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Sample records for factors influencing breastfeeding

  1. An Integrative Review of Factors Influencing Breastfeeding in Adolescent Mothers.

    PubMed

    Kanhadilok, Supannee; McGrath, Jacqueline M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this integrative review was to describe factors that influence breastfeeding behaviors in adolescent mothers. Twenty-two articles met inclusion criteria. Findings showed that most adolescent mothers intended to breastfeed during pregnancy. Yet, breastfeeding initiation ranged from 39% to 69%. Almost half of adolescent mothers stopped within 1 month. Less than 25% continued to breastfeeding behaviors to 6 months. Factors that influenced breastfeeding decisions in adolescent mothers included social and cultural norms. Personal beliefs about being a good mother were important to intention and initiation of breastfeeding. Promoting maternal competence was found to be essential to breastfeeding initiation and continuation for adolescent mothers. Support from partners and professionals also led to positive attitudes toward breastfeeding initiation and continuation. PMID:26957895

  2. An Integrative Review of Factors Influencing Breastfeeding in Adolescent Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Kanhadilok, Supannee; McGrath, Jacqueline M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this integrative review was to describe factors that influence breastfeeding behaviors in adolescent mothers. Twenty-two articles met inclusion criteria. Findings showed that most adolescent mothers intended to breastfeed during pregnancy. Yet, breastfeeding initiation ranged from 39% to 69%. Almost half of adolescent mothers stopped within 1 month. Less than 25% continued to breastfeeding behaviors to 6 months. Factors that influenced breastfeeding decisions in adolescent mothers included social and cultural norms. Personal beliefs about being a good mother were important to intention and initiation of breastfeeding. Promoting maternal competence was found to be essential to breastfeeding initiation and continuation for adolescent mothers. Support from partners and professionals also led to positive attitudes toward breastfeeding initiation and continuation. PMID:26957895

  3. Breastfeeding in America: a history of influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Thulier, Diane

    2009-02-01

    The author explores the history of breastfeeding in America. Popular belief is that medicine, science, and the formula industry have had the most impact on women's decisions to bottle versus breastfeed. What cannot be overlooked are other areas of influence. Cultural practices, including the beliefs of colonial Americans, the increased social value of children in the 20th century, and the emergence of a middle class, have influenced maternal decision making. The first and second waves of feminism affected women's choices. Politics and religion have had multiple and varied influences. It is this author's position that culture, gender, politics, and religion, as well as medicine, science, and industry, have combined to affect feeding choices. All of these influences, as well as others, both unforeseen and unpredictable, will continue to affect the future of breastfeeding in our society. PMID:19196856

  4. Factors that influence breastfeeding decisions among special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children participants from Central Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Murimi, Mary; Dodge, Candace Mire; Pope, Janet; Erickson, Dawn

    2010-04-01

    Although human milk provides optimal nutrition for infants, fewer than one third of US infants are breastfed exclusively for 6 months or more. The objectives of this study were to determine the factors that have the greatest impact on the decisions to breastfeed, and to determine the effect of formula provided by the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) on the initiation and duration of breastfeeding among WIC participants in a rural parish in central Louisiana. A cross-sectional study was done between September 2007 and March 2008 among 130 WIC participants. Approximately half (51%) of the participants reported breastfeeding their youngest child for a mean of 15.7+/-14.9 weeks, with more white mothers breastfeeding than did African-American mothers or other races (P<0.01). Significantly more people reported that incentives provided to encourage breastfeeding did not affect their decision to breastfeed than those who said incentives affected their decision to breastfeed (P<0.029). Finally, study participants who were breastfed as a child were significantly more likely to breastfeed their children than those who were not breastfed as a child (P<0.022). The majority (96%) of the participants in this study indicated that WIC is providing effective and clear education about the benefits of breastfeeding, and that this advice influenced their decision to breastfeed their children. These findings underscore the importance of emphasizing the health benefits of breastfeeding to increase initiation and duration rates among WIC participants. PMID:20338290

  5. [INFLUENCE OF REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS, BREASTFEEDING AND OBESITY ON THE RISK OF BREAST CANCER IN MEXICAN WOMEN].

    PubMed

    Navarro-Ibarra, María Jossé; Caire-Juvera, Graciela; Ortega-Vélez, María Isabel; Bolaños-Villar, Adriana Verónica; Saucedo-Tamayo, María Del Socorro

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is considered a global public health problem, and is the most frequently type diagnosed in Mexican women. Therefore, it is important to study the risk factors associated to this neoplasia in order to establish prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hormonal contraceptives and hormone therapy (HT) use and period of use, breastfeeding practice, abdominal obesity and weight gain in adulthood, on the risk of BC in adult women from Northwest Mexico. This was a case-control study that included 162 women (81 cases and 81 controls). A sociodemographic and health questionnaire, and a survey history of body weight were applied to participants. Measurements of body weight, height and waist circumference were performed. To assess the association between BC risk and exposing factors, a multivariate logistic regression model was used. Average age of cases and controls were 51.8 ± 11.7 and 51.4 ± 11.3 years, respectively. No significant association was found between the use and period of use of hormonal contraceptives and HT with the risk of BC. The practice of breastfeeding (OR=0.34, 95%CI: 0.12- 0.92) and the time of exclusive breastfeeding (OR=0.64, 95%CI: 0.42-0.97; crude) were protective against the risk of BC. Abdominal obesity (OR=0.93, 95%CI: 0.90-0.97) and weight gain in early adulthood (OR=0.90, 95%CI: 0.85-0.95) were inversely associated to the risk of BC. In conclusion, the practice of breastfeeding may help prevent BC in Mexican women. PMID:26262729

  6. Factors influencing breastfeeding exclusivity during the first 6 months of life in developing countries: a quantitative and qualitative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Balogun, Olukunmi Omobolanle; Dagvadorj, Amarjagal; Anigo, Kola Mathew; Ota, Erika; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2015-10-01

    Breastfeeding is the most advantageous feeding option for infants, and epidemiological studies provide evidence for its promotion. The objective of this review was to comprehensively delineate the barriers and facilitators of exclusive breastfeeding of infants aged 0-6 months old by mothers in developing countries. A search of CINAHL, MEDLINE and PsycINFO was carried out to retrieve studies from January 2001 to January 2014. Using our inclusion criteria, we selected studies that described barriers and facilitators of exclusive breastfeeding. Qualitative and quantitative studies were considered. Twenty-five studies involving 11 025 participants from 19 countries were included. Barriers and facilitators of exclusive/full breastfeeding were identified, analysed tabulated and summarised in this review. Maternal employment was the most frequently cited barrier to exclusive breastfeeding. Maternal perceptions of insufficient breast milk supply was pervasive among studies while medical barriers related to illness of mothers and/or infants as well as breast problems, rather than health care providers. Socio-cultural factors such as maternal and significant other's beliefs about infant nutrition also often constitute strong barriers to exclusive breastfeeding. Despite these barriers, mothers in developing countries often possess certain personal characteristics and develop strategic plans to enhance their success at breastfeeding. Health care providers should be informed about the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding and provide practical anticipatory guidance targeted at overcoming these barriers. In so doing, health care providers in developing countries can contribute to improving maternal and child health outcomes. PMID:25857205

  7. Culture and Caregivers: Factors Influencing Breastfeeding among Mothers in West Belfast, Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Hilary; Cousins, Wendy; Casson, Karen; Moore, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Breastfeeding is a key public health measure to protect and promote the health of one of the most vulnerable groups of the population--infants and children. Northern Ireland, however, has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates in the world. This paper reports the results of a questionnaire survey of 120 mothers attending mother and toddler groups…

  8. Socio-economic and demographic factors influencing breast-feeding among Kuwaiti women.

    PubMed

    Al Bustan, M; Kohli, B R

    1988-01-01

    Data about breastfeeding practices were collected from a sample of 1553 Kuwaiti married women during June 1985 to November 1985. The survey results show that Kuwaiti population is similar to other populations in the Middle East in having moderate incidence and duration of breastfeeding. The findings of a strong positive association between duration of breastfeeding and parity of the infant, and age of the mother at the time of birth of the child were observed which was expected. Further negative association between breastfeeding and family income, education of the mother and age of mother at marriage was confirmed by the data. Survey findings also support the general expectation that housewives have higher incidence and duration of breastfeeding relative to working mothers. Contrary to the practice among developing societies, Kuwaiti women did not show any preferential treatment for male infants. The survey findings call for concerted efforts through mass media, and education to promote breastfeeding practices for the benefits of infants as well as mothers. PMID:12281668

  9. [Influence of primary care personnel on breastfeeding duration].

    PubMed

    Jovani Roda, L; Gutiérrez Culsant, P; Aguilar Martín, C; Navarro Caballé, R; Mayor Pegueroles, I; Jornet Torrent, Y

    2002-12-01

    Background Breastfeeding duration in Spanish neonates does not fulfill the recommendations of the World Health Organization.ObjectiveTo report the results of a policy of breastfeeding support in a primary care center.Material and methodsWe performed a before-and-after intervention study of all mothers of children born in Ulldecona who decided to breast feed in 1992, 1993, 1996 and 1997 (control group: 125 infants), and from August 1999-August 2001 (72 infants). Study variable: in May 1999 a breastfeeding support policy was initiated in the primary care center.ResultsBreastfeeding duration increased (in the control group the mean duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 18.8 weeks; from 1999 to 2001 it was 28 weeks). Negative factors for breastfeeding were the birth of twins, introduction of a supplement, and education (there was an inverse relationship between greater education and breastfeeding duration). Duration of breastfeeding was longer in Moroccan mothers. Sex, gestational age, weight, type of delivery, separation between mother and neonate, maternal age, previous children, and work outside the home did not influence breastfeeding duration. Simple lineal regression revealed that the intervention was effective (P 0.046). Early hypogalactia and breast problems decreased, and voluntary weaning increased (P < 0.001).ConclusionThe primary care team plays key role in the maintenance of breastfeeding and in the well-being of the mother and neonate. PMID:12466076

  10. Breastfeeding at 6 weeks and predictive factors.

    PubMed

    Chye, J K; Zain, Z; Lim, W L; Lim, C T

    1997-10-01

    Despite the numerous changes made in accordance with the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, the low rates of breastfeeding have persisted. This study aims to examine the current trend in infant feeding, and the influences of some perinatal and sociodemographic factors on breastfeeding. Five-hundred mothers with singleton pregnancies and healthy infants were interviewed at 6 weeks post-partum. Only 124 (25 per cent) mothers were practising exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), and 132 (26 per cent) mothers were using exclusive infant formula feeding (EIF). On logistic regression analyses, mothers who followed EBF were more likely to have had antenatal plans to breastfeed (Odds ratio 2.44, 95 per cent confidence interval 1.75-3.45), not in paid employment post-natally (OR 1.76, 95 per cent CI 1.31-2.36), of older age group (> 27 years) (OR 1.48, 95 per cent CI 1.13-1.93), had female infants (OR 1.38, 95 per cent CI 1.05-1.80) and of Indian ethnicity (compared to Chinese) (OR 3.87, 95 per cent CI 2.16-6.89). Breastfeeding difficulties were associated with decreased odds of EBF (OR 0.21, 95 per cent CI 0.13-0.34). Parental education, fathers' ages and incomes, primigravida status, Caesarean section, present of episiotomy, late first breastfeed, phototherapy, and length of hospital stay were not significant predictors of failure of EBF. In comparison, predictive factors for increased use of EIF were mothers who have had breastfeeding difficulties, < or = 9 years of schooling, and of Chinese descent. In conclusions, the overall rate of EBF by 6 weeks of age in infants born in this urban hospital had remained poor. The adverse factors for EBF identified in this study warrant further in-depth studies to determine effective ways of improving EBF rates. PMID:9364127

  11. The influence of adolescent mothers' breastfeeding confidence and attitudes on breastfeeding initiation and duration.

    PubMed

    Mossman, Marion; Heaman, Maureen; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Morris, Margaret

    2008-08-01

    A prospective correlational study was conducted to examine the influence of adolescent mothers' breastfeeding attitudes and confidence on breastfeeding initiation and duration. A convenience sample of 100 pregnant adolescents who were contemplating breastfeeding completed the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF) and the Breastfeeding Attitude Questionnaire (BAQ). The BSES-SF was readministered during the first week postpartum to those adolescents who initiated breastfeeding (n=84). Adolescents who were breastfeeding at the initial contact received a follow-up contact at 4 weeks postpartum. Comparisons were made between those adolescent mothers who initiated breastfeeding (n=84) and those who did not (n=16). Significantly more mothers with higher prenatal attitude scores initiated breastfeeding. Mothers with higher prenatal breastfeeding attitude scores and higher prenatal and postnatal confidence scores were more likely to continue breastfeeding to 4 weeks postpartum. Health professionals are encouraged to develop strategies to enhance breastfeeding attitudes and confidence among adolescent mothers. PMID:18689714

  12. Factors affecting the initiation of breastfeeding: implications for breastfeeding promotion.

    PubMed

    Earle, Sarah

    2002-09-01

    Breastfeeding rates in the United Kingdom (UK) are one of the lowest in the developed world and certainly the lowest in Europe. There have been numerous studies of breastfeeding in the UK, most of which have adopted a quantitative approach, and they have largely focused on obstetric or socio-demographic factors in the decision to breastfeed. Whilst these studies have an important role to play, this paper draws on a study that adopts a qualitative methodology to explore women's personal experiences and perceptions of breastfeeding. A qualitative study of 19 primagravidae was undertaken and completed in 1998. Participants were recruited to the study via 12 antenatal clinics in the West Midlands, England, UK. Their ages ranged from 16 to 30 years and the majority described themselves as 'white'. The majority of participants were in paid employment in a variety of occupations. The study was prospective in design. Participants were interviewed three times either during pregnancy or after childbirth: the first stage was between 6 and 14 weeks of pregnancy; the second stage was between 34 and 39 weeks; and the third stage was between 6 and 14 weeks after childbirth. The data indicate that there are several factors affecting breastfeeding initiation. First, infant feeding decisions seem to be made prior to, or irrespective of, contact with health professionals. Secondly, the data suggest that health promotion campaigns in the UK have been influential in their ability to educate women about the benefits of breastfeeding. However, this did not dissuade participants from formula feeding once their decision was made. The desire for paternal involvement also seemed to be another influential factor; fathers were either seen as able to alleviate the daily grind of early motherhood, or there was a desire for 'shared parenting'. Finally, some of the formula feeding women expressed a strong desire to re-establish their identities as separate individuals and as 'non-mothers'. PMID

  13. Factors affecting breast-feeding among Hong Kong Chinese.

    PubMed

    Koo, L C; Wong, V C; Ho, C Y

    1986-12-01

    413 mothers attending maternal and child health (MCH) clinics located throughout Kowloon and Hong Kong Island were surveyed in the summer of 1983 to evaluate the impact of programs to promote breastfeeding and to facilitate understanding of other social, cultural, economic, attitudinal, or hospital factors which may influence the choice of infant feeding patterns among postnatal mothers. The interviews were limited to mothers who had given birth within the last 2 years. The mothers ranged in age from 17-42 years. Of the total sample of 413 babies, 116 (28.1%) had been breastfed at least once, and these infants were counted as incidence cases. Among these 116 breastfed infants, the duration of breastfeeding was estimated among 88 of the infants whose breastfeeding had ceased. The remaining 28 were excluded from the analysis because they were still young and breastfeeding was continuing at the time of the interview. The mean duration of breastfeeding was 10 weeks but about 1/3 of these babies had been breastfed for less than 1 week. 61% of the breastfed babies stopped breastfeeding after 1 month of age; only 11 babies had been breastfed for over 6 months. There was no difference in the incidence or duration of breastfeeding among male and female infants. The incidence of breastfeeding was found to be directly related to increasing levels of education in either parent. The middle income group had both the lowest incidence and shortest duration of breastfeeding in comparison with other groups. Although the incidence of breastfeeding was highest among the highest income group, only 11.1% had the infant breastfeeding for 7 or more weeks. Breastfed infants in the families with the lowest income level had some 51.7% of their breastfed infants feeding on the breast for more than 7 weeks. Approximately 30% of the mothers believed that breast milk was superior to infant formulas, and 2/3 of these mothers actually breastfed their babies. The lowest rates for breastfeeding (14

  14. The establishment and duration of breastfeeding. Part 1: Hospital influences.

    PubMed

    Vogel, A M; Mitchell, E A

    1998-05-01

    Most New Zealand mothers initiate breastfeeding in hospital, but many continue for only a relatively short time. Focus group discussions with mothers and health care workers on their perceptions of important factors influencing the duration of breastfeeding indicated many negative initial hospital experiences. Specific concerns included overworked staff; lack of health care workers' skills, particularly in helping infants to latch on; inconsistent advice; noise and embarrassment in four bedded rooms; and the impact of changes in the provision of maternity services and funding. PMID:9618601

  15. Breast Is Best? Reasons Why Mothers Decide to Breastfeed or Bottlefeed Their Babies and Factors Influencing the Duration of Breastfeeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Seaneen; Sneddon, Helga; Stewart, Moira; Iwaniec, Dorota

    2006-01-01

    Breastfeeding is known to confer benefits, both in the short term and long term, to the child and also to the mother. Various health-promotion initiatives have aimed to increase breastfeeding rates and duration in the United Kingdom over the past decade. In order to assist in these endeavours, it is essential to understand the reasons why women…

  16. Early interruption of exclusive breastfeeding and associated factors, state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Venancio, Sonia I; Saldiva, Silvia Regina D M; Mondini, Lenise; Levy, Renata B; Escuder, Maria Mercedes L

    2008-05-01

    Many reports about breastfeeding prevalence and factors associated with weaning have been published in the scientific literature. However, the influence of newborn feeding practices on the duration of exclusive breastfeeding has received less attention. This study provides information about the introduction of liquids, other than the mother's milk, to infants in the first 6 months and factors associated with this practice. PMID:18436968

  17. Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Print | Home > A-Z Health Topics > Breastfeeding Breastfeeding Photo credit: DFW Bellies & Babies The experience of ... nursing moms in the workplace Pregnancy Subscribe to breastfeeding email updates Email Content last updated: July 21, ...

  18. Breastfeeding Practices During the First Month Postpartum and Associated Factors: Impact on Breastfeeding Survival

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Forough; Mousavi, Seyed Abbas; Chaman, Reza; Wambach, Karen Ann; Mortazavi, Saideh Sadat; Khosravi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: The introduction of fluids to infants during the first days postpartum, which may be harmful to infant health, is a common practice in Iran. Objectives: This study aimed to find the prevalence of breastfeeding practices using monthly dietary recall and factors associated with introduction of fluids during the first month of life and determine the effects of these supplementations on breastfeeding survival. Patients and Methods: This longitudinal study carried out in Shahroud, Iran from May 2011 to October 2013. Using convenient sampling strategy, 358 mothers in their third trimester of pregnancy were enrolled in the study and completed the questionnaires. Then the data regarding the introduction of fluids during first month postpartum was collected. We followed women monthly up to breastfeeding cessation. Kaplan-Meier and time-to-event methods were used to assess breastfeeding survival. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to identify the variables that determined breastfeeding practices at the first month postpartum. The Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the effect of variables on breastfeeding survival. Results: The prevalence of exclusive, predominant, and partial breastfeeding during the first month postpartum were 33.1%, 58.2%, and 8.6%, respectively. Predominant breastfeeding was associated with the lack of breastfeeding experience (OR = 1.93; 95% CI [1.02 - 3.66]). Partial breastfeeding was associated with the maternal age ≥ 30 y (OR = 5.96; CI [1.66 - 21.37]), family income higher than the mean (OR = 3.39; 95% CI [1.17 - 9.81]), and breastfeeding difficulties score higher than mean (OR = 3.09; 95% CI [1.10 - 8.71]). The Cox regression analysis revealed that breastfeeding practices at the first month was associated with an increased risk for breastfeeding discontinuation. The hazard ratio of breastfeeding discontinuation for predominant and partial breastfeeding groups were 1.11 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.51; P = 0.49) and 2

  19. Influence of the support offered to breastfeeding by maternity hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Passanha, Adriana; Benício, Maria Helena D’Aquino; Venâncio, Sônia Isoyama; dos Reis, Márcia Cristina Guerreiro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the support offered by maternity hospitals is associated with higher prevalences of exclusive and predominant breastfeeding. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study including a representative sample of 916 infants less than six months who were born in maternity hospitals, in Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, 2011. The maternity hospitals were evaluated in relation to their fulfillment of the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. Data were collected regarding breastfeeding patterns, the birth hospital and other characteristics. The individualized effect of the study factor on exclusive and predominant breastfeeding was analyzed using Poisson multiple regression with robust variance. RESULTS Predominant breastfeeding tended to be more prevalent when the number of fulfilled steps was higher (p of linear trend = 0.057). The step related to not offering artificial teats or pacifiers to breastfed infants and that related to encouraging the establishment of breastfeeding support groups were associated, respectively, to a higher prevalence of exclusive (PR = 1.26; 95%CI 1.04;1.54) and predominant breastfeeding (PR = 1.55; 95%CI 1.01;2.39), after an adjustment was performed for confounding variables. CONCLUSIONS We observed a positive association between support offered by maternity hospitals and prevalences of exclusive and predominant breastfeeding. These results can be useful to other locations with similar characteristics (cities with hospitals that fulfill the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding) to provide incentive to breastfeeding, by means of promoting, protecting and supporting breastfeeding in maternity hospitals. PMID:26759966

  20. Understanding the social and cultural influences on breast-feeding today.

    PubMed

    Battersby, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Breast-feeding is a key public health target but social and cultural factors are often overlooked when encouraging mothers to choose breast-feeding as their method of infant feeding. Historically, there have always been some mothers who have sought alternatives to breast-feeding. Age, level of education and occupation impact upon a mother's choice, and the sexualization of the female breast can lead to embarrassment when mothers breast-feed outside the home. Fear of damaging their body shape can prevent some mothers from breast-feeding, while others see breast-feeding as desirable as it can lead to weight loss. The attitudes of partners, relatives and friends can influence mothers to varying degrees in their choice of infant feeding. Knowledge of various influences can assist health professionals in their public health role and help them to give mothers advice relevant to their circumstances. PMID:21053661

  1. Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    Breastfeeding offers many benefits to your baby. Breast milk contains the right balance of nutrients to help ... should breastfeed. If you are having problems with breastfeeding, contact a lactation consultant. NIH: National Institute of ...

  2. Parents’ Health Beliefs Influence Breastfeeding Patterns among Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, Parisa; Masoumi, Zahra; Parsa, Nakisa; Parsa, Bita

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine factors related to breastfeeding and its perceived health benefits among Iranian mothers. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed using 240 postpartum women who were selected randomly from eight public health care centers in Hamadan, Iran, in 2012. Mothers who breastfed (BF) and mothers who never breastfed (NBF) were given a structured questionnaire to collect their demographic data and information regarding their health beliefs and attitude towards child-rearing. Descriptive and logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results The mean length of breastfeeding was 11.6 (standard deviation=12.5) weeks. There was no difference in demographic variables, such as age, type of medical insurance, number of living children, employment, education, and household income (p>0.050), between mothers that breastfed and those that did not. Mothers’ perception of the severity of child illness was higher in those who breastfed than those who never breastfed (p=0.050). In contrast, BF mothers had higher perceived confidence of medical care to prevent diseases (p<0.050) and a higher perception of reverse parent-child roles than NBF mothers (p<0.050). Conclusion Mothers’ health beliefs and attitude to parenting has a significant role in choosing to breastfeed. Physicians and healthcare providers may provide supportive information that influence a mother’s breastfeeding behavior. PMID:26171125

  3. A case report of breastfeeding quadruplets: factors perceived as affecting breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Auer, C; Gromada, K K

    1998-06-01

    The number of higher-order multiple births in the United States quadrupled between 1970 and 1994. The number of women choosing to breastfeed their higher-order multiples also has risen. In this report, a mother of quadruplets identifies factors and interventions she perceived as having a positive or negative impact on breastfeeding. Maternal motivation coupled with a mother's personal approach to breastfeeding quadruplets may be key factors in shaping breastfeeding outcomes, such as in this case where one quad weaned at 12 months and the remaining three breastfed for 2 1/2 years. With increased discussion of this select population, lactation consultants and other health professionals will be able to develop breastfeeding care plans which reflect this population's unique needs and concerns from the prenatal through postpartum periods. PMID:9775846

  4. The influence of culture on breast-feeding decisions by African American and white women.

    PubMed

    Street, Darlene Joyner; Lewallen, Lynne Porter

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how culture influenced breast-feeding decisions in African American and white women, using the Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality as a framework. One hundred eighty-six participants responded to the following: The word culture means beliefs and traditions passed down by your family and friends. How has culture affected how you plan to feed your baby? Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data. Four categories of responses were identified: influences of family, known benefits of breast-feeding, influences of friends, and personal choice. The findings suggest that race alone may not be as influential in infant feeding decisions as other factors. Although some women acknowledged the effect of their cultural background and experiences, most women reported that their culture did not affect their infant feeding decision. In this population, breast-feeding decisions were based on the influences of family, friends, self, and the perceived knowledge of breast-feeding benefits. Although breast-feeding statistics are commonly reported by race, cultural influences on infant feeding decisions may transcend race and include the influence of family and friends, learned information from impersonal sources, and information that is shared and observed from other people. PMID:23360941

  5. Factors affecting breastfeeding duration in Greece: What is important?

    PubMed Central

    Tavoulari, Evangelia-Filothei; Benetou, Vassiliki; Vlastarakos, Petros V; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Chrousos, George; Kreatsas, George; Gryparis, Alexandros; Linos, Athena

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate factors associated with breastfeeding duration (BD) in a sample of mothers living in Greece. METHODS Four hundred and twenty-eight mothers (438 infants) were initially recruited in a tertiary University Hospital. Monthly telephone interviews (1665 in total) using a structured questionnaire (one for each infant) were conducted until the sixth postpartum month. Cox regression analysis was used to assess factors influencing any BD. RESULTS Any breastfeeding rates in the first, third, and sixth month of the infant’s life reached 87.5%, 57.0% and 38.75%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, maternal smoking in the lactation period [hazard-ratio (HR) = 4.20] and psychological status (HR = 1.72), and the introduction of a pacifier (HR = 2.08), were inversely associated, while higher maternal education (HRuniversity/college vs primary/high school = 0.53, HRmaster’s vs primary/high school = 0.20), and being an immigrant (HR = 0.35) were positively associated with BD. CONCLUSION Public health interventions should focus on campaigns against smoking during lactation, target women of lower educational status, and endorse the delayed introduction of pacifiers. PMID:27610353

  6. Factors influencing mothers' decision to breastfeed in public.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Yvonne L

    2004-03-01

    Breastfeeding in public was a major theme that emerged in a previous Western Australian study that explored the maternal process of managing breastfeeding and subsequent weaning. This paper highlights the factors that influenced mothers' decisions to breastfeed in public. Confidence with breastfeeding, the ability to be discreet, the mother's body image, previous experience, age of the breastfeeding child, the audience, feelings of the partner, breastfeeding location and perceptions of societal expectations all impacted upon the decision of how to manage breastfeeding in public. Initiatives to promote a breastfeeding friendly community are briefly discussed as well as strategies that participants employed to manage their breastfeeding in public. These findings add to our knowledge on breastfeeding and have implications for how we support breastfeeding women. PMID:17004344

  7. Factors associated with Early Initiation of Breastfeeding in Western Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Khanal, Vishnu; Scott, Jane A.; Lee, Andy H.; Karkee, Rajendra; Binns, Colin W.

    2015-01-01

    The initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth has numerous nutritional and immunological benefits and has been found to reduce neonatal mortality. This community-based prospective cohort study aimed to report the rate of, and factors associated with, early initiation of breastfeeding in Western Nepal. The rate of early initiation of breastfeeding was reported, and associations between early initiation and independent variables were tested by Chi-square test, followed by multiple logistic regression. Of the 735 mother-infant pairs, a total of 310 (42.2%) reported early initiation. Mothers who were assisted by traditional attendants during childbirth, delivered by caesarean section, from ethnically disadvantaged families and had delivered low birth weight infants, were less likely to initiate breastfeeding early whereas the mothers who were from the poorest families and did not introduce prelacteal feeds to their infants were more likely to initiate breastfeeding within the first hour. Skills-training to support breastfeeding as part of the training of skilled birth attendants and other health workers is likely to promote recommended infant feeding practices. PMID:26287223

  8. Factors associated with Early Initiation of Breastfeeding in Western Nepal.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Vishnu; Scott, Jane A; Lee, Andy H; Karkee, Rajendra; Binns, Colin W

    2015-08-01

    The initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth has numerous nutritional and immunological benefits and has been found to reduce neonatal mortality. This community-based prospective cohort study aimed to report the rate of, and factors associated with, early initiation of breastfeeding in Western Nepal. The rate of early initiation of breastfeeding was reported, and associations between early initiation and independent variables were tested by Chi-square test, followed by multiple logistic regression. Of the 735 mother-infant pairs, a total of 310 (42.2%) reported early initiation. Mothers who were assisted by traditional attendants during childbirth, delivered by caesarean section, from ethnically disadvantaged families and had delivered low birth weight infants, were less likely to initiate breastfeeding early whereas the mothers who were from the poorest families and did not introduce prelacteal feeds to their infants were more likely to initiate breastfeeding within the first hour. Skills-training to support breastfeeding as part of the training of skilled birth attendants and other health workers is likely to promote recommended infant feeding practices. PMID:26287223

  9. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Mariana Campos Martins; Assis, Karine Franklin; Oliveira, Fabiana de Cássia Carvalho; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Araújo, Raquel Maria Amaral; Cury, Alexandre Faisal; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum, with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied to identify depressive symptoms in the first and second meetings, with a score of ≥ 12 considered as the cutoff point. Socioeconomic, demographic, and obstetric variables were investigated, along with emotional conditions and the new mothers’ social network during pregnancy and the postpartum period. RESULTS The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum was 53.6% (n = 90), 47.6% (n = 80), and 69.6% (n = 117), respectively, and its incidence in the fourth month compared with the first was 48.7%. Depressive symptoms and traumatic delivery were associated with exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in the second month after childbirth. In the fourth month, the following variables were significant: lower maternal education levels, lack of homeownership, returning to work, not receiving guidance on breastfeeding in the postpartum period, mother’s negative reaction to the news of pregnancy, and not receiving assistance from their partners for infant care. CONCLUSIONS Psychosocial and sociodemographic factors were strong predictors of early exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and provide early treatment to nursing mothers with depressive symptoms, decreasing the associated morbidity and promoting greater duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Support from health professionals, as well as that received at home and at work, can assist in this process. PMID:26039402

  10. Factors associated to breastfeeding cessation before 6 months.

    PubMed

    Roig, Antoni Oliver; Martínez, Miguel Richart; García, Julio Cabrero; Hoyos, Santiago Pérez; Navidad, Ginesa Laguna; Alvarez, Juan Carlos Flores; Pujalte, María Del Mar Calatayud; De León González, Ricardo García

    2010-01-01

    This research aimed to identify the determinants of full breastfeeding (FBF) and any breastfeeding (ABF) cessation before 6 months, through a six-month follow-up of 248 mothers going a postpartum visit. Data were collected by personal interview during the first month and telephone interviews at four and six months postpartum. Coxs proportional hazards model was used. Not having previous ABF experience, previous ABF duration factor against early FBF or ABF cessation. Activities supporting breastfeeding should be intensified for mothers with poorer access to information and with negative or without ABF previous experience. The use of pacifiers and not-medically indicated breast milk substitutes should be controlled. PMID:20721426

  11. Factors affecting breastfeeding practices: applying a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Hector, Debra; King, Lesley; Webb, Karen; Heywood, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge about factors affecting breastfeeding can be developed by further research on underlying factors and by drawing out the implications and lessons from intervention research. The use of a conceptual framework to guide this research and the interpretation of results can help us to understand the relative importance of different factors, and how they interact, in turn, helping us to design effective interventions. PMID:16106273

  12. Reduced breastfeeding rates among obese mothers: a review of contributing factors, clinical considerations and future directions.

    PubMed

    Bever Babendure, Jennie; Reifsnider, Elizabeth; Mendias, Elnora; Moramarco, Michael W; Davila, Yolanda R

    2015-01-01

    Maternal obesity is associated with significantly lower rates of breastfeeding initiation, duration and exclusivity. Increasing rates of obesity among reproductive-age women has prompted the need to carefully examine factors contributing to lower breastfeeding rates in this population. Recent research has demonstrated a significant impact of breastfeeding to reduce the risk of obesity in both mothers and their children. This article presents a review of research literature from three databases covering the years 1995 to 2014 using the search terms of breastfeeding and maternal obesity. We reviewed the existing research on contributing factors to lower breastfeeding rates among obese women, and our findings can guide the development of promising avenues to increase breastfeeding among a vulnerable population. The key findings concerned factors impacting initiation and early breastfeeding, factors impacting later breastfeeding and exclusivity, interventions to increase breastfeeding in obese women, and clinical considerations. The factors impacting early breastfeeding include mechanical factors and delayed onset of lactogenesis II and we have critically analyzed the potential contributors to these factors. The factors impacting later breastfeeding and exclusivity include hormonal imbalances, psychosocial factors, and mammary hypoplasia. Several recent interventions have sought to increase breastfeeding duration in obese women with varying levels of success and we have presented the strengths and weaknesses of these clinical trials. Clinical considerations include specific techniques that have been found to improve breastfeeding incidence and duration in obese women. Many obese women do not obtain the health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding and their children are more likely to also be overweight or obese if they are not breastfed. Further research is needed into the physiological basis for decreased breastfeeding among obese women along with effective

  13. Infant feeding practices and maternal socio-demographic factors that influence practice of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers in Nnewi South-East Nigeria: a cross-sectional and analytical study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Malnutrition is an underlying factor in more than 50% of the major cause of infant mortality-Pneumonia, diarrhoeal disease and measles which account for 70% of infant mortality. Therefore, programs to promote adequate nutrition for age can help reduce mortality from these disease conditions and indispensible to achievement of MDG 4. Aim To describe the feeding practices of infants below six months of age and determine maternal socio-demographic factors that influences the practice of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) among mothers in Nnewi, south-east Nigeria. Methods Four hundred mother-infant pairs attending the infant welfare clinic of the Nnamdi Azikiwe University teaching hospital (NAUTH) during 2012 were consecutively recruited after meeting the study inclusion criteria. Data on breastfeeding were based on infant feeding practice in the previous 24 hours. Exclusive breastfeeding was defined as infant feeding with only breast milk. Results Awareness (95.3%) and knowledge (82.0%) of EBF was high among surveyed mother but the practice of EBF (33.5%) was very low. Positive attitude towards EBF practice was shown by many (71.0%) of surveyed mothers. EBF practice decreased with increasing infant age, OR 0.72 (95% CI 0.34, 1.51) for 1–2 months, OR 0.58 (95% CI 0.23, 1.44) for 3–4 months and OR 0.20 (95% CI 0.06, 0.73) for 5–6 months compared to infants < 1 month old. Maternal education, socioeconomic class, mode of delivery and infants first feed were retained as important maternal predictors of EBF practice after adjustment for confounders. Decreased likelihood of EBF practice was found among mothers of lower educational attainment, OR 0.33 (95% CI 0.13, 0.81), mothers who delivered through caesarean section, OR 0.38 (95% CI 0.18, 0.84), mothers of higher socio-economic status [(middle class, OR 0.46 (95% CI 0.22, 0.99) and upper class, OR 0.32 (95% CI 0.14, 0.74)] while increased likelihood of EBF practice was seen in mothers who gave their

  14. Factors associated with breastfeeding cessation in nursing mothers in a peer support programme in Eastern Lancashire

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The UK has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates worldwide and in recent years the Government has made breastfeeding promotion one of its priorities. The UNICEF UK Baby Friendly Initiative is likely to increase breastfeeding initiation but not duration. Other strategies which involve provision of support for breastfeeding mothers in the early weeks after birth are therefore required to encourage UK mothers to breastfeed for the recommended duration. This paper examines the effects of maternal socio-demographic factors, maternal obstetric factors, and in-hospital infant feeding practices on breastfeeding cessation in a peer support setting. Methods Data on mothers from Blackburn with Darwen (BwD) and Hyndburn in Eastern Lancashire who gave birth at the Royal Blackburn Hospital and initiated breastfeeding while in hospital were linked to the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD). The data were analysed to describe infant feeding methods up to 6 months and the association between breastfeeding cessation, and maternal factors and in-hospital infant feeding practices. Results The mean breastfeeding duration was 21.6 weeks (95% CI 20.86 to 22.37 weeks) and the median duration was 27 weeks (95% CI 25.6 to 28.30 weeks). White mothers were 69% more likely to stop breastfeeding compared with non-White mothers (HR: 0.59; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.67 [White mothers were the reference group]). Breastfeeding cessation was also independently associated with parity and infant feeding practices in hospital. There were no significant associations between breastfeeding cessation and marital status, mode of delivery, timing of breastfeeding initiation and socio-economic deprivation. Conclusion In this study ethnicity, parity and in-hospital infant feeding practices remained independent predictors of breastfeeding cessation in this peer support setting. However other recognised predictors such as marital status, mode of delivery, timing of breastfeeding initiation and socio

  15. UK Breastfeeding Helpline support: An investigation of influences upon satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Helpline services have become an increasingly popular mode of providing community access to information and expert information and advice in the health and welfare sector. This paper reports on data collected from 908 callers to UK-based breastfeeding helplines. Methods A mixed methods design was adopted utilising a structured interview schedule to elicit callers experiences of the help and support received. In this paper we report on a series of multiple regression models undertaken to elicit the variables associated with callers’ ‘overall satisfaction’ with the helpline service. Three models were constructed; 1) caller demographic/call characteristics; 2) attitudes and effectiveness of service characteristics and 3) impact of support on caller wellbeing. Results Overall, 74.6% of callers were very satisfied, and 19.8% were satisfied with the help and support received by the helpline service. The caller demographic/call characteristics found to have a significant relationship with overall satisfaction related to the ease of getting through to the helpline and whether the woman had previously breastfed. Service characteristics associated with overall satisfaction related to whether the information received was helpful and whether the support helped to resolve their issues. The extent to which the volunteer was perceived to have enough time, whether the support had encouraged them to continue breastfeeding, met the caller’s expectations and/or provided the support the caller needed were also significantly associated. Caller outcomes contributing significantly to overall satisfaction concerned callers feeling less stressed, more confident, reassured and determined to continue breastfeeding following the call. Consideration of the effect sizes indicated that key factors associated with overall satisfaction related to: volunteers having sufficient time to deal with the callers’ issues; the information being perceived as helpful; the volunteers

  16. Effective Factors on Shortage of Breastfeeding According to Iranian Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ghorat, Fereshteh; Nejatbakhsh, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Mohammad; Namazi, Nazli

    2016-01-01

    Background: Support for breastfeeding is a public health priority. One of the major factors that can negatively affect breastfeeding is the lack of breast milk. There are many instructions on the subject of breast milk in Iranian traditional medicine resources. This article attempts to investigate causes and reasons for the lack of breast milk from the perspective of the great scholars in this field. Methods: This study reviews the literature based on the Iranian traditional medicine. The literature review included traditional medicine resources and a survey of reputable databases using keywords such as “morzae”, “sady”, “pestan”, “sheer”, “sheerkhar”, and “hifzossehhe”. The content analysis was used after collecting data. Results: According to the viewpoint stated in traditional medicine literature, the primary substance for milk production is blood that transforms to milk after crossing the breast glandular tissue. The main causes of milk shortage can be classified into four categories, namely food-related factors, factors related to blood impaired, factors related to breast tissue and psychological and physical factors. One of the main reasons for milk shortage is the impaired quality and quantity of food. Appropriate mizaj of breast tissue is required for adequate milk production as it develops sufficient ability to absorb and transform the substance into milk. On the other hand, the ability of breast tissue is greatly influenced by the main organs of the body, particularly the heart; being the core of understanding psychological factors. Thus, psychological factors can have a significant effect on the process of milk production. Conclusion: Due to the importance of breastfeeding, reflection on other viewpoints, such as those mentioned in Iranian traditional medicine, could pave the way towards new research areas. It could also steer policies towards an extra focus on breastfeeding by mothers.

  17. Influencing University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes toward Breastfeeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Jan; Boivin, Meghan; Rice, Desiree.; McGraw, Katie; Munson, Elin; Walter, Katherine Corcoran; Bloch, Mary K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Spending a few minutes reading about the benefits of breastfeeding had a significant, positive effect on university students' knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding on post-surveys and follow-up surveys one month later. Since lactation duration is correlated with both knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding, implications of these…

  18. Maternal and Hospital Factors Associated with First-Time Mothers' Breastfeeding Practice: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tzu-I; Huang, Shu-Her; Lee, Shoou-Yih D

    2015-01-01

    Continuity of breastfeeding is infrequent and indeterminate. Evidence is lacking regarding factors associated with breastfeeding at different postpartum time points. This prospective study investigated the change in, and correlates of, breastfeeding practices after delivery at a hospital and at 1, 3, and 6 months postpartum among first-time mothers. We followed a cohort of 300 primiparous mothers of Taiwan who gave birth at two hospitals during 2010-2011. Logistic and Cox regression analyses were performed to determine factors that were correlated with breastfeeding practices. In the study sample, the rate of exclusive breastfeeding during the hospital stay was 66%; it declined to 37.5% at 1 month and 30.2% at 3 months postpartum. Only 17.1% of women reported continuing breastfeeding at 6 months. Early initiation of breastfeeding, rooming-in practice, and self-efficacy were significantly related to exclusive breastfeeding during the hospital stay. After discharge, health literacy, knowledge, intention, and self-efficacy were positively and significantly associated with breastfeeding exclusivity. Later initiation (hazard ratio=1.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.05, 1.97), shorter intention (hazard ratio=1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.13, 1.68), and self-efficacy (hazard ratio=0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.96, 0.99) were important predictors of breastfeeding cessation within 6 months of delivery. Continuous breastfeeding practice for 6 months is challenging and difficult for new mothers. Results showed that factors related to breastfeeding varied over time after delivery. Interventions seeking to sustain breastfeeding should consider new mothers' needs and barriers at different times. PMID:26110594

  19. Factors Associated with Age at Breastfeeding Cessation in Amazonian Infants: Applying a Proximal-Distal Framework.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Annie D; Castro, Marcia C; Lourenço, Bárbara H; Augusto, Rosângela A; Cardoso, Marly A

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Breastfeeding is an important determinant of child survival and normal growth and development, but breastfeeding prevalence is generally low in Brazil. Factors associated with infant feeding practices there are not well understood. This paper examines factors associated with breastfeeding cessation in a township in the western Brazilian Amazon. Methods A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted among children younger than 25 months and collected information on maternal and child characteristics. Survival analysis based on a proximal-distal framework examined the association between breastfeeding duration and socioeconomic and maternal/child biological factors. Results The median breastfeeding duration among 101 children who were no longer breastfeeding was 120 days. Almost two-thirds (63 %) of these children stopped breastfeeding before 6 months of age. In the larger sample of 209 children, 74.6 % had previously been bottle-fed. Considering the full proximal-distal model, a child who had ever been bottle-fed was expected to cease breastfeeding about 88 % sooner than one who was never bottle-fed (p < 0.001). Children in the second-poorest wealth quartile stopped breastfeeding sooner than children in the poorest quartile (p < 0.05). Discussion Breastfeeding cessation in the study area occurred much earlier than the recommended 2 years of age. Factors associated with ending breastfeeding early included ever-use of a bottle, having a single mother, and belonging to the second-poorest wealth quartile. Further research is needed to better understand these factors and other barriers women face to continuing breastfeeding. PMID:27084366

  20. Exclusive breast-feeding practice and associated factors in Enugu, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aghaji, Margaret N

    2002-01-01

    A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among 235 infant-mother pairs in five Baby Friendly pairs in five Baby Friendly Hospitals in Enugu-Nigeria in 1998. The aims were to study their breast-feeding practices and associated factors. The exclusive breast-feeding rate was 33.3% while the predominant breast-feeding rate was 50.2%. Factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding included infants' birth order (P = 0.015), fathers' education (P =0.0244), mothers' education (P = 0.000001), occupation (P = 0.0069) and parity (P = 0.004). However, the infants' age (P = 0.054) and sex (P = 0.403), mothers' age (P = 0.2005), number of breast-feeding counseling attendances (P = 0.0883) and the breast-feeding initiator (P = 0.473) were comparable irrespective of breast-feeding practice. In the mothers' perspectives, the commonest reasons for not breastfeeding exclusively included; insufficient breast milk (58,37.0%) and the sociocultural practice of giving water to babies because of the hot climate (52,33.1%). For an improvement in the exclusive breast-feeding rate of this population, health workers should highlight to mothers the dangers of water supplementation and the dynamics of breastmilk supply through health education, home visits and the formation of community based lactation support groups. PMID:12081350

  1. Correlates of short interbirth intervals in Peninsular Malaysia: their pathways of influence through breastfeeding and contraceptive use.

    PubMed

    Da Vanzo, J; Starbird, E H

    1991-01-01

    Recent research has shown that children born before and after short birth intervals run a considerably greater risk of dying in infancy or childhood than do others. This report investigates which women have short interbirth intervals, under what circumstances, and for what reasons. The analysis uses data from the Malaysian Family Life Survey to examine influences on the two main behaviors--breastfeeding and contraceptive use--that affect birth interval length, and assesses the the impact of these same variables on the probability of having a birth interval of less than 15 months. The analysis shows that many of the independent variables affect breastfeeding and contraceptive use in opposite directions, with no significant net effect on the likelihood of a short interval. For example, a woman's education is negatively related to the probability that she breastfeeds, positively related to the probability that she uses contraceptives, and has no significant effect on the likelihood that the interpregnancy interval is less than 15 months. Having a family planning clinic nearby is associated with less breastfeeding, offsetting whatever positive effects family planning clinics have on contraceptive use in terms of the percentage of birth intervals that are so short as to be detrimental to infant and child health. Hence, factors that increase contraceptive use do not necessarily reduce the incidence of short interbirth intervals, because they are also associated with reduced breastfeeding. We simulate the proportion of intervals that would be short for alternative combinations of breastfeeding and contraceptive use in the population and show that over the period covered by the data (1961-75), breastfeeding had a considerably greater effect on preventing short interbirth intervals than did contraceptive use. PMID:1949106

  2. Cultural paradoxes relating to sexuality and breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Garcia, R; Frazier, L

    1995-06-01

    Despite the widely acknowledged evidence supporting the benefits of breastfeeding, the prevalence and duration of breastfeeding in the United States and other Western countries remain low. To investigate this phenomenon, we conducted an analysis of the socio-cultural factors that influence women's infant-feeding decisions and examined how breastfeeding is treated in the mass media and by U.S. legislation. We found that cultural notions of the female breast as a primarily sexual object place the act of breastfeeding in a controversial light and can be one of the most influential factors in a woman's decision not to breastfeed. This notion is often supported by the media and legislation. Further research needs to focus on the relationship between sexuality and breastfeeding to help our understanding of breastfeeding behavior. This research should assist policymakers and health workers in their efforts to protect and promote breastfeeding and to increase its social acceptability. PMID:7619289

  3. Breast-feeding influences on later life--cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Leon, D A; Ronalds, G

    2009-01-01

    Current evidence, almost exclusively from observational studies, provides a rather mixed picture. From the few studies that have been able to look at fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular events, there is little indication that breast-feeding is associated with either an increased or decreased risk. With respect to blood pressure, the meta-analyses suggest a small but statistically significant lowering of around 1 mmHg SBP associated with having been breast-fed in infancy. However, there is a strong indication from the meta-analyses that even this small effect may partly be accounted for by publication bias. The strongest evidence for an effect of breast-feeding reviewed in this chapter is for serum lipids, where there is good evidence that being breast-fed is associated with an increase in serum total cholesterol in infancy. In childhood there appears to be no association, while in adults there is some indication of breast-feeding being associated with a small decline in total cholesterol levels. As already outlined at the start of the chapter, this whole area of research is made particularly difficult by the fact that breast-feeding can be defined in many different ways. Some studies use definitions that are equivalent to exclusive breast-feeding prior to weaning, while others define it as having ever been breast-fed. This problem of classification is likely to dilute any real associations that may exist. The other major problem is one of interpretation. A result implying that breast-feeding is a "good thing" for cardiovascular health could equally be construed as evidence for a "bad" effect of bottle-feeding. From these data alone, we cannot convincingly determine which conclusion is correct. This is not simply a philosophical debating point. As discussed above in relation to the interpretation of results from the randomised trial of infant feeding, the issue has implications for all research on this topic. Some progress in this area will be made if studies are

  4. Factors affecting actualisation of the WHO breastfeeding recommendations in urban poor settings in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth W; Wekesah, Frederick; Wanjohi, Milka; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ezeh, Alex C; Musoke, Rachel N; Norris, Shane A; Madise, Nyovani J; Griffiths, Paula

    2015-07-01

    Poor breastfeeding practices are widely documented in Kenya, where only a third of children are exclusively breastfed for 6 months and only 2% in urban poor settings. This study aimed to better understand the factors that contribute to poor breastfeeding practices in two urban slums in Nairobi, Kenya. In-depth interviews (IDIs), focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews (KIIs) were conducted with women of childbearing age, community health workers, village elders and community leaders and other knowledgeable people in the community. A total of 19 IDIs, 10 FGDs and 11 KIIs were conducted, and were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were coded in NVIVO and analysed thematically. We found that there was general awareness regarding optimal breastfeeding practices, but the knowledge was not translated into practice, leading to suboptimal breastfeeding practices. A number of social and structural barriers to optimal breastfeeding were identified: (1) poverty, livelihood and living arrangements; (2) early and single motherhood; (3) poor social and professional support; (4) poor knowledge, myths and misconceptions; (5) HIV; and (6) unintended pregnancies. The most salient of the factors emerged as livelihoods, whereby women have to resume work shortly after delivery and work for long hours, leaving them unable to breastfeed optimally. Women in urban poor settings face an extremely complex situation with regard to breastfeeding due to multiple challenges and risk behaviours often dictated to them by their circumstances. Macro-level policies and interventions that consider the ecological setting are needed. PMID:25521041

  5. Breast-feeding Continuation in South-Eastern of Iran: the Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Roostaee, Fatemeh; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mehdi; Zaboli, Maryam; Keykhaie, Razieh; Sharifi-Rad, Javad; Shahrak, Paridokht; Soroush, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast-feeding not only promotes health in an infancy period, but also leads to human vigor and safety at varied life periods viz. adolescence, youth, middle-age, or even adulthood. Aim: The present study was aimed to determine the factors affecting the breast-feeding continuation effectively for a selected region of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 523 women having less than two year old babies from the selected counties covered by the Zahedan University of Medical Sciences (Khash, Saravan, Sarbaz, Chabahar, Zahedan, Nikshahr, Iranshahr, and Konark) using the stratified sampling method. The Data was completed for the target group by using the check-list which included 3 parts: demographic data, case history of pregnancy, childbirth and mother’s statue, and previous records of the newborn up to two years. The obtained data were fed into SPSS software, and all parametric and non-parametric statistical methods were used to analyze the data, especially appropriate to the data type. Results: The results showed that the most important factors associated with breast-feeding discontinuation were infant’s illness (only up to six months), mother’s consciousness, parental support, practical breastfeeding training to the mother, mother’s educational level, child’s gender, place of birth, pregnancies’ interval, mother’s ethnicity and residence and the statue of taking (using) narcotics. The data also indicated that on maternal reasons the main factor which impelled most of the mothers to discontinue their breast-feeding up to six months or even before two years was milk shortage in mother’s breasts. Moreover, the main child- related factor that compelled most of the mothers for non-continuance of their breast-feeding up to six months or even before two years was child’s crying and discomfort. Conclusions: It can be safely concluded that promotion of parental education, neglecting child’s gender as far as cultural

  6. Polish women's experiences of breastfeeding in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Szafranska, Marcelina; Gallagher, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding among Polish mothers at three-four months (38.6 per cent) is in keeping with the low rates of breastfeeding in Ireland overall (Begley et al 2008), and suggests that Polish women have begun to adopt the infant feeding practices of Irish women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the factors that influence Polish women's decisions to initiate and continue breastfeeding in Ireland. A descriptive qualitative approach was utilised to explore participants' perspectives of breastfeeding. Results showed that professional and family support are key to a successful breastfeeding experience for these mothers. Recommendations include further individualised support in order to meet the needs of Polish women breastfeeding in Ireland. PMID:26975131

  7. Programmes to promote breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Jelliffe, E F

    1986-03-01

    Modern concepts about the development of breastfeeding programs are presented focusing on the need for community analysis, the importance of changing attitudes and stimulating motivation in the general public, and both small-scale and national level programs. Some form of community analysis is essential to develop a breastfeeding program. Information needs to be gathered on the prevalence of breastfeeding and the main social factors influencing the lactation reflexes, maternal knowledge about practical management, and the health of mothers. Experience suggests that this can most usefully be obtained by covering 4 topics: general information and attitudes, health services, women in the work force, and the influence of the infant food industry. From all 4 sources, information needs to be gathered on anxiety inducing factors and the limitation of opportunities for sucking, on the knowledge of the practical management of breastfeeding (modern versus traditional methods) by mothers, and on maternal health and nutrition. Breastfeeding programs need to change attitudes and to simulate motivation in the general public and particularly among mothers and fathers. In addition, programs need to convince and motivate other groups whose actions can support breastfeeding or make its accomplishment easier or more difficult. These groups include policymakers and legislators, health workers of various types, research scientists, and industrialists and the infant food industry. For the health professional, there are several procedures which need to be modified, including "rooming-in." Breastfeeding programs have been undertaken successfully on a relatively small scale, often in hospitals, by modifying existing maternity unit practices. The most significant "package" of activities for the hospital is "rooming-in." Positive results are available from hospitals in several European and various less technically developed countries. Various countries have shown an increase in breastfeeding

  8. Breastfeeding prevalence and practices among Singaporean Chinese, Malay and Indian mothers.

    PubMed

    Foo, L L; Quek, S J S; Ng, S A; Lim, M T; Deurenberg-Yap, M

    2005-09-01

    The National Breastfeeding Survey 2001 was the first comprehensive study on breastfeeding conducted on a national level in Singapore. It aimed to establish the prevalence of breastfeeding among Chinese, Malay and Indian mothers and to identify factors influencing breastfeeding. A total of 2098 mothers were interviewed in this two-phase study, with the first interview conducted 2 months after delivery and the second interview 6 months after birth among mothers who were still breastfeeding at 2 months. Frequency distributions of breastfeeding prevalence and types of breastfeeding practices at different time intervals (from birth to 6 months) were produced. Multivariate logistic regression was carried out to construct a model with predictive information on factors which influence continued breastfeeding till 2 months and 6 months after delivery respectively. The study found that about 94.5% of the mothers attempted breastfeeding. At 1 month, 71.6% were still breastfeeding, 49.6% continued to do so at 2 months, and 29.8% persisted till 4 months. By 6 months, the breastfeeding prevalence rate fell to 21.1%. The results of this study show higher breastfeeding prevalence rates compared to past studies in Singapore. Despite this, exclusive breastfeeding is still not a common practice. Various factors were found to be significant in influencing mothers' decision to breastfeed. Factors such as ethnicity, age, educational attainment, religion and baby's sex are non-modifiable in the short term or at an individual level. However, factors such as awareness of breastfeeding benefits, advice from health professionals and previous breastfeeding experience are potentially modifiable. Efforts aimed at promoting breastfeeding in Singapore need to take these modifiable factors into consideration so as to better tailor health promotion efforts on breastfeeding to women. PMID:15814526

  9. Personal Attitudes or Structural Factors? A Contextual Analysis of Breastfeeding Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinley, Nita Mary; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2004-01-01

    A personal attitudes model (i.e., infant feeding choices are based on personal attitudes primarily) and a structural factors model (i.e., feeding choices are shaped by the structural contexts of women's lives, as much as personal attitudes) of women's breastfeeding behavior were tested by surveying a longitudinal sample of 548 mostly European…

  10. Breastfeeding and Chinese mothers living in Australia.

    PubMed

    Diong, S; Johnson, M; Langdon, R

    2000-07-01

    This study sought information on the breastfeeding rates, knowledge and beliefs of 101 migrant Chinese mothers living in south-west Sydney. Differences in beliefs about breastfeeding and bottle-feeding practices between migrant and indigenous groups of mothers were also examined. Sixty-five percent of Chinese mothers were fully breastfeeding their infants on discharge, with a further 6.9% partially breastfeeding. However, only 34% were still breastfeeding at three months. The most important factor to influence mothers' choice to breastfeed was the belief that it was 'good for the baby', whilst mothers choosing to bottle-feed were influenced by low milk supply and the belief that it was easier. Similar beliefs about breastfeeding and bottle-feeding were held by indigenous and migrant Chinese mothers, although concerns about the baby becoming too attached were markedly higher in the migrant group and may be related to sudden drops in breastfeeding rates at three months. Focusing ethno-specific services upon continuation of breastfeeding throughout the first six months of the infant's life is recommended, with a Chinese mothers' breastfeeding support network being posed as a possible approach. PMID:10941319

  11. Predictors of Breastfeeding Attitudes Among College-Educated African Americans.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, Urmeka T

    2015-01-01

    Breastfeeding initiation among African American women has reached 60%; however, it is the lowest rate among all races. This racial disparity is a public health concern considering the impact of breastfeeding on infant morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to explore breastfeeding exposure and determinants of breastfeeding attitudes among African Americans. The theory of planned behavior guided this study focusing on the impact of background factors on determinants of breastfeeding attitudes. This secondary analysis included 348 African American college students with a mean age of 22 years with no children. The Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale and a demographic questionnaire were used to collect data. A significant association between knowing someone who breastfed her infant and being breastfed as an infant (p < .001) was observed. Although gender, education, and breastfeeding exposure explained 15% of the variance in breastfeeding attitudes, being breastfed as an infant had no significant (p = .611) contribution. Breastfeeding exposure to someone who has breastfed her infant is a modifiable factor that influenced positive breastfeeding attitudes. Therefore, it is essential to identify strategies in practice to increase breastfeeding exposure for vulnerable populations in efforts to improve breastfeeding attitudes, intentions, and initiation. PMID:26502555

  12. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months of life in Brazil: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Boccolini, Cristiano Siqueira; de Carvalho, Márcia Lazaro; de Oliveira, Maria Inês Couto

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months of life in Brazil. METHODS Systematic review of epidemiological studies conducted in Brazil with exclusive breastfeeding as outcome. Medline and LILACS databases were used. After the selection of articles, a hierarchical theoretical model was proposed according to the proximity of the variable to the outcome. RESULTS Of the 67 articles identified, we selected 20 cross-sectional studies and seven cohort studies, conducted between 1998 and 2010, comprising 77,866 children. We identified 36 factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding, being more often associated the distal factors: place of residence, maternal age and education, and the proximal factors: maternal labor, age of the child, use of a pacifier, and financing of primary health care. CONCLUSIONS The theoretical model developed may contribute to future research, and factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding may subsidize public policies on health and nutrition. PMID:26759970

  13. Influence of the duration of breastfeeding on quality of muscle function during mastication in preschoolers: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is some evidence of the benefits of breastfeeding to masticatory function, but no studies have evaluated the influence of breastfeeding duration on the quality of this function. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between duration of breastfeeding and quality of masticatory function in preschoolers. Methods Cross-sectional study nested in a contemporary cohort of 144 randomly selected Brazilian infants. Data on sociodemographic, dietary, and sucking-related parameters were collected shortly after birth and at 7, 30, 60, 120, and 180 days of life. Masticatory function was assessed between the ages of 3 and 5 years, using a standardized procedure involving three foodstuffs of different consistencies, for evaluation of incision, lip competence, masticatory patterns, masticatory movements, and perioral muscle use. The quality of masticatory function was scored, and multiple linear regression was used to test for association between this score and the duration of breastfeeding. Results A positive correlation was found between duration of breastfeeding and masticatory function scores (rs = 0.473; p < 0.001). Children breastfed for at least 12 months had significantly higher average scores, regardless of bottle-feeding or pacifier use. Children who were breastfed for longer were more likely to score satisfactorily across all tested parameters. Conclusions Breastfeeding has a positive impact on mastication. In our sample, duration of breastfeeding was positively associated with the quality of masticatory function at preschool age. PMID:23114410

  14. Case–control study of risk factors for infectious mastitis in Spanish breastfeeding women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify potential predisposing factors associated with human infectious mastitis. Methods We conducted a case–control study among breastfeeding women, with 368 cases (women with mastitis) and 148 controls. Data were collected by a questionnaire designed to obtain retrospective information about several factors related to medical history of mother and infant, different aspects of pregnancy, delivery and postpartum, and breastfeeding practices that could be involved in mastitis. Bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression model were used to examine the relationship between mastitis and these factors. Results The variables significantly- and independently-associated with mastitis were cracked nipples (P < 0.0001), oral antibiotics during breastfeeding (P < 0.0001), breast pumps (P < 0.0001), topical antifungal medication during breastfeeding (P = 0.0009), mastitis in previous lactations (P = 0.0014), breast milk coming in later than 24 h postpartum (P = 0.0016), history of mastitis in the family (P = 0.0028), mother-infant separation longer than 24 h (P = 0.0027), cream on nipples (P = 0.0228) and throat infection (P = 0.0224). Conclusions Valuable factors related to an increased risk of infectious mastitis have been identified. This knowledge will allow practitioners to provide appropriate management advice about modifiable risk factors, such as the use of pumps or inappropriate medication. They also could identify before delivery those women at an increased risk of developing mastitis, such as those having a familial history of mastitis, and thus develop strategies to prevent this condition. PMID:24902596

  15. Contraception and Breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Pieh Holder, Kelly Lynne

    2015-12-01

    Postpartum contraception is important to lengthening birth intervals and improving the health of women and children. For breastfeeding women the choice and timing of contraception may influence breastfeeding and infant growth patterns. Nonhormonal methods of contraception are the preferred choice for breastfeeding women. Progestin-only methods comprise a viable next option. Combined hormonal methods of contraception containing estrogen and progestin may be considered as a third option for birth control in breastfeeding women. The objective of this chapter is to review the current literature and recommendations for the use of hormonal and nonhormonal methods of contraception while breastfeeding. PMID:26457854

  16. Breastfeeding: population-based perspectives.

    PubMed

    Labbok, Miriam H

    2013-02-01

    From a population perspective, the achievement of the goals of exclusive breastfeeding throughout the first 6 months of life and continued breastfeeding with the introduction of age-appropriate complementary feeding for infant feeding, women and families must be inspired and empowered to overcome health system, sociocultural, and economic/political barriers. This article discusses trends in breastfeeding, influences on the reacceptance of a breastfeeding norm, and breastfeeding as a social and public health issue. The goal is to create an enabling environment for optimal breastfeeding in health care and social norms, and to adjust the social and political realities to support an economic milieu that favors breastfeeding. PMID:23178058

  17. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in Timor-Leste: findings from Demographic and Health Survey 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Vishnu; da Cruz, Jonia Lourenca Nunes Brites; Karkee, Rajendra; Lee, Andy H

    2014-04-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding is known to have nutritional and health benefits. This study investigated factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding among infants aged five months or less in Timor-Leste. The latest data from the national Demographic and Health Survey 2009-2010 were analyzed by binary logistic regression. Of the 975 infants included in the study, overall 49% (95% confidence interval 45.4% to 52.7%) were exclusively breastfed. The exclusive breastfeeding prevalence declined with increasing infant age, from 68.0% at less than one month to 24.9% at five months. Increasing infant age, mothers with a paid occupation, who perceived their newborn as non-average size, and residence in the capital city Dili, were associated with a lower likelihood of exclusive breastfeeding. On the other hand, women who could decide health-related matters tended to breastfeed exclusively, which was not the case for others whose decisions were made by someone else. The results suggested the need of breastfeeding promotion programs to improve the exclusive breastfeeding rate. Antenatal counseling, peer support network, and home visits by health workers could be feasible options to promote exclusive breastfeeding given that the majority of births occur at home. PMID:24756151

  18. [Breastfeeding: health benefits for child and mother].

    PubMed

    Turck, D; Vidailhet, M; Bocquet, A; Bresson, J-L; Briend, A; Chouraqui, J-P; Darmaun, D; Dupont, C; Frelut, M-L; Girardet, J-P; Goulet, O; Hankard, R; Rieu, D; Simeoni, U

    2013-11-01

    The prevalence of breastfeeding in France is one of the lowest in Europe: 65% of infants born in France in 2010 were breastfed when leaving the maternity ward. Exclusive breastfeeding allows normal growth until at least 6 months of age, and can be prolonged until the age of 2 years or more, provided that complementary feeding is started after 6 months. Breast milk contains hormones, growth factors, cytokines, immunocompetent cells, etc., and has many biological properties. The composition of breast milk is influenced by gestational and postnatal age, as well as by the moment of the feed. Breastfeeding is associated with slightly enhanced performance on tests of cognitive development. Exclusive breastfeeding for at least 3 months is associated with a lower incidence and severity of diarrhoea, otitis media and respiratory infection. Exclusive breastfeeding for at least 4 months is associated with a lower incidence of allergic disease (asthma, atopic dermatitis) during the first 2 to 3 years of life in at-risk infants (infants with at least one first-degree relative presenting with allergy). Breastfeeding is also associated with a lower incidence of obesity during childhood and adolescence, as well as with a lower blood pressure and cholesterolemia in adulthood. However, no beneficial effect of breastfeeding on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has been shown. Maternal infection with hepatitis B and C virus is not a contraindication to breastfeeding, as opposed to HIV infection and galactosemia. A supplementation with vitamin D and K is necessary in the breastfed infant. Very few medications contraindicate breastfeeding. Premature babies can be breastfed and/or receive mother's milk and/or bank milk, provided they receive energy, protein and mineral supplements. Return to prepregnancy weight is earlier in breastfeeding mothers during the 6 months following delivery. Breastfeeding is also associated with a decreased risk of breast and ovarian cancer in the

  19. Norwegian general practitioners' knowledge and beliefs about breastfeeding, and their self-rated ability as breastfeeding counsellor

    PubMed Central

    Svendby, Heidi R; Løland, Beate F; Omtvedt, Marianne; Holmsen, Solveig T; Lagerløv, Per

    2016-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding is considered the best infant-feeding method. Norway is one of the leading countries in terms of breastfeeding initiation and duration. To maintain this high breastfeeding rate, it is important to understand the factors that influence breastfeeding. A doctor s advice can improve the rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration, but not all doctors are competent in breastfeeding counselling. Objectives The aim of this study was to identify the knowledge and beliefs of general practitioners (GPs) about breastfeeding in Norway and to investigate how important they considered guidance about breastfeeding initiation and duration before and after birth. Design A questionnaire study about knowledge and beliefs according to predefined correct responses and about self-perceived competence as an advisor. Subjects 122 GPs engaged in apprenticeship for medical students. Results The response rate was 57%, 69 GPs participated. The questions were answered correctly according to national consensus for 49 % for the knowledge items and 64 % of the belief items. The GPs believed that their guidance was more important after than before birth. Female GPs had more confidence in their guidance ability than male GPs. Confidence in the GPs own guidance after birth was associated with knowledge about contraindications to breastfeeding. Conclusion Although the GPs expressed beliefs favouring breastfeeding they partly lacked basic knowledge. The GPs confidence in own guidance was better after than before birth and was higher among those with more knowledge. Improved knowledge and emphasis on guidance before birth should be promoted among GPs. Key pointsBreastfeeding is the best infant-feeding method. Doctors’ advice improves the rates of breastfeeding, but not all doctors have sufficient knowledge. This study mapped the knowledge and beliefs among Norwegian GPs. The study revealed that:GPs partly lacked basic knowledge to effectively promote breastfeeding.GPs had

  20. Predictors of the duration of exclusive breastfeeding among first-time mothers.

    PubMed

    Semenic, Sonia; Loiselle, Carmen; Gottlieb, Laurie

    2008-10-01

    Few women currently meet revised WHO recommendations to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months postpartum. In this prospective study we aimed to determine the influence of socio-demographic, psychosocial, and perinatal factors on the length of exclusive breastfeeding among 189 Canadian primiparous mothers. A majority of the participants did not meet their exclusive breastfeeding goals, and only 5% breastfed exclusively for a full 6 months. Breastfeeding self-efficacy, in-hospital formula supplementation, prenatal class attendance, and type of delivery independently predicted exclusive breastfeeding duration. Findings underscore the complex interplay of factors influencing breastfeeding, highlight the early postpartum weeks as a critical period for the establishment of exclusive breastfeeding, and suggest the need for a continuum of pre- and postnatal strategies for prolonging the exclusive breastfeeding period. PMID:18324667

  1. African American women and breastfeeding: an integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Becky S; Grassley, Jane S

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a review of literature regarding factors that influence breastfeeding intentions, initiation, and duration in the African American population. Research related to health disparities experienced by African Americans in the United States, as well as research regarding the protective benefits of breastfeeding for those specific health disparities, are also presented. Community and institutional interventions and promotional campaigns aimed at increasing initiation and duration of breastfeeding in the African American population are discussed. Future research regarding African American women's breastfeeding experiences using Black feminist thought as a theoretical foundation is recommended. PMID:23445372

  2. Breastfeeding in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Fok, D

    1997-01-01

    This paper traces the trends of breastfeeding in Singapore for the past 40 years, describes the recent breastfeeding education efforts and makes recommendations after drawing inferences from the results of the Breastfeeding Mothers' Support Group's (BMSG) February 1996 survey and other local studies. Although the BMSG and other local studies' sample sizes are small, there are recurring themes in the factors affecting the breastfeeding rates in Singapore. The consistent patterns are that the well-to-do breastfeed more than the poor, the Chinese breastfeed less than the other ethnic groups and the more educated mothers breastfeed more than the less educated ones. Target groups for breastfeeding education are identified--the less the less educated mothers, the Chinese mothers and the working mothers. Hospitals are encouraged to become baby-friendly in their practices. The next step after raising public awareness of the benefits of breastfeeding is to increase the present breastfeeding duration of two months to six months. PMID:9699470

  3. Early breastfeeding experiences of adolescent mothers: a qualitative prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Teen mothers face many challenges to successful breastfeeding and are less likely to breastfeed than any other population group in the U.S. Few studies have investigated this population; all prior studies are cross-sectional and collect breastfeeding data retrospectively. The purpose of our qualitative prospective study was to understand the factors that contribute to the breastfeeding decisions and practices of teen mothers. Methods This prospective study took place from January through December 2009 in Greensboro, North Carolina in the U.S. We followed the cohort from pregnancy until two weeks after they ceased all breastfeeding and milk expression. We conducted semi-structured interviews at baseline and follow-up, and tracked infant feeding weekly by phone. We analyzed the data to create individual life and breastfeeding journeys and then identified themes that cut across the individual journeys. Results Four of the five teenagers breastfed at the breast for nine days: in contrast, one teen breastfed exclusively for five months. Milk expression by pumping was associated with significantly longer provision of human milk. Breastfeeding practices and cessation were closely connected with their experiences as new mothers in the context of ongoing multiple roles, complex living situations, youth and dependency, and poor knowledge of the fundamentals of breastfeeding and infant development. Breastfeeding cessation was influenced by inadequate breastfeeding skill, physically unpleasant and painful early experiences they were unprepared to manage, and inadequate health care response to real problems. Conclusions Continued breastfeeding depends on a complex interplay of multiple factors, including having made an informed choice and having the skills, support and experiences needed to sustain the belief that breastfeeding is the best choice for them and their baby given their life situation. Teenagers in the US context need to have a positive early

  4. Liminality and breastfeeding: women negotiating space and two bodies.

    PubMed

    Mahon-Daly, Patricia; Andrews, Gavin J

    2002-06-01

    It is almost universally accepted that breastfeeding infants is nutritionally superior to bottle-feeding. However, despite this medical advice, in many countries breastfeeding rates remain low and in the UK, rates are relatively static. The literature on breastfeeding has discussed international rates and the broad socio-economic factors influencing these rates. Through an observational study of a group of breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding women in the United Kingdom, this research utilises contemporary theoretical perspectives on the body, space and rites of passage, and investigates the reasons why some breastfeeding mothers may be in a liminal period, and the breastfeeding event itself, at times, a liminal and marginalised act. The paper argues that, for the group studied, breastfeeding is sometimes discouraged by its medicalisation, and that breastmilk and breastfeeding are often considered by mothers to be embarrassing. Many of the women studied regarded certain public and private places to be unacceptable places to breastfeed and claimed to modify their behaviour accordingly. The paper demonstrates the value of conducting locally based qualitative research into breastfeeding experiences, and of using theoretical perspectives from post-medical geography to interpret women's experiences. PMID:11943579

  5. Breastfeeding knowledge and beliefs among adults in eastern Tobago.

    PubMed

    Bovell-Benjamin, A C; Benjamin, W; Ivey, M; Simeon, D T

    2001-11-01

    Using a cross-sectional survey, the knowledge and beliefs about breastfeeding were evaluated among adults in Eastern Tobago (N = 509). Of the respondents, 95%, 69%, and 48% indicated that a baby should be exclusively breastfed at birth, 3 months, and 6 months, respectively. The baby's mother was thought to have the greatest influence on breastfeeding decisions. Of the respondents, 63% and 80% were unaware of expressed breast milk and cup-feeding a neonate, whereas 82% believed that a solely breastfed baby should receive water. Additionally, 23% and 44% felt that breastfeeding should be terminated before 6 months and between 6 and 12 months, respectively. Inadequate maternal nutrition and employment were reported as the principal factors affecting breastfeeding. There is a lack of knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of lactation and about the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding. These findings are useful for guiding the development and implementation of interventions to promote breast-feeding in Tobago. PMID:11847898

  6. Breastfeeding - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - breastfeeding ... The following organizations are good resources for information on breastfeeding and breastfeeding problems : La Leche League International Inc. -- www.lalecheleague.org March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/ ...

  7. Community breastfeeding attitudes and beliefs.

    PubMed

    Vari, Patty; Vogeltanz-Holm, Nancy; Olsen, Glenn; Anderson, Cindy; Holm, Jeffrey; Peterson, Heidi; Henly, Susan

    2013-07-01

    The cultural norms of a society have a powerful influence over health behavior decisions such as choosing an infant feeding method. The objective of this study was to explore the community breastfeeding perspective by examining breastfeeding attitudes and beliefs, experiences, and behaviors of a U.S. university community through an online survey. Linear and logistic regressions were used to determine predictors of those who had breastfed and those with positive breastfeeding attitudes and beliefs. Through the findings, the researchers suggest that exposure to breastfeeding and increasing positive breastfeeding attitudes and beliefs are important as the focus for public breastfeeding campaigns. PMID:23391135

  8. Factors influencing breast changes after pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rauh, Claudia; Faschingbauer, Florian; Haeberle, Lothar; Jud, Sebastian M; Heusinger, Katharina; Fasching, Peter A; Goecke, Tamme W; Rajakaruna, Nadeeka; Voigt, Franziska; Bani, Mayada R; Lux, Michael P; Renner, Stefan P; Loehberg, Christian R; Hartmann, Arndt; Schulz-Wendtland, Ruediger; Beckmann, Matthias W; Bayer, Christian M

    2013-05-01

    Pregnancy and breastfeeding are major factors reducing breast cancer (BC) risk. A potential mechanism for this effect might be changes in mammographic density, but other factors might be involved. The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing changes in breast size and breast stiffness after pregnancy. Of a consecutive cohort of 5991 women who gave birth between 1996 and 1999, 559 replied to a questionnaire including questions about breast changes. The women completed their own assessments of changes in breast size and stiffness since their last pregnancy. Factors being investigated regarding their predictive value for these changes were: BMI before pregnancy, weight gain, age at first full-term pregnancy (FFTP), number of pregnancies, breastfeeding, and BMI of the children's fathers. A decrease in breast size was reported in 21.8% of the participants and an increase in 35.1%. With regard to the breast stiffness, 66.4% reported a decrease and only 5% reported an increase. Independent predictors for increased breast size were age at FFTP, increase in BMI since last pregnancy, BMI before pregnancy, and time since FFTP. Factors predictive of greater breast stiffness included age at FFTP, BMI before FFTP, time since FFTP, breastfeeding status, and number of pregnancies. Breast changes after pregnancy depend on several variables, which are described as BC-risk factors. Individual reaction of the female breast to a pregnancy leads to different outcomes with regard to breast size and stiffness. Further studies are needed to clarify whether these individual responses interact with the effect of pregnancy on the BC risk. PMID:23022745

  9. Factors associated with the duration of breastfeeding: analysis of the primary and secondary responders to a self-completed questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Pande, H; Unwin, C; Håheim, L L

    1997-02-01

    A cohort of 1192 consecutive newborn infants was followed prospectively for factors possibly affecting the length of time they were breastfed. Following the procedure of a double-blind test, one-third of the cohort received Credé prophylaxis at age 2 h. The duration of breastfeeding (sole or partial) was recorded up to age 6 months and there was a 100% follow-up. Multivariate proportional hazards regression analysis (Cox) of the whole cohort showed that babies being delivered between 21.00 and 24.00 h were associated with a shorter duration of breastfeeding (rate ratio = 1.37, 99% confidence interval = 1.05-1.78). Mother's age (under 21 years), marital status (unmarried) and birthweight (inversely) were factors also independently associated with shorter breastfeeding duration. Boys were breastfed for a shorter time than girls (p < 0.05). In univariate analyses only, the first-born babies had a significantly shorter breastfeeding time, and purulent eyes in the first 24 h was a factor of borderline significance (p < 0.05). Educational level, socioeconomic status and smoking habits of the mothers were not investigated in this study. Owing to the lack of regulations in place at the time of the study (1981-82), it was possible to differentiate between the mothers who responded spontaneously to the self-completion questionnaire (primary responders, 68.5%) and those who required one or two reminders. Short breastfeeding time was the strongest predictor of being a secondary responder, followed by being very young or unmarried. Approaching the secondary responders reduced the prevalence of breastfeeding at 6 months by 5% (from 53.8% to 48.8%). PMID:9055888

  10. [Knowledge about breastfeeding profits among primiparas].

    PubMed

    Bączyk, Grażyna; Klejewski, Andrzej; Cichocka, Ewelina

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding is the only way to nourish newborns and toddlers and it enables them to have an optimal health condition and growth. Both a child and a mother draw a lot of profits from breastfeeding. Woman's milk is perfectly balanced as far as quantity and quality is concerned. It has specific generic nourishment that ensures optimal psychological emotional and physical development of a child. Breastfeeding also protects infants from immunological problems and infections. Having the skills and knowledge about breastfeeding is the main factor that enables a smooth process of lactation. All the medical staff and midwives especially are obliged to promote breastfeeding and they should provide information as well as emotional and technical support for mums through the whole period of lactation. The aim of this thesis was to examine the level of knowledge about breastfeeding among first-time mothers. An anonymous survey was used as an analytic tool. The survey was specifically created for this research and it contained 30 questions. Majority of responders (98%) declared a will for breastfeeding. Also majority of women (94%) knew that their milk contains all the needed ingredients for proper development of their young. According to the pregnant women in labor (98%) breastfeeding is a key element in establishing an emotional connection with the child. Most of the responders knew the influence of breastfeeding on child's health. Minority of the questioned women (14%) attended birthing courses. The responders were equipped in knowledge on various levels. It proves the necessity of systematic and planned education for women. The system of lactation counseling should be an integral part of post-labor care in obstetrician clinics. PMID:25799859

  11. Chemotherapy, targeted agents, antiemetics and growth-factors in human milk: how should we counsel cancer patients about breastfeeding?

    PubMed

    Pistilli, Barbara; Bellettini, Giulia; Giovannetti, Elisa; Codacci-Pisanelli, Giovanni; Azim, Hatem A; Benedetti, Giovanni; Sarno, Maria Anna; Peccatori, Fedro A

    2013-05-01

    An increasing number of women are diagnosed with cancer during pregnancy and lactation. Women are usually advised to interrupt breastfeeding during systemic anticancer treatment for fear of serious adverse effects to the nursed infant. However, the issue is poorly addressed in the literature and very few studies have evaluated the safety of breastfeeding during or after cytotoxic drugs or target agents administration. In this review we will analyze the available evidence that addresses the issue of anticancer drugs, targeted agents, antiemetics and growth-factors excretion in human milk. This could serve as a unique resource that may aid physicians in the management of breastfeeding cancer patients interested in maintaining lactation during treatment. PMID:23199900

  12. Factors associated with the initiation and duration of breastfeeding by Chinese mothers in Perth, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Zhang, Min; Scott, Jane A; Binns, Colin W

    2004-05-01

    To identify determinants of the initiation and duration of breastfeeding by Chinese Australian mothers, a cross-sectional survey of 506 Mandarin-speaking women in Perth, Western Australia, was conducted. Doctors' support of breastfeeding was positively associated with the initiation of breastfeeding both in the mothers' home countries (odds ratio [OR], 9.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.17-31.18) and in Australia (OR, 16.78; 95% CI, 7.12-39.55) and with duration. Mother's level of education was positively associated with the initiation of breastfeeding in the mother's home country (OR, 3.04; 95% CI, 1.36-6.80) and positively associated with the duration of breastfeeding both in the mother's home country and Australia. Father's preference for breastfeeding was positively associated with the initiation of breastfeeding of the mother giving birth in Australia (OR, 4.96; 95% CI, 1.93-12.66). Health professionals can provide invaluable support for mothers initiating and continuing breastfeeding in this population. Prenatal education also needs to emphasize the ways in which fathers can support and contribute to breastfeeding. PMID:15117518

  13. Breastfeeding practices of ethnic Indian immigrant women in Melbourne, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The health benefits of breastfeeding are well documented in public health and medical literature worldwide. Despite this, global rates of breastfeeding steadily decline during the first couple of months postpartum. Although immigrant women have higher initiation rates and a longer duration of breastfeeding overall, breastfeeding practices are compromised because of a myriad of socioeconomic and cultural factors, including the acculturation process. The objective of this study was to show how acculturation and cultural identity influenced breastfeeding practices among Indian immigrants in Melbourne, Australia. Methods Twelve case studies were employed to gather narratives of women’s lived experiences. Ethnographic field research methods were used to collect data, including participant observation, semi-structured interviews, case studies, and life histories. This provided in-depth information from women on various aspects of the immigrant experience of motherhood, including infant care and feeding. Participants were opportunistically recruited from Indian obstetricians and gynaecologists. Women identifying as ethnic Indian and in their third trimester of pregnancy were recruited. Interviews were conducted in women’s homes in metropolitan Melbourne over a 12 month period between 2004 and 2005. Data were coded and analysed thematically. Results All women identified as ethnic Indian and initiated breastfeeding in accordance with their cultural identity. Social support and cultural connectivity impacted positively on duration of breastfeeding. However, acculturation (adopting Australian cultural values and gender norms, including returning to paid employment) negatively influenced breastfeeding duration. In addition, the high reliance of recent immigrants on the advice of healthcare professionals who gave inconsistent advice negatively affected exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusions For ethnic Indian immigrant women breastfeeding practice is closely linked

  14. Breastfeeding and Everyday Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breastfeeding and everyday life More breastfeeding topics ); } Breastfeeding Breastfeeding and everyday life Most breastfeeding moms do not ... support to help women breastfeed successfully. Subscribe to breastfeeding email updates Email Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | ...

  15. A systematic review of structured compared with non-structured breastfeeding programmes to support the initiation and duration of exclusive and any breastfeeding in acute and primary health care settings.

    PubMed

    Beake, Sarah; Pellowe, Carol; Dykes, Fiona; Schmied, Virginia; Bick, Debra

    2012-04-01

    Policies and guidelines have recommended that structured programmes to support breastfeeding should be introduced. The objective of this review was to consider the evidence of outcomes of structured compared with non-structured breastfeeding programmes in acute maternity care settings to support initiation and duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Quantitative and qualitative studies were considered. Primary outcomes of interest were initiation of breastfeeding and duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Studies that only considered community-based interventions were excluded. An extensive search of literature published in 1992-2010 was undertaken using identified key words and index terms. Methodological quality was assessed using checklists developed by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Two independent reviewers conducted critical appraisal and data extraction; 26 articles were included. Because of clinical and methodological heterogeneity of study designs, it was not possible to combine studies or individual outcomes in meta-analyses. Most studies found a statistically significant improvement in breastfeeding initiation following introduction of a structured breastfeeding programme, although effect sizes varied. The impact on the duration of exclusive breastfeeding and duration of any breastfeeding to 6 months was also evident, although not all studies found statistically significant differences. Despite poor overall study quality, structured programmes compared with standard care positively influence the initiation and duration of exclusive breastfeeding and any breastfeeding. In health care settings with low breastfeeding initiation and duration rates, structured programmes may have a greater benefit. Few studies controlled for any potential confounding factors, and the impact of bias has to be considered. PMID:22188596

  16. A twin study of breastfeeding with a preliminary genome wide association scan

    PubMed Central

    Colodro-Conde, L.; Zhu, G.; Power, R. A.; Henders, A.; Heath, A.C.; Madden, P.A.F.; Montgomery, G.W.; Medland, S. E.; Ordoñana, J.R.; Martin, N.G.

    2015-01-01

    Breastfeeding has been an important survival trait during human history, though it has long been recognised that individuals differ in their exact breastfeeding behaviour. Here our aims were, first, to explore to what extent genetic and environmental influences contributed to the individual differences in breastfeeding behaviour; second, to detect possible genetic variants related to breastfeeding; and lastly, to test if the genetic variants associated with breastfeeding have been previously found to be related with breast size. Data were collected from a large community-based cohort of Australian twins, with 3,364 women for the twin modelling analyses and 1,521 of them included in the genome wide association study. Monozygotic twin correlations (rMZ = .52, 95% CI .46 – .57) were larger than dizygotic twin correlations (rDZ = .35, 95% CI .25 – .43) and the best-fitting model was the one composed by additive genetics and unique environmental factors, explaining 53% and 47% of the variance in breastfeeding behaviour, respectively. No breastfeeding-related genetic variants reached genome-wide significance. The polygenic risk score analyses showed no significant results, suggesting breast size does not influence breastfeeding. This study confers a replication of a previous one exploring the sources of variance of breastfeeding and, to our knowledge, is the first one to conduct a Genome-Wide Association Study on breastfeeding and look at the overlap with variants for breast size. PMID:25475840

  17. Breastfeeding: how could it be enhanced? The perceptions of Vietnamese women in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Rossiter, J C; Yam, B M

    2000-01-01

    In Australia, the prevalence and duration of breastfeeding is on the decline. The low incidence of breastfeeding includes the immigrant Vietnamese. The purpose of this study was to examine Vietnamese women's perceptions of factors that might influence their choice of infant feeding and how breastfeeding could be promoted and maintained by nurses, midwives, other health professionals, and the health care system as a whole. A convenience sample of 124 postnatal Vietnamese women from community agencies in western and southwestern suburbs of Sydney was interviewed. Content analysis showed that factors that affect their choice of infant feeding method were language difficulties in communicating with health professionals concerning breastfeeding, lack of social support and follow-up care, and attitudes of health professionals toward breastfeeding. To promote and maintain breastfeeding within the Vietnamese community in Sydney, Australia, appropriate health care planning and implementation based on their social, cultural, and language backgrounds and practices need to be considered. PMID:10907337

  18. Dad's Role in Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Dad's Role in Breastfeeding Page Content Article Body Let’s say you and ... you can be when the time comes. Successful nursing depends on a host of factors, many of ...

  19. Factors affecting breastfeeding among women of Mexican origin or descent in Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Scrimshaw, S C; Engle, P L; Arnold, L; Haynes, K

    1987-04-01

    Data on breastfeeding intentions and behavior were collected in prenatal and postpartum interviews as part of a study on first birth among 518 women of Mexican origin or descent in two Los Angeles hospitals. The prenatal intentions of 82 per cent of the women to breastfeed were maintained postpartum in one hospital but dropped sharply in the other. A greater number of hours a day with the baby in the hospital and earlier initiation of breastfeeding were associated with the hospital where prenatal breastfeeding intentions were more likely to be carried out. The intention to work postpartum was associated both with the decision not to breastfeed at all and with shorter intended duration of breastfeeding. PMID:3826466

  20. Evaluation of breastfeeding promotion, support, and knowledge of benefits on breastfeeding outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kornides, Melanie; Kitsantas, Panagiota

    2013-09-01

    We examined how prenatal exposure to breastfeeding information from various media sources, maternal knowledge of benefits, family and clinician support, and peer practices influence breastfeeding outcomes in early infancy. Initiation of breastfeeding, any breastfeeding at two months, and exclusivity of breastfeeding at two months were examined in a cohort of US women using data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II. Descriptive statistics, chi-square analyses and logistic regression were conducted. Approximately 85 percent of the women initiated breastfeeding. At two months, 63.8 percent continued breastfeeding, while only 38.1 percent breastfed exclusively. Mothers with greater knowledge about breastfeeding benefits were 11.2 (95% CI: 6.87-18.45) times more likely to initiate breastfeeding and 5.62 (95% CI: 4.19-7.54) times more likely to breastfeed at two months than those with lower levels of knowledge. Women whose families prenatally supported exclusive breastfeeding were 8.21(5.12-13.2) times more likely to initiate and continue breastfeeding (OR 3.21, 95% CI: 2.51-4.11). Clinicians who supported breastfeeding only also increased the odds of a woman initiating breastfeeding (OR 1.95, 95% CI: 1.31-2.88). Interventions to increase maternal knowledge of breastfeeding benefits and family and clinician support of breastfeeding in the prenatal period may help increase breastfeeding rates. The encouragement of breastfeeding needs to be a priority among health care providers to improve the health of mothers and infants. PMID:23439591

  1. Breastfeeding in Botswana: practices, attitudes, patterns, and the socio-cultural factors affecting them.

    PubMed

    Mahgoub, Salah E O; Bandeke, T; Nnyepi, M

    2002-08-01

    A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in four randomly selected districts of Botswana. Two study sites were chosen in each district. Four hundred households with children under 3 years old were enrolled into the study. A structured questionnaire was administered to mothers of eligible children in 50 households in each of the eight sites. About half the families had monthly incomes below 400 Pula (1 US$ = 4.6 Pula). The majority of families had only one child under 3 years of age. A total of 76.4 per cent of the mothers were single and a high proportion of them had primary or secondary education. Over half, 59.3 per cent, of the mothers had a high level of information about breastfeeding mainly obtained before conception; 94.4 per cent of the mothers believed that breastfeeding was better than bottlefeeding. Ninety-five per cent of the mothers had breastfed their children, and they started breastfeeding immediately or a few hours after delivery. More than 85 per cent of the mothers were planning to continue breastfeeding for 18 months or more. The majority obtained advice about breastfeeding from health workers. The main reason for stopping breastfeeding was that the mother was at work or school. Although 58.2 per cent of mothers had little or no support for breastfeeding from the community it had a positive effect on their decision to breastfeed. The majority of mothers indicated their confidence about breastfeeding when they were pregnant. Over three-quarters (79.6 per cent) of the mothers delivered in government hospitals, and nearly all were roomed with their babies after delivery. PMID:12200978

  2. Determinants of breastfeeding in developing countries: overview and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Huffman, S L

    1984-01-01

    Breastfeeding can play a major role in fertility regulation in developing countries. The effect of breastfeeding is enhanced when the incidence of breastfeeding is high and the duration extended. These factors are more likely to occur when suckling at the breast is frequent. Sociological and behavioral factors can also influence a woman's decision to initiate and terminate breastfeeding. The effects of urbanization, maternal education, and socioeconomic status act through the intervening variables of sociocultural factors, health services, employment status of women, and availability of breastmilk substitutes. Strategies to alter these intervening variables include educational campaigns and support groups for lactating women, changes in health services, availability of child care facilities near employment centers, and enforcement of the international code of marketing of breastmilk substitutes. PMID:6474551

  3. Effect of early mother-baby close contact over the duration of exclusive breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Kamala; Sharma, Anna; Dhungel, Sachin

    2005-12-01

    This is a prospective study involving ninety-two lactating mother- infant pairs in the first six months of birth. They were followed-up up to six months for various perinatal factors determining the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Early postpartum mother-baby skin-to-skin contact had a powerful influence (P<0.001) over the duration of exclusive breastfeeding up to 4-6 months and was found to be more significant than early initiation of breastfeeding (P<0.05). Mode of delivery did not have any significant effect (P<0.5) over the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Thus health care centers can easily adopt a policy to allow few minutes of early postpartum mother-baby skin-to-skin contact and early initiation of breastfeeding to all vaginal as well as caesarian deliveries to promote breastfeeding. PMID:16519083

  4. The Influence of Acculturation on Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration for Mexican-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Lynch, Scott M.; McLanahan, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to test the hypotheses that (1) Similar to other positive pre- and post-natal outcomes, Mexican immigrant mothers are more likely to breastfeed, and to breastfeed longer, than white or Mexican-American mothers; and (2) Acculturation accounts for the ethnic/nativity differential in breastfeeding initiation and duration. The results support both hypotheses. Mexican immigrants to the U.S. are much more likely than whites to breastfeed, and to breastfeed longer. Mexican-American mothers, after controlling for background characteristics, have similar initiation and duration to whites. Using expanded acculturation measures developed for this paper, acculturation accounts for some of the difference between whites and Mexican immigrants in breastfeeding initiation, and much of the difference for breastfeeding duration. The results suggest that low levels of acculturation operate to protect Mexican immigrants from choosing to formula-feed, which gives their babies many health advantages, and may be associated with better health outcomes across the life course. The results also suggest that successive generations of Mexican immigrants may abandon breastfeeding, which is deleterious for their infants. PMID:21399755

  5. WIC peer counselors’ perceptions of breastfeeding in African-American women with lower incomes

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Tyra T.; Powell, Rachel; Anderson, Alex K.; Hall, Jori; Davis, Marsha; Hilyard, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background African-American women have the lowest breastfeeding rates among all racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Peer counseling is an effective intervention in improving breastfeeding in this population. However, little is known on peer counselors’ perceptions of breastfeeding in African-American women. Objectives As part of a larger qualitative study, the goal of this study was to understand the contextual factors influencing breastfeeding decisions of low-income African-American women from the perspective of breastfeeding peer counselors (PCs). Methods Three focus groups were conducted with 23 PCs from the WIC program in a Southeastern state. All focus group discussions were audio-recorded, professionally transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Bronfenbrenner’s socio-ecological model was used to group categories into themes. Results Of the sample, 48% were African-American, 78.2% were married, 56.5% had some college education. Five main themes emerged to describe factors at multiple-levels influencing breastfeeding in PCs’ low-income African-American clients: Individual, Microsystem, Exosystem, Macrosystem, and Chronosystem. Novel findings included 1) having breast-pumps may give African-American women a “sense of security”, 2) cultural pressures to be a “strong black woman” can impede breastfeeding support, and 3) breastfeeding “generational gaps” have resulted from American “slavery” and when formula was “a sign of wealth”. Conclusions As PCs described, low-income African-American women breastfeeding decisions are impacted by numerous contextual factors. Findings from this study suggest a need to broaden public health approach to breastfeeding promotion in this population by moving beyond individual characteristics to examining historical and socio-cultural factors underlying breastfeeding practices in African-American women. PMID:25480019

  6. Breastfeeding and postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Julia P; Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2003-06-01

    Bone loss associated with osteoporosis occurs with high frequency among the elderly and often results in debilitating fractures. A combination of lifestyle behaviors, genetic predisposition, and disease processes contributes to bone metabolism. Therefore, any discussion regarding bone health must address these factors. The impact of menopause on bone turnover has been generally well studied and characterized. Breastfeeding places significant stress on calcium metabolism and, as a consequence, directly influences bone metabolism. The most significant factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism are the duration and frequency of lactation, the return of menses, and pre-pregnancy weight. Although transient, lactation is associated with bone loss. As clinical guidelines and public health policies are being formulated, there is a compelling need for further investigation into the relationship of lactation, BMD, and subsequent risk of osteoporosis. Better understanding of this relationship will provide new opportunities for early intervention and ultimately help in the prevention of bone loss in postmenopausal women. PMID:12734029

  7. Breast-feeding duration: influence on taste acceptance over the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Camille; Chabanet, Claire; Laval, Caroline; Issanchou, Sylvie; Nicklaus, Sophie

    2013-03-28

    Early feeding experiences, e.g. related to milk feeding, can affect later food and taste preferences. However, consequences of breast-feeding on taste acceptance are under-investigated. The objective of the present study was to examine the impact of exclusive breast-feeding duration (DEB) on taste acceptance at 6 and 12 months in the same infants (n 122). Mothers recorded the DEB. Acceptance of solutions of each of the five basic tastes relative to water was evaluated in the laboratory at 6 and 12 months by the ingestion ratio (IR). Kendall correlations were calculated between the DEB and the IR. Only 16 % completed at least 6 months of exclusive breast-feeding; 79 % had begun complementary feeding by 6 months. At 6 months, infants preferred sweet, salty and umami solutions over water and were indifferent to sour and bitter solutions. The longer an infant was breast-fed, the more s/he accepted the umami solution at 6 months. At 12 months, infants preferred sweet and salty solutions over water and were indifferent to sour, bitter and umami solutions. The relationship between the DEB and acceptance of the umami solution was not observed at 12 months. No relationship was observed between the DEB and sweet, salty, sour and bitter taste acceptance at 6 or 12 months. The association between the DEB and umami taste acceptance at 6 months may relate to the higher glutamate content of human milk compared with formula milk. Beyond the acknowledged metabolic benefits of breast-feeding, this suggests that prolonged breast-feeding could also be associated with an impact on sensory preference at the beginning of complementary feeding. PMID:22874663

  8. A comparison of breastfeeding women's, peer supporters' and student midwives' breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Darwent, Kirsty L; Kempenaar, Larissa E

    2014-05-01

    In the United Kingdom over 90% of women do not breastfeed for as long as they would like, despite widespread knowledge of the benefits of breastfeeding. Negative attitudes and low levels of knowledge in staff supporting breastfeeding may be a contributing factor. This paper reports on the breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes in two key workforce groups; student midwives (n = 19) and Breastfeeding Network peer supporters (n = 36) and compares them with breastfeeding women (n = 23). All three groups had high knowledge and attitude scores, but peer supporters had significantly higher levels than student midwives or breastfeeding women. Student midwives' knowledge of breastfeeding was higher than breastfeeding women's but they had similar breastfeeding attitude scores. The higher knowledge and attitude scores in peer supporters may be attributed to the effectiveness of their training, which includes challenging their existing breastfeeding attitudes and debriefing their personal breastfeeding experience. It is suggested that midwives' breastfeeding attitudes are affected by their community culture and their personal experience of breastfeeding. It is proposed that midwifery training should continue to embrace a biopsychosocial model, including training to improve breastfeeding attitudes, particularly for professionals from areas where breastfeeding is not the cultural norm, or who have had negative personal breastfeeding experiences. PMID:24594280

  9. Breastfeeding and its gamut of benefits.

    PubMed

    Gertosio, Chiara; Meazza, Cristina; Pagani, Sara; Bozzola, Mauro

    2016-06-01

    Maternal milk is recommended as the optimal and exclusive source of early nutrition for all infants from birth and until at least their sixth month of age. Their nutritional virtues are due to potent immune factors and a unique composition which evolves in tandem with the infant's growth and developmental needs. Breast milk promotes sensory and cognitive development, and protects the infant against infectious and chronic diseases. Exclusive breastfeeding reduces infant mortality due to common childhood illnesses such as diarrhea or pneumonia, and improves recovery time during illness. Breastfeeding provides numerous short- and long-term health benefits for both the baby and its mother. Beyond the immediate benefits for infants, breastfeeding also contributes to a lifetime of good health. In this review we describe the influence of breastfeeding on mental and psychomotor development, on the risk of endocrine disorders, pediatric cancers and allergic diseases for the breastfed child. More prospective studies with comparable methodologies and longer periods of follow-up are necessary to allow firm conclusions on the effects of breastfeeding in some of these aspects. PMID:26023793

  10. Weighing worth against uncertain work: the interplay of exhaustion, ambiguity, hope and disappointment in mothers breastfeeding late preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Radtke Demirci, Jill; Happ, Mary Beth; Bogen, Debra L; Albrecht, Susan A; Cohen, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Poor breastfeeding outcomes among late preterm infants (LPIs) have been attributed to inadequate breast milk transfer stemming from physiological immaturities. However, breastfeeding is more than a biological phenomenon, and it is unclear how mothers of LPIs manage other factors that may also impact the breastfeeding course. Using grounded theory methods and incorporating serial post-partum interviews with several novel data collection techniques, we examined breastfeeding establishment over a 6-8-week-period among 10 late preterm mother-infant dyads recruited from a maternity hospital in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. We found that breastfeeding in the LPI population was a fluctuating, cascade-like progression of trial and error, influenced by a host of contextual factors and events and culminating with breastfeeding continuation (with or without future caveats for duration or exclusivity of breastfeeding) or cessation. The trajectory was explained by the basic psychosocial process Weighing Worth against Uncertain Work, which encompassed the tension among breastfeeding motivation, the intensity of breastfeeding work and the ambiguity surrounding infant behaviour and feeding cues. Several sub-processes were also identified: Playing the Game, Letting Him Be the Judge vs. Accommodating Both of Us and Questioning Worth vs. Holding out Hope. If valid, our theoretical model indicates a need for earlier, more extensive and more qualified breastfeeding support for mothers of LPIs that emphasizes the connection between prematurity and observed feeding behaviours. PMID:23020593

  11. Weighing worth against uncertain work: The interplay of exhaustion, ambiguity, hope and disappointment in mothers breastfeeding late preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Demirci, Jill Radtke; Happ, Mary Beth; Bogen, Debra L.; Albrecht, Susan A.; Cohen, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Poor breastfeeding outcomes among late preterm infants (LPIs) have been attributed to inadequate breast milk transfer stemming from physiological immaturities. However, breastfeeding is more than a biological phenomenon, and it is unclear how mothers of LPIs manage other factors that may also impact the breastfeeding course. Using grounded theory methods and incorporating serial postpartum interviews with several novel data collection techniques, we examined breastfeeding establishment over a 6–8 week period among 10 late preterm mother-infant dyads recruited from a maternity hospital in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. We found that breastfeeding in the LPI population was a fluctuating, cascade-like progression of trial and error, influenced by a host of contextual factors and events and culminating with breastfeeding continuation (with or without future caveats for duration or exclusivity of breastfeeding) or cessation. The trajectory was explained by the basic psychosocial process Weighing Worth against Uncertain Work, which encompassed the tension between breastfeeding motivation, the intensity of breastfeeding work, and ambiguity surrounding infant behavior and feeding cues. Several sub-processes were also identified: Playing the Game; Letting Him be the Judge vs. Accommodating Both of Us; and Questioning Worth vs. Holding out Hope. If valid, our theoretical model indicates a need for earlier, more extensive, and more qualified breastfeeding support for mothers of late preterm infants that emphasizes the connection between prematurity and observed feeding behaviors. PMID:23020593

  12. Does breastfeeding increase risk of early childhood caries?

    PubMed

    Paglia, L

    2015-09-01

    According to the WHO, "breastfeeding is the normal way of providing young infants with the nutrients they need for healthy growth and development. Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended up to 6 months of age, with continued breastfeeding along with appropriate complementary foods up to two years of age or beyond". However, several studies have reported prolonged and unrestricted breastfeeding as a potential risk factor for primary tooth caries (ECC). On-demand breastfeeding, particularly while lying down at night, would seem to cause ECC because milk remains in the baby's mouth for long periods of time. There is lack of evidence that human milk is cariogenic; other factors, such as oral hygiene, may be more influential in caries development than on-demand breastfeeding. Moreover the biomechanics of breastfeeding differs from those of bottle feeding and milk is expressed into the soft palate and swallowed without remaining on teeth. Indeed we cannot forget that the main factor influencing caries development in infants is the presence of bacteria streptococcus mutans that thrives in a combination of sugars, small amounts of saliva and a low pH. Today the question is open and recently Chaffee, Felines, Vitolo et al. [2014] have found that breastfeeding for 24 months or longer increases the prevalence of severe early childhood caries in low-income families in Porto Alegre, Brazil. These results do not claim that prolonged breastfeeding is the cause of tooth decay; we can expect an association with food for infants often rich in refined sugars, which cause the reduction of the protective effect of saliva on the deciduous teeth enamel. In Japan, Kato, Yorifuji, Yamakawa et al. [2015] have found that infants who had been breastfed for at least 6 or 7 months, both exclusively and partially, were at elevated risk of dental caries at the age of 30 months compared with those who had been exclusively fed with formula. The authors themselves say, however, that further studies

  13. Online Continuing Education for Expanding Clinicians' Roles in Breastfeeding Support.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Roger A; Colchamiro, Rachel; Tolan, Ellen; Browne, Susan; Foley, Mary; Jenkins, Lucia; Mainello, Kristen; Vallu, Rohith; Hanley, Lauren E; Boisvert, Mary Ellen; Forgit, Julie; Ghiringhelli, Kara; Nordstrom, Christina

    2015-11-01

    Lack of health professional support is an important variable affecting mothers' achievement of breastfeeding goals. Online continuing education is a recognized pathway for disseminating content for improving clinicians' knowledge and supporting efforts to change practices. At the time we developed our project, free, accredited continuing education for physicians related to breastfeeding management that could be easily accessed using portable devices (via tablets/smartphones) was not available. Such resources were in demand, especially for facilities pursuing designation through the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. We assembled a government, academic, health care provider, and professional society partnership to create such a tutorial that would address the diverse content needed for supporting breastfeeding mothers postdischarge in the United States. Our 1.5-hour-long continuing medical and nursing education was completed by 1606 clinicians (1172 nurses [73%] and 434 physicians [27%]) within 1 year. More than 90% of nurses and over 98% of physicians said the tutorial achieved its 7 learning objectives related to breastfeeding physiology, broader factors in infant feeding decisions and practices, the American Academy of Pediatrics' policy statement, and breastfeeding management/troubleshooting. Feedback received from the tutorial led to the creation of a second tutorial consisting of another 1.5 hours of continuing medical and nursing education related to breast examination and assessment prior to delivery, provision of anticipatory guidance to pregnant women interested in breastfeeding, maternity care practices that influence breastfeeding outcomes, breastfeeding preterm infants, breastfeeding's role in helping address disparities, and dispelling common myths. The tutorials contribute to achievement of 8 Healthy People 2020 Maternal, Infant and Child Health objectives. PMID:26013061

  14. The effect of qat chewing and other factors on breast-feeding and child survival in a Yemeni society

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim Ali Omer, Mohammed; Mansoub, Mohammed Al; Omer, Rahab; Omer, Rasha; Shadli, Muna; Williams, Rachael

    2011-01-01

    In a survey conducted in Dammar, Republic of Yemen, 755 mothers were interviewed to investigate the patterns and factors affecting childhood feeding practices. It was found that full breast-feeding rate (41.8%) and timely introduction of complementary feeding rate (57.4%) were low, bottle-feeding rate (25.1%) was high and timely first suckling rate was zero. It was also found that the more educated and older mothers tended to wean their children earlier than illiterate and younger mothers. A significant association between regular frequent qat chewing and history of child death was observed. The implications of these findings were discussed.

  15. Risk Factors for Discontinuation of Exclusive Breastfeeding by One Month of Postnatal Age Among High Risk Newborns: An Institution Based Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Chandrika, Parul; Gathwala, Geeta; Narwal, Varun; Chaturvedi, Abhishek

    2015-01-01

    Background Beyond one month of age, there is generally a drop in the proportion of mothers providing exclusive breastfeeding to their infants. Infants with morbidities during neonatal period have been observed to be at higher risk of discontinuation. Objective To enumerate the prevalent factors behind discontinuation of breastfeeding among high risk newborns by first month of life. Materials and Methods A case control study conducted at high risk newborn followup clinic of a teaching medical institute in northern India between January and May 2013. Infants were divided on the basis of continuation (controls) or discontinuation (cases) of exclusive breastfeeding at one month of age. The socio-demographic factors along with maternal and neonatal medical factors were compared among groups. Results During the study period, 112 newborns were screened. Forty seven cases and thirty eight controls were enrolled and finally evaluated. Female gender of newborn, less educated mothers and large families were observed to be associated with discontinuation of exclusive breastfeeding during first month of life among high risk newborns. Requirement of parenteral fluids during hospital stay emerged as the only independent medical reason. Conclusion As in healthy newborns, the socio-cultural factors overshadow the medical reasons for discontinuation of exclusive breastfeeding during first month of life among high risk newborns. PMID:26266176

  16. [Mother-friendly childbirth practices and breastfeeding].

    PubMed

    Lin, Ya-Wen; Tzeng, Ya-Ling; Yang, Ya-Ling

    2013-02-01

    Childbirth, connecting the stages of pregnancy and postpartum, deeply affects maternal motivation with regard to initiating and continuing postnatal breastfeeding and ultimate breastfeeding success. Although promoting breastfeeding is a strategy critical to achieving wellbeing in both mothers and infants, there remains a lack of professional attention and related research into the effect of childbirth on breastfeeding. Promoting successful breastfeeding is a central component of childbirth-friendly nursing care. Therefore, this paper introduces the origin and concepts of mother-and-infant-friendly childbirth, then analyzes the influences on breastfeeding of medicalized birth practices and suggests how to implement childbirth-friendly interventions. This paper was written to help nurses better understand how the childbirth process affects breastfeeding and provide a reference for creating conditions during childbirth that encourage successful breastfeeding practices. PMID:23386519

  17. Breastfeeding behavior among adolescents: Initiation, duration, and exclusivity

    PubMed Central

    Sipsma, Heather L.; Magriples, Urania; Divney, Anna; Gordon, Derrick; Gabzdyl, Elizabeth; Kershaw, Trace

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Despite a substantial amount of evidence on breastfeeding among non-adolescent mothers, research and strategies uniquely designed to target adolescent mothers are critical as their rates of breastfeeding are disproportionately low and their transition to parenthood is often unlike that of older mothers. Literature to date, however, offers limited evidence for designing effective interventions. Therefore, we aim to fill this gap in the literature by examining breastfeeding behaviors among a cohort of female adolescents as they transition to parenthood. Methods Data are derived from a longitudinal cohort of pregnant adolescent females (ages 14-21) and their male partners followed from pregnancy through 6 months postpartum. Means and frequencies were used to describe breastfeeding experiences, breastfeeding behaviors, and sociodemographic characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify factors independently associated with breastfeeding initiation, exclusive breastfeeding, and breastfeeding duration. Results Approximately 71% initiated breastfeeding. Intending to breastfeed, having had complications in labor and delivery, and lower social support were associated with greater odds of breastfeeding initiation. Of the adolescent mothers who initiated breastfeeding, 84% had stopped by 6 months postpartum and among those, average breastfeeding duration was 5 weeks. Participants who exclusively breastfed had longer breastfeeding duration, and participants who had experienced intimate partner violence had shorter breastfeeding duration. Obese women and women who had more difficulty breastfeeding had lower odds of exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusions Enhanced clinical support and the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding should be considered when designing interventions to improve breastfeeding rates among adolescent mothers. PMID:23725911

  18. Toxoplasmosis and Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Breastfeeding Information for Families Breastfeeding Hotline The HHS Office ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Breastfeeding Information for Families Breastfeeding Hotline The HHS Office ...

  19. The changing role of breastfeeding in economic development: a theoretical exposition.

    PubMed

    Butz, W P

    1981-01-01

    This paper develops a model of breastfeeding, contraception, and birth spacing that includes physiological and behavioral aspects and yields a number of testable predictions concerning influences of particular factors on breastfeeding. The model is built on the assumption that breastfeeding is a costly activity for most women, requiring time and nutrients, neither of which is freely available. Given these costs, the fact that many women do breastfeed suggests that it also produces benefits that people value such as the survival and development of the child and birth spacing. The model also assumes that mothers respond to changes in the cost of the activity and that of other means of contraception and feeding babies. It implies that mothers will breastfeed less when their time spent in other ways is more valuable and when substitutes for breastfeeding are more readily available. The author begins with a model of birth spacing and child survival that includes the roles of breastfeeding, and its substitutes. The number of live births is influenced by economic returns that raise family income, and utility returns to the parents. Given a desired number of surviving children and a particular probability of child survival, the couple can achieve its resulting desired number of births and the implied average births interval by adjusting either the length of postpartum amenorrhea or the length of the interval. A shift in the demand (supply) curve causes a larger shift in the amount of breastfeeding when the supply (demand) curve is more elastic. When there is an active wetnursing market, variations in factors that underlie a woman's breastfeeding supply curve may affect her period of postpartum amenorrhea but not the survival or development of her children. Also, shifts in factors that influence woman's demand for breastfeeding may affect her infant's development and survival but not a woman's fecundity. Some implications of this model are: 1) an increase in the market

  20. Socio-religious factors affecting the breast-feeding performance of women in the Yemen Arab Republic.

    PubMed

    Beckerleg, S

    1984-10-01

    Yemeni breast-feeding beliefs and practices are discussed in relation to the ritual status of Muslim women. It is argued that the existing socio-religious perspective of women in Yemen is expressed in, and reinforced by, their attitudes to breast-feeding. Yemeni women consider breastfeeding to be a powerful, but potentially destructive force. The Quran defines the worth of both women and breast-feeding, and this is upheld by the attitudes of contemporary Yemeni society. The practices and beliefs associated with the reproductive and menstrual cycles, indicate that these female functions are considered hedged with danger and ambiguity. Breast-feeding, which is connected to both cycles, is no exception. Traditional breast-feeding beliefs and practices are best understood within the wider context of the perceived place and ritual status of women in Yemeni society. PMID:6526683

  1. Physiological mechanisms, behavioral and psychological factors influencing the transfer of milk from mothers to their young.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Wibke; Woodside, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care".Producing milk to support the growth of their young is a central element of maternal care in mammals. In spite of the facts that ecological constraints influence nursing frequency, length of time until weaning and the composition of milk, there is considerable similarity in the anatomy and physiology of milk production and delivery across mammalian species. Here we provide an overview of cross species variation in nursing patterns and milk composition as well as the mechanisms underlying mammary gland development, milk production and letdown. Not all women breastfeed their infants, thus in later sections we review studies of factors that facilitate or impede the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. The results of these investigations suggest that the decisions to initiate and maintain breastfeeding are influenced by an array of personal, social and biological factors. Finally, studies comparing the development of breastfed and formula fed infants as well as those investigating associations between breastfeeding, maternal health and mother/infant interaction are reviewed. Leading health agencies including the World Health Organization and CDC advocate breastfeeding for at least the first 6months postpartum. To achieve these rates will require not only institutional support but also a focus on individual mother/infant dyads and their experience. PMID:26232032

  2. Exclusive breastfeeding prenatal intentions among HIV-positive mothers in Blantyre, Malawi: a correlation study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding is an important component of child survival and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in resource-poor settings like Malawi. In Malawi, children under the age of six months are exclusively breastfed for an average duration of 3.7 months. This falls short of the recommendations by the World Health Organization as well as the Malawi Ministry of Health that mothers exclusively breastfeed for the first six months of the child’s life. Understanding factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding duration among HIV-positive mothers is important in promoting exclusive breastfeeding among these mothers. An exploratory study was therefore conducted to determine factors that influence HIV-positive mothers’ prenatal intended duration of exclusive breastfeeding and their likelihood to exclusively breastfeed for six months. Methods This paper is based on data from a longitudinal, descriptive and correlation study that was conducted at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Blantyre, Malawi between May 12, 2009 and March 22, 2010. Theory of Planned Behavior guided the study. A face-to-face survey was utilized to collect data from a convenience sample of 110 HIV-positive mothers who were at least 36 weeks pregnant at baseline. A modified and pre-tested breastfeeding attrition prediction tool was used to measure exclusive breastfeeding beliefs, intentions and external influences at baseline. Data were analyzed using descriptive and association statistics. Additionally, multiple regressions were run to determine significant predictors of HIV-positive mothers’ prenatal intended duration of exclusive breastfeeding and their likelihood to exclusively breastfeed for six months. Results Results revealed high exclusive breastfeeding prenatal intentions among HIV-positive mothers. Prenatal intended duration of exclusive breastfeeding was positively associated with normative, control beliefs and negatively associated with positive beliefs

  3. The association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index with breastfeeding initiation.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Lindsay A; Zhang, Shuyao; Black, Erik; Das, Rajeeb; Ryngaert, Mary; Sullivan, Sandra; Roth, Jeffrey

    2013-12-01

    Recent evidence extends the health benefits of breastfeeding to include reduction of maternal body mass index (BMI) and childhood obesity. Since most women decide if they will breastfeed prior to pregnancy, it is important to understand, given the high population prevalence of obesity, if maternal underweight, overweight or obese status is associated with breastfeeding initiation. Population-based study. Florida resident birth certificate records. All live singleton births (2004-2009), excluding observations that lacked the primary outcomes of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and breastfeeding initiation (final sample of 1,161,949 unique observations). Odds of initiating breastfeeding, adjusted by maternal and infant factors, stratified by pre-pregnancy BMI, categorized as underweight, normal, overweight and obese. Adjusting for the known maternal factors associated with breastfeeding initiation, underweight and obese women were significantly less likely to initiate breastfeeding than women with normal BMI, (adjusted odds ratio 0.87, 95 % confidence interval 0.85-0.89 for underweight women; 0.84, 95 % CI 0.83-0.85 for obese women). The magnitude of these findings did not significantly vary by race or ethnicity. Medicaid status and adherence to the Institute of Medicine's 2009 pregnancy weight gain recommendations had only minor influences on breastfeeding initiation. Among adolescents, only underweight status predicted breastfeeding initiation; obesity did not. Underweight and obese women have significantly lower rates of breastfeeding initiation compared to women with normal pre-pregnancy BMI. Future studies need to address the health care, social, and physical barriers that interfere with breastfeeding initiation, especially in underweight and obese women, regardless of race, ethnicity or income. PMID:23247667

  4. Influence of factors on mammographic density in premenopausal Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yaping; Liu, Jieqiong; Gu, Ran; Hu, Yue; Liu, Fengtao; Yun, Miaomiao; Xiao, Qiaozhen; Wu, Mei; Liu, Qiang; Su, Fengxi

    2016-07-01

    Mammographic density is an independent strong risk factor for breast cancer. However, the influence of factors on mammographic density in premenopausal women remains unclear. In the Southern Professional Women Breast Cancer Screening Project, we assessed the associations between mammographic density and its influential factors using multivariate logistic regression in premenopausal women adjusting for BMI, age, duration of breastfeeding, number of live births, and breast size. A total of 1699 premenopausal women aged 27 to 57 years, who had been screened by mammography, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Overall, 85.2% were categorized as having dense breasts (BI-RADS density 3 and 4) and 14.8% as having fatty breasts (BI-RADS density 1 and 2). In multivariate and logistic regression analysis, only BMI and age were significantly negatively correlated with mammographic density in premenopausal women (P<0.001). No significant associations between mammographic density and number of deliveries, breastfeeding duration, education level, family history of breast cancer, as well as breast size and sleep quality, were identified in the study. Age and BMI are negatively associated with mammographic density in premenopausal Chinese women. Information on the influential factors of mammographic density in premenopausal women might provide meaningful insights into breast cancer prevention. PMID:26075657

  5. Influence of Breastfeeding Time on Levels of Organochlorine Pesticides in Human Milk of a Mexican Population.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Almazán, Luis A; Diaz-Ortiz, Jesús; Alarcón-Romero, Mario; Davila-Vazquez, Gustavo; Saldarriaga-Noreña, Hugo; Sampedro-Rosas, Laura; López-Silva, Saúl; Santiago-Moreno, Agustín; Rosas-Acevedo, José L; Waliszewski, Stefan M

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted with the objective of determining whether there is a depuration of organochlorine pesticides in breast milk according to breastfeeding time. In total, 171 samples from mothers that lived in the State of Guerrero, Mexico were analyzed. There was a weak negative relationship between pp'DDE (r = -0.216) and Σ-DDT (r = -0.222) concentrations with the days of lactation. In a comparison analysis, a statistically significant decrease of pp'DDT and pp'DDE levels was observed, as well as the Σ-DDT from the first to the fifth week of lactation. A reduction of 0.188 mg/kg lipid of pp'DDE and 0.181 mg/kg lipid of Σ-DDT per week was obtained. HCB, β-HCH and op'DDT concentrations were low and had no major fluctuations between subgroups. The low levels found and the observed reduction in time involve less exposure to the infant to these pollutants. Through this methodology changes in levels of certain organochlorine pesticides in various stages of human milk production may be shown. PMID:26602567

  6. A qualitative study on the breastfeeding experiences of first-time mothers in Vientiane, Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The benefits of breastfeeding are well-recognised. The majority of first-time mothers in the Lao People's Democratic Republic however do not follow WHO guidelines of exclusively breastfeeding for the first six months, and less than half breastfeed for two years. UNICEF identified lack of exclusive breastfeeding as the second highest risk factor for under 5 mortality in Lao PDR, closely following lack of skilled delivery care. This study explored the reasons and influences behind first-time mothers' breastfeeding practices, as well as the role of attitudes, beliefs and experiences in influencing those practices. Methods A qualitative research design was chosen for this exploratory study. Two districts in Vientiane were selected, and in each district four focus group discussions, two with six first-time mothers and two with health staff were undertaken. In addition, sixteen in-depth interviews with first-time mothers and seven individual key informants were conducted. Results Participants demonstrated positive attitudes towards breastfeeding and recognised its importance. Despite this, breastfeeding practices were suboptimal. Few exclusively breastfed for the first six months of the baby’s life and most of the first-time mothers included in the sample had stopped or planned to stop breastfeeding by the time the infant was 18 months of age. Work was named as one of the main reasons for less than ideal breastfeeding practices. Traditional beliefs and advice from health staff and the first-time mothers' own mothers, were important influences on breastfeeding practices. First-time mothers also cited experiencing tension when there were differences in advice they received from different people. Conclusion Overall, the mothers were well-informed on the benefits of breastfeeding, and displayed positive attitudes towards it. Nevertheless, few maintained optimal breastfeeding practices in the first two years of the infant’s life. Further effort needs to be

  7. Effect of breastfeeding on obesity of schoolchildren: influence of maternal education

    PubMed Central

    Pudla, Katia Jakovljevic; Gonzaléz-Chica, David Alejandro; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the association between duration of breastfeeding (BF) and obesity in schoolchildren of Florianópolis (SC), and the role of possible effect modifiers. Methods: Cross-sectional study with a random sample of 2826 schoolchildren (7-14 years). Weight and height were measured according to standardized procedures. Data concerning BF and sociodemographic variables were obtained from a questionnaire sent to parents/guardians. Children's nutritional status was evaluated by BMI-for-age z-score for gender (WHO reference curves). Adjusted analyses were performed through logistic regression, considering a possible interaction among variables. Results: Prevalence of obesity was 8.6% (95% CI: 7.6-9.7%) and 55.7% (95% CI: 53.8-57.6%) received breastmilk for ≥6 months. BF was not associated with obesity, even in the adjusted analysis. Stratified analysis according to maternal schooling showed that, in children aged 7-10 years and children whose mothers had 0-8 years of schooling, the chance of obesity was lower among those breastfeed for >1 month, especially among those who received breastmilk for 1-5 months (OR=0.22; 95% CI 0.08-0.62). Among children of women with higher schooling (>8 years), the chance of obesity was 44% lower in those who were breastfed for >12 months (p-value for interaction <0.01). This interaction was not found in older children (11-14 years). Conclusions: Among children of women with lower schooling, BF for any period longer than 1 month is protective against obesity; however, for a higher maternal schooling, BF for less than 12 months increases the odds of obesity. PMID:26100592

  8. Fathers' experiences of supporting breastfeeding: challenges for breastfeeding promotion and education

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Amy; Davies, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Increasing breastfeeding rates is a strategic priority in the UK and understanding the factors that promote and encourage breastfeeding is critical to achieving this. It is established that women who have strong social support from their partner are more likely to initiate and continue breastfeeding. However, little research has explored the fathers' role in breastfeeding support and more importantly, the information and guidance he may need. In the current study, 117 men whose partner had given birth in the previous 2 years and initiated breastfeeding at birth completed an open-ended questionnaire exploring their experiences of breastfeeding, the information and support they received and their ideas for future breastfeeding education and promotion aimed at fathers and families. Overall, the findings showed that fathers were encouraging of breastfeeding and wanted to be able to support their partner. However, they often felt left out of the breastfeeding relationships and helpless to support their partner at this time. Many reported being excluded from antenatal breastfeeding education or being considered unimportant in post-natal support. Men wanted more information about breastfeeding to be directed towards them alongside ideas about how they could practically support their partner. The importance of support mechanisms for themselves during this time was also raised. The results highlight the need for health professionals to direct support and information towards fathers as well as the mother–infant dyad and to recognise their importance in promoting and enabling breastfeeding. PMID:24720518

  9. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. ... for you and your baby. continue All About Breastfeeding Nursing can be a wonderful experience for both ...

  10. Breastfeeding Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ029 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Breastfeeding Your Baby • How long should I breastfeed my baby? • How does breastfeeding benefit my baby? • How does breastfeeding benefit me? • ...

  11. Breastfeeding and Breast Milk

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information​ ​​Breastfeeding, also called ...

  12. Breastfeeding Report Card 2014

    MedlinePlus

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Breastfeeding Report Cards Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... National Immunization Survey data from 2014 and 2015. Breastfeeding Report Card, 2016 Download report [PDF-2.72MB] ...

  13. Benefits of breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    Experts say that breastfeeding your baby is good for you and your baby. If you breastfeed for any length of time, no matter ... is, you and your baby will benefit from breastfeeding. Learn about breastfeeding your baby and decide if ...

  14. Breastfeeding After Cesarean Delivery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Breastfeeding > Breastfeeding After ...

  15. Overcoming breastfeeding problems

    MedlinePlus

    Plugged milk ducts; Nipple soreness when breastfeeding; Breastfeeding - overcoming problems; Let-down reflex ... Breastfeeding (nursing) your baby can be a good experience for both the mother and the baby. It ...

  16. Environmental factors in the relationship between breastfeeding and infant mortality: the role of sanitation and water in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Butz, W P; Habicht, J P; DaVanzo, J

    1984-04-01

    Mothers' recall data collected in Malaysia in 1976-1977 are analyzed to study correlates of mortality of 5471 infants. Respondent population is 1262 women living in 52 primary sampling units of Peninsular Malaysia. Lengths of unsupplemented and supplemented breastfeeding and presence of piped household water and toilet sanitation are related to infant mortality in regressions that also control other correlates. The analysis is disaggregated into three periods of infancy. Through six months of feeding, unsupplemented breastfeeding is more strongly associated with fewer infant deaths than is supplemented breastfeeding. Type of sanitation is generally more strongly associated with mortality than is type of water supply. The effects of breastfeeding and the environmental variables are shown to be strongly interactive and to change systematically during the course of infancy. Breastfeeding is more strongly associated with infant survival in homes without piped water or toilet sanitation. In homes with both modern facilities, supplemented breastfeeding has no significant effect, and unsupplemented breastfeeding is statistically significant only for mortality in days 8-28. Presence of modern water and sanitation systems appears unimportant for mortality of infants who are breastfed without supplementation for six months. PMID:6711541

  17. Knowledge and beliefs about breastfeeding are not determinants for successful breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Ishak, Shareena; Adzan, Nur Azeanny M; Quan, Lee K; Shafie, M Hasli; Rani, Nor Azila; Ramli, Kazzoma G

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional prospective study was performed to assess knowledge and attitude toward breastfeeding among mothers in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia and its influence on their breastfeeding practices. Two hundred thirteen women who had delivered healthy babies at term were enrolled. A structured questionnaire containing demographic data and the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Score were used, followed by a telephone interview after 8 weeks to determine the feeding outcome. Women of Malay ethnicity with higher education level who had received breastfeeding counseling had a significantly more favorable attitude toward breastfeeding. Ethnicity was found to be a significant determinant in the success of breastfeeding, whereas returning to work was a major reason for discontinuing breastfeeding. In ensuring a successful breastfeeding practice, apart from knowledge and attitude, issues surrounding culture and traditions as well as improving deliverance of readily available support should be addressed. PMID:24893127

  18. Breastfeeding versus Formula-Feeding & Girls’ Pubertal Development

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Aarti; Deardorff, Julianna; Lahiff, Maureen; Laurent, Cecile; Greenspan, Louise C.; Hiatt, Robert A.; Windham, Gayle; Galvez, Maida P.; Biro, Frank M.; Pinney, Susan M.; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Wolff, Mary S.; Barlow, Janice; Mirabedi, Anousheh; Lasater, Molly; Kushi, Lawrence H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of breastfeeding or its duration with timing of girls’ pubertal onset, and the role of BMI as a mediator in these associations. Methods A population of 1,237 socio-economically and ethnically diverse girls, ages 6–8 years, was recruited across three geographic locations (New York City, Cincinnati, and the San Francisco Bay Area) in a prospective study of predictors of pubertal maturation. Breastfeeding practices were assessed using self-administered questionnaire/interview with the primary caregiver. Girls were seen on at least annual basis to assess breast and pubic hair development. The association of breastfeeding with pubertal timing was estimated using parametric survival analysis while adjusting for body mass index, ethnicity, birth-weight, mother’s education, mother’s menarcheal age, and family income. Results Compared to formula fed girls, those who were mixed-fed or predominantly breastfed showed later onset of breast development (Hazard Ratios 0.90 [95% CI, 0.75–1.09] and 0.74 [95% CI, 0.59–0.94], respectively). Duration of breastfeeding was also directly associated with age at onset of breast development (p trend = 0.008). Associations between breastfeeding and pubic hair onset were not significant. In stratified analysis, the association of breastfeeding and later breast onset was seen in Cincinnati girls only. Conclusion The association between breast feeding and pubertal onset varied by study site. More research is needed about the environments within which breastfeeding takes place in order to better understand whether infant feeding practices are a potentially modifiable risk factor that may influence age at onset of breast development and subsequent risk for disease in adulthood. PMID:24916206

  19. Breastfeeding versus formula-feeding and girls' pubertal development.

    PubMed

    Kale, Aarti; Deardorff, Julianna; Lahiff, Maureen; Laurent, Cecile; Greenspan, Louise C; Hiatt, Robert A; Windham, Gayle; Galvez, Maida P; Biro, Frank M; Pinney, Susan M; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Wolff, Mary S; Barlow, Janice; Mirabedi, Anousheh; Lasater, Molly; Kushi, Lawrence H

    2015-03-01

    To examine the association of breastfeeding or its duration with timing of girls' pubertal onset, and the role of BMI as a mediator in these associations. A population of 1,237 socio-economically and ethnically diverse girls, ages 6-8 years, was recruited across three geographic locations (New York City, Cincinnati, and the San Francisco Bay Area) in a prospective study of predictors of pubertal maturation. Breastfeeding practices were assessed using self-administered questionnaire/interview with the primary caregiver. Girls were seen on at least annual basis to assess breast and pubic hair development. The association of breastfeeding with pubertal timing was estimated using parametric survival analysis while adjusting for body mass index, ethnicity, birth-weight, mother's education, mother's menarcheal age, and family income. Compared to formula fed girls, those who were mixed-fed or predominantly breastfed showed later onset of breast development [hazard ratios 0.90 (95 % CI 0.75, 1.09) and 0.74 (95 % CI 0.59, 0.94), respectively]. Duration of breastfeeding was also directly associated with age at onset of breast development (p trend = 0.008). Associations between breastfeeding and pubic hair onset were not significant. In stratified analysis, the association of breastfeeding and later breast onset was seen in Cincinnati girls only. The association between breast feeding and pubertal onset varied by study site. More research is needed about the environments within which breastfeeding takes place in order to better understand whether infant feeding practices are a potentially modifiable risk factor that may influence age at onset of breast development and subsequent risk for disease in adulthood. PMID:24916206

  20. Breastfeeding and abstinence among the Yoruba.

    PubMed

    Dow, T E

    1977-08-01

    Contemporary patterns of breastfeeding and postpartum abstinence among the Yoruba of Nigera are examined. Quite extensive periods of postpartum abstinence are still observed by most rural and poorer urban women to prolong breastfeeding and increase child survivorship. Differentials in duration of breastfeeding and abstinence relate to both socioeconomic factors and age, suggesting the likelihood of large future reductions. Implications for family planning prospects and policies are noted. PMID:888163

  1. Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

  2. Determinants of breast-feeding and post-partum amenorrhoea in Orissa.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, K; Pathak, K B; Pandey, A

    1989-07-01

    A life table analysis is made of the duration of breast-feeding and post-partum amenorrhoea in Orissa, India, taking one variable at a time using data from a baseline survey of fertility and mortality (BSFM) conducted on the lines of the World Fertility Survey. Then a multivariate (proportional hazard) analysis showed that socioeconomic factors including residence, caste status and education influence the breast-feeding and post-partum amenorrhoea periods. There was no effect of maternal age on the length of breast-feeding, but mean length of post-partum amenorrhoea varied with age. The durations of breast-feeding and post-partum amenorrhoea are strongly related. PMID:2768294

  3. Effects of promoting increased duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding on adiposity and insulin-like growth factor-I at age 11.5 years: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Richard M; Patel, Rita; Kramer, Michael S.; Guthrie, Lauren; Vilchuck, Konstantin; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Sergeichick, Natalia; Gusina, Nina; Foo, Ying; Palmer, Tom; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Gillman, Matthew W; Davey Smith, George; Oken, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Importance Evidence that increased duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding reduces child obesity risk is based on observational studies that are prone to confounding. Objective To investigate effects of an intervention to promote increased duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding on child adiposity and circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I (which regulates growth). Design Cluster-randomized controlled trial. Setting 31 Belarusian maternity hospitals and their affiliated polyclinics, randomized to usual practices (n=15) or a breastfeeding promotion intervention (n=16). Participants 17,046 breastfeeding mother-infant pairs enrolled in 1996/7, of whom 13,879 (81.4%) were followed-up between January 2008 and December 2010 at a median age of 11.5 years. Intervention Breastfeeding promotion intervention modeled on the WHO/UNICEF Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative. Main outcome measures Body mass index (BMI), fat and fat-free mass indices (FMI and FFMI), percent body fat, waist circumference, triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses, overweight and obesity, and whole-blood IGF-I. Primary analysis was based on modified intention-to-treat (without imputation), accounting for clustering within hospitals/clinics. Results The experimental intervention substantially increased breastfeeding duration and exclusivity (43% vs. 6% and 7.9% vs. 0.6% exclusively breastfed at 3 and 6 months, respectively) versus the control intervention. Cluster-adjusted mean differences in outcomes at 11.5 years between experimental vs. control groups were: 0.19 kg/m2 (95% 4 CI: −0.09, 0.46) for BMI; 0.12 kg/m2 (−0.03, 0.28) for FMI; 0.04 kg/m2 (−0.11, 0.18) for FFMI; 0.47% (−0.11, 1.05) for % body fat; 0.30 cm (−1.41, 2.01) for waist circumference; −0.07 mm (−1.71, 1.57) for triceps and −0.02 mm (−0.79, 0.75) for subscapular skinfold thicknesses; and −0.02 standard deviations (−0.12, 0.08) for IGF-I. The cluster-adjusted odds ratio for overweight / obesity (BMI

  4. Factors That Influence Teacher Attrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    External, employment, and personal factors which influence teacher decisions to stay, leave, or transfer from teaching assignments are discussed, with emphasis on special education teachers. Factors attributed to teacher attrition in urban and rural environments also are briefly reviewed, along with attrition of related services professionals.…

  5. Is breastfeeding related to bone properties? A longitudinal analysis of associations between breastfeeding duration and pQCT parameters in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Tilman; Kroke, Anja; Remer, Thomas; Schönau, Eckhard; Buyken, Anette E

    2014-10-01

    Nutritive and bioactive components of human milk could be involved in programming metabolic systems that affect bone growth throughout the life course. Bone properties in childhood and adolescence might differ, depending on breastfeeding duration. Thus, breastfeeding could be a relevant factor in the context of primary osteoporosis prevention. The prospective association between breastfeeding duration and bone properties was investigated using the data of 284 participants of the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study. Breastfeeding duration was assessed during infancy. Bone properties were measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) at ages 5-23 years. Cortical volumetric bone mineral density, cortical bone mineral content, strength strain index, total cross-sectional area of the bone and cross-sectional area of the cortical bone were determined at the 65% site of the radius. Linear regression analyses were performed to check for differences in pQCT parameters of subjects who had not or shortly been breastfed (0-16 weeks) and subjects who had been breastfed for a long duration (≥17 weeks). Multivariable models adjusted for age, gender, forearm length, muscle cross-sectional area, body mass index standard deviation score (SDS), height SDS and socio-economic status did not yield associations between breastfeeding duration and pQCT parameters. These findings suggest neither protective nor adverse effects of prolonged breastfeeding on bone health in childhood and adolescence. Influences of early nutrition on bone growth might be overridden by current effects of mechanical loads on bone physiology. PMID:22909290

  6. Perspectives and attitudes of breastfeeding women using herbal galactagogues during breastfeeding: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Some herbal galactagogues have gained reputation and recognition by the public and health professionals as alternative approaches to increase breast milk supply. This study explores the perspectives and attitudes of breastfeeding women towards the use of herbal galactagogues while breastfeeding, their experiences, and why and how they have chosen an alternative option over conventional treatments to enhance breastfeeding performance. Methods This exploratory research was conducted through in-depth semi-structured interviews with women living in Perth, Western Australia, who were using one or more herbal galactagogues during breastfeeding. Purposeful and subsequent snowball sampling methods were employed to recruit participants. All interviews, facilitated by an interview guide, were audio-recorded, then transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was used to analyse qualitative data to construct themes and subthemes. Results The perspectives and attitudes of the 20 participants are classified under three main headings: i) use of herbal medicines during breastfeeding, ii) available herbal medicines resources, and iii) level of breastfeeding support received. Throughout the interviews, participants described how their perseverance and determination to breastfeed, as well as concerns over breastfed infants’ safety with conventional treatments, influenced their choice of therapy. A sense of self-efficacy and autonomy over their own health needs was seen as influential to their confidence level, supported self-empowerment and provided reassurance throughout the breastfeeding journey. There was also a desire for more evidence-based information and expectations of health professionals to provide credible and reliable information regarding the use of herbal medicines during breastfeeding. Conclusions This study has enhanced our understanding of the perspectives and attitudes of breastfeeding women towards the use of herbal medicines, in particular galactagogues

  7. A population-based survey on infant feeding practice (0-2 years) in Hong Kong: breastfeeding rate and patterns among 3,161 infants below 6 months old.

    PubMed

    Lee, Warren T K; Lui, Susan S H; Chan, Veronica; Wong, Eric; Lau, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of breastfeeding for the first 6 months in infants has been low in Hong Kong since the 1970s. In order to develop effective breastfeeding policies and promotion programs, an appraisal of feeding practices and factors related to initiation and early cessation of breastfeeding is necessary. A survey with a population-based representative sample was conducted to determine social-demographic, personal and cultural factors that influenced decision, duration and practice of infant feeding among infants 0-24 months old. This paper focuses on infants below 6 months old to study factors related to decision, duration and practice of breastfeeding. In 1993, 7,298 healthy infants were recruited from 46 Maternal-and-Child-Health-Clinics (MCHC) throughout Hong Kong, of whom 3161 were below 6 months old. The mother reported her feeding decision, duration and practice in a questionnaire. Breastfeeding rate was found to be very low (8.4%) for infants below 6 months old. Only 50.9% infants were breastfed. Infant formulae were widely given among partially breastfed infants. 45% mothers were full-time employed. Most mothers were aware of the benefits of breastfeeding to the infants and themselves. Husbands (43.3%) were regarded the most influential on initiation and duration on breastfeeding. Restricted food varieties (54%), sore nipple and breast engorgement (67%), perceived home confinement (41.5%) and perceived inadequate milk supply (31.7%) were major concerns upon breastfeeding. Furthermore, 76.9% mothers turned to MCHC staff for advice when they encountered difficulties during breastfeeding. In conclusion, the survey collected population-based representative data on factors determining initiation and early cessation of breastfeeding in Hong Kong in 1993. The findings will serve as a cornerstone in understanding the evolution of breastfeeding practice in Hong Kong. It merits further study to investigate how the confounders interplay to modulate initiation, duration

  8. Factors influencing dental decision making.

    PubMed

    Grembowski, D; Milgrom, P; Fiset, L

    1988-01-01

    In clinical decision making, dentists routinely choose between alternative treatments such as crown vs amalgam/composite buildup, root canal vs extraction, fixed bridge vs removable partial denture, and prophylaxis vs subgingival curettage or periodontal scaling. A number of technical and patient factors can influence dentists' choice of treatment in these situations; however, little is known about their relative importance. To address this issue, a list of technical (e.g., periodontal status and caries rate) and patient (e.g., cost and patient preference) factors possibly influencing choice of treatment was developed for each pair of services. Responding to a mail questionnaire, 156 general dentists in Washington State listed the top three factors influencing their choice of service in each pair. Results revealed that dentists took different factors into account in choosing among alternative treatments. Technical factors dominated over patient concerns; only about 33 percent of the dentists considered patient factors important in choosing alternative therapies. The latter group was less preventively oriented, were solo practitioners, worked longer hours, and had lower prices. Results suggest patients may have little influence on prescriptions of therapy among experienced general dentists. PMID:3045303

  9. Pregnancy, Breastfeeding, and Bone Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... supported by your browser. Home Osteoporosis Women Pregnancy, Breastfeeding, and Bone Health Publication available in: PDF (63 ... to get enough calcium during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Breastfeeding and Bone Health Breastfeeding also affects a mother’s ...

  10. Travelers' Health: Travel and Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... providers should explain clearly to breastfeeding mothers the value of continuing breastfeeding during travel. For the first 6 months of life, exclusive breastfeeding is recommended. This is especially important during travel because exclusive breastfeeding means feeding only ...

  11. Maternal expectations: new mothers, nurses, and breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Martucci, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    By the middle of the 20th century, breastfeeding rates had fallen to less than 20% in some areas of the United States. Despite these grim statistics, many mothers continued to seek information, advice, and the experience of breastfeeding their infants. This article explores the role that nurses played in these women's struggles to breastfeed in the years between the end of World War II and the 1970s. The role of the nurse in shaping the meaning and experience of breastfeeding in America has been an important, albeit often overlooked, part of the history of infant feeding. In addition to exploring the ways in which hospital policies and structures shaped nurses' relationships with breastfeeding mothers, this article looks at how different maternal ideologies influenced the nature of these (mostly) same-sex interactions. This article argues that the ideas about, and experiences with, motherhood had important implications for how nurses and mothers approached the practice of breastfeeding in the hospital. PMID:22359999

  12. Factors Influencing College Science Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tai, Robert H.; Sadler, Philip M.; Mintzes, Joel J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors report some of the salient findings of a large-scale, four-year national study, conducted at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, entitled "Factors Influencing College Science Success" (FICSS), which surveyed college students who enrolled in first-year biology, chemistry, and physics courses throughout the…

  13. Soft Factors Influence College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence about the role that "soft factors" like student engagement and school environment play in influencing whether high school students go on to enroll in college is hard to come by. Over the past two years, the Center for Labor Market Studies (CLMS) of Northeastern University, with support from the Nellie Mae Education Foundation and the…

  14. Exclusive Breastfeeding Experiences among Mexican American Women

    PubMed Central

    Wambach, Karen; Domian, Elaine Williams; Page-Goertz, Sallie; Wurtz, Heather; Hoffman, Kelli

    2016-01-01

    Background According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hispanic breastfeeding mothers begin early formula supplementation at higher rates than other ethnic groups, which can lead to shorter breastfeeding duration and decreased exclusive breastfeeding. Acculturation, the process of adopting beliefs and behaviors of another culture, appears to influence breastfeeding practices of Hispanic women in the United States. Little is known about Mexican American mothers’ formula use and exclusive breastfeeding within the context of acculturation. Objective Our study identified perceived benefits and barriers to exclusive breastfeeding and levels of acculturation among Mexican American women living in a Midwestern city. Methods We used a qualitative descriptive design integrating Pender’s Health Promotion Model concepts. Individual interviews were conducted in English or Spanish (N = 21). The revised Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans was used to examine acculturation levels. Results Acculturation scores indicated that the majority (66%) of the sample was “very Mexican oriented.” Most women exclusively breastfed, with a few using early supplementation for “insufficient milk production.” Three themes emerged: (1) It is natural that a woman give life and also provide the best food for her baby; (2) Breastfeeding is ultimately a woman’s decision but is influenced by tradition, guidance, and encouragement; and (3) Breast milk is superior but life circumstances can challenge one’s ability to breastfeed. Conclusion Strong familial/cultural traditions supported and normalized breastfeeding. Barriers to exclusive breastfeeding were similar to breastfeeding women in general, in the United States. Findings support the need for culturally competent and individualized lactation care. PMID:26289059

  15. [Fostering a breastfeeding-friendly workplace].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Chun; Kuo, Shu-Chen

    2013-02-01

    Creating supportive environments that encourage mothers to breastfeed their children has emerged in recent years as a key health issue for women and children. Taiwan has a large and still growing number of new mothers in the workplace. Early postpartum return to work and inconvenient workplace conditions often discourage women from breastfeeding or cause early discontinuation. This study describes the current status of worksite breastfeeding-friendly policies in Taiwan and selected other countries and assesses the effects of work-related factors on working mother breastfeeding behavior. Although maternity leave has been positively correlated with breastfeeding duration, maternity leave in Taiwan remains significantly shorter than in other countries. Flexible working conditions, the provision of lactation rooms, and support from colleagues are critical components of promoting breastfeeding in the workplace. PMID:23386521

  16. What about Breastfeeding?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fundraising Ideas Vehicle Donation Volunteer Efforts What about Breastfeeding? skip to submenu Parents & Individuals Information for Parents & Individuals What about Breastfeeding? To download the PDF version of this factsheet, ...

  17. Fathers Can Support Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... System Women, Infants and Children (WIC) Fathers Supporting Breastfeeding Last Published: 05/26/2016 Email Updates Click ... in each of the materials. FATHERS CAN SUPPORT BREASTFEEDING Poster - FNS 354 Be a Part of the ...

  18. Your Guide to Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... group. 6 • Search your phone book or the Internet for a breastfeeding center near you. These centers ... website at http:// www.llli.org/. • Search the Internet for breastfeeding message boards and chats. (These resources ...

  19. Ankyloglossia its impact breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Henry, Lydia; Hayman, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This article contrasts two very different experiences of one mother breastfeeding her two sons to demonstrate the potential impact of ankyloglossia on breastfeeding. When too restrictive, ankyloglossia, also known as tongue-tie, can cause the newborn to ineffectively suckle at the breast. Breastfeeding difficulties can occur, such as long feedings or damaged nipples. When nurses, lactation consultants and other providers recognize this situation, they can refer women for further care and treatment, which can ultimately lead to breastfeeding success. PMID:24750651

  20. African American Women's Breastfeeding Experiences: Cultural, Personal, and Political Voices.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Becky; Wambach, Karen; Domain, Elaine Williams

    2015-07-01

    The low rate of breastfeeding among African American women in the United States is a poorly understood, persistent disparity. Our purpose in this study was to gain an understanding of how African American women experience breastfeeding in the context of their day-to-day lives. The Sequential-Consensual Qualitative Design (SCQD), a 3-stage qualitative methodology aimed at exploring the cultural, personal, and political context of phenomena, was used to explore the experiences of African American women who felt successful with breastfeeding. An integration of qualitative content analysis and Black feminist theory was used to analyze the data. Themes that emerged from Stage-2 data analysis included self-determination, spirituality and breastfeeding, and empowerment. In Stage 3 of the study, participant recommendations regarding breastfeeding promotion and support initiatives for African American breastfeeding were categorized into three themes, including engaging spheres of influence, sparking breastfeeding activism, and addressing images of the sexual breast vs. the nurturing breast. PMID:25288408

  1. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sam SX; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori; Abbiss, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing) within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon. PMID:25258562

  2. The religious and cultural bases for breastfeeding practices among the Hindus.

    PubMed

    Laroia, Nirupama; Sharma, Deeksha

    2006-01-01

    In Hindu communities, breastfeeding is nearly universal and continues for most children beyond infancy. This review examines the religious and cultural basis for the contemporary breastfeeding practices amongst the Hindu. Practices at the time of birth and feeding rituals like prelacteal feeds, importance and timing of complementary feeds, and protections for the breastfeeding mother are examined from the published medical literature and available religious texts. Hindu Vedic literature and ancient ayurvedic texts underscore the importance of breastfeeding in the Hindu society. Although almost every Hindu child gets some breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding for the recommended duration and early initiation of breastfeeding are not that common. As birth of a baby is a celebration for family and society, breastfeeding is strongly influenced by cultural and religious ceremonies. In today's context, although women may receive guidance from health care professionals, relatives--especially grandmothers--have an important influence on breastfeeding practices. PMID:17661569

  3. Breastfeeding promotion, support and protection: review of six country programmes.

    PubMed

    Mangasaryan, Nune; Martin, Luann; Brownlee, Ann; Ogunlade, Adebayo; Rudert, Christiane; Cai, Xiaodong

    2012-08-01

    Reviews of programmes in Bangladesh, Benin, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Uganda, and Uzbekistan sought to identify health policy and programmatic factors that influenced breastfeeding practices during a 10 to 15 year period. Exclusive breastfeeding rates and trends were analysed in six countries in general and from an equity perspective in two of them. Success factors and challenges were identified in countries with improved and stagnated rates respectively. The disaggregated data analysis showed that progress may be unequal in population subgroups, but if appropriately designed and implemented, a programme can become a "health equalizer" and eliminate discrepancies among different subgroups. Success requires commitment, supportive policies, and comprehensiveness of programmes for breastfeeding promotion, protection and support. Community-based promotion and support was identified as a particularly important component. Although health workers' training on infant feeding support and counselling was prioritized, further improvement of interpersonal counselling and problem solving skills is needed. More attention is advised for pre-service education, including a stronger focus on clinical practice, to ensure knowledge and skills among all health workers. Large-scale communication activities played a significant role, but essential steps were often underemphasized, including identifying social norms and influencing factors, ensuring community participation, and testing of approaches and messages. PMID:23016128

  4. Breastfeeding Promotion, Support and Protection: Review of Six Country Programmes

    PubMed Central

    Mangasaryan, Nune; Martin, Luann; Brownlee, Ann; Ogunlade, Adebayo; Rudert, Christiane; Cai, Xiaodong

    2012-01-01

    Reviews of programmes in Bangladesh, Benin, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Uganda, and Uzbekistan sought to identify health policy and programmatic factors that influenced breastfeeding practices during a 10 to 15 year period. Exclusive breastfeeding rates and trends were analysed in six countries in general and from an equity perspective in two of them. Success factors and challenges were identified in countries with improved and stagnated rates respectively. The disaggregated data analysis showed that progress may be unequal in population subgroups, but if appropriately designed and implemented, a programme can become a “health equalizer” and eliminate discrepancies among different subgroups. Success requires commitment, supportive policies, and comprehensiveness of programmes for breastfeeding promotion, protection and support. Community-based promotion and support was identified as a particularly important component. Although health workers’ training on infant feeding support and counselling was prioritized, further improvement of interpersonal counselling and problem solving skills is needed. More attention is advised for pre-service education, including a stronger focus on clinical practice, to ensure knowledge and skills among all health workers. Large-scale communication activities played a significant role, but essential steps were often underemphasized, including identifying social norms and influencing factors, ensuring community participation, and testing of approaches and messages. PMID:23016128

  5. Exploring Middle-Eastern mothers' perceptions and experiences of breastfeeding in Canada: an ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Jessri, Mahsa; Farmer, Anna P; Olson, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore from the Middle-Eastern mothers' perspective, the experience of breastfeeding and their perceptions of attributes of the health care system, community and society on their feeding decisions after migration to Canada. New immigrant mothers from the Middle East (n = 22) were recruited from community agencies in Edmonton, Canada. Qualitative data were collected through four focus groups using an ethnographic approach to guide concurrent data collection and analysis. Survey data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics via pre-tested questionnaires. All mothers, but one who was medically exempt, breastfed their infants from birth and intended to continue for at least 2 years. Through constant comparison of data, five layers of influence emerged which described mothers' process of decision making: culture/society, community, health care system, family/friends and mother-infant dyad. Religious belief was an umbrella theme that was woven throughout all discussions and it was the strongest determining factor for choosing to breastfeed. However, cultural practices promoted pre-lacteal feeding and hence, jeopardising breastfeeding exclusivity. Although contradicted in Islamic tradition, most mothers practised fasting during breastfeeding because of misbeliefs about interpretations regarding these rules. Despite high rates of breastfeeding, there is a concern of lack of breastfeeding exclusivity among Middle-Eastern settlers in Canada. To promote successful breastfeeding in Muslim migrant communities, interventions must occur at different levels of influence and should consider religious beliefs to ensure cultural acceptability. Practitioners may support exclusive breastfeeding through cultural competency, and respectfully acknowledging Islamic beliefs and cultural practices. PMID:22909247

  6. Using a genetically informative design to examine the relationship between breastfeeding and childhood conduct problems.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Katherine H; Collishaw, Stephan; Rice, Frances J; Harold, Gordon T; Thapar, Anita

    2011-12-01

    A number of public health interventions aimed at increasing the uptake of breastfeeding are in place in the United States and other Western countries. While the physical health and nutritional benefits of breastfeeding for the mother and child are relatively well established, the evidence for psychological effects is less clear. This study aimed to examine whether there is an association between breastfeeding and later conduct problems in children. It also considered the extent to which any relationship is attributable to maternally-provided inherited characteristics that influence both likelihood of breastfeeding and child conduct problems. A prenatal cross-fostering design with a sample of 870 families with a child aged 4-11 years was used. Mothers were genetically related or unrelated to their child as a result of assisted reproductive technologies. The relationship between breastfeeding and conduct problems was assessed while controlling for theorised measured confounders by multivariate regression (e.g. maternal smoking, education, and antisocial behaviour), and for unmeasured inherited factors by testing associations separately for related and unrelated mother-child pairs. Breastfeeding was associated with lower levels of conduct disorder symptoms in offspring in middle childhood. Breastfeeding was associated with lower levels of conduct problems even after controlling for observed confounders in the genetically related group, but not in the genetically unrelated group. In contrast, maternal antisocial behaviour showed robust associations with child conduct problems after controlling for measured and inherited confounders. These findings highlight the importance of using genetically sensitive designs in order to test causal environmental influences. PMID:22028070

  7. Sexual behaviour in pregnancy, after childbirth and during breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Alder, E M

    1989-12-01

    Sexual and marital relationships change throughout marriage and the transition to parenthood can be seen as a psychosocial crisis. Recent studies do not support the finding of Masters and Johnson (1966) that there is a mid-trimester rise in sexual responsiveness. Sexual behaviour decreases towards the end of pregnancy and a number of studies have found that in the majority of mothers there is only a slow return to pre-pregnancy levels in the first postnatal year. Some of the factors influencing the rate of return are discussed. Breast-feeding is important because of the hormonal changes it produces and it has been said to stimulate sexual feelings in both mother and baby. There is some evidence that breast-feeding has an adverse effect on sexuality in the first postnatal year. It is not clear whether this could be related to differences in hormone levels or differences in feeding behaviour. Fatigue and contraception have largely been ignored in studies of factors influencing postnatal sexual behaviour. Women who went on to breast-feed were found to be very similar on antenatal measures of sexual behaviour to those who went on to bottle-feed. The method of feeding is the major influence on the hormonal status, and the experience of painful intercourse reported by breast-feeding mothers may be related to low oestrogen levels. Breast-feeding persistence is influenced by both social and psychological factors and its effect on sexual behaviour is discussed. PMID:2700144

  8. Factors influencing healthcare service quality

    PubMed Central

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods: Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results: Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion: This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality. PMID:25114946

  9. Modifiable factors influencing relapses and disability in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    D'hooghe, M B; Nagels, G; Bissay, V; De Keyser, J

    2010-07-01

    A growing body of literature indicates that the natural course of multiple sclerosis can be influenced by a number of factors. Strong evidence suggests that relapses can be triggered by infections, the postpartum period and stressful life events. Vaccinations against influenza, hepatitis B and tetanus appear to be safe. Surgery, general and epidural anaesthesia, and physical trauma are not associated with an increased risk of relapses. Factors that have been associated with a reduced relapse rate are pregnancy, exclusive breastfeeding, sunlight exposure and higher vitamin D levels. A number of medications, including hormonal fertility treatment, seem to be able to trigger relapses. Factors that may worsen progression of disability include stressful life events, radiotherapy to the head, low levels of physical activity and low vitamin D levels. Strong evidence suggests that smoking promotes disease progression, both clinically and on brain magnetic resonance imaging. There is no evidence for an increased progression of disability following childbirth in women with multiple sclerosis. Moderate alcohol intake and exercise might have a neuroprotective effect, but this needs to be confirmed. PMID:20483884

  10. Is there any relation between Duration of breastfeeding and anemia?

    PubMed Central

    Dalili, H; Baghersalimi, A; Dalili, S; Pakdaman, F; Hassanzadeh Rad, A; Abbasi Kakroodi, M; Rezvany, SM; Koohmanaei, Sh

    2015-01-01

    Background In the early months of life, Breastfeeding increases chance of survival, reduces recovery time after disease and mortality due to infections such as diarrhea and acute respiratory infections. However, infants who are exclusively breast-fed for more than 6 months in developing countries may be at increased risk of anemia. Therefore, the aim of study was to assess the relation between duration of breastfeeding and anemia. Materials and Methods In this analytical cross-sectional study, 400 neonates registered in primary health care system since birth time. Complete blood count and serum ferritin were obtained. Data were analyzed by chi- square test and regression analysis. P-value less than 0.05 was considered significant and 95% confidence interval was noted. Results Results of this study showed that 199 infants were anemic (Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration <11 mg/dl). Ten percent of anemic patients reported Ferritin< 12ng/dl and %25 of anemic children had iron deficiency anemia (IDA). In Binominal logistic regression, merely kind of delivery and duration of breastfeeding were effective factors. Binominal logistic regression also showed that natural vaginal delivery and exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months had a significant influence on anemia. Exclusive breast feeding for 6 months or more increased the likelihood of anemia. In addition, 4 months exclusive breastfeeding decreased 0.686 fold the likelihood of anemia. Conclusion According to the results, it seems that revision of health program recommendations for iron supplementation can be constructive. National planning to promote the level of knowledge regarding natural vaginal delivery and appropriate period for clamping can be recommended. PMID:26985355

  11. Risk Factors for Early and Late Transmission of HIV via Breast-Feeding among Infants Born to HIV-Infected Women in a Randomized Clinical Trial in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Roger L.; Smeaton, Laura; Lockman, Shahin; Thior, lbou; Rossenkhan, Raabya; Wester, Carolyn; Stevens, Lisa; Moffat, Claire; Arimi, Peter; Ndase, Patrick; Asmelash, Aida; Leidner, Jean; Novitsky, Vladimir; Makhema, Joseph; Essex, Max

    2009-01-01

    Risk factors for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) via breast-feeding were evaluated in a randomized trial. HIV-infected women and their infants received zidovudine as well as single-dose nevirapine or placebo. Infants were randomized to formula-feed (FF) or breast-feed (BF) in combination with zidovudine prophylaxis. Of 1116 at-risk infants, 6 (1.1%) in the FF group and 7 (1.3%) in the BF group were infected between birth and 1 month)P = .99). Maternal receipt of nevirapine did not predict early MTCT in the BF group (P = .45). Of 547 infants in the BF group at risk for late MTCT, 24 (4.4%) were infected. Maternal HIV-1 RNA levels in plasma (P<.001) and breast milk (P<.001) predicted late MTCT. These findings support the safety of 1 month of breast-feeding in combination with maternal and infant antiretroviral prophylaxis. PMID:19090775

  12. Breastfeeding experiences of Japanese women living in Perth, Australia.

    PubMed

    Utaka, Hideko; Li, Lin; Kagawa, Masaharu; Okada, Mamiko; Hiramatsu, Naoko; Binns, Colin

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this study was to document the breastfeeding practices of Japanese-Australian mothers living in Perth. A cross-sectional survey of mothers who had delivered babies in Japan or Australia or both was carried out on a sample of 163 mothers recruited through Japanese social and cultural groups in Perth and by a 'snowball' technique. Factors involved in the decision to breastfeed were analysed using multivariate regression analysis. The main outcome measures were the initiation and duration of breastfeeding and cultural beliefs about breastfeeding. Breastfeeding initiation rates of the Japanese-Australian mothers in Japan and in Australia were higher than for other Australians and are consistent with breastfeeding rates in Japan. In australia, 65% of Japanese-Australian mothers were still breastfeeding at six months. The most common reason for the decision to cease breastfeeding was 'insufficient breastmilk'. The significant factors in breastfeeding duration were 'the time the infant was introduced to infant formula', 'the time when the feeding decision was made', 'doctors support breastfeeding' and 'the mother received enough help from hospital staff'; these were positively associated with the duration of breastfeeding. Japanese mothers take a lot of notice of advice given by health professionals about infant feeding practices. PMID:16127824

  13. FAQ on Tattoos and Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... ברוכים הבאים HOŞ GELDİNİZ FAQ on Tattoos and Breastfeeding Breastfeeding and tattooing are enjoying resurgence in popularity. ... Is it safe to get a tattoo while breastfeeding? Tattoos are created by injecting ink into the ...

  14. Breastfeeding and weaning practices in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lipsky, S; Stephenson, P A; Koepsell, T D; Gloyd, S S; Lopez, J L; Bain, C E

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the breastfeeding and weaning practices of rural women in two Mexican towns and the cultural beliefs upon which these practices are based. Interviews and focus group discussions were used to collect information. Women thought breastfeeding preferable to bottle-feeding. Eighty percent initiated breastfeeding and 69% gave colostrum. Breastfeeding was discontinued early (mean age 4 months). The mean age at which children were introduced to other liquids was 2 months (range 0-5 months) and to solids, 4 months (range 1-8 months). Women's decisions regarding infant feeding were influenced most by custom and advice from doctors and family members. In some instances medical advice conflicted with traditional practices. These findings suggest important avenues for intervention in hospital practices, education for health care workers, and in the development of health promotion services. PMID:8065664

  15. Breastfeeding and feminism.

    PubMed

    Van Esterik, P

    1994-12-01

    Breastfeeding empowers women and contributes to gender equality; therefore, it is an important feminist, human rights, and women's issue. Although seldom addressed as a feminist issue, breastfeeding is paradigmatically one because it requires rethinking basic issues such as the sexual division of labor, the fit between women's productive and reproductive lives, and the role of physiological processes in defining gender ideology. The conceptual problems which emerge in the fit between breastfeeding promotion and feminist theory include the place of motherhood; technology versus liberation; fear of biological determinism; breasts and sexuality; locating guilt; personal choice; romanticizing breastfeeding; and conceptualizing women's work. Feminist theorists who take up breastfeeding as an issue and medical researchers who address questions raised by feminist theory have the occasion to produce a non-dualistic feminist problematic that would draw together a wide range of theories and practices that go beyond breastfeeding and mothering. The failure to develop this analysis could have serious consequences. PMID:7713306

  16. Benefits of a Dedicated Breastfeeding Facility and Support Program for Exclusive Breastfeeding among Workers in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Basrowi, Ray W; Sulistomo, Astrid B; Adi, Nuri Purwito

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A mother's working environment is believed to be a major determinant of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) practice. We aimed to define the influence of a facility dedicated to breastfeeding and a breastfeeding support program at the workplace on breastfeeding practice. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in five workplaces. The inclusion criteria were female workers whose last child was between 6 and 36 months old. Observational data were obtained and a questionnaire was filled out. The World Health Organization definition for EBF was used. Results Data from 186 subjects (74 office workers and 112 factory workers) were collected. Just over half (52%) of the mothers were between 20 and 46 years old, 75.3% had graduated from high school and university, 12.9% had more than two children and 36.0% owned a house. The prevalence of EBF during the last 6 months was 32.3%. A proper dedicated breastfeeding facility was available for 21.5% of the mothers, but only 7.5% had been in contact with a breastfeeding support program. The presence of a dedicated breastfeeding facility increased EBF practice almost threefold, by an odds ratio (OR) of 2.74 and a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.34-5.64 (p<0.05). Knowledge of the breastfeeding support program increased EBF practice by almost six times (OR, 5.93; 95% CI, 1.78-19.79) (p<0.05). Conclusion Our findings suggest that Governments should make it obligatory for employers to offer a breastfeeding support program and a dedicated breastfeeding facility at the workplace as these simple measures significantly increase EBF. PMID:26157694

  17. Determinants of breastfeeding initiation among mothers in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended as the optimal way to feed infants for the first six months of life. While overall breastfeeding rates are high, exclusive breastfeeding is relatively uncommon among Middle Eastern women. The objective of this study was to identify the incidence of breastfeeding amongst women in the six governorates of Kuwait and the factors associated with the initiation of breastfeeding. Methods A sample of 373 women (aged 17-47 years), recruited shortly after delivery from four hospitals in Kuwait, completed a structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify those factors independently associated with the initiation of breastfeeding. Results In total, 92.5% of mothers initiated breastfeeding and at discharge from hospital the majority of mothers were partially breastfeeding (55%), with only 30% of mothers fully breastfeeding. Prelacteal feeding was the norm (81.8%) and less than 1 in 5 infants (18.2%) received colostrum as their first feed. Only 10.5% of infants had been exclusively breastfed since birth, the remainder of the breastfed infants having received either prelacteal or supplementary infant formula feeds at some time during their hospital stay. Of the mothers who attempted to breastfeed, the majority of women (55.4%) delayed their first attempt to breastfeed until 24 hours or more after delivery. Breastfeeding at discharge from hospital was positively associated with paternal support for breastfeeding and negatively associated with delivery by caesarean section and with the infant having spent time in the Special Care Nursery. Conclusions The reasons for the high use of prelacteal and supplementary formula feeding warrant investigation. Hospital policies and staff training are needed to promote the early initiation of breastfeeding and to discourage the unnecessary use of infant formula in hospital, in order to support the establishment of exclusive

  18. Environmental factors influencing blackfly populations

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, G.

    1967-01-01

    Much more information is required on the distribution of blackflies in various parts of the world, and in many cases an adequate methodology for obtaining such information still has to be worked out. A detailed methodology for the collection of information about blackflies is given, which was developed for investigations mainly in the Holarctic regions but is basically applicable to other parts of the world. A brief survey of the population dynamics of various species of blackflies in various parts of the Holarctic regions is given, and the main factors influencing the population dynamics are discussed. Interspecific and intraspecific fluctuations in natural blackfly populations are attributed chiefly to abiotic environmental factors rather than to competition. Larval competition in a given microhabitat is mainly individual, though specimens belonging to a given species may have a slightly more favourable position than others. The use of parasites and in particular the replacement of one species by another are promising methods of blackfly control. Predators are not generally likely to prove useful for this purpose. PMID:5300046

  19. Evidence from peninsular Malaysia of breastfeeding as a contraceptive method.

    PubMed

    Rao, S R

    1992-01-01

    This report examines Malaysian women's perceptions of the contraceptive effect of breastfeeding, the determinants of their perceptions, and any effect these perceptions might have on nursing duration and contraceptive use. The report also considers whether women are consciously replacing breastfeeding with modern contraceptive methods. Data from the 1976 Malaysian Family Life Survey are analyzed, and the author concludes that Malaysian women do perceive that breastfeeding has a contraceptive effect, but that this perception is not universal. Ethnicity and desire for a particular family size are the most significant determinants of this perception. Finally, Malaysian women's recognition of the contraceptive effect of nursing does not influence either the duration of their breastfeeding or their adoption of contraception. Malaysian women may not be abandoning breastfeeding to adopt contraception. More probably, breastfeeding declines and contraceptive prevalence increases with modernization. PMID:1293861

  20. The effect of breastfeeding on lung function at 12 and 18 years: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Waidyatillake, Nilakshi T; Simpson, Julie A; Allen, Katrina J; Lodge, Caroline J; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Abramson, Michael J; De Livera, Alysha M; Matheson, Melanie C; Erbas, Bircan; Hill, David J; Lowe, Adrian J

    2016-07-01

    The objective was to assess associations between duration of total and exclusive breastfeeding and lung function up to adolescence.A birth cohort (Melbourne Atopy Cohort Study) of 620 infants with a family history of allergic disease was recruited. Mothers were encouraged to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months. Lung function was assessed at 12 and 18 years of age. Associations between breastfeeding and lung function were investigated using multivariable linear regression and path analysis was used to assess the potential mediating factors.Duration of breastfeeding (total and exclusive) was not associated with most assessed lung function outcomes. However, there was a trend for increased pre-bronchodilator mid-expiratory flow (MEF) at both 12 (adjusted mean difference (95% CI) per week of breastfeeding of 10 (-1-20) mL·s(-1)) and 18 years (11 (-1-22) mL·s(-1)) (p-values of 0.07 and 0.08, respectively). There was a strong indirect effect of height on these observed associations.Duration of breastfeeding does not appear to greatly influence lung function outcomes in children with a family history of allergic diseases. Longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding may be associated with an increase in MEF, partly due to greater attained height of the child. PMID:27076592

  1. Health workers' support for breastfeeding in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    OlaOlorun, Funmilola Morinoye; Lawoyin, Taiwo Olubanke

    2006-05-01

    Breastfeeding in Nigeria is universal, and exclusive breastfeeding was introduced in 1992, yet no study has assessed health workers' support for breastfeeding at the grassroots level. This study assessed health workers' tangible support for breastfeeding at primary care facilities in Ibadan and factors affecting it, including knowledge of and attitudes toward breastfeeding. Among the 386 workers, there was moderate support for breastfeeding (median score = 15.0, maximum = 20). Following multivariate analysis, young age of worker (20-29 years; odds ratio [OR] = 2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-6.8), more than 5 years of post-training experience (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.2-4.4), senior profession (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.0-4.4), high breastfeeding knowledge scores (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.4-4.5), and sufficient opportunities to practice tangible breastfeeding support (OR = 4.3, 95% CI: 2.4-7.7) were found to predict tangible breastfeeding support. Deliberate efforts should be made to incorporate continuing education workshops to better prepare health professionals for their role in providing tangible breastfeeding support at the primary care level. PMID:16684907

  2. Acculturation and the initiation of breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Rassin, D K; Markides, K S; Baranowski, T; Richardson, C J; Mikrut, W D; Bee, D E

    1994-07-01

    Despite the fact that breastfeeding is the most appropriate form of nutrition for the healthy term infant, the rate of initiation in the U.S. is declining. One demographic factor associated with this low rate is ethnicity and so in this study we measured acculturation (one aspect of ethnicity) into the U.S. and its relationship to the successful initiation of breastfeeding in a sample of women recruited approximately 2 months prenatally in a U.S.-Mexico border city. Interviews were administered in English or Spanish by bilingual interviewers prenatally (n = 906), natally (n = 788), and postnatally (n = 715). Acculturation (measured with a 20 item instrument) was strongly related to the intent to (p < 0.001) or the successful initiation of breastfeeding (p < 0.001). Marital status (p = 0.014) and education (p = 0.002) were related to breastfeeding prenatally and natally. Initiation of breastfeeding was highest among those women least acculturated (52.9%) and lowest in those most acculturated (36.1%) indicating an inhibiting effect of acculturation. To improve the rate of initiation of breastfeeding in the U.S. (a national health goal) intervention programs must consider cultural factors. PMID:7722587

  3. Factors influencing boar sperm cryosurvival.

    PubMed

    Roca, J; Hernández, M; Carvajal, G; Vázquez, J M; Martínez, E A

    2006-10-01

    Optimal sperm cryopreservation is a prerequisite for the sustainable commercial application of frozen-thawed boar semen for AI. Three experiments were performed to identify factors influencing variability of postthaw sperm survival among 464 boar ejaculates. Sperm-rich ejaculate fractions were cryopre-served using a standard freezing-thawing procedure for 0.5-mL plastic straws and computer-controlled freezing equipment. Postthaw sperm motility (assessed with a computer-assisted semen analysis system) and viability (simultaneously probed by flow cytometry analysis after triple-fluorescent stain), evaluated 30 and 150 min postthaw, were used to estimate the success of cryopreservation. In the first experiment, 168 unselected ejaculates (1 ejaculate/boar), from boars of 6 breeds with a wide age range (8 to 48 mo), were cryopreserved over a 12-mo period to evaluate the predictive value of boar (breed and age), semen collection, transport variables (season of ejaculate collection, interval between collections, and ejaculate temperature exposure), initial semen traits, and sperm quality before freezing on sperm survival after freezing-thawing. In Exp. 2, 4 ejaculates from each of 29 boars, preselected according to their initial semen traits and sperm quality before freezing, were collected and frozen over a 6-mo period to evaluate the influence of interboar and intraboar ejaculate variability in the survival of sperm after cryopreservation. In Exp. 3, 12 ejaculates preselected as for Exp. 2, from each of 15 boars with known good sperm cryosurvival, were collected and frozen over a 12-mo period to estimate the sustainability of sperm cryosurvival between ejaculates over time. Boar and semen collection and transport variables were not predictive of sperm cryosurvival among ejaculates. Initial semen traits and sperm quality variables observed before freezing explained 23.2 and 10.9%, respectively, of the variation in postthaw sperm motility and viability. However, more that

  4. [Endocrine factors influencing melanoma progression].

    PubMed

    Dobos, Judit

    2009-03-01

    According to recent findings that beside cancers traditionally considered as hormone-dependent, several other tumor types show different behavior in the two sexes, indicating the possible role of endocrine factors in the course of these diseases. The possibility that endocrine factors may influence the clinical course of human malignant melanoma is suggested by the higher survival rate in premenopausal vs. postmenopausal women or men of any ages. However, investigations on the sex hormone receptor status of human cutaneous melanomas and experiments attempting to support the epidemiological results yielded conflicting results. In our human melanoma cell lines we failed to detect steroid receptors at protein level, while quantitative PCR demonstrated that their mRNA expression level was orders of magnitude lower compared to the positive control cell lines. Sex hormones did not influence the in vitro features of the human melanoma cells considerably. On the other hand, glucocorticoid receptor was present both at mRNA and protein level, although dexamethasone was effective in vitro only at high doses. Our previous experiments showed that intrasplenic injection of human melanoma cells resulted in a significantly higher number of liver colonies in male than in female SCID mice. We now show that this difference evolves during the first day. After injection into the tail vein we did not observe gender-dependent difference in the efficiency of pulmonary colonization. Examining the pattern of metastasis formation after intracardiac injection, we have found differences between the two sexes in the incidence or number of colonies only in the case of the liver but not in other organs. We concluded that the observed phenomenon is specific to the liver; therefore we investigated the effects of 2-methoxyestradiol, an endogenous metabolite of estradiol produced mainly in the liver, with an estrogen receptor-independent antitumor activity. 2ME2 effectively inhibited melanoma cell

  5. Ecology and policy for exclusive breastfeeding in Colombia: a proposal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Breastfeeding promotion is one of the most important strategies against infant mortality and to control child undernourishment. Despite policies and plans to promote and protect breastfeeding in Colombia, its practice is low and its duration is short. Objective: To propose an ecology framework to interpret and incorporate contextual, interpersonal, and individual factors associated with the practice of breastfeeding and duration. Thereby, the plans and policies addressed to promote and protect breastfeeding in Colombia could be reinforced. Conclusions: To implement an ecology framework for Breastfeeding in Colombia, it is necessary to identify the effect of contextual factors in the biggest cultural regions of Colombia, to recognize the limitations of Infant-Friendly Hospital Initiatives to improve exclusive breastfeeding duration, to execute prospective studies in order to identify factors associated with breastfeeding duration, to design and implement plans and policies based on comprehensive planning strategies of healthcare interventions, to develop appropriate and cost-effective extra-institutional strategies aimed at prolonging the duration of breastfeeding, and to implement more reliable breastfeeding surveillance systems. PMID:24893193

  6. Implementation of the Brazilian Breastfeeding Network and prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Passanha, Adriana; Benício, Maria Helena D'Aquino; Venâncio, Sônia Isoyama; dos Reis, Márcia Cristina Guerreiro

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between the level of implementation of the Brazilian Breastfeeding Network and the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding. METHODS Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 916 infants < 6 months, in Ribeirao Preto, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2011. Data on breastfeeding, place of outpatient care and other characteristics were collected during the National Vaccination Campaign. The factor studied is where outpatient care took place: Private; Non-Network Public; Public with Network Workshop; and Public certified by Network. The individualized effect of the factor studied on the outcome was analyzed using Poisson regression with robust variance. RESULTS The comparison between private (reference category) and other outpatient care showed significant dose-response relationship with a progressive increase in the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in public non-Network, public with Network Workshop and public accredited by Network outpatient care (p = 0.047). As regards the Basic Health Units accredited by Network category, the Prevalence Ratio of exclusive breastfeeding was equal to 1.47 (95%CI 1.00;2.17), after adjustment for confounding variables. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding for infants < 6 months was higher in places accredited by the Brazilian Breastfeeding Network, which evinces the importance of investing in accreditation of Basic Units of Health by this strategy. PMID:24626552

  7. [Using SWOT to analyze breastfeeding education results in a medical center].

    PubMed

    Lee, Pei-Shan; Huang, Chiu-Mieh

    2005-08-01

    The breastfeeding rate within the first month after postpartum dropped from 95% in 1962 to 25% in 1989. As a result, the Department of Health, Executive Yuan, has made a lot of effort to promote a baby-friendly hospital policy since 2001, with the aim of increasing the breastfeeding rate. However, many studies have pointed out that the Department of Health is encountering difficulties when implementing this policy. This study is designed to use the Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) Analysis to evaluate the development of breastfeeding education in a certain medical center. We divide those factors that influence the effect of this policy into extrinsic environmental factors and intrinsic environmental factors. The intrinsic environmental factors are the strengths and weaknesses of the baby-friendly hospital policy. The extrinsic environmental factors are the opportunities and threats. The SWOT Matrix is also applied to develop appropriate strategies to take the greatest possible advantage of opportunities available. With the SWOT approach, managers can not only readily extinguish intrinsic advantages from intrinsic disadvantages, but also recognize external opportunities and threats. Furthermore, it assists managers in resolving problems and turning adversity into opportunity. In providing the SWOT analysis, we hope clinical nursing staff will gain a better understanding of the baby-friendly hospital policy and deliver higher quality of health care for postpartum mothers, thus increasing the breastfeeding rate. PMID:16088785

  8. International Child Care Practices study: breastfeeding and pacifier use.

    PubMed

    Nelson, E A S; Yu, Ly-Mee; Williams, Sheila

    2005-08-01

    Although the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative advises that no pacifiers be given to breastfeeding infants, both breastfeeding and pacifier use may protect against sudden infant death syndrome. The International Child Care Practice Study data set on child care practices associated with sudden infant death syndrome risk from 21 centers in 17 countries was used to describe infant-feeding practices and pacifier use and assess factors associated with breastfeeding. At approximately 3 months of age, rates of breastfeeding only (4%-80%) and pacifier use(12.5%-71%) varied between centers. Pacifier use was negatively associated with breastfeeding, and a dose-response effect was noted. Other negative (multiple birth, smoking by mother) and positive (intention to breastfeed, bed sharing, mothers' education) associations with breastfeeding only were identified. Although causality should not be inferred, these associations are consistent with previous studies. Advice on pacifiers should include potential benefits as well as risks. PMID:16115805

  9. Tongue-tie and breastfeeding: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, Janet; Miles, Sandra C; Fulbrook, Paul

    2011-03-01

    In Australia, initial exclusive breastfeeding rates are 80%, reducing to 14% at 6 months. One factor that contributes to early breastfeeding cessation is infant tongue-tie, a congenital abnormality occurring in 2.8-10.7% of infants, in which a thickened, tightened or shortened frenulum is present. Tongue-tie is linked to breastfeeding difficulties, speech and dental problems. It may prevent the baby from taking enough breast tissue into its mouth to form a teat and the mother may experience painful, bleeding nipples and frequent feeding with poor infant weight gain; these problems may contribute to early breastfeeding cessation. This review of research literature analyses the evidence regarding tongue-tie to determine if appropriate intervention can reduce its impact on breastfeeding cessation, concluding that, for most infants, frenotomy offers the best chance of improved and continued breastfeeding. Furthermore, studies have demonstrated that the procedure does not lead to complications for the infant or mother. PMID:21608523

  10. Breastfeeding Infants with Phenylketonuria in the United States and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Press, Nancy; Knafl, Kathleen A.; Steiner, Robert D.; Houck, Gail M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study described the prevalence and duration of mothers' breastfeeding infants with phenylketonuria (PKU) and explored factors related to duration of breastfeeding as a surrogate for breastfeeding success. Subjects and Methods: Descriptive analysis as performed from an international Internet survey of mothers (n=103) who met the inclusion criteria: (1) at least 21 years of age, (2) able to read and write in English, (3) child with PKU, and (4) living in the United States or Canada. Results: Of the 103 mothers, 89 (86%) initiated breastfeeding immediately following delivery, whereas 14 (14%) chose bottle feeding. In comparison to breastfeeding after delivery, significantly fewer mothers breastfed after diagnosis (McNemar's χ2=30.33, p<0.001; n=72 vs. n=89). Breastfeeding duration ranged from less than 1 month to 24 months with one modal duration category (n=20, 22%) at less than 1 month. The timing of the addition of commercial infant formula to supplement breastfeeding or expressed mothers' milk was associated with a shorter duration of breastfeeding among infants with PKU: χ2 (42, n=73)=88.13, p<0.001. Conclusions: PKU is treated with phenylalanine (Phe) restriction. Breastfeeding infants with PKU is challenging in part because Phe intake is difficult to determine precisely. We studied breastfeeding duration in infants with PKU and factors associated with success. Further research should identify the unique needs of mothers' breastfeeding infants with PKU to guide the development of interventions specific to these mothers to support their efforts to continue breastfeeding after the diagnosis of PKU. PMID:24350704

  11. Breastfeeding-Associated Hypernatremia: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Lavagno, Camilla; Camozzi, Pietro; Renzi, Samuele; Lava, Sebastiano A G; Simonetti, Giacomo D; Bianchetti, Mario G; Milani, Gregorio P

    2016-02-01

    There are increasing reports on hypernatremia, a potentially devastating condition, in exclusively breastfed newborn infants. Our purposes were to describe the clinical features of the condition and identify the risk factors for it. We performed a review of the existing literature in the National Library of Medicine database and in the search engine Google Scholar. A total of 115 reports were included in the final analysis. Breastfeeding-associated neonatal hypernatremia was recognized in infants who were ≤ 21 days of age and had ≥ 10% weight loss of birth weight. Cesarean delivery, primiparity, breast anomalies or breastfeeding problems, excessive prepregnancy maternal weight, delayed first breastfeeding, lack of previous breastfeeding experience, and low maternal education level were significantly associated with breastfeeding-associated hypernatremia. In addition to excessive weight loss (≥ 10%), the following clinical findings were observed: poor feeding, poor hydration state, jaundice, excessive body temperature, irritability or lethargy, decreased urine output, and epileptic seizures. In conclusion, the present survey of the literature identifies the following risk factors for breastfeeding-associated neonatal hypernatremia: cesarean delivery, primiparity, breastfeeding problems, excessive maternal body weight, delayed breastfeeding, lack of previous breastfeeding experience, and low maternal education level. PMID:26530059

  12. Sensitivity of the Breastfeeding Motivational Measurement Scale: A Known Group Analysis of First Time Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Stockdale, Janine; Sinclair, Marlene; Kernohan, George; McCrum-Gardner, Evie; Keller, John

    2013-01-01

    Breastfeeding has immense public health value for mothers, babies, and society. But there is an undesirably large gap between the number of new mothers who undertake and persist in breastfeeding compared to what would be a preferred level of accomplishment. This gap is a reflection of the many obstacles, both physical and psychological, that confront new mothers. Previous research has illuminated many of these concerns, but research on this problem is limited in part by the unavailability of a research instrument that can measure the key differences between first-time mothers and experienced mothers, with regard to the challenges they face when breastfeeding and the instructional advice they require. An instrument was designed to measure motivational complexity associated with sustained breast feeding behaviour; the Breastfeeding Motivational Measurement Scale. It contains 51 self-report items (7 point Likert scale) that cluster into four categories related to perceived value of breast-feeding, confidence to succeed, factors that influence success or failure, and strength of intentions, or goal. However, this scale has not been validated in terms of its sensitivity to profile the motivation of new mothers and experienced mothers. This issue was investigated by having 202 breastfeeding mothers (100 first time mothers) fill out the scale. The analysis reported in this paper is a three factor solution consisting of value, midwife support, and expectancies for success that explained the characteristics of first time mothers as a known group. These results support the validity of the BMM scale as a diagnostic tool for research on first time mothers who are learning to breastfeed. Further research studies are required to further test the validity of the scale in additional subgroups. PMID:24391731

  13. Mental health, attachment and breastfeeding: implications for adopted children and their mothers

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, Karleen D

    2006-01-01

    Breastfeeding an adopted child has previously been discussed as something that is nice to do but without potential for significant benefit. This paper reviews the evidence in physiological and behavioural research, that breastfeeding can play a significant role in developing the attachment relationship between child and mother. As illustrated in the case studies presented, in instances of adoption and particularly where the child has experienced abuse or neglect, the impact of breastfeeding can be considerable. Breastfeeding may assist attachment development via the provision of regular intimate interaction between mother and child; the calming, relaxing and analgesic impact of breastfeeding on children; and the stress relieving and maternal sensitivity promoting influence of breastfeeding on mothers. The impact of breastfeeding as observed in cases of adoption has applicability to all breastfeeding situations, but may be especially relevant to other at risk dyads, such as those families with a history of intergenerational relationship trauma; this deserves further investigation. PMID:16722597

  14. Perspectives of managers toward workplace breastfeeding support in the state of Michigan.

    PubMed

    Chow, Tan; Smithey Fulmer, Ingrid; Olson, Beth H

    2011-05-01

    Managers' attitudes influence female employees' perceptions of workplace breastfeeding support. Five focus groups were conducted with managers in the state of Michigan (N = 25) to assess their attitudes toward supporting breastfeeding. All focus group discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed for themes. Participants supported efforts by managers and companies to assist breastfeeding employees, but the extent of accommodations they supported varied. Most participants reported no company breastfeeding policy or were unaware of their company having one and showed mixed attitudes about needing a policy. Participants acknowledged the potential for lower productivity and coworker jealousy toward time for breastfeeding or expressing milk but believed that benefits of support included employee recruitment and retention. Participants demonstrated some understanding of breastfeeding benefits. They identified barriers and facilitators for breastfeeding support at both the organizational and individual levels. Results of this study will be used for instrument development to measure managers' attitudes toward supporting breastfeeding. PMID:21389313

  15. Breastfeeding among Mothers on Opioid Maintenance Treatment: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Lillian C; Doan, Therese Jung

    2016-08-01

    Although there is an abundance of interventional studies to increase breastfeeding rates, little is known about how to support and promote breastfeeding among mothers on opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). The studies on maternal OMT mainly focus on medication excreted in breast milk and breastfeeding benefits for infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). We aim to review interventions to improve breastfeeding outcomes among mothers on OMT to make recommendations for practice and future research. We searched CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for articles, preferably experimental/quasi-experimental studies published within the past 10 years, that examined interventions to increase rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration among mothers on OMT. Nine studies met our inclusion criteria, comprising 5 categories: 4 combined obstetric and addiction care, 1 rooming-in, 1 Baby-Friendly hospital, 2 inpatient/outpatient NAS treatment, and 1 divided methadone dose. Breastfeeding rates were relatively higher for divided methadone dose (81% initiated any breastfeeding) and rooming-in (62% initiated any breastfeeding); lower in Baby-Friendly hospital (24%) and inpatient/outpatient NAS treatment (45% and 24%, respectively); and mixed in combined obstetric and addiction care programs (2 studies reported 70% and 76%; 2 studies reported 17% and 28%). Studies that included both methadone and buprenorphine did not specify breastfeeding results by medication. We recommend future research to differentiate breastfeeding types and duration by OMT medication. Qualitative studies are needed to explore maternal view on breastfeeding regarding need, barrier, and motivating factors in order to develop effective interventions to promote breastfeeding among mothers on OMT. PMID:27053175

  16. [Factors associated with breast feeding. II Study of women with no prenatal control].

    PubMed

    Avila-rosas, H; Ambrosi-c, R; Cabrera-o, P; Gordillo-f, J; Oliva-c, J; Toussaint-m, G; Cruz-r, I; Karchmer-k, S

    1989-01-01

    This prospective study on breastfeeding practices sought to identify if factors that intervene or determine breastfeeding practices are those influenced by women themselves, promoted by institutions such as hospitals or is a combination of both factors. The methodology included 582 women who did not attend prenatal consultations and only attended the 3 hospitals included in the study to deliver their babies. Hospital A studied 252 women, supported breastfeeding practices and gave patients milk samples; hospital B studied 80 women, did not support breastfeeding and gave milk samples; and hospital C interviewed 250 women, did not support breastfeeding and did not give women milk samples. Invitations to attend the study explained that 12 hours postpartum a questionnaire would be given and 15 days postpartum a session would be held to verify if they were breastfeeding. The independent variables were: place of birth, residence of the new mothers and that their own mothers age, educational level, status of relationship with the father of the baby, number of pregnancies, number of live children, background and number of previous stillbirths, were they living with the father of the baby and was he supporting her, was the pregnancy planned, previous problems with breastfeeding, was previous baby breastfed number of previous babies breastfed, reasons for not breastfeeding, and prior to the study what were other sources of information on breastfeeding. Results demonstrated that the sociocultural and demographic differences between each of the 3 populations attending the 3 hospitals were found to have stronger effects on breastfeeding practices than hospital policies. PMID:12342596

  17. Characteristics of the NICU Work Environment Associated With Breastfeeding Support

    PubMed Central

    Hallowell, Sunny G.; Spatz, Diane L.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Rogowski, Jeannette A.; Lake, Eileen T.

    2015-01-01

    associated with a 2% increase in infants provided breastfeeding support. A 1 SD higher score on the Staffing and Resource Adequacy PES-NWI subscale was associated with a 2% increase in infants provided breastfeeding support. There was no association between other NICU nursing characteristics or LCs and nurse-provided breastfeeding support. CONCLUSIONS Nurses provide breastfeeding support around the clock. On a typical shift, about 1 in 7 NICU infants receives breastfeeding support from a nurse. Lactation consultants are not routinely available in NICUs, and their presence does not influence whether nurses provide breastfeeding support. Better nurse staffing fosters nurse provision of breastfeeding support. PMID:25075926

  18. Fluconazole use during breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Yusuf Cem; Koren, Gideon; Ito, Shinya; Bozzo, Pina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Question I have a patient with persistent breast and nipple thrush. Other therapies have failed, so I have decided to treat her with a loading dose of 400 mg of oral fluconazole followed by 100 mg twice daily for at least 2 weeks. Is there any need for her to interrupt breastfeeding during this treatment? Answer Available data regarding fluconazole use during breastfeeding are reassuring. Fluconazole is also used in the treatment of fungal diseases in infants and has a good safety profile. Therefore, there is no need to interrupt breastfeeding when a mother is treated with fluconazole. PMID:26759844

  19. Another Breastfeeding Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2011-01-01

    In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education discusses the latest breastfeeding controversy—a new doll that is intended to help little girls learn to breastfeed. The goal of the doll’s manufacturers is to spread the word that breastfeeding is a normal, natural way to feed a baby. Its purpose is to raise awareness about the positive health benefits associated with breastfeeding. But not everyone seems to agree. Pros and cons are presented. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote natural, safe, and healthy birth.

  20. Factors that Influence Participation in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vonderwell, Selma; Zachariah, Sajit

    2005-01-01

    This study explored what factors influenced learner participation in two sections of a graduate online course at a Midwestern university. Findings indicated that online learner participation and patterns of participation are influenced by the following factors: technology and interface characteristics, content area experience, student roles and…

  1. Breastfeeding versus infant formula: the Kenyan case.

    PubMed

    Elliot, T C; Agunda, K O; Kigondu, J G; Kinoti, S N; Latham, M C

    1985-02-01

    An Infant Feeding Practices Study (IFPS) in 1982 in Kenya, which included a cross-sectional survey of a weighted sample of 980 low and middle income Nairobi mothers who had given birth in the previous 18 months, found that most women breastfeed their infants for long periods, but many introduce alternate feeding, especially infant formula, in the 1st 4 months (86 and 50% of the infants were breastfed at 6 and 15 months respectively, but 50% of the 2 month-olds and 63% of the 4 month-olds were receiving substitutes, mostly formula). This is done largely out of the belief that infant formula is an additional health benefit. A workshop to discuss the findings of the IFPS and other available data, and to make policy recommendations urged the adoption of a policy of protection, support and promotion of breastfeeding. Since breastfeeding is already widely prevalent in Kenya, protection of breastfeeding should receive the 1st priority in policy related to infant feeding. Attention should be directed at at least 2 influences which help undermine breastfeeding: widespread availability and promotion of breast milk substitutes. Support for breastfeeding is viewed as the 2nd policy priority. Situations where support can play a helpful role are, women's paid employment outside the home, hospital practices, maternal morbidity, and difficulties in breastfeeding. Since promotion is the least cost effective of the 3 options, and most Kenyan women are already motivated to breastfeed, this should be the last priority. Promotion includes reeduction of mothers to make them better aware of the benefits of breastfeeding. The workshop recommended the dissemination of appropriate information, consisting of standarized messages based on clearcut guidelines, using mass media techniques. PMID:12280100

  2. The Influence of Seasonality and Community-Based Health Worker Provided Counselling on Exclusive Breastfeeding - Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey in India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Aritra; Chatterjee, Rahul; Karthick, Morchan; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Chaudhuri, Indrajit

    2016-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) during the first six months of life is considered a high impact but low-cost measure for reducing the morbidity and mortality among children. The current study investigated the association of seasonality and frontline worker(FLW) provided counselling with practice of EBF in Bihar, India. Methods We used the ‘Lot Quality Assurance Sampling’ technique to conduct a multi-stage sampling survey in 8 districts of Bihar. Regarding EBF, mothers of 0–5 (completed) months old children were asked if they had given only breastmilk to their children during the previous day, while mothers of 6–8 (completed) months old children were inquired about the total duration of EBF. We tested for association between EBF during the previous day with season of interview and EBF for full 6 months with nursing season. We also assessed if receiving counselling on EBF and complementary feeding had any association with relevant EBF indicators. Results Among the under-6 month old children, 76% received EBF during the previous day, whereas 92% of 6–8 (completed) months old children reportedly received EBF for the recommended duration. Proportion of 0–5 (completed) month old children receiving only breastmilk (during last 24 hours) decreased significantly with increasing age and with change of season from colder to warmer months. Odds of receiving only breastmilk during the previous day was significantly higher during the winter months (Adjusted odds ratio(AOR) = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.37, 1.63) compared to summer. Also, the children nursed primarily during the winter season had higher odds of receiving EBF for 6 months (AOR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.43, 2.52) than those with non-winter nursing. Receiving FLW-counselling was positively associated with breastfeeding exclusively, even after adjusting for seasonality and other covariates (AOR = 1.82; 95% CI = 1.67, 1.98). Conclusions Seasonality is a significant but non-modifiable risk factor for EBF. However

  3. WIC Participation and Breastfeeding at 3 Months Postpartum.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Emily F; Gross, Susan M; Nguyen, Trang Q; Butz, Arlene M; Johnson, Sara B

    2016-08-01

    Objectives Participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) has been associated with lower breastfeeding initiation and duration. This study examines breastfeeding-related factors among WIC participants and nonparticipants that might explain these previous findings. Methods Respondents to the 2007 Infant Feeding Practices Study II who were income-eligible for WIC were categorized as follows: no WIC participation (No-WIC); prenatal participation and infant entry while ≥60 % breastfeeding (WIC BF-high); prenatal participation and infant entry while <60 % breastfeeding (WIC BF-low). Percent breastfeeding was the number of breast milk feeds divided by the total number of liquid feeds. Using propensity scores, we matched WIC BF-high respondents to No-WIC respondents on demographic and breastfeeding factors. We used logistic regression to estimate the impact of WIC participation on breastfeeding at 3 months postpartum in the matched sample. Within-WIC differences were explored. Results Of 743 income-eligible respondents, 293 never enrolled in WIC, 230 were categorized as WIC BF-high, and 220 as WIC BF-low. Compared to matched No-WIC respondents, WIC BF-high respondents had increased odds of breastfeeding at 3 months, though this difference was not statistically significant (OR 1.92; 95 % CI 0.95-3.67; p value 0.07). WIC BF-high respondents were more similar on breastfeeding-related characteristics to No-WIC respondents than to WIC BF-low respondents. Conclusions for Practice Accounting for prenatal breastfeeding intentions and attitudes, we find no negative association between WIC participation and breastfeeding at 3 months postpartum. This is in contrast to prior studies, and highlights the importance of understanding within-WIC differences. PMID:26994607

  4. Timing of breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... night. Babies digest breast milk more quickly than formula. Breastfeeding babies need to eat often. During growth ... enough milk. Resist supplementing your baby's diet with formula feedings for the first 4 to 6 weeks. ...

  5. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... breastfeed your baby or bottle feed using infant formula . Health experts agree that breastfeeding is the healthiest ... is hungry. You do not need to make formula before feeding, worry about clean water, or carry ...

  6. Common Breastfeeding Challenges

    MedlinePlus

    ... feedings can cause more pain and harm your milk supply. Try changing positions each time you breastfeed. ... tips: After breastfeeding, express a few drops of milk and gently rub the milk on your nipples ...

  7. Timing of breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... work. Your body needs energy to produce enough milk. Be sure to eat well, rest, and sleep. ... 2 hours, day and night. Babies digest breast milk more quickly than formula. Breastfeeding babies need to ...

  8. Benefits of Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip top navigation Home A-Z Health Topics ePublications News About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Skip left navigation It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby ...

  9. FAQ: Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... I am pregnant or breastfeeding, should I use insect repellents? Yes. Protecting yourself from mosquito bites is the ... as long-sleeve shirts and long pants, use insect repellents. Repellents containing active ingredients which have been registered ...

  10. Breastfeeding: Vitamin D Supplementation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Vitamin D Supplementation Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir While ... provide infants with an adequate intake of vitamin D. Most breastfed infants are able to synthesize additional ...

  11. Breastfeeding - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... feel better and decrease your risk of getting cancer from smoking. Your baby will not get any nicotine or other chemicals from cigarettes in your breast milk. Know about your medicines and breastfeeding. Many medicines ...

  12. Serious Illnesses and Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... concerns about the safety of breastfeeding after breast enlargement with breast implants. But there is no evidence ... have been cut. In certain cases of breast enlargement, the women had underdeveloped breast tissue, which was ...

  13. Early Life Factors Influencing the Risk of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The obesity epidemic is a worldwide problem. Factors predisposing to obesity include genetics, race, socioeconomic conditions, birth by cesarean section, and perinatal antibiotic use. High protein (HP) content in infant formulas has been identified as a potential culprit predisposing to rapid weight gain in the first few months of life and leading to later obesity. In a large multicountry study the effects of lower protein (LP) formula (1.77 and 2.2 g protein/100 kcal, before and after the 5th month, respectively) were compared to those of higher protein (2.9 and 4.4 g protein/100 kcal, respectively). Results indicated that at 24 months, the weight-for-length z score of infants in the LP formula group was 0.20 (0.06, 0.34) lower than that of the HP group and was similar to that of the breastfed reference group. The authors concluded that a HP content of infant formula is associated with higher weight in the first 2 years of life but has no effect on length. LP intake in infancy might diminish the later risk of overweight and obesity. At 6 years of age HP children had a significantly higher body mass index (by 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13-0.90; p=0.009) and a 2.43 (95% CI, 1.12-5.27; p=0.024) fold greater risk of becoming obese than those who received the LP. In conclusion, several factors may influence development of metabolic syndrome and obesity. Breastfeeding should always be encouraged. An overall reduction of protein intake in formula non breastfed infants seems to be an additional way to prevent obesity. PMID:26770895

  14. Factors influencing dust suppressant effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, C.R.; Eisele, T.C.; Chesney, D.J.; Kawatra, S.K.

    2008-11-15

    Water sprays are a common method used to reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions. Various factors such as wettability, surface area coverage, fine particle engulfment rates, interparticle adhesion forces, suppressant penetration and suppressant longevity have all been suggested as critical factors in achieving effective PM control. However, it has not been established which of these factors are the most important. Experimental work indicated that suppressant penetration is the most critical of these factors. The length of time after application that suppressants were effective was also improved by using hygroscopic reagents that retained moisture to prevent evaporation. Maximizing suppressant penetration and improving suppressant longevity led to an average 86% reduction in PM10 concentrations in laboratory dust tower tests.

  15. Breastfeeding for diabetes prevention.

    PubMed

    Poudel, Resham Raj; Shrestha, Dina

    2016-09-01

    Breastfeeding has been consistently observed to improve metabolism in mothers and their offspring. Apart from mother child bonding and nutritional benefits; it is associated with a decreased risk of acquiring metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in mothers, obesity and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in their children. Early initiation and exclusive breastfeeding should therefore be highly encouraged and strongly supported. PMID:27582164

  16. Genetic factors influencing alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Mayfield, R D; Harris, R A; Schuckit, M A

    2008-01-01

    Plentiful data from both animal and human studies support the importance of genetic influences in substance abuse and dependence (Bierut et al., 1998; Tsuang et al., 1998; Kendler et al., 2003). This review summarizes the evidence supporting such genetic influences, places them into perspective regarding animal and human studies, discusses the importance of both genes and environment, and highlights some specific genes of interest regarding the vulnerabilities for problems associated with alcohol use disorders. A long history of repetitive heavy use of alcohol exists across generations as well as the high prevalence of alcohol-related problems in Western societies. Moreover, the information offered here addresses the importance of more general issues regarding genetics and gene expression related to alcohol abuse and dependence. PMID:18362899

  17. Breast-feeding and benign breast disease.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, S; Londero, A P; Bertozzi, S; Driul, L; Marchesoni, D; Petri, R

    2012-01-01

    Benign breast disease (BBD) is very common among women in their fertile age, but its correlation with breast reproductive function remains unclear. Our study aimed to investigate the relation between BBD and breast-feeding. We collected data on 105 women with BBD and 98 controls, focusing on their reproductive history and breast-feeding. We analysed data by R (version 2.12.1) considering p < 0.05 as significant. The results showed that fibroadenoma represented the most frequent BBD (55%), followed by fibrocystic changes (19%), intraductal papilloma (6%) and inflammatory breast disorders (5%). The mean age was 31.5 years (± 6.1), BMI 21.2 kg/m² (± 3.4) and age at menarche 13.0 years (± 1.5). Duration of breast-feeding was not significantly different between controls and BBD types (p = NS). Selecting women with fibroadenoma breast-feeding duration directly correlated with the number of benign lesions (p < 0.05), which remains significant also by multivariate analysis. It was concluded that there seemed to be no difference in breast-feeding among BBDs types, but lactation may influence the number of fibroadenomas. Moreover, prospective studies would better define the correlation between lactation and BBDs. PMID:22185539

  18. Trade-offs underlying maternal breastfeeding decisions: a conceptual model.

    PubMed

    Tully, Kristin P; Ball, Helen L

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new conceptual model that generates predictions about breastfeeding decisions and identifies interactions that affect outcomes. We offer a contextual approach to infant feeding that models multi-directional influences by expanding on the evolutionary parent-offspring conflict and situation-specific breastfeeding theories. The main hypothesis generated from our framework suggests that simultaneously addressing breastfeeding costs and benefits, in relation to how they are interpreted by mothers, will be most effective. Our approach focuses on contributors to the attitudes and commitment underlying breastfeeding outcomes, beginning in the prenatal period. We conclude that some maternal-offspring conflict is inherent with the dynamic infant feeding relationship. Guidance that anticipates and addresses family trade-offs over time can be incorporated into breastfeeding support for families. PMID:22188564

  19. The Environmental Factors Influencing Attrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villella, Edward F.

    1986-01-01

    Offers an economics/business-management perspective on student attrition, focusing on the external macro-environment (including such factors as government funding of education, changing enrollment patterns, and the increased number of postsecondary institutions) and the internal micro-environment (exhibiting characteristics of intangibility,…

  20. Recalled Initiation and Duration of Maternal Breastfeeding Among Children with and Without ADHD in a Well Characterized Case-Control Sample.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Diane D; Musser, Erica D; Holton, Kathleen F; Shannon, Jackilen; Nigg, Joel T

    2016-02-01

    Early environmental influences are increasingly of interest in understanding ADHD as a neurodevelopmental condition, particularly in light of recognition that gene by environment interplay are likely involved in this condition. Breastfeeding duration predicts cognitive development, as well as development of brain white matter connectivity, in areas similar to those seen in ADHD. Prior studies show an association between breastfeeding and ADHD but without adequate evaluation of ADHD. A case control cohort of 474 children aged 7-13 years was examined, 291 with well characterized ADHD (71.5 % male) and the rest typically developing controls (51.9 % male). Mothers retrospectively reported on breast feeding initiation and duration. Initiation of breastfeeding was not associated with child ADHD, but shorter duration of breastfeeding was associated with child ADHD with a medium effect size (d = 0.40, p < 0.05); this effect held after covarying a broad set of potential confounders, including child oppositional defiant and conduct problems and including maternal and paternal ADHD symptoms. Effects were replicated across both parent and teacher ratings of child ADHD symptoms. Shorter duration of breastfeeding is among several risk factors in early life associated with future ADHD, or else longer duration is protective. The direction of this effect is unknown, however. It may be that some children are more difficult to breastfeed or that breastfeeding provides nutrients or other benefits that reduce future chance of ADHD. PMID:25749651

  1. Nursing students' views on promoting successful breastfeeding in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Pajalic, Zada

    2014-09-01

    Promoting breastfeeding is important work for health-care personnel in the Swedish context. This promotion is multifaceted and demands the ongoing development of knowledge and competence among both health-care personnel and patients. The aim of the present study was to describe the nursing students' perspectives on breastfeeding in Sweden. Data were obtained in the form of written reflections from nursing students (n=65) and examined using manifest content analysis. The results show that the factors of importance in promoting successful breastfeeding are information about breastfeeding's benefits, traditions and cultural acceptance of the practice, and by government prohibition of infant formula. We conclude that knowledge about the benefits of breastfeeding needs to be prioritized continuously during education. PMID:25169002

  2. Breastfeeding FAQs: Pain and Discomfort

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Breastfeeding FAQs: Pain and Discomfort KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding ... have. Is it normal to have cramps while nursing? Yes. During the first few days to weeks ...

  3. Sources of education about breastfeeding and breast pump use: what effect do they have on breastfeeding duration? An analysis of the Infant Feeding Practices Survey II.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peggy G; Johnson, Lara W; Rosenthal, Marjorie S

    2012-10-01

    To examine the association between breastfeeding duration and sources of education about breastfeeding and breast pumps. We analyzed data from the Infant Feeding Practices Survey II (n = 2,586), a national longitudinal consumer-based study. We used χ(2) and ANOVA to contrast categorical and continuous variables, respectively, and logistic regression to model the association between breastfeeding duration and sources of education about breastfeeding and breast pump use. In unadjusted results, multiple sources of breastfeeding and breast pump education were significantly associated with breastfeeding duration. However, in multivariable logistic regression models, there was a negative association between longer breastfeeding duration and receiving breast pump education from a physician/physician assistant (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.36-0.93); and a positive association between longer breastfeeding duration and receiving breastfeeding education from classes/support group (OR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.24-2.76) and receiving breast pump education from friends/relatives (OR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.13-2.55). Although healthcare providers such as physicians and nurses have regular contact with women, the only statistically significant association between breastfeeding and breast pump education from healthcare providers and longer breastfeeding duration was a negative one. This likely reflects time and resource limitations of clinical practice, but may also indicate a need for more consistent training for healthcare providers who provide breastfeeding and breast pump education. Social supports, such as education from classes/support groups and friends/relatives demonstrated positive associations with longer breastfeeding duration. This emphasizes the importance of fostering a positive sphere of influence around breastfeeding women. Future work should also investigate alternative levers of action, such as policies affecting insurance coverage of breast pumps. PMID:22038565

  4. Breastfeeding and Mental and Motor Development at 5 ½ Years

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Katy M.; Castillo, Marcela; Calatroni, Agustin; Walter, Tomas; Cayazzo, Marisol; Pino, Paulina; Lozoff, Betsy

    2006-01-01

    Objective Breastfeeding is associated with better child development outcomes, but uncertainty remains primarily due to the close relationship between breastfeeding and socioeconomic status. This study assesses the issue in a low socioeconomic status sample where breastfeeding was close to universal. Methods 784 Chilean children were followed longitudinally from infancy. All but 4 were initially breastfed, 40% nursed beyond 12 months, and infant growth was normal. Child development was assessed at 5 ½ years by a cognitive, language, and motor test battery. The duration of breastfeeding as the sole milk source was analyzed as a continuous variable, adjusting for a comprehensive set of background factors. Results The relationship between breastfeeding and most 5 ½ -year developmental outcomes was non-linear, with poorer outcome for periods of breastfeeding as the sole milk source for < 2 months or > 8 months – statistically significant for language, motor, and one comprehensive cognitive test, with a suggestive trend for IQ. Conclusions The observed non-linear relationships showed that breastfeeding as the sole milk source for < 2 months or > 8 months, compared to 2–8 months, was associated with poorer development in this sample. The latter finding requires replication in other samples where long breastfeeding is common and socioeconomic status is relatively homogeneous. PMID:16530141

  5. Rapid ethnographic assessment of breastfeeding practices in periurban Mexico City.

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, M. L.; Morrow, R. C.; Calva, J. J.; Ortega-Gallegos, H.; Weller, S. C.; Ruiz-Palacios, G. M.; Morrow, A. L.

    1999-01-01

    Before carrying out a breastfeeding promotion programme in a periurban area of Mexico City, we conducted a rapid ethnographic study to determine the factors associated with absence of exclusive breastfeeding. The responses to pilot interviews were used to develop a standardized questionnaire regarding reasons for infant feeding choice, sources of advice, and barriers to breastfeeding. We interviewed a random sample of 150 mothers with a child < 5 years of age; 136 (91%) of them had initiated breastfeeding; but only 2% exclusively breastfed up to 4 months. The mothers consistently stated that the child's nutrition, health, growth, and hygiene were the main reasons for the type of feeding selected; cost, comfort, and the husband's opinion were less important. Physicians were ranked as the most important source of advice. Reduction or cessation of breastfeeding occurred on the doctor's advice (68%); or when the mothers encountered local folk illnesses such as "coraje" (52%) or "susto" (54%), which are associated with anger or fright; or had "not enough milk" (62%) or "bad milk" (56%); or because of illness of the mother (56%) or child (43%). During childhood illnesses and conditions, breastfeeding was reduced and the use of supplementary foods was increased. This study emphasizes the importance of cultural values in infant feeding choices, defines specific barriers to breastfeeding, and provides a basis for interventions to promote exclusive breastfeeding in the study population. PMID:10327711

  6. Factors influencing perceived angular velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Calderone, Jack B.

    1991-01-01

    Angular velocity perception is examined for rotations both in depth and in the image plane and the influence of several object properties on this motion parameter is explored. Two major object properties are considered, namely, texture density which determines the rate of edge transitions for rotations in depth, i.e., the number of texture elements that pass an object's boundary per unit of time, and object size which determines the tangential linear velocities and 2D image velocities of texture elements for a given angular velocity. Results of experiments show that edge-transition rate biased angular velocity estimates only when edges were highly salient. Element velocities had an impact on perceived angular velocity; this bias was associated with 2D image velocity rather than 3D tangential velocity. Despite these biases judgements were most strongly determined by the true angular velocity. Sensitivity to this higher order motion parameter appeared to be good for rotations both in depth (y-axis) and parallel to the line of sight (z-axis).

  7. Breastfeeding trends in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chua, S; Viegas, O A; Counsilman, J J; Ratnam, S S

    1989-01-01

    About 60% of well-to-do mothers in Singapore initiate breastfeeding. This value compares favourably with the 36% recently recorded for poor mothers, but is still unacceptably low compared to the 85-95% of well-to-do mothers and 90% of poor mothers who breastfed in the 1950s and 1960s. There has been a general decline in the incidence of breastfeeding over the last 35 years. Differences between the well-to-do and poor groups were initially small. A pronounced decline in the incidence of breastfeeding among the well-to-do mothers followed; a reversal in this downward trend in well-to-do mothers over the past 10 years has narrowed, and indeed reversed, the difference between the two groups. Similar trends can be found for the duration of breastfeeding. Whilst the overall decline probably reflects increasing affluence and 'Westernization' of the population the variation between these two economic groups is probably a result of differences in education. Among the three major ethnic communities, Chinese favoured breastfeeding least and Malays favoured it most. The differences are believed to be related to cultural differences and the ability of traditional practices and beliefs among the ethnic groups to resist the modern trend towards bottlefeeding. PMID:2919314

  8. Frequently Asked Questions about Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... FACT SHEET FROM THE OFFICE ON WOMEN’S HEALTH Breastfeeding The experience of breastfeeding is special for so many reasons: the joyful ... her child. Here, you’ll find facts about breastfeeding and get practical tips on how to make ...

  9. Supporting Breastfeeding in Your Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Breastfeeding, natural and healthy though it is, can be tough, particularly in communities where there is little encouragement for breastfeeding mothers. In one survey, when asked to identify the barriers to breastfeeding, mothers most often cited busy schedules, embarrassment, and lack of support (Best Start Social Marketing 1997). Child care…

  10. Barriers to breastfeeding in a resident clinic.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Amy M; Correll, Alissa; Greene, John F; Hein, Debra; McLaughlin, Tara

    2013-06-01

    Despite the known health benefits for mother and infant, compliance with exclusive breastfeeding continues to challenge many healthcare providers. In an ongoing attempt to maintain the goals of the Healthy People 2010 initiative, our institution set out to identify patients with suboptimal breastfeeding rates in order to recognize potential barriers. Review of breastfeeding rates at the time of discharge noted significantly lower participation by clinic patients. In order to develop successful interventions, the aim of this study was to survey clinic patients to determine their intentions, attitudes, and obstacles to the practice of exclusive breastfeeding. In total, 188 surveys were completed during a 2-month time period. Respondents were primarily Hispanic (76.4% vs. 9.6% black and 8.4% white) and multiparous (57.5%) with a mean age of 25.7 years (range, 15-39 years old). Although 95.3% of respondents indicated that they believed breastmilk provided adequate nutrition, only 35.3% planned on exclusively breastfeeding. Access to free formula through the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children was the most common reason not to breastfeed (48.3%), followed by fear of pain and the need to return to work/school. Patients reported that the person with the greatest influence on their decision to breastfeed was their partner/spouse. Access to a lactation counselor was the most popular intervention requested, even among experienced multiparous patients (78.9% of whom had previously breastfed). In conclusion, the survey indicated that planned exclusive breastfeeding rates are low among this inner-city resident clinic and interventions should include involvement of the partners/spouses and access to lactational support. PMID:22871145

  11. What Factors Influence Wind Perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Tatiana

    Over the last decade, wind power has emerged as a possible source of energy and has attracted the attention of homeowners and policy makers worldwide. Many technological hurdles have been overcome in the last few years that make this technology feasible and economical. The United States has added more wind power than any other type of electric generation in 2012. Depending on the location, wind resources have shown to have the potential to offer 20% of the nation's electricity; a single, large wind turbine has the capacity to produce enough electricity to power 350 homes. Throughout the development of wind turbines, however, energy companies have seen significant public opposition towards the tall white structures. The purpose of this research was to measure peoples' perceptions on wind turbine development throughout their growth, from proposal to existing phase. Three hypotheses were developed based on the participant's political affiliation, proximity and knowledge of wind turbines. To validate these hypotheses, participants were asked an array of questions regarding their perception on economic, environmental, and social impacts of wind turbines with an online service called Amazon Mechanical Turk. The responses were from residents living in the United States and required them to provide their zip code for subsequent analysis. The analysis from the data obtained suggests that participants are favorable towards wind turbine development and would be supportive of using the technology in their community. Political affiliation and proximity to the nearest wind turbine in any phase of development (proposal, construction, existing) were also analyzed to determine if they had an effect on a person's overall perception on wind turbines and their technology. From the analysis, political affiliation was seen to be an indirect factor to understanding favorability towards wind turbines; the more liberal you are, the more supportive you will be towards renewable energy use

  12. Cannabis and breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Garry, Aurélia; Rigourd, Virginie; Amirouche, Ammar; Fauroux, Valérie; Aubry, Sylvie; Serreau, Raphaël

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breastfeeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 TetraHydroCannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breastfeeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breastfeeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk. PMID:20130780

  13. Exclusive Breastfeeding and Under-Five Mortality, 2006-2014: A Cross-National Analysis of 57 Low- and-Middle Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Azuine, Romuladus E.; Murray, Janna; Alsafi, Noor; Singh, Gopal K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined the long-term, cross-national, and population-level impacts of exclusive breastfeeding on major global child health indicators. We investigated the overall and independent associations between exclusive breastfeeding and under-five mortality in 57 low- and-middle-income countries. Methods: Data were obtained from the latest World Health Organization, United Nations, and United Nations Children’s Fund databases for 57 low- and middle-income countries covering the periods 2006-2014. Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate the effects of exclusive breastfeeding on under-five mortality after adjusting for differences in socioeconomic, demographic, and health-related factors. Results: In multivariate models, exclusive breastfeeding was independently associated with under-five mortality after adjusting for sociodemographic and health systems-related factors. A 10 percentage-points increase in exclusive breastfeeding was associated with a reduction of 5 child deaths per 1,000 live births. A one-unit increase in Human Development Index was associated with a decrease of 231 under-five child deaths per 1,000 live births. A $100 increase in per capita health care expenditure was associated with a decrease of 2 child deaths per 1,000 live births. One unit increase in physician density was associated with 2.8 units decrease in the under-five mortality rate. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Population-level health system and socioeconomic factors exert considerable effect on the association between exclusive breastfeeding and under-five mortality. Given that the health policy and socioeconomic indicators shown to influence exclusive breastfeeding and under-five mortality are modifiable, policy makers could potentially target specific policies and programs to address national-level deficiencies in these sectors to reduce under-five mortality in their countries.

  14. Factors potentially influencing aminoglycoside use and expenditure

    SciTech Connect

    DiPiro, J.T.; Kilsdonk, G.F.; Amerson, A.B.; Record, K.E.

    1982-07-01

    Factors that may have influenced aminoglycoside use and expenditure in one hospital were examined. Factors that were evaluated as to their influence on aminoglycoside-use patterns were: (1) formulary status; (2) bacterial susceptibility patterns; (3) identified or perceived differences in toxicity; (4) changes in patient population; (5) price paid by the hospital for aminoglycosides; (6) distribution of newsletters or memoranda; (7) advertising and detailing; and (8) pharmacy policies. For FY 1976-77 to 1979-80, the largest proportion of aminoglycoside expense was for gentamicin. During FY 1980-81, the expenditure for gentamicin decreased and tobramycin accounted for the largest proportion of total expenditure. Monthly gentamicin use decreased 20% during FY 1980-81 from the previous year. Tobramycin use increased from January 1979 to November 1980 and decreased from December 1980 to June 1981. Kanamycin use and amikacin use were fairly constant during the study period. Based on temporal relationships, the following factors appeared to influence aminoglycoside use and expenditure: (1) a study conducted at the institution from June 1977 to June 1979 comparing gentamicin and tobramycin nephrotoxicity; (2) a comparative nephrotoxicity study published in a widely circulated medical journal in May 1980; and (3) an intramural newsletter and memorandum distributed in March 1981 encouraging selective aminoglycoside use. The identification of factors that potentially influenced aminoglycoside use can be used to anticipate the future impact of similar events and to devise strategies to influence antimicrobial use.

  15. Pakistan: update on breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Lambert, J

    1988-01-01

    Studies conducted in Pakistan have shown a decline in breastfeeding since 1966, especially in urban areas. Overall, the National Nutrition Surveys have found, the proportion of babies being breastfed for more than 2 years has declined from 59% in 1966 to 9% in 1985. 4 basic reasons have been found for this deterioration: 1) hospitals are separating newborns from their mothers, and not instructing mothers on how to establish and sustain breastfeeding; 2) health practicioners are not informed about the importance of breastfeeding; 3) many women give their babies formula out of fear that they will not produce sufficient milk for their babies; and 4) at hospitals and clinics some infant formula companies continue to give out free samples and to distribute posters and calendars promoting their formulas. These problems must be remedied. At a hospital in Indonesia, when infants began to be roomed in with their mothers, hospital staff to be encouraged to breastfeed their own babies, mothers to be counseled on breastfeeding, and when formula promotion was stopped, infant mortality dropped from 51.6/1000 to 33.4/1000. Cases of diarrhea dropped from 40.2/1000 to 5.5/1000. Breastmilk has unique properties that no infant formula can match. PMID:12342141

  16. Maternal Sexuality and Breastfeeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Alison

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…

  17. Biodemographic and health seeking behaviour factors influencing neonatal and postneonatal mortality in Bangladesh: evidence from DHS data.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Moshiur; Huq, Syeda Shahanara

    2009-04-01

    This study findings show primarily - amongst the biodemographic and health seeking services factors, delivery-related maternal health complicacies, blindness, higher order births, twin births, lower household size and interaction effect of higher order live births and male child are significantly correlated with higher neonatal mortality. Neonatal deaths are heavily caused by biological, demographical and maternal experience health hazards during/after delivery. The analysis shows that the causes of deaths after neonatal period are deeply rooted in poverty, regional administrative disparity, lack of breastfeeding, unplanned frequency of births, small interval between births and non-utilization of health seeking services. Education, even maternal, and sex differential have no significant effect as what the literature suggested. But the interaction effect of maternal secondary and above education who residing in urban areas has a negative significant association with neonatal mortality. Increased interval between the births significantly reduced the postneonatal but not the neonatal mortality whereas the relationship between the child's birth order and neonatal is found significantly positive. It is suggested that increasing the length of births interval and the duration of breastfeed lowering the frequency of births should decrease the risk of neonatal and postneonatal mortality. Nutrition factor breastfeeding is negatively associated with postneonatal mortality; as duration of breastfeeding increase the postneonate deaths decrease. Results show that the interaction variable of higher order births and the child is boy has moderately significant positive association with neonatal mortality. Postneonates residing in Sylhet have exceptionally higher likelihood of mortality. Although credit for contributing to the lowering of infant mortality has been given to health programs by public health personnel and to the improvement in socio-economic status by social scientists

  18. Factors Influencing the Fatigue Strength of Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollenrath, F

    1941-01-01

    A number of factors are considered which influence the static and fatigue strength of materials under practical operating conditions as contrasted with the relations obtaining under conditions of the usual testing procedure. Such factors are interruptions in operation, periodically fluctuating stress limits and mean stresses with periodic succession of several groups and stress states, statistical changes and succession of stress limits and mean stresses, frictional corrosion at junctures, and notch effects.

  19. Maternal, infant, and household factors are associated with breast-feeding trajectories during infants' first 6 months of life in Matlab, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Sabrina; Frongillo, Edward A; Devine, Carol M; Alam, Dewan S; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2009-08-01

    Women's breast-feeding patterns are complex, and existing definitions of breast-feeding behavior do not capture this complexity adequately. We used results from a prior qualitative study to define trajectories for feeding during the first half of infancy, and then examined household-, maternal-, and infant-level determinants of these trajectories using logistic regression analysis. The 1472 women in the study cohort lived in rural Bangladesh and were participants in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Intervention in Matlab trial. The 3 infant feeding trajectories included women who fed only breast milk and water [full breast-feeding trajectory (FBT)]; offered mixed feeding continuously when their babies were 0-4 mo old [continuous mixed feeding trajectory (CMFT)]; and practiced any other type of breast-feeding [intermittent feeding trajectory (IFT)], which was the normative feeding behavior in this community. In adjusted regression models, women who lived in rural areas [odds ratio (OR), 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2, 3.4], came from the poorest households (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.5, 7.7), and offered prelacteal (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.7) were more likely to be in the FBT. Women from the richest households (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1, 2.6), employed mothers (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1, 2.6), and older mothers (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.0, 1.1) were more likely to be in the CMFT, and women with higher birth-weight infants (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.8) were less likely to be in the CMFT. Thus, these trajectories were associated with distinct groups of women and these results provide information useful for developing interventions to improve breast-feeding practices. PMID:19549754

  20. Factors Influencing Employee Learning in Small Businesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coetzer, Alan; Perry, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify key factors influencing employee learning from the perspective of owners/managers. Design/methodology/research: Data were gathered from owners/managers in a total of 27 small manufacturing and services firms through interviews and analysed using content analytic procedures. Findings: The…

  1. Factors Influencing High School Students' Career Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Mei; Pan, Wei; Newmeyer, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the factors influencing high school students' career aspirations with a study analyzing 141 high school students. The Social Cognitive Career Development Model was utilized to examine the interactive relationships among learning experiences, career self-efficacy, outcome expectations, career interests, and career choices. The…

  2. Factors Influencing Learning at a Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marvin L.

    The Walberg Educational Productivity Model theorizes that learning in its affective, behavioral, and cognitive aspects is causally influenced by factors in the areas of individual aptitude (i.e., prior achievement, age or stage of maturation, and motivation), instructional treatment (i.e., quantity of time spent in learning situations and…

  3. Factors Influencing the Successful Introduction of Portfolios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Tartwijk, Jan; Driessen, Erik; Van Der Vleuten, Cees; Stokking, Karel

    2007-01-01

    Factors influencing the successful introduction of portfolios are described. A portfolio is a purposeful collection of all kinds of documents and other artefacts that together give an impression of how tasks were fulfilled and how competence has developed. A portfolio can also contain reflections and plans for future development. Although…

  4. Technology Education Graduate Education: Factors Influencing Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Phillip L.; Rogers, George E.

    A modified Delphi technique was used to identify the factors that positively influence technology education teachers' decision to enroll in graduate education programs and the barriers to their enrollment in advanced degree programs. Two pairs of Delphi panels were established. The doctoral panels consisted of 15 recent doctoral graduates and 30…

  5. Factors Influencing Teaching Choice in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilinc, Ahmet; Watt, Helen M. G.; Richardson, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Why choose to become a teacher in Turkey? The authors examined motivations and perceptions among preservice teachers (N = 1577) encompassing early childhood, primary and secondary education. The Factors Influencing Teaching Choice (FIT-Choice) instrument was translated into Turkish and its construct validity and reliability assessed. Altruistic…

  6. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Quansah, Emmanuel; Ohene, Lilian Akorfa; Norman, Linda; Mireku, Michael Osei; Karikari, Thomas K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals’ target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal. Methods ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review. Results Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence), family income (wealth/poverty) and high dependency (multiparousity). These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices. Conclusions Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother’s health knowledge is emphasised. PMID:26745277

  7. Relationship between participation in leisure activities and constraints on Taiwanese breastfeeding mothers during leisure activities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Participation in leisure activities strongly associates with health and well-being. Little research has explored the relationship between participation in leisure activities and constraints on breastfeeding mothers during leisure activities. The purposes of this study are: 1) to investigate constraints on breastfeeding mothers during leisure activities and participation in leisure activities; 2) to investigate the differences between preferences for leisure activities and actual participation by breastfeeding mothers; 3) to segment breastfeeding mothers with similar patterns, using a cluster analysis based on the delineated participation in leisure activities and leisure preferences; 4) to explore any differences between clusters of breastfeeding mothers with respect to socio-demographic characteristics, breastfeeding behaviours and leisure constraints. Methods This study has a cross-sectional design using an online survey conducted among mothers having breastfeeding experiences of more than four months. The questionnaire includes demographic variables, breastfeeding behaviours, preferences for leisure activities participation, and constraints on leisure activities. Collection of data occurred between March and July 2011, producing 415 valid responses for analysis. Results For breastfeeding mothers, this study identifies constraints on breastfeeding related to leisure activities in addition to the three traditional factors for constraints in the model. This study demonstrates that reports of constraints related to children, family, and nursing environments are the most frequent. Breastfeeding mothers in Taiwan participate regularly in family activities or activities related to their children. Cluster analysis classified breastfeeding mothers into Action and Contemplation groups, and found that mothers within the latter group participate less in leisure activities and experienced more constraints related to breastfeeding. Conclusions Implications provide

  8. A strategy for promoting breastfeeding among economically disadvantaged women and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bryant, C A; Coreil, J; D'Angelo, S L; Bailey, D F; Lazarov, M

    1992-01-01

    Best Start is an innovative social marketing approach to promote breastfeeding among low-income women. Focus group interviews were used to identify the determinants of infant-feeding decisions and the most effective strategies for encouraging women to breastfeed. Motivations and perceived barriers related to breastfeeding and social network influences on feeding choice are discussed. The findings were used to design a multifaceted breastfeeding promotion campaign aimed at new mothers, family members, health professionals, and the community at large. PMID:1476853

  9. Congratulations to the mothers. Breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, M; Creed Kanashiro, H

    1995-02-01

    In Lima, Peru, a study was conducted that evaluated the influences on mothers' decisions regarding breastfeeding. Local views and health professional advice was ascertained. A follow-up study of a group of pregnant women was conducted to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice in regard to the early feeding of their children. The women were interviewed in their homes before delivery, as soon as possible after delivery, and twice a week until their babies were 1 month old. The experience of the mother was the key factor, but advice from relatives, neighbors, and health professionals was also important. A lack of information about exclusive breast feeding was common. Although the women knew breast feeding was good, they were unaware that exclusive breast feeding was best. Health workers knew to advise against other milks, but failed to advise mothers against the use of herbal teas and sweetened water as supplements. The women commonly believed they were unable to produce enough milk to feed their children because of their own undernourishment. Others believed exclusive breast feeding would worsen their own health, while some experienced difficulties breast feeding. This led to supplementation with other milks; herbal teas were given to cure colic and to quench infants' thirst. Based on these findings, the project focused educational efforts on providing better information to mothers. Messages stressed the thirst quenching property of breast milk and its similar benefits to herbal tea, which should be consumed by the mother, rather than the infant. Since breast feeding practices were closely linked to mothers' beliefs about their own needs, the project emphasized the value and needs of the mother and the benefits of breast feeding for her. Educational activities, which continued for 12 months, included videos shown to small groups of mothers, posters, distribution of pamphlets, and messages broadcast over loudspeakers. A significant increase in the number of children

  10. Factors that influence women's dispositions toward science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atria, Catherine Graczyk

    Females have been underrepresented in the study of science and science careers for decades although advancements have been made in closing this gender gap, the gap persists particularly in the physical sciences. Variables which influence a woman's desire to pursue and maintain a science course of study and career must be discovered. The United States lags behind other industrialized countries in the fields of science, math, and engineering. Females comprise an estimated half of the population; their potential contributions cannot be ignored or overlooked. This retrospective research study explores the personal experiences of ten women enrolled in science majors, with science related career plans. The goal of this study is to describe the factors that influence the participants' interest in science. The findings, the effect of science coursework, science teachers' personality and manner, other influential educational personnel, role models and mentors, external influences exclusive of school, parental influence, locus of control and positive attitudes toward science confirm what other researchers have found.

  11. When Should a Mother Avoid Breastfeeding?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Breastfeeding Information for Families Breastfeeding Hotline The HHS Office ... Tweet Share Compartir When should a mother avoid breastfeeding? Health professionals agree that human milk provides the ...

  12. [Knowledge of breastfeeding management among residents in pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Temboury Molina, M C

    2003-03-01

    The staff of maternity wards and clinics for maternal and child health should receive appropriate basic and in-service training on the health benefits of breastfeeding and on lactation management. Pediatricians should not only be knowledgeable about the health, nutritional and physiological aspects of appropriate feeding, they should also be familiar with the mechanics of breastfeeding, its various psychosocial influences, possible difficulties and how to overcome them. To evaluate knowledge of breastfeeding among pediatrics residents throughout Spain, a survey was conducted. A total of 250 questionnaires were collected. Significant differences were observed among provinces. In most areas, residents' training was insufficient. To achieve an appropriate level of knowledge among pediatrics residents in a subject as important to mother and child health as breastfeeding, courses should be given and repeated at regular intervals. Professional associations should be actively involved in promoting appropriate training for health professionals. PMID:12628099

  13. The advantages of breast-feeding: a developing country point of view.

    PubMed

    Soysa, P E

    1981-02-01

    One of the traditional practices related to child care which is undergoing the most rapid change in the 3rd world is breastfeeding. Concerned about the repercussions of this trend, the author reviews some important results of research carried out in developing countries on the advantages of breastfeeding for infants and their mothers, and notes some of the factors influencing 3rd World women in their choice of mode of infant feeding and the cost of bottle feeding to both national and family budgets. The importance of taking stock of the present situation and preventing its deterioration is underscored. Increased home and community support for women to breastfeed even when working outside the home, is especially needed. PMID:12264014

  14. Factors Influencing Seminar Learning and Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Spruijt, Annemarie; Leppink, Jimmie; Wolfhagen, Ineke; Bok, Harold; Mainhard, Tim; Scherpbier, Albert; van Beukelen, Peter; Jaarsma, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Many veterinary curricula use seminars, interactive educational group formats in which some 25 students discuss questions and issues relating to course themes. To get indications on how to optimize the seminar learning process for students, we aimed to investigate relationships between factors that seem to be important for the seminar learning process, and to determine how these seminar factors account for differences in students' achievement scores. A 57-item seminar evaluation (USEME) questionnaire was administered to students right after they attended a seminar. In total, 80 seminars distributed over years 1, 2, and 3 of an undergraduate veterinary medicine curriculum were sampled and 988 questionnaires were handed in. Principal factor analysis (PFA) was conducted on 410 questionnaires to examine which items could be grouped together as indicators of the same factor, and to determine correlations between the derived factors. Multilevel regression analysis was performed to explore the effects of these seminar factors and students' prior achievement scores on students' achievement scores. Within the questionnaire, four factors were identified that influence the seminar learning process: teacher performance, seminar content, student preparation, and opportunities for interaction within seminars. Strong correlations were found between teacher performance, seminar content, and group interaction. Prior achievement scores and, to a much lesser extent, the seminar factor group interaction appeared to account for differences in students' achievement scores. The factors resulting from the present study and their relation to the method of assessment should be examined further, for example, in an experimental setup. PMID:26075625

  15. Influence of organizational factors on safety

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, S.B.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Political and economic factors influencing contraceptive uptake.

    PubMed

    Sai, F T

    1993-01-01

    International, national and local level politics influence the uptake of contraception through consensuses, laws, financial and moral support or the creation of an enabling atmosphere. Opposition to contraception generally comes from some churches and groups opposed to particular technologies. Socio-economic factors, particularly education, the health care system and the perceived or actual cost of fertility regulation as compared to benefits expected from children also powerfully influence contraceptive use. For many poor women in developing countries their powerlessness in relation to their male partners is an important obstacle. PMID:8324609

  17. Influencing factor on the prognosis of arthrocentesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoon Ho; Jeong, Tae Min; Pang, Kang Mi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this article is to evaluate factors influencing prognosis of arthrocentesis in patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder. Materials and Methods The subjects included 145 patients treated with arthrocentesis at the Dental Center of Ajou University Hospital from 2011 to 2013 for the purpose of recovering mouth opening limitation (MOL) and pain relief. Prognosis of arthrocentesis was evaluated 1 month after the operation. Improvement on MOL was defined as an increase from below 30 mm (MOL ≤30 mm) to above 40 mm (MOL ≥40 mm), and pain relief was defined as when a group with TMJ pain with a visual analog scale (VAS) score of 4 or more (VAS ≥4) decreased to a score of 3 or more. The success of arthrocentesis was determined when either mouth opening improved or pain relief was fulfilled. To determine the factors influencing the success of arthrocentesis, the patients were classified by age, gender, diagnosis group (the anterior disc displacement without reduction group, the anterior disc displacement with reduction group, or other TMJ disorders group), time of onset and oral habits (clenching, bruxism) to investigate the correlations between these factors and prognosis. Results One hundred twenty out of 145 patients who underwent arthrocentesis (83.4%) were found to be successful. Among the influencing factors mentioned above, age, diagnosis and time of onset had no statistically significant correlation with the success of arthrocentesis. However, a group of patients in their fifties showed a lower success rate (ANOVA P=0.053) and the success rate of the group with oral habits was 71% (Pearson's chi-square test P=0.035). Conclusion From this study, we find that factors influencing the success of arthrocentesis include age and oral habits. We also conclude that arthrocentesis is effective in treating mouth opening symptoms and for pain relief. PMID:25247144

  18. Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Pregnancy & Breastfeeding You are here Home / Audience / Adults Pregnancy & Breastfeeding Print Share Health & Nutrition Information When you are ...

  19. Drugs in breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Hotham, Neil; Hotham, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Most commonly used drugs are relatively safe for breastfed babies. The dose received via milk is generally small and much less than the known safe doses of the same drug given directly to neonates and infants. Drugs contraindicated during breastfeeding include anticancer drugs, lithium, oral retinoids, iodine, amiodarone and gold salts. An understanding of the principles underlying the transfer into breast milk is important, as is an awareness of the potential adverse effects on the infant. Discussion with the mother about the possibility of either negative product information or ill-informed advice from others will reduce the confusion and anxiety that may be generated. Good resources about medicines and breastfeeding are available and include state-based medicines information services. PMID:26648652

  20. Drugs in breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Hotham, Neil; Hotham, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Most commonly used drugs are relatively safe for breastfed babies. The dose received via milk is generally small and much less than the known safe doses of the same drug given directly to neonates and infants. Drugs contraindicated during breastfeeding include anticancer drugs, lithium, oral retinoids, iodine, amiodarone and gold salts. An understanding of the principles underlying the transfer into breast milk is important, as is an awareness of the potential adverse effects on the infant. Discussion with the mother about the possibility of either negative product information or ill-informed advice from others will reduce the confusion and anxiety that may be generated. Good resources about medicines and breastfeeding are available and include state-based medicines information services. PMID:26648652

  1. Ankyloglossia and breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Rowan-Legg, A

    2011-04-01

    Ankyloglossia (or tongue-tie) is a relatively uncommon congenital anomaly defined by an abnormally short lingual frenulum. Associations between tongue-tie and breastfeeding problems in infants have been inconsistent, and are a longstanding source of controversy in the medical community. Definitions of ankyloglossia vary, and management suggestions are not based on randomized controlled trials. Surgical correction involves cutting the lingual frenulum (frenotomy). Based on current available evidence, frenotomy cannot be recommended. If, however, the association between significant tongue-tie and major breastfeeding problems is clearly identified and surgical intervention is deemed necessary, frenotomy should be performed by a clinician experienced with the procedure and with appropriate analgesia. More definitive recommendations regarding the management of tongue-tie in infants await appropriately designed trials. PMID:22468126

  2. Ankyloglossia and breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Rowan-Legg, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Ankyloglossia (‘tongue-tie’) is a relatively common congenital anomaly characterized by an abnormally short lingual frenulum, which may restrict tongue tip mobility. There is considerable controversy regarding its diagnosis, clinical significance and management, and there is wide variation in practice in this regard. Most infants with ankyloglossia are asymptomatic and do not exhibit feeding problems. Based on available evidence, frenotomy cannot be recommended for all infants with ankyloglossia. There may be an association between ankyloglossia and significant breastfeeding difficulties in some infants. This subset of infants may benefit from frenotomy (the surgical division of the lingual frenulum). When an association between significant tongue-tie and major breastfeeding problems is clearly identified and surgical intervention is deemed to be necessary, frenotomy should be performed by a clinician experienced with the procedure and using appropriate analgesia. More definitive recommendations regarding the management of tongue-tie in infants await clear diagnostic criteria and appropriately designed trials. PMID:26038641

  3. Ankyloglossia and breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Rowan-Legg, A

    2011-01-01

    Ankyloglossia (or tongue-tie) is a relatively uncommon congenital anomaly defined by an abnormally short lingual frenulum. Associations between tongue-tie and breastfeeding problems in infants have been inconsistent, and are a longstanding source of controversy in the medical community. Definitions of ankyloglossia vary, and management suggestions are not based on randomized controlled trials. Surgical correction involves cutting the lingual frenulum (frenotomy). Based on current available evidence, frenotomy cannot be recommended. If, however, the association between significant tongue-tie and major breastfeeding problems is clearly identified and surgical intervention is deemed necessary, frenotomy should be performed by a clinician experienced with the procedure and with appropriate analgesia. More definitive recommendations regarding the management of tongue-tie in infants await appropriately designed trials. PMID:22468126

  4. Ankyloglossia and breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Rowan-Legg, Anne

    2015-05-01

    Ankyloglossia ('tongue-tie') is a relatively common congenital anomaly characterized by an abnormally short lingual frenulum, which may restrict tongue tip mobility. There is considerable controversy regarding its diagnosis, clinical significance and management, and there is wide variation in practice in this regard. Most infants with ankyloglossia are asymptomatic and do not exhibit feeding problems. Based on available evidence, frenotomy cannot be recommended for all infants with ankyloglossia. There may be an association between ankyloglossia and significant breastfeeding difficulties in some infants. This subset of infants may benefit from frenotomy (the surgical division of the lingual frenulum). When an association between significant tongue-tie and major breastfeeding problems is clearly identified and surgical intervention is deemed to be necessary, frenotomy should be performed by a clinician experienced with the procedure and using appropriate analgesia. More definitive recommendations regarding the management of tongue-tie in infants await clear diagnostic criteria and appropriately designed trials. PMID:26038641

  5. Factors are not the same for risk of stopping exclusive breast-feeding and introducing different types of liquids and solids in HIV-affected communities in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Marquis, Grace S; Lartey, Anna; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Mazur, Robert E; Brakohiapa, Lucy; Birks, Katherine A

    2016-07-01

    Exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) for 6 months supports optimal infant growth, health and development. This paper examined whether maternal HIV status was associated with EBF and other infant feeding practices. Pregnant women were enrolled after HIV counselling, and their babies were followed up for up to 1 year. Data on household socio-economics and demographics, maternal characteristics and infants' daily diet were available for 482 infants and their mothers (150 HIV-positive (HIV-P), 170 HIV-negative (HIV-N) and 162 HIV-unknown (HIV-U)). Survival analyses estimated median EBF duration and time to introduction of liquids and foods; hazards ratios (HR) used data from 1-365 and 1-183 d, adjusting for covariates. Logistic regression estimated the probability of EBF for 6 months. Being HIV-P was associated with a shorter EBF duration (139 d) compared with HIV-N (163 d) and HIV-U (165 d) (P=0·004). Compared with HIV-N, being HIV-P was associated with about a 40 % higher risk of stopping EBF at any time point (HR 1·39; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·84; P=0·018) and less than half as likely to complete 6 months of EBF (adjusted OR 0·42; 95 % CI 0·22, 0·81; P=0·01). Being HIV-P tended to be or was associated with a higher risk of introducing non-milk liquids (HR 1·34; 95 % CI 0·98, 1·83; P=0·068), animal milks (HR 2·37; 95 % CI 1·32, 4·24; P=0·004) and solids (HR 1·56; 95 % CI 1·10, 2·22; P=0·011) during the first 6 months. Weight-for-age Z-score was associated with EBF and introducing formula. Different factors (ethnicity, food insecurity, HIV testing strategy) were associated with the various feeding behaviours, suggesting that diverse interventions are needed to promote optimal infant feeding. PMID:27149980

  6. Factors influencing permanent teeth eruption. Part one--general factors.

    PubMed

    Almonaitiene, Ruta; Balciuniene, Irena; Tutkuviene, Janina

    2010-01-01

    Variation in the normal eruption of teeth is a common finding, but significant deviation from established norms should alert the clinician to take some diagnostic procedures in order to evaluate patient health and development. Disturbance in tooth eruption time could be a symptom of general condition or indication of altered physiology and craniofacial development. The aim of this review is to analyze general factors that could influence permanent teeth eruption. The articles from 1965 to 2009 in English related to topic were identified. 84 articles were selected for data collection. Although permanent teeth eruption is under significant genetic control, various general factors such as gender, socioeconomic status, craniofacial morphology, body composition can influence this process. Most significant disturbance in teeth emergence is caused by systemic diseases and syndromes. PMID:21063135

  7. Can breastfeeding promote child health equity? A comprehensive analysis of breastfeeding patterns across the developing world and what we can learn from them

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2010 more than 7.7 million children died before their fifth birthday. Over 98% of these deaths occurred in developing countries, and recent estimates have attributed hundreds of thousands of these deaths to suboptimal breastfeeding. Methods This study estimated prevalence of suboptimal breastfeeding for 137 developing countries from 1990 to 2010. These estimates were compared against WHO infant feeding recommendations and combined with effect sizes from existing literature to estimate associated disease burden using a standard comparative risk assessment approach. These prevalence estimates were disaggregated by wealth quintile and linked with child mortality rates to assess how improved rates of breastfeeding may affect child health inequalities. Results In 2010, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding ranged from 3.5% in Djibouti to 77.3% in Rwanda. The proportion of child Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) attributable to suboptimal breastfeeding is 7.6% at the global level and as high as 20.2% in Swaziland. Suboptimal breastfeeding is a leading childhood risk factor in all developing countries and consistently ranks higher than water and sanitation. Within most countries, breastfeeding prevalence rates do not vary considerably across wealth quintiles. Conclusions Breastfeeding is an effective child health intervention that does not require extensive health system infrastructure. Improvements in rates of exclusive and continued breastfeeding can contribute to the reduction of child mortality inequalities in developing countries. PMID:24305597

  8. Breastfeeding Outcome Comparison by Parity

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Eric W.; Beiler, Jessica S.; Rose, Chelsea M.; Paul, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Anecdotally, breastfeeding experiences differ between those who have previously nursed an infant and those who are primiparous. This analysis contrasted breastfeeding outcomes between primiparous women and those with previous experience spanning from maternity stay through 6 months postpartum. Study Design: A secondary analysis was conducted of data collected in a randomized, controlled trial with mothers and “well” newborns ≥34 weeks of gestation comparing two post–hospital discharge care models. Mothers completed an in-person interview during the postpartum stay and phone surveys at 2 weeks, 2 months, and 6 months where questionnaires related to breastfeeding were completed. All participants intended to breastfeed. Chi-squared and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to test for differences between parity groups. Breastfeeding duration by parity group was compared using a Kaplan–Meier plot and a logrank test. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the relationship between breastfeeding duration and parity after adjusting for covariates. Results: Among 1,099 mothers available for analysis, 542 (49%) were primiparous. Multiparous mothers had a longer intended breastfeeding duration (median, 9 vs. 6 months; p<0.001). Following delivery, primiparous mothers had a longer median time to first breastfeeding attempt (119 vs. 96 minutes; p<0.001) and were more likely to have eight or fewer feeding attempts in the first 24 hours (33% vs. 44%; p<0.001)). More primiparous women reported early breastfeeding problems (35% vs. 20%; p<0.001) and mixed feeding at hospital discharge (39% vs. 23%; p<0.001) despite reporting less breastfeeding-associated pain during the first week (p=0.04). Multiparous women were more likely to breastfeed through 6 months (p<0.001). In a multivariable Cox model for breastfeeding duration, an interaction existed between intended breastfeeding duration and parity (p=0.006); among those intending to breastfeed

  9. Labor Epidural Analgesia and Breastfeeding: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    French, Cynthia A; Cong, Xiaomei; Chung, Keun Sam

    2016-08-01

    Despite widespread use of epidural analgesia during labor, no consensus has been reached among obstetric and anesthesia providers regarding its effects on breastfeeding. The purpose of this review was to examine the relationship between labor epidural analgesia and breastfeeding in the immediate postpartum period. PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature were searched for articles published in 1990 or thereafter, using the search term breastfeeding combined with epidural, labor epidural analgesia, labor analgesia, or epidural analgesia Of 117 articles, 23 described empirical studies specific to labor epidural analgesia and measured a breastfeeding outcome. Results were conflicting: 12 studies showed negative associations between epidural analgesia and breastfeeding success, 10 studies showed no effect, and 1 study showed a positive association. Most studies were observational. Of 3 randomized controlled studies, randomization methods were inadequate in 2 and not evaluable in 1. Other limitations were related to small sample size or inadequate study power; variation and lack of information regarding type and dosage of analgesia or use of other intrapartum interventions; differences in timing, definition, and method of assessing breastfeeding success; or failure to consider factors such as mothers' intention to breastfeed, social support, siblings, or the mother's need to return to work or school. It is also unclear to what extent results are mediated through effects on infant neurobehavior, maternal fever, oxytocin release, duration of labor, and need for instrumental delivery. Clinician awareness of factors affecting breastfeeding can help identify women at risk for breastfeeding difficulties in order to target support and resources effectively. PMID:27121239

  10. Factors influencing union formation in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Bocquier, Philippe; Khasakhala, Anne

    2009-07-01

    Using retrospective data from the Urban Integration Survey conducted in 2001 in Nairobi, Kenya, on a sample of 955 women and men aged 25-54, this paper compares factors influencing entry into union formation for men and women. The analysis uses event history methods, specifically Cox Proportional Hazards regression, stratified by age cohort and run separately by sex. The results indicate that delay in union formation is more pronounced for women than for men. Cohabitation without formal marriage is the prominent form of union, especially among the younger generation, and appears to have increased. For men, the timing of union is more dependent upon human capital acquisition than on cultural factors. These findings show that the marriage search model, which was first applied in Western countries, can also hold in cities of developing countries. Nonetheless, neither the search model nor the integration or the independence models apply to women's union formation, which very few exogenous factors can explain. PMID:19250585

  11. Breastfeeding promotion interventions and breastfeeding practices: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Exclusive Breastfeeding (EBF) rates remain low in both low-income and high-income countries despite World Health Organization recommendations for EBF till 6 months. Breastfeeding has been shown to have a protective effect against gastrointestinal infections, among other benefits. Large-scale interventions focusing on educating mothers about breastfeeding have the potential to increase breastfeeding prevalence, especially EBF, up to recommended standards and also to decrease infant morbidity. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted for RCTs and quasi-experimental studies comparing breastfeeding education or support to routine care. The effect of interventions was observed for exclusive, predominant, partial and no breastfeeding rates. The time intervals of interest were day 1, <1 month, and 1 to 5 months. Outcome-specific evidence was graded according to the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) rules using the adapted Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria and recommendations were made from studies in developing countries for inclusion into the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) model. Results After reviewing 4600 abstracts, 372 studies were selected for full text screening and 110 of these studies were finally included. Statistically significant increases in EBF rates as a result of breastfeeding promotion interventions were observed: 43% at day 1, 30% at <1 month, and 90% at 1-5 months. Rates of ‘no breastfeeding’ reduced by 32% at 1 day, 30% at <1 month, and 18% at 1-5 months. The effect of interventions on the rates of predominant and partial breastfeeding were non-significant. Conclusion Breastfeeding education and/or support increased EBF rates and decreased no breastfeeding rates at birth, <1 month and 1-5 months. Combined individual and group counseling appeared to be superior to individual or group counseling alone. Interventions in developing countries had a greater impact than

  12. Chinese mothers' knowledge and attitudes about breastfeeding in Perth, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Zhang, Min; Binns, Colin W

    2003-11-01

    The objective of the research was to describe Chinese-Australian (Mandarin speaking) mothers knowledge about and attitudes towards breastfeeding. Data for this cross-sectional survey was obtained by telephone interviews conducted in Mandarin. A sample of 506 Mandarin-speaking women was recruited and interviewed in Perth, Western Australia. The majority came from mainland China (81.6%), were aged between 23 and 59 years, and had some tertiary education (76.3%). Most of the mothers (90.9%) indicated that they supported breastfeeding for all infants and most had some knowledge about the benefits of breastfeeding. The main reasons that mothers considered stopping breastfeeding were not having enough breastmilk and going back to work or study. The higher the family income, the less preference toward breastfeeding. These findings highlighted the significance of social and cultural factors that impact on the women's decisions to initiate and maintain breastfeeding. PMID:14768309

  13. Breast-Feeding in Immigrant Women: The Role of Social Support and Acculturation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiel de Bocanegra, Heike

    1998-01-01

    A postpartum questionnaire assessed influences of social support and acculturation on breast-feeding among 962 low-income immigrant women in New York. More acculturated women were two times less likely to intend to breast-feed but reported more social support. Predictors of breastfeeding were intent, nonsmoking, role models, and certain attitudes,…

  14. Breast-Feeding Attitudes and Behavior among WIC Mothers in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaaler, Margaret L.; Stagg, Julie; Parks, Sharyn E.; Erickson, Tracy; Castrucci, Brian C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the influence of demographic characteristics on attitudes toward the benefits of breast-feeding, approval of public breast-feeding, and the use of infant formula. Additionally, the study examined whether attitudes were related to infant feeding practices among mothers enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition…

  15. Factors influencing internal color of cooked meats.

    PubMed

    Suman, Surendranath P; Nair, Mahesh N; Joseph, Poulson; Hunt, Melvin C

    2016-10-01

    This manuscript overviews the pertinent research on internal color of uncured cooked meats, biochemical processes involved in meat cookery, and fundamental mechanisms governing myoglobin thermal stability. Heat-induced denaturation of myoglobin, responsible for the characteristic dull-brown color of cooked meats, is influenced by a multitude of endogenous (i.e., pH, muscle source, species, redox state) and exogenous (i.e., packaging, ingredients, storage) factors. The interactions between these factors critically influence the internal cooked color and can confuse the consumers, who often perceive cooked color to be a reliable indicator for doneness and safety. While certain phenomena in cooked meat color are cosmetic in nature, others can mislead consumers and result in foodborne illnesses. Research in meat color suggests that processing technologies and cooking practices in industry as well as households influence the internal cooked color. Additionally, the guidelines of many international public health and regulatory authorities recommend using meat thermometers to determine safe cooking endpoint temperature and to ensure product safety. PMID:27131513

  16. Benefits and risks of breastfeeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2005, the American Academy of Pediatrics extended their position concerning the superiority of human milk for feeding human infants and the reasons for encouraging breastfeeding. Yet questions have been raised whether the benefits of breastfeeding pertain to populations in the industrialized wor...

  17. The Interactions between Breastfeeding Mothers and Their Babies during the Breastfeeding Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Karen

    1993-01-01

    Videotaped 12 breastfeeding mothers and their babies during breastfeeding sessions to investigate maternal-infant interactions occurring during breastfeeding sessions. Presents four case studies to examine differences in breastfeeding interactions, as well as benefits and disadvantages that breastfeeding provided different mother-child pairs. (MM)

  18. Duration of breastfeeding and its correlates in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Akter, Shamima; Rahman, M Mizanur

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the duration of breastfeeding and the sociodemographic factors affecting it. Data for the study were drawn from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2004. In total 5,364 mothers were included in the study. The life table and Cox's proportional hazards model were employed for the analysis of breastfeeding-related data, which showed that the average duration of breastfeeding was 31.9 months. Cox regression analysis revealed that the duration of breastfeeding was positively associated with maternal age, contraceptive-use, work status, and religion and was negatively associated with age at marriage, parity, delivery status, region, and maternal education. Younger mothers, having higher education, higher maternal parity, caesarean-section birth, being a Muslim, and mothers who have not used any contraceptive were associated with lower duration of breastfeeding. The findings suggest that health institutions can play a significant role in promoting breastfeeding in Bangladesh. Educational campaigns that stress the benefits of lactation are important strategies for encouraging mothers to breastfeed longer. PMID:21261205

  19. Addressing Breastfeeding Disparities in Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Carol Grace

    2007-01-01

    This article examines social justice issues affecting breastfeeding in the United States. Public health goals for breastfeeding initiation and duration and barriers to breastfeeding among low-income groups are discussed. Suggestions are made about ways social workers may more assertively support breastfeeding in the context of social work practice.

  20. Intention or Experience? Predictors of Continued Breastfeeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGirolamo, Ann; Thompson, Nancy; Martorell, Reynaldo; Fein, Sara; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence

    2005-01-01

    Despite the known benefits of breastfeeding, many women do not breastfeed their infants or stop breastfeeding early. This study examines the effects of prenatal intention and initial breastfeeding experiences on breast-feeding initiation and duration among 1,665 U.S. women completing questionnaires on infant feeding practices. Outcomes included no…

  1. Factors influencing variation in dentist service rates.

    PubMed

    Grembowski, D; Milgrom, P; Fiset, L

    1990-01-01

    In the previous article, we calculated dentist service rates for 200 general dentists based on a homogeneous, well-educated, upper-middle-class population of patients. Wide variations in the rates were detected. In this analysis, factors influencing variation in the rates were identified. Variation in rates for categories of dental services was explained by practice characteristics, patient exposure to fluoridated water supplies, and non-price competition in the dental market. Rates were greatest in large, busy practices in markets with high fees. Older practices consistently had lower rates across services. As a whole, these variables explained between 5 and 30 percent of the variation in the rates. PMID:2118182

  2. Factors influencing aircraft ground handling performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft ground handling operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and aircraft wet runway accident investigation are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  3. [Antidepressant drugs and breastfeeding].

    PubMed

    Bellantuono, Cesario; Migliarese, Giovanni; Maggioni, Francesca; Imperadore, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    The post-partum period, as well as pregnancy, is associated with an increased risk of anxiety and/or affective disorders. Postnatal depression, frequently in co-morbidity with anxiety symptoms, is recognised as the most frequent form of maternal morbidity after delivery, with a prevalence rate estimated between 5% to 15%. Among antidepressant drugs, the SSRIs are considered the drugs of choice in the treatment of post-partum affective disorders, particularly in the major depression. It is, thus, crucial from a clinical standpoint to establish, in the newborn whose mother needs to be treated with an SSRI, the safety profile of these drugs during breastfeeding. The benefits of breastfeeding, on the other hand, both for the nursing mother and the infant, are in fact very well documented. Unfortunately, all antidepressant drugs, including SSRIs, cross into breast milk and the milk-to-plasma ratio, a measure proposed to establish the amount of drug transferred to maternal milk, does not seem to be a reliable parameter to predict the safety of these drugs. From the available literature, however, it seems that among SSRIs, paroxetina and sertralina offer the best safety profile, as these drugs has never been associated with unsafe reports in suckling infants. Despite these reassuring but preliminary data, more studies are needed to better assess the safety of the antidepressant drugs in the infants exposed during breastfeeding. As general rule, it is important to recommend if the mother wishes to breastfeed her infant while taking an antidepressant, that the baby should be closely monitored in order to detect, as soon as possible, any unwanted drug-related side effect. PMID:17345878

  4. [Influence of weather factors on suicidal hangings].

    PubMed

    Trepińska, Janina; Piotrowicz, Katarzyna; Bakowski, Rafał; Bolechała, Filip; Trela, Franciszek

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a certain biometeorological problem. The evaluation of influence of weather factors on frequency of suicidal cases by hanging in the area of Cracow City during 1991-2002 was examined. Rapid changes of air pressure, air temperature, hot, sweltering and sultry days, very frosty days, days with strong or foehn wind, days with thunderstorms, fog and haze were selected as unfavourable weather factors. They give an occasion for strong psychical stress. The results of detailed investigations are next: more frequency of cases of suicide during the advance of cold fronts, rapid decreases of air pressure during hot, sweltering and sultry days, days with thunderstorms and foehn winds in the Tatra Mountains. PMID:16521499

  5. Factors influencing global antiretroviral procurement prices

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral medicines (ARVs) are one of the most costly parts of HIV/AIDS treatment. Many countries are struggling to provide universal access to ARVs for all people living with HIV and AIDS. Although substantial price reductions of ARVs have occurred, especially between 2002 and 2008, achieving sustainable access for the next several decades remains a major challenge for most low- and middle-income countries. The objectives of the present study were twofold: first, to analyze global ARV prices between 2005 and 2008 and associated factors, particularly procurement methods and key donor policies on ARV procurement efficiency; second, to discuss the options of procurement processes and policies that should be considered when implementing or reforming access to ARV programs. Methods An ARV-medicines price-analysis was carried out using the Global Price Reporting Mechanism from the World Health Organization. For a selection of 12 ARVs, global median prices and price variation were calculated. Linear regression models for each ARV were used to identify factors that were associated with lower procurement prices. Logistic regression models were used to identify the characteristics of those countries which procure below the highest and lowest direct manufactured costs. Results Three key factors appear to have an influence on a country's ARV prices: (a) whether the product is generic or not; (b) the socioeconomic status of the country; (c) whether the country is a member of the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative. Factors which did not influence procurement below the highest direct manufactured costs were HIV prevalence, procurement volume, whether the country belongs to the least developed countries or a focus country of the United States President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief. Conclusion One of the principal mechanisms that can help to lower prices for ARV over the next several decades is increasing procurement efficiency. Benchmarking prices could be one useful

  6. Factors that influence engagement in collaborative practice

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Carol P.; Bainbridge, Lesley; Bickford, Julia; Baptiste, Susan; Brajtman, Susan; Dryden, Trish; Hall, Pippa; Risdon, Cathy; Solomon, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To generate hypotheses regarding factors that might influence engagement in collaborative practice. DESIGN Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. SETTING Participants interviewed each other in dyads. The pairing was based upon geographical location and proximity to each other. PARTICIPANTS Eight professionals from the disciplines of medicine, nursing, occupational therapy, physical therapy, and massage therapy. METHOD Semistructured interviews, lasting 30 to 45 minutes each, were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were read by all research team members using independent content analysis for common words, phrases, statements, or units of text for key themes. At a subsequent face-to-face meeting, the team used an iterative process of comparing and contrasting key themes until consensus was reached. The transcripts were then analyzed further for subthemes using NVivo software. MAIN FINDINGS Initial findings suggest that some common characteristics grounded in family history, school experiences, social interactions, and professional training might influence collaborative practice choices. The narrative form of the interview broke down interpersonal and interprofessional barriers, creating a new level of trust and respect that could improve professional collaboration. CONCLUSION This study suggests that life experiences from childhood into later adulthood can and do influence professional choices. PMID:17872847

  7. Modernization is Associated with Intensive Breastfeeding Patterns in the Bolivian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Veile, Amanda; Martin, Melanie; McAllister, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    For many traditional, non-industrialized populations, intensive and prolonged breastfeeding buffers infant health against poverty, poor sanitation, and limited health care. Due to novel influences on local economies, values, and beliefs, the traditional and largely beneficial breastfeeding patterns of such populations may be changing to the detriment of infant health. To assess if and why such changes are occurring in a traditional breastfeeding population, we document breastfeeding patterns in the Bolivian Tsimane, a forager-horticulturalist population in the early stages of modernization. Three predictions are developed and tested to evaluate the general hypothesis that modernizing influences encourage less intensive breastfeeding in the Tsimane: 1) Tsimane mothers in regions of higher infant mortality will practice more intensive BF; 2) Tsimane mothers who are located closer to a local market town will practice more intensive BF; and 3) Older Tsimane mothers will practice more intensive BF. Predictions were tested using a series of maternal interviews (from 2003-2011, n=215) and observations of mother-infant dyads (from 2002-2007, n=133). Tsimane breastfeeding patterns were generally intensive: 72% of mothers reported initiating BF within a few hours of birth, mean (± SD) age of CF introduction was 4.1±2.0 months, and mean (± SD) weaning age was 19.2±7.3 months. There was, however, intra-population variation in several dimensions of breastfeeding (initiation, frequency, duration, and complementary feeding). Contrary to our predictions, breastfeeding was most intensive in the most modernized Tsimane villages, and maternal age was not a significant predictor of breastfeeding patterns. Regional differences accounted for variation in most dimensions of breastfeeding (initiation, frequency, and complementary feeding). Future research should therefore identify constraints on breastfeeding in the less modernized Tsimane regions, and examine the formation of

  8. Modernization is associated with intensive breastfeeding patterns in the Bolivian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Veile, Amanda; Martin, Melanie; McAllister, Lisa; Gurven, Michael

    2014-01-01

    For many traditional, non-industrialized populations, intensive and prolonged breastfeeding buffers infant health against poverty, poor sanitation, and limited health care. Due to novel influences on local economies, values, and beliefs, the traditional and largely beneficial breastfeeding patterns of such populations may be changing to the detriment of infant health. To assess if and why such changes are occurring in a traditional breastfeeding population, we document breastfeeding patterns in the Bolivian Tsimane, a forager-horticulturalist population in the early stages of modernization. Three predictions are developed and tested to evaluate the general hypothesis that modernizing influences encourage less intensive breastfeeding in the Tsimane: 1) Tsimane mothers in regions of higher infant mortality will practice more intensive BF; 2) Tsimane mothers who are located closer to a local market town will practice more intensive BF; and 3) Older Tsimane mothers will practice more intensive BF. Predictions were tested using a series of maternal interviews (from 2003 to 2011, n = 215) and observations of mother-infant dyads (from 2002 to 2007, n = 133). Tsimane breastfeeding patterns were generally intensive: 72% of mothers reported initiating BF within a few hours of birth, mean (±SD) age of CF introduction was 4.1 ± 2.0 months, and mean (±SD) weaning age was 19.2 ± 7.3 months. There was, however, intra-population variation in several dimensions of breastfeeding (initiation, frequency, duration, and complementary feeding). Contrary to our predictions, breastfeeding was most intensive in the most modernized Tsimane villages, and maternal age was not a significant predictor of breastfeeding patterns. Regional differences accounted for variation in most dimensions of breastfeeding (initiation, frequency, and complementary feeding). Future research should therefore identify constraints on breastfeeding in the less modernized Tsimane regions, and examine the

  9. [Pregnancy and breastfeeding].

    PubMed

    Flores-Quijano, María Eugenia; Heller-Rouassant, Solange

    2016-09-01

    During pregnancy and breastfeeding the demand for nutrients that promote the growth and development of the fetus, maternal tissues and breastmilk production is increased. Milk and dairy products provide energy, proteins, fatty acids, carbohydrates, calcium, phosphorus, vitamins D and B12, therefore their importance during pregnancy and breastfeeding. The energy through food supply allows the development and growth from the conception; protein promotes the rapid growth of the maternal and fetal tissues: fatty acids stimulate the development of the fetus central nervous system; carbohydrates are essential to support fetal brain growth; calcium is essential for the formation and mineralization of the fetus skeleton, while vitamin D promotes calcium absorption and the development of the nervous and immune systems. Multiple studies refer a positive association between the consumption of dairy products and birth weight. Regarding height, some papers show an increase in the femur length and in the total height (head-ankle) with regard to the intake of dairy products. Few studies report an association between a specific dairy product and the presence of allergic diseases. Therefore, more research is mandatory. PMID:27603881

  10. Deaf Mothers and Breastfeeding: Do Unique Features of Deaf Culture and Language Support Breastfeeding Success?

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Nancy P.; Cuculick, Jess; Starr, Matthew; Panko, Tiffany; Widanka, Holly; Dozier, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Background Deaf mothers who use American Sign Language (ASL) consider themselves a linguistic minority group, with specific cultural practices. Rarely has this group been engaged in infant-feeding research. Objectives To understand how ASL-using Deaf mothers learn about infant feeding and to identify their breastfeeding challenges. Methods Using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach we conducted four focus groups with Deaf mothers who had at least one child 0–5 years. A script was developed using a social ecological model (SEM) to capture multiple levels of influence. All groups were conducted in ASL, filmed, and transcribed into English. Deaf and hearing researchers analyzed data by coding themes within each SEM level. Results Fifteen mothers participated. All had initiated breastfeeding with their most recent child. Breastfeeding duration for eight of the mothers was three weeks to 12 months. Seven of the mothers were still breastfeeding, the longest for 19 months. Those mothers who breastfed longer described a supportive social environment and the ability to surmount challenges. Participants described characteristics of Deaf culture such as direct communication, sharing information, use of technologies, language access through interpreters and ASL-using providers, and strong self-advocacy skills. Finally, mothers used the sign ‘struggle’ to describe their breastfeeding experience. The sign implies a sustained effort over time which leads to success. Conclusions In a setting with a large population of Deaf women and ASL-using providers, we identified several aspects of Deaf culture and language which support BF mothers across institutional, community, and interpersonal levels of the SEM. PMID:23492762

  11. Enhancing Breastfeeding Rates Among African American Women: A Systematic Review of Current Psychosocial Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Angela; Kirk, Rosalind; Rosenblum, Katherine Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The goals of this article are to provide a review of key interventions and strategies that impact initiation and duration of breastfeeding with particular focus on low-income African American mothers' maternal psychological vulnerabilities during the early postpartum period using a social ecological perspective as a guiding framework. Although modest gains have been achieved in breastfeeding initiation rates in the United States, a projected gap remains between infant feeding practices and national Healthy People breastfeeding goals set for 2020, particularly among African Americans. These disparities raise concerns that socially disadvantaged mothers and babies may be at increased risk for poor postnatal outcomes because of poorer mental health and increased vulnerability to chronic health conditions. Breastfeeding can be a protective factor, strengthening the relationship between mother and baby and increasing infant health and resilience. Evidence suggests that no single intervention can sufficiently address the multiple breastfeeding barriers faced by mothers. Effective intervention strategies require a multilevel approach. A social ecological perspective highlights that individual knowledge, behavior, and attitudes are shaped by interactions between the individual woman, her friends and family, and her wider historical, social, political, economic, institutional, and community contexts, and therefore effective breastfeeding interventions must reflect all these aspects. Current breastfeeding interventions are disjointed and inadequately meet all African American women's social and psychological breastfeeding needs. Poor outcomes indicate a need for an integrative approach to address the complexity of interrelated breastfeeding barriers mothers' experience across layers of the social ecological system. PMID:25423601

  12. Factors influencing BMI classifications of Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ae Kyung; Choi, Jin Yi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to identify factors influencing the BMI classifications of 3,583 Korean adults using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. [Subjects and Methods] Measures included lifestyle factors, physiologic factors, perceived health state, stress, subjective body recognition, health-related quality of life, and weight control behavior. [Results] Body perception scores were lower with underweight and higher with overweight and obesity than with a healthy weight. There was a lower proportion of underweight men and a higher proportion of overweight or obese men than women. Instances of Alcohol Use Identification Scores (AUDIT) ≥ 9 were proportionately lower with underweight and more with overweight or obesity relative to an AUDIT score < 9 with healthy weight. Hemoglobin A1c and systolic blood pressure were higher with obesity than with healthy weight. The total cholesterol level was greater with overweight and obesity than with healthy weight. [Conclusion] These results suggest that obesity intervention for adults should be based on age and sex and should include drinking habits and physical activity. PMID:26157264

  13. [Breast-feeding during the process of transculturation].

    PubMed

    Vega-Franco, L

    1985-07-01

    Sociocultural changes in Europe during the Industrial Revolution of the past century resulted in a decline in the practice of breastfeeding. Migration of a large part of the rural population to the city led to a substantial change of life styles, with the health of the population seriously affected. Poor sanitary conditions, deteriorating nutritional status, and other problems became more widespread. Some contemporary reports noted the adverse effects on infant health of the decline in breastfeeding. A researcher in Manchester, Englands found that 60% of infants who were breastfed showed satisfactory growth and nutritional status through 9 months, compared with only 10% of artificially fed infants. In some respects, developments in postwar Latin American reflect trends in Europe a century ago, with rural-urban migration, the incorporation of women into the labor market, the development of food technology, and the use of advertising and propaganda combining to produce a decline in the prevalence of breastfeeding. The proportions of infants breastfed declined from 15% to 6% in Chile between 1960-1968, while in Mexico a parallel but less marked decline in breastfeeding has occurred in both rural and low income urban areas. In 1973, 2/3 of 5000 mothers interviewed breastfed their infants in the 1st month, while by 1979 only 52.8% of a similar sample did so. 3 possible explanations of the decline in breastfeeding see it as a symptom of abandonment of traditional ways by mothers in a process of cultural change; as a decision made without reflection on its consequences for the baby and the family; or as a result of information received by the mother whose interpretation is influenced by her educational level. To understand the phenomenon, breastfeeding must be considered a form of instinctive behavior by which the mother promotes the growth of her baby during a phase of intense nutritional demand, but the practice of breastfeeding is also the result of interaction of the

  14. Factors influencing the uptake of orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, K; McComb, J L; Fox, N; Wright, J

    1996-11-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the factors that influenced the uptake of orthodontic treatment for patients who were referred for orthodontic treatment to two types of orthodontic treatment provider; a fee per item and hospital service. The following data were collected: (i) basic demographic data; (ii) the need for orthodontic treatment as measured by IOTN; and (iii) the outcome of the consultation. The data analysis with logistic regression revealed that the following variables had a predictive effect on the uptake of treatment: (i) the need for orthodontic treatment; and (ii) the patient's gender. Most of the patients that were referred and accepted for treatment had a definite need for orthodontic treatment. PMID:8985570

  15. Factors influencing human leukocyte adherence in vitro.

    PubMed

    Stepniewicz, W; Tchórzewski, H; Luciak, M

    1983-01-01

    Studies were performed on factors influencing leucocyte adherence in vitro. Blood condensation was found to increase leukocyte adherence. Addition of heparin, dextran or ethanol caused a significant reduction of white blood cell count in blood samples in comparison with blood mixed with sodium EDTA or ACD solution. This suggests the existence of two granulocyte subpopulations; viz, rapidly adhering and slowly adhering. Heparin enhanced granulocyte adherence, while dextran and ethanol decreased it. Five-day storage of ACD blood led to a decrease in granulocyte adherence, while addition of heparin or histamine to ACD blood prevented this change to occur. The glucose concentration of 1,000 mg/dl augmented granulocyte adherence, while higher glucose concentrations induced its progressive fall below the control values. There was no significant change of lymphocyte adherence during the experiments. PMID:6194070

  16. To Explore the Experiences of Women on Reasons in Initiating and Maintaining Breastfeeding in Urban Area of Karachi, Pakistan: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Shaheen Premani, Zahra; Kurji, Zohra; Mithani, Yasmin

    2011-01-01

    This is an exploratory study that explores the experiences of lactating women in initiating, continuing, or discontinuing breastfeeding in an urban area of Karachi, Pakistan. Objectives. To explore the experiences of lactating women and to understand their support and hindering mechanisms in initiating and maintaining breastfeeding. Methods. This is an exploratory design assisting in exploring the participant's experiences of initiating and maintaining breastfeeding to better understand their world. Purposive sampling was used, and data was analyzed through manual thematic analysis. Results. The data revealed that mother's knowledge, sociocultural environment, breastfeeding decision, and self- and professional support acted as driving forces for the participants. However, sociocultural environment, physiological changes, time management, and being a housewife to breastfeed their children were all challenges and barriers that the participants thought hindered their breastfeeding initiation and maintenance. Conclusion. Breastfeeding is a natural but taxing phenomenon, and breastfeeding mothers experience supporting and hindering factors in initiating and maintaining breastfeeding. PMID:22389780

  17. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Petrovici, Dan A; Ritson, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet) regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB) and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels) is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly sources and risks associated

  18. Callers’ attitudes and experiences of UK breastfeeding helpline support

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding peer support, is considered to be a key intervention for increasing breastfeeding duration rates. Whilst a number of national organisations provide telephone based breastfeeding peer support, to date there have been no published evaluations into callers’ experiences and attitudes of this support. In this study we report on the descriptive and qualitative insights provided by 908 callers as part of an evaluation of UK-based breastfeeding helpline(s). Methods A structured telephone interview, incorporating Likert scale responses and open-ended questions was undertaken with 908 callers over May to August, 2011 to explore callers’ experiences of the help and support received via the breastfeeding helpline(s). Results Overall satisfaction with the helpline was high, with the vast majority of callers’ recalling positive experiences of the help and support received. Thematic analysis was undertaken on all qualitative and descriptive data recorded during the evaluation, contextualised within the main areas addressed within the interview schedule in terms of ‘contact with the helplines’; ‘experiences of the helpline service’, ‘perceived effectiveness of support provision’ and ‘impact on caller wellbeing’. Conclusion Callers valued the opportunity for accessible, targeted, non-judgmental and convenient support. Whilst the telephone support did not necessarily influence women’s breastfeeding decisions, the support they received left them feeling reassured, confident and more determined to continue breastfeeding. We recommend extending the helpline service to ensure support can be accessed when needed, and ongoing training and support for volunteers. Further advertising and promotion of the service within wider demographic groups is warranted. PMID:23628104

  19. Multivariate Analysis of State Variation in Breastfeeding Rates in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gopal K.; Dee, Deborah L.; Belanoff, Candice; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine the impact of sociodemographic and behavioral factors and state legislation on breastfeeding initiation (child ever fed breastmilk) and duration. Methods. We used data from a nationally representative study of children aged 6 to 71 months (N = 33 121); we calculated unadjusted and adjusted state estimates for breastfeeding initiation and duration. We used logistic regression models to examine factors associated with never breastfeeding or breastfeeding less than 6 months. We conducted a multilevel analysis of state legislation's role. Results. There were wide state variations in breastfeeding initiation and duration. The western and northwestern states had the highest rates. Covariate adjustment accounted for 25% to 30% of the disparity. Multivariate analysis showed that the adjusted odds of not being breastfed were 2.5- to 5.15-times greater in southern states compared with Oregon (reference). Children in states without breastfeeding legislation had higher odds of not being breastfed. Conclusions. Sociodemographic and maternal factors do not account for most breastfeeding rate variation. The association with breastfeeding legislation should be explored and may reflect cultural norms. PMID:18703441

  20. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called “brite” or “beige” adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:26903879

  1. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called "brite" or "beige" adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:26903879

  2. Factors Influencing Early Dental Implant Failures.

    PubMed

    Chrcanovic, B R; Kisch, J; Albrektsson, T; Wennerberg, A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the influence of local and systemic factors on the occurrence of dental implant failures up to the second-stage surgery (abutment connection). This retrospective study is based on 2,670 patients who received 10,096 implants and were consecutively treated with implant-supported prostheses between 1980 and 2014 at 1 specialist clinic. Several anatomic-, patient-, health-, and implant-related factors were collected. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the patients and implants. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used at the patient level as well as the implant level to evaluate the effect of explanatory variables on the failure of implants up to abutment connection. A generalized estimating equation method was used for the implant-level analysis to account for the fact that repeated observations (several implants) were available for a single patient. Overall, 642 implants (6.36%) failed, of which 176 (1.74%) in 139 patients were lost up to second-stage surgery. The distribution of implants in sites of different bone quantities and qualities was quite similar between implants lost up to and after abutment connection. Smoking and the intake of antidepressants were the statistically significant predictors in the multivariate model (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02369562). PMID:27146701

  3. Session 1: Public health nutrition. Breast-feeding practices in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, Roslyn C; Kearney, John M

    2008-11-01

    Breast-feeding is the superior infant feeding method from birth, with research consistently demonstrating its numerous short- and long-term health benefits for both mother and infant. As a global recommendation the WHO advises that mothers should exclusively breast-feed for the first 6-months of life, thus delaying the introduction of solids during this time. Historically, Irish breast-feeding initiation rates have remained strikingly low in comparison with international data and there has been little improvement in breast-feeding duration rates. There is wide geographical variation in terms of breast-feeding initiation both internationally and in Ireland. Some of these differences in breast-feeding rates may be associated with differing socio-economic characteristics. A recent cross-sectional prospective study of 561 pregnant women attending a Dublin hospital and followed from the antenatal period to 6 months post partum has found that 47% of the Irish-national mothers initiated breast-feeding, while only 24% were still offering 'any' breast milk to their infants at 6 weeks. Mothers' positive antenatal feeding intention to breast-feed is indicated as one of the most important independent determinants of initiation and 'any' breast-feeding at 6 weeks, suggesting that the antenatal period should be targeted as an effective time to influence and affect mothers' attitudes and beliefs pertaining to breast-feeding. These results suggest that the 'cultural' barrier towards breast-feeding appears to still prevail in Ireland and consequently an environment that enables women to breast-feed is far from being achieved. Undoubtedly, a shift towards a more positive and accepting breast-feeding culture is required if national breast-feeding rates are to improve. PMID:18715521

  4. Breastfeeding and supplemental feeding for neonates in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    al-Mazroui, M J; Oyejide, C O; Bener, A; Cheema, M Y

    1997-10-01

    A prospective cohort study was carried out to determine the factors affecting initiation of breastfeeding, and describe patterns of breastfeeding and supplemental feeding in the multiethnically and culturally diverse population of Al Ain, UAE. Two-hundred-and-twenty-one infants completed the 4 weeks of follow up. None of the mothers opted not to breastfeed, but only 4 per cent of them practiced exclusive breastfeeding during the first month of the infants' life; 51 per cent of them initiated breastfeeding on the first day of life. Factors associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding beyond the first day of life included low birth weight, complicated delivery, ignorance of the advantages of colostrum, and young maternal age. Non-milk supplements fed to babies included water, tea, juice, yansun, and babunj (local herbal drinks). The preferred method of feeding the supplements was the feeding bottle. There were significant associations between the use of these supplements and the mother's nationality and education. PMID:9364130

  5. "Push-Pull" Factors Influencing International Student Destination Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzarol, Tim; Soutar, Geoffrey N.

    2002-01-01

    Examined factors motivating international student choice of host country. Found that economic and social factors within the home country serve to "push" students abroad, while a variety of "pull" factors influence selection of a host country. (EV)

  6. Breastfeeding experience differentially impacts recognition of happiness and anger in mothers.

    PubMed

    Krol, Kathleen M; Kamboj, Sunjeev K; Curran, H Valerie; Grossmann, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding is a dynamic biological and social process based on hormonal regulation involving oxytocin. While there is much work on the role of breastfeeding in infant development and on the role of oxytocin in socio-emotional functioning in adults, little is known about how breastfeeding impacts emotion perception during motherhood. We therefore examined whether breastfeeding influences emotion recognition in mothers. Using a dynamic emotion recognition task, we found that longer durations of exclusive breastfeeding were associated with faster recognition of happiness, providing evidence for a facilitation of processing positive facial expressions. In addition, we found that greater amounts of breastfed meals per day were associated with slower recognition of anger. Our findings are in line with current views of oxytocin function and support accounts that view maternal behaviour as tuned to prosocial responsiveness, by showing that vital elements of maternal care can facilitate the rapid responding to affiliative stimuli by reducing importance of threatening stimuli. PMID:25387686

  7. Breastfeeding experience differentially impacts recognition of happiness and anger in mothers

    PubMed Central

    Krol, Kathleen M.; Kamboj, Sunjeev K.; Curran, H. Valerie; Grossmann, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding is a dynamic biological and social process based on hormonal regulation involving oxytocin. While there is much work on the role of breastfeeding in infant development and on the role of oxytocin in socio-emotional functioning in adults, little is known about how breastfeeding impacts emotion perception during motherhood. We therefore examined whether breastfeeding influences emotion recognition in mothers. Using a dynamic emotion recognition task, we found that longer durations of exclusive breastfeeding were associated with faster recognition of happiness, providing evidence for a facilitation of processing positive facial expressions. In addition, we found that greater amounts of breastfed meals per day were associated with slower recognition of anger. Our findings are in line with current views of oxytocin function and support accounts that view maternal behaviour as tuned to prosocial responsiveness, by showing that vital elements of maternal care can facilitate the rapid responding to affiliative stimuli by reducing importance of threatening stimuli. PMID:25387686

  8. Factors influencing birth control habits in Victoria.

    PubMed

    Selwood, T; Leeton, J

    1981-02-01

    A survey was conducted in March 1978 for the purpose of comparing the contraceptive habits of Melbourne and ex-Melbourne populations in Victoria. Of the 1312 records of sexually active persons collected in 1978, 1254 of those persons were between the ages of 15 and 49. Recorded information included age, sex, marital status, and place of domicile (Melbourne or ex-Melbourne, Victoria). When the Melbourne population was compared with the rest of Victoria, the proportion using each method of contraception was much the same for each group. A marked difference was the proportion using withdrawal in Melbourne; this was over 3 times the proportion among the ex-Melbourne population. Over 35% of persons under age 30 used oral contraceptives (OCs), compared with 24.2 in the over 30 age range. Barrier methods and natural family planning methods and withdrawal were commonly used by the older age groups. A large proportion of the over age 30 group used sterilization and hysterectomy as forms of birth control. Individuals in "de facto" relationships showed a tendency towards more reliable forms of contraception than did other groups. Only 20.3% were not using some form of contraception. Single persons were frequent OC users and users of barrier methods. 28.1% used no form of contraception. The sex of the person interviewed in the survey revealed a bias. Males tended to report male birth control methods and female reported female methods rather than those used by partners of the opposite sex. Marital status influenced birth control choice. The choice of birth control for each marital status was influenced by the confounding factor of mean age of each group. PMID:7247847

  9. Maternal obesity and breast-feeding practices among white and black women.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jihong; Smith, Michael G; Dobre, Mirela A; Ferguson, James E

    2010-01-01

    Despite the increase in obesity among women of reproductive ages, few studies have considered maternal obesity as a risk factor for breast-feeding success. We tested the hypothesis that women who are obese (BMI = 30-34.9) and very obese (BMI >or=35) before pregnancy are less likely to initiate and maintain breast-feeding than are their normal-weight counterparts (BMI = 18.5-24.9) among white and black women. Data from 2000 to 2005 South Carolina Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) were used. The overall response rate was 71.0%; there were 3,517 white and 2,846 black respondents. Black women were less likely to initiate breast-feeding and breast-fed their babies for a shorter duration than white women. Compared to normal-weight white women, very obese white women were less likely to initiate breast-feeding (odds ratio: 0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.42, 0.94) and more likely to discontinue breast-feeding within the first 6 months (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.39, 2.58). Among black women, prepregnancy BMI was neither associated with breast-feeding initiation nor with breast-feeding continuation within the first 6 months. Because very obese white women are less likely to initiate or continue breast-feeding than other white women, health professionals should be aware that very obese white women need additional breast-feeding support. Lower rates of breast-feeding among black women suggest that they should continue to be the focus of the programs and policies aimed at breast-feeding promotion in the United States. PMID:19521347

  10. Evaluation of employees in public day care centers knowledge about breastfeeding and complementary feeding

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Joelânia Pires de O.; Prudente, Amanda Moura; Silva, Dyene Aparecida; Pereira, Leandro Alves; Rinaldi, Ana Elisa M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the knowledge of public day care centers employees about breastfeeding and complementary feeding. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 15 public day care centers randomly selected in the city of Uberlandia, Southeast Brazil. A questionnaire applied to school principals, teachers, educators and general services assistants (GSA) included demographic and socioeconomic variables and questions about knowledge on breastfeeding, complementary feeding besides employees' perceptions about these subjects. Kruskal-Wallis with multiple comparison and chi-square tests were used to compare variables by professional category. RESULTS: 304 employees participated in the study. The highest percentages of correct answers were noted for questions about exclusive breastfeeding: definition - 97% (n=296) and duration - 65% (n=199). Regarding complementary feeding, 61% (n=187) correctly answered about the appropriate age to introduce it, with a lower percentage for meat (56%; n=170) and sugar (16%; n=50). Concerning employees' perceptions, 9% (n=29) believed that there is weak breast milk, 79% (n=241) and 51% (n=157) reported the negative influence of bottle feeding and pacifier use on breastfeeding. Among the interviewed subjects, 77% (n=234) answered that they had a positive influence on the quality of the food given to the children. There were no differences in the answers according to professional category, except for the negative influence of pacifiers on breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS: Employees of public day care centers knew more about breastfeeding than about complementary feeding. Educational activities about breastfeeding and complementary feeding are necessary for day care centers employees. PMID:24473953

  11. The Behavioral Determinants of Breast-Feeding in the Netherlands: Predictors for the Initiation of Breast-Feeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kools, Els J.; Thijs, Carel; de Vries, Hein

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavioral determinants of the initiation of breast-feeding at birth. The prospective cohort study used the attitude, social influence, self-efficacy (ASE) model in 373 pregnant women in five child health care centers. Prenatally, 72% of the women had the intention to breast-feed, and 73% actually started…

  12. Immune Cell–Mediated Protection of the Mammary Gland and the Infant during Breastfeeding1234

    PubMed Central

    Hassiotou, Foteini; Geddes, Donna T

    2015-01-01

    Breastfeeding has been regarded first and foremost as a means of nutrition for infants, providing essential components for their unique growth and developmental requirements. However, breast milk is also rich in immunologic factors, highlighting its importance as a mediator of protection. In accordance with its evolutionary origin, the mammary gland offers via the breastfeeding route continuation of the maternal to infant immunologic support established in utero. At birth, the infant’s immune system is immature, and although it was exposed to the maternal microbial flora during pregnancy, it experiences an abrupt change in its microbial environment during and after birth, which is challenging and renders the infant highly susceptible to infection. Active and passive immunity protects the infant via breast milk, which is rich in immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, lysozyme, cytokines, and numerous other immunologic factors, including maternal leukocytes. Breast milk leukocytes provide active immunity and promote development of immunocompetence in the infant. Additionally, it has been speculated that they play a role in the protection of the mammary gland from infection. Leukocytes are thought to exert these functions via phagocytosis, secretion of antimicrobial factors and/or antigen presentation in both the mammary gland and the gastrointestinal tract of the infant, and also in other infant tissues, where they are transported via the systemic circulation. Recently, it has been demonstrated that breast milk leukocytes respond dynamically to maternal as well as infant infections, and are fewer in nonexclusively compared with exclusively breastfeeding dyads, further emphasizing their importance for both the mother and infant. This review summarizes the current knowledge of human milk leukocytes and factors influencing them, and presents recent novel findings supporting their potential as a diagnostic marker for infections of the lactating breast and of the breastfed

  13. What Factors Influence a Teacher's Commitment to Student Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dannetta, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    Study of the personal, organizational, student-related factors influencing teacher commitment to student learning. Finds, for example, that among personal factors intrinsic rewards are more important than extrinsic rewards, that among organization factors collegiality is an important influence on commitment to student learning, and that among…

  14. CDC Vital Signs: Hospital Actions Affect Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Hospital Actions Affect Breastfeeding Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... in many US hospitals do not fully support breastfeeding. Some of the Ten Steps on which hospitals ...

  15. Food Safety for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... on eating seafood while you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Learn more from the link below. Check with ... or concern. Food safety advice while you are breastfeeding your baby: Follow the food safety advice for ...

  16. Antibiotics May Blunt Breast-Feeding's Benefits

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159339.html Antibiotics May Blunt Breast-Feeding's Benefits Infants given the drugs were prone to infections ... use of antibiotics may dampen some of the benefits of breast-feeding, a new study suggests. Researchers ...

  17. Breastfeeding - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Breastfeeding URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/breastfeeding.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  18. Sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy, and breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... please visit OPA . '); Sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy, and breastfeeding Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are also called sexually ... from mother to baby during pregnancy and through breastfeeding. Expand All How do STIs affect pregnant women? ...

  19. Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / Audience / Adults Pregnancy & Breastfeeding Print Share Health & Nutrition Information When you are pregnant or breastfeeding, you ... Story Last Updated: Feb 2, 2016 RESOURCES FOR NUTRITION AND HEALTH MYPLATE What Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables ...

  20. Breastfeeding - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Breastfeeding URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/breastfeeding.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  1. Quantiles Regression Approach to Identifying the Determinant of Breastfeeding Duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdiyah; Norsiah Mohamed, Wan; Ibrahim, Kamarulzaman

    In this study, quantiles regression approach is applied to the data of Malaysian Family Life Survey (MFLS), to identify factors which are significantly related to the different conditional quantiles of the breastfeeding duration. It is known that the classical linear regression methods are based on minimizing residual sum of squared, but quantiles regression use a mechanism which are based on the conditional median function and the full range of other conditional quantile functions. Overall, it is found that the period of breastfeeding is significantly related to place of living, religion and total number of children in the family.

  2. Breast-feeding and family planning: a review of the relationships between breast-feeding and family planning.

    PubMed

    Brown, R E

    1982-01-01

    A number of interrelated factors must be considered when breast-feeding is introduced as a concern for family planning programs: the number of pregnancies and births experienced, age at each pregnancy and birth, duration of the intervals between conceptions, lactation including duration and type, health and nutritional services available to meet the demands of pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum care. The dietary intake of the mother and her health and disease status have an effect on the duration of breast-feeding, and lactation has an effect on her ovulation and birth spacing. Those at particularly high risk include adolescent girls, older grand-multipara women, and families living in poverty. An historical relationship between the reduction in infant and childhood mortality and the falling off of births can be documented. The straightforward benefits on nutritional status of breast-fed infants, the conjunction with the antibody protection afforded by breast milk, served to reduce infant mortality and indirectly served to reduce birth rates. In addition, the prolongation of postpartum anovulatory cycles in breast-feeding women, coupled with sexual mores that postpone sexual relations while a women is breast-feeding in certain groups, will serve to prolong the interbirth intervals. Populations where breast-feeding is customary have been shown to have fewer births than populations where the women do not breast-fed and where infants are artificially fed. PMID:7039292

  3. The attitude of breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Suradi, R; Suharyono; Supardi; Hariarti; Tumbelaka, W A

    1980-01-01

    A study was conducted among 211 mothers in Jakarta, Indonesia, to ascertain prevailing attitudes towards and practice of breastfeeding. Responses are tabulated. Half the mothers surveyed breast fed their babies for 9-12 months; most of the others breast fed for up to 2 years. The reasons for stopping were that the mother worked (among the middle and high income group) and that solid foods were considered adequate after a certain amount of time (among the lower income mothers). Lower income mothers were found to initiate breast feeding during the 1st few hours after birth and several hours sooner than the middle and high income mothers, thus better protecting their infants against necrotizing enterocolitis. It was concluded that hospital personnel should be encouraged to initiate breast feeding earlier among their patients. Even working mothers should be encouraged to continue breast feeding. The IUD can be promoted as a recommended method of birth control because it will not interfere with lactation. PMID:7367030

  4. Factors influencing informal care-giving.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Ann M.; Deb, Partha

    1998-07-01

    BACKGROUND: As downsizing of institutional care continues, patients discharged are likely to have more severe mental illnesses, and to have experienced longer tenures within institutions than patients who have been discharged in the past. As greater numbers of patients are removed from mental hospitals, the objective burden experienced by informal care-givers may increase, particularly if formal care levels are inadequate. AIMS OF THE STUDY: This paper documents who assumes informal care-giver roles, and the form such care-giving takes for patients discharged from a state hospital. Specifically, this paper identifies (i) what factors affect a person's decision to assume a care-giver role, including the participation of other network members in care-giving, (ii) what factors influence whether care-giving is provided in time or in direct purchase of care and (iii) how the patient's treatment location affects the decision of the network member to assume any care-giving role. DATA AND ANALYTICAL METHODS: Data for this paper are taken from a longitudinal study of the closure of a state mental hospital in central Indiana. Seventy-seven patients were asked to identify their community networks. Ninety-eight network members were surveyed about the informal care, both in time or through direct expenditures, they provided to these patients one year after discharge. Care-giving relationships were estimated using a multivariate probit model. Such a model estimates the extent to which the decision to provide care in either form depends on the care-giving activities assumed by other network members associated with a given patient, as well as the characteristics of individual patients and network members. RESULTS: Forty-one per cent of network members provided some level of informal care, with 13.3% providing some care in time, and 35.7% providing some care through direct expenditures. A positive relationship was found between participation in informal care-giving and the

  5. Supporting Breastfeeding: Current Status and Future Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canahuati, Judy; Joya de Suarez, Maria Jose

    2001-01-01

    Discusses initiatives to educate societies about the benefits of breastfeeding infants and to create supports to foster breastfeeding in the United States and the world. Considers precedents for advocacy set by La Leche League, the Innocenti Declaration, and the "10 Steps to Successful Breastfeeding." Notes obstacles to efforts to encourage…

  6. Breastfeeding in Depressed Mother-Infant Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Feijo, Larissa

    2002-01-01

    Interviewed depressed and non-depressed mothers on their breastfeeding practices and perceptions of their infants' feeding behavior. Found that, compared to non-depressed mothers, depressed mothers breast fed less often, stopped breastfeeding earlier, and scored lower on a breastfeeding confidence scale. Mothers who breastfed rather than bottle…

  7. Longitudinal study of breastfeeding structure and women's work in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Piperata, Barbara A; Mattern, Lindsey M Gooden

    2011-02-01

    It is well established that breast milk is the ideal food for infants and that breastfeeding has short- and long-term health benefits for the mother and child. However, there is variation in breastfeeding patterns between populations. Women's work is thought to influence breastfeeding patterns and timing of supplementation and it is often assumed that women in subsistence-oriented societies can more easily integrate their productive and reproductive activities. This article reports longitudinal data, collected in three rounds (resguardo [<40 days], peak [2-4 months], and late [14-16 months] lactation), on breastfeeding structure, infant care, and work patterns of 17 rural Amazonian women in an effort to understand how breastfeeding structure and maternal time allocation changed over time, as well as the strategies women used to integrate their productive and reproductive roles. Women breastfed 10.6 ± 3.1, 9.4 ± 3.4, and 9.6 ± 5.5 times per 9-h period in the three rounds, respectively. Breastfeeding structure, specifically session duration, changed over time (P < 0.05). As lactation progressed, women spent less time breastfeeding and in infant care and more time in subsistence work. In peak lactation, subsistence work was negatively correlated with infant care (r = -0.4, P = 0.01), breastfeeding (r = -0.29, P = 0.05) and session duration (r = -0.39, P < 0.01) and in late lactation was negatively correlated with time spent breastfeeding (r = -0.39, P < 0.01) and in infant care (r = -0.50, P < 0.01) and positively correlated with inter-session interval (r = 0.40, P < 0.01). Generally, women reduced time in subsistence work when breastfeeding was more intense and returned to normal activity patterns once infants were being supplemented. The costs and benefits associated with women's strategies are discussed. PMID:20803569

  8. Correlates of Breast-Feeding in a Rural Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Michelle B.; Hellerstedt, Wendy L.; Desvarieux, Moise; Duval, Susan J.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine the associations of education and employment with breast-feeding initiation and duration in rural mothers, in the context of environmental, social, and intrapersonal factors. Methods: Data from a telephone survey of 414 mothers from rural Minnesota were examined with regression analyses. Results: Education and employment had…

  9. Social and demographic determinants for breastfeeding in a rural, suburban and city area of South East China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Shi, Zumin; Spatz, Diane; Loh, Rebecca; Sun, Guiju; Grisso, Jeane

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding is a traditional practice in China, yet few studies have explored its current trend after socioeconomic reform. This study aims to characterize breastfeeding rates and possible associations with sociodemographic factors using a breastfeeding questionnaire administered to 1,385 mothers of 6-year-old children. Rates were lowest among city residents and negatively associated with parental and grandmother education levels as well as mothers’ professional occupational status. These findings highlight the impact of urbanization on maternal and child health and the effect of marketing tactics for breast milk substitutes (BMS). Public health education promoting breastfeeding should target urban families, particularly those educated. PMID:24299252

  10. Work related determinants of breastfeeding discontinuation among employed mothers in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This cross-sectional study assesses factors that contribute to discontinuing breastfeeding among employed mothers in Malaysia. Methods A structured questionnaire was used in conducting this study involving all government health clinics in Petaling district between July and September 2006. Respondents were Malaysian women with children between the ages of six to twelve months who were formally employed. Factors studied were selected socio-demographic and work-related characteristics. Results From a total of 290 respondents, 51% discontinued breastfeeding. The majority (54%) of mothers who discontinued breastfeeding had breastfed their babies for less than three months. Compared to Malay mothers, the risk of breastfeeding discontinuation were higher among Chinese (AOR 3.7, 95% CI: 1.7, 7.8) and Indian mothers (AOR 7.3, 95% CI 1.9, 27.4). Not having adequate breastfeeding facilities at the workplace was also a risk factor for breastfeeding discontinuation (AOR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.05, 3.1). Conclusion It is important that workplaces provide adequate breastfeeding facilities such as a room in which to express breast milk and a refrigerator, and allow mothers flexible time to express breast milk. PMID:21342506

  11. Factors influencing wetland use by Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naugle, D.E.; Gleason, J.S.; Jenks, J.A.; Higgins, K.F.; Mammenga, P.W.; Nusser, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Seasonal and semi-permanent wetlands in eastern South Dakota were surveyed in 1995 and 1996 to identify habitat characteristics influencing wetland use by Canada geese (Branta canadensis maxima). Position of a wetland within the landscape and its area were important landscape-scale features influencing wetland use by geese. Our delineation of potential Canada goose habitat using a wetland geographic information system indicated that distribution and area of semi-permanent wetlands likely limit Canada goose occurrence in regions outside the Prairie Coteau. Periodicity in hydrologic cycles within landscapes also may influence goose use of wetlands in eastern South Dakota.

  12. Breast-feeding promotion in Manitoba. Committee on Breast-feeding, Manitoba Pediatric Society.

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    During the International Year of the Child the Manitoba Pediatric Society undertook professional and public education activities to promote breast-feeding in that province. The objective was a 100% increase in the proportion of mothers who breast-fed their infants for 2 months or longer. Surveys conducted before and after the campaign showed no significant increase in the rate of breast-feeding either at the time of hospital discharge or 2 months later. The infants of Winnipeg residents were more likely to be breast-fed than those of women living on Indian reservations or in any other part of the province (termed "rural"). The rate of bottle-feeding was significantly greater among infants of young unmarried mothers. Future programs to promote breast-feeding should be longer and more intensive, should be directed to the young, to rural residents and to Indian women, and should focus on social and emotional factors as well as nutrition and health benefits. PMID:7066823

  13. 'This little piranha': a qualitative analysis of the language used by health professionals and mothers to describe infant behaviour during breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Burns, Elaine; Fenwick, Jenny; Sheehan, Athena; Schmied, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life offers the recommended best start in the life for a newborn baby. Yet, in Australia only a small number of babies receive breast milk exclusively for the first 6 months. Reasons for the introduction of formula milk are multi-factorial including access to appropriate support and the woman's experience of breastfeeding. The language and practices of health professionals can impact upon how a woman feels about breastfeeding and her breastfeeding body. One aspect of breastfeeding support that has had scarce attention in the literature is the language used by health professionals to describe the behaviour of the breastfeeding infant during the early establishment phase of breastfeeding. This paper reveals some of the ways in which midwives, lactation consultants and breastfeeding women describe the newborn baby during the first week after birth. The study was conducted at two maternity units in New South Wales. Interactions between midwives and breastfeeding women were observed and audio recorded on the post-natal ward and in women's homes, in the first week after birth. The transcribed data were analysed using discourse analysis searching for recurring words, themes and metaphors used in descriptions of the breastfeeding baby. Repeated negative references to infant personality and unfavourable interpretations of infant behaviour influenced how women perceived their infant. The findings revealed that positive language and interpretations of infant breastfeeding behaviour emerged from more relationship-based communication. PMID:26059182

  14. Early interruption of exclusive breastfeeding: results from the eight-country MAL-ED study.

    PubMed

    Patil, Crystal L; Turab, Ali; Ambikapathi, Ramya; Nesamvuni, Cebisa; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Bose, Anuradha; Islam, M Munirul; Ahmed, A M Shamsir; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; de Moraes, Milena Lima; Caulfield, Laura E

    2015-01-01

    We report the infant feeding experiences in the first month of life for 2,053 infants participating in "Malnutrition and Enteric Infections: Consequences for Child Health and Development" (MAL-ED). Eight sites (in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Brazil, Peru, South Africa, Tanzania), each followed a cohort of children from birth (by day 17), collecting detailed information on infant feeding practices, diet and illness episodes. Mothers were queried twice weekly regarding health status, breastfeeding and the introduction (or no) of non-breast milk liquids and foods. Here, our goal is to describe the early infant feeding practices in the cohort and evaluate factors associated with termination of exclusive breastfeeding in the first month of life. With data from enrollment to a visit at 28-33 days of life, we characterized exclusive, predominant or partial breastfeeding (using a median of 6-9 visits per child across the sites). Only 6 of 2,053 infants were never breastfed. By one month, the prevalences of exclusive breastfeeding were < 60% in 6 of 8 sites, and of partial breastfeeding (or no) were > 20% in 6 of 8 sites. Logistic regression revealed that prelacteal feeding (given to 4-63% of infants) increased the likelihood of partial breastfeeding (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.48 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 2.10), as did the withholding of colostrum (2-16% of infants) (OR: 1.63:1.01, 2.62), and being a first-time mother (OR: 1.38:1.10, 1.75). Our results reveal diversity across these sites, but an overall trend of early transition away from exclusive breastfeeding in the first month of life. Interventions which introduce or reinforce the WHO/UNICEF Ten Steps for Successful Breastfeeding are needed in these sites to improve breastfeeding initiation, to reinforce exclusive breastfeeding and delay introduction of non-breast milk foods and/or liquids. PMID:26825923

  15. Practical Support from Fathers and Grandmothers Is Associated with Lower Levels of Breastfeeding in the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Mothers face trade-offs between infant care and subsistence/economic activities. In traditional populations, allomothers such as fathers and grandmothers support mothers with young infants, allowing them to reduce labour activities and focus on breastfeeding. Similarly, the positive impact of social support on breastfeeding has been highlighted in developed populations. However, these studies have generally focused on emotional support from fathers, peers and healthcare professionals. Given the availability of formula milk in developed populations, an evolutionary anthropological perspective highlights that practical support, unlike emotional support, may have negative associations with breastfeeding by enabling substitution of maternal care. Other kin, mainly grandmothers, may also be important allomothers influencing maternal breastfeeding levels. Here we explore the associations between different types of social support mothers receive from fathers/grandmothers and breastfeeding in the UK Millennium Cohort Study. We find frequent grandmother contact and father’s parenting involvement are both associated with lower levels of breastfeeding, suggesting a negative relationship between practical support and breastfeeding. In contrast, father presence, potentially capturing emotional support, is associated with greater breastfeeding initiation. Our findings suggest that practical support and emotional support functions differently, and practical support may not encourage breastfeeding in developed populations. PMID:26192993

  16. Use of ciprofloxacin during breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Yusuf Cem; Koren, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Question My patient has a urinary tract infection and is currently breastfeeding her 9-week-old son. I would like to prescribe her ciprofloxacin. Should I be concerned about osteoarticular toxicity in the infant? Answer Although there are concerns about the possible risk of osteoarticular toxicity with ciprofloxacin, the amounts excreted into breast milk are low and studies report no substantial increase in osteoarticular toxicity even with the systemic use of ciprofloxacin in neonates and children. Therefore, interrupting breastfeeding during ciprofloxacin treatment appears unnecessary. PMID:26052598

  17. Marketing Factors Influencing the Overall Satisfaction of Marriage Education Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Michael Lane; Cooper, Catherine; Gross, Kevin H.

    1999-01-01

    Seventy-one married couples attending marriage education workshops were surveyed regarding price, product, place, people, and promotional marketing factors influencing their overall satisfaction as workshop participants. Findings suggest both similar and unique marketing factors influenced husbands' and wives' satisfaction. Recommendations for…

  18. Growth monitoring and the promotion of breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Behague, D

    1993-12-01

    Recent studies evaluating the efficacy of growth monitoring programs have scrutinized their educational and preventive capabilities. Advocates claim that growth monitoring can be effective if communities and mothers are more actively involved in the process of weighing and measuring, and if the technology is understood by all as an aid for disease prevention and health promotion rather than as a 'curative' procedure. Others have argued that this theory is rarely possible to implement. The ways in which preventive growth monitoring can be made possible are still under exploration, given that the reasons for such deeply imbedded 'curative' expectations of growth monitoring are not fully understood. Any such understanding requires an analysis of growth monitoring within the context of the GOBI (growth monitoring, oral rehydration therapy, breastfeeding and immunization) child survival framework. To attain this type of understanding, a series of qualitative methodological techniques were used in a population of 50 mothers and several health care facilities in Pelotas, RS, Brazil, as a complement to pre-existing epidemiological data from the Center for Epidemiology at the Federal University of Pelotas. With a subsample of 15 mothers, intensive interviews and observations were specifically focused on: (1) mothers' understanding of growth monitoring, (2) breastfeeding practices and beliefs, (3) doctor-patient communication. Findings from this study suggest that, even in a program with widespread attendance and a relatively 'interactive' growth monitoring approach, the use of growth charts do little to promote duration or frequency of breastfeeding, and may even pay a role in the factors which deter women from choosing to breastfeed for longer durations or with greater frequency. We found that mothers' personal interpretations of the charts were representative of the larger socio-cultural and economic issues that affected their lives on a daily basis. Growth charts thus

  19. Breastfeeding policy: a globally comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Raub, Amy; Earle, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore the extent to which national policies guaranteeing breastfeeding breaks to working women may facilitate breastfeeding. Methods An analysis was conducted of the number of countries that guarantee breastfeeding breaks, the daily number of hours guaranteed, and the duration of guarantees. To obtain current, detailed information on national policies, original legislation as well as secondary sources on 182 of the 193 Member States of the United Nations were examined. Regression analyses were conducted to test the association between national policy and rates of exclusive breastfeeding while controlling for national income level, level of urbanization, female percentage of the labour force and female literacy rate. Findings Breastfeeding breaks with pay are guaranteed in 130 countries (71%) and unpaid breaks are guaranteed in seven (4%). No policy on breastfeeding breaks exists in 45 countries (25%). In multivariate models, the guarantee of paid breastfeeding breaks for at least 6 months was associated with an increase of 8.86 percentage points in the rate of exclusive breastfeeding (P < 0.05). Conclusion A greater percentage of women practise exclusive breastfeeding in countries where laws guarantee breastfeeding breaks at work. If these findings are confirmed in longitudinal studies, health outcomes could be improved by passing legislation on breastfeeding breaks in countries that do not yet ensure the right to breastfeed. PMID:24052676

  20. Predictors of Breastfeeding Duration among Women in Kuwait: Results of a Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Dashti, Manal; Scott, Jane A.; Edwards, Christine A.; Al-Sughayer, Mona

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to report the prevalence of breastfeeding to six months among women in Kuwait and to determine the factors that are associated with the duration of breastfeeding. A cohort of 373 women recruited from maternity wards in four hospitals in Kuwait city were followed from birth to 26 weeks postpartum. The association of any and full breastfeeding duration and predictor variables were explored using multivariate Cox’s proportional hazards models. At six months, 39% of all infants were receiving some breast milk and only 2% of infants had been fully breastfed to 26 weeks. Women born in other Arab countries were less likely to discontinue breastfeeding than women born in Kuwait. Other factors positively associated with breastfeeding duration were level of maternal education, higher parity, infant being demand fed in hospital and a preference for breastfeeding on the part of the infant’s father and maternal grandmother. The introduction of a pacifier before four weeks of age and the mother intending to return to work by six months were negatively associated with duration. These findings present a number of opportunities for prolonging breastfeeding duration in Kuwait. PMID:24561360

  1. Is Subjective Status Influenced by Psychosocial Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Johanna; Kristenson, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Associations between subjective status and health are still relatively unexplored. This study aimed at testing whether subjective status is uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors compared to objective status, and what factors that may predict subjective status. Design: A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based, random sample…

  2. Factors Influencing Career Choice among Police Recruits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative, non-experimental study examined the career choice factors of 154 (n = 154) police recruits to determine a correlation of age group generation to the five career choice factors presented in the Sibson Reward of Work Model. Law enforcement agencies faced a shortage of viable candidates to fill vacant positions. While extensive…

  3. Factors Influencing Simultaneous Communication Behaviors in Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, David A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Simultaneous communication used by four teachers in formal lessons was investigated, to determine the extent to which signs and speech matched and to delineate factors predicting communication behavior. Simultaneous communication was found to be sign-driven or speech-driven depending on factors such as student comprehension, teacher's expertise,…

  4. Breastfeeding Initiation: Impact of Obesity in a Large Canadian Perinatal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Verret-Chalifour, Julie; Giguère, Yves; Forest, Jean-Claude; Croteau, Jordie; Zhang, Peiyin; Marc, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate incidence of breastfeeding initiation according to maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) in “Grossesse en Santé”, a large prospective birth cohort in Quebec City. Methods Breastfeeding initiation in the post-partum period, pre-pregnancy BMI, sociodemographic determinants and obstetrical and neonatal factors were collected from years 2005 to 2010 in 6592 women with single pregnancies. Prenatal non-intention to breastfeed was documented in a subgroup of the cohort (years 2009–2010). Log-binomial regression analyses were performed to assess relative risk (RR) of non-initiation of breastfeeding between maternal BMI categories in models including pre- and post-natal determinants, after exclusion of variables with a mediating effect. Results Twenty percent (20%) of obese women did not initiate breastfeeding in the post-natal period at hospital compared to 12% for normal weight women. Compared with those having a normal pre-pregnancy BMI, obese women had a higher risk of non-initiation of breastfeeding (RRunadj 1.69, 95% CI 1.44–1.98), even after adjustment for prenatal and sociodemographic factors (RRadj 1.26, 95% CI 1.08–1.46). Furthermore, the risk of non-initiation of breastfeeding in obese women still remained higher after introduction of per- and post-natal factors (RR 1.22, 95% CI 1.04–1.42). The prenatal non-intention to breastfeed was strongly associated with the non-initiation of breastfeeding for all categories of BMI. Conclusion Maternal obesity is associated with a two-fold rate of non-initiation of breastfeeding. Considering the benefits of breastfeeding and the increasing obesity rate, adapted interventions and specialized support should target both pre- and immediate post-natal periods in this population. PMID:25659144

  5. Analysis models for variables associated with breastfeeding duration

    PubMed Central

    dos S., Edson Theodoro; Zandonade, Eliana; Emmerich, Adauto Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with breastfeeding duration by two statistical models. METHODS A population-based cohort study was conducted with 86 mothers and newborns from two areas primary covered by the National Health System, with high rates of infant mortality in Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil. During 30 months, 67 (78%) children and mothers were visited seven times at home by trained interviewers, who filled out survey forms. Data on food and sucking habits, socioeconomic and maternal characteristics were collected. Variables were analyzed by Cox regression models, considering duration of breastfeeding as the dependent variable, and logistic regression (dependent variables, was the presence of a breastfeeding child in different post-natal ages). RESULTS In the logistic regression model, the pacifier sucking (adjusted Odds Ratio: 3.4; 95%CI 1.2-9.55) and bottle feeding (adjusted Odds Ratio: 4.4; 95%CI 1.6-12.1) increased the chance of weaning a child before one year of age. Variables associated to breastfeeding duration in the Cox regression model were: pacifier sucking (adjusted Hazard Ratio 2.0; 95%CI 1.2-3.3) and bottle feeding (adjusted Hazard Ratio 2.0; 95%CI 1.2-3.5). However, protective factors (maternal age and family income) differed between both models. CONCLUSIONS Risk and protective factors associated with cessation of breastfeeding may be analyzed by different models of statistical regression. Cox Regression Models are adequate to analyze such factors in longitudinal studies. PMID:24142312

  6. Evaluating regional differences in breast-feeding in French maternity units: a multi-level approach

    PubMed Central

    Bonet, Mercedes; Blondel, Béatrice; Khoshnood, Babak

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To study how individual and regional characteristics might explain regional variations in breastfeeding rates in maternity units and to identify outlier regions with very low or high breastfeeding rates. Design Individual characteristics (mother and infant) were collected during hospital stay. All newborns fed entirely or partly on breast milk were considered breastfed. Regional characteristics were extracted from census data. Statistical analysis included multilevel models and estimation of empirical Bayes residuals to identify outlier regions. Setting all births in all administrative regions in France in 2003. Subjects a national representative sample of 13 186 live births. Results Breastfeeding rates in maternity units varied from 43% to 80% across regions. Differences in the distribution of individual characteristics accounted for 55% of these variations. We identified two groups of regions with the lowest and the highest breastfeeding rates, after adjusting for individual-level characteristics. In addition to maternal occupation and nationality, the social characteristics of regions, particularly the population’s educational level and the percentage of non-French residents, were significantly associated with breastfeeding rates. Conclusions Social characteristics at both the individual and regional levels influence breastfeeding rates in maternity units. Promotion policies should be directed at specific regions, groups within the community, and categories of mothers, to reduce the gaps and increase the overall breastfeeding rate. PMID:20576192

  7. Factors Influencing L2 Gender Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordag, Denisa; Pechmann, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    In four experiments we explored processes underlying L2 gender retrieval. We focused on L1 interference and on the influence of the L2 noun's termination. In Experiments 1 and 2 we tried to manipulate the intensity of L1 interference. We found that L2 speakers cannot eliminate or substantially reduce the interlingual interference neither when they…

  8. Factors Influencing Curricular Reform; An Irish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Helena; Joyce, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    There are various influences and obstacles when planning an educational curriculum. The imprint of globalisation on the landscape of Irish medicine highlights the importance of delivering a diverse curriculum with international dimensions so that knowledge and skills can transfer across borders. It is also clear that medical emigration has a…

  9. FACTORS AND PRACTICES THAT INFLUENCE LIVESTOCK DISTRIBUTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inconsistent livestock distribution in extensive rangeland pastures continues as a vexing problem for land and livestock managers. Dispersal patterns of cattle are affected by abiotic factors like degree of slope, distance from water, shade, physical barriers, temperature extremes and precipitation...

  10. BREASTFEEDING IN THE PERINATAL PERIOD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human milk is recognized by the American Academy of Pediatrics as the optimal feeding for all infants, although supplementation with specially formulated human milk fortifiers is required to meet the nutritional needs of premature newborns. Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for the first six mo...

  11. Breastfeeding. COTALMA: training health professionals.

    PubMed

    Casanovas, M C

    1994-01-01

    The Comite Tecnico de Apoyo a la Lactancia Materna (COTALMA), the Technical Breastfeeding Support Committee, was founded in Bolivia in 1989. It is financed by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). It is administered in coordination with the Ministry of Health (MOH). MOH and UNICEF choose the hospitals, who send teams that include a pediatrician, a gynecologist, a nurse, and a nutritionist. The first phase of the course (5.5 days) covers the scientific background of breastfeeding. A baseline study is then planned and conducted at each hospital. 2 to 3 months later, the second phase takes place during which data is presented and breast feeding programs are developed for each hospital. Communication, training, counseling, and planning and evaluation are covered. Practicums are conducted at hospitals. Trainers are usually members of COTALMA. The person in charge of maternal and child health services at MOH lectures on national health policies concerning mothers and children. Training includes use of the national health card, breastfeeding and child survival, and breastfeeding as a family planning method. Culturally appropriate course materials, which are in Spanish, are adapted from those developed by Wellstart International. Articles by COTALMA members and others are added. Participants are encouraged to train all staff at their institutions. PMID:12287930

  12. Regression analysis of "current status" life tables on duration of breastfeeding in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Smith, D P

    1985-01-01

    Provided that women report the dates of their children's births with reasonable accuracy, it is possible to derive good estimates of the duration of breastfeeding from women's breastfeeding status at the time of the interview. This paper illustrates the application of conventional regression techniques to the analysis of breastfeeding rates derived in this manner. Construction of current status rates is explained and a comparison between open interval, closed interval, and current status breastfeeding life tables is presented, indicating the extent of bias to which tables of the former types are open. Birth-weighted rates are used for WFS data from Sri Lanka; the variables entered into the regression equation include parity, educational level, residence, work experience since marriage and use of contraception since the birth. Contraception is not found to influence net breastfeeding rates in the 1st interval (1-16 months), although it is about as prevalent as in later intervals. The positive coefficients at intervals beyond the 1st also imply that contraceptive use is not a substitute for lactation in Sri Lanka or not a predominant one. Lifetime urban residence is associated with short durations of breastfeeding, and being an urban migrant is associated with intermediate durations relative to those of rural women. The effects of residence on breastfeeding are especially pronounced in the 1st interval. By parity as by contraception, differences in breastfeeding rates are not significant at short durations but become so with time as lower parity women reach pregnancy. Patterns by age are similar, but less sharp. Middle school attendance and work at home are both strongly associated with with lactation behavior, the former negatively and the latter to about an equal degree positively. Working outside the home seems not to influence breastfeeding to any great extent. In the multiple attribute regressions, middle schooling depresses breastfeeding durations about as

  13. What psychosocial factors influence adolescents' oral health?

    PubMed

    Baker, S R; Mat, A; Robinson, P G

    2010-11-01

    Few studies have examined, comprehensively and prospectively, determinants of oral-health-related quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between psychosocial factors and oral health status, health perceptions, and quality of life. Measures of symptom and functional status, health perceptions, quality of life, oral health beliefs, and psychological (sense of coherence, self-esteem, health locus of control) and social factors (parents' income and education) were collected from 439 12- and 13-year-olds at baseline and six-month follow-up, together with a clinical examination at baseline. Structural equation modeling indicated that increased levels of caries and more symptoms predicted more functional limitations, and, cross-sectionally, greater functional impact was associated with worse health perceptions, which were linked to lower quality of life. Sense of coherence was the most important psychosocial predictor. These factors are important in understanding how oral health affects young people's daily lives. PMID:20739689

  14. Is baby-friendly breastfeeding support in maternity hospitals associated with breastfeeding satisfaction among Japanese mothers?

    PubMed

    Hongo, Hiroko; Nanishi, Keiko; Shibanuma, Akira; Jimba, Masamine

    2015-06-01

    While the World Health Organization's Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative has increased breastfeeding duration and exclusivity, a survey found that only 8.5 % of maternity hospitals in 31 developed countries could be designated baby-friendly. Baby-friendly breastfeeding support is sometimes criticized as mother unfriendly. This study examined whether baby-friendly breastfeeding support was associated with breastfeeding satisfaction, duration, and exclusivity among Japanese mothers. In this cross-sectional study, 601 breastfeeding Japanese mothers completed questionnaires at their infants' 4-month health checkups at two wards in Yokohama, Japan; 363 were included in the analysis. Baby-friendly breastfeeding support was measured based on the WHO's "Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding." We measured satisfaction using two subscales of the Japanese version of the Maternal Breastfeeding Evaluation Scale. The association of baby-friendly support with maternal satisfaction was assessed using multiple linear regression, while the prevalence ratios (PRs) for breastfeeding were estimated using Poisson regression. Mothers were stratified by prepartum exclusive breastfeeding intention (yes, n = 256; no, n = 107). Mothers who experienced early skin-to-skin contact with their infants were more likely to report breastfeeding satisfaction than those who did not. Among mothers without exclusive breastfeeding intention, those who were encouraged to feed on demand were more likely to be breastfeeding without formula at 1 month (PR 2.66 [95 % CI 1.32, 5.36]) and to perceive breastfeeding as beneficial for their baby (regression coefficient = 3.14 [95 % CI 0.11, 6.17]) than those who were not so encouraged. Breastfeeding satisfaction was a useful measure of breastfeeding outcome. Early skin-to-skin contact and encouragement to feed on demand in the hospital facilitate breastfeeding satisfaction. PMID:25366103

  15. Association of Breastfeeding and the Federal Poverty Level: National Survey of Family Growth, 2011–2013

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, R. Constance; Sambamoorthi, Usha; Hayes, Sarah E.; Azulay Chertok, Ilana R.

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding is strongly endorsed in the Healthy People 2020 goals; however, there remain many disparities in breastfeeding prevalence. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between breastfeeding and the Federal Poverty Level in the United States. Data from 5,397 women in the National Survey of Family Growth 2011–2013 survey were included in this study. The data were analyzed for descriptive features and logistic regressions of the Federal Poverty Level on breastfeeding. There were 64.1% of women who reported breastfeeding. Over one-third (35.2%) of women reported having a household income of 0–99% of the Federal Poverty Level. There were 15.2% of women who reported an income of 400% and above the Federal Poverty Level. With statistical adjustment for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, parity, preterm birth, birth weight, insurance, and dwelling, the Federal Poverty Level was not significantly associated with breastfeeding. In this recent survey of mothers, Federal Poverty Level was not shown to be a significant factor in breastfeeding. PMID:27019750

  16. The Use, Perceived Effectiveness and Safety of Herbal Galactagogues During Breastfeeding: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Tin Fei; Hattingh, H. Laetitia; Sherriff, Jillian; Tee, Lisa B.G.

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends breastfeeding as the normal infant feeding method and that infants being breastfed should be regarded as the control group or norm reference in all instances. There are many factors which could contribute to a new mother ceasing breastfeeding early, with the most commonly reported reason being perceived insufficient breast milk supply. The use of herbal galactagogues is increasingly common worldwide. Literature review identified a need for more research in the area of herbal galactagogue use during breastfeeding. Twenty in-depth semi-structured interviews were undertaken with breastfeeding women who used herbal galactagogues, to document use and explore their perceived effectiveness and safety of herbal galactagogues. Several indicators of breastfeeding adequacy were mentioned as participants described their experiences with the use of herbal galactagogues. Confidence and self-empowerment emerged as an over-arching theme linked to positive experiences with the use of herbal galactagogues. Despite the lack of clinical trial data on the actual increase in measured volume of breast milk production, indicators of breastfeeding adequacy boosted participants’ confidence levels and resulted in psychological benefits. This study highlighted the importance of considering the potential psychological benefits of using herbal galactagogues, and how this translates into breastfeeding adequacy. PMID:26371019

  17. Factors Influencing Recruitment in Educational Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederickson, Norah

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation of the factors that educational psychologists in training (EPiTs) look for when applying for jobs in educational psychology services. Relevant literature on "job attraction" is reviewed and a three-stage research process employed. This involved a focus group approach to questionnaire generation followed by…

  18. The Influence of Noneconomic Factors on Negotiators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Lane

    1974-01-01

    Certain noneconomic factors in collective bargaining are directly related to the negotiator's personal inclination to settle for the new contract. In this study, the pattern of relationships between the parties, the nature of the work itself, favorable recognition, team policy, and interpersonal relationships proved to be significantly related to…

  19. Factors Influencing the Elimination of Dietary Restraint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, C. Peter; Polivy, Janet

    Recent research by Herman, Polivy, and their colleagues has been concerned with the determinants of self-control and disinhibition in dieters. The present paper summarizes a number of studies in which the reactions of dieters and nondieters to a variety of disinhibitory factors (preloading, emotional arousal, intoxication) were investigated. The…

  20. Factors Influencing uUniversity Research Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Fiona; Geare, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This research extends our understanding of research productivity by examining features of managerial practice and culture within university departments. Adopting a robust comparative research design, capturing both interview and survey data sourced from multiple stakeholders from New Zealand universities, we seek to identify factors associated…

  1. Environmental factors influencing growth and pubertal development.

    PubMed Central

    Delemarre-van de Waal, H A

    1993-01-01

    Postnatal growth is based on hereditary signals and environmental factors in a complex regulatory network. Each factor must be in an optimal state for normal growth of the child. Fetal conditions may also have consequences on postnatal height. Intrauterine growth retardation can be recovered postnatally, although postnatal growth remains depressed in about one-third of cases. After birth, the environment may exert either a positive or negative effect on growth. In underdeveloped countries, malnutrition plays a major role in inhibiting the growth process. Children from families of higher socioeconomic classes are taller than their coevals in the lower socioeconomic groups. Urbanization also has a positive effect on growth. Better child care is supported by sufficient food supply, appropriate health and sanitation services, and a higher level of education. Over the last century, these factors have induced a taller stature and a more rapid maturity in Europe, North America, and Australia; a phenomenon which has been referred to as "the secular trend" in growth. Recently, a secular trend has also been reported in some developing countries. Although urbanization in general appears to be associated with better conditions of living, this is not the case in the slums of South America or in Africa where rural children are better off than children living in the poor cities. This paper describes in more detail the different hereditary and environmental factors that act during the fetal period and postnatally, and which play a role in human growth and pubertal development. PMID:8243404

  2. Rates and determinants of early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breast feeding at 42 days postnatal in six low and middle-income countries: A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Early initiation of breastfeeding after birth and exclusive breastfeeding through six months of age confers many health benefits for infants; both are crucial high impact, low-cost interventions. However, determining accurate global rates of these crucial activities has been challenging. We use population-based data to describe: (1) rates of early initiation of breastfeeding (defined as within 1 hour of birth) and of exclusive breastfeeding at 42 days post-partum; and (2) factors associated with failure to initiate early breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding at 42 days post-partum. Methods Prospectively collected data from women and their live-born infants enrolled in the Global Network’s Maternal and Newborn Health Registry between January 1, 2010-December 31, 2013 included women-infant dyads in 106 geographic areas (clusters) at 7 research sites in 6 countries (Kenya, Zambia, India [2 sites], Pakistan, Argentina and Guatemala). Rates and risk factors for failure to initiate early breastfeeding were investigated for the entire cohort and rates and risk factors for failure to maintain exclusive breastfeeding was assessed in a sub-sample studied at 42 days post-partum. Result A total of 255,495 live-born women-infant dyads were included in the study. Rates and determinants for the exclusive breastfeeding sub-study at 42 days post-partum were assessed from among a sub-sample of 105,563 subjects. Although there was heterogeneity by site, and early initiation of breastfeeding after delivery was high, the Pakistan site had the lowest rates of early initiation of breastfeeding. The Pakistan site also had the highest rate of lack of exclusive breastfeeding at 42 days post-partum. Across all regions, factors associated with failure to initiate early breastfeeding included nulliparity, caesarean section, low birth weight, resuscitation with bag and mask, and failure to place baby on the mother’s chest after delivery. Factors associated with failure to

  3. Breastfeeding rates: Is the Ross mother's survey underestimating breastfeeding rates of Hispanic women?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among Hispanics in the United States, breastfeeding initiation and duration decrease with acculturation. Therefore, in communities with significant Hispanic immigrant populations, surveys of breastfeeding rates conducted in English will provide a biased picture of feeding behaviors. Three major su...

  4. Development, content validity, and piloting of an instrument designed to measure managers' attitude toward workplace breastfeeding support.

    PubMed

    Chow, Tan; Wolfe, Edward W; Olson, Beth H

    2012-07-01

    Manager attitude is influential in female employees' perceptions of workplace breastfeeding support. Currently, no instrument is available to assess manager attitude toward supporting women who wish to combine breastfeeding with work. We developed and piloted an instrument to measure manager attitudes toward workplace breastfeeding support entitled the "Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire," an instrument that measures four constructs using 60 items that are rated agree/disagree on a 4-point Likert rating scale. We established the content validity of the Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire measures through expert content review (n=22), expert assessment of item fit (n=11), and cognitive interviews (n=8). Data were collected from a purposive sample of 185 front-line managers who had experience supervising female employees, and responses were scaled using the Multidimensional Random Coefficients Multinomial Logit Model. Dimensionality analyses supported the proposed four-construct model. Reliability ranged from 0.75 to 0.86, and correlations between the constructs were moderately strong (0.47 to 0.71). Four items in two constructs exhibited model-to-data misfit and/or a low score-measure correlation. One item was revised and the other three items were retained in the Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire. Findings of this study suggest that the Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire measures are reliable and valid indicators of manager attitude toward workplace breastfeeding support, and future research should be conducted to establish external validity. The Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire could be used to collect data in a standardized manner within and across companies to measure and compare manager attitudes toward supporting breastfeeding. Organizations can subsequently develop targeted strategies to improve support for breastfeeding

  5. Breastfeeding and chronic HBV infection: Clinical and social implications

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Mihaela; Kamburov, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is among the most important causes of chronic HBV infection and is the commonest mode of transmission worldwide. Currently, the presence of HBsAg, HBeAg and HBV DNA in breast milk is confirmed. Several studies have reported that breastfeeding carries no additional risk that might lead to vertical transmission. Beyond some limitations, the surveys have not demonstrated any differences in HBV transmission rate regarding feeding practices in early childhood. Promotion of breastfeeding is substantial, especially for low-income individuals and regions with uncertain, unfeasible, and unsafe water supplies. Lactoferrin, minimal inflammation or activation within the infant gut during exclusive breastfeeding, and nonspecific biological molecules in the milk are identified as major factors of breast-milk defense. This review discusses preemptive antiviral therapy during pregnancy and lactation. Long-term follow up of breast-milk HBV concentrations and correlation with serum viral load; nucleos(t)ide analogue concentrations in breast milk in HBV-positive mothers in the setting of chronic HBV infection; safety of antiviral therapy during pregnancy and lactation; and the difference in viral load in the milk in exclusive or non-exclusive breastfeeding are still open questions. The paper reviews the current data and outlines the course of further investigation into this often underestimated issue. PMID:20976840

  6. Breastfeeding and IQ Growth from Toddlerhood through Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    von Stumm, Sophie; Plomin, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The benefits of breastfeeding for cognitive development continue to be hotly debated but are yet to be supported by conclusive empirical evidence. Methods We used here a latent growth curve modeling approach to test the association of breastfeeding with IQ growth trajectories, which allows differentiating the variance in the IQ starting point in early life from variance in IQ gains that occur later in childhood through adolescence. Breastfeeding (yes/ no) was modeled as a direct predictor of three IQ latent growth factors (i.e. intercept, slope and quadratic term) and adjusted for the covariates socioeconomic status, mother's age at birth and gestational stage. Data came from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS), a prospective cohort study of twins born between 1996 and 1994 in the United Kingdom, who were assessed 9 times on IQ between age 2 and 16 years (N = 11,582). Results Having been breastfed was associated with a small yet significant advantage in IQ at age 2 in girls (β = .07, CI 95% from 0.64 to 3.01; N = 3,035) but not in boys (β = .04, CI 95% from -0.14 to 2.41). Having been breastfeeding was neither associated with the other IQ growth factors in girls (slope: β = .02, CI 95% from -0.25 to 0.43; quadratic: β = .01, CI 95% from -0.02 to 0.02) nor in boys (slope: β = .02, CI 95% from -0.30 to 0.47; quadratic: β = -.01, CI 95% from -0.01 to 0.01). Conclusions Breastfeeding has little benefit for early life intelligence and cognitive growth from toddlerhood through adolescence. PMID:26406251

  7. Breastfeeding policies and breastfeeding support programs in the mother's workplace.

    PubMed

    Bettinelli, Maria Enrica

    2012-10-01

    Women should never be forced to make a choice between mother-work and other work. Many women mistakenly think they cannot breastfeed if they plan to return to work, and thus they may not talk with their employers about their intention to breastfeed or how breastfeeding might be supported at their workplace. All breastfeeding policies and strategies underline the importance of providing support for lactating mothers and highlight the need to promote specific interventions in the workplace. Possible strategies for working mothers include having the mother keep the baby with her while she works, allowing the mother to go to the baby to breastfeed during the workday, telecommuting, offering flexible work schedules, maintaining part-time work schedules, and using on-site or nearby child care centres. PMID:22958027

  8. Racial disparities in access to maternity care practices that support breastfeeding - United States, 2011.

    PubMed

    Lind, Jennifer N; Perrine, Cria G; Li, Ruowei; Scanlon, Kelley S; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M

    2014-08-22

    Despite the well documented health benefits of breastfeeding, initiation of breastfeeding and breastfeeding duration rates among black infants in the United States are approximately 16% lower than among whites. Although many factors play a role in a woman's ability to breastfeed, experiences during the childbirth hospitalization are critical for establishing breastfeeding. To analyze whether the implementation by maternity facilities of practices that support breastfeeding varied depending on the racial composition of the area surrounding the facility, CDC linked data from its 2011 Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC) survey to U.S. Census data on the percentage of blacks living within the zip code area of each facility. The results of that analysis indicated that facilities in zip code areas where the percentage of black residents was >12.2% (the national average during 2007-2011) were less likely than facilities in zip code areas where the percentage was ≤12.2% to meet five of 10 mPINC indicators for recommended practices supportive of breastfeeding and more likely to implement one practice; differences for the other four practices were not statistically significant. Comparing facilities in areas with >12.2% black residents with facilities in areas with ≤12.2% black residents, the largest differences were in the percentage of facilities that implemented recommended practices related to early initiation of breastfeeding (46.0% compared with 59.9%), limited use of breastfeeding supplements (13.1% compared with 25.8%), and rooming-in (27.7% compared with 39.4%). These findings suggest there are racial disparities in access to maternity care practices known to support breastfeeding. PMID:25144543

  9. Host defense benefits of breastfeeding for the infant. Effect of breastfeeding duration and exclusivity.

    PubMed

    Heinig, M J

    2001-02-01

    Breastfeeding confers lifesaving protection against infectious illness among disadvantaged populations. As a result, breastfeeding promotion has an important part in child health programs throughout the world. In this article, the evidence regarding the host defense benefits of breastfeeding for term infants of normal birth weight is reviewed, with an emphasis on recent information from industrialized countries regarding how the degree and duration of breastfeeding affect infant health. PMID:11236719

  10. Factors influencing the intensity of magnetospheric substorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpherron, R. L.; Baker, D. N.

    1993-01-01

    A definition of the substorm is presented, and it is shown that the typical isolated substorm is produced by the superposition of effects of processes directly driven by the solar wind through dayside reconnection and those driven by unloading through nighttime reconnection. The single factor that determines whether a substorm will occur or not is the clock angle of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) around the earth-sun line. Only when this field points south of the GSM equatorial plane do the auroral electrojet indices depart from their quiet values. For a given clock angle, the level of activity increases with the IMF strength and solar wind velocity.

  11. Factors Influencing Childhood Immunization in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the factors associated with childhood immunization in Uganda. We used nationally-representative data from Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) of 2006. Both bivariate and multivariate approaches were employed in the analysis. The bivariate approach involved generating average percentages of children who were immunized, with analysis of pertinent background characteristics. The multivariate approach involved employing maximum likelihood probit technique and generating marginal effects to ascertain the probability of being immunized, given the same background characteristics. It revealed that slightly over 50% of children in Uganda were fully immunized. Additionally, 89%, 24%, 52%, and 64% received BCG, DPT, polio and measles vaccines respectively. Factors which have a significant association with childhood immunization are: maternal education (especially at post-secondary level), exposure to media, maternal healthcare utilization, maternal age, occupation type, immunization plan, and regional and local peculiarities. Children whose mothers had post-secondary education were twice as likely to be fully immunized compared to their counterparts whose mothers had only primary education (p<0.01). Thus, gender parity in education enhancement efforts is crucial. There is also a need to increase media penetration, maternal healthcare utilization, and to ensure parity across localities and regions. PMID:23617212

  12. Factors influencing the spinal motoneurons in development

    PubMed Central

    Wiese, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The development of the spinal cord needs a concerted interaction of transcription factors activating diverse genes and signals from outside acting on the specification of the different cells. Signals have to act on the segments of the embryo as well as on the cranial-caudal axis and the dorso-ventral axis. Additionally the axons of the motoneurons have to cross the central nervous system barrier to connect to the periphery. Intensive anatomical studies have been followed by molecular characterization of the different subsets of transcription factors that are expressed by cells of the developing spinal cord. Here, intensive studies for the most important appearing cells, the motoneurons, have resulted in a good knowledge on the expression patterns of these proteins. Nonetheless motoneurons are by far not the only important cells and the concert activity of all cells besides them is necessary for the correct function and integrity of motoneurons within the spinal cord. This article will briefly summarize the different aspects on spinal cord development and focuses on the differentiation as well as the functionalization of motoneurons. PMID:26807112

  13. Factors influencing childhood immunization in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bbaale, Edward

    2013-03-01

    This paper investigates the factors associated with childhood immunization in Uganda. We used nationally-representative data from Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) of 2006. Both bivariate and multivariate approaches were employed in the analysis. The bivariate approach involved generating average percentages of children who were immunized, with analysis of pertinent background characteristics. The multivariate approach involved employing maximum likelihood probit technique and generating marginal effects to ascertain the probability of being immunized, given the same background characteristics. It revealed that slightly over 50% of children in Uganda were fully immunized. Additionally, 89%, 24%, 52%, and 64% received BCG, DPT, polio and measles vaccines respectively. Factors which have a significant association with childhood immunization are: maternal education (especially at post-secondary level), exposure to media, maternal healthcare utilization, maternal age, occupation type, immunization plan, and regional and local peculiarities. Children whose mothers had post-secondary education were twice as likely to be fully immunized compared to their counterparts whose mothers had only primary education (p < 0.01). Thus, gender parity in education enhancement efforts is crucial. There is also a need to increase media penetration, maternal healthcare utilization, and to ensure parity across localities and regions. PMID:23617212

  14. Factors influencing whether children walk to school.

    PubMed

    Su, Jason G; Jerrett, Michael; McConnell, Rob; Berhane, Kiros; Dunton, Genevieve; Shankardass, Ketan; Reynolds, Kim; Chang, Roger; Wolch, Jennifer

    2013-07-01

    Few studies have simultaneously evaluated multiple levels of influence on whether children walk to school. A large cohort of 4338 subjects from 10 communities was used to identify the determinants of walking through (1) a one-level logistic regression model for individual-level variables and (2) a two-level mixed regression model for individual and school-level variables. Walking rates were positively associated with home-to-school proximity, greater age, and living in neighborhoods characterized by lower traffic density. Greater land use mix around the home was, however, associated with lower rates of walking. Rates of walking to school were also higher amongst recipients of the Free and Reduced Price Meals Program and attendees of schools with higher percentage of English language learners. Designing schools in the same neighborhood as residential districts should be an essential urban planning strategy to reduce walking distance to school. Policy interventions are needed to encourage children from higher socioeconomic status families to participate in active travel to school and to develop walking infrastructures and other measures that protect disadvantaged children. PMID:23707968

  15. Factors Influencing Whether Children Walk to School

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jason G.; Jerrett, Michael; Mcconnell, Rob; Berhane, Kiros; Dunton, Genevieve; Shankardass, Ketan; Reynolds, Kim; Chang, Roger; Wolch, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated multiple levels of influence simultaneously on whether children walk to school. A large cohort of 4,338 subjects from ten communities was used to identify the determinants of walking through (1) a one-level logistic regression model for individual-level variables and (2) a two-level mixed regression model for individual and school-level variables. Walking rates were positively associated with home-to-school proximity, greater age, and living in neighborhoods characterized by lower traffic density. Greater land use mix around the home was, however, associated with lower rates of walking. Rates of walking to school were also higher amongst recipients of the Free and Reduced Price Meals Program and attendees of schools with higher percentage of English language learners. Designing schools in the same neighborhood as residential districts should be an essential urban planning strategy to reduce walking distance to school. Policy interventions are needed to encourage children from higher socioeconomic status families to participate in active travel to school and to develop walking infrastructures and other measures that protect disadvantaged children. PMID:23707968

  16. Management strategies for promoting successful breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Bear, K; Tigges, B B

    1993-06-01

    Clinicians can promote a successful breastfeeding experience by providing support, anticipatory guidance and practical information. This article presents the components of early follow-up and guidelines for assessment. Management strategies for common problems are discussed, such as nipple soreness, cracked nipples, plugged ducts and mastitis, insufficient infant weight gain, perceived inadequacy of milk supply, breast-milk jaundice, sexual adjustment and failure at breastfeeding. Breastfeeding guidelines for employed mothers and adoptive mothers are indicated. PMID:8341432

  17. Breastfeeding Twins: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Alvur, Tuncay Muge; Kose, Dilek; Nemut, Tijen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research was to explore the needs and difficulties of mothers who had multiple babies at Sakarya County by focusing on their breastfeeding experience. Ten mothers who gave birth to multiple infants participated in the study voluntarily. The framework method of data analysis was applied systematically both within and across cases, with categories and themes identified by reading transcripts of interviews. Major themes generated from focus narrative interviews are described. These themes are: willingness of mothers to breastfeed and continue, management of breastfeeding, use of pacifier, daily life, ınstructions of healthcare personnel, and advices from practice of experienced mothers. This study showed that women were aware of the importance of mother's milk for their babies. They all, somehow, made intensive efforts to breastfeed their twins. Women who expect and/or have multiple babies need much more support and guidance, which may include advice for nutritional and daily care. PMID:24592592

  18. Do tongue ties affect breastfeeding?

    PubMed

    Griffiths, D Mervyn

    2004-11-01

    This study assessed indications for and safety and outcome of simple division of tongue tie without an anesthetic. There were 215 infants younger than 3 months (mean 0-19 days) who had major problems breastfeeding, despite professional support. Symptoms, tongue tie details, safety of division, and complications were recorded. Feeding was assessed by the mothers immediately, at 24 hours, and 3 months after division. Prior to division, 88% had difficulty latching, 77% of mothers experienced nipple trauma, and 72% had a continuous feeding cycle. During division, 18% slept throughout; 60% cried more after division (mean 0-15 seconds). There were no significant complications. Within 24 hours, 80% were feeding better. Overall, 64% breastfed for at least 3 months (UK national average is 30%). Initial assessment, diagnosis, and help, followed by division and subsequent support by a qualified lactation consultant, might ensure that even more mothers and infants benefit from breastfeeding. PMID:15479660

  19. Supporting the employed breastfeeding mother.

    PubMed

    Zinn, B

    2000-01-01

    The number of women in the workforce is continuing to increase and surveys suggest that one-fourth of employed women with a child less than 1 year of age will be concurrently breastfeeding and working for at least 1 month. Combining breastfeeding and employment is a complex process in American society. Women will be seeking practical, sound advice on how to be successful in this combination. This article offers suggestions for promoting its success, describes the preplanning that needs to occur, and provides current lactation recommendations and resources. It also offers information about working with employers, the importance of a support network, decisions that each family must make, the use of breast pumps; milk storage, lactation enhancement including the use of herbs, and practical tips for the mother's working day. PMID:10907331

  20. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Katherine M.; Queenan, John T.; Schulkin, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This article's aim is to review the literature on racial and ethnic disparities in breastfeeding rates and practices, address barriers to breastfeeding among minority women, conduct a systematic review of breastfeeding interventions, and provide obstetrician-gynecologists with recommendations on how they can help increase rates among minority women. In order to do so, the literature of racial and ethnic disparities in breastfeeding rates and barriers among minority women was reviewed, and a systematic review of breastfeeding interventions among minority women on PubMed and MEDLINE was conducted. Racial and ethnic minority women continue to have lower breastfeeding rates than white women and are not close to meeting the Healthy People 2020 goals. Minority women report many barriers to breastfeeding. Major efforts are still needed to improve breastfeeding initiation and duration rates among minority women in the United States. Obstetrician-gynecologists have a unique opportunity to promote and support breastfeeding through their clinical practices and public policy, and their efforts can have a meaningful impact on the future health of the mother and child. PMID:25831234

  1. Racial and ethnic disparities in breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Jones, Katherine M; Power, Michael L; Queenan, John T; Schulkin, Jay

    2015-05-01

    This article's aim is to review the literature on racial and ethnic disparities in breastfeeding rates and practices, address barriers to breastfeeding among minority women, conduct a systematic review of breastfeeding interventions, and provide obstetrician-gynecologists with recommendations on how they can help increase rates among minority women. In order to do so, the literature of racial and ethnic disparities in breastfeeding rates and barriers among minority women was reviewed, and a systematic review of breastfeeding interventions among minority women on PubMed and MEDLINE was conducted. Racial and ethnic minority women continue to have lower breastfeeding rates than white women and are not close to meeting the Healthy People 2020 goals. Minority women report many barriers to breastfeeding. Major efforts are still needed to improve breastfeeding initiation and duration rates among minority women in the United States. Obstetrician-gynecologists have a unique opportunity to promote and support breastfeeding through their clinical practices and public policy, and their efforts can have a meaningful impact on the future health of the mother and child. PMID:25831234

  2. Factors influencing riverine fish assemblages in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, David S.; Richards, Todd A.; Levin, Sara B.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, and the Massachusetts Department of Fish and Game, conducted an investigation of fish assemblages in small- to medium-sized Massachusetts streams. The objective of this study was to determine relations between fish-assemblage characteristics and anthropogenic factors, including impervious cover and estimated flow alteration, relative to the effects of environmental factors, including physical-basin characteristics and land use. The results of this investigation supersede those of a preliminary analysis published in 2010. Fish data were obtained for 669 fish-sampling sites from the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife fish-community database. A review of the literature was used to select fish metrics - species richness, abundance of individual species, and abundances of species grouped on life history traits - responsive to flow alteration. The contributing areas to the fish-sampling sites were delineated and used with a geographic information system to determine a set of environmental and anthropogenic factors that were tested for use as explanatory variables in regression models. Reported and estimated withdrawals and return flows were used together with simulated unaltered streamflows to estimate altered streamflows and indicators of flow alteration for each fish-sampling site. Altered streamflows and indicators of flow alteration were calculated on the basis of methods developed in a previous U.S. Geological Survey study in which unaltered daily streamflows were simulated for a 44-year period (water years 1961-2004), and streamflow alterations were estimated by use of water-withdrawal and wastewater-return data previously reported to the State for the 2000-04 period and estimated domestic-well withdrawals and septic-system discharges. A variable selection process, conducted using principal

  3. Factors influencing phototaxis in nocturnal migrating birds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xuebing; Chen, Mingyan; Wu, Zhaolu; Wang, Zijiang

    2014-12-01

    Many migratory bird species fly during the night (nocturnal migrants) and have been shown to display some phototaxis to artificial light. During 2006 to 2009, we investigated phototaxis in nocturnal migrants at Jinshan Yakou in Xinping County (N23°56', E101°30'; 2400 m above sea-level), and at the Niaowang Mountain in Funing County (N23°30', E105°35'; 1400 m above sea-level), both in the Yunnan Province of Southwest China. A total of 5069 birds, representing 129 species, were captured by mist-netting and artificial light. The extent of phototaxis effect on bird migration was examined during all four seasons, three phases of the moon, and under two weather conditions (mist and wind). Data were statistically analyzed to determine the extent to which these factors may impact phototaxis of nocturnal migrants. The results point to phototaxis in birds migrating in the spring and autumn, especially in the autumn. Furthermore, migrating birds were more readily attracted to artificial lights during nights with little moonlight, mist, and a headwind. Regardless of the initial orientation in which birds flew, either following the wind or against the wind, birds would always fly against the wind when flying towards the light. This study broadens our understanding of the nocturnal bird migration, potentially resulting in improved bird ringing practices, increased awareness, and better policies regarding bird protection. PMID:25483789

  4. Factors influencing single mother's employment status.

    PubMed

    Youngblut, J M; Brady, N R; Brooten, D; Thomas, D J

    2000-03-01

    Changes in the welfare system limit the length of time a person can receive welfare benefits, thus mandating employment for many current welfare recipients. Single mothers with young children who do not become employed will lose financial support for housing, food, clothing, and health care and place their own and their children's health and safety at risk. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore women's experiences of being unemployed and to examine the barriers to employment perceived by single mothers who expressed a desire to be employed. Nine mothers were recruited from a larger sample of single mothers who had participated in a quantitative study about employment conducted 1 to 2 years earlier. Using focus group interviews, mothers were asked what it was like to be a single mother, and then what barriers to their employment they perceived. Two dimensions were identified from the mothers' statements. The first, a sense of obligation, included themes of "being there" for their own and their child's benefit and doing what it takes to optimize the child's growth and development. The second, negotiating the obstacles, referred to problems regarding child care, lack of involvement of the child's father and lack of support from relatives and friends for the mother's efforts toward securing employment. These findings have important implications for welfare reform, namely, that efforts aimed at moving nonemployed single mothers into the workforce will fail if these factors are not considered. PMID:10818834

  5. Breast cancer diagnosis and factors influencing treatment decisions in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Aziato, Lydia; Clegg-Lamptey, Joe Nat A

    2015-01-01

    Researchers in this study explored the reactions of women with breast cancer and identified factors influencing treatment decisions. A qualitative exploratory approach was employed. Participants were recruited from a tertiary hospital and a breast cancer support group. Purposive sampling recruited 12 women. It was found that women identified breast lesions accidentally or intentionally and that diagnosis was delayed. Emotional reactions to diagnosis included shock and sadness. Factors that influenced treatment were the influence of other people, alternative sources of treatment, faith and support, knowledge, "tuning the mind," and effects on intimacy. Health professionals should develop effective communication and counseling skills for clients. PMID:24750095

  6. Cohort Profile: The Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial (PROBIT)

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rita; Oken, Emily; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Matush, Lidia; Sevkovskaya, Zinaida; Chalmers, Beverley; Hodnett, Ellen D; Vilchuck, Konstantin; Kramer, Michael S; Martin, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    SummaryThe PROmotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial (PROBIT) is a multicentre, cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted in the Republic of Belarus, in which the experimental intervention was the promotion of increased breastfeeding duration and exclusivity, modelled on the Baby-friendly hospital initiative. Between June 1996 and December 1997, 17 046 mother–infant pairs were recruited during their postpartum hospital stay from 31 maternity hospitals, of which 16 hospitals and their affiliated polyclinics had been randomly assigned to the arm of PROBIT investigating the promotion of breastfeeding and 15 had been assigned to the control arm, in which breastfeeding practices and policies in effect at the time of randomization was continued. Of the mother–infant pairs originally recruited for the study, 16 492 (96.7%) were followed at regular intervals until the infants were 12 months of age (PROBIT I) for the outcomes of breastfeeding duration and exclusivity; gastrointestinal and respiratory infections; and atopic eczema. Subsequently, 13 889 (81.5%) of the children from these mother–infant pairs were followed-up at age 6.5 years (PROBIT II) for anthropometry, blood pressure (BP), behaviour, dental health, cognitive function, asthma and atopy outcomes, and 13 879 (81.4%) children were followed to the age of 11.5 years (PROBIT III) for anthropometry, body composition, BP, and the measurement of fasted glucose, insulin, adiponectin, insulin-like growth factor-I, and apolipoproteins. The trial registration number for Current Controlled Trials is ISRCTN37687716 and that for ClinicalTrials.gov is NCT01561612. Proposals for collaboration are welcome, and enquires about PROBIT should be made to an executive group of the study steering committee (M.S.K., R.M.M., and E.O.). More information, including information about how to access the trial data, data collection documents, and bibliography, is available at the trial website (http

  7. Depression Following Hysterectomy and the Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bahri, Narjes; Tohidinik, Hamid Reza; Fathi Najafi, Tahereh; Larki, Mona; Amini, Thoraya; Askari Sartavosi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background Hysterectomy is one of the most common gynecological surgeries performed worldwide. However, women undergoing this surgery often experience negative emotional reactions. Objectives This study was done with the aim of investigating the relationship between hysterectomy and postoperative depression, three months after the procedure. Materials and Methods This longitudinal study was conducted in the province of Khorasan-Razavi in Iran, using multistage sampling. At first, three cities were selected from the province by cluster sampling; then, five hospitals were randomly selected from these cities. The participants included 53 women who were hysterectomy candidates in one of the five selected hospitals. The participants’ demographics and hysterectomy procedure information were entered into two separate questionnaires, and the Beck depression inventory (BDI) was employed to measure their severity of depression before and three months after the surgery. The statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 16 was used for the statistical analysis, and a P value of < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The means and standard deviations of the participants’ depression scores before and three months after their hysterectomies were 13.01 ± 10.1 and 11.02 ± 10.3, respectively. Although the mean score of depression decreased three months after the hysterectomy, the difference was not statistically significant. However, a significant relationship was found between the satisfaction with the outcome of the hysterectomy and the postoperative depression score (P = 0.04). Conclusions In this study, undergoing a hysterectomy did not show a relationship with postoperative depression three months after the surgery. Moreover, the only factor related to depression following a hysterectomy was satisfaction with the surgery. PMID:27066267

  8. [Use of pacifiers and breastfeeding].

    PubMed

    Lozano de la Torre, M J; Pallás Alonso, C R; Hernández Aguilar, M T; Aguayo Maldonado, J; Arena Ansótegui, J; Ares Segura, S; Gómez Papí, A; Díaz Gómez, M; Jiménez Moya, A; Landa Rivera, L; Landa Velillas, J J; Martín-Calama Valero, J; Martín Morales, M; Paricio Talayero, J M; Romero Escós, M D

    2011-04-01

    Pacifiers are widely used in developed societies. They are used for soothing infants, reducing their stress and pain during procedures and to help them sleep. The use of pacifiers has been associated, however, with a shorter duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding, with higher rates of otitis media and dental problems, as well as a higher risk of accidents during infancy. Recent studies have also described a relationship between pacifier use and SIDS, especially when used during infant́s sleep. Other described benefits are analgesia and stimulation of non-nutritive sucking in preterm and term infants. There is, at present, wide debate and controversy on whether or not to recommend its use; thus it seems important for professionals and parents to be aware of the risks and benefits associated to its use, particularly related to breastfeeding. Due to the existing controversy of scientific findings, the Committee on Breastfeeding of the Spanish Paediatrics Society, publishes this review, trying to summarise present evidence with the objective of, after analysing scientific results and recommendations, making recommendations regarding the use of the pacifier in the breastfed infant. PMID:21256098

  9. Factors Influencing Students' Achievement in Form 5 Islamic Studies Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    bin Che Noh, Mohd Aderi; Omar, Noraini binti; bin Kasan, Hasnan

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at analyzing the factors influencing the achievements of students in the subject of Islamic Studies for Form 5 SPM (KBSM) in schools in the area of Samarahan, Sarawak. The factors analysed is attitude and interest. This is a survey based study and data was compiled from the survey forms which had the topic "Factors…

  10. Factors Influencing Pursuit of Higher Education: Validating a Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Sandra M.

    This paper explains the process used to validate the construct validity of the Factors Influencing Pursuit of Higher Education Questionnaire. This questionnaire is a literature-based, researcher-developed instrument which gathers information on the factors thought to affect a person's decision to pursue higher education. The questionnaire includes…

  11. Factors influencing visits to school nurses by pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chen, S P; Telleen, S; Mitchell, D R; Chen, E H

    1992-01-01

    The influence of five factors on the first visit to school nurses by pregnant adolescents and adequacy of prenatal care was analyzed. Only one factor, age of baby's father, was found to be associated with adequacy of prenatal care. PMID:1518672

  12. From Hospital to Nursing Facility: Factors Influencing Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Susan E.; Auerbach, Charles; LaPorte, Heidi Heft

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the factors influencing decisions to send medicine-surgical (med-surg) patients home or to nursing facilities (NFs). The sample (n = 7,852) was taken from a large, urban, teaching, med-surg unit where discharges were documented and data collected over a two-and-a-half-year period. Using logistical regression, the factors found…

  13. Factors Influencing International Students' Career Choice: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaravelu, Hemla D.; White, Lyle J.; Bringaze, Tammy B.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the career development behavior of Asian international, non-Asian international, and domestic students, specifically the certainty of career and major choice and environmental factors that have influenced their choices. Environmental factors include family, school counselors, teacher, friends, and government. The results show…

  14. Alternative Administrative Certification: Socializing Factors Influencing Program Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickmore, Dana L.; Bickmore, Steven T.; Raines, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This study used an organizational socialization lens to examine factors influencing participants' decision to pursue the principalship and choice to engage in an alternate administration certification program. Through an analysis of participant focus groups and interviews, factors emerged from the codes that were compared with dimensions of…

  15. Factors Influencing Technology Planning in Developing Countries: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keengwe, Jared; Malapile, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    This article is a literature review concerning the factors that play an important role in the development of educational technology plans in the educational system of developing countries (DCs). Largely, the technology plans are influenced by factors that emanates from within the country (internal) and those outside of their borders (external).…

  16. Factors Influencing Digital Reference Triage: A Think-Aloud Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a think-aloud study conducted to identify factors that influence the decisions made by digital reference "triagers" when performing triage on questions received by digital reference services. This study follows and expands on a Delphi study that identified factors that triagers agreed on after the fact of their performance…

  17. Factors Influencing Psychological Help Seeking in Adults: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topkaya, Nursel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current research is to identify which factors, and in what direction these factors influence adults' decisions to seek psychological help for their personal problems. The research was designed as a phenomenology model; the data was gathered through the semi-structured interview technique, which is mostly used in qualitative research…

  18. A Study of Factors Influencing Teacher Salaries in Vermont.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callas, Rosanne; McCormick, Rod

    A study was done of factors affecting differences in teacher salaries among Vermont towns. Data from 181 local education agencies were used for the study and a set of factors was examined that included family, community, and school information to determine what influences teacher salaries. Findings included the following: (1) average teacher's…

  19. Psychosocial Factors Influencing Competency of Children's Statements on Sexual Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Tae Kyung; Choi, Soul; Shin, Yee Jin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess children's competence to state their traumatic experience and to determine psychosocial factors influencing the competency of children's statements, such as emotional factors of children and parents and trauma-related variables, in Korean child sex abuse victims. Methods: We enrolled 214…

  20. Exploring Fathers’ Role in Breastfeeding Practices in the Urban and Semiurban Settings of Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Mithani, Yasmin; Premani, Zahra Shaheen; Kurji, Zohra; Rashid, Shehnaz

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study explored fathers’ perceptions about breastfeeding infants. A qualitative exploratory study design was used. Study setting was urban and semiurban areas of Karachi, Pakistan. In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 fathers. The following themes emerged from the data collected: knowledge and awareness and enabling and impeding factors. Most fathers seemed eager to get involved and assist their partners in proper breastfeeding practices because they believed that doing so is in accordance with their faith. Fathers felt that adequate support from their family members and employers could enable them to encourage their partners to initiate and maintain exclusive and optimum breastfeeding practices. Exploring fathers’ perception regarding breastfeeding in the context of Pakistan is still a new field of study. PMID:26834446

  1. Incidence and duration of breast-feeding in Mexican-American infants, 1970-1982.

    PubMed

    John, A M; Martorell, R

    1989-10-01

    The Mexican-American component of the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES-MA) was used to examine the breast-feeding behavior of 2402 infants born between 1970 and 1982. The proportion of infants ever breast-fed increased substantially in recent years. Weighted proportions were 30.7% for 1970-1974, 38.1% for 1975-1978, and 47.6% for 1979-1982. By use of logistic regression models, children born into households with a college-educated head were shown to be more likely to be breast-fed than were other children; breast-feeding was also positively associated with birth weight. Infants in households for which the preferred interview language was Spanish were more likely to be breast-fed than were infants living in households for which the interview was conducted in English. Analysis of the factors influencing the distribution of weaning times among infants was less definitive because reported weaning times are heaped on multiples of 3 mo. The gathering of current-status, or status quo, information on infant feeding is urged for data collection in future studies. PMID:2801593

  2. Factors influencing nursing career choices and choice of study program.

    PubMed

    Haron, Yafa; Reicher, Sima; Riba, Shoshana

    2014-01-01

    In advance of a recruitment campaign, Israeli first-year nursing students of all ethnicities were surveyed to elucidate what factors had influenced them to make nursing their career and what sort of training track they preferred. The responses made it clear that different factors influence different groups differently. There were noticeable differences by gender, age, and ethnicity. Overall, training institutions were chosen for their closeness to the student's home but other factors also operated among particular groups, such as institutional prestige and flexible entry criteria. There was a blatant preference for academic, particularly university-sited, programs over diploma programs. PMID:24878405

  3. Nurturing Sport Expertise: Factors Influencing the Development of Elite Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Joseph; Horton, Sean; Robertson-Wilson, Jennifer; Wall, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The development of expertise in sport is the result of successful interaction of biological, psychological, and sociological constraints. This review examines the training and environmental factors that influence the acquisition of sport expertise. Research examining the quality and quantity of training indicate that these two elements are crucial predictors of attainment. In addition, the possession of resources such as parental support and adequate coaching are essential. Social factors such as cultural influences and the relative age effect are also considered as determinants of sport expertise. Although it is evident that environmental factors are essential to the acquisition of high levels of sport development, further research is clearly required. PMID:24616603

  4. Maternal Vitamin D Status: Effect on Milk Vitamin D Content and Vitamin D Status of Breastfeeding Infants123

    PubMed Central

    Dawodu, Adekunle; Tsang, Reginald C.

    2012-01-01

    There are increasing reports of rickets and vitamin D deficiency worldwide. Breastfeeding without adequate sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation are the major risk factors. In view of the drive to promote and increase the rate of exclusive breastfeeding, the relationship among maternal vitamin D status, vitamin D concentration of human milk, and hence vitamin D status of breastfeeding infants deserves reassessment. This review provides current information on the interrelationship between maternal vitamin D status and the vitamin D status of the breastfeeding infant. It also reviews the results of ongoing research on the effect of high-dose maternal vitamin D supplementation alone as a possible option to prevent vitamin D deficiency in the breastfeeding mother-infant dyad. PMID:22585912

  5. The neonatal nurse: advocating for breastfeeding mothers.

    PubMed

    Darby, Colm; Nurse, Sharon

    2016-02-01

    Accurate information and support from healthcare professionals as well as respect for parental choice are all factors which contribute to effective breastfeeding in the neonatal unit; with this in mind, Colm Darby and Sharon Nurse discuss the potential problems in expressing breast milk and the interventions which might be effective in avoiding them. Advocacy is an inherent part of neonatal nurses' role whilst caring for sick, vulnerable babies. Colm Darby is a male neonatal nurse working in a predominantly female environment and passionately believes in supporting and advocating for mothers who want to provide breast milk for their babies. In this article, CoIm uses Borton's model of reflection to discuss how he acted as an effective advocate for such a mother. PMID:27008754

  6. Profiles of eight working mothers who practiced exclusive breastfeeding in Depok, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Wibowo, Yulianti; Fahmida, Umi; Roshita, Airin

    2012-02-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding practice is generally low because of multifaceted factors internally within mothers themselves and also the surroundings. In addition, studies have consistently found that maternal employment outside the home is related to shorter duration of exclusive breastfeeding. With all these challenges, it is interesting that there are some mothers who manage to exclusively breastfeed their infants. Therefore, this report aims at exploring the characteristics of working mothers who are able to practice exclusive breastfeeding. The original study population was non-working and working mothers who have infants around 1 to 6 months old. The study design is an observational study with a mixed methods approach using a quantitative study (survey) and qualitative methods (in-depth interview) in sequential order. In addition, in-depth interviews with family members, midwives, supervisors at work, and community health workers were also included to accomplish a holistic picture of the situation. The study concludes that self-efficacy and confidence of the breastfeeding mothers characterize the practice of exclusive breastfeeding. Good knowledge that was acquired way before the mothers got pregnant suggests a predisposing factor to the current state of confidence. Home support from the father enhances the decision to sustain breastfeeding. PMID:21777072

  7. Predicting breast-feeding intention among low-income pregnant women: a comparison of two theoretical models.

    PubMed

    Kloeblen, A S; Thompson, N J; Miner, K R

    1999-10-01

    This study examined the applicability of the transtheoretical model and a model derived from the theory of reasoned action for predicting breast-feeding intention among low-income pregnant women. Participants completed a 70-item self-report questionnaire assessing their breast-feeding attitudes, intentions, and support. A positive correlation existed between Stages of Change for breast-feeding and the number of Processes of Change used by respondents. A negative correlation existed between Stages of Change for breast-feeding and the number of negative breast-feeding beliefs held by respondents. Furthermore, women's normative beliefs and outcome beliefs were significantly correlated with breast-feeding intention in manners consistent with the model developed from the theory of reasoned action. After accounting for significant sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, the Processes of Change and outcome beliefs remained independently correlated with breast-feeding intention. These models are capable of predicting the intention to breast-feed and might offer an innovative approach for further breast-feeding research and intervention development. PMID:10533172

  8. Research on determinants of breastfeeding duration: suggestions for biocultural studies.

    PubMed

    Allen, L H; Pelto, G H

    1985-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to suggest directions for future intra-cultural research on the factors that affect breastfeeding duration, especially policy-oriented research. A 2nd purpose is to call for a reexamination of the theoretical construct, biocultural determinants, with respect to infant feeding. The study compares determinants in 4 multivariate studies. One was carried out in Connecticut, 1 in a working class community in Scotland, another in England and the 4th in Sweden. Almost no biological factors are strongly associated with breastfeeding duration in any of the population studied. Of the external factors, those relating to social support and advice were the most consistent predictors. Socioeconomic status, income, and work outside the home were not good predictors. Maternal attitudes and experience are of great importance in predicting feeding duration. The general picture that emerged from all the studies is that if a mother wants to breastfeed, she can. Mothers breastfeed longer if they desire to breastfeed; they intend to do it for a longer period of time; they feel comfortable feeding in public; they are informed about breastfeeding; and they are not anxious about the process. There is also fairly strong evidence linking a number of biocultural factors to feeding duration. Whether the linkage is biological or behavioral has significant policy implications: if it is biological, successful intervention would require a change in hospital practices to earlier 1st feeding; if the linkage is behavioral, the problem might be resolved through improved maternal education. PMID:3836324

  9. Framing breastfeeding and formula-feeding messages in popular U.S. magazines.

    PubMed

    Frerichs, Leah; Andsager, Julie L; Campo, Shelly; Aquilino, Mary; Stewart Dyer, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    Media framing of infant feeding has the ability to influence knowledge and views of the barriers, benefits, and solutions inherent in breastfeeding or formula-feeding. This study examined how seven popular U.S. parenting, general women's, and African American magazines framed breastfeeding and formula-feeding messages to determine whether a sense-making approach was used and the extent to which visual images portrayed feeding practices. Analysis included 615 articles published from 1997 to 2003 that referred to infant feeding. Text and images were analyzed. The magazines provided more information on breastfeeding than formula feeding. Parenting magazines included more advice than barriers or benefits. African American magazines presented more breastfeeding benefits, and general women's magazines contained the least infant-feeding information. Messages were focused on individualized breastfeeding barriers and advice, seldom covered social and environmental issues, and placed much of the responsibility of infant feeding on the mother, while the role of social and partner support was diminished. Bottle-feeding images were nearly as common as breastfeeding images. Findings can be used by public health practitioners to increase the likelihood of reaching certain target audiences through popular magazines. PMID:17182529

  10. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of health professionals and women towards medication use in breastfeeding: A review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Many breastfeeding women require and regularly take medicines, especially those available over-the-counter, and the safe use of these is dependent on the advice provided by health professionals such as general practitioners and pharmacists. The primary aim of this review therefore, was to investigate the literature relating to health professionals' and women's knowledge, attitudes and practices towards medication use and safety in breastfeeding. The limited literature that was uncovered identified that general practitioners and pharmacists have poor knowledge, but positive attitudes, and variable practices that are mostly guided by personal experience. They tend to make decisions about the use of a medicine whilst breastfeeding based on the potential 'risk' that it poses to the infant in terms of possible adverse reactions, rather than its 'compatibility' with breast milk. The decision-making process between health professionals and women is usually not a negotiated process, and women are often asked to stop breastfeeding whilst taking a medicine. Women, in turn, are left dissatisfied with the advice received, many choosing not to initiate therapy or not to continue breastfeeding. Some directions for future research have been suggested to address the issues identified in this critical area. This review is important from a societal perspective because many breastfeeding women require and regularly take medications, especially those available without prescription, and the safe use of these is dependent on the advice provided by health professionals, which is ultimately influenced by their knowledge, attitudes and practices. However, there is an absence of high quality evidence from randomised controlled trials on the safety of medications taken during breastfeeding, which naturally would hinder health professionals from appropriately advising women. It is equally important to know about women's experiences of advice received from health professionals, and whether

  11. Factors influencing adherence among older people with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Loew, Laurianne; Brosseau, Lucie; Kenny, Glen P; Durand-Bush, Natalie; Poitras, Stéphane; De Angelis, Gino; Wells, George A

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to identify potential factors that could affect adherence and influence the implementation of an evidence-based structured walking program, among older adults diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis. A total of 69 participants with mild to moderate osteoarthritis of the knee fulfilled an online survey on potential factors that could affect their adherence to an evidence-based structured walking program. Adherence with regard to the influencing factors was explored using a logistic regression model. Results tend to show higher odds of adhering to the evidence-based walking program if the participants were supervised (more than 2.9 times as high), supported by family/friends (more than 3.7 times as high), and not influenced by emotional involvement (more than 11 times as high). The odds of adhering were 3.6 times lower for participants who indicated a change in their medication intake and 3.1 times lower for individuals who considered themselves as less physically active (95 % confidence interval (CI)). Our exploratory findings identified and defined potential adherence factors that could guide health professionals in their practice to better identify positive influences and obstacles to treatment adherence, which would lead to the adoption of a more patient-centered approach. A large-scale study is required to clearly delineate the key factors that would influence adherence. We addressed a new knowledge gap by identifying the main strategies to promote the long-term adherence of community-based walking program. PMID:26646111

  12. Critical factors and paths influencing construction workers' safety risk tolerances.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiayuan; Zou, Patrick X W; Li, Penny P

    2016-08-01

    While workers' safety risk tolerances have been regarded as a main reason for their unsafe behaviors, little is known about why different people have different risk tolerances even when confronting the same situation. The aim of this research is to identify the critical factors and paths that influence workers' safety risk tolerance and to explore how they contribute to accident causal model from a system thinking perceptive. A number of methods were carried out to analyze the data collected through interviews and questionnaire surveys. In the first and second steps of the research, factor identification, factor ranking and factor analysis were carried out, and the results show that workers' safety risk tolerance can be influenced by four groups of factors, namely: (1) personal subjective perception; (2) work knowledge and experiences; (3) work characteristics; and (4) safety management. In the third step of the research, hypothetical influencing path model was developed and tested by using structural equation modeling (SEM). It is found that the effects of external factors (safety management and work characteristics) on risk tolerance are larger than that of internal factors (personal subjective perception and work knowledge & experiences). Specifically, safety management contributes the most to workers' safety risk tolerance through its direct effect and indirect effect; while personal subjective perception comes the second and can act as an intermedia for work characteristics. This research provides an in-depth insight of workers' unsafe behaviors by depicting the contributing factors as shown in the accident causal model developed in this research. PMID:26775077

  13. Factors That Influence the Practice of Elective Induction of Labor

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jennifer; Low, Lisa Kane

    2012-01-01

    Elective induction of labor has been linked to increased rates of prematurity and rising rates of cesarean birth. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate current trends in induction of labor scholarship focusing on evidence-based factors that influence the practice of elective induction. A key word search was conducted to identify studies on the practice of elective induction of labor. Analysis of the findings included clustering and identification of recurrent themes among the articles with 3 categories being identified. Under each category, the words/phrases were further clustered until a construct could be named. A total of 49 articles met inclusion criteria: 7 patient, 6 maternity care provider, and 4 organization factors emerged. Only 4 of the articles identified were evidence based. Patient factors were divided into preferences/convenience, communication, fear, pressure/influence, trust, external influences, and technology. Provider factors were then divided into practice preferences/convenience, lack of information, financial incentives, fear, patient desire/demand, and technology. Organization factors were divided into lack of enforcement/accountability, hospital culture, scheduling of staff, and market share issues. Currently, there is limited data-based information focused on factors that influence elective induction of labor. Despite patient and provider convenience/preferences being cited in the literature, the evidence does not support this practice. PMID:22843006

  14. Breastfeeding and health in the Western world.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, C

    1996-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that infant feeding practices are associated with variations in health. This paper reviews research relating to the health of infants who receive breast milk, and of women who breastfeed, in the developed world. Obstacles to breastfeeding are examined, and current initiatives to increase breastfeeding levels are discussed. PMID:8945802

  15. Breastfeeding experiences of urban adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Wambach, Karen A; Cohen, Susan M

    2009-08-01

    This qualitative descriptive study examined the breastfeeding experiences of urban adolescent mothers using a combination of focus groups and semi-structured interviews. Analysis of verbatim interview text, field, and debriefing notes was undertaken to discover categories, themes and an emerging conceptual framework. Twenty-three teens, between the ages of 14 and 18, enrolled from two postpartum clinics described the process of teens' breastfeeding decision-making, initiation, continuation, and termination of breastfeeding. Roughly half of the teens were currently breastfeeding and the other half had weaned their infant within the last six months. Adolescent mothers chose breastfeeding mainly for infant health reasons, closeness and bonding. Positive and negative events; barriers and facilitators to continued breastfeeding; and types of support received during breastfeeding illuminated the experience starting in the hospital and extending over time. Among those who weaned, a combination of primary and secondary obstacles or problems, such as perceptions of insufficient milk supply, nipple/breast pain, time demands of school or work, problems with pumping, and feeling overwhelmed and frustrated led to weaning. Many who weaned did not seek out available help and ultimately many reported regret about weaning earlier than intended. Those who continued breastfeeding beyond six weeks reported significant emotional, informational and instrumental support from family, friends, school, and their babies. Implications for nursing practice and research are discussed. PMID:19632502

  16. Postmodernity and the new breastfeeding culture.

    PubMed

    Stockdale, Janine

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to outline the impact of culture in relation to breastfeeding promotion--culture as a pervading worldview and culture as a geographical trend. It is hoped that the information provided will enable health professionals to move toward using culture as a facilitator rather than an inhibitor of breastfeeding promotion. PMID:12242757

  17. Breastfeeding beyond 12 months. An historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Piovanetti, Y

    2001-02-01

    A decade ago, child psychiatrist Coello-Novello, in her term as Surgeon General of the United States, said, "It's the lucky baby, I feel, who continues to nurse until he's two." The accumulated evidence supports her statement. The understanding of the benefits of breastfeeding beyond 12 months should support the cultural change in which eventually prolonged breastfeeding becomes normal. PMID:11236726

  18. Physiology of Breastfeeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This powerpoint presentation summaries physiology of lactation and the impact of a variety of clinical practices on lactation from delivery through weaning. Factors that inhibit lactogenesis stage II are explained, including retained placenta, excess blood loss during delivery, and hypoplastic brea...

  19. Health Professionals’ Attitudes and Beliefs About Breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Radzyminski, Sharon; Callister, Lynn Clark

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this descriptive study was to investigate how health-care providers perceived their role in breastfeeding and maternal support. Data was collected via interviews of 53 health-care professionals that provided care to breastfeeding women. The emerging themes included (a) understanding the benefits of breastfeeding: often lacking current knowledge, (b) lacking consistency: gaps between knowledge of benefits and actual clinical practice, (c) not knowing how to help: lack of assessment and therapeutic skills, and (d) understanding the barriers to breastfeeding: how health-care providers can make a difference. Data analysis suggests inconsistencies between the health-care provider’s perceived support and behaviors, lack of knowledge, and significant lack of skill in the assessment and management of breastfeeding couples. PMID:26957893

  20. Breastfeeding, Bed-Sharing, and Maternal Cortisol.

    PubMed

    Simon, Clarissa D; Adam, Emma K; McKinney, Chelsea O; Krohn, Julie B; Shalowitz, Madeleine U

    2016-05-01

    Prior studies have found that close mother-child sleep proximity helps increase rates of breastfeeding, and breastfeeding itself is linked to better maternal and infant health. In this study, we examine whether breastfeeding and infant bed-sharing are related to daily rhythms of the stress-responsive hormone cortisol. We found that bed-sharing was related to flatter diurnal cortisol slopes, and there was a marginal effect for breastfeeding to predict steeper cortisol slopes. Furthermore, mothers who breastfeed but do not bed-share had the steepest diurnal cortisol slopes, whereas mothers who bed-shared and did not breastfeed had the flattest slopes (P < .05). These results were significant after controlling for subjective sleep quality, perceived stress, depression, socioeconomic status, race, and maternal age. Findings from this study indicate that infant parenting choices recommended for infants (breastfeeding and separate sleep surfaces for babies) may also be associated with more optimal stress hormone profiles for mothers. PMID:26330120

  1. Promoting breastfeeding at a migrant health center.

    PubMed Central

    Young, S A; Kaufman, M

    1988-01-01

    A program to promote breastfeeding was introduced at a migrant health center in North Carolina. Strategies for promoting breastfeeding as a feeding method particularly suited to the migrant lifestyle were identified and implemented. Donated layettes were used to encourage attendance of prenatal patients at a class on breastfeeding. Women planning to breastfeed were given cards to alert the delivering hospital of their intention. These hospitals were provided with bilingual flipcharts to use in communicating with non-English speaking patients. Of the 158 women who came to the center for one or more prenatal visits, 101 attended a class or received individual counseling on breastfeeding; during this 13-month period, 52 per cent of 64 women who attended the class were breastfeeding at time of their hospital discharge (Mexican-Americans 60%, Black Americans 44%). In a comparison of similar ethnic distribution, the corresponding rate was 10%. PMID:3354735

  2. Maternal return to paid work and breastfeeding practices in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Tomomi; Pavadhgul, Patcharanee; Chongsuwat, Rewadee; Sawasdivorn, Siraporn; Boonshuyar, Chaweewon

    2015-03-01

    This study explored the association between mothers' work-related factors and breastfeeding practices in Bangkok, Thailand. Data were collected from 84 working mothers with a child aged 6 to 24 months who visited the breastfeeding mobile clinic at a nursery goods exhibition. Thai interviewers collected data using a structured questionnaire. Analysis of the data showed that exclusive breastfeeding for 3 months was 78.6%, and for 6 months it was 38.1%. Mothers who returned to work 3 months or more after giving birth exclusively breastfed more than the mothers who returned to work in less than 3 months (crude odds ratio [OR] = 4.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.39-13.05; adjusted OR = 4.15, 95% CI = 1.15-14.95). Moreover, mothers who worked at self-employed or family-owned businesses and some mothers working at private companies showed tendencies of returning to work in less than 3 months. Results suggest that longer maternity leave would help extend the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. In addition, the improvement of a breastfeeding supportive environment in the workplace would be valuable and may be an effective means to improve breastfeeding practices and infant health. PMID:22815310

  3. Breastfeeding and Opiate Substitution Therapy: Starting to Understand Infant Feeding Choices

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Lisa E.; Turner, Suzanne; Nader, Maya; Sinha, Sucheta

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Despite research demonstrating the safety and benefit of breastfeeding in opioid substitution therapy, few women in treatment breastfeed. Understanding the factors contributing to the choices women on opioid substitution therapy make about infant feeding is important. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to better understand and support infant feeding choices and breastfeeding experiences in women on opioid substitution therapy. METHODS A systematic review was conducted on five databases: (1) Ovid MEDLINE(R) without revisions, (2) Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, (3) EMBASE, (4) CINAHL, and (5) FRANCIS. From 1081 articles, 46 articles were reviewed. RESULTS The literature supports breastfeeding as an appropriate and safe option for women on opioid substitution treatment. Breastfeeding and rooming-in reduce neonatal abstinence. Women face barriers to breastfeeding due to societal stigma and the lack of patient and health-care provider education. CONCLUSIONS Efforts are needed to increase the knowledge that women and health-care professionals have about the safety and benefits of breastfeeding. PMID:27429549

  4. Influence analysis for the factor analysis model with ranking data.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Poon, Wai-Yin; Lee, Sik-Yum

    2008-05-01

    Influence analysis is an important component of data analysis, and the local influence approach has been widely applied to many statistical models to identify influential observations and assess minor model perturbations since the pioneering work of Cook (1986). The approach is often adopted to develop influence analysis procedures for factor analysis models with ranking data. However, as this well-known approach is based on the observed data likelihood, which involves multidimensional integrals, directly applying it to develop influence analysis procedures for the factor analysis models with ranking data is difficult. To address this difficulty, a Monte Carlo expectation and maximization algorithm (MCEM) is used to obtain the maximum-likelihood estimate of the model parameters, and measures for influence analysis on the basis of the conditional expectation of the complete data log likelihood at the E-step of the MCEM algorithm are then obtained. Very little additional computation is needed to compute the influence measures, because it is possible to make use of the by-products of the estimation procedure. Influence measures that are based on several typical perturbation schemes are discussed in detail, and the proposed method is illustrated with two real examples and an artificial example. PMID:18482479

  5. Improving Breastfeeding Behaviors: Evidence from Two Decades of Intervention Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Cynthia P.

    This report summarizes research on interventions intended to improve four key breastfeeding behaviors: early initiation of breastfeeding, feeding of colostrum to newborns, exclusive breastfeeding for the first 0-6 months, and continued breastfeeding through the second year and beyond. It clarifies what is known about improving these practices in…

  6. Evaluating motivational interviewing to promote breastfeeding by rural Mexican-American mothers: the challenge of attrition.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Susan L; Aguirre, Trina M; Koehler, Ann E; Rodehorst, T Kim

    2015-03-01

    Although most Hispanic/Latino-American mothers initiate breastfeeding, duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding remain low. We explored whether a motivational interviewing (MI) intervention could help rural Mexican-American mothers continue breastfeeding. We used a two-group (MI intervention n = 26, attention control [AC] n = 27) repeated measures experimental design. Assessments and interventions occurred at 3 days, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks postpartum (time points when mothers are particularly vulnerable to discontinuing breastfeeding), with a final phone assessment at 6 months postpartum. We collected demographic data and measured intent to breastfeed for 6 months (intent question), self-efficacy (Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form), and collected breastfeeding information (breastfeeding assessment questionnaire). Independent t-tests and Mann Whitney U non-parametric tests were used to evaluate group differences (α = 0.05). High levels of attrition by week 6 impaired our ability to evaluate the potential of our MI intervention. No significant differences were found between groups for any of the outcome variables (intent to breastfeed for 6 months, breastfeeding self-efficacy, and duration of breastfeeding). Though the mothers intended to breastfeed for 6 months and were confident in their ability to do so, most did not breastfeed for 6 months. At 6 months, mothers receiving the MI intervention had breastfed an average of 90 days compared to 82 days for those receiving the AC sessions and 22% of the mothers in each group were still breastfeeding at some level. Because of the impact of attrition during this study, we discuss factors that contributed to attrition and approaches to lessen this problem in future studies. Such efforts may require a greater investment of time and resources and should be budgeted accordingly. Culturally appropriate interventions are needed to help rural Mexican-American mothers meet their breastfeeding goals, thus

  7. Breastfeeding knowledge, attitude and practice among school teachers in Abha female educational district, southwestern Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inadequate knowledge, or inappropriate practice, of breastfeeding may lead to undesirable consequences. The aim of this study was to assess breastfeeding knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) among female teachers in the Abha Female Educational District and identify factors that may affect breastfeeding practice in the study population. Methods A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among school teachers in Abha Female Educational District during the months of April to June, 2011. Breastfeeding KAP of participants who had at least one child aged five years or younger at the time of the study were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire, based on their experience with the last child. Results A total of 384 women made up of 246 (61.1%) primary-, 89 (23.2%) intermediate- and 49 (12.8%) high-school teachers participated in the study. One hundred and nineteen participants (31%) started breastfeeding their children within one hour of delivery, while exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months was reported only by 32 (8.3%) participants. Insufficient breast milk and work related problems were the main reasons given by 169 (44%) and 148 (38.5%) of participants, respectively, for stopping breastfeeding before two years. Only 33 participants (8.6%) had attended classes related to breastfeeding. However, 261 participants (68%) indicated the willingness to attend such classes, if available, in future pregnancies. Conclusions This study revealed that breast milk insufficiency and adverse work related issues were the main reasons for a very low rate of exclusive breastfeeding among female school teachers in Abha female educational district, Saudi Arabia. A very low rate of attending classes addressing the breastfeeding issues during pregnancy, and an alarming finding of a high percentage of babies receiving readymade liquid formula while still in hospital, were also brought out by the present study. Such findings, if

  8. Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in an urban population of primiparas in Lebanon: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The proportion of mothers who exclusively breastfeed their babies up to 6 months remains low. Determinants of breastfeeding practices have been largely documented in high-income countries. Little evidence exists on possible predictors of breastfeeding behaviors in the Middle East. Our aim was to assess the prevalence of breastfeeding in Beirut and determine the factors that impact breastfeeding behavior in this population. Methods Data for this longitudinal study is nested within a randomized controlled trial (RCT) assessing the impact of a 24-hour hotline and postpartum support film on postpartum stress. Healthy first-time mothers delivering in the capital Beirut between March and July 2009, were interviewed at 1–3 days and 8–12 weeks post delivery. A multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding at 8–12 weeks postpartum. Results The overall breastfeeding rate at 8–12 weeks postpartum was 67%. The exclusive breastfeeding rate was 27.4%. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding included maternal work (OR=3.92; p-value<0.001), planned pregnancy (OR=2.42, p-value=0.010), intention to breastfeed (OR=3.28; p-value=0.043), source of maternal emotional support (OR = 1.87, p-value=0.039) and the use the postpartum support video, the hotline service or both (OR=2.55, p-value=0.044; OR=3.87, p-value=0.004 and OR=4.13, p-value=0.003). Conclusions The proportion of healthy first-time mothers who exclusively breastfeed in Beirut is extremely low. Factors associated with breastfeeding behavior are diverse. Future research and interventions should target different levels of the maternal-child pair’s ecosystem. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00857051 PMID:23902627

  9. Breast-feeding among the urban poor in southern Brazil: reasons for termination in the first 6 months of life.

    PubMed Central

    Martines, J. C.; Ashworth, A.; Kirkwood, B.

    1989-01-01

    A study of breast-feeding practices over the first 6 months of life among a cohort of urban poor infants in southern Brazil indicated that the median duration of breast-feeding was 18 weeks, and at 6 months 41% of the infants were still being breast-fed. The duration of breast-feeding was significantly associated with the following: the infant's sex, mother's colour, type of first feed, timing of the first breast-feed, breast-feeding regimen and frequency of breast-feeding at 1 month, and the use of hormonal contraceptives by the mother. The following were significant risk factors for early termination of breast-feeding: the infant's sex, type of first feed, use of supplementary feeds, frequency of breast-feeding, feeding regimen, weight-for-age, and weight-for-age after controlling for birth weight. Dissatisfaction with their infant's growth rate was the most frequent reason given by mothers for supplementing the diets of infants who were exclusively breast-fed in the first 3 months of life. Also, the mothers' perception that their milk output was inadequate was the most frequent reason expressed for stopping breast-feeding in the first 4 months. The roles of health services and family support in providing favourable conditions for increasing the duration of breast-feeding in the study population are discussed, as well as the possibility of bias being introduced into studies of the relationship between infant feeding and growth by the effect of the infant's rate of growth on the mother's decision to continue breast-feeding. PMID:2743537

  10. Breastfeeding: an appeal.

    PubMed

    Nkanginieme, K E

    1993-03-01

    Factors that hinder breast feeding include the lack of knowledge of health personnel about the uniqueness of breast milk and the ease with which they and mothers have accepted formula feeding. These factors prevailed in Europe and North America until the 1960s, and they prevail today in developing countries. It is crucial to persuade health workers of the merits of breast feeding in order to promote it. Baby milk formula was developed in 1919 to provide a substitute for infants afflicted by the lack of their mothers milk. The search for the perfect human milk formula continues, but formula feeding is an experiment whose long-term effects are unknown. Its putative benefits are convenience, creation of employment, decreased perinatal mortality in affluent societies, and increased weight gain of premature low-birth-weight babies. However, formula feeding encourages less frequent child-mother contact. Employment opportunities in the manufacture of formula milk are only generated in the developed countries. The decline in perinatal mortality in developed countries since the advent of bottle feeding has been attributable to better obstetric care and improved management of such conditions as respiratory distress syndrome in infants. Most of the weight gain associated with formula use is caused by water and solute retention, which may be harmful to immature kidneys. On the other hand, the indisputable benefits of breast feeding include 1) prevention of infant malnutrition in the poor and obesity in the affluent 2) reduction in infection owing to protective factors in breast milk 3) reduced exposure to foreign allergens leading to a lower incidence of atopic conditions 4) convenience 5) enhancing the emotional bond between mother and child; and 6) helping to regulate appetite and satiety. Developing countries need health workers who are committed to encouraging exclusive breast feeding for 4 months, followed by breast feeding with supplements for at least 12 months. PMID

  11. Effect of Pattern and Duration of Breastfeeding on the Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables among Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The duration and pattern of breastfeeding can influence the consumption of fruits and vegetables in later childhood. Objective To investigate the association between pattern and duration of breastfeeding and consumption of fruits and vegetables in children aged between 4 and 7 years. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis using data from a former randomized clinical trial with 323 adolescent mothers, their children, and maternal grandmothers, when they cohabited. Information on infant feeding was collected monthly during the first 6 months of life, every two months until the child was 1 year old over and when children were between 4 and 7 years old. The associations between duration of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding and consumption of fruits and vegetables were tested by a logistic regression model. Results Approximately 60% and 45% of children consumed fruits and vegetables, respectively, five or more times a week. Consumption of vegetables among 4-7-year-old children was higher in children who were breastfed for 12 months or longer (OR 2.7; 95%CI 1.49–4.93); however, exclusive breastfeeding duration did not have a significant association with consumption of vegetables (OR 1.5; 95%CI 0.70–3.04). There was no association between weekly consumption of fruits and duration of breastfeeding (OR 1.3; 95%CI 0.71–2.30) or exclusive breastfeeding (OR 0.7; 95%CI 0.34–1.44). Conclusions Longer duration of breastfeeding was positively associated with consumption of vegetables in children aged 4–7 years; however, there was no association with consumption of fruits. Exclusive breastfeeding duration did not have influence on consumption of fruits or vegetables. PMID:26844543

  12. Early termination of breastfeeding among Philippine urban poor.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, G M; Guthrie, H A; Fernandez, T L; Estrera, N

    1983-01-01

    The research objective was to identify factors that caused mothers to terminate breastfeeding prematurely, i.e., before the infant reached his or her 1st birthday. Nursing for at least 1 year was a minimum goal of health authorities in the area of this research. The study was conducted in 2 urban poor areas and in 2 fringe squatter settlements of Cebu City, a metropolitan area of 500,000 people in the central Philippines. The data were collected by 2 women field workers. The 130 participants, who were within 3 months of delivery, pre- or postpartum were recruited in 1979. They were visited in their homes once a month by the worker who weighed the mother and the baby, inquired about their diets, and recorded breastfeeding experiences and plans. Special attention was given to any problems the mothers were having that might interfere with continued nursing. Other than encouraging mothers to use the local health center, workers did not intervene to support breastfeeding. The mothers were followed for at least the crucial 1st 6 months. Many were followed for a year or more. Of those who agreed to participate prior to delivery, and who composed 1/3 of the total group, some 95% initiated breastfeeding. Of the 3 who did not, 2 tried to nurse but gave up when the newborn showed persistent diarrhea. Between 10-20% of babies were on a mixed diet of breast and bottle feeding, some beginning as early as the 1st month when mothers returned to part-time work. Other mothers, feeling that the babies were not getting enough to eat, added bottles regularly. This pattern did not necessarily lead to the early termination of breastfeeding. With the exception of 2 instances when mothers decided that their babies were big enough to get along without breast milk, the mothers were forced by circumstances as they perceived them to wean the child. Almost all the terminations were abrupt, with the mother continuing to have an adequate supply of milk. The insufficient milk situation reported by

  13. Computer Visualizations: Factors that Influence Spatial Anatomy Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Ngan; Nelson, Andrew J.; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    Computer visualizations are increasingly common in education across a range of subject disciplines, including anatomy. Despite optimism about their educational potential, students sometime have difficulty learning from these visualizations. The purpose of this study was to explore a range of factors that influence spatial anatomy comprehension…

  14. Consumers with Major Depressive Disorder: Factors Influencing Job Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Haase, Eileen; Zeglin, Robert J.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was applied to study the factors that influence the intention of public rehabilitation placement professionals to place consumers with major depressive disorder (MDD) in jobs. A sample of 108 public rehabilitation placement professionals in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed the MDD…

  15. Factors Influencing the Development of PTSD in Battered Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimino, Joseph J.; Dutton, Mary Ann

    In this study an interactive conceptual model was utilized in an attempt to examine variables which contribute to, and influence, the development of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in battered women. This model considers the individual's response to trauma as being the product of the interaction between factors related to the characteristics…

  16. Factors Influencing Role Behaviors by Professional Exemplars in Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolding, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    This basic qualitative study explored factors that influenced the development of professional role behaviors of nurses, occupational and physical therapists who were characterized as exemplars in the acute hospital setting. The participants, four occupational therapists, four nurses, and four physical therapists were interviewed using a…

  17. Factors Influencing Practical Training Quality in Iranian Agricultural Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mojarradi, Gholamreza; Karamidehkordi, Esmail

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the factors influencing the practical training quality of agricultural higher education programmes from the senior students' perspective. The study was conducted in two public universities located in the north-west of Iran using a cross-sectional survey and structured interviews with a randomised sample of 254…

  18. Factors Influencing Knowledge Creation and Innovation in an Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merx-Chermin, Mireille; Nijhof, Wim, J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of the factors that influence the innovative power of organisations. The concept of innovation and innovative power was examined by analysing the relationship between the construct of the learning organisation, knowledge organisation and innovative organisation, and has resulted…

  19. Police Management Training Factors Influencing DWI Arrests. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Edward W.

    The development of training material for police management personnel concerning command and supervisory actions appropriate for more effective driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) enforcement is desired. The training is based on two research studies that identified environmental and attitudinal factors influencing a patrolman's arrest decision. These…

  20. Factors Influencing Residents' Satisfaction in Residential Aged Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Shu-Chiung; Boldy, Duncan P.; Lee, Andy H.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify the important factors influencing residents' satisfaction in residential aged care and to provide a better understanding of their interrelationships. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional survey design was used to collect the required information, including resident satisfaction, resident dependency…

  1. Factors Influencing School Choice in a School District in Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, John J., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study is to examine the factors that influenced parents in a school district in Delaware when they selected a high school for their child. This study also sought to examine the sources of information that parents used. Also examined was the impact of socio-economic status in the high school selection process. A…

  2. Factors that Influence Women's Technical Skill Development in Outdoor Adventure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Karen; Loeffler, TA

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical foundation for understanding women's technical skill development (TSD) in outdoor adventure. An examination of societal and biological factors influencing women's TSD focuses on gender role socialization, sense of competence, technical conditioning, sexism, spatial ability, and risk-taking. The article suggests…

  3. Factors Influencing Teachers' Engagement in Informal Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, Margaret C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine factors influencing the engagement of public school teachers in informal learning activities. Design/methodology/approach: This study used a survey research design. Findings: Analysis of the data found that teachers rely to a greater degree on interactive than on independent informal learning…

  4. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Multimedia Cable Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Carolyn A.; Jeffres, Leo W.

    1998-01-01

    Integrates several mainstream research approaches to new media diffusion to explore the potential strengths and weaknesses of each. Investigates factors influencing multimedia cable service adoption interest, including demographic variables, existing media-use patterns, and personality traits such as "innovativeness." (SR)

  5. Factors Influencing Federal Employee Worker Satisfaction: A Baseline Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Wallace V.; And Others

    Utilizing data from the Federal Employee Attitude Survey, 1979, a survey was distributed to a stratified random sample of 20,000 employees to identify and analyze the factors influencing federal employee worker satisfaction. Questions on the survey ranged from demographics to personal evaluations of the work environment as recorded on a…

  6. Factors That Influence the Attrition of Mentors in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Givens, Sharon Leenese

    2012-01-01

    This research is a qualitative case study exploring the factors that influence the attrition of mentors in rural areas. Mentoring initiatives and programs have proliferated throughout schools in an effort to provide students with positive role models, increase graduation rates and improve overall performance Mentoring programs are an increasingly…

  7. Factors that Influence Information Systems Undergraduates to Pursue IT Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsinger, D. Scott; Smith, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    We identify factors that influence the intent of undergraduate information systems majors to pursue IT certification. Previous research has revealed that IT/IS hiring managers may use certification as a job requirement or to differentiate between job candidates with similar levels of education and experience. As well, salary surveys have shown…

  8. What Factors Influence Vietnamese Students' Choice of University?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dao, Mai Thi Ngoc; Thorpe, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the factors that influence Vietnamese students' choice of university in a little researched context where the effects of globalization and education reform are changing higher education. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative survey was completed by 1,124 current or recently completed university…

  9. Factors Influencing Exemplary Science Teachers' Levels of Computer Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakverdi, Meral; Dana, Thomas M.; Swain, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine exemplary science teachers' use of technology in science instruction, factors influencing their level of computer use, their level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, and their…

  10. Factors that Influence Informal Learning in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Shelley A.; Chyung, Seung Youn

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to investigate factors that influence informal learning in the workplace and the types of informal learning activities people engage in at work. More specifically, the research examined: the relationship between informal learning engagement and the presence of learning organization characteristics; and…

  11. Abuse of Working Children and Influencing Factors, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oncu, Emine; Kurt, Ahmet Oner; Esenay, Figen Isik; Ozer, Fatma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The study was planned as the research of the kind/kinds of abuse and the factors influencing the abuse that the children under 18 who are working full-time at a workplace and enrolled in a vocational training center subjected to. Method: Questionnaires were administered to 595 apprentices who were attending a vocational training center.…

  12. Key Factors that Influence Recruiting Young Chinese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhenmin

    2007-01-01

    The discussion in this paper is based on the assumption that international education is equated to recruiting and educating international students, even though its true concept goes far beyond this narrow understanding. The purpose of this research is to look at the key factors that influence recruiting young Chinese students, and make sure all…

  13. Social and Environmental Factors Influencing In-Prison Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodall, James

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is a strong political imperative to regard the prison as a key social setting for health promotion, but evidence indicates that drug misuse continues to be a significant issue for many prisoners. This paper aims to examine the social and environmental factors within the setting that influence individuals' drug taking.…

  14. Factors Influencing Career Choice of Management Students in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwala, Tanuja

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the influence of a range of factors on the career choice of management students in India. The importance of different individuals in the family and at work in making career choices among these students is also to be explored. In addition, the study seeks to address the relationship of the cultural values of…

  15. Multilevel Factors Influencing Maternal Stress during the First Three Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulsow, Miriam; Caldera, Yvonne M.; Pursley, Marta; Reifman, Alan; Huston, Aletha C.

    2002-01-01

    Study applies family stress theory to the influence of personal, child, and familial factors on a mother's parenting stress during the first 3 years of her infant's life. Mother's personality was most predictive of parenting stress. Counterintuitively, mothers who were more satisfied with work or school choices were more likely to be chronically…

  16. Factors Influencing Faculty Engagement--Then, Now, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Barbara A.

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, author Barbara Holland reflects on her 1999 "Journal of Public Service & Outreach" article, "Factors and Strategies That Influence Faculty Involvement in Public Service" (EJ589785) reprinted in this 20th anniversary issue of "Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement." In the late…

  17. Factors That Influence the Understanding of Good Mathematics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Kwan Eu

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the factors that influenced the understanding of good mathematics teaching. A mixed methodology was used investigate the beliefs of beginning secondary teachers on good mathematics teaching. The two research instruments used in this study were the survey questionnaire and an interview. Beginning teachers selected Immediate…

  18. Factors Influencing Students' Decisions about Post-Year 10 Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beswick, Kim; Hay, Ian; Watson, Jane; Allen, Jeanne; Cranston, Neil

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports pilot data from an instrument devised as part of a large ARC funded project that aims, among other things, to investigate factors that influence the decisions of students in rural and/or disadvantaged areas to continue their schooling beyond Year 10. One section of the pilot student questionnaire comprised 42 items designed to…

  19. Factors Influencing the Dielectric Properties of Agricultural and Food Materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dielectric properties of materials are defined, and the major factors that influence these properties of agricultural and food materials, namely, frequency of the applied radio-frequency or microwave electric fields, and water content, temperature, and density of the materials, are discussed on the ...

  20. Environmental Volunteers: Factors Influencing Their Involvement in Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liarakou, Georgia; Kostelou, Eleni; Gavrilakis, Costas

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the factors that influence volunteers to become involved in environmental action. The research focused on volunteers undertaking action in summer camps organised by an environmental non-governmental organisation (NGO) in Greece. The results suggest that the environmental issues addressed in volunteer…

  1. Factors Influencing Active Learning in Small Enterprises. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawke, Geof

    The factors influencing active learning in small enterprises were examined. Data from earlier Australian studies were examined in an attempt to provide a framework that might inform the relationship between educational systems and small enterprises. Special attention was paid to a 1988 study of systematic differences between small businesses that…

  2. Against Conventional Wisdom: Factors Influencing Hispanic Students' Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percell, Jay C.; Kaufman, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The researchers performed a variable analysis of the 2002 Educational Longitudinal Study data investigating factors that influence students' reading scores on standardized tests. Hispanic and non-Hispanic Scores were analyzed and controlling variables were compared to determine the effect of each on both populations. Certain variables commonly…

  3. Factors Influencing the Vocational Aspirations of Victorian Year 9 Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrom, Linda K.

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of family background and attitudinal factors on occupational aspirations of Year 9 students in Victoria, Australia. A survey was made of all Victorian Year 9 students and comparisons were made between groups of students who aspired to different occupations. Discriminant function analyses were…

  4. Factors Influencing the Readability of Student-Generated Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, JoBeth

    An investigation examined student-generated texts in terms of both traditional and more theoretically valid readability to determine what factors influence comprehension when children read their own, peer, and adult-written texts. Seventy dictated stories created in an earlier study, along with 4 first-grade level stories from the "Reader's Digest…

  5. Factors Influencing Stress, Burnout, and Retention of Secondary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Molly H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the stress, burnout, satisfaction, and preventive coping skills of nearly 400 secondary teachers to determine variables contributing to these major factors influencing teachers. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics were conducted that found the burnout levels between new and experienced teachers are significantly different,…

  6. Factors Influencing the Occurrence of Adult Agricultural Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christmas, Oren L.; Warmbrod, J. Robert

    A study examined the institutional factors the influence whether or not adult agricultural education programs are offered in high schools. All Ohio secondary schools that offered vocational agriculture programs in agricultural production or farm business management during 1985-1986 (a total of 260 schools) were included in the study. Data were…

  7. Factors influencing dissolution of carbonaceous materials in liquid iron

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, H.P.

    2005-12-01

    Carbon dissolution into liquid iron was investigated by a kinetic model assuming the rate is limited by interfacial carbon dissociation and mass transfer in the liquid iron. The rate influencing factors and the inter-relations among them were discussed with the aid of the kinetic model.

  8. External and Internal Factors Influencing Happiness in Elite Collegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford…

  9. Factors Influencing Consent to Having Videotaped Mental Health Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Kenton; Goebert, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors critically reviewed the literature regarding factors influencing consent to having videotaped mental health sessions. Methods: The authors searched the literature in PubMed, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and Web of Science from the mid-1950s through February 2009. Results: The authors identified 27 studies, of which 19 (73%)…

  10. Analysis on Influence Factors of Adaptive Filter Acting on ANC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiuqun; Zou, Liang; Ni, Guangkui; Wang, Xiaojun; Han, Tao; Zhao, Quanfu

    The noise problem has become more and more serious in recent years. The adaptive filter theory which is applied in ANC [1] (active noise control) has also attracted more and more attention. In this article, the basic principle and algorithm of adaptive theory are both researched. And then the influence factor that affects its covergence rate and noise reduction is also simulated.

  11. Factors Influencing BI Data Collection Strategies: An Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramakrishnan, Thiagarajan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the external factors that influence an organizations' business intelligence (BI) data collection strategy when mediated by BI attributes. In this dissertation, data warehousing strategies are used as the basis on which to frame the exploration of BI data collection strategies. The attributes include…

  12. Factors That Influence Faculty Adoption of Learning-Centered Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Phyllis

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a recommended course of action for faculty development based upon Rogers' theory of Diffusion of Innovations and data collected in a study looking at the prevalence of use of learning-centered teaching practices. Specific faculty development strategies are aligned with Rogers' factors influencing decisions to adopt…

  13. Factors Influencing Undergraduates' Self-Evaluation of Numerical Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tariq, Vicki N.; Durrani, Naureen

    2012-01-01

    This empirical study explores factors influencing undergraduates' self-evaluation of their numerical competence, using data from an online survey completed by 566 undergraduates from a diversity of academic disciplines, across all four faculties at a post-1992 UK university. Analysis of the data, which included correlation and multiple regression…

  14. Factors Influencing Consent for Electronic Data Linkage in Urban Latinos.

    PubMed

    Bakken, Suzanne; Yoon, Sunmoo; Suero-Tejeda, Niurka

    2015-01-01

    Within the context of patient participation in a Learning Health System, this study examined consent rates and factors associated with consent for linking survey data with electronic clinical data in a sample of 2,271 Latinos. Consent rate was 96.3%. Government insurance status and health literacy significantly influenced the odds of consent. PMID:26262286

  15. FACTORS INFLUENCING FALL FOLIAGE COLOR EXPRESSION IN SUGAR MAPLE TREES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: We evaluated factors influencing red autumn coloration in leaves of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) by measuring mineral nutrition and carbohydrate concentrations, moisture content, and phenology of color development of leaves from 16 mature open-grown trees on 12 d...

  16. Improving Performance Appraisals: Confronting Subjective Factors That Influence Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Michael J.

    1986-01-01

    Explores implications of subjective factors that influence rating processes upon which formal performance appraisal systems are based and presents a strategy for addressing this problem which utilizes the critical incident method to focus objectively on employee behavior. A performance feedback worksheet to be utilized with this appraisal method…

  17. Factors Influencing Latino Participation in Community-Based Diabetes Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Sarah L.; Noterman, Amber; Litchfield, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    An Extension diabetes program (DP) was revised for Latinos; however, participation was limited. Factors influencing low participation rates were examined. Five Latinos interested in the DP participated in a focus group discussion. Transcripts were analyzed for themes. Preferred education programs were multi-session, local, group classes led by an…

  18. Adolescents Who Drive Under the Influence: Correlates and Risk Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayton, Daniel M., II; And Others

    This study was designed to determine the correlates or potential risk factors which predict whether an adolescent who drinks or uses drugs will refrain from driving under the influence, or will drive in this condition. A group of 426 rural high school seniors completed a questionnaire which assessed drug use patterns and previously identified risk…

  19. Factors Influencing Adjustment to Late-Life Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Keren Brown; DeShane, Michael R.

    Although the rate of divorce among older Americans has increased steadily, little attention has been paid to late life divorce. To describe the role of age and other factors which might influence adjustment to divorce in later life, data from a larger pilot study were used: 81 divorced persons over the age of 60 completed in-depth, structured…

  20. Factors Influencing Student Participation in College Study Abroad Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandyopadhyay, Soumava; Bandyopadhyay, Kakoli

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework to investigate the factors that influence student participation in college study abroad programs. The authors posit that students' general perceptions regarding the study abroad experience and their expectations of intercultural awareness from study abroad programs will impact their perceptions of…

  1. Factors Influencing Secondary School Teachers' Adoption of Teaching Blogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Hui-Min; Chen, Chin-Pin

    2011-01-01

    Recently, there has been a significant proliferation in the number of teaching blogs; however, little has been explored about what motivates teachers to adopt teaching blogs. The purpose of this study is to find out which factors can significantly influence teacher decisions regarding their teaching blog adoption and the relative importance of…

  2. Factors that Influence Elementary Teachers Use of Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the ways elementary teachers use computer technology for instructional purposes and the factors that influence their use of computers. The population consisted of recent graduates from the elementary teacher preparation program at a mid-Atlantic university. Data were gathered using a survey…

  3. Some Factors Influencing Air Force Simulator Training Effectiveness. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Paul W.

    A study of U.S. Air Force simulator training was conducted to identify factors that influence the effectiveness of such training and to learn how its effectiveness is being determined. The research consisted of a survey of ten representative Air Force simulator training programs and a review of the simulator training research literature. A number…

  4. An investigation of factors influencing accountability and performance ratings.

    PubMed

    Roch, Sylvia G; McNall, Laurel A

    2007-09-01

    The authors explored whether accountability has implications for performance ratings and investigated factors that may influence both accountability and performance ratings. Specifically, they investigated (a) whether feelings of accountability are directly related to performance ratings, (b) whether experimental manipulations that have been proposed to manipulate accountability in fact do so, and (c) the role of motivation-related constructs. They developed and tested a model of factors proposed to influence accountability and performance ratings. Results from 334 raters in an upward feedback situation in a classroom context provide empirical support that feelings of accountability influence rating level, as do perceptions of anonymity and the importance raters place on their jobs. However, neither anonymity nor importance perceptions were related to feelings of accountability. PMID:17933404

  5. The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

    Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

  6. Factors Influencing Renewable Energy Production & Supply - A Global Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Anika; Saqlawi, Juman Al

    2016-04-01

    Renewable energy is one of the key technologies through which the energy needs of the future can be met in a sustainable and carbon-neutral manner. Increasing the share of renewable energy in the total energy mix of each country is therefore a critical need. While different countries have approached this in different ways, there are some common aspects which influence the pace and effectiveness of renewable energy incorporation. This presentation looks at data and information from 34 selected countries, analyses the patterns, compares the different parameters and identifies the common factors which positively influence renewable energy incorporation. The most successful countries are analysed for their renewable energy performance against their GDP, policy/regulatory initiatives in the field of renewables, landmass, climatic conditions and population to identify the most influencing factors to bring about positive change in renewable energy share.

  7. Factors influencing the international spread of equine diseases.

    PubMed

    Timoney, P J

    2000-12-01

    In an era of increasing globalization, the risk of spread of infectious diseases in humans and animals, including equids, has never been greater. International movement of equids and trade in semen are the most important factors responsible for the dissemination of various equine pathogens. Other factors that can or do have the potential to influence the global distribution of equine infectious diseases include: multinational trade agreements, emergent diseases, mutation of pathogens, climate related phenomena, migration of amplifying/reservoir hosts or vectors, availability of new vectors, vaccine contamination and agroterrorism. The relative importance of each of these factors is considered in relation to the spread of equine diseases. PMID:11219348

  8. What works to improve duration of exclusive breastfeeding: lessons from the exclusive breastfeeding promotion program in rural Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Susiloretni, Kun Aristiati; Hadi, Hamam; Prabandari, Yayi Suryo; Soenarto, Yati S; Wilopo, Siswanto Agus

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to identify determinants of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) at the individual, family, community, and organizational level. This study was a secondary analysis of data from a multilevel promotion of EBF program in two rural public health centers (PHCs) in the Demak district, Central Java, Indonesia. The program was a quasi-experimental study with a pretest-posttest control group. A total of 599 participants were enrolled, consisting of 163 mother infant pairs, 163 fathers, 163 grandmothers, 82 community leaders, and 28 midwives. EBF duration and its determinants were measured and analyzed using Cox proportional-hazard model. Mothers with a high level of breastfeeding knowledge had the greatest EBF duration. Mothers who had a knowledge score >80 had a 73 % (HR 0.27, 95 % CI 0.15, 0.48) greater chance of EBF compared to mothers who had a knowledge score of <60. Factors which shortened EBF duration were grandmother's lack of support for EBF (HR 2.04, 95 % CI 1.33, 3.14), received formula samples at discharge (HR 1.99, 95 % CI 1.25, 3.16), and maternal experience of breast engorgement (HR 1.97, 95 % CI 1.32, 2.94). High maternal breastfeeding knowledge was the only factor associated with longer duration of EBF. Barriers to EBF were breast engorgement, receiving formula samples at discharge, and a grandmother's lack of support for EBF. PMID:25487415

  9. Is breastfeeding safe with azathioprine?

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mandeep; Qualie, Jan; Currie, Andrew; Howarth, Edmund S; Khare, Manjiri M

    2011-01-01

    Background Azathioprine is commonly used as an immunosuppressant during pregnancy in the management of various conditions such as connective tissue disorders, inflammatory bowel disease and pregnant women with organ transplant. Continuation of azathioprine through pregnancy and postpartum is vital for maternal reasons. However, there is limited evidence regarding safety of use of azathioprine with breastfeeding. Methods and results We report an observational case series of 10 mother–baby pairs managed at a tertiary teaching hospital. Mothers on azathioprine who were keen to breastfeed were counselled antenatally regarding limited short-term and long-term safety data for the babies. Mothers participating in this study completed a questionnaire at every visit. At follow-up visits, babies were examined by a neonatologist for clinical signs of infection and checked for adverse effects on haematological profile. Conclusion There was no clinically significant adverse effect on haematological profile or immunosuppression in these babies. Our case series supports safety of azathioprine in the short term. However, large numbers are needed to determine long-term safety of azathioprine and breastfeeding.

  10. Lessons Learned in a Breastfeeding Media Campaign.

    PubMed

    Ware, Julie L; Mzayek, Fawaz; Levy, Marian

    2016-09-01

    Breastfeeding is well accepted as the optimal nutrition for babies. The American Academy of Pediatrics states that infant feeding should no longer be thought of as a lifestyle choice, but rather as a public health issue. In Shelby County, Tennessee, rates of breastfeeding continue to be disparately low. To address this public health problem, a focus group study was conducted with the Shelby County population least likely to breastfeed. Following participants' suggestion to use a billboard campaign with pictures of local mothers and families, one highway billboard and ten bus stop signs were placed around the city in areas of the lowest breastfeeding rates. Self-administered surveys were completed by convenience sampling in target population areas with women least likely to breastfeed, both before placing the signs and 6 months later. No significant differences were noted in knowledge, attitudes, or practices after the media campaign, but trends toward increased intention to breastfeed were noted among expectant mothers. With collapsed data (pre and post), a majority of participants believed that breastfeeding is the best way to feed a baby and they were significantly more likely to plan to breastfeed if they knew about health benefits to the baby and to themselves. If they had heard about breastfeeding on the TV or radio, they were more likely to believe breastfeeding is important for long-term health. These findings suggest that a media campaign could have a complementary role in promoting breastfeeding among women with low initiation rates. PMID:27463248

  11. Management of mastitis in breastfeeding women.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Jeanne P

    2008-09-15

    Mastitis occurs in approximately 10 percent of U.S. mothers who are breastfeeding, and it can lead to the cessation of breastfeeding. The risk of mastitis can be reduced by frequent, complete emptying of the breast and by optimizing breastfeeding technique. Sore nipples can precipitate mastitis. The differential diagnosis of sore nipples includes mechanical irritation from a poor latch or infant mouth anomalies, such as cleft palate or bacterial or yeast infection. The diagnosis of mastitis is usually clinical, with patients presenting with focal tenderness in one breast accompanied by fever and malaise. Treatment includes changing breastfeeding technique, often with the assistance of a lactation consultant. When antibiotics are needed, those effective against Staphylococcus aureus (e.g., dicloxacillin, cephalexin) are preferred. As methicillin-resistant S. aureus becomes more common, it is likely to be a more common cause of mastitis, and antibiotics that are effective against this organism may become preferred. Continued breastfeeding should be encouraged in the presence of mastitis and generally does not pose a risk to the infant. Breast abscess is the most common complication of mastitis. It can be prevented by early treatment of mastitis and continued breastfeeding. Once an abscess occurs, surgical drainage or needle aspiration is needed. Breastfeeding can usually continue in the presence of a treated abscess. PMID:18819238

  12. A Review of Factors Influencing Athletes' Food Choices.

    PubMed

    Birkenhead, Karen L; Slater, Gary

    2015-11-01

    Athletes make food choices on a daily basis that can affect both health and performance. A well planned nutrition strategy that includes the careful timing and selection of appropriate foods and fluids helps to maximize training adaptations and, thus, should be an integral part of the athlete's training programme. Factors that motivate food selection include taste, convenience, nutrition knowledge and beliefs. Food choice is also influenced by physiological, social, psychological and economic factors and varies both within and between individuals and populations. This review highlights the multidimensional nature of food choice and the depth of previous research investigating eating behaviours. Despite numerous studies with general populations, little exploration has been carried out with athletes, yet the energy demands of sport typically require individuals to make more frequent and/or appropriate food choices. While factors that are important to general populations also apply to athletes, it seems likely, given the competitive demands of sport, that performance would be an important factor influencing food choice. It is unclear if athletes place the same degree of importance on these factors or how food choice is influenced by involvement in sport. There is a clear need for further research exploring the food choice motives of athletes, preferably in conjunction with research investigating dietary intake to establish if intent translates into practice. PMID:26243016

  13. The Roadmap to Breastfeeding Success: Teaching Child Development to Extend Breastfeeding Duration

    PubMed Central

    Tedder, Jan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although medical literature establishes the benefits of, recommendations for, and variables impacting breastfeeding duration, the belief that her baby is not satisfied causes many women to abandon breastfeeding. Infant behaviors commonly misinterpreted as breastfeeding problems include increased crying, hard to calm, difficult to wake up, “restless” sleeping, frequent awakenings at night, or seemingly inattentive to or uninterested in his or her mother. The Roadmap to Breastfeeding Success is an evidence-based, clinical project that integrates best practices in lactation support with child development theory. Using family-friendly concepts and language, The Roadmap to Breastfeeding Success gives childbirth, lactation, and early parenting professionals background information and innovative resources to help mothers meet their breastfeeding goals, thus promoting the health and well-being of mothers, babies, families, and communities. PMID:26834445

  14. What health service support do families need for optimal breastfeeding? An in-depth exploration of young infant feeding practices in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Bazzano, Alessandra N; Oberhelman, Richard A; Potts, Kaitlin Storck; Taub, Leah D; Var, Chivorn

    2015-01-01

    Background Appropriate and timely breastfeeding practices markedly improve lifelong health outcomes for newborns, children, and mothers. Exclusive breastfeeding is reported to be widely practiced in Cambodia, and important progress has been made toward achieving improved child health outcomes, but newborn mortality has been slow to reduce and breastfeeding practices remain suboptimal. Methods Formative research was conducted in Takeo province, Cambodia to describe the practical, cultural, and social factors underlying current breastfeeding behaviors to inform the design of a newborn survival intervention that may improve breastfeeding. In-depth interviews, observations, a collection of visual media, and focus groups were employed to gather qualitative data. Results The results revealed knowledge and practice gaps in behavior that likely contribute to breastfeeding barriers, particularly in the areas of infant latch, milk production, feeding frequency, and the use of breast milk substitutes. The predominant theme identified in the research was a dearth of detailed information, advice, and counseling for mothers beyond the message to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months. Conclusion Future newborn survival interventions and postnatal care counseling in this area must go beyond the exclusive breastfeeding message. To achieve further impact, it will be necessary to disseminate comprehensive and locally appropriate information on breastfeeding and to improve counseling in order to support successful breastfeeding and to contribute to population-level health gains. PMID:25733931

  15. Consumer's Online Shopping Influence Factors and Decision-Making Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiangbin; Dai, Shiliang

    Previous research on online consumer behavior has mostly been confined to the perceived risk which is used to explain those barriers for purchasing online. However, perceived benefit is another important factor which influences consumers’ decision when shopping online. As a result, an integrated consumer online shopping decision-making model is developed which contains three elements—Consumer, Product, and Web Site. This model proposed relative factors which influence the consumers’ intention during the online shopping progress, and divided them into two different dimensions—mentally level and material level. We tested those factors with surveys, from both online volunteers and offline paper surveys with more than 200 samples. With the help of SEM, the experimental results show that the proposed model and method can be used to analyze consumer’s online shopping decision-making process effectively.

  16. Variance of indoor radon concentration: Major influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Yarmoshenko, I; Vasilyev, A; Malinovsky, G; Bossew, P; Žunić, Z S; Onischenko, A; Zhukovsky, M

    2016-01-15

    Variance of radon concentration in dwelling atmosphere is analysed with regard to geogenic and anthropogenic influencing factors. Analysis includes review of 81 national and regional indoor radon surveys with varying sampling pattern, sample size and duration of measurements and detailed consideration of two regional surveys (Sverdlovsk oblast, Russia and Niška Banja, Serbia). The analysis of the geometric standard deviation revealed that main factors influencing the dispersion of indoor radon concentration over the territory are as follows: area of territory, sample size, characteristics of measurements technique, the radon geogenic potential, building construction characteristics and living habits. As shown for Sverdlovsk oblast and Niška Banja town the dispersion as quantified by GSD is reduced by restricting to certain levels of control factors. Application of the developed approach to characterization of the world population radon exposure is discussed. PMID:26409145

  17. Multiple pregnancy: factors contributing to early infant's breast-feeding--own experience.

    PubMed

    Czeszyńska, M B; Kowalik, K

    1998-01-01

    The aims of the study were as follows: 1. to evaluate the effectiveness of current program to promote breast-feeding in our population of infants from multiple pregnancy; 2. to define factors responsible for failure in early breast-feeding establishing and/or maintaining breast-feed during the hospitalization of the babies in neonatal department. 122 newborn infants (2 sets of triplets and 58 twin pairs) born in the Clinic for Pathology of Pregnancy and Labor in Szczecin, Poland, in the years 1995 (January)-1999 (May) from multiple pregnancy were included in the study. In the examined material there were estimated neonatal conditions at birth, neonatal complications, which may disturb successful breast-feeding as well as other factors contributing to early breast-feeding, the way of feeding the babies during neonatal period and the mean time of starting breast-feeding. It was found that most of the examined babies were born with the features of prematurity: mean gestational age was 35.6 +/- 2.2 weeks and mean birthweight--2225.3 +/- 193.2 grams. Only 57.4% of babies were born in good conditions according to Apgar scores. Factors which influence in a negative way early breast-feeding were as follows: respiratory disturbance (22.1%), temporary oral nutrition intolerance due to sickness of the baby or early onset of infections (27.5%), operative delivery (62.3%), medicine taken by mothers (13.9%) and failure in maternal lactation (8.2%). Factors disturbing a normal course of breast-feeding were: phototherapy due to hyperbilirubinemia (20.5%) and late onset of infections (1.6%). In most cases breast-feeding was started 3-4 days after birth and the most frequent way of feeding was formula followed or in combination with maternal milk (at discharge in 86.9% of babies). We concluded that exclusive breast-feeding, despite program of promotion, is a rarity in population of newborn babies born from multiple pregnancy; time to start breast-feeding in this population is

  18. Breastfeeding on prime-time in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Castello Branco, H

    1990-01-01

    An example of the potential power of mass media in helping implement health programs, Brazil conducted a highly successful advertising campaign aimed at increasing the prevalence and duration of breastfeeding. The advertising campaign formed part of the 1981-84 breastfeeding program, which included -- among other things -- implementing maternity laws, establishing support groups for breastfeeding mothers, and disseminating information to policymakers. While several methods to inform parents had been tried, all had encountered resistance. An intensive mass media campaign changed all that. In 1982, 100 television channels began airing frequent, prime- time commercials -- an effort supplemented by radio sports, posters, and print advertisements. The airing of commercials followed extensive research and pretesting of the material, and were intended to help break down social barrier to breastfeeding, which included: women's fears that their breast size made then incapable of breastfeeding; employers' lack of support for working mothers; the lack of unity among doctors that breastfeeding is right for every child; and "machismo" -- men's attitude that the breast is only a sexual object. In order to establish a common goal, all spots ended with the slogan: "Breastfeeding -- 6 months that build up a life." And to establish credibility, the commercials featured well-known Brazilian celebrities. A spot aimed at facilitating the act for other women showed a popular actress breastfeeding her own child; another commercial showed a well- known singer and male role model asking fathers to support breastfeeding. An evaluation conducted in 1987 indicated significant positive changes due to the advertising campaign, demonstrating the potential of mass media in raising public awareness. PMID:12343009

  19. Breastfeeding and the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Dow-Fleisner, Sarah; Noble, Alice

    2015-10-01

    Mothers who receive or qualify for the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program or have lower income are less likely to start and continue breastfeeding than their more advantaged counterparts. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires employers to provide break time and space to express breast milk and requires insurance companies to cover breastfeeding support, supplies, and counseling at no cost to mothers. This ACA benefit does not extend to all Medicaid recipients or women in the WIC program. Legislative and regulatory efforts are needed to provide comprehensive coverage for all women and reduce disparities in breastfeeding. PMID:26318941

  20. Validation of the Breastfeeding Experience Scale in a Sample of Iranian Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyed Abbas; Chaman, Reza; Khosravi, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to validate the breastfeeding experience scale (BES) in a sample of Iranian mothers. Methods. After translation and back translation of the BES, an expert panel evaluated the items by assessing the content validity ratio (CVR) and content validity index (CVI). 347 of mothers visiting health centers completed the Farsi version of the BES in the first month postpartum. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were performed to indicate the scale constructs. Reliability was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Results. CVR and CVI scores for the BES were 0.96 and 0.87, respectively. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the BES was 0.83. The results of the EFA revealed a new 5-factor model. The results of the CFA for the BES indicated a marginally acceptable fit for the proposed model and acceptable fit for the new model (RMSEA = 0.064, SRMR = 0.064, χ2/df = 2.4, and CFI = 0.95). Mothers who were exclusively breastfeeding at the first month postpartum had less breastfeeding difficulties score (30.3 ± 7.6) than mothers who were on partial breastfeeding (36.7 ± 11.3) (P < 0.001). Conclusions. The Farsi version of the BES is a reliable and valid instrument to assess postpartum breastfeeding difficulties in Iranian mothers. PMID:24963304

  1. Exclusive breastfeeding practice in Nigeria: a bayesian stepwise regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Gayawan, Ezra; Adebayo, Samson B; Chitekwe, Stanley

    2014-11-01

    Despite the importance of breast milk, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in Nigeria is far lower than what has been recommended for developing countries. Worse still, the practise has been on downward trend in the country recently. This study was aimed at investigating the determinants and geographical variations of EBF in Nigeria. Any intervention programme would require a good knowledge of factors that enhance the practise. A pooled data set from Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 1999, 2003, and 2008 were analyzed using a Bayesian stepwise approach that involves simultaneous selection of variables and smoothing parameters. Further, the approach allows for geographical variations at a highly disaggregated level of states to be investigated. Within a Bayesian context, appropriate priors are assigned on all the parameters and functions. Findings reveal that education of women and their partners, place of delivery, mother's age at birth, and current age of child are associated with increasing prevalence of EBF. However, visits for antenatal care during pregnancy are not associated with EBF in Nigeria. Further, results reveal considerable geographical variations in the practise of EBF. The likelihood of exclusively breastfeeding children are significantly higher in Kwara, Kogi, Osun, and Oyo states but lower in Jigawa, Katsina, and Yobe. Intensive interventions that can lead to improved practise are required in all states in Nigeria. The importance of breastfeeding needs to be emphasized to women during antenatal visits as this can encourage and enhance the practise after delivery. PMID:24619227

  2. Repercussions of breastfeeding by diabetic women for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Franca, Eduardo Luzia; Franca-Botelho, Aline do Carmo; Franca, Juliana Luzia; Ferrari, Carlos Kusano Bucalen; Honorio-Franca, Adenilda Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes represents a serious health problem. In the diabetic state, alterations in metabolism, increased susceptibility to infections and immunological changes occur. The suppression of the immune response has been identified as a relevant factor that contributes to the increase in the rate of infections in these patients. At the same time, breast cancer is the most frequent malignant tumor in women. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying cancer development have revealed that immune cells functionally regulate epithelial cancer development and progression. Breastfeeding has been hypothesized to reduce the risk of breast cancer. However, early systematic reviews have not yielded consistent findings for this association. The demand for human milk is increasing due to the promotion and consumer acceptance of the health benefits of consuming a natural product rich in bioactive components. However, due to changes in glucose metabolism, the components of the milk from diabetic women are modified depending on the time of evaluation. In this literature review, we summarize important new findings revealing the paradoxical role of breastfeeding in preventing the onset of breast cancer in diabetic mothers. We hypothesized that the milk component production in diabetic mothers is affected by changes in glucose metabolism. Therefore, adequate maternal glycemic control and an adequate duration of breastfeeding for diabetic mothers are crucial to ensure that the immunity components are able to confer protection against breast cancer. PMID:24377510

  3. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DESIGN OF BIOACCUMULATION FACTOR AND BIOTA-SEDIMENT ACCUMULATION FACTOR FIELD STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    General guidance for designing field studies to measure bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) is not available. To develop such guidance, a series of modeling simulations were performed to evaluate the underlying factors and principles th...

  4. Factors influencing autism spectrum disorder screening by community paediatricians

    PubMed Central

    WS, Angie; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Nicholas, David; Sharon, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In most cases, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can be reliably diagnosed at two to three years of age. However, Canadian data reveal a median age at diagnosis of approximately four years. OBJECTIVE: To examine general paediatricians’ practices regarding ASD screening and identify factors that influence decisions regarding the use of ASD screening tools. METHODS: Using a qualitative inquiry-based interpretive description approach, 12 paediatricians from four practice groups participated in four focus groups and one individual interview. These were conducted using semistructured interviews, digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. RESULTS: Five main domains of themes were identified related to screening tool use: benefits; needs not addressed; elements that limit utility; elements that encourage utility; and implementation challenges. Factors influencing practice included availability of time, comfort with screening tool use, previous use and knowledge about specific tools. Systemic factors included knowledge and access to community resources, as well as the ability to provide support to the child and family. CONCLUSION: The results from the present study identified important factors that influence paediatric practice in ASD screening. As screening tools improve, it will be important to examine the implementation and effectiveness of screening tools and strategies for increased uptake. Future research will also need to attend to the practical needs of physicians and communities in the aim of earlier diagnosis and rapid access to interventional resources. PMID:26175565

  5. Mexico: breastfeeding promotion, a community-based approach.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-garcia, R; Aumack, K J; Gallagos-vazquez, N; Ramos-chacon, R

    1988-01-01

    An experimental breastfeeding promotion project was started in Mexico in December 1986 by FEMAP, a Mexican federation of private, non-profit neighborhood health programs, in collaboration with the Georgetown University Institute for International Studies in Family Planning. The project has conducted promotion activities in 3 communities. In 1 community, activities focus on individual teaching and counseling of mothers about breastfeeding. In a 2nd community, mothers are taught in groups. A 3rd receives both individual and group counseling. A 4th community has been selected as a control site for research purposes. So far, supervisory and monitoring systems have been set up, and promotional activities begun. The next phase of the project will emphasize data collection and analysis. Research assistants have been trained in data collection, interviewing techniques, and reporting requirements. Coordinators and supervisors have received teacher training and information about lactation management. Supervisors train local "promoters," women from each community who teach breastfeeding practices on a voluntary basis. Participants have helped to develop a reference manual for supervisors and coordinators. So far, the communities have been responding positively to the program. Experience so far suggests that other groups developing breastfeeding promotional activities should: 1) take the time to properly select and train research assistants and promoters, and provide them with follow-up support; 2) make sure that staff are familiar with local culture and aware of local socio-demographic factors; 3) test research and educational materials in the local community before using them broadly; 4) remain open-minded, flexible, and adaptable to local community needs. PMID:12342140

  6. Breastfeeding Duration and Weight Gain Trajectory in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Demment, Margaret M.; Kjolhede, Chris L.; Olson, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Short breastfeeding duration may exacerbate accelerated early growth, which is linked to higher obesity risk in later life. This study tested the hypothesis that infants at higher risk for obesity were more likely to be members of a rising weight-for-length (WFL) z score trajectory if breastfed for shorter durations. METHODS: This prospective, observational study recruited women from an obstetric patient population in rural central New York. Medical records of children born to women in the cohort were audited for weight and length measurements (n = 595). We identified weight gain trajectories for infants’ WFL z scores from 0 to 24 months by using maximum likelihood latent class models. Individual risk factors associated with weight gain trajectories (P ≤ .05) were included in an obesity risk index. Logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate whether the association between breastfeeding duration (<2 months, 2–4 months, >4 months) and weight gain trajectory varied across obesity risk groups. RESULTS: Rising and stable weight gain trajectories emerged. The obesity risk index included maternal BMI, education, and smoking during pregnancy. High-risk infants breastfed for <2 months were more likely to belong to a rising rather than stable weight gain trajectory (odds ratio, 2.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.14–5.72; P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: Infants at the highest risk for rising weight patterns appear to benefit the most from longer breastfeeding duration. Targeting mothers of high-risk infants for breastfeeding promotion and support may be protective against overweight and obesity during a critical window of development. PMID:25554813

  7. Breastfeeding Duration and Early Parenting Behaviour: The Importance of an Infant-Led, Responsive Style

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Amy; Arnott, Bronia

    2014-01-01

    Background Popular parenting literature promotes different approaches to caring for infants, based around variations in the use of parent-led routines and promoting infant independence. However, there is little empirical evidence of how these early behaviours affect wider parenting choices such as infant feeding. Breastfeeding often requires an infant-led approach, feeding on demand and allowing the infant to regulate intake whilst conversely formula feeding is open to greater caregiver manipulation. The infant-led style associated with breastfeeding may therefore be at odds with philosophies that encourage strict use of routine and independence. The aim of this study was to explore the association between early parenting behaviours and breastfeeding duration. Methods Five hundred and eight mothers with an infant aged 0–12 months completed a questionnaire examining breastfeeding duration, attitudes and behaviours surrounding early parenting (e.g. anxiety, use of routine, involvement, nurturance and discipline). Participants were attendees at baby groups or participants of online parenting forums based in the UK. Results Formula use at birth or short breastfeeding duration were significantly associated with low levels of nurturance, high levels of reported anxiety and increased maternal use of Parent-led routines. Conversely an infant-led approach characterised by responding to and following infant cues was associated with longer breastfeeding duration. Discussion Maternal desire to follow a structured parenting approach which purports use of Parent-led routines and early demands for infant independence may have a negative impact upon breastfeeding duration. Increased maternal anxiety may further influence this relationship. The findings have important implications for Health Professionals supporting new mothers during pregnancy and the postpartum period. PMID:24533046

  8. Breastfeeding ambivalence among low-income African American and Puerto Rican women in north and central Brooklyn.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Leslie; Deenadayalan, Swarna; Karpati, Adam

    2010-09-01

    This study explores low-income African American and Puerto Rican women's conceptions and practices around breastfeeding. It examines the impact of such diverse factors as social constructions of the body, local mores around infant care, the practicalities of food availability, in the context of interactions with family members and friends, institutions, and others in women's neighborhoods. The study employed ethnographic methods, including interviews and participant observation, with 28 families in two low-income Brooklyn neighborhoods. While women in this study felt that breastfeeding was the best way to feed their infants, their commitment turned to ambivalence in the face of their perceptions about the dangers of breast milk, the virtues of formula, and the practical and sociocultural challenges of breastfeeding. Women's ambivalence resulted in a widespread complementary feeding pattern that included breast milk and formula, and resulted in short breastfeeding durations. Findings suggest the critical role of breastfeeding "ambivalence" in driving thought and action in women's lives. Ambivalence erodes the permanence of breastfeeding intention, and makes feeding practices provisional. Ambivalence challenges breastfeeding promotion strategies, resulting in weakened public health messages and a difficult-to-realize public health goal. PMID:19644744

  9. The Influence of Contextual and Psychosocial Factors on Handwashing.

    PubMed

    Seimetz, Elisabeth; Boyayo, Anne-Marie; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Even though washing hands with soap is among the most effective measures to reduce the risk of infection, handwashing rates in infrastructure-restricted settings remain seriously low. Little is known about how context alone and in interaction with psychosocial factors influence hand hygiene behavior. The aim of this article was to explore how both contextual and psychosocial factors affect handwashing practices. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 660 caregivers of primary school children in rural Burundi. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that household wealth, the amount of water per person, and having a designated place for washing hands were contextual factors significantly predicting handwashing frequency, whereas the contextual factors, time spent collecting water and amount of money spent on soap, were not significant predictors. The contextual factors explained about 13% of the variance of reported handwashing frequency. The addition of the psychosocial factors to the regression model resulted in a significant 41% increase of explained variation in handwashing frequency. In this final model, the amount of water was the only contextual factor that remained a significant predictor. The most important predictors were a belief of self-efficacy, planning how, when, and where to wash hands, and always remembering to do so. The findings suggest that contextual constraints might be perceived rather than actual barriers and highlight the role of psychosocial factors in understanding hygiene behaviors. PMID:27139449

  10. Succesful Lean Manufacturing Implementation: Internal Key Influencing Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virginia, Iuga; Claudiu, Kifor

    2015-09-01

    Manufacturing sectors and companies all over the world are successfully implementing lean principles within their processes. Nowadays, lean has become an indispensable part of global players. Companies worldwide need to be aware of multiple factors which weigh heavily on the success or failure of lean implementation. This paper focuses on giving a brief and structured overview over the fundamental organizational factors which play a substantial role for the lean manufacturing (LM) implementation process. The study below focuses on internal factors which are indispensable for a successful LM implementation within organizations. It is imperative that these internal factors are known, recognized and taken into consideration during the whole LM implementation process. Ignoring their influence on the process's implementation may lead to endangering the expected results or to making the process more difficult which could result in much higher human resource consumption.

  11. Factors Influencing Prolonged ICU Stay After Open Heart Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Azarfarin, Rasoul; Ashouri, Nasibeh; Totonchi, Ziae; Bakhshandeh, Hooman; Yaghoubi, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are different risk factors that affect the intensive care unit (ICU) stay after cardiac surgery. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate possible risk factors influencing prolonged ICU stay in a large referral hospital. Patients and Methods: We conducted a case-control study to determinate causes of prolonged ICU stay in 280 adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery in a tertiary care center for cardiovascular patients, Tehran, Iran. These patients were divided into two groups according to ICU stay ≤ 96 and > 96 hours. We evaluated perioperative risk factors of ICU stay > 96 hours. Results: Among the 280 patients studied, 184 (65.7%) had stayed ≤ 96 hours and 96 (34.3%) had stayed > 96 hours in ICU. Frequency of prolonged ICU stay was 34.2% in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), 30.8% in patients with valve surgery, and 44.8% in patients with CABG plus valve surgery. Patients with > 96 hours of ICU stay received more blood transfusion and intravenous inotropes. They also had longer anesthesia, cardiopulmonary bypass, and postoperative intubation time. There were higher incidence of postoperative tamponade, re-exploration, re-intubation, hemodialysis, and hypotension in this group (P < 0.05 for all comparisons). Conclusions: In this study, about one-third of patients had prolonged ICU stay. Factors influencing prolonged ICU stay were medical and some non-medical factors. In the present study, up to 30% of the patients had a prolonged ICU stay of > 96 hours. Additional data from well-designed investigations are needed for further assessment of the factors influencing prolonged ICU stay after cardiac surgery. PMID:25785249

  12. Incentives for breastfeeding and for smoking cessation in pregnancy: an exploration of types and meanings.

    PubMed

    Crossland, Nicola; Thomson, Gill; Morgan, Heather; Dombrowski, Stephan U; Hoddinott, Pat

    2015-03-01

    Financial or tangible incentives are a strategy for improving health behaviours. The mechanisms of action of incentives are complex and debated. Using a multidisciplinary integrated mixed methods study, with service-user collaboration throughout, we developed a typology of incentives and their meanings for initiating and sustaining smoking cessation in pregnancy and breastfeeding. The ultimate aim was to inform incentive intervention design by providing insights into incentive acceptability and mechanisms of action. Systematic evidence syntheses of incentive intervention studies for smoking cessation in pregnancy or breastfeeding identified incentive characteristics, which were developed into initial categories. Little published qualitative data on user perspectives and acceptability was available. Qualitative interviews and focus groups conducted in three UK regions with a diverse socio-demographic sample of 88 women and significant others from the target population, 53 service providers, 24 experts/decision makers, and conference attendees identified new potential incentives and providers, with and without experience of incentives. Identified incentives (published and emergent) were classified into eight categories: cash and shopping vouchers, maternal wellbeing, baby and pregnancy-related, behaviour-related, health-related, general utility, awards and certificates, and experiences. A typology was refined iteratively through concurrent data collection and thematic analysis to explore participants' understandings of 'incentives' and to compare and contrast meanings across types. Our typology can be understood in three dimensions: the degree of restriction, the extent to which each is hedonic and/or utilitarian, and whether each has solely monetary value versus monetary with added social value. The layers of autonomy, meanings and the social value of incentive types influence their acceptability and interact with structural, social, and personal factors. Dimensions

  13. Health Related Quality of Life and Influencing Factors among Welders

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jingxiang; Liu, Wuzhong; Zhu, Jun; Weng, Wei; Xu, Jiaming; Ai, Zisheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. Welders are exposed to many occupational hazards; these hazards might cause some occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQL) of electric welders in Shanghai China and explore influencing factors to HRQL of welders. Methods 301 male welders (without pneumoconiosis) and 305 non-dust male workers in Shanghai were enrolled in this study. Short Form-36 (SF-36) health survey questionnaires were applied in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, working and health factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regress analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the eight dimension scores. Results Six dimensions including role-physical (RP), bodily pain (BP), general health (GH), validity (VT), social function (SF), and mental health (MH) were significantly worse in welders compared to non-dust workers. Multiple stepwise regress analysis results show that native place, monthly income, quantity of children, drinking, sleep time, welding type, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), great events in life, and some symptoms including dizziness, discomfort of cervical vertebra, low back pain, cough and insomnia may be influencing factors for HRQL of welders. Among these factors, only sleep time and the use of PPE were salutary. Conclusions Some dimensions of HRQL of these welders have been affected. Enterprises which employ welders should take measures to protect the health of these people and improve their HRQL. PMID:25048102

  14. [Seasonal variation and related influencing factors for tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z B; Lu, Z Q; Xie, H; Duan, Q H

    2016-08-10

    Tuberculosis is recognized as a chronic respiratory infectious disease and still one of the important public health issues in the world. Douglas reported an unique seasonal pattern (summer peak) of tuberculosis, when compared with most other respiratory diseases in 1996. Since then, there had been many other researchers notified various patterns of seasonality on TB. This paper reviewed all the studies published in the last five years and analyzed the current findings on seasonal variability and influencing factors, in order to explore the risk factors to provide evidence for prevention and control strategies on tuberculosis. PMID:27539356

  15. The Influence of Various Factors on the Methane Fermentation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurbanova, M. G.; Egushova, E. A.; Pozdnjakova, OG

    2015-09-01

    The article describes the stages of the methane fermentation process. The phases of methane formation are characterized. The results of the experimental data based on the study of various factors influencing the rate of biogas production and its yield are presented. Such factors as the size of the substrate particles and temperature conditions in the reactor are considered. It is revealed on the basis of experimental data which of the farm animals and poultry excrements are exposed to the most complete fermentation without special preparation. The relationship between fermentation regime, particle size of the feedstock and biogas yield is graphically presented.

  16. Children's disaster reactions: the influence of family and social factors.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Jacobs, Anne K; Houston, J Brian; Griffin, Natalie

    2015-07-01

    This review examines family (demographics, parent reactions and interactions, and parenting style) and social (remote effects, disaster media coverage, exposure to secondary adversities, and social support) factors that influence children's disaster reactions. Lower family socioeconomic status, high parental stress, poor parental coping, contact with media coverage, and exposure to secondary adversities have been associated with adverse outcomes. Social support may provide protection to children in the post-disaster environment though more research is needed to clarify the effects of certain forms of social support. The interaction of the factors described in this review with culture needs further exploration. PMID:25980512

  17. Environmental factors influencing the efficacy of probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Marco, Maria L; Tachon, Sybille

    2013-04-01

    Probiotic bacteria are not typical ingredients but rather living cells that can rapidly respond and adapt to changing conditions in their environment. Numerous factors from culture preparation and preservation, conditions in consumer product matrices, and genetic, dietary, cultural, and health differences between consumers can affect probiotic cell activity and probably influence the specific host-microbe interactions required for probiotic effects in the digestive tract. Understanding the impact of these factors on probiotic efficacy will aid in elucidating the molecular mechanisms of probiotic function, improve the design of probiotic-containing consumer products, and guide the establishment of standardized procedures for clinical studies intended to evaluate probiotic effects. PMID:23102489

  18. Metal Oxide Gas Sensors: Sensitivity and Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengxiang; Yin, Longwei; Zhang, Luyuan; Xiang, Dong; Gao, Rui

    2010-01-01

    Conductometric semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors have been widely used and investigated in the detection of gases. Investigations have indicated that the gas sensing process is strongly related to surface reactions, so one of the important parameters of gas sensors, the sensitivity of the metal oxide based materials, will change with the factors influencing the surface reactions, such as chemical components, surface-modification and microstructures of sensing layers, temperature and humidity. In this brief review, attention will be focused on changes of sensitivity of conductometric semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors due to the five factors mentioned above. PMID:22294916

  19. Factors influencing the local planning of dental services.

    PubMed

    Downer, M C; Whittle, J G; Teagle, F A

    1979-10-01

    Findings from a survey of 796 high school children in four districts constituting a health administrative area were examined to ascertain the factors influencing their dental disease experience, treatment received and attendance pattern. In three of the four districts, over 60% of the children were regular attenders, enjoying the benefit of less active caries than irregular attenders. However, in the remaining district, much of which consisted of depressed, inner city areas undergoing re-development, only one third were regular attenders. Several local factors, such as availability and accessibility of services, probably influenced the numbers seeking regular care, but one of the most important appeared to be the level of provision in the salaried Community Dental Service. The implications of the findings for planning improvements in local services are discussed. PMID:295706

  20. Gender differences in how retirees perceive factors influencing unretirement.

    PubMed

    Armstrong-Stassen, Marjorie; Staats, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Returning to paid employment after retirement is occurring in many developed countries and can be expected to increase in the future. This study compared how women (n = 202) and men (n = 347) who had retired from a managerial or professional career occupation perceived factors associated with unretirement. Retired professional women perceived reasons to unretire, age-friendly human resource practices, and re-entry barriers to have greater influence on retirees' decision to unretire than retired managerial women and retired men. Both groups of retired women perceived training and development opportunities to have more influence than retired men. A major contribution of this study is the identification of pre-retirement career occupation as having an important effect on how female, but not male, retirees perceived the various factors. The findings suggest that researchers and employers need to consider the diversity that exists among retirees, not only gender differences but also differences among retired career women. PMID:23115913