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1

Putative Quorum-Sensing Regulator BlxR of Brucella melitensis Regulates Virulence Factors Including the Type IV Secretion System and Flagella? †  

PubMed Central

Brucella melitensis is an intracellular pathogen that establishes a replicative niche within macrophages. While the intracellular lifestyle of Brucella is poorly understood and few virulence factors have been identified, components of a quorum-sensing pathway in Brucella have recently been identified. The LuxR-type regulatory protein, VjbR, and an N-acylhomoserine lactone signaling molecule are both involved in regulating expression of the virB-encoded type IV secretion system. We have identified a second LuxR-type regulatory protein (BlxR) in Brucella. Microarray analysis of a blxR mutant suggests that BlxR regulates the expression of a number of genes, including those encoding the type IV secretion system and flagella. Confirming these results, deletion of blxR in B. melitensis reduced the transcriptional activities of promoters for the virB operon, flagellar genes, and another putative virulence factor gene, bopA. Furthermore, our data suggested that both BlxR and VjbR are positively autoregulated and cross-regulate the expression of each other. The blxR deletion strain exhibited reduced growth in macrophages, similar to that observed for a vjbR deletion strain. However, unlike the vjbR deletion, the blxR deletion did not fully attenuate virulence in mice. More strikingly, bioluminescent imaging revealed that dissemination of the blxR mutant was similar to that of wild-type B. melitensis, while the vjbR mutant was defective for systemic spread in IRF-1?/? mice, suggesting that these regulators are not functionally redundant but that they converge in a common pathway regulating bacterial processes. PMID:18310341

Rambow-Larsen, Amy A.; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Petersen, Erik; Splitter, Gary

2008-01-01

2

Include All 4 Types of Exercise (Endurance, Strength, Balance, Flexibility)  

MedlinePLUS

... nih.gov/Go4Life ENDURANCE FLEXIBILITY STRENGTH BALANCE Include All 4 Types of Exercise Exercise generally falls into ... physical activity plan—this will help you incorporate all four types of exercise into your daily routine. ...

3

Factors of importance for dynamic balance impairment and frequency of falls in individuals with myotonic dystrophy type 1 - a cross-sectional study - including reference values of Timed Up & Go, 10m walk and step test.  

PubMed

Patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 suffer from gait difficulties including stumbles and falls. To identify factors of importance for balance impairment and fall-risk a mapping of functional balance was performed, in a cross-sectional study of 51 adults. Walking, balance, falls and muscle force were self-assessed and measured. Reference values of balance were established through measurements of 220 healthy subjects. Falls were more frequently observed in the patients who were more severely affected of muscle weakness than in mildly affected patients, p=0.014. The number of falls showed negative correlation with balance confidence (rs=-0.516, p<0.001). The ankle dorsiflexor force together with the time difference between comfortable and maximum speed in 10m-walk proved to be significant factors for fall frequency. A ten Newton muscle force decrease showed 15% increase in odds ratio for frequent falls. One-second increase in time difference between comfortable and maximum walking speed showed 42% increase in odds ratio for frequent falls. In conclusion, assessing the ankle muscle force and the time difference in different walking speeds is important to detect risk of falling. The activities-specific balance confidence score reflects the consequences of the muscle force decrease. Certain patient strategies to diminish risk of falling could be due. PMID:24412157

Hammarén, Elisabet; Kjellby-Wendt, Gunilla; Kowalski, Jan; Lindberg, Christopher

2014-03-01

4

Hydraulic testing of Type Q septifoils including modifications  

SciTech Connect

On May 25, 1992 a leak of moderator was detected as K Reactor was approaching initial criticality. The partial length control rods were being withdrawn when the leak detectors in the Process Room alarmed. The apparent location of the moderator leak was the top of the guide tubes which are positioned over the new Type Q septifoils. The reactor was shut down immediately. In response, a testing program was begun at the Heat Transfer Laboratory (HTL). The goals of the program were to determine the cause of the septifoil leak and to test methods for preventing future leaks. These tests are described in this report.

Steimke, J.L.; Fowley, M.D.; Guerrero, H.N.

1992-09-01

5

Proprotein conversion is determined by a multiplicity of factors including convertase processing, substrate specificity, and intracellular environment. Cell type-specific processing of human prorenin by the convertase PC1.  

PubMed

Proprotein and prohormone processing at pairs of basic residues is generally thought to be both tissue- and precursor-specific and to be developmentally regulated. Furin, PC1 (also called PC3), and PC2 represent three recently discovered subtilisin-like proteinases which cleave a number of precursors at the same pairs of basic residues normally processed in vivo. Using human prorenin as a model, we show that PC1 can process it to active renin in cells containing secretory granules, such as the somatomammotroph cell line GH4, but not in cells which lack granules, such as the Chinese hamster ovary or African green monkey kidney epithelial (BSC-40) cell lines. In contrast, in both cell types, human prorenin is not activated by either PC2 or furin. Using the vaccinia virus expression system, biosynthetic labeling experiments demonstrated that PC1 and PC2 are themselves cleaved intracellularly at pairs of basic residues and that these two proenzymes are processed to different extents independent of whether the cell line contains dense core secretory granules. Furthermore, we also show that the cells mostly secrete the cleaved forms of PC1 and PC2, and that intracellularly the pro- form of PC2 predominates. Our data demonstrate that propeptide removal from these enzymes, possibly leading to their activation, is not the only criterion which governs precursor processing. PMID:1597471

Benjannet, S; Reudelhuber, T; Mercure, C; Rondeau, N; Chrétien, M; Seidah, N G

1992-06-01

6

DISTINCTIONS The unique combination of factors which distinguish Berea includes  

E-print Network

throughout Appala- chia. SUSTAINABLE CAMPUS FEATURES The College environment demonstrates sustainable living in the Sustainability and Environmental Studies (SENS) program participate in the development of sustainable communities and enhances student learning. Recently renovated historical buildings and residence halls include sustain

Baltisberger, Jay H.

7

Factors associated with Type I and Type II endometrial cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective We investigated risk factors for Type II (n = 176) vs. Type I (n = 1,576) endometrial cancer (EC) in cases treated at Magee-Womens Hospital between 1996 and 2008. Methods Clinical data were available from the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) Network Cancer Registry. Logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted odds of having Type II EC vs. Type I EC. Risk factors of interest in this analysis were age, race, body mass index (BMI), year of diagnosis, parity, menopausal status, and history of additional primary tumors. Results Relative to women with Type I EC, women with Type II EC were more likely to be older at diagnosis (OR: 1.03 per 1 year increase in age, 95% CI 1.01–1.05), of non-white race (OR: 2.95, 95% CI 1.66–5.27), have a history of additional primary tumors (OR: 1.56, 95% CI 1.05–2.32), and less likely to be obese (OR: 0.45, 95% CI 0.29–0.70). Conclusion In this large retrospective cohort of patients with EC, the striking difference in risk factors associated with Type II vs. Type I tumors suggests that these subtypes represent different disease entities that require different treatment modalities. Currently, Type II cases have a significantly worse prognosis compared to Type I. Further characterization of risk factors associated with developing Type II tumors is needed to prevent this aggressive malignancy. PMID:20628804

Weissfeld, Joel L.; Stone, Roslyn A.; Bowser, Robert; Chivukula, Mamatha; Edwards, Robert P.; Linkov, Faina

2010-01-01

8

Photovoltaic Device Including A Boron Doping Profile In An I-Type Layer  

DOEpatents

A photovoltaic cell for use in a single junction or multijunction photovoltaic device, which includes a p-type layer of a semiconductor compound including silicon, an i-type layer of an amorphous semiconductor compound including silicon, and an n-type layer of a semiconductor compound including silicon formed on the i-type layer. The i-type layer including an undoped first sublayer formed on the p-type layer, and a boron-doped second sublayer formed on the first sublayer.

Yang, Liyou (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1993-10-26

9

Recycle Batteries CSM recycles a variety of battery types including automotive, sealed lead acid, nickel  

E-print Network

Battery Per Bag Please sort the batteries by battery type, using a separate receptacle for nickel cadmiumRecycle Batteries CSM recycles a variety of battery types including automotive, sealed lead acid, and alkaline batteries. All batteries need to be sorted by battery type. Each battery type must be accumulated

10

#include #include  

E-print Network

variables: int i, j, p, ndp, nmp, myndp, pivi, psumsize; double startwtime, endwtime; NestStep_init( &argc = #; ndp = N / p; nmp = N % p; if ($ nmp) myndp = ndp+1; else myndp = ndp; A = new_DArray( N, Type

Kessler, Christoph

11

Oneyear reserve risk including a tail factor: closed formula and bootstrap approaches  

E-print Network

1 Oneyear reserve risk including a tail factor: closed formula and bootstrap approaches reserve risk, and describe the bootstrap method providing an empirical distribution of a tail factor in the bootstrap procedure. We demonstrate the equivalence with existing analytical

12

78 FR 26847 - Including Specific Pavement Types in Federal-aid Highway Traffic Noise Analyses  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration [FHWA Docket No. FHWA-2013-0014...Including Specific Pavement Types in Federal-aid Highway Traffic Noise Analyses AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION:...

2013-05-08

13

Abstract--Digitization of production factors, including the knowledge for knowledge workers and consumers, opens almost  

E-print Network

and consumers, opens almost infinite potential to connect persons, systems, processes, enterprises, products of new services innovation. New results proposed include a formulation of new micro-economic productionAbstract--Digitization of production factors, including the knowledge for knowledge workers

Hsu, Cheng

14

Safety First Safety Last Safety Always Aerial lifts include the following types of vehicle-mounted  

E-print Network

lifts Link: Occupational Safety and Health Administration www.osha.gov #12;Safety First Safety Last Safety Always Aerial lifts include the following types of vehicle, if they can be installed safely. Aerial Lifts Safety Tip #11 A spill, a slip, a hospital trip #12;Additional

Minnesota, University of

15

A Study of Factors Promoting Success in Computer Science Including Gender Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine factors that promote success in an introductory college computer science course and to determine what, if any, differences appear between genders on those factors. The model included math background, attribution for success\\/failure, self-efficacy, encouragement, comfort level in the course, work style preference, previous programming exp- erience, previous non-programming computer experience, and gender as possible

Brenda Cantwell Wilson

2002-01-01

16

Amplification of progenitors in the mammalian telencephalon includes a new radial glial cell type  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms governing the expansion of neuron number in specific brain regions are still poorly understood. Enlarged neuron numbers in different species are often anticipated by increased numbers of progenitors dividing in the subventricular zone. Here we present live imaging analysis of radial glial cells and their progeny in the ventral telencephalon, the region with the largest subventricular zone in the murine brain during neurogenesis. We observe lineage amplification by a new type of progenitor, including bipolar radial glial cells dividing at subapical positions and generating further proliferating progeny. The frequency of this new type of progenitor is increased not only in larger clones of the mouse lateral ganglionic eminence but also in cerebral cortices of gyrated species, and upon inducing gyrification in the murine cerebral cortex. This implies key roles of this new type of radial glia in ontogeny and phylogeny. PMID:23839311

Pilz, Gregor-Alexander; Shitamukai, Atsunori; Reillo, Isabel; Pacary, Emilie; Schwausch, Julia; Stahl, Ronny; Ninkovic, Jovica; Snippert, Hugo J.; Clevers, Hans; Godinho, Leanne; Guillemot, Francois; Borrell, Victor; Matsuzaki, Fumio; Gotz, Magdalena

2013-01-01

17

Efficacy assessment of a new clotting factor concentrate in haemophilia A patients, including prophylactic treatment.  

PubMed

Currently, efficacy of a new factor concentrate is mostly judged by its ability to achieve haemostasis after a bleeding episode. However, in patients on prophylaxis, the effectiveness in preventing bleeds, and thus joint damage, is most important. An albumin-free recombinant factor VIII (FVIII) concentrate was introduced in the Netherlands in 2004. In this study, the efficacy of a new recombinant plasma/albumin-free FVIII concentrate (rAHF-PFM, Advate) was assessed by comparing bleeding frequency and factor consumption before and after switching to the new product, on both prophylactic and on-demand treatment. Eighty-two previously treated haemophilia A patients with at least 1-year clinical follow-up were included in this study. Data on 410 patient-years were analysed, including 165 patient-years on other clotting factor products, and 245 patient-years on the new concentrate. In total, 19 628 368 IU of other factor concentrates were administered, to treat 839 bleeds, including 578 joint bleeds and cover 104 years of prophylactic treatment. For rAHF-PFM 33 082 250 IU FVIII, were used to treat 1144 bleeds, including 734 joint bleeds and cover 175 years of prophylactic treatment. No inhibitors, seroconversions or other serious adverse events were observed. Annual FVIII consumption per kg and annual number of joint bleeds before and after switching to the new albumin-free recombinant factor concentrate were similar in all patients. In conclusion, rAHF-PFM is equally effective as other clotting factor concentrates for prophylactic treatment in severe haemophilia. PMID:19686467

Den Uijl, I; Mauser-Bunschoten, E P; Roosendaal, G; Schutgens, R; Fischer, K

2009-11-01

18

Analytical expressions for the gate utilization factors of passive multiplicity counters including signal build-up  

SciTech Connect

In the realm of nuclear safeguards, passive neutron multiplicity counting using shift register pulse train analysis to nondestructively quantify Pu in product materials is a familiar and widely applied technique. The approach most commonly taken is to construct a neutron detector consisting of {sup 3}He filled cylindrical proportional counters embedded in a high density polyethylene moderator. Fast neutrons from the item enter the moderator and are quickly slowed down, on timescales of the order of 1-2 {micro}s, creating a thermal population which then persists typically for several 10's {micro}s and is sampled by the {sup 3}He detectors. Because the initial transient is of comparatively short duration it has been traditional to treat it as instantaneous and furthermore to approximate the subsequent capture time distribution as exponential in shape. With these approximations simple expressions for the various Gate Utilization Factors (GUFs) can be obtained. These factors represent the proportion of time correlated events i.e. Doubles and Triples signal present in the pulse train that is detected by the coincidence gate structure chosen (predelay and gate width settings of the multiplicity shift register). More complicated expressions can be derived by generalizing the capture time distribution to multiple time components or harmonics typically present in real systems. When it comes to applying passive neutron multiplicity methods to extremely intense (i.e. high emission rate and highly multiplying) neutron sources there is a drive to use detector types with very fast response characteristics in order to cope with the high rates. In addition to short pulse width, detectors with a short capture time profile are also desirable so that a short coincidence gate width can be set in order to reduce the chance or Accidental coincidence signal. In extreme cases, such as might be realized using boron loaded scintillators, the dieaway time may be so short that the build-up (thermalization transient) within the detector cannot be ignored. Another example where signal build-up might be observed is when a {sup 3}He based system is used to track the evolution of the time correlated signal created by a higher multiplying item within a reflective configuration such as the measurement of a spent fuel assembly. In this work we develop expressions for the GUFs which include signal build-up.

Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Evans, Louise G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schear, Melissa A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

19

Children and Adolescents' Internal Models of Food-Sharing Behavior Include Complex Evaluations of Contextual Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined internal representations of food sharing in 589 children and adolescents (8-19 years of age). Questionnaires, depicting a variety of contexts in which one person was asked to share a resource with another, were used to examine participants' expectations of food-sharing behavior. Factors that were varied included the value of the resource, the relation between the two depicted

Henry Markovits; Joyce F. Benenson; Donald L. Kramer

2003-01-01

20

A Study of Factors Promoting Success in Computer Science Including Gender Differences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was conducted to determine factors that promote success in an introductory college computer science course and to determine what, if any, differences appear between genders on those factors. The model included math background, attribution for success/failure, self-efficacy, encouragement, comfort level in the course, work style preference, previous programming experience, previous non-programming computer experience, and gender as possible predictive factors for success in the computer science course. Subjects included 105 students enrolled in an introductory computer science course. The study revealed three predictive factors in the following order of importance: comfort level (with a positive influence), math background (with a positive influence), and attribution to luck (with a negative influence). No significant gender differences were found in these three factors. The study also revealed that both a formal class in programming (which had a positive correlation) and game playing (which had a negative correlation) were predictive of success. The study revealed a significant gender difference in game playing with males reporting more experience with playing games on the computer than females reported.

Cantwell Wilson, Brenda

2002-03-01

21

25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include? 170...Policy and Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?...

2010-04-01

22

P and n-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including band gap widening elements, devices utilizing same  

DOEpatents

An n-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including a band gap widening element; a method of fabricating p-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including a band gap widening element; and electronic and photovoltaic devices incorporating said n-type and p-type materials.

Guha, Subhendu (Troy, MI); Ovshinsky, Stanford R. (Bloomfield Hills, MI)

1988-10-04

23

Defining a non-concrete recursive type in HOL which includes Tanja Vos and Doaitse Swierstra  

E-print Network

approach for defining a new type in HOL 2 2 The general approach for defining a new type in HOL The approach to defining a new logical type as described in [Mel89], involves the following three steps: 1. find an appropriate non-empty subset of an existing type to represent the new type 2. extend the syntax

Utrecht, Universiteit

24

Defining a nonconcrete recursive type in HOL which includes Tanja Vos and Doaitse Swierstra  

E-print Network

The general approach for defining a new type in HOL 2 2 The general approach for defining a new type in HOL The approach to defining a new logical type as described in [Mel89], involves the following three steps: 1. find an appropriate non­empty subset of an existing type to represent the new type 2. extend the syntax

Utrecht, Universiteit

25

Outcome and Prognostic Factors in T4a Oropharyngeal Carcinoma, Including the Role of HPV Infection  

PubMed Central

Background. The prognosis of patients with advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPSCC) is generally poor. The aim of this study is to investigate the different therapeutic approaches and identify prognostic factors associated with a worse outcome for patients treated for T4a OPSCC, in order to improve treatment selection for the individual. Methods. A retrospective study was conducted on 426 patients with T4a OPC treated between 1980 and 2010. Eleven prognostic factors including treatment modality, lymph node staging, and p16 status as a surrogate marker for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection were analyzed. Results. Univariate analysis showed a significant difference in DSS between N0 and N+ (57.1% versus 26.9%, P < 0.001), primary surgical and primary nonsurgical treatment (52.7% versus 31.4%, P < 0.001), and perinodal invasion (51.7% versus 19.9%, P = 0.011). P16-negative patients tended towards a worse DSS than p16-positive patients (40.2% versus 64.6%, P = 0.126) but responded better to primary surgery than to nonsurgical treatment (71.4% versus 34.0%, P = 0.113). Multivariate analysis identified the N category as an independent prognostic factor for survival. Conclusion. The survival of p16-negative patients was worse than p16-positive patients, although they seem to respond better to primary surgery. The strongest independent prognostic factor for T4a carcinomas proved to be the presence of lymph node metastases. PMID:24800220

Agaimy, Abbas; Mangold, Elisabeth; Zenk, Johannes; Iro, Heinrich

2014-01-01

26

Q-Type Factor Analysis of Healthy Aged Men.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Q-type factor analysis was used to re-analyze baseline data collected in 1957, on 47 men aged 65-91. Q-type analysis is the use of factor methods to study persons rather than tests. Although 550 variables were originally studied involving psychiatry, medicine, cerebral metabolism and chemistry, personality, audiometry, dichotic and diotic memory,…

Kleban, Morton H.

27

Type 2 Diabetes in Children: Clinical Aspects and Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, type 2 diabetes mellitus was considered a disease of adults and older individuals, not a paediatric condition. Over the last decade, however, in the USA and the rest of the world there has been a disturbing trend of increasing cases of type 2 diabetes in children, mirroring increasing rates of obesity. The risk factors for paediatric type

Silva Arslanian

2002-01-01

28

Detrusor underactivity is prevalent after radical prostatectomy: A urodynamic study including risk factors  

PubMed Central

Introduction The objective was to determine the prevalence of, and factors that predict, detrusor underactivity (DU) in patients presenting with incontinence or lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) following radical prostatectomy (RP). We also determined the prevalence of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) and detrusor overactivity (DO) in this population. Methods: Patients who underwent urodynamics post-RP were identified. Detrusor underactivity was defined as a maximum flow rate (Qmax) of ?15 mL/s and detrusor pressure (Pdet) Qmax <20 cmH20 or maximum Pdet <20 cmH20 during attempted voiding. Abdominal voiding (AV) was defined as sustained increase in abdominal pressure during voiding. Bladder outlet obstruction and DO were identified using the Abrams-Griffiths nomogram and the International Continence Society criteria. Univariate logistic regression was used to determine factors predicting DU. The following factors were analyzed: age, year of RP, procedure type (minimally-invasive surgery [MIS] or open), postoperative radiation, nerve-sparing, clinical stage, biopsy Gleason grade and interval between RP and evaluation. Results: Between 2005 and 2008, 264 patients underwent urodynamics post-RP. Detrusor underactivity was observed in 108 patients (41%; 95% CI 35%, 47%), of whom 48% demonstrated AV. Overall, BOO and DO were present in 17% (95% CI 12%, 22%) and 27% (95% CI 22%, 33%), respectively. On univariate analysis, only MIS RP was predictive of DU (univariate odds ratio 2.05 for MIS vs. open; p = 0.009). Conclusions: Detrusor underactivity and AV are common in patients presenting for evaluation of incontinence or LUTS following RP. The etiology of DU in this setting is likely related to the surgical approach. Because DU may affect the success of male incontinence treatment with the male sling or artificial urinary sphincter, it is useful to document its presence prior to treatment. More studies are needed to elucidate the influence of DU on treatment success for male urinary incontinence following RP. PMID:22277630

Chung, Doreen E.; Dillon, Benjamin; Kurta, Jordan; Maschino, Alexandra; Cronin, Angel; Sandhu, Jaspreet S.

2013-01-01

29

Detrusor underactivity is prevalent after radical prostatectomy: a urodynamic study including risk factors.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION: The objective was to determine the prevalence of, and factors that predict, detrusor underactivity (DU) in patients presenting with incontinence or lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) following radical prostatectomy (RP). We also determined the prevalence of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) and detrusor overactivity (DO) in this population. METHODS: Patients who underwent urodynamics post-RP were identified. Detrusor underactivity was defined as a maximum flow rate (Qmax) of ? 15 mL/s and detrusor pressure (Pdet) Qmax <20 cmH20 or maximum Pdet <20 cmH20 during attempted voiding. Abdominal voiding (AV) was defined as sustained increase in abdominal pressure during voiding. Bladder outlet obstruction and DO were identified using the Abrams-Griffiths nomogram and the International Continence Society criteria. Univariate logistic regression was used to determine factors predicting DU. The following factors were analyzed: age, year of RP, procedure type (minimally-invasive surgery [MIS] or open), postoperative radiation, nerve-sparing, clinical stage, biopsy Gleason grade and interval between RP and evaluation. RESULTS: Between 2005 and 2008, 264 patients underwent urodynamics post-RP. Detrusor underactivity was observed in 108 patients (41%; 95% CI 35%, 47%), of whom 48% demonstrated AV. Overall, BOO and DO were present in 17% (95% CI 12%, 22%) and 27% (95% CI 22%, 33%), respectively. On univariate analysis, only MIS RP was predictive of DU (univariate odds ratio 2.05 for MIS vs. open; p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Detrusor underactivity and AV are common in patients presenting for evaluation of incontinence or LUTS following RP. The etiology of DU in this setting is likely related to the surgical approach. Because DU may affect the success of male incontinence treatment with the male sling or artificial urinary sphincter, it is useful to document its presence prior to treatment. More studies are needed to elucidate the influence of DU on treatment success for male urinary incontinence following RP. PMID:22277630

Chung, Doreen E; Dillon, Benjamin; Kurta, Jordan; Maschino, Alexandra; Cronin, Angel; Sandhu, Jaspreet S

2012-01-24

30

10 CFR 719.6 - Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part...719.6 Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part? Matters not covered by this part include:...

2012-01-01

31

10 CFR 719.6 - Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part...719.6 Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part? Matters not covered by this part include:...

2013-01-01

32

10 CFR 719.6 - Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part?  

... false Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part...719.6 Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part? Legal matters not covered by this part include:...

2014-01-01

33

10 CFR 719.6 - Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part...719.6 Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part? Matters not covered by this part include:...

2010-01-01

34

10 CFR 719.6 - Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part...719.6 Are there any types of legal matters not included in the coverage of this part? Matters not covered by this part include:...

2011-01-01

35

Analysis of the lifted weight including height and frequency factors for workers in Colombia.  

PubMed

Factors related to the height of the load and the frequency of handling have become a way to predict the acceptable standard weight lifted for workers whose main task is the manual lifting of materials and measuring the conditions is important to determine a maximum weight lifted. This study was conducted to twenty (20) workers between eighteen (18) and forty (40) years old with a minimum six months experience and belonging to the warehouse and packaging area of a dairy products company. Consideration was given to three different heights such as knuckle, shoulder and total height as well as frequencies of 2, 4 and 6 times per minute. Average values for lifted weight were 17.9306 ± 2.37 kg. The conclusions and recommendations included a review of legislation related to Colombian maximum acceptable weight of lifting due to the current law does not match the acceptable weight handled in this research. PMID:22316950

Saavedra-Robinson, Luisa; Quintana, Leonardo A J; Fortunato Leal, Luis Díaz; Niño, María

2012-01-01

36

Thermoelectric material including a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure  

DOEpatents

A thermoelectric material includes a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure having the formula A.sub.8TM.sub.y.sub.1.sup.1TM.sub.y.sub.2.sup.2 . . . TM.sub.y.sub.n.sup.nM.sub.zX.sub.46-y.sub.1.sub.-y.sub.2.sub.- . . . -y.sub.n.sub.-z. In the formula, A is selected from the group consisting of barium, strontium, and europium; X is selected from the group consisting of silicon, germanium, and tin; M is selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, and indium; TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, and TM.sup.n are independently selected from the group consisting of 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metals; and y.sub.1, y.sub.2, y.sub.n and Z are actual compositions of TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, TM.sup.n, and M, respectively. The actual compositions are based upon nominal compositions derived from the following equation: z=8q.sub.A-|.DELTA.q.sub.1|y.sub.1-|.DELTA.q.sub.2|y.sub.2- . . . -|.DELTA.q.sub.n|y.sub.n, wherein q.sub.A is a charge state of A, and wherein .DELTA.q.sub.1, .DELTA.q.sub.2, .DELTA.q.sub.n are, respectively, the nominal charge state of the first, second, and n-th TM.

Yang, Jihui (Lakeshore, CA); Shi, Xun (Troy, MI); Bai, Shengqiang (Shanghai, CN); Zhang, Wenqing (Shanghai, CN); Chen, Lidong (Shanghai, CN); Yang, Jiong (Shanghai, CN)

2012-01-17

37

Should intrastate funding formulae for the Older Americans Act include a rural factor?  

PubMed

Most states maintain an Intrastate Funding Formula (IFF) to allocate Older Americans Act funds to planning and service areas within their state. The intention of these formulae is to target resources to those elders in the greatest economic and social need. To achieve this objective, the vast majority of states include measures of age, income, and race in their IFFs. In contrast, the inclusion of a geographic or rural factor is much more controversial. This research was initiated to determine if there was empirical support for the argument that residence influences the need for services after controlling for those factors commonly used by most states in their IFFs. Using data from the Supplement on Aging to the 1984 National Health Interview Survey, the results demonstrate that residing in a nonmetropolitan area increases the likelihood of poor health and the need for services after controlling for age, income, and race. Results also indicate that collectively the four predictor variables account for a very small proportion of the variance in need. PMID:7890200

Coward, R T; Vogel, W B; Duncan, R P; Uttaro, R

1995-02-01

38

Rotating bits including a plurality of types of preferential cutting elements  

SciTech Connect

A rotating bit, particularly a rotary bit, is provided with a plurality of teeth incorporating diamond cutting elements of a first and second type. Each type of tooth is particularly adapted to cut a particular type of rock formation. For example, the plurality of the first type of teeth are particularly designed to cut soft to medium-hard rock formations, and the plurality of the second type of teeth are particularly adapted to cut hard or abrasive rock formations. In one embodiment, the first type of teeth are set on the bit face to have a greater exposure from the bit face than the second type of teeth. In that case, the first type of teeth will engage the rock formation first. A second embodiment has the relative disposition of the first and second types of teeth as measured by their disposition from the axis of rotation on the bit reversed. In the case where the teeth, which are adapted for hard rock cutting, extend furthermost from the bit, the rock formation first comes into contact with these teeth and if it should be a hard rock formation, primary cutting action will be accomplished with the hard rock cutting teeth, while the soft rock cutting teeth are held out of contact from the formation to minimize wear of these softer rock cutting teeth. However, when a soft rock formation is encountered, the hard rock teeth will fully embed into the softer rock formation, thereby allowing full engagement of the softer rock formation cutting teeth.

Bidegaray, D. A.

1985-04-23

39

48 CFR 16.104 - Factors in selecting contract types.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...requirement recurs or as quantity production begins, the cost risk should... If urgency is a primary factor, the Government may choose...of performance or length of production run. In times of economic...proposed contract type. This factor may be critical— (1)...

2011-10-01

40

Psychosocial Factors Associated with Types of Child Maltreatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This explanatory, descriptive study examines whether a relationship exists between certain psychosocial factors or clusters of factors and parents' or caregivers' behaviors regarding the type of maltreatment inflicted on a child. This study examines physical abuse, neglect, and both physical abuse and neglect cases. Results show that physical…

DiLauro, Michelle D.

2004-01-01

41

Targeted deletion of liver glucose-6 phosphatase mimics glycogen storage disease type 1a including development of multiple adenomas  

E-print Network

.rajas@univ-lyon1.fr Running title: Liver glycogen storage disease 1a mouse model Electronic word count: 5450 Number deletion of liver glucose-6 phosphatase mimics glycogen storage disease type 1a including development subunit of G6Pase (G6PC), Glycogen storage disease type 1a (GSD1a), wild type (wt), Non esterified fatty

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

42

Of mice and (wo)men: factors influencing successful implantation including endocannabinoids.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND One in six couples suffer from infertility problems requiring in vitro fertilization therapy; however, the average birth rates in the past decade per IVF-embryo transfer cycle have remained static at around 25%. Although implantation failure is considered a major cause of infertility in otherwise healthy women, inadequate uterine receptivity is considered to be responsible for only two-thirds of implantation failures and problems with the embryo itself are responsible for the other third, such that only 30% of oocytes that are contacted by sperm result in successful human term pregnancies. Due to technical and ethical considerations, most research into the factors affecting the success of embryo implantation has been performed in mice, but this may be less than ideal. METHODS Selected relevant literature detailing the similarities and differences between rodent and human reproductive physiology surrounding implantation were nominated for inclusion. Primary papers and review articles (and primary sources within these), published between 1975 and 2012, with a clear indication for a particular ligand or cell being involved in the implantation process or placentation in the mouse or woman, were thoroughly examined and used to construct the review. RESULTS Mice have been identified as suitable models for investigating the processes of early pregnancy in women, for many reasons including their predictable, relatively short gestation and the ability to deliberately breed mice with the absence of a desired gene. There is, however, increasing evidence to suggest that the reproductive systems of humans and mice differ considerably when considering early pregnancy events. CONCLUSIONS In this review, we examine what is already known about the normal implantation process and the intrinsic factors that affect implantation, and then compare the differences between mice models and women in the context of early pregnancy. We highlight numerous differences between the mice and women and conclude it is becoming clear that all of the data from mouse studies cannot be confidently extrapolated to human reproduction. PMID:24306146

Melford, Sarah E; Taylor, Anthony H; Konje, Justin C

2014-01-01

43

Type D Personality: A Five-Factor Model Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the position of Type D (high Negative Affectivity and high Social Inhibition) within the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality. A sample of 155 healthy subjects were administered the Type D Scale and the NEO-FFI, assessing the FFM traits. Subjects also filled out the General Health Questionnaire and the Job Stress Survey. Negative Affectivity was positively correlated with

Filip De Fruyt; Johan Denollet

2002-01-01

44

A decision support system prototype including human factors based on the TOGA meta-theory approach  

SciTech Connect

The human contribution to the risk of operation of complex technological systems is often not negligible and sometimes tends to become significant, as shown by many reports on incidents and accidents occurred in the past inside Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). An error of a human operator of a NPP can derive by both omission and commission. For instance, complex commission errors can also lead to significant catastrophic technological accidents, as for the case of the Three Mile Island accident. Typically, the problem is analyzed by focusing on the single event chain that has provoked the incident or accident. What is needed is a general framework able to include as many parameters as possible, i.e. both technological and human factors. Such a general model could allow to envisage an omission or commission error before it can happen or, alternatively, suggest preferred actions to do in order to take countermeasures to neutralize the effect of the error before it becomes critical. In this paper, a preliminary Decision Support System (DSS) based on the so-called (-) TOGA meta-theory approach is presented. The application of such a theory to the management of nuclear power plants has been presented in the previous ICAPP 2011. Here, a human factor simulator prototype is proposed in order to include the effect of human errors in the decision path. The DSS has been developed using a TRIGA research reactor as reference plant, and implemented using the LabVIEW programming environment and the Finite State Machine (FSM) model The proposed DSS shows how to apply the Universal Reasoning Paradigm (URP) and the Universal Management Paradigm (UMP) to a real plant context. The DSS receives inputs from instrumentation data and gives as output a suggested decision. It is obtained as the result of an internal elaborating process based on a performance function. The latter, describes the degree of satisfaction and efficiency, which are dependent on the level of responsibility related to each professional role. As an application, we present the simulation of the discussed error, e.g. the unchecked extraction of the control rods during a power variation maneuver and we show how the effect of human errors can affect the performance function, giving rise to different countermeasures which could call different operator figures into play, potentially not envisaged in the standard procedure. (authors)

Cappelli, M.; Memmi, F. [UTFISST, ENEA Casaccia, via Anguillarese 301, Rome (Italy); Gadomski, A. M. [ECONA, Centro Interuniv. Elaborazione Cognitiva Sistemi Naturali e Artificiali, via dei Marsi 47, Rome (Italy); Sepielli, M. [UTFISST, ENEA Casaccia, via Anguillarese 301, Rome (Italy)

2012-07-01

45

Compact pulley-type microring resonator with high quality factor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pulley-type microring resonator with ultra-small dimensions and ultra-high quality factor on a silicon-on-insulator wafer is fabricated and characterized. Simulation results show that the bending loss of the pulley-type microring resonator can be diminished by wrapping the curved waveguide around the microring, and that the energy loss from the output port can be decreased by tuning the width of the bus waveguide to achieve destructive interference. A quality factor of 1.73 × 105 is obtained in this experiment. The compact size of the pulley-type microring resonator with low bending loss is suitable for an integrated optical circuit.

Cai, Dong-Po; Lu, Jyun-Hong; Chen, Chii-Chang; Lee, Chien-Chieh; Lin, Chu-En; Yen, Ta-Jen

2014-11-01

46

Benefits of caloric restriction for cardiometabolic health, including type 2 diabetes mellitus risk.  

PubMed

In the United States, life expectancy has markedly increased during the past century, and population ageing is expected to double within the next 25?years. The process of ageing in a population is associated with the development of chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, that can be prevented, and even reversed, with the implementation of healthy lifestyle interventions. The evidence to date, consolidated by the numerous epidemiological studies and clinical trials conducted, suggests that caloric restriction is an effective nutritional intervention for preventing most of these age-related conditions. At a metabolic level, caloric restriction with adequate nutrition has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity, reduce fasting glucose and insulin concentration and prevent obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and chronic inflammation. The purpose of this article is to review current knowledge of the metabolic and clinical implications of caloric restriction with adequate nutrition for the prevention of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:24532291

Soare, Andreea; Weiss, Edward P; Pozzilli, Paolo

2014-03-01

47

The Cognitive Phenotype in Klinefelter Syndrome: A Review of the Literature Including Genetic and Hormonal Factors  

PubMed Central

Klinefelter syndrome (KS) or 47,XXY occurs in ?1 in 650 males. Individuals with KS often present with physical characteristics including tall stature, hypogonadism, and fertility problems. In addition to medical findings, the presence of the extra X chromosome can lead to characteristic cognitive and language deficits of varying severity. While a small, but significant downward shift in mean overall IQ has been reported, the general cognitive abilities of patients with KS are not typically in the intellectual disability range. Most studies support that males with KS have an increased risk of language disorders and reading disabilities. Results of other studies investigating the relationship between verbal and nonverbal/spatial cognitive abilities have been mixed, with differing results based on the age and ascertainment method of the cohort studied. Executive function deficits have been identified in children and adults with KS, however, the research in this area is limited and further investigation of the neuropsychological profile is needed. In this article, we review the strengths and weaknesses of previous cognitive and neuropsychological studies in males with KS in childhood and adulthood, provide historical perspective of these studies, and review what is known about how hormonal and genetic factors influence cognitive features in 47,XXY/KS. PMID:20014369

Boada, Richard; Janusz, Jennifer; Hutaff-Lee, Christa; Tartaglia, Nicole

2011-01-01

48

Differentiation of ruminant transmissible spongiform encephalopathy isolate types, including bovine spongiform encephalopathy and CH1641 scrapie.  

PubMed

With increased awareness of the diversity of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) strains in the ruminant population, comes an appreciation of the need for improved methods of differential diagnosis. Exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has been associated with the human TSE, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, emphasizing the necessity in distinguishing low-risk TSE types from BSE. TSE type discrimination in ruminants such as cattle, sheep, goats and deer, requires the application of several prion protein (PrP)-specific antibodies in parallel immunochemical tests on brain homogenates or tissue sections from infected animals. This study uses in a single incubation step, three PrP-specific antibodies and fluorescent Alexa dye-labelled anti-mouse Fabs on a Western blot. The usual amount of brain tissue needed is 0.5 mg. This multiplex application of antibodies directed towards three different PrP epitopes enabled differential diagnosis of all established main features of classical scrapie, BSE and Nor98-like scrapie in sheep and goats, as well as the currently known BSE types C, H and L in cattle. Moreover, due to an antibody-dependent dual PrP-banding pattern, for the first time CH1641 scrapie of sheep can be reliably discriminated from the other TSE isolate types in sheep. PMID:20943889

Jacobs, J G; Sauer, M; van Keulen, L J M; Tang, Y; Bossers, A; Langeveld, J P M

2011-01-01

49

Systemic immediate-type reactions to gelatin included in Japanese encephalitis vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three children had systemic immediate-type reactions to Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine which contains gelatin as a stabilizer. We found that all the children had anti-gelatin IgE in their sera. Further, two of the three also had experienced systemic allergic reactions to gelatin-containing foods before the vaccination. We assume that the systemic allergic reactions to JE vaccines might be caused by

Masahiro Sakaguchi; Masami Yoshida; Waka Kuroda; Osamu Harayama; Yasuko Matsunaga; Sakae Inouye

1997-01-01

50

Variant Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Proteases and Response to Combination Therapy Including a Protease Inhibitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this observational study was to assess the genetic variability in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease gene from HIV type 1 (HIV-1)-positive (clade B), protease inhibitor-naive patients and to evaluate its association with the subsequent effectiveness of a protease inhibitor-containing triple-drug regi- men. The protease gene was sequenced from plasma-derived virus from 116 protease inhibitor-naive patients. The

JEAN SERVAIS; CHRISTINE LAMBERT; ELODIE FONTAINE; JEAN-MARC PLESSERIA; ISABELLE ROBERT; VIC ARENDT; THERESE STAUB; FRANCOIS SCHNEIDER; ROBERT HEMMER; GUY BURTONBOY; JEAN-CLAUDE SCHMIT

2001-01-01

51

CHEMICAL WASTE RECYCLING PROGRAM All types of batteries are collected by Chemical Waste Services (CWS) for recycling. These include  

E-print Network

CHEMICAL WASTE RECYCLING PROGRAM BATTERIES All types of batteries are collected by Chemical Waste Services (CWS) for recycling. These include alkaline, lithium, rechargeable, coin batteries, lead-acid and all other types. Uninterruptible Power Source (UPS) batteries must be removed from the UPS casing

Baker, Chris I.

52

Hypoglycaemia: The limiting factor in the glycaemic management of Type I and Type II Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypoglycaemia is the limiting factor in the glycaemic management of diabetes. Iatrogenic hypoglycaemia is typically the result of the interplay of insulin excess and compromised glucose counterregulation in Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Insulin concentrations do not decrease and glucagon and epinephrine concentrations do not increase normally as glucose concentrations decrease. The concept of hypoglycaemia-associated autonomic failure (HAAF) in Type

P. E. Cryer

2002-01-01

53

Presence of type 2 diabetes risk factors in children.  

PubMed

This study aimed to identify the prevalence of type 2 diabetes risk factors among elementary school-age children and determine eligibility for type 2 diabetes screening. A cross-sectional review of 971 school-based health clinic medical records of children in grades 1 through 5 was conducted. Relationships of risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus were examined to determine the prevalence of these risk factors in elementary school-age children. Screening guidelines for type 2 diabetes were applied to determine the prevalence of students meeting criteria for further screening. Almost 40% of the students had a body mass index (BMI) above the 85th percentile for age and gender. Forty-nine percent of the students belonged to a high-risk ethnic group. Acanthosis nigricans, an indicator of insulin resistance, was identified in nearly 27% of the student records. Forty-eight percent of the records identified the student as having a family history of diabetes. Significant correlations were found between the presence of acanthosis nigricans, high BMI, and a family history of diabetes. According to screening guidelines for type 2 diabetes in children, 39.3% of the elementary school children 10 years of age and older were eligible for type 2 diabetes screening. Almost 40% of children younger than 10 years of age had risk factors associated with screening criteria. These findings support the need for early detection of high-risk children and intervention strategies to decrease modifiable risk factors in elementary school-age children. The school nurse is in a pivotal role of identifying such at-risk students during annual, routine health screening practices. PMID:24027953

Scott, Leslie K

2013-01-01

54

Thick collagen-based matrices including growth factors to induce 3D neural differentiation  

E-print Network

Alzheimer disease (AD). Several compartmented systems have also been developed with the aim of studying self-assembled collagen matrix stabilized by 100 nm- wide interconnected native fibrils, without molecules or growth factor gradients [6-12]. Such patterned substrates are useful to study the formation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

55

Abstract Successful transformation of plant tissue using Agrobacterium relies on several factors including bacterial  

E-print Network

Abstract Successful transformation of plant tissue using Agrobacterium relies on several factors Introduction Transgenic soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] plants have been obtained using both Agrobacterium and McMullen 1991). DNA integration patterns in transformed plant tissue ob- tained via particle

Finer, John J.

56

Impact of Outliers Arising from Unintended and Unknowingly Included Subpopulations on the Decisions about the Number of Factors in Exploratory Factor Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a lack of research on the effects of outliers on the decisions about the number of factors to retain in an exploratory factor analysis, especially for outliers arising from unintended and unknowingly included subpopulations. The purpose of the present research was to investigate how outliers from an unintended and unknowingly included

Liu, Yan; Zumbo, Bruno D.

2012-01-01

57

Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling Factors Including Ran and CRM1 Mediate Nuclear Export of NFAT In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a permeabilized cell as- say to study the nuclear export of the shuttling tran- scription factor NFAT, which contains a leucine-rich export signal. The assay uses HeLa cells that are stably transfected with NFAT fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Nuclear export of GFP-NFAT in digi- tonin-permeabilized cells occurs in a temperature- and ATP-dependent manner and

Ralph H. Kehlenbach; Achim Dickmanns; Larry Gerace

1998-01-01

58

Multivariable modeling of radiotherapy outcomes, including dose-volume and clinical factors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The probability of a specific radiotherapy outcome is typically a complex, unknown function of dosimetric and clinical factors. Current models are usually oversimplified. We describe alternative methods for building multivariable dose-response models. Methods: Representative data sets of esophagitis and xerostomia are used. We use a logistic regression framework to approximate the treatment-response function. Bootstrap replications are performed to explore variable selection stability. To guard against under/overfitting, we compare several analytical and data-driven methods for model-order estimation. Spearman's coefficient is used to evaluate performance robustness. Novel graphical displays of variable cross correlations and bootstrap selection are demonstrated. Results: Bootstrap variable selection techniques improve model building by reducing sample size effects and unveiling variable cross correlations. Inference by resampling and Bayesian approaches produced generally consistent guidance for model order estimation. The optimal esophagitis model consisted of 5 dosimetric/clinical variables. Although the xerostomia model could be improved by combining clinical and dose-volume factors, the improvement would be small. Conclusions: Prediction of treatment response can be improved by mixing clinical and dose-volume factors. Graphical tools can mitigate the inherent complexity of multivariable modeling. Bootstrap-based variable selection analysis increases the reliability of reported models. Statistical inference methods combined with Spearman's coefficient provide an efficient approach to estimating optimal model order.

El Naqa, Issam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Bradley, Jeffrey [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Blanco, Angel I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Lindsay, Patricia E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Vicic, Milos [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Hope, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Deasy, Joseph O. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States)]. E-mail: deasy@wustl.edu

2006-03-15

59

Including transcription factor information in the superparamagnetic clustering of microarray data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we modify the superparamagnetic clustering algorithm (SPC) by adding an extra weight to the interaction formula that considers which genes are regulated by the same transcription factor. With this modified algorithm which we call SPCTF, we analyze the Spellman et al. microarray data for cell cycle genes in yeast, and find clusters with a higher number of elements compared with those obtained with the SPC algorithm. Some of the incorporated genes by using SPCFT were not detected at first by Spellman et al. but were later identified by other studies, whereas several genes still remain unclassified. The clusters composed by unidentified genes were analyzed with MUSA, the motif finding using an unsupervised approach algorithm, and this allow us to select the clusters whose elements contain cell cycle transcription factor binding sites as clusters worthy of further experimental studies because they would probably lead to new cell cycle genes. Finally, our idea of introducing the available information about transcription factors to optimize the gene classification could be implemented for other distance-based clustering algorithms.

Monsiváis-Alonso, M. P.; Navarro-Muñoz, J. C.; Riego-Ruiz, L.; López-Sandoval, R.; Rosu, H. C.

2010-12-01

60

Cerebrospinal fluid markers including trefoil factor 3 are associated with neurodegeneration in amyloid-positive individuals  

PubMed Central

We aimed to identify cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers associated with neurodegeneration in individuals with and without CSF evidence of Alzheimer pathology. We investigated 287 Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) subjects (age=74.9±6.9; 22/48/30% with Alzheimer's disease/mild cognitive impairment/controls) with CSF multiplex analyte data and serial volumetric MRI. We calculated brain and hippocampal atrophy rates, ventricular expansion and Mini Mental State Examination decline. We used false discovery rate corrected regression analyses to assess associations between CSF variables and atrophy rates in individuals with and without amyloid pathology, adjusting in stages for tau, baseline volume, p-tau, age, sex, ApoE4 status and diagnosis. Analytes showing statistically significant independent relationships were entered into reverse stepwise analyses. Adjusting for tau, baseline volume, p-tau, age, sex and ApoE4, 4/83 analytes were significantly independently associated with brain atrophy rate, 1/83 with ventricular expansion and 2/83 with hippocampal atrophy. The strongest CSF predictor for the three atrophy measures was low trefoil factor 3 (TFF3). High cystatin C (CysC) was associated with higher whole brain atrophy and hippocampal atrophy rates. Lower levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and chromogranin A (CrA) were associated with higher whole brain atrophy. In exploratory reverse stepwise analyses, lower TFF3 was associated with higher rates of whole brain, hippocampal atrophy and ventricular expansion. Lower levels of CrA were associated with higher whole brain atrophy rate. The relationship between low TFF3 and increased hippocampal atrophy rate remained after adjustment for diagnosis. We identified a series of CSF markers that are independently associated with rate of neurodegeneration in amyloid-positive individuals. TFF3, a substrate for NOTCH processing may be an important biomarker of neurodegeneration across the Alzheimer spectrum. PMID:25072324

Paterson, R W; Bartlett, J W; Blennow, K; Fox, N C; Shaw, L M; Trojanowski, J Q; Zetterberg, H; Schott, J M

2014-01-01

61

Myokines (muscle-derived cytokines and chemokines) including ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) inhibit osteoblast differentiation.  

PubMed

Muscle and bone are intimately linked by bi-directional signals regulating both muscle and bone cell gene expression and proliferation. It is generally accepted that muscle cells secrete factors (myokines) that influence adjacent bone cells, but these myokines are yet to be identified. We have previously shown that osteocyte-specific deletion of the co-receptor subunit utilized by IL-6 family cytokines, glycoprotein 130 (gp130), resulted in impaired bone formation in the trabecular bone, but enhanced periosteal expansion, suggesting a gp130-dependent periosteum-specific inhibition of osteoblast function, potentially induced by the local muscle fibres. We report here that differentiated primary calvarial osteoblasts cultured in myotube-conditioned media (CM) from myogenic C2C12 cells show reduced mRNA levels of genes associated with osteoblast differentiation. Alkaline phosphatase protein activity and all mRNA markers of osteoblast differentiation in the tested panel (runx2, osterix, alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptor, osteoprotegerin, osteocalcin, sclerostin) were reduced following culture with myotube CM. The exception was RANKL, which was significantly elevated in differentiated primary osteoblast cultures expressing osteocytic genes. A cytokine array of the C2C12 myotube-conditioned media identified TIMP-1 and MCP-1 as the most abundant myokines, but treatment with recombinant TIMP-1 or MCP-1 did not inhibit osteoblast gene expression. Rather, the IL-6 family cytokine ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), which we found abundantly expressed by mouse muscle at the transcript and protein level, reduced osteoblast gene expression, although not to the same extent as the myotube-conditioned media. These data indicate that muscle cells secrete abundant TIMP-1, MCP-1, and CNTF, and that of these, only CNTF has the ability to suppress osteoblast function and gene expression in a similar manner to myotube-conditioned medium. This suggests that CNTF is an inhibitory myokine for osteoblasts. PMID:24721701

Johnson, Rachelle W; White, Jason D; Walker, Emma C; Martin, T John; Sims, Natalie A

2014-07-01

62

Profiling the transcription factor regulatory networks of human cell types  

PubMed Central

Neph et al. (2012) (Circuitry and dynamics of human transcription factor regulatory networks. Cell, 150: 1274–1286) reported the transcription factor (TF) regulatory networks of 41 human cell types using the DNaseI footprinting technique. This provides a valuable resource for uncovering regulation principles in different human cells. In this paper, the architectures of the 41 regulatory networks and the distributions of housekeeping and specific regulatory interactions are investigated. The TF regulatory networks of different human cell types demonstrate similar global three-layer (top, core and bottom) hierarchical architectures, which are greatly different from the yeast TF regulatory network. However, they have distinguishable local organizations, as suggested by the fact that wiring patterns of only a few TFs are enough to distinguish cell identities. The TF regulatory network of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is dense and enriched with interactions that are unseen in the networks of other cell types. The examination of specific regulatory interactions suggests that specific interactions play important roles in hESCs. PMID:25300490

Zhang, Shihua; Tian, Dechao; Tran, Ngoc Hieu; Choi, Kwok Pui; Zhang, Louxin

2014-01-01

63

Excitation and charge transfer in He/sup +/ + H collisions. A molecular approach including two-electron translation factors  

SciTech Connect

In a previous paper we have pointed out that the common-translation-factor (CTF) method is the only one which, at present, and within the framework of the molecular model of atomic collisions, can be shown to be both convergent and computationally fast, even for many-electron systems. In this Communication we check that this second statement is correct, presenting, for the first time, a molecular calculation involving two-electron translation factors, for He/sup +/ + H collisions. A careful study of the sensitivity of the calculated cross sections to the choice of the CTF is performed, and conclusions on that sensitivity are drawn, for several types of processes.

Errea, L.F.; Mendez, L.; Riera, A.

1983-06-01

64

Enhancer activation by a single type of transcription factor shows cell type dependence.  

PubMed Central

Promoter and enhancer elements contain multiple binding sites for ubiquitous and cell type-specific transcription factors which stimulate transcription synergistically. Here we show that cell type-dependent enhancer activity can be achieved by mechanisms other than interactions between cell type-specific transcription factors and DNA. The ability of the SV40 enhancer and the E2 transactivator from bovine papillomavirus (BPV-1) to stimulate transcription from a reporter gene with different minimal promoters was tested in four cell lines. In lymphoid BJA-B cells all minimal promoters that synergized with the SV40 enhancer did so also with the E2-dependent enhancer. In sharp contrast to these results, the E2 enhancer stimulated transcription only from a subset of promoters in fibroblasts and in epithelial cells. The results suggest that lymphoid cells, unlike fibroblasts and epithelial cells, contain auxiliary factor(s) which are necessary for the activation of certain promoters by the E2 enhancer and infer that the specificity of enhancers also is regulated at a co-activator level. Images PMID:1714381

Forsberg, M; Westin, G

1991-01-01

65

Psychological Factors, Including Alexithymia, in the Prediction of Cardiovascular Risk in HIV Infected Patients: Results of a Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Psychological factors are known predictors of cardiovascular disease in many clinical settings, but data are lacking for HIV infection. We carried out a prospective cohort study to evaluate potential psychological predictors of preclinical and clinical vascular disease in HIV patients. Methodology/Principal Findings HIV patients were consecutively enrolled. Demographics, viral and immune parameters and traditional cardiovascular predictors were considered; Intima-Media Thickness (c-IMT, continuous measure) and Carotid Plaques (CPs, focal thickening ?1.5 mm) were investigated by B-mode ultrasonography; depressive symptoms by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), Type D personality (Distressed Personality or Type D) by the DS14, alexithymia by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). Vascular outcomes included transient ischemic attacks or stroke, acute coronary syndrome, myocardial or other organ infarction. We enrolled 232 HIV subjects, 73.9% males, aged 44.5±9.9 y, 38.2% with AIDS diagnosis, 18.3% untreated. Mean Nadir CD4 T-cell counts were 237.5±186.2/mmc. Of them, 224 (96.5%) attended IMT measurements; 201 (86.6%) attended both IMT assessment and psychological profiling. Mean follow-up was 782±308 days. Fifty-nine patients (29.4%) had CPs at baseline. Nineteen patients (9.5%) had ?1 vascular event; 12 (6.0%) died due to such events (n?=?4) or any cause. At baseline cross-sectional multivariate analysis, increasing age, total cholesterol, current smoking and Alexithymia score?50 were significantly associated with both increased cIMT (linear regression) and CPs (logistic regression). At follow-up analysis, log-rank tests and Cox’s regression revealed that only older age (p?=?0.001), current smoking (p?=?0.019) and alexithymia score?50 (p?=?0.013) were independently associated with vascular events. Conclusions/Significance In HIV-infected subjects, the Alexithymic trait emerges as a strong predictor of increased IMT, presence of CPs and vascular events. Such results are preliminary and require confirmation from studies with larger sample size and longer follow-up. PMID:23349927

Sozio, Federica; Mazzott, Elena; Ursini, Tamara; Polill, Ennio; Di Stefano, Paola; Tontodonati, Monica; Verrocchio, Maria C.; Fulcheri, Mario; Calella, Giulio; Santilli, Francesca; Manzoli, Lamberto

2013-01-01

66

Synergistic and multidimensional regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 expression by transforming growth factor type ? and epidermal growth factor  

SciTech Connect

The major physiological inhibitor of plasminogen activator, type I plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), controls blood clotting and tissue remodeling events that involve cell migration. Transforming growth factor type ? (TGF?) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) interact synergistically to increase PAI-1 mRNA and protein levels in human HepG2 and mink Mv1Lu cells. Other growth factors that activate tyrosine kinase receptors can substitute for EGF. EGF and TGF? regulate PAI-1 by synergistically activating transcription, which is further amplified by a decrease in the rate of mRNA degradation, the latter being regulated only by EGF. The combined effect of transcriptional activation and mRNA stabilization results in a rapid 2-order of magnitude increase in the level of PAI-1. TGF? also increases the sensitivity of the cells to EGF, thereby recruiting the cooperation of EGF at lower than normally effective concentrations. The contribution of EGF to the regulation of PAI-1 involves the MAPK pathway, and the synergistic interface with the TGF? pathway is downstream of MEK1/2 and involves phosphorylation of neither ERK1/2 nor Smad2/3. Synergism requires the presence of both Smad and AP-1 recognition sites in the promoter. This work demonstrates the existence of a multidimensional cellular mechanism by which EGF and TGF? are able to promote large and rapid changes in PAI-1 expression.

Song, Xiaoling; Thalacker, F.W.; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit

2012-04-06

67

[Factors influencing homocysteineamia in type 2 diabetic patients].  

PubMed

Previous studies have suggested that hyperhomocysteinaemia (Hcy) could be a strong and independent cardiovascular risk factor. Many factors could influence the serum concentration of Hcy such as vitamin B 12, folic acid, renal failure, hypothyroid status, ovarian failure and cancers. So the aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinaemia among 54 type 2 diabetic patients and to study, its relationship with vitamin B12, folic acid and Metformin. Were excluded all patients with an evident cause of hyperhomocysteinaemia. Mean age of patients was 52.8 years. Mean Hcy was 11.7 + 6.9 micromol/l. The prevalence of hyperhomocysteinaemia was 27.8% in our group. There were eight (14%) patients with vitamin B12 deficiency and three among them had hyperhomocysteinaemia. There was no folic acid deficiency and no relationship with Metformin treatment. We suggest a wide screening of hyperhomocysteinaemia in type 2 diabetic patients and folic acid or vitamin B12 supplements if necessary. PMID:16915776

Essais, Olfa; Bouzid, Chiraz; Ouni, Zied; Ibrahim, Hazard; Ouertani, Haroun; Machghoul, Salem; Zidi, Borni

2006-05-01

68

Inactivation of specific ? cell transcription factors in type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) commonly arises from islet ? cell failure and insulin resistance. Here, we examined the sensitivity of key islet-enriched transcription factors to oxidative stress, a condition associated with ? cell dysfunction in both type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and T2DM. Hydrogen peroxide treatment of ? cell lines induced cytoplasmic translocation of MAFA and NKX6.1. In parallel, the ability of nuclear PDX1 to bind endogenous target gene promoters was also dramatically reduced, whereas the activity of other key ? cell transcriptional regulators was unaffected. MAFA levels were reduced, followed by a reduction in NKX6.1 upon development of hyperglycemia in db/db mice, a T2DM model. Transgenic expression of the glutathione peroxidase-1 antioxidant enzyme (GPX1) in db/db islet ? cells restored nuclear MAFA, nuclear NKX6.1, and ? cell function in vivo. Notably, the selective decrease in MAFA, NKX6.1, and PDX1 expression was found in human T2DM islets. MAFB, a MAFA-related transcription factor expressed in human ? cells, was also severely compromised. We propose that MAFA, MAFB, NKX6.1, and PDX1 activity provides a gauge of islet ? cell function, with loss of MAFA (and/or MAFB) representing an early indicator of ? cell inactivity and the subsequent deficit of more impactful NKX6.1 (and/or PDX1) resulting in overt dysfunction associated with T2DM. PMID:23863625

Guo, Shuangli; Dai, Chunhua; Guo, Min; Taylor, Brandon; Harmon, Jamie S.; Sander, Maike; Robertson, R. Paul; Powers, Alvin C.; Stein, Roland

2013-01-01

69

Avian reovirus influences phosphorylation of several factors involved in host protein translation including eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2) in Vero cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral infection usually influences cellular protein synthesis either actively or passively via modification of various translation initiation factors. Here we demonstrated that infection with avian reovirus (ARV) interfered with cellular protein synthesis. This study demonstrated for the first time that ARV influenced the phosphorylation of translation initiation factors including eIF4E and eIF-4G. Interestingly, ARV also induced phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation

Wen T. Ji; Lai Wang; Ru C. Lin; Wei R. Huang; Hung J. Liu

2009-01-01

70

Sequence and chromatin determinants of cell-type-specific transcription factor binding  

PubMed Central

Gene regulatory programs in distinct cell types are maintained in large part through the cell-type–specific binding of transcription factors (TFs). The determinants of TF binding include direct DNA sequence preferences, DNA sequence preferences of cofactors, and the local cell-dependent chromatin context. To explore the contribution of DNA sequence signal, histone modifications, and DNase accessibility to cell-type–specific binding, we analyzed 286 ChIP-seq experiments performed by the ENCODE Consortium. This analysis included experiments for 67 transcriptional regulators, 15 of which were profiled in both the GM12878 (lymphoblastoid) and K562 (erythroleukemic) human hematopoietic cell lines. To model TF-bound regions, we trained support vector machines (SVMs) that use flexible k-mer patterns to capture DNA sequence signals more accurately than traditional motif approaches. In addition, we trained SVM spatial chromatin signatures to model local histone modifications and DNase accessibility, obtaining significantly more accurate TF occupancy predictions than simpler approaches. Consistent with previous studies, we find that DNase accessibility can explain cell-line–specific binding for many factors. However, we also find that of the 10 factors with prominent cell-type–specific binding patterns, four display distinct cell-type–specific DNA sequence preferences according to our models. Moreover, for two factors we identify cell-specific binding sites that are accessible in both cell types but bound only in one. For these sites, cell-type–specific sequence models, rather than DNase accessibility, are better able to explain differential binding. Our results suggest that using a single motif for each TF and filtering for chromatin accessible loci is not always sufficient to accurately account for cell-type–specific binding profiles. PMID:22955984

Arvey, Aaron; Agius, Phaedra; Noble, William Stafford; Leslie, Christina

2012-01-01

71

The Benefits of Including Clinical Factors in Rectal Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To study the impact of clinical predisposing factors on rectal normal tissue complication probability modeling using the updated results of the Dutch prostate dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: Toxicity data of 512 patients (conformally treated to 68 Gy [n = 284] and 78 Gy [n = 228]) with complete follow-up at 3 years after radiotherapy were studied. Scored end points were rectal bleeding, high stool frequency, and fecal incontinence. Two traditional dose-based models (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) and Relative Seriality (RS) and a logistic model were fitted using a maximum likelihood approach. Furthermore, these model fits were improved by including the most significant clinical factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminating ability of all fits. Results: Including clinical factors significantly increased the predictive power of the models for all end points. In the optimal LKB, RS, and logistic models for rectal bleeding and fecal incontinence, the first significant (p = 0.011-0.013) clinical factor was 'previous abdominal surgery.' As second significant (p = 0.012-0.016) factor, 'cardiac history' was included in all three rectal bleeding fits, whereas including 'diabetes' was significant (p = 0.039-0.048) in fecal incontinence modeling but only in the LKB and logistic models. High stool frequency fits only benefitted significantly (p = 0.003-0.006) from the inclusion of the baseline toxicity score. For all models rectal bleeding fits had the highest AUC (0.77) where it was 0.63 and 0.68 for high stool frequency and fecal incontinence, respectively. LKB and logistic model fits resulted in similar values for the volume parameter. The steepness parameter was somewhat higher in the logistic model, also resulting in a slightly lower D{sub 50}. Anal wall DVHs were used for fecal incontinence, whereas anorectal wall dose best described the other two endpoints. Conclusions: Comparable prediction models were obtained with LKB, RS, and logistic NTCP models. Including clinical factors improved the predictive power of all models significantly.

Defraene, Gilles, E-mail: gilles.defraene@uzleuven.be [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Van den Bergh, Laura [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Al-Mamgani, Abrahim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Haustermans, Karin [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Heemsbergen, Wilma [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van den Heuvel, Frank [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Lebesque, Joos V. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2012-03-01

72

The Type Series of 'Sinemys' Wuerhoensis, a Problematic Turtlefrom the Lower Cretaceous of China, Includes at Least Three Taxa  

SciTech Connect

We re-examine the type series of 'Sinemys' wuerhoensis Yeh(at least 20 specimens, including several shells and skulls on threeslabs of matrix and one isolated skull) from the Early Cretaceous TuguluGroup of China. Our study shows that the type series of 'S.'wuerhoensisis actually a chimera made up of at least three distinct taxa. Theholotype of this taxon should be assigned to the basal eucryptodire genusXinjiangchelys Yeh. As there are no characters that distinguish'S.'wuerhoensis from Xinjiangchelys species, we consider it to be a nomendubium. This new assignment of 'S.'wuerhoensis expands the temporal rangeof Xinjiangchelys from the Late Jurassic into the Early Cretaceous inAsia. The majority of the paratypes of 'S.'wuerhoensis (several shells indorsal and ventral aspect and skulls) are referred to the basaleucryptodire genus Ordosemys Brinkman and Peng. We establish a new namefor these specimens, Ordosemys brinkmania sp. nov. One additionalspecimen in the type series of 'S.'wuerhoensis, a skull, is referred tocf. Pantrionychia Joyce, Parham and Gauthier indet.

Danilov, Igor G.; Parham, James F.

2007-03-01

73

Risk Factors and Primary Prevention Trials for Type 1 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic autoimmune disease resulting in the designated immune destruction of insulin producing ?-cells, usually diagnosed in youth, and associated with important psychological, familial, and social disorders. Once diagnosed, patients need lifelong insulin treatment and will experience multiple disease-associated complications. There is no cure for T1DM currently. The last decade has witnessed great progress in elucidating the causes and treatment of the disease based on numerous researches both in rodent models of spontaneous diabetes and in humans. This article summarises our current understanding of the pathogenesis of T1DM, the roles of the immune system, genes, environment and other factors in the continuing and rapid increase in T1DM incidence at younger ages in humans. In addition, we discuss the strategies for primary and secondary prevention trials of T1DM. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of this disorder's pathogenesis, risk factors that cause the disease, as well as to bring forward an ideal approach to prevent and cure the disorder. PMID:23904791

Wu, Yan-Ling; Ding, Yan-Ping; Gao, Jian; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Zhang, Wen

2013-01-01

74

Proteomic Analysis of the Vibrio cholerae Type II Secretome Reveals New Proteins, Including Three Related Serine Proteases*  

PubMed Central

The type II secretion (T2S) system is responsible for extracellular secretion of a broad range of proteins, including toxins and degradative enzymes that play important roles in the pathogenesis and life cycle of many Gram-negative bacteria. In Vibrio cholerae, the etiological agent of cholera, the T2S machinery transports cholera toxin, which induces profuse watery diarrhea, a hallmark of this life-threatening disease. Besides cholera toxin, four other proteins have been shown to be transported by the T2S machinery, including hemagglutinin protease, chitinase, GbpA, and lipase. Here, for the first time, we have applied proteomic approaches, including isotope tagging for relative and absolute quantification coupled with multidimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry, to perform an unbiased and comprehensive analysis of proteins secreted by the T2S apparatus of the V. cholerae El Tor strain N16961 under standard laboratory growth conditions. This analysis identified 16 new putative T2S substrates, including sialidase, several proteins participating in chitin utilization, two aminopeptidases, TagA-related protein, cytolysin, RbmC, three hypothetical proteins encoded by VCA0583, VCA0738, and VC2298, and three serine proteases VesA, VesB, and VesC. Focusing on the initial characterization of VesA, VesB, and VesC, we have confirmed enzymatic activities and T2S-dependent transport for each of these proteases. In addition, analysis of single, double, and triple protease knock-out strains indicated that VesA is the primary protease responsible for processing the A subunit of cholera toxin during in vitro growth of the V. cholerae strain N16961. PMID:21385872

Sikora, Aleksandra E.; Zielke, Ryszard A.; Lawrence, Daniel A.; Andrews, Philip C.; Sandkvist, Maria

2011-01-01

75

Proteomic analysis of the Vibrio cholerae type II secretome reveals new proteins, including three related serine proteases.  

PubMed

The type II secretion (T2S) system is responsible for extracellular secretion of a broad range of proteins, including toxins and degradative enzymes that play important roles in the pathogenesis and life cycle of many gram-negative bacteria. In Vibrio cholerae, the etiological agent of cholera, the T2S machinery transports cholera toxin, which induces profuse watery diarrhea, a hallmark of this life-threatening disease. Besides cholera toxin, four other proteins have been shown to be transported by the T2S machinery, including hemagglutinin protease, chitinase, GbpA, and lipase. Here, for the first time, we have applied proteomic approaches, including isotope tagging for relative and absolute quantification coupled with multidimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry, to perform an unbiased and comprehensive analysis of proteins secreted by the T2S apparatus of the V. cholerae El Tor strain N16961 under standard laboratory growth conditions. This analysis identified 16 new putative T2S substrates, including sialidase, several proteins participating in chitin utilization, two aminopeptidases, TagA-related protein, cytolysin, RbmC, three hypothetical proteins encoded by VCA0583, VCA0738, and VC2298, and three serine proteases VesA, VesB, and VesC. Focusing on the initial characterization of VesA, VesB, and VesC, we have confirmed enzymatic activities and T2S-dependent transport for each of these proteases. In addition, analysis of single, double, and triple protease knock-out strains indicated that VesA is the primary protease responsible for processing the A subunit of cholera toxin during in vitro growth of the V. cholerae strain N16961. PMID:21385872

Sikora, Aleksandra E; Zielke, Ryszard A; Lawrence, Daniel A; Andrews, Philip C; Sandkvist, Maria

2011-05-13

76

8q12 microduplication including CHD7: clinical report on a new patient with Duane retraction syndrome type 3  

PubMed Central

Background A novel multiple congenital anomalies syndrome has been recently identified in four patients carrying a 8q12 microduplication sharing the smallest region of overlap (SRO, size 1.6 Mb) including five genes CA8, ASPH, RAB2B, CLVS1 and CDH7. The phenotype is mainly characterized by neurodevelopmental delay, heart defects, facial features and Type 1 Duane anomaly. Increasing dosage of CDH7 was proposed to be responsible for the recurrent pattern of MCA. Results High resolution array-CGH analysis identified a 4.2 Mb de novo interstitial duplication of the 8q12.1-q12.3 chromosome region in a boy with developmental delay, dysmorphic features, type 3 Duane anomaly. This duplication includes several genes and spans the SRO. Discussion The present case represents a further patient with an interstitial duplication of chromosome 8q12 and several shared clinical features. Although more cases are needed to delineate the full-blown phenotype of 8q12 duplication syndrome, published data and present observations suggest that it results in a clinically recognizable phenotype. The presence of Duane anomaly in four out of five described patients with a 8q12 duplication definitely rules against the possibility of its being a chance finding unrelated to the imbalance and points toward a pathogenic role. Gene content analysis of the duplicated region and review of the literature suggest that gain-of-dosage of the CHD7 gene may be a good candidate for the main clinical features of the syndrome. PMID:24206642

2013-01-01

77

Oxytocin and Psychological Factors Affecting Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of oxytocin with trait and state psychological factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods. OXT and psychological variables were analyzed from 86 controlled diabetic patients (glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) < 7%) from 45 uncontrolled diabetic patients (HbA1c ? 7). Psychological characteristics were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), while state psychological characteristics were measured with the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL 90-R). Blood samples were taken for measuring oxytocin in both subgroups during the initial phase of the study. One year later, the uncontrolled diabetic patients were reevaluated with the use of the same psychometric instruments. Results. During the first evaluation of the uncontrolled diabetic patients, a statistically significant positive relationship between the levels of OXT and psychoticism in EPQ rating scale (P < 0.013) was observed. For controlled diabetic patients, a statistically significant negative relationship between oxytocin and somatization (P < 0.030), as well as obsessive-compulsive scores (P < 0.047) in SCL-90 rating scale, was observed. During the second assessment, the values of OXT decreased when the patients managed to control their metabolic profile. Conclusions. The OXT is in association with psychoticism, somatization, and obsessionality may be implicated in T2DM. PMID:22997507

Kontoangelos, K.; Raptis, A. E.; Papageorgiou, C. C.; Tsiotra, P. C.; Papadimitriou, G. N.; Rabavilas, A. D.; Dimitriadis, G.; Raptis, S. A.

2012-01-01

78

Does ethnicity contribute to the control of cardiovascular risk factors among patients with type 2 diabetes?  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine the control of cardiovascular risk factors among the ethnic groups with type 2 diabetes in Malaysia. The authors analyzed the data of 70 092 adults from the Malaysian diabetes registry database. Malays had the worst achievement of target for most of the risk factors. Indians had poor achievement of control for waist circumference (odds ratio [OR] = 0.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.6-0.7) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.4-0.5). As compared with the Malays, the Chinese had a better achievement of target control for the risk factors, including the following: body mass index (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.2-1.4), blood pressure (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.3-1.4), total cholesterol (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.6-1.8), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.6-1.8), glycated hemoglobin A1c (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.3-1.4) and fasting blood glucose (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.3-1.5). Ethnicity, sociocultural factors, and psychobehavioral factors should be addressed in designing and management strategies for the control of cardiovascular risk factors among type 2 diabetes patients. PMID:22186400

Lee, Ping Yein; Cheong, Ai Theng; Zaiton, Ahmad; Mastura, Ismail; Chew, Boon-How; Sazlina, Sharrif G; Adam, Bujang Mohamad; Syed Alwi, Syed Abdul Rahman; Jamaiyah, Haniff; Sriwahyu, Taher

2013-07-01

79

A Telemedicine System That Includes a Personal Assistant Improves Glycemic Control in Pump-Treated Patients with Type 1 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background The DIABTel system, a Web-based telemedicine application, integrates a whole communication system (glucometer, insulin pump, wireless hand-held assistant) for medical remote advice. We sought to evaluate, in terms of glycemic control, the DIABTel system in a randomized crossover clinical study. Methods Ten patients with type 1 diabetes [5 women, age 40.6 (21–62) years, diabetes duration 14.7 (3–52) years] were included. During the 4-week active phase, data sent by patients were analyzed by the physician and modifications of the basal rate and bolus were advised in the following 24 hours. During the control phase, patients sent glucose data without any feedback from the medical center. Results The mean numbers of daily glucose values and bolus sent by patients during the active period were 4.46 ± 0.91 and 4.58 ± 0.89, respectively. The personal digital assistant functionalities used more frequently by patients were (times per week) data visualization (8.1 ± 6.8), data download from the insulin pump (6.8 ± 3.3), and synchronization with the telemedicine server (8.5 ± 4.9). After the experimental phase, serum fructosamine decreased significantly (393 ± 32 vs 366 ± 25 µmol/liter; p < 0.05) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) tended to decrease (8.0 ± 0.6 vs 7.78 ± 0.6; p = 0.073), whereas no changes were observed during the control phase. The number of treatment modifications proposed and performed by the patients correlated with the change observed in HbA1c during the active phase (r = ?0.729, p = 0.017). Conclusions The DIABTel system, a telemedicine system that includes a wireless personal assistant for remote treatment advising, allows better glycemic control in pump-treated patients with type 1 diabetes. To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates improved glycemic control with the use of a telemedicine system that incorporates insulin delivery data. PMID:19885113

Rigla, Mercedes; Hernando, M. Elena; Gomez, Enrique J.; Brugues, Eulalia; Garcia-Saez, Gema; Torralba, Veronica; Prados, Agustina; Erdozain, Luisa; Vilaverde, Joana; de Leiva, Alberto

2007-01-01

80

Delayed-type heparin allergy: diagnostic procedures and treatment alternatives--a case series including 15 patients  

PubMed Central

Delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions (DTHRs) after subcutaneous application of unfractionated heparins or low-molecular-weight heparins are not uncommon. Standard allergological testing usually includes intracutaneous skin tests and patch testing of different heparins, heparinoids, and thrombin inhibitors followed by subcutaneous and/or intravenous challenge with skin test-negative drugs. We present data from a single-center case series of 15 patients with DTHR after low-molecular-weight heparin administration. Intracutaneous testing that can be considered as gold standard identified the suspicious elicitor in 11 (73.4%) of 15 of the patients. Patch testing was positive in 5 (33.4%) of 15 of the patients and was only positive in patients who were also reacting in the intradermal testing. Intravenous challenge with heparin sodium was performed in 10 of 15 patients and was well tolerated in all cases, despite prior positive intracutaneous tests with the same substance. Intracutaneous documentation of DTHR was not an adequate predictor of intravenous challenge. PMID:23282847

2008-01-01

81

Overview of the Taxonomy of Environmental Types and the Factor Structure of the Salter Environmental Type Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Salter Environmental Type Assessment (SETA) was created to be a commensurate measure for the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and to improve the efficacy of the person-environmental interaction paradigm to student affairs. A confirmatory factor analysis of SETA profiles supported the four dimensions in environmental type theory. The utility of this…

Salter, Daniel W.; Vandiver, Beverly J.

2002-01-01

82

Sociodemographic effects on biological, disease care, and diabetes knowledge factors in youth with type 1 diabetes.  

PubMed

Sociodemographic risk factors place youth with type 1 diabetes at higher risk for immediate and long-term health complications, yet research has still to disentangle the confounding effects of ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and parental marital status. Group-oriented and variable-oriented analyses were conducted to investigate sociodemographic differences in biological, disease care, and diabetes knowledge factors in youth with type 1 diabetes. The sample included 349 youth, age 9-17 years (79.9% Caucasian, 71.3% lived with two biological parents, M SES = 46.24). Group t-tests confirmed commonly reported ethnic differences in HbA1c and disease care behaviors. However, variable-oriented analyses controlling for confounding sociodemographic influences showed most disease care effects attributed to ethnicity were better explained by SES. Results may inform development of diabetes literacy programs that integrate culturally sensitive lifestyle and language components for families of youth at risk of poor metabolic control. PMID:23197386

Powell, Priscilla W; Chen, Rusan; Kumar, Anil; Streisand, Randi; Holmes, Clarissa S

2013-06-01

83

School factors as barriers to and facilitators of a preventive intervention for pediatric type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

School-based interventions are essential to prevent pediatric obesity and type 2 diabetes. School environmental factors influence implementation of these interventions. This article examines how school factors acted as barriers to and facilitators of the HEALTHY intervention. The HEALTHY study was a cluster-randomized trial of a multicomponent intervention implemented in 21 schools. Interview data were analyzed to identify barriers and facilitators. Barriers included teacher frustration that intervention activities detracted from tested subjects, student resistance and misbehavior, classroom management problems, communication equipment problems, lack of teacher/staff engagement, high cost and limited availability of nutritious products, inadequate facility space, and large class sizes. Facilitators included teacher/staff engagement, effective classroom management, student engagement, schools with direct control over food service, support from school leaders, and adequate facilities and equipment. Contextual barriers and facilitators must be taken into account in the design and implementation of school-based health interventions. PMID:24904696

Hall, William J; Schneider, Margaret; Thompson, Deborah; Volpe, Stella L; Steckler, Allan; Hall, John M; Fisher, M Randall

2014-06-01

84

Evidence Gap on the Prevalence of Non-conventional Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes in Iran  

PubMed Central

Objectives Robust scientific evidence exists about the role of non-conventional risk factors in type 2 diabetes worldwide. The current epidemiological pattern of the disease in Iran suggests a precipitating role for these non-conventional risk factors. This review was performed to examine the research evidence suggesting a higher prevalence of non-conventional type 2 diabetes risk factors in Iran. Methods MeSH keywords were applied to search several databases, including PUBMED, MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE, Iran DOC, and the Scientific Information Database without a time limit from inception to September 2011. The quality of the non-interventional and population-based studies on Iranians included in these databases was assessed by the authors and any disagreement was resolved with consensus. Results The literature search yielded 1847 publications, of which 62 were included in this study after eliminating non-relevant and overlapping papers. No study was found that verified a higher prevalence of the non-conventional type 2 diabetes risk factors in the Iranian population. Conclusion The identified evidence gap about the role of prominent non-conventional risk factors of type 2 diabetes in the Iranian population could be a major caveat in the application of an evidence-based approach to endorse or reject existing hypothesis about these risk factors. Studies on the prevalence of non-conventional biomarkers of type 2 diabetes among Iranians could be a promising area of research. PMID:25389516

Shaghaghi, Abdolreza; Ahmadi, Ali

2014-01-01

85

Prospective Study of Social and Other Risk Factors for Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes  

E-print Network

Prospective Study of Social and Other Risk Factors for Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in the incidence of type 2 diabetes and the relation of health behaviors and psy- chosocial factors to the incidence of type 2 diabetes are not well established. Methods: Prospective occupational cohort study

Brown, Lucy L.

86

36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS GUIDANCE FOR INTERPRETATION...ASSASSINATION RECORDS COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials...purposes of interpreting and implementing the JFK Act: (a) Papers, maps, and...

2012-07-01

87

36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS GUIDANCE FOR INTERPRETATION...ASSASSINATION RECORDS COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials...purposes of interpreting and implementing the JFK Act: (a) Papers, maps, and...

2011-07-01

88

36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS GUIDANCE FOR INTERPRETATION...ASSASSINATION RECORDS COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials...purposes of interpreting and implementing the JFK Act: (a) Papers, maps, and...

2013-07-01

89

36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS GUIDANCE FOR INTERPRETATION...ASSASSINATION RECORDS COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials...purposes of interpreting and implementing the JFK Act: (a) Papers, maps, and...

2010-07-01

90

29 CFR 37.34 - What type of notice must a recipient include in publications, broadcasts, and other communications?  

...publications, broadcasts, and other communications? 37.34 Section 37.34 Labor...Obligations of Recipients Notice and Communication § 37.34 What type of notice...publications, broadcasts, and other communications? (a) Recipients must...

2014-07-01

91

29 CFR 37.34 - What type of notice must a recipient include in publications, broadcasts, and other communications?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...publications, broadcasts, and other communications? 37.34 Section 37...of Recipients Notice and Communication § 37.34 What type...broadcasts, and other communications? (a) Recipients...program information in the news media must ensure that...

2010-07-01

92

42 CFR 137.202 - What types of information will Self-Governance Tribes be expected to include in the reports?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What types of information will Self-Governance Tribes be expected to include in the...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Health Status...What types of information will Self-Governance Tribes be expected to include in...

2010-10-01

93

Elevated serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations and bioactivity in Type 2 diabetics and patients with android type obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in insulin resistance has been studied in 59 patients with Type 2 diabetes, 28 with android type obesity and 35 healthy lean controls. Immunoreactive concentrations and bioactivity of serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha have repeatedly been determined in 8 weeks intervals for 12 months, five times per patients, by using ELISA and L929 cell cytotoxicity

G. Winkler; F. Salamon; G. Harmos; D. Salamon; G. Speer; O. Szekeres; P. Hajós; M. Kovács; K. Simon; K. Cseh

1998-01-01

94

Linewidth enhancement factor of a type-II quantum-cascade laser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We measured directly the optical gain, refractive index change, and the linewidth enhancement factor of a type-II quantum-cascade laser. We obtained very low linewidth enhancement factor of 0.8 near threshold.

Lerttamrab, M.; Chuang, S. L.; Yang, R. Q.; Hill, C. J.

2004-01-01

95

43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...  

...facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? 404.9 Section 404...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.9...facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? A rural water...

2014-10-01

96

Modeling of a Repulsive Type Magnetic Bearing for Five Axis Control Under Intermittent Operation Including Eddy Current Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

A repulsive type magnetic bearing system has been designed and fabricated employing the repulsive forces operating between the stator and rotor permanent magnets. The radial axis is an uncontrolled passive one. The vibration along the uncontrolled axis and the increase of control current due to eddy current interference has limited the performance at higher speed of operation. This paper discusses

S. C. Mukhopadhyay

2002-01-01

97

Predictive Factors for a Kyphosis Recurrence Following Short-Segment Pedicle Screw Fixation Including Fractured Vertebral Body in Unstable Thoracolumbar Burst Fractures  

PubMed Central

Objective The technique of short segment pedicle screw fixation (SSPSF) has been widely used for stabilization in thoracolumbar burst fractures (TLBFs), but some studies reported high rate of kyphosis recurrence or hardware failure. This study was to evaluate the results of SSPSF including fractured level and to find the risk factors concerned with the kyphosis recurrence in TLBFs. Methods This study included 42 patients, including 25 males and 17 females, who underwent SSPSF for stabilization of TLBFs between January 2003 and December 2010. For radiologic assessments, Cobb angle (CA), vertebral wedge angle (VWA), vertebral body compression ratio (VBCR), and difference between VWA and Cobb angle (DbVC) were measured. The relationships between kyphosis recurrence and radiologic parameters or demographic features were investigated. Frankel classification and low back outcome score (LBOS) were used for assessment of clinical outcomes. Results The mean follow-up period was 38.6 months. CA, VWA, and VBCR were improved after SSPSF, and these parameters were well maintained at the final follow-up with minimal degree of correction loss. Kyphosis recurrence showed a significant increase in patients with Denis burst type A, load-sharing classification (LSC) score >6 or DbVC >6 (p<0.05). There were no patients who worsened to clinical outcome, and there was no significant correlation between kyphosis recurrence and clinical outcome in this series. Conclusion SSPSF including the fractured vertebra is an effective surgical method for restoration and maintenance of vertebral column stability in TLBFs. However, kyphosis recurrence was significantly associated with Denis burst type A fracture, LSC score >6, or DbVC >6. PMID:25368766

Kim, Gun-Woo; Hur, Hyuk; Lee, Jung-Kil; Kim, Jae-Hyoo; Kim, Soo-Han

2014-01-01

98

Uteroplacental restriction in the rat impairs fetal growth in association with alterations in placental growth factors including PTHrP.  

PubMed

During pregnancy, parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is one of many growth factors that play important roles to promote fetal growth and development, including stimulation of placental calcium transport. Angiotensin II, acting through the AT(1a) receptor, is also known to promote placental growth. We examined the effects of bilateral uterine artery and vein ligation (restriction), which mimics placental insufficiency in humans, on growth, intrauterine PTHrP, placental AT(1a), and pup calcium. Growth restriction was surgically induced on day 18 of pregnancy in Wistar-Kyoto female rats by uterine vessel ligation. Uteroplacental insufficiency reduced fetal body weight by 15% and litter size (P < 0.001) compared with the control rats with no effect on placental weight or amniotic fluid volume. Uteroplacental insufficiency reduced placental PTHrP content by 46%, with increases in PTHrP (by 2.6-fold), parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTHrP receptor (by 11.6-fold), and AT(1a) (by 1.7-fold) relative mRNA in placenta following restriction compared with results in control (P < 0.05). There were no alterations in uterine PTHrP and PTH/PTHrP receptor mRNA expression. Maternal and fetal plasma PTHrP and calcium concentrations were unchanged. Although fetal total body calcium was not altered, placental restriction altered perinatal calcium homeostasis, as evidenced by lower pup total body calcium after birth (P < 0.05). The increased uterine and amniotic fluid PTHrP (P < 0.05) may be an attempt to compensate for the induced impaired placental function. The present study demonstrates that uteroplacental insufficiency alters intrauterine PTHrP, placental AT(1a) expression, and perinatal calcium in association with a reduction in fetal growth. Uteroplacental insufficiency may provide an important model for exploring the early origins of adult diseases. PMID:15661964

Wlodek, Mary E; Westcott, Kerryn T; O'Dowd, Rachael; Serruto, Anne; Wassef, Lesley; Moritz, Karen M; Moseley, Jane M

2005-06-01

99

GENETIC FACTORS INFLUENCING C-TYPE RNA VIRUS INDUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is now considerable evidence that spontaneous leukemias in mice are caused by C-type RNA viruses. These viruses appear to be capable of existing in the animal in an unexpressed form for many generations. In inbred mouse strains such as C58 and AKR, in which virus can be detected early in life, leukemia develops at high frequency in young animals

JOHN R. STEPHENSON; STUART A. AARONSON

100

Risk factors of herpes simplex type 1 (HSV1) infection and lifestyle factors associated with HSV1 manifestations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated risk factors for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection in a population of university students in Germany and Spain. In addition, factors associated with the occurrence of oral lesions were studied. Serum samples were collected from 596 Spanish students from the Navarra Public University in Pamplona and 174 German students from the University of Bielefeld aged

Christiane Stock; Francisco Guillén-Grima; Juan Hermoso de Mendoza; Blanca Marin-Fernandez; Ines Aguinaga-Ontoso; Alexander Krämer

2001-01-01

101

Prognostic factors in children with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type I  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical outcome of patients with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) varies, with some patients progressing\\u000a to end-stage renal disease. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the initial clinical signs and laboratory test\\u000a results associated with an MPGN prognosis. The study cohort consisted of 47 patients with idiopathic MPGN Type I treated at\\u000a the National Institute of Pediatrics, Mexico

Silvestre García-de la Puente; Iraida Luz Orozco-Loza; Samuel Zaltzman-Girshevich; Beatriz de Leon Bojorge

2008-01-01

102

Factors influencing self-management in patients with type 2 diabetes: a quantitative systematic review protocol.  

PubMed

AIM: To describe a protocol for a quantitative systematic review, to identify critique and summarize factors that influence self-management education. BACKGROUND: Self-management education enables patients to manage their condition successfully and it is associated with better self-care, good control over lifestyle and leading the best possible quality of life, notwithstanding the presence of a chronic disease. Type II Diabetes is a chronic disease that requires lifestyle adjustments and disease management to keep glycaemia and long-term complications under control. Education has to be customized and based on an assessment that includes factors influencing self-management, such as personal characteristics that can optimize the educational intervention. DESIGN: The protocol for the systematic review was conducted according to the guidelines of the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, York (UK). METHOD: The review question was defined in terms of population, interventions, comparators, outcomes and study designs. The protocol included decisions about the review question, inclusion criteria, search strategy, study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, data synthesis and plans for dissemination. Funding for the review was confirmed on January 2011 by the Centre of Excellence for Nursing Scholarship in Rome. DISCUSSION: An initial summary will be made by tabulating the data; the review will be reported in a narrative style and be developed according to the PRISMA guidelines. The protocol for the systematic review will allow us to identify, among the factors influencing self-management in people with Type II diabetes, the personal characteristics most relevant to the factors of motivation and empowerment. In addition, the systematic review will also identify an appropriate self-management model. PMID:23763567

Bagnasco, Annamaria; Di Giacomo, Patrizia; Da Rin Della Mora, Roberta; Catania, Gianluca; Turci, Carlo; Rocco, Gennaro; Sasso, Loredana

2013-06-13

103

Exact solutions of coupled Liénard-type nonlinear systems using factorization technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

General solutions of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are in general difficult to find; although, powerful integrability techniques exist in the literature for this purpose. It has been shown that in some scalar cases particular solutions may be found with little effort if it is possible to factorize the equation in terms of first-order differential operators. In our present study, we use this factorization technique to address the problem of finding solutions of a system of general two-coupled Liénard-type nonlinear differential equations. We describe a generic algorithm to identify specific classes of Liénard-type systems for which solutions may be found. We demonstrate this method by identifying a class of two-coupled equations for which the particular solution can be found by solving a Bernoulli equation. This class of equations include coupled generalization of the modified Emden equation. We further deduce the general solution of a class of coupled ODEs using the factorization procedure discussed in this paper.

Hazra, Tamaghna; Chandrasekar, V. K.; Pradeep, R. Gladwin; Lakshmanan, M.

2012-02-01

104

Hydrogeomorphic Classification of Wetlands on Mt. Desert Island, Maine, Including Hydrologic Susceptibility Factors for Wetlands in Acadia National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, developed a hydrogeomorphic (HGM) classification system for wetlands greater than 0.4 hectares (ha) on Mt. Desert Island, Maine, and applied this classification using map-scale data to more than 1,200 mapped wetland units on the island. In addition, two hydrologic susceptibility factors were defined for a subset of these wetlands, using 11 variables derived from landscape-scale characteristics of the catchment areas of these wetlands. The hydrologic susceptibility factors, one related to the potential hydrologic pathways for contaminants and the other to the susceptibility of wetlands to disruptions in water supply from projected future changes in climate, were used to indicate which wetlands (greater than 1 ha) in Acadia National Park (ANP) may warrant further investigation or monitoring. The HGM classification system consists of 13 categories: Riverine-Upper Perennial, Riverine-Nonperennial, Riverine- Tidal, Depressional-Closed, Depressional-Semiclosed, Depressional-Open, Depressional-No Ground-Water Input, Mineral Soil Flat, Organic Soil Flat, Tidal Fringe, Lacustrine Fringe, Slope, and Hilltop/Upper Hillslope. A dichotomous key was developed to aid in the classification of wetlands. The National Wetland Inventory maps produced by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service provided the wetland mapping units used for this classification. On the basis of topographic map information and geographic information system (GIS) layers at a scale of 1:24,000 or larger, 1,202 wetland units were assigned a preliminary HGM classification. Two of the 13 HGM classes (Riverine-Tidal and Depressional-No Ground-Water Input) were not assigned to any wetlands because criteria for determining those classes are not available at that map scale, and must be determined by more site-specific information. Of the 1,202 wetland polygons classified, which cover 1,830 ha in ANP, 327 were classified as Slope, 258 were Depressional (Open, Semiclosed, and Closed), 231 were Riverine (Upper Perennial and Nonperennial), 210 were Soil Flat (Mineral and Organic), 68 were Lacustrine Fringe, 51 were Tidal Fringe, 22 were Hilltop/Upper Hillslope, and another 35 were small open water bodies. Most small, isolated wetlands classified on the island are Slope wetlands. The least common, Hilltop/Upper Hillslope wetlands, only occur on a few hilltops and shoulders of hills and mountains. Large wetland complexes generally consist of groups of Depressional wetlands and Mineral Soil Flat or Organic Soil Flat wetlands, often with fringing Slope wetlands at their edges and Riverine wetlands near streams flowing through them. The two analyses of wetland hydrologic susceptibility on Mt. Desert Island were applied to 186 wetlands located partially or entirely within ANP. These analyses were conducted using individually mapped catchments for each wetland. The 186 wetlands were aggregated from the original 1,202 mapped wetland polygons on the basis of their HGM classes. Landscape-level hydrologic, geomorphic, and soil variables were defined for the catchments of the wetlands, and transformed into scaled scores from 0 to 10 for each variable. The variables included area of the wetland, area of the catchment, area of the wetland divided by the area of the catchment, the average topographic slope of the catchment, the amount of the catchment where bedrock crops out with no soil cover or excessively thin soil cover, the amount of storage (in lakes and wetlands) in the catchment, the topographic relief of the catchment, the amount of clay-rich soil in the catchment, the amount of manmade impervious surface, whether the wetland had a stream inflow, and whether the wetland had a hydraulic connection to a lake or estuary. These data were determined using a GIS and data layers mapped at a scale of 1:24,000 or larger. These landscape variables were combined in different ways for the two hydrologic susceptibility fact

Nielsen, Martha G.

2006-01-01

105

Effect of Neighborhood Factors on Diabetes Self-Care Behaviors in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to identify latent variables for neighborhood factors and diabetes self-care and examine the effect of neighborhood factors on diabetes self-care in adults with type 2 diabetes. Research Design and Methods 615 subjects were recruited from an academic medical center and a Veterans affairs medical center in the southeastern United States. Validated scales were used to assess neighborhood factors and diabetes-related self-care. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to determine the latent constructs. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was then used to assess the relationship between neighborhood factors and diabetes self-care. Results Based on a theoretical framework, CFA yielded four latent variables for neighborhood factors (neighborhood violence, access to healthy food, social support, and neighborhood aesthetics) and one latent variable diabetes self-care ( including diet, exercise, foot care, blood sugar testing and medication adherence). SEM showed that social support (r=0.28, p<0.001) and access to healthy foods (r=-0.16, p=0.003) were significantly associated with self-care behaviors, while neighborhood violence (r= -0.06, p<0.001) and aesthetics (r=-0.07, p=0.278) were not ?2 (180, N=611)=192, p=0.26, RMSEA=0.01, CFI=0.999). In the final trimmed model, social support (r=0.31, p<0.001) and access to healthy foods (r=-0.20, p<0.001) remained significantly associated with self-care behaviors ?2 (76, N=611)=60, p=0.91, RMSEA=0.00, CFI=1.0). Conclusion This study developed latent factors for neighborhood characteristics and diabetes self-care and found that social support and access to healthy foods were significantly associated with diabetes self-care and should be considered as targets for future interventions. PMID:17625220

Smalls, Brittany L.; Gregory, Chris M.; Zoller, James S.; Egede, Leonard E.

2014-01-01

106

Genetic defects at the UGT1 locus associated with Crigler-Najjar type I disease, including a prenatal diagnosis  

SciTech Connect

Characterization of the UGT1 gene complex locus encoding both multiple bilirubin and phenol UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (transferases) has been critical in identifying mutations in the bilirubin isoforms. This study utilizes this information to identify the bases of deficient bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity encoded by the UGT1A gene for the major bilirubin isozyme, HUG-Br1, in 3 Crigler-Najjar type I individuals and the genotype of an at-risk unborn sibling of one patient. A homozygous and heterozygous two-base mutation (CCC to CGT) created the HUG-Br1P387R mutant of the major bilirubin transferase in 2 different Crigler-Najjar type I patients, B.G. and G.D., respectively. Both parents of B.G. and his unborn sibling, J.G., were determined to be carriers of the P387R mutation. G.D. also contains the CAA to TAA nonsense mutation (G1n357st). Y.A. has a homozygous CT deletion in codons 40/41. The HUG-Br1P387R mutant protein was totally inactive at the major pH optimum, but retained 26% normal activity at the minor pH optimum (7.6), which was 5.4% of the combined activities measured at the two pH values. 27 refs., 5 figs.

Ciotti, M.; Obaray, R.; Owens, I.S. [National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Martin, M.G. [Univ. of California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1997-01-20

107

Comparative Effectiveness and Safety of Medications for Type 2 Diabetes: An Update Including New Drugs and 2-Drug Combinations  

PubMed Central

Background Given the increase in medications for type 2 diabetes mellitus, clinicians and patients need information about their effectiveness and safety to make informed choices. Purpose To summarize the benefits and harms of metformin, second-generation sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, meglitinides, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, as monotherapy and in combination, to treat adults with type 2 diabetes. Data Sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from inception through April 2010 for English-language observational studies and trials. The MEDLINE search was updated to December 2010 for long-term clinical outcomes. Study Selection Two reviewers independently screened reports and identified 140 trials and 26 observational studies of head-to-head comparisons of monotherapy or combination therapy that reported intermediate or long-term clinical outcomes or harms. Data Extraction Two reviewers following standardized protocols serially extracted data, assessed applicability, and independently evaluated study quality. Data Synthesis Evidence on long-term clinical outcomes (all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, and neuropathy) was of low strength or insufficient. Most medications decreased the hemoglobin A1c level by about 1 percentage point and most 2-drug combinations produced similar reductions. Metformin was more efficacious than the DPP-4 inhibitors, and compared with thiazolidinediones or sulfonylureas, the mean differences in body weight were about ?2.5 kg. Metformin decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared with pioglitazone, sulfonylureas, and DPP-4 inhibitors. Sulfonylureas had a 4-fold higher risk for mild or moderate hypoglycemia than metformin alone and, in combination with metformin, had more than a 5-fold increased risk compared with metformin plus thiazolidinediones. Thiazolidinediones increased risk for congestive heart failure compared with sulfonylureas and increased risk for bone fractures compared with metformin. Diarrhea occurred more often with metformin than with thiazolidinediones. Limitations Only English-language publications were reviewed. Some studies may have selectively reported outcomes. Many studies were small, were of short duration, and had limited ability to assess clinically important harms and benefits. Conclusion Evidence supports metformin as a first-line agent to treat type 2 diabetes. Most 2-drug combinations similarly reduce hemoglobin A1c levels, but some increased risk for hypoglycemia and other adverse events. Primary Funding Source Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. PMID:21403054

Bennett, Wendy L.; Maruthur, Nisa M.; Singh, Sonal; Segal, Jodi B.; Wilson, Lisa M.; Chatterjee, Ranee; Marinopoulos, Spyridon S.; Puhan, Milo A.; Ranasinghe, Padmini; Block, Lauren; Nicholson, Wanda K.; Hutfless, Susan; Bass, Eric B.; Bolen, Shari

2013-01-01

108

The MC-DFT approach including the SCS-MP2 energies to the new Minnesota-type functionals.  

PubMed

We have applied the multicoefficient density functional theory (MC-DFT) to four recent Minnesota functionals, including M06-2X, M08-HX, M11, and MN12-SX on the performance of thermochemical kinetics. The results indicated that the accuracy can be improved significantly using more than one basis set. We further included the SCS-MP2 energies into MC-DFT, and the resulting mean unsigned errors (MUEs) decreased by approximately 0.3 kcal/mol for the most accurate basis set combinations. The M06-2X functional with the simple [6-311+G(d,p)/6-311+G(2d,2p)] combination gave the best performance/cost ratios for the MC-DFT and MC-SCS-MP2|MC-DFT methods with MUE of 1.58 and 1.22 kcal/mol, respectively. PMID:24923999

Liu, Po-Chun; Hu, Wei-Ping

2014-08-01

109

Type D Personality as a Prognostic Factor in Heart Disease: Assessment and Mediating Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type D personality, a synergy between negative affectivity and social inhibition, has established itself as a serious risk factor for morbidity and mortality in patients suffering from cardiovascular disease. In this review, we summarize studies on the validity of the assessment methods of Type D, emphasizing its role as an independent vulnerability factor in the progression of cardiovascular disease. We

Nina Kupper; Johan Denollet

2007-01-01

110

Prevalence, risk factors and complications associated with type 2 diabetes in migrant South Asians.  

PubMed

It is estimated that type 2 diabetes (T2D) currently affects about 246 million people worldwide, with South Asians, especially Indians, having both the largest number of cases and the fastest growing prevalence. South Asian ethnicity has been identified as a major risk factor for the development of T2D with central adiposity, insulin resistance and an unfavourable lipid profile being identified as predominant signals of alarm. Leading databases, including Web of Science, Medline, PubMed and Science Direct, were consulted and manual searches were conducted for cited references in leading diabetes-related journals. In all, 152 articles were included for the final assessment reported in this review. Genetic predisposition, central adiposity and unfavourable lifestyle, including physical inactivity and an unhealthy diet, were associated with the prevalence of T2D in migrant South Asians. 'Westernization', acculturation, socio-economic factors and lack of knowledge about the disease have also been identified as contributors to the development of T2D in this population. Higher prevalence of T2D in migrant South Asians may not be entirely attributed to genetic predisposition; hence, ethnicity and associated modifiable risk factors need further investigation. Preventive measures and appropriate interventions are currently limited by the lack of ethnic-specific cut-off points for anthropometric and biological markers, as well as by the absence of reliable methods for dietary and physical activity assessment. This article describes the prevalence rate, risk factors and complications associated with T2D in migrant South Asians living in different countries. PMID:21591242

Garduño-Diaz, Sara D; Khokhar, Santosh

2012-01-01

111

Receptor modelling of fine particles in Southern England using CMB including comparison with AMS-PMF factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PM2.5 was collected during a winter campaign at two southern England sites, urban background North Kensington (NK) and rural Harwell (HAR), in January-February 2012. Multiple organic and inorganic source tracers were analysed and used in a Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model, which apportioned seven separate primary sources, that explained on average 53% (NK) and 56% (HAR) of the organic carbon (OC), including traffic, woodsmoke, food cooking, coal combustion, vegetative detritus, natural gas and dust/soil. With the addition of source tracers for secondary biogenic aerosol at the NK site, 79% of organic carbon was accounted for. Secondary biogenic sources were represented by oxidation products of ?-pinene and isoprene, but only the former made a substantial contribution to OC. Particle source contribution estimates for PM2.5 mass were obtained by the conversion of the OC estimates and combining with inorganic components ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate and sea salt. Good mass closure was achieved with 8% (92% with the addition of the secondary biogenic source) and 83% of the PM2.5 mass explained at NK and HAR respectively, with the remainder being secondary organic matter. While the most important sources of OC are vehicle exhaust (21 and 16%) and woodsmoke (15% and 28%) at NK and HAR respectively, food cooking emissions are also significant, particularly at the urban NK site (11% of OC), in addition to the secondary biogenic source, only measured at NK, which represented about 26%. In comparison, the major source components for PM2.5 at NK and HAR are inorganic ammonium salts (51 and 56%), vehicle exhaust emissions (8 and 6%), secondary biogenic (10% measured at NK only), woodsmoke (4 and 7%) and sea salt (7 and 8%), whereas food cooking (4% and 1%) showed relatively smaller contributions to PM2.5. Results from the CMB model were compared with source contribution estimates derived from the AMS-PMF method. The overall mass of organic matter accounted for is rather similar for the two methods. However, appreciably different concentrations were calculated for the individual primary organic matter contributions, although for most source categories the CMB and AMS-PMF results were highly correlated (r2 = 0.69-0.91). In comparison with the CMB model, the AMS appears to over-estimate the biomass burning/coal and food cooking sources by a factor of around 1.5 to 2 while estimates of the traffic source are rather similar for each model. The largest divergence is in the primary/secondary organic matter split, with the AMS estimating an appreciably smaller secondary component. Possible reasons for these discrepancies are discussed, but despite these substantial divergences, the strong correlation of the two methods gives some confidence in their application.

Yin, J.; Cumberland, S. A.; Harrison, R. M.; Allan, J.; Young, D. E.; Williams, P. I.; Coe, H.

2014-09-01

112

Temperature factor for magnetic instability conditions of type - II superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The macroscopic development of interrelated electrodynamics and thermal states taking place both before and after instability onset in type-II superconductors are studied using the critical state and the flux creep concepts. The physical mechanisms of the non-isothermal formation of the critical state are discussed solving the set of unsteady thermo-electrodynamics equations taking into consideration the unknown moving penetration boundary of the magnetic flux. To make it, the numerical method, which allows to study diffusion phenomena with unknown moving phase-two boundary, is developed. The corresponding non-isothermal flux jump criteria are written. It is proved for the first time that, first, the diffusion phenomena in superconductors have the fission-chain-reaction nature, second, the stability conditions, losses in superconductor and its stable overheating before instability onset are mutually dependent. The results are compared with those following from the existing magnetic instability theory, which does not take into consideration the stable temperature increase of superconductor before the instability onset. It is shown that errors of isothermal approximation are significant for modes closed to adiabatic ones. Therefore, the well-known adiabatic flux jump criterion limits the range of possible stable superconducting states since a correct determination of their stability states must take into account the thermal prehistory of the stable magnetic flux penetration. As a result, the calculation errors in the isothermal approximation will rise when the sweep rate of an external magnetic field or the size of the superconductor’s cross-sectional area increase. The basic conclusions formulated in the framework of the critical state model are verified comparing the experimental results and the numerical analysis of the stability conditions and the temperature dynamics of the helicoid-type superconducting current-carrying element having real voltage-current characteristic. On the whole, the non-isothermal stability conditions expand the existence of allowable stable superconducting states. The non-isothermal approximation permits also to link the theories of the losses, the magnetic instability and the thermal stabilization of superconductors, which are independently developed.

Romanovskii, V.

2014-10-01

113

[Factors influencing prolonged hospital stays by elderly patients: problems in medical management including use of urethral catheters].  

PubMed

Fifty-nine elderly patients who had been hospitalized more than six months in five hospitals in the city of Mino in Osaka Prefecture, were studied to clarify the factors influencing prolonged hospital stays by the elderly. Their mean age was 82.2 years, and women accounted for 86% of the patients. One-third had suffered a stroke. As for ADL, 44% were completely dependent when walking, eating, bathing and dressing. Moreover, 36% had severe dementia, 19% suffered from decubitus ulcers, 66% were undergoing rehabilitation, 58% were receiving venous infusion therapy, 36% used a urethral catheter, and 10% were receiving tube feeding. The subjects were divided into two groups according to the likelihood of discharge assessed by the doctors in charge: one group consisted of 27 patients who might be discharged and the other of 32 patients with an ongoing need for inpatient care. Multivariate analyses using Hayashi's quantification method II indicated that use of a urethral catheter and not undergoing rehabilitation were the main factors associated with the need for inpatient care, while being a woman, being of advanced age and not having one's own room at home were the non-medical factors which made it difficult for the patients to be discharged from the hospital. As use of a urethral catheter was the factor most strongly related to prolonged hospital stay, multivariate analyses were applied to the 45 patients with urinary incontinence, who were divided into one group of 21 patients with, and one of 24 without a urethral catheter. The factors associated with use of a urethral catheter were then investigated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1464952

Kuroda, K; Tatara, K; Zhao, L; Takatorige, T; Shinsho, F

1992-10-01

114

Practical Ranges of Loudness Levels of Various Types of Environmental Noise, Including Traffic Noise, Aircraft Noise, and Industrial Noise  

PubMed Central

In environmental noise control one commonly employs the A-weighted sound level as an approximate measure of the effect of noise on people. A measure that is more closely related to direct human perception of noise is the loudness level. At constant A-weighted sound level, the loudness level of a noise signal varies considerably with the shape of the frequency spectrum of the noise signal. In particular the bandwidth of the spectrum has a large effect on the loudness level, due to the effect of critical bands in the human hearing system. The low-frequency content of the spectrum also has an effect on the loudness level. In this note the relation between loudness level and A-weighted sound level is analyzed for various environmental noise spectra, including spectra of traffic noise, aircraft noise, and industrial noise. From loudness levels calculated for these environmental noise spectra, diagrams are constructed that show the relation between loudness level, A-weighted sound level, and shape of the spectrum. The diagrams show that the upper limits of the loudness level for broadband environmental noise spectra are about 20 to 40 phon higher than the lower limits for narrowband spectra, which correspond to the loudness levels of pure tones. The diagrams are useful for assessing limitations and potential improvements of environmental noise control methods and policy based on A-weighted sound levels. PMID:21776205

Salomons, Erik M.; Janssen, Sabine A.

2011-01-01

115

Risk factors for the development of retroprosthetic membranes with Boston Keratoprosthesis type 1: multicenter study results  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to identify possible risk factors for retroprosthetic membrane (RPM) development in a large multicenter cohort of patients receiving a Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis. Design Cohort study. Participants The final analysis included 265 eyes of 265 patients who underwent implantation of a Boston Keratoprosthesis Type I device between January 2003 and July 2008 by one of 19 surgeons at 18 medical centers. Methods Forms reporting preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative parameters were prospectively collected and subsequently analyzed at a central data collection site. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome was the presence or absence of a retroprosthetic membrane (RPM) during the follow-up period. Results 265 Boston Type 1 keratoprosthesis surgical procedures (265 patients) from 19 surgeons at 18 surgical centers were included in the analysis. The average age of patients was 63.3±19.1 years, 48.5% of the patients were female, and 52.5% of procedures were performed on the right eye. The mean follow-up time was 17.8±14.9 months. The majority (85.4%; n=222) had undergone an average of 2.2±1.2 (range 1–8) penetrating keratoplasties prior to keratoprosthesis implantation, and 38 eyes (14.6%) received a primary keratoprosthesis. The overall RPM formation rate was 31.7% (n=84). The most significant risk factor for RPM development was infectious keratitis (as a surgical indication for keratoprosthesis surgery itself), resulting in a rate of RPM formation of 70.6%. As an independent risk factor, the hazard ratio (HR) of RPM development in these eyes was 3.20 (95% confidence interval: 1.66, 6.17). Aniridia was also an independent risk factor for RPM development (HR=3.13; 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 8.89). Conclusions RPM formation is a common complication of keratoprosthesis surgery, occurring in approximately one third of cases. Eyes at the highest risk of RPM development are those receiving corneal replacement for infectious keratitis and aniridia. PMID:22361316

Rudnisky, Christopher J.; Belin, Michael W.; Al-Arfaj, Khalid; Ament, Jared D.; Zerbe, Brian J.; Ciolino, Joseph B.

2011-01-01

116

40 CFR 273.81 - Factors for petitions to include other wastes under 40 CFR part 273.  

...FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Petitions To Include...category (e.g., batteries), the definition of...hazardous waste batteries).) Thus, only...generator; (d) Systems to be used for collecting...wastes, and specific management standards proposed...

2014-07-01

117

Type beta Transforming Growth Factor is the Primary Differentiation-Inducing Serum Factor for Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type beta transforming growth factor (TGF-beta ) was shown to be the serum factor responsible for inducing normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells to undergo squamous differentiation. NHBE cells were shown to have high-affinity receptors for TGF-beta . TGF-beta induced the following markers of terminal squamous differentiation in NHBE cells: (i) increase in Ca ionophore-induced formation of crosslinked envelopes; (ii)

Tohru Masui; Lalage M. Wakefield; John F. Lechner; Moira A. La Veck; Michael B. Sporn; Curtis C. Harris

1986-01-01

118

Elevated growth differentiation factor 15 expression in patients with congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type I  

PubMed Central

Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia (CDA) is a rare group of red blood cell disorders characterized by ineffective erythropoiesis and increased iron absorption. To determine whether growth differentation factor 15 (GDF15) hyper-expression is associated with the ineffective erythropoiesis and iron-loading complications of CDA type I (CDA I), GDF15 levels and other markers of erythropoiesis and iron overload were studied in blood from 17 CDA I patients. Significantly higher levels of GDF15 were detected among the CDA I patients (10?239 ± 3049 pg/mL) compared with healthy volunteers (269 ± 238 pg/mL). In addition, GDF15 correlated significantly with several erythropoietic and iron parameters including Hepcidin-25, Ferritin, and Hepcidin-25/Ferritin ratios. These novel results suggest that CDA I patients express very high levels of serum GDF15, and that GDF15 contributes to the inappropriate suppression of hepcidin with subsequent secondary hemochromatosis. PMID:18824595

Shalev, Hanna; Perez-Avraham, Galit; Zoldan, Meira; Levi, Itai; Swinkels, Dorine W.; Tanno, Toshihiko; Miller, Jeffery L.

2008-01-01

119

SREB, a GATA Transcription Factor That Directs Disparate Fates in Blastomyces dermatitidis Including Morphogenesis and Siderophore Biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Blastomyces dermatitidis belongs to a group of human pathogenic fungi that exhibit thermal dimorphism. At 22°C, these fungi grow as mold that produce conidia or infectious particles, whereas at 37°C they convert to budding yeast. The ability to switch between these forms is essential for virulence in mammals and may enable these organisms to survive in the soil. To identify genes that regulate this phase transition, we used Agrobacterium tumefaciens to mutagenize B. dermatitidis conidia and screened transformants for defects in morphogenesis. We found that the GATA transcription factor SREB governs multiple fates in B. dermatitidis: phase transition from yeast to mold, cell growth at 22°C, and biosynthesis of siderophores under iron-replete conditions. Insertional and null mutants fail to convert to mold, do not accumulate significant biomass at 22°C, and are unable to suppress siderophore biosynthesis under iron-replete conditions. The defect in morphogenesis in the SREB mutant was independent of exogenous iron concentration, suggesting that SREB promotes the phase transition by altering the expression of genes that are unrelated to siderophore biosynthesis. Using bioinformatic and gene expression analyses, we identified candidate genes with upstream GATA sites whose expression is altered in the null mutant that may be direct or indirect targets of SREB and promote the phase transition. We conclude that SREB functions as a transcription factor that promotes morphogenesis and regulates siderophore biosynthesis. To our knowledge, this is the first gene identified that promotes the conversion from yeast to mold in the dimorphic fungi, and may shed light on environmental persistence of these pathogens. PMID:20368971

Gauthier, Gregory M.; Sullivan, Thomas D.; Gallardo, Sergio S.; Brandhorst, T. Tristan; Vanden Wymelenberg, Amber J.; Cuomo, Christina A.; Suen, Garret; Currie, Cameron R.; Klein, Bruce S.

2010-01-01

120

The Opportunistic Pathogen Propionibacterium acnes: Insights into Typing, Human Disease, Clonal Diversification and CAMP Factor Evolution  

PubMed Central

We previously described a Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) scheme based on eight genes that facilitates population genetic and evolutionary analysis of P. acnes. While MLST is a portable method for unambiguous typing of bacteria, it is expensive and labour intensive. Against this background, we now describe a refined version of this scheme based on two housekeeping (aroE; guaA) and two putative virulence (tly; camp2) genes (MLST4) that correctly predicted the phylogroup (IA1, IA2, IB, IC, II, III), clonal complex (CC) and sequence type (ST) (novel or described) status for 91% isolates (n?=?372) via cross-referencing of the four gene allelic profiles to the full eight gene versions available in the MLST database (http://pubmlst.org/pacnes/). Even in the small number of cases where specific STs were not completely resolved, the MLST4 method still correctly determined phylogroup and CC membership. Examination of nucleotide changes within all the MLST loci provides evidence that point mutations generate new alleles approximately 1.5 times as frequently as recombination; although the latter still plays an important role in the bacterium's evolution. The secreted/cell-associated ‘virulence’ factors tly and camp2 show no clear evidence of episodic or pervasive positive selection and have diversified at a rate similar to housekeeping loci. The co-evolution of these genes with the core genome might also indicate a role in commensal/normal existence constraining their diversity and preventing their loss from the P. acnes population. The possibility that members of the expanded CAMP factor protein family, including camp2, may have been lost from other propionibacteria, but not P. acnes, would further argue for a possible role in niche/host adaption leading to their retention within the genome. These evolutionary insights may prove important for discussions surrounding camp2 as an immunotherapy target for acne, and the effect such treatments may have on commensal lineages. PMID:24058439

McDowell, Andrew; Nagy, Istvan; Magyari, Marta; Barnard, Emma; Patrick, Sheila

2013-01-01

121

Dynamic shape factors for hydox-generated plutonium dioxide-type non-sperical objects  

E-print Network

The dynamic shape factors of HYDOX-generated plutonium dioxide-type non-spherical objects were estimated with computational methods. Leith's empirical methods were used to modify classical Stokes's law for aerosol dynamics (1987). The dynamic shape...

Lohaus, James Harold

2012-06-07

122

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus is an Independent Risk Factor for Pulmonary Fibrosis.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the clinical and histopathological relationship between pulmonary fibrosis and type 1 diabetes. We examined clinical pulmonary function parameters and transbronchial lung biopsies to assess associated histopathological changes in 12 type 1 diabetic patients presenting with dyspnea. Lung CT images pulmonary function tests from 12 diabetic patients without dyspnea and from 12 matched normal subjects served as controls. A similar histopathological analysis, including cytokine levels and pro-fibrotic markers, was performed on lung tissues in mice after the induction of experimental diabetes in an attempt to strengthen the link between diabetes and pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary function parameters (FVC, FEV1, TLC, and DLco/VA) were significantly reduced in diabetic patients with dyspnea and without dyspnea, compared to controls. Both patient groups also had increased lung CT scores and symptoms compared to normal controls, though the greatest increases were in the diabetic patients with dyspnea. Chronic hyperglycemia induced in mice led to histopathological changes in the lungs that were similar to those found in the human diabetic subjects and included alveoli compression by hyperplastic interstitium infiltrated with inflammatory cells and fibrotic in nature. Two inflammatory related genes, TNF-? and PAI-1, and two fibrosis-related genes, CTGF and fibronectin, demonstrated increased mRNA and protein expression in diabetic mouse lungs. In conclusion, there were significant clinical and histopathological correlations between pulmonary fibrosis and the presence of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes was clinically associated with pulmonary fibrosis and dysfunction in humans, and diabetes induction led to a similar pulmonary fibrosis in an experimental model. These clinical and non-clinical data suggest that diabetes is an independent risk factor for pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:24938900

Hu, Yuxin; Ma, Zhongsen; Guo, Zhimin; Zhao, Fenglian; Wang, Yuan; Cai, Lu; Yang, Junling

2014-11-01

123

Antidepressant Medication as a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes and Impaired Glucose Regulation  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Antidepressant use has risen sharply over recent years. Recent concerns that antidepressants may adversely affect glucose metabolism require investigation. Our aim was to assess the risk of type 2 diabetes associated with antidepressants through a systematic review. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data sources were MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, meeting abstracts of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, American Diabetes Association, and Diabetes UK, Current Controlled Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov, U.K. Clinical Research Network, scrutiny of bibliographies of retrieved articles, and contact with relevant experts. Relevant studies of antidepressant effects were included. Key outcomes were diabetes incidence and change in blood glucose (fasting and random). RESULTS Three systemic reviews and 22 studies met the inclusion criteria. Research designs included 1 case series and 21 observational studies comprising 4 cross-sectional, 5 case-control, and 12 cohort studies. There was evidence that antidepressant use is associated with type 2 diabetes. Causality is not established, but rather, the picture is confused, with some antidepressants linked to worsening glucose control, particularly with higher doses and longer duration, others linked with improved control, and yet more with mixed results. The more recent, larger studies, however, suggest a modest effect. Study quality was variable. CONCLUSIONS Although evidence exists that antidepressant use may be an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes, long-term prospective studies of the effects of individual antidepressants rather than class effects are required. Heightened alertness to potential risks is necessary until these are complete. PMID:24065841

Barnard, Katharine; Peveler, Robert C.; Holt, Richard I.G.

2013-01-01

124

43 CFR 404.10 - Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included in a rural...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

43 ? Public Lands: Interior ? 1 ? 2013-10-01 ? 2013-10-01 ? false ? Are there certain types of infrastructure and facilities that may not be included in a rural water supply project? ? 404.10 ? Section 404.10 ? Public Lands: Interior ? Regulations Relating to Public Lands ? BUREAU OF...

2013-10-01

125

Financial evidence for Tier 4 student visa applications This guidance note includes information about the type of financial evidence you can use to  

E-print Network

_Rules_-_Appendix_P.pdf If you use financial evidence from a bank which does not meet the UK Visas and Immigration requirementsFinancial evidence for Tier 4 student visa applications This guidance note includes information about the type of financial evidence you can use to prove that you meet the maintenance requirement

Evans, Paul

126

Factors Associated with Beta-Cell Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes: The BETADECLINE Study  

PubMed Central

Aims Beta-cell dysfunction is an early event in the natural history of type 2 diabetes. However, its progression is variable and potentially influenced by several clinical factors. We report the baseline data of the BetaDecline study, an Italian prospective multicenter study on clinical predictors of beta-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods Clinical, lifestyle, and laboratory data, including circulating levels of inflammatory markers and non-esterified fatty acids, were collected in 507 type 2 diabetic outpatients on stable treatment with oral hypoglycemic drugs or diet for more than 1 year. Beta-cell dysfunction was evaluated by calculating the proinsulin/insulin ratio (P/I). Results At baseline, the subjects in the upper PI/I ratio quartile were more likely to be men and receiving secretagogue drugs; they also showed a borderline longer diabetes duration (P?=?0.06) and higher serum levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose, and triglycerides. An inverse trend across all PI/I quartiles was noted for BMI and serum levels of total cholesterol (T-C), LDL-C, HDL-C and C reactive protein (CRP), and with homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-B) and HOMA of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values (P<0.05 for all). At multivariate analysis, the risk of having a P/I ratio in the upper quartile was higher in the subjects on secretagogue drugs (odds ratio [OR] 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.6–6.9) and in the males (OR 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1–2.9). Conclusions In the BetaDecline study population, baseline higher PI/I values, a marker of beta-cell dysfunction, were more frequent in men and in patients on secretagogues drugs. Follow-up of this cohort will allow the identification of clinical predictors of beta-cell failure in type 2 diabetic outpatients. PMID:25347846

Russo, Giuseppina T.; Giorda, Carlo Bruno; Cercone, Stefania; Nicolucci, Antonio; Cucinotta, Domenico

2014-01-01

127

Transfer Factor in the Treatment of Herpes Simplex Types 1 and 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transfer factor potentiates cellular immunity and induces interferon. It was because of these properties that transfer factor was tried in 17 patients with recurrent herpes simplex types 1 and 2. Transfer factor was administered in doses ranging from 5 to 10 U\\/m2 i.m. The interval between injections varied from 1 week to 3 months. 16 patients could be evaluated clinically

Amanullah Khan; Beth Hansen; N. O. Hill; E. Loeb; A. S. Pardue; J. M. Hill

1981-01-01

128

Suicide, Schizophrenia, and Schizoid-Type Psychosis: Role of Life Events and Childhood Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first objective was to identify the provoking events of suicide in patients with schizophrenia or schizoid-type disorder, and to assess the humiliation component of these events. The second objective was to verify if quality of care during childhood is a vulnerability factor for suicide in patients with schizophrenia or schizoid-type

Tousignant, Michel; Pouliot, Louise; Routhier, Danielle; Vrakas, Georgia; McGirr, Alexander; Turecki, Gustavo

2011-01-01

129

Anthropomorphic Measurements That Include Central Fat Distribution Are More Closely Related with Key Risk Factors than BMI in CKD Stage 3  

PubMed Central

Background Body Mass Index (BMI) as a marker of obesity is an established risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, BMI can overestimate obesity. Anthropomorphic measurements that include central fat deposition are emerging as a more important risk factor. We studied BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and conicity index (CI) in a cohort of patients with CKD stage 3 and compared the associations with other known risk factors for CKD progression and CVD. Methods 1740 patients with CKD stage 3 were recruited from primary care for the Renal Risk in Derby study. Each participant underwent clinical assessment, including anthropomorphic measurements and pulse wave velocity (PWV), as well as urine and serum biochemistry tests. Results The mean age of the cohort was 72.9±9 years with 60% females. The mean eGFR was 52.5±10.4 ml/min/1.73 m2 and 16.9% of the cohort had diabetes. With the cohort divided into normal and increased risk of morbidity and mortality using each anthropomorphic measurement, those measurements that included increased central fat distribution were significantly associated with more risk factors for CKD progression and CVD than increased BMI. Univariable analysis demonstrated central fat distribution was correlated with more risk factors than BMI. Subgroup analyses using recognised BMI cut-offs to define obesity and quartiles of WHR and CI demonstrated that increasing central fat distribution was significantly associated with more CKD and CVD risk factors than increasing BMI. Conclusion Anthropomorphic measurements that include a measure of central fat deposition are related to more key risk factors in CKD stage 3 patients than BMI. Central fat deposition may be of greater importance as a risk factor in CKD than BMI and reliance on BMI alone may therefore underestimate the associated risk. PMID:22511960

Evans, Philip D.; McIntyre, Natasha J.; Fluck, Richard J.; McIntyre, Christopher W.; Taal, Maarten W.

2012-01-01

130

Genetic and environmental factors associated with type 2 diabetes and diabetic vascular complications  

PubMed Central

Faced with a global epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2D), it is critical that researchers improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of T2D and related vascular complications. These findings may ultimately lead to novel treatment options for disease prevention or delaying progression. Two major paradigms jointly underlie the development of T2D and related coronary artery disease, diabetic nephropathy, and diabetic retinopathy. These paradigms include the genetic risk variants and behavioral/environmental factors. This article systematically reviews the literature supporting genetic determinants in the pathogenesis of T2D and diabetic vasculopathy, and the functional implications of these gene variants on the regulation of beta-cell function and glucose homeostasis. We update the discovery of diabetes and diabetic vasculopathy risk variants, and describe the genetic technologies that have uncovered them. Also, genomic linkage between obesity and T2D is discussed. There is a complementary role for behavioral and environmental factors modulating the genetic susceptibility and diabetes risk. Epidemiological and clinical data demonstrating the effects of behavioral and novel environmental exposures on disease expression are reviewed. Finally, a succinct overview of recent landmark clinical trials addressing glycemic control and its impact on rates of vascular complications is presented. It is expected that novel strategies to exploit the gene- and exposure-related underpinnings of T2D will soon result. PMID:22972441

Murea, Mariana; Ma, Lijun; Freedman, Barry I.

2012-01-01

131

Risk factors of type 2 diabetes in population of Jammu and Kashmir, India  

PubMed Central

We sought to identify risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Jammu and Kashmir populations, India. A total of 424 diabetic and 226 non-diabetic subjects from Jammu, and 161 diabetic and 100 non-diabetic subjects from Kashmir were screened for various parameters including fasting blood glucose level, 2 hour glucose level, urea, creatinine, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-C), uric acid, systolic and diastolic blood pressure level. We found that subjects aged 40-49 years had the highest rate of diabetes, with family income playing not much of a role. Kashmiri migrants or populations with rapid cultural, environmental, social or lifestyle change along with reduced physical activity, obesity and unhealthy lifestyle (smoking and alcohol consumption) were found to have higher rates of diabetes. High blood glucose, triglycerides and low HDL-C levels were found to be contributing to disease outcome. High blood pressure also contributed to a higher risk of developing T2D. Our study supports earlier reports confirming the contribution of comfortable life style, Western dietary habits and rapid life style change along with many other factors to the prevalence of diabetes. This may contribute to the epidemic proportion of diabetes in Jammu and Kashmir. Early diagnosis and routine screening for undiagnosed diabetes in obese subjects and subjects with parental diabetes history is expected to decrease the burden of chronic diabetic complications worldwide. PMID:24086170

Mahajan, Ankit; Sharma, Swarkar; Dhar, Manoj K.; Bamezai, Rameshwar N.K.

2013-01-01

132

In vivo demonstration of cell types in bone that harbor epidermal growth factor receptors  

SciTech Connect

The binding and internalization of (/sup 125/I)iodoepidermal growth factor (EGF) by bone cells of the rat was demonstrated in situ by quantitative radioautography. Specific binding sites were observed on a cell profile enriched in endocytic components, including lysosome-like structures, a rough endoplasmic reticulum-rich cell profile, and a cell profile that histologically resembles an undifferentiated precursor cell. By the criteria of gel filtration and precipitability by trichloroacetic acid, most of the bound (/sup 125/I)iodo-EGF was considered intact. By morphological criteria none of the cell profiles that bound (/sup 125/I)iodo-EGF corresponded to fully formed osteoclasts or osteoblasts. The endocytic cell was found in the epiphyseal plate between the invading capillary and the transverse and longitudinal cartilage septa as well as near osteoclasts in the zone of mixed spicules. The rough endoplasmic reticulum-rich cell was present in vacated chondrocyte lacunae of the epiphyseal plate close to the metaphysis, and the poorly differentiated cell was observed between the mixed spicules of the metaphysis. Similar cell types were also found in the alveolar bone surrounding the incisors. These cells may be the origin of established bone cell lines that harbor high concentrations of EGF receptors and may also be responsible for the humoral hypercalcemia in response to the reported actions of injected EGF or transforming growth factor-alpha as well as that of malignancy.

Martineau-Doize, B.; Lai, W.H.; Warshawsky, H.; Bergeron, J.J.

1988-08-01

133

Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease: Have all risk factors the same strength?  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition that occurs when the body cannot produce enough or effectively use of insulin. Compared with individuals without diabetes, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have a considerably higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease. Most of this excess risk is it associated with an augmented prevalence of well-known risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia and obesity in these patients. However the improved cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients can not be attributed solely to the higher prevalence of traditional risk factors. Therefore other non-traditional risk factors may be important in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cardiovascular disease is increased in type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects due to a complex combination of various traditional and non-traditional risk factors that have an important role to play in the beginning and the evolution of atherosclerosis over its long natural history from endothelial function to clinical events. Many of these risk factors could be common history for both diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, reinforcing the postulate that both disorders come independently from “common soil”. The objective of this review is to highlight the weight of traditional and non-traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the setting of type 2 diabetes mellitus and discuss their position in the pathogenesis of the excess cardiovascular disease mortality and morbidity in these patients. PMID:25126392

Martin-Timon, Iciar; Sevillano-Collantes, Cristina; Segura-Galindo, Amparo; del Canizo-Gomez, Francisco Javier

2014-01-01

134

Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease: Have all risk factors the same strength?  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition that occurs when the body cannot produce enough or effectively use of insulin. Compared with individuals without diabetes, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have a considerably higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease. Most of this excess risk is it associated with an augmented prevalence of well-known risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia and obesity in these patients. However the improved cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients can not be attributed solely to the higher prevalence of traditional risk factors. Therefore other non-traditional risk factors may be important in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cardiovascular disease is increased in type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects due to a complex combination of various traditional and non-traditional risk factors that have an important role to play in the beginning and the evolution of atherosclerosis over its long natural history from endothelial function to clinical events. Many of these risk factors could be common history for both diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, reinforcing the postulate that both disorders come independently from "common soil". The objective of this review is to highlight the weight of traditional and non-traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the setting of type 2 diabetes mellitus and discuss their position in the pathogenesis of the excess cardiovascular disease mortality and morbidity in these patients. PMID:25126392

Martín-Timón, Iciar; Sevillano-Collantes, Cristina; Segura-Galindo, Amparo; Del Cañizo-Gómez, Francisco Javier

2014-08-15

135

Multiple risk factor intervention reduces carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with rapid progression of carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) were shown to have a higher future risk for cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of multiple risk factor intervention on CIMT progression and to establish whether new cardiovascular surrogate measurements would allow prediction of CIMT changes. Materials and methods In this prospective, open, 2-years study, we included 97 patients with type 2 diabetes and at least two insufficiently treated cardiovascular risk factors, i.e. HbA1c > 7.5% (58 mmol/mol); LDL-cholesterol >3.1 mmol/l or blood pressure >140/90 mmHg. Treatment was intensified according to current guidelines over 3 months with the aim to maintain intensification over 2 years. The primary outcome was the change in CIMT after 2 years. We also assessed markers of mechanical and biochemical endothelial function and endothelial progenitor cells before and after 3 months of treatment intensification. For testing differences between before and after multifactorial treatment measurements we used either the paired student’s t-test or the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, depending on the distribution of the data. Additional, explorative statistical data analysis was done on CIMT progression building a linear multivariate regression model. Results Blood glucose, lipids and blood pressure significantly improved during the first 3 months of intensified treatment, which was sustained over the 2-year study duration. Mean CIMT significantly decreased from baseline to 2 year (0.883 ± 0.120 mm vs. 0.860 ± 0.130 mm; p = 0.021). None of the investigated surrogate measures, however, was able to predict changes in IMT early after treatment intensification. Conclusions Intensification of risk factor intervention in type 2 diabetes results in CIMT regression over a period of 2 years. None of the biomarkers used including endothelial function parameters or endothelial progenitor cells turned out to be useful to predict CIMT changes. Trial registration Clinical Trial Registration – Unique identifier: NCT00660790 PMID:24884694

2014-01-01

136

Factors associated with successful completion of the chronic disease self-management program by adults with type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

This study examines factors associated with completion (attendance ?4 of 6 sessions) of the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) by adults with type 2 diabetes. Patients with glycated hemoglobin ? 7.5 within 6 months were enrolled and completed self-report measures on demographics, health status, and self-care (n = 146). Significant differences in completion status were found for several self-care factors including healthful eating plan, spacing carbohydrates, frequent exercise, and general health. Completion was not influenced by race/ethnicity or socioeconomics. Results suggest better attention to exercise and nutrition at the start of CDSMP may be associated with completion, regardless of demographic subgroup. PMID:23455685

Helduser, Janet W; Bolin, Jane N; Vuong, Ann M; Moudouni, Darcy M; Begaye, Dawn S; Huber, John C; Ory, Marcia G; Forjuoh, Samuel N

2013-01-01

137

Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Regulates Expression of Surfactant Protein in Alveolar Type II Cells In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Alveolar type II (ATII) cells cultured at an air–liquid (A/L) interface maintain differentiation, but they lose these properties when they are submerged. Others showed that an oxygen tension gradient develops in the culture medium as ATII cells consume oxygen. Therefore, we wondered whether hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) signaling could explain differences in the phenotypes of ATII cells cultured under A/L interface or submerged conditions. ATII cells were isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats and cultured on inserts coated with a mixture of rat-tail collagen and Matrigel, in medium including 5% rat serum and 10 ng/ml keratinocyte growth factor, with their apical surfaces either exposed to air or submerged. The A/L interface condition maintained the expression of surfactant proteins, whereas that expression was down-regulated under the submerged condition, and the effect was rapid and reversible. Under submerged conditions, there was an increase in HIF1? and HIF2? in nuclear extracts, mRNA levels of HIF inducible genes, vascular endothelial growth factor, glucose transporter–1 (GLUT1), and the protein level of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isozyme–1. The expression of surfactant proteins was suppressed and GLUT1 mRNA levels were induced when cells were cultured with 1 mM dimethyloxalyl glycine. The expression of surfactant proteins was restored under submerged conditions with supplemented 60% oxygen. HIF signaling and oxygen tension at the surface of cells appears to be important in regulating the phenotype of rat ATII cells. PMID:21454802

Ahmad, Aftab; Kewley, Emily; Mason, Robert J.

2011-01-01

138

Factors associated with consumption of diabetic diet among type 2 diabetic subjects from Ahmedabad, Western India.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study assessed the current situation of and factors associated with consumption of diabetic diet among 399 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects from Ahmedabad, Western India. The study was performed with diagnosed (at least one year old) diabetic subjects who attended the Department of Diabetology, All India Institute of Diabetes and Research and Yash Diabetes Specialties Centre (Swasthya Hospital), Ahmedabad during July 2010-November 2010. The subjects completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire included variables, such as sociodemographic factors, family history of diabetes, behavioural profile, risk profile (glycaemic status, hypertension, and obesity), and diet-related history (consumption of diabetic diet, consumption of low fat/skimmed milk, method of cooking, and sources for diet advice). Blood pressure, body mass index, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level, and fasting lipid profile were measured. All analyses including multivariate logistic regression were conducted using SPSS, version 11.5. In total, 399 T2DM subjects (65% male, 35% female) with mean age of 53.16 +/- 7.95 years were studied. Although 73% of T2DM subjects were consuming diabetic diet, the good glycaemic control (HbA1c level < 7%) was achieved only in 35% of the subjects. The majority (75%) of the subjects had a positive family history of diabetes, and 52% were obese. In 77%, the main source of dietary advice was doctor. In 36%, the main methods of cooking were: boiling and roasting. The final multivariate model showed that visit to dietician, level of education, intake of low fat, and family history of diabetes were independent predictors for diabetic diet consumption among T2DM subjects. However, longitudinal and cohort studies are required to establish the association between consumption of diabetic diet and glycaemic control. PMID:23304911

Patel, Mayur; Patel, Ina M; Patel, Yash M; Rathi, Suresh K

2012-12-01

139

Enhanced Hepatocyte Growth Factor Signaling by Type II Transforming Growth Factor-B Receptor Knockout Fibroblasts Promotes Mammary Tumorigenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transforming growth factor-B (TGF-B) plays complex dual roles as an inhibitor and promoter of tumor progression. Although the influence of the stromal microenvironment on tumor progression is well recognized, little is known about the functions of TGF-B signaling in the stroma during tumor progression. Using cre-lox technology, expression of the type II TGF-B receptor was selectively knocked out in fibroblasts

Nikki Cheng; Anna Chytil; Yu Shyr; Alison Joly

2007-01-01

140

Risk Factors for Adolescent Sex Offender Recidivism: Evaluation of Predictive Factors and Comparison of Three Groups Based Upon Victim Type  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated differences in recidivism risk factors and traits associated with psychopathy among 3 groups of male\\u000a adolescent sexual offenders (N=156): offenders against children, offenders against peers or adults, and mixed type offenders. Furthermore, those same variables\\u000a were examined for their association with sexual and nonsexual recidivism and the 3 groups were compared for differences in\\u000a rates of recidivism.

Gregory A. Parks; David E. Bard

2006-01-01

141

Genetic variation near the hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 alpha gene predicts susceptibility to type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

The Finland-United States Investigation Of NIDDM Genetics (FUSION) study aims to identify genetic variants that predispose to type 2 diabetes by studying affected sibling pair families from Finland. Chromosome 20 showed our strongest initial evidence for linkage. It currently has a maximum logarithm of odds (LOD) score of 2.48 at 70 cM in a set of 495 families. In this study, we searched for diabetes susceptibility variant(s) at 20q13 by genotyping single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in case and control DNA pools. Of 291 SNPs successfully typed in a 7.5-Mb interval, the strongest association confirmed by individual genotyping was with SNP rs2144908, located 1.3 kb downstream of the primary beta-cell promoter P2 of hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 alpha (HNF4A). This SNP showed association with diabetes disease status (odds ratio [OR] 1.33, 95% CI 1.06-1.65, P = 0.011) and with several diabetes-related traits. Most of the evidence for linkage at 20q13 could be attributed to the families carrying the risk allele. We subsequently found nine additional associated SNPs spanning a 64-kb region, including the P2 and P1 promoters and exons 1-3. Our results and the independent observation of association of SNPs near the P2 promoter with diabetes in a separate study population of Ashkenazi Jewish origin suggests that variant(s) located near or within HNF4A increases susceptibility to type 2 diabetes. PMID:15047633

Silander, Kaisa; Mohlke, Karen L; Scott, Laura J; Peck, Erin C; Hollstein, Pablo; Skol, Andrew D; Jackson, Anne U; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Hunt, Sarah; Stavrides, George; Chines, Peter S; Erdos, Michael R; Narisu, Narisu; Conneely, Karen N; Li, Chun; Fingerlin, Tasha E; Dhanjal, Sharanjeet K; Valle, Timo T; Bergman, Richard N; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Watanabe, Richard M; Boehnke, Michael; Collins, Francis S

2004-04-01

142

Effects of Exercise on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Exercise is a cornerstone of diabetes management and the prevention of incident diabetes. However, the impact of the mode of exercise on cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in type 2 diabetes is unclear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a systematic review of the literature between 1970 and October 2009 in representative databases for the effect of aerobic or resistance exercise training on clinical markers of CV risk, including glycemic control, dyslipidemia, blood pressure, and body composition in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESULTS Of 645 articles retrieved, 34 met our inclusion criteria; most investigated aerobic exercise alone, and 10 reported combined exercise training. Aerobic alone or combined with resistance training (RT) significantly improved HbA1c ?0.6 and ?0.67%, respectively (95% CI ?0.98 to ?0.27 and ?0.93 to ?0.40, respectively), systolic blood pressure (SBP) ?6.08 and ?3.59 mmHg, respectively (95% CI ?10.79 to ?1.36 and ?6.93 to ?0.24, respectively), and triglycerides ?0.3 mmol/L (95% CI ?0.48 to ?0.11 and ?0.57 to ?0.02, respectively). Waist circumference was significantly improved ?3.1 cm (95% CI ?10.3 to ?1.2) with combined aerobic and resistance exercise, although fewer studies and more heterogeneity of the responses were observed in the latter two markers. Resistance exercise alone or combined with any other form of exercise was not found to have any significant effect on CV markers. CONCLUSIONS Aerobic exercise alone or combined with RT improves glycemic control, SBP, triglycerides, and waist circumference. The impact of resistance exercise alone on CV risk markers in type 2 diabetes remains unclear. PMID:21525503

Chudyk, Anna; Petrella, Robert J.

2011-01-01

143

The Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Genotypes in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers of Nonimmunosuppressed Individuals Identifies High-Risk Genital Types as Possible Risk Factors1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonmelanoma skin cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignant disease in Caucasians. Known risk factors include fair skin, sun exposure, male gender, advancing age, and the presence of solar keratosis. No viral risk factors have been established thus far. To examine the association between nonmelanoma skin cancer and infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) types, we performed a retrospective study

Angelika Iftner; Stefanie J. Klug; Claus Garbe; Andreas Blum; Alice Stancu; Sharon P. Wilczynski; Thomas Iftner

2003-01-01

144

Aging is the primary risk factor for the majority of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). There are almost 40 million  

E-print Network

Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). There are almost 40 million people aged 65 James Parkinson first described the clinical symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) in his 1817 monographAging is the primary risk factor for the majority of neurodegenerative diseases, including

Liu, Taosheng

145

High levels of circulating soluble receptors for tumor necrosis factor in hairy cell leukemia and type B chronic lymphocytic leukemia.  

PubMed Central

The presence of soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF) binding proteins (BP) was investigated in the sera of healthy volunteer blood donors and cancer patients. Two distinct types of TNFBP, types A and B, which are immunologically related to the cellular 75-kD TNF receptor (TNFR) and the cellular 55-kD TNFR, respectively, were assessed by immunoassays using nonblocking anti-receptor antibodies and 125I-recombinant human TNF alpha. As compared to the titers observed in 25 healthy controls, TNFBP types A and B titers were found to be elevated in almost all sera obtained from patients with underlying malignant disease. The highest amounts of TNFBP were seen in the sera of patients with B cell malignancies including hairy cell leukemia (HCL) and type B chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Treatment of HCL patients with recombinant human interferon-alpha was associated with decrease of circulating TNFBP. PMID:1314854

Digel, W; Porzsolt, F; Schmid, M; Herrmann, F; Lesslauer, W; Brockhaus, M

1992-01-01

146

Risk Factors Contributing to Type 2 Diabetes and Recent Advances in the Treatment and Prevention  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes is a serious and common chronic disease resulting from a complex inheritance-environment interaction along with other risk factors such as obesity and sedentary lifestyle. Type 2 diabetes and its complications constitute a major worldwide public health problem, affecting almost all populations in both developed and developing countries with high rates of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has been increasing exponentially, and a high prevalence rate has been observed in developing countries and in populations undergoing “westernization” or modernization. Multiple risk factors of diabetes, delayed diagnosis until micro- and macro-vascular complications arise, life-threatening complications, failure of the current therapies, and financial costs for the treatment of this disease, make it necessary to develop new efficient therapy strategies and appropriate prevention measures for the control of type 2 diabetes. Herein, we summarize our current understanding about the epidemiology of type 2 diabetes, the roles of genes, lifestyle and other factors contributing to rapid increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes. The core aims are to bring forward the new therapy strategies and cost-effective intervention trials of type 2 diabetes.

Wu, Yanling; Ding, Yanping; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Zhang, Wen

2014-01-01

147

Virulence Factors of Escherichia coli Isolates That Produce CTX-M-Type Extended-Spectrum ?-Lactamases  

PubMed Central

This study determined the phylogenetic groups and virulence factors of 37 Escherichia coli isolates producing types of CTX-M compared with those of 19 isolates producing different types of extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) in a well-defined North American population. Most CTX-M-14 producers (97%) were from phylogenic group D; 67% of the CTX-M-15 producers were from group B2. A single CTX-M-14-producing strain belonged to clonal group A. There were significant prevalence differences for individual virulence factors among CTX-M producers and nonproducers; however, aggregate virulence factor scores were similar. CTX-M producers more commonly caused repeat urinary tract infections. Our results indicate that CTX-M type predicts phylogenetic background, and the virulence potential of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates is a complex issue, requiring further study and ongoing surveillance. PMID:16251310

Pitout, Johann D. D.; Laupland, Kevin B.; Church, Deirdre L.; Menard, Megan L.; Johnson, James R.

2005-01-01

148

Patterns of regulatory activity across diverse human cell types predict tissue identity, transcription factor binding, and long-range interactions  

PubMed Central

Regulatory elements recruit transcription factors that modulate gene expression distinctly across cell types, but the relationships among these remains elusive. To address this, we analyzed matched DNase-seq and gene expression data for 112 human samples representing 72 cell types. We first defined more than 1800 clusters of DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) with similar tissue specificity of DNase-seq signal patterns. We then used these to uncover distinct associations between DHSs and promoters, CpG islands, conserved elements, and transcription factor motif enrichment. Motif analysis within clusters identified known and novel motifs in cell-type-specific and ubiquitous regulatory elements and supports a role for AP-1 regulating open chromatin. We developed a classifier that accurately predicts cell-type lineage based on only 43 DHSs and evaluated the tissue of origin for cancer cell types. A similar classifier identified three sex-specific loci on the X chromosome, including the XIST lincRNA locus. By correlating DNase I signal and gene expression, we predicted regulated genes for more than 500K DHSs. Finally, we introduce a web resource to enable researchers to use these results to explore these regulatory patterns and better understand how expression is modulated within and across human cell types. PMID:23482648

Sheffield, Nathan C.; Thurman, Robert E.; Song, Lingyun; Safi, Alexias; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.; Lenhard, Boris; Crawford, Gregory E.; Furey, Terrence S.

2013-01-01

149

Early B-cell factors are required for specifying multiple retinal cell types and subtypes from postmitotic precursors.  

PubMed

The establishment of functional retinal circuits in the mammalian retina depends critically on the proper generation and assembly of six classes of neurons, five of which consist of two or more subtypes that differ in morphologies, physiological properties, and/or sublaminar positions. How these diverse neuronal types and subtypes arise during retinogenesis still remains largely to be defined at the molecular level. Here we show that all four family members of the early B-cell factor (Ebf) helix-loop-helix transcription factors are similarly expressed during mouse retinogenesis in several neuronal types and subtypes including ganglion, amacrine, bipolar, and horizontal cells, and that their expression in ganglion cells depends on the ganglion cell specification factor Brn3b. Misexpressed Ebfs bias retinal precursors toward the fates of non-AII glycinergic amacrine, type 2 OFF-cone bipolar and horizontal cells, whereas a dominant-negative Ebf suppresses the differentiation of these cells as well as ganglion cells. Reducing Ebf1 expression by RNA interference (RNAi) leads to an inhibitory effect similar to that of the dominant-negative Ebf, effectively neutralizes the promotive effect of wild-type Ebf1, but has no impact on the promotive effect of an RNAi-resistant Ebf1. These data indicate that Ebfs are both necessary and sufficient for specifying non-AII glycinergic amacrine, type 2 OFF-cone bipolar and horizontal cells, whereas they are only necessary but not sufficient for specifying ganglion cells; and further suggest that Ebfs may coordinate and cooperate with other retinogenic factors to ensure proper specification and differentiation of diverse retinal cell types and subtypes. PMID:20826655

Jin, Kangxin; Jiang, Haisong; Mo, Zeqian; Xiang, Mengqing

2010-09-01

150

[Type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular risk factors: is comprehensive treatment required?].  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus, especially type 2, is a metabolic disease involving the coexistence of several cardiovascular risk factors. Affected patients are therefore at high cardiovascular risk (2-3 times higher than that of men in the general population and 2-6 times higher than that of women). Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of death in the diabetic population, followed by cancer. Cardiovascular risk cannot be compared between diabetic patients and persons who have already shown one or more manifestations of cardiovascular disease (such as myocardial infarction). Single risk factors should be evaluated in combination with other risk factors and a person's cardiovascular risk should be individually assessed. Cardiovascular risk assessment in patients with diabetes through current calculations methods is complex because their ability to predict risk in individuals is very low. Studies such as that by Steno have demonstrated the validity of a comprehensive strategy to control all the risk factors present in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus, which can reduce the development of micro- and macrovascular complications and mortality by almost 50%. The present article reviews each of the classical cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking, obesity, sedentariness) in relation to diabetes, as well as their recommended targets and the benefits of their control. In view of the above, a comprehensive approach is recommended to control the multiple risk factors that can coexist in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:24444518

Nadal, Josep Franch; Gutiérrez, Pedro Conthe

2013-09-01

151

Tropical metacommunities along elevational gradients: effects of forest type and other environmental factors  

E-print Network

type (i.e. tabonuco, palo colorado and elfin forests), whereas another transect reflected changes1497 Tropical metacommunities along elevational gradients: effects of forest type and other mechanisms: a mixed forest transect reflected changes in abiotic and biotic conditions, includ- ing forest

Willig, Michael

152

Causality relationships between coagulation factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus: path analysis approach  

PubMed Central

Background: Type 2 diabetic mellitus patients are amongst the most susceptible groups to vascular abnormalities, which predominantly lead to myocardial disease. The hypercoagulable state has been widely studied by researchers as being the major suspicious mechanism facilitating the consecutive chain of molecular events leading to these complications. However, there is no consensus on the definition of the hypercoagulable state with respect to coagulation quantities, their interrelations and basic factor(s) initiating this pathogenic event, by which the prognosis of myocardial complications could be determined. Methods: Path analysis was used to study the interactions between coagulation factors as well as other factors beyond coagulation factors in relation with pathogenic events in both diabetics and healthy subjects. In the present work, coagulation factors of 40 healthy and 40 type 2 diabetics were determined experimentally. The data were then analyzed using SPSS and AMOS software. Multivariate regression analysis was done to draw path diagrams. Results: Our results show that FII, as the main cause for hypercoagulable state, is directly induced by FX and FVIII in normal individuals and by FX, FXI, FV and VWF cofactors in diabetic patients. Conclusion: In general, our findings showed complicated relationship between coagulation factors and their effects either separately or combined.

Dayer, Mohammad Reza; Mard-Soltani, Maysam; Dayer, Mohammad Saaid; Alavi, Sayed Mohammad Reza

2014-01-01

153

Aroma types of flue-cured tobacco in China: spatial distribution and association with climatic factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aroma types of flue-cured tobacco (FCT) are classified into light, medium, and heavy in China. However, the spatial distribution of FCT aroma types and the relationships among aroma types, chemical parameters, and climatic variables were still unknown at national scale. In the current study, multi-year averaged chemical parameters (total sugars, reducing sugars, nicotine, total nitrogen, chloride, and K2O) of FCT samples with grade of C3F and climatic variables (mean, minimum and maximum temperatures, rainfall, relative humidity, and sunshine hours) during the growth periods were collected from main planting areas across China. Significant relationships were found between chemical parameters and climatic variables (p < 0.05). A spatial distribution map of FCT aroma types were produced using support vector machine algorithms and chemical parameters. Significant differences in chemical parameters and climatic variables were observed among the three aroma types based on one-way analysis of variance (p < 0.05). Areas with light aroma type had significantly lower values of mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures than regions with medium and heavy aroma types (p < 0.05). Areas with heavy aroma type had significantly lower values of rainfall and relative humidity and higher values of sunshine hours than regions with light and medium aroma types (p < 0.05). The output produced by classification and regression trees showed that sunshine hours, rainfall, and maximum temperature were the most important factors affecting FCT aroma types at national scale.

Yang, Chao; Wu, Wei; Wu, Shu-Cheng; Liu, Hong-Bin; Peng, Qing

2013-05-01

154

Aroma types of flue-cured tobacco in China: spatial distribution and association with climatic factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aroma types of flue-cured tobacco (FCT) are classified into light, medium, and heavy in China. However, the spatial distribution of FCT aroma types and the relationships among aroma types, chemical parameters, and climatic variables were still unknown at national scale. In the current study, multi-year averaged chemical parameters (total sugars, reducing sugars, nicotine, total nitrogen, chloride, and K2O) of FCT samples with grade of C3F and climatic variables (mean, minimum and maximum temperatures, rainfall, relative humidity, and sunshine hours) during the growth periods were collected from main planting areas across China. Significant relationships were found between chemical parameters and climatic variables ( p < 0.05). A spatial distribution map of FCT aroma types were produced using support vector machine algorithms and chemical parameters. Significant differences in chemical parameters and climatic variables were observed among the three aroma types based on one-way analysis of variance ( p < 0.05). Areas with light aroma type had significantly lower values of mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures than regions with medium and heavy aroma types ( p < 0.05). Areas with heavy aroma type had significantly lower values of rainfall and relative humidity and higher values of sunshine hours than regions with light and medium aroma types ( p < 0.05). The output produced by classification and regression trees showed that sunshine hours, rainfall, and maximum temperature were the most important factors affecting FCT aroma types at national scale.

Yang, Chao; Wu, Wei; Wu, Shu-Cheng; Liu, Hong-Bin; Peng, Qing

2014-02-01

155

From genes to pain: nerve growth factor and hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V.  

PubMed

Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V (HSAN V) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the loss of deep pain perception. The anomalous pain and temperature sensations are due to the absence of nociceptive sensory innervation. The neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF), by binding to tropomyosin receptor A (TrkA) and p75NTR receptors, is essential for the development and survival of sensory neurons, and for pain perception during adulthood. Recently a homozygous missense mutation (R100W) in the NGF gene has been identified in HSAN V patients. Interestingly, alterations in NGF signalling, due to mutations in the NGF TRKA gene, have also been involved in another congenital insensitivity to pain, HSAN IV, characterized not only by absence of reaction to painful stimuli, but also anhidrosis and mental retardation. These symptoms are absent in HSAN V patients. Unravelling the mechanisms that underlie the differences between HSAN IV and V could assist in better understanding NGF biology. This review highlights the recent key findings in the understanding of HSAN V, including insights into the molecular mechanisms of the disease, derived from genetic studies of patients with this disorder. PMID:24494679

Capsoni, Simona

2014-02-01

156

Source apportionment of PM10 in a north-western Europe regional urban background site (Lens, France) using positive matrix factorization and including primary biogenic emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the source of ambient particulate matter (PM10) collected over a one-year period at an urban background site in Lens (France) was determined and investigated using a positive matrix factorization receptor model (US EPA PMF v3.0). In addition, a potential source contribution function (PSCF) was performed by means of the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (Hysplit) v4.9 model to assess prevailing geographical origins of the identified sources. A selective iteration process was followed for the qualification of the more robust and meaningful PMF solution. Components measured and used in the PMF included inorganic and organic species: soluble ionic species, trace elements, elemental carbon (EC), sugar alcohols, sugar anhydride, and organic carbon (OC). The mean PM10 concentration measured from March 2011 to March 2012 was about 21 ?g m-3 with typically OM, nitrate and sulfate contributing to most of the mass and accounting respectively for 5.8, 4.5 and 2.3 ?g m-3 on a yearly basis. Accordingly, PMF outputs showed that the main emission sources were (in decreasing order of contribution) secondary inorganic aerosols (28% of the total PM10 mass), aged marine emissions (19%), with probably predominant contribution of shipping activities, biomass burning (13%), mineral dust (13%), primary biogenic emissions (9%), fresh sea salts (8%), primary traffic emissions (6%) and heavy oil combustion (4%). Significant temporal variations were observed for most of the identified sources. In particular, biomass burning emissions were negligible in summer but responsible for about 25% of total PM10 and 50% of total OC in wintertime. Conversely, primary biogenic emissions were found to be negligible in winter but to represent about 20% of total PM10 and 40% of total OC in summer. The latter result calls for more investigations of primary biogenic aerosols using source apportionment studies, which quite usually disregard this type of source. This study further underlines the major influence of secondary processes during daily threshold exceedances. Finally, apparent discrepancies that could be generally observed between filter-based studies (such as the present one) and aerosol mass spectrometer-based PMF analyses (organic fractions) are also discussed.

Waked, A.; Favez, O.; Alleman, L. Y.; Piot, C.; Petit, J.-E.; Delaunay, T.; Verlinden, E.; Golly, B.; Besombes, J.-L.; Jaffrezo, J.-L.; Leoz-Garziandia, E.

2014-04-01

157

Molecular line intensities as measures of cloud masses - II. Conversion factors for specific galaxy types  

E-print Network

We present theoretically-established values of the CO-to-H2 and C-to-H2 conversion factors that may be used to estimate the gas masses of external galaxies. We consider four distinct galaxy types, represented by M51, NGC 6946, M82 and SMC N27. The physical parameters that best represent the conditions within the molecular clouds in each of the galaxy types are estimated using a chi^2 analysis of several observed atomic fine structure and CO rotational lines. This analysis is explored over a wide range of density, radiation field, extinction, and other relevant parameters. Using these estimated physical conditions in methods that we have previously established, CO-to-H2 conversion factors are then computed for CO transitions up to J=9-8. For the conventional CO(1-0) transition, the computed conversion factor varies significantly below and above the canonical value for the Milky Way in the four galaxy types considered. Since atomic carbon emission is now frequently used as a probe of external galaxies, we also present, for the first time, the C-to-H2 conversion factor for this emission in the four galaxy types considered.

T. A. Bell; S. Viti; D. A. Williams

2007-04-19

158

Noninvasive Screening for Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes in Young, Rural, Caucasian Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School nurses play an important role in identifying students who are at risk for Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Few studies have screened Caucasian students, and none have targeted rural, low-income, elementary children. The five noninvasive risk factors used for this study were family history, high body mass index (BMI) for age/sex,…

Peterson, Sharon; Sheffer, Sarah; Long Roth, Sara; Bennett, Paul A.; Lloyd, Les

2010-01-01

159

Factorization and Lie point symmetries of general Lienard-type equation in the complex plane  

E-print Network

We present a variational approach to a general Lienard-type equation in order to linearize it and, as an example, the Van der Pol oscillator is discussed. The new equation which is almost linear is factorized. The point symmetries of the deformed equation are also discussed and the two-dimensional Lie algebraic generators are obtained.

O Yesiltas

2009-11-05

160

Factorization and Lie point symmetries of general Lienard-type equation in the complex plane  

E-print Network

We present a variational approach to a general Lienard-type equation in order to linearize it and, as an example, the Van der Pol oscillator is discussed. The new equation which is almost linear is factorized. The point symmetries of the deformed equation are also discussed and the two-dimensional Lie algebraic generators are obtained.

Yesiltas, Ozlem

2009-01-01

161

Factorization and Lie point symmetries of general Lienard-type equation in the complex plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a variational approach to a general Lienard-type equation in order to linearize it and, as an example, the Van der Pol oscillator is discussed. The new equation which is almost linear is factorized. The point symmetries of the deformed equation are also discussed and the two-dimensional Lie algebraic generators are obtained.

Ye?ilta?, Özlem

2009-11-01

162

Differences between Juvenile Offenders with and without Intellectual Disability in Offense Type and Risk Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aimed to examine differences between American juvenile offenders with and without intellectual disability (ID) in offense type and risk factors. The sample consisted of adolescents with ID (n = 102) and without ID (n = 526) who appeared before the courts for a criminal act and for whom the Washington State Juvenile Court…

Asscher, Jessica J.; van der Put, Claudia E.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.

2012-01-01

163

Identification of Host Cytosolic Sensors and Bacterial Factors Regulating the Type I Interferon Response to  

E-print Network

Response to Legionella pneumophila Kathryn M. Monroe, Sarah M. McWhirter, Russell E. Vance* Division, California, United States of America Abstract Legionella pneumophila is a gram-negative bacterial pathogen Cytosolic Sensors and Bacterial Factors Regulating the Type I Interferon Response to Legionella pneumophila

Vance,. Russell

164

Sleep duration and cardiometabolic risk factors among individuals with type 2 diabetes  

E-print Network

. Sleep medicine 2: 389-396 [47] Gangwisch JE, Malaspina D, Boden-Albala B, Heymsfield SB (2005) Inadequate sleep as a risk factor for obesity: analyses of the NHANES I. Sleep 28: 1289-1296 [48] Pamidi S, Tasali E (2012) Obstructive sleep apnea and type...

Cooper, Andrew J. M.; Westgate, Kate; Brage, Soren; Prevost, A. Toby; Griffin, Simon J.; Simmons, Rebecca K.

2014-01-01

165

No evidence for a different magnitude of the time factor for continuously fractionated irradiation and protocols including gaps in two human squamous cell carcinoma in nude mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purpose: To study whether the magnitude of the time factor is different for continuously fractionated irradiation and for fractionation protocols including gaps.Materials and methods: Two human head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), FaDu and GL, were transplanted subcutaneously into the right hindleg of NMRI (nu\\/nu) mice and irradiated with 30 fractions under ambient conditions within 2, 6

Michael Baumann; Cordula Petersen; Jana Wolf; Andreas Schreiber; Daniel Zips

2001-01-01

166

Distinct properties of cell type-specific and shared transcription factor binding sites  

PubMed Central

Summary Most human transcription factors bind a small subset of potential genomic sites and often use different subsets in different cell types. To identify mechanisms that govern cell type-specific transcription factor binding, we used an integrative approach to study estrogen receptor ? (ER). We found that ER exhibits two distinct modes of binding. Shared sites, bound in multiple cell types, are characterized by high affinity estrogen response elements (EREs), inaccessible chromatin and a lack of DNA methylation, while cell-specific sites are characterized by a lack of EREs, co-occurrence with other transcription factors and cell type-specific chromatin accessibility and DNA methylation. These observations enabled accurate quantitative models of ER binding that suggest tethering of ER to one-third of cell-specific sites. The distinct properties of cell-specific binding were also observed with glucocorticoid receptor and for ER in primary mouse tissues, representing an elegant genomic encoding scheme for generating cell type-specific gene regulation. PMID:24076218

Gertz, Jason; Savic, Daniel; Varley, Katherine E.; Partridge, E. Christopher; Safi, Alexias; Jain, Preti; Cooper, Gregory M.; Reddy, Timothy E.; Crawford, Gregory E.; Myers, Richard M.

2013-01-01

167

Distinct properties of cell-type-specific and shared transcription factor binding sites.  

PubMed

Most human transcription factors bind a small subset of potential genomic sites and often use different subsets in different cell types. To identify mechanisms that govern cell-type-specific transcription factor binding, we used an integrative approach to study estrogen receptor ? (ER). We found that ER exhibits two distinct modes of binding. Shared sites, bound in multiple cell types, are characterized by high-affinity estrogen response elements (EREs), inaccessible chromatin, and a lack of DNA methylation, while cell-specific sites are characterized by a lack of EREs, co-occurrence with other transcription factors, and cell-type-specific chromatin accessibility and DNA methylation. These observations enabled accurate quantitative models of ER binding that suggest tethering of ER to one-third of cell-specific sites. The distinct properties of cell-specific binding were also observed with glucocorticoid receptor and for ER in primary mouse tissues, representing an elegant genomic encoding scheme for generating cell-type-specific gene regulation. PMID:24076218

Gertz, Jason; Savic, Daniel; Varley, Katherine E; Partridge, E Christopher; Safi, Alexias; Jain, Preti; Cooper, Gregory M; Reddy, Timothy E; Crawford, Gregory E; Myers, Richard M

2013-10-10

168

Homozygous factor V Leiden mutation in type IV Ehlers-Danlos patient  

PubMed Central

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a group of inherited connective tissue disorders caused by collagen synthesis defects. Several hemostatic abnormalities have been described in EDS patients that increase the bleeding tendencies of these patients. This case report illustrates a patient with an unusual presentation of a patient with type IV EDS, platelet ?-storage pool disease and factor V Leiden mutation. Young woman having previous bilateral deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary emboli coexisting with ruptured splenic aneurysm and multiple other aneurysms now presented with myocardial infarction. Presence of factor V Leiden mutation raises the possibility that the infarct was due to acute coronary thrombosis, although coronary artery aneurysm and dissection with myocardial infarction is known to occur in vascular type EDS. This is the first report in the medical literature of factor V Leiden mutation in an EDS patient which made the management of our patient challenging with propensity to both bleeding and clotting. PMID:24653990

Refaat, Marwan; Hotait, Mostafa; Winston, Brion

2014-01-01

169

Homozygous factor V Leiden mutation in type IV Ehlers-Danlos patient.  

PubMed

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a group of inherited connective tissue disorders caused by collagen synthesis defects. Several hemostatic abnormalities have been described in EDS patients that increase the bleeding tendencies of these patients. This case report illustrates a patient with an unusual presentation of a patient with type IV EDS, platelet ?-storage pool disease and factor V Leiden mutation. Young woman having previous bilateral deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary emboli coexisting with ruptured splenic aneurysm and multiple other aneurysms now presented with myocardial infarction. Presence of factor V Leiden mutation raises the possibility that the infarct was due to acute coronary thrombosis, although coronary artery aneurysm and dissection with myocardial infarction is known to occur in vascular type EDS. This is the first report in the medical literature of factor V Leiden mutation in an EDS patient which made the management of our patient challenging with propensity to both bleeding and clotting. PMID:24653990

Refaat, Marwan; Hotait, Mostafa; Winston, Brion

2014-03-16

170

Molecular characterization of enteroviruses including a new type EV-C99 isolated from Xinjiang students in Shandong, China in 2011.  

PubMed

The last case of infection with wild-type poliovirus indigenous to China was reported in 1994. In 2011, a poliomyelitis outbreak caused by imported wide-type poliovirus occurred in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region. Here, we report the results of enterovirus (EV) isolation from Xinjiang students that returned to school in Shandong after summer vacation during this outbreak. Stool specimens from 376 students were collected and 10?EV strains were isolated including 4 polioviruses (All Sabin strains), 1 coxsackievirus (CV) A13, 3 CVA17 and 2 EV-C99. VP1 sequence analysis revealed these CVA13, CVA17 and EV-C99 strains had 71.3-81.8%, 76.5-84.6% and 74.2-82.9% nucleotide similarity with strains from other countries within a serotype, respectively. EV-C99 strains had 82.7-92.8% VP1 similarity with two previously reported Xinjiang strains. Complete genome analysis on EV-C99 strains revealed intra-serotypic genetic recombination events. These findings reflect great genetic divergence between Chinese strains and strains from other countries of the three types, and provide valuable information on monitoring EV transmission over long distance. PMID:25298041

Tao, Zexin; Yuan, Qun; Lin, Xiaojuan; Wang, Suting; Liu, Yao; Ji, Feng; Xiong, Ping; Cui, Ning; Song, Lizhi; Wang, Mei; Xu, Aiqiang

2014-01-01

171

Molecular Characterization of Enteroviruses Including a New Type EV-C99 Isolated from Xinjiang Students in Shandong, China in 2011  

PubMed Central

The last case of infection with wild-type poliovirus indigenous to China was reported in 1994. In 2011, a poliomyelitis outbreak caused by imported wide-type poliovirus occurred in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region. Here, we report the results of enterovirus (EV) isolation from Xinjiang students that returned to school in Shandong after summer vacation during this outbreak. Stool specimens from 376 students were collected and 10?EV strains were isolated including 4 polioviruses (All Sabin strains), 1 coxsackievirus (CV) A13, 3 CVA17 and 2 EV-C99. VP1 sequence analysis revealed these CVA13, CVA17 and EV-C99 strains had 71.3–81.8%, 76.5–84.6% and 74.2–82.9% nucleotide similarity with strains from other countries within a serotype, respectively. EV-C99 strains had 82.7–92.8% VP1 similarity with two previously reported Xinjiang strains. Complete genome analysis on EV-C99 strains revealed intra-serotypic genetic recombination events. These findings reflect great genetic divergence between Chinese strains and strains from other countries of the three types, and provide valuable information on monitoring EV transmission over long distance. PMID:25298041

Tao, Zexin; Yuan, Qun; Lin, Xiaojuan; Wang, Suting; Liu, Yao; Ji, Feng; Xiong, Ping; Cui, Ning; Song, Lizhi; Wang, Mei; Xu, Aiqiang

2014-01-01

172

[Study on the frequency of caries and associated factors in type 1 diabetes mellitus].  

PubMed

Subjects with diabetes mellitus (DM) are more prone to certain disturbances of oral cavity but there are controversies concerning caries. This cross-sectional study investigated the frequency of caries and associated factors, in a sample of population with or without type 1 DM, including non-diabetic (53 women, 31 men) and 30 diabetic subjects (19 women, 11 men) aged 17-28 years. Diagnosis of dental caries was based on the DMF-T index (D= decay; M= miss; F= fill; T= teeth); in addition, a plaque control record (PCR) was obtained. A preponderance of female sex was found within the groups studied but such proportions did not differ when comparing diabetic and non-diabetic groups. Mean ages were 21.0 +/- 2.2 and 19.5+/-1.8 years, respectively for subjects without and with DM (p< 0.05). Education level was higher in the non-diabetic group as well as the DMF-T index (10.5 +/-5.8 vs. 6.7+/-5.7, p< 0.01). Linear regression analysis (n= 114) showed significant associations of DMF-T with age, sucrose intake, daily frequency of tooth brushing, of dental floss use, PCR and of visits to the dentist. By ANOVA model with age as a covariate the non-diabetic condition (p= 0.047), sucrose index and PCR (r(2)= 0.820) were independently associated with the DMF-T. In the diabetic-specific model, with only the diabetic subjects included and sucrose index as a covariate, DM duration, fundus abnormality and PCR were significantly associated with the presence of caries (r(2)= 0.816). The sample of type 1 diabetic subjects suggest that they are less prone to caries than non-diabetics, despite having a higher frequency of meals, less tooth brushing and dental floss use. We speculate that DM duration may contribute to the occurrence of caries and restricted sucrose consumption to lower frequency of caries in diabetic subjects. PMID:16936993

do Amaral, Fábio M Franco; Ramos, Patrícia G de A; Ferreira, Sandra Roberta G

2006-06-01

173

Migraine and tension-type headache in Croatia: a population-based survey of precipitating factors.  

PubMed

The careful monitoring of the trigger factors of headache could be an important step in treatment, because their avoidance may lessen the frequency and severity of attacks. Furthermore, they may provide a clue to the aetiology of headache. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of tension-type headache (TTH) and to establish the frequency of precipitating factors in subjects with migraine and TTH in the adult population of Bakar, County of the Coast and Gorski Kotar, Croatia. Another important purpose of the study was to examine the relationship of the precipitating factors with migraine and TTH, and with migraine subtypes: migraine with aura (MA) and migraine without aura (MO). We performed a population-based survey using a 'face-to-face door-to-door' interview method. The surveyed population consisted of 5173 residents aged between 15 and 65 years. The 3794 participants (73.3%) were screened for headache history according to the International Headache Society (IHS) criteria. Headache screen-positive responders, 2475 (65.2%), were interviewed by trained medical students with a structured detailed interview focused on the precipitating factors. The following precipitating factors in lifetime migraineurs and tension-type headachers have been assessed: stress, sleep disturbances, eating habits, menstrual cycle, oral contraceptives, food items, afferent stimulation, changes in weather conditions and temperature, frequent travelling and physical activity. A total of 720 lifetime migraineurs and 1319 tension-type headachers have been identified. The most common precipitants for both migraine and TTH were stress and frequent travelling. Stress (odds ratio (OR) 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17, 1.69) was associated with migraine, whereas physical activity (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.59, 0.87) was related to TTH. Considering MA and MO, frequent travelling (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.59, 2.99), food items (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.35, 3.51) and changes in weather conditions and temperature (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.27, 2.41) exhibited a significant positive association with MA. The present study demonstrated that precipitant-dependent attacks are frequent among both migraineurs and tension-type headachers. Lifetime migraineurs experienced headache attacks preceded by triggering factors more frequently than tension-type headachers. MA was more frequently associated with precipitating factors than MO. We suggest that some triggering factors may contribute to the higher occurrence of precipitant-dependent headache attacks in susceptible individuals. PMID:12780762

Zivadinov, R; Willheim, K; Sepic-Grahovac, D; Jurjevic, A; Bucuk, M; Brnabic-Razmilic, O; Relja, G; Zorzon, M

2003-06-01

174

batman Interacts with Polycomb and trithorax Group Genes and Encodes a BTB/POZ Protein That Is Included in a Complex Containing GAGA Factor  

PubMed Central

Polycomb and trithorax group genes maintain the appropriate repressed or activated state of homeotic gene expression throughout Drosophila melanogaster development. We have previously identified the batman gene as a Polycomb group candidate since its function is necessary for the repression of Sex combs reduced. However, our present genetic analysis indicates functions of batman in both activation and repression of homeotic genes. The 127-amino-acid Batman protein is almost reduced to a BTB/POZ domain, an evolutionary conserved protein-protein interaction domain found in a large protein family. We show that this domain is involved in the interaction between Batman and the DNA binding GAGA factor encoded by the Trithorax-like gene. The GAGA factor and Batman codistribute on polytene chromosomes, coimmunoprecipitate from nuclear embryonic and larval extracts, and interact in the yeast two-hybrid assay. Batman, together with the GAGA factor, binds to MHS-70, a 70-bp fragment of the bithoraxoid Polycomb response element. This binding, like that of the GAGA factor, requires the presence of d(GA)n sequences. Together, our results suggest that batman belongs to a subset of the Polycomb/trithorax group of genes that includes Trithorax-like, whose products are involved in both activation and repression of homeotic genes. PMID:12556479

Faucheux, M.; Roignant, J.-Y.; Netter, S.; Charollais, J.; Antoniewski, C.; Theodore, L.

2003-01-01

175

Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type?1 in cancer: Advances and perspectives (Review).  

PubMed

Cancer is one of the most common diseases, with high morbidity and mortality rates. Large?scale efforts have been made to understand the pathogenesis of the disease, particularly in the advanced stages, in order to develop effective therapeutic approaches. Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type-1 (HAI-1), also known as serine protease inhibitor Kunitz type 1, inhibits the activity of several trypsin-like serine proteases. In particular, HAI-1 suppresses hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) activator and matriptase, resulting in subsequent inhibition of HGF/scatter factor and macrophage?stimulating protein (MSP). HGF and MSP are involved in cancer development and progression, via the receptors Met receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and Ron RTK, respectively. Therefore, HAI-1-mediated downregulation of HGF and MSP signaling may suppress tumorigenesis and progression in certain types of cancers. Abnormal HAI-1 expression levels have been observed in various types of human cancer. The exact function of HAI-1 in cancer pathogenesis, however, has not been fully elucidated. In this review, the focus is on the potential impact of aberrant HAI-1 expression levels on tumorigenesis and progression, the underlying mechanisms, and areas that require further investigation to clarify the precise role of HAI-1 in cancer. PMID:25310042

Zheng, Qiaoli; Wu, Haijian; Cao, Jiang; Ye, Jingjia

2014-12-01

176

Serum Response Factor Indirectly Regulates Type I Interferon-Signaling in Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Serum response factor (SRF) is required for diverse aspects of development and homeostasis, but potential roles in the regulation of inflammation and immunity have not been systematically investigated. Here, we demonstrate that SRF is unexpectedly required for optimal responses of elicited peritoneal macrophages to type I interferons. Knockdown of SRF expression in these cells impairs induction of numerous interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (ISGs) in response to zymosan, LPS, and poly I:C. This effect is primarily due to a defect in the ability of induced type I interferons to mediate secondary activation of ISGs. SRF does not appear to be required for expression of established components of the type I interferon signaling pathway, with IFN-?-dependent phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT2 normally occurring in SRF-depleted macrophages. Collectively, these findings suggest that SRF can indirectly modulate type I interferon-signaling, without interfering with the classic JAK/STAT/ISGF3 pathway. PMID:23705899

Xie, Lan; Sullivan, Amy L.; Collier, Jana G.

2013-01-01

177

Does high sugar consumption exacerbate cardiometabolic risk factors and increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease?  

PubMed Central

Consumption of sugar has been relatively high in the Nordic countries; the impact of sugar intake on metabolic risk factors and related diseases has been debated. The objectives were to assess the effect of sugar intake (sugar-sweetened beverages, sucrose and fructose) on association with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and related metabolic risk factors (impaired glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia, blood pressure, uric acid, inflammation markers), and on all-cause mortality, through a systematic review of prospective cohort studies and randomised controlled intervention studies published between January 2000 and search dates. The methods adopted were as follows: the first search was run in PubMed in October 2010. A second search with uric acid as risk marker was run in April 2011. The total search strategy was rerun in April 2011 in SveMed+. An update was run in PubMed in January 2012. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion from the 2,743 abstracts according to predefined eligibility criteria. The outcome was that out of the 17 studies extracted, 15 were prospective cohort studies and two were randomised controlled crossover trials. All of the studies included only adults. With respect to incident type 2 diabetes (nine studies), four of six prospective cohort studies found a significant positive association for sugar-sweetened beverage intake. In general, larger cohort studies with longer follow-up more often reported positive associations, and BMI seemed to mediate part of the increased risk. For other metabolic or cardiovascular risk factors or outcomes, too few studies have been published to draw conclusions. In conclusion, data from prospective cohort studies published in the years 2000–2011 suggest that sugar-sweetened beverages probably increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. For related metabolic risk factors, cardiovascular disease or all-cause mortality and other types of sugars, too few studies were available to draw conclusions. PMID:22855643

Sonestedt, Emily; ?verby, Nina Cecilie; Laaksonen, David E.; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva

2012-01-01

178

Polycystic ovary syndrome is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes: results from a long-term prospective study.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) recently has been identified as a risk factor associated with type 2 diabetes. However, the evidence derives from cross-sectional observational studies, retrospective studies, or short-term prospective studies. This long-term prospective study of a large cohort of women with PCOS, followed from youth to middle age, aimed at estimating, for the first time, the incidence and potential predictors of type 2 diabetes in this population. A total of 255 women with PCOS were followed for at least 10 years (mean follow-up 16.9 years). Six women were patients with diabetes at baseline, and another 42 women developed type 2 diabetes during the follow-up. The incidence rate of type 2 diabetes in the study population was 1.05 per 100 person-years. The age-standardized prevalence of diabetes at the end of follow-up was 39.3%, which is significantly higher with respect to that of the general Italian female population of a similar age (5.8%). The likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes significantly increased as BMI, fasting glucose, and glucose area under the curve at baseline increased and significantly decreased as sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels at follow-up increased. This study demonstrates that the risk of type 2 diabetes is markedly elevated in middle-aged women with PCOS and suggests including BMI, glucose, and SHBG-circulating levels in the risk stratification. PMID:22698921

Gambineri, Alessandra; Patton, Laura; Altieri, Paola; Pagotto, Uberto; Pizzi, Carmine; Manzoli, Lamberto; Pasquali, Renato

2012-09-01

179

A self-consistent global model of solenoidal-type inductively coupled plasma discharges including the effects of radio-frequency bias power  

SciTech Connect

We developed a self-consistent global simulator of solenoidal-type inductively coupled plasma discharges and observed the effect of the radio-frequency (rf) bias power on the plasma density and the electron temperature. We numerically solved a set of spatially averaged fluid equations for charged particles, neutrals, and radicals. Absorbed power by electrons is determined by using an analytic electron heating model including the anomalous skin effect. To analyze the effects of rf bias power on the plasma properties, our model also combines the electron heating and global transport modules with an rf sheath module in a self-consistent manner. The simulation results are compared with numerical results by using the commercial software package cfd-ace + (ESI group) and experimental measurements by using a wave cutoff probe and a single Langmuir probe.

Kwon, D. C.; Chang, W. S.; Song, M. Y.; Yoon, J.-S. [Convergence Plasma Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Park, M. [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); You, D. H. [Kyoungwon Tech, Inc., Seongnam 462-806 (Korea, Republic of); You, S. J. [Center for Vacuum Technology, Korea Research Institute of Standard and Science, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Y. H. [Division of Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-04-01

180

Phenotypic and environmental factors associated with elevated autoantibodies at clinical onset of paediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

To examine possible determinants of autoantibody levels at type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) onset. We assessed levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 islet cell antigen (GADA) and anti-insulin antibodies (IAA) in 247 incident T1DM cases presenting <15 years of age in Melbourne from 1st March 2008 to 30th June 2010. 58.9% (142/241) of cases were GADA seropositive and 42.3% (94/222) were IAA seropositive. Factors associated with elevated IAA antibodies included younger age and red hair phenotype. Factors associated with elevated GAD antibodies included lower birthweight and recent eczema. Intriguingly, low recent or past sun exposure was only associated with elevated GADA levels among children presenting at age <5 years, not older (difference in effect, p<0.05 for 4 of 5 associations). These findings show that environmental and phenotypic factors are associated with autoantibody levels at time of presentation for T1DM. We recommend such environmental and phenoytypic factors should be examined in further detail. PMID:24371576

Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Pezic, Angela; Cameron, Fergus J.; Rodda, Christine; Ellis, Justine A.; Kemp, Andrew S.; Carlin, John; Dwyer, Terence

2012-01-01

181

An Essential Role for Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in the Tuberculin Delayed-type Hypersensitivity Reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

SulTlmal-y 30 years ago, investigations into the molecular basis of the delayed-type hypersensitivity reac- tion (DTH) provided evidence for the first lymphokine activity: a lymphocyte-derived media- tor called macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), which inhibited the random migra- tion of peritoneal macrophages. Despite the long-standing association of MIF with the DTH reaction and the cloning of a human protein with

Jfirgen Bernhagen; Michael Bacher; Thierry Calandra; Christine N. Metz; Steven B. Doty; Thomas DonneHy; Richard Bucala

1996-01-01

182

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor-induced psoriasis or psoriasiform exanthemata: first 120 cases from the literature including a series of six new patients.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) inhibition is effective in the treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis. We report on 120 patients from the literature including six new patients (three women and three men) who developed pustular lesions during treatment with TNFalpha inhibitors. We identified 72 women and 36 men (several papers did not specify the gender of patients) with an age range of 13-78 years (mean 42.3 years). The primary diagnoses were rheumatoid arthritis (n = 61), ankylosing spondylitis (n = 21), psoriasis (n = 10), Crohn disease (n = 8), SAPHO (synovitis acne pustulosis hyperostosis osteitis) syndrome (n = 3), psoriatic arthritis (n = 2), and other diagnoses (n = 15). Psoriasis (except palmoplantar pustular type) was the most common adverse effect during anti-TNFalpha treatment (n = 73), followed by palmoplantar pustular psoriasis (n = 37) and psoriasis of the nail (n = 6), sometimes combined in the same patient. Palmoplantar pustulosis and psoriasiform exanthema was the diagnosis in ten patients each. A positive personal history of psoriasis was recorded in 25 patients. A positive family history was noted in eight patients. No data about personal (n = 7) or family history (n = 46) were available in a number of patients. Newly induced psoriasis was diagnosed in 74 patients whereas an exacerbation or aggravation of a pre-existing psoriasis was noted in another 25 patients. All three TNFalpha inhibitors available on the market were involved: infliximab (63 patients), etanercept (37 patients), and adalimumab (26 patients). Several patients were treated with more than a single TFNalpha inhibitor. The timing of cutaneous adverse effects (psoriasis and psoriasiform rash) varied considerably among patients, ranging from after a single application to a delayed response of up to 63 months after initiation of treatment. The mean time to appearance of the cutaneous adverse effect for all TNFalpha inhibitors was 9.5 months. Cessation of the responsible TNFalpha inhibitor was carried out in 47 patients either alone or in association with adjuvant anti-psoriatic therapy (mostly topical). This resulted in complete remission in 21 patients, partial remission in 20 patients, and stable disease in another three patients; in the other three patients, the outcome was not reported. TNFalpha inhibition was continued in 47 patients but anti-psoriatic adjuvant therapy was introduced. The outcome in this group was complete remission in 22 patients, partial remission in 25 patients, and stable disease in 2 patients. The response rate (complete remission plus partial remission) was 93.2% and 95.9%, respectively, in each group. In six patients, switching from one TNFalpha inhibitor to another one immediately after cutaneous adverse effects occurred resulted in an improvement in five patients. In nine patients, a second TNFalpha inhibitor was initiated after a break in TNFalpha inhibition. The response to a second or third drug in these patients was mixed. The underlying pathomechanisms of induction of psoriasis or psoriasiform exanthemata by TNFalpha inhibitors remain elusive but there is reason to assume that induction of such adverse events has more than one pathophysiology. PMID:18092839

Wollina, Uwe; Hansel, Gesina; Koch, André; Schönlebe, Jaqueline; Köstler, Erich; Haroske, Gunter

2008-01-01

183

Measurement of factor VIII activity using one-stage clotting assay: a calibration curve has not to be systematically included in each run.  

PubMed

Coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) is usually evaluated using activated partial thromboplastin time-based one-stage clotting assays. Guidelines for clotting factor assays indicate that a calibration curve should be included each time the assay is performed. Therefore, FVIII measurement is expensive, reagent- and time-consuming. The aim of this study was to compare FVIII activities obtained using the same fully automated assay that was calibrated once (stored calibration curve) or each time the assay was performed. Unique lots of reagents were used throughout the study. We analysed 255 frozen plasma samples from patients who were prescribed FVIII measurement including treated and untreated haemophilia A patients. Twenty-six runs were performed on a 28-week period, each including four lyophilized control and at most 10 patient plasma samples. In control samples, FVIII activities were not significantly different when the assay was performed using the stored calibration curve or was daily calibrated. The same applied to FVIII activities in patient plasma samples that were not significantly different throughout the measuring range of activities [68.3% (<1-179) vs. 67.6% (<1-177), P=0.48] and no relevant bias could be demonstrated when data were compared according to Bland and Altman. These results suggest that in the studied technical conditions, performing the FVIII assay using a stored calibration curve is reliable, for at least 6 months. Therefore, as far as the same lots of reagents are used, it is not mandatory to include a calibration curve each time the FVIII assay was performed. However, this strategy has to be validated if the assay is performed in different technical conditions. PMID:20731727

Lattes, S; Appert-Flory, A; Fischer, F; Jambou, D; Toulon, P

2011-01-01

184

Evaluation of the spatial patterns and risk factors, including backyard pigs, for classical swine fever occurrence in Bulgaria using a Bayesian model.  

PubMed

The spatial pattern and epidemiology of backyard pig farming and other low bio-security pig production systems and their role in the occurrence of classical swine fever (CSF) is described and evaluated. A spatial Bayesian model was used to explore the risk factors, including human demographics, socioeconomic and environmental factors. The analyses were performed for Bulgaria, which has a large number of backyard farms (96% of all pig farms in the country are classified as backyard farms), and it is one of the countries for which both backyard pig and farm counts were available. Results reveal that the high-risk areas are typically concentrated in areas with small family farms, high numbers of outgoing pig shipments and low levels of personal consumption (i.e. economically deprived areas). Identification of risk factors and high-risk areas for CSF will allow to targeting risk-based surveillance strategies leading to prevention, control and, ultimately, elimination of the disease in Bulgaria and other countries with similar socio-epidemiological conditions. PMID:24893026

Martínez-López, Beatriz; Alexandrov, Tsviatko; Mur, Lina; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José M

2014-05-01

185

A bHLH-Type Transcription Factor, ABA-INDUCIBLE BHLH-TYPE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR/JA-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1, Acts as a Repressor to Negatively Regulate Jasmonate Signaling in Arabidopsis[C][W  

PubMed Central

Jasmonates (JAs) are plant hormones that regulate the balance between plant growth and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although recent studies have uncovered the mechanisms for JA-induced responses in Arabidopsis thaliana, the mechanisms by which plants attenuate the JA-induced responses remain elusive. Here, we report that a basic helix-loop-helix–type transcription factor, ABA-INDUCIBLE BHLH-TYPE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR/JA-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), acts as a transcriptional repressor and negatively regulates JA signaling. Gain-of-function transgenic plants expressing the chimeric repressor for JAM1 exhibited substantial reduction of JA responses, including JA-induced inhibition of root growth, accumulation of anthocyanin, and male fertility. These plants were also compromised in resistance to attack by the insect herbivore Spodoptera exigua. Conversely, jam1 loss-of-function mutants showed enhanced JA responsiveness, including increased resistance to insect attack. JAM1 and MYC2 competitively bind to the target sequence of MYC2, which likely provides the mechanism for negative regulation of JA signaling and suppression of MYC2 functions by JAM1. These results indicate that JAM1 negatively regulates JA signaling, thereby playing a pivotal role in fine-tuning of JA-mediated stress responses and plant growth. PMID:23673982

Nakata, Masaru; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Herde, Marco; Koo, Abraham J.K.; Moreno, Javier E.; Suzuki, Kaoru; Howe, Gregg A.; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

2013-01-01

186

Multiple Legionella pneumophila Type II Secretion Substrates, Including a Novel Protein, Contribute to Differential Infection of the Amoebae Acanthamoeba castellanii, Hartmannella vermiformis, and Naegleria lovaniensis  

PubMed Central

Type II protein secretion (T2S) by Legionella pneumophila is required for intracellular infection of host cells, including macrophages and the amoebae Acanthamoeba castellanii and Hartmannella vermiformis. Previous proteomic analysis revealed that T2S by L. pneumophila 130b mediates the export of >25 proteins, including several that appeared to be novel. Following confirmation that they are unlike known proteins, T2S substrates NttA, NttB, and LegP were targeted for mutation. nttA mutants were impaired for intracellular multiplication in A. castellanii but not H. vermiformis or macrophages, suggesting that novel exoproteins which are specific to Legionella are especially important for infection. Because the importance of NttA was host cell dependent, we examined a panel of T2S substrate mutants that had not been tested before in more than one amoeba. As a result, RNase SrnA, acyltransferase PlaC, and metalloprotease ProA all proved to be required for optimal intracellular multiplication in H. vermiformis but not A. castellanii. Further examination of an lspF mutant lacking the T2S apparatus documented that T2S is also critical for infection of the amoeba Naegleria lovaniensis. Mutants lacking SrnA, PlaC, or ProA, but not those deficient for NttA, were defective in N. lovaniensis. Based upon analysis of a double mutant lacking PlaC and ProA, the role of ProA in H. vermiformis was connected to its ability to activate PlaC, whereas in N. lovaniensis, ProA appeared to have multiple functions. Together, these data document that the T2S system exports multiple effectors, including a novel one, which contribute in different ways to the broad host range of L. pneumophila. PMID:23429532

Tyson, Jessica Y.; Pearce, Meghan M.; Vargas, Paloma; Bagchi, Sreya; Mulhern, Brendan J.

2013-01-01

187

Factors associated with the seroprevalence of 26 cutaneous and two genital human papillomavirus types in organ transplant patients.  

PubMed

Viral skin infections are commonly present in organ transplant recipients (OTR). In this study, we aimed to identify factors associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in OTR. Patients with solid-organ transplants were recruited from the outpatient nephrology and dermatology clinics in five European countries. Only patients with no current or past skin cancer were included in this analysis. Serum samples were analysed for antibodies to the L1 proteins of 26 cutaneous and two genital HPV types from five phylogenetic genera (?, ?, ?, ? and ?). The most consistent association was found between recreational sun exposure and the seroprevalence of all tested genera, except ?. The antibody presence of any ? type was higher among people who had been transplanted at least 23 years prior to participation than in those who had been transplanted for less than 7 years. The prevalence of two ?-HPV types (60 and 65) and three ?-HPV types (15, 38 and 49) was associated with time since transplantation. The presence of a high number of warts was associated with the presence of any ?-PV or ?-PV types, and having greater than 50 keratotic skin lesions was almost significantly associated with the presence of antibodies to two or more ?-PV. Discrepancies in the results of the present study, as well as in previous reports, may depend on different methodologies and on geographical variations. Our results also indicate that further research with more standardized methods is needed to clarify the role of cutaneous HPV in OTR. PMID:21900419

Sampogna, F; Bavinck, J N Bouwes; Pawlita, M; Abeni, D; Harwood, C A; Proby, C M; Feltkamp, M C W; Euvrard, S; Naldi, L; Neale, R E; Nindl, I; Pfister, H; Quint, W G V; Waterboer, T

2012-01-01

188

Racial Disparities in the Control Status of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in an Underinsured Population with Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Aims To investigate the race-specific trend in attainment of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) cardiovascular risk factors control goals of patients with type 2 diabetes (HbA1c <53 mmol/mol [7.0%], blood pressure <130/80 mmHg, and low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol <2.6 mmol/L). Methods The study sample included 14,946 African American and 12,758 White patients who were newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes between 2001 and 2009 in the Louisiana State University Hospital System. The race-specific percentages of patients’ attainment of ADA goals were calculated using the baseline and follow-up measurements of HbA1c, blood pressure, and LDL-cholesterol levels. Logistic regression was used to test the difference between African American and White patients. Results The percentage of patients who met all three ADA goals increased from 8.2% in 2001 to 10.2% in 2009 (increased by 24.4%) in this cohort. Compared with African American patients, White patients had better attainment of the following ADA goals: HbA1c goal (61.4 vs. 55.1%), blood pressure goal (25.8 vs. 20.4%), LDL-cholesterol goal (40.1 vs. 37.7%), and all three goals (7.3 vs. 5.1%). African American and White patients generally had improved CVD risk factors profile during follow-up when we assessed attainment of the ADA goals by using means of HbA1c, blood pressure and LDL cholesterol. Conclusions During 2001–2009, this low income cohort with type 2 diabetes generally experienced improved control of CVD risk factors. White patients had better attainment of the ADA cardiovascular risk factors control goals than their African American counterparts. PMID:24750373

Wang, Y.; Katzmarzyk, P.T.; Horswell, R.; Zhao, W.; Li, W.; Johnson, J.; Ryan, D.H.; Hu, G

2014-01-01

189

Health care providers' perspective on using family history in the prevention of type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study including different disciplines  

PubMed Central

Background Family history (FH) is considered an important factor to detect individuals at increased risk developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). Moreover, FH information could be used to personalise risk messages, which are assumed to increase risk-reducing behaviours. In this study, we aimed to explore Dutch health care professionals’ attitudes regarding current or future uptake of a more extensive use of FH information and the family system in diabetes prevention. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nineteen health care professionals from six general practices and four outpatient diabetes clinics. The use of FH information in opportunistic screening for T2D was explored, as well as the usability of a direct versus patient-mediated targeting strategy to reach persons with a FH of T2D. Three researchers analysed the interview transcripts separately. Results Dutch health care professionals considered FH an important risk factor in opportunistic screening for T2D. However, none of them used FH to promote risk-reducing behaviours. Directly targeting and educating patients known to have a FH of T2D was desirable for most primary care professionals, but not considered feasible. Findings indicated that FH information was not systematically gathered in primary care settings and electronic medical records were not equipped to retrieve persons with T2D running in their family. The idea of asking patients to pass on risk and preventive information was new to all interviewees, but was considered an acceptable strategy to reach persons with a FH of diabetes. Nevertheless, there were concerns about the accuracy of the messages delivered by the patients to their relatives. Practical barriers with regard to time, expertise, and financial reimbursement were also mentioned. Conclusions There is great interest among healthcare professionals in primary as well as secondary care about the use of FH to prevent T2D, but there are significant barriers against such use. The removal of these barriers would depend on evidence showing the cost-effectiveness of FH-based strategies designed to prevent T2D. PMID:23497208

2013-01-01

190

Functional roles and clinical values of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-5 in different types of cancers  

PubMed Central

Insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins (IGFBPs) are critical regulators of the mitogenic activity of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). IGFBP5, one of these IGFBPs, has special structural features, including a nuclear transport domain, heparin-binding motif, and IGF/extracellular matrix/acid-labile subunit-binding sites. Furthermore, IGFBP5 has several functional effects on carcinogenesis and even normal cell processes, such as cell growth, death, motility, and tissue remodeling. These biological effects are sometimes related with IGF (IGF-dependent effects) and sometimes not (IGF-independent effects). The functional role of IGFBP5 is most likely determined in a cell-type and tissue-type specific manner but also depends on cell context, especially in terms of the diversity of interacting proteins and the potential for nuclear localization. Clinical findings show that IGFBP5 has the potential to be a useful clinical biomarker for predicting response to therapy and clinical outcome of cancer patients. In this review, we summarize the functional diversity and clinical importance of IGFBP5 in different types of cancers. PMID:22313597

Gullu, Gokce; Karabulut, Sevgi; Akkiprik, Mustafa

2012-01-01

191

Risk factors for migraine and tension-type headache in 11 year old children  

PubMed Central

Background Though migraine and tension type headache are both commonly diagnosed in childhood, little is known about their determinants when diagnosed prior to puberty onset. Our aim was to determine psychosocial- and health-related risk factors of migraine and tension-type headache in 11 year old children. Methods 871 New Zealand European children were enrolled in a longitudinal study at birth and data were collected at birth, 1, 3.5, 7, and 11 years of age. Primary headache was determined at age 11 years based on the International Headache Society. Perinatal factors assessed were small for gestational age status, sex, maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal perceived stress, and maternal school leaving age. Childhood factors assessed were sleep duration, percent body fat, television watching, parent and self-reported total problem behaviour, being bullied, and depression. Results Prevalence of migraine and tension-type headache was 10.5% and 18.6%, respectively. Both migraine and TTH were significantly associated with self-reported problem behaviour in univariable logistic regression analyses. Additionally, migraine was associated with reduced sleep duration, and both sleep and behaviour problems remained significant after multivariable analyses. TTH was also significantly associated with antenatal maternal smoking, higher body fat, and being bullied. For TTH, problem behaviour measured at ages 3.5 and 11 years both remained significant after multivariable analysis. Being born small for gestational age was not associated with either headache group. Conclusions Although they share some commonality, migraine and tension-type headache are separate entities in childhood with different developmental characteristics. The association between primary headache and problem behaviour requires further investigation. PMID:25205384

2014-01-01

192

[Role of seasonal factors in pre- and postnatal ontogenesis for etiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus].  

PubMed

Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease characterized by autoimmune degradation of insulin-producing beta-cells. It was shown in a number of epidemiological studies of seasonality of birth in children with type 1 diabetes that the autoimmune process began during fetal and postnatal development. No such studies were carried out in the former Soviet Union countries. The aim of the present study is to compare the seasonal birth month pattern in patients with type 1 diabetes (10780 men and 9337 women) born in 1960-2002 to that in the total population of Ukraine (14 785601 men and 13 911370 women) born during the same period. Significant differences were found between these two populations: chi-squared = 103.97, p < 0.0001 and 135.17, p < 0.0001 in men and women, respectively. The results of cosinor analysis showed similar sinusoidal birth patterns of patients with type 1 diabetes in all sub-groups, irrespective of the age of clinical disease expression: 0-9, 10-19, or 20-29 years. In all cases, the highest and lowest predispositions to type 1 diabetes were inherent in the people born in spring and autumn, respectively. We propose that seasonal differences in the birth pattern in the two above populations could be due to long-term programming of glucose-insulin metabolism determined by the effect of certain seasonal factors during early ontogenesis. PMID:17022442

Va?serman, A M; Vo?tenko, V P; Tron'ko, N D; Kravchenko, V I; Khalangot, N D; Mekhova, L V; Gur'ianov, V G

2006-01-01

193

42 CFR 137.202 - What types of information will Self-Governance Tribes be expected to include in the reports?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false What types of information will Self-Governance Tribes be expected to...SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions...202 What types of information will Self-Governance Tribes be expected...

2011-10-01

194

Human CD25 ? CD4 ? T Suppressor Cell Clones Produce Transforming Growth Factor ? , but not Interleukin 10, and Are Distinct from Type 1 T Regulatory Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

T regulatory (Tr) cells are essential for the induction of peripheral tolerance. Several types of Tr cells exist, including CD4 ? T cells which express CD25 constitutively and suppress immune responses via direct cell-to-cell interactions, and type 1 T regulatory (Tr1) cells, which function via secretion of interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)- ? . The relationship between CD25

Megan K. Levings; Romina Sangregorio; Claudia Sartirana; Anna Lisa Moschin; Manuela Battaglia; Paul C. Orban

195

The Presence of Family History and the Development of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Risk Factors in Rural Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is reaching epidemic proportions among children and adolescents. School health fairs offer an opportunity to identify children with risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study identified selected risk factors (i.e., high-risk racial/ethnic group, obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated…

Adams, Marsha Howell; Barnett Lammon, Carol Ann

2007-01-01

196

Common conformational changes induced in type 2 picornavirus IRESs by cognate trans-acting factors.  

PubMed

Type 2 internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs) of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and other picornaviruses comprise five major domains H-L. Initiation of translation on these IRESs begins with specific binding of the central domain of initiation factor, eIF4G to the J-K domains, which is stimulated by eIF4A. eIF4G/eIF4A then restructure the region of ribosomal attachment on the IRES and promote recruitment of ribosomal 43S pre-initiation complexes. In addition to canonical translation factors, type 2 IRESs also require IRES trans-acting factors (ITAFs) that are hypothesized to stabilize the optimal IRES conformation that supports efficient ribosomal recruitment: the EMCV IRES is stimulated by pyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB), whereas the FMDV IRES requires PTB and ITAF(45). To test this hypothesis, we assessed the effect of ITAFs on the conformations of EMCV and FMDV IRESs by comparing their influence on hydroxyl radical cleavage of these IRESs from the central domain of eIF4G. The observed changes in cleavage patterns suggest that cognate ITAFs promote similar conformational changes that are consistent with adoption by the IRESs of comparable, more compact structures, in which domain J undergoes local conformational changes and is brought into closer proximity to the base of domain I. PMID:21306989

Yu, Yingpu; Abaeva, Irina S; Marintchev, Assen; Pestova, Tatyana V; Hellen, Christopher U T

2011-06-01

197

Hypoxia Regulates Basal and Induced DNA Synthesis and Collagen Type I Production in Human Cardiac Fibroblasts: Effects of Transforming Growth Factor ? 1, Thyroid Hormone, Angiotensin II and Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of post-infarct ventricular remodeling consistently shows the accumulation of collagen in failing heart. The goal of this study was to gain insights into the underlying mechanisms of this event. We determined the effect of hypoxia, caused as the result of ischemia, on biological responses including cell viability, basal and growth factor-stimulated proliferative capacity and collagen type I production in

Augustine Agocha; Hyeon-Woo Lee; Mahboubeh Eghbali-Webb

1997-01-01

198

AP2-type transcription factors determine stem cell identity in the moss Physcomitrella patens.  

PubMed

Stem cells are formed at particular times and positions during the development of multicellular organisms. Whereas flowering plants form stem cells only in the sporophyte generation, non-seed plants form stem cells in both the sporophyte and gametophyte generations. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying stem cell formation in the sporophyte generation have been extensively studied, only a few transcription factors involved in the regulation of gametophyte stem cell formation have been reported. The moss Physcomitrella patens forms a hypha-like body (protonema) and a shoot-like body (gametophore) from a protonema apical cell and a gametophore apical cell, respectively. These apical cells have stem cell characteristics and are formed as side branches of differentiated protonema cells. Here, we show that four AP2-type transcription factors orthologous to Arabidopsis thaliana AINTEGUMENTA, PLETHORA and BABY BOOM (APB) are indispensable for the formation of gametophore apical cells from protonema cells. Quadruple disruption of all APB genes blocked gametophore formation, even in the presence of cytokinin, which enhances gametophore apical cell formation in the wild type. All APB genes were expressed in emerging gametophore apical cells, but not in protonema apical cells. Heat-shock induction of an APB4 transgene driven by a heat-shock promoter increased the number of gametophores. Expression of all APB genes was induced by auxin but not by cytokinin. Thus, the APB genes function synergistically with cytokinin signaling to determine the identity of the two types of stem cells. PMID:22833122

Aoyama, Tsuyoshi; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Shigyo, Mikao; Kofuji, Rumiko; Kubo, Minoru; Ito, Motomi; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

2012-09-01

199

Differences between juvenile offenders with and without intellectual disability in offense type and risk factors.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to examine differences between American juvenile offenders with and without intellectual disability (ID) in offense type and risk factors. The sample consisted of adolescents with ID (n=102) and without ID (n=526) who appeared before the courts for a criminal act and for whom the Washington State Juvenile Court Assessment (WSJCA) was completed. Results showed that adolescents with ID had committed more offenses against persons compared to adolescents without ID. Few differences in risk factors were found between juvenile offenders with and without ID in the domains of school, family and use of free time. Juvenile offenders without ID more often had problems in the relationship and alcohol/drugs domain, whereas juveniles with ID more often experienced problems in the domains of attitude, aggression and skills. PMID:22750352

Asscher, Jessica J; van der Put, Claudia E; Stams, Geert Jan J M

2012-01-01

200

Prediction of Giant Thermoelectric Power Factor in Type-VIII Clathrate Si46.  

PubMed

Clathrate materials have been the subject of intense interest and research for thermoelectric application. Nevertheless, from the very large number of conceivable clathrate structures, only a small fraction of them have been examined. Since the thermal conductivity of clathrates is inherently small due to their large unit cell size and open-framework structure, the current research on clathrates is focused on finding the ones with large thermoelectric power factor. Here we predict an extraordinarily large power factor for type-VIII clathrate Si46. We show the existence of a large density of closely packed elongated ellipsoidal carrier pockets near the band edges of this so far hypothetical material structure, which is higher than that of the best thermoelectric materials known today. The high crystallographic symmetry near the energy band edges for Si46-VIII clathrates is responsible for the formation of such a large number of carrier pockets. PMID:25391971

Norouzzadeh, Payam; Myles, Charles W; Vashaee, Daryoosh

2014-01-01

201

Lipid Profile and Correlation to Cardiac Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Function in Type 1 Adolescent Diabetics from a Developing Country  

PubMed Central

Objective. The adverse role of dyslipidemia in predicting cardiovascular outcomes has not been elucidated extensively among type 1 diabetics in the literature. Methods. We assessed dyslipidemia and its correlation to other cardiac risk factors in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Total thirty type 1 adolescent diabetics were evaluated for their metabolic profile, including serum lipids and echocardiography was performed. Results. The average age of the cohort was 14.3?±?3.09?yr with disease duration of 5.35?±?2.94?yr. The mean HbA1C was 8.01%. The mean serum cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglyceride were normal. Serum cholesterol was high in patients with longer disease duration (P = 0.011, r = 0.41), high systolic blood pressure (P = 0.04, r = 0.32), and elevated HbA1C > 8% (P = 0.038, r = 0.33). Higher lipid values were associated with poorer carotid artery distensibility (P > 0.05) and higher carotid artery intimomedial thickness (cIMT) (P < 0.05 for cholesterol and LDL). Hyperglycemia adversely affected ejection fractions, though serum lipids did not show any significant effect on left ventricular parameters. Conclusions. Dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia can serve as biomarkers for cardiovascular dysfunction in at-risk adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Carotid artery parameters are adjunctive tools which may be affected early in the course of macrovascular disease. PMID:24899904

Yadav, Sangeeta; Gupta, V. K.

2014-01-01

202

Macaque-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1: breaking out of the host restriction factors  

PubMed Central

Macaque monkeys serve as important animal models for understanding the pathogenesis of lentiviral infections. Since human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) hardly replicates in macaque cells, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or chimeric viruses between HIV-1 and SIV (SHIV) have been used as challenge viruses in this research field. These viruses, however, are genetically distant from HIV-1. Therefore, in order to evaluate the efficacy of anti-HIV-1 drugs and vaccines in macaques, the development of a macaque-tropic HIV-1 (HIV-1mt) having the ability to replicate efficiently in macaques has long been desired. Recent studies have demonstrated that host restriction factors, such as APOBEC3 family and TRIM5, impose a strong barrier against HIV-1 replication in macaque cells. By evading these restriction factors, others and we have succeeded in developing an HIV-1mt that is able to replicate in macaques. In this review, we have attempted to shed light on the role of host factors that affect the susceptibility of macaques to HIV-1mt infection, especially by focusing on TRIM5-related factors. PMID:23847610

Saito, Akatsuki; Akari, Hirofumi

2013-01-01

203

Early onset type 2 diabetes: risk factors, clinical impact and management  

PubMed Central

Early onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasingly prevalent with a significant impact on the individual, healthcare service delivery and planning. The individuals are likely to be obese, lead a sedentary lifestyle, have a strong family history of T2DM, be of black and minority ethnic (BME) origin and come from a less affluent socioeconomic group. They have a heightened risk of developing microvascular and macrovascular complications, often at an earlier stage and with greater frequency than seen in type 1 diabetes. As such, early and aggressive risk factor management is warranted. Early onset T2DM is complex and impacts on service delivery with a need for multidisciplinary care of complications and comorbidities’, in addition to adequate educational and psychological support. This review on the impact of early onset T2DM provides the latest insights into this emerging epidemic. PMID:25364491

Idris, Iskandar

2014-01-01

204

Risk factors for aseptic loosening of M?ller-type straight stems  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Even small differences in design variables for the femoral stem may influence the outcome of a hip arthroplasty. We performed a risk factor analysis for aseptic loosening of 4 different versions of cemented Müller-type straight stems with special emphasis on design modifications (2 shapes, MSS or SL, and 2 materials, CoNiCrMo (Co) or Ti-6Al-7Nb (Ti)). Methods We investigated 828 total hip replacements, which were followed prospectively in our in-house register. All stems were operated in the same setup, using Sulfix-6 bone cement and a second-generation cementing technique. Demographic and design-specific risk factors were analyzed using an adjusted Cox regression model. Results The 4 versions showed marked differences in 15-year stem survival with aseptic loosening as the endpoint: 94% (95% CI: 89–99) for MSS Co, 83% (CI: 75–91) for SL Co, 81% (CI: 76–87) for MSS Ti and 63% (CI: 56–71) for SL Ti. Cox regression analysis showed a relative risk (RR) for aseptic loosening of 3 (CI: 2–5) for stems made of Ti and of 2 (CI: 1–2) for the SL design. The RR for aseptic stem loosening increased to 8 (CI: 4–15) when comparing the most and the least successful designs (MSS Co and SL Ti). Interpretation Cemented Müller-type straight stems should be MSS-shaped and made of a material with high flexural strength (e.g. cobalt-chrome). The surface finish should be polished (Ra < 0.4 µm). These technical aspects combined with modern cementing techniques would improve the survival of Müller-type straight stems. This may be true for all types of cemented stems. PMID:23799347

Gersbach, Silke; Butscher, Andre; Ilchmann, Thomas

2013-01-01

205

Transcription factor Sp1 regulates T-type Ca(2+) channel CaV 3.1 gene expression.  

PubMed

Voltage-gated T-type Ca(2+) (CaV 3) channels mediate a number of physiological events in developing and mature cells, and are implicated in neurological and cardiovascular diseases. In mammals, there are three distinct T-channel genes (CACNA1G, CACNA1H, and CACNA1I) encoding proteins (CaV 3.1-CaV 3.3) that differ in their localization as well as in molecular, biophysical, and pharmacological properties. The CACNA1G is a large gene that contains 38 exons and is localized in chromosome 17q22. Only basic characteristics of the CACNA1G gene promoter region have been investigated classifying it as a TATA-less sequence containing several potential transcription factor-binding motifs. Here, we cloned and characterized a proximal promoter region and initiated the analysis of transcription factors that control CaV 3.1 channel expression using the murine Cacna1g gene as a model. We isolated a ?1.5?kb 5'-upstream region of Cacna1g and verified its transcriptional activity in the mouse neuroblastoma N1E-115 cell line. In silico analysis revealed that this region possesses a TATA-less minimal promoter that includes two potential transcription start sites and four binding sites for the transcription factor Sp1. The ability of one of these sites to interact with the transcription factor was confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Consistent with this, Sp1 over-expression enhanced promoter activity while siRNA-mediated Sp1 silencing significantly decreased the level of CaV 3.1 protein and reduced the amplitude of whole-cell T-type Ca(2+) currents expressed in the N1E-115 cells. These results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms that control CaV 3.1 channel expression. PMID:23868804

González-Ramírez, Ricardo; Martínez-Hernández, Elizabeth; Sandoval, Alejandro; Felix, Ricardo

2014-05-01

206

A Systematic Analysis of Host Factors Reveals a Med23-Interferon-? Regulatory Axis against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Replication  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic virus causing vesicular oral or genital skin lesions, meningitis and other diseases particularly harmful in immunocompromised individuals. To comprehensively investigate the complex interaction between HSV-1 and its host we combined two genome-scale screens for host factors (HFs) involved in virus replication. A yeast two-hybrid screen for protein interactions and a RNA interference (RNAi) screen with a druggable genome small interfering RNA (siRNA) library confirmed existing and identified novel HFs which functionally influence HSV-1 infection. Bioinformatic analyses found the 358 HFs were enriched for several pathways and multi-protein complexes. Of particular interest was the identification of Med23 as a strongly anti-viral component of the largely pro-viral Mediator complex, which links specific transcription factors to RNA polymerase II. The anti-viral effect of Med23 on HSV-1 replication was confirmed in gain-of-function gene overexpression experiments, and this inhibitory effect was specific to HSV-1, as a range of other viruses including Vaccinia virus and Semliki Forest virus were unaffected by Med23 depletion. We found Med23 significantly upregulated expression of the type III interferon family (IFN-?) at the mRNA and protein level by directly interacting with the transcription factor IRF7. The synergistic effect of Med23 and IRF7 on IFN-? induction suggests this is the major transcription factor for IFN-? expression. Genotypic analysis of patients suffering recurrent orofacial HSV-1 outbreaks, previously shown to be deficient in IFN-? secretion, found a significant correlation with a single nucleotide polymorphism in the IFN-?3 (IL28b) promoter strongly linked to Hepatitis C disease and treatment outcome. This paper describes a link between Med23 and IFN-?, provides evidence for the crucial role of IFN-? in HSV-1 immune control, and highlights the power of integrative genome-scale approaches to identify HFs critical for disease progression and outcome. PMID:23950709

Griffiths, Samantha J.; Koegl, Manfred; Boutell, Chris; Zenner, Helen L.; Crump, Colin M.; Pica, Francesca; Gonzalez, Orland; Friedel, Caroline C.; Barry, Gerald; Martin, Kim; Craigon, Marie H.; Chen, Rui; Kaza, Lakshmi N.; Fossum, Even; Fazakerley, John K.; Efstathiou, Stacey; Volpi, Antonio; Zimmer, Ralf; Ghazal, Peter; Haas, Jurgen

2013-01-01

207

Tumour necrosis factor ? activates nuclear factor ?B signalling to reduce N-type voltage-gated Ca2+ current in postganglionic sympathetic neurons  

PubMed Central

Inflammation has profound effects on the innervation of affected tissues, including altered neuronal excitability and neurotransmitter release. As Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) is a critical determinant of excitation–secretion coupling in nerve terminals, the aim of this study was to characterize the effect of overnight incubation in the inflammatory mediator tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF?; 1 nm) on VGCCs in dissociated neurons from mouse superior mesenteric ganglia (SMG). Voltage-gated Ca2+ currents (ICa) were measured using the perforated patch clamp technique and the VGCC subtypes present in SMG neurons were estimated based on inhibition by selective VGCC blockers: ?-conotoxin GVIA (300 nm; N-type), nifedipine (10 ?m; L-type), and ?-conotoxin MVIIC (300 nm; N-, P/Q-type). We used intracellular Ca2+ imaging with Fura-2 AM to compare Ca2+ influx during depolarizations in control and TNF?-treated neurons. TNF receptor and VGCC mRNA expression were measured using PCR, and channel ? subunit (CaV2.2) was localized with immunohistochemistry. Incubation in TNF? significantly decreased ICa amplitude and depolarization-induced Ca2+ influx. The reduction in ICa was limited to ?-conotoxin GVIA-sensitive N-type Ca2+ channels. Depletion of glial cells by incubation in cytosine arabinoside (5 ?m) did not affect ICa inhibition by TNF?. Preincubation of neurons with SC-514 (20 ?m) or BAY 11-7082 (1 ?m), which both inhibit nuclear factor ?B signalling, prevented the reduction in ICa by TNF?. Inhibition of N-type VGCCs following TNF? incubation was associated with a decrease in CaV2.2 mRNA and reduced membrane localization of CaV2.2 immunoreactivity. These data suggest that TNF? inhibits ICa in SMG neurons and identify a novel role for NF-?B in the regulation of neurotransmitter release during inflammatory conditions with elevated circulating TNF?, such as Crohn's disease and Guillain-Barré syndrome. PMID:19403618

Motagally, Mohamed A; Lukewich, Mark K; Chisholm, Susan P; Neshat, Shadia; Lomax, Alan E

2009-01-01

208

Seasonal variation in types of stroke and its common risk factors.  

PubMed

The present descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh over a period of one year during November 2009 to October 2010. The study was conducted to describe the variations in types of stroke (ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke) during summer and winter. An attempt was also made to observe the frequency of common risk factors of stroke by seasons. A total of 292 patients of any age irrespective of sex fulfilling the WHO criteria of acute stroke and confirmed by CT scan were selected from consecutive admission in the Department of Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital. Detail history and thorough clinical examinations were done. Routine and relevant investigations were carried out. The mean age of the patients was 59.9±14.3 years. A male preponderance was observed in the study. In summer 66% of patients and in winter 34% of patients were presented. Ischemic stroke was present in 54.1% patients and 45.9% patients had haemorrhagic stroke. The study found that the frequency of ischaemic stroke during summer (62.4%) was significantly greater than that during winter (37.8%). The frequency of haemorrhagic stroke during winter (62.2%) was significantly greater than that during summer (37.6%). Hypertension was the most important risk factor and other risk factors were smoking, diabetes mellitus, tobacco chewing, ischemic heart disease, dyslipidemia, oral contraceptive pill, alcohol consumption, atrial fibrillation and past history of stroke. Increasing age was also noted as a risk factor (60.7% >60 years). Most of the risk factors were homogenously distributed between two seasons and between ischemic and haemorrhagic group. Hypertension was significantly higher in haemorrhagic stroke patients compared to ischemic stroke patients. PMID:22314448

Miah, A H; Sutradhar, S R; Ahmed, S; Bhattacharjee, M; Alam, M K; Bari, M A; Tariquzzaman, M; Mondol, G D; Khan, N A; Bari, M S; Sarker, C B

2012-01-01

209

The TAL effector PthA4 interacts with nuclear factors involved in RNA-dependent processes including a HMG protein that selectively binds poly(U) RNA.  

PubMed

Plant pathogenic bacteria utilize an array of effector proteins to cause disease. Among them, transcriptional activator-like (TAL) effectors are unusual in the sense that they modulate transcription in the host. Although target genes and DNA specificity of TAL effectors have been elucidated, how TAL proteins control host transcription is poorly understood. Previously, we showed that the Xanthomonas citri TAL effectors, PthAs 2 and 3, preferentially targeted a citrus protein complex associated with transcription control and DNA repair. To extend our knowledge on the mode of action of PthAs, we have identified new protein targets of the PthA4 variant, required to elicit canker on citrus. Here we show that all the PthA4-interacting proteins are DNA and/or RNA-binding factors implicated in chromatin remodeling and repair, gene regulation and mRNA stabilization/modification. The majority of these proteins, including a structural maintenance of chromosomes protein (CsSMC), a translin-associated factor X (CsTRAX), a VirE2-interacting protein (CsVIP2), a high mobility group (CsHMG) and two poly(A)-binding proteins (CsPABP1 and 2), interacted with each other, suggesting that they assemble into a multiprotein complex. CsHMG was shown to bind DNA and to interact with the invariable leucine-rich repeat region of PthAs. Surprisingly, both CsHMG and PthA4 interacted with PABP1 and 2 and showed selective binding to poly(U) RNA, a property that is novel among HMGs and TAL effectors. Given that homologs of CsHMG, CsPABP1, CsPABP2, CsSMC and CsTRAX in other organisms assemble into protein complexes to regulate mRNA stability and translation, we suggest a novel role of TAL effectors in mRNA processing and translational control. PMID:22384209

de Souza, Tiago Antonio; Soprano, Adriana Santos; de Lira, Nayara Patricia Vieira; Quaresma, Alexandre José Christino; Pauletti, Bianca Alves; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Benedetti, Celso Eduardo

2012-01-01

210

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy of type 1 diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a common complication of diabetes mellitus and is the primary cause of end-stage renal disease in the Western World. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is implicated in the pathogenesis of DN of type 1 diabetes mellitus. VEGF is the main angiogenic factor and a potent mitogen for endothelial cells. It is mainly produced in kidney by podocytes and exerts its biological activities by binding to its receptors (VEGFRs). Alternative splicing of a single VEGF gene produces various isoforms and two families with anti- and pro-angiogenic properties. In normal glomeruli, VEGF isoforms are in tight regulation and act in a paracrine and an autocrine manner preserving the integrity of glomerular filtration barrier. Many mediators in diabetic milieu induce the expression of VEGF and possibly the VEGFxxx isoform in animal models of type 1 diabetes, however, in human kidney with developed DN, VEGF expression seems to be lower or absent. Inhibition of VEGF in experimental DN ameliorates structural and functional changes and proposes possible therapeutic targets. Further studies are required before these treatments can be used in diabetic patients at early stages of DN. PMID:20735351

Mironidou-Tzouveleki, Maria; Tsartsalis, Stergios; Tomos, Constantinos

2011-01-01

211

Autoradiographic localization of epidermal growth factor receptors to all major uterine cell types  

SciTech Connect

We have recently studied the structure and function of the uterine epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, its hormonal regulation, and its possible role in estrogen-induced uterine DNA synthesis. Since the uterus is composed of multiple cell types, we sought, in the work reported here, to localize EGF binding in this organ by autoradiography. Prior to the actual autoradiography, we performed a companion series of experiments to insure that EGF binding to uterine tissue in situ represented a true receptor interaction. Uteri from immature female rats were incubated in vitro with 125I-EGF at 25 degrees C. Tissue binding was maximal within 120 min and remained constant for at least an additional 120 min. This binding of labeled EGF was largely abolished by excess unlabeled EGF but not by other growth factors, indicating that binding was to specific receptors. The binding of 125I-EGF was saturable and reached a plateau at 4-8 nM; specific binding was half-maximal at 1-2 nM EGF. In situ cross-linking studies revealed that 125I-EGF was bound predominantly to a 170,000 MW EGF receptor similar to that seen in isolated uterine membranes. Incubation of uteri with 125I-EGF followed by autoradiography revealed binding to epithelial cells, stroma, and myometrium. These results provide evidence for the presence of specific EGF receptors in all major uterine cell types of the immature rat.

Lin, T.H.; Mukku, V.R.; Verner, G.; Kirkland, J.L.; Stancel, G.M.

1988-03-01

212

A Soluble Factor(s) Secreted from CD8+ T Lymphocytes Inhibits Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication through STAT1 Activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

CD8 T lymphocytes can suppress human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication by secreting a soluble factor(s) known as CD8 T-lymphocyte antiviral factor (CAF). One site of CAF action is inhibition of HIV-1 RNA transcription, particularly at the step of long terminal repeat (LTR)-driven gene expression. However, the mechanism by which CAF inhibits LTR activation is not understood. Here, we

Theresa Li-Yun Chang; Arevik Mosoian; Richard Pine; Mary E. Klotman; John P. Moore

2002-01-01

213

Impact of Walking on Glycemic Control and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Walking is the most popular and most preferred exercise among type 2 diabetes patients, yet compelling evidence regarding its beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors is still lacking. The aim of this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was to evaluate the association between walking and glycemic control and other cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes patients. Methods Three databases were searched up to August 2014. English-language RCTs were eligible for inclusion if they had assessed the walking effects (duration ?8 weeks) on glycemic control or other cardiovascular risk factors among type 2 diabetes patients. Data were pooled using a random-effects model. Subgroup analyses based on supervision status and meta-regression analyses of variables regarding characteristics of participants and walking were performed to investigate their association with glycemic control. Results Eighteen studies involving 20 RCTs (866 participants) were included. Walking significantly decreased glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) by 0.50% (95% confidence intervals [CI]: ?0.78% to ?0.21%). Supervised walking was associated with a pronounced decrease in HbA1c (WMD ?0.58%, 95% CI: ?0.93% to ?0.23%), whereas non-supervised walking was not. Further subgroup analysis suggested non-supervised walking using motivational strategies is also effective in decreasing HbA1c (WMD ?0.53%, 95% CI: ?1.05% to ?0.02%). Effects of covariates on HbA1c change were generally unclear. For other cardiovascular risk factors, walking significantly reduced body mass index (BMI) and lowered diastolic blood pressure (DBP), but non-significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP), or changed high-density or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Conclusions This meta-analysis supports that walking decreases HbA1c among type 2 diabetes patients. Supervision or the use of motivational strategies should be suggested when prescribed walking to ensure optimal glycemic control. Walking also reduces BMI and lowers DBP, however, it remains insufficient regarding the association of walking with lowered SBP or improved lipoprotein profiles. Trial Registration PROSPERO CRD42014009515 PMID:25329391

Qiu, Shanhu; Cai, Xue; Schumann, Uwe; Velders, Martina; Sun, Zilin; Steinacker, Jurgen Michael

2014-01-01

214

Expression and characterization of von Willebrand factor dimerization defects in different types of von Willebrand disease.  

PubMed

Dimerization defects of von Willebrand factor (vWF) protomers underlie von Willebrand disease (vWD) type 2A, subtype IID (vWD 2A/IID), and corresponding mutations have been identified at the 3' end of the vWF gene in exon 52. This study identified and expressed 2 additional mutations in this region, a homozygous defect in a patient with vWD type 3 (C2754W) and a heterozygous frameshift mutation (8566delC) in a patient with vWD type 2A, subtype IIE. Both mutations involve cysteine residues that we propose are possibly essential for dimerization. To prove this hypothesis, transient recombinant expression of each of the 2 mutations introduced in the carboxy-terminal vWF fragment II and in the complete vWF complementary DNA, respectively, were carried out in COS-7 cells and compared with expression of vWD 2A/IID mutation C2773R and the wild-type (WT) sequence in COS-7 cells. Recombinant WT vWF fragment II assembled correctly into a dimer, whereas recombinant mutant fragments were monomeric. Homozygous expression of recombinant mutant full-length vWF resulted in additional dimers, probably through disulfide bonding at the amino-terminal multimerization site, whereas recombinant WT vWF correctly assembled into multimers. Coexpression of recombinant mutant and recombinant WT vWF reproduced the multimer patterns observed in heterozygous individuals. Our results suggest that a common defect of vWF biosynthesis--lack of vWF dimerization--may cause diverse types and subtypes of vWD. We also confirmed previous studies that found that disulfide bonding at the vWF amino-terminal is independent of dimerization at the vWF carboxy-terminal. (Blood. 2001;97:2059-2066) PMID:11264172

Schneppenheim, R; Budde, U; Obser, T; Brassard, J; Mainusch, K; Ruggeri, Z M; Schneppenheim, S; Schwaab, R; Oldenburg, J

2001-04-01

215

Nuclear Translocation of Type I Transforming Growth Factor ? Receptor Confers a Novel Function in RNA Processing  

PubMed Central

Signaling of transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) is redirected in cancer to promote malignancy, but how TGF-? function is altered in a transformed cell is not fully understood. We investigated TGF-? signaling by profiling proteins that differentially bound to type I TGF-? receptor (T?RI) in nontransformed, HER2-transformed, and HER2-negative breast cancer cells using immunoprecipitation followed by protein identification. Interestingly, several nuclear proteins implicated in posttranscriptional RNA processing were uniquely identified in the T?RI coprecipitates from HER2-transformed cells. Ligand-inducible nuclear translocation of T?RI was observed only in transformed cells, and the translocation required importin ?1, nucleolin, and Smad2/3. This trafficking was dependent on the high Ran GTPase activity resulting from oncogenic transformation. In the nucleus, T?RI associated with purine-rich RNA sequences in a synergistic manner with the RNA-binding factor hnRNP A1. We further found that nuclear translocation of T?RI specifically induced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transcript isoform c, which encodes a soluble EGFR protein, through alternative splicing or 3?-end processing. Our study confirms a cancer-specific nuclear translocation of T?RI and demonstrates its potential function in regulating nuclear RNA processing, as well as a novel gain-of-function mechanism of TGF-? signaling in cancer. PMID:22473997

Chandra, Manasa; Zang, Shengbing; Li, Haiqing; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Champer, Jackson; Tsuyada, Akihiro; Chow, Amy; Zhou, Weiying; Yu, Yang; Gao, Harry; Ren, Xiubao; Lin, Ren-Jang

2012-01-01

216

Identification of risk factors for suffering fear of hypoglycemia in type 1 Diabetes Mellitus patients.  

PubMed

Hypoglycemia is one of the main burdens for type I Diabetes Mellitus (DM I) patients. The consequences of hypoglycemia can be quite unpleasant due to the variety of disagreeable physical and psychological symptoms it triggers. The patient's previous experience with hypoglycemia episodes will condition his psychological reaction to future episodes, promoting behavioral modifications that associate with poor glycemic control and worse prognosis, and even with developing psychological disorders, leading to fear of hypoglycemia (FH). To be able to provide tailored prevention and treatment of patients with FH it is necessary to identify the risk factors in DM I patients. We developed and validated the FH-15 scale, a novel instrument to assess FH, which showed good concurrent and predictive validity in DM I patients. In this work we aim to identify the risk factors for suffering FH by detecting DM I patients with FH using the FH-15 scale and then analyzing the association of clinical and sociodemographic variables. We found that age, needing help to resolve an episode of hypoglycemia, and a perceived lack of social support are risk factors for suffering FH. PMID:25251286

Anarte, María Teresa; Carreira, Mónica; Machado, Alberto; Domínguez, Marta; Tapia, María José; Valdés, Sergio; Ruiz de Adana, María Soledad; Soriguer, Federico

2014-12-01

217

Mutation Analysis of NR5A1 Encoding Steroidogenic Factor 1 in 77 Patients with 46, XY Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) Including Hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Background Mutations of the NR5A1 gene encoding steroidogenic factor-1 have been reported in association with a wide spectrum of 46,XY DSD (Disorder of Sex Development) phenotypes including severe forms of hypospadias. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the frequency of NR5A1 gene mutations in a large series of patients presenting with 46,XY DSD and hypospadias. Based on their clinical presentation 77 patients were classified either as complete or partial gonadal dysgenesis (uterus seen at genitography and/or surgery, n?=?11), ambiguous external genitalia without uterus (n?=?33) or hypospadias (n?=?33). We identified heterozygous NR5A1 mutations in 4 cases of ambiguous external genitalia without uterus (12.1%; p.Trp279Arg, pArg39Pro, c.390delG, c140_141insCACG) and a de novo missense mutation in one case with distal hypospadias (3%; p.Arg313Cys). Mutant proteins showed reduced transactivation activity and mutants p.Arg39Pro and p.Arg313Cys did not synergize with the GATA4 cofactor to stimulate reporter gene activity, although they retained their ability to physically interact with the GATA4 protein. Conclusions/Significance Mutations in NR5A1 were observed in 5/77 (6.5%) cases of 46,XY DSD including hypospadias. Excluding the cases of 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis the incidence of NR5A1 mutations was 5/66 (7.6%). An individual with isolated distal hypopadias carried a de novo heterozygous missense mutation, thus extending the range of phenotypes associated with NR5A1 mutations and suggesting that this group of patients should be screened for NR5A1 mutations. PMID:22028768

Brauner, Raja; Lourenço, Diana; Boudjenah, Radia; Karageorgou, Vasiliki; Trivin, Christine; Lottmann, Henri; Lortat-Jacob, Stephen; Nihoul-Fékété, Claire; De Dreuzy, Olivier; McElreavey, Ken; Bashamboo, Anu

2011-01-01

218

Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and concentration of C-reactive protein in Type D personality persons without cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Type D personality is associated with poor cardiovascular outcome in patients with coronary or peripheral arterial disease. Whether Type D personality is associated with cardiovascular risk in persons without overt cardiovascular disease remains unknown. We hypothesized that Type D personality is associated with higher prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and higher concentration of C-reactive protein.Design: Cross-sectional study.Methods: Type

Gunnar Einvik; Toril Dammen; Harald Hrubos-Strøm; Silje K Namtvedt; Anna Randby; Håvard A Kristiansen; Virend K Somers; Inger H Nordhus; Torbjørn Omland

2011-01-01

219

Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Protects Mice Against Streptozotocin-induced Type 1 Diabetes through SOCS3  

PubMed Central

Type 1 diabetes is characterized by a loss of islet ?-cells. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) protects pancreatic islets against cytokine-induced apoptosis. For this reason, we assessed whether CNTF protects mice against streptozotocin-induced diabetes (a model of type 1 diabetes) and the mechanism for this protection. WT and SOCS3 knockdown C57BL6 mice were treated for 5 days with citrate buffer or 0.1 mg/kg CNTF before receiving 80 mg/kg streptozotocin. Glycemia in non-fasted mice was measured weekly from days 0–28 after streptozotocin administration. Diabetes was defined as a blood glucose > 11.2 mmol/liter. Wild-type (WT) and SOCS3 knockdown MIN6 cells were cultured with CNTF, IL1?, or both. CNTF reduced diabetes incidence and islet apoptosis in WT but not in SOCS3kd mice. Likewise, CNTF inhibited apoptosis in WT but not in SOCS3kd MIN6 cells. CNTF increased STAT3 phosphorylation in WT and SOCS3kd mice and MIN6 cells but reduced STAT1 phosphorylation only in WT mice, in contrast to streptozotocin and IL1?. Moreover, CNTF reduced NF?B activation and required down-regulation of inducible NO synthase expression to exert its protective effects. In conclusion, CNTF protects mice against streptozotocin-induced diabetes by increasing pancreatic islet survival, and this protection depends on SOCS3. In addition, SOCS3 expression and ?-cell fate are dependent on STAT1/STAT3 ratio. PMID:23038263

Rezende, Luiz F.; Santos, Gustavo J.; Carneiro, Everardo M.; Boschero, Antonio C.

2012-01-01

220

Zirconium-titanium placers of the Voronezh Anteclise: Types, epochs and factors of formation, and forecast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early and late Frasnian, Barremian-Aptian, Cenomanian, early Santonian, early Campanian, and Oligocene-Miocene epochs of the formation of various types of zirconium-titanium placers are distinguished in the Voronezh Anteclise. The factors of their formation are considered, and a forecast of prospecting has been made. Lower Frasnian sedimentary rocks occur in the southeast, where the placers are related to the ilmenite-bearing volcanosedimentary rocks of the Yastrebovo Sequence. The upper Frasnian productive quartz sand of the Petino Sequence occurs in the central part of the Voronezh Anteclise. The Barremian-Aptian productive quartz sand and kaolinite clay occur in the northern and northeastern parts of the anteclise (Ryazan and Lipetsk oblasts). The placers formed in the Cenomanian are known in the Tambov oblast in the northeast of the Voronezh Anteclise and are related to phosphate-bearing glauconite-quartz sand. The early Campanian phosphorite-glauconite-quartz formation is widespread in the northwest of the Voronezh Anteclise at the junction with the northeastern wall of the Dnieper-Donets Basin (Bryansk oblast). The Oligocene-Miocene epoch was characterized by quartz sands abundant in the northwestern and south-western areas. The formation of zirconium-titanium placers is controlled by structural-tectonic, facies, volcanic, paleogeographic, stratigraphic, and evolutional factors. The indispensable condition for heavy mineral concentration is existence of positive forms of underwater topography. These are mostly structural elements of the third and fourth orders on the slopes of the Voronezh Anteclise at the boundaries of the adjacent negative structures. As concerns the facies factor, the occurrence of coastal and shallow-water marine facies with alternating and medium hydrodynamic activity and predominance of sand fractions 0.25-0.05 mm are criteria of elevated concentration of heavy minerals in sand. One of the conditions providing concentration of heavy minerals is a multiple rewashing of sands close to a relatively stable shoreline. The volcanic factor is determinant for the lower Frasnian marine placers fed by volcanic sources. The Cretaceous and Paleogene zirconium-titanium placers were formed owing to scouring of the older Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks of the Voronezh Anteclise, as well as the Baltic Shield, Moscow Syneclise, and the Volga-Ural Anteclise. The age of placers was estimated with accuracy up to substages (lower Aptian, lower Santonian, lower Campanian). The evolution factor is expressed in variation of localization and composition of placers in time and space. The forecast of potentially ore-bearing areas is based on optimal combinations of favorable factors.

Savko, A. D.; Zvonarev, A. E.; Ivanov, D. A.

2012-02-01

221

Prevalence and risk factors of type 2 diabetes in older Vietnam-born Australians.  

PubMed

Vietnamese immigrants in Australia represent the second largest Vietnamese community in developed countries, following the United States. However, limited information is available about prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the relative roles of socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and Vietnamese ethnicity per se in this population. This study investigated the prevalence of T2D and its risk factors in older Vietnam-born Australians, in comparison to native-born Australians. The study used baseline questionnaire data from 787 Vietnam- and 196,866 Australia-born individuals (?45 years), who participated in the 45 and Up Study, which is Australia's largest population-based cohort study. Country of birth specific prevalence of T2D and its risk factors were age-standardised to the 2006 Australian population (?45 years). Multivariable logistic regression models were built for each group to assess the relationship between T2D and socio-demographic characteristics, family history of diabetes, lifestyle factors and health status. Compared to Australia-born counterparts, Vietnam-born individuals had significantly (p < 0.001) higher age-standardised prevalence of T2D (14.7 vs 7.4 %) and significantly (p < 0.001) lower levels of vegetable consumption (?5 serves/day, 19.4 vs 33.5 %), physical activity (?5 sessions/week, 68.7 vs 78.5 %) and overweight and obesity (body mass index ?25 kg/m(2), 21.5 vs 62.7 %). The increased risk of T2D associated with a family history of diabetes for Vietnam-born people [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 7.14, 95 % CI 4.15-12.28] was almost double that for Australia-born people (OR 3.77, 95 % CI 3.63-3.90). The patterns of association between T2D and other factors were similar between the two groups. The findings suggest a genetic predisposition to T2D in people of Vietnamese ethnicity. Reducing lifestyle risk factors for diabetes and better management of diabetes are priorities for Vietnam-born populations. PMID:23913107

Tran, Duong Thuy; Jorm, Louisa R; Johnson, Maree; Bambrick, Hilary; Lujic, Sanja

2014-02-01

222

Chronic Activation of Wild-Type Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Loss of Cdkn2a Cause Mouse Glioblastoma Formation  

E-print Network

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is characterized by overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and loss of the tumor suppressors Ink4a/Arf. Efforts at modeling GBM using wild-type EGFR in mice have proven ...

Whittaker, Charles A.

223

Trefoil factor 2 rapidly induces interleukin 33 to promote type 2 immunity during allergic asthma and hookworm infection  

E-print Network

The molecular mechanisms that drive mucosal T helper type 2 (T[subscript H]2) responses against parasitic helminths and allergens remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate in mice that TFF2 (trefoil factor 2), an ...

Wills-Karp, Marsha

224

Studies on Shiga toxin type 1 mediated tumor necrosis factor synthesis in a human monocytic cell line  

E-print Network

STUDIES ON SHIGA TOXIN TYPE 1 MEDIATED TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR SYNTHESIS IN A HUMAN MONOCYTIC CELL LINE A Thesis by RAMESH SAKIRI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AII M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1997 Major Subject: Biology STUDIES ON SHIGA TOXIN TYPE 1 MEDIATED TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR SYNTHESIS IN A HUMAN MONOCYTIC CELL LINE A Thesis by RAMESH SAKIRI Submitted to Texas A8M University in partial...

Sakiri, Ramesh

2012-06-07

225

Effects of pelleting, dietary protein level and unidentified factors on feed cost and the performance of egg type layers  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF PELLETING, DIETARY PROTEIN LEVEL AND UNIDENTIFIED FACTORS ON FEED COST AND THE PERFORMANCE OF EGG TYPE LAYERS A Thesis by Hector Reruns]eewa Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas...-20) and Experismntal Diets Effects of Pelleting, Dietary Protein Level, and Uni- dentified Factors on the Performance of Egg-Type Layers. Experiment 1 12 Statistical Analysis of the Effects of Pelleting, Dietary Protein Level, and Unidentified Pactors on Egg...

Karunajeewa, Hector

2012-06-07

226

Fragility and spiralization anomalies of the chromosomes in three cases, including fraternal twins, with Fanconi’s anemia, type Estren-Dameshek  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fraternal twins, offspring of consanguineous parents, developed pancytopenia, the boy at 7, the girl at 12 years of age. A third patient became anemic at 3 years. All three are free of associated malformations. In blood cultures the incidence of chromatid breaks, exchanges, and chromosome-type aberrations was elevated to 24 %, 18 %, and 28 %, respectively. In addition, in

W. Schmid; G. Fanconi

1978-01-01

227

Comparing Factor, Class, and Mixture Models of Cannabis Initiation and DSM Cannabis Use Disorder Criteria, Including Craving, in the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidence suggests that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnostic criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence are best represented by a single underlying factor. However, it remains possible that models with additional factors, or latent class models or hybrid models, may better explain the data. Using structured interviews, 626 adult male and female twins provided complete data on symptoms of cannabis abuse and dependence, plus a craving criterion. We compared latent factor analysis, latent class analysis, and factor mixture modeling using normal theory marginal maximum likelihood for ordinal data. Our aim was to derive a parsimonious, best-fitting cannabis use disorder (CUD) phenotype based on DSM-IV criteria and determine whether DSM-5 craving loads onto a general factor. When compared with latent class and mixture models, factor models provided a better fit to the data. When conditioned on initiation and cannabis use, the association between criteria for abuse, dependence, withdrawal, and craving were best explained by two correlated latent factors for males and females: a general risk factor to CUD and a factor capturing the symptoms of social and occupational impairment as a consequence of frequent use. Secondary analyses revealed a modest increase in the prevalence of DSM-5 CUD compared with DSM-IV cannabis abuse or dependence. It is concluded that, in addition to a general factor with loadings on cannabis use and symptoms of abuse, dependence, withdrawal, and craving, a second clinically relevant factor defined by features of social and occupational impairment was also found for frequent cannabis use. PMID:24588857

Kubarych, Thomas S.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Aggen, Steven H.; Estabrook, Ryne; Edwards, Alexis C.; Clark, Shaunna L.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Hickie, Ian B.; Neale, Michael C.; Gillespie, Nathan A.

2014-01-01

228

Expression of Human Blood Coagulation Factor XI: Characterization of the Defect in Factor XI Type I11 Deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human factor XI (FXI) is a blood coagulation factor participat- ing in the early phase of the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. It circulates in blood as a glycoprotein com- posed of two identical chains held together by a single disulfide bond between the fourth apple domains. FXI has been expressed in baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, where it was

Joost C. M. Meijers; Earl W. Davie; Dominic W. Chung

1992-01-01

229

Relationship between adipocytokines and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between serum profiles of adiponectin, leptin, resistin and visfatin and traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 85 patients with T2DM and 30 non-diabetic controls were enrolled in the study. Levels of adipocytokines (adiponectin, leptin, resistin and visfatin), lipids (total cholesterol, triglycerides), lipoproteins [HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, lipoprotein (a)], apolipoproteins (Apo-A1 and Apo-B), non-traditional cardiovascular risk markers [asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), homocysteine] and the inflammatory marker hs-CRP were measured, and anthropometric variables were determined. Serum adiponectin levels were decreased and leptin, resistin and visfatin levels were increased in T2DM patients compared to controls. They were associated with obesity (BMI), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and various markers of glucose/lipid profile, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction markers. These results suggest that decreased serum adiponectin and increased leptin, resistin and visfatin levels in T2DM may be novel biochemical risk factors for cardiovascular complications. PMID:23060933

Uslu, Sema; Kebapçi, Nur; Kara, Mehmet; Bal, Cengiz

2012-07-01

230

Racial/ethnic Differences in Clinical and Biochemical Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Risk Factors in Children  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine whether peri-adolescent children demonstrate the significant racial/ethnic differences in body fatness relative to BMI and in the prevalence and relationship of body composition to risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as in adults. Design and Methods We examined family history of obesity and T2DM, anthropometry, insulin sensitivity and secretory capacity, lipids, and cytokines (IL-6, CRP, TNF-?, and adiponectin) in a cohort of 994 middle school students (47% male, 53%, female; 12% African American, 14% East Asian, 13% South Asian, 9% Caucasian, 44% Hispanic, and 8% other). Results Fractional body fat content was significantly greater at any BMI among South Asians. There were racial/ethnic specific differences in lipid profiles, insulin secretory capacity, insulin sensitivity, and inflammatory markers corrected for body fatness that are similar to those seen in adults. Family history of T2DM was associated with lower insulin secretory capacity while family history of obesity was more associated with insulin resistance. Conclusion Children show some of the same racial/ethnic differences in risk factors for adiposity-related co-morbidities as adults. BMI and waist circumference cutoffs to identify children at-risk for adiposity-related co-morbidities should be adjusted by racial/ethnic group as well as other variables such as birthweight and family history. PMID:23596082

Rosenbaum, Michael; Fennoy, Ilene; Accacha, Siham; Altshuler, Lisa; Carey, Dennis E.; Holleran, Steven; Rapaport, Robert; Shelov, Steven P.; Speiser, Phyllis W.; Ten, S.; Bhangoo, Amrit; Boucher-Berry, Claudia; Espinal, Yomery; Gupta, Rishi; Hassoun, Abeer A.; Iazetti, Loretta.; Jacques, Fabien J.; Jean, Amy M.; Klein, Michelle. L.; Levine, Robert; Lowell, Barbara; Michel, Lesley; Rosenfeld, Warren

2013-01-01

231

Type 2 Diabetes in Urban and Rural Districts in Korea: Factors Associated with Prevalence Difference  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine the urban-rural differences in the prevalence and associated factors with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Korean adults. A total of 1,060 adults >30 yr of age from urban (189 males and 331 females) and rural districts (219 males and 321 females) were recruited. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, lipid profiles, and fasting and 2-hr after 75-g oral glucose load blood glucose were obtained. The crude- and age-standardized prevalence of T2DM was 15.4% and 14.5%, and 11.7% and 8.6% in urban and rural districts, respectively. Diabetic subjects were older and obese, and had a higher triglyceride level, and systolic blood pressure compared to non-diabetes in both population. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that older age, high triglyceride levels, central obesity, and hypertension were significantly associated with T2DM in both areas. Low monthly incomes were significantly associated with T2DM in urban population, while a family history of T2DM was significantly associated with T2DM in rural area. T2DM is more prevalent in urban than in rural population, and low economic status or genetic factor is differently associated with T2DM in both population, respectively. PMID:21165294

Lee, Hye Young; Won, Jong Chul; Kang, Yoon Jung; Yoon, Sook Hee; Choi, Eun Ok; Bae, Jeong Yee; Sung, Mi Hae; Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Yang, Jin Hyang; Oh, Jina; Lee, Yun Mi; Park, Nam Hee; Ko, Kyung Soo

2010-01-01

232

TACO: a general-purpose tool for predicting cell-type-specific transcription factor dimers  

PubMed Central

Background Cooperative binding of transcription factor (TF) dimers to DNA is increasingly recognized as a major contributor to binding specificity. However, it is likely that the set of known TF dimers is highly incomplete, given that they were discovered using ad hoc approaches, or through computational analyses of limited datasets. Results Here, we present TACO (Transcription factor Association from Complex Overrepresentation), a general-purpose standalone software tool that takes as input any genome-wide set of regulatory elements and predicts cell-type–specific TF dimers based on enrichment of motif complexes. TACO is the first tool that can accommodate motif complexes composed of overlapping motifs, a characteristic feature of many known TF dimers. Our method comprehensively outperforms existing tools when benchmarked on a reference set of 29 known dimers. We demonstrate the utility and consistency of TACO by applying it to 152 DNase-seq datasets and 94 ChIP-seq datasets. Conclusions Based on these results, we uncover a general principle governing the structure of TF-TF-DNA ternary complexes, namely that the flexibility of the complex is correlated with, and most likely a consequence of, inter-motif spacing. PMID:24640962

2014-01-01

233

Detection of SHV type Extended-Spectrum B-lactamase and Risk Factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clinical Isolates  

PubMed Central

Objective: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most important causes of nosocomial infections and can acquire resistant to many antimicrobials, including ?-lactams. The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of SHV type extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), antimicrobial resistance patterns of the P. aeroginusa and risk factors in hospitalized patients in two teaching hospitals in Sanandaj, Iran. Methodology: 123 P. aeruginosa were isolated from various clinical specimens. All samples were prepared for double-disk synergy test on the isolates for detection of ESBL. SHV was confirmed by PCR method. Risk factors were evaluated for infection due to P. aeruginosa. Results: The incidence of multiple drug resistance (MDR) in P. aeroginusa isolates was 3.85%. The prevalence of ESBL-SHV gene was 10.57%. Days of hospitalization (OR=14.34 CI95% 2.87-25.8), ICU hospitalization (OR=3.4 CI95% 1.24- 9.29), presence of catheter (OR=3.63 CI 95% 1.34-9.84), use of antimicrobials within previous two weeks (OR=5.51 CI95% 1.85-16.43) and use of ventilator (OR=3.7557 CI95%1.29-9) were risk factors for Pseudomonas nosocomial infection SHV positive ESBL. Conclusion: In this study Prevalence of ESBL, SHV gene and MDR in P. aeroginosa infection was lower than the prevalence reported from other studies in Iran and this indicated appropriate antimicrobial managements strategies and infection control. In addition, our research data indicate that risk factors such as use of ventilator, use of antimicrobials and ICU hospitalization can be effective in managing Pseudomonas infection. PMID:24353629

Bahmani, Nasrin; Ramazanzadeh, Rashid

2013-01-01

234

Lack of maternal Heat Shock Factor 1 results in multiple cellular and developmental defects, including mitochondrial damage and altered redox homeostasis, and leads to  

E-print Network

Oxidative stress Fertilization Survival Heat Shock Factor 1 (HSF1) is a transcription factor whose loss of function results in the inability of Hsf1-/- females to produce viable embryos, as a consequence of early developmental arrest. We previously demonstrated that maternal HSF1 is required in oocytes to regulate

Villefranche sur mer

235

The use of a simulator to include human factors issues in the interface design of a nuclear power plant control room  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technology plays an important role in advanced control rooms that relies on complex technical equipment and interfaces. Human error has many causes such as performance shaping factors, organizational factors and interface design. In the safe operation of nuclear power plant, the performance of the control room crew plays an important role. In this respect, a well-designed control room and human–system

Isaac José Antonio Luquetti dos Santos; Douglas Vidal Teixeira; Fernando Toledo Ferraz; Paulo Victor Rodrigues Carvalho

2008-01-01

236

Platelet-activating factor: a candidate human immunodeficiency virus type 1-induced neurotoxin.  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of central nervous system disease during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection revolves around productive viral infection of brain macrophages and microglia. Neuronal losses in the cortex and subcortical gray matter accompany macrophage infection. The question of how viral infection of brain macrophages ultimately leads to central nervous system (CNS) pathology remains unanswered. Our previous work demonstrated high-level production of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1 beta, arachidonic acid metabolites, and platelet-activating factor (PAF) from HIV-infected monocytes and astroglia (H. E. Gendelman, P. Genis, M. Jett, and H. S. L. M. Nottet, in E. Major, ed., Technical Advances in AIDS Research in the Nervous System, in press; P. Genis, M. Jett, E. W. Bernton, H. A. Gelbard, K. Dzenko, R. Keane, L. Resnick, D. J. Volsky, L. G. Epstein, and H. E. Gendelman, J. Exp. Med. 176:1703-1718, 1992). These factors, together, were neurotoxic. The relative role(s) of each of these candidate neurotoxins in HIV-1-related CNS dysfunction was not unraveled by these initial experiments. We now report that PAF is produced during HIV-1-infected monocyte-astroglia interactions. PAF was detected at high levels in CSF of HIV-1-infected patients with immunosuppression and signs of CNS dysfunction. The biologic significance of the results for neurological disease was determined by addition of PAF to cultures of primary human fetal cortical or rat postnatal retinal ganglion neurons. Here, PAF at concentrations of > or = 300 pg/ml produced neuronal death. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 or memantine partially blocked the neurotoxic effects of PAF. The identification of PAF as an HIV-1-induced neurotoxin provides new insights into how HIV-1 causes neurological impairment and how it may ultimately be ameliorated. PMID:8207837

Gelbard, H A; Nottet, H S; Swindells, S; Jett, M; Dzenko, K A; Genis, P; White, R; Wang, L; Choi, Y B; Zhang, D

1994-01-01

237

Reactivity to Daily Stressors in Adulthood: The Importance of Stressor Type in Characterizing Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

This study examined daily stressors in adults aged 18 to 89 years (M = 49.6 years) over 30 days. We examined the role of individual factors (i.e., age, self-concept differentiation, perceived control) in physical and psychological reactivity to interpersonal, network, home, and health stressors. Findings were consistent with the perspective that adults were less reactive to stress on days they felt in control and that younger adults and adults with high self-concept differentiation (SCD) were more vulnerable to stress. Age, SCD, and daily perceived control, however, interacted with one another and findings varied by stressor type. For example, age differences in reactivity were moderated by SCD whereby older adults with low SCD were particularly resilient to home stressors. Also, whether perceived control buffered adults' reactivity to daily stress varied by age and SCD. For example, only adults with high SCD were psychologically reactive to network stressors and only on days they reported having low control. The findings emphasize the importance of considering how individual characteristics interact in varying ways to influence stress reactivity to different types of stressors. PMID:20230133

Hay, Elizabeth L.; Diehl, Manfred

2010-01-01

238

Quaternary Structure and Functional Unit of Energy Coupling Factor (ECF)-type Transporters*  

PubMed Central

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters mediate transport of diverse substrates across membranes. We have determined the quaternary structure and functional unit of the recently discovered ECF-type (energy coupling factor) of ABC transporters, which is widespread among prokaryotes. ECF transporters are protein complexes consisting of a conserved energizing module (two peripheral ATPases and the integral membrane protein EcfT) and a non-conserved integral membrane protein responsible for substrate specificity (S-component). S-components for different substrates are often unrelated in amino acid sequence but may associate with the same energizing module. Here, the energizing module from Lactococcus lactis was shown to form stable complexes with each of the eight predicted S-components found in the organism. The quaternary structures of three of these complexes were determined by light scattering. EcfT, the two ATPases (EcfA and EcfA?), and the S-components were found to be present in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. The complexes were reconstituted in proteoliposomes and shown to mediate ATP-dependent transport. ECF-type transporters are the smallest known ABC transporters. PMID:21135102

ter Beek, Josy; Duurkens, Ria H.; Erkens, Guus B.; Slotboom, Dirk Jan

2011-01-01

239

Transgenic mice overexpressing insulin-like growth factor-II in ? cells develop type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

During embryonic development, insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) participates in the regulation of islet growth and differentiation. We generated transgenic mice (C57BL6/SJL) expressing IGF-II in ? cells under control of the rat Insulin I promoter in order to study the role of islet hyperplasia and hyperinsulinemia in the development of type 2 diabetes. In contrast to islets from control mice, islets from transgenic mice displayed high levels of IGF-II mRNA and protein. Pancreases from transgenic mice showed an increase in ?-cell mass (about 3-fold) and in insulin mRNA levels. However, the organization of cells within transgenic islets was disrupted, with glucagon-producing cells randomly distributed throughout the core. We also observed enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and glucose utilization in islets from transgenic mice. These mice displayed hyperinsulinemia, mild hyperglycemia, and altered glucose and insulin tolerance tests, and about 30% of these animals developed overt diabetes when fed a high-fat diet. Furthermore, transgenic mice obtained from the N1 backcross to C57KsJ mice showed high islet hyperplasia and insulin resistance, but they also developed fatty liver and obesity. These results indicate that local overexpression of IGF-II in islets might lead to type 2 diabetes and that islet hyperplasia and hypersecretion of insulin might occur early in the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:10727441

Devedjian, Jean-Christophe; George, Monica; Casellas, Alba; Pujol, Anna; Visa, Joana; Pelegrin, Mireia; Gros, Laurent; Bosch, Fatima

2000-01-01

240

Amelioration of type 2 diabetes by antibody-mediated activation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1.  

PubMed

Clinical use of recombinant fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and other disorders linked to obesity has been proposed; however, its clinical development has been challenging owing to its poor pharmacokinetics. Here, we describe an alternative antidiabetic strategy using agonistic anti-FGFR1 (FGF receptor 1) antibodies (R1MAbs) that mimic the metabolic effects of FGF21. A single injection of R1MAb into obese diabetic mice induced acute and sustained amelioration of hyperglycemia, along with marked improvement in hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, and hepatosteatosis. R1MAb activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in adipose tissues, but not in liver, and neither FGF21 nor R1MAb improved glucose clearance in lipoatrophic mice, which suggests that adipose tissues played a central role in the observed metabolic effects. In brown adipose tissues, both FGF21 and R1MAb induced phosphorylation of CREB (cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate response element-binding protein), and mRNA expression of PGC-1? (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator 1?) and the downstream genes associated with oxidative metabolism. Collectively, we propose FGFR1 in adipose tissues as a major functional receptor for FGF21, as an upstream regulator of PGC-1?, and as a compelling target for antibody-based therapy for type 2 diabetes and other obesity-associated disorders. PMID:22174314

Wu, Ai-Luen; Kolumam, Ganesh; Stawicki, Scott; Chen, Yongmei; Li, Jun; Zavala-Solorio, Jose; Phamluong, Khanhky; Feng, Bo; Li, Li; Marsters, Scot; Kates, Lance; van Bruggen, Nicholas; Leabman, Maya; Wong, Anne; West, David; Stern, Howard; Luis, Elizabeth; Kim, Hok Seon; Yansura, Daniel; Peterson, Andrew S; Filvaroff, Ellen; Wu, Yan; Sonoda, Junichiro

2011-12-14

241

Marine Food Pollutants as a Risk Factor for Hypoinsulinemia and Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background Some persistent environmental chemicals are suspected of causing an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, a disease particularly common after age 70. This concern was examined in a cross-sectional study of elderly subjects in a population with elevated contaminant exposures from seafood species high in the food chain. Methods Clinical examinations of 713 Faroese residents aged 70-74 years (64% of eligible population) included fasting plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin, and glycosylated hemoglobin. Lifetime exposure to persistent environmental chemicals from pilot whale and other traditional food was estimated from a dietary questionnaire and by analysis of blood samples for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related food contaminants. Results Septuagenarians with type 2 diabetes or impaired fasting glycemia tended to have higher PCB concentrations and higher past intake of traditional foods, especially during childhood and adolescence. In non-diabetic subjects, the fasting insulin concentration decreased by 7% (95% CI= ?12% to ?2%) for each doubling of the PCB concentration after adjustment for sex and body mass index at age 20. Conversely, the fasting glucose concentration increased by 6% (?1% to 13%) for each doubling in PCB. Similar associations were seen in subjects without impaired fasting glycemia, while further adjustment for current body mass index and lipid metabolism parameters attenuated some of the associations. Conclusions Impaired insulin secretion appears to constitute an important part of the type 2 diabetes pathogenesis associated with exposure to persistent lipophilic food contaminants. PMID:21364465

Grandjean, Philippe; Henriksen, Jan Erik; Choi, Anna L.; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Dalgard, Christine; Nielsen, Flemming; Weihe, Pal

2011-01-01

242

Higher Stromal Expression of Transforming Growth Factor-beta Type II Receptors is Associated with Poorer Prognosis Breast Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFB) is a potent inhibitor of normal epithelial cell proliferation, and may be one of the regulatory factors that are perturbed during tumor development. While many tumor cell lines no longer respond to the inhibitory effects of TGFB due to a reduction or absence of the type II receptor (TGFBR2), the role of TGFBR2 in tumors from

John Barlow; David Yandell; Donald Weaver; Theresa Casey; Karen Plaut

2003-01-01

243

Assessment of Job Stress Factors and Organizational Personality Types for Procedure-Based Jobs in Nuclear Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to assess the organizational types and the job stress factors that affect procedure-based job performances in nuclear power plants. We derived 24 organizational factors affecting job stress level in nuclear power plants from the job stress analysis models developed by NIOSH, JDI, and IOR. Considering the safety characteristics in the operating tasks of nuclear

Dae-Ho KIM; Yong-Hee LEE; Jung-Woon LEE

2008-01-01

244

Risk Factors for Childhood Overweight in Offspring of Type 1 Diabetic Women With Adequate Glycemic Control During Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Pregnancy in type 1 diabetic women remains a high-risk situation for both mother and child. In this study, we investigated long-term effects on body composition, prevalence of overweight, and insulin resistance in children of type 1 diabetic women who had had adequate glycemic control during pregnancy (mean A1C 6.2%), and we related their outcome to perinatal factors, including macrosomia (birth weight >90th percentile). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Anthropometric measurements were performed at 6–8 years of age in 213 offspring of type 1 diabetic mothers who participated in a previous nationwide study. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was determined from a fasting blood sample in 155 of these children. In addition, we studied BMI standard deviation score (SDS) growth trajectories. Results were compared with national reference data. RESULTS The prevalence of overweight in the study population was not different from that in the reference population. However, children who were born macrosomic showed twice as much overweight as nonmacrosomic children. Macrosomia and maternal overweight were independent predictors of childhood overweight. Overweight children showed an increase in BMI SDS starting already after 6 months of age and had a significantly increased HOMA-IR. CONCLUSIONS In type 1 diabetic women with adequate glycemic control during pregnancy, long-term effects on body composition and overweight in their offspring at school age are limited and related mainly to macrosomia at birth. Possible targets for prevention of childhood overweight are fetal macrosomia, maternal overweight, and an increase in BMI SDS during the first years of life. PMID:19651922

Rijpert, Maarten; Evers, Inge M.; de Vroede, Monique A.M.J.; de Valk, Harold W.; Heijnen, Cobi J.; Visser, Gerard H.A.

2009-01-01

245

Fusion power implosion of laser-type light-ion beam driven reactor-size inertial fusion targets including radiation transport effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Letter presents simulation results of compression, ignition and burn of an umtamped (laser-type) inertial confinement fusion target which may be used in a reactor system driven by 33 MeV Li+ ions. These simulations have been carried out using a one-dimensional, three-temperature (electron, ion and radiation), Lagrangian ion-beam fusion code MEDUSA-KAT. The importance of thermal radiation in the simulations of

N. A. Tahir

1989-01-01

246

TMC114, a Novel Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease Inhibitor Active against Protease Inhibitor-Resistant Viruses, Including a Broad Range of Clinical Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to characterize the antiviral activity, cytotoxicity, and mechanism of action of TMC114, a novel human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitor (PI). TMC114 exhibited potent anti-HIV activity with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 1 to 5 nM and a 90% effective concen- tration of 2.7 to 13 nM. TMC114 exhibited no cytotoxicity

Sandra De Meyer; Hilde Azijn; Dominique Surleraux; Dirk Jochmans; Abdellah Tahri; Rudi Pauwels; Piet Wigerinck; Marie-Pierre de Bethune

2005-01-01

247

Type 1 Fimbriae, a Colonization Factor of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli, Are Controlled by the Metabolic Sensor CRP-cAMP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type 1 fimbriae are a crucial factor for the virulence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli during the first steps of infection by mediating adhesion to epithelial cells. They are also required for the consequent colonization of the tissues and for invasion of the uroepithelium. Here, we studied the role of the specialized signal transduction system CRP-cAMP in the regulation of type

Claudia M. Müller; Anna Åberg; Jurate Straseviçiene; Levente Em?dy; Bernt Eric Uhlin; Carlos Balsalobre

2009-01-01

248

Increased Types I and III Collagen and Transforming Growth Factor-?1 mRNA and Protein in Hypertrophic Burn Scar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypertrophic scar is the result of abnormal healing that often follows thermal injury. Hypertrophic scar is characterized by excessive dermal fibrosis and scarring. Five cases of human hypertrophic scar were compared with normal skin using in situ hybridization to localize mRNAs for procollagen types I and III and transforming growth factor-?1. Expression of type I procollagen and TGF-?1 were also

Kai Zhang; Warren Garner; Leslie Cohen; Jorge Rodriguez; Sem Phan

1995-01-01

249

Rydberg-Klein-Rees (RKR) Franck-Condon factors for the O2 Schumann-Runge system including high vibrational quantum numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Franck-Condon factors and r-centroids for the O2 Schumann-Runge system have been calculated using the Rydberg-Klein-Rees approach. The range covers 21 vibrational levels for the upper (B3Sigmau-) state and 24 for the lower (X3Sigmag-) state. Results are in poor agreement with Franck-Condon factors derived from Morse potentials, but agree fairly well with those calculated by the Jarmain-Klein-Dunham method.

R. Harris; M. Blackledge; J. Generosa

1969-01-01

250

Antifreeze peptide heterogeneity in an antarctic eel pout includes an unusually large major variant comprised of two 7 kDa type III AFPs linked in tandem.  

PubMed

The structural heterogeneity of the major antifreeze peptides (AFPs) from the antarctic eel pout, Lycodichthys dearborni (formerly classified as Rhigophila dearborni) was characterized. Three major AFPs designated as RD1, RD2 and RD3, and five minor ones were isolated from the fish plasma. RD1 and RD2 are both 64 residues in length, about 7 kDa, and thus similar in size to all characterized type III AFPs, while RD3 is twice as large, about 14 kDa, and represents the first example of a disparately large size variant within the same fish for the three known types of antifreeze peptides. RD3 was found to be 134 residues in length, arranged as a 64-residue N-terminal half and a 61-residue C-terminal half of similar sequence to each other and to the 7 kDa type III AFPs, linked by a 9-residue connector of unmatched sequence. RD3 has slightly lower antifreeze activity than its 7 kDa counterparts, with a melting-freezing point difference of about 0.81 degrees C at 10 mg/ml versus 0.95 degrees C and 0.90 degrees C for RD1 and RD2, respectively. RD1 and RD2 are 94% identical in sequence to each other. They are 98% and 94%, respectively identical to N-terminal half of RD3, and 85% and 77%, respectively, identical to C-terminal half of RD3. By sequence comparison, a previously characterized AFP from this fish [1] was identified to be RD2. PMID:7696304

Wang, X; DeVries, A L; Cheng, C H

1995-03-15

251

Pharmacological Analysis of Nod Factor-Induced Calcium Spiking in Medicago truncatula. Evidence for the Requirement of Type IIA Calcium Pumps and Phosphoinositide Signaling1  

PubMed Central

Bacterial Nod factors trigger a number of cellular responses in root hairs of compatible legume hosts, which include periodic, transient increases in cytosolic calcium levels, termed calcium spiking. We screened 13 pharmaceutical modulators of eukaryotic signal transduction for effects on Nod factor-induced calcium spiking. The purpose of this screening was 2-fold: to implicate enzymes required for Nod factor-induced calcium spiking in Medicago sp., and to identify inhibitors of calcium spiking suitable for correlating calcium spiking to other Nod factor responses to begin to understand the function of calcium spiking in Nod factor signal transduction. 2-Aminoethoxydiphenylborate, caffeine, cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), 2,5-di-(t-butyl)-1,4-hydroquinone, and U-73122 inhibit Nod factor-induced calcium spiking. CPA and U-73122 are inhibitors of plant type IIA calcium pumps and phospholipase C, respectively, and implicate the requirement for these enzymes in Nod factor-induced calcium spiking. CPA and U-73122 inhibit Nod factor-induced calcium spiking robustly at concentrations with no apparent toxicity to root hairs, making CPA and U-73122 suitable for testing whether calcium spiking is causal to subsequent Nod factor responses. PMID:11950987

Engstrom, Eric M.; Ehrhardt, David W.; Mitra, Raka M.; Long, Sharon R.

2002-01-01

252

Screen media time usage of 12–16 year-old Spanish school adolescents: Effects of personal and socioeconomic factors, season and type of day  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined screen media time usage (SMTU) and its association with personal and socioeconomic factors, as well as the effect of season and type of day, in a Spanish sample of 12–16 year-old school adolescents (N=323). The research design was a cross-sectional survey, in which an interviewer-administered recall questionnaire was used. Statistical analyses included repeated measures analyses of variance,

José Devís-Devís; Carmen Peiró-Velert; Vicente J. Beltrán-Carrillo; José Manuel Tomás

2009-01-01

253

Etiopathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus: prognostic factors for the evolution of residual beta cell function.  

PubMed

Type 1A diabetes mellitus (T1ADM) is a progressive autoimmune disease mediated by T lymphocytes with destruction of beta cells. Up to now, we do not have precise methods to assess the beta cell mass, "in vivo" or "ex-vivo". The studies about its genetic susceptibility show strong association with class II antigens of the HLA system (particularly DQ). Others genetics associations are weaker and depend on the population studied. A combination of precipitating events may occur at the beginning of the disease. There is a silent loss of immune-mediated beta cells mass which velocity has an inverse relation with the age, but it is influenced by genetic and metabolic factors. We can predict the development of the disease primarily through the determination of four biochemically islet auto antibodies against antigens like insulin, GAD65, IA2 and Znt8. Beta cell destruction is chronically progressive but at clinical diagnosis of the disease a reserve of these cells still functioning. The goal of secondary disease prevention is halt the autoimmune attack on beta cells by redirecting or dampening the immune system. It is remains one of the foremost therapeutic goals in the T1ADM. Glycemic intensive control and immunotherapeutic agents may preserve beta-cell function in newly diagnosed patients with T1ADM. It may be assessed through C-peptide values, which are important for glycemic stability and for the prevention of chronic complications of this disease. This article will summarize the etiopathogenesis mechanisms of this disease and the factors can influence on residual C-peptide and the strategies to it preservation. PMID:19961609

Dib, Sergio A; Gomes, Marilia B

2009-01-01

254

Clinical Phenotypes of Different MPZ (P 0) Mutations May Include Charcot–Marie–Tooth Type 1B, Dejerine–Sottas, and Congenital Hypomyelination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hereditary demyelinating peripheral neuropathies consist of a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders that includes hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP), Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMT), Dejerine–Sottas syndrome (DSS), and congenital hypomyelination (CH). The clinical classification of these neuropathies into discrete categories can sometimes be difficult because there can be both clinical and pathologic variation and overlap between these disorders. We

Laura E Warner; Max J Hilz; Stanley H Appel; James M Killian; Edwin H Kolodny; George Karpati; Stirling Carpenter; Gordon V Watters; Calvin Wheeler; David Witt; Adria Bodell; Eva Nelis; Christine Van Broeckhoven; James R Lupski

1996-01-01

255

Impact of environmental factors and biological soil crust types on soil respiration in a desert ecosystem.  

PubMed

The responses of soil respiration to environmental conditions have been studied extensively in various ecosystems. However, little is known about the impacts of temperature and moisture on soils respiration under biological soil crusts. In this study, CO2 efflux from biologically-crusted soils was measured continuously with an automated chamber system in Ningxia, northwest China, from June to October 2012. The highest soil respiration was observed in lichen-crusted soil (0.93 ± 0.43 µmol m-2 s-1) and the lowest values in algae-crusted soil (0.73 ± 0.31 µmol m-2 s-1). Over the diurnal scale, soil respiration was highest in the morning whereas soil temperature was highest in the midday, which resulted in diurnal hysteresis between the two variables. In addition, the lag time between soil respiration and soil temperature was negatively correlated with the soil volumetric water content and was reduced as soil water content increased. Over the seasonal scale, daily mean nighttime soil respiration was positively correlated with soil temperature when moisture exceeded 0.075 and 0.085 m3 m-3 in lichen- and moss-crusted soil, respectively. However, moisture did not affect on soil respiration in algae-crusted soil during the study period. Daily mean nighttime soil respiration normalized by soil temperature increased with water content in lichen- and moss-crusted soil. Our results indicated that different types of biological soil crusts could affect response of soil respiration to environmental factors. There is a need to consider the spatial distribution of different types of biological soil crusts and their relative contributions to the total C budgets at the ecosystem or landscape level. PMID:25050837

Feng, Wei; Zhang, Yuqing; Jia, Xin; Wu, Bin; Zha, Tianshan; Qin, Shugao; Wang, Ben; Shao, Chenxi; Liu, Jiabin; Fa, Keyu

2014-01-01

256

Identification of 17 HrpX-Regulated Proteins Including Two Novel Type III Effectors, XOC_3956 and XOC_1550, in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola  

PubMed Central

The function of some hypothetical proteins, possibly regulated by key hrp regulators, in the pathogenicity of phytopathogenic bacteria remains largely unknown. In the present study, in silicon microarray data demonstrated that the expression of 17 HrpX-regulated protein (Xrp) genes of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc), which causes bacterial leaf streak in rice, were either positively or negatively regulated by HrpX or/and HrpG. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that five Xrps possess a putative type III secretion (T3S) signal in the first 50 N-terminal amino acids, six xrp genes contain a PIP-box-like sequence (TTCGB-NX-TTCGB, 9?X?25) in the promoter regions, and two Xrps have both motifs. Twelve Xrps are widely conserved in Xanthomonas spp., whereas four are specific for X. oryzae (Xrp6) or Xoc (Xrp8, Xrp14 and Xrp17). In addition to the regulation by HrpG/HrpX, some of the 17 genes were also modulated by another hrp regulator HrpD6. Mutagenesis of these 17 genes indicated that five Xrps (Xrp1, Xrp2, Xrp5, Xrp8 and Xrp14) were required for full virulence and bacterial growth in planta. Immunoblotting assays and fusion with N-terminally truncated AvrXa10 indicated that Xrp3 and Xrp5 were secreted and translocated into rice cells through the type-III secretion system (T3S), suggesting they are novel T3S effectors. Our results suggest that Xoc exploits an orchestra of proteins that are regulated by HrpG, HrpX and HrpD6, and these proteins facilitate both infection and metabolism. PMID:24675748

Xue, Xiao-bo; Zou, Li-fang; Ma, Wen-xiu; Liu, Zhi-yang; Chen, Gong-you

2014-01-01

257

Genetic Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes with Pharmacologic Intervention in African-American Patients with Schizophrenia or Schizoaffective Disorder  

PubMed Central

An increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in schizophrenia (SCZ) patients has been observed. Exposure to antipsychotics (APs) has been shown to induce metabolic dysregulation in some patients but not all treated patients. We hypothesized important candidate genes for T2D may increase risk for T2D in African-American patients with SCZ or schizoaffective disorder. The PAARTNERS study comprises African-American families with at least one proband with SCZ or schizoaffective disorder. The current study of PAARTNERS SCZ and schizoaffective disorder cases (N=820) examined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within select T2D candidate genes including transcription factor like 7 (TCF7L2), calpain 10 (CAPN10), and ectoenzyme nucleotide pyrophosphate phosphodiesterase 1 (ENNP1) for association with prevalent T2D. We report association of TCF7L2 (rs7903146) with T2D under both an additive and recessive model for the risk allele T. Specifically, the odds ratio (OR) for having T2D was 1.4 (p=0.03) under an additive model and 2.4 (p=0.004) under a recessive model. We also report a marginally significant TCF7L2 by AP treatment interaction that should be investigated in future studies. CAPN10 (rs3792267) was marginally associated with T2D with OR=1.5 (p=0.08) when considering the model GG vs. AG/AA with risk allele G. ENPP1 (rs1044498) was not associated with T2D. We conclude TCF7L2, a risk factor for T2D in the general population, is also a risk factor for T2D in African-American patients with SCZ or schizoaffective disorder. Research is needed to determine if T2D associated polymorphisms are of interest in the pharmacogenetics and future treatment choices of antipsychotics in African-American patients. PMID:19643578

MR, Irvin; HW, Wiener; RP, Perry; RM, Savage; CP, Go R

2009-01-01

258

Type 2 diabetes as a risk factor for cognitive impairment: current insights  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for cognitive dysfunction and dementia in the elderly. T2DM has been thought to be associated with vascular diseases, eventually leading to vascular dementia, but recent studies have established that T2DM is also associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). With the increase in the number of elderly individuals with T2DM, the number of diabetic patients with cognitive dysfunction has been increasing. T2DM may accelerate AD-associated pathologies through insulin resistance. Vascular pathologies may also be associated with cognitive dysfunction and dementia in T2DM subjects. Several other mechanisms also seem to be involved in T2DM-related cognitive dysfunction. More investigations to clarify the association of T2DM with cognitive impairment are warranted. These investigations may help to increase our understanding of AD and open a new door to the development of therapeutics. Recent pharmaceutical advancement in T2DM treatment has resulted in the availability of a wide range of antidiabetics. Some evidence has suggested that antidiabetic therapies help to prevent cognitive dysfunction. At present, however, the optimal level of blood glucose control and the best combination of medications to achieve it in terms of cognitive preservation have not been established. More investigation is warranted. Cognitive dysfunction is an emerging new complication of T2DM that requires further study. PMID:25061284

Umegaki, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

259

[Herpes simplex virus type 1 as risk factor associated to Alzheimer disease].  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is ubiquitous, neurotropic, and the most common pathogenic cause of sporadic acute encephalitis in humans. Herpes simplex encephalitis is associated with a high mortality rate and significant neurological, neuropsychological, and neurobehavioral sequels. HSV-1 infects limbic system structures in the central nervous system (CNS), and has been suggested as an environmental risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. The possibility that HSV-1 reactivates in CNS neurons causing chronic progressive damage at cellular level and altering the neuronal functionality has not been thoroughly investigated. Currently it is ignored if recurrent reactivation of HSV-1 in asymptomatic patients involves some risk of progressive deterioration of the CNS functions caused, in example, by a neuroinflammatory response against the virus or by direct toxicity of the pathogen on neurons. Therefore, studies regarding the routes of dissemination of HSV-1 from the peripheral ganglions to the CNS, as well as the possible cellular and molecular mechanisms implied in generating neuronal damage during latent and productive infection, are of much relevance. PMID:22051760

Martin, Carolina; Solís, Loretto; Concha, Margarita I; Otth, Carola

2011-06-01

260

Human CD34+ CD133+ Hematopoietic Stem Cells Cultured with Growth Factors Including Angptl5 Efficiently Engraft Adult NOD-SCID Il2r??\\/? (NSG) Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing demand for human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in clinical and research applications necessitates expansion of HSCs in vitro. Before these cells can be used they must be carefully evaluated to assess their stem cell activity. Here, we expanded cord blood CD34+ CD133+ cells in a defined medium containing angiopoietin like 5 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 and

Adam C. Drake; Maroun Khoury; Ilya Leskov; Bettina P. Iliopoulou; Maria Fragoso; Harvey Lodish; Jianzhu Chen

2011-01-01

261

Review: Multiple Roles of Cord Factor in the Pathogenesis of Primary, Secondary, and Cavitary Tuberculosis, Including a Revised Description of the Pathology of Secondary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuberculosis, once thought to have been controlled, is now resurgent in many parts of the world. Many gaps exist in understanding the pathogenesis of tuberculosis, especially secondary and cavitary disease. Evidence presented here suggests that cord factor (trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate, TDM) is a key driver of these processes. It is the most abundant lipid released by virulent M. tuberculosis (MTB) and

Robert L. Hunter; Margaret R. Olsen; Chinnaswamy Jagannath; Jeffrey K. Actor

2006-01-01

262

Translational control of the activation of transcription factor NF-?B and production of type I interferon by phosphorylation of the translation factor eIF4E  

PubMed Central

Type I interferon is an integral component of the antiviral response, and its production is tightly controlled at the levels of transcription and translation. The translation-initiation factor eIF4E is a rate-limiting factor whose activity is regulated by phosphorylation of Ser209. Here we found that mice and fibroblasts in which eIF4E cannot be phosphorylated were less susceptible to virus infection. More production of type I interferon, resulting from less translation of Nfkbia mRNA (which encodes the inhibitor I?B?), largely explained this phenotype. The lower abundance of I?B? resulted in enhanced activity of the transcription factor NF-?B, which promoted the production of IFN-?. Thus, phosphorylation of eIF4E has a key role in antiviral host defense by selectively stimulating the translation of mRNA that encodes a critical suppressor of the innate antiviral response. PMID:22544393

Svitkin, Yuri V; Rosenfeld, Amy B; Kobayashi, Mariko; Walsh, Derek; Alain, Tommy; Sean, Polen; Robichaud, Nathaniel; Topisirovic, Ivan; Furic, Luc; Dowling, Ryan J O; Sylvestre, Annie; Rong, Liwei; Colina, Rodney; Costa-Mattioli, Mauro; Fritz, Jörg H; Olivier, Martin; Brown, Earl; Mohr, Ian; Sonenberg, Nahum

2014-01-01

263

Petrographic and Geochemical Characterization of Ore-Bearing Intrusions of the Noril'sk type, Siberia; With Discussion of Their Origin, Including Additional Datasets and Core Logs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Noril'sk I, Talnakh, and Kharaelakh intrusions of the Noril'sk district host one of the outstanding metal concentrations in the world; contained Cu-Ni resources are comparable to the deposits at Sudbury, Ontario and the platinum group element (PGE) resource is second only to that of the Bushveld Complex. Our opportunity to cooperatively sample and study this district in Siberian Russia arose in 1990 through a memorandum of understanding between the U.S. Geological Survey and the former Ministry of Geology of the U.S.S.R. The world-class significance of these deposits and the possibility that understanding their geologic context, including construction of a credible 'ore-deposit model,' will lead to discovery of similar deposits elsewhere, inspired extensive studies of the ores, the mafic-intrusions which host them, and associated flood basalts.

Czamanske, Gerald K., (compiler)

2002-01-01

264

TMC114, a Novel Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease Inhibitor Active against Protease Inhibitor-Resistant Viruses, Including a Broad Range of Clinical Isolates  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to characterize the antiviral activity, cytotoxicity, and mechanism of action of TMC114, a novel human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitor (PI). TMC114 exhibited potent anti-HIV activity with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 1 to 5 nM and a 90% effective concentration of 2.7 to 13 nM. TMC114 exhibited no cytotoxicity at concentrations up to 100 ?M (selectivity index, >20,000). All viruses in a panel of 19 recombinant clinical isolates carrying multiple protease mutations and demonstrating resistance to an average of five other PIs, were susceptible to TMC114, defined as a fold change in EC50 of <4. TMC114 was also effective against the majority of 1,501 PI-resistant recombinant viruses derived from recent clinical samples, with EC50s of <10 nM for 75% of the samples. In sequential passage experiments using HIV-1 LAI, two mutations (R41T and K70E) were selected. One selected virus showed a 10-fold reduction in susceptibility to TMC114, but <10-fold reductions in susceptibility to the current PIs (atazanavir was not assessed), except saquinavir. However, when the selected mutations were introduced into a laboratory strain by site-directed mutagenesis, they had no effect on susceptibility to TMC114 or other PIs. There was no evidence of antagonism between TMC114 and any currently available PIs or reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Combinations with ritonavir, nelfinavir, and amprenavir showed some evidence of synergy. These results suggest that TMC114 is a potential candidate for the treatment of both naïve and PI-experienced patients with HIV. PMID:15917527

De Meyer, Sandra; Azijn, Hilde; Surleraux, Dominique; Jochmans, Dirk; Tahri, Abdellah; Pauwels, Rudi; Wigerinck, Piet; de Bethune, Marie-Pierre

2005-01-01

265

Cellular Targets for Activation by the E2F1 Transcription Factor Include DNA Synthesis and G 1 \\/S-Regulatory Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although a number of transfection experiments have suggested potential targets for the action of the E2F1 transcription factor, as is the case for many transcriptional regulatory proteins, the actual targets in their normal chromosomal environment have not been demonstrated. We have made use of a recombinant adeno- virus containing the E2F1 cDNA to infect quiescent cells and then measure the

JAMES DEGREGORI; TIMOTHY KOWALIK; ANDJOSEPH R. NEVINS

1995-01-01

266

Weight loss with very-low-calorie diet and cardiovascular risk factors in moderately obese women: One-year follow-up study including ambulatory blood pressure monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The beneficial effects of weight loss with a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD) on cardiovascular risk factors have been reported at the end of energy restriction. As the effects, especially on blood pressure, may not remain constant during weight maintenance, we studied the longer-term effects of weight loss on 24 h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP), lipids, glucose and insulin.DESIGN: Prospective study

T Pekkarinen; I Takala; P Mustajoki

1998-01-01

267

Prevalence of HIV, human papillomavirus type 16 and herpes simplex virus type 2 among female sex workers in Guinea and associated factors.  

PubMed

Female sex workers are at high risk for HIV infection. Sexually transmitted infections are known to be co-factors for HIV infection. Our aims were (1) to assess the prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in this population; (2) to determine the association between sociodemographic characteristics, behavioural variables, and variables related to HIV prevention and HIV infection. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Conakry, Guinea, among a convenience sample of 223 female sex workers. A questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, risk factors, and exposure to prevention was administered. Screening for HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2, human papillomavirus type 16, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Chlamydia trachomatis was performed. Prevalences of HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2, human papillomavirus type 16, N. gonorrhoeae, and C. trachomatis were 35.3%, 84.1%, 12.2%, 9.0%, and 13.6%, respectively. Having a child, lubricant use, and human papillomavirus type 16 infection were associated with HIV infection. Interventions that promote screening and treatment of sexually transmitted infections are needed in order to achieve successful interventions to prevent HIV among female sex workers in resource-limited settings. PMID:24216036

Aho, Joséphine; Koushik, Anita; Coutlée, François; Diakité, Soumaïla Laye; Rashed, Sélim

2014-03-01

268

Drosophila neuromuscular synapse assembly and function require the TGF-beta type I receptor saxophone and the transcription factor Mad.  

PubMed

Transforming growth factor-betas (TGF-beta) comprise a superfamily of secreted proteins with diverse functions in patterning and cell division control. TGF-beta signaling has been implicated in synapse assembly and plasticity in both vertebrate and invertebrate systems. Recently, wishful thinking, a Drosophila gene that encodes a protein related to BMP type II receptors, has been shown to be required for the normal function and development of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). These findings suggest that a TGF-beta-related ligand activates a signaling cascade involving type I and II receptors and the Smad family of transcription factors to orchestrate the assembly of the NMJ. Here we demonstrate that the TGF-beta type I receptor Saxophone and the downstream transcription factor Mothers against dpp (Mad) are essential for the normal structural and functional development of the Drosophila NMJ, a synapse that displays activity-dependent plasticity. PMID:12672013

Rawson, Joel M; Lee, Michael; Kennedy, Eric L; Selleck, Scott B

2003-05-01

269

Mouse tumor necrosis factor receptor type I: genomic structure, polymorphism, and identification of regulatory regions.  

PubMed

The mouse tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-I gene was cloned, sequenced, and characterized. The nucleotide sequence analysis shows that the TNFR-I is composed of 10 exons and nine introns. The first intron includes two simple dinucleotide repeat sequences, (GA)8 and (TC)9(TG)19. The (TC)9(TG)19 tandem repeat was found to be polymorphic in its length among various mouse strains. The nucleotide sequence of the 1076 bp 5' flanking region of the TNFR-I was also determined. Various possible regulatory sequences were identified in the 5' flanking region of the TNFR-I gene. For functional analysis, the 5' flanking region of the TNFR-I gene was isolated, ligated upstream of the luciferase reporter gene, and transiently transfected into L929, Hela, and a T cell hybridoma cell line. The results show that the isolated 5' flanking region has functional promoter activity and is responsible for constitutive expression of the TNFR-I gene. A series of truncated promoter constructs were generated and studied in a transient transfection system. Analysis of transient expression in L929 cells shows that the regions -1076/-939, -615/-425, and -425/-198 include positive regulatory elements, while the region -939/-615 may contain negative cis-acting elements for the constitutive expression of the TNFR-I. The shortest construct containing 198 bp of the 5' flanking region still has significant promoter activity, suggesting that the two GC-rich elements in this region may play an important role in the constitutive expression of the TNFR-I gene. PMID:8396415

Takao, S; Jacob, C O

1993-07-01

270

Mechanism of Human Dermal Fibroblast Migration Driven by Type I Collagen and Platelet-derived Growth Factor-BB  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Migration of human ,dermal ,fibroblasts (HDFs) is critical for skin wound ,healing. The mechanism ,remains unclear. We report, here ,that platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) is the major ,pro-motility factor in human,serum ,for HDF motility on ,type I collagen. PDGF-BB recapitulates the full ,pro-motility activity of 1 Copyright 2003 by The American Society for Cell Biology. MBC in Press, published

Wei Li; Jianhua Fan; Mei Chen; Shengxi Guan; David Sawcer; Gary M. Bokoch; T David

2003-01-01

271

Secretion of nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor in co-culture of four cell types in cerebrospinal fluid-containing medium?  

PubMed Central

The present study co-cultured human embryonic olfactory ensheathing cells, human Schwann cells, human amniotic epithelial cells and human vascular endothelial cells in complete culture medium-containing cerebrospinal fluid. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor secretion in the supernatant of co-cultured cells. Results showed that the number of all cell types reached a peak at 7–10 days, and the expression of nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor peaked at 9 days. Levels of secreted nerve growth factor were four-fold higher than brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which was three-fold higher than glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. Increasing concentrations of cerebrospinal fluid (10%, 20% and 30%) in the growth medium caused a decrease of neurotrophic factor secretion. Results indicated co-culture of human embryonic olfactory ensheathing cells, human Schwann cells, human amniotic epithelial cells and human vascular endothelial cells improved the expression of nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. The reduction of cerebrospinal fluid extravasation at the transplant site after spinal cord injury is beneficial for the survival and secretion of neurotrophic factors from transplanted cells.

Feng, Sanjiang; Zhuang, Minghua; Wu, Rui

2012-01-01

272

Identification of Genomic Binding Sites for Candida glabrata Pdr1 Transcription Factor in Wild-Type and ?0 Cells.  

PubMed

The fungal pathogen Candida glabrata is an emerging cause of candidiasis in part owing to its robust ability to acquire tolerance to the major clinical antifungal drug fluconazole. Similar to the related species Candida albicans, C. glabrata most typically gains azole tolerance via transcriptional induction of a suite of resistance genes, including a locus encoding an ABCG-type ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that is referred to as CDR1 in Candida species. In C. glabrata, CDR1 expression is controlled primarily by the activity of a transcriptional activator protein called Pdr1. Strains exhibiting reduced azole susceptibility often contain substitution mutations in PDR1 that in turn lead to elevated mRNA levels of target genes with associated azole resistance. Pdr1 activity is also induced upon loss of the mitochondrial genome status and upon challenge by azole drugs. While extensive analyses of the transcriptional effects of Pdr1 have identified a number of genes that are regulated by this factor, we cannot yet separate direct from indirect target genes. Here we used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) coupled with high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) to identify the promoters and associated genes directly regulated by Pdr1. These genes include many that are shared with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae but others that are unique to C. glabrata, including the ABC transporter-encoding locus YBT1, genes involved in DNA repair, and several others. These data provide the outline for understanding the primary response genes involved in production of Pdr1-dependent azole resistance in C. glabrata. PMID:25199772

Paul, Sanjoy; Bair, Thomas B; Moye-Rowley, W Scott

2014-11-01

273

Serum prolactin concentrations as risk factor of metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes?  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate potential associations of serum prolactin concentration (PRL) with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), previously observed in small and selected study samples, in a large population-based cohort. Methods Data from 3,993 individuals (2,027 women) aged 20-79 years from the population-based Study of Health of Pomerania (SHIP) were used to analyse cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of PRL with MetS and T2DM risk in age- and multivariable-adjusted Poisson regression models. PRL were log-transformed and modelled as continuous (per standard deviation (SD) increase) and categorical predictor (sex-specific quartiles) variable, separately for men and woman. Results Cross-sectional analyses showed an inverse association between low PRL concentrations and prevalent T2DM risk in men and women after multivariable-adjustment (men: Q1 vs. Q4: relative risk (RR), 1.55; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.13 – 2.14; women: Q1 vs. Q4: RR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.10 – 2.62). Likewise, higher PRL concentrations were associated with significantly lower T2DM risk (RR per SD increase in log-PRL: 0.83; 95% CI, 0.72 – 0.95 in men, and 0.84; 95% CI, 0.71 – 0.98 in women, respectively). An inverse association between PRL and MetS risk was not retained after multivariable adjustment. Longitudinal analyses yielded no association of PRL with incident MetS or T2DM. Conclusion The present study is the first large population-based study reporting a cross-sectional inverse association between PRL and prevalent T2DM in both genders. But the absent longitudinal associations do not support a causal role of PRL as a risk factor of incident MetS or T2DM. PMID:23517652

2013-01-01

274

Differential regulation of human papillomavirus type 8 by interferon regulatory factors 3 and 7.  

PubMed

The genus ? human papillomavirus (HPV) type 8 is associated with nonmelanoma skin cancer in patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis, and evidence for its protumorigenic potential in the general population increases. To date, strategies to suppress genus ? HPV infections are limited. Interferon regulatory factors IRF-3 and IRF-7 play key roles in the activation of the innate immune response to viral infections. In this study, we show for the first time that both IRF-3 and IRF-7 regulate transcription of a papillomavirus, but with opposing effects. IRF-7, expressed in the suprabasal layers of human epidermis, increased HPV8 late promoter activity via direct binding to viral DNA. UV-B light-induced activation of the HPV8 promoter involved IRF-7 as a downstream effector. In contrast, IRF-3, expressed in all layers of human epidermis, induced strong HPV8 suppression in primary keratinocytes. IRF-3-mediated suppression prevailed over IRF-7-induced HPV8 transcription. Unlike the E6 oncoprotein of the mucosal high-risk HPV16, the HPV8 E6 protein did not bind to IRF-3 and only weakly antagonized its activity. Strong antiviral activity was also observed, when keratinocytes were treated with potent IRF-3 activators, poly(I:C) or RNA bearing 5' phosphates. In conclusion, we show that IRF-3 activation induces a state of cell-autonomous immunity against HPV in primary human keratinocytes. Our study suggests that local application of IRF-3-activating compounds might constitute an attractive novel therapeutic strategy against HPV8-associated diseases, particularly in epidermodysplasia verruciformis patients. PMID:20980500

Oldak, Monika; Tolzmann, Liv; Wnorowski, Artur; Podgórska, Marta Justyna; Silling, Steffi; Lin, Rongtuan; Hiscott, John; Müller, Cornelia Sigrid Lissi; Vogt, Thomas; Smola, Hans; Smola, Sigrun

2011-01-01

275

UV-B-Responsive Association of the Arabidopsis bZIP Transcription Factor ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 with Target Genes, Including Its Own Promoter[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

In plants subjected to UV-B radiation, responses are activated that minimize damage caused by UV-B. The bZIP transcription factor ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) acts downstream of the UV-B photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) and promotes UV-B-induced photomorphogenesis and acclimation. Expression of HY5 is induced by UV-B; however, the transcription factor(s) that regulate HY5 transcription in response to UV-B and the impact of UV-B on the association of HY5 with its target promoters are currently unclear. Here, we show that HY5 binding to the promoters of UV-B-responsive genes is enhanced by UV-B in a UVR8-dependent manner in Arabidopsis thaliana. In agreement, overexpression of REPRESSOR OF UV-B PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS2, a negative regulator of UVR8 function, blocks UV-B-responsive HY5 enrichment at target promoters. Moreover, we have identified a T/G-box in the HY5 promoter that is required for its UV-B responsiveness. We show that HY5 and its homolog HYH bind to the T/GHY5-box cis-acting element and that they act redundantly in the induction of HY5 expression upon UV-B exposure. Therefore, HY5 is enriched at target promoters in response to UV-B in a UVR8 photoreceptor-dependent manner, and HY5 and HYH interact directly with a T/G-box cis-acting element of the HY5 promoter, mediating the transcriptional activation of HY5 in response to UV-B. PMID:25351492

Binkert, Melanie; Kozma-Bognár, László; Terecskei, Kata; De Veylder, Lieven; Nagy, Ferenc; Ulm, Roman

2014-01-01

276

Transforming Growth Factor Type beta Specifically Stimulates Synthesis of Proteoglycan in Human Adult Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myo-intimal proteoglycan metabolism is thought to be important in blood vessel homeostasis, blood clotting, atherogenesis, and atherosclerosis. Human platelet-derived transforming growth factor type beta (TGF-beta ) specifically stimulated synthesis of at least two types of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in nonproliferating human adult arterial smooth muscle cells in culture. Stimulation of smooth muscle cell proteoglycan synthesis by smooth muscle cell growth

Jan-Kan Chen; Hiroyoshi Hoshi; Wallace L. McKeehan

1987-01-01

277

Roles of the Tetrahymena thermophila type I element binding factor, TIF1, in DNA replication and genome stability  

E-print Network

The Tetrahymena thermophila rDNA minichromosome has been used as a model system for studying DNA replication. Previous studies have identified cis-acting replication determinants within the rDNA origin and promoter region including the type I...

Morrison, Tara Laine

2005-11-01

278

Factoring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Test your factoring skills Factors and Multiples Jeopardy How much do you know about factoring and multiples? Play Jeopardy and find out! Prime Factoring Turkey Shoot Blast these turkeys using your factoring skills. Help the Professor Super save the planet by "cooking" the Giant Frozen Turkeys of Destruction. Math Lines 12 X-Factor Shoot the ball at the other factors to get a product of 12. You can also ...

Clark, Mr

2012-10-31

279

Stromal cell-derived factor-1 genotype, coreceptor tropism, and HIV type 1 disease progression.  

PubMed

This study used a well characterized cohort of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected hemophiliacs to define the relationship between the SDF1-3'A allele, the plasma HIV-1 coreceptor tropism, and the natural history of HIV-1 disease. Subjects heterozygous or homozygous for the SDF1-3'A allele experienced higher rates of decline in CD4+ T cell counts over time than did those without the allele (P=.009). Moreover, they had an increased risk of progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and death, a relationship that persisted even when baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA levels and CD4+ T cell counts or CCR5 Delta 32 and CCR2-64I genotype were controlled for. This relationship was even stronger in a subgroup of subjects for whom tropism data were available. Subjects with the SDF1-3'A allele were also more likely to have detectable X4-tropic viruses (P=.012), and, when tropism was included in the survival analyses, the effect of the SDF1-3'A allele on disease progression was no longer significant. Therefore, the increased frequency of X4-tropic viruses in subjects carrying the SDF1-3'A allele may explain the observed adverse effect that this allele has on the natural history of HIV-1 disease. PMID:16206074

Daar, Eric S; Lynn, Henry S; Donfield, Sharyne M; Lail, Alice; O'Brien, Stephen J; Huang, Wei; Winkler, Cheryl A

2005-11-01

280

Response to Therapy and Outcomes in Oropharyngeal Cancer Are Associated With Biomarkers Including Human Papillomavirus, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, Gender, and Smoking  

SciTech Connect

Induction chemotherapy and concurrent chemoradiation for responders or immediate surgery for non-responders is an effective treatment strategy head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) of the larynx and oropharynx. Biomarkers that predict outcome would be valuable in selecting patients for therapy. In this study, the presence and titer of high risk human papilloma virus (HPV) and expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in pre-treatment biopsies, as well as smoking and gender were examined in oropharynx cancer patients enrolled in an organ sparing trial. HPV16 copy number was positively associated with response to therapy and with overall and disease specific survival, whereas EGFR expression, current or former smoking behavior, and female gender (in this cohort) were associated with poor response and poor survival in multivariate analysis. Smoking cessation and strategies to target EGFR may be useful adjuncts for therapy to improve outcome in the cases with the poorest biomarker profile.

Kumar, Bhavna [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Cordell, Kitrina G. [Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lee, Julia S. [Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Prince, Mark E.; Tran, Huong H.; Wolf, Gregory T. [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Urba, Susan G. [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Worden, Francis P. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Chepeha, Douglas B.; Teknos, Theodoros N. [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Eisbruch, Avraham; Tsien, Christina I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Taylor, Jeremy [Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); D'Silva, Nisha J. [Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Yang, Kun; Kurnit, David M. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bradford, Carol R. [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] (and others)

2007-10-01

281

Primary Hyperoxaluria Type III Gene HOGA1 (Formerly DHDPSL) as a Possible Risk Factor for Idiopathic Calcium Oxalate Urolithiasis  

PubMed Central

Summary Background and objectives Primary hyperoxaluria types I and II (PHI and PHII) are rare monogenic causes of hyperoxaluria and calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Recently, we described type III, due to mutations in HOGA1 (formerly DHDPSL), hypothesized to cause a gain of mitochondrial 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate aldolase activity, resulting in excess oxalate. Design, setting, participants, & measurements To further explore the pathophysiology of HOGA1, we screened additional non-PHI-PHII patients and performed reverse transcription PCR analysis. Postulating that HOGA1 may influence urine oxalate, we also screened 100 idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. Results Of 28 unrelated hyperoxaluric patients with marked hyperoxaluria not due to PHI, PHII, or any identifiable secondary cause, we identified 10 (36%) with two HOGA1 mutations (four novel, including a nonsense variant). Reverse transcription PCR of the stop codon and two common mutations showed stable expression. From the new and our previously described PHIII cohort, 25 patients were identified for study. Urine oxalate was lower and urine calcium and uric acid were higher when compared with PHI and PHII. After 7.2 years median follow-up, mean eGFR was 116 ml/min per 1.73 m2. HOGA1 heterozygosity was found in two patients with mild hyperoxaluria and in three of 100 idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. No HOGA1 variants were detected in 166 controls. Conclusions These findings, in the context of autosomal recessive inheritance for PHIII, support a loss-of-function mechanism for HOGA1, with potential for a dominant-negative effect. Detection of HOGA1 variants in idiopathic calcium oxalate urolithiasis also suggests HOGA1 may be a predisposing factor for this condition. PMID:21896830

Rossetti, Sandro; Belostotsky, Ruth; Cogal, Andrea G.; Herges, Regina M.; Seide, Barbara M.; Olson, Julie B.; Bergstrahl, Eric J.; Williams, Hugh J.; Haley, William E.; Frishberg, Yaacov; Milliner, Dawn S.

2011-01-01

282

Postural Blood Pressure Changes and Associated Factors in Long-Term Type 1 Diabetes: Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe the frequency of orthostatic hypotension and hypertension and associations with risk factors in a cohort of persons with long term type 1 diabetes (n=440) participating in the Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy (WESDR). Methods Evaluations included detailed medical history, electrocardiography (ECG), and laboratory tests. Blood pressure (BP) was measured in supine and standing positions. Standing decrease in systolic (SBP) or diastolic (DBP) BP of at least 20 mmHg or 10 mmHg, respectively, was defined as orthostatic hypotension; increase of SBP from <140 to ? 140mmHg or DBP from < 90 to ? 90mmHg was defined as orthostatic hypertension. Results Prevalence of orthostatic hypotension and orthostatic hypertension was 16.1% and 15.2%, respectively. Some ECG measurements of cardiac autonomic dysfunction were significantly associated with orthostatic hypotension. Association between SBP and orthostatic hypotension and orthostatic hypertension were significant (Odds Ratio (95% CI), 1.02 (1.01–1.05) and 1.02 (1.01–1.04), respectively) after adjusting for confounders. Interaction between SBP and age was observed. SBP was significantly associated with orthostatic hypotension and orthostatic hypertension in people ? 40 years old (1.35 (1.02–1.78) and 1.12 (1.05–1.18), respectively). Conclusions Results showed that measurements derived from the ECG can help describe an individual at increased risk of having postural BP changes. Moreover, SBP was associated with postural BP changes among individuals who were < 40 years of age with long-term type 1 diabetes. PMID:18413171

Hirai, Flavio E.; Moss, Scot E.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald

2009-01-01

283

Direct functional interaction of initiation factor eIF4G with type 1 internal ribosomal entry sites.  

PubMed

Viral internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs) mediate end-independent translation initiation. There are 4 major structurally-distinct IRES groups: type 1 (e.g., poliovirus) and type 2 (e.g., encephalomyocarditis virus), which are dissimilar except for a Yn-Xm-AUG motif at their 3' borders, type 3 (e.g., hepatitis C virus), and type 4 (dicistroviruses). Type 2-4 IRESs mediate initiation by distinct mechanisms that are nevertheless all based on specific noncanonical interactions with canonical components of the translation apparatus, such as eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4G (type 2), 40S ribosomal subunits (types 3 and 4), and eIF3 (type 3). The mechanism of initiation on type 1 IRESs is unknown. We now report that domain V of type 1 IRESs, which is adjacent to the Yn-Xm-AUG motif, specifically interacts with the central domain of eIF4G. The position and orientation of eIF4G relative to the Yn-Xm-AUG motif is analogous in type 1 and 2 IRESs. eIF4G promotes recruitment of eIF4A to type 1 IRESs, and together, eIF4G and eIF4A induce conformational changes at their 3' borders. The ability of mutant type 1 IRESs to bind eIF4G/eIF4A correlated with their translational activity. These characteristics parallel the mechanism of initiation on type 2 IRESs, in which the key event is binding of eIF4G to the J-K domain adjacent to the Yn-Xm-AUG motif, which is enhanced by eIF4A. These data suggest that fundamental aspects of the mechanisms of initiation on these unrelated classes of IRESs are similar. PMID:19470487

de Breyne, Sylvain; Yu, Yingpu; Unbehaun, Anett; Pestova, Tatyana V; Hellen, Christopher U T

2009-06-01

284

Interleukin-10- and Transforming Growth Factor ?-Independent Regulation of CD8+ T Cells Expressing Type 1 and Type 2 Cytokines in Human Lymphatic Filariasis.  

PubMed

Lymphatic filariasis is known to be associated with diminished CD4(+) Th1 and elevated CD4(+) Th2 responses to parasite-specific antigens. The roles of cytokine-expressing CD8(+) T cells in immune responses to filarial infections are not well defined. To study the roles of CD8(+) T cells expressing type 1, type 2, and type 17 cytokines in filarial infections, we examined the frequencies of these cells in clinically asymptomatic, patently infected (INF) individuals, directly ex vivo and in response to parasite or nonparasite antigens; these frequencies were compared with the results for individuals with filarial lymphedema (i.e., clinical pathology [CP]) and those without active infection or pathology (i.e., endemic normal [EN]). INF individuals exhibited significant decreases in the frequencies of CD8(+) T cells expressing tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), gamma interferon (IFN-?), and interleukin-22 (IL-22) at baseline and/or in response to filarial antigens, compared with CP and EN individuals. In contrast, the same individuals exhibited significant increases in the frequencies of CD8(+) T cells expressing IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, and IL-21, compared with CP and/or EN individuals. Curative treatment resulted in significantly increased frequencies of CD8(+) T cells expressing IL-2 and significantly decreased frequencies of CD8(+) T cells expressing type 2 cytokines. Finally, the regulation of these responses appears to be independent of IL-10 and transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?), since blockade of IL-10 or TGF-? signaling did not significantly alter the frequencies of type 1 or type 2 cytokine-expressing CD8(+) T cells. Our findings suggest that alterations in the frequencies of cytokine-expressing CD8(+) T cells are characteristic features of lymphatic filarial infections. PMID:25253667

Anuradha, Rajamanickam; George, Parakkal Jovvian; Kumaran, Paul; Nutman, Thomas B; Babu, Subash

2014-12-01

285

EFFECT OF GROWTH FACTOR-FIBRONECTIN MATRIX INTERACTION ON RAT TYPE II CELL ADHESION AND DNA SYTHESIS  

EPA Science Inventory

ABSTRACT Type II cells attach, migrate and proliferate on a provisional fibronectin-rich matrix during alveolar wall repair after lung injury. The combination of cell-substratum interactions via integrin receptors and exposure to local growth factors are likely to initiat...

286

Single-molecule dynamics of site-specific labeled transforming growth factor type II receptors on living cells.  

PubMed

We achieved single-molecule imaging and tracking of the transforming growth factor type II receptor (T?RII) that was labeled by an organic dye via a genetically encoded unnatural amino acid (UAA) and the copper-free click chemistry. The stoichiometry, mobility and dimerization kinetics of individual T?RII molecules were determined. PMID:24887482

Cheng, Ming; Zhang, Wei; Yuan, Jinghe; Luo, Wangxi; Li, Nan; Lin, Shixian; Yang, Yi; Fang, Xiaohong; Chen, Peng R

2014-10-30

287

Tumour type and size are high risk factors for the syndrome of “cerebellar” mutism and subsequent dysarthria  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE“Cerebellar mutis” and subsequent dysarthria (MSD) is a documented complication of posterior fossa surgery in children. In this prospective study the following risk factors for MSD were assessed: type, size and site of the tumour; hydrocephalus at presentation and after surgery, cerebellar incision site, postoperative infection, and cerebellar swelling.METHODSIn a consecutive series of 42 children with a cerebellar tumour, speech

Coriene E Catsman-Berrevoets; Hugo R Van Dongen; Paul G H Mulder; Daniel Paz y Geuze; Philippe F Paquier; Maarten H Lequin

1999-01-01

288

Development of Rotary-Type Voice Coil Motor Actuator for Small-Form-Factor Optical Disk Drive  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose the miniaturized rotary-type voice coil motor (VCM) actuator that has an effective focusing mechanism and a sufficient bandwidth for a small-form-factor (SFF) optical disk drive (ODD) based on Blu-ray disk (BD) 1× specifications.

Dong-Ju Lee; Se-June Park; Jeseung Oh; No-Cheol Park; Young-Pil Park; Ho-Seop Jung

2006-01-01

289

Metabolic and Vascular Effects of Tumor Necrosis Factor-? Blockade with Etanercept in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) impairs insulin action in insulin-sensitive tissues, such as fat, muscle and endothelium, and causes endothelial dysfunction. We hypothesized that TNF-? blockade with etanercept could reverse vascular and metabolic insulin resistance. Method and Results: Twenty obese patients with type 2 diabetes were randomized to etanercept treatment (25 mg subcutaneously twice weekly for 4

Helena Dominguez; Heidi Storgaard; Christian Rask-Madsen; Thomas Steffen Hermann; Nikolaj Ihlemann; Dorthe Baunbjerg Nielsen; Camilla Spohr; Lars Kober; Allan Vaag; Christian Torp-Pedersen

2005-01-01

290

Academic Skills in Children with Early-Onset Type 1 Diabetes: The Effects of Diabetes-Related Risk Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The study aimed to assess the effects of diabetes-related risk factors, especially severe hypoglycaemia, on the academic skills of children with early-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Method: The study comprised 63 children with T1DM (31 females, 32 males; mean age 9y 11mo, SD 4mo) and 92 comparison children without diabetes (40…

Hannonen, Riitta; Komulainen, Jorma; Riikonen, Raili; Ahonen, Timo; Eklund, Kenneth; Tolvanen, Asko; Keskinen, Paivi; Nuuja, Anja

2012-01-01

291

Regional Differences of Undiagnosed Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes Prevalence Are Not Explained by Known Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

Background We have previously found regional differences in the prevalence of known type 2 diabetes between northeastern and southern Germany. We aim to also provide prevalence estimates for prediabetes (isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG), isolated glucose intolerance (i-IGT), combined IFG and IGT) and unknown type 2 diabetes for both regions. Methods Prevalence (95%CI) of prediabetes (i-IFG: fasting glucose 5.6–6.9 mmol/l; i-IGT: 2 h postchallenge gluose 7.8–11.0 mmol/l, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), ?8 h overnight fasting) and unknown diabetes were analyzed in two regional population-based surveys (age group 35–79 years): SHIP-TREND (Study of Health in Pomerania (northeast), 2008–2012) and KORA F4 (Cooperative Health Research in the region of Augsburg (south), 2006–2008). Both studies used similar methods, questionnaires, and identical protocols for OGTT. Overall, 1,980 participants from SHIP-TREND and 2,617 participants from KORA F4 were included. Results Age-sex-standardized prevalence estimates (95%CI) of prediabetes and unknown diabetes were considerably higher in the northeast (SHIP-TREND: 43.1%; 40.9–45.3% and 7.1%; 5.9–8.2%) than in the south of Germany (KORA F4: 30.1%; 28.4–31.7% and 3.9%; 3.2–4.6%), respectively. In particular, i-IFG (26.4%; 24.5–28.3% vs. 17.2%; 15.7–18.6%) and IFG+IGT (11.2%; 9.8–12.6% vs. 6.6%; 5.7–7.5%) were more frequent in SHIP-TREND than in KORA. In comparison to normal glucose tolerance, the odds of having unknown diabetes (OR, 95%CI: 2.59; 1.84–3.65) or prediabetes (1.98; 1.70–2.31) was higher in the northeast than in the south after adjustment for known risk factors (obesity, lifestyle). Conclusions The regional differences of prediabetes and unknown diabetes are in line with the geographical pattern of known diabetes in Germany. The higher prevalences in the northeast were not explained by traditional risk factors. PMID:25402347

Tamayo, Teresa; Schipf, Sabine; Meisinger, Christine; Schunk, Michaela; Maier, Werner; Herder, Christian; Roden, Michael; Nauck, Matthias; Peters, Annette; Völzke, Henry; Rathmann, Wolfgang

2014-01-01

292

CT Findings of Risk Factors for Persistent Type II Endoleak from Inferior Mesenteric Artery to Determine Indicators of Preoperative IMA Embolization  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To identify the computed tomography (CT) findings of persistent type II endoleak from the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) which indicate the need for preoperative IMA embolization. Materials and Methods: Included were 120 patients (96 males, 49–93 years old, mean: 77.7) who underwent endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) between June 2007 and October 2010. The relationship between persistent type II endoleak and CT findings of IMA orifice was examined. Results: CT showed no type II endoleak from IMA in 106 patients (89%; Group N), and transient type II endoleak from IMA in 10 patients (8.3%; Group T). CT showed persistent type II endoleak from IMA in 4 patients (3.3%; Group P) and three of them underwent reintervention. Univariate Cox-Mantel test analysis indicated that stenosis (p = 0.0003) and thrombus (p = 0.043) in IMA orifice were significant factors for persistent type II endoleak. The ratios of patients with proximal IMA more than 2.5 mm diameter in Groups N, Y, and P were 26/106 (24%), 5/10 (50%) and 4/4 (100%), respectively. Conclusion: Indicators for embolization of IMA prior to EVAR for the prevention of type II endoleak appear to be: (1) more than 2.5 mm in diameter and (2) no stenosis due to calcification or mural thrombus in IMA orifice. PMID:25298829

Matsuda, Hitoshi; Sanda, Yoshihiro; Morita, Yoshiaki; Minatoya, Kenji; Kobayashi, Junjiro; Naito, Hiroaki

2014-01-01

293

Kynurenine Pathway Pathologies: do Nicotinamide and Other Pathway Co-Factors have a Therapeutic Role in Reduction of Symptom Severity, Including Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) and Fibromyalgia (FM)  

PubMed Central

The definition of dual tryptophan pathways has increased the understanding of the mind-body, body-mind dichotomy. The serotonergic pathway highlights the primary (endogenous) psychiatric disorders. The up-regulation of the kynurenine pathway by physical illnesses can cause neuropathic and immunological disorders1 associated with secondary neuropsychiatric symptoms. Tryptophan and nicotinamide deficiencies fall within the protein energy malnutrition (PEM) spectrum. They can arise if the kynurenine pathway is stressed by primary or secondary inflammatory conditions and the consequent imbalance of available catabolic/anabolic substrates may adversely influence convalescent phase efficiency. The replacement of depleted or reduced NAD+ levels and other cofactors can perhaps improve the clinical management of these disorders. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia (FM) appear to meet the criteria of a tryptophan-kynurenine pathway disorder with potential neuroimmunological sequelae. Aspects of some of the putative precipitating factors have been previously outlined.2,3 An analysis of the areas of metabolic dysfunction will focus on future directions for research and management. PMID:23922501

Blankfield, Adele

2013-01-01

294

Translationally Invariant Calculations of Form Factors, Densities and Momentum Distributions for Finite Nuclei with Short-Range Correlations Included: A Fresh Look  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The approach proposed in the 70s (Dementiji et al. in Sov J Nucl Phys 22:6-9, 1976), when describing the elastic and inelastic electron scattering off 4 He, and elaborated in (Shebeko et al.in Eur Phys J A27:143-155, 2006) for calculations of the one-body, two-body and more complex density matrices of finite bound systems has been applied (Shebeko and Grigorov in Ukr J Phys 52:830-842, 2007; Shebeko et al. in Eur. Phys. J. A48:153-172, 2012) in studying a combined effect of the center-of-mass motion and nucleon-nucleon short-range correlations on the nucleon density and momentum distributions in light nuclei beyond the independent particle model. Unlike a common practice, suitable for infinite bound systems, these distributions are determined as expectation values of appropriate intrinsic operators that depend upon the relative coordinates and momenta (Jacobi variables) and act on the intrinsic ground-state wave functions (WFs). The latter are constructed in the so-called fixed center-of-mass approximation, starting with a mean-field Slater determinant modified by some correlator (e.g., after Jastrow or Villars). Our numerical calculations of the charge form factors ( F CH ( q)), densities and momentum distributions have been carried out for nuclei 4 He and 16 O choosing, respectively, the 1 s and 1 s-1 p Slater determinants of the harmonic oscillator model as trial, nontranslationally invariant WFs.

Shebeko, A.; Grigorov, P.; Iurasov, V.

2014-08-01

295

Change in DASH diet score and cardiovascular risk factors in youth with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study.  

PubMed

Youth with diabetes are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet has been shown to improve CVD risk. In this study, we evaluated whether changes in diet quality as characterized by DASH are associated with changes in CVD risk factors in youth with diabetes over time. Longitudinal mixed models were applied to data from 797 participants in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study representing three time points: baseline, 12- and 60-month follow-up. Data were restricted to youth whose diabetes was first diagnosed in 2002-2005. DASH-related adherence was poor and changed very little over time. However, an increase in DASH diet score was significantly associated with a decrease in HbA1c levels in youth with type 1 diabetes (?=-0.20, P-value=0.0063) and a decrease in systolic blood pressure among youth with type 2 diabetes (?=-2.02, P-value=0.0406). Improvements in dietary quality may be beneficial in youth with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. However, further work in larger groups of youth with type 1 and 2 diabetes is desirable. PMID:24126768

Barnes, T L; Crandell, J L; Bell, R A; Mayer-Davis, E J; Dabelea, D; Liese, A D

2013-01-01

296

Metabolic control as reflectet by HbA1c in children, adolescents and young adults with type-1 diabetes mellitus: combined longitudinal analysis including 27,035 patients from 207 centers in Germany and Austria during the last decade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  While the central role of HbA1c levels for the prediction of micro- and macrovascular complications in patients with type\\u000a 1 diabetes is generally accepted; recommendations in current guidelines and the level of metabolic control actually achieved\\u000a during routine care differ widely. Limited information is available on factors that influence metabolic control in the pediatric\\u000a age group and during the transition

E.-M. Gerstl; W. Rabl; J. Rosenbauer; H. Gröbe; S. E. Hofer; U. Krause; R. W. Holl

2008-01-01

297

Nipple discharge: is its significance as a risk factor for breast cancer fully understood? Observational study including 915 consecutive patients who underwent selective duct excision.  

PubMed

Nipple discharge (ND) is a common symptom seen in breast cancer clinics. The primary aim of this study was to identify preoperative risk factors for breast cancer in patients with pathologic ND. The secondary aim was to assess the clinical and pathological effectiveness of physical examination, galactography, cytological examination of the discharge, selective duct excision and ductoscopy. All patients operated on between 1975 and 2008 who presented with ND as their only symptom was analyzed. Discharge's characteristics, cytological data and galactography reports were recorded. The relationship between each individual finding and the risk of breast cancer was calculated. For each diagnostic tool, the sensitivity, specificity and complication rates were calculated and compared. Nine-hundred-fifteen patients underwent selective duct excision. Two-hundred-nineteen patients (23.9%) were found to be affected by carcinoma. In 100/330 (30.3%) patients with bloody discharge and in 42/239 (17.6%) patients with serous secretion cancer was detected (P = 0.004, P = 0.013, respectively). Patients with sero-sanguinous or coloured discharge had the same risk of cancer as the population analyzed (23.9%, P = NS). Galactographic finding of irregular stenosis seemed to be associated with a higher risk of cancer (P = 0.0001). Cytological findings C5 and C4 were associated with cancer (P = 0.001). Selective duct excision showed highest sensitivity and specificity. In conclusion, the well established role of bloody secretion is confirmed. The supposed benign aetiology of serous, coloured or sero-sanguinous discharge is questionable. The high specificity of the cytological exam justifies routine examination of the ND. Selective duct excision can be considered as the diagnostic gold-standard. PMID:20354781

Montroni, Isacco; Santini, Donatella; Zucchini, Giorgia; Fiacchi, Monica; Zanotti, Simone; Ugolini, Giampaolo; Manaresi, Alessio; Taffurelli, Mario

2010-10-01

298

Factors Contributing to Hydrogen Peroxide Resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae Include Pyruvate Oxidase (SpxB) and Avoidance of the Toxic Effects of the Fenton Reaction  

PubMed Central

Aerobic growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae results in production of amounts of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) that may exceed 1 mM in the surrounding media. H2O2 production by S. pneumoniae has been shown to kill or inhibit the growth of other respiratory tract flora, as well as to have cytotoxic effects on host cells and tissue. The mechanisms allowing S. pneumoniae, a catalase-deficient species, to survive endogenously generated concentrations of H2O2 that are sufficient to kill other bacterial species is unknown. In the present study, pyruvate oxidase (SpxB), the enzyme responsible for endogenous H2O2 production, was required for survival during exposure to high levels (20 mM) of exogenously added H2O2. Pretreatment with H2O2 did not increase H2O2 resistance in the mutant, suggesting that SpxB activity itself is required, rather than an H2O2-inducible pathway. SpxB mutants synthesized 85% less acetyl-phosphate, a potential source of ATP. During H2O2 exposure, ATP levels decreased more rapidly in spxB mutants than in wild-type cells, suggesting that the increased killing of spxB mutants was due to more rapid ATP depletion. Together, these data support the hypothesis that S. pneumoniae SpxB contributes to an H2O2-resistant energy source that maintains viability during oxidative stress. Thus, SpxB is required for resistance to the toxic by-product of its own activity. Although H2O2-dependent hydroxyl radical production and the intracellular concentration of free iron were similar to that of Escherichia coli, killing by H2O2 was unaffected by iron chelators, suggesting that S. pneumoniae has a novel mechanism to avoid the toxic effects of the Fenton reaction. PMID:14617646

Pericone, Christopher D.; Park, Sunny; Imlay, James A.; Weiser, Jeffrey N.

2003-01-01

299

[Childhood obesity as a risk factor for diabetes mellitus type I: the accelerator hypothesis].  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus (DM) type I was diagnosed in two children, a girl aged 10.9 years and a boy aged 10.3 years, who suffered from overweight. Both were treated with subcutaneous insulin injections and dietary adjustments. Some of the data in the literature suggest that overweight or obesity during childhood increases the risk of type-I DM. Important in this connection is the so-called 'accelerator hypothesis', which postulates a common basis for both type-I and type-2 DM with genetic predisposition, insulin resistance (caused by rapid weight gain) and autoimmunity, leading to beta-cell insufficiency, as 'accelerators'. It is important to consider a diagnosis of type-I DM in children with overweight or obesity, especially in case of abnormal weight loss associated with polydipsia and polyuria. PMID:17315492

Swinnen, S M; Gillis, Ph; Massa, G G H M

2007-01-13

300

Two novel PRPF31 premessenger ribonucleic acid processing factor 31 homolog mutations including a complex insertion-deletion identified in Chinese families with retinitis pigmentosa  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify the causative mutations in two Chinese families with retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and to describe the associated phenotype. Methods Individuals from two unrelated families underwent full ophthalmic examinations. After informed consent was obtained, genomic DNA was extracted from the venous blood of all participants. Linkage analysis was performed on the known genetic loci for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa with a panel of polymorphic markers in the two families, and then all coding exons of the PRP31 premessenger ribonucleic acid processing factor 31 homolog (PRPF31) gene were screened for mutations with direct sequencing of PCR-amplified DNA fragments. Allele-specific PCR was used to validate a substitution in all available family members and 100 normal controls. A large deletion was detected with real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) using a panel of primers from regions around the PRPF31 gene. Long-range PCR, followed by DNA sequencing, was used to define the breakpoints. Results Clinical examination and pedigree analysis revealed two four-generation families (RP24 and RP106) with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. A significant two-point linkage odd disequilibrium score was generated at marker D19S926 (Zmax=3.55, ?=0) for family RP24 and D19S571 (Zmax=3.21, ?=0) for family RP106, and further linkage and haplotype studies confined the disease locus to chromosome 19q13.42 where the PRPF31 gene is located. Mutation screening of the PRPF31 gene revealed a novel deletion c.1215delG (p.G405fs+7X) in family RP106. The deletion cosegregated with the family’s disease phenotype, but was not found in 100 normal controls. No disease-causing mutation was detected in family RP24 with PCR-based sequencing analysis. RQ-PCR and long-range PCR analysis revealed a complex insertion-deletion (indel) in the patients of family RP24. The deletion is more than 19 kb and encompasses part of the PRPF31 gene (exons 1–3), together with three adjacent genes. Conclusions Our results further confirmed that haploinsufficiency is the main mechanism for RP11 and that genomic arrangements may be prevalent in PRPF31 mutations. PMID:24319336

Dong, Bing; Chen, Jieqiong; Zhang, Xiaohui; Pan, Zhe; Bai, Fengge

2013-01-01

301

INDIVIDUAL BLOOD DIFFERENCES IN MEXICAN INDIANS, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE Rh BLOOD TYPES AND Hr FACTOR  

PubMed Central

98 Mexican Indians were tested for the blood properties A-B-O, A1-A2, M-N, P, Rh'-Rh''-Rh0-rh, and Hr. Of the 98 Indians, 90.8 per cent belonged to group 0, 6.1 per cent belonged to A1, and 3.1 per cent to group B. There were 61.2 per cent of type M, 3.1 per cent of type N, and 35.7 per cent of type MN. Of the 95 Mexican Indians tested with anti-P serum, 21.1 per cent were found to lack the P agglutinogen. In tests for the Rh blood types, 48.0 per cent of the Indians were found to belong to type Rh1, 9.2 per cent to type Rh2, 41.8 per cent to type Rh1Rh2, and 1 per cent to type Rh0. There were no bloods giving intermediate reactions. Of the 95 Indians tested for the Hr factor 44.2 per cent were found to lack this property. The reactions for the Rh blood types and Hr factor were correlated with each other and the results supported the conclusion of Race et al. that in addition to the six standard allelic genes and the so called intermediate genes, there is one or possibly two genes having the property of determining agglutinogens which react with anti-Rh' and anti-Rh'' sera, but not with anti-Hr serum. This gene (or genes) appears to be relatively common among Mexican Indians (approximately 3.3 per cent) in contrast to its rareness in white individuals. PMID:19871476

Wiener, Alexander S.; Zepeda, J. Preciado; Sonn, Eve B.; Polivka, H. R.

1945-01-01

302

The GATA-type transcription factors GNC and GNL/CGA1 repress gibberellin signaling downstream from DELLA proteins and PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTORS.  

PubMed

The phytohormone gibberellin (GA) regulates various developmental processes in plants such as germination, greening, elongation growth, and flowering time. DELLA proteins, which are degraded in response to GA, repress GA signaling by inhibitory interactions with PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR (PIF) family transcription factors. How GA signaling is controlled downstream from the DELLA and PIF regulators is, at present, unclear. Here, we characterize GNC (GATA, NITRATE-INDUCIBLE, CARBON-METABOLISM INVOLVED) and GNL/CGA1 (GNC-LIKE/CYTOKININ-RESPONSIVE GATA FACTOR1), two homologous GATA-type transcription factors from Arabidopsis thaliana that we initially identified as GA-regulated genes. Our genetic analyses of loss-of-function mutants and overexpression lines establish that GNC and GNL are functionally redundant regulators of germination, greening, elongation growth and flowering time. We further show by chromatin immunoprecipitation that both genes are potentially direct transcription targets of PIF transcription factors, and that their expression is up-regulated in pif mutant backgrounds. In line with a key role of GNC or GNL downstream from DELLA and PIF signaling, we find that their overexpression leads to gene expression changes that largely resemble those observed in a ga1 biosynthesis mutant or a pif quadruple mutant. These findings, together with the fact that gnc and gnl loss-of-function mutations suppress ga1 phenotypes, support the hypothesis that GNC and GNL are important repressors of GA signaling downstream from the DELLA and PIF regulators. PMID:20844019

Richter, René; Behringer, Carina; Müller, Isabel Karin; Schwechheimer, Claus

2010-09-15

303

Monogenic diabetes mellitus includes a heterogeneous group of diabetes types that are caused by mutations in single genes. It is estimated that the monogenic forms of diabetes could represent as much as 12% of all cases  

E-print Network

3/13 Monogenic diabetes mellitus includes a heterogeneous group of diabetes types that are caused by mutations in single genes. It is estimated that the monogenic forms of diabetes could represent as much as 1­2% of all cases of diabetes mellitus (1). The main phenotypes suggestive of an underlying monogenic cause

Das, Soma

304

Blood-typing of Indian Water Buffaloes with Reagents for Antigenic Factors of Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

MORE than eighty heritable antigenic factors have been detected on the erythrocytes (cells) of cattle by their reactions with blood-grouping reagents; the reagent being an antibody population made relatively specific for a particular factor by appropriate absorptions1. Using cattle reagents, it has been shown that at least nine genetic blood-group systems of cattle have their homologues in American bison, Bison

S. P. Datta; W. H. Stone

1963-01-01

305

SERPINE2 haplotype as a risk factor for panlobular type of emphysema  

PubMed Central

Background SERPINE2 (serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade E, member 2) has previously been identified as a positional candidate gene for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and has subsequently been associated to COPD and emphysema in several populations. We aimed to further examine the role of SERPINE2 polymorphisms in the development of pulmonary emphysema and different emphysema subtypes. Methods Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SERPINE2 were analyzed from 951 clinically and radiologically examined Finnish construction workers. The genotype and haplotype data was compared to different emphysematous signs confirmed with high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), diffusing capacity (DLCO), and specific diffusing capacity (DLCO/VA). Results Three of the studied SERPINE2 SNPs (rs729631, rs975278, and rs6748795) were found to be in tight linkage disequilibrium. Therefore, only one of these SNPs (rs729631) was included in the subsequent analyses, in addition to the rs840088 SNP which was in moderate linkage with the other three studied SNPs. The rs729631 SNP showed a significant association with panlobular emphysema (p = 0.003). In further analysis, the variant allele of the rs729631 SNP was found to pose over two-fold risk (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.05-4.72) for overall panlobular changes and over four-fold risk (OR 4.37, 95% CI 1.61-11.86) for pathological panlobular changes. A haplotype consisting of variant alleles of both rs729631 and rs840088 SNPs was found to pose an almost four-fold risk for overall panlobular (OR 3.72, 95% CI 1.56-8.90) and subnormal (OR 3.98, 95% CI 1.55-10.20) emphysema. Conclusions Our results support the previously found association between SERPINE2 polymorphisms and pulmonary emphysema. As a novel finding, our study suggests that the SERPINE2 gene may in particular be involved in the development of panlobular changes, i.e., the same type of changes that are involved in alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) -deficiency. PMID:22145704

2011-01-01

306

Relationship among religious coping, psychosocial factors, and quality of life in individuals with type 2 diabetes  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among religious coping, acceptance of diabetes, social support, diabetes management, and quality of life among individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Religious coping, acceptance...

Lager, Julia M.

2009-06-02

307

Von Willebrand Factor A1 Loop 1399H Sequence Variation Decreases Type IV Collagen Binding  

E-print Network

=VWF -/- mouse. · Wild-type (WT) and 1399H VWF constructs utilized a liver-specific promoter and hydrodynamic assays (ELISA) samples were citrated and VenaFlux samples were drawn into PPACK and heparin. · VWF

308

Effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on cardiometabolic risk factors and risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer: a systematic review.  

PubMed

The effects of both the amount and quality of dietary fat have been studied intensively during the past decades. Previously, low-fat diets were recommended without much attention to the quality of fat, whereas there is general emphasis on the quality of fat in current guidelines. The objective of this systematic review (SR) was to assess the evidence of an effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on body weight (BW), risk factors, and risk of non-communicable diseases, that is, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and cancer in healthy subjects or subjects at risk for these diseases. This work was performed in the process of updating the fourth edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations from 2004. The literature search was performed in October 2010 covering articles published since January 2000. A complementary search was done in February 2012 covering literature until December 2011. Two authors independently selected articles for inclusion from a total of about 16,000 abstracts according to predefined criteria. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) and prospective cohort studies (PCS) were included as well as nested case-control studies. A few retrospective case-control studies were also included when limited or no data were available from other study types. Altogether 607 articles were quality graded and the observed effects in these papers were summarized. Convincing evidence was found that partial replacement of saturated fat (SFA) with polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) or monounsaturated fat (MUFA) lowers fasting serum/plasma total and LDL cholesterol concentrations. The evidence was probable for a decreasing effect of fish oil on concentration of serum/plasma total triglycerides as compared with MUFA. Beneficial effect of MUFA both on insulin sensitivity and fasting plasma/serum insulin concentration was considered as probable in comparisons of MUFA and carbohydrates versus SFA, whereas no effect was found on fasting glucose concentration in these comparisons. There was probable evidence for a moderate direct association between total fat intake and BW. Furthermore, there was convincing evidence that partial replacement of SFA with PUFA decreases the risk of CVD, especially in men. This finding was supported by an association with biomarkers of PUFA intake; the evidence of a beneficial effect of dietary total PUFA, n-6 PUFA, and linoleic acid (LA) on CVD mortality was limited suggestive. Evidence for a direct association between total fat intake and risk of T2DM was inconclusive, whereas there was limited-suggestive evidence from biomarker studies that LA is inversely associated with the risk of T2DM. However, there was limited-suggestive evidence in biomarker studies that odd-chain SFA found in milk fat and fish may be inversely related to T2DM, but these associations have not been supported by controlled studies. The evidence for an association between dietary n-3 PUFA and T2DM was inconclusive. Evidence for effects of fat on major types of cancer was inconclusive regarding both the amount and quality of dietary fat, except for prostate cancer where there was limited-suggestive evidence for an inverse association with intake of ALA and for ovarian cancer for which there was limited-suggestive evidence for a positive association with intake of SFA. This SR reviewed a large number of studies focusing on several different health outcomes. The time period covered by the search may not have allowed obtaining the full picture of the evidence in all areas covered by this SR. However, several SRs and meta-analyses that covered studies published before year 2000 were evaluated, which adds confidence to the results. Many of the investigated questions remain unresolved, mainly because of few studies on certain outcomes, conflicting results from studies, and lack of high quality-controlled studies. There is thus an evident need of highly controlled RCT and PCS with sufficient number of subjects and long enough duration, specifically regarding the effects of the amount and quality of dietary fat on insulin se

Schwab, Ursula; Lauritzen, Lotte; Tholstrup, Tine; Haldorssoni, Thorhallur; Riserus, Ulf; Uusitupa, Matti; Becker, Wulf

2014-01-01

309

Brush types of the Nueces River watershed as related to soil, climatic and geological factors  

E-print Network

, Atriplex canescens. The vegetational types of the classification scheme are remark? ably uniform, regardless of present grazing intensities. This homo? geneity substantiates the stabilization concept as far as grazing is concerned. The mesquite complex...). Species of the underbrush were generelly the seme regerdless of locetion. One exception wes grey coldenie, Coldenie canescens, which wes found to be essocieted with this type in xeric portions of the wetershed. Amergose, Cestele texene, was found...

Huss, Donald Lee

2013-10-04

310

The Tao of IGF-1: Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptor Activation Increases Pain by Enhancing T-Type Calcium Channel Activity.  

PubMed

T-type calcium channels are important players in the transmission of pain signals in the primary afferent pathway. Indeed, inhibiting or depleting T-type calcium channels in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons mediates analgesia. Conversely, nerve injury or peripheral inflammation have been shown to induce T-type calcium channel activity in DRG neurons, and this in turn has been linked to the development of chronic pain states. The mechanisms that underlie this enhancement of T-type channels remain incompletely understood and may include changes in channel stability in the plasma membrane or alterations in channel function. In this issue of Science Signaling, Zhang and colleagues identify a cell signaling pathway that potently regulates T-type calcium channel activity in afferent neurons and link this process to pain hypersensitivity. Specifically, they show that insulin-like growth factor-1 receptors in DRG neurons mediate a protein kinase C ? (PKC?)-dependent enhancement of T-type calcium currents and that interfering with this pathway reduces both mechanical and thermal pain hypersensitivity in rodents. Targeting this process offers a new avenue for developing pain therapeutics. PMID:25292211

Stemkowski, Patrick L; Zamponi, Gerald W

2014-10-01

311

Impact of dietary fiber intake on glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fukuoka Diabetes Registry  

PubMed Central

Background Dietary fiber is beneficial for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, although it is consumed differently in ethnic foods around the world. We investigated the association between dietary fiber intake and obesity, glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Methods A total of 4,399 patients were assessed for dietary fiber intake using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. The associations between dietary fiber intake and various cardiovascular risk factors were investigated cross-sectionally. Results Body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, triglyceride and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein negatively associated with dietary fiber intake after adjusting for age, sex, duration of diabetes, current smoking, current drinking, total energy intake, fat intake, saturated fatty acid intake, leisure-time physical activity and use of oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin. The homeostasis model assessment insulin sensitivity and HDL cholesterol positively associated with dietary fiber intake. Dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced prevalence of abdominal obesity, hypertension and metabolic syndrome after multivariate adjustments including obesity. Furthermore, dietary fiber intake was associated with lower prevalence of albuminuria, low estimated glomerular filtration rate and chronic kidney disease after multivariate adjustments including protein intake. Additional adjustments for obesity, hypertension or metabolic syndrome did not change these associations. Conclusion We demonstrated that increased dietary fiber intake was associated with better glycemic control and more favorable cardiovascular disease risk factors including chronic kidney disease in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetic patients should be encouraged to consume more dietary fiber in daily life. PMID:24330576

2013-01-01

312

Involvement of endogenous tumor necrosis factor alpha and transforming growth factor beta during induction of collagen type II arthritis in mice.  

PubMed Central

Both tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) are found in synovial fluid from arthritic joints of humans and of rodents with experimental arthritis. The role of endogenously produced TGF-beta and TNF in the pathogenesis of collagen type II-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1 mice was examined by determining the effect of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to these factors on the course of the disease. Endogenously produced as well as systemically administered TGF-beta 1 and TNF-alpha had opposite effects, since TGF-beta 1 and anti-TNF protected against CIA, whereas anti-TGF-beta and TNF-alpha increased CIA incidence and/or severity. Intraperitoneally injected TGF-beta 1 at a dose of 2 micrograms per day for 14 days significantly ameliorated arthritis, even when started at the time of arthritis development, although it did not reverse established disease. The resistance to CIA induction caused by a prior intravenous injection of collagen type II was not significantly influenced by the simultaneous injection of TGF-beta 1, TNF-alpha, or interleukin 1 alpha. It is concluded that the endogenous production of TNF and TGF-beta is important in determining the course of CIA. PMID:1502148

Thorbecke, G J; Shah, R; Leu, C H; Kuruvilla, A P; Hardison, A M; Palladino, M A

1992-01-01

313

INTERMEDIATE-TERM MORTALITY AND CARDIAC TRANSPLANTATION IN INFANTS WITH SINGLE-VENTRICLE LESIONS: RISK FACTORS AND THEIR INTERACTION WITH SHUNT TYPE  

PubMed Central

Objectives We sought to identify factors associated with death and cardiac transplantation in infants undergoing the Norwood procedure and to determine differences in associations that might favor either the modified Blalock-Taussig shunt (MBTS) or a right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery shunt (RVPAS). Methods We used competing risks methodology to analyze death without transplantation, cardiac transplantation, and survival without transplantation. Parametric time-to-event modeling and bootstrapping were used to identify independent predictors. Results Data from 549 subjects (follow-up, 2.7±0.9 years) were analyzed. Mortality risk was characterized by early and constant phases; transplant was characterized by only a constant phase. Early phase factors associated with death included lower socioeconomic status (SES; P=.01), obstructed pulmonary venous return (P<.001), smaller ascending aorta (P=.02), and anatomic subtype. Constant phase factors associated with death included genetic syndrome (P<.001) and lower gestational age (GA, P<.001). The RVPAS had better survival in the 51% who were full term with aortic atresia (P<.001). The MBTS was better among the 4% who were preterm with a patent aortic valve (P =.003). Lower pre-Norwood right ventricular fractional area change, pre-Norwood surgery, and anatomy other than hypoplastic left heart syndrome were independently associated with transplantation (all P<.03); but shunt type was not (P=.43). Conclusions Independent risk factors for intermediate-term mortality include lower SES, anatomy, genetic syndrome, and lower GA. Term infants with aortic atresia benefited from a RVPAS and preterm infants with a patent aortic valve benefited from a MBTS. Right ventricular function and anatomy, but not shunt type, were associated with transplantation. PMID:22341427

Tweddell, James S.; Sleeper, Lynn A.; Ohye, Richard G.; Williams, Ismee A.; Mahony, Lynn; Pizarro, Christian; Pemberton, Victoria L.; Frommelt, Peter C.; Bradley, Scott M.; Cnota, James F.; Hirsch, Jennifer; Kirshbom, Paul; Li, Jennifer S.; Pike, Nancy; Puchalski, Michael; Ravishankar, Chitra; Jacobs, Jeffrey P.; Laussen, Peter C.; McCrindle, Brian W.

2012-01-01

314

Influence of the host cell factors CK2, hTERT, and PML, on the antiviral response to herpes simplex virus type I infection  

E-print Network

in cancer cell lines and treatment with pharmaceutical inhibitors of CK2 can induce apoptosis in certain tumor cell lines [57,58]. The kinase activity of CK2 is capable of preventing the activation of several pro-apoptotic factors, including Bid, caspase-2... targets of degradation 41 vi 2.3.5 The enhanced effect of CK2 inhibitors on IFN is observed with HSV-1 but not VSV and Ad5 43 2.4 Discussion 44 2.5 Tables 48 2.6 Figures 51 Chapter 3: hTERT extends the life of human fibroblasts without compromising type...

Smith, Miles Christian

2013-08-31

315

Estimated Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Adolescents with and without Type 1 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Objective To test the hypothesis that cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors are similar in adolescents with and without diabetes (T1D) in the most insulin sensitive (IS) tertile and CVD risk factors are more atherogenic with decreasing IS in adolescents with T1D. Study design Adolescents with IS T1D (n=292; age=15.4±2.1 years; duration=8.8±3.0 years, HbA1c=8.9±1.6%) and non-diabetic (non-DM) controls (n=89; age=15.4±2.1 years) was estimated using the model: logeIS=4.64725 – 0.02032(waist, cm) – 0.09779(HbA1c, %) – 0.00235(triglycerides, mg/dl). CVD risk factors (blood pressure, fasting total, LDL and HDL-cholesterol, hs-CRP, and BMI Z-score) were compared between all non-DM adolescents and those with T1D in the most IS tertile, and then examined for a linear trend by IS tertile in adolescents with T1D, adjusted for sex, race/ethnicity and Tanner Stage. Results Estimated IS was significantly lower in adolescents with T1D compared with those without (T1D=7.8±2.4, non-DM=11.5±2.9; p<0.0001). CVD risk factors were similar for non-DM compared with the adolescents with most IS T1D, except for higher HDL-c and DBP in adolescents with T1D (p<0.05). Among adolescents with T1D, all CVD risk factors except for HDL-c, were more atherogenic across decreasing IS tertiles in linear regression analysis (p<0.05). Conclusion Adolescents with T1D who are the most IS have similar CVD risk factors compared with non-DM adolescents. CVD risk factors are inversely associated with adolescents with IS T1D. IS may be an important therapeutic target for reducing CVD risk factors in adolescents with T1D. PMID:22921593

Specht, Brian J; Wadwa, R Paul; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K; Nadeau, Kristen J; Bishop, Franziska K; Maahs, David M.

2012-01-01

316

Prevalence and risk factors of development of peripheral diabetic neuropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus in a tertiary care setting  

PubMed Central

Aims/Introduction The study was carried out to assess the prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), compare the prevalence between known diabetes mellitus (KDM) and newly detected diabetes mellitus (NDDM), identify risk factors associated, its prevalence pattern and to assess if any sex-specific differences are present. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital. Patients with duration of diabetes ?6 months were considered to be NDDM. DPN was diagnosed by the combination of more than one abnormal result of 10-g monofilament, pinprick sensations and ankle reflexes, and categorized according to the severity level using vibration perception threshold. The study included 1,637 KDM and 369 NDDM patients. Results A total of 586 participants were found to have DPN, accounting for 29.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 27.2–31.2) prevalence. The higher prevalence was observed in KDM compared with NDDM 33.7% (95% CI 31.42–36.01) vs 9.2% (95% CI 6.3–12.2; P < 0.001). Prevalence of mild, moderate, and severe neuropathies was 8.06, 14.55 and 6.63%, respectively. Regression analysis showed age (P < 0.001), duration of diabetes (P < 0.001), dyslipidemia (P = 0.03), glycated hemoglobin (P < 0.001), the presence of other microvascular complications (P < 0.001), macrovascular complications (P = 0.003) and alcoholic status (P < 0.033) to be associated. No sex-specific differences were observed in the mean age at diagnosis of diabetes, mean age at the diagnosis of neuropathy, and duration taken for the DPN development among females and males. Conclusions The study showed a high prevalence (29.2%) of DPN among north Indian type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Thus, timely screening with earlier detection and intervention would be useful in preventing the progression of neuropathy.

Bansal, Dipika; Gudala, Kapil; Muthyala, Harini; Esam, Hari Prasad; Nayakallu, Ramya; Bhansali, Anil

2014-01-01

317

Transforming growth factor (TGF-beta)-specific signaling by chimeric TGF-beta type II receptor with intracellular domain of activin type IIB receptor.  

PubMed

Members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily signal via different heteromeric complexes of two sequentially acting serine/threonine kinase receptors, i.e. type I and type II receptors. We generated two different chimeric TGF-beta superfamily receptors, i.e. TbetaR-I/BMPR-IB, containing the extracellular domain of TGF-beta type I receptor (TbetaR-I) and the intracellular domain of bone morphogenetic protein type IB receptor (BMPR-IB), and TbetaR-II/ActR-IIB, containing the extracellular domain of TGF-beta type II receptor (TbetaR-II) and the intracellular domain of activin type IIB receptor (ActR-IIB). In the presence of TGF-beta1, TbetaR-I/BMPR-IB and TbetaR-II/ActR-IIB formed heteromeric complexes with wild-type TbetaR-II and TbetaR-I, respectively, upon stable transfection in mink lung epithelial cell lines. We show that TbetaR-II/ActR-IIB restored the responsiveness upon transfection in mutant cell lines lacking functional TbetaR-II with respect to TGF-beta-mediated activation of a transcriptional signal, extracellular matrix formation, growth inhibition, and Smad phosphorylation. Moreover, TbetaR-I/BMPR-IB and TbetaR-II/ActR-IIB formed a functional complex in response to TGF-beta and induced phosphorylation of Smad1. However, complex formation is not enough for signal propagation, which is shown by the inability of TbetaR-I/BMPR-IB to restore responsiveness to TGF-beta in cell lines deficient in functional TbetaR-I. The fact that the TGF-beta1-induced complex between TbetaR-II/ActR-IIB and TbetaR-I stimulated endogenous Smad2 phosphorylation, a TGF-beta-like response, is in agreement with the current model for receptor activation in which the type I receptor determines signal specificity. PMID:9261125

Persson, U; Souchelnytskyi, S; Franzén, P; Miyazono, K; ten Dijke, P; Heldin, C H

1997-08-22

318

The gene-specific initiation factor USF (upstream stimulatory factor) bound at the adenovirus type 2 major late promoter: mass and three-dimensional structure.  

PubMed

The gene-specific transcription initiation factor USF (upstream stimulatory factor) binds at a palindromic sequence that extends from -52 to -63 relative to the start site of the adenovirus type 2 major late promoter; USF enhances in vitro transcription 10- to 20-fold. By analysis of digital micrographs from the Brookhaven scanning transmission electron microscope, we have identified a sample of 29 proteins (mass, 55 +/- 5 kDa) specifically bound at the palindrome. The individual protein digital images show extensive homology, which permits modeling a three-dimensional structure at a relatively low resolution, which is nonetheless significant for the study of protein-protein interactions in initiation. Non-sequence-specific competitor DNA at high mass excess can be used in reactions for microscopy, enabling characterization of specific binding for proteins present at 1% of total protein or less. PMID:3474628

Hough, P V; Mastrangelo, I A; Wall, J S; Hainfeld, J F; Sawadogo, M; Roeder, R G

1987-07-01

319

Heterogeneity in the costs of type 1 diabetes in a developing country: what are the determining factors?  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Regional differences in the clinical care of Type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Brazil have been recently described. This study aimed to estimate the costs of T1D from the public health care system’s perspective across the regions of Brazil and to determine the components that influence these costs. Methods This was a retrospective, cross-sectional and nationwide multicenter study conducted between December 2008 and December 2010 in 28 public clinics in 20 Brazilian cities. The study included 3,180 T1D subjects receiving healthcare from the National Brazilian Healthcare System (NBHCS) with a follow-up of at least one year. The direct medical costs were derived from the costs of medications, supplies, examinations, visits to the center, medical procedures and hospitalizations that occurred during the previous year. Clinical and demographic factors that determined the differences in the cost across four geographic regions (southeast, south, north/northeast and mid-west) were investigated. Results The per capita mean annual direct medical costs of T1D in US$ were 1,466.36, 1,252.83, 1,148.09 and 1,396.30 in southeast, south, north/northeast and mid-west regions, respectively. The costs of T1D in the southeast region were higher compared to south (p < 0.001) and north/northeast regions (p = < 0.001), but not to the mid-west (p = 0.146) region. The frequency of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) was different across the regions as well as the daily number of SMBG, use of insulin pumps or basal or prandial insulin analogs. Age, ethnicity, duration of diabetes, level of care, socioeconomic status and the prevalence of chronic diabetic complications differed among the regions. In a regression model the determinants of the costs were the presence of microvascular diabetes-related complications (p?factors influenced directly the costs of T1D and should be considered for discussing future health policies. PMID:24373627

2013-01-01

320

Age ? 60 years was an independent risk factor for diabetes-related complications despite good control of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Providing effective medical care for older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) that may contribute to their active aging has always been challenging. We examined the independent effect of age ? 60 years on disease control and its relationship with diabetes-related complications in patients with T2D in Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study using secondary data from the electronic diabetes registry database Adult Diabetes Control and Management (ADCM). A total of 303 centers participated and contributed a total of 70,889 patients from May 2008 to the end of 2009. Demographic data, details on diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and their treatment modalities, various risk factors and complications were updated annually. Independent associated risk factors were identified using multivariate regression analyses. Fifty-nine percent were female. Malay comprised 61.9%, Chinese 19% and Indian 18%. There were more Chinese, men, longer duration of diabetes and subjects that were leaner or had lower BMI in the older age group. Patients aged ? 60 years achieved glycemic and lipid targets but not the desired blood pressure. After adjusting for duration of diabetes, gender, ethnicity, body mass index, disease control and treatment, a significantly higher proportion of patients ? 60 years suffered from reported diabetes-related complications. Age ? 60 years was an independent risk factor for diabetes-related complications despite good control of cardiovascular risk factors. Our findings caution against the currently recommended control of targets in older T2D patients with more longstanding diseases and complications. PMID:23454736

Chew, Boon How; Ghazali, Sazlina Shariff; Ismail, Mastura; Haniff, Jamaiyah; Bujang, Mohd Adam

2013-05-01

321

Erythrocyte trans-fatty acids, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged  

E-print Network

:2, showed a modest association with dairy consumption (00.27), but not with other foods. After adjustment for BMI, social-demographic, lifestyle and dietary factors and other TFAs, erythrocyte trans-18-fatty acid Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125

Tian, Weidong

322

Failure to control risk factors among patients with type 2 diabetes; experience from a Greek cohort.  

PubMed

We reviewed the records of 313 diabetic patients attending a diabetes clinic for at least two years. Despite improvements in the control rates of cardiovascular risk factors, only 8.9% of the patients reached all the metabolic target goals simultaneously at the end, indicating a gap between guidelines and clinical practice. PMID:19720571

Kollias, Anastasios; Bliziotis, Ioannis A; Xilomenos, Apostolos; Tolis, Apostolos

2009-11-01

323

A Factor-Analytic Investigation of Role Types and Profiles of Higher Education Department Chairs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a study that investigated the role, attitudes, and behaviors of department chairs in higher education. Specifically, the study investigated four objectives: (1) to examine role factors of effective chair performance; (2) to assess the impact of antecedent variables such as individual characteristics (gender, marital status,…

Carroll, James B.; Gmelch, Walter H.

324

Indirect current control of a unity power factor sinusoidal current boost type three-phase rectifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The indirect current control scheme has evolved from the success of the hysteresis current controlled voltage regulated rectifier, which has been shown to be capable of: unity and even leading power factor operation; near sinusoidal current waveforms; and bilateral power transfer without the need of bi-directional solid state power switches. The advance consists of replacing the inner hysteresis current feedback

J. W. Dixon; Boon-Teck Ooi

1988-01-01

325

Targets for Cruelty: Demographic and Situational Factors Affecting the Type of Animal Abused  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewed interest in animal cruelty as a precursor to human violence has sparked recent investigations into the specific complexities of animal abuse itself. This article assesses the impact of demographic characteristics (race, education and childhood residence) and situational factors (if they hurt or killed the animal alone, if they tried to conceal the cruelty, if they felt upset after abusing

Suzanne E. Tallichet; Christopher Hensley; Adam O’Bryan; Heidi Hassel

2005-01-01

326

Type 1 Diabetes in the Spanish Population: additional factors to Class II HLA-DR3 and -DR4  

PubMed Central

Background The Major Histocompatibility Complex is the main genetic contributor to susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (T1D); genome-wide scans have consistently mapped increased predisposition to this region. The highest disease risk has been associated with HLA-DR3 and HLA-DR4. In particular, the DR3-positive ancestral haplotype 18.2 was reported as highly diabetogenic. We aimed to corroborate whether this haplotype increases the susceptibility conferred by the DQ2-DR3 alleles in a Mediterranean population. We also searched for additional susceptibility factors to the classic DQ2-DR3 and DQ8-DR4. Results Genetic MHC markers were analysed in a case-control study with 302 T1D patients and 529 ethnically matched controls. DR3-TNFa1b5 carrier rate was significantly higher in DR3-positive heterozygous T1D patients than in DR3-positive heterozygous controls (p = 0.0019; odds ratio OR [95% confidence interval CI] = 2.26 [1.3–3.93]). This data was confirmed analysing the allelic frequency, which includes the information corresponding to the DR3-homozygous individuals (p = 0.001; OR = 2.09) and by using the Arlequin software to check the DR3-positive haplotypes (p = 0.004;OR = 1.93). The present results provide strong evidence of a second susceptibility region in the ancestral haplotype 18.2 in the Spanish population. Moreover, we searched for T1D susceptibility factors in addition to the MHC classical ones, within the DR2-DQ6/DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8 negative population. Several genetic markers in both MHC class II (DQA1*0101-DQB1*0501 [p = 0.007;OR = 2.81], DQA1*0201-DQB1*0202 [p = 0.03; OR = 2.35]) and III (TNFa2b1 [p = 0.01 OR = 2.74], BAT-2*2 [p = 0.004; OR = 3.19]) were found. These different alleles associated with T1D were not independent and we observed linkage disequilibrium among them leading us to describe two new risk haplotypes (DQA1*0101-DQB1*0501-TNFa2b1 and DQA1*0201-DQB1*0202- BAT-2*2). Finally, we studied a T1D susceptibility/protection marker located in extended class I, D6S2223; however, no association was observed in our population. Conclusion Our results suggest that other associated MHC haplotypes might present susceptibility factors in loci different from HLA-class II and that the class II molecules are not necessarily the universal etiologic factor in every MHC haplotype. PMID:15842729

Urcelay, Elena; Santiago, José L; de la Calle, Hermenegildo; Martínez, Alfonso; Méndez, Julián; Ibarra, José M; Maluenda, Carlos; Fernández-Arquero, Miguel; de la Concha, Emilio G

2005-01-01

327

A new approach to improve power factor and reduce harmonics in a three phase diode rectifier type utility interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel approach to improving power factor and reducing harmonics generated by a three-phase diode-rectifier-type utility interface is proposed. This approach is passive and consists of a novel interconnection of a star\\/delta power transformer between the AC and DC sides of the diode rectifier topology. This interconnection, in combination with the 120° conduction intervals of each diode, is shown to

S. Kim; P. Enjeti; P. Packebush; I. Pitel

1993-01-01

328

Comparing Type D personality and older age as correlates of tumor necrosis factor-? dysregulation in chronic heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and its soluble receptors 1 (sTNFR1) and 2 (sTNFR2) have been shown to be implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure (CHF). Ageing is accompanied by increased plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We hypothesized that Type D personality (joint tendency to experience negative emotions and to inhibit self-expression) and age may have similar pro-inflammatory effects

Johan Denollet; Christiaan J. Vrints; Viviane M. Conraads

2008-01-01

329

Risk factors in clinically diagnosed presenile dementia of the Alzheimer type: a case-control study in northern England  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE--To investigate the relationship between presenile dementia of the Alzheimer type (PDAT) and family history, medical history, cigarette smoking, and exposure to aluminum. DESIGN--A case-control study in which 109 cases of clinically diagnosed PDAT and 109 controls matched for age and sex were compared for exposure to the risk factors. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using McNemar's test. SETTING--The

D P Forster; A J Newens; D W Kay; J A Edwardson

1995-01-01

330

The transcription factor T-bet controls regulatory T cell homeostasis and function during type 1 inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several subsets of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg cells) work in concert to maintain immune homeostasis. However, the molecular bases underlying the phenotypic and functional diversity of Treg cells remain obscure. We show that in response to interferon-?, Foxp3+ Treg cells upregulated the T helper type 1 (TH1)-specifying transcription factor T-bet. T-bet promoted expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 on

Meghan A Koch; Glady's Tucker-Heard; Nikole R Perdue; Justin R Killebrew; Kevin B Urdahl; Daniel J Campbell

2009-01-01

331

Cytoplasmic Expression of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor4 in Human Pituitary Adenomas: Relation to Tumor Type, Size, Proliferation, and Invasiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas remains unknown. A pituitary tumor-derived (ptd) isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor-4 (ptd-FGFR4) has been implicated in the neo- plastic process. To further understand the expression of FGFR4 in sporadic human pituitary adenomas, we studied 137 pituitary adenomas of various types (102 adenomas from Jap- anese patients and 35 adenomas from Canadian patients) and 10

ZHI RONG QIAN; TOSHIAKI SANO; SYLVIA L. ASA; SHOZO YAMADA; HIDEHISA HORIGUCHI; TAKASHI TASHIRO; CHIUN CHEI LI; MITSUYOSHI HIROKAWA; KALMAN KOVACS; SHEREEN EZZAT

332

Incidence of cardiovascular diseases and associated risk factors among subjects with type 2 diabetes - An 11-year follow up study  

PubMed Central

Aims This study was planned to assess the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events over an 11-year period and to identify the associated risk factors that could predict the onset of CVD among subjects with type 2 diabetes. Methods Retrospective data of 249 patients (M:F 149:100) with type 2 diabetes, from a cohort of 7800 patients, attending a tertiary care center for diabetes from January 2000 to December 2011 were retrieved and analyzed for this study. Sociodemographic and habitual risk factors, baseline diabetes duration, HbA1c and time of onset of CVD and its risk factors were collected from case records. Person-years method was used to calculate incident rate of CVD. Binary logistic regression analyses were done to identify predictors associated with CVD and its risk factors. Results Incidence of CVD among subjects with diabetes was 5.6 cases/1000 person-years. Nearly 60% developed hypertension and dyslipidemia or both during the 11-year period. The most common complication was neuropathy (14.4%). Smoking [OR (95%CI)] [9.26 (1.6–54.9)] (p = 0.014) and heavy alcohol consumption [8.7 (1.1–69.8)] (p = 0.04) were significantly associated with CVD. Higher BMI was significantly associated with hypertension and dyslipidemia [2.4 (1.3–4.3)] (p = 0.003). Conclusions Smoking and heavy alcohol consumption were significantly associated with CVD, and increased BMI was significantly associated with hypertension and dyslipidemia among subjects with type 2 diabetes in this study population. These findings emphasize the need for early identification and modification of risk factors associated with CVD events in patients with diabetes. PMID:24581089

Umamahesh, K.; Vigneswari, A.; Surya Thejaswi, G.; Satyavani, K.; Viswanathan, Vijay

2014-01-01

333

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Formation of Transcription Factor Complex ERSF Including NF-Y (CBF) and Activating Transcription Factors 6  and 6  That Activates the Mammalian Unfolded Protein Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of molecular chaperones and folding enzymes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are controlled by a transcriptional induction process termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). The mammalian UPR is mediated by the cis-acting ER stress response element (ERSE), the consensus sequence of which is CCAAT- N9-CCACG. We recently proposed that ER stress response factor (ERSF) binding to ERSE is

HIDEROU YOSHIDA; TETSUYA OKADA; KYOSUKE HAZE; HIDEKI YANAGI; TAKASHI YURA; MANABU NEGISHI; KAZUTOSHI MORI

2001-01-01

334

Physical Activity, Metabolic Factors, and the Incidence of Coronary Heart Disease and Type 2 Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: After adjustment for potential confounders (life- style characteristics and preexisting disease), physical ac- tivity was inversely related to coronary heart disease rates, with the lowest rates in the men undertaking moderate physical activity and with no further benefit thereafter. For type 2 diabetes, risk decreased progressively with in- creasing levels of physical activity. Physical activity was associated with serum

S. Goya Wannamethee; A. Gerald Shaper; K. George; M. M. Alberti

2000-01-01

335

Plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, factor VIII, prothrombin activation fragment 1+2, anticardiolipin, and antiprothrombin antibodies are risk factors for thrombosis in hemodialysis patients.  

PubMed

Patients with end-stage renal disease are prone to hemorrhagic complications and simultaneously are at risk for a variety of thrombotic complications such as thrombosis of dialysis blood access, the subclavian vein, coronary arteries, cerebral vessel, and retinal veins, as well as priapism. The study was devised for the following purposes: (1) to identify the markers of thrombophilia in hemodialyzed patients, (2) to establish a role for antiphospholipid antibodies in thrombosis of the vascular access, (3) to characterize phospholipid antibodies in hemodialysis patients, and (4) to study the effects of dialysis on coagulation cascade. A group of 20 hemodialysis patients with no thrombotic complications (NTC) and 20 hemodialysis patients with thrombotic complications (TC) were studied along with 400 volunteer blood donors. Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and those with nephrotic syndrome were excluded. All patients underwent a screening prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen (Fg), coagulation factors of the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, antithrombin III (AT-III), protein C (PC), protein S (PS), resistance to activated protein C, prothrombin activation fragment 1+2 (F1+2), plasminogen, tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA), plasminogen tissue activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), anticardiolipin antibodies type M and G (ACA-IgM and ACA-IgG), lupus anticoagulant antibodies, and antiprothrombin antibodies type M and G (aPT-IgM and aPT-IgG). The study showed that PAI-1, F 1+2, factor VIII, ACA-IgM, and aPT-IgM levels were increased significantly over controls both in TC and NTC, however, they could distinguish patients with thrombotic complications from those without, being increased maximally in the former group. The novelty of the study is represented by the significant aPT increase that was observed in non-systemic lupus erythematosus hemodialysis patients, and particularly in those with thrombotic events. In addition, there was a reduction of factor XII during the treatment. It is possible to assume in the TC group and, to a lesser extent, also in the NTC group that endothelial cells liberate PAI-1 in the vascular lumen, which causes hypofibrinolysis. In addition, an excess of factor VIII is activated by endothelial dysfunction with subsequent activation of the coagulation cascade as shown by increased F1+2 and fibrinogen. ACA-IgM, in turn, is capable of interfering with the system of protein C, a potent anticoagulant factor that inactivates cofactors Va and VIIIa. They also induce the expression of procoagulant factors on the surface of the endothelial cells. In conclusion, the hypercoagulable state caused by alterations of coagulation and fibrinolytic factors is a cause of vascular access dysfunction and thrombosis of other vessels. PMID:15490419

Molino, Daniela; De Santo, Natale G; Marotta, Rosa; Anastasio, Pietro; Mosavat, Mahrokh; De Lucia, Domenico

2004-09-01

336

siRNA-targeting transforming growth factor-? type I receptor reduces wound scarring and extracellular matrix deposition of scar tissue.  

PubMed

Hypertrophic scarring is related to persistent activation of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?)/Smad signaling. In the TGF-?/Smad signaling cascade, the TGF-? type I receptor (TGFBRI) phosphorylates Smad proteins to induce fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition. In this study, we inhibited TGFBRI gene expression via TGFBRI small interfering RNA (siRNA) to reduce fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition. Our results demonstrate that downregulating TGFBRI expression in cultured human hypertrophic scar fibroblasts significantly suppressed cell proliferation and reduced type I collagen, type III collagen, fibronectin, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) mRNA, and type I collagen and fibronectin protein expression. In addition, we applied TGFBRI siRNA to wound granulation tissue in a rabbit model of hypertrophic scarring. Downregulating TGFBRI expression reduced wound scarring, the extracellular matrix deposition of scar tissue, and decreased CTGF and ?-smooth muscle actin mRNA expression in vivo. These results suggest that TGFBRI siRNA could be applied clinically to prevent hypertrophic scarring. PMID:24670383

Wang, Yi-Wen; Liou, Nien-Hsien; Cherng, Juin-Hong; Chang, Shu-Jen; Ma, Kuo-Hsing; Fu, Earl; Liu, Jiang-Chuan; Dai, Niann-Tzyy

2014-07-01

337

The Effects of 12 Weeks Regular Aerobic Exercise on Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor and Inflammatory Factors in Juvenile Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 12 weeks regular aerobic exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory factors in juvenile obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Obesity and T2DM, typically common among adults, have recently become more prevalent in the Korean juvenile population, affecting not only their lipid profiles and oxidant stress levels, but also their BDNF and inflammatory factor levels. [Subjects] This study enrolled 26 juveniles (boys = 15, girls = 9) who were assigned to a control group (CG, n = 11), obesity group (OG, n = 8), or T2DM group (TG, n = 7). [Methods] The outcome of a 40-60-minute aerobic exercise session that took place three times per week for 12 weeks at a maximum oxygen intake (VO2max) of 50~60% was investigated. [Results] The exercise resulted in a significant reduction in the resting serum BDNF and TrkB levels (baseline) among juveniles in the OG and TG as compared to those in the CG. Additionally, the 12 weeks of regular aerobic exercise led to significant reductions in body weight, body fat percentage, and body mass index in the OG and a significant increase of VO2max in the OG and TG. However, no significant differences in serum NGF or inflammatory factors were found among the three groups. There was a significant increase in resting serum BDNF levels following the 12 weeks regular exercise only in the OG. [Conclusion] While 12 weeks of regular aerobic exercise had a positive effect on body composition, and increased BDNF levels of juveniles in the OG, it did not affect the inflammatory factor levels and had no effect on the TG. PMID:25202180

Lee, Sung Soo; Yoo, Jae Ho; Kang, Sung; Woo, Jin Hee; Shin, Ki Ok; Kim, Kwi Beak; Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae; Kim, Young Il

2014-08-01

338

The Effects of 12 Weeks Regular Aerobic Exercise on Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor and Inflammatory Factors in Juvenile Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 12 weeks regular aerobic exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory factors in juvenile obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Obesity and T2DM, typically common among adults, have recently become more prevalent in the Korean juvenile population, affecting not only their lipid profiles and oxidant stress levels, but also their BDNF and inflammatory factor levels. [Subjects] This study enrolled 26 juveniles (boys = 15, girls = 9) who were assigned to a control group (CG, n = 11), obesity group (OG, n = 8), or T2DM group (TG, n = 7). [Methods] The outcome of a 40–60-minute aerobic exercise session that took place three times per week for 12 weeks at a maximum oxygen intake (VO2max) of 50~60% was investigated. [Results] The exercise resulted in a significant reduction in the resting serum BDNF and TrkB levels (baseline) among juveniles in the OG and TG as compared to those in the CG. Additionally, the 12 weeks of regular aerobic exercise led to significant reductions in body weight, body fat percentage, and body mass index in the OG and a significant increase of VO2max in the OG and TG. However, no significant differences in serum NGF or inflammatory factors were found among the three groups. There was a significant increase in resting serum BDNF levels following the 12 weeks regular exercise only in the OG. [Conclusion] While 12 weeks of regular aerobic exercise had a positive effect on body composition, and increased BDNF levels of juveniles in the OG, it did not affect the inflammatory factor levels and had no effect on the TG.

Lee, Sung Soo; Yoo, Jae Ho; Kang, Sung; Woo, Jin Hee; Shin, Ki Ok; Kim, Kwi Beak; Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae; Kim, Young Il

2014-01-01

339

Type 2 diabetes and edentulism as chronic co-morbid factors affecting Indian elderly: an overview.  

PubMed

In past 50 years, type 2 diabetes has emerged as one of the major public health problem. India leads the world with the largest number of diabetic patients and has a huge elderly population. The present article discusses the effect of diabetes and edentulism on the overall general health of elderly. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes and edentulism in Indian elderly and their inter-relationship has been discussed. Dentists must provide optimum oral care with special attention towards comprehensive periodontal management and oral hygiene awareness among diabetics to prevent tooth loss. Dental and medical professionals can improve patient management of the oral and overall effects of diabetes by implementing various awareness programs; organizing camps; distributing informative pamphlets and dietary counseling. Dentists can detect undiagnosed cases of diabetes and refer patients to physicians for further evaluation and management. PMID:24431769

Ladha, Komal; Tiwari, Bhawana

2013-12-01

340

Epigenetics: deciphering how environmental factors may modify autoimmune type 1 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that has increased two- to threefold over the past half century by as yet unknown\\u000a means. It is generally accepted that T1D is the result of gene–environment interactions, but such rapid increases in incidence\\u000a are not explained by Mendelian inheritance. There have been numerous advances in our knowledge of the pathogenesis of

Amanda J. MacFarlane; Alexander Strom; Fraser W. Scott

2009-01-01

341

Mutational Analysis of the Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Trans-inducing Factor Vmw65  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) polypeptide Vmw65 is a structural component of the virus particle and is also responsible for trans-induction of immediate early (IE) transcription. Functional domains of this polypeptide were investigated by constructing a series of 10 plasmids each with a 12 bp insertion in the gene encoding Vmw65. Plasmids were analysed for their ability

CHRIS I. ACE; MIKE A. DALRYMPLE; FIONA H. RAMSAY; VALERIE G. PRESTON; CHRIS M. PRESTON

1988-01-01

342

Innate and Adaptive Factors Regulating Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Genomic Activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, antiretroviral therapy targeting the viral entry process, reverse transcriptase, integrase, and protease,\\u000a has prolonged the lives of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). However, despite the development\\u000a of more effective therapeutic strategies, reservoirs of viral infection remain. This review discusses molecular mechanisms\\u000a surrounding the development of latency from the site of integration to

Sonia Shah; Michael R. Nonnemacher; Vanessa Pirrone; Brian Wigdahl

2010-01-01

343

Factors affecting the adoption of recommended agricultural practices by three different types of farmers in Mexico  

E-print Network

of the Sample Age Narital Status 27 27 28 Number of Children Formal Education . ~ Social Participation Sources of Income 28 28 31 31 Tenure 32 Farmers' Knowledge and Use of Recommended Practices from 1961 through 1966 34 Knowledge and Use... on Present Farm as Reported by Three Different Types of Farmers in Nexico 37 Knowledge and Use of Practices Recommended from 1961 through 1966 by Respondents of the Study 39 Ejidatarios Classified According to their Knowledge and Use of Recommended Practices...

Garza-Falcon, Gilberto Severino

2012-06-07

344

Can the type of gallstones be predicted with known possible risk factors?: a comparison between mixed cholesterol and black pigment stones  

PubMed Central

Background Pathogenesis of gallstones (GS) is multifactorial and multiple genetic and environmental factors have been identified in different populations for different types of GS with varying prevalence. However the role of the each aetiological factor on the formation of mixed cholesterol and black pigment GS has not being addressed adequately. Hence in this study we attempted to compare known possible risk factors for mixed cholesterol and black pigment GS among two groups of patients with two types of GS. Methods The study was done on a cohort of patients with symptomatic GS admitted to the Teaching Hospital Peradeniya, Sri Lanka over a period of 18 months. Clinical and epidemiological data and physical parameters of the patients were recorded and surgically removed GS were analyzed chemically and physically to identify the type of GS. In addition lipid profile was done in all the patients with normal serum bilirubin levels. Results A total of 86 patients were included in the study. Mixed cholesterol GS was significantly common among females than males (?2 test, p?=?0.029). Mixed cholesterol GS was commonly seen among patients belonging to Moor ethnicity (?2 test, p?=?0.009). Majority of patients with mixed cholesterol GS had body mass index above 25 kg/m2 (?2 test, p?=?0.018). Black pigment GS were significantly common among patients with type II diabetes mellitus (Fisher’s exact test, p?=?0.035). Further all the patients with chronic haemolytic anaemia and alcoholic cirrhosis had black pigment GS. Age, family history, Fasting Blood Glucose, dyslipidaemia, lipid profile, parity and use of oral contraceptive pills in females, smoking and alcohol intake in males did not differ significantly among patients in the two groups. Conclusion Gender, ethnicity and body mass index can be used to predict the formation of mixed cholesterol GS and black pigment GS. PMID:24884475

2014-01-01

345

Factors affecting the toxicity of rotting carcasses containing Clostridium botulinum type E.  

PubMed Central

Mice killed shortly after receiving c. 2000 spores of a type E strain of Clostridium botulinum per os were incubated at one of five chosen temperatures together with bottles of cooked meat medium seeded with a similar inoculum. After incubation the rotting carcasses were homogenized. Sterile membrane filtrates of the homogenates (10%, w/v) and pure cultures were then titrated for toxicity. Some of the main findings were confirmed with two further type E strains. Toxicity produced at 37 degrees C was poor in both carcasses and cultures (200-20,000 mouse intraperitoneal LD/g or ml). It was good in both systems at 30 and 23 degrees C, usually reaching 20,000-200,000 LD/g or ml, and in carcasses occasionally more; at 30 degrees C maximal toxicity was reached more quickly in carcasses than in cultures. Prolonged incubation (36-118 days) at 30 or 23 degrees C resulted in complete loss of toxicity in virtually all carcasses but not in cultures. At 16 degrees C the development of toxicity in carcasses was strikingly greater than in cultures. At 9 degrees C neither system produced more than slight toxicity after prolonged incubation. Trypsinization increased the toxicity of cultures but not usually of carcasses. Unfiltered carcass homogenate (10%, w/v) with maximal intraperitoneal toxicity was harmless for mice by mouth in doses of 0.25 ml. These findings differed in important respects from those made earlier with a type C strain. PMID:3288491

Smith, G. R.; Turner, A.; Till, D.

1988-01-01

346

Niemann-Pick disease, Type C: evidence for the deficiency of an activating factor stimulating sphingomyelin and glucocerebroside degradation.  

PubMed

1) Qualitative lipid analyses by thin-layer chromatography of 4 Niemann-Pick type C spleens confirmed sphingomyelin accumulation together with increase in the amount of glucocerebroside. 2) In the presence of crude sodium taurocholate as detergent, sphingomyelin degradation rates of normal and Niemann-Pick type C-cultured fibroblasts were fairly close under standard conditions at pH 5.0. In the absence of sodium taurocholate, sphingomyelinase activity was optimal at pH 4.0. Sphingomyelinase activities of fibroblasts from two patients with Niemann-Pick disease type C measured without detergent, were about 30% of that of controls. 3) Extracts from Gaucher spleen heated to 90 degrees C and devoid of sphingomyelinase activity stimulated at the optimal pH of 4.0 sphingomyelin degradation by cultured normal fibroblasts (2--4-fold, Niemann-Pick type C fibroblasts (5--9-fold), whereas similarly treated extracts from Niemann-Pick type C spleen showed no stimulation of sphingomyelin catabolism. Heated extracts from normal human spleen exhibited a smaller stimulation than that shown by Gaucher spleen. This stimulating effect could not be observed in fibroblasts from patients suffering from Niemann-Pick type B (sphingomyelinase defect). 4) Heat-treated extracts of Gaucher spleen were fractionated by ion exchange chromatography, isoelectric focusing and gel filtration. The active fractions obtained by these procedures stimulated sphingomyelin as well as glucocerebroside degradation and were absent from the corresponding Niemann-Pick type C preparations. Enriched activator preparations of Gaucher spleen stimulated sphingomyelinase activity of Niemann-Pick type C fibroblasts 25--38-fold and that of normal cells 3-fold. 5) The activating factor had an isoelectric point of 4.0 and an apparent molecular weight, as estimated by gel filtration, of 25000. Treatment with pronase E abolished its activity. PMID:6256275

Christomanou, H

1980-10-01

347

The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Adiposity, Blood Glycated Hemoglobin, Serum Leptin and Tumor Necrosis Factor-? in Type 2 Diabetic Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Since tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) could be one of the risk factors at the development of diabetes complications; as well as serum leptin deficiency is related to increased susceptibility to infections in diabetic patients, they are potential indices from the preventive medicine viewpoint. This study was conducted to represent the effect of supplemental vitamin D3 on serum leptin, TNF-? and adiposity in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, study sample was selected through type 2 diabetic patients (n = 51). A total of 26 patients were orally supplemented by vitamin D3 (400 IU/d) (vitamin D group) and 25 patients by placebo (placebo group) for 14 weeks. The blood glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and the serum ionized Ca, leptin, TNF-?, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH] D) were measured at the two groups in the baseline and postintervention stages. Results: It was shown that despite of theplacebo group, serum 25(OH) D and serum leptin was significantly increased (P = 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively), while serum TNF-? was decreased significantly (P = 0.001) in vitamin D group. The remaining parameters, including body fat mass and HbA1c had no alterations between baseline and postintervention stages in vitamin D group. Conclusions: This study may advocate vitamin D supplementation among type 2 diabetic patients due to its beneficial effects on prevention of diabetes complications. PMID:25317290

Ghavamzadeh, Saeid; Mobasseri, Majid; Mahdavi, Reza

2014-01-01

348

Cloning the promoter for transforming growth factor-beta type III receptor. Basal and conditional expression in fetal rat osteoblasts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transforming growth factor-beta binds to three high affinity cell surface molecules that directly or indirectly regulate its biological effects. The type III receptor (TRIII) is a proteoglycan that lacks significant intracellular signaling or enzymatic motifs but may facilitate transforming growth factor-beta binding to other receptors, stabilize multimeric receptor complexes, or segregate growth factor from activating receptors. Because various agents or events that regulate osteoblast function rapidly modulate TRIII expression, we cloned the 5' region of the rat TRIII gene to assess possible control elements. DNA fragments from this region directed high reporter gene expression in osteoblasts. Sequencing showed no consensus TATA or CCAAT boxes, whereas several nuclear factors binding sequences within the 3' region of the promoter co-mapped with multiple transcription initiation sites, DNase I footprints, gel mobility shift analysis, or loss of activity by deletion or mutation. An upstream enhancer was evident 5' proximal to nucleotide -979, and a silencer region occurred between nucleotides -2014 and -2194. Glucocorticoid sensitivity mapped between nucleotides -687 and -253, whereas bone morphogenetic protein 2 sensitivity co-mapped within the silencer region. Thus, the TRIII promoter contains cooperative basal elements and dispersed growth factor- and hormone-sensitive regulatory regions that can control TRIII expression by osteoblasts.

Ji, C.; Chen, Y.; McCarthy, T. L.; Centrella, M.

1999-01-01

349

Fluoride Affects Calcium Homeostasis and Osteogenic Transcription Factor Expressions Through L-type Calcium Channels in Osteoblast Cell Line.  

PubMed

Osteoblast L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCC) play important roles in maintaining intracellular homeostasis and influencing multiple cellular processes. In particular, they contribute to the activities and functions of osteoblasts (OBs). In order to study how L-type VDCC modulate calcium ion (Ca(2+)) homeostasis and the expression of osteogenic transcription factors in OBs exposed to fluoride, MC3T3-E1 cells were exposed to a gradient of concentrations of fluoride (0, 2.0, 5.0, 10.0 mg/L) in combination with 10 ?M nifedipine, a specific inhibitor of VDCC, for 48 h. We examined messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of Cav1.2, the main subunit of VDCC, and c-fos, c-jun, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osterix (OSX), and intracellular free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) concentrations in MC3T3-E1 cells. Our results showed that [Ca(2+)]i levels increased in a dose-dependent manner with increase in concentration of fluoride. Meantime, results indicated that lower concentrations of fluoride (less than 5 mg/L, especially 2 mg/L) can lead to high expression of Cav1.2 and enhance osteogenic function, while high concentration of fluoride (10 mg/L) can induce decreased Cav1.2 and osteogenic transcriptional factors in MC3T3E1 cells exposed to fluoride. However, the levels of [Ca(2+)]i, Cav1.2, c-fos, c-jun, Runx2, and OSX induced by fluoride were significantly altered and even reversed in the presence of nifedipine. These results demonstrate that L-type calcium channels play a crucial role in Ca(2+) homeostasis and they affect the expression of osteogenic transcription factors in fluoride-treated osteoblasts. PMID:25201340

Duan, Xiao-Qin; Zhao, Zhi-Tao; Zhang, Xiu-Yun; Wang, Ying; Wang, Huan; Liu, Da-Wei; Li, Guang-Sheng; Jing, Ling

2014-12-01

350

Risk Factors for Specific Histopathological Types of Postmenopausal Breast Cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study  

PubMed Central

Risk factor associations for rare breast cancer variants are often imprecise, obscuring differences between tumor types. To clarify differences, we examined risk factors for 5 histological types of breast cancer in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. Risk factor information was self-reported. We followed 192,076 postmenopausal women aged 50–71 years from 1995–1996 through 2006. During that time period, 5,334 ductal, 836 lobular, 639 mixed ductal-lobular, 216 mucinous, and 132 tubular breast cancers were diagnosed. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Heterogeneity was evaluated using case-only logistic regression. The strongest differences were for menopausal hormone therapy (Pheterogeneity < 0.01) and age at first birth (Pheterogeneity < 0.01). Risk of tubular cancer in relation to current menopausal hormone therapy (for current use vs. never use, hazard ratio (HR) = 4.39, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.77, 6.96) was several times stronger than risk of other histological types (range of HRs, 1.39–1.75). Older age at first birth was unassociated with risk of mucinous (for ?30 years vs. 20–24 years, HR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.27, 1.42) or tubular (HR = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.51, 2.29) tumors, in contrast to clear positive associations with lobular (HR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.39, 2.37) and mixed ductal-lobular (HR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.39, 2.51) tumors. Differing associations for hormonal factors and mucinous and tubular cancers suggest etiologies distinct from those of common breast cancers. PMID:23899816

Nyante, Sarah J.; Dallal, Cher M.; Gierach, Gretchen L.; Park, Yikyung; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Brinton, Louise A.

2013-01-01

351

Notes on Factors Affecting Geometrical Arrangement of Tricycle-Type Landing Gear  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of the geometrical arrangement of tricycle landing gears on various characteristics of an airplane equipped with such landing gear is discussed. The characteristics discussed include directional stability, overturning tendencies, steering and ground handling, shimmy, takeoff, and porpoising. The conclusions are summarized in a table.

Wenzinger, Carl J.; Kantrowitz, A. R.

1937-01-01

352

Evaluation of Two Types of Differential Item Functioning in Factor Mixture Models with Binary Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conventional differential item functioning (DIF) detection methods (e.g., the Mantel-Haenszel test) can be used to detect DIF only across observed groups, such as gender or ethnicity. However, research has found that DIF is not typically fully explained by an observed variable. True sources of DIF may include unobserved, latent variables, such as…

Lee, HwaYoung; Beretvas, S. Natasha

2014-01-01

353

Multiple transcription factors directly regulate Hox gene lin-39 expression in ventral hypodermal cells of the C. elegans embryo and larva, including the hypodermal fate regulators LIN-26 and ELT-6  

PubMed Central

Background Hox genes encode master regulators of regional fate specification during early metazoan development. Much is known about the initiation and regulation of Hox gene expression in Drosophila and vertebrates, but less is known in the non-arthropod invertebrate model system, C. elegans. The C. elegans Hox gene lin-39 is required for correct fate specification in the midbody region, including the Vulval Precursor Cells (VPCs). To better understand lin-39 regulation and function, we aimed to identify transcription factors necessary for lin-39 expression in the VPCs, and in particular sought factors that initiate lin-39 expression in the embryo. Results We used the yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) method to screen for factors that bound to 13 fragments from the lin-39 region: twelve fragments contained sequences conserved between C. elegans and two other nematode species, while one fragment was known to drive reporter gene expression in the early embryo in cells that generate the VPCs. Sixteen transcription factors that bind to eight lin-39 genomic fragments were identified in yeast, and we characterized several factors by verifying their physical interactions in vitro, and showing that reduction of their function leads to alterations in lin-39 levels and lin-39::GFP reporter expression in vivo. Three factors, the orphan nuclear hormone receptor NHR-43, the hypodermal fate regulator LIN-26, and the GATA factor ELT-6 positively regulate lin-39 expression in the embryonic precursors to the VPCs. In particular, ELT-6 interacts with an enhancer that drives GFP expression in the early embryo, and the ELT-6 site we identified is necessary for proper embryonic expression. These three factors, along with the factors ZTF-17, BED-3 and TBX-9, also positively regulate lin-39 expression in the larval VPCs. Conclusions These results significantly expand the number of factors known to directly bind and regulate lin-39 expression, identify the first factors required for lin-39 expression in the embryo, and hint at a positive feedback mechanism involving GATA factors that maintains lin-39 expression in the vulval lineage. This work indicates that, as in other organisms, the regulation of Hox gene expression in C. elegans is complicated, redundant and robust. PMID:24885717

2014-01-01

354

Role of resection for Bismuth type IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma and analysis of determining factors for curative resection  

PubMed Central

Purpose Extended liver resection may provide long-term survival in selected patients with Bismuth type IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA). The purpose of this study was to identify anatomical factors that predict curative-intended resection. Methods Thirty-three of 159 patients with Bismuth type IV HCCA underwent major hepato-biliary resection with curative intent (CIR) between 2000 and 2010. Disease extent and anatomical variations were analyzed as factors enabling CIR. Results CIR ratio with hilar trifurcation bile duct variation (13/16) was significantly higher than that with other bile duct variation types (18/25). Hilum to left second bile duct confluence and tumor infiltration over left second bile duct confluence lengths in right-sided CIR were significantly shorter than those lengths in left-sided CIR (10.8 ± 4.9 and 2.7 ± 0.8 mm vs. 16.5 ± 8.4 and 7.0 ± 5.3 mm, respectively). Left-sided CIR patients had a marginally higher proportion of tumors invading ?5 mm over the right second confluence than that in right-sided CIR patients (13/17 vs. 6/16; P = 0.061). The 3-year survival rate after CIR (28%) was significantly higher than after non-CIR (6.1%). Conclusion We recommend the criteria of CIR as bile duct variation type, length of hilum to contralateral second bile duct confluence, and extent of tumor infiltration over the second confluence for Bismuth type IV HCCA. PMID:25114888

Han, In Woong; Kang, Mee Joo; Kwon, Wooil; Park, Jae Woo; Chang, Ye Rim; Kim, Sun-Whe

2014-01-01

355

Diabetes type II: a risk factor for depression-Parkinson-Alzheimer?  

PubMed

There is ample evidence that impairments in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are of etiopathobiochemical importance in a subgroup of patients with "depression", causing hypercortisolaemia as major metabolic effect. Chronic hypercortisolaemia causes insulin resistance. Therefore, it is not surprising that epidemiological studies demonstrate an association of "depression" with diabetes type II and vice versa. Chronic stress and hypercortisolaemia are conditions, which have been suggested to be causal for Alzheimer's disease (AD) as brain insulin resistance is associated with ?-Amyloid-accumulation and hyperphosphorylation of tau-protein. Depression is one of the significant symptomatology preceding AD. It is however, not known whether "depression" associated with hypercortisolaemia is the subgroup at risk for AD. In contrast to a subgroup of "depression" and to AD, in Parkinson's disease (PD) there is only weak evidence for an association with diabetes type II and insulin resistance. As "depression" is preceding PD in up to half of such patients, it remains to be elucidated whether this is a subgroup of depressed patients, which is not associated with disturbances of the HPA axis and hypercortisolaemia. Improved clinical and biochemical/molecular knowledge about "depression" associated with AD and PD in comparison to "pure" depression might lead to improved therapeutic strategies and even drug development focusing subtypes of "depression". PMID:20552313

Riederer, Peter; Bartl, Jasmin; Laux, Gerd; Grünblatt, Edna

2011-02-01

356

Controlling factors of Tc dome structure in 1111-type iron arsenide superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the effects of phosphorus substitution on the shape of the Tc(x) dome in 1111-type SmFeAs1-yPyO1-xHx (0 < x < 0.5). Hydride ion substitution of oxide sites (O2- ? H-) exerts a chemical pressure effect, i.e., a structural reduction of the Pn-Fe-Pn angle ? (Pn = P, As) and also dopes electrons into the FePn layer to induce superconductivity. Isovalent phosphorus substitution (P3- ? As3-) can induce only a chemical pressure effect, i.e., an increase of ? for La substitution of Sm sites. As y increases from 0.0 to 0.5, the single Tc dome gradually splits into two domes, similar to those of LaFeAsO1-xHx with a Tc valley at x ? 0.16. We found that the Tc valley is located around (x, ?) ? (0.16, 113°) for both of the SmFeAs1-yPyO1-xHx and LaFeAsO1-xHx series, irrespective of changes in the Pn anion and Ln cation species. This result suggests that suppression of Tc leads to the emergence of a Tc valley when both the shape of FePn4 tetrahedra represented by ? and electron-doping level of x meet the above criterion in 1111-type iron oxypnictide superconductors.

Matsuishi, Satoru; Maruyama, Takuya; Iimura, Soshi; Hosono, Hideo

2014-03-01

357

Large Thermoelectric Power Factor in P-type Si (110)/[110] Ultra-Thin-Layers Compared to Differently Oriented Channels  

E-print Network

1 Large Thermoelectric Power Factor in P-type Si (110)/[110] Ultra-Thin-Layers Compared the thermoelectric power factor of ultra-thin-body p-type Si layers of thicknesses from W=3nm up to 10nm. We show improvement in 2D thin- layers of zincblende semiconductors. Keywords: low-dimensional thermoelectrics

358

Energetic factors determining the binding of type I inhibitors to c-Met kinase: experimental studies and quantum mechanical calculations  

PubMed Central

Aim: To decipher the molecular interactions between c-Met and its type I inhibitors and to facilitate the design of novel c-Met inhibitors. Methods: Based on the prototype model inhibitor 1, four ligands with subtle differences in the fused aromatic rings were synthesized. Quantum chemistry was employed to calculate the binding free energy for each ligand. Symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) was used to decompose the binding energy into several fundamental forces to elucidate the determinant factors. Results: Binding free energies calculated from quantum chemistry were correlated well with experimental data. SAPT calculations showed that the predominant driving force for binding was derived from a sandwich ?–? interaction with Tyr-1230. Arg-1208 was the differentiating factor, interacting with the 6-position of the fused aromatic ring system through the backbone carbonyl with a force pattern similar to hydrogen bonding. Therefore, a hydrogen atom must be attached at the 6-position, and changing the carbon atom to nitrogen caused unfavorable electrostatic interactions. Conclusion: The theoretical studies have elucidated the determinant factors involved in the binding of type I inhibitors to c-Met. PMID:24056705

Yu, Zhe; Ma, Yu-chi; Ai, Jing; Chen, Dan-qi; Zhao, Dong-mei; Wang, Xin; Chen, Yue-lei; Geng, Mei-yu; Xiong, Bing; Cheng, Mao-sheng; Shen, Jing-kang

2013-01-01

359

Lifestyle Factors Associated with Type 2 Diabetes and Use of Different Glucose-Lowering Drugs: Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Aims To examine the lifestyle profile among persons with and without Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and among users of different glucose-lowering drugs. Methods We used questionnaire data from a Danish health survey and identified presence of Type 2 DM and use of medications through medical databases. We calculated age- and gender-standardized prevalence ratios (PRs) of lifestyle factors according to Type 2 DM and different glucose-lowering drugs. Results Of 21,637 survey participants aged 25–79 years, 680 (3%) had Type 2 DM (median age 63 years) with a median diabetes duration of 5 years. Participants with Type 2 DM had a substantially higher prevalence of obesity (36% vs. 13%, PR: 3.1, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.8–3.6), yet more reported to eat a very healthy diet (25% vs. 21%, PR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0–1.4) and to exercise regularly (67% vs. 53%, PR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.2–1.4). Also, fewer were current smokers or had high alcohol intake. When compared with metformin users, obesity was substantially less prevalent in users of sulfonylurea (PR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.4–0-8), and insulin and analogues (PR: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.3–0.7). Tobacco smoking was more prevalent in sulfonylurea users (PR: 1.4, 95% CI: 0.9–2.1) compared with metformin users. We found no material differences in physical exercise, diet or alcohol intake according to type of glucose-lowering drug. Conclusions Type 2 DM patients are substantially more obese than other individuals, but otherwise report to have a healthier lifestyle. Metformin use is strongly associated with obesity, whereas sulfonylurea use tends to be associated with tobacco smoking. PMID:25369331

Ulrichsen, Sinna P.; Mor, Anil; Svensson, Elisabeth; Larsen, Finn B.; Thomsen, Reimar W.

2014-01-01

360

Functions of Type II Pneumocyte-Derived Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Alveolar Structure, Acute Inflammation, and Vascular Permeability  

PubMed Central

Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF) is a potent regulator of vascular permeability, inflammatory response, and cell survival in the lung. To explore the functions of VEGF produced locally in type II pneumocytes, we generated mice with a conditional deletion of VEGF-A using Cre recombinase driven by the human surfactant protein C (SPC) promoter. In 7- to 10-week-old VEGF-knockout (SPC-VEGF-KO) mice, lung histology and physiology were essentially normal, except for higher dynamic lung compliance and lower pulmonary vascular permeability. Emphysema was seen in 28- to 32-week-old animals. To investigate the role of type II pneumocyte-derived VEGF in acute lung injury, we challenged 7- to 10-week-old SPC-VEGF-KO mice and their wild-type littermates with intestinal ischemia-reperfusion. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid total cell count, pulmonary permeability, and lung injury score were significantly attenuated, and total lung VEGF levels were significantly lower in SPC-VEGF-KO mice compared with wild-type controls. In SPC-VEGF-KO mice, activated caspase 3-positive type II epithelial cells were increased after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion, even though there was no significant difference in the total number of cells positive for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling. We conclude that VEGF in type II cells helps protect alveolar epithelial cells from caspase-dependent apoptosis. However, VEGF produced from type II cells may contribute to increased vascular permeability during acute lung injury. PMID:20167862

Mura, Marco; Binnie, Matthew; Han, Bing; Li, Chengjin; Andrade, Cristiano F.; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Zhang, Yu; Ferrara, Napoleone; Hwang, David; Waddell, Thomas K.; Keshavjee, Shaf; Liu, Mingyao

2010-01-01

361

Histone-fold domain protein NF-Y promotes chromatin accessibility for cell type-specific master transcription factors.  

PubMed

Cell type-specific master transcription factors (TFs) play vital roles in defining cell identity and function. However, the roles ubiquitous factors play in the specification of cell identity remain underappreciated. Here we show that the ubiquitous CCAAT-binding NF-Y complex is required for the maintenance of embryonic stem cell (ESC) identity and is an essential component of the core pluripotency network. Genome-wide studies in ESCs and neurons reveal that NF-Y regulates not only genes with housekeeping functions through cell type-invariant promoter-proximal binding, but also genes required for cell identity by binding to cell type-specific enhancers with master TFs. Mechanistically, NF-Y's distinct DNA-binding mode promotes master/pioneer TF binding at enhancers by facilitating a permissive chromatin conformation. Our studies unearth a conceptually unique function for histone-fold domain (HFD) protein NF-Y in promoting chromatin accessibility and suggest that other HFD proteins with analogous structural and DNA-binding properties may function in similar ways. PMID:25132174

Oldfield, Andrew J; Yang, Pengyi; Conway, Amanda E; Cinghu, Senthilkumar; Freudenberg, Johannes M; Yellaboina, Sailu; Jothi, Raja

2014-09-01

362

Detection of virulence factors and molecular typing of pathogenic Leptospira from capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris).  

PubMed

Leptospirosis is a globally prevalent zoonosis caused by pathogenic Leptospira spp.; several serologic variants have reservoirs in synanthropic rodents. The capybara is the largest living rodent in the world, and it has a wide geographical distribution in Central and South America. This rodent is a significant source of Leptospira since the agent is shed via urine into the environment and is a potential public health threat. In this study, we isolated and identified by molecular techniques a pathogenic Leptospira from capybara in southern Brazil. The isolated strain was characterized by partial rpoB gene sequencing and variable-number tandem-repeats analysis as L. interrogans, serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae. In addition, to confirm the expression of virulence factors, the bacterial immunoglobulin-like proteins A and B expression was detected by indirect immunofluorescence using leptospiral specific monoclonal antibodies. This report identifies capybaras as an important source of infection and provides insight into the epidemiology of leptospirosis. PMID:22782467

Jorge, Sérgio; Monte, Leonardo G; Coimbra, Marco Antonio; Albano, Ana Paula; Hartwig, Daiane D; Lucas, Caroline; Seixas, Fabiana K; Dellagostin, Odir A; Hartleben, Cláudia P

2012-10-01

363

A new type of transforming growth factor-beta, TGF-beta 3.  

PubMed Central

A new type of TGF-beta, TGF-beta 3, has been identified by cDNA characterization. The amino acid sequence of mature TGF-beta 3 and its precursor has been derived from porcine and human cDNA sequences. The human TGF-beta 3 gene is spread over seven exons as in the case of the TGF-beta 1 gene. Comparison with TGF-beta 1 and -beta 2 indicates a strong conservation of the mature sequences, but a relaxed homology in the precursor segments. TGF-beta 3 mRNA is mainly expressed in cell lines from mesenchymal origin, suggesting a biological role different from the other TGFs-beta. Images PMID:3208746

Derynck, R; Lindquist, P B; Lee, A; Wen, D; Tamm, J; Graycar, J L; Rhee, L; Mason, A J; Miller, D A; Coffey, R J

1988-01-01

364

Hypoxia regulates basal and induced DNA synthesis and collagen type I production in human cardiac fibroblasts: effects of transforming growth factor-beta1, thyroid hormone, angiotensin II and basic fibroblast growth factor.  

PubMed

Analysis of post-infarct ventricular remodeling consistently shows the accumulation of collagen in failing heart. The goal of this study was to gain insights into the underlying mechanisms of this event. We determined the effect of hypoxia, caused as the result of ischemia, on biological responses including cell viability, basal and growth factor-stimulated proliferative capacity and collagen type I production in cardiac fibroblasts obtained from adult human heart. The cell viability, as examined by light microscopy and analysis of DNA, did not change by hypoxia (2% oxygen). Basal level of protein synthesis, as determined by measuring the incorporation of 3H-leucine, decreased (30%, P<0.05) under hypoxia. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta1)- and thyroid hormone (T3)-induced increases in protein synthesis did not change under hypoxia. In contrast, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-stimulated protein synthesis enhanced significantly under hypoxia. Angiotensin II (Ang II)-treatment, which did not induce significant changes in protein synthesis under ambient conditions, led to moderate but significant increase under hypoxia. Basal level of DNA synthesis, as determined by measuring the incorporation of 3H-thymidine into DNA, decreased (32%, P<0.05) under hypoxia. The TGF-beta1-induced inhibition of DNA synthesis which was observed under ambient conditions was reversed [61% (P<0.005) increase under hypoxia]. Under ambient conditions, T3, Ang II and bFGF stimulated DNA synthesis and their effects were enhanced under hypoxia. Northern analysis showed a 46% (P<0.05) increase in the level of pro alpha1(l) collagen mRNA under hypoxia. The TGF-beta1-induced increase in the level of pro alpha1(l) collagen mRNA, under ambient conditions, was not observed under hypoxia. On the other hand, the T3-induced decrease in pro alpha1(l) collagen mRNA was reversed under hypoxia. Ang II- and bFGF-treatment of human cardiac fibroblasts did not cause detectable changes in the level of pro alpha1(l) collagen mRNA under ambient conditions or hypoxia. At the protein level, the amount of immunoreactive collagen type I, as determined by immunoslot blot analysis, was increased (33%, P<0.05) under hypoxia. Treatment of human cardiac fibroblasts with TGF-beta1 and T3 under ambient conditions led to diminished level of collagen type I. Under hypoxia, however, effect of both factors was reversed. The level of immunoreactive collagen type I in Ang II- and bFGF-treated cells, which was comparable to that in untreated cells under ambient conditions, remained unchanged under hypoxia. Together, these results provide evidence that hypoxia regulates growth, proliferative capacity and collagen type I production in human cardiac fibroblasts, and that although hypoxia alone may not be a stimulus for human cardiac fibroblast proliferation, it enhances growth factor-induced DNA synthesis in those cells. Furthermore, hypoxia by increasing the basal levels of collagen type I and by reversing the TGF-beta1- and T3-induced inhibition of collagen type I gene expression in human cardiac fibroblasts can enhance overall collagen type I production. Combinatorial effects of hypoxia on proliferation and collagen type I production in cardiac fibroblasts contribute to the post-infarct remodeling of the collagen matrix in failing human heart. PMID:9281454

Agocha, A; Lee, H W; Eghbali-Webb, M

1997-08-01

365

Patient and surgery related factors associated with fatigue type polyethylene wear on 49 PCA and DURACON retrievals at autopsy and revision  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Polyethylene wear is an important factor for longevity of total knee arthroplasty. Proven and suspicious factors causing wear can be grouped as material, patient and surgery related. There are more studies correlating design and\\/or biomaterial factors to in vivo wear than those to patient and surgery related factors. Many retrieval studies just include revision implants and therefore may not

Markus Rohrbach; Martin Lüem; Peter E Ochsner

2008-01-01

366

Transforming growth factor beta receptor type III is a tumor promoter in mesenchymal-stem like triple negative breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction There is a major need to better understand the molecular basis of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) in order to develop effective therapeutic strategies. Using gene expression data from 587 TNBC patients we previously identified six subtypes of the disease, among which a mesenchymal-stem like (MSL) subtype. The MSL subtype has significantly higher expression of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) pathway-associated genes relative to other subtypes, including the TGF-? receptor type III (T?RIII). We hypothesize that T?RIII is tumor promoter in mesenchymal-stem like TNBC cells. Methods Representative MSL cell lines SUM159, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-157 were used to study the roles of T?RIII in the MSL subtype. We stably expressed short hairpin RNAs specific to T?RIII (T?RIII-KD). These cells were then used for xenograft tumor studies in vivo; and migration, invasion, proliferation and three dimensional culture studies in vitro. Furthermore, we utilized human gene expression datasets to examine T?RIII expression patterns across all TNBC subtypes. Results T?RIII was the most differentially expressed TGF-? signaling gene in the MSL subtype. Silencing T?RIII expression in MSL cell lines significantly decreased cell motility and invasion. In addition, when T?RIII-KD cells were grown in a three dimensional (3D) culture system or nude mice, there was a loss of invasive protrusions and a significant decrease in xenograft tumor growth, respectively. In pursuit of the mechanistic underpinnings for the observed T?RIII-dependent phenotypes, we discovered that integrin-?2 was expressed at higher level in MSL cells after T?RIII-KD. Stable knockdown of integrin-?2 in T?RIII-KD MSL cells rescued the ability of the MSL cells to migrate and invade at the same level as MSL control cells. Conclusions We have found that T?RIII is required for migration and invasion in vitro and xenograft growth in vivo. We also show that T?RIII-KD elevates expression of integrin-?2, which is required for the reduced migration and invasion, as determined by siRNA knockdown studies of both T?RIII and integrin-?2. Overall, our results indicate a potential mechanism in which T?RIII modulates integrin-?2 expression to effect MSL cell migration, invasion, and tumorigenicity. PMID:24985072

2014-01-01

367

Management of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Older Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: 2002 - 2012 Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Diabetes Mellitus type 2 (DM) is one of the most common chronic conditions among older adults and is often present with co-morbidities and geriatric syndromes. The management of cardiovascular disease risk factors in older adults with DM is of important significance to clinicians. The literature was reviewed from 2002-2012 to provide an American Geriatrics Society (AGS) expert panel with an evidence base for updating and making new recommendations for improving the care of the older adult with DM. This review includes only the domains of the management of blood pressure, lipid control, glycemic control, and use of aspirin. Over the last ten years, new randomized clinical trial (RCT) evidence designed to study the impact of different blood pressure treatment targets did not find that intensive blood pressure control (<130 mmHg) reduced myocardial infarction and mortality. There are increased risks of side effects with achieving a blood pressure of < 120 mmHg. Statin class lipid lowering drugs are effective in reducing cardiovascular events among middle aged and older adults but data on niacin and fibrates is limited. Lipid lowering trials of statins and other lipid lowering agents do not evaluate the cardiovascular effects of treating lipids to different low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol targets. There were no randomized clinical trials of lipid lowering drugs that enrolled significant numbers of adults age 80 years and above with or without DM. Three major RCTs that investigated intensive glycemic control did not find reductions in primary cardiovascular endpoints and one study reported increased mortality with a hemoglobin A1C < 6%. Two recent published RCTs were designed to study the cardiovascular benefits of aspirin use by patients with DM. Both trials failed to significantly reduce primary cardiovascular endpoints with aspirin compared to control groups. Overall, RCTs enrolled very few adults greater than 80 years of age or with significant co-morbidities. More research is needed for clinicians to effectively tailor care to older adults with DM because of heterogeneity in health status, co-morbidities, duration of disease, frailty and functional status, and differences in life expectancy. PMID:24219205

Moreno, Gerardo; Mangione, Carol M.

2014-01-01

368

Erythrocyte trans-fatty acids, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged and older Chinese individuals  

PubMed Central

Aims/hypothesis Few data are available about intakes and food sources of trans-fatty acids (TFAs) or their associations with cardiometabolic outcomes in Asian people who consume a prudent diet but are experiencing rapid nutritional transitions. We aimed to investigate the relationships between TFA biomarkers and type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese individuals. Methods Erythrocyte fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography among 3,107 men and women (50–70 years) recruited from urban and rural areas in Beijing and Shanghai, China. Results Total trans-18:1 and two trans-18:2 isomers were detected and accounted for 0.37% of the total fatty acids in the erythrocytes. Concentrations of TFAs were higher in women than men, and in urban than rural residents. Of the TFAs, trans-18:1, but not trans-18:2, showed a modest association with dairy consumption (?=0.27), but not with other foods. After adjustment for BMI, social-demographic, lifestyle and dietary factors and other TFAs, erythrocyte trans-18:1 was shown to be associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes (OR comparing extreme quartiles=0.68, 95% CI=0.48, 0.97, ptrend=0.02), as well as 20–50% lower odds of central obesity, dyslipidaemia, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and chronic inflammation. In contrast, trans-18:2 fatty acids were positively associated with high triacylglycerol (ptrend<0.001) and LDL-cholesterol (ptrend=0.03) levels, but not with diabetes and other cardiometabolic risk factors. Conclusions/interpretation Among middle-aged and older Chinese individuals with overall low erythrocyte TFAs levels, trans-18:1 might serve as a marker of dairy intake. Higher trans-18:1 levels were associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, whereas higher trans-18:2 levels were associated with dyslipidaemia. PMID:22886370

Yu, D.X.; Sun, Q.; Ye, X.W.; Pan, A.; Zong, G.; Zhou, Y.H.; Li, H.X.; Hu, F.B.; Lin, X.

2013-01-01

369

Stapling of the botulinum type A protease to growth factors and neuropeptides allows selective targeting of neuroendocrine cells  

PubMed Central

Precise cellular targeting of macromolecular cargos has important biotechnological and medical implications. Using a recently established ‘protein stapling’ method, we linked the proteolytic domain of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) to a selection of ligands to target neuroendocrine tumor cells. The botulinum proteolytic domain was chosen because of its well-known potency to block the release of neurotransmitters and hormones. Among nine tested stapled ligands, the epidermal growth factor was able to deliver the botulinum enzyme into pheochromocytoma PC12 and insulinoma Min6 cells; ciliary neurotrophic factor was effective on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and Neuro2A cells, whereas corticotropin-releasing hormone was active on pituitary AtT-20 cells and the two neuroblastoma cell lines. In neuronal cultures, the epidermal growth factor- and ciliary neurotrophic factor-directed botulinum enzyme targeted distinct subsets of neurons whereas the whole native neurotoxin targeted the cortical neurons indiscriminately. At nanomolar concentrations, the retargeted botulinum molecules were able to inhibit stimulated release of hormones from tested cell lines suggesting their application for treatments of neuroendocrine disorders. PMID:23638840

Arsenault, Jason; Ferrari, Enrico; Niranjan, Dhevahi; Cuijpers, Sabine A G; Gu, Chunjing; Vallis, Yvonne; O'Brien, John; Davletov, Bazbek

2013-01-01

370

40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel  

...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for...C-1 to Subpart C of Part 98—Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat...

2014-07-01

371

40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for...C-1 to Subpart C of Part 98—Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat...

2013-07-01

372

Tissue-type plasminogen activator is not necessary for platelet-derived growth factor-c activation.  

PubMed

Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) are critical for development; their over-expression is associated with fibrogenesis. Full-length PDGF-C is secreted as an inactive dimer, requiring cleavage to allow receptor binding. Previous studies indicate that tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is the specific protease that performs this cleavage; in vivo confirmation is lacking. We demonstrate that primary hepatocytes from tpa KO mice produce less cleaved active PDGF-CC than do wild type hepatocytes, suggesting that tPA is critical for in vitro activation of this growth factor. We developed mice that over-express full-length human PDGF-C in the liver; these mice develop progressive liver fibrosis. To test whether tPA is important for cleavage and activation of PDGF-C in vivo, we intercrossed PDGF-C transgenic (Tg) and tpa knock-out (KO) mice, anticipating that lack of tPA would result in decreased fibrosis due to lack of hPDGF-C cleavage. To measure levels of cleaved, dimerized PDGF-CC in sera, we developed an ELISA that specifically detects cleaved PDGF-CC. We report that the absence of tpa does not affect the phenotype of `PDGF-C Tg mice. PDGF-C Tg mice lacking tPA have high serum levels of cleaved growth factor, significant liver fibrosis, and gene expression alterations similar to those of PDGF-C Tg mice with intact tPA. Furthermore, urokinase plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression are increased in PDGF-C Tg; tpa KO mice. Our ELISA data suggest a difference between in vitro and in vivo activation of this growth factor, and our mouse model confirms that multiple proteases cleave and activate PDGF-C in vivo. PMID:24269585

Riehle, Kimberly J; Johnson, Melissa M; Johansson, Fredrik; Bauer, Renay L; Hayes, Brian J; Gilbertson, Debra G; Haran, Aaron C; Fausto, Nelson; Campbell, Jean S

2014-02-01

373

Effect of genetic and phenotypic factors on the composition of commercial marmande type tomatoes studied through HRMAS NMR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The effects of genetic, technological and environmental factors on the chemical composition of four marmande type tomato varieties have been investigated. The study is based on the analysis of (1)H HRMAS NMR spectra of tomato purée using a combination of partial least squares (PLS) and assigned signal analysis (ASA). In agreement with genetic, morphological and taste characteristics of the tomatoes studied, the analysis of the NMR data allows two groups of samples to be differentiated. The type of culture and climatic conditions can reduce the compositional differences. The extension of the compositional changes produced by climatic conditions is variety-depend. Neither grafting nor perlite affect significantly the relative content of primary metabolites. This was not the case for tomatoes grown using the pure hydroponic production system based on the recirculation of nutrient solution, New Growing System NGS®, which seems to be an effective agricultural approach to improve tomato quality. PMID:24001806

Iglesias, María José; García López, Jesús; Collados Luján, Juan Fernando; López Ortiz, Fernando; Bojórquez Pereznieto, Humberto; Toresano, Fernando; Camacho, Francisco

2014-01-01

374

Factors driving carbon mineralization priming effect in a soil amended with different types of biochar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of biochar on soil carbon mineralization priming effect depends on the characteristics of the raw materials, production method and pyrolysis conditions. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the impact of three different types of biochar on soil CO2 emissions and in different physicochemical properties. For this purpose, a sandy-loam soil was amended with the three biochars (BI, BII and BIII) at a rate of 8 wt % and soil CO2 emissions were measured for 45 days. BI is produced from a mixed wood sieving's from wood chip production, BII from a mixture of paper sludge and wheat husks and BIII from sewage sludge. Cumulative CO2 emissions of biochars, soil and amended soil were well fit to a simple first-order kinetic model with correlation coefficients (r2) greater than 0.97. Results shown a negative priming effect in the soil after addition of BI and a positive priming effect in the case of soil amended with BII and BIII. These results can be related with different biochar properties such as ash content, volatile matter, fixed carbon, organic carbon oxidised with dichromate, soluble carbon and metal and phenolic substances content in addition to surface biochar properties. Three biochars increased the values of soil field capacity and wilting point, while effects over pH and cation exchange capacity were not observed.

Cely, P.; Tarquis, A. M.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Méndez, A.; Gascó, G.

2014-03-01

375

Distinguishing the Contribution of Type 1 Pili from That of Other QseB-Misregulated Factors when QseC Is Absent during Urinary Tract Infection  

PubMed Central

Urinary tract infections (UTI), primarily caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), are one of the leading bacterial infections due to their high frequency and rate of recurrence. Both type 1 pilus adhesive organelles (fim) and the QseC sensor kinase have been implicated in UPEC virulence during UTI and have been individually reported to be promising drug targets. Deletion of qseC leads to pleiotropic effects due to unregulated activation of the cognate response regulator QseB, influencing conserved metabolic processes and diminishing expression of virulence genes, including type 1 pili. Here, we discern the type 1 pilus-dependent and -independent effects that contribute to the virulence attenuation of a UPEC qseC deletion mutant in a murine model of experimental UTI. We show that although a ?qseC mutant restored for type 1 pilus expression regains the ability to colonize the host and initiate acute infection up to 16 h postinfection, it is rapidly outcompeted during acute infection when coinoculated with a wild-type strain. As a result, this strain has a diminished capacity to establish chronic infection. A prophylactic oral dose of a FimH small-molecular-weight antagonist (ZFH-02056) further reduced the ability of the qseC mutant to establish chronic infection. Thus, loss of QseC significantly enhances the efficacy of ZFH-02056. Collectively, our work indicates that type 1 pili and QseC become critical in different infection stages, and that dual targeting of these factors has an additive effect on ablating UPEC virulence. PMID:22665375

Kostakioti, Maria; Hadjifrangiskou, Maria; Cusumano, Corinne K.; Hannan, Thomas J.; Janetka, James W.

2012-01-01

376

Vitamin D status and associated factors in recent-onset type 1 diabetic children in Iran  

PubMed Central

Background In this study, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was assessed in a group of children and adolescent patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Methods Fifty-three patients with age 8–18?years and duration of T1DM less than 8?weeks were recruited. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess dietary vitamin D and calcium intake. Sunshine exposure was measured using a questionnaire to quantify the amount of time children spent in the sun and other sun-related habits, and a sun index score was generated. Serum 25(OH)D?

2012-01-01

377

Role of factor VIII-von Willebrand factor and fibronectin in the interaction of platelets in flowing blood with monomeric and fibrillar human collagen types I and III.  

PubMed Central

Platelet adhesion to monomeric collagen types I and III, which were purified from human umbilical arteries, was studied in a perfusion chamber under well defined flow conditions. For this purpose, glass coverslips were coated with 20-30 micrograms/cm2 of collagen types I and III by spraying a solution of these collagens with a retouching air brush. Platelet deposition increased with the time of perfusion. Adhesion to both collagen types was similar in the first 3 min, but increased platelet deposition occurred on collagen type III after 3 min due to thrombus formation. Adhesion at a shear rate of 800 s-1 was strongly impaired with plasma of a patient with von Willebrand's disease or with fibronectin-free plasma. Addition of purified fibronectin to fibronectin-free plasma restored adhesion to the level obtained with normal plasma. Platelet deposition in normal plasma increased with increasing shear rates. Platelet deposition in VWD-plasma was normal at 490 s-1, but there was no increase at higher shear rates. Platelet deposition in fibronectin-free plasma was diminished at all shear rates studied from 490 to 1,300 s-1. Perfusion with a human albumin solution (HAS) to which purified Factor VIII-von Willebrand factor complex (FVIII-VWF) and fibronectin had been added gave similar platelet deposition as with normal plasma. Preincubation of collagen with FVIII-VWF and perfusion with HAS containing fibronectin, or, conversely, preincubation with fibronectin and perfusion with HAS containing FVIII-VWF, also resulted in adhesion similar to that observed in normal plasma. Similar adhesion was also observed after preincubation with both FVIII-VWF and fibronectin and subsequent perfusion with HAS alone. Sequential preincubations with first FVIII-VWF and then fibronectin, or with first fibronectin and then FVIII-VWF followed by perfusion with HAS, also gave a similar adhesion as observed with normal plasma. These data indicate that platelet adhesion to monomeric collagen types I and III is dependent on both FVIII-VWF and fibronectin. FVIII-VWF is only required at relatively high shear rates; fibronectin also at relatively low shear rates. Their complementary role in platelet adhesion suggests separate binding sites for FVIII-VWF and fibronectin on collagen. Platelet deposition on performed fibrils of collagen types I and III was also studied. Initial adhesion expressed as percentage surface coverage was similar to that found with monomeric collagen, but thrombus formation was much enhanced. Adhesion on fibrillar collagen at 800 s(-1) was impaired in VWD-plasma and fibronectin-free plasma, and was restored by addition of purified fibronectin to fibronectin-free plasma. When perfusions were performed with HAS, only addition of FVIII-VWF was required for optimal adhesion to fibrillar collagen; addition of fibronectin had no effect. These data are in contrast to the studies with monomeric collagens described above, in which the addition of both FVIII-VWF and fibronectin was required. These data are also in contrast to the observation that in plasma both FVIII-VWF and fibronectin are required for optimal adhesion to fibrillar collagen. Images PMID:3919060

Houdijk, W P; Sakariassen, K S; Nievelstein, P F; Sixma, J J

1985-01-01

378

Simvastatin inhibits transforming growth factor-?1-induced expression of type I collagen, CTGF, and ?-SMA in keloid fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Simvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme-A reductase inhibitor, is used to reduce cholesterol levels. Accumulating evidence has revealed the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of simvastatin that prevent cardiovascular diseases. In addition, the beneficial effects of statins on fibrosis of various organs have been reported. However, the functional effect of statins on dermal fibrosis of keloids has not yet been explored. The objective of this study was to determine whether simvastatin could affect dermal fibrosis associated with keloids. We examined the effect of simvastatin on transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1-induced production of type I collagen, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF or CCN2), and ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA). Keloid fibroblasts were cultured and exposed to different concentrations of simvastatin in the presence of TGF-?1, and the effects of simvastatin on TGF-?1-induced collagen and CTGF production in keloid fibroblasts were determined. The type I collagen, CTGF, and ?-SMA expression levels and the Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylation levels were assessed by Western blotting. The effect of simvastatin on cell viability was evaluated by assessing the colorimetric conversion of 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. Simvastatin suppressed TGF-?1-induced type I collagen, CTGF, and ?-SMA production in a concentration-dependent manner. The TGF-?1-induced Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylation levels were abrogated by simvastatin pretreatment. The inhibition of type I collagen, CTGF, and ?-SMA expression by simvastatin was reversed by geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, suggesting that the simvastatin-induced cellular responses were due to inhibition of small GTPase Rho involvement. A RhoA activation assay showed that preincubation with simvastatin significantly blocked TGF-?1-induced RhoA activation. The Rho-associated coiled kinase inhibitor Y27632 abrogated TGF-?1-induced production of type I collagen, CTGF, and ?-SMA. However, Y27632 had no significant effect on TGF-?1-induced phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3. In conclusion, the present study suggests that simvastatin is an effective inhibitor of TGF-?1-induced type I collagen, CTGF, and ?-SMA production in keloid fibroblasts. PMID:24471776

Mun, Je-Ho; Kim, Young-Mi; Kim, Byung-Soo; Kim, Jae-Ho; Kim, Moon-Bum; Ko, Hyun-Chang

2014-01-01

379

X-RAY SCALING RELATION IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES: DARK MATTER AS A PRIMARY FACTOR IN RETAINING HOT GAS  

SciTech Connect

We have revisited the X-ray scaling relations of early-type galaxies (ETG) by investigating, for the first time, the L{sub X,Gas}-M{sub Total} relation in a sample of 14 ETGs. In contrast to the large scatter (a factor of 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3}) in the L{sub X,Total}-L{sub B} relation, we found a tight correlation between these physically motivated quantities with an rms deviation of a factor of three in L{sub X,Gas} = 10{sup 38}-10{sup 43} erg s{sup –1} or M{sub Total} = a few × 10{sup 10} to a few × 10{sup 12} M{sub ?}. More striking, this relation becomes even tighter with an rms deviation of a factor of 1.3 among the gas-rich galaxies (with L{sub X,Gas} > 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1}). In a simple power-law form, the new relation is (L{sub X,Gas}/10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1}) = (M{sub Total}/3.2 × 10{sup 11} M{sub ?}){sup 3}. This relation is also consistent with the steep relation between the gas luminosity and temperature, L{sub X,Gas} ? T{sub Gas} {sup 4.5}, identified by Boroson et al., if the gas is virialized. Our results indicate that the total mass of an ETG is the primary factor in regulating the amount of hot gas. Among the gas-poor galaxies (with L{sub X,Gas} < a few × 10{sup 39} erg s{sup –1}), the scatter in the L{sub X,Gas}-M{sub Total} (and L{sub X,Gas}-T{sub Gas}) relation increases, suggesting that secondary factors (e.g., rotation, flattening, star formation history, cold gas, environment, etc.) may become important.

Kim, Dong-Woo; Fabbiano, Giuseppina [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2013-10-20

380

The Pseudo Signal Peptide of the Corticotropin-releasing Factor Receptor Type 2A Prevents Receptor Oligomerization*  

PubMed Central

N-terminal signal peptides mediate the interaction of native proteins with the translocon complex of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and are cleaved off during early protein biogenesis. The corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2a (CRF2(a)R) possesses an N-terminal pseudo signal peptide, which represents a so far unique domain within the large protein family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In contrast to a conventional signal peptide, the pseudo signal peptide remains uncleaved and consequently forms a hydrophobic extension at the N terminus of the receptor. The functional consequence of the presence of the pseudo signal peptide is not understood. Here, we have analyzed the significance of this domain for receptor dimerization/oligomerization in detail. To this end, we took the CRF2(a)R and the homologous corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 (CRF1R) possessing a conventional cleaved signal peptide and conducted signal peptide exchange experiments. Using single cell and single molecule imaging methods (fluorescence resonance energy transfer and fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy, respectively) as well as biochemical experiments, we obtained two novel findings; we could show that (i) the CRF2(a)R is expressed exclusively as a monomer, and (ii) the presence of the pseudo signal peptide prevents its oligomerization. Thus, we have identified a novel functional domain within the GPCR protein family, which plays a role in receptor oligomerization and which may be useful to study the functional significance of this process in general. PMID:22689579

Teichmann, Anke; Rutz, Claudia; Kreuchwig, Annika; Krause, Gerd; Wiesner, Burkhard; Schulein, Ralf

2012-01-01

381

Hepatocyte Growth Factor Activator Inhibitor Type 1 (HAI-1) Is Required for Branching Morphogenesis in the Chorioallantoic Placenta  

PubMed Central

Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 (HAI-1) is a membrane-associated Kunitz-type serine proteinase inhibitor that was initially identified as a potent inhibitor of hepatocyte growth factor activator. HAI-1 is also a cognate inhibitor of matriptase, a membrane-associated serine proteinase. HAI-1 is expressed predominantly in epithelial cells in the human body. Its mRNA is also abundant in human placenta, with HAI-1 specifically expressed by villous cytotrophoblasts. In order to address the precise roles of HAI-1 in vivo, we generated HAI-1 mutant mice by homozygous recombination. Heterozygous HAI-1+/? mice underwent normal organ development. However, homozygous HAI-1?/? mice experienced embryonic lethality which became evident at embryonic day 10.5 postcoitum (E10.5). As early as E9.5, HAI-1?/? embryos showed growth retardation that did not reflect impaired cell proliferation but resulted instead from failed placental development and function. Histological analysis revealed severely impaired formation of the labyrinth layer, in contrast all other placental layers, such as the spongiotrophoblast layer and giant cell layer, which were formed. Our results indicate that mouse HAI-1 is essential for branching morphogenesis in the chorioallantoic placenta and lack of HAI-1 function may result in placental failure. PMID:15964823

Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Nagaike, Koki; Takeda, Naoki; Itoh, Hiroshi; Kohama, Kazuyo; Fukushima, Tsuyoshi; Miyata, Shiro; Uchiyama, Shuichiro; Uchinokura, Shunro; Shimomura, Takeshi; Miyazawa, Keiji; Kitamura, Naomi; Yamada, Gen; Kataoka, Hiroaki

2005-01-01

382

Identification of myelin transcription factor 1 (MyT1) as a subunit of the neural cell type-specific lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) complex.  

PubMed

Regulation of spatiotemporal gene expression in higher eukaryotic cells is critical for the precise and orderly development of undifferentiated progenitors into committed cell types of the adult. It is well known that dynamic epigenomic regulation (including chromatin remodeling and histone modifications by transcriptional coregulator complexes) is involved in transcriptional regulation. Precisely how these coregulator complexes exert their cell type and developing stage-specific activity is largely unknown. In this study we aimed to isolate the histone demethylase lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) complex from neural cells by biochemical purification. In so doing, we identified myelin transcription factor 1 (MyT1) as a novel LSD1 complex component. MyT1 is a neural cell-specific zinc finger factor, and it forms a stable multiprotein complex with LSD1 through direct interaction. Target gene analysis using microarray and ChIP assays revealed that the Pten gene was directly regulated by the LSD1-MyT1 complex. Knockdown of either LSD1 or MyT1 derepressed the expression of endogenous target genes and inhibited cell proliferation of a neuroblastoma cell line, Neuro2a. We propose that formation of tissue-specific combinations of coregulator complexes is a critical mechanism for tissue-specific transcriptional regulation. PMID:24828497

Yokoyama, Atsushi; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Sato, Tetsuya; Takagi, Kiyoshi; Otsuka I, Maky; Shishido, Yurina; Baba, Takashi; Ito, Ryo; Kanno, Jun; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Morohashi, Ken-Ichirou; Sugawara, Akira

2014-06-27

383

Immunological and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in the Prediction of Type 2 Diabetes and Coronary Events: MONICA/KORA Augsburg Case-Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background This study compares inflammation-related biomarkers with established cardiometabolic risk factors in the prediction of incident type 2 diabetes and incident coronary events in a prospective case-cohort study within the population-based MONICA/KORA Augsburg cohort. Methods and Findings Analyses for type 2 diabetes are based on 436 individuals with and 1410 individuals without incident diabetes. Analyses for coronary events are based on 314 individuals with and 1659 individuals without incident coronary events. Mean follow-up times were almost 11 years. Areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC), changes in Akaike's information criterion (?AIC), integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) and net reclassification index (NRI) were calculated for different models. A basic model consisting of age, sex and survey predicted type 2 diabetes with an AUC of 0.690. Addition of 13 inflammation-related biomarkers (CRP, IL-6, IL-18, MIF, MCP-1/CCL2, IL-8/CXCL8, IP-10/CXCL10, adiponectin, leptin, RANTES/CCL5, TGF-?1, sE-selectin, sICAM-1; all measured in nonfasting serum) increased the AUC to 0.801, whereas addition of cardiometabolic risk factors (BMI, systolic blood pressure, ratio total/HDL-cholesterol, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, parental diabetes) increased the AUC to 0.803 (?AUC [95% CI] 0.111 [0.092–0.149] and 0.113 [0.093–0.149], respectively, compared to the basic model). The combination of all inflammation-related biomarkers and cardiometabolic risk factors yielded a further increase in AUC to 0.847 (?AUC [95% CI] 0.044 [0.028–0.066] compared to the cardiometabolic risk model). Corresponding AUCs for incident coronary events were 0.807, 0.825 (?AUC [95% CI] 0.018 [0.013–0.038] compared to the basic model), 0.845 (?AUC [95% CI] 0.038 [0.028–0.059] compared to the basic model) and 0.851 (?AUC [95% CI] 0.006 [0.003–0.021] compared to the cardiometabolic risk model), respectively. Conclusions Inclusion of multiple inflammation-related biomarkers into a basic model and into a model including cardiometabolic risk factors significantly improved the prediction of type 2 diabetes and coronary events, although the improvement was less pronounced for the latter endpoint. PMID:21674000

Herder, Christian; Baumert, Jens; Zierer, Astrid; Roden, Michael; Meisinger, Christa; Karakas, Mahir; Chambless, Lloyd; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Peters, Annette; Koenig, Wolfgang; Thorand, Barbara

2011-01-01

384

Dietary risk factors in intestinal and diffuse types of stomach cancer: a multicenter case-control study in Poland.  

PubMed

A hospital-based, multicenter, case-control study has been performed in Poland covering 741 incident stomach-cancer cases (520 males and 221 females) and the same number of controls. All stomach-cancer diagnoses were evaluated for histologic type according to the Lauren criteria. Fifty-one percent were of the intestinal type, 35 percent of the diffuse type, and 8.5 percent of the mixed type. The frequency of consumption of individual food items and several food groups was analyzed and the association of various foods with stomach cancer risk was evaluated after controlling for sex, age, occupation, education, and residency. Increased consumption of sausages was related significantly to gastric cancer risk, whereas increased consumption of cheese products, nonwhite bread, vegetables, and fruit was associated with decreased risk. A particularly strong decrease in risk was associated with consumption of radishes and onions. When consumption of fruits and vegetables, sausages, nonwhite bread, and cheese were introduced simultaneously in a multivariate model, independent effects were found only for fruit and vegetables, sausages, and nonwhite bread. The use of table salt, the frequency of eating hot meals, and an irregular eating pattern were also associated with increased risk, while additional consumption of fruit between meals showed reduced risk. If a reduction in vegetable and fruit consumption took place after marriage, an increased risk for stomach cancer was found, whereas augmented consumption of these food items after marriage decreased the risk. Separate risk models were calculated for stomach cancer of the intestinal and diffuse types, but both histologic varieties showed the same pattern of associations with dietary risk factors. PMID:1873452

Boeing, H; Jedrychowski, W; Wahrendorf, J; Popiela, T; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, B; Kulig, A

1991-07-01

385

Tumor Necrosis Factor Type ? , a Potent Inhibitor of Endothelial Cell Growth in vitro, is Angiogenic in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tumor necrosis factor type ? (TNF-? ) inhibits endothelial cell proliferation in vitro. Basal cell growth (in the absence of exogenously added growth factor) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-stimulated cell proliferation are inhibited in a dose-dependent manner from 0.1 to 10 ng/ml with half-maximal inhibition occurring at 0.5-1.0 ng of TNF-? per ml. Bovine aortic and brain capillary endothelial and smooth muscle cells are similarly affected. TNF-? is a noncompetitive antagonist of FGF-stimulated cell proliferation. Its action on endothelial cells is reversible and noncytotoxic. Surprisingly, TNF-? does not seem to inhibit endothelial cell proliferation in vivo. In the rabbit cornea, even a high dose of TNF-? (10 ? g) does not suppress angiogenesis induced by basic FGF. On the contrary, in this model system TNF-? stimulates neovascularization. The inflammatory response that is seen in the cornea after TNF-? implantation suggests that the angiogenic properties of this agent may be a consequence of leukocyte infiltration.

Frater-Schroder, Marijke; Risau, Werner; Hallmann, Rupert; Gautschi, Peter; Bohlen, Peter

1987-08-01

386

Investigating GSTT1 and GSTM1 null genotype as the risk factor of diabetes type 2 retinopathy  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes is one of the multifactorial disorders with genetics and environmental factors playing important role in its cause. In diabetes, the defects in cellular metabolism results in increasing free radicals. These radicals react with other vital cellular molecules which are responsible in diabetes side effects. Human glutathione S-transferases (GST) are a family of enzymes that catalyses conjugation of electrophilic substances with glutathione. In this research the deletion of two of the most important genes of this family; GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes was investigated as the risk factor for diabetes mellitus type II and one of its most important complications; retinopathy. Material and methods In this study deletion of GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes in 57 diabetics’ patients with retinopathy and 58 diabetic peoples without retinopathy was examined. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and then multiplex PCR was performed following agarose gel electrophoresis to detect GSTT1 and GSTM1 null genotypes. Data were analyzed with SPSS v16 software. Results The results indicated that there was significant relationship between GSTM1 null genotype with retinopathy side effect of diabetes type 2. While there was no significant relationship between GSTT1 null genotypes with retinopathy in diabetes type 2. Conclusion Significant correlation between GSTM1 null genotype and retinopathy in this and other studies could indicate this fact that impair cellular metabolism result in increase free radicals and oxidative pressure. Therefore, GST null genotypes may result in decrease antioxidant capacity which causes side effects of diabetes. Considering the performance of different classes of GST null genotypes additional studies are required to confirm this study. PMID:24355557

2013-01-01