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Sample records for factors influencing breastfeeding

  1. An Integrative Review of Factors Influencing Breastfeeding in Adolescent Mothers.

    PubMed

    Kanhadilok, Supannee; McGrath, Jacqueline M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this integrative review was to describe factors that influence breastfeeding behaviors in adolescent mothers. Twenty-two articles met inclusion criteria. Findings showed that most adolescent mothers intended to breastfeed during pregnancy. Yet, breastfeeding initiation ranged from 39% to 69%. Almost half of adolescent mothers stopped within 1 month. Less than 25% continued to breastfeeding behaviors to 6 months. Factors that influenced breastfeeding decisions in adolescent mothers included social and cultural norms. Personal beliefs about being a good mother were important to intention and initiation of breastfeeding. Promoting maternal competence was found to be essential to breastfeeding initiation and continuation for adolescent mothers. Support from partners and professionals also led to positive attitudes toward breastfeeding initiation and continuation. PMID:26957895

  2. An Integrative Review of Factors Influencing Breastfeeding in Adolescent Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Kanhadilok, Supannee; McGrath, Jacqueline M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this integrative review was to describe factors that influence breastfeeding behaviors in adolescent mothers. Twenty-two articles met inclusion criteria. Findings showed that most adolescent mothers intended to breastfeed during pregnancy. Yet, breastfeeding initiation ranged from 39% to 69%. Almost half of adolescent mothers stopped within 1 month. Less than 25% continued to breastfeeding behaviors to 6 months. Factors that influenced breastfeeding decisions in adolescent mothers included social and cultural norms. Personal beliefs about being a good mother were important to intention and initiation of breastfeeding. Promoting maternal competence was found to be essential to breastfeeding initiation and continuation for adolescent mothers. Support from partners and professionals also led to positive attitudes toward breastfeeding initiation and continuation. PMID:26957895

  3. Breastfeeding in America: a history of influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Thulier, Diane

    2009-02-01

    The author explores the history of breastfeeding in America. Popular belief is that medicine, science, and the formula industry have had the most impact on women's decisions to bottle versus breastfeed. What cannot be overlooked are other areas of influence. Cultural practices, including the beliefs of colonial Americans, the increased social value of children in the 20th century, and the emergence of a middle class, have influenced maternal decision making. The first and second waves of feminism affected women's choices. Politics and religion have had multiple and varied influences. It is this author's position that culture, gender, politics, and religion, as well as medicine, science, and industry, have combined to affect feeding choices. All of these influences, as well as others, both unforeseen and unpredictable, will continue to affect the future of breastfeeding in our society. PMID:19196856

  4. Factors that influence breastfeeding decisions among special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children participants from Central Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Murimi, Mary; Dodge, Candace Mire; Pope, Janet; Erickson, Dawn

    2010-04-01

    Although human milk provides optimal nutrition for infants, fewer than one third of US infants are breastfed exclusively for 6 months or more. The objectives of this study were to determine the factors that have the greatest impact on the decisions to breastfeed, and to determine the effect of formula provided by the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) on the initiation and duration of breastfeeding among WIC participants in a rural parish in central Louisiana. A cross-sectional study was done between September 2007 and March 2008 among 130 WIC participants. Approximately half (51%) of the participants reported breastfeeding their youngest child for a mean of 15.7+/-14.9 weeks, with more white mothers breastfeeding than did African-American mothers or other races (P<0.01). Significantly more people reported that incentives provided to encourage breastfeeding did not affect their decision to breastfeed than those who said incentives affected their decision to breastfeed (P<0.029). Finally, study participants who were breastfed as a child were significantly more likely to breastfeed their children than those who were not breastfed as a child (P<0.022). The majority (96%) of the participants in this study indicated that WIC is providing effective and clear education about the benefits of breastfeeding, and that this advice influenced their decision to breastfeed their children. These findings underscore the importance of emphasizing the health benefits of breastfeeding to increase initiation and duration rates among WIC participants. PMID:20338290

  5. [INFLUENCE OF REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS, BREASTFEEDING AND OBESITY ON THE RISK OF BREAST CANCER IN MEXICAN WOMEN].

    PubMed

    Navarro-Ibarra, María Jossé; Caire-Juvera, Graciela; Ortega-Vélez, María Isabel; Bolaños-Villar, Adriana Verónica; Saucedo-Tamayo, María Del Socorro

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is considered a global public health problem, and is the most frequently type diagnosed in Mexican women. Therefore, it is important to study the risk factors associated to this neoplasia in order to establish prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hormonal contraceptives and hormone therapy (HT) use and period of use, breastfeeding practice, abdominal obesity and weight gain in adulthood, on the risk of BC in adult women from Northwest Mexico. This was a case-control study that included 162 women (81 cases and 81 controls). A sociodemographic and health questionnaire, and a survey history of body weight were applied to participants. Measurements of body weight, height and waist circumference were performed. To assess the association between BC risk and exposing factors, a multivariate logistic regression model was used. Average age of cases and controls were 51.8 ± 11.7 and 51.4 ± 11.3 years, respectively. No significant association was found between the use and period of use of hormonal contraceptives and HT with the risk of BC. The practice of breastfeeding (OR=0.34, 95%CI: 0.12- 0.92) and the time of exclusive breastfeeding (OR=0.64, 95%CI: 0.42-0.97; crude) were protective against the risk of BC. Abdominal obesity (OR=0.93, 95%CI: 0.90-0.97) and weight gain in early adulthood (OR=0.90, 95%CI: 0.85-0.95) were inversely associated to the risk of BC. In conclusion, the practice of breastfeeding may help prevent BC in Mexican women. PMID:26262729

  6. Factors influencing breastfeeding exclusivity during the first 6 months of life in developing countries: a quantitative and qualitative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Balogun, Olukunmi Omobolanle; Dagvadorj, Amarjagal; Anigo, Kola Mathew; Ota, Erika; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2015-10-01

    Breastfeeding is the most advantageous feeding option for infants, and epidemiological studies provide evidence for its promotion. The objective of this review was to comprehensively delineate the barriers and facilitators of exclusive breastfeeding of infants aged 0-6 months old by mothers in developing countries. A search of CINAHL, MEDLINE and PsycINFO was carried out to retrieve studies from January 2001 to January 2014. Using our inclusion criteria, we selected studies that described barriers and facilitators of exclusive breastfeeding. Qualitative and quantitative studies were considered. Twenty-five studies involving 11 025 participants from 19 countries were included. Barriers and facilitators of exclusive/full breastfeeding were identified, analysed tabulated and summarised in this review. Maternal employment was the most frequently cited barrier to exclusive breastfeeding. Maternal perceptions of insufficient breast milk supply was pervasive among studies while medical barriers related to illness of mothers and/or infants as well as breast problems, rather than health care providers. Socio-cultural factors such as maternal and significant other's beliefs about infant nutrition also often constitute strong barriers to exclusive breastfeeding. Despite these barriers, mothers in developing countries often possess certain personal characteristics and develop strategic plans to enhance their success at breastfeeding. Health care providers should be informed about the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding and provide practical anticipatory guidance targeted at overcoming these barriers. In so doing, health care providers in developing countries can contribute to improving maternal and child health outcomes. PMID:25857205

  7. Culture and Caregivers: Factors Influencing Breastfeeding among Mothers in West Belfast, Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Hilary; Cousins, Wendy; Casson, Karen; Moore, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Breastfeeding is a key public health measure to protect and promote the health of one of the most vulnerable groups of the population--infants and children. Northern Ireland, however, has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates in the world. This paper reports the results of a questionnaire survey of 120 mothers attending mother and toddler groups…

  8. Socio-economic and demographic factors influencing breast-feeding among Kuwaiti women.

    PubMed

    Al Bustan, M; Kohli, B R

    1988-01-01

    Data about breastfeeding practices were collected from a sample of 1553 Kuwaiti married women during June 1985 to November 1985. The survey results show that Kuwaiti population is similar to other populations in the Middle East in having moderate incidence and duration of breastfeeding. The findings of a strong positive association between duration of breastfeeding and parity of the infant, and age of the mother at the time of birth of the child were observed which was expected. Further negative association between breastfeeding and family income, education of the mother and age of mother at marriage was confirmed by the data. Survey findings also support the general expectation that housewives have higher incidence and duration of breastfeeding relative to working mothers. Contrary to the practice among developing societies, Kuwaiti women did not show any preferential treatment for male infants. The survey findings call for concerted efforts through mass media, and education to promote breastfeeding practices for the benefits of infants as well as mothers. PMID:12281668

  9. [Influence of primary care personnel on breastfeeding duration].

    PubMed

    Jovani Roda, L; Gutiérrez Culsant, P; Aguilar Martín, C; Navarro Caballé, R; Mayor Pegueroles, I; Jornet Torrent, Y

    2002-12-01

    Background Breastfeeding duration in Spanish neonates does not fulfill the recommendations of the World Health Organization.ObjectiveTo report the results of a policy of breastfeeding support in a primary care center.Material and methodsWe performed a before-and-after intervention study of all mothers of children born in Ulldecona who decided to breast feed in 1992, 1993, 1996 and 1997 (control group: 125 infants), and from August 1999-August 2001 (72 infants). Study variable: in May 1999 a breastfeeding support policy was initiated in the primary care center.ResultsBreastfeeding duration increased (in the control group the mean duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 18.8 weeks; from 1999 to 2001 it was 28 weeks). Negative factors for breastfeeding were the birth of twins, introduction of a supplement, and education (there was an inverse relationship between greater education and breastfeeding duration). Duration of breastfeeding was longer in Moroccan mothers. Sex, gestational age, weight, type of delivery, separation between mother and neonate, maternal age, previous children, and work outside the home did not influence breastfeeding duration. Simple lineal regression revealed that the intervention was effective (P 0.046). Early hypogalactia and breast problems decreased, and voluntary weaning increased (P < 0.001).ConclusionThe primary care team plays key role in the maintenance of breastfeeding and in the well-being of the mother and neonate. PMID:12466076

  10. Breastfeeding at 6 weeks and predictive factors.

    PubMed

    Chye, J K; Zain, Z; Lim, W L; Lim, C T

    1997-10-01

    Despite the numerous changes made in accordance with the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, the low rates of breastfeeding have persisted. This study aims to examine the current trend in infant feeding, and the influences of some perinatal and sociodemographic factors on breastfeeding. Five-hundred mothers with singleton pregnancies and healthy infants were interviewed at 6 weeks post-partum. Only 124 (25 per cent) mothers were practising exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), and 132 (26 per cent) mothers were using exclusive infant formula feeding (EIF). On logistic regression analyses, mothers who followed EBF were more likely to have had antenatal plans to breastfeed (Odds ratio 2.44, 95 per cent confidence interval 1.75-3.45), not in paid employment post-natally (OR 1.76, 95 per cent CI 1.31-2.36), of older age group (> 27 years) (OR 1.48, 95 per cent CI 1.13-1.93), had female infants (OR 1.38, 95 per cent CI 1.05-1.80) and of Indian ethnicity (compared to Chinese) (OR 3.87, 95 per cent CI 2.16-6.89). Breastfeeding difficulties were associated with decreased odds of EBF (OR 0.21, 95 per cent CI 0.13-0.34). Parental education, fathers' ages and incomes, primigravida status, Caesarean section, present of episiotomy, late first breastfeed, phototherapy, and length of hospital stay were not significant predictors of failure of EBF. In comparison, predictive factors for increased use of EIF were mothers who have had breastfeeding difficulties, < or = 9 years of schooling, and of Chinese descent. In conclusions, the overall rate of EBF by 6 weeks of age in infants born in this urban hospital had remained poor. The adverse factors for EBF identified in this study warrant further in-depth studies to determine effective ways of improving EBF rates. PMID:9364127

  11. The influence of adolescent mothers' breastfeeding confidence and attitudes on breastfeeding initiation and duration.

    PubMed

    Mossman, Marion; Heaman, Maureen; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Morris, Margaret

    2008-08-01

    A prospective correlational study was conducted to examine the influence of adolescent mothers' breastfeeding attitudes and confidence on breastfeeding initiation and duration. A convenience sample of 100 pregnant adolescents who were contemplating breastfeeding completed the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF) and the Breastfeeding Attitude Questionnaire (BAQ). The BSES-SF was readministered during the first week postpartum to those adolescents who initiated breastfeeding (n=84). Adolescents who were breastfeeding at the initial contact received a follow-up contact at 4 weeks postpartum. Comparisons were made between those adolescent mothers who initiated breastfeeding (n=84) and those who did not (n=16). Significantly more mothers with higher prenatal attitude scores initiated breastfeeding. Mothers with higher prenatal breastfeeding attitude scores and higher prenatal and postnatal confidence scores were more likely to continue breastfeeding to 4 weeks postpartum. Health professionals are encouraged to develop strategies to enhance breastfeeding attitudes and confidence among adolescent mothers. PMID:18689714

  12. Factors affecting the initiation of breastfeeding: implications for breastfeeding promotion.

    PubMed

    Earle, Sarah

    2002-09-01

    Breastfeeding rates in the United Kingdom (UK) are one of the lowest in the developed world and certainly the lowest in Europe. There have been numerous studies of breastfeeding in the UK, most of which have adopted a quantitative approach, and they have largely focused on obstetric or socio-demographic factors in the decision to breastfeed. Whilst these studies have an important role to play, this paper draws on a study that adopts a qualitative methodology to explore women's personal experiences and perceptions of breastfeeding. A qualitative study of 19 primagravidae was undertaken and completed in 1998. Participants were recruited to the study via 12 antenatal clinics in the West Midlands, England, UK. Their ages ranged from 16 to 30 years and the majority described themselves as 'white'. The majority of participants were in paid employment in a variety of occupations. The study was prospective in design. Participants were interviewed three times either during pregnancy or after childbirth: the first stage was between 6 and 14 weeks of pregnancy; the second stage was between 34 and 39 weeks; and the third stage was between 6 and 14 weeks after childbirth. The data indicate that there are several factors affecting breastfeeding initiation. First, infant feeding decisions seem to be made prior to, or irrespective of, contact with health professionals. Secondly, the data suggest that health promotion campaigns in the UK have been influential in their ability to educate women about the benefits of breastfeeding. However, this did not dissuade participants from formula feeding once their decision was made. The desire for paternal involvement also seemed to be another influential factor; fathers were either seen as able to alleviate the daily grind of early motherhood, or there was a desire for 'shared parenting'. Finally, some of the formula feeding women expressed a strong desire to re-establish their identities as separate individuals and as 'non-mothers'. PMID

  13. Factors affecting breast-feeding among Hong Kong Chinese.

    PubMed

    Koo, L C; Wong, V C; Ho, C Y

    1986-12-01

    413 mothers attending maternal and child health (MCH) clinics located throughout Kowloon and Hong Kong Island were surveyed in the summer of 1983 to evaluate the impact of programs to promote breastfeeding and to facilitate understanding of other social, cultural, economic, attitudinal, or hospital factors which may influence the choice of infant feeding patterns among postnatal mothers. The interviews were limited to mothers who had given birth within the last 2 years. The mothers ranged in age from 17-42 years. Of the total sample of 413 babies, 116 (28.1%) had been breastfed at least once, and these infants were counted as incidence cases. Among these 116 breastfed infants, the duration of breastfeeding was estimated among 88 of the infants whose breastfeeding had ceased. The remaining 28 were excluded from the analysis because they were still young and breastfeeding was continuing at the time of the interview. The mean duration of breastfeeding was 10 weeks but about 1/3 of these babies had been breastfed for less than 1 week. 61% of the breastfed babies stopped breastfeeding after 1 month of age; only 11 babies had been breastfed for over 6 months. There was no difference in the incidence or duration of breastfeeding among male and female infants. The incidence of breastfeeding was found to be directly related to increasing levels of education in either parent. The middle income group had both the lowest incidence and shortest duration of breastfeeding in comparison with other groups. Although the incidence of breastfeeding was highest among the highest income group, only 11.1% had the infant breastfeeding for 7 or more weeks. Breastfed infants in the families with the lowest income level had some 51.7% of their breastfed infants feeding on the breast for more than 7 weeks. Approximately 30% of the mothers believed that breast milk was superior to infant formulas, and 2/3 of these mothers actually breastfed their babies. The lowest rates for breastfeeding (14

  14. The establishment and duration of breastfeeding. Part 1: Hospital influences.

    PubMed

    Vogel, A M; Mitchell, E A

    1998-05-01

    Most New Zealand mothers initiate breastfeeding in hospital, but many continue for only a relatively short time. Focus group discussions with mothers and health care workers on their perceptions of important factors influencing the duration of breastfeeding indicated many negative initial hospital experiences. Specific concerns included overworked staff; lack of health care workers' skills, particularly in helping infants to latch on; inconsistent advice; noise and embarrassment in four bedded rooms; and the impact of changes in the provision of maternity services and funding. PMID:9618601

  15. Breast Is Best? Reasons Why Mothers Decide to Breastfeed or Bottlefeed Their Babies and Factors Influencing the Duration of Breastfeeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Seaneen; Sneddon, Helga; Stewart, Moira; Iwaniec, Dorota

    2006-01-01

    Breastfeeding is known to confer benefits, both in the short term and long term, to the child and also to the mother. Various health-promotion initiatives have aimed to increase breastfeeding rates and duration in the United Kingdom over the past decade. In order to assist in these endeavours, it is essential to understand the reasons why women…

  16. Early interruption of exclusive breastfeeding and associated factors, state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Venancio, Sonia I; Saldiva, Silvia Regina D M; Mondini, Lenise; Levy, Renata B; Escuder, Maria Mercedes L

    2008-05-01

    Many reports about breastfeeding prevalence and factors associated with weaning have been published in the scientific literature. However, the influence of newborn feeding practices on the duration of exclusive breastfeeding has received less attention. This study provides information about the introduction of liquids, other than the mother's milk, to infants in the first 6 months and factors associated with this practice. PMID:18436968

  17. Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Print | Home > A-Z Health Topics > Breastfeeding Breastfeeding Photo credit: DFW Bellies & Babies The experience of ... nursing moms in the workplace Pregnancy Subscribe to breastfeeding email updates Email Content last updated: July 21, ...

  18. Breastfeeding Practices During the First Month Postpartum and Associated Factors: Impact on Breastfeeding Survival

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Forough; Mousavi, Seyed Abbas; Chaman, Reza; Wambach, Karen Ann; Mortazavi, Saideh Sadat; Khosravi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: The introduction of fluids to infants during the first days postpartum, which may be harmful to infant health, is a common practice in Iran. Objectives: This study aimed to find the prevalence of breastfeeding practices using monthly dietary recall and factors associated with introduction of fluids during the first month of life and determine the effects of these supplementations on breastfeeding survival. Patients and Methods: This longitudinal study carried out in Shahroud, Iran from May 2011 to October 2013. Using convenient sampling strategy, 358 mothers in their third trimester of pregnancy were enrolled in the study and completed the questionnaires. Then the data regarding the introduction of fluids during first month postpartum was collected. We followed women monthly up to breastfeeding cessation. Kaplan-Meier and time-to-event methods were used to assess breastfeeding survival. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to identify the variables that determined breastfeeding practices at the first month postpartum. The Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the effect of variables on breastfeeding survival. Results: The prevalence of exclusive, predominant, and partial breastfeeding during the first month postpartum were 33.1%, 58.2%, and 8.6%, respectively. Predominant breastfeeding was associated with the lack of breastfeeding experience (OR = 1.93; 95% CI [1.02 - 3.66]). Partial breastfeeding was associated with the maternal age ≥ 30 y (OR = 5.96; CI [1.66 - 21.37]), family income higher than the mean (OR = 3.39; 95% CI [1.17 - 9.81]), and breastfeeding difficulties score higher than mean (OR = 3.09; 95% CI [1.10 - 8.71]). The Cox regression analysis revealed that breastfeeding practices at the first month was associated with an increased risk for breastfeeding discontinuation. The hazard ratio of breastfeeding discontinuation for predominant and partial breastfeeding groups were 1.11 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.51; P = 0.49) and 2

  19. Influence of the support offered to breastfeeding by maternity hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Passanha, Adriana; Benício, Maria Helena D’Aquino; Venâncio, Sônia Isoyama; dos Reis, Márcia Cristina Guerreiro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the support offered by maternity hospitals is associated with higher prevalences of exclusive and predominant breastfeeding. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study including a representative sample of 916 infants less than six months who were born in maternity hospitals, in Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, 2011. The maternity hospitals were evaluated in relation to their fulfillment of the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. Data were collected regarding breastfeeding patterns, the birth hospital and other characteristics. The individualized effect of the study factor on exclusive and predominant breastfeeding was analyzed using Poisson multiple regression with robust variance. RESULTS Predominant breastfeeding tended to be more prevalent when the number of fulfilled steps was higher (p of linear trend = 0.057). The step related to not offering artificial teats or pacifiers to breastfed infants and that related to encouraging the establishment of breastfeeding support groups were associated, respectively, to a higher prevalence of exclusive (PR = 1.26; 95%CI 1.04;1.54) and predominant breastfeeding (PR = 1.55; 95%CI 1.01;2.39), after an adjustment was performed for confounding variables. CONCLUSIONS We observed a positive association between support offered by maternity hospitals and prevalences of exclusive and predominant breastfeeding. These results can be useful to other locations with similar characteristics (cities with hospitals that fulfill the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding) to provide incentive to breastfeeding, by means of promoting, protecting and supporting breastfeeding in maternity hospitals. PMID:26759966

  20. Understanding the social and cultural influences on breast-feeding today.

    PubMed

    Battersby, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Breast-feeding is a key public health target but social and cultural factors are often overlooked when encouraging mothers to choose breast-feeding as their method of infant feeding. Historically, there have always been some mothers who have sought alternatives to breast-feeding. Age, level of education and occupation impact upon a mother's choice, and the sexualization of the female breast can lead to embarrassment when mothers breast-feed outside the home. Fear of damaging their body shape can prevent some mothers from breast-feeding, while others see breast-feeding as desirable as it can lead to weight loss. The attitudes of partners, relatives and friends can influence mothers to varying degrees in their choice of infant feeding. Knowledge of various influences can assist health professionals in their public health role and help them to give mothers advice relevant to their circumstances. PMID:21053661

  1. Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    Breastfeeding offers many benefits to your baby. Breast milk contains the right balance of nutrients to help ... should breastfeed. If you are having problems with breastfeeding, contact a lactation consultant. NIH: National Institute of ...

  2. Parents’ Health Beliefs Influence Breastfeeding Patterns among Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, Parisa; Masoumi, Zahra; Parsa, Nakisa; Parsa, Bita

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine factors related to breastfeeding and its perceived health benefits among Iranian mothers. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed using 240 postpartum women who were selected randomly from eight public health care centers in Hamadan, Iran, in 2012. Mothers who breastfed (BF) and mothers who never breastfed (NBF) were given a structured questionnaire to collect their demographic data and information regarding their health beliefs and attitude towards child-rearing. Descriptive and logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results The mean length of breastfeeding was 11.6 (standard deviation=12.5) weeks. There was no difference in demographic variables, such as age, type of medical insurance, number of living children, employment, education, and household income (p>0.050), between mothers that breastfed and those that did not. Mothers’ perception of the severity of child illness was higher in those who breastfed than those who never breastfed (p=0.050). In contrast, BF mothers had higher perceived confidence of medical care to prevent diseases (p<0.050) and a higher perception of reverse parent-child roles than NBF mothers (p<0.050). Conclusion Mothers’ health beliefs and attitude to parenting has a significant role in choosing to breastfeed. Physicians and healthcare providers may provide supportive information that influence a mother’s breastfeeding behavior. PMID:26171125

  3. A case report of breastfeeding quadruplets: factors perceived as affecting breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Auer, C; Gromada, K K

    1998-06-01

    The number of higher-order multiple births in the United States quadrupled between 1970 and 1994. The number of women choosing to breastfeed their higher-order multiples also has risen. In this report, a mother of quadruplets identifies factors and interventions she perceived as having a positive or negative impact on breastfeeding. Maternal motivation coupled with a mother's personal approach to breastfeeding quadruplets may be key factors in shaping breastfeeding outcomes, such as in this case where one quad weaned at 12 months and the remaining three breastfed for 2 1/2 years. With increased discussion of this select population, lactation consultants and other health professionals will be able to develop breastfeeding care plans which reflect this population's unique needs and concerns from the prenatal through postpartum periods. PMID:9775846

  4. The influence of culture on breast-feeding decisions by African American and white women.

    PubMed

    Street, Darlene Joyner; Lewallen, Lynne Porter

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how culture influenced breast-feeding decisions in African American and white women, using the Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality as a framework. One hundred eighty-six participants responded to the following: The word culture means beliefs and traditions passed down by your family and friends. How has culture affected how you plan to feed your baby? Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data. Four categories of responses were identified: influences of family, known benefits of breast-feeding, influences of friends, and personal choice. The findings suggest that race alone may not be as influential in infant feeding decisions as other factors. Although some women acknowledged the effect of their cultural background and experiences, most women reported that their culture did not affect their infant feeding decision. In this population, breast-feeding decisions were based on the influences of family, friends, self, and the perceived knowledge of breast-feeding benefits. Although breast-feeding statistics are commonly reported by race, cultural influences on infant feeding decisions may transcend race and include the influence of family and friends, learned information from impersonal sources, and information that is shared and observed from other people. PMID:23360941

  5. Factors affecting breastfeeding duration in Greece: What is important?

    PubMed Central

    Tavoulari, Evangelia-Filothei; Benetou, Vassiliki; Vlastarakos, Petros V; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Chrousos, George; Kreatsas, George; Gryparis, Alexandros; Linos, Athena

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate factors associated with breastfeeding duration (BD) in a sample of mothers living in Greece. METHODS Four hundred and twenty-eight mothers (438 infants) were initially recruited in a tertiary University Hospital. Monthly telephone interviews (1665 in total) using a structured questionnaire (one for each infant) were conducted until the sixth postpartum month. Cox regression analysis was used to assess factors influencing any BD. RESULTS Any breastfeeding rates in the first, third, and sixth month of the infant’s life reached 87.5%, 57.0% and 38.75%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, maternal smoking in the lactation period [hazard-ratio (HR) = 4.20] and psychological status (HR = 1.72), and the introduction of a pacifier (HR = 2.08), were inversely associated, while higher maternal education (HRuniversity/college vs primary/high school = 0.53, HRmaster’s vs primary/high school = 0.20), and being an immigrant (HR = 0.35) were positively associated with BD. CONCLUSION Public health interventions should focus on campaigns against smoking during lactation, target women of lower educational status, and endorse the delayed introduction of pacifiers. PMID:27610353

  6. Factors influencing mothers' decision to breastfeed in public.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Yvonne L

    2004-03-01

    Breastfeeding in public was a major theme that emerged in a previous Western Australian study that explored the maternal process of managing breastfeeding and subsequent weaning. This paper highlights the factors that influenced mothers' decisions to breastfeed in public. Confidence with breastfeeding, the ability to be discreet, the mother's body image, previous experience, age of the breastfeeding child, the audience, feelings of the partner, breastfeeding location and perceptions of societal expectations all impacted upon the decision of how to manage breastfeeding in public. Initiatives to promote a breastfeeding friendly community are briefly discussed as well as strategies that participants employed to manage their breastfeeding in public. These findings add to our knowledge on breastfeeding and have implications for how we support breastfeeding women. PMID:17004344

  7. Factors associated with Early Initiation of Breastfeeding in Western Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Khanal, Vishnu; Scott, Jane A.; Lee, Andy H.; Karkee, Rajendra; Binns, Colin W.

    2015-01-01

    The initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth has numerous nutritional and immunological benefits and has been found to reduce neonatal mortality. This community-based prospective cohort study aimed to report the rate of, and factors associated with, early initiation of breastfeeding in Western Nepal. The rate of early initiation of breastfeeding was reported, and associations between early initiation and independent variables were tested by Chi-square test, followed by multiple logistic regression. Of the 735 mother-infant pairs, a total of 310 (42.2%) reported early initiation. Mothers who were assisted by traditional attendants during childbirth, delivered by caesarean section, from ethnically disadvantaged families and had delivered low birth weight infants, were less likely to initiate breastfeeding early whereas the mothers who were from the poorest families and did not introduce prelacteal feeds to their infants were more likely to initiate breastfeeding within the first hour. Skills-training to support breastfeeding as part of the training of skilled birth attendants and other health workers is likely to promote recommended infant feeding practices. PMID:26287223

  8. Factors associated with Early Initiation of Breastfeeding in Western Nepal.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Vishnu; Scott, Jane A; Lee, Andy H; Karkee, Rajendra; Binns, Colin W

    2015-08-01

    The initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth has numerous nutritional and immunological benefits and has been found to reduce neonatal mortality. This community-based prospective cohort study aimed to report the rate of, and factors associated with, early initiation of breastfeeding in Western Nepal. The rate of early initiation of breastfeeding was reported, and associations between early initiation and independent variables were tested by Chi-square test, followed by multiple logistic regression. Of the 735 mother-infant pairs, a total of 310 (42.2%) reported early initiation. Mothers who were assisted by traditional attendants during childbirth, delivered by caesarean section, from ethnically disadvantaged families and had delivered low birth weight infants, were less likely to initiate breastfeeding early whereas the mothers who were from the poorest families and did not introduce prelacteal feeds to their infants were more likely to initiate breastfeeding within the first hour. Skills-training to support breastfeeding as part of the training of skilled birth attendants and other health workers is likely to promote recommended infant feeding practices. PMID:26287223

  9. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Mariana Campos Martins; Assis, Karine Franklin; Oliveira, Fabiana de Cássia Carvalho; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Araújo, Raquel Maria Amaral; Cury, Alexandre Faisal; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum, with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied to identify depressive symptoms in the first and second meetings, with a score of ≥ 12 considered as the cutoff point. Socioeconomic, demographic, and obstetric variables were investigated, along with emotional conditions and the new mothers’ social network during pregnancy and the postpartum period. RESULTS The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum was 53.6% (n = 90), 47.6% (n = 80), and 69.6% (n = 117), respectively, and its incidence in the fourth month compared with the first was 48.7%. Depressive symptoms and traumatic delivery were associated with exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in the second month after childbirth. In the fourth month, the following variables were significant: lower maternal education levels, lack of homeownership, returning to work, not receiving guidance on breastfeeding in the postpartum period, mother’s negative reaction to the news of pregnancy, and not receiving assistance from their partners for infant care. CONCLUSIONS Psychosocial and sociodemographic factors were strong predictors of early exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and provide early treatment to nursing mothers with depressive symptoms, decreasing the associated morbidity and promoting greater duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Support from health professionals, as well as that received at home and at work, can assist in this process. PMID:26039402

  10. Factors associated to breastfeeding cessation before 6 months.

    PubMed

    Roig, Antoni Oliver; Martínez, Miguel Richart; García, Julio Cabrero; Hoyos, Santiago Pérez; Navidad, Ginesa Laguna; Alvarez, Juan Carlos Flores; Pujalte, María Del Mar Calatayud; De León González, Ricardo García

    2010-01-01

    This research aimed to identify the determinants of full breastfeeding (FBF) and any breastfeeding (ABF) cessation before 6 months, through a six-month follow-up of 248 mothers going a postpartum visit. Data were collected by personal interview during the first month and telephone interviews at four and six months postpartum. Coxs proportional hazards model was used. Not having previous ABF experience, previous ABF duration factor against early FBF or ABF cessation. Activities supporting breastfeeding should be intensified for mothers with poorer access to information and with negative or without ABF previous experience. The use of pacifiers and not-medically indicated breast milk substitutes should be controlled. PMID:20721426

  11. Factors affecting breastfeeding practices: applying a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Hector, Debra; King, Lesley; Webb, Karen; Heywood, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge about factors affecting breastfeeding can be developed by further research on underlying factors and by drawing out the implications and lessons from intervention research. The use of a conceptual framework to guide this research and the interpretation of results can help us to understand the relative importance of different factors, and how they interact, in turn, helping us to design effective interventions. PMID:16106273

  12. Reduced breastfeeding rates among obese mothers: a review of contributing factors, clinical considerations and future directions.

    PubMed

    Bever Babendure, Jennie; Reifsnider, Elizabeth; Mendias, Elnora; Moramarco, Michael W; Davila, Yolanda R

    2015-01-01

    Maternal obesity is associated with significantly lower rates of breastfeeding initiation, duration and exclusivity. Increasing rates of obesity among reproductive-age women has prompted the need to carefully examine factors contributing to lower breastfeeding rates in this population. Recent research has demonstrated a significant impact of breastfeeding to reduce the risk of obesity in both mothers and their children. This article presents a review of research literature from three databases covering the years 1995 to 2014 using the search terms of breastfeeding and maternal obesity. We reviewed the existing research on contributing factors to lower breastfeeding rates among obese women, and our findings can guide the development of promising avenues to increase breastfeeding among a vulnerable population. The key findings concerned factors impacting initiation and early breastfeeding, factors impacting later breastfeeding and exclusivity, interventions to increase breastfeeding in obese women, and clinical considerations. The factors impacting early breastfeeding include mechanical factors and delayed onset of lactogenesis II and we have critically analyzed the potential contributors to these factors. The factors impacting later breastfeeding and exclusivity include hormonal imbalances, psychosocial factors, and mammary hypoplasia. Several recent interventions have sought to increase breastfeeding duration in obese women with varying levels of success and we have presented the strengths and weaknesses of these clinical trials. Clinical considerations include specific techniques that have been found to improve breastfeeding incidence and duration in obese women. Many obese women do not obtain the health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding and their children are more likely to also be overweight or obese if they are not breastfed. Further research is needed into the physiological basis for decreased breastfeeding among obese women along with effective

  13. Infant feeding practices and maternal socio-demographic factors that influence practice of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers in Nnewi South-East Nigeria: a cross-sectional and analytical study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Malnutrition is an underlying factor in more than 50% of the major cause of infant mortality-Pneumonia, diarrhoeal disease and measles which account for 70% of infant mortality. Therefore, programs to promote adequate nutrition for age can help reduce mortality from these disease conditions and indispensible to achievement of MDG 4. Aim To describe the feeding practices of infants below six months of age and determine maternal socio-demographic factors that influences the practice of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) among mothers in Nnewi, south-east Nigeria. Methods Four hundred mother-infant pairs attending the infant welfare clinic of the Nnamdi Azikiwe University teaching hospital (NAUTH) during 2012 were consecutively recruited after meeting the study inclusion criteria. Data on breastfeeding were based on infant feeding practice in the previous 24 hours. Exclusive breastfeeding was defined as infant feeding with only breast milk. Results Awareness (95.3%) and knowledge (82.0%) of EBF was high among surveyed mother but the practice of EBF (33.5%) was very low. Positive attitude towards EBF practice was shown by many (71.0%) of surveyed mothers. EBF practice decreased with increasing infant age, OR 0.72 (95% CI 0.34, 1.51) for 1–2 months, OR 0.58 (95% CI 0.23, 1.44) for 3–4 months and OR 0.20 (95% CI 0.06, 0.73) for 5–6 months compared to infants < 1 month old. Maternal education, socioeconomic class, mode of delivery and infants first feed were retained as important maternal predictors of EBF practice after adjustment for confounders. Decreased likelihood of EBF practice was found among mothers of lower educational attainment, OR 0.33 (95% CI 0.13, 0.81), mothers who delivered through caesarean section, OR 0.38 (95% CI 0.18, 0.84), mothers of higher socio-economic status [(middle class, OR 0.46 (95% CI 0.22, 0.99) and upper class, OR 0.32 (95% CI 0.14, 0.74)] while increased likelihood of EBF practice was seen in mothers who gave their

  14. Factors associated with breastfeeding cessation in nursing mothers in a peer support programme in Eastern Lancashire

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The UK has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates worldwide and in recent years the Government has made breastfeeding promotion one of its priorities. The UNICEF UK Baby Friendly Initiative is likely to increase breastfeeding initiation but not duration. Other strategies which involve provision of support for breastfeeding mothers in the early weeks after birth are therefore required to encourage UK mothers to breastfeed for the recommended duration. This paper examines the effects of maternal socio-demographic factors, maternal obstetric factors, and in-hospital infant feeding practices on breastfeeding cessation in a peer support setting. Methods Data on mothers from Blackburn with Darwen (BwD) and Hyndburn in Eastern Lancashire who gave birth at the Royal Blackburn Hospital and initiated breastfeeding while in hospital were linked to the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD). The data were analysed to describe infant feeding methods up to 6 months and the association between breastfeeding cessation, and maternal factors and in-hospital infant feeding practices. Results The mean breastfeeding duration was 21.6 weeks (95% CI 20.86 to 22.37 weeks) and the median duration was 27 weeks (95% CI 25.6 to 28.30 weeks). White mothers were 69% more likely to stop breastfeeding compared with non-White mothers (HR: 0.59; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.67 [White mothers were the reference group]). Breastfeeding cessation was also independently associated with parity and infant feeding practices in hospital. There were no significant associations between breastfeeding cessation and marital status, mode of delivery, timing of breastfeeding initiation and socio-economic deprivation. Conclusion In this study ethnicity, parity and in-hospital infant feeding practices remained independent predictors of breastfeeding cessation in this peer support setting. However other recognised predictors such as marital status, mode of delivery, timing of breastfeeding initiation and socio

  15. UK Breastfeeding Helpline support: An investigation of influences upon satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Helpline services have become an increasingly popular mode of providing community access to information and expert information and advice in the health and welfare sector. This paper reports on data collected from 908 callers to UK-based breastfeeding helplines. Methods A mixed methods design was adopted utilising a structured interview schedule to elicit callers experiences of the help and support received. In this paper we report on a series of multiple regression models undertaken to elicit the variables associated with callers’ ‘overall satisfaction’ with the helpline service. Three models were constructed; 1) caller demographic/call characteristics; 2) attitudes and effectiveness of service characteristics and 3) impact of support on caller wellbeing. Results Overall, 74.6% of callers were very satisfied, and 19.8% were satisfied with the help and support received by the helpline service. The caller demographic/call characteristics found to have a significant relationship with overall satisfaction related to the ease of getting through to the helpline and whether the woman had previously breastfed. Service characteristics associated with overall satisfaction related to whether the information received was helpful and whether the support helped to resolve their issues. The extent to which the volunteer was perceived to have enough time, whether the support had encouraged them to continue breastfeeding, met the caller’s expectations and/or provided the support the caller needed were also significantly associated. Caller outcomes contributing significantly to overall satisfaction concerned callers feeling less stressed, more confident, reassured and determined to continue breastfeeding following the call. Consideration of the effect sizes indicated that key factors associated with overall satisfaction related to: volunteers having sufficient time to deal with the callers’ issues; the information being perceived as helpful; the volunteers

  16. Effective Factors on Shortage of Breastfeeding According to Iranian Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ghorat, Fereshteh; Nejatbakhsh, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Mohammad; Namazi, Nazli

    2016-01-01

    Background: Support for breastfeeding is a public health priority. One of the major factors that can negatively affect breastfeeding is the lack of breast milk. There are many instructions on the subject of breast milk in Iranian traditional medicine resources. This article attempts to investigate causes and reasons for the lack of breast milk from the perspective of the great scholars in this field. Methods: This study reviews the literature based on the Iranian traditional medicine. The literature review included traditional medicine resources and a survey of reputable databases using keywords such as “morzae”, “sady”, “pestan”, “sheer”, “sheerkhar”, and “hifzossehhe”. The content analysis was used after collecting data. Results: According to the viewpoint stated in traditional medicine literature, the primary substance for milk production is blood that transforms to milk after crossing the breast glandular tissue. The main causes of milk shortage can be classified into four categories, namely food-related factors, factors related to blood impaired, factors related to breast tissue and psychological and physical factors. One of the main reasons for milk shortage is the impaired quality and quantity of food. Appropriate mizaj of breast tissue is required for adequate milk production as it develops sufficient ability to absorb and transform the substance into milk. On the other hand, the ability of breast tissue is greatly influenced by the main organs of the body, particularly the heart; being the core of understanding psychological factors. Thus, psychological factors can have a significant effect on the process of milk production. Conclusion: Due to the importance of breastfeeding, reflection on other viewpoints, such as those mentioned in Iranian traditional medicine, could pave the way towards new research areas. It could also steer policies towards an extra focus on breastfeeding by mothers.

  17. Influencing University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes toward Breastfeeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Jan; Boivin, Meghan; Rice, Desiree.; McGraw, Katie; Munson, Elin; Walter, Katherine Corcoran; Bloch, Mary K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Spending a few minutes reading about the benefits of breastfeeding had a significant, positive effect on university students' knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding on post-surveys and follow-up surveys one month later. Since lactation duration is correlated with both knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding, implications of these…

  18. Maternal and Hospital Factors Associated with First-Time Mothers' Breastfeeding Practice: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tzu-I; Huang, Shu-Her; Lee, Shoou-Yih D

    2015-01-01

    Continuity of breastfeeding is infrequent and indeterminate. Evidence is lacking regarding factors associated with breastfeeding at different postpartum time points. This prospective study investigated the change in, and correlates of, breastfeeding practices after delivery at a hospital and at 1, 3, and 6 months postpartum among first-time mothers. We followed a cohort of 300 primiparous mothers of Taiwan who gave birth at two hospitals during 2010-2011. Logistic and Cox regression analyses were performed to determine factors that were correlated with breastfeeding practices. In the study sample, the rate of exclusive breastfeeding during the hospital stay was 66%; it declined to 37.5% at 1 month and 30.2% at 3 months postpartum. Only 17.1% of women reported continuing breastfeeding at 6 months. Early initiation of breastfeeding, rooming-in practice, and self-efficacy were significantly related to exclusive breastfeeding during the hospital stay. After discharge, health literacy, knowledge, intention, and self-efficacy were positively and significantly associated with breastfeeding exclusivity. Later initiation (hazard ratio=1.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.05, 1.97), shorter intention (hazard ratio=1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.13, 1.68), and self-efficacy (hazard ratio=0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.96, 0.99) were important predictors of breastfeeding cessation within 6 months of delivery. Continuous breastfeeding practice for 6 months is challenging and difficult for new mothers. Results showed that factors related to breastfeeding varied over time after delivery. Interventions seeking to sustain breastfeeding should consider new mothers' needs and barriers at different times. PMID:26110594

  19. Factors Associated with Age at Breastfeeding Cessation in Amazonian Infants: Applying a Proximal-Distal Framework.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Annie D; Castro, Marcia C; Lourenço, Bárbara H; Augusto, Rosângela A; Cardoso, Marly A

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Breastfeeding is an important determinant of child survival and normal growth and development, but breastfeeding prevalence is generally low in Brazil. Factors associated with infant feeding practices there are not well understood. This paper examines factors associated with breastfeeding cessation in a township in the western Brazilian Amazon. Methods A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted among children younger than 25 months and collected information on maternal and child characteristics. Survival analysis based on a proximal-distal framework examined the association between breastfeeding duration and socioeconomic and maternal/child biological factors. Results The median breastfeeding duration among 101 children who were no longer breastfeeding was 120 days. Almost two-thirds (63 %) of these children stopped breastfeeding before 6 months of age. In the larger sample of 209 children, 74.6 % had previously been bottle-fed. Considering the full proximal-distal model, a child who had ever been bottle-fed was expected to cease breastfeeding about 88 % sooner than one who was never bottle-fed (p < 0.001). Children in the second-poorest wealth quartile stopped breastfeeding sooner than children in the poorest quartile (p < 0.05). Discussion Breastfeeding cessation in the study area occurred much earlier than the recommended 2 years of age. Factors associated with ending breastfeeding early included ever-use of a bottle, having a single mother, and belonging to the second-poorest wealth quartile. Further research is needed to better understand these factors and other barriers women face to continuing breastfeeding. PMID:27084366

  20. Exclusive breast-feeding practice and associated factors in Enugu, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aghaji, Margaret N

    2002-01-01

    A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among 235 infant-mother pairs in five Baby Friendly pairs in five Baby Friendly Hospitals in Enugu-Nigeria in 1998. The aims were to study their breast-feeding practices and associated factors. The exclusive breast-feeding rate was 33.3% while the predominant breast-feeding rate was 50.2%. Factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding included infants' birth order (P = 0.015), fathers' education (P =0.0244), mothers' education (P = 0.000001), occupation (P = 0.0069) and parity (P = 0.004). However, the infants' age (P = 0.054) and sex (P = 0.403), mothers' age (P = 0.2005), number of breast-feeding counseling attendances (P = 0.0883) and the breast-feeding initiator (P = 0.473) were comparable irrespective of breast-feeding practice. In the mothers' perspectives, the commonest reasons for not breastfeeding exclusively included; insufficient breast milk (58,37.0%) and the sociocultural practice of giving water to babies because of the hot climate (52,33.1%). For an improvement in the exclusive breast-feeding rate of this population, health workers should highlight to mothers the dangers of water supplementation and the dynamics of breastmilk supply through health education, home visits and the formation of community based lactation support groups. PMID:12081350

  1. Correlates of short interbirth intervals in Peninsular Malaysia: their pathways of influence through breastfeeding and contraceptive use.

    PubMed

    Da Vanzo, J; Starbird, E H

    1991-01-01

    Recent research has shown that children born before and after short birth intervals run a considerably greater risk of dying in infancy or childhood than do others. This report investigates which women have short interbirth intervals, under what circumstances, and for what reasons. The analysis uses data from the Malaysian Family Life Survey to examine influences on the two main behaviors--breastfeeding and contraceptive use--that affect birth interval length, and assesses the the impact of these same variables on the probability of having a birth interval of less than 15 months. The analysis shows that many of the independent variables affect breastfeeding and contraceptive use in opposite directions, with no significant net effect on the likelihood of a short interval. For example, a woman's education is negatively related to the probability that she breastfeeds, positively related to the probability that she uses contraceptives, and has no significant effect on the likelihood that the interpregnancy interval is less than 15 months. Having a family planning clinic nearby is associated with less breastfeeding, offsetting whatever positive effects family planning clinics have on contraceptive use in terms of the percentage of birth intervals that are so short as to be detrimental to infant and child health. Hence, factors that increase contraceptive use do not necessarily reduce the incidence of short interbirth intervals, because they are also associated with reduced breastfeeding. We simulate the proportion of intervals that would be short for alternative combinations of breastfeeding and contraceptive use in the population and show that over the period covered by the data (1961-75), breastfeeding had a considerably greater effect on preventing short interbirth intervals than did contraceptive use. PMID:1949106

  2. Cultural paradoxes relating to sexuality and breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Garcia, R; Frazier, L

    1995-06-01

    Despite the widely acknowledged evidence supporting the benefits of breastfeeding, the prevalence and duration of breastfeeding in the United States and other Western countries remain low. To investigate this phenomenon, we conducted an analysis of the socio-cultural factors that influence women's infant-feeding decisions and examined how breastfeeding is treated in the mass media and by U.S. legislation. We found that cultural notions of the female breast as a primarily sexual object place the act of breastfeeding in a controversial light and can be one of the most influential factors in a woman's decision not to breastfeed. This notion is often supported by the media and legislation. Further research needs to focus on the relationship between sexuality and breastfeeding to help our understanding of breastfeeding behavior. This research should assist policymakers and health workers in their efforts to protect and promote breastfeeding and to increase its social acceptability. PMID:7619289

  3. Breast-feeding influences on later life--cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Leon, D A; Ronalds, G

    2009-01-01

    Current evidence, almost exclusively from observational studies, provides a rather mixed picture. From the few studies that have been able to look at fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular events, there is little indication that breast-feeding is associated with either an increased or decreased risk. With respect to blood pressure, the meta-analyses suggest a small but statistically significant lowering of around 1 mmHg SBP associated with having been breast-fed in infancy. However, there is a strong indication from the meta-analyses that even this small effect may partly be accounted for by publication bias. The strongest evidence for an effect of breast-feeding reviewed in this chapter is for serum lipids, where there is good evidence that being breast-fed is associated with an increase in serum total cholesterol in infancy. In childhood there appears to be no association, while in adults there is some indication of breast-feeding being associated with a small decline in total cholesterol levels. As already outlined at the start of the chapter, this whole area of research is made particularly difficult by the fact that breast-feeding can be defined in many different ways. Some studies use definitions that are equivalent to exclusive breast-feeding prior to weaning, while others define it as having ever been breast-fed. This problem of classification is likely to dilute any real associations that may exist. The other major problem is one of interpretation. A result implying that breast-feeding is a "good thing" for cardiovascular health could equally be construed as evidence for a "bad" effect of bottle-feeding. From these data alone, we cannot convincingly determine which conclusion is correct. This is not simply a philosophical debating point. As discussed above in relation to the interpretation of results from the randomised trial of infant feeding, the issue has implications for all research on this topic. Some progress in this area will be made if studies are

  4. Factors affecting actualisation of the WHO breastfeeding recommendations in urban poor settings in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth W; Wekesah, Frederick; Wanjohi, Milka; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ezeh, Alex C; Musoke, Rachel N; Norris, Shane A; Madise, Nyovani J; Griffiths, Paula

    2015-07-01

    Poor breastfeeding practices are widely documented in Kenya, where only a third of children are exclusively breastfed for 6 months and only 2% in urban poor settings. This study aimed to better understand the factors that contribute to poor breastfeeding practices in two urban slums in Nairobi, Kenya. In-depth interviews (IDIs), focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews (KIIs) were conducted with women of childbearing age, community health workers, village elders and community leaders and other knowledgeable people in the community. A total of 19 IDIs, 10 FGDs and 11 KIIs were conducted, and were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were coded in NVIVO and analysed thematically. We found that there was general awareness regarding optimal breastfeeding practices, but the knowledge was not translated into practice, leading to suboptimal breastfeeding practices. A number of social and structural barriers to optimal breastfeeding were identified: (1) poverty, livelihood and living arrangements; (2) early and single motherhood; (3) poor social and professional support; (4) poor knowledge, myths and misconceptions; (5) HIV; and (6) unintended pregnancies. The most salient of the factors emerged as livelihoods, whereby women have to resume work shortly after delivery and work for long hours, leaving them unable to breastfeed optimally. Women in urban poor settings face an extremely complex situation with regard to breastfeeding due to multiple challenges and risk behaviours often dictated to them by their circumstances. Macro-level policies and interventions that consider the ecological setting are needed. PMID:25521041

  5. Breast-feeding Continuation in South-Eastern of Iran: the Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Roostaee, Fatemeh; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mehdi; Zaboli, Maryam; Keykhaie, Razieh; Sharifi-Rad, Javad; Shahrak, Paridokht; Soroush, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast-feeding not only promotes health in an infancy period, but also leads to human vigor and safety at varied life periods viz. adolescence, youth, middle-age, or even adulthood. Aim: The present study was aimed to determine the factors affecting the breast-feeding continuation effectively for a selected region of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 523 women having less than two year old babies from the selected counties covered by the Zahedan University of Medical Sciences (Khash, Saravan, Sarbaz, Chabahar, Zahedan, Nikshahr, Iranshahr, and Konark) using the stratified sampling method. The Data was completed for the target group by using the check-list which included 3 parts: demographic data, case history of pregnancy, childbirth and mother’s statue, and previous records of the newborn up to two years. The obtained data were fed into SPSS software, and all parametric and non-parametric statistical methods were used to analyze the data, especially appropriate to the data type. Results: The results showed that the most important factors associated with breast-feeding discontinuation were infant’s illness (only up to six months), mother’s consciousness, parental support, practical breastfeeding training to the mother, mother’s educational level, child’s gender, place of birth, pregnancies’ interval, mother’s ethnicity and residence and the statue of taking (using) narcotics. The data also indicated that on maternal reasons the main factor which impelled most of the mothers to discontinue their breast-feeding up to six months or even before two years was milk shortage in mother’s breasts. Moreover, the main child- related factor that compelled most of the mothers for non-continuance of their breast-feeding up to six months or even before two years was child’s crying and discomfort. Conclusions: It can be safely concluded that promotion of parental education, neglecting child’s gender as far as cultural

  6. Polish women's experiences of breastfeeding in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Szafranska, Marcelina; Gallagher, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding among Polish mothers at three-four months (38.6 per cent) is in keeping with the low rates of breastfeeding in Ireland overall (Begley et al 2008), and suggests that Polish women have begun to adopt the infant feeding practices of Irish women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the factors that influence Polish women's decisions to initiate and continue breastfeeding in Ireland. A descriptive qualitative approach was utilised to explore participants' perspectives of breastfeeding. Results showed that professional and family support are key to a successful breastfeeding experience for these mothers. Recommendations include further individualised support in order to meet the needs of Polish women breastfeeding in Ireland. PMID:26975131

  7. Programmes to promote breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Jelliffe, E F

    1986-03-01

    Modern concepts about the development of breastfeeding programs are presented focusing on the need for community analysis, the importance of changing attitudes and stimulating motivation in the general public, and both small-scale and national level programs. Some form of community analysis is essential to develop a breastfeeding program. Information needs to be gathered on the prevalence of breastfeeding and the main social factors influencing the lactation reflexes, maternal knowledge about practical management, and the health of mothers. Experience suggests that this can most usefully be obtained by covering 4 topics: general information and attitudes, health services, women in the work force, and the influence of the infant food industry. From all 4 sources, information needs to be gathered on anxiety inducing factors and the limitation of opportunities for sucking, on the knowledge of the practical management of breastfeeding (modern versus traditional methods) by mothers, and on maternal health and nutrition. Breastfeeding programs need to change attitudes and to simulate motivation in the general public and particularly among mothers and fathers. In addition, programs need to convince and motivate other groups whose actions can support breastfeeding or make its accomplishment easier or more difficult. These groups include policymakers and legislators, health workers of various types, research scientists, and industrialists and the infant food industry. For the health professional, there are several procedures which need to be modified, including "rooming-in." Breastfeeding programs have been undertaken successfully on a relatively small scale, often in hospitals, by modifying existing maternity unit practices. The most significant "package" of activities for the hospital is "rooming-in." Positive results are available from hospitals in several European and various less technically developed countries. Various countries have shown an increase in breastfeeding

  8. Breastfeeding prevalence and practices among Singaporean Chinese, Malay and Indian mothers.

    PubMed

    Foo, L L; Quek, S J S; Ng, S A; Lim, M T; Deurenberg-Yap, M

    2005-09-01

    The National Breastfeeding Survey 2001 was the first comprehensive study on breastfeeding conducted on a national level in Singapore. It aimed to establish the prevalence of breastfeeding among Chinese, Malay and Indian mothers and to identify factors influencing breastfeeding. A total of 2098 mothers were interviewed in this two-phase study, with the first interview conducted 2 months after delivery and the second interview 6 months after birth among mothers who were still breastfeeding at 2 months. Frequency distributions of breastfeeding prevalence and types of breastfeeding practices at different time intervals (from birth to 6 months) were produced. Multivariate logistic regression was carried out to construct a model with predictive information on factors which influence continued breastfeeding till 2 months and 6 months after delivery respectively. The study found that about 94.5% of the mothers attempted breastfeeding. At 1 month, 71.6% were still breastfeeding, 49.6% continued to do so at 2 months, and 29.8% persisted till 4 months. By 6 months, the breastfeeding prevalence rate fell to 21.1%. The results of this study show higher breastfeeding prevalence rates compared to past studies in Singapore. Despite this, exclusive breastfeeding is still not a common practice. Various factors were found to be significant in influencing mothers' decision to breastfeed. Factors such as ethnicity, age, educational attainment, religion and baby's sex are non-modifiable in the short term or at an individual level. However, factors such as awareness of breastfeeding benefits, advice from health professionals and previous breastfeeding experience are potentially modifiable. Efforts aimed at promoting breastfeeding in Singapore need to take these modifiable factors into consideration so as to better tailor health promotion efforts on breastfeeding to women. PMID:15814526

  9. Personal Attitudes or Structural Factors? A Contextual Analysis of Breastfeeding Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinley, Nita Mary; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2004-01-01

    A personal attitudes model (i.e., infant feeding choices are based on personal attitudes primarily) and a structural factors model (i.e., feeding choices are shaped by the structural contexts of women's lives, as much as personal attitudes) of women's breastfeeding behavior were tested by surveying a longitudinal sample of 548 mostly European…

  10. Breastfeeding and Chinese mothers living in Australia.

    PubMed

    Diong, S; Johnson, M; Langdon, R

    2000-07-01

    This study sought information on the breastfeeding rates, knowledge and beliefs of 101 migrant Chinese mothers living in south-west Sydney. Differences in beliefs about breastfeeding and bottle-feeding practices between migrant and indigenous groups of mothers were also examined. Sixty-five percent of Chinese mothers were fully breastfeeding their infants on discharge, with a further 6.9% partially breastfeeding. However, only 34% were still breastfeeding at three months. The most important factor to influence mothers' choice to breastfeed was the belief that it was 'good for the baby', whilst mothers choosing to bottle-feed were influenced by low milk supply and the belief that it was easier. Similar beliefs about breastfeeding and bottle-feeding were held by indigenous and migrant Chinese mothers, although concerns about the baby becoming too attached were markedly higher in the migrant group and may be related to sudden drops in breastfeeding rates at three months. Focusing ethno-specific services upon continuation of breastfeeding throughout the first six months of the infant's life is recommended, with a Chinese mothers' breastfeeding support network being posed as a possible approach. PMID:10941319

  11. Predictors of Breastfeeding Attitudes Among College-Educated African Americans.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, Urmeka T

    2015-01-01

    Breastfeeding initiation among African American women has reached 60%; however, it is the lowest rate among all races. This racial disparity is a public health concern considering the impact of breastfeeding on infant morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to explore breastfeeding exposure and determinants of breastfeeding attitudes among African Americans. The theory of planned behavior guided this study focusing on the impact of background factors on determinants of breastfeeding attitudes. This secondary analysis included 348 African American college students with a mean age of 22 years with no children. The Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale and a demographic questionnaire were used to collect data. A significant association between knowing someone who breastfed her infant and being breastfed as an infant (p < .001) was observed. Although gender, education, and breastfeeding exposure explained 15% of the variance in breastfeeding attitudes, being breastfed as an infant had no significant (p = .611) contribution. Breastfeeding exposure to someone who has breastfed her infant is a modifiable factor that influenced positive breastfeeding attitudes. Therefore, it is essential to identify strategies in practice to increase breastfeeding exposure for vulnerable populations in efforts to improve breastfeeding attitudes, intentions, and initiation. PMID:26502555

  12. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months of life in Brazil: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Boccolini, Cristiano Siqueira; de Carvalho, Márcia Lazaro; de Oliveira, Maria Inês Couto

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months of life in Brazil. METHODS Systematic review of epidemiological studies conducted in Brazil with exclusive breastfeeding as outcome. Medline and LILACS databases were used. After the selection of articles, a hierarchical theoretical model was proposed according to the proximity of the variable to the outcome. RESULTS Of the 67 articles identified, we selected 20 cross-sectional studies and seven cohort studies, conducted between 1998 and 2010, comprising 77,866 children. We identified 36 factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding, being more often associated the distal factors: place of residence, maternal age and education, and the proximal factors: maternal labor, age of the child, use of a pacifier, and financing of primary health care. CONCLUSIONS The theoretical model developed may contribute to future research, and factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding may subsidize public policies on health and nutrition. PMID:26759970

  13. Influence of the duration of breastfeeding on quality of muscle function during mastication in preschoolers: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is some evidence of the benefits of breastfeeding to masticatory function, but no studies have evaluated the influence of breastfeeding duration on the quality of this function. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between duration of breastfeeding and quality of masticatory function in preschoolers. Methods Cross-sectional study nested in a contemporary cohort of 144 randomly selected Brazilian infants. Data on sociodemographic, dietary, and sucking-related parameters were collected shortly after birth and at 7, 30, 60, 120, and 180 days of life. Masticatory function was assessed between the ages of 3 and 5 years, using a standardized procedure involving three foodstuffs of different consistencies, for evaluation of incision, lip competence, masticatory patterns, masticatory movements, and perioral muscle use. The quality of masticatory function was scored, and multiple linear regression was used to test for association between this score and the duration of breastfeeding. Results A positive correlation was found between duration of breastfeeding and masticatory function scores (rs = 0.473; p < 0.001). Children breastfed for at least 12 months had significantly higher average scores, regardless of bottle-feeding or pacifier use. Children who were breastfed for longer were more likely to score satisfactorily across all tested parameters. Conclusions Breastfeeding has a positive impact on mastication. In our sample, duration of breastfeeding was positively associated with the quality of masticatory function at preschool age. PMID:23114410

  14. Case–control study of risk factors for infectious mastitis in Spanish breastfeeding women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify potential predisposing factors associated with human infectious mastitis. Methods We conducted a case–control study among breastfeeding women, with 368 cases (women with mastitis) and 148 controls. Data were collected by a questionnaire designed to obtain retrospective information about several factors related to medical history of mother and infant, different aspects of pregnancy, delivery and postpartum, and breastfeeding practices that could be involved in mastitis. Bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression model were used to examine the relationship between mastitis and these factors. Results The variables significantly- and independently-associated with mastitis were cracked nipples (P < 0.0001), oral antibiotics during breastfeeding (P < 0.0001), breast pumps (P < 0.0001), topical antifungal medication during breastfeeding (P = 0.0009), mastitis in previous lactations (P = 0.0014), breast milk coming in later than 24 h postpartum (P = 0.0016), history of mastitis in the family (P = 0.0028), mother-infant separation longer than 24 h (P = 0.0027), cream on nipples (P = 0.0228) and throat infection (P = 0.0224). Conclusions Valuable factors related to an increased risk of infectious mastitis have been identified. This knowledge will allow practitioners to provide appropriate management advice about modifiable risk factors, such as the use of pumps or inappropriate medication. They also could identify before delivery those women at an increased risk of developing mastitis, such as those having a familial history of mastitis, and thus develop strategies to prevent this condition. PMID:24902596

  15. Contraception and Breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Pieh Holder, Kelly Lynne

    2015-12-01

    Postpartum contraception is important to lengthening birth intervals and improving the health of women and children. For breastfeeding women the choice and timing of contraception may influence breastfeeding and infant growth patterns. Nonhormonal methods of contraception are the preferred choice for breastfeeding women. Progestin-only methods comprise a viable next option. Combined hormonal methods of contraception containing estrogen and progestin may be considered as a third option for birth control in breastfeeding women. The objective of this chapter is to review the current literature and recommendations for the use of hormonal and nonhormonal methods of contraception while breastfeeding. PMID:26457854

  16. Breastfeeding: population-based perspectives.

    PubMed

    Labbok, Miriam H

    2013-02-01

    From a population perspective, the achievement of the goals of exclusive breastfeeding throughout the first 6 months of life and continued breastfeeding with the introduction of age-appropriate complementary feeding for infant feeding, women and families must be inspired and empowered to overcome health system, sociocultural, and economic/political barriers. This article discusses trends in breastfeeding, influences on the reacceptance of a breastfeeding norm, and breastfeeding as a social and public health issue. The goal is to create an enabling environment for optimal breastfeeding in health care and social norms, and to adjust the social and political realities to support an economic milieu that favors breastfeeding. PMID:23178058

  17. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in Timor-Leste: findings from Demographic and Health Survey 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Vishnu; da Cruz, Jonia Lourenca Nunes Brites; Karkee, Rajendra; Lee, Andy H

    2014-04-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding is known to have nutritional and health benefits. This study investigated factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding among infants aged five months or less in Timor-Leste. The latest data from the national Demographic and Health Survey 2009-2010 were analyzed by binary logistic regression. Of the 975 infants included in the study, overall 49% (95% confidence interval 45.4% to 52.7%) were exclusively breastfed. The exclusive breastfeeding prevalence declined with increasing infant age, from 68.0% at less than one month to 24.9% at five months. Increasing infant age, mothers with a paid occupation, who perceived their newborn as non-average size, and residence in the capital city Dili, were associated with a lower likelihood of exclusive breastfeeding. On the other hand, women who could decide health-related matters tended to breastfeed exclusively, which was not the case for others whose decisions were made by someone else. The results suggested the need of breastfeeding promotion programs to improve the exclusive breastfeeding rate. Antenatal counseling, peer support network, and home visits by health workers could be feasible options to promote exclusive breastfeeding given that the majority of births occur at home. PMID:24756151

  18. [Breastfeeding: health benefits for child and mother].

    PubMed

    Turck, D; Vidailhet, M; Bocquet, A; Bresson, J-L; Briend, A; Chouraqui, J-P; Darmaun, D; Dupont, C; Frelut, M-L; Girardet, J-P; Goulet, O; Hankard, R; Rieu, D; Simeoni, U

    2013-11-01

    The prevalence of breastfeeding in France is one of the lowest in Europe: 65% of infants born in France in 2010 were breastfed when leaving the maternity ward. Exclusive breastfeeding allows normal growth until at least 6 months of age, and can be prolonged until the age of 2 years or more, provided that complementary feeding is started after 6 months. Breast milk contains hormones, growth factors, cytokines, immunocompetent cells, etc., and has many biological properties. The composition of breast milk is influenced by gestational and postnatal age, as well as by the moment of the feed. Breastfeeding is associated with slightly enhanced performance on tests of cognitive development. Exclusive breastfeeding for at least 3 months is associated with a lower incidence and severity of diarrhoea, otitis media and respiratory infection. Exclusive breastfeeding for at least 4 months is associated with a lower incidence of allergic disease (asthma, atopic dermatitis) during the first 2 to 3 years of life in at-risk infants (infants with at least one first-degree relative presenting with allergy). Breastfeeding is also associated with a lower incidence of obesity during childhood and adolescence, as well as with a lower blood pressure and cholesterolemia in adulthood. However, no beneficial effect of breastfeeding on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has been shown. Maternal infection with hepatitis B and C virus is not a contraindication to breastfeeding, as opposed to HIV infection and galactosemia. A supplementation with vitamin D and K is necessary in the breastfed infant. Very few medications contraindicate breastfeeding. Premature babies can be breastfed and/or receive mother's milk and/or bank milk, provided they receive energy, protein and mineral supplements. Return to prepregnancy weight is earlier in breastfeeding mothers during the 6 months following delivery. Breastfeeding is also associated with a decreased risk of breast and ovarian cancer in the

  19. Norwegian general practitioners' knowledge and beliefs about breastfeeding, and their self-rated ability as breastfeeding counsellor

    PubMed Central

    Svendby, Heidi R; Løland, Beate F; Omtvedt, Marianne; Holmsen, Solveig T; Lagerløv, Per

    2016-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding is considered the best infant-feeding method. Norway is one of the leading countries in terms of breastfeeding initiation and duration. To maintain this high breastfeeding rate, it is important to understand the factors that influence breastfeeding. A doctor s advice can improve the rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration, but not all doctors are competent in breastfeeding counselling. Objectives The aim of this study was to identify the knowledge and beliefs of general practitioners (GPs) about breastfeeding in Norway and to investigate how important they considered guidance about breastfeeding initiation and duration before and after birth. Design A questionnaire study about knowledge and beliefs according to predefined correct responses and about self-perceived competence as an advisor. Subjects 122 GPs engaged in apprenticeship for medical students. Results The response rate was 57%, 69 GPs participated. The questions were answered correctly according to national consensus for 49 % for the knowledge items and 64 % of the belief items. The GPs believed that their guidance was more important after than before birth. Female GPs had more confidence in their guidance ability than male GPs. Confidence in the GPs own guidance after birth was associated with knowledge about contraindications to breastfeeding. Conclusion Although the GPs expressed beliefs favouring breastfeeding they partly lacked basic knowledge. The GPs confidence in own guidance was better after than before birth and was higher among those with more knowledge. Improved knowledge and emphasis on guidance before birth should be promoted among GPs. Key pointsBreastfeeding is the best infant-feeding method. Doctors’ advice improves the rates of breastfeeding, but not all doctors have sufficient knowledge. This study mapped the knowledge and beliefs among Norwegian GPs. The study revealed that:GPs partly lacked basic knowledge to effectively promote breastfeeding.GPs had

  20. Predictors of the duration of exclusive breastfeeding among first-time mothers.

    PubMed

    Semenic, Sonia; Loiselle, Carmen; Gottlieb, Laurie

    2008-10-01

    Few women currently meet revised WHO recommendations to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months postpartum. In this prospective study we aimed to determine the influence of socio-demographic, psychosocial, and perinatal factors on the length of exclusive breastfeeding among 189 Canadian primiparous mothers. A majority of the participants did not meet their exclusive breastfeeding goals, and only 5% breastfed exclusively for a full 6 months. Breastfeeding self-efficacy, in-hospital formula supplementation, prenatal class attendance, and type of delivery independently predicted exclusive breastfeeding duration. Findings underscore the complex interplay of factors influencing breastfeeding, highlight the early postpartum weeks as a critical period for the establishment of exclusive breastfeeding, and suggest the need for a continuum of pre- and postnatal strategies for prolonging the exclusive breastfeeding period. PMID:18324667

  1. African American women and breastfeeding: an integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Becky S; Grassley, Jane S

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a review of literature regarding factors that influence breastfeeding intentions, initiation, and duration in the African American population. Research related to health disparities experienced by African Americans in the United States, as well as research regarding the protective benefits of breastfeeding for those specific health disparities, are also presented. Community and institutional interventions and promotional campaigns aimed at increasing initiation and duration of breastfeeding in the African American population are discussed. Future research regarding African American women's breastfeeding experiences using Black feminist thought as a theoretical foundation is recommended. PMID:23445372

  2. Breastfeeding in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Fok, D

    1997-01-01

    This paper traces the trends of breastfeeding in Singapore for the past 40 years, describes the recent breastfeeding education efforts and makes recommendations after drawing inferences from the results of the Breastfeeding Mothers' Support Group's (BMSG) February 1996 survey and other local studies. Although the BMSG and other local studies' sample sizes are small, there are recurring themes in the factors affecting the breastfeeding rates in Singapore. The consistent patterns are that the well-to-do breastfeed more than the poor, the Chinese breastfeed less than the other ethnic groups and the more educated mothers breastfeed more than the less educated ones. Target groups for breastfeeding education are identified--the less the less educated mothers, the Chinese mothers and the working mothers. Hospitals are encouraged to become baby-friendly in their practices. The next step after raising public awareness of the benefits of breastfeeding is to increase the present breastfeeding duration of two months to six months. PMID:9699470

  3. Early breastfeeding experiences of adolescent mothers: a qualitative prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Teen mothers face many challenges to successful breastfeeding and are less likely to breastfeed than any other population group in the U.S. Few studies have investigated this population; all prior studies are cross-sectional and collect breastfeeding data retrospectively. The purpose of our qualitative prospective study was to understand the factors that contribute to the breastfeeding decisions and practices of teen mothers. Methods This prospective study took place from January through December 2009 in Greensboro, North Carolina in the U.S. We followed the cohort from pregnancy until two weeks after they ceased all breastfeeding and milk expression. We conducted semi-structured interviews at baseline and follow-up, and tracked infant feeding weekly by phone. We analyzed the data to create individual life and breastfeeding journeys and then identified themes that cut across the individual journeys. Results Four of the five teenagers breastfed at the breast for nine days: in contrast, one teen breastfed exclusively for five months. Milk expression by pumping was associated with significantly longer provision of human milk. Breastfeeding practices and cessation were closely connected with their experiences as new mothers in the context of ongoing multiple roles, complex living situations, youth and dependency, and poor knowledge of the fundamentals of breastfeeding and infant development. Breastfeeding cessation was influenced by inadequate breastfeeding skill, physically unpleasant and painful early experiences they were unprepared to manage, and inadequate health care response to real problems. Conclusions Continued breastfeeding depends on a complex interplay of multiple factors, including having made an informed choice and having the skills, support and experiences needed to sustain the belief that breastfeeding is the best choice for them and their baby given their life situation. Teenagers in the US context need to have a positive early

  4. Liminality and breastfeeding: women negotiating space and two bodies.

    PubMed

    Mahon-Daly, Patricia; Andrews, Gavin J

    2002-06-01

    It is almost universally accepted that breastfeeding infants is nutritionally superior to bottle-feeding. However, despite this medical advice, in many countries breastfeeding rates remain low and in the UK, rates are relatively static. The literature on breastfeeding has discussed international rates and the broad socio-economic factors influencing these rates. Through an observational study of a group of breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding women in the United Kingdom, this research utilises contemporary theoretical perspectives on the body, space and rites of passage, and investigates the reasons why some breastfeeding mothers may be in a liminal period, and the breastfeeding event itself, at times, a liminal and marginalised act. The paper argues that, for the group studied, breastfeeding is sometimes discouraged by its medicalisation, and that breastmilk and breastfeeding are often considered by mothers to be embarrassing. Many of the women studied regarded certain public and private places to be unacceptable places to breastfeed and claimed to modify their behaviour accordingly. The paper demonstrates the value of conducting locally based qualitative research into breastfeeding experiences, and of using theoretical perspectives from post-medical geography to interpret women's experiences. PMID:11943579

  5. Breastfeeding knowledge and beliefs among adults in eastern Tobago.

    PubMed

    Bovell-Benjamin, A C; Benjamin, W; Ivey, M; Simeon, D T

    2001-11-01

    Using a cross-sectional survey, the knowledge and beliefs about breastfeeding were evaluated among adults in Eastern Tobago (N = 509). Of the respondents, 95%, 69%, and 48% indicated that a baby should be exclusively breastfed at birth, 3 months, and 6 months, respectively. The baby's mother was thought to have the greatest influence on breastfeeding decisions. Of the respondents, 63% and 80% were unaware of expressed breast milk and cup-feeding a neonate, whereas 82% believed that a solely breastfed baby should receive water. Additionally, 23% and 44% felt that breastfeeding should be terminated before 6 months and between 6 and 12 months, respectively. Inadequate maternal nutrition and employment were reported as the principal factors affecting breastfeeding. There is a lack of knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of lactation and about the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding. These findings are useful for guiding the development and implementation of interventions to promote breast-feeding in Tobago. PMID:11847898

  6. Breastfeeding - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - breastfeeding ... The following organizations are good resources for information on breastfeeding and breastfeeding problems : La Leche League International Inc. -- www.lalecheleague.org March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/ ...

  7. Community breastfeeding attitudes and beliefs.

    PubMed

    Vari, Patty; Vogeltanz-Holm, Nancy; Olsen, Glenn; Anderson, Cindy; Holm, Jeffrey; Peterson, Heidi; Henly, Susan

    2013-07-01

    The cultural norms of a society have a powerful influence over health behavior decisions such as choosing an infant feeding method. The objective of this study was to explore the community breastfeeding perspective by examining breastfeeding attitudes and beliefs, experiences, and behaviors of a U.S. university community through an online survey. Linear and logistic regressions were used to determine predictors of those who had breastfed and those with positive breastfeeding attitudes and beliefs. Through the findings, the researchers suggest that exposure to breastfeeding and increasing positive breastfeeding attitudes and beliefs are important as the focus for public breastfeeding campaigns. PMID:23391135

  8. Factors influencing breast changes after pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rauh, Claudia; Faschingbauer, Florian; Haeberle, Lothar; Jud, Sebastian M; Heusinger, Katharina; Fasching, Peter A; Goecke, Tamme W; Rajakaruna, Nadeeka; Voigt, Franziska; Bani, Mayada R; Lux, Michael P; Renner, Stefan P; Loehberg, Christian R; Hartmann, Arndt; Schulz-Wendtland, Ruediger; Beckmann, Matthias W; Bayer, Christian M

    2013-05-01

    Pregnancy and breastfeeding are major factors reducing breast cancer (BC) risk. A potential mechanism for this effect might be changes in mammographic density, but other factors might be involved. The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing changes in breast size and breast stiffness after pregnancy. Of a consecutive cohort of 5991 women who gave birth between 1996 and 1999, 559 replied to a questionnaire including questions about breast changes. The women completed their own assessments of changes in breast size and stiffness since their last pregnancy. Factors being investigated regarding their predictive value for these changes were: BMI before pregnancy, weight gain, age at first full-term pregnancy (FFTP), number of pregnancies, breastfeeding, and BMI of the children's fathers. A decrease in breast size was reported in 21.8% of the participants and an increase in 35.1%. With regard to the breast stiffness, 66.4% reported a decrease and only 5% reported an increase. Independent predictors for increased breast size were age at FFTP, increase in BMI since last pregnancy, BMI before pregnancy, and time since FFTP. Factors predictive of greater breast stiffness included age at FFTP, BMI before FFTP, time since FFTP, breastfeeding status, and number of pregnancies. Breast changes after pregnancy depend on several variables, which are described as BC-risk factors. Individual reaction of the female breast to a pregnancy leads to different outcomes with regard to breast size and stiffness. Further studies are needed to clarify whether these individual responses interact with the effect of pregnancy on the BC risk. PMID:23022745

  9. Factors associated with the duration of breastfeeding: analysis of the primary and secondary responders to a self-completed questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Pande, H; Unwin, C; Håheim, L L

    1997-02-01

    A cohort of 1192 consecutive newborn infants was followed prospectively for factors possibly affecting the length of time they were breastfed. Following the procedure of a double-blind test, one-third of the cohort received Credé prophylaxis at age 2 h. The duration of breastfeeding (sole or partial) was recorded up to age 6 months and there was a 100% follow-up. Multivariate proportional hazards regression analysis (Cox) of the whole cohort showed that babies being delivered between 21.00 and 24.00 h were associated with a shorter duration of breastfeeding (rate ratio = 1.37, 99% confidence interval = 1.05-1.78). Mother's age (under 21 years), marital status (unmarried) and birthweight (inversely) were factors also independently associated with shorter breastfeeding duration. Boys were breastfed for a shorter time than girls (p < 0.05). In univariate analyses only, the first-born babies had a significantly shorter breastfeeding time, and purulent eyes in the first 24 h was a factor of borderline significance (p < 0.05). Educational level, socioeconomic status and smoking habits of the mothers were not investigated in this study. Owing to the lack of regulations in place at the time of the study (1981-82), it was possible to differentiate between the mothers who responded spontaneously to the self-completion questionnaire (primary responders, 68.5%) and those who required one or two reminders. Short breastfeeding time was the strongest predictor of being a secondary responder, followed by being very young or unmarried. Approaching the secondary responders reduced the prevalence of breastfeeding at 6 months by 5% (from 53.8% to 48.8%). PMID:9055888

  10. [Knowledge about breastfeeding profits among primiparas].

    PubMed

    Bączyk, Grażyna; Klejewski, Andrzej; Cichocka, Ewelina

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding is the only way to nourish newborns and toddlers and it enables them to have an optimal health condition and growth. Both a child and a mother draw a lot of profits from breastfeeding. Woman's milk is perfectly balanced as far as quantity and quality is concerned. It has specific generic nourishment that ensures optimal psychological emotional and physical development of a child. Breastfeeding also protects infants from immunological problems and infections. Having the skills and knowledge about breastfeeding is the main factor that enables a smooth process of lactation. All the medical staff and midwives especially are obliged to promote breastfeeding and they should provide information as well as emotional and technical support for mums through the whole period of lactation. The aim of this thesis was to examine the level of knowledge about breastfeeding among first-time mothers. An anonymous survey was used as an analytic tool. The survey was specifically created for this research and it contained 30 questions. Majority of responders (98%) declared a will for breastfeeding. Also majority of women (94%) knew that their milk contains all the needed ingredients for proper development of their young. According to the pregnant women in labor (98%) breastfeeding is a key element in establishing an emotional connection with the child. Most of the responders knew the influence of breastfeeding on child's health. Minority of the questioned women (14%) attended birthing courses. The responders were equipped in knowledge on various levels. It proves the necessity of systematic and planned education for women. The system of lactation counseling should be an integral part of post-labor care in obstetrician clinics. PMID:25799859

  11. Chemotherapy, targeted agents, antiemetics and growth-factors in human milk: how should we counsel cancer patients about breastfeeding?

    PubMed

    Pistilli, Barbara; Bellettini, Giulia; Giovannetti, Elisa; Codacci-Pisanelli, Giovanni; Azim, Hatem A; Benedetti, Giovanni; Sarno, Maria Anna; Peccatori, Fedro A

    2013-05-01

    An increasing number of women are diagnosed with cancer during pregnancy and lactation. Women are usually advised to interrupt breastfeeding during systemic anticancer treatment for fear of serious adverse effects to the nursed infant. However, the issue is poorly addressed in the literature and very few studies have evaluated the safety of breastfeeding during or after cytotoxic drugs or target agents administration. In this review we will analyze the available evidence that addresses the issue of anticancer drugs, targeted agents, antiemetics and growth-factors excretion in human milk. This could serve as a unique resource that may aid physicians in the management of breastfeeding cancer patients interested in maintaining lactation during treatment. PMID:23199900

  12. Factors associated with the initiation and duration of breastfeeding by Chinese mothers in Perth, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Zhang, Min; Scott, Jane A; Binns, Colin W

    2004-05-01

    To identify determinants of the initiation and duration of breastfeeding by Chinese Australian mothers, a cross-sectional survey of 506 Mandarin-speaking women in Perth, Western Australia, was conducted. Doctors' support of breastfeeding was positively associated with the initiation of breastfeeding both in the mothers' home countries (odds ratio [OR], 9.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.17-31.18) and in Australia (OR, 16.78; 95% CI, 7.12-39.55) and with duration. Mother's level of education was positively associated with the initiation of breastfeeding in the mother's home country (OR, 3.04; 95% CI, 1.36-6.80) and positively associated with the duration of breastfeeding both in the mother's home country and Australia. Father's preference for breastfeeding was positively associated with the initiation of breastfeeding of the mother giving birth in Australia (OR, 4.96; 95% CI, 1.93-12.66). Health professionals can provide invaluable support for mothers initiating and continuing breastfeeding in this population. Prenatal education also needs to emphasize the ways in which fathers can support and contribute to breastfeeding. PMID:15117518

  13. Breastfeeding practices of ethnic Indian immigrant women in Melbourne, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The health benefits of breastfeeding are well documented in public health and medical literature worldwide. Despite this, global rates of breastfeeding steadily decline during the first couple of months postpartum. Although immigrant women have higher initiation rates and a longer duration of breastfeeding overall, breastfeeding practices are compromised because of a myriad of socioeconomic and cultural factors, including the acculturation process. The objective of this study was to show how acculturation and cultural identity influenced breastfeeding practices among Indian immigrants in Melbourne, Australia. Methods Twelve case studies were employed to gather narratives of women’s lived experiences. Ethnographic field research methods were used to collect data, including participant observation, semi-structured interviews, case studies, and life histories. This provided in-depth information from women on various aspects of the immigrant experience of motherhood, including infant care and feeding. Participants were opportunistically recruited from Indian obstetricians and gynaecologists. Women identifying as ethnic Indian and in their third trimester of pregnancy were recruited. Interviews were conducted in women’s homes in metropolitan Melbourne over a 12 month period between 2004 and 2005. Data were coded and analysed thematically. Results All women identified as ethnic Indian and initiated breastfeeding in accordance with their cultural identity. Social support and cultural connectivity impacted positively on duration of breastfeeding. However, acculturation (adopting Australian cultural values and gender norms, including returning to paid employment) negatively influenced breastfeeding duration. In addition, the high reliance of recent immigrants on the advice of healthcare professionals who gave inconsistent advice negatively affected exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusions For ethnic Indian immigrant women breastfeeding practice is closely linked

  14. Breastfeeding and Everyday Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breastfeeding and everyday life More breastfeeding topics ); } Breastfeeding Breastfeeding and everyday life Most breastfeeding moms do not ... support to help women breastfeed successfully. Subscribe to breastfeeding email updates Email Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | ...

  15. A systematic review of structured compared with non-structured breastfeeding programmes to support the initiation and duration of exclusive and any breastfeeding in acute and primary health care settings.

    PubMed

    Beake, Sarah; Pellowe, Carol; Dykes, Fiona; Schmied, Virginia; Bick, Debra

    2012-04-01

    Policies and guidelines have recommended that structured programmes to support breastfeeding should be introduced. The objective of this review was to consider the evidence of outcomes of structured compared with non-structured breastfeeding programmes in acute maternity care settings to support initiation and duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Quantitative and qualitative studies were considered. Primary outcomes of interest were initiation of breastfeeding and duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Studies that only considered community-based interventions were excluded. An extensive search of literature published in 1992-2010 was undertaken using identified key words and index terms. Methodological quality was assessed using checklists developed by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Two independent reviewers conducted critical appraisal and data extraction; 26 articles were included. Because of clinical and methodological heterogeneity of study designs, it was not possible to combine studies or individual outcomes in meta-analyses. Most studies found a statistically significant improvement in breastfeeding initiation following introduction of a structured breastfeeding programme, although effect sizes varied. The impact on the duration of exclusive breastfeeding and duration of any breastfeeding to 6 months was also evident, although not all studies found statistically significant differences. Despite poor overall study quality, structured programmes compared with standard care positively influence the initiation and duration of exclusive breastfeeding and any breastfeeding. In health care settings with low breastfeeding initiation and duration rates, structured programmes may have a greater benefit. Few studies controlled for any potential confounding factors, and the impact of bias has to be considered. PMID:22188596

  16. A twin study of breastfeeding with a preliminary genome wide association scan

    PubMed Central

    Colodro-Conde, L.; Zhu, G.; Power, R. A.; Henders, A.; Heath, A.C.; Madden, P.A.F.; Montgomery, G.W.; Medland, S. E.; Ordoñana, J.R.; Martin, N.G.

    2015-01-01

    Breastfeeding has been an important survival trait during human history, though it has long been recognised that individuals differ in their exact breastfeeding behaviour. Here our aims were, first, to explore to what extent genetic and environmental influences contributed to the individual differences in breastfeeding behaviour; second, to detect possible genetic variants related to breastfeeding; and lastly, to test if the genetic variants associated with breastfeeding have been previously found to be related with breast size. Data were collected from a large community-based cohort of Australian twins, with 3,364 women for the twin modelling analyses and 1,521 of them included in the genome wide association study. Monozygotic twin correlations (rMZ = .52, 95% CI .46 – .57) were larger than dizygotic twin correlations (rDZ = .35, 95% CI .25 – .43) and the best-fitting model was the one composed by additive genetics and unique environmental factors, explaining 53% and 47% of the variance in breastfeeding behaviour, respectively. No breastfeeding-related genetic variants reached genome-wide significance. The polygenic risk score analyses showed no significant results, suggesting breast size does not influence breastfeeding. This study confers a replication of a previous one exploring the sources of variance of breastfeeding and, to our knowledge, is the first one to conduct a Genome-Wide Association Study on breastfeeding and look at the overlap with variants for breast size. PMID:25475840

  17. Breastfeeding: how could it be enhanced? The perceptions of Vietnamese women in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Rossiter, J C; Yam, B M

    2000-01-01

    In Australia, the prevalence and duration of breastfeeding is on the decline. The low incidence of breastfeeding includes the immigrant Vietnamese. The purpose of this study was to examine Vietnamese women's perceptions of factors that might influence their choice of infant feeding and how breastfeeding could be promoted and maintained by nurses, midwives, other health professionals, and the health care system as a whole. A convenience sample of 124 postnatal Vietnamese women from community agencies in western and southwestern suburbs of Sydney was interviewed. Content analysis showed that factors that affect their choice of infant feeding method were language difficulties in communicating with health professionals concerning breastfeeding, lack of social support and follow-up care, and attitudes of health professionals toward breastfeeding. To promote and maintain breastfeeding within the Vietnamese community in Sydney, Australia, appropriate health care planning and implementation based on their social, cultural, and language backgrounds and practices need to be considered. PMID:10907337

  18. Dad's Role in Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Dad's Role in Breastfeeding Page Content Article Body Let’s say you and ... you can be when the time comes. Successful nursing depends on a host of factors, many of ...

  19. Factors affecting breastfeeding among women of Mexican origin or descent in Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Scrimshaw, S C; Engle, P L; Arnold, L; Haynes, K

    1987-04-01

    Data on breastfeeding intentions and behavior were collected in prenatal and postpartum interviews as part of a study on first birth among 518 women of Mexican origin or descent in two Los Angeles hospitals. The prenatal intentions of 82 per cent of the women to breastfeed were maintained postpartum in one hospital but dropped sharply in the other. A greater number of hours a day with the baby in the hospital and earlier initiation of breastfeeding were associated with the hospital where prenatal breastfeeding intentions were more likely to be carried out. The intention to work postpartum was associated both with the decision not to breastfeed at all and with shorter intended duration of breastfeeding. PMID:3826466

  20. Evaluation of breastfeeding promotion, support, and knowledge of benefits on breastfeeding outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kornides, Melanie; Kitsantas, Panagiota

    2013-09-01

    We examined how prenatal exposure to breastfeeding information from various media sources, maternal knowledge of benefits, family and clinician support, and peer practices influence breastfeeding outcomes in early infancy. Initiation of breastfeeding, any breastfeeding at two months, and exclusivity of breastfeeding at two months were examined in a cohort of US women using data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II. Descriptive statistics, chi-square analyses and logistic regression were conducted. Approximately 85 percent of the women initiated breastfeeding. At two months, 63.8 percent continued breastfeeding, while only 38.1 percent breastfed exclusively. Mothers with greater knowledge about breastfeeding benefits were 11.2 (95% CI: 6.87-18.45) times more likely to initiate breastfeeding and 5.62 (95% CI: 4.19-7.54) times more likely to breastfeed at two months than those with lower levels of knowledge. Women whose families prenatally supported exclusive breastfeeding were 8.21(5.12-13.2) times more likely to initiate and continue breastfeeding (OR 3.21, 95% CI: 2.51-4.11). Clinicians who supported breastfeeding only also increased the odds of a woman initiating breastfeeding (OR 1.95, 95% CI: 1.31-2.88). Interventions to increase maternal knowledge of breastfeeding benefits and family and clinician support of breastfeeding in the prenatal period may help increase breastfeeding rates. The encouragement of breastfeeding needs to be a priority among health care providers to improve the health of mothers and infants. PMID:23439591

  1. Breastfeeding in Botswana: practices, attitudes, patterns, and the socio-cultural factors affecting them.

    PubMed

    Mahgoub, Salah E O; Bandeke, T; Nnyepi, M

    2002-08-01

    A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in four randomly selected districts of Botswana. Two study sites were chosen in each district. Four hundred households with children under 3 years old were enrolled into the study. A structured questionnaire was administered to mothers of eligible children in 50 households in each of the eight sites. About half the families had monthly incomes below 400 Pula (1 US$ = 4.6 Pula). The majority of families had only one child under 3 years of age. A total of 76.4 per cent of the mothers were single and a high proportion of them had primary or secondary education. Over half, 59.3 per cent, of the mothers had a high level of information about breastfeeding mainly obtained before conception; 94.4 per cent of the mothers believed that breastfeeding was better than bottlefeeding. Ninety-five per cent of the mothers had breastfed their children, and they started breastfeeding immediately or a few hours after delivery. More than 85 per cent of the mothers were planning to continue breastfeeding for 18 months or more. The majority obtained advice about breastfeeding from health workers. The main reason for stopping breastfeeding was that the mother was at work or school. Although 58.2 per cent of mothers had little or no support for breastfeeding from the community it had a positive effect on their decision to breastfeed. The majority of mothers indicated their confidence about breastfeeding when they were pregnant. Over three-quarters (79.6 per cent) of the mothers delivered in government hospitals, and nearly all were roomed with their babies after delivery. PMID:12200978

  2. Determinants of breastfeeding in developing countries: overview and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Huffman, S L

    1984-01-01

    Breastfeeding can play a major role in fertility regulation in developing countries. The effect of breastfeeding is enhanced when the incidence of breastfeeding is high and the duration extended. These factors are more likely to occur when suckling at the breast is frequent. Sociological and behavioral factors can also influence a woman's decision to initiate and terminate breastfeeding. The effects of urbanization, maternal education, and socioeconomic status act through the intervening variables of sociocultural factors, health services, employment status of women, and availability of breastmilk substitutes. Strategies to alter these intervening variables include educational campaigns and support groups for lactating women, changes in health services, availability of child care facilities near employment centers, and enforcement of the international code of marketing of breastmilk substitutes. PMID:6474551

  3. Effect of early mother-baby close contact over the duration of exclusive breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Kamala; Sharma, Anna; Dhungel, Sachin

    2005-12-01

    This is a prospective study involving ninety-two lactating mother- infant pairs in the first six months of birth. They were followed-up up to six months for various perinatal factors determining the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Early postpartum mother-baby skin-to-skin contact had a powerful influence (P<0.001) over the duration of exclusive breastfeeding up to 4-6 months and was found to be more significant than early initiation of breastfeeding (P<0.05). Mode of delivery did not have any significant effect (P<0.5) over the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Thus health care centers can easily adopt a policy to allow few minutes of early postpartum mother-baby skin-to-skin contact and early initiation of breastfeeding to all vaginal as well as caesarian deliveries to promote breastfeeding. PMID:16519083

  4. The Influence of Acculturation on Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration for Mexican-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Lynch, Scott M.; McLanahan, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to test the hypotheses that (1) Similar to other positive pre- and post-natal outcomes, Mexican immigrant mothers are more likely to breastfeed, and to breastfeed longer, than white or Mexican-American mothers; and (2) Acculturation accounts for the ethnic/nativity differential in breastfeeding initiation and duration. The results support both hypotheses. Mexican immigrants to the U.S. are much more likely than whites to breastfeed, and to breastfeed longer. Mexican-American mothers, after controlling for background characteristics, have similar initiation and duration to whites. Using expanded acculturation measures developed for this paper, acculturation accounts for some of the difference between whites and Mexican immigrants in breastfeeding initiation, and much of the difference for breastfeeding duration. The results suggest that low levels of acculturation operate to protect Mexican immigrants from choosing to formula-feed, which gives their babies many health advantages, and may be associated with better health outcomes across the life course. The results also suggest that successive generations of Mexican immigrants may abandon breastfeeding, which is deleterious for their infants. PMID:21399755

  5. WIC peer counselors’ perceptions of breastfeeding in African-American women with lower incomes

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Tyra T.; Powell, Rachel; Anderson, Alex K.; Hall, Jori; Davis, Marsha; Hilyard, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background African-American women have the lowest breastfeeding rates among all racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Peer counseling is an effective intervention in improving breastfeeding in this population. However, little is known on peer counselors’ perceptions of breastfeeding in African-American women. Objectives As part of a larger qualitative study, the goal of this study was to understand the contextual factors influencing breastfeeding decisions of low-income African-American women from the perspective of breastfeeding peer counselors (PCs). Methods Three focus groups were conducted with 23 PCs from the WIC program in a Southeastern state. All focus group discussions were audio-recorded, professionally transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Bronfenbrenner’s socio-ecological model was used to group categories into themes. Results Of the sample, 48% were African-American, 78.2% were married, 56.5% had some college education. Five main themes emerged to describe factors at multiple-levels influencing breastfeeding in PCs’ low-income African-American clients: Individual, Microsystem, Exosystem, Macrosystem, and Chronosystem. Novel findings included 1) having breast-pumps may give African-American women a “sense of security”, 2) cultural pressures to be a “strong black woman” can impede breastfeeding support, and 3) breastfeeding “generational gaps” have resulted from American “slavery” and when formula was “a sign of wealth”. Conclusions As PCs described, low-income African-American women breastfeeding decisions are impacted by numerous contextual factors. Findings from this study suggest a need to broaden public health approach to breastfeeding promotion in this population by moving beyond individual characteristics to examining historical and socio-cultural factors underlying breastfeeding practices in African-American women. PMID:25480019

  6. Breastfeeding and postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Julia P; Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2003-06-01

    Bone loss associated with osteoporosis occurs with high frequency among the elderly and often results in debilitating fractures. A combination of lifestyle behaviors, genetic predisposition, and disease processes contributes to bone metabolism. Therefore, any discussion regarding bone health must address these factors. The impact of menopause on bone turnover has been generally well studied and characterized. Breastfeeding places significant stress on calcium metabolism and, as a consequence, directly influences bone metabolism. The most significant factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism are the duration and frequency of lactation, the return of menses, and pre-pregnancy weight. Although transient, lactation is associated with bone loss. As clinical guidelines and public health policies are being formulated, there is a compelling need for further investigation into the relationship of lactation, BMD, and subsequent risk of osteoporosis. Better understanding of this relationship will provide new opportunities for early intervention and ultimately help in the prevention of bone loss in postmenopausal women. PMID:12734029

  7. Breast-feeding duration: influence on taste acceptance over the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Camille; Chabanet, Claire; Laval, Caroline; Issanchou, Sylvie; Nicklaus, Sophie

    2013-03-28

    Early feeding experiences, e.g. related to milk feeding, can affect later food and taste preferences. However, consequences of breast-feeding on taste acceptance are under-investigated. The objective of the present study was to examine the impact of exclusive breast-feeding duration (DEB) on taste acceptance at 6 and 12 months in the same infants (n 122). Mothers recorded the DEB. Acceptance of solutions of each of the five basic tastes relative to water was evaluated in the laboratory at 6 and 12 months by the ingestion ratio (IR). Kendall correlations were calculated between the DEB and the IR. Only 16 % completed at least 6 months of exclusive breast-feeding; 79 % had begun complementary feeding by 6 months. At 6 months, infants preferred sweet, salty and umami solutions over water and were indifferent to sour and bitter solutions. The longer an infant was breast-fed, the more s/he accepted the umami solution at 6 months. At 12 months, infants preferred sweet and salty solutions over water and were indifferent to sour, bitter and umami solutions. The relationship between the DEB and acceptance of the umami solution was not observed at 12 months. No relationship was observed between the DEB and sweet, salty, sour and bitter taste acceptance at 6 or 12 months. The association between the DEB and umami taste acceptance at 6 months may relate to the higher glutamate content of human milk compared with formula milk. Beyond the acknowledged metabolic benefits of breast-feeding, this suggests that prolonged breast-feeding could also be associated with an impact on sensory preference at the beginning of complementary feeding. PMID:22874663

  8. A comparison of breastfeeding women's, peer supporters' and student midwives' breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Darwent, Kirsty L; Kempenaar, Larissa E

    2014-05-01

    In the United Kingdom over 90% of women do not breastfeed for as long as they would like, despite widespread knowledge of the benefits of breastfeeding. Negative attitudes and low levels of knowledge in staff supporting breastfeeding may be a contributing factor. This paper reports on the breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes in two key workforce groups; student midwives (n = 19) and Breastfeeding Network peer supporters (n = 36) and compares them with breastfeeding women (n = 23). All three groups had high knowledge and attitude scores, but peer supporters had significantly higher levels than student midwives or breastfeeding women. Student midwives' knowledge of breastfeeding was higher than breastfeeding women's but they had similar breastfeeding attitude scores. The higher knowledge and attitude scores in peer supporters may be attributed to the effectiveness of their training, which includes challenging their existing breastfeeding attitudes and debriefing their personal breastfeeding experience. It is suggested that midwives' breastfeeding attitudes are affected by their community culture and their personal experience of breastfeeding. It is proposed that midwifery training should continue to embrace a biopsychosocial model, including training to improve breastfeeding attitudes, particularly for professionals from areas where breastfeeding is not the cultural norm, or who have had negative personal breastfeeding experiences. PMID:24594280

  9. Breastfeeding and its gamut of benefits.

    PubMed

    Gertosio, Chiara; Meazza, Cristina; Pagani, Sara; Bozzola, Mauro

    2016-06-01

    Maternal milk is recommended as the optimal and exclusive source of early nutrition for all infants from birth and until at least their sixth month of age. Their nutritional virtues are due to potent immune factors and a unique composition which evolves in tandem with the infant's growth and developmental needs. Breast milk promotes sensory and cognitive development, and protects the infant against infectious and chronic diseases. Exclusive breastfeeding reduces infant mortality due to common childhood illnesses such as diarrhea or pneumonia, and improves recovery time during illness. Breastfeeding provides numerous short- and long-term health benefits for both the baby and its mother. Beyond the immediate benefits for infants, breastfeeding also contributes to a lifetime of good health. In this review we describe the influence of breastfeeding on mental and psychomotor development, on the risk of endocrine disorders, pediatric cancers and allergic diseases for the breastfed child. More prospective studies with comparable methodologies and longer periods of follow-up are necessary to allow firm conclusions on the effects of breastfeeding in some of these aspects. PMID:26023793

  10. Weighing worth against uncertain work: the interplay of exhaustion, ambiguity, hope and disappointment in mothers breastfeeding late preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Radtke Demirci, Jill; Happ, Mary Beth; Bogen, Debra L; Albrecht, Susan A; Cohen, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Poor breastfeeding outcomes among late preterm infants (LPIs) have been attributed to inadequate breast milk transfer stemming from physiological immaturities. However, breastfeeding is more than a biological phenomenon, and it is unclear how mothers of LPIs manage other factors that may also impact the breastfeeding course. Using grounded theory methods and incorporating serial post-partum interviews with several novel data collection techniques, we examined breastfeeding establishment over a 6-8-week-period among 10 late preterm mother-infant dyads recruited from a maternity hospital in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. We found that breastfeeding in the LPI population was a fluctuating, cascade-like progression of trial and error, influenced by a host of contextual factors and events and culminating with breastfeeding continuation (with or without future caveats for duration or exclusivity of breastfeeding) or cessation. The trajectory was explained by the basic psychosocial process Weighing Worth against Uncertain Work, which encompassed the tension among breastfeeding motivation, the intensity of breastfeeding work and the ambiguity surrounding infant behaviour and feeding cues. Several sub-processes were also identified: Playing the Game, Letting Him Be the Judge vs. Accommodating Both of Us and Questioning Worth vs. Holding out Hope. If valid, our theoretical model indicates a need for earlier, more extensive and more qualified breastfeeding support for mothers of LPIs that emphasizes the connection between prematurity and observed feeding behaviours. PMID:23020593

  11. Weighing worth against uncertain work: The interplay of exhaustion, ambiguity, hope and disappointment in mothers breastfeeding late preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Demirci, Jill Radtke; Happ, Mary Beth; Bogen, Debra L.; Albrecht, Susan A.; Cohen, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Poor breastfeeding outcomes among late preterm infants (LPIs) have been attributed to inadequate breast milk transfer stemming from physiological immaturities. However, breastfeeding is more than a biological phenomenon, and it is unclear how mothers of LPIs manage other factors that may also impact the breastfeeding course. Using grounded theory methods and incorporating serial postpartum interviews with several novel data collection techniques, we examined breastfeeding establishment over a 6–8 week period among 10 late preterm mother-infant dyads recruited from a maternity hospital in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. We found that breastfeeding in the LPI population was a fluctuating, cascade-like progression of trial and error, influenced by a host of contextual factors and events and culminating with breastfeeding continuation (with or without future caveats for duration or exclusivity of breastfeeding) or cessation. The trajectory was explained by the basic psychosocial process Weighing Worth against Uncertain Work, which encompassed the tension between breastfeeding motivation, the intensity of breastfeeding work, and ambiguity surrounding infant behavior and feeding cues. Several sub-processes were also identified: Playing the Game; Letting Him be the Judge vs. Accommodating Both of Us; and Questioning Worth vs. Holding out Hope. If valid, our theoretical model indicates a need for earlier, more extensive, and more qualified breastfeeding support for mothers of late preterm infants that emphasizes the connection between prematurity and observed feeding behaviors. PMID:23020593

  12. Does breastfeeding increase risk of early childhood caries?

    PubMed

    Paglia, L

    2015-09-01

    According to the WHO, "breastfeeding is the normal way of providing young infants with the nutrients they need for healthy growth and development. Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended up to 6 months of age, with continued breastfeeding along with appropriate complementary foods up to two years of age or beyond". However, several studies have reported prolonged and unrestricted breastfeeding as a potential risk factor for primary tooth caries (ECC). On-demand breastfeeding, particularly while lying down at night, would seem to cause ECC because milk remains in the baby's mouth for long periods of time. There is lack of evidence that human milk is cariogenic; other factors, such as oral hygiene, may be more influential in caries development than on-demand breastfeeding. Moreover the biomechanics of breastfeeding differs from those of bottle feeding and milk is expressed into the soft palate and swallowed without remaining on teeth. Indeed we cannot forget that the main factor influencing caries development in infants is the presence of bacteria streptococcus mutans that thrives in a combination of sugars, small amounts of saliva and a low pH. Today the question is open and recently Chaffee, Felines, Vitolo et al. [2014] have found that breastfeeding for 24 months or longer increases the prevalence of severe early childhood caries in low-income families in Porto Alegre, Brazil. These results do not claim that prolonged breastfeeding is the cause of tooth decay; we can expect an association with food for infants often rich in refined sugars, which cause the reduction of the protective effect of saliva on the deciduous teeth enamel. In Japan, Kato, Yorifuji, Yamakawa et al. [2015] have found that infants who had been breastfed for at least 6 or 7 months, both exclusively and partially, were at elevated risk of dental caries at the age of 30 months compared with those who had been exclusively fed with formula. The authors themselves say, however, that further studies

  13. Online Continuing Education for Expanding Clinicians' Roles in Breastfeeding Support.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Roger A; Colchamiro, Rachel; Tolan, Ellen; Browne, Susan; Foley, Mary; Jenkins, Lucia; Mainello, Kristen; Vallu, Rohith; Hanley, Lauren E; Boisvert, Mary Ellen; Forgit, Julie; Ghiringhelli, Kara; Nordstrom, Christina

    2015-11-01

    Lack of health professional support is an important variable affecting mothers' achievement of breastfeeding goals. Online continuing education is a recognized pathway for disseminating content for improving clinicians' knowledge and supporting efforts to change practices. At the time we developed our project, free, accredited continuing education for physicians related to breastfeeding management that could be easily accessed using portable devices (via tablets/smartphones) was not available. Such resources were in demand, especially for facilities pursuing designation through the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. We assembled a government, academic, health care provider, and professional society partnership to create such a tutorial that would address the diverse content needed for supporting breastfeeding mothers postdischarge in the United States. Our 1.5-hour-long continuing medical and nursing education was completed by 1606 clinicians (1172 nurses [73%] and 434 physicians [27%]) within 1 year. More than 90% of nurses and over 98% of physicians said the tutorial achieved its 7 learning objectives related to breastfeeding physiology, broader factors in infant feeding decisions and practices, the American Academy of Pediatrics' policy statement, and breastfeeding management/troubleshooting. Feedback received from the tutorial led to the creation of a second tutorial consisting of another 1.5 hours of continuing medical and nursing education related to breast examination and assessment prior to delivery, provision of anticipatory guidance to pregnant women interested in breastfeeding, maternity care practices that influence breastfeeding outcomes, breastfeeding preterm infants, breastfeeding's role in helping address disparities, and dispelling common myths. The tutorials contribute to achievement of 8 Healthy People 2020 Maternal, Infant and Child Health objectives. PMID:26013061

  14. The effect of qat chewing and other factors on breast-feeding and child survival in a Yemeni society

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim Ali Omer, Mohammed; Mansoub, Mohammed Al; Omer, Rahab; Omer, Rasha; Shadli, Muna; Williams, Rachael

    2011-01-01

    In a survey conducted in Dammar, Republic of Yemen, 755 mothers were interviewed to investigate the patterns and factors affecting childhood feeding practices. It was found that full breast-feeding rate (41.8%) and timely introduction of complementary feeding rate (57.4%) were low, bottle-feeding rate (25.1%) was high and timely first suckling rate was zero. It was also found that the more educated and older mothers tended to wean their children earlier than illiterate and younger mothers. A significant association between regular frequent qat chewing and history of child death was observed. The implications of these findings were discussed.

  15. Risk Factors for Discontinuation of Exclusive Breastfeeding by One Month of Postnatal Age Among High Risk Newborns: An Institution Based Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Chandrika, Parul; Gathwala, Geeta; Narwal, Varun; Chaturvedi, Abhishek

    2015-01-01

    Background Beyond one month of age, there is generally a drop in the proportion of mothers providing exclusive breastfeeding to their infants. Infants with morbidities during neonatal period have been observed to be at higher risk of discontinuation. Objective To enumerate the prevalent factors behind discontinuation of breastfeeding among high risk newborns by first month of life. Materials and Methods A case control study conducted at high risk newborn followup clinic of a teaching medical institute in northern India between January and May 2013. Infants were divided on the basis of continuation (controls) or discontinuation (cases) of exclusive breastfeeding at one month of age. The socio-demographic factors along with maternal and neonatal medical factors were compared among groups. Results During the study period, 112 newborns were screened. Forty seven cases and thirty eight controls were enrolled and finally evaluated. Female gender of newborn, less educated mothers and large families were observed to be associated with discontinuation of exclusive breastfeeding during first month of life among high risk newborns. Requirement of parenteral fluids during hospital stay emerged as the only independent medical reason. Conclusion As in healthy newborns, the socio-cultural factors overshadow the medical reasons for discontinuation of exclusive breastfeeding during first month of life among high risk newborns. PMID:26266176

  16. [Mother-friendly childbirth practices and breastfeeding].

    PubMed

    Lin, Ya-Wen; Tzeng, Ya-Ling; Yang, Ya-Ling

    2013-02-01

    Childbirth, connecting the stages of pregnancy and postpartum, deeply affects maternal motivation with regard to initiating and continuing postnatal breastfeeding and ultimate breastfeeding success. Although promoting breastfeeding is a strategy critical to achieving wellbeing in both mothers and infants, there remains a lack of professional attention and related research into the effect of childbirth on breastfeeding. Promoting successful breastfeeding is a central component of childbirth-friendly nursing care. Therefore, this paper introduces the origin and concepts of mother-and-infant-friendly childbirth, then analyzes the influences on breastfeeding of medicalized birth practices and suggests how to implement childbirth-friendly interventions. This paper was written to help nurses better understand how the childbirth process affects breastfeeding and provide a reference for creating conditions during childbirth that encourage successful breastfeeding practices. PMID:23386519

  17. Breastfeeding behavior among adolescents: Initiation, duration, and exclusivity

    PubMed Central

    Sipsma, Heather L.; Magriples, Urania; Divney, Anna; Gordon, Derrick; Gabzdyl, Elizabeth; Kershaw, Trace

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Despite a substantial amount of evidence on breastfeeding among non-adolescent mothers, research and strategies uniquely designed to target adolescent mothers are critical as their rates of breastfeeding are disproportionately low and their transition to parenthood is often unlike that of older mothers. Literature to date, however, offers limited evidence for designing effective interventions. Therefore, we aim to fill this gap in the literature by examining breastfeeding behaviors among a cohort of female adolescents as they transition to parenthood. Methods Data are derived from a longitudinal cohort of pregnant adolescent females (ages 14-21) and their male partners followed from pregnancy through 6 months postpartum. Means and frequencies were used to describe breastfeeding experiences, breastfeeding behaviors, and sociodemographic characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify factors independently associated with breastfeeding initiation, exclusive breastfeeding, and breastfeeding duration. Results Approximately 71% initiated breastfeeding. Intending to breastfeed, having had complications in labor and delivery, and lower social support were associated with greater odds of breastfeeding initiation. Of the adolescent mothers who initiated breastfeeding, 84% had stopped by 6 months postpartum and among those, average breastfeeding duration was 5 weeks. Participants who exclusively breastfed had longer breastfeeding duration, and participants who had experienced intimate partner violence had shorter breastfeeding duration. Obese women and women who had more difficulty breastfeeding had lower odds of exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusions Enhanced clinical support and the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding should be considered when designing interventions to improve breastfeeding rates among adolescent mothers. PMID:23725911

  18. Toxoplasmosis and Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Breastfeeding Information for Families Breastfeeding Hotline The HHS Office ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Breastfeeding Information for Families Breastfeeding Hotline The HHS Office ...

  19. The changing role of breastfeeding in economic development: a theoretical exposition.

    PubMed

    Butz, W P

    1981-01-01

    This paper develops a model of breastfeeding, contraception, and birth spacing that includes physiological and behavioral aspects and yields a number of testable predictions concerning influences of particular factors on breastfeeding. The model is built on the assumption that breastfeeding is a costly activity for most women, requiring time and nutrients, neither of which is freely available. Given these costs, the fact that many women do breastfeed suggests that it also produces benefits that people value such as the survival and development of the child and birth spacing. The model also assumes that mothers respond to changes in the cost of the activity and that of other means of contraception and feeding babies. It implies that mothers will breastfeed less when their time spent in other ways is more valuable and when substitutes for breastfeeding are more readily available. The author begins with a model of birth spacing and child survival that includes the roles of breastfeeding, and its substitutes. The number of live births is influenced by economic returns that raise family income, and utility returns to the parents. Given a desired number of surviving children and a particular probability of child survival, the couple can achieve its resulting desired number of births and the implied average births interval by adjusting either the length of postpartum amenorrhea or the length of the interval. A shift in the demand (supply) curve causes a larger shift in the amount of breastfeeding when the supply (demand) curve is more elastic. When there is an active wetnursing market, variations in factors that underlie a woman's breastfeeding supply curve may affect her period of postpartum amenorrhea but not the survival or development of her children. Also, shifts in factors that influence woman's demand for breastfeeding may affect her infant's development and survival but not a woman's fecundity. Some implications of this model are: 1) an increase in the market

  20. Socio-religious factors affecting the breast-feeding performance of women in the Yemen Arab Republic.

    PubMed

    Beckerleg, S

    1984-10-01

    Yemeni breast-feeding beliefs and practices are discussed in relation to the ritual status of Muslim women. It is argued that the existing socio-religious perspective of women in Yemen is expressed in, and reinforced by, their attitudes to breast-feeding. Yemeni women consider breastfeeding to be a powerful, but potentially destructive force. The Quran defines the worth of both women and breast-feeding, and this is upheld by the attitudes of contemporary Yemeni society. The practices and beliefs associated with the reproductive and menstrual cycles, indicate that these female functions are considered hedged with danger and ambiguity. Breast-feeding, which is connected to both cycles, is no exception. Traditional breast-feeding beliefs and practices are best understood within the wider context of the perceived place and ritual status of women in Yemeni society. PMID:6526683

  1. Physiological mechanisms, behavioral and psychological factors influencing the transfer of milk from mothers to their young.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Wibke; Woodside, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care".Producing milk to support the growth of their young is a central element of maternal care in mammals. In spite of the facts that ecological constraints influence nursing frequency, length of time until weaning and the composition of milk, there is considerable similarity in the anatomy and physiology of milk production and delivery across mammalian species. Here we provide an overview of cross species variation in nursing patterns and milk composition as well as the mechanisms underlying mammary gland development, milk production and letdown. Not all women breastfeed their infants, thus in later sections we review studies of factors that facilitate or impede the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. The results of these investigations suggest that the decisions to initiate and maintain breastfeeding are influenced by an array of personal, social and biological factors. Finally, studies comparing the development of breastfed and formula fed infants as well as those investigating associations between breastfeeding, maternal health and mother/infant interaction are reviewed. Leading health agencies including the World Health Organization and CDC advocate breastfeeding for at least the first 6months postpartum. To achieve these rates will require not only institutional support but also a focus on individual mother/infant dyads and their experience. PMID:26232032

  2. Influence of factors on mammographic density in premenopausal Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yaping; Liu, Jieqiong; Gu, Ran; Hu, Yue; Liu, Fengtao; Yun, Miaomiao; Xiao, Qiaozhen; Wu, Mei; Liu, Qiang; Su, Fengxi

    2016-07-01

    Mammographic density is an independent strong risk factor for breast cancer. However, the influence of factors on mammographic density in premenopausal women remains unclear. In the Southern Professional Women Breast Cancer Screening Project, we assessed the associations between mammographic density and its influential factors using multivariate logistic regression in premenopausal women adjusting for BMI, age, duration of breastfeeding, number of live births, and breast size. A total of 1699 premenopausal women aged 27 to 57 years, who had been screened by mammography, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Overall, 85.2% were categorized as having dense breasts (BI-RADS density 3 and 4) and 14.8% as having fatty breasts (BI-RADS density 1 and 2). In multivariate and logistic regression analysis, only BMI and age were significantly negatively correlated with mammographic density in premenopausal women (P<0.001). No significant associations between mammographic density and number of deliveries, breastfeeding duration, education level, family history of breast cancer, as well as breast size and sleep quality, were identified in the study. Age and BMI are negatively associated with mammographic density in premenopausal Chinese women. Information on the influential factors of mammographic density in premenopausal women might provide meaningful insights into breast cancer prevention. PMID:26075657

  3. Exclusive breastfeeding prenatal intentions among HIV-positive mothers in Blantyre, Malawi: a correlation study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding is an important component of child survival and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in resource-poor settings like Malawi. In Malawi, children under the age of six months are exclusively breastfed for an average duration of 3.7 months. This falls short of the recommendations by the World Health Organization as well as the Malawi Ministry of Health that mothers exclusively breastfeed for the first six months of the child’s life. Understanding factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding duration among HIV-positive mothers is important in promoting exclusive breastfeeding among these mothers. An exploratory study was therefore conducted to determine factors that influence HIV-positive mothers’ prenatal intended duration of exclusive breastfeeding and their likelihood to exclusively breastfeed for six months. Methods This paper is based on data from a longitudinal, descriptive and correlation study that was conducted at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Blantyre, Malawi between May 12, 2009 and March 22, 2010. Theory of Planned Behavior guided the study. A face-to-face survey was utilized to collect data from a convenience sample of 110 HIV-positive mothers who were at least 36 weeks pregnant at baseline. A modified and pre-tested breastfeeding attrition prediction tool was used to measure exclusive breastfeeding beliefs, intentions and external influences at baseline. Data were analyzed using descriptive and association statistics. Additionally, multiple regressions were run to determine significant predictors of HIV-positive mothers’ prenatal intended duration of exclusive breastfeeding and their likelihood to exclusively breastfeed for six months. Results Results revealed high exclusive breastfeeding prenatal intentions among HIV-positive mothers. Prenatal intended duration of exclusive breastfeeding was positively associated with normative, control beliefs and negatively associated with positive beliefs

  4. The association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index with breastfeeding initiation.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Lindsay A; Zhang, Shuyao; Black, Erik; Das, Rajeeb; Ryngaert, Mary; Sullivan, Sandra; Roth, Jeffrey

    2013-12-01

    Recent evidence extends the health benefits of breastfeeding to include reduction of maternal body mass index (BMI) and childhood obesity. Since most women decide if they will breastfeed prior to pregnancy, it is important to understand, given the high population prevalence of obesity, if maternal underweight, overweight or obese status is associated with breastfeeding initiation. Population-based study. Florida resident birth certificate records. All live singleton births (2004-2009), excluding observations that lacked the primary outcomes of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and breastfeeding initiation (final sample of 1,161,949 unique observations). Odds of initiating breastfeeding, adjusted by maternal and infant factors, stratified by pre-pregnancy BMI, categorized as underweight, normal, overweight and obese. Adjusting for the known maternal factors associated with breastfeeding initiation, underweight and obese women were significantly less likely to initiate breastfeeding than women with normal BMI, (adjusted odds ratio 0.87, 95 % confidence interval 0.85-0.89 for underweight women; 0.84, 95 % CI 0.83-0.85 for obese women). The magnitude of these findings did not significantly vary by race or ethnicity. Medicaid status and adherence to the Institute of Medicine's 2009 pregnancy weight gain recommendations had only minor influences on breastfeeding initiation. Among adolescents, only underweight status predicted breastfeeding initiation; obesity did not. Underweight and obese women have significantly lower rates of breastfeeding initiation compared to women with normal pre-pregnancy BMI. Future studies need to address the health care, social, and physical barriers that interfere with breastfeeding initiation, especially in underweight and obese women, regardless of race, ethnicity or income. PMID:23247667

  5. Influence of Breastfeeding Time on Levels of Organochlorine Pesticides in Human Milk of a Mexican Population.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Almazán, Luis A; Diaz-Ortiz, Jesús; Alarcón-Romero, Mario; Davila-Vazquez, Gustavo; Saldarriaga-Noreña, Hugo; Sampedro-Rosas, Laura; López-Silva, Saúl; Santiago-Moreno, Agustín; Rosas-Acevedo, José L; Waliszewski, Stefan M

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted with the objective of determining whether there is a depuration of organochlorine pesticides in breast milk according to breastfeeding time. In total, 171 samples from mothers that lived in the State of Guerrero, Mexico were analyzed. There was a weak negative relationship between pp'DDE (r = -0.216) and Σ-DDT (r = -0.222) concentrations with the days of lactation. In a comparison analysis, a statistically significant decrease of pp'DDT and pp'DDE levels was observed, as well as the Σ-DDT from the first to the fifth week of lactation. A reduction of 0.188 mg/kg lipid of pp'DDE and 0.181 mg/kg lipid of Σ-DDT per week was obtained. HCB, β-HCH and op'DDT concentrations were low and had no major fluctuations between subgroups. The low levels found and the observed reduction in time involve less exposure to the infant to these pollutants. Through this methodology changes in levels of certain organochlorine pesticides in various stages of human milk production may be shown. PMID:26602567

  6. A qualitative study on the breastfeeding experiences of first-time mothers in Vientiane, Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The benefits of breastfeeding are well-recognised. The majority of first-time mothers in the Lao People's Democratic Republic however do not follow WHO guidelines of exclusively breastfeeding for the first six months, and less than half breastfeed for two years. UNICEF identified lack of exclusive breastfeeding as the second highest risk factor for under 5 mortality in Lao PDR, closely following lack of skilled delivery care. This study explored the reasons and influences behind first-time mothers' breastfeeding practices, as well as the role of attitudes, beliefs and experiences in influencing those practices. Methods A qualitative research design was chosen for this exploratory study. Two districts in Vientiane were selected, and in each district four focus group discussions, two with six first-time mothers and two with health staff were undertaken. In addition, sixteen in-depth interviews with first-time mothers and seven individual key informants were conducted. Results Participants demonstrated positive attitudes towards breastfeeding and recognised its importance. Despite this, breastfeeding practices were suboptimal. Few exclusively breastfed for the first six months of the baby’s life and most of the first-time mothers included in the sample had stopped or planned to stop breastfeeding by the time the infant was 18 months of age. Work was named as one of the main reasons for less than ideal breastfeeding practices. Traditional beliefs and advice from health staff and the first-time mothers' own mothers, were important influences on breastfeeding practices. First-time mothers also cited experiencing tension when there were differences in advice they received from different people. Conclusion Overall, the mothers were well-informed on the benefits of breastfeeding, and displayed positive attitudes towards it. Nevertheless, few maintained optimal breastfeeding practices in the first two years of the infant’s life. Further effort needs to be

  7. Effect of breastfeeding on obesity of schoolchildren: influence of maternal education

    PubMed Central

    Pudla, Katia Jakovljevic; Gonzaléz-Chica, David Alejandro; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the association between duration of breastfeeding (BF) and obesity in schoolchildren of Florianópolis (SC), and the role of possible effect modifiers. Methods: Cross-sectional study with a random sample of 2826 schoolchildren (7-14 years). Weight and height were measured according to standardized procedures. Data concerning BF and sociodemographic variables were obtained from a questionnaire sent to parents/guardians. Children's nutritional status was evaluated by BMI-for-age z-score for gender (WHO reference curves). Adjusted analyses were performed through logistic regression, considering a possible interaction among variables. Results: Prevalence of obesity was 8.6% (95% CI: 7.6-9.7%) and 55.7% (95% CI: 53.8-57.6%) received breastmilk for ≥6 months. BF was not associated with obesity, even in the adjusted analysis. Stratified analysis according to maternal schooling showed that, in children aged 7-10 years and children whose mothers had 0-8 years of schooling, the chance of obesity was lower among those breastfeed for >1 month, especially among those who received breastmilk for 1-5 months (OR=0.22; 95% CI 0.08-0.62). Among children of women with higher schooling (>8 years), the chance of obesity was 44% lower in those who were breastfed for >12 months (p-value for interaction <0.01). This interaction was not found in older children (11-14 years). Conclusions: Among children of women with lower schooling, BF for any period longer than 1 month is protective against obesity; however, for a higher maternal schooling, BF for less than 12 months increases the odds of obesity. PMID:26100592

  8. Fathers' experiences of supporting breastfeeding: challenges for breastfeeding promotion and education

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Amy; Davies, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Increasing breastfeeding rates is a strategic priority in the UK and understanding the factors that promote and encourage breastfeeding is critical to achieving this. It is established that women who have strong social support from their partner are more likely to initiate and continue breastfeeding. However, little research has explored the fathers' role in breastfeeding support and more importantly, the information and guidance he may need. In the current study, 117 men whose partner had given birth in the previous 2 years and initiated breastfeeding at birth completed an open-ended questionnaire exploring their experiences of breastfeeding, the information and support they received and their ideas for future breastfeeding education and promotion aimed at fathers and families. Overall, the findings showed that fathers were encouraging of breastfeeding and wanted to be able to support their partner. However, they often felt left out of the breastfeeding relationships and helpless to support their partner at this time. Many reported being excluded from antenatal breastfeeding education or being considered unimportant in post-natal support. Men wanted more information about breastfeeding to be directed towards them alongside ideas about how they could practically support their partner. The importance of support mechanisms for themselves during this time was also raised. The results highlight the need for health professionals to direct support and information towards fathers as well as the mother–infant dyad and to recognise their importance in promoting and enabling breastfeeding. PMID:24720518

  9. Breastfeeding After Cesarean Delivery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Breastfeeding > Breastfeeding After ...

  10. Overcoming breastfeeding problems

    MedlinePlus

    Plugged milk ducts; Nipple soreness when breastfeeding; Breastfeeding - overcoming problems; Let-down reflex ... Breastfeeding (nursing) your baby can be a good experience for both the mother and the baby. It ...

  11. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. ... for you and your baby. continue All About Breastfeeding Nursing can be a wonderful experience for both ...

  12. Breastfeeding Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ029 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Breastfeeding Your Baby • How long should I breastfeed my baby? • How does breastfeeding benefit my baby? • How does breastfeeding benefit me? • ...

  13. Breastfeeding and Breast Milk

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information​ ​​Breastfeeding, also called ...

  14. Breastfeeding Report Card 2014

    MedlinePlus

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Breastfeeding Report Cards Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... National Immunization Survey data from 2014 and 2015. Breastfeeding Report Card, 2016 Download report [PDF-2.72MB] ...

  15. Benefits of breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    Experts say that breastfeeding your baby is good for you and your baby. If you breastfeed for any length of time, no matter ... is, you and your baby will benefit from breastfeeding. Learn about breastfeeding your baby and decide if ...

  16. Environmental factors in the relationship between breastfeeding and infant mortality: the role of sanitation and water in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Butz, W P; Habicht, J P; DaVanzo, J

    1984-04-01

    Mothers' recall data collected in Malaysia in 1976-1977 are analyzed to study correlates of mortality of 5471 infants. Respondent population is 1262 women living in 52 primary sampling units of Peninsular Malaysia. Lengths of unsupplemented and supplemented breastfeeding and presence of piped household water and toilet sanitation are related to infant mortality in regressions that also control other correlates. The analysis is disaggregated into three periods of infancy. Through six months of feeding, unsupplemented breastfeeding is more strongly associated with fewer infant deaths than is supplemented breastfeeding. Type of sanitation is generally more strongly associated with mortality than is type of water supply. The effects of breastfeeding and the environmental variables are shown to be strongly interactive and to change systematically during the course of infancy. Breastfeeding is more strongly associated with infant survival in homes without piped water or toilet sanitation. In homes with both modern facilities, supplemented breastfeeding has no significant effect, and unsupplemented breastfeeding is statistically significant only for mortality in days 8-28. Presence of modern water and sanitation systems appears unimportant for mortality of infants who are breastfed without supplementation for six months. PMID:6711541

  17. Knowledge and beliefs about breastfeeding are not determinants for successful breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Ishak, Shareena; Adzan, Nur Azeanny M; Quan, Lee K; Shafie, M Hasli; Rani, Nor Azila; Ramli, Kazzoma G

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional prospective study was performed to assess knowledge and attitude toward breastfeeding among mothers in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia and its influence on their breastfeeding practices. Two hundred thirteen women who had delivered healthy babies at term were enrolled. A structured questionnaire containing demographic data and the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Score were used, followed by a telephone interview after 8 weeks to determine the feeding outcome. Women of Malay ethnicity with higher education level who had received breastfeeding counseling had a significantly more favorable attitude toward breastfeeding. Ethnicity was found to be a significant determinant in the success of breastfeeding, whereas returning to work was a major reason for discontinuing breastfeeding. In ensuring a successful breastfeeding practice, apart from knowledge and attitude, issues surrounding culture and traditions as well as improving deliverance of readily available support should be addressed. PMID:24893127

  18. Breastfeeding versus Formula-Feeding & Girls’ Pubertal Development

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Aarti; Deardorff, Julianna; Lahiff, Maureen; Laurent, Cecile; Greenspan, Louise C.; Hiatt, Robert A.; Windham, Gayle; Galvez, Maida P.; Biro, Frank M.; Pinney, Susan M.; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Wolff, Mary S.; Barlow, Janice; Mirabedi, Anousheh; Lasater, Molly; Kushi, Lawrence H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of breastfeeding or its duration with timing of girls’ pubertal onset, and the role of BMI as a mediator in these associations. Methods A population of 1,237 socio-economically and ethnically diverse girls, ages 6–8 years, was recruited across three geographic locations (New York City, Cincinnati, and the San Francisco Bay Area) in a prospective study of predictors of pubertal maturation. Breastfeeding practices were assessed using self-administered questionnaire/interview with the primary caregiver. Girls were seen on at least annual basis to assess breast and pubic hair development. The association of breastfeeding with pubertal timing was estimated using parametric survival analysis while adjusting for body mass index, ethnicity, birth-weight, mother’s education, mother’s menarcheal age, and family income. Results Compared to formula fed girls, those who were mixed-fed or predominantly breastfed showed later onset of breast development (Hazard Ratios 0.90 [95% CI, 0.75–1.09] and 0.74 [95% CI, 0.59–0.94], respectively). Duration of breastfeeding was also directly associated with age at onset of breast development (p trend = 0.008). Associations between breastfeeding and pubic hair onset were not significant. In stratified analysis, the association of breastfeeding and later breast onset was seen in Cincinnati girls only. Conclusion The association between breast feeding and pubertal onset varied by study site. More research is needed about the environments within which breastfeeding takes place in order to better understand whether infant feeding practices are a potentially modifiable risk factor that may influence age at onset of breast development and subsequent risk for disease in adulthood. PMID:24916206

  19. Breastfeeding versus formula-feeding and girls' pubertal development.

    PubMed

    Kale, Aarti; Deardorff, Julianna; Lahiff, Maureen; Laurent, Cecile; Greenspan, Louise C; Hiatt, Robert A; Windham, Gayle; Galvez, Maida P; Biro, Frank M; Pinney, Susan M; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Wolff, Mary S; Barlow, Janice; Mirabedi, Anousheh; Lasater, Molly; Kushi, Lawrence H

    2015-03-01

    To examine the association of breastfeeding or its duration with timing of girls' pubertal onset, and the role of BMI as a mediator in these associations. A population of 1,237 socio-economically and ethnically diverse girls, ages 6-8 years, was recruited across three geographic locations (New York City, Cincinnati, and the San Francisco Bay Area) in a prospective study of predictors of pubertal maturation. Breastfeeding practices were assessed using self-administered questionnaire/interview with the primary caregiver. Girls were seen on at least annual basis to assess breast and pubic hair development. The association of breastfeeding with pubertal timing was estimated using parametric survival analysis while adjusting for body mass index, ethnicity, birth-weight, mother's education, mother's menarcheal age, and family income. Compared to formula fed girls, those who were mixed-fed or predominantly breastfed showed later onset of breast development [hazard ratios 0.90 (95 % CI 0.75, 1.09) and 0.74 (95 % CI 0.59, 0.94), respectively]. Duration of breastfeeding was also directly associated with age at onset of breast development (p trend = 0.008). Associations between breastfeeding and pubic hair onset were not significant. In stratified analysis, the association of breastfeeding and later breast onset was seen in Cincinnati girls only. The association between breast feeding and pubertal onset varied by study site. More research is needed about the environments within which breastfeeding takes place in order to better understand whether infant feeding practices are a potentially modifiable risk factor that may influence age at onset of breast development and subsequent risk for disease in adulthood. PMID:24916206

  20. Breastfeeding and abstinence among the Yoruba.

    PubMed

    Dow, T E

    1977-08-01

    Contemporary patterns of breastfeeding and postpartum abstinence among the Yoruba of Nigera are examined. Quite extensive periods of postpartum abstinence are still observed by most rural and poorer urban women to prolong breastfeeding and increase child survivorship. Differentials in duration of breastfeeding and abstinence relate to both socioeconomic factors and age, suggesting the likelihood of large future reductions. Implications for family planning prospects and policies are noted. PMID:888163

  1. Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

  2. Determinants of breast-feeding and post-partum amenorrhoea in Orissa.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, K; Pathak, K B; Pandey, A

    1989-07-01

    A life table analysis is made of the duration of breast-feeding and post-partum amenorrhoea in Orissa, India, taking one variable at a time using data from a baseline survey of fertility and mortality (BSFM) conducted on the lines of the World Fertility Survey. Then a multivariate (proportional hazard) analysis showed that socioeconomic factors including residence, caste status and education influence the breast-feeding and post-partum amenorrhoea periods. There was no effect of maternal age on the length of breast-feeding, but mean length of post-partum amenorrhoea varied with age. The durations of breast-feeding and post-partum amenorrhoea are strongly related. PMID:2768294

  3. Effects of promoting increased duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding on adiposity and insulin-like growth factor-I at age 11.5 years: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Richard M; Patel, Rita; Kramer, Michael S.; Guthrie, Lauren; Vilchuck, Konstantin; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Sergeichick, Natalia; Gusina, Nina; Foo, Ying; Palmer, Tom; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Gillman, Matthew W; Davey Smith, George; Oken, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Importance Evidence that increased duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding reduces child obesity risk is based on observational studies that are prone to confounding. Objective To investigate effects of an intervention to promote increased duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding on child adiposity and circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I (which regulates growth). Design Cluster-randomized controlled trial. Setting 31 Belarusian maternity hospitals and their affiliated polyclinics, randomized to usual practices (n=15) or a breastfeeding promotion intervention (n=16). Participants 17,046 breastfeeding mother-infant pairs enrolled in 1996/7, of whom 13,879 (81.4%) were followed-up between January 2008 and December 2010 at a median age of 11.5 years. Intervention Breastfeeding promotion intervention modeled on the WHO/UNICEF Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative. Main outcome measures Body mass index (BMI), fat and fat-free mass indices (FMI and FFMI), percent body fat, waist circumference, triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses, overweight and obesity, and whole-blood IGF-I. Primary analysis was based on modified intention-to-treat (without imputation), accounting for clustering within hospitals/clinics. Results The experimental intervention substantially increased breastfeeding duration and exclusivity (43% vs. 6% and 7.9% vs. 0.6% exclusively breastfed at 3 and 6 months, respectively) versus the control intervention. Cluster-adjusted mean differences in outcomes at 11.5 years between experimental vs. control groups were: 0.19 kg/m2 (95% 4 CI: −0.09, 0.46) for BMI; 0.12 kg/m2 (−0.03, 0.28) for FMI; 0.04 kg/m2 (−0.11, 0.18) for FFMI; 0.47% (−0.11, 1.05) for % body fat; 0.30 cm (−1.41, 2.01) for waist circumference; −0.07 mm (−1.71, 1.57) for triceps and −0.02 mm (−0.79, 0.75) for subscapular skinfold thicknesses; and −0.02 standard deviations (−0.12, 0.08) for IGF-I. The cluster-adjusted odds ratio for overweight / obesity (BMI

  4. Factors That Influence Teacher Attrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    External, employment, and personal factors which influence teacher decisions to stay, leave, or transfer from teaching assignments are discussed, with emphasis on special education teachers. Factors attributed to teacher attrition in urban and rural environments also are briefly reviewed, along with attrition of related services professionals.…

  5. Is breastfeeding related to bone properties? A longitudinal analysis of associations between breastfeeding duration and pQCT parameters in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Tilman; Kroke, Anja; Remer, Thomas; Schönau, Eckhard; Buyken, Anette E

    2014-10-01

    Nutritive and bioactive components of human milk could be involved in programming metabolic systems that affect bone growth throughout the life course. Bone properties in childhood and adolescence might differ, depending on breastfeeding duration. Thus, breastfeeding could be a relevant factor in the context of primary osteoporosis prevention. The prospective association between breastfeeding duration and bone properties was investigated using the data of 284 participants of the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study. Breastfeeding duration was assessed during infancy. Bone properties were measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) at ages 5-23 years. Cortical volumetric bone mineral density, cortical bone mineral content, strength strain index, total cross-sectional area of the bone and cross-sectional area of the cortical bone were determined at the 65% site of the radius. Linear regression analyses were performed to check for differences in pQCT parameters of subjects who had not or shortly been breastfed (0-16 weeks) and subjects who had been breastfed for a long duration (≥17 weeks). Multivariable models adjusted for age, gender, forearm length, muscle cross-sectional area, body mass index standard deviation score (SDS), height SDS and socio-economic status did not yield associations between breastfeeding duration and pQCT parameters. These findings suggest neither protective nor adverse effects of prolonged breastfeeding on bone health in childhood and adolescence. Influences of early nutrition on bone growth might be overridden by current effects of mechanical loads on bone physiology. PMID:22909290

  6. Perspectives and attitudes of breastfeeding women using herbal galactagogues during breastfeeding: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Some herbal galactagogues have gained reputation and recognition by the public and health professionals as alternative approaches to increase breast milk supply. This study explores the perspectives and attitudes of breastfeeding women towards the use of herbal galactagogues while breastfeeding, their experiences, and why and how they have chosen an alternative option over conventional treatments to enhance breastfeeding performance. Methods This exploratory research was conducted through in-depth semi-structured interviews with women living in Perth, Western Australia, who were using one or more herbal galactagogues during breastfeeding. Purposeful and subsequent snowball sampling methods were employed to recruit participants. All interviews, facilitated by an interview guide, were audio-recorded, then transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was used to analyse qualitative data to construct themes and subthemes. Results The perspectives and attitudes of the 20 participants are classified under three main headings: i) use of herbal medicines during breastfeeding, ii) available herbal medicines resources, and iii) level of breastfeeding support received. Throughout the interviews, participants described how their perseverance and determination to breastfeed, as well as concerns over breastfed infants’ safety with conventional treatments, influenced their choice of therapy. A sense of self-efficacy and autonomy over their own health needs was seen as influential to their confidence level, supported self-empowerment and provided reassurance throughout the breastfeeding journey. There was also a desire for more evidence-based information and expectations of health professionals to provide credible and reliable information regarding the use of herbal medicines during breastfeeding. Conclusions This study has enhanced our understanding of the perspectives and attitudes of breastfeeding women towards the use of herbal medicines, in particular galactagogues

  7. Factors influencing dental decision making.

    PubMed

    Grembowski, D; Milgrom, P; Fiset, L

    1988-01-01

    In clinical decision making, dentists routinely choose between alternative treatments such as crown vs amalgam/composite buildup, root canal vs extraction, fixed bridge vs removable partial denture, and prophylaxis vs subgingival curettage or periodontal scaling. A number of technical and patient factors can influence dentists' choice of treatment in these situations; however, little is known about their relative importance. To address this issue, a list of technical (e.g., periodontal status and caries rate) and patient (e.g., cost and patient preference) factors possibly influencing choice of treatment was developed for each pair of services. Responding to a mail questionnaire, 156 general dentists in Washington State listed the top three factors influencing their choice of service in each pair. Results revealed that dentists took different factors into account in choosing among alternative treatments. Technical factors dominated over patient concerns; only about 33 percent of the dentists considered patient factors important in choosing alternative therapies. The latter group was less preventively oriented, were solo practitioners, worked longer hours, and had lower prices. Results suggest patients may have little influence on prescriptions of therapy among experienced general dentists. PMID:3045303

  8. A population-based survey on infant feeding practice (0-2 years) in Hong Kong: breastfeeding rate and patterns among 3,161 infants below 6 months old.

    PubMed

    Lee, Warren T K; Lui, Susan S H; Chan, Veronica; Wong, Eric; Lau, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of breastfeeding for the first 6 months in infants has been low in Hong Kong since the 1970s. In order to develop effective breastfeeding policies and promotion programs, an appraisal of feeding practices and factors related to initiation and early cessation of breastfeeding is necessary. A survey with a population-based representative sample was conducted to determine social-demographic, personal and cultural factors that influenced decision, duration and practice of infant feeding among infants 0-24 months old. This paper focuses on infants below 6 months old to study factors related to decision, duration and practice of breastfeeding. In 1993, 7,298 healthy infants were recruited from 46 Maternal-and-Child-Health-Clinics (MCHC) throughout Hong Kong, of whom 3161 were below 6 months old. The mother reported her feeding decision, duration and practice in a questionnaire. Breastfeeding rate was found to be very low (8.4%) for infants below 6 months old. Only 50.9% infants were breastfed. Infant formulae were widely given among partially breastfed infants. 45% mothers were full-time employed. Most mothers were aware of the benefits of breastfeeding to the infants and themselves. Husbands (43.3%) were regarded the most influential on initiation and duration on breastfeeding. Restricted food varieties (54%), sore nipple and breast engorgement (67%), perceived home confinement (41.5%) and perceived inadequate milk supply (31.7%) were major concerns upon breastfeeding. Furthermore, 76.9% mothers turned to MCHC staff for advice when they encountered difficulties during breastfeeding. In conclusion, the survey collected population-based representative data on factors determining initiation and early cessation of breastfeeding in Hong Kong in 1993. The findings will serve as a cornerstone in understanding the evolution of breastfeeding practice in Hong Kong. It merits further study to investigate how the confounders interplay to modulate initiation, duration

  9. Travelers' Health: Travel and Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... providers should explain clearly to breastfeeding mothers the value of continuing breastfeeding during travel. For the first 6 months of life, exclusive breastfeeding is recommended. This is especially important during travel because exclusive breastfeeding means feeding only ...

  10. Pregnancy, Breastfeeding, and Bone Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... supported by your browser. Home Osteoporosis Women Pregnancy, Breastfeeding, and Bone Health Publication available in: PDF (63 ... to get enough calcium during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Breastfeeding and Bone Health Breastfeeding also affects a mother’s ...

  11. Maternal expectations: new mothers, nurses, and breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Martucci, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    By the middle of the 20th century, breastfeeding rates had fallen to less than 20% in some areas of the United States. Despite these grim statistics, many mothers continued to seek information, advice, and the experience of breastfeeding their infants. This article explores the role that nurses played in these women's struggles to breastfeed in the years between the end of World War II and the 1970s. The role of the nurse in shaping the meaning and experience of breastfeeding in America has been an important, albeit often overlooked, part of the history of infant feeding. In addition to exploring the ways in which hospital policies and structures shaped nurses' relationships with breastfeeding mothers, this article looks at how different maternal ideologies influenced the nature of these (mostly) same-sex interactions. This article argues that the ideas about, and experiences with, motherhood had important implications for how nurses and mothers approached the practice of breastfeeding in the hospital. PMID:22359999

  12. Factors Influencing College Science Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tai, Robert H.; Sadler, Philip M.; Mintzes, Joel J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors report some of the salient findings of a large-scale, four-year national study, conducted at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, entitled "Factors Influencing College Science Success" (FICSS), which surveyed college students who enrolled in first-year biology, chemistry, and physics courses throughout the…

  13. Soft Factors Influence College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence about the role that "soft factors" like student engagement and school environment play in influencing whether high school students go on to enroll in college is hard to come by. Over the past two years, the Center for Labor Market Studies (CLMS) of Northeastern University, with support from the Nellie Mae Education Foundation and the…

  14. Exclusive Breastfeeding Experiences among Mexican American Women

    PubMed Central

    Wambach, Karen; Domian, Elaine Williams; Page-Goertz, Sallie; Wurtz, Heather; Hoffman, Kelli

    2016-01-01

    Background According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hispanic breastfeeding mothers begin early formula supplementation at higher rates than other ethnic groups, which can lead to shorter breastfeeding duration and decreased exclusive breastfeeding. Acculturation, the process of adopting beliefs and behaviors of another culture, appears to influence breastfeeding practices of Hispanic women in the United States. Little is known about Mexican American mothers’ formula use and exclusive breastfeeding within the context of acculturation. Objective Our study identified perceived benefits and barriers to exclusive breastfeeding and levels of acculturation among Mexican American women living in a Midwestern city. Methods We used a qualitative descriptive design integrating Pender’s Health Promotion Model concepts. Individual interviews were conducted in English or Spanish (N = 21). The revised Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans was used to examine acculturation levels. Results Acculturation scores indicated that the majority (66%) of the sample was “very Mexican oriented.” Most women exclusively breastfed, with a few using early supplementation for “insufficient milk production.” Three themes emerged: (1) It is natural that a woman give life and also provide the best food for her baby; (2) Breastfeeding is ultimately a woman’s decision but is influenced by tradition, guidance, and encouragement; and (3) Breast milk is superior but life circumstances can challenge one’s ability to breastfeed. Conclusion Strong familial/cultural traditions supported and normalized breastfeeding. Barriers to exclusive breastfeeding were similar to breastfeeding women in general, in the United States. Findings support the need for culturally competent and individualized lactation care. PMID:26289059

  15. [Fostering a breastfeeding-friendly workplace].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Chun; Kuo, Shu-Chen

    2013-02-01

    Creating supportive environments that encourage mothers to breastfeed their children has emerged in recent years as a key health issue for women and children. Taiwan has a large and still growing number of new mothers in the workplace. Early postpartum return to work and inconvenient workplace conditions often discourage women from breastfeeding or cause early discontinuation. This study describes the current status of worksite breastfeeding-friendly policies in Taiwan and selected other countries and assesses the effects of work-related factors on working mother breastfeeding behavior. Although maternity leave has been positively correlated with breastfeeding duration, maternity leave in Taiwan remains significantly shorter than in other countries. Flexible working conditions, the provision of lactation rooms, and support from colleagues are critical components of promoting breastfeeding in the workplace. PMID:23386521

  16. What about Breastfeeding?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fundraising Ideas Vehicle Donation Volunteer Efforts What about Breastfeeding? skip to submenu Parents & Individuals Information for Parents & Individuals What about Breastfeeding? To download the PDF version of this factsheet, ...

  17. Fathers Can Support Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... System Women, Infants and Children (WIC) Fathers Supporting Breastfeeding Last Published: 05/26/2016 Email Updates Click ... in each of the materials. FATHERS CAN SUPPORT BREASTFEEDING Poster - FNS 354 Be a Part of the ...

  18. Your Guide to Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... group. 6 • Search your phone book or the Internet for a breastfeeding center near you. These centers ... website at http:// www.llli.org/. • Search the Internet for breastfeeding message boards and chats. (These resources ...

  19. Ankyloglossia its impact breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Henry, Lydia; Hayman, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This article contrasts two very different experiences of one mother breastfeeding her two sons to demonstrate the potential impact of ankyloglossia on breastfeeding. When too restrictive, ankyloglossia, also known as tongue-tie, can cause the newborn to ineffectively suckle at the breast. Breastfeeding difficulties can occur, such as long feedings or damaged nipples. When nurses, lactation consultants and other providers recognize this situation, they can refer women for further care and treatment, which can ultimately lead to breastfeeding success. PMID:24750651

  20. African American Women's Breastfeeding Experiences: Cultural, Personal, and Political Voices.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Becky; Wambach, Karen; Domain, Elaine Williams

    2015-07-01

    The low rate of breastfeeding among African American women in the United States is a poorly understood, persistent disparity. Our purpose in this study was to gain an understanding of how African American women experience breastfeeding in the context of their day-to-day lives. The Sequential-Consensual Qualitative Design (SCQD), a 3-stage qualitative methodology aimed at exploring the cultural, personal, and political context of phenomena, was used to explore the experiences of African American women who felt successful with breastfeeding. An integration of qualitative content analysis and Black feminist theory was used to analyze the data. Themes that emerged from Stage-2 data analysis included self-determination, spirituality and breastfeeding, and empowerment. In Stage 3 of the study, participant recommendations regarding breastfeeding promotion and support initiatives for African American breastfeeding were categorized into three themes, including engaging spheres of influence, sparking breastfeeding activism, and addressing images of the sexual breast vs. the nurturing breast. PMID:25288408

  1. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sam SX; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori; Abbiss, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing) within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon. PMID:25258562

  2. The religious and cultural bases for breastfeeding practices among the Hindus.

    PubMed

    Laroia, Nirupama; Sharma, Deeksha

    2006-01-01

    In Hindu communities, breastfeeding is nearly universal and continues for most children beyond infancy. This review examines the religious and cultural basis for the contemporary breastfeeding practices amongst the Hindu. Practices at the time of birth and feeding rituals like prelacteal feeds, importance and timing of complementary feeds, and protections for the breastfeeding mother are examined from the published medical literature and available religious texts. Hindu Vedic literature and ancient ayurvedic texts underscore the importance of breastfeeding in the Hindu society. Although almost every Hindu child gets some breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding for the recommended duration and early initiation of breastfeeding are not that common. As birth of a baby is a celebration for family and society, breastfeeding is strongly influenced by cultural and religious ceremonies. In today's context, although women may receive guidance from health care professionals, relatives--especially grandmothers--have an important influence on breastfeeding practices. PMID:17661569

  3. Breastfeeding promotion, support and protection: review of six country programmes.

    PubMed

    Mangasaryan, Nune; Martin, Luann; Brownlee, Ann; Ogunlade, Adebayo; Rudert, Christiane; Cai, Xiaodong

    2012-08-01

    Reviews of programmes in Bangladesh, Benin, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Uganda, and Uzbekistan sought to identify health policy and programmatic factors that influenced breastfeeding practices during a 10 to 15 year period. Exclusive breastfeeding rates and trends were analysed in six countries in general and from an equity perspective in two of them. Success factors and challenges were identified in countries with improved and stagnated rates respectively. The disaggregated data analysis showed that progress may be unequal in population subgroups, but if appropriately designed and implemented, a programme can become a "health equalizer" and eliminate discrepancies among different subgroups. Success requires commitment, supportive policies, and comprehensiveness of programmes for breastfeeding promotion, protection and support. Community-based promotion and support was identified as a particularly important component. Although health workers' training on infant feeding support and counselling was prioritized, further improvement of interpersonal counselling and problem solving skills is needed. More attention is advised for pre-service education, including a stronger focus on clinical practice, to ensure knowledge and skills among all health workers. Large-scale communication activities played a significant role, but essential steps were often underemphasized, including identifying social norms and influencing factors, ensuring community participation, and testing of approaches and messages. PMID:23016128

  4. Breastfeeding Promotion, Support and Protection: Review of Six Country Programmes

    PubMed Central

    Mangasaryan, Nune; Martin, Luann; Brownlee, Ann; Ogunlade, Adebayo; Rudert, Christiane; Cai, Xiaodong

    2012-01-01

    Reviews of programmes in Bangladesh, Benin, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Uganda, and Uzbekistan sought to identify health policy and programmatic factors that influenced breastfeeding practices during a 10 to 15 year period. Exclusive breastfeeding rates and trends were analysed in six countries in general and from an equity perspective in two of them. Success factors and challenges were identified in countries with improved and stagnated rates respectively. The disaggregated data analysis showed that progress may be unequal in population subgroups, but if appropriately designed and implemented, a programme can become a “health equalizer” and eliminate discrepancies among different subgroups. Success requires commitment, supportive policies, and comprehensiveness of programmes for breastfeeding promotion, protection and support. Community-based promotion and support was identified as a particularly important component. Although health workers’ training on infant feeding support and counselling was prioritized, further improvement of interpersonal counselling and problem solving skills is needed. More attention is advised for pre-service education, including a stronger focus on clinical practice, to ensure knowledge and skills among all health workers. Large-scale communication activities played a significant role, but essential steps were often underemphasized, including identifying social norms and influencing factors, ensuring community participation, and testing of approaches and messages. PMID:23016128

  5. Sexual behaviour in pregnancy, after childbirth and during breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Alder, E M

    1989-12-01

    Sexual and marital relationships change throughout marriage and the transition to parenthood can be seen as a psychosocial crisis. Recent studies do not support the finding of Masters and Johnson (1966) that there is a mid-trimester rise in sexual responsiveness. Sexual behaviour decreases towards the end of pregnancy and a number of studies have found that in the majority of mothers there is only a slow return to pre-pregnancy levels in the first postnatal year. Some of the factors influencing the rate of return are discussed. Breast-feeding is important because of the hormonal changes it produces and it has been said to stimulate sexual feelings in both mother and baby. There is some evidence that breast-feeding has an adverse effect on sexuality in the first postnatal year. It is not clear whether this could be related to differences in hormone levels or differences in feeding behaviour. Fatigue and contraception have largely been ignored in studies of factors influencing postnatal sexual behaviour. Women who went on to breast-feed were found to be very similar on antenatal measures of sexual behaviour to those who went on to bottle-feed. The method of feeding is the major influence on the hormonal status, and the experience of painful intercourse reported by breast-feeding mothers may be related to low oestrogen levels. Breast-feeding persistence is influenced by both social and psychological factors and its effect on sexual behaviour is discussed. PMID:2700144

  6. Using a genetically informative design to examine the relationship between breastfeeding and childhood conduct problems.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Katherine H; Collishaw, Stephan; Rice, Frances J; Harold, Gordon T; Thapar, Anita

    2011-12-01

    A number of public health interventions aimed at increasing the uptake of breastfeeding are in place in the United States and other Western countries. While the physical health and nutritional benefits of breastfeeding for the mother and child are relatively well established, the evidence for psychological effects is less clear. This study aimed to examine whether there is an association between breastfeeding and later conduct problems in children. It also considered the extent to which any relationship is attributable to maternally-provided inherited characteristics that influence both likelihood of breastfeeding and child conduct problems. A prenatal cross-fostering design with a sample of 870 families with a child aged 4-11 years was used. Mothers were genetically related or unrelated to their child as a result of assisted reproductive technologies. The relationship between breastfeeding and conduct problems was assessed while controlling for theorised measured confounders by multivariate regression (e.g. maternal smoking, education, and antisocial behaviour), and for unmeasured inherited factors by testing associations separately for related and unrelated mother-child pairs. Breastfeeding was associated with lower levels of conduct disorder symptoms in offspring in middle childhood. Breastfeeding was associated with lower levels of conduct problems even after controlling for observed confounders in the genetically related group, but not in the genetically unrelated group. In contrast, maternal antisocial behaviour showed robust associations with child conduct problems after controlling for measured and inherited confounders. These findings highlight the importance of using genetically sensitive designs in order to test causal environmental influences. PMID:22028070

  7. Exploring Middle-Eastern mothers' perceptions and experiences of breastfeeding in Canada: an ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Jessri, Mahsa; Farmer, Anna P; Olson, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore from the Middle-Eastern mothers' perspective, the experience of breastfeeding and their perceptions of attributes of the health care system, community and society on their feeding decisions after migration to Canada. New immigrant mothers from the Middle East (n = 22) were recruited from community agencies in Edmonton, Canada. Qualitative data were collected through four focus groups using an ethnographic approach to guide concurrent data collection and analysis. Survey data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics via pre-tested questionnaires. All mothers, but one who was medically exempt, breastfed their infants from birth and intended to continue for at least 2 years. Through constant comparison of data, five layers of influence emerged which described mothers' process of decision making: culture/society, community, health care system, family/friends and mother-infant dyad. Religious belief was an umbrella theme that was woven throughout all discussions and it was the strongest determining factor for choosing to breastfeed. However, cultural practices promoted pre-lacteal feeding and hence, jeopardising breastfeeding exclusivity. Although contradicted in Islamic tradition, most mothers practised fasting during breastfeeding because of misbeliefs about interpretations regarding these rules. Despite high rates of breastfeeding, there is a concern of lack of breastfeeding exclusivity among Middle-Eastern settlers in Canada. To promote successful breastfeeding in Muslim migrant communities, interventions must occur at different levels of influence and should consider religious beliefs to ensure cultural acceptability. Practitioners may support exclusive breastfeeding through cultural competency, and respectfully acknowledging Islamic beliefs and cultural practices. PMID:22909247

  8. Factors influencing healthcare service quality

    PubMed Central

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods: Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results: Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion: This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality. PMID:25114946

  9. Modifiable factors influencing relapses and disability in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    D'hooghe, M B; Nagels, G; Bissay, V; De Keyser, J

    2010-07-01

    A growing body of literature indicates that the natural course of multiple sclerosis can be influenced by a number of factors. Strong evidence suggests that relapses can be triggered by infections, the postpartum period and stressful life events. Vaccinations against influenza, hepatitis B and tetanus appear to be safe. Surgery, general and epidural anaesthesia, and physical trauma are not associated with an increased risk of relapses. Factors that have been associated with a reduced relapse rate are pregnancy, exclusive breastfeeding, sunlight exposure and higher vitamin D levels. A number of medications, including hormonal fertility treatment, seem to be able to trigger relapses. Factors that may worsen progression of disability include stressful life events, radiotherapy to the head, low levels of physical activity and low vitamin D levels. Strong evidence suggests that smoking promotes disease progression, both clinically and on brain magnetic resonance imaging. There is no evidence for an increased progression of disability following childbirth in women with multiple sclerosis. Moderate alcohol intake and exercise might have a neuroprotective effect, but this needs to be confirmed. PMID:20483884

  10. Is there any relation between Duration of breastfeeding and anemia?

    PubMed Central

    Dalili, H; Baghersalimi, A; Dalili, S; Pakdaman, F; Hassanzadeh Rad, A; Abbasi Kakroodi, M; Rezvany, SM; Koohmanaei, Sh

    2015-01-01

    Background In the early months of life, Breastfeeding increases chance of survival, reduces recovery time after disease and mortality due to infections such as diarrhea and acute respiratory infections. However, infants who are exclusively breast-fed for more than 6 months in developing countries may be at increased risk of anemia. Therefore, the aim of study was to assess the relation between duration of breastfeeding and anemia. Materials and Methods In this analytical cross-sectional study, 400 neonates registered in primary health care system since birth time. Complete blood count and serum ferritin were obtained. Data were analyzed by chi- square test and regression analysis. P-value less than 0.05 was considered significant and 95% confidence interval was noted. Results Results of this study showed that 199 infants were anemic (Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration <11 mg/dl). Ten percent of anemic patients reported Ferritin< 12ng/dl and %25 of anemic children had iron deficiency anemia (IDA). In Binominal logistic regression, merely kind of delivery and duration of breastfeeding were effective factors. Binominal logistic regression also showed that natural vaginal delivery and exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months had a significant influence on anemia. Exclusive breast feeding for 6 months or more increased the likelihood of anemia. In addition, 4 months exclusive breastfeeding decreased 0.686 fold the likelihood of anemia. Conclusion According to the results, it seems that revision of health program recommendations for iron supplementation can be constructive. National planning to promote the level of knowledge regarding natural vaginal delivery and appropriate period for clamping can be recommended. PMID:26985355

  11. Risk Factors for Early and Late Transmission of HIV via Breast-Feeding among Infants Born to HIV-Infected Women in a Randomized Clinical Trial in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Roger L.; Smeaton, Laura; Lockman, Shahin; Thior, lbou; Rossenkhan, Raabya; Wester, Carolyn; Stevens, Lisa; Moffat, Claire; Arimi, Peter; Ndase, Patrick; Asmelash, Aida; Leidner, Jean; Novitsky, Vladimir; Makhema, Joseph; Essex, Max

    2009-01-01

    Risk factors for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) via breast-feeding were evaluated in a randomized trial. HIV-infected women and their infants received zidovudine as well as single-dose nevirapine or placebo. Infants were randomized to formula-feed (FF) or breast-feed (BF) in combination with zidovudine prophylaxis. Of 1116 at-risk infants, 6 (1.1%) in the FF group and 7 (1.3%) in the BF group were infected between birth and 1 month)P = .99). Maternal receipt of nevirapine did not predict early MTCT in the BF group (P = .45). Of 547 infants in the BF group at risk for late MTCT, 24 (4.4%) were infected. Maternal HIV-1 RNA levels in plasma (P<.001) and breast milk (P<.001) predicted late MTCT. These findings support the safety of 1 month of breast-feeding in combination with maternal and infant antiretroviral prophylaxis. PMID:19090775

  12. Breastfeeding experiences of Japanese women living in Perth, Australia.

    PubMed

    Utaka, Hideko; Li, Lin; Kagawa, Masaharu; Okada, Mamiko; Hiramatsu, Naoko; Binns, Colin

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this study was to document the breastfeeding practices of Japanese-Australian mothers living in Perth. A cross-sectional survey of mothers who had delivered babies in Japan or Australia or both was carried out on a sample of 163 mothers recruited through Japanese social and cultural groups in Perth and by a 'snowball' technique. Factors involved in the decision to breastfeed were analysed using multivariate regression analysis. The main outcome measures were the initiation and duration of breastfeeding and cultural beliefs about breastfeeding. Breastfeeding initiation rates of the Japanese-Australian mothers in Japan and in Australia were higher than for other Australians and are consistent with breastfeeding rates in Japan. In australia, 65% of Japanese-Australian mothers were still breastfeeding at six months. The most common reason for the decision to cease breastfeeding was 'insufficient breastmilk'. The significant factors in breastfeeding duration were 'the time the infant was introduced to infant formula', 'the time when the feeding decision was made', 'doctors support breastfeeding' and 'the mother received enough help from hospital staff'; these were positively associated with the duration of breastfeeding. Japanese mothers take a lot of notice of advice given by health professionals about infant feeding practices. PMID:16127824

  13. FAQ on Tattoos and Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... ברוכים הבאים HOŞ GELDİNİZ FAQ on Tattoos and Breastfeeding Breastfeeding and tattooing are enjoying resurgence in popularity. ... Is it safe to get a tattoo while breastfeeding? Tattoos are created by injecting ink into the ...

  14. Breastfeeding and weaning practices in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lipsky, S; Stephenson, P A; Koepsell, T D; Gloyd, S S; Lopez, J L; Bain, C E

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the breastfeeding and weaning practices of rural women in two Mexican towns and the cultural beliefs upon which these practices are based. Interviews and focus group discussions were used to collect information. Women thought breastfeeding preferable to bottle-feeding. Eighty percent initiated breastfeeding and 69% gave colostrum. Breastfeeding was discontinued early (mean age 4 months). The mean age at which children were introduced to other liquids was 2 months (range 0-5 months) and to solids, 4 months (range 1-8 months). Women's decisions regarding infant feeding were influenced most by custom and advice from doctors and family members. In some instances medical advice conflicted with traditional practices. These findings suggest important avenues for intervention in hospital practices, education for health care workers, and in the development of health promotion services. PMID:8065664

  15. Breastfeeding and feminism.

    PubMed

    Van Esterik, P

    1994-12-01

    Breastfeeding empowers women and contributes to gender equality; therefore, it is an important feminist, human rights, and women's issue. Although seldom addressed as a feminist issue, breastfeeding is paradigmatically one because it requires rethinking basic issues such as the sexual division of labor, the fit between women's productive and reproductive lives, and the role of physiological processes in defining gender ideology. The conceptual problems which emerge in the fit between breastfeeding promotion and feminist theory include the place of motherhood; technology versus liberation; fear of biological determinism; breasts and sexuality; locating guilt; personal choice; romanticizing breastfeeding; and conceptualizing women's work. Feminist theorists who take up breastfeeding as an issue and medical researchers who address questions raised by feminist theory have the occasion to produce a non-dualistic feminist problematic that would draw together a wide range of theories and practices that go beyond breastfeeding and mothering. The failure to develop this analysis could have serious consequences. PMID:7713306

  16. Benefits of a Dedicated Breastfeeding Facility and Support Program for Exclusive Breastfeeding among Workers in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Basrowi, Ray W; Sulistomo, Astrid B; Adi, Nuri Purwito

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A mother's working environment is believed to be a major determinant of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) practice. We aimed to define the influence of a facility dedicated to breastfeeding and a breastfeeding support program at the workplace on breastfeeding practice. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in five workplaces. The inclusion criteria were female workers whose last child was between 6 and 36 months old. Observational data were obtained and a questionnaire was filled out. The World Health Organization definition for EBF was used. Results Data from 186 subjects (74 office workers and 112 factory workers) were collected. Just over half (52%) of the mothers were between 20 and 46 years old, 75.3% had graduated from high school and university, 12.9% had more than two children and 36.0% owned a house. The prevalence of EBF during the last 6 months was 32.3%. A proper dedicated breastfeeding facility was available for 21.5% of the mothers, but only 7.5% had been in contact with a breastfeeding support program. The presence of a dedicated breastfeeding facility increased EBF practice almost threefold, by an odds ratio (OR) of 2.74 and a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.34-5.64 (p<0.05). Knowledge of the breastfeeding support program increased EBF practice by almost six times (OR, 5.93; 95% CI, 1.78-19.79) (p<0.05). Conclusion Our findings suggest that Governments should make it obligatory for employers to offer a breastfeeding support program and a dedicated breastfeeding facility at the workplace as these simple measures significantly increase EBF. PMID:26157694

  17. Determinants of breastfeeding initiation among mothers in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended as the optimal way to feed infants for the first six months of life. While overall breastfeeding rates are high, exclusive breastfeeding is relatively uncommon among Middle Eastern women. The objective of this study was to identify the incidence of breastfeeding amongst women in the six governorates of Kuwait and the factors associated with the initiation of breastfeeding. Methods A sample of 373 women (aged 17-47 years), recruited shortly after delivery from four hospitals in Kuwait, completed a structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify those factors independently associated with the initiation of breastfeeding. Results In total, 92.5% of mothers initiated breastfeeding and at discharge from hospital the majority of mothers were partially breastfeeding (55%), with only 30% of mothers fully breastfeeding. Prelacteal feeding was the norm (81.8%) and less than 1 in 5 infants (18.2%) received colostrum as their first feed. Only 10.5% of infants had been exclusively breastfed since birth, the remainder of the breastfed infants having received either prelacteal or supplementary infant formula feeds at some time during their hospital stay. Of the mothers who attempted to breastfeed, the majority of women (55.4%) delayed their first attempt to breastfeed until 24 hours or more after delivery. Breastfeeding at discharge from hospital was positively associated with paternal support for breastfeeding and negatively associated with delivery by caesarean section and with the infant having spent time in the Special Care Nursery. Conclusions The reasons for the high use of prelacteal and supplementary formula feeding warrant investigation. Hospital policies and staff training are needed to promote the early initiation of breastfeeding and to discourage the unnecessary use of infant formula in hospital, in order to support the establishment of exclusive

  18. Environmental factors influencing blackfly populations

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, G.

    1967-01-01

    Much more information is required on the distribution of blackflies in various parts of the world, and in many cases an adequate methodology for obtaining such information still has to be worked out. A detailed methodology for the collection of information about blackflies is given, which was developed for investigations mainly in the Holarctic regions but is basically applicable to other parts of the world. A brief survey of the population dynamics of various species of blackflies in various parts of the Holarctic regions is given, and the main factors influencing the population dynamics are discussed. Interspecific and intraspecific fluctuations in natural blackfly populations are attributed chiefly to abiotic environmental factors rather than to competition. Larval competition in a given microhabitat is mainly individual, though specimens belonging to a given species may have a slightly more favourable position than others. The use of parasites and in particular the replacement of one species by another are promising methods of blackfly control. Predators are not generally likely to prove useful for this purpose. PMID:5300046

  19. Evidence from peninsular Malaysia of breastfeeding as a contraceptive method.

    PubMed

    Rao, S R

    1992-01-01

    This report examines Malaysian women's perceptions of the contraceptive effect of breastfeeding, the determinants of their perceptions, and any effect these perceptions might have on nursing duration and contraceptive use. The report also considers whether women are consciously replacing breastfeeding with modern contraceptive methods. Data from the 1976 Malaysian Family Life Survey are analyzed, and the author concludes that Malaysian women do perceive that breastfeeding has a contraceptive effect, but that this perception is not universal. Ethnicity and desire for a particular family size are the most significant determinants of this perception. Finally, Malaysian women's recognition of the contraceptive effect of nursing does not influence either the duration of their breastfeeding or their adoption of contraception. Malaysian women may not be abandoning breastfeeding to adopt contraception. More probably, breastfeeding declines and contraceptive prevalence increases with modernization. PMID:1293861

  20. The effect of breastfeeding on lung function at 12 and 18 years: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Waidyatillake, Nilakshi T; Simpson, Julie A; Allen, Katrina J; Lodge, Caroline J; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Abramson, Michael J; De Livera, Alysha M; Matheson, Melanie C; Erbas, Bircan; Hill, David J; Lowe, Adrian J

    2016-07-01

    The objective was to assess associations between duration of total and exclusive breastfeeding and lung function up to adolescence.A birth cohort (Melbourne Atopy Cohort Study) of 620 infants with a family history of allergic disease was recruited. Mothers were encouraged to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months. Lung function was assessed at 12 and 18 years of age. Associations between breastfeeding and lung function were investigated using multivariable linear regression and path analysis was used to assess the potential mediating factors.Duration of breastfeeding (total and exclusive) was not associated with most assessed lung function outcomes. However, there was a trend for increased pre-bronchodilator mid-expiratory flow (MEF) at both 12 (adjusted mean difference (95% CI) per week of breastfeeding of 10 (-1-20) mL·s(-1)) and 18 years (11 (-1-22) mL·s(-1)) (p-values of 0.07 and 0.08, respectively). There was a strong indirect effect of height on these observed associations.Duration of breastfeeding does not appear to greatly influence lung function outcomes in children with a family history of allergic diseases. Longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding may be associated with an increase in MEF, partly due to greater attained height of the child. PMID:27076592

  1. Health workers' support for breastfeeding in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    OlaOlorun, Funmilola Morinoye; Lawoyin, Taiwo Olubanke

    2006-05-01

    Breastfeeding in Nigeria is universal, and exclusive breastfeeding was introduced in 1992, yet no study has assessed health workers' support for breastfeeding at the grassroots level. This study assessed health workers' tangible support for breastfeeding at primary care facilities in Ibadan and factors affecting it, including knowledge of and attitudes toward breastfeeding. Among the 386 workers, there was moderate support for breastfeeding (median score = 15.0, maximum = 20). Following multivariate analysis, young age of worker (20-29 years; odds ratio [OR] = 2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-6.8), more than 5 years of post-training experience (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.2-4.4), senior profession (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.0-4.4), high breastfeeding knowledge scores (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.4-4.5), and sufficient opportunities to practice tangible breastfeeding support (OR = 4.3, 95% CI: 2.4-7.7) were found to predict tangible breastfeeding support. Deliberate efforts should be made to incorporate continuing education workshops to better prepare health professionals for their role in providing tangible breastfeeding support at the primary care level. PMID:16684907

  2. Acculturation and the initiation of breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Rassin, D K; Markides, K S; Baranowski, T; Richardson, C J; Mikrut, W D; Bee, D E

    1994-07-01

    Despite the fact that breastfeeding is the most appropriate form of nutrition for the healthy term infant, the rate of initiation in the U.S. is declining. One demographic factor associated with this low rate is ethnicity and so in this study we measured acculturation (one aspect of ethnicity) into the U.S. and its relationship to the successful initiation of breastfeeding in a sample of women recruited approximately 2 months prenatally in a U.S.-Mexico border city. Interviews were administered in English or Spanish by bilingual interviewers prenatally (n = 906), natally (n = 788), and postnatally (n = 715). Acculturation (measured with a 20 item instrument) was strongly related to the intent to (p < 0.001) or the successful initiation of breastfeeding (p < 0.001). Marital status (p = 0.014) and education (p = 0.002) were related to breastfeeding prenatally and natally. Initiation of breastfeeding was highest among those women least acculturated (52.9%) and lowest in those most acculturated (36.1%) indicating an inhibiting effect of acculturation. To improve the rate of initiation of breastfeeding in the U.S. (a national health goal) intervention programs must consider cultural factors. PMID:7722587

  3. Factors influencing boar sperm cryosurvival.

    PubMed

    Roca, J; Hernández, M; Carvajal, G; Vázquez, J M; Martínez, E A

    2006-10-01

    Optimal sperm cryopreservation is a prerequisite for the sustainable commercial application of frozen-thawed boar semen for AI. Three experiments were performed to identify factors influencing variability of postthaw sperm survival among 464 boar ejaculates. Sperm-rich ejaculate fractions were cryopre-served using a standard freezing-thawing procedure for 0.5-mL plastic straws and computer-controlled freezing equipment. Postthaw sperm motility (assessed with a computer-assisted semen analysis system) and viability (simultaneously probed by flow cytometry analysis after triple-fluorescent stain), evaluated 30 and 150 min postthaw, were used to estimate the success of cryopreservation. In the first experiment, 168 unselected ejaculates (1 ejaculate/boar), from boars of 6 breeds with a wide age range (8 to 48 mo), were cryopreserved over a 12-mo period to evaluate the predictive value of boar (breed and age), semen collection, transport variables (season of ejaculate collection, interval between collections, and ejaculate temperature exposure), initial semen traits, and sperm quality before freezing on sperm survival after freezing-thawing. In Exp. 2, 4 ejaculates from each of 29 boars, preselected according to their initial semen traits and sperm quality before freezing, were collected and frozen over a 6-mo period to evaluate the influence of interboar and intraboar ejaculate variability in the survival of sperm after cryopreservation. In Exp. 3, 12 ejaculates preselected as for Exp. 2, from each of 15 boars with known good sperm cryosurvival, were collected and frozen over a 12-mo period to estimate the sustainability of sperm cryosurvival between ejaculates over time. Boar and semen collection and transport variables were not predictive of sperm cryosurvival among ejaculates. Initial semen traits and sperm quality variables observed before freezing explained 23.2 and 10.9%, respectively, of the variation in postthaw sperm motility and viability. However, more that

  4. [Endocrine factors influencing melanoma progression].

    PubMed

    Dobos, Judit

    2009-03-01

    According to recent findings that beside cancers traditionally considered as hormone-dependent, several other tumor types show different behavior in the two sexes, indicating the possible role of endocrine factors in the course of these diseases. The possibility that endocrine factors may influence the clinical course of human malignant melanoma is suggested by the higher survival rate in premenopausal vs. postmenopausal women or men of any ages. However, investigations on the sex hormone receptor status of human cutaneous melanomas and experiments attempting to support the epidemiological results yielded conflicting results. In our human melanoma cell lines we failed to detect steroid receptors at protein level, while quantitative PCR demonstrated that their mRNA expression level was orders of magnitude lower compared to the positive control cell lines. Sex hormones did not influence the in vitro features of the human melanoma cells considerably. On the other hand, glucocorticoid receptor was present both at mRNA and protein level, although dexamethasone was effective in vitro only at high doses. Our previous experiments showed that intrasplenic injection of human melanoma cells resulted in a significantly higher number of liver colonies in male than in female SCID mice. We now show that this difference evolves during the first day. After injection into the tail vein we did not observe gender-dependent difference in the efficiency of pulmonary colonization. Examining the pattern of metastasis formation after intracardiac injection, we have found differences between the two sexes in the incidence or number of colonies only in the case of the liver but not in other organs. We concluded that the observed phenomenon is specific to the liver; therefore we investigated the effects of 2-methoxyestradiol, an endogenous metabolite of estradiol produced mainly in the liver, with an estrogen receptor-independent antitumor activity. 2ME2 effectively inhibited melanoma cell

  5. Ecology and policy for exclusive breastfeeding in Colombia: a proposal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Breastfeeding promotion is one of the most important strategies against infant mortality and to control child undernourishment. Despite policies and plans to promote and protect breastfeeding in Colombia, its practice is low and its duration is short. Objective: To propose an ecology framework to interpret and incorporate contextual, interpersonal, and individual factors associated with the practice of breastfeeding and duration. Thereby, the plans and policies addressed to promote and protect breastfeeding in Colombia could be reinforced. Conclusions: To implement an ecology framework for Breastfeeding in Colombia, it is necessary to identify the effect of contextual factors in the biggest cultural regions of Colombia, to recognize the limitations of Infant-Friendly Hospital Initiatives to improve exclusive breastfeeding duration, to execute prospective studies in order to identify factors associated with breastfeeding duration, to design and implement plans and policies based on comprehensive planning strategies of healthcare interventions, to develop appropriate and cost-effective extra-institutional strategies aimed at prolonging the duration of breastfeeding, and to implement more reliable breastfeeding surveillance systems. PMID:24893193

  6. Implementation of the Brazilian Breastfeeding Network and prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Passanha, Adriana; Benício, Maria Helena D'Aquino; Venâncio, Sônia Isoyama; dos Reis, Márcia Cristina Guerreiro

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between the level of implementation of the Brazilian Breastfeeding Network and the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding. METHODS Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 916 infants < 6 months, in Ribeirao Preto, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2011. Data on breastfeeding, place of outpatient care and other characteristics were collected during the National Vaccination Campaign. The factor studied is where outpatient care took place: Private; Non-Network Public; Public with Network Workshop; and Public certified by Network. The individualized effect of the factor studied on the outcome was analyzed using Poisson regression with robust variance. RESULTS The comparison between private (reference category) and other outpatient care showed significant dose-response relationship with a progressive increase in the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in public non-Network, public with Network Workshop and public accredited by Network outpatient care (p = 0.047). As regards the Basic Health Units accredited by Network category, the Prevalence Ratio of exclusive breastfeeding was equal to 1.47 (95%CI 1.00;2.17), after adjustment for confounding variables. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding for infants < 6 months was higher in places accredited by the Brazilian Breastfeeding Network, which evinces the importance of investing in accreditation of Basic Units of Health by this strategy. PMID:24626552

  7. [Using SWOT to analyze breastfeeding education results in a medical center].

    PubMed

    Lee, Pei-Shan; Huang, Chiu-Mieh

    2005-08-01

    The breastfeeding rate within the first month after postpartum dropped from 95% in 1962 to 25% in 1989. As a result, the Department of Health, Executive Yuan, has made a lot of effort to promote a baby-friendly hospital policy since 2001, with the aim of increasing the breastfeeding rate. However, many studies have pointed out that the Department of Health is encountering difficulties when implementing this policy. This study is designed to use the Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) Analysis to evaluate the development of breastfeeding education in a certain medical center. We divide those factors that influence the effect of this policy into extrinsic environmental factors and intrinsic environmental factors. The intrinsic environmental factors are the strengths and weaknesses of the baby-friendly hospital policy. The extrinsic environmental factors are the opportunities and threats. The SWOT Matrix is also applied to develop appropriate strategies to take the greatest possible advantage of opportunities available. With the SWOT approach, managers can not only readily extinguish intrinsic advantages from intrinsic disadvantages, but also recognize external opportunities and threats. Furthermore, it assists managers in resolving problems and turning adversity into opportunity. In providing the SWOT analysis, we hope clinical nursing staff will gain a better understanding of the baby-friendly hospital policy and deliver higher quality of health care for postpartum mothers, thus increasing the breastfeeding rate. PMID:16088785

  8. Tongue-tie and breastfeeding: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, Janet; Miles, Sandra C; Fulbrook, Paul

    2011-03-01

    In Australia, initial exclusive breastfeeding rates are 80%, reducing to 14% at 6 months. One factor that contributes to early breastfeeding cessation is infant tongue-tie, a congenital abnormality occurring in 2.8-10.7% of infants, in which a thickened, tightened or shortened frenulum is present. Tongue-tie is linked to breastfeeding difficulties, speech and dental problems. It may prevent the baby from taking enough breast tissue into its mouth to form a teat and the mother may experience painful, bleeding nipples and frequent feeding with poor infant weight gain; these problems may contribute to early breastfeeding cessation. This review of research literature analyses the evidence regarding tongue-tie to determine if appropriate intervention can reduce its impact on breastfeeding cessation, concluding that, for most infants, frenotomy offers the best chance of improved and continued breastfeeding. Furthermore, studies have demonstrated that the procedure does not lead to complications for the infant or mother. PMID:21608523

  9. International Child Care Practices study: breastfeeding and pacifier use.

    PubMed

    Nelson, E A S; Yu, Ly-Mee; Williams, Sheila

    2005-08-01

    Although the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative advises that no pacifiers be given to breastfeeding infants, both breastfeeding and pacifier use may protect against sudden infant death syndrome. The International Child Care Practice Study data set on child care practices associated with sudden infant death syndrome risk from 21 centers in 17 countries was used to describe infant-feeding practices and pacifier use and assess factors associated with breastfeeding. At approximately 3 months of age, rates of breastfeeding only (4%-80%) and pacifier use(12.5%-71%) varied between centers. Pacifier use was negatively associated with breastfeeding, and a dose-response effect was noted. Other negative (multiple birth, smoking by mother) and positive (intention to breastfeed, bed sharing, mothers' education) associations with breastfeeding only were identified. Although causality should not be inferred, these associations are consistent with previous studies. Advice on pacifiers should include potential benefits as well as risks. PMID:16115805

  10. Breastfeeding Infants with Phenylketonuria in the United States and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Press, Nancy; Knafl, Kathleen A.; Steiner, Robert D.; Houck, Gail M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study described the prevalence and duration of mothers' breastfeeding infants with phenylketonuria (PKU) and explored factors related to duration of breastfeeding as a surrogate for breastfeeding success. Subjects and Methods: Descriptive analysis as performed from an international Internet survey of mothers (n=103) who met the inclusion criteria: (1) at least 21 years of age, (2) able to read and write in English, (3) child with PKU, and (4) living in the United States or Canada. Results: Of the 103 mothers, 89 (86%) initiated breastfeeding immediately following delivery, whereas 14 (14%) chose bottle feeding. In comparison to breastfeeding after delivery, significantly fewer mothers breastfed after diagnosis (McNemar's χ2=30.33, p<0.001; n=72 vs. n=89). Breastfeeding duration ranged from less than 1 month to 24 months with one modal duration category (n=20, 22%) at less than 1 month. The timing of the addition of commercial infant formula to supplement breastfeeding or expressed mothers' milk was associated with a shorter duration of breastfeeding among infants with PKU: χ2 (42, n=73)=88.13, p<0.001. Conclusions: PKU is treated with phenylalanine (Phe) restriction. Breastfeeding infants with PKU is challenging in part because Phe intake is difficult to determine precisely. We studied breastfeeding duration in infants with PKU and factors associated with success. Further research should identify the unique needs of mothers' breastfeeding infants with PKU to guide the development of interventions specific to these mothers to support their efforts to continue breastfeeding after the diagnosis of PKU. PMID:24350704

  11. Breastfeeding-Associated Hypernatremia: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Lavagno, Camilla; Camozzi, Pietro; Renzi, Samuele; Lava, Sebastiano A G; Simonetti, Giacomo D; Bianchetti, Mario G; Milani, Gregorio P

    2016-02-01

    There are increasing reports on hypernatremia, a potentially devastating condition, in exclusively breastfed newborn infants. Our purposes were to describe the clinical features of the condition and identify the risk factors for it. We performed a review of the existing literature in the National Library of Medicine database and in the search engine Google Scholar. A total of 115 reports were included in the final analysis. Breastfeeding-associated neonatal hypernatremia was recognized in infants who were ≤ 21 days of age and had ≥ 10% weight loss of birth weight. Cesarean delivery, primiparity, breast anomalies or breastfeeding problems, excessive prepregnancy maternal weight, delayed first breastfeeding, lack of previous breastfeeding experience, and low maternal education level were significantly associated with breastfeeding-associated hypernatremia. In addition to excessive weight loss (≥ 10%), the following clinical findings were observed: poor feeding, poor hydration state, jaundice, excessive body temperature, irritability or lethargy, decreased urine output, and epileptic seizures. In conclusion, the present survey of the literature identifies the following risk factors for breastfeeding-associated neonatal hypernatremia: cesarean delivery, primiparity, breastfeeding problems, excessive maternal body weight, delayed breastfeeding, lack of previous breastfeeding experience, and low maternal education level. PMID:26530059

  12. Sensitivity of the Breastfeeding Motivational Measurement Scale: A Known Group Analysis of First Time Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Stockdale, Janine; Sinclair, Marlene; Kernohan, George; McCrum-Gardner, Evie; Keller, John

    2013-01-01

    Breastfeeding has immense public health value for mothers, babies, and society. But there is an undesirably large gap between the number of new mothers who undertake and persist in breastfeeding compared to what would be a preferred level of accomplishment. This gap is a reflection of the many obstacles, both physical and psychological, that confront new mothers. Previous research has illuminated many of these concerns, but research on this problem is limited in part by the unavailability of a research instrument that can measure the key differences between first-time mothers and experienced mothers, with regard to the challenges they face when breastfeeding and the instructional advice they require. An instrument was designed to measure motivational complexity associated with sustained breast feeding behaviour; the Breastfeeding Motivational Measurement Scale. It contains 51 self-report items (7 point Likert scale) that cluster into four categories related to perceived value of breast-feeding, confidence to succeed, factors that influence success or failure, and strength of intentions, or goal. However, this scale has not been validated in terms of its sensitivity to profile the motivation of new mothers and experienced mothers. This issue was investigated by having 202 breastfeeding mothers (100 first time mothers) fill out the scale. The analysis reported in this paper is a three factor solution consisting of value, midwife support, and expectancies for success that explained the characteristics of first time mothers as a known group. These results support the validity of the BMM scale as a diagnostic tool for research on first time mothers who are learning to breastfeed. Further research studies are required to further test the validity of the scale in additional subgroups. PMID:24391731

  13. Perspectives of managers toward workplace breastfeeding support in the state of Michigan.

    PubMed

    Chow, Tan; Smithey Fulmer, Ingrid; Olson, Beth H

    2011-05-01

    Managers' attitudes influence female employees' perceptions of workplace breastfeeding support. Five focus groups were conducted with managers in the state of Michigan (N = 25) to assess their attitudes toward supporting breastfeeding. All focus group discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed for themes. Participants supported efforts by managers and companies to assist breastfeeding employees, but the extent of accommodations they supported varied. Most participants reported no company breastfeeding policy or were unaware of their company having one and showed mixed attitudes about needing a policy. Participants acknowledged the potential for lower productivity and coworker jealousy toward time for breastfeeding or expressing milk but believed that benefits of support included employee recruitment and retention. Participants demonstrated some understanding of breastfeeding benefits. They identified barriers and facilitators for breastfeeding support at both the organizational and individual levels. Results of this study will be used for instrument development to measure managers' attitudes toward supporting breastfeeding. PMID:21389313

  14. Mental health, attachment and breastfeeding: implications for adopted children and their mothers

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, Karleen D

    2006-01-01

    Breastfeeding an adopted child has previously been discussed as something that is nice to do but without potential for significant benefit. This paper reviews the evidence in physiological and behavioural research, that breastfeeding can play a significant role in developing the attachment relationship between child and mother. As illustrated in the case studies presented, in instances of adoption and particularly where the child has experienced abuse or neglect, the impact of breastfeeding can be considerable. Breastfeeding may assist attachment development via the provision of regular intimate interaction between mother and child; the calming, relaxing and analgesic impact of breastfeeding on children; and the stress relieving and maternal sensitivity promoting influence of breastfeeding on mothers. The impact of breastfeeding as observed in cases of adoption has applicability to all breastfeeding situations, but may be especially relevant to other at risk dyads, such as those families with a history of intergenerational relationship trauma; this deserves further investigation. PMID:16722597

  15. [Factors associated with breast feeding. II Study of women with no prenatal control].

    PubMed

    Avila-rosas, H; Ambrosi-c, R; Cabrera-o, P; Gordillo-f, J; Oliva-c, J; Toussaint-m, G; Cruz-r, I; Karchmer-k, S

    1989-01-01

    This prospective study on breastfeeding practices sought to identify if factors that intervene or determine breastfeeding practices are those influenced by women themselves, promoted by institutions such as hospitals or is a combination of both factors. The methodology included 582 women who did not attend prenatal consultations and only attended the 3 hospitals included in the study to deliver their babies. Hospital A studied 252 women, supported breastfeeding practices and gave patients milk samples; hospital B studied 80 women, did not support breastfeeding and gave milk samples; and hospital C interviewed 250 women, did not support breastfeeding and did not give women milk samples. Invitations to attend the study explained that 12 hours postpartum a questionnaire would be given and 15 days postpartum a session would be held to verify if they were breastfeeding. The independent variables were: place of birth, residence of the new mothers and that their own mothers age, educational level, status of relationship with the father of the baby, number of pregnancies, number of live children, background and number of previous stillbirths, were they living with the father of the baby and was he supporting her, was the pregnancy planned, previous problems with breastfeeding, was previous baby breastfed number of previous babies breastfed, reasons for not breastfeeding, and prior to the study what were other sources of information on breastfeeding. Results demonstrated that the sociocultural and demographic differences between each of the 3 populations attending the 3 hospitals were found to have stronger effects on breastfeeding practices than hospital policies. PMID:12342596

  16. Breastfeeding among Mothers on Opioid Maintenance Treatment: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Lillian C; Doan, Therese Jung

    2016-08-01

    Although there is an abundance of interventional studies to increase breastfeeding rates, little is known about how to support and promote breastfeeding among mothers on opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). The studies on maternal OMT mainly focus on medication excreted in breast milk and breastfeeding benefits for infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). We aim to review interventions to improve breastfeeding outcomes among mothers on OMT to make recommendations for practice and future research. We searched CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for articles, preferably experimental/quasi-experimental studies published within the past 10 years, that examined interventions to increase rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration among mothers on OMT. Nine studies met our inclusion criteria, comprising 5 categories: 4 combined obstetric and addiction care, 1 rooming-in, 1 Baby-Friendly hospital, 2 inpatient/outpatient NAS treatment, and 1 divided methadone dose. Breastfeeding rates were relatively higher for divided methadone dose (81% initiated any breastfeeding) and rooming-in (62% initiated any breastfeeding); lower in Baby-Friendly hospital (24%) and inpatient/outpatient NAS treatment (45% and 24%, respectively); and mixed in combined obstetric and addiction care programs (2 studies reported 70% and 76%; 2 studies reported 17% and 28%). Studies that included both methadone and buprenorphine did not specify breastfeeding results by medication. We recommend future research to differentiate breastfeeding types and duration by OMT medication. Qualitative studies are needed to explore maternal view on breastfeeding regarding need, barrier, and motivating factors in order to develop effective interventions to promote breastfeeding among mothers on OMT. PMID:27053175

  17. Characteristics of the NICU Work Environment Associated With Breastfeeding Support

    PubMed Central

    Hallowell, Sunny G.; Spatz, Diane L.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Rogowski, Jeannette A.; Lake, Eileen T.

    2015-01-01

    associated with a 2% increase in infants provided breastfeeding support. A 1 SD higher score on the Staffing and Resource Adequacy PES-NWI subscale was associated with a 2% increase in infants provided breastfeeding support. There was no association between other NICU nursing characteristics or LCs and nurse-provided breastfeeding support. CONCLUSIONS Nurses provide breastfeeding support around the clock. On a typical shift, about 1 in 7 NICU infants receives breastfeeding support from a nurse. Lactation consultants are not routinely available in NICUs, and their presence does not influence whether nurses provide breastfeeding support. Better nurse staffing fosters nurse provision of breastfeeding support. PMID:25075926

  18. Fluconazole use during breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Yusuf Cem; Koren, Gideon; Ito, Shinya; Bozzo, Pina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Question I have a patient with persistent breast and nipple thrush. Other therapies have failed, so I have decided to treat her with a loading dose of 400 mg of oral fluconazole followed by 100 mg twice daily for at least 2 weeks. Is there any need for her to interrupt breastfeeding during this treatment? Answer Available data regarding fluconazole use during breastfeeding are reassuring. Fluconazole is also used in the treatment of fungal diseases in infants and has a good safety profile. Therefore, there is no need to interrupt breastfeeding when a mother is treated with fluconazole. PMID:26759844

  19. Another Breastfeeding Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2011-01-01

    In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education discusses the latest breastfeeding controversy—a new doll that is intended to help little girls learn to breastfeed. The goal of the doll’s manufacturers is to spread the word that breastfeeding is a normal, natural way to feed a baby. Its purpose is to raise awareness about the positive health benefits associated with breastfeeding. But not everyone seems to agree. Pros and cons are presented. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote natural, safe, and healthy birth.

  20. Factors that Influence Participation in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vonderwell, Selma; Zachariah, Sajit

    2005-01-01

    This study explored what factors influenced learner participation in two sections of a graduate online course at a Midwestern university. Findings indicated that online learner participation and patterns of participation are influenced by the following factors: technology and interface characteristics, content area experience, student roles and…

  1. Breastfeeding versus infant formula: the Kenyan case.

    PubMed

    Elliot, T C; Agunda, K O; Kigondu, J G; Kinoti, S N; Latham, M C

    1985-02-01

    An Infant Feeding Practices Study (IFPS) in 1982 in Kenya, which included a cross-sectional survey of a weighted sample of 980 low and middle income Nairobi mothers who had given birth in the previous 18 months, found that most women breastfeed their infants for long periods, but many introduce alternate feeding, especially infant formula, in the 1st 4 months (86 and 50% of the infants were breastfed at 6 and 15 months respectively, but 50% of the 2 month-olds and 63% of the 4 month-olds were receiving substitutes, mostly formula). This is done largely out of the belief that infant formula is an additional health benefit. A workshop to discuss the findings of the IFPS and other available data, and to make policy recommendations urged the adoption of a policy of protection, support and promotion of breastfeeding. Since breastfeeding is already widely prevalent in Kenya, protection of breastfeeding should receive the 1st priority in policy related to infant feeding. Attention should be directed at at least 2 influences which help undermine breastfeeding: widespread availability and promotion of breast milk substitutes. Support for breastfeeding is viewed as the 2nd policy priority. Situations where support can play a helpful role are, women's paid employment outside the home, hospital practices, maternal morbidity, and difficulties in breastfeeding. Since promotion is the least cost effective of the 3 options, and most Kenyan women are already motivated to breastfeed, this should be the last priority. Promotion includes reeduction of mothers to make them better aware of the benefits of breastfeeding. The workshop recommended the dissemination of appropriate information, consisting of standarized messages based on clearcut guidelines, using mass media techniques. PMID:12280100

  2. The Influence of Seasonality and Community-Based Health Worker Provided Counselling on Exclusive Breastfeeding - Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey in India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Aritra; Chatterjee, Rahul; Karthick, Morchan; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Chaudhuri, Indrajit

    2016-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) during the first six months of life is considered a high impact but low-cost measure for reducing the morbidity and mortality among children. The current study investigated the association of seasonality and frontline worker(FLW) provided counselling with practice of EBF in Bihar, India. Methods We used the ‘Lot Quality Assurance Sampling’ technique to conduct a multi-stage sampling survey in 8 districts of Bihar. Regarding EBF, mothers of 0–5 (completed) months old children were asked if they had given only breastmilk to their children during the previous day, while mothers of 6–8 (completed) months old children were inquired about the total duration of EBF. We tested for association between EBF during the previous day with season of interview and EBF for full 6 months with nursing season. We also assessed if receiving counselling on EBF and complementary feeding had any association with relevant EBF indicators. Results Among the under-6 month old children, 76% received EBF during the previous day, whereas 92% of 6–8 (completed) months old children reportedly received EBF for the recommended duration. Proportion of 0–5 (completed) month old children receiving only breastmilk (during last 24 hours) decreased significantly with increasing age and with change of season from colder to warmer months. Odds of receiving only breastmilk during the previous day was significantly higher during the winter months (Adjusted odds ratio(AOR) = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.37, 1.63) compared to summer. Also, the children nursed primarily during the winter season had higher odds of receiving EBF for 6 months (AOR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.43, 2.52) than those with non-winter nursing. Receiving FLW-counselling was positively associated with breastfeeding exclusively, even after adjusting for seasonality and other covariates (AOR = 1.82; 95% CI = 1.67, 1.98). Conclusions Seasonality is a significant but non-modifiable risk factor for EBF. However

  3. WIC Participation and Breastfeeding at 3 Months Postpartum.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Emily F; Gross, Susan M; Nguyen, Trang Q; Butz, Arlene M; Johnson, Sara B

    2016-08-01

    Objectives Participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) has been associated with lower breastfeeding initiation and duration. This study examines breastfeeding-related factors among WIC participants and nonparticipants that might explain these previous findings. Methods Respondents to the 2007 Infant Feeding Practices Study II who were income-eligible for WIC were categorized as follows: no WIC participation (No-WIC); prenatal participation and infant entry while ≥60 % breastfeeding (WIC BF-high); prenatal participation and infant entry while <60 % breastfeeding (WIC BF-low). Percent breastfeeding was the number of breast milk feeds divided by the total number of liquid feeds. Using propensity scores, we matched WIC BF-high respondents to No-WIC respondents on demographic and breastfeeding factors. We used logistic regression to estimate the impact of WIC participation on breastfeeding at 3 months postpartum in the matched sample. Within-WIC differences were explored. Results Of 743 income-eligible respondents, 293 never enrolled in WIC, 230 were categorized as WIC BF-high, and 220 as WIC BF-low. Compared to matched No-WIC respondents, WIC BF-high respondents had increased odds of breastfeeding at 3 months, though this difference was not statistically significant (OR 1.92; 95 % CI 0.95-3.67; p value 0.07). WIC BF-high respondents were more similar on breastfeeding-related characteristics to No-WIC respondents than to WIC BF-low respondents. Conclusions for Practice Accounting for prenatal breastfeeding intentions and attitudes, we find no negative association between WIC participation and breastfeeding at 3 months postpartum. This is in contrast to prior studies, and highlights the importance of understanding within-WIC differences. PMID:26994607

  4. Breastfeeding - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... feel better and decrease your risk of getting cancer from smoking. Your baby will not get any nicotine or other chemicals from cigarettes in your breast milk. Know about your medicines and breastfeeding. Many medicines ...

  5. Timing of breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... night. Babies digest breast milk more quickly than formula. Breastfeeding babies need to eat often. During growth ... enough milk. Resist supplementing your baby's diet with formula feedings for the first 4 to 6 weeks. ...

  6. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... breastfeed your baby or bottle feed using infant formula . Health experts agree that breastfeeding is the healthiest ... is hungry. You do not need to make formula before feeding, worry about clean water, or carry ...

  7. Common Breastfeeding Challenges

    MedlinePlus

    ... feedings can cause more pain and harm your milk supply. Try changing positions each time you breastfeed. ... tips: After breastfeeding, express a few drops of milk and gently rub the milk on your nipples ...

  8. Timing of breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... work. Your body needs energy to produce enough milk. Be sure to eat well, rest, and sleep. ... 2 hours, day and night. Babies digest breast milk more quickly than formula. Breastfeeding babies need to ...

  9. Benefits of Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip top navigation Home A-Z Health Topics ePublications News About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Skip left navigation It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby ...

  10. FAQ: Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... I am pregnant or breastfeeding, should I use insect repellents? Yes. Protecting yourself from mosquito bites is the ... as long-sleeve shirts and long pants, use insect repellents. Repellents containing active ingredients which have been registered ...

  11. Serious Illnesses and Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... concerns about the safety of breastfeeding after breast enlargement with breast implants. But there is no evidence ... have been cut. In certain cases of breast enlargement, the women had underdeveloped breast tissue, which was ...

  12. Breastfeeding: Vitamin D Supplementation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Vitamin D Supplementation Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir While ... provide infants with an adequate intake of vitamin D. Most breastfed infants are able to synthesize additional ...

  13. Early Life Factors Influencing the Risk of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The obesity epidemic is a worldwide problem. Factors predisposing to obesity include genetics, race, socioeconomic conditions, birth by cesarean section, and perinatal antibiotic use. High protein (HP) content in infant formulas has been identified as a potential culprit predisposing to rapid weight gain in the first few months of life and leading to later obesity. In a large multicountry study the effects of lower protein (LP) formula (1.77 and 2.2 g protein/100 kcal, before and after the 5th month, respectively) were compared to those of higher protein (2.9 and 4.4 g protein/100 kcal, respectively). Results indicated that at 24 months, the weight-for-length z score of infants in the LP formula group was 0.20 (0.06, 0.34) lower than that of the HP group and was similar to that of the breastfed reference group. The authors concluded that a HP content of infant formula is associated with higher weight in the first 2 years of life but has no effect on length. LP intake in infancy might diminish the later risk of overweight and obesity. At 6 years of age HP children had a significantly higher body mass index (by 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13-0.90; p=0.009) and a 2.43 (95% CI, 1.12-5.27; p=0.024) fold greater risk of becoming obese than those who received the LP. In conclusion, several factors may influence development of metabolic syndrome and obesity. Breastfeeding should always be encouraged. An overall reduction of protein intake in formula non breastfed infants seems to be an additional way to prevent obesity. PMID:26770895

  14. Factors influencing dust suppressant effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, C.R.; Eisele, T.C.; Chesney, D.J.; Kawatra, S.K.

    2008-11-15

    Water sprays are a common method used to reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions. Various factors such as wettability, surface area coverage, fine particle engulfment rates, interparticle adhesion forces, suppressant penetration and suppressant longevity have all been suggested as critical factors in achieving effective PM control. However, it has not been established which of these factors are the most important. Experimental work indicated that suppressant penetration is the most critical of these factors. The length of time after application that suppressants were effective was also improved by using hygroscopic reagents that retained moisture to prevent evaporation. Maximizing suppressant penetration and improving suppressant longevity led to an average 86% reduction in PM10 concentrations in laboratory dust tower tests.

  15. Breastfeeding for diabetes prevention.

    PubMed

    Poudel, Resham Raj; Shrestha, Dina

    2016-09-01

    Breastfeeding has been consistently observed to improve metabolism in mothers and their offspring. Apart from mother child bonding and nutritional benefits; it is associated with a decreased risk of acquiring metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in mothers, obesity and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in their children. Early initiation and exclusive breastfeeding should therefore be highly encouraged and strongly supported. PMID:27582164

  16. Genetic factors influencing alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Mayfield, R D; Harris, R A; Schuckit, M A

    2008-01-01

    Plentiful data from both animal and human studies support the importance of genetic influences in substance abuse and dependence (Bierut et al., 1998; Tsuang et al., 1998; Kendler et al., 2003). This review summarizes the evidence supporting such genetic influences, places them into perspective regarding animal and human studies, discusses the importance of both genes and environment, and highlights some specific genes of interest regarding the vulnerabilities for problems associated with alcohol use disorders. A long history of repetitive heavy use of alcohol exists across generations as well as the high prevalence of alcohol-related problems in Western societies. Moreover, the information offered here addresses the importance of more general issues regarding genetics and gene expression related to alcohol abuse and dependence. PMID:18362899

  17. Breast-feeding and benign breast disease.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, S; Londero, A P; Bertozzi, S; Driul, L; Marchesoni, D; Petri, R

    2012-01-01

    Benign breast disease (BBD) is very common among women in their fertile age, but its correlation with breast reproductive function remains unclear. Our study aimed to investigate the relation between BBD and breast-feeding. We collected data on 105 women with BBD and 98 controls, focusing on their reproductive history and breast-feeding. We analysed data by R (version 2.12.1) considering p < 0.05 as significant. The results showed that fibroadenoma represented the most frequent BBD (55%), followed by fibrocystic changes (19%), intraductal papilloma (6%) and inflammatory breast disorders (5%). The mean age was 31.5 years (± 6.1), BMI 21.2 kg/m² (± 3.4) and age at menarche 13.0 years (± 1.5). Duration of breast-feeding was not significantly different between controls and BBD types (p = NS). Selecting women with fibroadenoma breast-feeding duration directly correlated with the number of benign lesions (p < 0.05), which remains significant also by multivariate analysis. It was concluded that there seemed to be no difference in breast-feeding among BBDs types, but lactation may influence the number of fibroadenomas. Moreover, prospective studies would better define the correlation between lactation and BBDs. PMID:22185539

  18. Trade-offs underlying maternal breastfeeding decisions: a conceptual model.

    PubMed

    Tully, Kristin P; Ball, Helen L

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new conceptual model that generates predictions about breastfeeding decisions and identifies interactions that affect outcomes. We offer a contextual approach to infant feeding that models multi-directional influences by expanding on the evolutionary parent-offspring conflict and situation-specific breastfeeding theories. The main hypothesis generated from our framework suggests that simultaneously addressing breastfeeding costs and benefits, in relation to how they are interpreted by mothers, will be most effective. Our approach focuses on contributors to the attitudes and commitment underlying breastfeeding outcomes, beginning in the prenatal period. We conclude that some maternal-offspring conflict is inherent with the dynamic infant feeding relationship. Guidance that anticipates and addresses family trade-offs over time can be incorporated into breastfeeding support for families. PMID:22188564

  19. The Environmental Factors Influencing Attrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villella, Edward F.

    1986-01-01

    Offers an economics/business-management perspective on student attrition, focusing on the external macro-environment (including such factors as government funding of education, changing enrollment patterns, and the increased number of postsecondary institutions) and the internal micro-environment (exhibiting characteristics of intangibility,…

  20. Recalled Initiation and Duration of Maternal Breastfeeding Among Children with and Without ADHD in a Well Characterized Case-Control Sample.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Diane D; Musser, Erica D; Holton, Kathleen F; Shannon, Jackilen; Nigg, Joel T

    2016-02-01

    Early environmental influences are increasingly of interest in understanding ADHD as a neurodevelopmental condition, particularly in light of recognition that gene by environment interplay are likely involved in this condition. Breastfeeding duration predicts cognitive development, as well as development of brain white matter connectivity, in areas similar to those seen in ADHD. Prior studies show an association between breastfeeding and ADHD but without adequate evaluation of ADHD. A case control cohort of 474 children aged 7-13 years was examined, 291 with well characterized ADHD (71.5 % male) and the rest typically developing controls (51.9 % male). Mothers retrospectively reported on breast feeding initiation and duration. Initiation of breastfeeding was not associated with child ADHD, but shorter duration of breastfeeding was associated with child ADHD with a medium effect size (d = 0.40, p < 0.05); this effect held after covarying a broad set of potential confounders, including child oppositional defiant and conduct problems and including maternal and paternal ADHD symptoms. Effects were replicated across both parent and teacher ratings of child ADHD symptoms. Shorter duration of breastfeeding is among several risk factors in early life associated with future ADHD, or else longer duration is protective. The direction of this effect is unknown, however. It may be that some children are more difficult to breastfeed or that breastfeeding provides nutrients or other benefits that reduce future chance of ADHD. PMID:25749651

  1. Nursing students' views on promoting successful breastfeeding in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Pajalic, Zada

    2014-09-01

    Promoting breastfeeding is important work for health-care personnel in the Swedish context. This promotion is multifaceted and demands the ongoing development of knowledge and competence among both health-care personnel and patients. The aim of the present study was to describe the nursing students' perspectives on breastfeeding in Sweden. Data were obtained in the form of written reflections from nursing students (n=65) and examined using manifest content analysis. The results show that the factors of importance in promoting successful breastfeeding are information about breastfeeding's benefits, traditions and cultural acceptance of the practice, and by government prohibition of infant formula. We conclude that knowledge about the benefits of breastfeeding needs to be prioritized continuously during education. PMID:25169002

  2. Breastfeeding FAQs: Pain and Discomfort

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Breastfeeding FAQs: Pain and Discomfort KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding ... have. Is it normal to have cramps while nursing? Yes. During the first few days to weeks ...

  3. Sources of education about breastfeeding and breast pump use: what effect do they have on breastfeeding duration? An analysis of the Infant Feeding Practices Survey II.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peggy G; Johnson, Lara W; Rosenthal, Marjorie S

    2012-10-01

    To examine the association between breastfeeding duration and sources of education about breastfeeding and breast pumps. We analyzed data from the Infant Feeding Practices Survey II (n = 2,586), a national longitudinal consumer-based study. We used χ(2) and ANOVA to contrast categorical and continuous variables, respectively, and logistic regression to model the association between breastfeeding duration and sources of education about breastfeeding and breast pump use. In unadjusted results, multiple sources of breastfeeding and breast pump education were significantly associated with breastfeeding duration. However, in multivariable logistic regression models, there was a negative association between longer breastfeeding duration and receiving breast pump education from a physician/physician assistant (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.36-0.93); and a positive association between longer breastfeeding duration and receiving breastfeeding education from classes/support group (OR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.24-2.76) and receiving breast pump education from friends/relatives (OR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.13-2.55). Although healthcare providers such as physicians and nurses have regular contact with women, the only statistically significant association between breastfeeding and breast pump education from healthcare providers and longer breastfeeding duration was a negative one. This likely reflects time and resource limitations of clinical practice, but may also indicate a need for more consistent training for healthcare providers who provide breastfeeding and breast pump education. Social supports, such as education from classes/support groups and friends/relatives demonstrated positive associations with longer breastfeeding duration. This emphasizes the importance of fostering a positive sphere of influence around breastfeeding women. Future work should also investigate alternative levers of action, such as policies affecting insurance coverage of breast pumps. PMID:22038565

  4. Breastfeeding and Mental and Motor Development at 5 ½ Years

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Katy M.; Castillo, Marcela; Calatroni, Agustin; Walter, Tomas; Cayazzo, Marisol; Pino, Paulina; Lozoff, Betsy

    2006-01-01

    Objective Breastfeeding is associated with better child development outcomes, but uncertainty remains primarily due to the close relationship between breastfeeding and socioeconomic status. This study assesses the issue in a low socioeconomic status sample where breastfeeding was close to universal. Methods 784 Chilean children were followed longitudinally from infancy. All but 4 were initially breastfed, 40% nursed beyond 12 months, and infant growth was normal. Child development was assessed at 5 ½ years by a cognitive, language, and motor test battery. The duration of breastfeeding as the sole milk source was analyzed as a continuous variable, adjusting for a comprehensive set of background factors. Results The relationship between breastfeeding and most 5 ½ -year developmental outcomes was non-linear, with poorer outcome for periods of breastfeeding as the sole milk source for < 2 months or > 8 months – statistically significant for language, motor, and one comprehensive cognitive test, with a suggestive trend for IQ. Conclusions The observed non-linear relationships showed that breastfeeding as the sole milk source for < 2 months or > 8 months, compared to 2–8 months, was associated with poorer development in this sample. The latter finding requires replication in other samples where long breastfeeding is common and socioeconomic status is relatively homogeneous. PMID:16530141

  5. Rapid ethnographic assessment of breastfeeding practices in periurban Mexico City.

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, M. L.; Morrow, R. C.; Calva, J. J.; Ortega-Gallegos, H.; Weller, S. C.; Ruiz-Palacios, G. M.; Morrow, A. L.

    1999-01-01

    Before carrying out a breastfeeding promotion programme in a periurban area of Mexico City, we conducted a rapid ethnographic study to determine the factors associated with absence of exclusive breastfeeding. The responses to pilot interviews were used to develop a standardized questionnaire regarding reasons for infant feeding choice, sources of advice, and barriers to breastfeeding. We interviewed a random sample of 150 mothers with a child < 5 years of age; 136 (91%) of them had initiated breastfeeding; but only 2% exclusively breastfed up to 4 months. The mothers consistently stated that the child's nutrition, health, growth, and hygiene were the main reasons for the type of feeding selected; cost, comfort, and the husband's opinion were less important. Physicians were ranked as the most important source of advice. Reduction or cessation of breastfeeding occurred on the doctor's advice (68%); or when the mothers encountered local folk illnesses such as "coraje" (52%) or "susto" (54%), which are associated with anger or fright; or had "not enough milk" (62%) or "bad milk" (56%); or because of illness of the mother (56%) or child (43%). During childhood illnesses and conditions, breastfeeding was reduced and the use of supplementary foods was increased. This study emphasizes the importance of cultural values in infant feeding choices, defines specific barriers to breastfeeding, and provides a basis for interventions to promote exclusive breastfeeding in the study population. PMID:10327711

  6. Factors influencing perceived angular velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Calderone, Jack B.

    1991-01-01

    Angular velocity perception is examined for rotations both in depth and in the image plane and the influence of several object properties on this motion parameter is explored. Two major object properties are considered, namely, texture density which determines the rate of edge transitions for rotations in depth, i.e., the number of texture elements that pass an object's boundary per unit of time, and object size which determines the tangential linear velocities and 2D image velocities of texture elements for a given angular velocity. Results of experiments show that edge-transition rate biased angular velocity estimates only when edges were highly salient. Element velocities had an impact on perceived angular velocity; this bias was associated with 2D image velocity rather than 3D tangential velocity. Despite these biases judgements were most strongly determined by the true angular velocity. Sensitivity to this higher order motion parameter appeared to be good for rotations both in depth (y-axis) and parallel to the line of sight (z-axis).

  7. Breastfeeding trends in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chua, S; Viegas, O A; Counsilman, J J; Ratnam, S S

    1989-01-01

    About 60% of well-to-do mothers in Singapore initiate breastfeeding. This value compares favourably with the 36% recently recorded for poor mothers, but is still unacceptably low compared to the 85-95% of well-to-do mothers and 90% of poor mothers who breastfed in the 1950s and 1960s. There has been a general decline in the incidence of breastfeeding over the last 35 years. Differences between the well-to-do and poor groups were initially small. A pronounced decline in the incidence of breastfeeding among the well-to-do mothers followed; a reversal in this downward trend in well-to-do mothers over the past 10 years has narrowed, and indeed reversed, the difference between the two groups. Similar trends can be found for the duration of breastfeeding. Whilst the overall decline probably reflects increasing affluence and 'Westernization' of the population the variation between these two economic groups is probably a result of differences in education. Among the three major ethnic communities, Chinese favoured breastfeeding least and Malays favoured it most. The differences are believed to be related to cultural differences and the ability of traditional practices and beliefs among the ethnic groups to resist the modern trend towards bottlefeeding. PMID:2919314

  8. Frequently Asked Questions about Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... FACT SHEET FROM THE OFFICE ON WOMEN’S HEALTH Breastfeeding The experience of breastfeeding is special for so many reasons: the joyful ... her child. Here, you’ll find facts about breastfeeding and get practical tips on how to make ...

  9. Supporting Breastfeeding in Your Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Breastfeeding, natural and healthy though it is, can be tough, particularly in communities where there is little encouragement for breastfeeding mothers. In one survey, when asked to identify the barriers to breastfeeding, mothers most often cited busy schedules, embarrassment, and lack of support (Best Start Social Marketing 1997). Child care…

  10. Barriers to breastfeeding in a resident clinic.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Amy M; Correll, Alissa; Greene, John F; Hein, Debra; McLaughlin, Tara

    2013-06-01

    Despite the known health benefits for mother and infant, compliance with exclusive breastfeeding continues to challenge many healthcare providers. In an ongoing attempt to maintain the goals of the Healthy People 2010 initiative, our institution set out to identify patients with suboptimal breastfeeding rates in order to recognize potential barriers. Review of breastfeeding rates at the time of discharge noted significantly lower participation by clinic patients. In order to develop successful interventions, the aim of this study was to survey clinic patients to determine their intentions, attitudes, and obstacles to the practice of exclusive breastfeeding. In total, 188 surveys were completed during a 2-month time period. Respondents were primarily Hispanic (76.4% vs. 9.6% black and 8.4% white) and multiparous (57.5%) with a mean age of 25.7 years (range, 15-39 years old). Although 95.3% of respondents indicated that they believed breastmilk provided adequate nutrition, only 35.3% planned on exclusively breastfeeding. Access to free formula through the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children was the most common reason not to breastfeed (48.3%), followed by fear of pain and the need to return to work/school. Patients reported that the person with the greatest influence on their decision to breastfeed was their partner/spouse. Access to a lactation counselor was the most popular intervention requested, even among experienced multiparous patients (78.9% of whom had previously breastfed). In conclusion, the survey indicated that planned exclusive breastfeeding rates are low among this inner-city resident clinic and interventions should include involvement of the partners/spouses and access to lactational support. PMID:22871145

  11. What Factors Influence Wind Perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Tatiana

    Over the last decade, wind power has emerged as a possible source of energy and has attracted the attention of homeowners and policy makers worldwide. Many technological hurdles have been overcome in the last few years that make this technology feasible and economical. The United States has added more wind power than any other type of electric generation in 2012. Depending on the location, wind resources have shown to have the potential to offer 20% of the nation's electricity; a single, large wind turbine has the capacity to produce enough electricity to power 350 homes. Throughout the development of wind turbines, however, energy companies have seen significant public opposition towards the tall white structures. The purpose of this research was to measure peoples' perceptions on wind turbine development throughout their growth, from proposal to existing phase. Three hypotheses were developed based on the participant's political affiliation, proximity and knowledge of wind turbines. To validate these hypotheses, participants were asked an array of questions regarding their perception on economic, environmental, and social impacts of wind turbines with an online service called Amazon Mechanical Turk. The responses were from residents living in the United States and required them to provide their zip code for subsequent analysis. The analysis from the data obtained suggests that participants are favorable towards wind turbine development and would be supportive of using the technology in their community. Political affiliation and proximity to the nearest wind turbine in any phase of development (proposal, construction, existing) were also analyzed to determine if they had an effect on a person's overall perception on wind turbines and their technology. From the analysis, political affiliation was seen to be an indirect factor to understanding favorability towards wind turbines; the more liberal you are, the more supportive you will be towards renewable energy use

  12. Cannabis and breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Garry, Aurélia; Rigourd, Virginie; Amirouche, Ammar; Fauroux, Valérie; Aubry, Sylvie; Serreau, Raphaël

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breastfeeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 TetraHydroCannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breastfeeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breastfeeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk. PMID:20130780

  13. Exclusive Breastfeeding and Under-Five Mortality, 2006-2014: A Cross-National Analysis of 57 Low- and-Middle Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Azuine, Romuladus E.; Murray, Janna; Alsafi, Noor; Singh, Gopal K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined the long-term, cross-national, and population-level impacts of exclusive breastfeeding on major global child health indicators. We investigated the overall and independent associations between exclusive breastfeeding and under-five mortality in 57 low- and-middle-income countries. Methods: Data were obtained from the latest World Health Organization, United Nations, and United Nations Children’s Fund databases for 57 low- and middle-income countries covering the periods 2006-2014. Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate the effects of exclusive breastfeeding on under-five mortality after adjusting for differences in socioeconomic, demographic, and health-related factors. Results: In multivariate models, exclusive breastfeeding was independently associated with under-five mortality after adjusting for sociodemographic and health systems-related factors. A 10 percentage-points increase in exclusive breastfeeding was associated with a reduction of 5 child deaths per 1,000 live births. A one-unit increase in Human Development Index was associated with a decrease of 231 under-five child deaths per 1,000 live births. A $100 increase in per capita health care expenditure was associated with a decrease of 2 child deaths per 1,000 live births. One unit increase in physician density was associated with 2.8 units decrease in the under-five mortality rate. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Population-level health system and socioeconomic factors exert considerable effect on the association between exclusive breastfeeding and under-five mortality. Given that the health policy and socioeconomic indicators shown to influence exclusive breastfeeding and under-five mortality are modifiable, policy makers could potentially target specific policies and programs to address national-level deficiencies in these sectors to reduce under-five mortality in their countries.

  14. Factors potentially influencing aminoglycoside use and expenditure

    SciTech Connect

    DiPiro, J.T.; Kilsdonk, G.F.; Amerson, A.B.; Record, K.E.

    1982-07-01

    Factors that may have influenced aminoglycoside use and expenditure in one hospital were examined. Factors that were evaluated as to their influence on aminoglycoside-use patterns were: (1) formulary status; (2) bacterial susceptibility patterns; (3) identified or perceived differences in toxicity; (4) changes in patient population; (5) price paid by the hospital for aminoglycosides; (6) distribution of newsletters or memoranda; (7) advertising and detailing; and (8) pharmacy policies. For FY 1976-77 to 1979-80, the largest proportion of aminoglycoside expense was for gentamicin. During FY 1980-81, the expenditure for gentamicin decreased and tobramycin accounted for the largest proportion of total expenditure. Monthly gentamicin use decreased 20% during FY 1980-81 from the previous year. Tobramycin use increased from January 1979 to November 1980 and decreased from December 1980 to June 1981. Kanamycin use and amikacin use were fairly constant during the study period. Based on temporal relationships, the following factors appeared to influence aminoglycoside use and expenditure: (1) a study conducted at the institution from June 1977 to June 1979 comparing gentamicin and tobramycin nephrotoxicity; (2) a comparative nephrotoxicity study published in a widely circulated medical journal in May 1980; and (3) an intramural newsletter and memorandum distributed in March 1981 encouraging selective aminoglycoside use. The identification of factors that potentially influenced aminoglycoside use can be used to anticipate the future impact of similar events and to devise strategies to influence antimicrobial use.

  15. Biodemographic and health seeking behaviour factors influencing neonatal and postneonatal mortality in Bangladesh: evidence from DHS data.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Moshiur; Huq, Syeda Shahanara

    2009-04-01

    This study findings show primarily - amongst the biodemographic and health seeking services factors, delivery-related maternal health complicacies, blindness, higher order births, twin births, lower household size and interaction effect of higher order live births and male child are significantly correlated with higher neonatal mortality. Neonatal deaths are heavily caused by biological, demographical and maternal experience health hazards during/after delivery. The analysis shows that the causes of deaths after neonatal period are deeply rooted in poverty, regional administrative disparity, lack of breastfeeding, unplanned frequency of births, small interval between births and non-utilization of health seeking services. Education, even maternal, and sex differential have no significant effect as what the literature suggested. But the interaction effect of maternal secondary and above education who residing in urban areas has a negative significant association with neonatal mortality. Increased interval between the births significantly reduced the postneonatal but not the neonatal mortality whereas the relationship between the child's birth order and neonatal is found significantly positive. It is suggested that increasing the length of births interval and the duration of breastfeed lowering the frequency of births should decrease the risk of neonatal and postneonatal mortality. Nutrition factor breastfeeding is negatively associated with postneonatal mortality; as duration of breastfeeding increase the postneonate deaths decrease. Results show that the interaction variable of higher order births and the child is boy has moderately significant positive association with neonatal mortality. Postneonates residing in Sylhet have exceptionally higher likelihood of mortality. Although credit for contributing to the lowering of infant mortality has been given to health programs by public health personnel and to the improvement in socio-economic status by social scientists

  16. Pakistan: update on breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Lambert, J

    1988-01-01

    Studies conducted in Pakistan have shown a decline in breastfeeding since 1966, especially in urban areas. Overall, the National Nutrition Surveys have found, the proportion of babies being breastfed for more than 2 years has declined from 59% in 1966 to 9% in 1985. 4 basic reasons have been found for this deterioration: 1) hospitals are separating newborns from their mothers, and not instructing mothers on how to establish and sustain breastfeeding; 2) health practicioners are not informed about the importance of breastfeeding; 3) many women give their babies formula out of fear that they will not produce sufficient milk for their babies; and 4) at hospitals and clinics some infant formula companies continue to give out free samples and to distribute posters and calendars promoting their formulas. These problems must be remedied. At a hospital in Indonesia, when infants began to be roomed in with their mothers, hospital staff to be encouraged to breastfeed their own babies, mothers to be counseled on breastfeeding, and when formula promotion was stopped, infant mortality dropped from 51.6/1000 to 33.4/1000. Cases of diarrhea dropped from 40.2/1000 to 5.5/1000. Breastmilk has unique properties that no infant formula can match. PMID:12342141

  17. Maternal Sexuality and Breastfeeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Alison

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…

  18. Factors Influencing the Fatigue Strength of Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollenrath, F

    1941-01-01

    A number of factors are considered which influence the static and fatigue strength of materials under practical operating conditions as contrasted with the relations obtaining under conditions of the usual testing procedure. Such factors are interruptions in operation, periodically fluctuating stress limits and mean stresses with periodic succession of several groups and stress states, statistical changes and succession of stress limits and mean stresses, frictional corrosion at junctures, and notch effects.

  19. Maternal, infant, and household factors are associated with breast-feeding trajectories during infants' first 6 months of life in Matlab, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Sabrina; Frongillo, Edward A; Devine, Carol M; Alam, Dewan S; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2009-08-01

    Women's breast-feeding patterns are complex, and existing definitions of breast-feeding behavior do not capture this complexity adequately. We used results from a prior qualitative study to define trajectories for feeding during the first half of infancy, and then examined household-, maternal-, and infant-level determinants of these trajectories using logistic regression analysis. The 1472 women in the study cohort lived in rural Bangladesh and were participants in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Intervention in Matlab trial. The 3 infant feeding trajectories included women who fed only breast milk and water [full breast-feeding trajectory (FBT)]; offered mixed feeding continuously when their babies were 0-4 mo old [continuous mixed feeding trajectory (CMFT)]; and practiced any other type of breast-feeding [intermittent feeding trajectory (IFT)], which was the normative feeding behavior in this community. In adjusted regression models, women who lived in rural areas [odds ratio (OR), 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2, 3.4], came from the poorest households (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.5, 7.7), and offered prelacteal (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.7) were more likely to be in the FBT. Women from the richest households (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1, 2.6), employed mothers (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1, 2.6), and older mothers (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.0, 1.1) were more likely to be in the CMFT, and women with higher birth-weight infants (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.8) were less likely to be in the CMFT. Thus, these trajectories were associated with distinct groups of women and these results provide information useful for developing interventions to improve breast-feeding practices. PMID:19549754

  20. Technology Education Graduate Education: Factors Influencing Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Phillip L.; Rogers, George E.

    A modified Delphi technique was used to identify the factors that positively influence technology education teachers' decision to enroll in graduate education programs and the barriers to their enrollment in advanced degree programs. Two pairs of Delphi panels were established. The doctoral panels consisted of 15 recent doctoral graduates and 30…

  1. Factors Influencing Learning at a Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marvin L.

    The Walberg Educational Productivity Model theorizes that learning in its affective, behavioral, and cognitive aspects is causally influenced by factors in the areas of individual aptitude (i.e., prior achievement, age or stage of maturation, and motivation), instructional treatment (i.e., quantity of time spent in learning situations and…

  2. Factors Influencing the Successful Introduction of Portfolios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Tartwijk, Jan; Driessen, Erik; Van Der Vleuten, Cees; Stokking, Karel

    2007-01-01

    Factors influencing the successful introduction of portfolios are described. A portfolio is a purposeful collection of all kinds of documents and other artefacts that together give an impression of how tasks were fulfilled and how competence has developed. A portfolio can also contain reflections and plans for future development. Although…

  3. Factors Influencing Employee Learning in Small Businesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coetzer, Alan; Perry, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify key factors influencing employee learning from the perspective of owners/managers. Design/methodology/research: Data were gathered from owners/managers in a total of 27 small manufacturing and services firms through interviews and analysed using content analytic procedures. Findings: The…

  4. Factors Influencing High School Students' Career Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Mei; Pan, Wei; Newmeyer, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the factors influencing high school students' career aspirations with a study analyzing 141 high school students. The Social Cognitive Career Development Model was utilized to examine the interactive relationships among learning experiences, career self-efficacy, outcome expectations, career interests, and career choices. The…

  5. Factors Influencing Teaching Choice in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilinc, Ahmet; Watt, Helen M. G.; Richardson, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Why choose to become a teacher in Turkey? The authors examined motivations and perceptions among preservice teachers (N = 1577) encompassing early childhood, primary and secondary education. The Factors Influencing Teaching Choice (FIT-Choice) instrument was translated into Turkish and its construct validity and reliability assessed. Altruistic…

  6. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Quansah, Emmanuel; Ohene, Lilian Akorfa; Norman, Linda; Mireku, Michael Osei; Karikari, Thomas K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals’ target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal. Methods ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review. Results Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence), family income (wealth/poverty) and high dependency (multiparousity). These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices. Conclusions Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother’s health knowledge is emphasised. PMID:26745277

  7. Relationship between participation in leisure activities and constraints on Taiwanese breastfeeding mothers during leisure activities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Participation in leisure activities strongly associates with health and well-being. Little research has explored the relationship between participation in leisure activities and constraints on breastfeeding mothers during leisure activities. The purposes of this study are: 1) to investigate constraints on breastfeeding mothers during leisure activities and participation in leisure activities; 2) to investigate the differences between preferences for leisure activities and actual participation by breastfeeding mothers; 3) to segment breastfeeding mothers with similar patterns, using a cluster analysis based on the delineated participation in leisure activities and leisure preferences; 4) to explore any differences between clusters of breastfeeding mothers with respect to socio-demographic characteristics, breastfeeding behaviours and leisure constraints. Methods This study has a cross-sectional design using an online survey conducted among mothers having breastfeeding experiences of more than four months. The questionnaire includes demographic variables, breastfeeding behaviours, preferences for leisure activities participation, and constraints on leisure activities. Collection of data occurred between March and July 2011, producing 415 valid responses for analysis. Results For breastfeeding mothers, this study identifies constraints on breastfeeding related to leisure activities in addition to the three traditional factors for constraints in the model. This study demonstrates that reports of constraints related to children, family, and nursing environments are the most frequent. Breastfeeding mothers in Taiwan participate regularly in family activities or activities related to their children. Cluster analysis classified breastfeeding mothers into Action and Contemplation groups, and found that mothers within the latter group participate less in leisure activities and experienced more constraints related to breastfeeding. Conclusions Implications provide

  8. A strategy for promoting breastfeeding among economically disadvantaged women and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bryant, C A; Coreil, J; D'Angelo, S L; Bailey, D F; Lazarov, M

    1992-01-01

    Best Start is an innovative social marketing approach to promote breastfeeding among low-income women. Focus group interviews were used to identify the determinants of infant-feeding decisions and the most effective strategies for encouraging women to breastfeed. Motivations and perceived barriers related to breastfeeding and social network influences on feeding choice are discussed. The findings were used to design a multifaceted breastfeeding promotion campaign aimed at new mothers, family members, health professionals, and the community at large. PMID:1476853

  9. Congratulations to the mothers. Breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, M; Creed Kanashiro, H

    1995-02-01

    In Lima, Peru, a study was conducted that evaluated the influences on mothers' decisions regarding breastfeeding. Local views and health professional advice was ascertained. A follow-up study of a group of pregnant women was conducted to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice in regard to the early feeding of their children. The women were interviewed in their homes before delivery, as soon as possible after delivery, and twice a week until their babies were 1 month old. The experience of the mother was the key factor, but advice from relatives, neighbors, and health professionals was also important. A lack of information about exclusive breast feeding was common. Although the women knew breast feeding was good, they were unaware that exclusive breast feeding was best. Health workers knew to advise against other milks, but failed to advise mothers against the use of herbal teas and sweetened water as supplements. The women commonly believed they were unable to produce enough milk to feed their children because of their own undernourishment. Others believed exclusive breast feeding would worsen their own health, while some experienced difficulties breast feeding. This led to supplementation with other milks; herbal teas were given to cure colic and to quench infants' thirst. Based on these findings, the project focused educational efforts on providing better information to mothers. Messages stressed the thirst quenching property of breast milk and its similar benefits to herbal tea, which should be consumed by the mother, rather than the infant. Since breast feeding practices were closely linked to mothers' beliefs about their own needs, the project emphasized the value and needs of the mother and the benefits of breast feeding for her. Educational activities, which continued for 12 months, included videos shown to small groups of mothers, posters, distribution of pamphlets, and messages broadcast over loudspeakers. A significant increase in the number of children

  10. Factors that influence women's dispositions toward science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atria, Catherine Graczyk

    Females have been underrepresented in the study of science and science careers for decades although advancements have been made in closing this gender gap, the gap persists particularly in the physical sciences. Variables which influence a woman's desire to pursue and maintain a science course of study and career must be discovered. The United States lags behind other industrialized countries in the fields of science, math, and engineering. Females comprise an estimated half of the population; their potential contributions cannot be ignored or overlooked. This retrospective research study explores the personal experiences of ten women enrolled in science majors, with science related career plans. The goal of this study is to describe the factors that influence the participants' interest in science. The findings, the effect of science coursework, science teachers' personality and manner, other influential educational personnel, role models and mentors, external influences exclusive of school, parental influence, locus of control and positive attitudes toward science confirm what other researchers have found.

  11. When Should a Mother Avoid Breastfeeding?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Breastfeeding Information for Families Breastfeeding Hotline The HHS Office ... Tweet Share Compartir When should a mother avoid breastfeeding? Health professionals agree that human milk provides the ...

  12. [Knowledge of breastfeeding management among residents in pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Temboury Molina, M C

    2003-03-01

    The staff of maternity wards and clinics for maternal and child health should receive appropriate basic and in-service training on the health benefits of breastfeeding and on lactation management. Pediatricians should not only be knowledgeable about the health, nutritional and physiological aspects of appropriate feeding, they should also be familiar with the mechanics of breastfeeding, its various psychosocial influences, possible difficulties and how to overcome them. To evaluate knowledge of breastfeeding among pediatrics residents throughout Spain, a survey was conducted. A total of 250 questionnaires were collected. Significant differences were observed among provinces. In most areas, residents' training was insufficient. To achieve an appropriate level of knowledge among pediatrics residents in a subject as important to mother and child health as breastfeeding, courses should be given and repeated at regular intervals. Professional associations should be actively involved in promoting appropriate training for health professionals. PMID:12628099

  13. The advantages of breast-feeding: a developing country point of view.

    PubMed

    Soysa, P E

    1981-02-01

    One of the traditional practices related to child care which is undergoing the most rapid change in the 3rd world is breastfeeding. Concerned about the repercussions of this trend, the author reviews some important results of research carried out in developing countries on the advantages of breastfeeding for infants and their mothers, and notes some of the factors influencing 3rd World women in their choice of mode of infant feeding and the cost of bottle feeding to both national and family budgets. The importance of taking stock of the present situation and preventing its deterioration is underscored. Increased home and community support for women to breastfeed even when working outside the home, is especially needed. PMID:12264014

  14. Factors Influencing Seminar Learning and Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Spruijt, Annemarie; Leppink, Jimmie; Wolfhagen, Ineke; Bok, Harold; Mainhard, Tim; Scherpbier, Albert; van Beukelen, Peter; Jaarsma, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Many veterinary curricula use seminars, interactive educational group formats in which some 25 students discuss questions and issues relating to course themes. To get indications on how to optimize the seminar learning process for students, we aimed to investigate relationships between factors that seem to be important for the seminar learning process, and to determine how these seminar factors account for differences in students' achievement scores. A 57-item seminar evaluation (USEME) questionnaire was administered to students right after they attended a seminar. In total, 80 seminars distributed over years 1, 2, and 3 of an undergraduate veterinary medicine curriculum were sampled and 988 questionnaires were handed in. Principal factor analysis (PFA) was conducted on 410 questionnaires to examine which items could be grouped together as indicators of the same factor, and to determine correlations between the derived factors. Multilevel regression analysis was performed to explore the effects of these seminar factors and students' prior achievement scores on students' achievement scores. Within the questionnaire, four factors were identified that influence the seminar learning process: teacher performance, seminar content, student preparation, and opportunities for interaction within seminars. Strong correlations were found between teacher performance, seminar content, and group interaction. Prior achievement scores and, to a much lesser extent, the seminar factor group interaction appeared to account for differences in students' achievement scores. The factors resulting from the present study and their relation to the method of assessment should be examined further, for example, in an experimental setup. PMID:26075625

  15. Influence of organizational factors on safety

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, S.B.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Political and economic factors influencing contraceptive uptake.

    PubMed

    Sai, F T

    1993-01-01

    International, national and local level politics influence the uptake of contraception through consensuses, laws, financial and moral support or the creation of an enabling atmosphere. Opposition to contraception generally comes from some churches and groups opposed to particular technologies. Socio-economic factors, particularly education, the health care system and the perceived or actual cost of fertility regulation as compared to benefits expected from children also powerfully influence contraceptive use. For many poor women in developing countries their powerlessness in relation to their male partners is an important obstacle. PMID:8324609

  17. Influencing factor on the prognosis of arthrocentesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoon Ho; Jeong, Tae Min; Pang, Kang Mi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this article is to evaluate factors influencing prognosis of arthrocentesis in patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder. Materials and Methods The subjects included 145 patients treated with arthrocentesis at the Dental Center of Ajou University Hospital from 2011 to 2013 for the purpose of recovering mouth opening limitation (MOL) and pain relief. Prognosis of arthrocentesis was evaluated 1 month after the operation. Improvement on MOL was defined as an increase from below 30 mm (MOL ≤30 mm) to above 40 mm (MOL ≥40 mm), and pain relief was defined as when a group with TMJ pain with a visual analog scale (VAS) score of 4 or more (VAS ≥4) decreased to a score of 3 or more. The success of arthrocentesis was determined when either mouth opening improved or pain relief was fulfilled. To determine the factors influencing the success of arthrocentesis, the patients were classified by age, gender, diagnosis group (the anterior disc displacement without reduction group, the anterior disc displacement with reduction group, or other TMJ disorders group), time of onset and oral habits (clenching, bruxism) to investigate the correlations between these factors and prognosis. Results One hundred twenty out of 145 patients who underwent arthrocentesis (83.4%) were found to be successful. Among the influencing factors mentioned above, age, diagnosis and time of onset had no statistically significant correlation with the success of arthrocentesis. However, a group of patients in their fifties showed a lower success rate (ANOVA P=0.053) and the success rate of the group with oral habits was 71% (Pearson's chi-square test P=0.035). Conclusion From this study, we find that factors influencing the success of arthrocentesis include age and oral habits. We also conclude that arthrocentesis is effective in treating mouth opening symptoms and for pain relief. PMID:25247144

  18. Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Pregnancy & Breastfeeding You are here Home / Audience / Adults Pregnancy & Breastfeeding Print Share Health & Nutrition Information When you are ...

  19. Factors are not the same for risk of stopping exclusive breast-feeding and introducing different types of liquids and solids in HIV-affected communities in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Marquis, Grace S; Lartey, Anna; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Mazur, Robert E; Brakohiapa, Lucy; Birks, Katherine A

    2016-07-01

    Exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) for 6 months supports optimal infant growth, health and development. This paper examined whether maternal HIV status was associated with EBF and other infant feeding practices. Pregnant women were enrolled after HIV counselling, and their babies were followed up for up to 1 year. Data on household socio-economics and demographics, maternal characteristics and infants' daily diet were available for 482 infants and their mothers (150 HIV-positive (HIV-P), 170 HIV-negative (HIV-N) and 162 HIV-unknown (HIV-U)). Survival analyses estimated median EBF duration and time to introduction of liquids and foods; hazards ratios (HR) used data from 1-365 and 1-183 d, adjusting for covariates. Logistic regression estimated the probability of EBF for 6 months. Being HIV-P was associated with a shorter EBF duration (139 d) compared with HIV-N (163 d) and HIV-U (165 d) (P=0·004). Compared with HIV-N, being HIV-P was associated with about a 40 % higher risk of stopping EBF at any time point (HR 1·39; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·84; P=0·018) and less than half as likely to complete 6 months of EBF (adjusted OR 0·42; 95 % CI 0·22, 0·81; P=0·01). Being HIV-P tended to be or was associated with a higher risk of introducing non-milk liquids (HR 1·34; 95 % CI 0·98, 1·83; P=0·068), animal milks (HR 2·37; 95 % CI 1·32, 4·24; P=0·004) and solids (HR 1·56; 95 % CI 1·10, 2·22; P=0·011) during the first 6 months. Weight-for-age Z-score was associated with EBF and introducing formula. Different factors (ethnicity, food insecurity, HIV testing strategy) were associated with the various feeding behaviours, suggesting that diverse interventions are needed to promote optimal infant feeding. PMID:27149980

  20. Ankyloglossia and breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Rowan-Legg, A

    2011-04-01

    Ankyloglossia (or tongue-tie) is a relatively uncommon congenital anomaly defined by an abnormally short lingual frenulum. Associations between tongue-tie and breastfeeding problems in infants have been inconsistent, and are a longstanding source of controversy in the medical community. Definitions of ankyloglossia vary, and management suggestions are not based on randomized controlled trials. Surgical correction involves cutting the lingual frenulum (frenotomy). Based on current available evidence, frenotomy cannot be recommended. If, however, the association between significant tongue-tie and major breastfeeding problems is clearly identified and surgical intervention is deemed necessary, frenotomy should be performed by a clinician experienced with the procedure and with appropriate analgesia. More definitive recommendations regarding the management of tongue-tie in infants await appropriately designed trials. PMID:22468126

  1. Ankyloglossia and breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Rowan-Legg, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Ankyloglossia (‘tongue-tie’) is a relatively common congenital anomaly characterized by an abnormally short lingual frenulum, which may restrict tongue tip mobility. There is considerable controversy regarding its diagnosis, clinical significance and management, and there is wide variation in practice in this regard. Most infants with ankyloglossia are asymptomatic and do not exhibit feeding problems. Based on available evidence, frenotomy cannot be recommended for all infants with ankyloglossia. There may be an association between ankyloglossia and significant breastfeeding difficulties in some infants. This subset of infants may benefit from frenotomy (the surgical division of the lingual frenulum). When an association between significant tongue-tie and major breastfeeding problems is clearly identified and surgical intervention is deemed to be necessary, frenotomy should be performed by a clinician experienced with the procedure and using appropriate analgesia. More definitive recommendations regarding the management of tongue-tie in infants await clear diagnostic criteria and appropriately designed trials. PMID:26038641

  2. Ankyloglossia and breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Rowan-Legg, A

    2011-01-01

    Ankyloglossia (or tongue-tie) is a relatively uncommon congenital anomaly defined by an abnormally short lingual frenulum. Associations between tongue-tie and breastfeeding problems in infants have been inconsistent, and are a longstanding source of controversy in the medical community. Definitions of ankyloglossia vary, and management suggestions are not based on randomized controlled trials. Surgical correction involves cutting the lingual frenulum (frenotomy). Based on current available evidence, frenotomy cannot be recommended. If, however, the association between significant tongue-tie and major breastfeeding problems is clearly identified and surgical intervention is deemed necessary, frenotomy should be performed by a clinician experienced with the procedure and with appropriate analgesia. More definitive recommendations regarding the management of tongue-tie in infants await appropriately designed trials. PMID:22468126

  3. Ankyloglossia and breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Rowan-Legg, Anne

    2015-05-01

    Ankyloglossia ('tongue-tie') is a relatively common congenital anomaly characterized by an abnormally short lingual frenulum, which may restrict tongue tip mobility. There is considerable controversy regarding its diagnosis, clinical significance and management, and there is wide variation in practice in this regard. Most infants with ankyloglossia are asymptomatic and do not exhibit feeding problems. Based on available evidence, frenotomy cannot be recommended for all infants with ankyloglossia. There may be an association between ankyloglossia and significant breastfeeding difficulties in some infants. This subset of infants may benefit from frenotomy (the surgical division of the lingual frenulum). When an association between significant tongue-tie and major breastfeeding problems is clearly identified and surgical intervention is deemed to be necessary, frenotomy should be performed by a clinician experienced with the procedure and using appropriate analgesia. More definitive recommendations regarding the management of tongue-tie in infants await clear diagnostic criteria and appropriately designed trials. PMID:26038641

  4. Drugs in breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Hotham, Neil; Hotham, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Most commonly used drugs are relatively safe for breastfed babies. The dose received via milk is generally small and much less than the known safe doses of the same drug given directly to neonates and infants. Drugs contraindicated during breastfeeding include anticancer drugs, lithium, oral retinoids, iodine, amiodarone and gold salts. An understanding of the principles underlying the transfer into breast milk is important, as is an awareness of the potential adverse effects on the infant. Discussion with the mother about the possibility of either negative product information or ill-informed advice from others will reduce the confusion and anxiety that may be generated. Good resources about medicines and breastfeeding are available and include state-based medicines information services. PMID:26648652

  5. Drugs in breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Hotham, Neil; Hotham, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Most commonly used drugs are relatively safe for breastfed babies. The dose received via milk is generally small and much less than the known safe doses of the same drug given directly to neonates and infants. Drugs contraindicated during breastfeeding include anticancer drugs, lithium, oral retinoids, iodine, amiodarone and gold salts. An understanding of the principles underlying the transfer into breast milk is important, as is an awareness of the potential adverse effects on the infant. Discussion with the mother about the possibility of either negative product information or ill-informed advice from others will reduce the confusion and anxiety that may be generated. Good resources about medicines and breastfeeding are available and include state-based medicines information services. PMID:26648652

  6. Factors influencing permanent teeth eruption. Part one--general factors.

    PubMed

    Almonaitiene, Ruta; Balciuniene, Irena; Tutkuviene, Janina

    2010-01-01

    Variation in the normal eruption of teeth is a common finding, but significant deviation from established norms should alert the clinician to take some diagnostic procedures in order to evaluate patient health and development. Disturbance in tooth eruption time could be a symptom of general condition or indication of altered physiology and craniofacial development. The aim of this review is to analyze general factors that could influence permanent teeth eruption. The articles from 1965 to 2009 in English related to topic were identified. 84 articles were selected for data collection. Although permanent teeth eruption is under significant genetic control, various general factors such as gender, socioeconomic status, craniofacial morphology, body composition can influence this process. Most significant disturbance in teeth emergence is caused by systemic diseases and syndromes. PMID:21063135

  7. Can breastfeeding promote child health equity? A comprehensive analysis of breastfeeding patterns across the developing world and what we can learn from them

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2010 more than 7.7 million children died before their fifth birthday. Over 98% of these deaths occurred in developing countries, and recent estimates have attributed hundreds of thousands of these deaths to suboptimal breastfeeding. Methods This study estimated prevalence of suboptimal breastfeeding for 137 developing countries from 1990 to 2010. These estimates were compared against WHO infant feeding recommendations and combined with effect sizes from existing literature to estimate associated disease burden using a standard comparative risk assessment approach. These prevalence estimates were disaggregated by wealth quintile and linked with child mortality rates to assess how improved rates of breastfeeding may affect child health inequalities. Results In 2010, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding ranged from 3.5% in Djibouti to 77.3% in Rwanda. The proportion of child Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) attributable to suboptimal breastfeeding is 7.6% at the global level and as high as 20.2% in Swaziland. Suboptimal breastfeeding is a leading childhood risk factor in all developing countries and consistently ranks higher than water and sanitation. Within most countries, breastfeeding prevalence rates do not vary considerably across wealth quintiles. Conclusions Breastfeeding is an effective child health intervention that does not require extensive health system infrastructure. Improvements in rates of exclusive and continued breastfeeding can contribute to the reduction of child mortality inequalities in developing countries. PMID:24305597

  8. Breastfeeding Outcome Comparison by Parity

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Eric W.; Beiler, Jessica S.; Rose, Chelsea M.; Paul, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Anecdotally, breastfeeding experiences differ between those who have previously nursed an infant and those who are primiparous. This analysis contrasted breastfeeding outcomes between primiparous women and those with previous experience spanning from maternity stay through 6 months postpartum. Study Design: A secondary analysis was conducted of data collected in a randomized, controlled trial with mothers and “well” newborns ≥34 weeks of gestation comparing two post–hospital discharge care models. Mothers completed an in-person interview during the postpartum stay and phone surveys at 2 weeks, 2 months, and 6 months where questionnaires related to breastfeeding were completed. All participants intended to breastfeed. Chi-squared and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to test for differences between parity groups. Breastfeeding duration by parity group was compared using a Kaplan–Meier plot and a logrank test. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the relationship between breastfeeding duration and parity after adjusting for covariates. Results: Among 1,099 mothers available for analysis, 542 (49%) were primiparous. Multiparous mothers had a longer intended breastfeeding duration (median, 9 vs. 6 months; p<0.001). Following delivery, primiparous mothers had a longer median time to first breastfeeding attempt (119 vs. 96 minutes; p<0.001) and were more likely to have eight or fewer feeding attempts in the first 24 hours (33% vs. 44%; p<0.001)). More primiparous women reported early breastfeeding problems (35% vs. 20%; p<0.001) and mixed feeding at hospital discharge (39% vs. 23%; p<0.001) despite reporting less breastfeeding-associated pain during the first week (p=0.04). Multiparous women were more likely to breastfeed through 6 months (p<0.001). In a multivariable Cox model for breastfeeding duration, an interaction existed between intended breastfeeding duration and parity (p=0.006); among those intending to breastfeed

  9. Labor Epidural Analgesia and Breastfeeding: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    French, Cynthia A; Cong, Xiaomei; Chung, Keun Sam

    2016-08-01

    Despite widespread use of epidural analgesia during labor, no consensus has been reached among obstetric and anesthesia providers regarding its effects on breastfeeding. The purpose of this review was to examine the relationship between labor epidural analgesia and breastfeeding in the immediate postpartum period. PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature were searched for articles published in 1990 or thereafter, using the search term breastfeeding combined with epidural, labor epidural analgesia, labor analgesia, or epidural analgesia Of 117 articles, 23 described empirical studies specific to labor epidural analgesia and measured a breastfeeding outcome. Results were conflicting: 12 studies showed negative associations between epidural analgesia and breastfeeding success, 10 studies showed no effect, and 1 study showed a positive association. Most studies were observational. Of 3 randomized controlled studies, randomization methods were inadequate in 2 and not evaluable in 1. Other limitations were related to small sample size or inadequate study power; variation and lack of information regarding type and dosage of analgesia or use of other intrapartum interventions; differences in timing, definition, and method of assessing breastfeeding success; or failure to consider factors such as mothers' intention to breastfeed, social support, siblings, or the mother's need to return to work or school. It is also unclear to what extent results are mediated through effects on infant neurobehavior, maternal fever, oxytocin release, duration of labor, and need for instrumental delivery. Clinician awareness of factors affecting breastfeeding can help identify women at risk for breastfeeding difficulties in order to target support and resources effectively. PMID:27121239

  10. Factors influencing union formation in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Bocquier, Philippe; Khasakhala, Anne

    2009-07-01

    Using retrospective data from the Urban Integration Survey conducted in 2001 in Nairobi, Kenya, on a sample of 955 women and men aged 25-54, this paper compares factors influencing entry into union formation for men and women. The analysis uses event history methods, specifically Cox Proportional Hazards regression, stratified by age cohort and run separately by sex. The results indicate that delay in union formation is more pronounced for women than for men. Cohabitation without formal marriage is the prominent form of union, especially among the younger generation, and appears to have increased. For men, the timing of union is more dependent upon human capital acquisition than on cultural factors. These findings show that the marriage search model, which was first applied in Western countries, can also hold in cities of developing countries. Nonetheless, neither the search model nor the integration or the independence models apply to women's union formation, which very few exogenous factors can explain. PMID:19250585