment 1 showed that due to the effects of multiple dry forage suppressing factors when feed boluses entered the rumen, eating rates in the NFC treatment decreased (p<0.05) after 40 min of feeding and cumulative dry forage intake for the 2 h feeding period reduced to 43.8% of the SFC control (p<0.01). The results of experiment 2 indicated that due to the two suppressing factors of ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality induced thirst, eating rates in the RIHS-IB treatment were, as observed under NFC, reduced (p<0.05) and cumulative dry forage intake for the 2 h feeding period decreased to 34.0% of the RIAPS-NB control (p<0.01). The combined effects of ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality accounted for 77.5% of the suppression of dry forage intake 40 min after the start of dry forage feeding. The results indicate that ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality induced thirst are the main factors in the suppression of dry forage intake in large-type goats.

Van Thang, Tran; Sunagawa, Katsunori; Nagamine, Itsuki; Kishi, Tetsuya; Ogura, Go

2012-01-01

288

Factors Associated with Diabetic Retinopathy in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Objective. To investigate the risk factors of DR in Chinese T2DM patients. Methods. 2009 patients with T2DM were included in this cross-sectional study. All patients underwent eye examination, and the DR stage was defined by an ophthalmologist. Correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the relation between DR and clinical variables. Logistic regression models were used to assess risk for those factors associated with DR. Results. A total of 597 T2DM patients (29.7%) had DR, of which 548 (27.3%) were nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and 49 (2.4%) were proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Positive correlations were found between DR and duration of diabetes, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin, glycated albumin, 24 hurinary albumin excretion, peripheral atherosclerosis (PA), diabetes nephropathy (DN), diabetic peripheral neuropathy, and anemia. Negative correlations were found between DR and C-peptide and glomerular filtration rate. Logistic regression analysis revealed that duration of diabetes, SBP, DN, anemia, PA, and C-peptide were each independent risk factors of DR. Conclusion. The duration of diabetes, SBP, DN, anemia, and PA are positively associated with DR in Chinese T2DM patients, while C-peptide is negatively associated with DR. Monitoring and evaluation of these related factors will likely contribute to the prevention and treatment of DR.

He, Bin-Bin; Wei, Li; Gu, Yun-Juan; Han, Jun-Feng; Li, Ming; Liu, Yu-Xiang; Bao, Yu-Qian; Jia, Wei-Ping

2012-01-01

289

Identification of 17 HrpX-Regulated Proteins Including Two Novel Type III Effectors, XOC_3956 and XOC_1550, in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola  

PubMed Central

The function of some hypothetical proteins, possibly regulated by key hrp regulators, in the pathogenicity of phytopathogenic bacteria remains largely unknown. In the present study, in silicon microarray data demonstrated that the expression of 17 HrpX-regulated protein (Xrp) genes of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc), which causes bacterial leaf streak in rice, were either positively or negatively regulated by HrpX or/and HrpG. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that five Xrps possess a putative type III secretion (T3S) signal in the first 50 N-terminal amino acids, six xrp genes contain a PIP-box-like sequence (TTCGB-NX-TTCGB, 9?X?25) in the promoter regions, and two Xrps have both motifs. Twelve Xrps are widely conserved in Xanthomonas spp., whereas four are specific for X. oryzae (Xrp6) or Xoc (Xrp8, Xrp14 and Xrp17). In addition to the regulation by HrpG/HrpX, some of the 17 genes were also modulated by another hrp regulator HrpD6. Mutagenesis of these 17 genes indicated that five Xrps (Xrp1, Xrp2, Xrp5, Xrp8 and Xrp14) were required for full virulence and bacterial growth in planta. Immunoblotting assays and fusion with N-terminally truncated AvrXa10 indicated that Xrp3 and Xrp5 were secreted and translocated into rice cells through the type-III secretion system (T3S), suggesting they are novel T3S effectors. Our results suggest that Xoc exploits an orchestra of proteins that are regulated by HrpG, HrpX and HrpD6, and these proteins facilitate both infection and metabolism.

Xue, Xiao-bo; Zou, Li-fang; Ma, Wen-xiu; Liu, Zhi-yang; Chen, Gong-you

2014-01-01

290

The predisposition to type 1 diabetes linked to the human leukocyte antigen complex includes at least one non-class II gene.  

PubMed Central

The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex, encompassing 3.5 Mb of DNA from the centromeric HLA-DPB2 locus to the telomeric HLA-F locus on chromosome 6p21, encodes a major part of the genetic predisposition to develop type 1 diabetes, designated "IDDM1." A primary role for allelic variation of the class II HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQA1, and HLA-DQB1 loci has been established. However, studies of animals and humans have indicated that other, unmapped, major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-linked genes are participating in IDDM1. The strong linkage disequilibrium between genes in this complex makes mapping a difficult task. In the present paper, we report on the approach we have devised to circumvent the confounding effects of disequilibrium between class II alleles and alleles at other MHC loci. We have scanned 12 Mb of the MHC and flanking chromosome regions with microsatellite polymorphisms and analyzed the transmission of these marker alleles to diabetic probands from parents who were homozygous for the alleles of the HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQA1, and HLA-DQB1 genes. Our analysis, using three independent family sets, suggests the presence of an additional type I diabetes gene (or genes). This approach is useful for the analysis of other loci linked to common diseases, to verify if a candidate polymorphism can explain all of the association of a region or if the association is due to two or more loci in linkage disequilibrium with each other.

Lie, B A; Todd, J A; Pociot, F; Nerup, J; Akselsen, H E; Joner, G; Dahl-J?rgensen, K; R?nningen, K S; Thorsby, E; Undlien, D E

1999-01-01

291

The barrier-to-autointegration protein is a host factor for HIV type 1 integration.  

PubMed

In vivo, retroviral integration is mediated by a large nucleoprotein complex, termed the preintegration complex (PIC). PICs isolated from infected cells display in vitro integration activity. Here, we analyze the roles of different host cell factors in the structure and function of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) PICs. PICs purified by size exclusion after treatment with high salt lost their integration activity, and adding back an extract from uninfected cells restored this activity. In parallel, the native protein-DNA intasome structure detected at the ends of HIV-1 by Mu-mediated PCR footprinting was abolished by high salt and restored by the crude cell extract. Various purified proteins previously implicated in retroviral PIC function then were analyzed for their effects on the structure and function of salt-treated HIV-1 PICs. Whereas relatively low amounts (5-20 nM) of human barrier-to-autointegration factor (BAF) protein restored integration activity, substantially more (5-10 microM) human host factor HMG I(Y) was required. Similarly high levels (3-8 microM) of bovine RNase A, a DNA-binding protein used as a nonspecific control, also restored activity. Mu-mediated PCR footprinting revealed that of these three purified proteins, only BAF restored the native structure of the HIV-1 protein-DNA intasome. We suggest that BAF is a natural host cofactor for HIV-1 integration. PMID:9860958

Chen, H; Engelman, A

1998-12-22

292

The barrier-to-autointegration protein is a host factor for HIV type 1 integration  

PubMed Central

In vivo, retroviral integration is mediated by a large nucleoprotein complex, termed the preintegration complex (PIC). PICs isolated from infected cells display in vitro integration activity. Here, we analyze the roles of different host cell factors in the structure and function of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) PICs. PICs purified by size exclusion after treatment with high salt lost their integration activity, and adding back an extract from uninfected cells restored this activity. In parallel, the native protein–DNA intasome structure detected at the ends of HIV-1 by Mu-mediated PCR footprinting was abolished by high salt and restored by the crude cell extract. Various purified proteins previously implicated in retroviral PIC function then were analyzed for their effects on the structure and function of salt-treated HIV-1 PICs. Whereas relatively low amounts (5–20 nM) of human barrier-to-autointegration factor (BAF) protein restored integration activity, substantially more (5–10 ?M) human host factor HMG I(Y) was required. Similarly high levels (3–8 ?M) of bovine RNase A, a DNA-binding protein used as a nonspecific control, also restored activity. Mu-mediated PCR footprinting revealed that of these three purified proteins, only BAF restored the native structure of the HIV-1 protein–DNA intasome. We suggest that BAF is a natural host cofactor for HIV-1 integration.

Chen, Hongmin; Engelman, Alan

1998-01-01

293

The morphologic and immunohistochemical spectrum of papillary renal cell carcinoma: study including 132 cases with pure type 1 and type 2 morphology as well as tumors with overlapping features.  

PubMed

Papillary renal cell carcinomas (pRCC) are classically divided into type 1 and 2 tumors. However, many cases do not fulfill all the criteria for either type. We describe the clinical, morphologic, and immunohistochemical (IHC) features of 132 pRCCs to better characterize the frequency and nature of tumors with overlapping features. Cases were reviewed and classified; IHC evaluation of CK7, EMA, TopoII?, napsin A, and AMACR was performed on 95 cases. The frequencies of type 1, type 2, and "overlapping" pRCC were 25%, 28%, and 47%, respectively. The 2 categories of "overlapping" tumors were: (1) cases with bland cuboidal cells but no basophilic cytoplasm (type A); and (2) cases with predominantly type 1 histology admixed with areas showing prominent nucleoli (type B). The pathologic stage of "overlapping" cases showed concordance with type 1 tumors. Using the 2 discriminatory markers (CK7, EMA), "type A" cases were similar to type 1. Although the high-nuclear grade areas of "type B" tumors showed some staining differences from their low-nuclear grade counterpart, their IHC profile was closer to type 1. Single nucleotide polymorphism array results, although preliminary and restricted to only 9 cases (3 with overlapping features), also seemed to confirm those findings. In conclusion, we demonstrate that variations in cytoplasmic quality and/or presence of high-grade nuclei in tumors otherwise displaying features of type 1 pRCCs are similar in stage and IHC profile those with classic type 1 histology, suggesting that their spectrum might be wider than originally described. PMID:24919183

Chevarie-Davis, Myriam; Riazalhosseini, Yasser; Arseneault, Madeleine; Aprikian, Armen; Kassouf, Wassim; Tanguay, Simon; Latour, Mathieu; Brimo, Fadi

2014-07-01

294

Deficient leukemia inhibitory factor signaling in muscle precursor cells from patients with type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

The cytokine leukemia-inhibitory factor (LIF) is expressed by skeletal muscle and induces proliferation of muscle precursor cells, an important feature of skeletal muscle maintenance and repair. We hypothesized that muscle precursor cells from patients with type 2 diabetes had a deficient response to LIF. The mRNA and protein expressions of LIF and its receptor (LIFR) were measured in skeletal muscle biopsies from healthy individuals and patients with type 2 diabetes by use of qPCR and Western blot. LIF signaling and response were studied following administration of recombinant LIF and siRNA knockdown of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)3 in myoblast cultures established from healthy individuals and patients with type 2 diabetes. Myoblast proliferation rate was assessed by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. LIF and LIFR proteins were increased in both muscle tissue and cultured myoblasts from diabetic patients. Nonetheless, in the diabetic myoblasts, LIF-induced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1 and STAT3 was impaired. The deficient response to LIF administration in the diabetic myoblasts was further emphasized by a lack of increase in LIF-stimulated cell proliferation and a decreased LIF-stimulated induction of the proliferation-promoting factors cyclin D1, JunB, and c-myc. SOCS3 protein was upregulated in diabetic myoblasts, and knockdown of SOCS3 rescued LIF-induced gene expression in diabetic myoblasts, whereas neither STAT1 or STAT3 signaling nor proliferation rate was affected. In conclusion, although LIF and LIFR proteins were increased in muscle tissue and myoblasts from diabetic patients, LIF signaling and LIF-stimulated cell proliferation were impaired in diabetic myoblasts, suggesting a novel mechanism by which muscle function is compromised in diabetes. PMID:22649064

Broholm, Christa; Brandt, Claus; Schultz, Ninna S; Nielsen, Anders R; Pedersen, Bente K; Scheele, Camilla

2012-07-15

295

Left–Right Asymmetric Expression of lefty2 and nodal Is Induced by a Signaling Pathway that Includes the Transcription Factor FAST2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The left–right (L–R) asymmetric expression of lefty2 and nodal is controlled by a left side–specific enhancer (ASE). The transcription factor FAST2, which can mediate signaling by TGF? and activin, has now been identified as a protein that binds to a conserved sequence in ASE. These FAST2 binding sites were both essential and sufficient for L–R asymmetric gene expression. The Fast2

Yukio Saijoh; Hitoshi Adachi; Rui Sakuma; Chang-Yeol Yeo; Kenta Yashiro; Minoru Watanabe; Hiromi Hashiguchi; Kyoko Mochida; Sachiko Ohishi; Masahiro Kawabata; Kohei Miyazono; Malcolm Whitman; Hiroshi Hamada

2000-01-01

296

Risk factors for chronic kidney diseases may include periodontal diseases, as estimated by the correlations of plasma pentraxin-3 levels: a case–control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Pentraxins are classical mediators of inflammation and markers of acute-phase reactions. Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) is believed to\\u000a be a true independent indicator of disease activity. It has been associated with clinical outcomes in incident chronic kidney\\u000a disease (CKD) and periodontal diseases. Periodontitis is lately being considered as a risk factor for CKD. However, no data\\u000a are available on elevated PTX3 in

A. R. Pradeep; Rahul Kathariya; P. Arjun Raju; R. Sushma Rani; Anuj Sharma; N. M. Raghavendra

297

Dominant factor determining the conduction-type of nitrogen-doped ZnO film.  

PubMed

Nitrogen-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) film has been grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The as-grown sample showed p-type conduction with a hole concentration of 3.1 x 10(17) cm(-3). After an annealing process in O2 at 600 degrees C for 30 min, p-type conduction was still remained, and the hole concentration of the film decreased to 6.8 x 10(16) cm(-3). Secondary ion mass spectroscopy revealed that the concentration of both nitrogen and hydrogen decreased after the annealing process. It is demonstrated that the intrinsic compensation source has been decreased after the annealing process. Because the variation trend of the hole concentration in the ZnO:N film is opposite to that of hydrogen and intrinsic defects, but in good accordance with nitrogen, the extrinsically substituted nitrogen (N(o)) should be the dominant factor that determines the conduction-type of the ZnO:N film. PMID:24734642

Li, L; Shan, C X; Zhang, X T; Lu, Y M; Sun, B D; Ma, X Z; Jiang, D L; Wu, T

2014-05-01

298

Suicide, schizophrenia, and schizoid-type psychosis: role of life events and childhood factors.  

PubMed

The first objective was to identify the provoking events of suicide in patients with schizophrenia or schizoid-type disorder, and to assess the humiliation component of these events. The second objective was to verify if quality of care during childhood is a vulnerability factor for suicide in patients with schizophrenia or schizoid-type psychosis. Thirty-three cases of suicide with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoid-type psychosis were compared with 34 living patients with a similar diagnosis. The psychological autopsy method was used. The assessments were made with the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Axis I mental disorders, the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule, and the Child Experiences and Child Abuse Interview. The suicide group (SG) experienced more often a recent severe event, usually of a humiliation nature, than the control group (CG). It also experienced more severe events associated with aggressive behavior or with psychiatric impairment. Contrary to expectations, the CG had worse scores than the SG for quality of care during childhood. In conclusion, suicide in schizophrenia is related both to environmental stress and to psychiatric impairment. PMID:21309825

Tousignant, Michel; Pouliot, Louise; Routhier, Danielle; Vrakas, Georgia; McGirr, Alexander; Turecki, Gustavo

2011-02-01

299

Extracellular matrix sub-types and mechanical stretch impact human cardiac fibroblast responses to transforming growth factor beta.  

PubMed

Abstract Understanding the impact of extracellular matrix sub-types and mechanical stretch on cardiac fibroblast activity is required to help unravel the pathophysiology of myocardial fibrotic diseases. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate pro-fibrotic responses of primary human cardiac fibroblast cells exposed to different extracellular matrix components, including collagen sub-types I, III, IV, VI and laminin. The impact of mechanical cyclical stretch and treatment with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF?1) on collagen 1, collagen 3 and alpha smooth muscle actin mRNA expression on different matrices was assessed using quantitative real-time PCR. Our results revealed that all of the matrices studied not only affected the expression of pro-fibrotic genes in primary human cardiac fibroblast cells at rest but also affected their response to TGF?1. In addition, differential cellular responses to mechanical cyclical stretch were observed depending on the type of matrix the cells were adhered to. These findings may give insight into the impact of selective pathological deposition of extracellular matrix proteins within different disease states and how these could impact the fibrotic environment. PMID:24621314

Watson, Chris J; Phelan, Dermot; Collier, Patrick; Horgan, Stephen; Glezeva, Nadia; Cooke, Gordon; Xu, Maojia; Ledwidge, Mark; McDonald, Kenneth; Baugh, John A

2014-06-01

300

Effects of botulinum toxin type A on non-injected bi-articular muscle include a narrower length range of force exertion and increased passive force.  

PubMed

Introduction: The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injection in rat tibialis anterior (TA) muscle affects the mechanics of its bi-articular synergist, both actively and passively. Methods: Two groups of Wistar rats were tested: control (no BTX-A) and BTX (0.1 U of BTX-A) animals were injected exclusively to the mid-belly of TA. Extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle isometric forces were measured after proximal and distal lengthening. Results: Five days after injection, BTX-A administration changed EDL mechanics: (1) active forces decreased (proximal muscle length dependently); (2) length range of active force exertion decreased both proximally and distally; and (3) passive muscle forces increased. Conclusions: Effects of BTX-A appear to not be limited to decreased active muscle tone, but may cause also a narrower active range of movement and increased passive resistance. Through spread of BTX-A to a bi-articular muscle, such effects are plausible for both joints spanned. Muscle Nerve 49: 866-878, 2014. PMID:24122931

Ate?, Filiz; Yucesoy, Can A

2014-06-01

301

Petrographic and Geochemical Characterization of Ore-Bearing Intrusions of the Noril'sk type, Siberia; With Discussion of Their Origin, Including Additional Datasets and Core Logs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Noril'sk I, Talnakh, and Kharaelakh intrusions of the Noril'sk district host one of the outstanding metal concentrations in the world; contained Cu-Ni resources are comparable to the deposits at Sudbury, Ontario and the platinum group element (PGE) resource is second only to that of the Bushveld Complex. Our opportunity to cooperatively sample and study this district in Siberian Russia arose in 1990 through a memorandum of understanding between the U.S. Geological Survey and the former Ministry of Geology of the U.S.S.R. The world-class significance of these deposits and the possibility that understanding their geologic context, including construction of a credible 'ore-deposit model,' will lead to discovery of similar deposits elsewhere, inspired extensive studies of the ores, the mafic-intrusions which host them, and associated flood basalts.

Compiled by Czamanske, Gerald K.

2002-01-01

302

NFI-Ski Interactions Mediate Transforming Growth Factor ? Modulation of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Early Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are present in virtually all cervical cancers. An important step in the development of malignant disease, including cervical cancer, involves a loss of sensitivity to transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?). HPV type 16 (HPV16) early gene expression, including that of the E6 and E7 oncoprotein genes, is under the control of the upstream regulatory region (URR), and E6 and E7 expression in HPV16-immortalized human epithelial cells is inhibited at the transcriptional level by TGF-?. While the URR contains a myriad of transcription factor binding sites, including seven binding sites for nuclear factor I (NFI), the specific sequences within the URR or the transcription factors responsible for TGF-? modulation of the URR remain unknown. To identify potential transcription factors and binding sites involved in TGF-? modulation of the URR, we performed DNase I footprint analysis on the HPV16 URR using nuclear extracts from TGF-?-sensitive HPV16-immortalized human keratinocytes (HKc/HPV16) treated with and without TGF-?. Differentially protected regions were found to be located around NFI binding sites. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays, using the NFI binding sites as probes, showed decreased binding upon TGF-? treatment. This decrease in binding was not due to reduced NFI protein or NFI mRNA levels. Mutational analysis of individual and multiple NFI binding sites in the URR defined their role in TGF-? sensitivity of the promoter. Overexpression of the NFI family members in HKc/HPV16 decreased the ability of TGF-? to inhibit the URR. Since the oncoprotein Ski has been shown to interact with and increase the transcriptional activity of NFI and since cellular Ski levels are decreased by TGF-? treatment, we explored the possibility that Ski may provide a link between TGF-? signaling and NFI activity. Anti-NFI antibodies coimmunoprecipitated endogenous Ski in nuclear extracts from HKc/HPV16, confirming that NFI and Ski interact in these cells. Ski levels dramatically decreased upon TGF-? treatment of HKc/HPV16, and overexpression of Ski eliminated the ability of TGF-? to inhibit the URR. Based on these studies, we propose that TGF-? inhibition of HPV16 early gene expression is mediated by a decrease in Ski levels, which in turn dramatically reduces NFI activity.

Baldwin, Amy; Pirisi, Lucia; Creek, Kim E.

2004-01-01

303

Prevalence and risk factors of type 2 diabetes in older Vietnam-born Australians.  

PubMed

Vietnamese immigrants in Australia represent the second largest Vietnamese community in developed countries, following the United States. However, limited information is available about prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the relative roles of socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and Vietnamese ethnicity per se in this population. This study investigated the prevalence of T2D and its risk factors in older Vietnam-born Australians, in comparison to native-born Australians. The study used baseline questionnaire data from 787 Vietnam- and 196,866 Australia-born individuals (?45 years), who participated in the 45 and Up Study, which is Australia's largest population-based cohort study. Country of birth specific prevalence of T2D and its risk factors were age-standardised to the 2006 Australian population (?45 years). Multivariable logistic regression models were built for each group to assess the relationship between T2D and socio-demographic characteristics, family history of diabetes, lifestyle factors and health status. Compared to Australia-born counterparts, Vietnam-born individuals had significantly (p < 0.001) higher age-standardised prevalence of T2D (14.7 vs 7.4 %) and significantly (p < 0.001) lower levels of vegetable consumption (?5 serves/day, 19.4 vs 33.5 %), physical activity (?5 sessions/week, 68.7 vs 78.5 %) and overweight and obesity (body mass index ?25 kg/m(2), 21.5 vs 62.7 %). The increased risk of T2D associated with a family history of diabetes for Vietnam-born people [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 7.14, 95 % CI 4.15-12.28] was almost double that for Australia-born people (OR 3.77, 95 % CI 3.63-3.90). The patterns of association between T2D and other factors were similar between the two groups. The findings suggest a genetic predisposition to T2D in people of Vietnamese ethnicity. Reducing lifestyle risk factors for diabetes and better management of diabetes are priorities for Vietnam-born populations. PMID:23913107

Tran, Duong Thuy; Jorm, Louisa R; Johnson, Maree; Bambrick, Hilary; Lujic, Sanja

2014-02-01

304

Zirconium-titanium placers of the Voronezh Anteclise: Types, epochs and factors of formation, and forecast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early and late Frasnian, Barremian-Aptian, Cenomanian, early Santonian, early Campanian, and Oligocene-Miocene epochs of the formation of various types of zirconium-titanium placers are distinguished in the Voronezh Anteclise. The factors of their formation are considered, and a forecast of prospecting has been made. Lower Frasnian sedimentary rocks occur in the southeast, where the placers are related to the ilmenite-bearing volcanosedimentary rocks of the Yastrebovo Sequence. The upper Frasnian productive quartz sand of the Petino Sequence occurs in the central part of the Voronezh Anteclise. The Barremian-Aptian productive quartz sand and kaolinite clay occur in the northern and northeastern parts of the anteclise (Ryazan and Lipetsk oblasts). The placers formed in the Cenomanian are known in the Tambov oblast in the northeast of the Voronezh Anteclise and are related to phosphate-bearing glauconite-quartz sand. The early Campanian phosphorite-glauconite-quartz formation is widespread in the northwest of the Voronezh Anteclise at the junction with the northeastern wall of the Dnieper-Donets Basin (Bryansk oblast). The Oligocene-Miocene epoch was characterized by quartz sands abundant in the northwestern and south-western areas. The formation of zirconium-titanium placers is controlled by structural-tectonic, facies, volcanic, paleogeographic, stratigraphic, and evolutional factors. The indispensable condition for heavy mineral concentration is existence of positive forms of underwater topography. These are mostly structural elements of the third and fourth orders on the slopes of the Voronezh Anteclise at the boundaries of the adjacent negative structures. As concerns the facies factor, the occurrence of coastal and shallow-water marine facies with alternating and medium hydrodynamic activity and predominance of sand fractions 0.25-0.05 mm are criteria of elevated concentration of heavy minerals in sand. One of the conditions providing concentration of heavy minerals is a multiple rewashing of sands close to a relatively stable shoreline. The volcanic factor is determinant for the lower Frasnian marine placers fed by volcanic sources. The Cretaceous and Paleogene zirconium-titanium placers were formed owing to scouring of the older Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks of the Voronezh Anteclise, as well as the Baltic Shield, Moscow Syneclise, and the Volga-Ural Anteclise. The age of placers was estimated with accuracy up to substages (lower Aptian, lower Santonian, lower Campanian). The evolution factor is expressed in variation of localization and composition of placers in time and space. The forecast of potentially ore-bearing areas is based on optimal combinations of favorable factors.

Savko, A. D.; Zvonarev, A. E.; Ivanov, D. A.

2012-02-01

305

Daintain/AIF-1 (Allograft Inflammatory Factor-1) accelerates type 1 diabetes in NOD mice  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 is over-expressed in the blood of NOD mice suffering from insulitis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 stimulates white blood cell proliferation in NOD mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 increases blood glucose levels and triggers type 1 diabetes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 accelerates insulitis, while its antibody prevents insulitis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 enhances the levels of nitric oxide in the pancreases of NOD mice. -- Abstract: A large body of experimental evidence suggests that cytokines trigger pancreatic {beta}-cell death in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Daintain/AIF-1 (Allograft Inflammatory Factor-1), a specific marker for activated macrophages, is accumulated in the pancreatic islets of pre-diabetic BB rats. In the present study, we demonstrate that daintain/AIF-1 is released into blood and the levels of daintain/AIF-1 in the blood of type 1 diabetes-prone non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice suffering from insulitis are significantly higher than that in healthy NOD mice. When injected intravenously into NOD mice, daintain/AIF-1 stimulates white blood cell proliferation, increases the concentrations of blood glucose, impairs insulin expression, up-regulates nitric oxide (NO) production in pancreases and accelerates diabetes in NOD mice, while the antibody against daintain/AIF-1 delays or prevents insulitis in NOD mice. These results imply daintain/AIF-1 triggers type 1 diabetes probably via arousing immune cells activation and induction of NO production in pancreas of NOD mice.

Zhao, Yan-Ying, E-mail: biozyy@163.com [College of Life Science and Technology, Southwest University for Nationalities, Chengdu 610041 (China)] [College of Life Science and Technology, Southwest University for Nationalities, Chengdu 610041 (China); Huang, Xin-Yuan [College of Life Science and Technology, Hubei Engineering University, Xiaogan 432000 (China)] [College of Life Science and Technology, Hubei Engineering University, Xiaogan 432000 (China); Chen, Zheng-Wang [Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

2012-10-26

306

The v-sis protein retains biological activity as a type II membrane protein when anchored by various signal-anchor domains, including the hydrophobic domain of the bovine papilloma virus E5 oncoprotein.  

PubMed

Membrane-anchored forms of the v-sis oncoprotein have been previously described which are oriented as type I transmembrane proteins and which efficiently induce autocrine transformation. Several examples of naturally occurring membrane-anchored growth factors have been identified, but all exhibit a type I orientation. In this work, we wished to construct and characterize membrane-anchored growth factors with a type II orientation. These experiments were designed to determine whether type II membrane-anchored growth factors would in fact exhibit biological activity. Additionally, we wished to determine whether the hydrophobic domain of the E5 oncoprotein of bovine papilloma virus (BPV) can function as a signal-anchor domain to direct type II membrane insertion. Type II derivatives of the v-sis oncoprotein were constructed, with the NH2 terminus intracellular and the COOH terminus extracellular, by substituting the NH2 terminal signal sequence with the signal-anchor domain of a known type II membrane protein. The signal-anchor domains of neuraminidase (NA), asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) and transferrin receptor (TR) all yielded biologically active type II derivatives of the v-sis oncoprotein. Although transforming all of the type II signal/anchor-sis proteins exhibited a very short half-life. The short half-life exhibited by the signal/anchor-sis constructs suggests that, in some cases, cellular transformation may result from the synthesis of growth factors so labile that they activate undetectable autocrine loops. The E5 oncoprotein encoded by BPV exhibits amino acid sequence similarity with PDGF, activates the PDGF beta-receptor, and thus resembles a miniature membrane-anchored growth factor with a putative type II orientation. The hydrophobic domain of the E5 oncoprotein, when substituted in place of the signal sequence of v-sis, was indistinguishable compared with the signal-anchor domains of NA, TR, and ASGPR, demonstrating its ability to function as a signal-anchor domain. NIH 3T3 cells transformed by the signal/anchor-sis constructs exhibited morphological reversion upon treatment with suramin, indicating a requirement for ligand/receptor interactions in a suramin-sensitive compartment, most likely the cell surface. In contrast, NIH 3T3 cells transformed by the E5 oncoprotein did not exhibit morphological reversion in response to suramin. PMID:8227125

Xu, Y F; Meyer, A N; Webster, M K; Lee, B A; Donoghue, D J

1993-11-01

307

Spp382p Interacts with Multiple Yeast Splicing Factors, Including Possible Regulators of Prp43 DExD/H-Box Protein Function  

PubMed Central

Prp43p catalyzes essential steps in pre-mRNA splicing and rRNA biogenesis. In splicing, Spp382p stimulates the Prp43p helicase to dissociate the postcatalytic spliceosome and, in some way, to maintain the integrity of the spliceosome assembly. Here we present a dosage interference assay to identify Spp382p-interacting factors by screening for genes that when overexpressed specifically inhibit the growth of a conditional lethal prp38-1 spliceosome assembly mutant in the spp382-1 suppressor background. Identified, among others, are genes encoding the established splicing factors Prp8p, Prp9p, Prp11p, Prp39p, and Yhc1p and two poorly characterized proteins with possible links to splicing, Sqs1p and Cwc23p. Sqs1p copurifies with Prp43p and is shown to bind Prp43p and Spp382p in the two-hybrid assay. Overexpression of Sqs1p blocks pre-mRNA splicing and inhibits Prp43p-dependent steps in rRNA processing. Increased Prp43p levels buffer Sqs1p cytotoxicity, providing strong evidence that the Prp43p DExD/H-box protein is a target of Sqs1p. Cwc23p is the only known yeast splicing factor with a DnaJ motif characteristic of Hsp40-like chaperones. We show that similar to SPP382, CWC23 activity is critical for efficient pre-mRNA splicing and intron metabolism yet, surprisingly, this activity does not require the canonical DnaJ/Hsp40 motif. These and related data establish the value of this dosage interference assay for finding genes that alter cellular splicing and define Sqs1p and Cwc23p as prospective modulators of Spp382p-stimuated Prp43p function.

Pandit, Shatakshi; Paul, Sudakshina; Zhang, Li; Chen, Min; Durbin, Nicole; Harrison, Susan M. W.; Rymond, Brian C.

2009-01-01

308

Load Effects of Nola-Type Induction Motor Power-Factor Controllers on Fuel-Cell Inverters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers tests performed on power inverters using Nola-type power factor controllers (PFC) and fractional horsepower single-phase induction motors as loading devices. The inverters were designed for integral operation with fuel cell power plants...

1982-01-01

309

Platelet proteins, including platelet-derived growth factor, specifically depress a subset of the multiple components of the response elicited by glutathione in Hydra  

PubMed Central

Human serum more strongly depressed the feeding response of Hydra (ball formation) elicited by S-methylglutathione than plasma. On the basis of the effect of several proteins released by platelets, at least five apparent components of the response (R1-R5) were suggested. Each of the platelet proteins examined specifically depressed a subset of these components. Among the platelet proteins examined, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) specifically depressed the R2 response (the concentration at which the depressing effect was 50% of the maximum [ED50] was 0.17 pM), and basic fibroblast growth factor depressed the R3 and R5 responses (ED50 0.50 aM) and the R2 response (ED50 0.55 pM). With respect to the depression of the R2 response by PDGF, addition of an anti-PDGF IgG or chemical reduction of PDGF, both of which prevent PDGF from binding to its cell surface receptor on responsive cells, eliminated the depressing effect of PDGF on the hydra response. The implications of these observations are discussed.

1987-01-01

310

The Caenorhabditis elegans rhy-1 Gene Inhibits HIF-1 Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Activity in a Negative Feedback Loop That Does Not Include vhl-1  

PubMed Central

Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) transcription factors implement essential changes in gene expression that enable animals to adapt to low oxygen (hypoxia). The stability of the C. elegans HIF-1 protein is controlled by the evolutionarily conserved EGL-9/VHL-1 pathway for oxygen-dependent degradation. Here, we describe vhl-1-independent pathways that attenuate HIF-1 transcriptional activity in C. elegans. First, the expression of HIF-1 target genes is markedly higher in egl-9 mutants than in vhl-1 mutants. We show that HIF-1 protein levels are similar in animals carrying strong loss-of-function mutations in either egl-9 or vhl-1. We conclude that EGL-9 inhibits HIF-1 activity, as well as HIF-1 stability. Second, we identify the rhy-1 gene and show that it acts in a novel negative feedback loop to inhibit expression of HIF-1 target genes. rhy-1 encodes a multi-pass transmembrane protein. Although loss-of-function mutations in rhy-1 cause relatively modest increases in hif-1 mRNA and HIF-1 protein expression, some HIF-1 target genes are expressed at higher levels in rhy-1 mutants than in vhl-1 mutants. Animals lacking both vhl-1 and rhy-1 function have a more severe phenotype than either single mutant. Collectively, these data support models in which RHY-1 and EGL-9 function in VHL-1-independent pathway(s) to repress HIF-1 transcriptional activity.

Shen, Chuan; Shao, Zhiyong; Powell-Coffman, Jo Anne

2006-01-01

311

Clock genes regulate neurogenic transcription factors, including NeuroD1, and the neuronal differentiation of adult neural stem\\/progenitor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The circadian clock system plays multiple roles in our bodies, and clock genes are expressed in various brain regions, including the lateral subventricular zone (SVZ) where neural stem\\/progenitor cells (NSPCs) persist and postnatal neurogenesis continues. However, the functions of clock genes in adult NSPCs are not well understood. Here, we first investigated the expression patterns of Clock and Bmal1 in

Tomomi Kimiwada; Mikako Sakurai; Hiroki Ohashi; Shunsuke Aoki; Teiji Tominaga; Keiji Wada

2009-01-01

312

The transcription factor GATA-3 controls cell fate and maintenance of type 2 innate lymphoid cells.  

PubMed

Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) reside at mucosal surfaces and control immunity to intestinal infections. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) produce cytokines such as IL-5 and IL-13, are required for immune defense against helminth infections, and are involved in the pathogenesis of airway hyperreactivity. Here, we have investigated the role of the transcription factor GATA-3 for ILC2 differentiation and maintenance. We showed that ILC2s and their lineage-specified bone marrow precursors (ILC2Ps), as identified here, were characterized by continuous high expression of GATA-3. Analysis of mice with temporary deletion of GATA-3 in all ILCs showed that GATA-3 was required for the differentiation and maintenance of ILC2s but not for ROR?t(+) ILCs. Thus, our data demonstrate that GATA-3 is essential for ILC2 fate decisions and reveal similarities between the transcriptional programs controlling ILC and T helper cell fates. PMID:23063333

Hoyler, Thomas; Klose, Christoph S N; Souabni, Abdallah; Turqueti-Neves, Adriana; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Rawlins, Emma L; Voehringer, David; Busslinger, Meinrad; Diefenbach, Andreas

2012-10-19

313

The transcription factor GATA3 controls cell fate and maintenance of type 2 innate lymphoid cells  

PubMed Central

Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) reside at mucosal surfaces and control immunity to intestinal infections. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) produce cytokines such as IL-5 and IL-13 and are required for immune defense against helminth infections and are involved in the pathogenesis of airway hyperreactivity. Here, we have investigated the role of the transcription factor GATA3 for ILC2 differentiation and maintenance. We showed that ILC2 and their lineage-specified bone marrow precursor (ILC2P), as identified here, were characterized by continuous high expression of GATA3. Analysis of mice with temporary deletion of GATA3 in all ILCs showed that GATA3 was required for the differentiation and maintenance of ILC2 but not for ROR?t+ ILCs. Thus, our data demonstrate GATA3 is essential for ILC2 fate decisions, and reveal similarities between the transcriptional programs controlling ILC and T helper cell fates.

Hoyler, Thomas; Klose, Christoph S.N.; Souabni, Abdallah; Turqueti-Neves, Adriana; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Rawlins, Emma L.; Voehringer, David; Busslinger, Meinrad; Diefenbach, Andreas

2013-01-01

314

Liver-type fatty acid binding protein interacts with hepatocyte nuclear factor 4?.  

PubMed

Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4? (HNF4?) regulates liver type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) gene expression. Conversely as shown herein, L-FABP structurally and functionally also interacts with HNF4?. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between Cy3-HNF4? (donor) and Cy5-L-FABP (acceptor) as well as FRET microscopy detected L-FABP in close proximity (~80 Å) to HNF4?, binding with high affinity Kd ~250-300 nM. Circular dichroism (CD) determined that the HNF4?/L-FABP interaction altered protein secondary structure. Finally, L-FABP potentiated transactivation of HNF4? in COS7 cells. Taken together, these data suggest that L-FABP provides a signaling path to HNF4? activation in the nucleus. PMID:24140341

McIntosh, Avery L; Petrescu, Anca D; Hostetler, Heather A; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

2013-11-29

315

Factors related to high and low levels of drug adherence according to patients with type 2 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective Adherence to medication in patients with type 2 diabetes varies widely, yet the factors that influence adherence according\\u000a to patients are not fully known. The aim of this study is to explore both factors related to high and lower levels of adherence\\u000a that patients with type 2 diabetes experienced in their medication use. Setting Primary care in the Netherlands.

Sander D. BorgsteedeMarjan; Marjan J. Westerman; Irene L. Kok; Joke C. Meeuse; Theo P. G. M. de Vries; Jacqueline G. Hugtenburg

2011-01-01

316

Reversal of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Improvements in Cardiovascular Risk Factors After Surgical Weight Loss in Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES.Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with obesity, dyslipidemia, and hy- pertension, all well-known risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Surgical weight loss has resulted in a marked reduction of these risk factors in adults. We hypothe- sized that gastric bypass would improve parameters of metabolic dysfunction and cardiovascular risk in adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PATIENTS AND METHODS.Eleven adolescents

Thomas H. Inge; Judy Bean; Michael Helmrath; Anita Courcoulas; Carroll M. Harmon; Mike K. Chen; Kimberly Wilson; Stephen R. Daniels; Victor F. Garcia; Mary L. Brandt; Lawrence M. Dolan

2010-01-01

317

Association of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha gene polymorphism with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes in a Caucasian (Hungarian) sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1?) is a transcription factor that plays an important role in neo-vascularisation, embryonic pancreas beta-cell mass development, and beta cell protection. Recently a non synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (g.C45035T SNP, rs11549465) of HIF-1? gene, resulting in the p.P582S amino acid change has been shown to be associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in a Japanese

Geza Nagy; Reka Kovacs-Nagy; Eva Kereszturi; Aniko Somogyi; Anna Szekely; Nora Nemeth; Nora Hosszufalusi; Pal Panczel; Zsolt Ronai; Maria Sasvari-Szekely

2009-01-01

318

Supportive Therapy Including Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern head and neck cancer treatment, including accelerated and hyperfractionated fractionation schedules, are known to increase\\u000a acute side effects to radiation. Furthermore, concurrent chemoradiation aggravates acute mucosal reaction (Brizel et al. 1998),\\u000a which now has become the limiting factor in radical head and neck cancer treatment. For this reason, supportive care strategies\\u000a are necessary to prevent, treat, and alleviate discomfort

JøRGEN Johansen; JøRN Herrstedt

319

A trigonometric interpolation approach to mixed-type boundary problems associated with permeameter shape factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydraulic conductivity is a fundamental hydrogeological parameter, whose in situ measurement at a local scale is principally performed through injection tests from screened probes or using impermeable packers in screened wells. The shape factor F [L] is a proportionality constant required to estimate conductivity from observed flow rate to injection head ratios, and it depends on the geometric properties of the flow field. Existing approaches for determination of F are either based on geometric or mathematical simplifications and are limited to particular assumptions about the flow domain's external boundaries. The present work presents a general semianalytical solution to steady state axisymmetric flow problems, where external boundaries may be nearby and of arbitrary combinations of impermeable and constant head type. The inner boundary along the probe or well may consist of an arbitrary number of impermeable and constant head intervals resulting in a mixed-type boundary value problem, for which a novel and direct solution method based on trigonometric interpolation is presented. The approach is applied to generate practical nondimensional charts of F for different field and laboratory situations. Results show that F is affected by less than 5% if a minimum distance of 10 probe or well diameters is kept between the injection screen and a nearby boundary. Similarly, minimum packer lengths of two well diameters are required to avoid increasing F by more than 10%. Furthermore, F is determined for laboratory barrel experiments giving guidelines for achieving equal shape factors as in field situations without nearby boundaries. F for the theoretical case of infinitely short packers is shown to be infinitely large.

Klammler, Harald; Hatfield, Kirk; Nemer, Bassel; Mathias, Simon A.

2011-03-01

320

HIV shedding in the oral cavity: an assessment of HIV type, immunovirologic, demographic and oral factors  

PubMed Central

Objective To quantify the prevalence and burden of HIV type 2 (HIV-2) and HIV-1 RNA in the oral cavity of antiretroviral therapy-naive HIV-infected Senegalese individuals and to identify correlates of oral HIV viral loads. Design A cross-sectional study of 163 HIV-1 and 27 HIV-2-infected antiretroviral therapy-naive Senegalese adults. Methods Participants received clinical and oral exams and provided blood and oral wash samples for viral load and plasma CD4 count ascertainment. Logistic and interval regression models were used to identify univariate and multivariable associations between presence and level of oral HIV RNA and various immunovirologic, local and demographic factors. Results Presence of detectable oral HIV RNA was less common in HIV-2-infected compared with HIV-1-infected study participants (33% vs 67%, OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.59). HIV type was no longer associated with oral shedding of HIV when plasma viral load was considered. Detection of oral HIV RNA was associated with increased plasma viral load in both HIV-1-infected and HIV-2-infected individuals (HIV-1, OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.61; HIV-2, OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.39). Oral HIV-1 detection was also associated with periodontal disease (OR 3.02, 95% CI 1.16 to 7.87). Conclusions Oral shedding of HIV-2 RNA is less common than HIV-1 RNA, a likely consequence of lower overall viral burden. Both systemic and local factors may contribute to shedding of HIV in the oral cavity.

Pavlinac, Patricia B; Hawes, Stephen E; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S; Gaye, Awa; N'Diaye, Charlotte F; Critchlow, Cathy W; Sow, Papa Salif; Feng, Qinghua; Kiviat, Nancy B

2014-01-01

321

The type of metastasis is a prognostic factor in disseminated cervical cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective The objectives of this study were twofold: to verify whether the type of metastasis (lymphatic vs. hematogenous) is a prognostic factor, and to identify molecular markers associated with survival in patients with disseminated cervical cancer. Methods Between April 1997 and May 2008, 30 patients with disseminated cervical cancer who had supraclavicular lymph node (N=13) or hematogenous metastases (N=17) were initially treated at our institute. We reviewed medical records to extract clinicopathologic variables. For 17 patients with available pathological specimens, we evaluated the association of immunohistochemical staining for metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and laminin V gamma (LAMC)-2 with survival and clinicopathologic variables via a log-rank test and Cox regression analysis. Results Patients who had only lymphatic metastasis (odds ratio [OR], 5.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 19.5) or completed initial treatment (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.1 to 9.9) showed better survival than patients who did not, but none of the molecular markers were associated with survival. Out of 13 patients with only lymphatic metastasis, three patients who had received volume-directed radiation with concurrent chemotherapy had a long-term survival of over two years. However, patients with hematogenous metastasis showed extremely poor prognosis. Conclusion The type of metastasis and completion of initial treatment were associated with prolonged survival in patients with disseminated cervical cancer, and over 20% of patients with lymphatic metastasis were salvaged with volume-directed radiation with concurrent chemotherapy. None of the molecular markers were associated with survival in patients with disseminated cervical cancer.

Kim, Kidong; Cho, Soo Youn; Kim, Beob-Jong; Choi, Seok-Cheol; Ryu, Sang-Young

2010-01-01

322

Risk factors and gene type for infections of MRSA in diabetic foot patients in Tianjin, China.  

PubMed

The objective was to study risk factors and gene type of DF patients infected with MRSA. A total of 429 DF patients were recruited. The patients with S aureus infections were divided into MRSA and MSSA groups. MRSA were genotyped by SCCmec. pvl and lukE-lukD were detected. A total of 559 pathogens were isolated from them, with G+ bacteria firstly(59.0%), followed G- bacilli (37.7%) and true fungi (3.3%). The 3 most frequently isolated pathogens were S aureus (35.2%), S epidermidis (12.3%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (11.2%). SCCmec III MRSA and SCCmec IVa MRSA had the same antibacterial spectrum. mecA positive rate was 100%. lukE-lukD and pvl positive rates were 100% and 0%, respectively. 28 strains belonged to SCCmec III and the others belonged to SCCmec IVa. The G+ cocci were the main pathogens, S aureus and S epidermidis were predominant among them. Antibiotic usage in 6 months prior to hospitalization, long course of ulcer, osteomyelitis and hypoproteinemia are risk factors for MRSA. SCCmec IVa is high in proportion to MRSA isolates, suggesting that CA-MRSA has become major pathogen of DF infection. All the MRSA were harboring lukE-lukD, which has been reported to present poor leucotoxin compared to pvl, and may be a response to atypical local inflammatory reaction in DF infection. PMID:23771611

Feng, Shu-Hong; Chu, Yue-Jie; Wang, Peng-Hua; Jun, Xu; Min, Ding; Li, Xue-Mei

2013-06-01

323

Racial/ethnic Differences in Clinical and Biochemical Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Risk Factors in Children  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine whether peri-adolescent children demonstrate the significant racial/ethnic differences in body fatness relative to BMI and in the prevalence and relationship of body composition to risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as in adults. Design and Methods We examined family history of obesity and T2DM, anthropometry, insulin sensitivity and secretory capacity, lipids, and cytokines (IL-6, CRP, TNF-?, and adiponectin) in a cohort of 994 middle school students (47% male, 53%, female; 12% African American, 14% East Asian, 13% South Asian, 9% Caucasian, 44% Hispanic, and 8% other). Results Fractional body fat content was significantly greater at any BMI among South Asians. There were racial/ethnic specific differences in lipid profiles, insulin secretory capacity, insulin sensitivity, and inflammatory markers corrected for body fatness that are similar to those seen in adults. Family history of T2DM was associated with lower insulin secretory capacity while family history of obesity was more associated with insulin resistance. Conclusion Children show some of the same racial/ethnic differences in risk factors for adiposity-related co-morbidities as adults. BMI and waist circumference cutoffs to identify children at-risk for adiposity-related co-morbidities should be adjusted by racial/ethnic group as well as other variables such as birthweight and family history.

Rosenbaum, Michael; Fennoy, Ilene; Accacha, Siham; Altshuler, Lisa; Carey, Dennis E.; Holleran, Steven; Rapaport, Robert; Shelov, Steven P.; Speiser, Phyllis W.; Ten, S.; Bhangoo, Amrit; Boucher-Berry, Claudia; Espinal, Yomery; Gupta, Rishi; Hassoun, Abeer A.; Iazetti, Loretta.; Jacques, Fabien J.; Jean, Amy M.; Klein, Michelle. L.; Levine, Robert; Lowell, Barbara; Michel, Lesley; Rosenfeld, Warren

2013-01-01

324

TACO: a general-purpose tool for predicting cell-type-specific transcription factor dimers  

PubMed Central

Background Cooperative binding of transcription factor (TF) dimers to DNA is increasingly recognized as a major contributor to binding specificity. However, it is likely that the set of known TF dimers is highly incomplete, given that they were discovered using ad hoc approaches, or through computational analyses of limited datasets. Results Here, we present TACO (Transcription factor Association from Complex Overrepresentation), a general-purpose standalone software tool that takes as input any genome-wide set of regulatory elements and predicts cell-type–specific TF dimers based on enrichment of motif complexes. TACO is the first tool that can accommodate motif complexes composed of overlapping motifs, a characteristic feature of many known TF dimers. Our method comprehensively outperforms existing tools when benchmarked on a reference set of 29 known dimers. We demonstrate the utility and consistency of TACO by applying it to 152 DNase-seq datasets and 94 ChIP-seq datasets. Conclusions Based on these results, we uncover a general principle governing the structure of TF-TF-DNA ternary complexes, namely that the flexibility of the complex is correlated with, and most likely a consequence of, inter-motif spacing.

2014-01-01

325

Edaphic factors affecting the vertical distribution of radionuclides in the different soil types of Belgrade, Serbia.  

PubMed

The specific activities of natural radionuclides ((40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th) and Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs were measured in soil profiles representing typical soil types of Belgrade (Serbia): chernozems, fluvisols, humic gleysols, eutric cambisols, vertisols and gleyic fluvisols. The influence of soil properties and content of stable elements on radionuclide distribution down the soil profiles (at 5 cm intervals up to 50 cm depth) was analysed. Correlation analysis identified associations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (137)Cs with fine-grained soil fractions. Significant positive correlations were found between (137)Cs specific activity and both organic matter content and cation exchange capacity. Saturated hydraulic conductivity and specific electrical conductivity were also positively correlated with the specific activity of (137)Cs. The strong positive correlations between (226)Ra and (232)Th specific activities and Fe and Mn indicate an association with oxides of these elements in soil. The correlations observed between (40)K and Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn and also between (137)Cs and Cd, Cr, Pb and Zn could be attributed to their common affinity for clay minerals. These results provide insight into the main factors that affect radionuclide migration in the soil, which contributes to knowledge about radionuclide behaviour in the environment and factors governing their mobility within terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:22072061

Dragovi?, Snežana; Gaji?, Boško; Dragovi?, Ranko; Jankovi?-Mandi?, Ljiljana; Slavkovi?-Beškoski, Latinka; Mihailovi?, Nevena; Mom?ilovi?, Milan; ?uji?, Mirjana

2012-01-01

326

Repression of the human papillomavirus type 18 enhancer by the cellular transcription factor Oct-1.  

PubMed Central

The role of cellular factors involved in the transcriptional regulation of the cancer-associated human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV18) is yet poorly understood. The presence of an Oct-1-binding site within the HPV18 upstream regulatory region led us to investigate the influence of Oct-1 on viral transcription. Cotransfection of Oct-1 expression plasmids together with luciferase reporter constructs containing HPV18 regulatory sequences indicated that Oct-1 can transcriptionally repress the HPV18 upstream regulatory region. In contrast, heterologous control regions were not affected by Oct-1. HPV18 cis elements that can be repressed by Oct-1 mapped to a 135-bp subregion of the viral constitutive enhancer. Analysis of an Oct-1 mutant defective in DNA binding suggested that HPV18 down-modulation does not require direct binding of Oct-1 to DNA. These results make Oct-1 a candidate factor involved in the intracellular surveillance of HPV18 transcription and support the notion of a host cell mechanism that can specifically repress HPV E6-E7 transforming gene expression. Images

Hoppe-Seyler, F; Butz, K; zur Hausen, H

1991-01-01

327

The Complex Interplay of Genetic and Lifestyle Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetes: An Overview  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is one of the scourges of modern times, with many millions of people affected by the disease. Diabetes occurs most frequently in those who are overweight or obese. However, not all overweight and obese persons develop diabetes, and there are those who develop the disease who are lean and physically active. Certain ethnicities, especially indigenous populations, are at considerably higher risk of obesity and diabetes than those of white European ancestry. The patterns and distributions of diabetes have led some to speculate that the disease is caused by interactions between genetic and obesogenic lifestyle factors. Whilst to many this is a plausible explanation, remarkably little reliable evidence exists to support it. In this review, an overview of published literature relating to genetic and lifestyle risk factors for T2D is provided. The review also describes the concepts and rationale that have motivated the view that gene-lifestyle interactions cause diabetes and overviews the empirical evidence published to date to support this hypothesis.

Franks, Paul W.

2012-01-01

328

Erlotinib in wild type epidermal growth factor receptor non-small cell lung cancer: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Targeting epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) is an innovative approach to managing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) which harbors EGFR mutation. However, the efficacy of these agents like erlotinib in patients without the mutation is not known. METHODS: This systematic review included Phase III randomized clinical trials that compared single agent erlotinib to other management options in the setting of NSCLC with reported outcome data on patients with EGFR wild type (EGFRWT) tumors. Outcome data include overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS) and response rate (RR). Random effects meta-analysis was used to pool outcomes across studies. RESULTS: Three studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies included a total of 2044 patients with outcome data on 674 patients with EGFRWT tumors (33%). Meta-analysis revealed a statistically significant improvement in OS with erlotinib (hazard ratio of 0.780; 95% confidence interval: 0.654-0.930, P = 0.006). Data were not available to perform PFS or RR analysis. The quality of this evidence is considered to be moderate to high. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed a significant benefit of erlotinib in patient with EGFRWT tumors compared with other approaches. These findings add another therapeutic option to patients generally considered difficult to treat.

Jazieh, Abdul-Rahman; Al Sudairy, Reem; Abu-Shraie, Nada; Al Suwairi, Wafaa; Ferwana, Mazen; Murad, M. Hassan

2013-01-01

329

Platelet-activating factor: a candidate human immunodeficiency virus type 1-induced neurotoxin.  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of central nervous system disease during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection revolves around productive viral infection of brain macrophages and microglia. Neuronal losses in the cortex and subcortical gray matter accompany macrophage infection. The question of how viral infection of brain macrophages ultimately leads to central nervous system (CNS) pathology remains unanswered. Our previous work demonstrated high-level production of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1 beta, arachidonic acid metabolites, and platelet-activating factor (PAF) from HIV-infected monocytes and astroglia (H. E. Gendelman, P. Genis, M. Jett, and H. S. L. M. Nottet, in E. Major, ed., Technical Advances in AIDS Research in the Nervous System, in press; P. Genis, M. Jett, E. W. Bernton, H. A. Gelbard, K. Dzenko, R. Keane, L. Resnick, D. J. Volsky, L. G. Epstein, and H. E. Gendelman, J. Exp. Med. 176:1703-1718, 1992). These factors, together, were neurotoxic. The relative role(s) of each of these candidate neurotoxins in HIV-1-related CNS dysfunction was not unraveled by these initial experiments. We now report that PAF is produced during HIV-1-infected monocyte-astroglia interactions. PAF was detected at high levels in CSF of HIV-1-infected patients with immunosuppression and signs of CNS dysfunction. The biologic significance of the results for neurological disease was determined by addition of PAF to cultures of primary human fetal cortical or rat postnatal retinal ganglion neurons. Here, PAF at concentrations of > or = 300 pg/ml produced neuronal death. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 or memantine partially blocked the neurotoxic effects of PAF. The identification of PAF as an HIV-1-induced neurotoxin provides new insights into how HIV-1 causes neurological impairment and how it may ultimately be ameliorated.

Gelbard, H A; Nottet, H S; Swindells, S; Jett, M; Dzenko, K A; Genis, P; White, R; Wang, L; Choi, Y B; Zhang, D

1994-01-01

330

MUC4 is a novel prognostic factor of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma-mass forming type.  

PubMed

Complete surgical resection of the tumor is the sole approach to improve the cure rate of patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma-mass forming type (ICC-MF). Although patients are treated by curative resection, many of them show poor outcome. Mucin (MUC)4 expression has been implicated as a marker for diagnosis and progression of pancreatic adenocarcinomas, but there is no study of the relationship between MUC4 expression and patient's prognosis in ICC-MF. In the present study, we examined the expression profile of MUC4 in ICC-MF tissue from 27 patients using immunohistochemistry. MUC4 was expressed in the carcinoma tissues of 10 (37%) of the 27 ICC-MF tumors, whereas it was not expressed in normal liver tissue. Because MUC4 is an intramembrane ligand for receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB2 and is related with regulation of p27, we also compared the MUC4 expression with ErbB2 and p27 expressions in ICC-MFs. The patients with MUC4 and ErbB2 double positive expression showed a short survival period compared to non-expressing patients. MUC4 and p27 showed no relationship. The univariate analysis showed that tumor size, intrahepatic metastasis, lymph node metastasis, MUC4 expression, and MUC1 expression were statistically significant risk factors affecting the outcome of the patients with ICC-MF. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that MUC4 expression, as well as surgical margin, were statistically significant independent risk factors. In conclusion, the results suggest that expression of MUC4 in ICC-MF is a new independent factor for poor prognosis and is a useful marker to predict the outcome of the patients with ICC-MF. PMID:14752841

Shibahara, Hiroaki; Tamada, Shugo; Higashi, Michiyo; Goto, Masamichi; Batra, Surinder K; Hollingsworth, Michael A; Imai, Kohzoh; Yonezawa, Suguru

2004-01-01

331

Tetranectin binds hepatocyte growth factor and tissue-type plasminogen activator.  

PubMed

In the search for new ligands for the plasminogen kringle 4 binding-protein tetranectin, it has been found by ligand blot analysis and ELISA that tetranectin specifically bound to the plasminogen-like hepatocyte growth factor and tissue-type plasminogen activator. The dissociation constants of these complexes were found to be within the same order of magnitude as the one for the plasminogen-tetranectin complex. The study also revealed that tetranectin did not interact with the kindred proteins: macrophage-stimulating protein, urokinase-type plasminogen activator and prothrombin. In order to examine the function of tetranectin, a kinetic analysis of the tPA-catalysed plasminogen activation was performed. The kinetic parameters of the tetranectin-stimulated enhancement of tPA were comparable to fibrinogen fragments, which are so far the best inducer of tPA-catalysed plasminogen activation. The enhanced activation was suggested to be caused by tetranectin's ability to bind and accumulate tPA in an active conformation. PMID:12694198

Westergaard, Uffe B; Andersen, Mikkel H; Heegaard, Christian W; Fedosov, Sergey N; Petersen, Torben E

2003-04-01

332

Staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid inhibits delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions via the platelet-activating factor receptor  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus infections are known triggers for skin inflammation and can modulate immune responses. The present studies used model systems consisting of platelet-activating factor receptor–positive and –negative (PAF-R–positive and –negative) cells and PAF-R–deficient mice to demonstrate that staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a constituent of Gram-positive bacteria cell walls, acts as a PAF-R agonist. We show that LTA stimulates an immediate intracellular Ca2+ flux only in PAF-R–positive cells. Intradermal injections of LTA and the PAF-R agonist 1-hexadecyl-2-N-methylcarbamoyl glycerophosphocholine (CPAF) induced cutaneous inflammation in wild-type but not PAF-R–deficient mice. Systemic exposure to LTA or CPAF inhibited delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions to the chemical dinitrofluorobenzene only in PAF-R–expressing mice. The inhibition of DTH reactions was abrogated by the addition of neutralizing antibodies to IL-10. Finally, we measured levels of LTA that were adequate to stimulate PAF-R in vitro on the skin of subjects with infected atopic dermatitis. Based on these studies, we propose that LTA exerts immunomodulatory effects via the PAF-R through production of the Th2 cytokine IL-10. These findings show a novel mechanism by which staphylococcal infections can inhibit Th1 reactions and thus worsen Th2 skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis.

Zhang, Qiwei; Mousdicas, Nico; Yi, Qiaofang; Al-Hassani, Mohammed; Billings, Steven D.; Perkins, Susan M.; Howard, Katherine M.; Ishii, Satoshi; Shimizu, Takao; Travers, Jeffrey B.

2005-01-01

333

Transgenic mice overexpressing insulin-like growth factor-II in ? cells develop type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

During embryonic development, insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) participates in the regulation of islet growth and differentiation. We generated transgenic mice (C57BL6/SJL) expressing IGF-II in ? cells under control of the rat Insulin I promoter in order to study the role of islet hyperplasia and hyperinsulinemia in the development of type 2 diabetes. In contrast to islets from control mice, islets from transgenic mice displayed high levels of IGF-II mRNA and protein. Pancreases from transgenic mice showed an increase in ?-cell mass (about 3-fold) and in insulin mRNA levels. However, the organization of cells within transgenic islets was disrupted, with glucagon-producing cells randomly distributed throughout the core. We also observed enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and glucose utilization in islets from transgenic mice. These mice displayed hyperinsulinemia, mild hyperglycemia, and altered glucose and insulin tolerance tests, and about 30% of these animals developed overt diabetes when fed a high-fat diet. Furthermore, transgenic mice obtained from the N1 backcross to C57KsJ mice showed high islet hyperplasia and insulin resistance, but they also developed fatty liver and obesity. These results indicate that local overexpression of IGF-II in islets might lead to type 2 diabetes and that islet hyperplasia and hypersecretion of insulin might occur early in the pathogenesis of this disease.

Devedjian, Jean-Christophe; George, Monica; Casellas, Alba; Pujol, Anna; Visa, Joana; Pelegrin, Mireia; Gros, Laurent; Bosch, Fatima

2000-01-01

334

Non-adherence to life-style modification and its factors among type 2 diabetic patients.  

PubMed

Non-adherence to preventive and therapeutic life-style recommendations among patients with diabetes is special challenge in the management of these patients. This study aimed to measure the proportion of non-adherence to life-style modification and factors associated with these among a group of Bangladeshi type 2 diabetic patients. Under an analytical cross-sectional design 374 type 2 diabetic patients (age >20 years), diagnosed for at least 1 year, were selected from different health care centers operated by the Diabetic Association of Bangladesh. Non-adherence rate were assessed for: Diet (88%), exercise (25%), routine blood glucose testing (32%), foot care (70%), smoking (6%) and betel quid chewing habit (25%). Binary logistic regression suggests that higher education group (P = 0.013), rural area (P = 0.013) and attendance to diabetes education classes (P = 0.043) showed good adherence to diet and non-attendance to diabetes education class (P = 0.014), older age (P = 0.037) are associated to non-adherence to exercise. Unemployed patients showed more non-adherence to blood glucose testing (P = 0.045) than others. Non-attendance to diabetes education class (P = 0.037) and business occupation group (P = 0.039) showed significant association to smoking and betel quid intake habit respectively. PMID:24748356

Mumu, Shirin Jahan; Saleh, Farzana; Ara, Ferdous; Afnan, Fadia; Ali, Liaquat

2014-01-01

335

Factors Associated for Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Korean Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in older Korean adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods A total of 226 older (age ?65 years) adults without a history of cerebrovascular disease or dementia participated in this study. Cognitive function was assessed with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Korean version (MoCA-K). A MoCA-K score <23 was defined as MCI. Results The prevalence of MCI was 32.7%. In a logistic regression analysis, age (?74 years old vs. 65-68 years old; odds ratio [OR], 3.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.55 to 8.82; P=0.003), educational background (college graduation vs. no school or elementary school graduation; OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.46; P=0.001), and systolic blood pressure (?135 mm Hg vs. ?120 mm Hg; OR, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.29 to 8.17; P=0.012) were associated with MCI. Conclusion More concentrated efforts focused on early detection and appropriate management of MCI may be required in older Korean adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Lee, Yun Jeong; Kang, Hye Mi; Kim, Na Kyung; Yang, Ju Yeon; Noh, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo

2014-01-01

336

Interest in different types of patients. What factors influence new-to-practice family physicians?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that influence new-to-practice family physicians to be particularly interested in certain types of patients. DESIGN: Qualitative study and cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Ontario family practices. PARTICIPANTS: Seven focus groups involved a volunteer sample of 34 physicians who completed family medicine residency training between 1984 and 1989. A convenience sample of 43 physicians who had completed their residencies between 1990 and 1992 were interviewed. All certificates of the College of Family Physicians of Canada currently practising in Ontario who received certification between 1989 and 1991 were surveyed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Physician interest as determined by scores on two scales: one labeled "Chronic/Older Patient," designed to assess special interest in geriatric patients, chronic pain patients, palliative care patients, and chronically ill patients, and one labeled "Young Patient," designed to assess special interest in young families and adolescents. RESULTS: In general, new-to-practice physicians had little interest in caring for older or chronic patients; older physicians and male physicians had greater interest in caring for chronic or older patients. Women physicians, physicians rating higher on the "empathy" and "interest in counseling" scale, and physicians receiving primarily fee-for-service remuneration showed greater interest in caring for young families and adolescents than other physicians. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians' age, sex, attitudes to patient care, method of remuneration, undergraduate and postgraduate schools of medical training, and the age and sex composition of their practices all influenced their interest in caring for different types of patients.

Cohen, M.; Woodward, C. A.; Ferrier, B.; Williams, A. P.

1996-01-01

337

[Characteristics and influencing factors of trichloroethylene adsorption in different soil types].  

PubMed

Adsorption plays an important role in the transport and the fate of trichloroethylene (TCE) in soil. Six types of soil, including two types of natural soil with different organic carbon content and four types of soil with the low aggregation of "soft carbon" pre-treated by hydrogen peroxide or with all organic carbon removed by high temperature ignition from the original soil, were adopted as adsorbents. The effects of parameters (organic carbon content and composition, minerals, the initial TCE concentration, solution pH, moisture content and ionic strength) on TCE adsorption capacity were examined. The results showed that the soil adsorption isotherm was non-linear within the experimental range. The TCE adsorption capacity was increased and the contribution rate of the minerals to the sorption was reduced with the increase of the organic carbon content. The adsorption of TCE in the soil was the result of the combined action of both organic carbon and minerals, in which organic carbon played a major part, whereas the role of minerals could not be neglected. As the initial TCE concentration increased, the contribution rate of the minerals to the sorption went down. The adsorption isotherm of "soft carbon" was linear, while the "hard carbon" was non-linear. Moreover, the adsorption capacity was increased by increasing the ionic strength. In contrast, neither pH nor moisture content had any influence on TCE adsorption. PMID:23323434

He, Long; Qiu, Zhao-Fu; Lü, Shu-Guang; Lu, Zhi-Chang; Wang, Zhi-Li; Sui, Qian; Lin, Kuang-Fei; Liu, Yong-Di

2012-11-01

338

Marine Food Pollutants as a Risk Factor for Hypoinsulinemia and Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background Some persistent environmental chemicals are suspected of causing an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, a disease particularly common after age 70. This concern was examined in a cross-sectional study of elderly subjects in a population with elevated contaminant exposures from seafood species high in the food chain. Methods Clinical examinations of 713 Faroese residents aged 70-74 years (64% of eligible population) included fasting plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin, and glycosylated hemoglobin. Lifetime exposure to persistent environmental chemicals from pilot whale and other traditional food was estimated from a dietary questionnaire and by analysis of blood samples for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related food contaminants. Results Septuagenarians with type 2 diabetes or impaired fasting glycemia tended to have higher PCB concentrations and higher past intake of traditional foods, especially during childhood and adolescence. In non-diabetic subjects, the fasting insulin concentration decreased by 7% (95% CI= ?12% to ?2%) for each doubling of the PCB concentration after adjustment for sex and body mass index at age 20. Conversely, the fasting glucose concentration increased by 6% (?1% to 13%) for each doubling in PCB. Similar associations were seen in subjects without impaired fasting glycemia, while further adjustment for current body mass index and lipid metabolism parameters attenuated some of the associations. Conclusions Impaired insulin secretion appears to constitute an important part of the type 2 diabetes pathogenesis associated with exposure to persistent lipophilic food contaminants.

Grandjean, Philippe; Henriksen, Jan Erik; Choi, Anna L.; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Dalgard, Christine; Nielsen, Flemming; Weihe, Pal

2011-01-01

339

Risk Factors for Childhood Overweight in Offspring of Type 1 Diabetic Women With Adequate Glycemic Control During Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Pregnancy in type 1 diabetic women remains a high-risk situation for both mother and child. In this study, we investigated long-term effects on body composition, prevalence of overweight, and insulin resistance in children of type 1 diabetic women who had had adequate glycemic control during pregnancy (mean A1C 6.2%), and we related their outcome to perinatal factors, including macrosomia (birth weight >90th percentile). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Anthropometric measurements were performed at 6–8 years of age in 213 offspring of type 1 diabetic mothers who participated in a previous nationwide study. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was determined from a fasting blood sample in 155 of these children. In addition, we studied BMI standard deviation score (SDS) growth trajectories. Results were compared with national reference data. RESULTS The prevalence of overweight in the study population was not different from that in the reference population. However, children who were born macrosomic showed twice as much overweight as nonmacrosomic children. Macrosomia and maternal overweight were independent predictors of childhood overweight. Overweight children showed an increase in BMI SDS starting already after 6 months of age and had a significantly increased HOMA-IR. CONCLUSIONS In type 1 diabetic women with adequate glycemic control during pregnancy, long-term effects on body composition and overweight in their offspring at school age are limited and related mainly to macrosomia at birth. Possible targets for prevention of childhood overweight are fetal macrosomia, maternal overweight, and an increase in BMI SDS during the first years of life.

Rijpert, Maarten; Evers, Inge M.; de Vroede, Monique A.M.J.; de Valk, Harold W.; Heijnen, Cobi J.; Visser, Gerard H.A.

2009-01-01

340

Compact Potentiometers Different Environmental Effects on Stability of 29 Manufactures and Types. Includes Carbon-, Cermet-, and Wire-Wound Types . Trimmepotentiometre Undersogelse AF 29 Fabrikaters Og Typers Stabilitet under Forskellige Miljpovirkninger. Omfatter Tradviklede, Cermet- Og Kultyper.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The characteristics of carbon, cermet, and wire-wound types of potentiometers are described. The stability qualities of the potentiometers when exposed to various environments are analyzed. Results of tests conducted on twenty nine potentiometers of diffe...

A. Bjerre

1972-01-01

341

Establishment of a serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) reference interval in healthy adults. The importance of environmental factors, including thyroid antibodies.  

PubMed

It has previously been shown that thyroid antibodies affect thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations in men and women and that TSH levels are predictive of future thyroid disease. We investigated the validity of the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines regarding the TSH reference interval by studying 1512 individuals. Two hundred and fifty had at least one thyroid antibody, 121 were taking medications other than estrogens and occasional analgesics, and 105 reported a family history of thyroid disease. Serum TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOab) and thyroglobulin antibodies (Tgab) were determined on AutoDELFIA and TSHRab by a radioreceptor assay (RRA) from Brahms Diagnostica. For individuals without thyroid antibodies and other risk factors, no effect of age and gender was seen for serum TSH. Neither medication nor the presence of Tgab alone had any influence on serum TSH. TPOab alone or in combination with Tgab were associated with an increased serum TSH level. The 'cumulative percentage distributions' of subgroups, as well as the combined population, was In-Gaussian distributed. The central 95% of the population was within the 95% CI in rankit-plots. Consequently, a common reference interval for serum TSH of 0.58-4.07 mlU/l for all adults between 17 and 66 years of age was established. This reference interval is much higher than expected from the NACB-guidelines. PMID:15327019

Jensen, Esther; Hyltoft Petersen, Per; Blaabjerg, Ole; Hansen, Pia Skov; Brix, Thomas H; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Hegedüs, Laszlo

2004-01-01

342

Translationally Invariant Calculations of Form Factors, Densities and Momentum Distributions for Finite Nuclei with Short-Range Correlations Included: A Fresh Look  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The approach proposed in the 70s (Dementiji et al. in Sov J Nucl Phys 22:6-9, 1976), when describing the elastic and inelastic electron scattering off 4 He, and elaborated in (Shebeko et al.in Eur Phys J A27:143-155, 2006) for calculations of the one-body, two-body and more complex density matrices of finite bound systems has been applied (Shebeko and Grigorov in Ukr J Phys 52:830-842, 2007; Shebeko et al. in Eur. Phys. J. A48:153-172, 2012) in studying a combined effect of the center-of-mass motion and nucleon-nucleon short-range correlations on the nucleon density and momentum distributions in light nuclei beyond the independent particle model. Unlike a common practice, suitable for infinite bound systems, these distributions are determined as expectation values of appropriate intrinsic operators that depend upon the relative coordinates and momenta (Jacobi variables) and act on the intrinsic ground-state wave functions (WFs). The latter are constructed in the so-called fixed center-of-mass approximation, starting with a mean-field Slater determinant modified by some correlator (e.g., after Jastrow or Villars). Our numerical calculations of the charge form factors (F CH (q)), densities and momentum distributions have been carried out for nuclei 4 He and 16 O choosing, respectively, the 1s and 1s-1p Slater determinants of the harmonic oscillator model as trial, nontranslationally invariant WFs.

Shebeko, A.; Grigorov, P.; Iurasov, V.

2014-02-01

343

Lineages of human T-cell clones, including T helper 17/T helper 1 cells, isolated at different stages of anti-factor VIII immune responses  

PubMed Central

The development of neutralizing antibodies (inhibitors) after factor VIII (FVIII) infusions is a serious complication that affects approximately one-quarter of hemophilia A patients who have access to replacement therapy. To investigate the differentiation of naive T cells into FVIII-specific helper T cells that promote B-cell activation and antibody secretion, HLA-DRA-DRB1*0101-restricted T-cell clones that respond to a specific epitope in FVIII were isolated from a mild hemophilia A subject (the proband) 19 weeks and 21 months after his development of a high-titer inhibitor. Clones responding to the same epitope were also isolated from his multiply infused brother, who has not developed a clinically significant inhibitor. The 19-week proband clones were T helper (TH)17/TH1- or TH1/TH2-polarized, whereas all 8 clones isolated 21 months postinhibitor development were TH2-polarized cells. In contrast, all 6 clones from the brother who did not develop an inhibitor were TH1-polarized, indicating that tolerance to FVIII can be maintained even with circulating TH1-polarized cells that respond vigorously to in vitro FVIII stimulation. This is the first evidence that TH17/TH1-polarized cells play a role in hemophilic immune responses to FVIII. Furthermore, this is the first report of successful isolation and expansion of antigen-specific human TH17/TH1 clones using standard culture conditions.

Ettinger, Ruth A.; James, Eddie A.; Kwok, William W.; Thompson, Arthur R.

2009-01-01

344

Kynurenine Pathway Pathologies: do Nicotinamide and Other Pathway Co-Factors have a Therapeutic Role in Reduction of Symptom Severity, Including Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) and Fibromyalgia (FM).  

PubMed

The definition of dual tryptophan pathways has increased the understanding of the mind-body, body-mind dichotomy. The serotonergic pathway highlights the primary (endogenous) psychiatric disorders. The up-regulation of the kynurenine pathway by physical illnesses can cause neuropathic and immunological disorders1 associated with secondary neuropsychiatric symptoms. Tryptophan and nicotinamide deficiencies fall within the protein energy malnutrition (PEM) spectrum. They can arise if the kynurenine pathway is stressed by primary or secondary inflammatory conditions and the consequent imbalance of available catabolic/anabolic substrates may adversely influence convalescent phase efficiency. The replacement of depleted or reduced NAD+ levels and other cofactors can perhaps improve the clinical management of these disorders. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia (FM) appear to meet the criteria of a tryptophan-kynurenine pathway disorder with potential neuroimmunological sequelae. Aspects of some of the putative precipitating factors have been previously outlined.2,3 An analysis of the areas of metabolic dysfunction will focus on future directions for research and management. PMID:23922501

Blankfield, Adele

2013-01-01

345

Potential crosstalk between insulin-like growth factor receptor type 1 and epidermal growth factor receptor in progression and metastasis of pancreatic cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The insulin-like growth factor receptor type 1 (IGF1R) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are reportedly overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. However, the correlation between activated EGFR and IGF1R and their clinicopathological implications still remain unclear. The cellular localization and overexpression of IGF1R and EGFR were investigated immunohistochemically in primary invasive ductal pancreatic carcinomas obtained from 74 patients who underwent radical

Shigeto Ueda; Kazuo Hatsuse; Hitoshi Tsuda; Sho Ogata; Nobuaki Kawarabayashi; Toshimichi Takigawa; Takahiro Einama; Daisaku Morita; Kazuhiko Fukatsu; Yoshiaki Sugiura; Osamu Matsubara; Hidetaka Mochizuki

2006-01-01

346

Pharmacological Analysis of Nod Factor-Induced Calcium Spiking in Medicago truncatula. Evidence for the Requirement of Type IIA Calcium Pumps and Phosphoinositide Signaling1  

PubMed Central

Bacterial Nod factors trigger a number of cellular responses in root hairs of compatible legume hosts, which include periodic, transient increases in cytosolic calcium levels, termed calcium spiking. We screened 13 pharmaceutical modulators of eukaryotic signal transduction for effects on Nod factor-induced calcium spiking. The purpose of this screening was 2-fold: to implicate enzymes required for Nod factor-induced calcium spiking in Medicago sp., and to identify inhibitors of calcium spiking suitable for correlating calcium spiking to other Nod factor responses to begin to understand the function of calcium spiking in Nod factor signal transduction. 2-Aminoethoxydiphenylborate, caffeine, cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), 2,5-di-(t-butyl)-1,4-hydroquinone, and U-73122 inhibit Nod factor-induced calcium spiking. CPA and U-73122 are inhibitors of plant type IIA calcium pumps and phospholipase C, respectively, and implicate the requirement for these enzymes in Nod factor-induced calcium spiking. CPA and U-73122 inhibit Nod factor-induced calcium spiking robustly at concentrations with no apparent toxicity to root hairs, making CPA and U-73122 suitable for testing whether calcium spiking is causal to subsequent Nod factor responses.

Engstrom, Eric M.; Ehrhardt, David W.; Mitra, Raka M.; Long, Sharon R.

2002-01-01

347

Gender differences in composite control of cardiovascular risk factors among patients with type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: Disparities in outcomes for cardiovascular disease (CVD) exist between men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We examined gender differences in composite control of cardiovascular risk factors in a sample of adults with T2DM. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 680 people recruited from three primary care settings. Primary outcomes were individual and composite control of CVD risk factors. Control of individual risk outcomes was defined as glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level of <7%, blood pressure (BP) of <130/80?mm Hg, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level of <100?mg/dL. Composite control was defined as having all three outcomes under control simultaneously. Linear and logistic regression models were used to assess differences in individual means and individual and composite outcomes control between men and women, while adjusting for relevant covariates. Results: Men made up 56% of the sample, approximately 67% were non-Hispanic black, and 78% made less than $35,000 annually. Unadjusted mean systolic BP (134?mm Hg vs. 130?mm Hg, P=0.005) and LDL cholesterol (99.7?mg/dL vs. 87.6?mg/dL, P<0.001) levels were significantly higher in women than in men. Adjusted linear regression showed mean diastolic BP (?=3.09; 95% confidence interval 0.56, 5.63) was significantly higher in women. Overall, 12.4% of the sample had composite control, and women had poorer composite control compared with men (5.9% vs. 17.3%). Adjusted logistic models showed that men were significantly more likely to have composite risk factor control (odds ratio 2.90; 95% confidence interval 1.37, 6.13) compared with women. Conclusions: In this sample of adults with T2DM, women had significantly lower composite control compared with men, when adjusting for relevant confounders. It is imperative that women are informed about CVD risk factors, educated on how to reduce them, and aggressively treated to avoid adverse outcomes. Additional research involving women is needed to explore and reduce disparities in CVD risk between men and women with T2DM. PMID:24735058

Strom Williams, Joni L; Lynch, Cheryl P; Winchester, Rhonda; Thomas, Leslie; Keith, Brad; Egede, Leonard E

2014-07-01

348

Heterogeneity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms Includes Expression of Ribosome Hibernation Factors in the Antibiotic-Tolerant Subpopulation and Hypoxia-Induced Stress Response in the Metabolically Active Population  

PubMed Central

Bacteria growing in biofilms are physiologically heterogeneous, due in part to their adaptation to local environmental conditions. Here, we characterized the local transcriptome responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa growing in biofilms by using a microarray analysis of isolated biofilm subpopulations. The results demonstrated that cells at the top of the biofilms had high mRNA abundances for genes involved in general metabolic functions, while mRNA levels for these housekeeping genes were low in cells at the bottom of the biofilms. Selective green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeling showed that cells at the top of the biofilm were actively dividing. However, the dividing cells had high mRNA levels for genes regulated by the hypoxia-induced regulator Anr. Slow-growing cells deep in the biofilms had little expression of Anr-regulated genes and may have experienced long-term anoxia. Transcripts for ribosomal proteins were associated primarily with the metabolically active cell fraction, while ribosomal RNAs were abundant throughout the biofilms, indicating that ribosomes are stably maintained even in slowly growing cells. Consistent with these results was the identification of mRNAs for ribosome hibernation factors (the rmf and PA4463 genes) at the bottom of the biofilms. The dormant biofilm cells of a P. aeruginosa ?rmf strain had decreased membrane integrity, as shown by propidium iodide staining. Using selective GFP labeling and cell sorting, we show that the dividing cells are more susceptible to killing by tobramycin and ciprofloxacin. The results demonstrate that in thick P. aeruginosa biofilms, cells are physiologically distinct spatially, with cells deep in the biofilm in a viable but antibiotic-tolerant slow-growth state.

Williamson, Kerry S.; Richards, Lee A.; Perez-Osorio, Ailyn C.; Pitts, Betsey; McInnerney, Kathleen; Stewart, Philip S.

2012-01-01

349

Patient and surgery related factors associated with fatigue type polyethylene wear on 49 PCA and DURACON retrievals at autopsy and revision  

PubMed Central

Background Polyethylene wear is an important factor for longevity of total knee arthroplasty. Proven and suspicious factors causing wear can be grouped as material, patient and surgery related. There are more studies correlating design and/or biomaterial factors to in vivo wear than those to patient and surgery related factors. Many retrieval studies just include revision implants and therefore may not be representative. This study is aimed to correlate patient- and surgery- related factors to visual wear score by minimizing design influence and include both autopsy and revision implants. Comparison between the groups was expected to unmask patient and surgery-related factors responsible for wear. Methods The amount of joint side wear on polyethylene retrievals was measured using a modification of an established visual wear score. Fatigue type wear was defined as summation of the most severe wear modes of delamination, pitting and cracks. Analysis of patient and surgery related variables suspicious to cause wear included prospectively sampled patient activity which was measured by self reported walking capacity. Statistical analysis was done by univariate analysis of variance. Activity level and implantation time were merged to an index of use and correlated to the wear score. Results Wear score after comparable implantation time was significantly less in the autopsy group. Even so, fatigue type wear accounted for 84 and 93 % of total wear score on autopsy and revision implants respectively. A highly significant influence on wear score was found in time of implantation (p = 0.002), level of activity (p = 0.025) and inserts belonging to revision group (p = 0.006). No influence was found for the kind of patella replacement (p = 0.483). Body mass index and accuracy of component alignment had no significant influence on visual wear score. Fatigue-type wear in the medial compartment was closely correlated to the index of use in the autopsy (R2 = 0.383) and the revision group (R2 = 0.813). Conclusion The present study's finding of substantial fatigue type wear in both autopsy and revision retrievals supports the theory that polyethylene fatigue strength is generally exceeded in this type of prosthesis. Furthermore, this study correlated fatigue-type polyethylene wear to an index of use as calculated by activity over time. Future retrieval studies may use activity over time as an important patient related factor correlated to the visual wear score. When evaluating total knee arthroplasty routine follow up, the surgeon must think of substantial wear present even without major clinical signs.

Rohrbach, Markus; Luem, Martin; Ochsner, Peter E

2008-01-01

350

The Effects of Different Correlation Types on Goodness-of-Fit Indices in First Order and Second Order Factor Analysis for Multiple Choice Test Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the effects of different correlation types (covariance and correlation matrix, obtained from Pearson, Goodman, and Tetrachoric) on goodness-of-fit indices in first order and second order factor analysis. The data included Math and Science subsets in Student Selection and Placement Examination for Secondary Education test administered in 2001 with the participation of 553108 students. A first-order and second-order

Halil Yurdugül

2007-01-01

351

Screen media time usage of 12–16 year-old Spanish school adolescents: Effects of personal and socioeconomic factors, season and type of day  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined screen media time usage (SMTU) and its association with personal and socioeconomic factors, as well as the effect of season and type of day, in a Spanish sample of 12–16 year-old school adolescents (N=323). The research design was a cross-sectional survey, in which an interviewer-administered recall questionnaire was used. Statistical analyses included repeated measures analyses of variance,

José Devís-Devís; Carmen Peiró-Velert; Vicente J. Beltrán-Carrillo; José Manuel Tomás

2009-01-01

352

The Quality of Different Types of Child Care at 10 and 18 Months: A Comparison between Types and Factors Related to Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The quality of care offered in four different types of non-parental child care to 307 infants at 10 months old and 331 infants at 18 months old was compared and factors associated with higher quality were identified. Observed quality was lowest in nurseries at each age point, except that at 18 months they offered more learning activities. There…

Leach, Penelope; Barnes, Jacqueline; Malmberg, Lars-Erik; Sylva, Kathy; Stein, Alan

2008-01-01

353

Vascular endothelial growth factor: an angiogenic factor reflecting airway inflammation in healthy smokers and in patients with bronchitis type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with bronchitis type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have raised vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in induced sputum. This has been associated with the pathogenesis of COPD through apoptotic and oxidative stress mechanisms. Since, chronic airway inflammation is an important pathological feature of COPD mainly initiated by cigarette smoking, aim of this study was to assess smoking as a potential cause of raised airway VEGF levels in bronchitis type COPD and to test the association between VEGF levels in induced sputum and airway inflammation in these patients. Methods 14 current smokers with bronchitis type COPD, 17 asymptomatic current smokers with normal spirometry and 16 non-smokers were included in the study. VEGF, IL-8, and TNF-? levels in induced sputum were measured and the correlations between these markers, as well as between VEGF levels and pulmonary function were assessed. Results The median concentrations of VEGF, IL-8, and TNF-? were significantly higher in induced sputum of COPD patients (1,070 pg/ml, 5.6 ng/ml and 50 pg/ml, respectively) compared to nonsmokers (260 pg/ml, 0.73 ng/ml, and 15.4 pg/ml, respectively, p < 0.05) and asymptomatic smokers (421 pg/ml, 1.27 ng/ml, p < 0.05, and 18.6 pg/ml, p > 0.05, respectively). Significant correlations were found between VEGF levels and pack years (r = 0.56, p = 0.046), IL-8 (r = 0.64, p = 0.026) and TNF-? (r = 0.62, p = 0.031) levels both in asymptomatic and COPD smokers (r = 0.66, p = 0.027, r = 0.67, p = 0.023, and r = 0.82, p = 0.002, respectively). No correlation was found between VEGF levels in sputum and pulmonary function parameters. Conclusion VEGF levels are raised in the airways of both asymptomatic and COPD smokers. The close correlation observed between VEGF levels in the airways and markers of airway inflammation in healthy smokers and in smokers with bronchitis type of COPD is suggestive of VEGF as a marker reflecting the inflammatory process that occurs in smoking subjects without alveolar destruction.

Rovina, Nikoletta; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Kollintza, Androniki; Michailidou, Makrina; Simoes, Davina CM; Roussos, Charis; Gratziou, Christina

2007-01-01

354

Risk of skin and soft tissue infections (including shingles) in patients exposed to anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy: results from the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register  

PubMed Central

Introduction Anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapy is a mainstay of treatment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In 2001, BSRBR was established to evaluate the safety of these agents. This paper addresses the safety of anti-TNF therapy in RA with specific reference to serious skin and soft tissue infections (SSSI) and shingles. Methods A cohort of anti-TNF-treated patients was recruited alongside a comparator group with active RA treated with non-biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (nbDMARD). 11 881 anti-TNF and 3673 nbDMARD patients were analysed. Follow-up was by 6-monthly questionnaires to patients and clinicians. Analyses considered SSSI and shingles separately. Incidence rates (IR) were calculated and then compared using survival analyses. Results The crude IR for SSSI were: anti-TNF 1.6/100 patient-years (95% CI 1.4 to 1.8); nbDMARD 0.7/100 patient-years (95% CI 0.5 to 1.0) and shingles: anti-TNF 1.6/100 patient-years (95% CI 1.3 to 2.0); nbDMARD 0.8/100 patient-years (95% CI 0.6 to 1.1). Adjusted HR were SSSI 1.4 (95% CI 0.9 to 2.4), shingles 1.8 (95% CI 1.2 to 2.8). For SSSI, no significant differences were seen between anti-TNF agents. For shingles, the lowest risk was observed for adalimumab (adjusted HR vs nbDMARD) 1.5 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.0) and highest for infliximab (HR 2.2; 95% CI 1.4 to 3.4)). Conclusion A significantly increased risk of shingles was observed in the anti-TNF-treated cohort. The risk of SSSI tended towards being greater with anti-TNF treatment but was not statistically significant. As with any observational dataset cause and effect cannot be established with certainty as residual confounding may remain. This finding would support the evaluation of zoster vaccination in this population.

Galloway, James B; Mercer, Louise K; Moseley, Alison; Dixon, William G; Ustianowski, Andrew P; Helbert, Matthew; Watson, Kath D; Lunt, Mark; Hyrich, Kimme L; Symmons, Deborah PM

2013-01-01

355

Alterations in the expression of leukemia inhibitory factor following exercise: comparisons between wild-type and mdx muscles.  

PubMed

Background: Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is a pleiotropic cytokine, belonging to the interleukin-6 family of cytokines, that has been suggested to have positive effects on myogenesis following injury and to minimise dystrophic pathology in mdx mice. Previous reports have suggested that Lif mRNA is up-regulated in the limb and diaphragm muscles of mdx mice, in human cases of dystrophy and acutely following exercise. This study examined expression of Lif mRNA in the quadriceps muscles of mdx and wild-type mice that were either sedentary or allowed to exercise voluntarily for two weeks. Results: Exercise caused a decrease in Lif mRNA expression in wild-type muscle, but this was not the case in mdx muscle. Lif mRNA levels in sedentary mdx mice were similar to those in exercised wild type muscles, and in mdx mice there was no further decrease in levels following exercise. Similar down-regulation of Lif mRNA was observed in the tibialis anterior and diaphragm muscles of mdx mice at three and six weeks of age respectively, compared with wild-type controls. Transcripts for the LIF receptor (Lifr) were also down-regulated in these mdx muscles, suggesting LIF activity may be minimised in dystrophic muscle. However fluorescent immunohistochemical labeling of LIF did not correlate with transcript expression data, as LIF immunoreactivity could not be detected in wild-type muscle, where mRNA expression was high, but was present in dystrophic muscle where mRNA expression was low. This study also described the translocation of membrane proteins, including LIFR, to the nuclei of syncytial muscle cells during differentiation and fusion. In addition this study demonstrates that survival of donor myoblasts injected into dystrophic muscle was enhanced by co-administration of recombinant LIF.Conclusions: This study provides new evidence to support a role for LIF in normal muscle biology in response to exercise. Although expression levels of Lif transcript in mdx muscles were not consistent with previous studies, the detection of LIF protein in mdx muscle but not wild-type muscle supports a role for LIF in dystrophy. This study also provides evidence of the differential localisation of the LIFR, and the potential for anti-inflammatory actions of LIF that promote survival of transplanted myoblasts in dystrophic muscle.*corresponding author: Jason White, Muscular Dystrophy Research Group, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute; email: jasondw@unimelb.edu.au. PMID:22183053

Hunt, Liam C; Anthea Coles, Chantal; Gorman, Christopher M; Tudor, Elizabeth M; Smythe, Gayle M; White, Jason D

2011-01-01

356

Alterations in the expression of leukemia inhibitory factor following exercise: comparisons between wild-type and mdx muscles  

PubMed Central

Background: Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is a pleiotropic cytokine, belonging to the interleukin-6 family of cytokines, that has been suggested to have positive effects on myogenesis following injury and to minimise dystrophic pathology in mdx mice. Previous reports have suggested that Lif mRNA is up-regulated in the limb and diaphragm muscles of mdx mice, in human cases of dystrophy and acutely following exercise. This study examined expression of Lif mRNA in the quadriceps muscles of mdx and wild-type mice that were either sedentary or allowed to exercise voluntarily for two weeks. Results: Exercise caused a decrease in Lif mRNA expression in wild-type muscle, but this was not the case in mdx muscle. Lif mRNA levels in sedentary mdx mice were similar to those in exercised wild type muscles, and in mdx mice there was no further decrease in levels following exercise. Similar down-regulation of Lif mRNA was observed in the tibialis anterior and diaphragm muscles of mdx mice at three and six weeks of age respectively, compared with wild-type controls. Transcripts for the LIF receptor (Lifr) were also down-regulated in these mdx muscles, suggesting LIF activity may be minimised in dystrophic muscle. However fluorescent immunohistochemical labeling of LIF did not correlate with transcript expression data, as LIF immunoreactivity could not be detected in wild-type muscle, where mRNA expression was high, but was present in dystrophic muscle where mRNA expression was low. This study also described the translocation of membrane proteins, including LIFR, to the nuclei of syncytial muscle cells during differentiation and fusion. In addition this study demonstrates that survival of donor myoblasts injected into dystrophic muscle was enhanced by co-administration of recombinant LIF. Conclusions: This study provides new evidence to support a role for LIF in normal muscle biology in response to exercise. Although expression levels of Lif transcript in mdx muscles were not consistent with previous studies, the detection of LIF protein in mdx muscle but not wild-type muscle supports a role for LIF in dystrophy. This study also provides evidence of the differential localisation of the LIFR, and the potential for anti-inflammatory actions of LIF that promote survival of transplanted myoblasts in dystrophic muscle. *corresponding author: Jason White, Muscular Dystrophy Research Group, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute; email: jasondw@unimelb.edu.au

Hunt, Liam C; Anthea Coles, Chantal; Gorman, Christopher M; Tudor, Elizabeth M; Smythe, Gayle M; White, Jason D

2011-01-01

357

Comparison of coagulation factors and blood loss between O and non-O blood types following hydroxyethyl starch infusion  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals with type O blood are more likely to have reduced factor VIII and von Willebrand factor levels compared to their non-O counterparts. Hydroxyethyl starch (HES), which is widely used for blood volume replacement, can induce coagulopathy. Therefore, we tested whether blood type O patients show more coagulopathy and blood loss than non-O patients after infusion of 6% HES. Methods Thirty-four non-O and 20 type O patients scheduled for posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) involving 3 vertebrae or less from June 2007 to August 2008 were enrolled. Fifteen ml/kg of 6% HES was administered during the operation. Coagulation profiles was checked at pre-infusion (T0), 5 min after the end of infusion (T1), 3 hr after the end of infusion (T2), and 24 hr after the end of infusion (T3). Bleeding was measured during and after surgery for 24 hours. Results Baseline factor VIII concentration was lower and aPTT was longer in type O patients compared to those of non-O patients. 6% HES infusion decreased most of the coagulation factors at T1 in both groups, which were recovered in a time dependent manner. Factor VIII and aPTT of blood type O patients fell off the normal range at T1. However, other coagulation factors, thromboelastography variables, and blood loss were not different between the groups. Conclusions Despite inborn low factor VIII which further decreased shortly after HES infusion, blood type O patients did not show more blood loss than non-O blood type after 15 ml/kg of HES infusion in PLIF surgery.

Choi, Soo Joo; Lee, Jae Ik

2010-01-01

358

Genetic characterisation of extended-spectrum ?-lactamases in Escherichia coli isolated from retail chicken products including CTX-M-9 containing isolates: a food safety risk factor.  

PubMed

1. Bacterial resistance to ?-lactam antibiotics has risen dramatically in Escherichia coli from food animals. In a previous study, 29 randomly selected chicken products, collected in Portugal, were analysed for the presence of extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs)-producing E. coli; and during this study the genetic characterisation of ESBLs genes was investigated. 2. The presence of genes encoding TEM, OXA, SHV, and CTX-M type beta-lactamases was studied by PCR followed by sequencing. Additionally, other mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance, phylogenetic groups and the presence of virulence determinants were evaluated among the isolates. 3. ?-lactamases genes were identified as follows: bla (CTX-M-14) (n?=?4), bla (CTX-M-1) (n?=?2), bla (CTX-M-9) (n?=?4) and bla (TEM-52) (n?=?13). Mutations at positions -42, -18, -1, and +58 of ampC promoter region were identified in 4 non-ESBL-producing isolates. The tet(A) or tet(B) genes were identified in all tetracycline-resistant isolates; the aadA gene detected in 8 of 10 streptomycin-resistant isolates; the aac(3)-II gene in all gentamicin-resistant isolates; the cmlA gene in the chloramphenicol-resistant isolate; and sul1 and/or sul2 and/or sul3 genes were found in all trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistant isolates. The intI1 gene was detected in 8 trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistant isolates and the intI2 gene in 4 isolates; one gene cassette arrangements were identified among class 1 integrons (dfrA1?+?aadA1) and among the class 2 integrons (dfrA1?+?sat2?+?aadA1). Among cefotaxime-resistant isolates, 16 belonged to A or B1 phylogenetic groups, while 11 isolates were classified into the D or B2 phylogroups. At least one virulence-associated gene (aer, fimA, or papC) was detected in 74·1% of the cefotaxime-resistant isolates. 4. Because ESBLs-producing bacteria are resistant to a broad range of ?-lactams, infections caused by these organisms complicate therapy and limit treatment options. PMID:23398418

Silva, N; Costa, L; Gonçalves, A; Sousa, M; Radhouani, H; Brito, F; Igrejas, G; Poeta, P

2012-01-01

359

Wild Type p53 Transcriptionally Represses the SALL2 Transcription Factor under Genotoxic Stress  

PubMed Central

SALL2- a member of the Spalt gene family- is a poorly characterized transcription factor found deregulated in various cancers, which suggests it plays a role in the disease. We previously identified SALL2 as a novel interacting protein of neurotrophin receptors and showed that it plays a role in neuronal function, which does not necessarily explain why or how SALL2 is deregulated in cancer. Previous evidences indicate that SALL2 gene is regulated by the WT1 and AP4 transcription factors. Here, we identified SALL2 as a novel downstream target of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. Bioinformatic analysis of the SALL2 gene revealed several putative p53 half sites along the promoter region. Either overexpression of wild-type p53 or induction of the endogenous p53 by the genotoxic agent doxorubicin repressed SALL2 promoter activity in various cell lines. However R175H, R249S, and R248W p53 mutants, frequently found in the tumors of cancer patients, were unable to repress SALL2 promoter activity, suggesting that p53 specific binding to DNA is important for the regulation of SALL2. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated binding of p53 to one of the identified p53 half sites in the Sall2 promoter, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed in vivo interaction of p53 with the promoter region of Sall2 containing this half site. Importantly, by using a p53ERTAM knockin model expressing a variant of p53 that is completely dependent on 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen for its activity, we show that p53 activation diminished SALL2 RNA and protein levels during genotoxic cellular stress in primary mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) and radiosensitive tissues in vivo. Thus, our finding indicates that p53 represses SALL2 expression in a context-specific manner, adding knowledge to the understanding of SALL2 gene regulation, and to a potential mechanism for its deregulation in cancer.

Farkas, Carlos; Martins, Carla P.; Escobar, David; Hepp, Matias I.; Donner, David B.; Castro, Ariel F.; Evan, Gerard; Gutierrez, Jose L.; Warren, Robert; Pincheira, Roxana

2013-01-01

360

Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Mitral Annular Calcification in Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Objective Mitral annular calcification (MAC) is a degenerative process of the mitral fibrous annulus associated with cardiac disease and stroke. Although thought to be more prevalent in type 2 diabetes (T2DM), MAC remains poorly characterized in this population, due to confounding by renal and cardiac disease. Our goal was to study the risk factors for MAC in asample of T2DM subjects without renal and cardiac disease. Methods The Penn Diabetes Heart Study (PDHS) is a cross-sectional study of diabetic individuals without clinical cardiovascular or renal disease. We quantified and analyzed MAC Agatston scores in baseline cardiac CTs from 1753 individuals. Logistic and tobit regression were used to assess MAC’s relationship with risk factors and coronary artery calcification (CAC). Results MAC was present in 12.0% of -subjects, with a median Agatston score of 72.3 [Interquartile range (22.2 256.9)]. Older age, diabetes female gender, Caucasian race, and longer duration were independently associated with both the presence and extent MAC even after controlling for the CAC; hypertension, hyperlipidemia, comorbidities however, tobacco use, CRP levels, and other were not associated. CAC was strongly associated with MAC [OR of 4.0, (95% CI 2.4-6.6)] in multivariable models. Conclusions Age, AC female gender, Caucasian race, and diabetes duration were associated with the presence and extent of MAC in T2DM subjects, independent of CAC, which was also strongly associated with MAC. These data suggest that additional mechanisms for MAC formation in diabetics may exist which are distinct from those related to generalized atherosclerosis and deserve further investigation.

Qasim, Atif N.; Rafeek, Hashmi; Rasania, Suraj P.; Churchill, Timothy W.; Yang, Wei; Ferrari, Victor A.; Jha, Saurabh; Master, Stephen; Mulvey, Claire K.; Terembula, Karen; Dailing, Chris; Budoff, Matthew J; Kawut, Steven; Reilly, Muredach P.

2013-01-01

361

Impact of Environmental Factors and Biological Soil Crust Types on Soil Respiration in a Desert Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

The responses of soil respiration to environmental conditions have been studied extensively in various ecosystems. However, little is known about the impacts of temperature and moisture on soils respiration under biological soil crusts. In this study, CO2 efflux from biologically-crusted soils was measured continuously with an automated chamber system in Ningxia, northwest China, from June to October 2012. The highest soil respiration was observed in lichen-crusted soil (0.93±0.43 µmol m?2 s?1) and the lowest values in algae-crusted soil (0.73±0.31 µmol m?2 s?1). Over the diurnal scale, soil respiration was highest in the morning whereas soil temperature was highest in the midday, which resulted in diurnal hysteresis between the two variables. In addition, the lag time between soil respiration and soil temperature was negatively correlated with the soil volumetric water content and was reduced as soil water content increased. Over the seasonal scale, daily mean nighttime soil respiration was positively correlated with soil temperature when moisture exceeded 0.075 and 0.085 m3 m?3 in lichen- and moss-crusted soil, respectively. However, moisture did not affect on soil respiration in algae-crusted soil during the study period. Daily mean nighttime soil respiration normalized by soil temperature increased with water content in lichen- and moss-crusted soil. Our results indicated that different types of biological soil crusts could affect response of soil respiration to environmental factors. There is a need to consider the spatial distribution of different types of biological soil crusts and their relative contributions to the total C budgets at the ecosystem or landscape level.

Feng, Wei; Zhang, Yuqing; Jia, Xin; Wu, Bin; Zha, Tianshan; Qin, Shugao; Wang, Ben; Shao, Chenxi; Liu, Jiabin; Fa, Keyu

2014-01-01

362

Localization of hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 in Langhans' cells of human placenta.  

PubMed

Activation of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a crucial limiting step in HGF-induced signaling pathway. The HGF activator inhibitor type 1 (HAI-1) was identified as a potent inhibitor of HGF activator (HGFA), a serine proteinase that is responsible for the activation of HGF in vivo. HAI-1 is an integral membrane Kunitz-type serine proteinase inhibitor, and its mRNA has been reported to be most abundant in the placenta. In this report, specific antibody to HAI-1 was used in an immunohistochemical procedure to determine the localization of HAI-I in human placenta. HAI-1 was expressed in cytotrophoblasts (Langhans' cells) of the double-layered trophoblastic epithelium of chorionic villi tissue, and syncytiotrophoblasts were almost negative. On the other hand, extravillous trophoblasts of cytotrophoblastic columns showed markedly decreased immunoreactivity, and those infiltrating into the superficial decidua membrane of early placenta were hardly stainable. The amnionic epithelial cells were also immunostained intensely. The presence of HAI-1 mRNA was also confirmed in a cultured human cytotrophoblastic cell line. In addition to HAI-1, low but distinct expression of HGFA mRNA was observed in the placenta tissue and cultured cytotrophoblasts by using a sensitive RT-PCR method. Since HGF plays an essential role in the placenta development, expression of HAI-1 and HGFA may have an important regulatory role in the placenta. The localization of HAI-I in the proliferating trophoblastic stem cells (Langhans' cells), but not in syncytiotrophoblasts and extravillous trophoblasts, suggest a possible role of HAI-1 in the proliferation of trophoblasts. PMID:11201608

Kataoka, H; Meng, J Y; Itoh, H; Hamasuna, R; Shimomura, T; Suganuma, T; Koono, M

2000-12-01

363

Differential activation of neuronal cell types in the basolateral amygdala by corticotropin releasing factor.  

PubMed

Enhanced corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) release in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) is strongly associated with the generation of behavioral stress responses through activation of the CRF-R1 receptor subtype. Stress and anxiety-like behavior are modulated in part by the balance of peptide actions such as excitatory CRF and inhibitory neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor activation in the BLA. While the actions of CRF are clear, little is known about the cell type influenced by CRF receptor stimulation. These studies were designed to identify the cell types within the BLA activated by intra-BLA administration of CRF using multi-label immunohistochemistry for cFos and markers for pyramidal (CaMKII-immunopositive) and interneuronal [glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65)] cell populations. Administration of CRF into the BLA produced a dose-dependent increase in the expression of cFos-ir. Intra-BLA injection of CRF induced significant increases in cFos-ir in the CaMKII-ir population. Although increases in cFos-ir in GAD65-ir cells were observed, this did not reach statistical significance perhaps in part due to the decreased numbers of GAD65-ir cells within the BLA after CRF treatment. These findings demonstrate that CRF, when released into the BLA, activates projection neurons and that the activity of GABAergic interneurons is also altered by CRF treatment. Decreases in the number of GAD65-ir neurons could reflect either increased or decreased activity of these cells and future studies will more directly address these possibilities. The expression of cFos is associated with longer term regulation of gene expression which may be involved in the profound long term effects of neuropeptides, such as CRF, on the activity and plasticity of BLA pyramidal neurons. PMID:23688647

Rostkowski, Amanda B; Leitermann, Randy J; Urban, Janice H

2013-08-01

364

Impact of environmental factors and biological soil crust types on soil respiration in a desert ecosystem.  

PubMed

The responses of soil respiration to environmental conditions have been studied extensively in various ecosystems. However, little is known about the impacts of temperature and moisture on soils respiration under biological soil crusts. In this study, CO2 efflux from biologically-crusted soils was measured continuously with an automated chamber system in Ningxia, northwest China, from June to October 2012. The highest soil respiration was observed in lichen-crusted soil (0.93±0.43 µmol m-2 s-1) and the lowest values in algae-crusted soil (0.73±0.31 µmol m-2 s-1). Over the diurnal scale, soil respiration was highest in the morning whereas soil temperature was highest in the midday, which resulted in diurnal hysteresis between the two variables. In addition, the lag time between soil respiration and soil temperature was negatively correlated with the soil volumetric water content and was reduced as soil water content increased. Over the seasonal scale, daily mean nighttime soil respiration was positively correlated with soil temperature when moisture exceeded 0.075 and 0.085 m3 m-3 in lichen- and moss-crusted soil, respectively. However, moisture did not affect on soil respiration in algae-crusted soil during the study period. Daily mean nighttime soil respiration normalized by soil temperature increased with water content in lichen- and moss-crusted soil. Our results indicated that different types of biological soil crusts could affect response of soil respiration to environmental factors. There is a need to consider the spatial distribution of different types of biological soil crusts and their relative contributions to the total C budgets at the ecosystem or landscape level. PMID:25050837

Feng, Wei; Zhang, Yuqing; Jia, Xin; Wu, Bin; Zha, Tianshan; Qin, Shugao; Wang, Ben; Shao, Chenxi; Liu, Jiabin; Fa, Keyu

2014-01-01

365

Cholinergic Abnormalities, Endosomal Alterations and Up-Regulation of Nerve Growth Factor Signaling in Niemann-Pick Type C Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Neurotrophins and their receptors regulate several aspects of the developing and mature nervous system, including neuronal morphology and survival. Neurotrophin receptors are active in signaling endosomes, which are organelles that propagate neurotrophin signaling along neuronal processes. Defects in the Npc1 gene are associated with the accumulation of cholesterol and lipids in late endosomes and lysosomes, leading to neurodegeneration and Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease. The aim of this work was to assess whether the endosomal and lysosomal alterations observed in NPC disease disrupt neurotrophin signaling. As models, we used i) NPC1-deficient mice to evaluate the central cholinergic septo-hippocampal pathway and its response to nerve growth factor (NGF) after axotomy and ii) PC12 cells treated with U18666A, a pharmacological cellular model of NPC, stimulated with NGF. Results NPC1-deficient cholinergic cells respond to NGF after axotomy and exhibit increased levels of choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), whose gene is under the control of NGF signaling, compared to wild type cholinergic neurons. This finding was correlated with increased ChAT and phosphorylated Akt in basal forebrain homogenates. In addition, we found that cholinergic neurons from NPC1-deficient mice had disrupted neuronal morphology, suggesting early signs of neurodegeneration. Consistently, PC12 cells treated with U18666A presented a clear NPC cellular phenotype with a prominent endocytic dysfunction that includes an increased size of TrkA-containing endosomes and reduced recycling of the receptor. This result correlates with increased sensitivity to NGF, and, in particular, with up-regulation of the Akt and PLC-? signaling pathways, increased neurite extension, increased phosphorylation of tau protein and cell death when PC12 cells are differentiated and treated with U18666A. Conclusions Our results suggest that the NPC cellular phenotype causes neuronal dysfunction through the abnormal up-regulation of survival pathways, which causes the perturbation of signaling cascades and anomalous phosphorylation of the cytoskeleton.

2012-01-01

366

Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2 Deletion Impairs Glucose Tolerance and Exacerbates Hyperglycemia in Type 1 Diabetic MiceS?  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) induces a battery of cytoprotective genes after oxidative stress. Nrf2 aids in liver regeneration by altering insulin signaling; however, whether Nrf2 participates in hepatic glucose homeostasis is unknown. Compared with wild-type mice, mice lacking Nrf2 (Nrf2-null) have lower basal serum insulin and prolonged hyperglycemia in response to an intraperitoneal glucose challenge. In the present study, blood glucose, serum insulin, urine flow rate, and hepatic expression of glucose-related genes were quantified in male diabetic wild-type and Nrf2-null mice. Type 1 diabetes was induced with a single intraperitoneal dose (200 mg/kg) of streptozotocin (STZ). Histopathology and serum insulin levels confirmed depleted pancreatic ?-cells in STZ-treated mice of both genotypes. Five days after STZ, Nrf2-null mice had higher blood glucose levels than wild-type mice. Nine days after STZ, polyuria occurred in both genotypes with more urine output from Nrf2-null mice (11-fold) than wild-type mice (7-fold). Moreover, STZ-treated Nrf2-null mice had higher levels of serum ?-hydroxybutyrate, triglycerides, and fatty acids 10 days after STZ compared with wild-type mice. STZ reduced hepatic glycogen in both genotypes, with less observed in Nrf2-null mice. Increased urine output and blood glucose in STZ-treated Nrf2-null mice corresponded with enhanced gluconeogenesis (glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase)- and reduced glycolysis (pyruvate kinase)-related mRNA expression in their livers. Furthermore, the Nrf2 activator oltipraz lowered blood glucose in wild-type but not Nrf2-null mice administered STZ. Collectively, these data indicate that the absence of Nrf2 worsens hyperglycemia in type I diabetic mice and Nrf2 may represent a therapeutic target for reducing circulating glucose levels.

Aleksunes, Lauren M.; Reisman, Scott A.; Yeager, Ronnie L.; Goedken, Michael J.

2010-01-01

367

Translational control of the activation of transcription factor NF-?B and production of type I interferon by phosphorylation of the translation factor eIF4E  

PubMed Central

Type I interferon is an integral component of the antiviral response, and its production is tightly controlled at the levels of transcription and translation. The translation-initiation factor eIF4E is a rate-limiting factor whose activity is regulated by phosphorylation of Ser209. Here we found that mice and fibroblasts in which eIF4E cannot be phosphorylated were less susceptible to virus infection. More production of type I interferon, resulting from less translation of Nfkbia mRNA (which encodes the inhibitor I?B?), largely explained this phenotype. The lower abundance of I?B? resulted in enhanced activity of the transcription factor NF-?B, which promoted the production of IFN-?. Thus, phosphorylation of eIF4E has a key role in antiviral host defense by selectively stimulating the translation of mRNA that encodes a critical suppressor of the innate antiviral response.

Svitkin, Yuri V; Rosenfeld, Amy B; Kobayashi, Mariko; Walsh, Derek; Alain, Tommy; Sean, Polen; Robichaud, Nathaniel; Topisirovic, Ivan; Furic, Luc; Dowling, Ryan J O; Sylvestre, Annie; Rong, Liwei; Colina, Rodney; Costa-Mattioli, Mauro; Fritz, Jorg H; Olivier, Martin; Brown, Earl; Mohr, Ian; Sonenberg, Nahum

2014-01-01

368

Regional hemodynamic actions of selective corticotropin-releasing factor type 2 receptor ligands in conscious rats.  

PubMed

In conscious male Sprague-Dawley rats, we compared regional hemodynamic actions of the selective corticotropin-releasing factor type 2 (CRF(2)) receptor ligands human and mouse urocortin 2 (hUCN2 and mUCN2, respectively) with those of CRF. Bolus i.v. doses of 3 and 30 pmol kg(-1) hUCN2, mUCN2, or CRF had no significant hemodynamic actions, but at doses of 300 and 3000 pmol kg(-1), all three peptides caused dose-dependent tachycardia and hypotension, with rapid-onset, short-duration, mesenteric vasodilatation and slower-onset, more prolonged hindquarters vasodilatation but little or no change in renal vascular conductance. Pretreatment with the nonselective CRF receptor antagonist astressin or the selective CRF(2) receptor antagonist antisauvagine 30 abolished all the cardiovascular actions of all three peptides. Indomethacin had no effect on responses to hUCN2, and there was no evidence for any involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in the vasodilator actions of hUCN2. There was no evidence that recruitment of angiotensin- and endothelin-mediated vasoconstrictor mechanisms counteracted the vascular actions of hUCN2. The results indicate that the hemodynamic effects of i.v. hUCN2, mUCN2, and CRF depend on activation of CRF(2) receptors and do not involve NO or prostanoids. PMID:15328375

Gardiner, Sheila M; March, Julie E; Kemp, Philip A; Davenport, Anthony P; Wiley, Katherine E; Bennett, Terence

2005-01-01

369

Factors in the design of centrifugal type injection valves for oil engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This research was undertaken in connection with a general study of the application of the fuel injection engine to aircraft. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the effect of four important factors in the design of a centrifugal type automatic injection valve on the penetration, general shape, and distribution of oil sprays. The general method employed was to record the development of single sprays by means of special high-speed photographic apparatus capable of taking 25 consecutive pictures of the moving spray at a rate of 4,000 per second. Investigations were made concerning the effects on spray characteristics, of the helix angle of helical grooves, the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the orifice to that of the grooves, the ratio of orifice length to diameter, and the position of the seat. Maximum spray penetration was obtained with a ratio of orifice length to diameter of about 1.5. Slightly greater penetration was obtained with the seat directly before the orifice.

Joachim, W F; Beardsley, E G

1928-01-01

370

Null leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR) mutations in Stuve-Wiedemann/Schwartz-Jampel type 2 syndrome.  

PubMed

Stuve-Wiedemann syndrome (SWS) is a severe autosomal recessive condition characterized by bowing of the long bones, with cortical thickening, flared metaphyses with coarsened trabecular pattern, camptodactyly, respiratory distress, feeding difficulties, and hyperthermic episodes responsible for early lethality. Clinical overlap with Schwartz-Jampel type 2 syndrome (SJS2) has suggested that SWS and SJS2 could be allelic disorders. Through studying a series of 19 families with SWS/SJS2, we have mapped the disease gene to chromosome 5p13.1 at locus D5S418 (Zmax=10.66 at theta =0) and have identified null mutations in the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR or gp190 chain) gene. A total of 14 distinct mutations were identified in the 19 families. An identical frameshift insertion (653_654insT) was identified in families from the United Arab Emirates, suggesting a founder effect in that region. It is interesting that 12/14 mutations predicted premature termination of translation. Functional studies indicated that these mutations alter the stability of LIFR messenger RNA transcripts, resulting in the absence of the LIFR protein and in the impairment of the JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway in patient cells. We conclude, therefore, that SWS and SJS2 represent a single clinically and genetically homogeneous condition due to null mutations in the LIFR gene on chromosome 5p13. PMID:14740318

Dagoneau, Nathalie; Scheffer, Deborah; Huber, Céline; Al-Gazali, Lihadh I; Di Rocco, Maja; Godard, Anne; Martinovic, Jelena; Raas-Rothschild, Annick; Sigaudy, Sabine; Unger, Sheila; Nicole, Sophie; Fontaine, Bertrand; Taupin, Jean-Luc; Moreau, Jean-François; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Le Merrer, Martine; Bonaventure, Jacky; Munnich, Arnold; Legeai-Mallet, Laurence; Cormier-Daire, Valérie

2004-02-01

371

[Herpes simplex virus type 1 as risk factor associated to Alzheimer disease].  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is ubiquitous, neurotropic, and the most common pathogenic cause of sporadic acute encephalitis in humans. Herpes simplex encephalitis is associated with a high mortality rate and significant neurological, neuropsychological, and neurobehavioral sequels. HSV-1 infects limbic system structures in the central nervous system (CNS), and has been suggested as an environmental risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. The possibility that HSV-1 reactivates in CNS neurons causing chronic progressive damage at cellular level and altering the neuronal functionality has not