Science.gov

Sample records for factors influencing selection

  1. Factors influencing equipment selection in electron beam processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, J. W.

    2003-08-01

    During the eighties and nineties accelerator manufacturers dramatically increased the beam power available for high-energy equipment. This effort was directed primarily at meeting the demands of the sterilization industry. During this era, the perception that bigger (higher power, higher energy) was always better prevailed since the operating and capital costs of accelerators did not increase with power and energy as fast as the throughput. High power was needed to maintain per unit costs low for treatment. This philosophy runs counter to certain present-day realities of the sterilization business as well as conditions influencing accelerator selection in other electron beam applications. Recent experience in machine selection is described and factors affecting choice are presented.

  2. Selecting a provider: what factors influence patients' decision making?

    PubMed

    Abraham, Jean; Sick, Brian; Anderson, Joseph; Berg, Andrea; Dehmer, Chad; Tufano, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Each year consumers make a variety of decisions relating to their healthcare. Some experts argue that stronger consumer engagement in decisions about where to obtain medical care is an important mechanism for improving efficiency in healthcare delivery and financing. Consumers' ability and motivation to become more active decision makers are affected by several factors, including financial incentives and access to information. This study investigates the set of factors that consumers consider when selecting a provider, including attributes of the provider and the care experience and the reputation of the provider. Additionally, the study evaluates consumers awareness and use of formal sources of provider selection information. Our results from analyzing data from a survey of 467 patients at four clinics in Minnesota suggest that the factors considered of greatest importance include reputation of the physician and reputation of the healthcare organization. Contractual and logistical factors also play a role, with respondents highlighting the importance of seeing a provider affiliated with their health plan and appointment availability. Few respondents indicated that advertisements or formal sources of quality information affected their decision making. The key implication for provider organizations is to carefully manage referral sources to ensure that they consistently meet the needs of referrers. Excellent service to existing patients and to the network of referring physicians yields patient and referrer satisfaction that is critical to attracting new patients. Finally, organizations more generally may want to explore the capabilities of new media and social networking sites for building reputation. PMID:21495529

  3. Factors influencing pharmacists' selection of their first practice setting.

    PubMed

    Carter, E A; Segal, R

    1989-11-01

    Factors that influenced the choice of initial practice setting among pharmacists who had completed the majority of their experiential training in a hospital setting were determined. A questionnaire was mailed to all eligible pharmacists who successfully completed the Ohio pharmacist licensure examination in June or September 1987. Respondents were asked to (1) provide demographic data, (2) rate the importance of 23 factors that a pharmacist might consider when choosing a practice site, and (3) rate the desirability of a pharmacist position in their major hospital internship site, as well as positions they had considered in other hospitals and in community pharmacies. The predictive accuracy of four decision-making models--the weighted compensatory choice model, the unweighted compensatory choice model, the lexicographic model, and the conjunctive model--also was determined. Of 105 pharmacists surveyed, 53 returned usable questionnaires. Twenty-five had chosen to practice in hospital settings, and 28 had chosen community settings. The factor "is personally rewarding" was mentioned most often by hospital and community pharmacists as the factor that was most important when choosing their first position. The lexicographic model, which postulates that a pharmacist will choose the practice site with the highest performance rating for the most important factor, was the most accurate predictor of respondents' initial practice sites. Pharmacists' perception of how practice sites would rate in terms of the single job-related factor most important to them was the best predictor of whether they chose hospital or community practice initially and whether they chose to work in the hospital in which they served their internship, another hospital, or a community pharmacy. PMID:2589346

  4. Reading Strategies in Hypertexts and Factors Influencing Hyperlink Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protopsaltis, Aristidis

    2008-01-01

    Previous work applying cognitive load theory has demonstrated the effect of various text/graphic/narration relations on learning using multimedia material. Other work has looked at how the degree of integration between the text and graphics influences their use. This study set out to look at how the degree of integration between text and graphics…

  5. Factors That Influence State or Private University Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kargic, Lejla; Poturak, Mersid

    2014-01-01

    Selection of the university is one of the most important life decisions among young people. With a continually rising assortment of educational options, future students look for institutions that will provide them a distinctive educational knowledge that they will keep in their minds for a lifetime. Also, students usually seek an educational…

  6. Factors Influencing College Selection by NCAA Division I, II, and III Lacrosse Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauline, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine factors influencing college selection by NCAA Division I, II and III lacrosse players. The Influential Factors Survey for Student-Athletes-Revised was used to collect data from 792 male and female collegiate lacrosse players. Descriptive statistics showed the most influential factors were: career…

  7. Influence of selected factors on browning of Camembert cheese.

    PubMed

    Carreira, Alexandra; Dillinger, Klaus; Eliskases-Lechner, Frieda; Loureiro, Virgílio; Ginzinger, Wolfgang; Rohm, Harald

    2002-05-01

    Experimental Camembert cheeses were made to investigate the effects on browning of the following factors: inoculation with Yarrowia lipolytica, the use of Penicillium candidum strains with different proteolytic activity, the addition of tyrosine, and the addition of Mn2+ thus leading to 16 different variants of cheese. Two physical colour parameters were used to describe browning, depending on the location in the cheeses: a whiteness index for the outside browning (mould mycelium), and a brownness index for the inside browning (surface of the cheese body). Mn2+ promoted a significant increase of browning at both locations, whereas Yar. lipolytica had the opposite effect. Outside browning was significantly more intense when using the Pen. candidum strain with higher proteolytic activity. A significant interaction was found between Yar. lipolytica and Pen. candidum. The yeast had no effect in combination with a low proteolytic strain of Pen. candidum, but significantly reduced proteolysis and browning in combination with a high proteolytic strain of Pen. candidum. We further confirmed that both strains of Pen. candidum were able to produce brown pigments from tyrosine and thus both are presumably responsible for the browning activity in this type of cheese. PMID:12222805

  8. Factors influencing the selection of toys for handicapped and normally developing preschool children.

    PubMed

    Fallon, M A; Harris, M B

    1989-06-01

    Factors influencing the selection and purchase of toys for children's use were investigated. Subjects were 73 parents or adult friends of normally developing or handicapped preschool children. In addition to providing demographic information about themselves, the subjects rated the importance of 17 factors influencing their selection and purchase of toys. Contrary to previous research, the sex of the child was reported to be of only minor importance in toy selection, as was the picture on the toy package. Two factors, safety and teaching new skills, were rated as extremely important. There were no significant differences in ratings as a result of sex, ethnicity, or whether or not the subjects were parents of a handicapped child. The findings suggest a substantial degree of agreement among parents about what they consider important when choosing toys for children. PMID:2527967

  9. Selected Factors Influencing Student Enrollment at Area Vocational Schools in East, Middle and West Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Willie E., Jr.

    An analysis was made of selected factors influencing students to enroll in area postsecondary vocational schools in East, Middle, and West Tennessee. Four hundred forty-three students were surveyed concerning three broad areas of dependent variables: domestic environment, perceived opportunities, and assessment of program. Data were analyzed by…

  10. The Influence of Selected Academic, Demographic, and Instructional Program Related Factors on Elementary Student Retention Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Marshall, III

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of selected academic, demographic, and instructional program related factors on the retention rates of elementary school students. More specifically, this study was concerned with the relationship and predictability of the reading and mathematics variables scores, gender, ethnicity, program…

  11. Factors Influencing Selection of Vaginal, Open Abdominal, or Robotic Surgery to Treat Apical Vaginal Vault Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Mallika; Weaver, Amy L.; Fruth, Kristin M.; Gebhart, John B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine factors influencing selection of Mayo-McCall culdoplasty (MMC), open abdominal sacrocolpopexy (ASC), or robotic sacrocolpopexy (RSC) for posthysterectomy vaginal vault prolapse. Methods We retrospectively searched for the records of patients undergoing posthysterectomy apical vaginal prolapse surgery between January 1, 2000, and June 30, 2012, at our institution. Baseline characteristics and explicit selection factors were abstracted from the electronic medical records. Factors were compared between groups using χ2 tests for categorical variables, ANOVA for continuous variables, and Kruskal-Wallis tests for ordinal variables. Results Among the 512 patients identified who met inclusion criteria, the MMC group (n=174) had more patients who were older, American Society of Anesthesiologists class 3+ or greater, had anterior vaginal prolapse grade 3+, desired to avoid abdominal surgery, and did not desire a functional vagina. Patients in the ASC (n=237) and RSC (n=101) groups had more failed prolapse surgeries, suspected abdominopelvic pathologic processes, and chronic pain. Advanced prolapse was more frequently cited as an explicit selection factor for ASC than for either MMC or RSC. Conclusions The most common factors that influenced the type of apical vaginal vault prolapse surgery overlapped with characteristics that differed at baseline. In general, MMC was chosen for advanced anterior vaginal prolapse and baseline characteristics that increased surgical risks, ASC for advanced apical prolapse, and ASC or RSC for recurrent prolapse, suspected abdominal pathology, and patients with chronic pain or lifestyles including heavy lifting. Thus, efforts should be made to attempt to control for selection bias when comparing these procedures. PMID:26945273

  12. Sustaining the edge: factors influencing strategy selection in academic health centers.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Anne M; Szabat, Kathryn

    2002-01-01

    Competition within the acute care sector as well as increased penetration by managed care organizations has influenced the structure and role of academic health centers during the past decade. The market factors confronting academic health centers are not dissimilar from conditions that confront other organizations competing in mature industries characterized by declining profitability and intense rivalry for market share. When confronted with intense competition or adverse external events, organizations in other industries have responded to potential threats by forming alliances, developing joint ventures, or merging with another firm to maintain their competitive advantage. Although mergers and acquisitions dominated the strategic landscape in the healthcare industry during the past decade, recent evidence suggests that other types of strategic ventures may offer similar economic and contracting benefits to member organizations. Academic health centers have traditionally been involved in network relationships with multiple partners via their shared technology, collaborative research, and joint educational endeavors. These quasi-organizational relationships appear to have provided a framework for strategic decisions and allowed executives of academic health centers to select strategies that were competitive yet closely aligned with their organizational mission. The analysis of factors that influenced strategy selection by executives of academic health centers suggests a deliberate and methodical approach to achieving market share objectives, expanding managed care contracts, and developing physician networks. PMID:12469571

  13. A Flight Evaluation of the Factors which Influence the Selection of Landing Approach Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drinkwater, Fred J., III; Cooper, George E.

    1958-01-01

    The factors which influence the selection of landing approach speeds are discussed from the pilot's point of view. Concepts were developed and data were obtained during a landing approach flight investigation of a large number of jet airplane configurations which included straight-wing, swept-wing, and delta-wing airplanes as well as several applications of boundary-layer control. Since the fundamental limitation to further reductions in approach speed on most configurations appeared to be associated with the reduction in the pilot's ability to control flight path angle and airspeed, this problem forms the basis of the report. A simplified equation is presented showing the basic parameters which govern the flight path angle and airspeed changes, and pilot control techniques are discussed in relation to this equation. Attention is given to several independent aerodynamic characteristics which do not affect the flight path angle or airspeed directly but which determine to a large extent the effort and attention required of the pilot in controlling these factors during the approach. These include stall characteristics, stability about all axes, and changes in trim due to thrust adjustments. The report considers the relationship between piloting technique and all of the factors previously mentioned. A piloting technique which was found to be highly desirable for control of high-performance airplanes is described and the pilot's attitudes toward low-speed flight which bear heavily on the selection of landing approach speeds under operational conditions are discussed.

  14. The influence of selected factors and sport results of endurance horses on their saliva cortisol concentration.

    PubMed

    Janczarek, I; Bereznowski, A; Strzelec, K

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the influence of the selected factors (gender, age, transportation time, riding distance and air temperature during the ride) on the cortisol secretion and finding a correlation between the hormone level and the horses' sport results (veterinary parameters and the ride route parameters). The research was performed on 38 Arabian pure breed horses taking part in the endurance rides. The cortisol level was measured with enzyme-immunological method in saliva samples, taken four times from each horse. In order to verify the differences between the mean results the repeated measures design was applied. The significance of the differences between the mean values was determined by the Tukey test. To evaluate the interrelations between the analysed attributes Pearson's correlation analysis was applied. The cortisol level at rest was not affected by any of the analysed factors. In case of other results, the most significant influence (P < or = 0.05) was related to the gender, as well as the ride distance and air temperature during the ride. Higher cortisol level was noted in mares, horses running the longest distances and at the highest temperatures. A significant increase in the cortisol level was noted when the ride distance was longer. There were no clear correlation between the adrenal cortex activity and the veterinary parameters at different riding speed. High cortisol concentration can negatively affect the heart rate (HR) by increasing it, but it can simultaneously stimulate the body to fight dehydration. PMID:24195289

  15. Physician choice criteria: factors influencing patient selection of generalists versus specialists.

    PubMed

    Hanna, N; Schoenbachler, D D; Gordon, G L

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an exploratory study designed to (1) ascertain the primary sources of information patients use when selecting physicians and (2) identify differences in patient selection factor importance by type of physician under consideration (specialists versus generalists). The results support previous research which finds word-of-mouth and physician referrals the primary sources of information. Selection factors considered important when selecting a generalist were significantly different from factors considered important when selecting a specialist. Implications of the study's findings for effective physician marketing and future research are discussed. PMID:10141082

  16. Factors that Influence Science Teachers' Selection and Usage of Technologies in High School Science Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waight, Noemi; Chiu, Ming Ming; Whitford, Melinda

    2014-10-01

    This study contributed to our understanding of those factors that serve as predictors of science teachers' selection and use of technologies and more specifically, how selection and usage was realized among teachers of different science disciplines. Notable descriptive statistics were examined, and we tested an explanatory model of how demographics, school context, pedagogical approaches and professional development (PD) influenced the likelihood of a teacher using a tool via a multilevel cross-classification-ordered logit analysis (Goldstein 1995). The findings revealed that science teachers were more likely to use hardware than software; more specifically, this included instructional tools (i.e., SMARTboards, clickers) and laboratory tools (probeware). Differences in teachers' use of tools were largely due to differences in tools as opposed to differences in teacher characteristics. Use of a tool was more likely by teachers who taught physics, who taught via inquiry, or who had more PD with a tool. These findings have implications for how we conceptualize selection and usage of technologies that enter the science education pipeline; which tools become sustainable in the science classroom and how technological take-up differs across science disciplines.

  17. Influence of age and selected environmental factors on reproductive performance of canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serie, J.R.; Trauger, D.L.; Austin, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Age, productivity, and other factors affecting breeding performance of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) are poorly understood. Consequently, we tested whether reproductive performance of female canvasbacks varied with age and selected environmental factors in southwestern Manitoba from 1974 to 1980. Neither clutch size, nest parasitism, nest success, nor the number of ducklings/brood varied with age. Return rates, nest initiation dates, renesting, and hen success were age-related. Return rates averaged 21% for second-year (SY) and 69% for after-second-year (ASY) females (58% for third-year and 79% for after-third-year females). Additionally, water conditions and spring temperatures influenced chronology of arrival, timing of nesting, and reproductive success. Nest initiation by birds of all ages was affected by minimum April temperatures. Clutch size was higher in nests initiated earlier. Interspecific nest parasitism did not affect clutch size, nest success, hen success, or hatching success. Nest success was lower in dry years (17%) than in moderately wet (54%) or wet (60%) years. Nests per female were highest during wet years. No nests of SY females were found in dry years. In years of moderate to good wetland conditions, females of all ages nested. Predation was the primary factor influencing nest success. Hen success averaged 58% over all years. The number of ducklings surviving 20 days averaged 4.7/brood. Because SY females have lower return rates and hen success than ASY females, especially during drier years, management to increase canvasback populations might best be directed to increasing first year recruitment (no. of females returning to breed) and to increasing overall breeding success by reducing predation and enhancing local habitat conditions during nesting.

  18. Factors Influencing the Selection of Speech Pathology as a Career: A Qualitative Analysis Utilising the Systems Theory Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Factors identified by 16 participants during in-depth interviews as influencing selection of speech pathology as a career were described using the Systems Theory Framework (STF, Patton & McMahon, 2006). Participants were highly likely to identify factors from the individual and social systems, but not the environmental-societal system, of the STF…

  19. Factors influencing student selection of marriage and family therapy graduate programs.

    PubMed

    Hertlein, Katherine M; Lambert-Shute, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    To understand which factors students consider most important in choosing a marriage and family therapy (MFT) graduate program and how programs met or did not meet these expectations of students over the course of graduate study, we conducted an online mixed-method investigation. One hundred twelve graduate students in Commission on Accreditation for Marriage and Family Therapy Education-accredited programs responded to an online survey assessing what factors led them to select a specific graduate program in MFT. In the quantitative portion, students ranked each factor (personal fit, faculty, funding, research, clinical work, and teaching) as well as characteristics of each factor in relation to its importance in their selection of an MFT program. Additionally, students indicated to what level their programs meet their expectations. In the qualitative portion, students described how they believed their chosen program was or was not meeting their expectations. Both doctoral and master's students ranked personal fit as the top factor affecting their choice of graduate program in MFT, but they differed on the characteristics of each of these factors and their importance in selecting an MFT program. Implications for this research include program evaluation and program advertising, and are consistent with the scientist-practitioner model. PMID:17257378

  20. An Examination of Factors Influencing Students Selection of Business Majors Using TRA Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Poonam

    2013-01-01

    Making decisions regarding the selection of a business major is both very important and challenging for students. An understanding of this decision-making process can be valuable for students, parents, and university programs. The current study applies the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) consumer decision-making model to examine factors that…

  1. Demographic Factors Influencing Selection of an Ideal Graduate Institution: A Literature Review with Recommendations for Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Simon A.; Chuang, Ning-Kuang

    2010-01-01

    Choosing a graduate (masters and doctoral) program of study at an ideal institution is probably one of the most important decisions students and their family will make. The graduate college selection involves identifying the most critical academic and non-academic factors, and weighing their importance against the large quantity of choices…

  2. Factors Influencing the Selection of Standardized Tests for the Diagnosis of Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, Stacy K.; Eickhoff, Jessica R.; Sullivan, Shanleigh F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Standardized tests are one of the primary assessment tools used by speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to diagnose child language impairment. Numerous child language tests are commercially available; however, it is unknown what factors lead clinicians to select particular tests to use in clinical practice. This study investigated whether…

  3. Using a fuzzy DEMATEL method for analyzing the factors influencing subcontractors selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozik, Renata

    2016-06-01

    Subcontracting is a long-standing practice in the construction industry. This form of project organization, if manage properly, could provide the better quality, reduction in project time and costs. Subcontractors selection is a multi-criterion problem and can be determined by many factors. Identifying the importance of each of them as well as the direction of cause-effect relations between various types of factors can improve the management process. Their values could be evaluated on the basis of the available expert opinions with the application of a fuzzy multi-stage grading scale. In this paper it is recommended to use fuzzy DEMATEL method to analyze the relationship between factors affecting subcontractors selection.

  4. Influences of Vehicle Size and Mass and Selected Driver Factors on Odds of Driver Fatality

    PubMed Central

    Padmanaban, Jeya

    2003-01-01

    Research was undertaken to determine vehicle size parameters influencing driver fatality odds, independent of mass, in two-vehicle collisions. Forty vehicle parameters were evaluated for 1,500 vehicle groupings. Logistic regression analyses show driver factors (belt use, age, drinking) collectively contribute more to fatality odds than vehicle factors, and that mass is the most important vehicular parameter influencing fatality odds for all crash configurations. In car crashes, other vehicle parameters with statistical significance had a second order effect compared to mass. In light truck-to-car crashes, “vehicle type-striking vehicle is light truck” was the most important parameter after mass, followed by vehicle height and bumper height, with second order effect. To understand the importance of “vehicle type” variable, further investigation of vehicle “stiffness” and other passenger car/light truck differentiating parameters is warranted. PMID:12941244

  5. A factors influencing applicant selection of entry-level physical therapist education programs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Kim Curbow; Weber, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Physical therapist education programs must compete for qualified applicants due to a nationwide reduction in the applicant pool. To develop successful recruitment strategies, faculty members need information on factors influencing applicant selection of a program. The purpose of this study was to analyze factors influencing selection of an entry-level physical therapist education program. Survey subjects were students enrolled in the first professional year of an accredited entry-level physical therapist education program. A survey instrument was developed based on the literature and interviews with physical therapist students and faculty members. Results of pilot studies to determine face and content validity were acceptable. Stratified random cluster sampling was applied to select 66 entry-level physical therapy programs from an available population of 150 of the 199 accredited programs. Forty-nine programs were not included in the population for various reasons. Using a five-point Likert scale, subjects rated the influence of 51 items on their selection of a specific physical therapist education program. The overall return rate was 70.4% (1,250 surveys returned). Data were analyzed by response frequency. Four factors were selected as "very influential" by 50% or more of the subjects: degree offered, accreditation status, perception of educational quality, and program atmosphere. Additional factors selected by 45% or more of respondents as "very influential" were pass rate on licensing examination, marketability of degree, student/faculty ratio, and small class size. Factors rated "not influential" by 50% or more of subjects included ethnic, cultural, and gender issues. Since 1998, the physical therapy profession has experienced changes in entry-level degree requirements, practice requirements, and employment opportunities, resulting in increased competition for qualified applicants to education programs. The information gained in this study may assist faculty in

  6. Influence of selected factors on the performance of amperometric glucose biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legawiec-Jarzyna, Marta; Zawicki, Ignacy

    1997-02-01

    Effects of different ways of sample feed to the sensor, types of used membranes, extent of stretching the membrane pack by working electrode and timing of excitation voltage on performance of amperometric glucose biosensor with oxygen indicating electrode were investigated. In the sensors, enzymatic membranes containing immobilized glucose oxidase and some auxiliary membranes constituted an easily detachable laminated pack. In one of the tested sensors position of the membrane pack with respect to working electrode was adjustable. It was found that the above factors, except the timing of excitation voltage, have not essential influence on performance of O2-type glucose biosensor.

  7. New influence factor inducing difficulty in selective flotation separation of Cu-Zn mixed sulfide minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jiu-shuai; Mao, Ying-bo; Wen, Shu-ming; Liu, Jian; Xian, Yong-jun; Feng, Qi-cheng

    2015-02-01

    Selective flotation separation of Cu-Zn mixed sulfides has been proven to be difficult. Thus far, researchers have found no satisfactory way to separate Cu-Zn mixed sulfides by selective flotation, mainly because of the complex surface and interface interaction mechanisms in the flotation solution. Undesired activation occurs between copper ions and the sphalerite surfaces. In addition to recycled water and mineral dissolution, ancient fluids in the minerals are observed to be a new source of metal ions. In this study, significant amounts of ancient fluids were found to exist in Cu-Zn sulfide and gangue minerals, mostly as gas-liquid fluid inclusions. The concentration of copper ions released from the ancient fluids reached 1.02 × 10-6 mol/L, whereas, in the cases of sphalerite and quartz, this concentration was 0.62 × 10-6 mol/L and 0.44 × 10-6 mol/L, respectively. As a result, the ancient fluid is a significant source of copper ions compared to mineral dissolution under the same experimental conditions, which promotes the unwanted activation of sphalerite. Therefore, the ancient fluid is considered to be a new factor that affects the selective flotation separation of Cu-Zn mixed sulfide ores.

  8. Factors influencing the magnitude and clinical significance of drug interactions between azole antifungals and select immunosuppressants.

    PubMed

    Saad, Aline H; DePestel, Daryl D; Carver, Peggy L

    2006-12-01

    The magnitude of drug interactions between azole antifungals and immunosuppressants is drug and patient specific and depends on the potency of the azole inhibitor involved, the resulting plasma concentrations of each drug, the drug formulation, and interpatient variability. Many factors contribute to variability in the magnitude and clinical significance of drug interactions between an immunosuppressant such as cyclosporine, tacrolimus, or sirolimus and an antifungal agent such as ketoconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, or posaconazole. By bringing similarities and differences among these agents and their potential interactions to clinicians' attention, they can appreciate and apply these findings in a individualized patient approach rather than follow only the one-size-fits-all dosing recommendations suggested in many tertiary references. Differences in metabolism and in the inhibitory potency of cytochrome P450 3A4 and P-glycoprotein influence the onset, magnitude, and resolution of drug interactions and their potential effect on clinical outcomes. Important issues are the route of administration and the decision to preemptively adjust dosages versus intensive monitoring with subsequent dosage adjustments. We provide recommendations for the concomitant use of these agents, including suggestions regarding contraindicated combinations, those best avoided, and those requiring close monitoring of drug dosages and plasma concentrations. PMID:17125435

  9. Selective influence of Sox2 on POU transcription factor binding in embryonic and neural stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Mistri, Tapan Kumar; Devasia, Arun George; Chu, Lee Thean; Ng, Wei Ping; Halbritter, Florian; Colby, Douglas; Martynoga, Ben; Tomlinson, Simon R; Chambers, Ian; Robson, Paul; Wohland, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic stem cell (ESC) identity is orchestrated by co-operativity between the transcription factors (TFs) Sox2 and the class V POU-TF Oct4 at composite Sox/Oct motifs. Neural stem cells (NSCs) lack Oct4 but express Sox2 and class III POU-TFs Oct6, Brn1 and Brn2. This raises the question of how Sox2 interacts with POU-TFs to transcriptionally specify ESCs versus NSCs. Here, we show that Oct4 alone binds the Sox/Oct motif and the octamer-containing palindromic MORE equally well. Sox2 binding selectively increases the affinity of Oct4 for the Sox/Oct motif. In contrast, Oct6 binds preferentially to MORE and is unaffected by Sox2. ChIP-Seq in NSCs shows the MORE to be the most enriched motif for class III POU-TFs, including MORE subtypes, and that the Sox/Oct motif is not enriched. These results suggest that in NSCs, co-operativity between Sox2 and class III POU-TFs may not occur and that POU-TF-driven transcription uses predominantly the MORE cis architecture. Thus, distinct interactions between Sox2 and POU-TF subclasses distinguish pluripotent ESCs from multipotent NSCs, providing molecular insight into how Oct4 alone can convert NSCs to pluripotency. PMID:26265007

  10. Factors Influencing the Likelihood of Overeducation: A Bivariate Probit with Sample Selection Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubb, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Contrary to expectations, the likelihood of overeducation is shown to be inversely related to unemployment rates when not control for selectivity. Furthermore, incidence data show that overeducation is more common among men than women and among Whites than Blacks. At issue is selectivity: employment must be selected for overeducation to occur.…

  11. Factors that influence utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing at a selected university campus.

    PubMed

    Ndabarora, Eléazar; Mchunu, Gugu

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have reported that university students, who are mostly young people, rarely use existing HIV/AIDS preventive methods. Although studies have shown that young university students have a high degree of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and HIV modes of transmission, they are still not utilising the existing HIV prevention methods and still engage in risky sexual practices favourable to HIV. Some variables, such as awareness of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods, have been associated with utilisation of such methods. The study aimed to explore factors that influence use of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing in a selected campus, using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework. A quantitative research approach and an exploratory-descriptive design were used to describe perceived factors that influence utilisation by university students of HIV/AIDS prevention methods. A total of 335 students completed online and manual questionnaires. Study findings showed that the factors which influenced utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods were mainly determined by awareness of the existing university-based HIV/AIDS prevention strategies. Most utilised prevention methods were voluntary counselling and testing services and free condoms. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS score was also found to correlate with HIV risk index score. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS showed correlation with self-efficacy on condoms and their utilisation. Most HBM variables were not predictors of utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students. Intervention aiming to improve the utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students at the selected university should focus on removing identified barriers, promoting HIV/AIDS prevention services and providing appropriate resources to implement such programmes. PMID:25444096

  12. Socio-Cultural Factors Influencing Occupational Choice: The Selection of a Nursing Career by Ex-Soviet Immigrant Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagy, Shifra; Liberman, Orly

    1997-01-01

    Data from 136 Soviet immigrants to Israel identified the sociocultural factors that influenced the choice of nursing as a career. Gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnic origin had less influence than parents, peers, and academic achievement. (JOW)

  13. College Choice for Black Males in the Community College: Factors Influencing Institutional Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, J. Luke; Harrison, John D.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we examined the college choice process for Black males attending community colleges. Using data from the Educational Longitudinal Study, findings indicated that Black males who attend community colleges select their institutions based upon having a degree in their chosen field, the coursework/curriculum, job placement record,…

  14. Influence of Selected Factors upon the Learning of Landscape Design Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Craig Stanley

    A study was designed to determine the relative effectiveness of a series of landscape meetings and a supplemental illustrated landscape circular in teaching landscape design concepts to interested groups. The cooperation of county agents was secured. Five counties were selected as experimental; five, as control. Teaching objectives were formulated…

  15. Examining Factors Influencing Attrition at a Small, Private, Selective Liberal Arts College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gansemer-Topf, Ann M.; Zhang, Yi; Beatty, Cameron C.; Paja, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Despite a diverse body of literature on college student retention, studies focusing on small, private, selective liberal arts colleges are limited. This study utilized a mixed methodology beginning with logistic regression analyses and followed with a qualitative inquiry that included interviews with students who had not persisted. While variables…

  16. Food Preferences and Factors Influencing Food Selectivity for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreck, Kimberly A.; Williams, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Although clinicians and parents widely accept that children with autism spectrum disorder exhibit more feeding problems than their typically developing peers, little information is available concerning the characteristic food items accepted by these children or the possible factors contributing to these feeding problems. This article used an…

  17. Factors Influencing Student Selection of Marriage and Family Therapy Graduate Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertlein, Katherine M.; Lambert-Shute, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    To understand which factors students consider most important in choosing a marriage and family therapy (MFT) graduate program and how programs met or did not meet these expectations of students over the course of graduate study, we conducted an online mixed-method investigation. One hundred twelve graduate students in Commission on Accreditation…

  18. The developmental potential of iPSCs is greatly influenced by reprogramming factor selection.

    PubMed

    Buganim, Yosef; Markoulaki, Styliani; van Wietmarschen, Niek; Hoke, Heather; Wu, Tao; Ganz, Kibibi; Akhtar-Zaidi, Batool; He, Yupeng; Abraham, Brian J; Porubsky, David; Kulenkampff, Elisabeth; Faddah, Dina A; Shi, Linyu; Gao, Qing; Sarkar, Sovan; Cohen, Malkiel; Goldmann, Johanna; Nery, Joseph R; Schultz, Matthew D; Ecker, Joseph R; Xiao, Andrew; Young, Richard A; Lansdorp, Peter M; Jaenisch, Rudolf

    2014-09-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are commonly generated by transduction of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and Myc (OSKM) into cells. Although iPSCs are pluripotent, they frequently exhibit high variation in terms of quality, as measured in mice by chimera contribution and tetraploid complementation. Reliably high-quality iPSCs will be needed for future therapeutic applications. Here, we show that one major determinant of iPSC quality is the combination of reprogramming factors used. Based on tetraploid complementation, we found that ectopic expression of Sall4, Nanog, Esrrb, and Lin28 (SNEL) in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) generated high-quality iPSCs more efficiently than other combinations of factors including OSKM. Although differentially methylated regions, transcript number of master regulators, establishment of specific superenhancers, and global aneuploidy were comparable between high- and low-quality lines, aberrant gene expression, trisomy of chromosome 8, and abnormal H2A.X deposition were distinguishing features that could potentially also be applicable to human. PMID:25192464

  19. On the selection and evaluation of visual display symbology Factors influencing search and identification times

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger; Williams, Douglas

    1986-01-01

    Three single-target visual search tasks were used to evaluate a set of cathode-ray tube (CRT) symbols for a helicopter situation display. The search tasks were representative of the information extraction required in practice, and reaction time was used to measure the efficiency with which symbols could be located and identified. Familiar numeric symbols were responded to more quickly than graphic symbols. The addition of modifier symbols, such as a nearby flashing dot or surrounding square, had a greater disruptive effect on the graphic symbols than did the numeric characters. The results suggest that a symbol set is, in some respects, like a list that must be learned. Factors that affect the time to identify items in a memory task, such as familiarity and visual discriminability, also affect the time to identify symbols. This analogy has broad implications for the design of symbol sets. An attempt was made to model information access with this class of display.

  20. Factors which influence levels of selected organisms in saliva of older individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Loesche, W J; Schork, A; Terpenning, M S; Chen, Y M; Stoll, J

    1995-01-01

    The most commonly measured bacterial parameters in saliva are the levels of the mutans group streptococci and lactobacilli, which have diagnostic implications for the incidence of dental decay. Diagnostic guidelines which are applicable to children and young adults in whom most, if not all, teeth are present and in whom the rate of stimulated saliva is almost always greater than 0.5 ml/min have been developed. Dental decay is a potential health problem of considerable magnitude among elderly individuals. In elderly individuals, missing teeth, the presence of dentures, and a reduced salivary flow could confound the interpretation of salivary levels of cariogenic bacteria. In the present study, in which saliva was collected from more than 560 elderly individuals (average age, 70 +/- 8 years), there was a significant positive relationship between the salivary levels of Streptococcus mutans and increased numbers of teeth. There was a positive association between the salivary levels of S. mutans and decay when the data were stratified for the presence of a complaint of xerostomia and the presence of dentures. However, a similar analysis indicated that lactobacilli and yeasts were more likely to be associated with decay. The various variables which could influence the bacterial counts per milliliter of saliva, e.g., independent or dependent living status, complaint of xerostomia, stimulated salivary flow, salivary pH, the presence of dentures, number of teeth, and decay, were analyzed simultaneously by using a multivariable linear model. In that analysis the number of decayed teeth was significantly associated with the presence of lactobacilli (P = 0.0001) and yeasts (P = 0.025) but not with the presence of S. mutans.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8567881

  1. Factors which influence levels of selected organisms in saliva of older individuals.

    PubMed

    Loesche, W J; Schork, A; Terpenning, M S; Chen, Y M; Stoll, J

    1995-10-01

    The most commonly measured bacterial parameters in saliva are the levels of the mutans group streptococci and lactobacilli, which have diagnostic implications for the incidence of dental decay. Diagnostic guidelines which are applicable to children and young adults in whom most, if not all, teeth are present and in whom the rate of stimulated saliva is almost always greater than 0.5 ml/min have been developed. Dental decay is a potential health problem of considerable magnitude among elderly individuals. In elderly individuals, missing teeth, the presence of dentures, and a reduced salivary flow could confound the interpretation of salivary levels of cariogenic bacteria. In the present study, in which saliva was collected from more than 560 elderly individuals (average age, 70 +/- 8 years), there was a significant positive relationship between the salivary levels of Streptococcus mutans and increased numbers of teeth. There was a positive association between the salivary levels of S. mutans and decay when the data were stratified for the presence of a complaint of xerostomia and the presence of dentures. However, a similar analysis indicated that lactobacilli and yeasts were more likely to be associated with decay. The various variables which could influence the bacterial counts per milliliter of saliva, e.g., independent or dependent living status, complaint of xerostomia, stimulated salivary flow, salivary pH, the presence of dentures, number of teeth, and decay, were analyzed simultaneously by using a multivariable linear model. In that analysis the number of decayed teeth was significantly associated with the presence of lactobacilli (P = 0.0001) and yeasts (P = 0.025) but not with the presence of S. mutans. Our findings indicate that salivary levels of lactobacilli and yeasts, as well as the salivary levels of S. mutans, should be monitored when seeking microbial indicators that might predict the incidence of caries in elderly individuals. PMID:8567881

  2. Finding Factors Influencing Risk: Comparing Variable Selection Methods Applied to Logistic Regression Models of Cases and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Michael D.; Yu, Robert K.; Shete, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    When modeling the risk of a disease, the very act of selecting the factors to include can heavily impact the results. This study compares the performance of several variable selection techniques applied to logistic regression. We performed realistic simulation studies to compare five methods of variable selection: (1) a confidence interval approach for significant coefficients (CI), (2) backward selection, (3) forward selection, (4) stepwise selection, and (5) Bayesian stochastic search variable selection (SSVS) using both informed and uniformed priors. We defined our simulated diseases mimicking odds ratios for cancer risk found in the literature for environmental factors, such as smoking; dietary risk factors, such as fiber; genetic risk factors such as XPD; and interactions. We modeled the distribution of our covariates, including correlation, after the reported empirical distributions of these risk factors. We also used a null data set to calibrate the priors of the Bayesian method and evaluate its sensitivity. Of the standard methods (95% CI, backward, forward and stepwise selection) the CI approach resulted in the highest average percent of correct associations and lowest average percent of incorrect associations. SSVS with an informed prior had higher average percent of correct associations and lower average percent of incorrect associations than did the CI approach. This study shows that Bayesian methods offer a way to use prior information to both increase power and decrease false-positive results when selecting factors to model complex disease risk. PMID:18937224

  3. Breeding site selection by coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in relation to large wood additions and factors that influence reproductive success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Steven M.; Dunham, Jason B.; McEnroe, Jeffery R.; Lightcap, Scott W.

    2014-01-01

    The fitness of female Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) with respect to breeding behavior can be partitioned into at least four fitness components: survival to reproduction, competition for breeding sites, success of egg incubation, and suitability of the local environment near breeding sites for early rearing of juveniles. We evaluated the relative influences of habitat features linked to these fitness components with respect to selection of breeding sites by coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). We also evaluated associations between breeding site selection and additions of large wood, as the latter were introduced into the study system as a means of restoring habitat conditions to benefit coho salmon. We used a model selection approach to organize specific habitat features into groupings reflecting fitness components and influences of large wood. Results of this work suggest that female coho salmon likely select breeding sites based on a wide range of habitat features linked to all four hypothesized fitness components. More specifically, model parameter estimates indicated that breeding site selection was most strongly influenced by proximity to pool-tail crests and deeper water (mean and maximum depths). Linkages between large wood and breeding site selection were less clear. Overall, our findings suggest that breeding site selection by coho salmon is influenced by a suite of fitness components in addition to the egg incubation environment, which has been the emphasis of much work in the past.

  4. Factors That Influence Science Teachers' Selection and Usage of Technologies in High School Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waight, Noemi; Chiu, Ming Ming; Whitford, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    This study contributed to our understanding of those factors that serve as predictors of science teachers' selection and use of technologies and more specifically, how selection and usage was realized among teachers of different science disciplines. Notable descriptive statistics were examined, and we tested an explanatory model of how…

  5. A population-based study on infertility and its influencing factors in four selected provinces in Iran (2008-2010)

    PubMed Central

    Rostami Dovom, Marzieh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Abedini, Mehrandokht; Amirshekari, Golshan; Hashemi, Somayeh; Noroozzadeh, Mahsa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Infertility has a varied impact on multiple dimensions of health and functioning of women. Objective: We aimed to identify the burden of infertility and its influencing factors based on a population based study conducted in four provinces of Iran. Materials and Methods: A sample of 1126 women, aged 18-45 years, was selected using the multi stage, stratified probability sampling procedure; those met the eligibility criteria were invited for further comprehensive interview. This study used the definition of infertility proposed by World Health Organization “the woman has never conceived despite cohabitation and exposure to pregnancy for a period of 1 year”. Results : The overall prevalence of lifetime infertility and current primary infertility were 21.1% (95% CI: 18.4- 23.8) and 6.4% (95% CI: 4.8-8) respectively. The probability of first pregnancy at the end of 2 years of marriage was 94% for all ever-married women. Infertility were observed as significantly higher among women age 31-35 (OR: 4.6; 95% CI: 1.9-11.5; p=0.001) and women with more than 9 years of education (OR: 2.8; 95% CI: 1.5-3.3; p<0.0001). Conclusion: The necessities of modern living have compelled many women to postpone childbearing to their late reproductive years; however they must be informed of being at risk of infertility with ageing. PMID:25408706

  6. Factors Influencing the Selection of the Systems Integration Organizational Model Type for Planning and Implementing Government High-Technology Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Leann; Utley, Dawn

    2006-01-01

    While there has been extensive research in defining project organizational structures for traditional projects, little research exists to support high technology government project s organizational structure definition. High-Technology Government projects differ from traditional projects in that they are non-profit, span across Government-Industry organizations, typically require significant integration effort, and are strongly susceptible to a volatile external environment. Systems Integration implementation has been identified as a major contributor to both project success and failure. The literature research bridges program management organizational planning, systems integration, organizational theory, and independent project reports, in order to assess Systems Integration (SI) organizational structure selection for improving the high-technology government project s probability of success. This paper will describe the methodology used to 1) Identify and assess SI organizational structures and their success rate, and 2) Identify key factors to be used in the selection of these SI organizational structures during the acquisition strategy process.

  7. An Analysis of Background Factors Influencing Selection of Residency Facility for Dental Students in Universities Located in Rural Areas in Japan

    PubMed Central

    H, Kono; H, Sasahara; S, Furukawa; N, Taguchi

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Japan, since 2006, participation in a 1-year residency programme by all dentists who have passed the National Board Dental Examination has been mandatory. Therefore, a ‘matching system’ has become necessary for dental students in their final year to decide their desired residency facility, but the rate of matching in dental schools located in rural areas is still low. Aim : The principal aim of this study was to elucidate the background factors influencing the selection of residency facilities by dental students in rural areas to facilitate the training of dentists working in local communities. Methods : Using the matching results from 554 final-year students of Kagoshima University Faculty of Dentistry from 2005 to 2013, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed on the background factors of the subjects. Results : Concerning the selection of the residency facility, it was verified that there were strong background factors for subjects to select residency facilities in their hometown, but compared with subjects from other regions, those from Kinki and Kanto regions did not select residency facilities in their hometown. Compared with males, a significantly higher number of females selected residency facilities in their hometown. A significantly higher number of subjects who repeated a school year selected the residency facility of their alma mater. Conclusion : In dental schools of national universities located in provinces, the establishment of a quota system for students from the region, where possible, is one of the most effective steps for securing future dental trainees. PMID:26140061

  8. Individual Influence on Model Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterba, Sonya K.; Pek, Jolynn

    2012-01-01

    Researchers in psychology are increasingly using model selection strategies to decide among competing models, rather than evaluating the fit of a given model in isolation. However, such interest in model selection outpaces an awareness that one or a few cases can have disproportionate impact on the model ranking. Though case influence on the fit…

  9. Factors influencing the selection of delivery with no one present in Northern Nigeria: implications for policy and programs

    PubMed Central

    Fapohunda, Bolaji; Orobaton, Nosakhare

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of demographic, socioeconomic, and women’s autonomy factors on the utilization of delivery assistance in Sokoto State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from the Nigeria 2008 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). Bivariate analysis and logistic regression procedures were conducted. The study revealed that delivery with no one present and with unskilled attendance accounted for roughly 95% of all births in Sokoto State. Mothers with existing high risk factors, including higher parity, were more likely to select unsafe/unskilled delivery practices than younger, lower-parity mothers. Evidenced by the high prevalence of delivery with traditional birth attendants, this study demonstrates that expectant mothers are willing to obtain care from a provider, and their odds of using accessible, affordable, skilled delivery is high, should such an option be presented. This conclusion is supported by the high correlation between a mother’s socioeconomic status and the likelihood of using skilled attendance. To improve the access to, and increase the affordability of, skilled health attendants, we recommended two solutions: 1) the use of cash subsidies to augment women’s incomes in order to reduce finance-related barriers in the use of formal health services, thus increasing demand; and 2) a structural improvement that will increase women’s economic security by improving their access to higher education, income, and urban ideation. PMID:24516341

  10. Factors influencing the utilization of research findings by health policy-makers in a developing country: the selection of Mali's essential medicines

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Michael A; Fretheim, Atle; Maïga, Diadié

    2007-01-01

    Background Research findings are increasingly being recognized as an important input in the formation of health policy. There is concern that research findings are not being utilized by health policy-makers to the extent that they could be. The factors influencing the utilization of various types of research by health policy-makers are beginning to emerge in the literature, however there is still little known about these factors in developing countries. The object of this study was to explore these factors by examining the policy-making process for a pharmaceutical policy common in developing countries; an essential medicines list. Methods A study of the selection and updating of Mali's national essential medicines list was undertaken using qualitative methods. In-depth semi-structured interviews and a natural group discussion were held with national policy-makers, most specifically members of the national commission that selects and updates the country's list. The resulting text was analyzed using a phenomenological approach. A document analysis was also performed. Results Several factors emerged from the textual data that appear to be influencing the utilization of health research findings for these policy-makers. These factors include: access to information, relevance of the research, use of research perceived as a time consuming process, trust in the research, authority of those who presented their view, competency in research methods, priority of research in the policy process, and accountability. Conclusion Improving the transfer of research to policy will require effort on the part of researchers, policy-makers, and third parties. This will include: collaboration between researchers and policy-makers, increased production and dissemination of relevant and useful research, and continued and improved technical support from networks and multi-national organizations. Policy-makers from developing countries will then be better equipped to make informed decisions

  11. [Modulated electromagnetic field as a factor of selective influence on animal mechanisms of goal-directed behavior].

    PubMed

    Sudakov, K V

    1976-01-01

    Proceeding from P.K. Anokhin's theory of the functional systems, the paper considers the action of a modulated electromagnetic field (MEMF) on different stages of the central architectonics of purposeful behaviour of rats: afferent synthesis, decisions making, acceptor of the action results. The action of MEMF was studied in different experimental situations: choice of an alimentary or defensive reaction to one conditioned stimulus in different situations; extinction of conditioned alimentary reactions; elaboration and extinction of alimentary conditioned reactions in animals group contacts; choice of the side of reinforcement in a T-shaped maze, and, lastly, self-stimulation reactions. The experiments have shown that MEMF has a selective effect on the animals' emotional reactions. Greater disturbances are observed in the mechanisms of the animals' appraisal of the action of situational and trigger stimuli or surrounding individuals of their species and, hence, of decisions making and anticipation of future results of the action, the acceptor of the action results. PMID:997935

  12. Influence of selected lifestyle factors on breast and ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers from Poland.

    PubMed

    Gronwald, Jacek; Byrski, Tomasz; Huzarski, Tomasz; Cybulski, Cezary; Sun, Ping; Tulman, Anna; Narod, Steven A; Lubinski, Jan

    2006-01-01

    It has been estimated that the lifetime risk of breast cancer among women who inherit a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation is as high as 80%, and the risk estimates for ovarian cancer range from 15 to 40%. Several environmental and lifestyle factors are believed to contribute to the development of breast cancer in the general population and it is of interest to establish if these factors operate among mutation carriers as well. To evaluate the effects of age of menarche, parity, breast-feeding, oophorectomy and oral contraceptive use, as well as smoking and coffee consumption, on the risks of breast and ovarian cancer, we conducted a matched case-control study of Polish women with BRCA1 mutations. There were 348 breast cancer patients, 150 ovarian cancer patients and similar numbers of age-matched controls. BRCA1 carriers with late age of menarche, lower parity and long-term breast-feeding were less likely to develop breast cancer. Oral contraceptives protected against ovarian cancer. PMID:16261399

  13. Influence of selected environmental factors on the abundance of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs in peat-bog lakes.

    PubMed

    Lew, Sylwia; Lew, Marcin; Koblížek, Michal

    2016-07-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (AAPs) are photoheterotrophic prokaryotes that are widespread in many limnic and marine environments. So far, little is known about their distribution in peat-bog lakes. Seventeen peat-bog lakes were sampled during three summer seasons 2009, 2011, and 2012, and the vertical distribution of AAPs was determined by infrared epifluorescence microscopy. The analysis demonstrated that in the surface layers of the studied lakes, AAP abundance ranged from 0.3 to 12.04 × 10(5) cells mL(-1), which represents <1 to 18.3 % of the total bacteria. The vertical distribution of AAPs confirmed their presence in the upper parts of the water column with minimum numbers in the anoxic bottom waters. We have shown that the AAP abundance was significantly positively correlated with the water pH, and the highest proportion of photoheterotrophs was found in peat-bog lakes with a pH between 6.7 and 7.6. Our results demonstrated an influence of water acidity on the abundance of AAPs, which may reflect a fundamental difference in the microbial composition between acidic and pH neutral peat-bog lakes. PMID:27032635

  14. Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

  15. "Push-Pull" Factors Influencing International Student Destination Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzarol, Tim; Soutar, Geoffrey N.

    2002-01-01

    Examined factors motivating international student choice of host country. Found that economic and social factors within the home country serve to "push" students abroad, while a variety of "pull" factors influence selection of a host country. (EV)

  16. Factors That Influence Teacher Attrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    External, employment, and personal factors which influence teacher decisions to stay, leave, or transfer from teaching assignments are discussed, with emphasis on special education teachers. Factors attributed to teacher attrition in urban and rural environments also are briefly reviewed, along with attrition of related services professionals.…

  17. Emotional reactivity to incentive downshift as a correlated response to selection of high and low alcohol preferring mice and an influencing factor on ethanol intake.

    PubMed

    Matson, Liana M; Grahame, Nicholas J

    2015-11-01

    Losing a job or significant other are examples of incentive loss that result in negative emotional reactions. The occurrence of negative life events is associated with increased drinking (Keyes, Hatzenbuehler, & Hasin, 2011). Further, certain genotypes are more likely to drink alcohol in response to stressful negative life events (Blomeyer et al., 2008; Covault et al., 2007). Shared genetic factors may contribute to alcohol drinking and emotional reactivity, but this relationship is not currently well understood. We used an incentive downshift paradigm to address whether emotional reactivity is elevated in mice predisposed to drink alcohol. We also investigated if ethanol drinking is influenced in High Alcohol Preferring mice that had been exposed to an incentive downshift. Incentive downshift procedures have been widely utilized to model emotional reactivity, and involve shifting a high reward group to a low reward and comparing the shifted group to a consistently rewarded control group. Here, we show that replicate lines of selectively bred High Alcohol Preferring mice exhibited larger successive negative contrast effects than their corresponding replicate Low Alcohol Preferring lines, providing strong evidence for a genetic association between alcohol drinking and susceptibility to the emotional effects of negative contrast. These mice can be used to study the shared neurological and genetic underpinnings of emotional reactivity and alcohol preference. Unexpectedly, an incentive downshift suppressed ethanol drinking immediately following an incentive downshift. This could be due to a specific effect of negative contrast on ethanol consumption or a suppressive effect on consummatory behavior in general. These data suggest that either alcohol intake does not provide the anticipated negative reinforcement, or that a single test was insufficient for animals to learn to drink following incentive downshift. However, the emotional intensity following incentive

  18. Selective factors governing in vitro β-carotene bioaccessibility: negative influence of low filtration cutoffs and alterations by emulsifiers and food matrices.

    PubMed

    Corte-Real, Joana; Richling, Elke; Hoffmann, Lucien; Bohn, Torsten

    2014-12-01

    Because of their putative health benefits, the biological fate of carotenoids after digestion has been met with much interest, and ex vivo methods using carotenoid standards to study their digestion and further metabolism have been developed. In the absence of a complex food matrix, that is, when studying isolated carotenoids, protocol conditions of gastrointestinal digestion models have to be adjusted. In this investigation, we hypothesized that certain selected factors would significantly influence the bioaccessibility of β-carotene in vitro. The factors considered included (i) type of lipid matrix employed (milk, cream, or oil), (ii) presence/absence of emulsifiers (e.g. lecithin and taurocholate), (iii) addition of a gastric lipase, and (iv) final filtration (20 or 200 nm) of the digesta. Adding an emulsifier mixture (10 mg lecithin + 50 mg monoolein + 5 mg oleic acid) enhanced β-carotene bioaccessibility 3 times (P < 0.001), whereas additional taurocholate and the presence/absence of gastric lipase added before intestinal digestion had no significant effect. β-Carotene bioaccessibility was superior with oil than with milk (18.8% ± 0.7% and 6.1% ± 0.7%, respectively; P = 0.03), especially after filtration, thus suggesting incomplete micelle formation after addition of milk. Filtration through 20 nm filters reduced carotenoid concentration in the aqueous fraction (from 7.1% ± 0.2% to 5.5% ± 0.2% in samples digested with canola oil, P < 0.001), indicating that not all formed micelles compared in size with those normally formed in vivo. When studying carotenoid standards during in vitro digestion, care should be taken to separate mixed micelles by filtration, and the choice of emulsifier and matrix should be considered. PMID:25476193

  19. Factors influencing dental decision making.

    PubMed

    Grembowski, D; Milgrom, P; Fiset, L

    1988-01-01

    In clinical decision making, dentists routinely choose between alternative treatments such as crown vs amalgam/composite buildup, root canal vs extraction, fixed bridge vs removable partial denture, and prophylaxis vs subgingival curettage or periodontal scaling. A number of technical and patient factors can influence dentists' choice of treatment in these situations; however, little is known about their relative importance. To address this issue, a list of technical (e.g., periodontal status and caries rate) and patient (e.g., cost and patient preference) factors possibly influencing choice of treatment was developed for each pair of services. Responding to a mail questionnaire, 156 general dentists in Washington State listed the top three factors influencing their choice of service in each pair. Results revealed that dentists took different factors into account in choosing among alternative treatments. Technical factors dominated over patient concerns; only about 33 percent of the dentists considered patient factors important in choosing alternative therapies. The latter group was less preventively oriented, were solo practitioners, worked longer hours, and had lower prices. Results suggest patients may have little influence on prescriptions of therapy among experienced general dentists. PMID:3045303

  20. Factors Influencing College Science Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tai, Robert H.; Sadler, Philip M.; Mintzes, Joel J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors report some of the salient findings of a large-scale, four-year national study, conducted at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, entitled "Factors Influencing College Science Success" (FICSS), which surveyed college students who enrolled in first-year biology, chemistry, and physics courses throughout the…

  1. Soft Factors Influence College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence about the role that "soft factors" like student engagement and school environment play in influencing whether high school students go on to enroll in college is hard to come by. Over the past two years, the Center for Labor Market Studies (CLMS) of Northeastern University, with support from the Nellie Mae Education Foundation and the…

  2. Variables influencing victim selection in genocide.

    PubMed

    Komar, Debra A

    2008-01-01

    While victims of racially motivated violence may be identified through observation of morphological features, those targeted because of their ethnic, religious, or national identity are not easily recognized. This study examines how perpetrators of genocide recognize their victims. Court documents, including indictments, witness statements, and testimony from the International Criminal Tribunals for Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia (FY) detail the interactions between victim and assailant. A total of 6012 decedents were included in the study; only 20.8% had been positively identified. Variables influencing victim selection in Rwanda included location, segregation, incitement, and prior relationship, while significant factors in FY were segregation, location, age/gender, and social data. Additional contributing factors in both countries included self-identification, victim behavior, linguistic or clothing evidence, and morphological features. Understanding the system of recognition used by perpetrators aids investigators tasked with establishing victim identity in such prosecutions. PMID:18005010

  3. An Examination of Influences and Factors on the Institutional Selection Processes of Freshmen Student-Athletes at Small Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goss, Benjamin D.; Jubenville, Colby B.; Orejan, Jaime

    2006-01-01

    This study sought to identify institutional selection factors most influential upon small-college student-athletes. Mean scores for 229 freshman student-athletes from six institutions were analyzed using a modified Student-Athlete College Choice Profile Scale. The sample was also stratified by gender and sports-program categories. Overall, four of…

  4. Factors potentially influencing aminoglycoside use and expenditure

    SciTech Connect

    DiPiro, J.T.; Kilsdonk, G.F.; Amerson, A.B.; Record, K.E.

    1982-07-01

    Factors that may have influenced aminoglycoside use and expenditure in one hospital were examined. Factors that were evaluated as to their influence on aminoglycoside-use patterns were: (1) formulary status; (2) bacterial susceptibility patterns; (3) identified or perceived differences in toxicity; (4) changes in patient population; (5) price paid by the hospital for aminoglycosides; (6) distribution of newsletters or memoranda; (7) advertising and detailing; and (8) pharmacy policies. For FY 1976-77 to 1979-80, the largest proportion of aminoglycoside expense was for gentamicin. During FY 1980-81, the expenditure for gentamicin decreased and tobramycin accounted for the largest proportion of total expenditure. Monthly gentamicin use decreased 20% during FY 1980-81 from the previous year. Tobramycin use increased from January 1979 to November 1980 and decreased from December 1980 to June 1981. Kanamycin use and amikacin use were fairly constant during the study period. Based on temporal relationships, the following factors appeared to influence aminoglycoside use and expenditure: (1) a study conducted at the institution from June 1977 to June 1979 comparing gentamicin and tobramycin nephrotoxicity; (2) a comparative nephrotoxicity study published in a widely circulated medical journal in May 1980; and (3) an intramural newsletter and memorandum distributed in March 1981 encouraging selective aminoglycoside use. The identification of factors that potentially influenced aminoglycoside use can be used to anticipate the future impact of similar events and to devise strategies to influence antimicrobial use.

  5. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sam SX; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori; Abbiss, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing) within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon. PMID:25258562

  6. Factors influencing clinical trial site selection in Europe: the Survey of Attitudes towards Trial sites in Europe (the SAT-EU Study)

    PubMed Central

    Gehring, Marta; Taylor, Rod S; Mellody, Marie; Casteels, Brigitte; Piazzi, Angela; Gensini, Gianfranco; Ambrosio, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Applications to run clinical trials in Europe fell 25% between 2007 and 2011. Costs, speed of approvals and shortcomings of European Clinical Trial Directive are commonly invoked to explain this unsatisfactory performance. However, no hard evidence is available on the actual weight of these factors or has it been previously investigated whether other criteria may also impact clinical trial site selection. Design The Survey of Attitudes towards Trial sites in Europe (SAT-EU Study) was an anonymous, cross-sectional web-based survey that systematically assessed factors impacting European clinical trial site selection. It explored 19 factors across investigator-driven, hospital-driven and environment-driven criteria, and costs. It also surveyed perceptions of the European trial environment. Setting and participants Clinical research organisations (CROs), academic clinical trial units (CTUs) and industry invited to respond. Outcome measures Primary outcome: weight assigned to each factor hypothesised to impact trial site selection and trial incidence. Secondary outcome: desirability of European countries to run clinical trials. Results Responses were obtained from 485 professionals in 34 countries: 49% from BioPharma, 40% from CTUs or CROs. Investigator-dependent, environment-dependent and hospital-dependent factors were rated highly important, costs being less important (p<0.0001). Within environment-driven criteria, pool of eligible patients, speed of approvals and presence of disease-management networks were significantly more important than costs or government financial incentives (p<0.0001). The pattern of response was consistent across respondent groupings (CTU vs CRO vs industry). Considerable variability was demonstrated in the perceived receptivity of countries to undertake clinical trials, with Germany, the UK and the Netherlands rated the best trial markets (p<0.0001). Conclusions Investigator-dependent factors and ease of approval dominate trial

  7. Factors influencing healthcare service quality

    PubMed Central

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods: Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results: Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion: This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality. PMID:25114946

  8. Genetic selection for resistance to mycoplasmal pneumonia of swine (MPS) in the Landrace line influences the expression of soluble factors in blood after MPS vaccine sensitization.

    PubMed

    Shimazu, Tomoyuki; Borjigin, Liushiqi; Katayama, Yuki; Li, Meihua; Satoh, Takumi; Watanabe, Kouichi; Kitazawa, Haruki; Roh, Sang-gun; Aso, Hisashi; Kazuo, Katoh; Suda, Yoshihito; Sakuma, Akiko; Nakajo, Mituru; Suzuki, Keiichi

    2014-04-01

    We recently developed a Landrace line that is resistant to mycoplasmal pneumonia of swine (MPS) infection by genetic selection for five generations, and we reported that the immunophenotype of this line is different from that of the non-selected line in terms of changes in peripheral blood leukocyte population after MPS vaccination. This study followed up previous findings demonstrating changes in soluble factors in blood, namely, hormones, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), and cytokines. These two lines were injected with MPS vaccine on days -7 and 0 after blood sampling on those days, and blood samples were collected on days -14, -7, 0, 2, 7 and 14. We found changes in the levels of many hormones and cytokines in both lines. However, we found that only growth hormone (GH) and interferon (IFN)-γ levels were statistically different between these two lines. GH concentration was reduced (day 0) and IFN-γ concentration was increased (day 14) in the MPS-selected line compared with the non-selected line, despite unchanged IFN-γ messenger RNA expression in blood cells. Although detailed mechanisms underlying these phenotypes remain unsolved, these traits would be useful to improve MPS resistance in pig production and provide an insight into MPS infection. PMID:24329865

  9. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Quansah, Emmanuel; Ohene, Lilian Akorfa; Norman, Linda; Mireku, Michael Osei; Karikari, Thomas K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals’ target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal. Methods ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review. Results Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence), family income (wealth/poverty) and high dependency (multiparousity). These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices. Conclusions Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother’s health knowledge is emphasised. PMID:26745277

  10. Factors influencing permanent teeth eruption. Part one--general factors.

    PubMed

    Almonaitiene, Ruta; Balciuniene, Irena; Tutkuviene, Janina

    2010-01-01

    Variation in the normal eruption of teeth is a common finding, but significant deviation from established norms should alert the clinician to take some diagnostic procedures in order to evaluate patient health and development. Disturbance in tooth eruption time could be a symptom of general condition or indication of altered physiology and craniofacial development. The aim of this review is to analyze general factors that could influence permanent teeth eruption. The articles from 1965 to 2009 in English related to topic were identified. 84 articles were selected for data collection. Although permanent teeth eruption is under significant genetic control, various general factors such as gender, socioeconomic status, craniofacial morphology, body composition can influence this process. Most significant disturbance in teeth emergence is caused by systemic diseases and syndromes. PMID:21063135

  11. An Analysis of the Influence of Selected Genetic and Hormonal Factors on the Occurrence of Depressive Symptoms in Late-Reproductive-Age Women

    PubMed Central

    Jurczak, Anna; Szkup, Małgorzata; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Grzywacz, Anna; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Karakiewicz, Beata; Dołęgowska, Barbara; Grochans, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of genetic and hormonal factors on incidences of depressive symptoms in late-reproductive-age women. Methods: The study was performed using the Beck Depression Inventory, the PCR, and genetic tests of 347 healthy late-reproductive-age Polish women. Results: The relationship between the level of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and depressive symptoms was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Increases in age and FSH levels were accompanied by a decrease in AMH level in a significant way (p < 0.05). There were no statistically significant relationships between the distribution of genotypes and the frequency of alleles of the investigated polymorphisms and depressive symptoms according to the Beck Depression Inventory. Conclusions: (1) The presence of the s/s genotype of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the serotonin transporter promoter region and the 3/3 genotype of the 30-bp VNTR polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A promoter region does not contribute to the development of depressive symptoms in late-reproductive-age women. (2) A relationship between the level of anti-Müllerian hormone and depressive symptoms was not confirmed in the group of healthy late-reproductive-age women. (3) AMH level correlates negatively with FSH level and age, which confirms that AMH can be regarded as a factor reflecting the ovarian reserve. PMID:25826396

  12. Environmental factors influencing blackfly populations

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, G.

    1967-01-01

    Much more information is required on the distribution of blackflies in various parts of the world, and in many cases an adequate methodology for obtaining such information still has to be worked out. A detailed methodology for the collection of information about blackflies is given, which was developed for investigations mainly in the Holarctic regions but is basically applicable to other parts of the world. A brief survey of the population dynamics of various species of blackflies in various parts of the Holarctic regions is given, and the main factors influencing the population dynamics are discussed. Interspecific and intraspecific fluctuations in natural blackfly populations are attributed chiefly to abiotic environmental factors rather than to competition. Larval competition in a given microhabitat is mainly individual, though specimens belonging to a given species may have a slightly more favourable position than others. The use of parasites and in particular the replacement of one species by another are promising methods of blackfly control. Predators are not generally likely to prove useful for this purpose. PMID:5300046

  13. Factors influencing boar sperm cryosurvival.

    PubMed

    Roca, J; Hernández, M; Carvajal, G; Vázquez, J M; Martínez, E A

    2006-10-01

    Optimal sperm cryopreservation is a prerequisite for the sustainable commercial application of frozen-thawed boar semen for AI. Three experiments were performed to identify factors influencing variability of postthaw sperm survival among 464 boar ejaculates. Sperm-rich ejaculate fractions were cryopre-served using a standard freezing-thawing procedure for 0.5-mL plastic straws and computer-controlled freezing equipment. Postthaw sperm motility (assessed with a computer-assisted semen analysis system) and viability (simultaneously probed by flow cytometry analysis after triple-fluorescent stain), evaluated 30 and 150 min postthaw, were used to estimate the success of cryopreservation. In the first experiment, 168 unselected ejaculates (1 ejaculate/boar), from boars of 6 breeds with a wide age range (8 to 48 mo), were cryopreserved over a 12-mo period to evaluate the predictive value of boar (breed and age), semen collection, transport variables (season of ejaculate collection, interval between collections, and ejaculate temperature exposure), initial semen traits, and sperm quality before freezing on sperm survival after freezing-thawing. In Exp. 2, 4 ejaculates from each of 29 boars, preselected according to their initial semen traits and sperm quality before freezing, were collected and frozen over a 6-mo period to evaluate the influence of interboar and intraboar ejaculate variability in the survival of sperm after cryopreservation. In Exp. 3, 12 ejaculates preselected as for Exp. 2, from each of 15 boars with known good sperm cryosurvival, were collected and frozen over a 12-mo period to estimate the sustainability of sperm cryosurvival between ejaculates over time. Boar and semen collection and transport variables were not predictive of sperm cryosurvival among ejaculates. Initial semen traits and sperm quality variables observed before freezing explained 23.2 and 10.9%, respectively, of the variation in postthaw sperm motility and viability. However, more that

  14. [Endocrine factors influencing melanoma progression].

    PubMed

    Dobos, Judit

    2009-03-01

    According to recent findings that beside cancers traditionally considered as hormone-dependent, several other tumor types show different behavior in the two sexes, indicating the possible role of endocrine factors in the course of these diseases. The possibility that endocrine factors may influence the clinical course of human malignant melanoma is suggested by the higher survival rate in premenopausal vs. postmenopausal women or men of any ages. However, investigations on the sex hormone receptor status of human cutaneous melanomas and experiments attempting to support the epidemiological results yielded conflicting results. In our human melanoma cell lines we failed to detect steroid receptors at protein level, while quantitative PCR demonstrated that their mRNA expression level was orders of magnitude lower compared to the positive control cell lines. Sex hormones did not influence the in vitro features of the human melanoma cells considerably. On the other hand, glucocorticoid receptor was present both at mRNA and protein level, although dexamethasone was effective in vitro only at high doses. Our previous experiments showed that intrasplenic injection of human melanoma cells resulted in a significantly higher number of liver colonies in male than in female SCID mice. We now show that this difference evolves during the first day. After injection into the tail vein we did not observe gender-dependent difference in the efficiency of pulmonary colonization. Examining the pattern of metastasis formation after intracardiac injection, we have found differences between the two sexes in the incidence or number of colonies only in the case of the liver but not in other organs. We concluded that the observed phenomenon is specific to the liver; therefore we investigated the effects of 2-methoxyestradiol, an endogenous metabolite of estradiol produced mainly in the liver, with an estrogen receptor-independent antitumor activity. 2ME2 effectively inhibited melanoma cell

  15. [Influence of weather factors on suicidal hangings].

    PubMed

    Trepińska, Janina; Piotrowicz, Katarzyna; Bakowski, Rafał; Bolechała, Filip; Trela, Franciszek

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a certain biometeorological problem. The evaluation of influence of weather factors on frequency of suicidal cases by hanging in the area of Cracow City during 1991-2002 was examined. Rapid changes of air pressure, air temperature, hot, sweltering and sultry days, very frosty days, days with strong or foehn wind, days with thunderstorms, fog and haze were selected as unfavourable weather factors. They give an occasion for strong psychical stress. The results of detailed investigations are next: more frequency of cases of suicide during the advance of cold fronts, rapid decreases of air pressure during hot, sweltering and sultry days, days with thunderstorms and foehn winds in the Tatra Mountains. PMID:16521499

  16. Factors Influencing School Choice in a School District in Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, John J., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study is to examine the factors that influenced parents in a school district in Delaware when they selected a high school for their child. This study also sought to examine the sources of information that parents used. Also examined was the impact of socio-economic status in the high school selection process. A…

  17. Factors influencing global antiretroviral procurement prices

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral medicines (ARVs) are one of the most costly parts of HIV/AIDS treatment. Many countries are struggling to provide universal access to ARVs for all people living with HIV and AIDS. Although substantial price reductions of ARVs have occurred, especially between 2002 and 2008, achieving sustainable access for the next several decades remains a major challenge for most low- and middle-income countries. The objectives of the present study were twofold: first, to analyze global ARV prices between 2005 and 2008 and associated factors, particularly procurement methods and key donor policies on ARV procurement efficiency; second, to discuss the options of procurement processes and policies that should be considered when implementing or reforming access to ARV programs. Methods An ARV-medicines price-analysis was carried out using the Global Price Reporting Mechanism from the World Health Organization. For a selection of 12 ARVs, global median prices and price variation were calculated. Linear regression models for each ARV were used to identify factors that were associated with lower procurement prices. Logistic regression models were used to identify the characteristics of those countries which procure below the highest and lowest direct manufactured costs. Results Three key factors appear to have an influence on a country's ARV prices: (a) whether the product is generic or not; (b) the socioeconomic status of the country; (c) whether the country is a member of the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative. Factors which did not influence procurement below the highest direct manufactured costs were HIV prevalence, procurement volume, whether the country belongs to the least developed countries or a focus country of the United States President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief. Conclusion One of the principal mechanisms that can help to lower prices for ARV over the next several decades is increasing procurement efficiency. Benchmarking prices could be one useful

  18. Factors that Influence Participation in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vonderwell, Selma; Zachariah, Sajit

    2005-01-01

    This study explored what factors influenced learner participation in two sections of a graduate online course at a Midwestern university. Findings indicated that online learner participation and patterns of participation are influenced by the following factors: technology and interface characteristics, content area experience, student roles and…

  19. Factors influencing dust suppressant effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, C.R.; Eisele, T.C.; Chesney, D.J.; Kawatra, S.K.

    2008-11-15

    Water sprays are a common method used to reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions. Various factors such as wettability, surface area coverage, fine particle engulfment rates, interparticle adhesion forces, suppressant penetration and suppressant longevity have all been suggested as critical factors in achieving effective PM control. However, it has not been established which of these factors are the most important. Experimental work indicated that suppressant penetration is the most critical of these factors. The length of time after application that suppressants were effective was also improved by using hygroscopic reagents that retained moisture to prevent evaporation. Maximizing suppressant penetration and improving suppressant longevity led to an average 86% reduction in PM10 concentrations in laboratory dust tower tests.

  20. Genetic factors influencing alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Mayfield, R D; Harris, R A; Schuckit, M A

    2008-01-01

    Plentiful data from both animal and human studies support the importance of genetic influences in substance abuse and dependence (Bierut et al., 1998; Tsuang et al., 1998; Kendler et al., 2003). This review summarizes the evidence supporting such genetic influences, places them into perspective regarding animal and human studies, discusses the importance of both genes and environment, and highlights some specific genes of interest regarding the vulnerabilities for problems associated with alcohol use disorders. A long history of repetitive heavy use of alcohol exists across generations as well as the high prevalence of alcohol-related problems in Western societies. Moreover, the information offered here addresses the importance of more general issues regarding genetics and gene expression related to alcohol abuse and dependence. PMID:18362899

  1. Maternal Factors That Influence Children's Positive Behavior: Demonstration of a Structural Equation Analysis of Selected Data from the Berkeley Growth Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crano, William D.; Mendoza, Jorge L.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis using data drawn from Nancy Bayley's Berkeley Growth Study is performed for didactic purposes to illustrate the use of structural equation modeling on a child development data set. Alternatives to standard latent factor approaches are demonstrated for use in research situations in which the subject-to-variable ratio is less than…

  2. The Environmental Factors Influencing Attrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villella, Edward F.

    1986-01-01

    Offers an economics/business-management perspective on student attrition, focusing on the external macro-environment (including such factors as government funding of education, changing enrollment patterns, and the increased number of postsecondary institutions) and the internal micro-environment (exhibiting characteristics of intangibility,…

  3. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of a new model of arylpiperazines. Part 7: Study of the influence of lipophilic factors at the terminal amide fragment on 5-HT(1A) affinity/selectivity.

    PubMed

    López-Rodríguez, María L; Ayala, David; Viso, Alma; Benhamú, Bellinda; de La Pradilla, Roberto Fernández; Zarza, Fernando; Ramos, José A

    2004-03-15

    The influence of lipophilic factors at the amide fragment of a new series of (+/-)-7a-alkyl-2-[4-(4-arylpiperazin-1-yl)butyl]-1,3-dioxoperhydropyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazoles 2 and of (+/-)-7a-alkyl-2-[(4-arylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl]-1,3-dioxoperhydropyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazoles 3 has been studied. Variations of logP have been carried out by introducing different hydrocarbonated substituents (R(1)) at the position 7a of the bicyclohydantoin, namely the non-pharmacophoric part. All the new compounds exhibit high potency for the 5-HT(1A) receptor; however, affinities for the alpha(1) receptor are high for compounds 2a-l while compounds 3a-f are selective over this adrenergic receptor. On the other hand, differences in logP do not notably affect the K(i) values for the above receptors. PMID:15018929

  4. Factors influencing perceived angular velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Calderone, Jack B.

    1991-01-01

    Angular velocity perception is examined for rotations both in depth and in the image plane and the influence of several object properties on this motion parameter is explored. Two major object properties are considered, namely, texture density which determines the rate of edge transitions for rotations in depth, i.e., the number of texture elements that pass an object's boundary per unit of time, and object size which determines the tangential linear velocities and 2D image velocities of texture elements for a given angular velocity. Results of experiments show that edge-transition rate biased angular velocity estimates only when edges were highly salient. Element velocities had an impact on perceived angular velocity; this bias was associated with 2D image velocity rather than 3D tangential velocity. Despite these biases judgements were most strongly determined by the true angular velocity. Sensitivity to this higher order motion parameter appeared to be good for rotations both in depth (y-axis) and parallel to the line of sight (z-axis).

  5. Factors That Influence the Understanding of Good Mathematics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Kwan Eu

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the factors that influenced the understanding of good mathematics teaching. A mixed methodology was used investigate the beliefs of beginning secondary teachers on good mathematics teaching. The two research instruments used in this study were the survey questionnaire and an interview. Beginning teachers selected Immediate…

  6. What Factors Influence Wind Perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Tatiana

    Over the last decade, wind power has emerged as a possible source of energy and has attracted the attention of homeowners and policy makers worldwide. Many technological hurdles have been overcome in the last few years that make this technology feasible and economical. The United States has added more wind power than any other type of electric generation in 2012. Depending on the location, wind resources have shown to have the potential to offer 20% of the nation's electricity; a single, large wind turbine has the capacity to produce enough electricity to power 350 homes. Throughout the development of wind turbines, however, energy companies have seen significant public opposition towards the tall white structures. The purpose of this research was to measure peoples' perceptions on wind turbine development throughout their growth, from proposal to existing phase. Three hypotheses were developed based on the participant's political affiliation, proximity and knowledge of wind turbines. To validate these hypotheses, participants were asked an array of questions regarding their perception on economic, environmental, and social impacts of wind turbines with an online service called Amazon Mechanical Turk. The responses were from residents living in the United States and required them to provide their zip code for subsequent analysis. The analysis from the data obtained suggests that participants are favorable towards wind turbine development and would be supportive of using the technology in their community. Political affiliation and proximity to the nearest wind turbine in any phase of development (proposal, construction, existing) were also analyzed to determine if they had an effect on a person's overall perception on wind turbines and their technology. From the analysis, political affiliation was seen to be an indirect factor to understanding favorability towards wind turbines; the more liberal you are, the more supportive you will be towards renewable energy use

  7. Factors Influencing the Fatigue Strength of Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollenrath, F

    1941-01-01

    A number of factors are considered which influence the static and fatigue strength of materials under practical operating conditions as contrasted with the relations obtaining under conditions of the usual testing procedure. Such factors are interruptions in operation, periodically fluctuating stress limits and mean stresses with periodic succession of several groups and stress states, statistical changes and succession of stress limits and mean stresses, frictional corrosion at junctures, and notch effects.

  8. It Takes Three: Selection, Influence, and De-Selection Processes of Depression in Adolescent Friendship Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Kerr, Margaret; Branje, Susan J. T.; Stattin, Hakan; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors of this study tested a selection-influence-de-selection model of depression. This model explains friendship influence processes (i.e., friends' depressive symptoms increase adolescents' depressive symptoms) while controlling for two processes: friendship selection (i.e., selection of friends with similar levels of depressive symptoms)…

  9. Personality factors in selection and flight proficiency.

    PubMed

    Christy, R L

    1975-03-01

    Personality development is a dynamic process involving life forces, instinct drives, growth processes, life stresses, reactions to significant persons, both in and out of the family, and reactions to the environment in general, along with the mastery of methods and techniques for coping in solving problems and in providing for the satisfaction of one's needs. The love and fear of flying and the motivation and conflicts in flying involve many personality factors which deserve careful evaluation in selection of pilot and other flight personnel. These personality factors, variations, and traits also require close surveillance of pilot personnel by flight surgeons, aviation medical and operational personnel in predicting and preventing potential breakdown or difficulties and, more importantly, in the interest of maintaining optimum personnel effectiveness, proficiency, and safety in aviation. PMID:1115735

  10. Factors Influencing Employee Learning in Small Businesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coetzer, Alan; Perry, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify key factors influencing employee learning from the perspective of owners/managers. Design/methodology/research: Data were gathered from owners/managers in a total of 27 small manufacturing and services firms through interviews and analysed using content analytic procedures. Findings: The…

  11. Factors Influencing High School Students' Career Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Mei; Pan, Wei; Newmeyer, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the factors influencing high school students' career aspirations with a study analyzing 141 high school students. The Social Cognitive Career Development Model was utilized to examine the interactive relationships among learning experiences, career self-efficacy, outcome expectations, career interests, and career choices. The…

  12. Factors Influencing Learning at a Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marvin L.

    The Walberg Educational Productivity Model theorizes that learning in its affective, behavioral, and cognitive aspects is causally influenced by factors in the areas of individual aptitude (i.e., prior achievement, age or stage of maturation, and motivation), instructional treatment (i.e., quantity of time spent in learning situations and…

  13. Factors Influencing the Successful Introduction of Portfolios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Tartwijk, Jan; Driessen, Erik; Van Der Vleuten, Cees; Stokking, Karel

    2007-01-01

    Factors influencing the successful introduction of portfolios are described. A portfolio is a purposeful collection of all kinds of documents and other artefacts that together give an impression of how tasks were fulfilled and how competence has developed. A portfolio can also contain reflections and plans for future development. Although…

  14. Technology Education Graduate Education: Factors Influencing Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Phillip L.; Rogers, George E.

    A modified Delphi technique was used to identify the factors that positively influence technology education teachers' decision to enroll in graduate education programs and the barriers to their enrollment in advanced degree programs. Two pairs of Delphi panels were established. The doctoral panels consisted of 15 recent doctoral graduates and 30…

  15. Factors Influencing Teaching Choice in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilinc, Ahmet; Watt, Helen M. G.; Richardson, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Why choose to become a teacher in Turkey? The authors examined motivations and perceptions among preservice teachers (N = 1577) encompassing early childhood, primary and secondary education. The Factors Influencing Teaching Choice (FIT-Choice) instrument was translated into Turkish and its construct validity and reliability assessed. Altruistic…

  16. "I could cry, the amount of shoes I can't get into": A qualitative exploration of the factors that influence retail footwear selection in women with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies have reported that women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are not wearing NHS supplied therapeutic footwear; therefore it is likely they are wearing footwear sourced through retailers. Previous research gives limited information (largely associated with cosmesis) on people's perceptions on the relationships that exist between retail footwear, well-being and quality of life. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of women with RA regarding their choice of retail footwear and identify the factors influencing retail footwear selection. Methods Eleven women with RA wearing normal retail footwear were recruited from an out-patient podiatry clinic in the south east of England. Semi-structured interviews were carried out and an interpretative phenomenological approach was adopted for data collection and transcript analysis. Results Six key themes were revealed from the analysis: (1) the nature of foot complaints and deformities, (2) aesthetic appearance and design of footwear, (3) body image, (4) psychosocial aspects, (5) Perceptions of footwear and (6) the therapeutic value of retail shoes. These contributed to an overarching concept of loss of choice associated with retail footwear. In particular, the areas discussed most frequently throughout were themes (2), (3) and (4), which were notably more 'emotional' in nature. Conclusions Limitations in retail footwear for these women have impacted on their individuality, linking significantly with their body image. The loss of choice in footwear as a consequence of the disease impacts negatively on emotions, wellbeing and was identified in reduced self-perceived quality of life. PMID:21794134

  17. Factors that influence women's dispositions toward science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atria, Catherine Graczyk

    Females have been underrepresented in the study of science and science careers for decades although advancements have been made in closing this gender gap, the gap persists particularly in the physical sciences. Variables which influence a woman's desire to pursue and maintain a science course of study and career must be discovered. The United States lags behind other industrialized countries in the fields of science, math, and engineering. Females comprise an estimated half of the population; their potential contributions cannot be ignored or overlooked. This retrospective research study explores the personal experiences of ten women enrolled in science majors, with science related career plans. The goal of this study is to describe the factors that influence the participants' interest in science. The findings, the effect of science coursework, science teachers' personality and manner, other influential educational personnel, role models and mentors, external influences exclusive of school, parental influence, locus of control and positive attitudes toward science confirm what other researchers have found.

  18. Factors Influencing Seminar Learning and Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Spruijt, Annemarie; Leppink, Jimmie; Wolfhagen, Ineke; Bok, Harold; Mainhard, Tim; Scherpbier, Albert; van Beukelen, Peter; Jaarsma, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Many veterinary curricula use seminars, interactive educational group formats in which some 25 students discuss questions and issues relating to course themes. To get indications on how to optimize the seminar learning process for students, we aimed to investigate relationships between factors that seem to be important for the seminar learning process, and to determine how these seminar factors account for differences in students' achievement scores. A 57-item seminar evaluation (USEME) questionnaire was administered to students right after they attended a seminar. In total, 80 seminars distributed over years 1, 2, and 3 of an undergraduate veterinary medicine curriculum were sampled and 988 questionnaires were handed in. Principal factor analysis (PFA) was conducted on 410 questionnaires to examine which items could be grouped together as indicators of the same factor, and to determine correlations between the derived factors. Multilevel regression analysis was performed to explore the effects of these seminar factors and students' prior achievement scores on students' achievement scores. Within the questionnaire, four factors were identified that influence the seminar learning process: teacher performance, seminar content, student preparation, and opportunities for interaction within seminars. Strong correlations were found between teacher performance, seminar content, and group interaction. Prior achievement scores and, to a much lesser extent, the seminar factor group interaction appeared to account for differences in students' achievement scores. The factors resulting from the present study and their relation to the method of assessment should be examined further, for example, in an experimental setup. PMID:26075625

  19. Influence of organizational factors on safety

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, S.B.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. A Review of Factors Influencing Athletes' Food Choices.

    PubMed

    Birkenhead, Karen L; Slater, Gary

    2015-11-01

    Athletes make food choices on a daily basis that can affect both health and performance. A well planned nutrition strategy that includes the careful timing and selection of appropriate foods and fluids helps to maximize training adaptations and, thus, should be an integral part of the athlete's training programme. Factors that motivate food selection include taste, convenience, nutrition knowledge and beliefs. Food choice is also influenced by physiological, social, psychological and economic factors and varies both within and between individuals and populations. This review highlights the multidimensional nature of food choice and the depth of previous research investigating eating behaviours. Despite numerous studies with general populations, little exploration has been carried out with athletes, yet the energy demands of sport typically require individuals to make more frequent and/or appropriate food choices. While factors that are important to general populations also apply to athletes, it seems likely, given the competitive demands of sport, that performance would be an important factor influencing food choice. It is unclear if athletes place the same degree of importance on these factors or how food choice is influenced by involvement in sport. There is a clear need for further research exploring the food choice motives of athletes, preferably in conjunction with research investigating dietary intake to establish if intent translates into practice. PMID:26243016

  1. Political and economic factors influencing contraceptive uptake.

    PubMed

    Sai, F T

    1993-01-01

    International, national and local level politics influence the uptake of contraception through consensuses, laws, financial and moral support or the creation of an enabling atmosphere. Opposition to contraception generally comes from some churches and groups opposed to particular technologies. Socio-economic factors, particularly education, the health care system and the perceived or actual cost of fertility regulation as compared to benefits expected from children also powerfully influence contraceptive use. For many poor women in developing countries their powerlessness in relation to their male partners is an important obstacle. PMID:8324609

  2. Influencing factor on the prognosis of arthrocentesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoon Ho; Jeong, Tae Min; Pang, Kang Mi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this article is to evaluate factors influencing prognosis of arthrocentesis in patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder. Materials and Methods The subjects included 145 patients treated with arthrocentesis at the Dental Center of Ajou University Hospital from 2011 to 2013 for the purpose of recovering mouth opening limitation (MOL) and pain relief. Prognosis of arthrocentesis was evaluated 1 month after the operation. Improvement on MOL was defined as an increase from below 30 mm (MOL ≤30 mm) to above 40 mm (MOL ≥40 mm), and pain relief was defined as when a group with TMJ pain with a visual analog scale (VAS) score of 4 or more (VAS ≥4) decreased to a score of 3 or more. The success of arthrocentesis was determined when either mouth opening improved or pain relief was fulfilled. To determine the factors influencing the success of arthrocentesis, the patients were classified by age, gender, diagnosis group (the anterior disc displacement without reduction group, the anterior disc displacement with reduction group, or other TMJ disorders group), time of onset and oral habits (clenching, bruxism) to investigate the correlations between these factors and prognosis. Results One hundred twenty out of 145 patients who underwent arthrocentesis (83.4%) were found to be successful. Among the influencing factors mentioned above, age, diagnosis and time of onset had no statistically significant correlation with the success of arthrocentesis. However, a group of patients in their fifties showed a lower success rate (ANOVA P=0.053) and the success rate of the group with oral habits was 71% (Pearson's chi-square test P=0.035). Conclusion From this study, we find that factors influencing the success of arthrocentesis include age and oral habits. We also conclude that arthrocentesis is effective in treating mouth opening symptoms and for pain relief. PMID:25247144

  3. Factors Influencing Renewable Energy Production & Supply - A Global Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Anika; Saqlawi, Juman Al

    2016-04-01

    Renewable energy is one of the key technologies through which the energy needs of the future can be met in a sustainable and carbon-neutral manner. Increasing the share of renewable energy in the total energy mix of each country is therefore a critical need. While different countries have approached this in different ways, there are some common aspects which influence the pace and effectiveness of renewable energy incorporation. This presentation looks at data and information from 34 selected countries, analyses the patterns, compares the different parameters and identifies the common factors which positively influence renewable energy incorporation. The most successful countries are analysed for their renewable energy performance against their GDP, policy/regulatory initiatives in the field of renewables, landmass, climatic conditions and population to identify the most influencing factors to bring about positive change in renewable energy share.

  4. Perceptual Load Influences Selective Attention across Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couperus, Jane W.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that visual selective attention develops across childhood. However, there is relatively little understanding of the neurological changes that accompany this development, particularly in the context of adult theories of selective attention, such as N. Lavie's (1995) perceptual load theory of attention. This study examined visual…

  5. Natural selection on floral morphology can be influenced by climate

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Diane R.; Powers, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Climate has the potential to influence evolution, but how it influences the strength or direction of natural selection is largely unknown. We quantified the strength of selection on four floral traits of the subalpine herb Ipomopsis sp. in 10 years that differed in precipitation, causing extreme temporal variation in the date of snowmelt in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. The chosen floral traits were under selection by hummingbird and hawkmoth pollinators, with hawkmoth abundance highly variable across years. Selection for flower length showed environmental sensitivity, with stronger selection in years with later snowmelt, as higher water resources can allow translation of pollination success into fitness based on seed production. Selection on corolla width also varied across years, favouring narrower corolla tubes in two unusual years with hawkmoths, and wider corollas in another late snowmelt year. Our results illustrate how changes in climate could alter natural selection even when the primary selective agent is not directly influenced. PMID:25972465

  6. Natural selection on floral morphology can be influenced by climate.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Diane R; Powers, John M

    2015-06-01

    Climate has the potential to influence evolution, but how it influences the strength or direction of natural selection is largely unknown. We quantified the strength of selection on four floral traits of the subalpine herb Ipomopsis sp. in 10 years that differed in precipitation, causing extreme temporal variation in the date of snowmelt in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. The chosen floral traits were under selection by hummingbird and hawkmoth pollinators, with hawkmoth abundance highly variable across years. Selection for flower length showed environmental sensitivity, with stronger selection in years with later snowmelt, as higher water resources can allow translation of pollination success into fitness based on seed production. Selection on corolla width also varied across years, favouring narrower corolla tubes in two unusual years with hawkmoths, and wider corollas in another late snowmelt year. Our results illustrate how changes in climate could alter natural selection even when the primary selective agent is not directly influenced. PMID:25972465

  7. Factors influencing union formation in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Bocquier, Philippe; Khasakhala, Anne

    2009-07-01

    Using retrospective data from the Urban Integration Survey conducted in 2001 in Nairobi, Kenya, on a sample of 955 women and men aged 25-54, this paper compares factors influencing entry into union formation for men and women. The analysis uses event history methods, specifically Cox Proportional Hazards regression, stratified by age cohort and run separately by sex. The results indicate that delay in union formation is more pronounced for women than for men. Cohabitation without formal marriage is the prominent form of union, especially among the younger generation, and appears to have increased. For men, the timing of union is more dependent upon human capital acquisition than on cultural factors. These findings show that the marriage search model, which was first applied in Western countries, can also hold in cities of developing countries. Nonetheless, neither the search model nor the integration or the independence models apply to women's union formation, which very few exogenous factors can explain. PMID:19250585

  8. Factors influencing internal color of cooked meats.

    PubMed

    Suman, Surendranath P; Nair, Mahesh N; Joseph, Poulson; Hunt, Melvin C

    2016-10-01

    This manuscript overviews the pertinent research on internal color of uncured cooked meats, biochemical processes involved in meat cookery, and fundamental mechanisms governing myoglobin thermal stability. Heat-induced denaturation of myoglobin, responsible for the characteristic dull-brown color of cooked meats, is influenced by a multitude of endogenous (i.e., pH, muscle source, species, redox state) and exogenous (i.e., packaging, ingredients, storage) factors. The interactions between these factors critically influence the internal cooked color and can confuse the consumers, who often perceive cooked color to be a reliable indicator for doneness and safety. While certain phenomena in cooked meat color are cosmetic in nature, others can mislead consumers and result in foodborne illnesses. Research in meat color suggests that processing technologies and cooking practices in industry as well as households influence the internal cooked color. Additionally, the guidelines of many international public health and regulatory authorities recommend using meat thermometers to determine safe cooking endpoint temperature and to ensure product safety. PMID:27131513

  9. Onset rivalry: factors that succeed and fail to bias selection.

    PubMed

    Attarha, Mouna; Moore, Cathleen M

    2015-02-01

    This project examined whether previous visual history can bias perceptual dominance during onset rivalry. A predictive sequence of non-rivalrous stimuli preceded dichoptically presented rivalrous displays. One of the dichoptic images was the implied next step of the preceding sequence while the other was not. Observers reported their initial dominant percept. Across five experiments, we found that motion sequences biased perceptual selection such that a rivalrous stimulus that continued a motion sequence tended to dominate one that did not. However, signals generated by complex pattern of motion information or verbal-semantic information had no influence on selection. These results are consistent with the view that onset rivalry is an early phase of rivalry that is likely insensitive to modulation by factors originating beyond the visual system. PMID:25384763

  10. Factors influencing variation in dentist service rates.

    PubMed

    Grembowski, D; Milgrom, P; Fiset, L

    1990-01-01

    In the previous article, we calculated dentist service rates for 200 general dentists based on a homogeneous, well-educated, upper-middle-class population of patients. Wide variations in the rates were detected. In this analysis, factors influencing variation in the rates were identified. Variation in rates for categories of dental services was explained by practice characteristics, patient exposure to fluoridated water supplies, and non-price competition in the dental market. Rates were greatest in large, busy practices in markets with high fees. Older practices consistently had lower rates across services. As a whole, these variables explained between 5 and 30 percent of the variation in the rates. PMID:2118182

  11. Factors influencing aircraft ground handling performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft ground handling operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and aircraft wet runway accident investigation are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  12. Critical incidents influencing students' selection of elective science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essary, Danny Ray

    Purpose of the study. The purpose of the study was to investigate the critical incidents that determined high school students' self selection into and out of elective science classes. The Critical Incident Technique was used to gather data. Procedure. Subjects for study were 436 students attending five high schools within the geographical boundaries of a Northeast Texas County. Each student was enrolled in a senior level government/economics course during the spring semester of 1997. Students enrolled and in attendance during data collection procedures were subjects of the study. The subjects recorded 712 usable critical incidents. Incidents were categorized by examiners and a total of eleven incident categories emerged for analysis purposes. Incident frequencies were categorized by sample population, selectors, and nonselectors; subdivided by gender. Findings. The following categories emerged for study; (A) Mentored, (B) Requirements, (C) Personal Interest(s), (D) Level of Difficulty, (E) Time Restraints, (F) Future Concerns, (G) Grades, (H) Teacher, (I) Peer Influence, (J) Challenge, (K) Other Academic Experiences. Data were analyzed qualitatively to answer research questions and quantitatively to test hypotheses. There was an emergence of ten incident categories for nonselectors and an emergence of eleven incident categories for selectors. Of the twelve hypotheses, four failed to be rejected and eight were rejected. Conclusions. Nonselectors and selectors of elective science were influenced by various external factors. Requirements were influential for nonselectors. Nonselectors chose to select the minimum number of science classes necessary for graduation. Selectors were influenced by curriculum requirements, future concerns and mentors. Special programs that required extra science classes were influential in students' decisions to enroll in elective science. Gender differences were not influential for selectors or nonselectors of elective science.

  13. Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma - factors influencing outcome and disease-free survival

    PubMed Central

    Fahrner, René; Dondorf, Felix; Ardelt, Michael; Dittmar, Yves; Settmacher, Utz; Rauchfuß, Falk

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Liver transplantation can be a curative treatment in selected patients. However, there are several factors that influence disease-free survival after transplantation. This review addresses the pre-, intra- and postoperative factors that influence the risk of tumor recurrence after liver transplantation. PMID:26576092

  14. Factors that Influence Policy Decisions in Literacy: Perspectives of Key Policy Informants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mraz, Maryann E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perspectives of key policy informants on the factors that they believed influence policy decisions in literacy education. Participants were selected because they had significantly influenced, or had attempted to influence, policy decisions in literacy at either the national or state level.…

  15. Factors influencing breast changes after pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rauh, Claudia; Faschingbauer, Florian; Haeberle, Lothar; Jud, Sebastian M; Heusinger, Katharina; Fasching, Peter A; Goecke, Tamme W; Rajakaruna, Nadeeka; Voigt, Franziska; Bani, Mayada R; Lux, Michael P; Renner, Stefan P; Loehberg, Christian R; Hartmann, Arndt; Schulz-Wendtland, Ruediger; Beckmann, Matthias W; Bayer, Christian M

    2013-05-01

    Pregnancy and breastfeeding are major factors reducing breast cancer (BC) risk. A potential mechanism for this effect might be changes in mammographic density, but other factors might be involved. The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing changes in breast size and breast stiffness after pregnancy. Of a consecutive cohort of 5991 women who gave birth between 1996 and 1999, 559 replied to a questionnaire including questions about breast changes. The women completed their own assessments of changes in breast size and stiffness since their last pregnancy. Factors being investigated regarding their predictive value for these changes were: BMI before pregnancy, weight gain, age at first full-term pregnancy (FFTP), number of pregnancies, breastfeeding, and BMI of the children's fathers. A decrease in breast size was reported in 21.8% of the participants and an increase in 35.1%. With regard to the breast stiffness, 66.4% reported a decrease and only 5% reported an increase. Independent predictors for increased breast size were age at FFTP, increase in BMI since last pregnancy, BMI before pregnancy, and time since FFTP. Factors predictive of greater breast stiffness included age at FFTP, BMI before FFTP, time since FFTP, breastfeeding status, and number of pregnancies. Breast changes after pregnancy depend on several variables, which are described as BC-risk factors. Individual reaction of the female breast to a pregnancy leads to different outcomes with regard to breast size and stiffness. Further studies are needed to clarify whether these individual responses interact with the effect of pregnancy on the BC risk. PMID:23022745

  16. Factors that influence engagement in collaborative practice

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Carol P.; Bainbridge, Lesley; Bickford, Julia; Baptiste, Susan; Brajtman, Susan; Dryden, Trish; Hall, Pippa; Risdon, Cathy; Solomon, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To generate hypotheses regarding factors that might influence engagement in collaborative practice. DESIGN Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. SETTING Participants interviewed each other in dyads. The pairing was based upon geographical location and proximity to each other. PARTICIPANTS Eight professionals from the disciplines of medicine, nursing, occupational therapy, physical therapy, and massage therapy. METHOD Semistructured interviews, lasting 30 to 45 minutes each, were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were read by all research team members using independent content analysis for common words, phrases, statements, or units of text for key themes. At a subsequent face-to-face meeting, the team used an iterative process of comparing and contrasting key themes until consensus was reached. The transcripts were then analyzed further for subthemes using NVivo software. MAIN FINDINGS Initial findings suggest that some common characteristics grounded in family history, school experiences, social interactions, and professional training might influence collaborative practice choices. The narrative form of the interview broke down interpersonal and interprofessional barriers, creating a new level of trust and respect that could improve professional collaboration. CONCLUSION This study suggests that life experiences from childhood into later adulthood can and do influence professional choices. PMID:17872847

  17. 36 CFR 51.17 - What are the selection factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the selection factors? 51.17 Section 51.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONCESSION CONTRACTS Solicitation, Selection and Award Procedures § 51.17 What are the selection factors? (a) The five principal...

  18. Factors influencing BMI classifications of Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ae Kyung; Choi, Jin Yi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to identify factors influencing the BMI classifications of 3,583 Korean adults using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. [Subjects and Methods] Measures included lifestyle factors, physiologic factors, perceived health state, stress, subjective body recognition, health-related quality of life, and weight control behavior. [Results] Body perception scores were lower with underweight and higher with overweight and obesity than with a healthy weight. There was a lower proportion of underweight men and a higher proportion of overweight or obese men than women. Instances of Alcohol Use Identification Scores (AUDIT) ≥ 9 were proportionately lower with underweight and more with overweight or obesity relative to an AUDIT score < 9 with healthy weight. Hemoglobin A1c and systolic blood pressure were higher with obesity than with healthy weight. The total cholesterol level was greater with overweight and obesity than with healthy weight. [Conclusion] These results suggest that obesity intervention for adults should be based on age and sex and should include drinking habits and physical activity. PMID:26157264

  19. Factors influencing the uptake of orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, K; McComb, J L; Fox, N; Wright, J

    1996-11-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the factors that influenced the uptake of orthodontic treatment for patients who were referred for orthodontic treatment to two types of orthodontic treatment provider; a fee per item and hospital service. The following data were collected: (i) basic demographic data; (ii) the need for orthodontic treatment as measured by IOTN; and (iii) the outcome of the consultation. The data analysis with logistic regression revealed that the following variables had a predictive effect on the uptake of treatment: (i) the need for orthodontic treatment; and (ii) the patient's gender. Most of the patients that were referred and accepted for treatment had a definite need for orthodontic treatment. PMID:8985570

  20. Factors influencing human leukocyte adherence in vitro.

    PubMed

    Stepniewicz, W; Tchórzewski, H; Luciak, M

    1983-01-01

    Studies were performed on factors influencing leucocyte adherence in vitro. Blood condensation was found to increase leukocyte adherence. Addition of heparin, dextran or ethanol caused a significant reduction of white blood cell count in blood samples in comparison with blood mixed with sodium EDTA or ACD solution. This suggests the existence of two granulocyte subpopulations; viz, rapidly adhering and slowly adhering. Heparin enhanced granulocyte adherence, while dextran and ethanol decreased it. Five-day storage of ACD blood led to a decrease in granulocyte adherence, while addition of heparin or histamine to ACD blood prevented this change to occur. The glucose concentration of 1,000 mg/dl augmented granulocyte adherence, while higher glucose concentrations induced its progressive fall below the control values. There was no significant change of lymphocyte adherence during the experiments. PMID:6194070

  1. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Petrovici, Dan A; Ritson, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet) regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB) and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels) is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly sources and risks associated

  2. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called “brite” or “beige” adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:26903879

  3. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called "brite" or "beige" adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:26903879

  4. Factors Influencing Early Dental Implant Failures.

    PubMed

    Chrcanovic, B R; Kisch, J; Albrektsson, T; Wennerberg, A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the influence of local and systemic factors on the occurrence of dental implant failures up to the second-stage surgery (abutment connection). This retrospective study is based on 2,670 patients who received 10,096 implants and were consecutively treated with implant-supported prostheses between 1980 and 2014 at 1 specialist clinic. Several anatomic-, patient-, health-, and implant-related factors were collected. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the patients and implants. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used at the patient level as well as the implant level to evaluate the effect of explanatory variables on the failure of implants up to abutment connection. A generalized estimating equation method was used for the implant-level analysis to account for the fact that repeated observations (several implants) were available for a single patient. Overall, 642 implants (6.36%) failed, of which 176 (1.74%) in 139 patients were lost up to second-stage surgery. The distribution of implants in sites of different bone quantities and qualities was quite similar between implants lost up to and after abutment connection. Smoking and the intake of antidepressants were the statistically significant predictors in the multivariate model (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02369562). PMID:27146701

  5. Depression Following Hysterectomy and the Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bahri, Narjes; Tohidinik, Hamid Reza; Fathi Najafi, Tahereh; Larki, Mona; Amini, Thoraya; Askari Sartavosi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background Hysterectomy is one of the most common gynecological surgeries performed worldwide. However, women undergoing this surgery often experience negative emotional reactions. Objectives This study was done with the aim of investigating the relationship between hysterectomy and postoperative depression, three months after the procedure. Materials and Methods This longitudinal study was conducted in the province of Khorasan-Razavi in Iran, using multistage sampling. At first, three cities were selected from the province by cluster sampling; then, five hospitals were randomly selected from these cities. The participants included 53 women who were hysterectomy candidates in one of the five selected hospitals. The participants’ demographics and hysterectomy procedure information were entered into two separate questionnaires, and the Beck depression inventory (BDI) was employed to measure their severity of depression before and three months after the surgery. The statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 16 was used for the statistical analysis, and a P value of < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The means and standard deviations of the participants’ depression scores before and three months after their hysterectomies were 13.01 ± 10.1 and 11.02 ± 10.3, respectively. Although the mean score of depression decreased three months after the hysterectomy, the difference was not statistically significant. However, a significant relationship was found between the satisfaction with the outcome of the hysterectomy and the postoperative depression score (P = 0.04). Conclusions In this study, undergoing a hysterectomy did not show a relationship with postoperative depression three months after the surgery. Moreover, the only factor related to depression following a hysterectomy was satisfaction with the surgery. PMID:27066267

  6. Factors Affecting the Vocational Choice of Women of Different Ages Selecting Clerical and Secretarial Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willmarth, John Gary

    An attempt was made to examine the factors affecting women of different ages in their selection of clerical and secretarial occupations. The factors considered were: health, intelligence, interests, previous work experience, stated reasons for present occupational choice, knowledge of employment opportunities and job requirements, influence of…

  7. DEVELOPMENT AND SELECTION OF AMMONIA EMISSION FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report compiles recent literature on ammonia (NH') emission factors for application in the United States. ost of the recent research supports acid deposition studies in the European community (specifically, the Netherlands, Great Britain, and Scandinavia) but some research h...

  8. Mechanisms and Factors that Influence High Frequency Retroviral Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Delviks-Frankenberry, Krista; Galli, Andrea; Nikolaitchik, Olga; Mens, Helene; Pathak, Vinay K.; Hu, Wei-Shau

    2011-01-01

    With constantly changing environmental selection pressures, retroviruses rely upon recombination to reassort polymorphisms in their genomes and increase genetic diversity, which improves the chances for the survival of their population. Recombination occurs during DNA synthesis, whereby reverse transcriptase undergoes template switching events between the two copackaged RNAs, resulting in a viral recombinant with portions of the genetic information from each parental RNA. This review summarizes our current understanding of the factors and mechanisms influencing retroviral recombination, fidelity of the recombination process, and evaluates the subsequent viral diversity and fitness of the progeny recombinant. Specifically, the high mutation rates and high recombination frequencies of HIV-1 will be analyzed for their roles in influencing HIV-1 global diversity, as well as HIV-1 diagnosis, drug treatment, and vaccine development. PMID:21994801

  9. Factors in Selecting Residence Hall Fellows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullozzi, Anthony, Jr.; Spees, Emil R.

    1971-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which empathy, self actualization, and leadership in group discussion situations would predict the criterion of who would be hired as resident fellows (RF). Since leaderless group discussion did differentiate with some degree of "accuracy" it promises to be an excellent future device for use with RF selection.…

  10. Factors influencing birth control habits in Victoria.

    PubMed

    Selwood, T; Leeton, J

    1981-02-01

    A survey was conducted in March 1978 for the purpose of comparing the contraceptive habits of Melbourne and ex-Melbourne populations in Victoria. Of the 1312 records of sexually active persons collected in 1978, 1254 of those persons were between the ages of 15 and 49. Recorded information included age, sex, marital status, and place of domicile (Melbourne or ex-Melbourne, Victoria). When the Melbourne population was compared with the rest of Victoria, the proportion using each method of contraception was much the same for each group. A marked difference was the proportion using withdrawal in Melbourne; this was over 3 times the proportion among the ex-Melbourne population. Over 35% of persons under age 30 used oral contraceptives (OCs), compared with 24.2 in the over 30 age range. Barrier methods and natural family planning methods and withdrawal were commonly used by the older age groups. A large proportion of the over age 30 group used sterilization and hysterectomy as forms of birth control. Individuals in "de facto" relationships showed a tendency towards more reliable forms of contraception than did other groups. Only 20.3% were not using some form of contraception. Single persons were frequent OC users and users of barrier methods. 28.1% used no form of contraception. The sex of the person interviewed in the survey revealed a bias. Males tended to report male birth control methods and female reported female methods rather than those used by partners of the opposite sex. Marital status influenced birth control choice. The choice of birth control for each marital status was influenced by the confounding factor of mean age of each group. PMID:7247847

  11. Social Influence and Selection Processes as Predictors of Normative Perceptions and Alcohol Use across the Transition to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abar, Caitlin C.; Maggs, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that social influences impact college students' alcohol consumption; however, how selection processes may serve as an influential factor predicting alcohol use in this population has not been widely addressed. A model of influence and selection processes contributing to alcohol use across the transition to college was examined…

  12. Selection of student-selected component [SSCs] modules across the medical undergraduate curriculum: relationship with motivational factors.

    PubMed

    O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P; Duggan, Eileen; Khashan, Ali S; Boylan, Geraldine B; O'Flynn, Siún

    2012-01-01

    Student-selected components (SSCs) encourage the following within the undergraduate medical curriculum: greater exploration of core curriculum topics; exploration of non-core subjects/experiences; research and self-directed learning; and personal and professional development opportunities. This study examined the motivational factors which influence SSC choice to assess (a) SSC selection patterns across each year of the curriculum (direct and graduate entry) and (b) motivation underlying SSC selection across the curriculum. During SSC registration at University College Cork, all medical undergraduates (years 1-3, graduate-entry medicine) were required to select an SSC and provide a written justification for their selection. Five primary motivational factors were identified: correction of perceived deficits; genuine interest in subject and wish to study in more depth; career strategy; exam strategy; and taking a chance. A complex pattern of relationships emerged in relation to matching of motivational factors with SSC categories, e.g. selection of research skills SSCs was strongly associated with the 'career strategy' motivation. Significant differences were observed across curriculum years, as well as between direct-entry versus graduate-entry undergraduates, with respect to SSC selections and underlying motivation. This study provides insight into changing patterns of SSC selection in medicine, as well as accompanying motivational factors, across the undergraduate years. PMID:23043517

  13. Popularity and adolescent friendship networks: selection and influence dynamics.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Borch, Casey

    2013-07-01

    This study examined the dynamics of popularity in adolescent friendship networks across 3 years in middle school. Longitudinal social network modeling was used to identify selection and influence in the similarity of popularity among friends. It was argued that lower status adolescents strive to enhance their status through befriending higher status adolescents, whereas higher status adolescents strive to maintain their status by keeping lower status adolescents at a distance. The results largely supported these expectations. Selection partially accounted for similarity in popularity among friends; adolescents preferred to affiliate with similar-status or higher status peers, reinforcing the attractiveness of popular adolescents and explaining stability of popularity at the individual level. Influence processes also accounted for similarity in popularity over time, showing that peers increase in popularity and become more similar to their friends. The results showed how selection and influence processes account for popularity dynamics in adolescent networks over time. PMID:22985296

  14. Peer Influence and Selection Processes in Adolescent Smoking Behavior: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescent smoking studies find evidence of active peer influence and selection processes. However, studies have shown that these processes operate differently depending on context. This study uses SIENA to model coevolutionary processes between smoking and changes in friendship ties, comparing two high schools in which data were collected in identical fashion to explore influence and selection mechanisms with respect to current smoking, and smoking levels. Methods: This is a longitudinal survey with 2 waves of data. In-home surveys were conducted with students from 2 large high schools in the United States: a West Coast school, and a Midwestern school. Participants were consented students in 10th and 11th grades at the first wave of data collection. The primary measures were self-reported smoking behavior and friendship nominations. Results: There is evidence of influence and selection in both schools for adolescents’ smoking status (1 = any smoking) and for level of smoking. Conclusions: These models reflect great similarities in influence and selection processes across schools for different smoking behaviors. However, smoking prevalence may impact the exact mechanisms by which influence and selection operate. Researchers should consider smoking interventions with independent modules addressing different selection and influence processes, implemented based on contextual factors such as the prevalence of smoking. PMID:22944605

  15. What Factors Influence a Teacher's Commitment to Student Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dannetta, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    Study of the personal, organizational, student-related factors influencing teacher commitment to student learning. Finds, for example, that among personal factors intrinsic rewards are more important than extrinsic rewards, that among organization factors collegiality is an important influence on commitment to student learning, and that among…

  16. Perspectives of Elementary General Music Teachers on Factors Influencing Student Participation in Secondary Music Ensembles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Gabrielle; Mizener, Charlotte P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to consider characteristics of elementary general music teachers and their views of factors influencing students to take part in secondary music programs, including their own influence and characteristics of their music programs. The following research questions concerning selected characteristics of elementary…

  17. Factors influencing riverine fish assemblages in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, David S.; Richards, Todd A.; Levin, Sara B.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, and the Massachusetts Department of Fish and Game, conducted an investigation of fish assemblages in small- to medium-sized Massachusetts streams. The objective of this study was to determine relations between fish-assemblage characteristics and anthropogenic factors, including impervious cover and estimated flow alteration, relative to the effects of environmental factors, including physical-basin characteristics and land use. The results of this investigation supersede those of a preliminary analysis published in 2010. Fish data were obtained for 669 fish-sampling sites from the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife fish-community database. A review of the literature was used to select fish metrics - species richness, abundance of individual species, and abundances of species grouped on life history traits - responsive to flow alteration. The contributing areas to the fish-sampling sites were delineated and used with a geographic information system to determine a set of environmental and anthropogenic factors that were tested for use as explanatory variables in regression models. Reported and estimated withdrawals and return flows were used together with simulated unaltered streamflows to estimate altered streamflows and indicators of flow alteration for each fish-sampling site. Altered streamflows and indicators of flow alteration were calculated on the basis of methods developed in a previous U.S. Geological Survey study in which unaltered daily streamflows were simulated for a 44-year period (water years 1961-2004), and streamflow alterations were estimated by use of water-withdrawal and wastewater-return data previously reported to the State for the 2000-04 period and estimated domestic-well withdrawals and septic-system discharges. A variable selection process, conducted using principal

  18. An Assessment of Students' Perceptions toward Factors Influencing Supervised Agricultural Experience Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lauren J.; Rayfield, John; Moore, Lori L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate student perceptions toward factors influencing Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) participation. This descriptive study was conducted in 120 randomly selected agricultural education programs throughout four purposively selected states representative of the National FFA regions. Within each state…

  19. The Hull Method for Selecting the Number of Common Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Kiers, Henk A. L.

    2011-01-01

    A common problem in exploratory factor analysis is how many factors need to be extracted from a particular data set. We propose a new method for selecting the number of major common factors: the Hull method, which aims to find a model with an optimal balance between model fit and number of parameters. We examine the performance of the method in an…

  20. Choosing the Optimal Number of Factors in Exploratory Factor Analysis: A Model Selection Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preacher, Kristopher J.; Zhang, Guangjian; Kim, Cheongtag; Mels, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    A central problem in the application of exploratory factor analysis is deciding how many factors to retain ("m"). Although this is inherently a model selection problem, a model selection perspective is rarely adopted for this task. We suggest that Cudeck and Henly's (1991) framework can be applied to guide the selection process. Researchers must…

  1. Factors influencing informal care-giving.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Ann M.; Deb, Partha

    1998-07-01

    BACKGROUND: As downsizing of institutional care continues, patients discharged are likely to have more severe mental illnesses, and to have experienced longer tenures within institutions than patients who have been discharged in the past. As greater numbers of patients are removed from mental hospitals, the objective burden experienced by informal care-givers may increase, particularly if formal care levels are inadequate. AIMS OF THE STUDY: This paper documents who assumes informal care-giver roles, and the form such care-giving takes for patients discharged from a state hospital. Specifically, this paper identifies (i) what factors affect a person's decision to assume a care-giver role, including the participation of other network members in care-giving, (ii) what factors influence whether care-giving is provided in time or in direct purchase of care and (iii) how the patient's treatment location affects the decision of the network member to assume any care-giving role. DATA AND ANALYTICAL METHODS: Data for this paper are taken from a longitudinal study of the closure of a state mental hospital in central Indiana. Seventy-seven patients were asked to identify their community networks. Ninety-eight network members were surveyed about the informal care, both in time or through direct expenditures, they provided to these patients one year after discharge. Care-giving relationships were estimated using a multivariate probit model. Such a model estimates the extent to which the decision to provide care in either form depends on the care-giving activities assumed by other network members associated with a given patient, as well as the characteristics of individual patients and network members. RESULTS: Forty-one per cent of network members provided some level of informal care, with 13.3% providing some care in time, and 35.7% providing some care through direct expenditures. A positive relationship was found between participation in informal care-giving and the

  2. Influence of selected physicochemical parameters on microbiological activity of mucks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Całka, A.; Sokołowska, Z.; Warchulska, P.; Dąbek-Szreniawska, M.

    2009-04-01

    One of the basic factor decided about soil fertility are microorganisms that together with flora, determine trend and character of biochemical processes as well totality of fundamental transformations connected with biogeochemistry and physicochemical properties of soil. Determination of general bacteria number, quantity of selected groups of microorganisms and investigation of respiration intensity let estimate microbiological activity of soil. Intensity of microbiological processes is directly connected with physicochemical soil parameters. In that case, such structural parameters as bulk density, porosity, surface or carbon content play significant role. Microbiological activity also changes within the bounds of mucks with different stage of humification and secondary transformation. Knowledge of relations between structural properties, microorganism activity and degree of transformation and humification can lead to better understanding microbiological processes as well enable to estimate microbiological activity at given physicochemical conditions and at progressing process of soil transformation. The study was carried out on two peaty-moorsh (muck) soils at different state of secondary transformation and humification degree. Soil samples were collected from Polesie Lubelskie (layer depth: 5 - 25 cm). Investigated mucks originated from soils formed from low peatbogs. Soil sample marked as I belonged to muck group weakly secondary transformed. Second sample (II) represented soil group with middle stage of secondary transformation. The main purpose of the research was to examine the relations between some physicochemical and surface properties and their biological activity. Total number and respiration activity of microorganisms were determined. The effectiveness of utilizing the carbon substances from the soil by the bacteria increased simultaneously with the transformation state of the peat-muck soils. Quantity of organic carbon decreased distinctly in the soil

  3. Popularity and Adolescent Friendship Networks: Selection and Influence Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Borch, Casey

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the dynamics of popularity in adolescent friendship networks across 3 years in middle school. Longitudinal social network modeling was used to identify selection and influence in the similarity of popularity among friends. It was argued that lower status adolescents strive to enhance their status through befriending higher…

  4. Friendship and Delinquency: Selection and Influence Processes in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knecht, Andrea; Snijders, Tom A. B.; Baerveldt, Chris; Steglich, Christian E. G.; Raub, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Positive association of relevant characteristics is a widespread pattern among adolescent friends. A positive association may be caused by the selection of similar others as friends and by the deselection of dissimilar ones, but also by influence processes where friends adjust their behavior to each other. Social control theory argues that…

  5. Perceptions of Administrators and Instructors Concerning Factors Influencing Vocational Agriculture Enrollment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riesenberg, Lou E.; Lierman, Shannan R.

    A study was conducted to determine the contribution of selected factors to the decline in enrollment in secondary vocational agricultural education programs in Idaho. It investigated the perceptions of 73 Idaho secondary school administrators and 81 vocational agriculture instructors toward the influence of the factors on enrollment. Data were…

  6. Factors influencing wetland use by Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naugle, D.E.; Gleason, J.S.; Jenks, J.A.; Higgins, K.F.; Mammenga, P.W.; Nusser, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Seasonal and semi-permanent wetlands in eastern South Dakota were surveyed in 1995 and 1996 to identify habitat characteristics influencing wetland use by Canada geese (Branta canadensis maxima). Position of a wetland within the landscape and its area were important landscape-scale features influencing wetland use by geese. Our delineation of potential Canada goose habitat using a wetland geographic information system indicated that distribution and area of semi-permanent wetlands likely limit Canada goose occurrence in regions outside the Prairie Coteau. Periodicity in hydrologic cycles within landscapes also may influence goose use of wetlands in eastern South Dakota.

  7. Factors Identified When Selecting a Major in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Malissia; Torres, Robert M.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural education majors at New Mexico State University (n=115) rated prior agricultural experiences as the most influential factor in their selection of a major. Department/college environment, professional role models, and job prospects were also influential. (SK)

  8. Factors concerned with sanitary landfill site selection: General discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, W. J.; Stone, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    A general view of factors affecting site selection for sanitary landfill sites is presented. Examinations were made of operational methods, possible environment pollution, types of waste to be disposed, base and cover materials, and the economics involved in the operation.

  9. Factors contributing to parents' selection of a communication mode to use with their deaf children.

    PubMed

    Eleweke, C J; Rodda, M

    2000-10-01

    This study examines factors contributing to parents' selection of a communication mode to use with their children with hearing loss. More than 90% of children with prelingual hearing loss have normally hearing parents. Communication difficulties are among the obstacles facing these parents in connection with these children's development. Controversy over manual and aural/oral methods of communication creates further complications. Case studies of two families with deaf children were conducted to identify factors that could influence parents' selection of a communication method. Semistructured questionnaires and unstructured interviews were used in data collection. A qualitative approach was used in data analysis. Based on the results, the factors influencing parental choice were grouped under four themes: (a) the influence of information provided to parents, (b) parents' perceptions of assistive technology, (c) attitudes of service professionals and educational authorities, and (d) quality and availability of support services. Implications of these themes for service provision are discussed. PMID:11037069

  10. 36 CFR 51.17 - What are the selection factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... factors? 51.17 Section 51.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONCESSION CONTRACTS Solicitation, Selection and Award Procedures § 51.17 What are the selection... area; (2) The responsiveness of the proposal to the objectives, as described in the prospectus,...

  11. Factors in students' seat selection: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Losonczy-Marshall, Marta; Marshall, P Douglas

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore reasons for students' seat selection. Participants were 346 college students (14% freshmen, 47% sophomores, 24% juniors, and 14% seniors) from 12 classes (six sections of two courses). A 20-item questionnaire was used to ask students why they chose their seats in class. An exploratory factor analysis reduced the items to five seat-selection factors: Performance, Social, Asocial, Noticeability, and Environment. Seat selection factors were analyzed in terms of seating location: by row, by front/middle/back of the room, by center versus perimeter of the room, and by mid-room versus sides of the room. Performance and Noticeability ratings decreased by row from the front toward the back of the room. The Asocial factor was rated higher by those who sat in the back of the room, while the Environment factor was rated higher by those who sat in the center of the room. PMID:23833891

  12. Marketing Factors Influencing the Overall Satisfaction of Marriage Education Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Michael Lane; Cooper, Catherine; Gross, Kevin H.

    1999-01-01

    Seventy-one married couples attending marriage education workshops were surveyed regarding price, product, place, people, and promotional marketing factors influencing their overall satisfaction as workshop participants. Findings suggest both similar and unique marketing factors influenced husbands' and wives' satisfaction. Recommendations for…

  13. Selective Influences of Precision and Power Grips on Speech Categorization.

    PubMed

    Tiainen, Mikko; Tiippana, Kaisa; Vainio, Martti; Peromaa, Tarja; Komeilipoor, Naeem; Vainio, Lari

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that articulatory gestures are systematically associated with specific manual grip actions. Here we show that executing such actions can influence performance on a speech-categorization task. Participants watched and/or listened to speech stimuli while executing either a power or a precision grip. Grip performance influenced the syllable categorization by increasing the proportion of responses of the syllable congruent with the executed grip (power grip-[ke] and precision grip-[te]). Two follow-up experiments indicated that the effect was based on action-induced bias in selecting the syllable. PMID:26978074

  14. Selective Influences of Precision and Power Grips on Speech Categorization

    PubMed Central

    Tiainen, Mikko; Tiippana, Kaisa; Vainio, Martti; Peromaa, Tarja; Komeilipoor, Naeem; Vainio, Lari

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that articulatory gestures are systematically associated with specific manual grip actions. Here we show that executing such actions can influence performance on a speech-categorization task. Participants watched and/or listened to speech stimuli while executing either a power or a precision grip. Grip performance influenced the syllable categorization by increasing the proportion of responses of the syllable congruent with the executed grip (power grip—[ke] and precision grip—[te]). Two follow-up experiments indicated that the effect was based on action-induced bias in selecting the syllable. PMID:26978074

  15. Is Subjective Status Influenced by Psychosocial Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Johanna; Kristenson, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Associations between subjective status and health are still relatively unexplored. This study aimed at testing whether subjective status is uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors compared to objective status, and what factors that may predict subjective status. Design: A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based, random sample…

  16. Factors Influencing Career Choice among Police Recruits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative, non-experimental study examined the career choice factors of 154 (n = 154) police recruits to determine a correlation of age group generation to the five career choice factors presented in the Sibson Reward of Work Model. Law enforcement agencies faced a shortage of viable candidates to fill vacant positions. While extensive…

  17. Factors Influencing Simultaneous Communication Behaviors in Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, David A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Simultaneous communication used by four teachers in formal lessons was investigated, to determine the extent to which signs and speech matched and to delineate factors predicting communication behavior. Simultaneous communication was found to be sign-driven or speech-driven depending on factors such as student comprehension, teacher's expertise,…

  18. Abiotic environmental factors influencing blowfly colonisation patterns in the field.

    PubMed

    George, Kelly A; Archer, Melanie S; Toop, Tes

    2013-06-10

    The accuracy of minimum post-mortem interval (mPMI) estimates usually hinges upon the ability of forensic entomologists to predict the conditions under which calliphorids will colonise bodies. However, there can be delays between death and colonisation due to poorly understood abiotic and biotic factors, hence the need for a mPMI. To quantify the importance of various meteorological and light-level factors, beef liver baits were placed in the field (Victoria, Australia) on 88 randomly selected days over 3 years in all seasons and observed every 60-90 min for evidence of colonisation. Baits were exposed during daylight, and the following parameters were measured: barometric pressure, light intensity, wind speed, ambient temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. Collected data were analysed using backward LR logistic regression to produce an equation of colonisation probability. This type of analysis removes factors with the least influence on colonisation in successive steps until all remaining variables significantly increase the accuracy of predicting colonisation presence or absence. Ambient temperature was a positive predictor variable (an increase in temperature increased the probability of calliphorid colonisation). Relative humidity was a negative predictor variable (an increase in humidity decreased the probability of calliphorid colonisation). Barometric pressure, light intensity, wind speed and rainfall did not enhance the accuracy of the probability model; however, analysis of species activity patterns suggests that heavy rainfall and strong wind speeds inhibit calliphorid colonisation. PMID:23683914

  19. Factors Influencing L2 Gender Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordag, Denisa; Pechmann, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    In four experiments we explored processes underlying L2 gender retrieval. We focused on L1 interference and on the influence of the L2 noun's termination. In Experiments 1 and 2 we tried to manipulate the intensity of L1 interference. We found that L2 speakers cannot eliminate or substantially reduce the interlingual interference neither when they…

  20. Factors Influencing Curricular Reform; An Irish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Helena; Joyce, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    There are various influences and obstacles when planning an educational curriculum. The imprint of globalisation on the landscape of Irish medicine highlights the importance of delivering a diverse curriculum with international dimensions so that knowledge and skills can transfer across borders. It is also clear that medical emigration has a…

  1. Factors Influencing Early Lexical Acquisition: Lexical Orientation and Phonological Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Laurence B.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Children exhibiting a referential orientation seem more likely to acquire new object names than nonreferentially oriented children. Also, children's selection of words may be influenced by the phonological structure of the words. (Author/RH)

  2. FACTORS AND PRACTICES THAT INFLUENCE LIVESTOCK DISTRIBUTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inconsistent livestock distribution in extensive rangeland pastures continues as a vexing problem for land and livestock managers. Dispersal patterns of cattle are affected by abiotic factors like degree of slope, distance from water, shade, physical barriers, temperature extremes and precipitation...

  3. Factors Influencing Cypriot Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Chedzoy, Sue M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present selected findings from a larger study, which set out to examine the physical activity levels of Cypriot primary school children and determinants of their activity. Twenty parents of children who obtained high and low activity scores based on pedometer counts and self-reports scores were interviewed. By…

  4. Z-Selective Olefin Metathesis on Peptides: Investigation of Side-Chain Influence, Preorganization, and Guidelines in Substrate Selection

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Olefin metathesis has emerged as a promising strategy for modulating the stability and activity of biologically relevant compounds; however, the ability to control olefin geometry in the product remains a challenge. Recent advances in the design of cyclometalated ruthenium catalysts has led to new strategies for achieving such control with high fidelity and Z selectivity, but the scope and limitations of these catalysts on substrates bearing multiple functionalities, including peptides, remained unexplored. Herein, we report an assessment of various factors that contribute to both productive and nonproductive Z-selective metathesis on peptides. The influence of sterics, side-chain identity, and preorganization through peptide secondary structure are explored by homodimerization, cross metathesis, and ring-closing metathesis. Our results indicate that the amino acid side chain and identity of the olefin profoundly influence the activity of cyclometalated ruthenium catalysts in Z-selective metathesis. The criteria set forth for achieving high conversion and Z selectivity are highlighted by cross metathesis and ring-closing metathesis on diverse peptide substrates. The principles outlined in this report are important not only for expanding the scope of Z-selective olefin metathesis to peptides but also for applying stereoselective olefin metathesis in general synthetic endeavors. PMID:25102124

  5. What psychosocial factors influence adolescents' oral health?

    PubMed

    Baker, S R; Mat, A; Robinson, P G

    2010-11-01

    Few studies have examined, comprehensively and prospectively, determinants of oral-health-related quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between psychosocial factors and oral health status, health perceptions, and quality of life. Measures of symptom and functional status, health perceptions, quality of life, oral health beliefs, and psychological (sense of coherence, self-esteem, health locus of control) and social factors (parents' income and education) were collected from 439 12- and 13-year-olds at baseline and six-month follow-up, together with a clinical examination at baseline. Structural equation modeling indicated that increased levels of caries and more symptoms predicted more functional limitations, and, cross-sectionally, greater functional impact was associated with worse health perceptions, which were linked to lower quality of life. Sense of coherence was the most important psychosocial predictor. These factors are important in understanding how oral health affects young people's daily lives. PMID:20739689

  6. Factors influencing bird foraging preferences among conspecific fruit trees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    The rates at which birds visit fruiting individuals of Allophylus edulis (Sapindaceae) differ substantially among trees. Such avian feeding preferences are well-known, but usually involve fruits and trees of different species. Factors controlling avian preferences for particular trees in a population of conspecifics are generally undocumented. To address this issue, I attempted to correlate rates at which individual birds and species fed in trees of Allophylus with 27 fruit or plant characteristics. Birds that swallow fruits whole were considered separately from those that feed in other ways. Plant characters were selected on the basis of their potential influence on feeding efficiency or predation risk, assuming that birds would select feeding trees so as to maximize the net rate of energy or nutrient intake and to minimize predation. Correlations were found between feeding visits by some groups of birds and percent water in the pulp, milligrams of mineral ash in the pulp, and crop size. No character was correlated with feeding visits by all groups of birds in both years of the study. The correlations with water and mineral ash are unexplained and may be artifacts. The correlation with crop size may represent a tactic to minimize predation.

  7. Factors Influencing Recruitment in Educational Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederickson, Norah

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation of the factors that educational psychologists in training (EPiTs) look for when applying for jobs in educational psychology services. Relevant literature on "job attraction" is reviewed and a three-stage research process employed. This involved a focus group approach to questionnaire generation followed by…

  8. The Influence of Noneconomic Factors on Negotiators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Lane

    1974-01-01

    Certain noneconomic factors in collective bargaining are directly related to the negotiator's personal inclination to settle for the new contract. In this study, the pattern of relationships between the parties, the nature of the work itself, favorable recognition, team policy, and interpersonal relationships proved to be significantly related to…

  9. Factors Influencing the Elimination of Dietary Restraint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, C. Peter; Polivy, Janet

    Recent research by Herman, Polivy, and their colleagues has been concerned with the determinants of self-control and disinhibition in dieters. The present paper summarizes a number of studies in which the reactions of dieters and nondieters to a variety of disinhibitory factors (preloading, emotional arousal, intoxication) were investigated. The…

  10. Factors Influencing uUniversity Research Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Fiona; Geare, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This research extends our understanding of research productivity by examining features of managerial practice and culture within university departments. Adopting a robust comparative research design, capturing both interview and survey data sourced from multiple stakeholders from New Zealand universities, we seek to identify factors associated…

  11. Environmental factors influencing growth and pubertal development.

    PubMed Central

    Delemarre-van de Waal, H A

    1993-01-01

    Postnatal growth is based on hereditary signals and environmental factors in a complex regulatory network. Each factor must be in an optimal state for normal growth of the child. Fetal conditions may also have consequences on postnatal height. Intrauterine growth retardation can be recovered postnatally, although postnatal growth remains depressed in about one-third of cases. After birth, the environment may exert either a positive or negative effect on growth. In underdeveloped countries, malnutrition plays a major role in inhibiting the growth process. Children from families of higher socioeconomic classes are taller than their coevals in the lower socioeconomic groups. Urbanization also has a positive effect on growth. Better child care is supported by sufficient food supply, appropriate health and sanitation services, and a higher level of education. Over the last century, these factors have induced a taller stature and a more rapid maturity in Europe, North America, and Australia; a phenomenon which has been referred to as "the secular trend" in growth. Recently, a secular trend has also been reported in some developing countries. Although urbanization in general appears to be associated with better conditions of living, this is not the case in the slums of South America or in Africa where rural children are better off than children living in the poor cities. This paper describes in more detail the different hereditary and environmental factors that act during the fetal period and postnatally, and which play a role in human growth and pubertal development. PMID:8243404

  12. Selection Strategies for Social Influence in the Threshold Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karampourniotis, Panagiotis; Szymanski, Boleslaw; Korniss, Gyorgy

    The ubiquity of online social networks makes the study of social influence extremely significant for its applications to marketing, politics and security. Maximizing the spread of influence by strategically selecting nodes as initiators of a new opinion or trend is a challenging problem. We study the performance of various strategies for selection of large fractions of initiators on a classical social influence model, the Threshold model (TM). Under the TM, a node adopts a new opinion only when the fraction of its first neighbors possessing that opinion exceeds a pre-assigned threshold. The strategies we study are of two kinds: strategies based solely on the initial network structure (Degree-rank, Dominating Sets, PageRank etc.) and strategies that take into account the change of the states of the nodes during the evolution of the cascade, e.g. the greedy algorithm. We find that the performance of these strategies depends largely on both the network structure properties, e.g. the assortativity, and the distribution of the thresholds assigned to the nodes. We conclude that the optimal strategy needs to combine the network specifics and the model specific parameters to identify the most influential spreaders. Supported in part by ARL NS-CTA, ARO, and ONR.

  13. The Influence of Free Space Environment in the Mission Life Cycle: Material Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David L.; Burns, Howard D.; de Groh, Kim K.

    2014-01-01

    The natural space environment has a great influence on the ability of space systems to perform according to mission design specification. Understanding the natural space environment and its influence on space system performance is critical to the concept formulation, design, development, and operation of space systems. Compatibility with the natural space environment is a primary factor in determining the functional lifetime of the space system. Space systems being designed and developed today are growing in complexity. In many instances, the increased complexity also increases its sensitivity to space environmental effects. Sensitivities to the natural space environment can be tempered through appropriate design measures, material selection, ground processing, mitigation strategies, and/or the acceptance of known risks. The design engineer must understand the effects of the natural space environment on the space system and its components. This paper will discuss the influence of the natural space environment in the mission life cycle with a specific focus on the role of material selection.

  14. The Influence of Free Space Environment in the Mission Life Cycle: Material Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, David; Burns, Howard; De Groh, Kim

    Abstract The natural space environment has a great influence on the ability of space systems to perform according to mission design specification. Understanding the natural space environment and its influence on space system performance is critical to the concept formulation, design, development, and operation of space systems. Compatibility with the natural space environment is a primary factor in determining the functional lifetime of the space system. Space systems being designed and developed today are growing in complexity. In many instances, the increased complexity also increases its sensitivity to space environmental effects. Sensitivities to the natural space environment can be tempered through appropriate design measures, material selection, ground processing, mitigation strategies, and/or the acceptance of known risks. The design engineer must understand the effects of the natural space environment on the space system and its components. This paper will discuss the influence of the natural space environment in the mission life cycle with a specific focus on the role of material selection.

  15. Socially selected ornaments influence hormone titers of signalers and receivers.

    PubMed

    Tibbetts, Elizabeth A; Crocker, Katherine; Huang, Zachary Y

    2016-07-26

    Decades of behavioral endocrinology research have shown that hormones and behavior have a bidirectional relationship; hormones both influence and respond to social behavior. In contrast, hormones are often thought to have a unidirectional relationship with ornaments. Hormones influence ornament development, but little empirical work has tested how ornaments influence hormones throughout life. Here, we experimentally alter a visual signal of fighting ability in Polistes dominulus paper wasps and measure the behavioral and hormonal consequences of signal alteration in signalers and receivers. We find wasps that signal inaccurately high fighting ability receive more aggression than controls and receiving aggression reduces juvenile hormone (JH) titers. As a result, immediately after contests, inaccurate signalers have lower JH titers than controls. Ornaments also directly influence rival JH titers. Three hours after contests, wasps who interacted with rivals signaling high fighting ability have higher JH titers than wasps who interacted with rivals signaling low fighting ability. Therefore, ornaments influence hormone titers of both signalers and receivers. We demonstrate that relationships between hormones and ornaments are flexible and bidirectional rather than static and unidirectional. Dynamic relationships among ornaments, behavior, and physiology may be an important, but overlooked factor in the evolution of honest communication. PMID:27402762

  16. Factors influencing the intensity of magnetospheric substorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpherron, R. L.; Baker, D. N.

    1993-01-01

    A definition of the substorm is presented, and it is shown that the typical isolated substorm is produced by the superposition of effects of processes directly driven by the solar wind through dayside reconnection and those driven by unloading through nighttime reconnection. The single factor that determines whether a substorm will occur or not is the clock angle of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) around the earth-sun line. Only when this field points south of the GSM equatorial plane do the auroral electrojet indices depart from their quiet values. For a given clock angle, the level of activity increases with the IMF strength and solar wind velocity.

  17. Social factors and health: the causation-selection issue revisited.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, N

    1994-01-01

    Since social scientists rarely have access to experimental data, they rely heavily upon observational studies. As a consequence, their attempts to make causal inferences about the effects of social factors--such as occupation or marital status--on health are plagued by potential selection problems. Some researchers have addressed this selection-causation problem on the basis of the presence or absence of a particular aggregate pattern of health status. The rationale underlying this approach derives from the investigators' hypotheses that the presence of selection would lead to a particular type of pattern that is distinct from the pattern that would result in the absence of selection. Although intuitively appealing, this strategy appears to be seriously flawed. The essential weakness is that the range of patterns that can result from selection is often much broader than researchers have speculated. PMID:8108396

  18. Factors Influencing Childhood Immunization in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the factors associated with childhood immunization in Uganda. We used nationally-representative data from Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) of 2006. Both bivariate and multivariate approaches were employed in the analysis. The bivariate approach involved generating average percentages of children who were immunized, with analysis of pertinent background characteristics. The multivariate approach involved employing maximum likelihood probit technique and generating marginal effects to ascertain the probability of being immunized, given the same background characteristics. It revealed that slightly over 50% of children in Uganda were fully immunized. Additionally, 89%, 24%, 52%, and 64% received BCG, DPT, polio and measles vaccines respectively. Factors which have a significant association with childhood immunization are: maternal education (especially at post-secondary level), exposure to media, maternal healthcare utilization, maternal age, occupation type, immunization plan, and regional and local peculiarities. Children whose mothers had post-secondary education were twice as likely to be fully immunized compared to their counterparts whose mothers had only primary education (p<0.01). Thus, gender parity in education enhancement efforts is crucial. There is also a need to increase media penetration, maternal healthcare utilization, and to ensure parity across localities and regions. PMID:23617212

  19. Factors influencing the spinal motoneurons in development

    PubMed Central

    Wiese, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The development of the spinal cord needs a concerted interaction of transcription factors activating diverse genes and signals from outside acting on the specification of the different cells. Signals have to act on the segments of the embryo as well as on the cranial-caudal axis and the dorso-ventral axis. Additionally the axons of the motoneurons have to cross the central nervous system barrier to connect to the periphery. Intensive anatomical studies have been followed by molecular characterization of the different subsets of transcription factors that are expressed by cells of the developing spinal cord. Here, intensive studies for the most important appearing cells, the motoneurons, have resulted in a good knowledge on the expression patterns of these proteins. Nonetheless motoneurons are by far not the only important cells and the concert activity of all cells besides them is necessary for the correct function and integrity of motoneurons within the spinal cord. This article will briefly summarize the different aspects on spinal cord development and focuses on the differentiation as well as the functionalization of motoneurons. PMID:26807112

  20. Factors influencing childhood immunization in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bbaale, Edward

    2013-03-01

    This paper investigates the factors associated with childhood immunization in Uganda. We used nationally-representative data from Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) of 2006. Both bivariate and multivariate approaches were employed in the analysis. The bivariate approach involved generating average percentages of children who were immunized, with analysis of pertinent background characteristics. The multivariate approach involved employing maximum likelihood probit technique and generating marginal effects to ascertain the probability of being immunized, given the same background characteristics. It revealed that slightly over 50% of children in Uganda were fully immunized. Additionally, 89%, 24%, 52%, and 64% received BCG, DPT, polio and measles vaccines respectively. Factors which have a significant association with childhood immunization are: maternal education (especially at post-secondary level), exposure to media, maternal healthcare utilization, maternal age, occupation type, immunization plan, and regional and local peculiarities. Children whose mothers had post-secondary education were twice as likely to be fully immunized compared to their counterparts whose mothers had only primary education (p < 0.01). Thus, gender parity in education enhancement efforts is crucial. There is also a need to increase media penetration, maternal healthcare utilization, and to ensure parity across localities and regions. PMID:23617212

  1. The Hull Method for Selecting the Number of Common Factors.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Timmerman, Marieke E; Kiers, Henk A L

    2011-04-11

    A common problem in exploratory factor analysis is how many factors need to be extracted from a particular data set. We propose a new method for selecting the number of major common factors: the Hull method, which aims to find a model with an optimal balance between model fit and number of parameters. We examine the performance of the method in an extensive simulation study in which the simulated data are based on major and minor factors. The study compares the method with four other methods such as parallel analysis and the minimum average partial test, which were selected because they have been proven to perform well and/or they are frequently used in applied research. The Hull method outperformed all four methods at recovering the correct number of major factors. Its usefulness was further illustrated by its assessment of the dimensionality of the Five-Factor Personality Inventory ( Hendriks, Hofstee, & De Raad, 1999 ). This inventory has 100 items, and the typical methods for assessing dimensionality prove to be useless: the large number of factors they suggest has no theoretical justification. The Hull method, however, suggested retaining the number of factors that the theoretical background to the inventory actually proposes. PMID:26741331

  2. Factors influencing whether children walk to school.

    PubMed

    Su, Jason G; Jerrett, Michael; McConnell, Rob; Berhane, Kiros; Dunton, Genevieve; Shankardass, Ketan; Reynolds, Kim; Chang, Roger; Wolch, Jennifer

    2013-07-01

    Few studies have simultaneously evaluated multiple levels of influence on whether children walk to school. A large cohort of 4338 subjects from 10 communities was used to identify the determinants of walking through (1) a one-level logistic regression model for individual-level variables and (2) a two-level mixed regression model for individual and school-level variables. Walking rates were positively associated with home-to-school proximity, greater age, and living in neighborhoods characterized by lower traffic density. Greater land use mix around the home was, however, associated with lower rates of walking. Rates of walking to school were also higher amongst recipients of the Free and Reduced Price Meals Program and attendees of schools with higher percentage of English language learners. Designing schools in the same neighborhood as residential districts should be an essential urban planning strategy to reduce walking distance to school. Policy interventions are needed to encourage children from higher socioeconomic status families to participate in active travel to school and to develop walking infrastructures and other measures that protect disadvantaged children. PMID:23707968

  3. Factors Influencing Whether Children Walk to School

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jason G.; Jerrett, Michael; Mcconnell, Rob; Berhane, Kiros; Dunton, Genevieve; Shankardass, Ketan; Reynolds, Kim; Chang, Roger; Wolch, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated multiple levels of influence simultaneously on whether children walk to school. A large cohort of 4,338 subjects from ten communities was used to identify the determinants of walking through (1) a one-level logistic regression model for individual-level variables and (2) a two-level mixed regression model for individual and school-level variables. Walking rates were positively associated with home-to-school proximity, greater age, and living in neighborhoods characterized by lower traffic density. Greater land use mix around the home was, however, associated with lower rates of walking. Rates of walking to school were also higher amongst recipients of the Free and Reduced Price Meals Program and attendees of schools with higher percentage of English language learners. Designing schools in the same neighborhood as residential districts should be an essential urban planning strategy to reduce walking distance to school. Policy interventions are needed to encourage children from higher socioeconomic status families to participate in active travel to school and to develop walking infrastructures and other measures that protect disadvantaged children. PMID:23707968

  4. Factors influencing publication choice: why faculty choose open access

    PubMed Central

    Warlick, Stefanie E; Vaughan, KTL

    2007-01-01

    Background In an attempt to identify motivating factors involved in decisions to publish in open access and open archives (OA) journals, individual interviews with biomedical faculty members at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-Chapel Hill) and Duke University, two major research universities, were conducted. The interviews focused on faculty identified as early adopters of OA/free full-text publishing. Methods Searches conducted in PubMed and PubMed Central identified faculty from the two institutions who have published works in OA/free full-text journals. The searches targeted authors with multiple OA citations during a specified 18 month period. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the most prolific OA authors at each university. Individual interviews attempted to determine whether the authors were aware they published in OA journals, why they chose to publish in OA journals, what factors influenced their publishing decisions, and their general attitude towards OA publishing models. Results & Discussion Fourteen interviews were granted and completed. Respondents included a fairly even mix of Assistant, Associate and Full professors. Results indicate that when targeting biomedical faculty at UNC-Chapel Hill and Duke, speed of publication and copyright retention are unlikely motivating factors or incentives for the promotion of OA publishing. In addition, author fees required by some open access journals are unlikely barriers or disincentives. Conclusion It appears that publication quality is of utmost importance when choosing publication venues in general, while free access and visibility are specifically noted incentives for selection of OA journals. Therefore, free public availability and increased exposure may not be strong enough incentives for authors to choose open access over more traditional and respected subscription based publications, unless the quality issue is also addressed. PMID:17349038

  5. Weight Factor Selection in Double Exponential Smoothing Enrollment Forecasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Don E.

    1981-01-01

    The merits of double exponential smoothing are discussed relative to other types of pattern-based enrollment forecasting methods. The basic assumptions and formulas for its use are outlined. The difficulties associated with selecting an appropriate weight factor are discussed, and the potential effect on prediction results is illustrated.…

  6. Selection Factors among International Medical Graduates and Psychiatric Residency Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiroma, Paulo R.; Alarcon, Renato D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors examine the association between the selection factors used in a psychiatric residency program and subsequent clinical and academic performance among international medical graduate (IMG) candidates. Methods: The authors completed a retrospective review of application files and residency evaluations of 50 IMG residents who…

  7. Perceptions of College Students on Social Factors That Influence Student Matriculation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Jeremy L.; LaVergne, Douglas D.; Boone, Harry N., Jr.; Boone, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed undergraduate students' (n = 280) attitudes toward selected social factors that would influence and discourage student persistence at a four-year research university. Using a modified Delphi technique to construct the questionnaire, the researchers discovered that family encouragement, positive relationships with professors,…

  8. A Comparative Study of Factors Influencing Male and Female Lecturers' Job Satisfaction in Ghanaian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amos, Patricia Mawusi; Acquah, Sakina; Antwi, Theresa; Adzifome, Nixon Saba

    2015-01-01

    The study sought to compare factors influencing male and female lecturers' job satisfaction. Cross-sectional survey designs employing both quantitative and qualitative approaches were adopted for the study. Simple random sampling was used to select 163 lecturers from the four oldest public universities in Ghana. Celep's (2000) Organisational…

  9. FACTORS INFLUENCING PERCEPTIONS OF THE IDEAL ADULT VOCATIONAL PROGRAM FOR PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FRANK, HARRY ELMER, JR.

    TO ASCERTAIN THE INFLUENCE OF SELECTED SITUATIONAL AND PERSONAL FACTORS ON THE PERCEPTION OF THE IDEAL ADULT VOCATIONAL PROGRAM FOR PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS, OPINIONNAIRES RETURNED BY 388 VOCATIONAL TEACHERS AND ADMINISTRATORS IN OKLAHOMA PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS WERE STUDIED. OPINIONNAIRES CONTAINED 38 STATEMENTS OF CONDITIONS IDENTIFIED AS…

  10. Causal Factors Influencing Adversity Quotient of Twelfth Grade and Third-Year Vocational Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pangma, Rachapoom; Tayraukham, Sombat; Nuangchalerm, Prasart

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: The aim of this research was to study the causal factors influencing students' adversity between twelfth grade and third-year vocational students in Sisaket province, Thailand. Six hundred and seventy two of twelfth grade and 376 third-year vocational students were selected by multi-stage random sampling techniques. Approach:…

  11. Factors Influencing College Decision-Making for First-Generation Appalachian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Kristy Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This investigation determined the degree of importance for selected personal-psychological, academic, peer, financial, and family factors influencing the decision to attend college by first-generation, Appalachian (FGA) sophomore students. Outcomes were further related to the degree of academic and social integration in college and the likelihood…

  12. [Positive influence on cardiovascular risk factor by blocking the endocannabinoid system].

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, T; Ritz, A; Ince, H; Nienaber, Ch A; Rehders, T C

    2008-05-28

    Intra-abdominal fat mass, or central adiposity, and cardiovascular risk are strongly correlated. Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that secretes hormones and cytokines influencing appetite, energy metabolism, and atherosclerosis. Rimonabant is the first selective blocker of the cannabinoid-1 receptor in development for the treatment of obesity, diabetes mellitus typ 2, and cardiometabolic risk factors. This article provides an review of efficacy of rimonabant the first selective blocker of the cannabinoid-1 receptor. PMID:18592956

  13. Factors influencing kenaf harvesting and processing in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The selection of the appropriate kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L., Malvaceae) production and harvest system is dependent on many factors, including location, equipment availability, storage options, processing plants, plant utilization, and economics. Since its first domestication, kenaf has consisten...

  14. Factors influencing phototaxis in nocturnal migrating birds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xuebing; Chen, Mingyan; Wu, Zhaolu; Wang, Zijiang

    2014-12-01

    Many migratory bird species fly during the night (nocturnal migrants) and have been shown to display some phototaxis to artificial light. During 2006 to 2009, we investigated phototaxis in nocturnal migrants at Jinshan Yakou in Xinping County (N23°56', E101°30'; 2400 m above sea-level), and at the Niaowang Mountain in Funing County (N23°30', E105°35'; 1400 m above sea-level), both in the Yunnan Province of Southwest China. A total of 5069 birds, representing 129 species, were captured by mist-netting and artificial light. The extent of phototaxis effect on bird migration was examined during all four seasons, three phases of the moon, and under two weather conditions (mist and wind). Data were statistically analyzed to determine the extent to which these factors may impact phototaxis of nocturnal migrants. The results point to phototaxis in birds migrating in the spring and autumn, especially in the autumn. Furthermore, migrating birds were more readily attracted to artificial lights during nights with little moonlight, mist, and a headwind. Regardless of the initial orientation in which birds flew, either following the wind or against the wind, birds would always fly against the wind when flying towards the light. This study broadens our understanding of the nocturnal bird migration, potentially resulting in improved bird ringing practices, increased awareness, and better policies regarding bird protection. PMID:25483789

  15. Factors influencing single mother's employment status.

    PubMed

    Youngblut, J M; Brady, N R; Brooten, D; Thomas, D J

    2000-03-01

    Changes in the welfare system limit the length of time a person can receive welfare benefits, thus mandating employment for many current welfare recipients. Single mothers with young children who do not become employed will lose financial support for housing, food, clothing, and health care and place their own and their children's health and safety at risk. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore women's experiences of being unemployed and to examine the barriers to employment perceived by single mothers who expressed a desire to be employed. Nine mothers were recruited from a larger sample of single mothers who had participated in a quantitative study about employment conducted 1 to 2 years earlier. Using focus group interviews, mothers were asked what it was like to be a single mother, and then what barriers to their employment they perceived. Two dimensions were identified from the mothers' statements. The first, a sense of obligation, included themes of "being there" for their own and their child's benefit and doing what it takes to optimize the child's growth and development. The second, negotiating the obstacles, referred to problems regarding child care, lack of involvement of the child's father and lack of support from relatives and friends for the mother's efforts toward securing employment. These findings have important implications for welfare reform, namely, that efforts aimed at moving nonemployed single mothers into the workforce will fail if these factors are not considered. PMID:10818834

  16. Breast cancer diagnosis and factors influencing treatment decisions in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Aziato, Lydia; Clegg-Lamptey, Joe Nat A

    2015-01-01

    Researchers in this study explored the reactions of women with breast cancer and identified factors influencing treatment decisions. A qualitative exploratory approach was employed. Participants were recruited from a tertiary hospital and a breast cancer support group. Purposive sampling recruited 12 women. It was found that women identified breast lesions accidentally or intentionally and that diagnosis was delayed. Emotional reactions to diagnosis included shock and sadness. Factors that influenced treatment were the influence of other people, alternative sources of treatment, faith and support, knowledge, "tuning the mind," and effects on intimacy. Health professionals should develop effective communication and counseling skills for clients. PMID:24750095

  17. Factors that influence the patient centredness of a consultation.

    PubMed Central

    Law, S A; Britten, N

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Research suggests that patients are more satisfied with patient-centred consultations than with doctor-centred consultations and that some health measures are positively influenced by this type of consultation. Research on the factors that influence the patient centredness of the consultation is sparse but suggests that women doctors are more patient centred than men doctors. AIM. A study was designed, first, to confirm or reject the suggestion that women general practitioners are more patient centred than men general practitioners and, secondly, to determine some of the factors that might influence the patient centredness of a general practitioner. METHOD. The audiotaped consultations of 41 general practitioners were analysed using an instrument designed to measure patient centredness. The general practitioners were selected from a group of volunteers to represent both sexes as well as a wide range of age and experience. RESULTS. The results of the analysis showed that women general practitioners, particularly trainers, had higher patient-centredness scores than men general practitioners. This behaviour is characterized by an increased frequency of open questions and greater attention to patient offers (anything of potential significance that a patient brings to the general practitioner consultation). Additionally, the combination of sexes in a consultation seemed to have an effect on the interaction, with woman general practitioner/female patient dyads (pairings) having the highest median patient-centredness score, woman general practitioner/male patient and man general practitioner/male patient dyads scoring the same as each other and man general practitioner/female patient dyads having the lowest median scores. CONCLUSION. The results suggest that women general practitioners, in this sample, were more patient centred than men general practitioners. The results also suggest that inherent inequalities exist, with female patients receiving a more

  18. Factors Influencing Students' Achievement in Form 5 Islamic Studies Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    bin Che Noh, Mohd Aderi; Omar, Noraini binti; bin Kasan, Hasnan

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at analyzing the factors influencing the achievements of students in the subject of Islamic Studies for Form 5 SPM (KBSM) in schools in the area of Samarahan, Sarawak. The factors analysed is attitude and interest. This is a survey based study and data was compiled from the survey forms which had the topic "Factors…

  19. Factors Influencing Pursuit of Higher Education: Validating a Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Sandra M.

    This paper explains the process used to validate the construct validity of the Factors Influencing Pursuit of Higher Education Questionnaire. This questionnaire is a literature-based, researcher-developed instrument which gathers information on the factors thought to affect a person's decision to pursue higher education. The questionnaire includes…

  20. Factors influencing visits to school nurses by pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chen, S P; Telleen, S; Mitchell, D R; Chen, E H

    1992-01-01

    The influence of five factors on the first visit to school nurses by pregnant adolescents and adequacy of prenatal care was analyzed. Only one factor, age of baby's father, was found to be associated with adequacy of prenatal care. PMID:1518672

  1. From Hospital to Nursing Facility: Factors Influencing Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Susan E.; Auerbach, Charles; LaPorte, Heidi Heft

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the factors influencing decisions to send medicine-surgical (med-surg) patients home or to nursing facilities (NFs). The sample (n = 7,852) was taken from a large, urban, teaching, med-surg unit where discharges were documented and data collected over a two-and-a-half-year period. Using logistical regression, the factors found…

  2. Factors Influencing International Students' Career Choice: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaravelu, Hemla D.; White, Lyle J.; Bringaze, Tammy B.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the career development behavior of Asian international, non-Asian international, and domestic students, specifically the certainty of career and major choice and environmental factors that have influenced their choices. Environmental factors include family, school counselors, teacher, friends, and government. The results show…

  3. Alternative Administrative Certification: Socializing Factors Influencing Program Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickmore, Dana L.; Bickmore, Steven T.; Raines, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This study used an organizational socialization lens to examine factors influencing participants' decision to pursue the principalship and choice to engage in an alternate administration certification program. Through an analysis of participant focus groups and interviews, factors emerged from the codes that were compared with dimensions of…

  4. Factors Influencing Technology Planning in Developing Countries: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keengwe, Jared; Malapile, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    This article is a literature review concerning the factors that play an important role in the development of educational technology plans in the educational system of developing countries (DCs). Largely, the technology plans are influenced by factors that emanates from within the country (internal) and those outside of their borders (external).…

  5. Factors Influencing Digital Reference Triage: A Think-Aloud Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a think-aloud study conducted to identify factors that influence the decisions made by digital reference "triagers" when performing triage on questions received by digital reference services. This study follows and expands on a Delphi study that identified factors that triagers agreed on after the fact of their performance…

  6. Factors Influencing Psychological Help Seeking in Adults: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topkaya, Nursel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current research is to identify which factors, and in what direction these factors influence adults' decisions to seek psychological help for their personal problems. The research was designed as a phenomenology model; the data was gathered through the semi-structured interview technique, which is mostly used in qualitative research…

  7. A Study of Factors Influencing Teacher Salaries in Vermont.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callas, Rosanne; McCormick, Rod

    A study was done of factors affecting differences in teacher salaries among Vermont towns. Data from 181 local education agencies were used for the study and a set of factors was examined that included family, community, and school information to determine what influences teacher salaries. Findings included the following: (1) average teacher's…

  8. Psychosocial Factors Influencing Competency of Children's Statements on Sexual Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Tae Kyung; Choi, Soul; Shin, Yee Jin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess children's competence to state their traumatic experience and to determine psychosocial factors influencing the competency of children's statements, such as emotional factors of children and parents and trauma-related variables, in Korean child sex abuse victims. Methods: We enrolled 214…

  9. Factors influencing nursing career choices and choice of study program.

    PubMed

    Haron, Yafa; Reicher, Sima; Riba, Shoshana

    2014-01-01

    In advance of a recruitment campaign, Israeli first-year nursing students of all ethnicities were surveyed to elucidate what factors had influenced them to make nursing their career and what sort of training track they preferred. The responses made it clear that different factors influence different groups differently. There were noticeable differences by gender, age, and ethnicity. Overall, training institutions were chosen for their closeness to the student's home but other factors also operated among particular groups, such as institutional prestige and flexible entry criteria. There was a blatant preference for academic, particularly university-sited, programs over diploma programs. PMID:24878405

  10. Nurturing Sport Expertise: Factors Influencing the Development of Elite Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Joseph; Horton, Sean; Robertson-Wilson, Jennifer; Wall, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The development of expertise in sport is the result of successful interaction of biological, psychological, and sociological constraints. This review examines the training and environmental factors that influence the acquisition of sport expertise. Research examining the quality and quantity of training indicate that these two elements are crucial predictors of attainment. In addition, the possession of resources such as parental support and adequate coaching are essential. Social factors such as cultural influences and the relative age effect are also considered as determinants of sport expertise. Although it is evident that environmental factors are essential to the acquisition of high levels of sport development, further research is clearly required. PMID:24616603

  11. The contribution of cognitive, kinematic, and dynamic factors to anticipatory grasp selection.

    PubMed

    Herbort, Oliver; Butz, Martin V; Kunde, Wilfried

    2014-06-01

    Object-directed grasping movements are usually adjusted in anticipation of the direction and extent of a subsequent object rotation. Such anticipatory grasp selections have been mostly explained in terms of the kinematics of the arm movement. However, object rotations of different directions and extents also differ in their dynamics and in how the tasks are represented. Here, we examined how the dynamics, the kinematics, and the cognitive representation of an object manipulation affect anticipatory grasp selections. We asked participants to grasp an object and rotate it by different angles and in different directions. To examine the influence of dynamic factors, we varied the object's weight. To examine the influence of the cognitive task representation, we instructed identical object rotations as either toward-top or away-from-top rotations. While instructed object rotation and cognitive task representation did affect grasp selection over the entire course of the experiment, a rather small effect of object weight only appeared late in the experiment. We suggest that grasp selections are determined on different levels. The representation of the kinematics of the object movement determines grasp selection on a trial-by-trial basis. The effect of object weight affects grasp selection by a slower adaptation process. This result implies that even simple motor acts, such as grasping, can only be understood when cognitive factors, such as the task representation, are taken into account. PMID:24534913

  12. College choice of natural science students: The factors and sources that influence enrollment decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Samuel

    This dissertation studied how institutional factors and sources of influence affected the enrollment decisions of natural science students admitted to a selective, private research institution. In terms of institutional factors, participants were asked to rate both the importance of factors and how satisfied they were with these factors at the survey institution. Institutional factors were divided into four sub-categories: cost-related factors, campus-related factors, academic opportunities and extra-curricular opportunities. Participants were also asked to rate the importance of sources of information/influence on their final enrollment decision; these sources were divided into three categories: student's network, institutional sources and reputation. Results were also disaggregated by enrollment decision and demographic variables (gender, ethnicity, SES, mother's educational level and father's educational level) to determine if differences existed between groups. An online survey was used to collect data and these results were based on quantitative analysis using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Factors that were considered important to natural science students in their college choice were campus, major availability, research opportunities, faculty contact, student activities and total cost. The factors that students were satisfied with at the survey institution were major availability and campus. The sources that were most important to students in making their college choice were the university's reputation and major reputation. Significant differences were found between groups based on demographic and enrollment variables in their ratings of factor importance, factor satisfaction and importance of sources of information/influence.

  13. Factors influencing adherence among older people with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Loew, Laurianne; Brosseau, Lucie; Kenny, Glen P; Durand-Bush, Natalie; Poitras, Stéphane; De Angelis, Gino; Wells, George A

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to identify potential factors that could affect adherence and influence the implementation of an evidence-based structured walking program, among older adults diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis. A total of 69 participants with mild to moderate osteoarthritis of the knee fulfilled an online survey on potential factors that could affect their adherence to an evidence-based structured walking program. Adherence with regard to the influencing factors was explored using a logistic regression model. Results tend to show higher odds of adhering to the evidence-based walking program if the participants were supervised (more than 2.9 times as high), supported by family/friends (more than 3.7 times as high), and not influenced by emotional involvement (more than 11 times as high). The odds of adhering were 3.6 times lower for participants who indicated a change in their medication intake and 3.1 times lower for individuals who considered themselves as less physically active (95 % confidence interval (CI)). Our exploratory findings identified and defined potential adherence factors that could guide health professionals in their practice to better identify positive influences and obstacles to treatment adherence, which would lead to the adoption of a more patient-centered approach. A large-scale study is required to clearly delineate the key factors that would influence adherence. We addressed a new knowledge gap by identifying the main strategies to promote the long-term adherence of community-based walking program. PMID:26646111

  14. Behavioural cues surpass habitat factors in explaining prebreeding resource selection by a migratory diving duck

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neil, Shawn T.; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Takekawa, John Y.; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Cutting, Kyle A.; Parker, Michael W.; Yee, Julie L.

    2014-01-01

    Prebreeding habitat selection in birds can often be explained in part by habitat characteristics. However, females may also select habitats on the basis of fidelity to areas of previous reproductive success or use by conspecifics. The relative influences of sociobehavioural attributes versus habitat characteristics in habitat selection has been primarily investigated in songbirds, while less is known about how these factors affect habitat selection processes in migratory waterfowl. Animal resource selection models often exhibit much unexplained variation; spatial patterns driven by social and behavioural characteristics may account for some of this. We radiomarked female lesser scaup, Aythya affinis, in the southwestern extent of their breeding range to explore hypotheses regarding relative roles of habitat quality, site fidelity and conspecific density in prebreeding habitat selection. We used linear mixed-effects models to relate intensity of use within female home ranges to habitat features, distance to areas of reproductive success during the previous breeding season and conspecific density. Home range habitats included shallow water (≤118 cm), moderate to high densities of flooded emergent vegetation/open water edge and open water areas with submerged aquatic vegetation. Compared with habitat features, conspecific female density and proximity to successful nesting habitats from the previous breeding season had greater influences on habitat use within home ranges. Fidelity and conspecific attraction are behavioural characteristics in some waterfowl species that may exert a greater influence than habitat features in influencing prebreeding space use and habitat selection within home ranges, particularly where quality habitat is abundant. These processes may be of critical importance to a better understanding of habitat selection in breeding birds.

  15. Critical factors and paths influencing construction workers' safety risk tolerances.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiayuan; Zou, Patrick X W; Li, Penny P

    2016-08-01

    While workers' safety risk tolerances have been regarded as a main reason for their unsafe behaviors, little is known about why different people have different risk tolerances even when confronting the same situation. The aim of this research is to identify the critical factors and paths that influence workers' safety risk tolerance and to explore how they contribute to accident causal model from a system thinking perceptive. A number of methods were carried out to analyze the data collected through interviews and questionnaire surveys. In the first and second steps of the research, factor identification, factor ranking and factor analysis were carried out, and the results show that workers' safety risk tolerance can be influenced by four groups of factors, namely: (1) personal subjective perception; (2) work knowledge and experiences; (3) work characteristics; and (4) safety management. In the third step of the research, hypothetical influencing path model was developed and tested by using structural equation modeling (SEM). It is found that the effects of external factors (safety management and work characteristics) on risk tolerance are larger than that of internal factors (personal subjective perception and work knowledge & experiences). Specifically, safety management contributes the most to workers' safety risk tolerance through its direct effect and indirect effect; while personal subjective perception comes the second and can act as an intermedia for work characteristics. This research provides an in-depth insight of workers' unsafe behaviors by depicting the contributing factors as shown in the accident causal model developed in this research. PMID:26775077

  16. Selective recruitment of host factors by HSV-1 replication centers

    PubMed Central

    LANG, Feng-Chao; LI, Xin; VLADMIROVA, Olga; LI, Zhuo-Ran; CHEN, Gui-Jun; XIAO, Yu; LI, Li-Hong; LU, Dan-Feng; HAN, Hong-Bo; ZHOU, Ju-Min

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) enters productive infection after infecting epithelial cells, where it controls the host nucleus to make viral proteins, starts viral DNA synthesis and assembles infectious virions. In this process, replicating viral genomes are organized into replication centers to facilitate viral growth. HSV-1 is known to use host factors, including host chromatin and host transcription regulators, to transcribe its genes; however, the invading virus also encounters host defense and stress responses to inhibit viral growth. Recently, we found that HSV-1 replication centers recruit host factor CTCF but exclude βH2A.X. Thus, HSV-1 replication centers may selectively recruit cellular factors needed for viral growth, while excluding host factors that are deleterious for viral transcription or replication. Here we report that the viral replication centers selectively excluded modified histone H3, including heterochromatin mark H3K9me3, H3S10P and active chromatin mark H3K4me3, but not unmodified H3. We found a dynamic association between the viral replication centers and host RNA polymerase II. The centers also recruited components of the DNA damage response pathway, including 53BP1, BRCA1 and host antiviral protein SP100. Importantly, we found that ATM kinase was needed for the recruitment of CTCF to the viral centers. These results suggest that the HSV-1 replication centers took advantage of host signaling pathways to actively recruit or exclude host factors to benefit viral growth. PMID:26018857

  17. Factors That Influence the Practice of Elective Induction of Labor

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jennifer; Low, Lisa Kane

    2012-01-01

    Elective induction of labor has been linked to increased rates of prematurity and rising rates of cesarean birth. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate current trends in induction of labor scholarship focusing on evidence-based factors that influence the practice of elective induction. A key word search was conducted to identify studies on the practice of elective induction of labor. Analysis of the findings included clustering and identification of recurrent themes among the articles with 3 categories being identified. Under each category, the words/phrases were further clustered until a construct could be named. A total of 49 articles met inclusion criteria: 7 patient, 6 maternity care provider, and 4 organization factors emerged. Only 4 of the articles identified were evidence based. Patient factors were divided into preferences/convenience, communication, fear, pressure/influence, trust, external influences, and technology. Provider factors were then divided into practice preferences/convenience, lack of information, financial incentives, fear, patient desire/demand, and technology. Organization factors were divided into lack of enforcement/accountability, hospital culture, scheduling of staff, and market share issues. Currently, there is limited data-based information focused on factors that influence elective induction of labor. Despite patient and provider convenience/preferences being cited in the literature, the evidence does not support this practice. PMID:22843006

  18. Factors Affecting Option Choices Relative to the Uptake of Design and Technology at a Selected Hong Kong International School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Marshall

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study described in this paper was to identify those factors which affect Year 9 students at Sha Tin College, Hong Kong, as they make option choices at the end of Key Stage 3 (Year 9: age 14). The main focus of the investigation was how these factors influence the selection or rejection of the four subjects offered under the…

  19. Factors influencing DOC leaching from terrestrial ecosystems: a database analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camino Serrano, M.; Janssens, I.; Luyssaert, S.; Ciais, P.; Gielen, B.

    2012-04-01

    for DIC, DON and DIN. Moreover, a meta-analysis will be carried out to link spatial and temporal variation in DOC concentration and fluxes to their respective drivers. The findings from this analysis will have two main important applications: firstly, the relationships achieved from this database can shed light on the factors that influence DOC formation and transport processes in the soil, and can therefore help in future design of strategies to mitigate soil organic carbon loss; secondly, the growing dataset will be very useful for the development, improvement and validation of DOC models, allowing to account for lateral DOC fluxes in global carbon models and thus improving the predictions of responses to climate change . Specifically, this database will support the future development of the DOC production module in the global land surface model ORCHIDEE, and will be used to test and validate the selected model structures.

  20. Temperature Influences Selective Mortality during the Early Life Stages of a Coral Reef Fish

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Tauna L.; Sponaugle, Su

    2011-01-01

    For organisms with complex life cycles, processes occurring at the interface between life stages can disproportionately impact survival and population dynamics. Temperature is an important factor influencing growth in poikilotherms, and growth-related processes are frequently correlated with survival. We examined the influence of water temperature on growth-related early life history traits (ELHTs) and differential mortality during the transition from larval to early juvenile stage in sixteen monthly cohorts of bicolor damselfish Stegastes partitus, sampled on reefs of the upper Florida Keys, USA over 6 years. Otolith analysis of settlers and juveniles coupled with environmental data revealed that mean near-reef water temperature explained a significant proportion of variation in pelagic larval duration (PLD), early larval growth, size-at-settlement, and growth during early juvenile life. Among all cohorts, surviving juveniles were consistently larger at settlement, but grew more slowly during the first 6 d post-settlement. For the other ELHTs, selective mortality varied seasonally: during winter and spring months, survivors exhibited faster larval growth and shorter PLDs, whereas during warmer summer months, selection on PLD reversed and selection on larval growth became non-linear. Our results demonstrate that temperature not only shapes growth-related traits, but can also influence the direction and intensity of selective mortality. PMID:21559305

  1. Temperature influences selective mortality during the early life stages of a coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Tauna L; Sponaugle, Su

    2011-01-01

    For organisms with complex life cycles, processes occurring at the interface between life stages can disproportionately impact survival and population dynamics. Temperature is an important factor influencing growth in poikilotherms, and growth-related processes are frequently correlated with survival. We examined the influence of water temperature on growth-related early life history traits (ELHTs) and differential mortality during the transition from larval to early juvenile stage in sixteen monthly cohorts of bicolor damselfish Stegastes partitus, sampled on reefs of the upper Florida Keys, USA over 6 years. Otolith analysis of settlers and juveniles coupled with environmental data revealed that mean near-reef water temperature explained a significant proportion of variation in pelagic larval duration (PLD), early larval growth, size-at-settlement, and growth during early juvenile life. Among all cohorts, surviving juveniles were consistently larger at settlement, but grew more slowly during the first 6 d post-settlement. For the other ELHTs, selective mortality varied seasonally: during winter and spring months, survivors exhibited faster larval growth and shorter PLDs, whereas during warmer summer months, selection on PLD reversed and selection on larval growth became non-linear. Our results demonstrate that temperature not only shapes growth-related traits, but can also influence the direction and intensity of selective mortality. PMID:21559305

  2. Structural deterministic safety factors selection criteria and verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verderaime, V.

    1992-01-01

    Though current deterministic safety factors are arbitrarily and unaccountably specified, its ratio is rooted in resistive and applied stress probability distributions. This study approached the deterministic method from a probabilistic concept leading to a more systematic and coherent philosophy and criterion for designing more uniform and reliable high-performance structures. The deterministic method was noted to consist of three safety factors: a standard deviation multiplier of the applied stress distribution; a K-factor for the A- or B-basis material ultimate stress; and the conventional safety factor to ensure that the applied stress does not operate in the inelastic zone of metallic materials. The conventional safety factor is specifically defined as the ratio of ultimate-to-yield stresses. A deterministic safety index of the combined safety factors was derived from which the corresponding reliability proved the deterministic method is not reliability sensitive. The bases for selecting safety factors are presented and verification requirements are discussed. The suggested deterministic approach is applicable to all NASA, DOD, and commercial high-performance structures under static stresses.

  3. [Chloroquine influence on lipid metabolism and selected laboratory parameters].

    PubMed

    Woźniacka, Anna; Lesiak, Aleksandra; Smigielski, Janusz; Sysa-Jedrzejowska, Anna

    2005-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune connective tissue disease with complex pathogenesis, various clinical presentation and chronic course with relapses. Mode of treatment depends on the disease activity and kind of internal organ involvement. In most cases clinical remission could be obtained after antimalarials, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, and photoprotection use. Despite the approved antimalarials therapeutic value, the mechanisms by which they provide benefit in lupus, patients are not fully understood. Literature data indicate that they can influence lipid metabolism. The aim of the performed study was the objective evaluation of the influence of 3-month chloroquine treatment (Arechin, 250 mg/day) on lipid metabolism and selected laboratory parameters. In 34 patients with SLE clinical and laboratory evaluation was performed twice, before and after 3-month treatment. After 3 months significantly lower total cholesterol level was observed (mean value 184.91 mg%, 165.26 mg%, p < 0.001). Also LDL level was evidently lowered (111.27 mg%, 99.25 mg%). Similar tendency was noticed in triglycerides, which level after 3 months decreased from the average 152.38 mg% to 104.97 mg%, p < 0.001. Moreover the lowering of sedimentation rate, increasing hemoglobin level and lengthening coagulation time was perceived. The results of the study indicate the influence of chloroquine on decreasing of the disease activity, its anti-inflammatory properties and mainly the drug impact on lipid metabolism. Not only does antimalarials treatment reduce the risk of atherosclerosis development but it also minimizes corticosteroids side effects, which are considered to be the basic medication in lupus patients. PMID:16541717

  4. Energy availability influences microclimate selection of hibernating bats.

    PubMed

    Boyles, Justin G; Dunbar, Miranda B; Storm, Jonathan J; Brack, Virgil

    2007-12-01

    Many species hibernate to conserve energy during periods of low food and water availability. It has long been assumed that the optimal hibernation strategy involves long, deep bouts of torpor that minimize energy expenditure. However, hibernation has ecological (e.g. decreased predator avoidance) and physiological (e.g. sleep deprivation) costs that must be balanced with energy savings; therefore, individuals possessing sufficient energy reserves may reduce their use of deep torpor. We tested the hypothesis that energy (fat) availability influences temperature selection of two fat-storing bat species during hibernation. We predicted that individuals with small energy reserves would select colder temperatures for hibernation in order to minimize energy expenditure, while individuals with larger energy reserves would choose warmer temperatures to minimize the costs of hibernation. Results from our field experiment indicate that little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) hibernating in warm microclimates were significantly heavier than individuals hibernating in cooler microclimates. To determine if energy availability was mediating this relationship, we limited fatty acid availability with mercaptoacetate (MA) and quantified its effect on torpid metabolic rate (TMR) and thermal preference of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Administration of MA caused a 43% drop in TMR at 10 degrees C and caused bats to choose significantly colder temperatures for hibernation. Our results suggest that fat-storing bats minimize torpor expression using both physiological and behavioral mechanisms. PMID:18055623

  5. Influence analysis for the factor analysis model with ranking data.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Poon, Wai-Yin; Lee, Sik-Yum

    2008-05-01

    Influence analysis is an important component of data analysis, and the local influence approach has been widely applied to many statistical models to identify influential observations and assess minor model perturbations since the pioneering work of Cook (1986). The approach is often adopted to develop influence analysis procedures for factor analysis models with ranking data. However, as this well-known approach is based on the observed data likelihood, which involves multidimensional integrals, directly applying it to develop influence analysis procedures for the factor analysis models with ranking data is difficult. To address this difficulty, a Monte Carlo expectation and maximization algorithm (MCEM) is used to obtain the maximum-likelihood estimate of the model parameters, and measures for influence analysis on the basis of the conditional expectation of the complete data log likelihood at the E-step of the MCEM algorithm are then obtained. Very little additional computation is needed to compute the influence measures, because it is possible to make use of the by-products of the estimation procedure. Influence measures that are based on several typical perturbation schemes are discussed in detail, and the proposed method is illustrated with two real examples and an artificial example. PMID:18482479

  6. Task frequency influences stimulus-driven effects on task selection during voluntary task switching.

    PubMed

    Arrington, Catherine M; Reiman, Kaitlin M

    2015-08-01

    Task selection during voluntary task switching involves both top-down (goal-directed) and bottom-up (stimulus-driven) mechanisms. The factors that shift the balance between these two mechanisms are not well characterized. In the present research, we studied the role that task frequency plays in determining the extent of stimulus-driven task selection. In two experiments, we used the basic paradigm adapted from Arrington (Memory & Cognition, 38, 991-997, 2008), in which the effect of stimulus availability serves as a marker of stimulus-driven task selection. A number and letter appeared on each trial with varying stimulus onset asynchronies, and participants performed either a consonant/vowel or an even/odd judgment. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed as to the relative frequency with which each task was to be performed (i.e., 50/50, 60/40, or 75/25) and were further instructed to make their transitions between tasks unpredictable. In Experiment 2, participants were given no instructions about how to select tasks, resulting in naturally occurring variation in task frequency. With both instructed (Exp. 1) and naturally occurring (Exp. 2) relative task frequencies, the less frequently performed task showed a greater effect of stimulus availability on task selection, suggestive of a larger influence of stimulus-driven mechanisms during task performance for the less frequent task. When goal-directed mechanisms of task choice are engaged less frequently, the relative influence of the stimulus environment increases. PMID:26106057

  7. Influence of Life Style Factors on Barrett's Oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Horna Strand, A; Franzén, T

    2014-01-01

    Background. Since the incidence of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus is rising, the prognosis is poor, and surveillance programs are expensive and mostly cost ineffective, there is a need to increase the knowledge of risk factors in Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal cancer in order to be able to give attention to medical prevention and/or surveillance programs. Aim. To study if there is a correlation between the development of Barrett's oesophagus and GOR (gastro oesophageal reflux), family history of GOR, and life style factors, such as alcohol, smoking habits, and mental stress. Methods. Fifty-five consecutively selected patients with Barrett's oesophagus (BO) examined at Linköping University Hospital's Oesophageal Laboratory were matched by sex, age, and duration of reflux symptoms with 55 GOR patients without Barrett's oesophagus at the Oesophageal Laboratory. The medical charts in respective groups were examined for comparison of life style factors, mental stress, medication, duration of gastroesophageal acid reflux at 24 hr-pH-metry, and incidence of antireflux surgery and of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus (ACO). Also, potential gender differences and diagnosis of ACO were studied. Results. Mean percentage reflux time on 24 hr-pH-metry was higher for the Barrett's oesophagus group, 18% for women and 17% for men compared to 4% for women and 4% for men in the control group (P < 0.05). Family history of GOR was more frequent in Barrett's oesophagus patients (62%) than in the control group (35%) (P < 0.05). Male patients with Barrett's oesophagus had medical therapy for their GOR symptoms to a higher extent (38%) than male controls (65%) (P < 0.05). No difference was found in the number of tobacco users or former tobacco users between Barrett's oesophagus patients and controls. Barrett's oesophagus patients had the same level of alcohol consumption and the same average BMI as the control subjects. Female patients with Barrett's oesophagus rated

  8. Adolescent Friendships, BMI, and Physical Activity: Untangling Selection and Influence Through Longitudinal Social Network Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Simpkins, Sandra D.; Schaefer, David R.; Price, Chara D.; Vest, Andrea E.

    2012-01-01

    Bioecological theory suggests that adolescents’ health is a result of selection and socialization processes occurring between adolescents and their microsettings. This study examines the association between adolescents’ friends and health using a social network model and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 1,896, mean age = 15.97 years). Results indicated evidence of friend influence on BMI and physical activity. Friendships were more likely among adolescents who engaged in greater physical activity and who were similar to one another in BMI and physical activity. These effects emerged after controlling for alternative friend selection factors, such as endogenous social network processes and propinquity through courses and activities. Some selection effects were moderated by gender, popularity, and reciprocity. PMID:24222971

  9. Hunting influences the diel patterns in habitat selection by northern pintails Anas acuta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, Peter S.; Miller, Michael R.; Overton, Cory T.; Yparraguirre, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    Northern pintail Anas acuta (hereafter pintail) populations wintering within Suisun Marsh, a large estuarine managed wetland near San Francisco Bay, California,USA, have declined markedly over the last four decades. The reasons for this decline are unclear. Information on how hunting and other factors influence the selection of vegetation types and sanctuaries would be beneficial to manage pintail populations in SuisunMarsh. During 1991-1993, we radio-marked and relocated female pintails (individuals: N = 203, relocations: N = 7,688) within Suisun Marsh to investigate habitat selection during the non-breeding months (winter). We calculated selection ratios for different vegetation types and for sanctuaries, and examined differences in those ratios between hunting season (i.e. hunting and non-hunting), age (hatchyear and after-hatch-year), and time of day (daylight or night hours). We found that diel patterns in selection were influenced by hunting disturbance. For example, prior to the hunting season and during daylight hours, pintails selected areas dominated by brass buttons Cotula coronopifolia, a potentially important food source, usually outside of sanctuary boundaries. However, during the hunting season, pintails did not select brass buttons during daylight hours, but instead highly selected permanent pools, mostly within sanctuaries. Also, during the hunting season, pintails showed strong selection for brass buttons at night. Sanctuaries provided more area of permanent water pools than within hunting areas and appeared to function as important refugia during daylight hours of the hunting season. Wildlife managers should encourage large protected permanent pools adjacent to hunted wetlands to increase pintail numbers within wetland environments and responsibly benefit hunting opportunities while improving pintail conservation.

  10. Prioritizing factors influencing nurses' satisfaction with hospital information systems: a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process approach.

    PubMed

    Kimiafar, Khalil; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Sheikhtaheri, Abbas; Sarbaz, Masoumeh

    2014-04-01

    Our aim was to use the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process approach to prioritize the factors that influence nurses' satisfaction with a hospital information system. First, we reviewed the related literature to identify and select possible factors. Second, we developed an analytic hierarchy process framework with three main factors (quality of services, of systems, and of information) and 22 subfactors. Third, we developed a questionnaire based on pairwise comparisons and invited 10 experienced nurses who were identified through snowball sampling to rate these factors. Finally, we used Chang's fuzzy extent analysis method to compute the weights of these factors and prioritize them. We found that information quality was the most important factor (58%), followed by service quality (22%) and then system quality (19%). In conclusion, although their weights were not similar, all factors were important and should be considered in evaluating nurses' satisfaction. PMID:24469556

  11. Factors potentially influencing academic performance among medical students

    PubMed Central

    Al Shawwa, Lana; Abulaban, Ahmad A; Abulaban, Abdulrhman A; Merdad, Anas; Baghlaf, Sara; Algethami, Ahmed; Abu-shanab, Joullanar; Balkhoyor, Abdulrahman

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies are needed to examine predictors of success in medical school. The aim of this work is to explore factors that potentially influence excellence of medical students. Methods The study was conducted in the Medical Faculty of King Abdulaziz University during October 2012. A self-administered questionnaire was used. Medical students with a grade point average (GPA) ≥4.5 (out of 5) were included and compared to randomly selected medical students with a GPA <4.5, who were available at the time of the study. Results A total of 359 undergraduate students participated in the study. 50.4% of the sample was students with a GPA ≥4.5. No statistically significant difference regarding the time spent on outings and social events was found. However, 60.7% of high GPA students spend less than 2 hours on social networking per day as compared to 42.6% of the lower GPA students (P<0.01). In addition, 79% of high GPA students prefer to study alone (P=0.02), 68.0% required silence and no interruptions during studying time (P=0.013), and 47% revise their material at least once before an exam (P=0.02). Conclusion Excellent medical students have many different characteristics. For example, they do not use social networking for prolonged periods of time, and they have strong motivation and study enjoyment. Further studies are needed to examine whether these differences have a real impact on GPA or not. PMID:25674033

  12. Computer Visualizations: Factors that Influence Spatial Anatomy Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Ngan; Nelson, Andrew J.; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    Computer visualizations are increasingly common in education across a range of subject disciplines, including anatomy. Despite optimism about their educational potential, students sometime have difficulty learning from these visualizations. The purpose of this study was to explore a range of factors that influence spatial anatomy comprehension…

  13. Consumers with Major Depressive Disorder: Factors Influencing Job Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Haase, Eileen; Zeglin, Robert J.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was applied to study the factors that influence the intention of public rehabilitation placement professionals to place consumers with major depressive disorder (MDD) in jobs. A sample of 108 public rehabilitation placement professionals in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed the MDD…

  14. Factors Influencing the Development of PTSD in Battered Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimino, Joseph J.; Dutton, Mary Ann

    In this study an interactive conceptual model was utilized in an attempt to examine variables which contribute to, and influence, the development of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in battered women. This model considers the individual's response to trauma as being the product of the interaction between factors related to the characteristics…

  15. Factors Influencing Role Behaviors by Professional Exemplars in Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolding, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    This basic qualitative study explored factors that influenced the development of professional role behaviors of nurses, occupational and physical therapists who were characterized as exemplars in the acute hospital setting. The participants, four occupational therapists, four nurses, and four physical therapists were interviewed using a…

  16. Factors Influencing Practical Training Quality in Iranian Agricultural Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mojarradi, Gholamreza; Karamidehkordi, Esmail

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the factors influencing the practical training quality of agricultural higher education programmes from the senior students' perspective. The study was conducted in two public universities located in the north-west of Iran using a cross-sectional survey and structured interviews with a randomised sample of 254…

  17. Factors Influencing Knowledge Creation and Innovation in an Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merx-Chermin, Mireille; Nijhof, Wim, J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of the factors that influence the innovative power of organisations. The concept of innovation and innovative power was examined by analysing the relationship between the construct of the learning organisation, knowledge organisation and innovative organisation, and has resulted…

  18. Police Management Training Factors Influencing DWI Arrests. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Edward W.

    The development of training material for police management personnel concerning command and supervisory actions appropriate for more effective driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) enforcement is desired. The training is based on two research studies that identified environmental and attitudinal factors influencing a patrolman's arrest decision. These…

  19. Factors Influencing Residents' Satisfaction in Residential Aged Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Shu-Chiung; Boldy, Duncan P.; Lee, Andy H.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify the important factors influencing residents' satisfaction in residential aged care and to provide a better understanding of their interrelationships. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional survey design was used to collect the required information, including resident satisfaction, resident dependency…

  20. Factors that Influence Women's Technical Skill Development in Outdoor Adventure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Karen; Loeffler, TA

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical foundation for understanding women's technical skill development (TSD) in outdoor adventure. An examination of societal and biological factors influencing women's TSD focuses on gender role socialization, sense of competence, technical conditioning, sexism, spatial ability, and risk-taking. The article suggests…

  1. Factors Influencing Teachers' Engagement in Informal Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, Margaret C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine factors influencing the engagement of public school teachers in informal learning activities. Design/methodology/approach: This study used a survey research design. Findings: Analysis of the data found that teachers rely to a greater degree on interactive than on independent informal learning…

  2. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Multimedia Cable Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Carolyn A.; Jeffres, Leo W.

    1998-01-01

    Integrates several mainstream research approaches to new media diffusion to explore the potential strengths and weaknesses of each. Investigates factors influencing multimedia cable service adoption interest, including demographic variables, existing media-use patterns, and personality traits such as "innovativeness." (SR)

  3. Factors Influencing Federal Employee Worker Satisfaction: A Baseline Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Wallace V.; And Others

    Utilizing data from the Federal Employee Attitude Survey, 1979, a survey was distributed to a stratified random sample of 20,000 employees to identify and analyze the factors influencing federal employee worker satisfaction. Questions on the survey ranged from demographics to personal evaluations of the work environment as recorded on a…

  4. Factors That Influence the Attrition of Mentors in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Givens, Sharon Leenese

    2012-01-01

    This research is a qualitative case study exploring the factors that influence the attrition of mentors in rural areas. Mentoring initiatives and programs have proliferated throughout schools in an effort to provide students with positive role models, increase graduation rates and improve overall performance Mentoring programs are an increasingly…

  5. Factors that Influence Information Systems Undergraduates to Pursue IT Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsinger, D. Scott; Smith, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    We identify factors that influence the intent of undergraduate information systems majors to pursue IT certification. Previous research has revealed that IT/IS hiring managers may use certification as a job requirement or to differentiate between job candidates with similar levels of education and experience. As well, salary surveys have shown…

  6. What Factors Influence Vietnamese Students' Choice of University?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dao, Mai Thi Ngoc; Thorpe, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the factors that influence Vietnamese students' choice of university in a little researched context where the effects of globalization and education reform are changing higher education. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative survey was completed by 1,124 current or recently completed university…

  7. Factors Influencing Exemplary Science Teachers' Levels of Computer Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakverdi, Meral; Dana, Thomas M.; Swain, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine exemplary science teachers' use of technology in science instruction, factors influencing their level of computer use, their level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, and their…

  8. Factors that Influence Informal Learning in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Shelley A.; Chyung, Seung Youn

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to investigate factors that influence informal learning in the workplace and the types of informal learning activities people engage in at work. More specifically, the research examined: the relationship between informal learning engagement and the presence of learning organization characteristics; and…

  9. Abuse of Working Children and Influencing Factors, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oncu, Emine; Kurt, Ahmet Oner; Esenay, Figen Isik; Ozer, Fatma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The study was planned as the research of the kind/kinds of abuse and the factors influencing the abuse that the children under 18 who are working full-time at a workplace and enrolled in a vocational training center subjected to. Method: Questionnaires were administered to 595 apprentices who were attending a vocational training center.…

  10. Key Factors that Influence Recruiting Young Chinese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhenmin

    2007-01-01

    The discussion in this paper is based on the assumption that international education is equated to recruiting and educating international students, even though its true concept goes far beyond this narrow understanding. The purpose of this research is to look at the key factors that influence recruiting young Chinese students, and make sure all…

  11. Social and Environmental Factors Influencing In-Prison Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodall, James

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is a strong political imperative to regard the prison as a key social setting for health promotion, but evidence indicates that drug misuse continues to be a significant issue for many prisoners. This paper aims to examine the social and environmental factors within the setting that influence individuals' drug taking.…

  12. Factors Influencing Career Choice of Management Students in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwala, Tanuja

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the influence of a range of factors on the career choice of management students in India. The importance of different individuals in the family and at work in making career choices among these students is also to be explored. In addition, the study seeks to address the relationship of the cultural values of…

  13. Multilevel Factors Influencing Maternal Stress during the First Three Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulsow, Miriam; Caldera, Yvonne M.; Pursley, Marta; Reifman, Alan; Huston, Aletha C.

    2002-01-01

    Study applies family stress theory to the influence of personal, child, and familial factors on a mother's parenting stress during the first 3 years of her infant's life. Mother's personality was most predictive of parenting stress. Counterintuitively, mothers who were more satisfied with work or school choices were more likely to be chronically…

  14. Factors Influencing Faculty Engagement--Then, Now, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Barbara A.

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, author Barbara Holland reflects on her 1999 "Journal of Public Service & Outreach" article, "Factors and Strategies That Influence Faculty Involvement in Public Service" (EJ589785) reprinted in this 20th anniversary issue of "Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement." In the late…

  15. Factors Influencing Students' Decisions about Post-Year 10 Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beswick, Kim; Hay, Ian; Watson, Jane; Allen, Jeanne; Cranston, Neil

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports pilot data from an instrument devised as part of a large ARC funded project that aims, among other things, to investigate factors that influence the decisions of students in rural and/or disadvantaged areas to continue their schooling beyond Year 10. One section of the pilot student questionnaire comprised 42 items designed to…

  16. Factors Influencing the Dielectric Properties of Agricultural and Food Materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dielectric properties of materials are defined, and the major factors that influence these properties of agricultural and food materials, namely, frequency of the applied radio-frequency or microwave electric fields, and water content, temperature, and density of the materials, are discussed on the ...

  17. Environmental Volunteers: Factors Influencing Their Involvement in Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liarakou, Georgia; Kostelou, Eleni; Gavrilakis, Costas

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the factors that influence volunteers to become involved in environmental action. The research focused on volunteers undertaking action in summer camps organised by an environmental non-governmental organisation (NGO) in Greece. The results suggest that the environmental issues addressed in volunteer…

  18. Factors Influencing Active Learning in Small Enterprises. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawke, Geof

    The factors influencing active learning in small enterprises were examined. Data from earlier Australian studies were examined in an attempt to provide a framework that might inform the relationship between educational systems and small enterprises. Special attention was paid to a 1988 study of systematic differences between small businesses that…

  19. Against Conventional Wisdom: Factors Influencing Hispanic Students' Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percell, Jay C.; Kaufman, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The researchers performed a variable analysis of the 2002 Educational Longitudinal Study data investigating factors that influence students' reading scores on standardized tests. Hispanic and non-Hispanic Scores were analyzed and controlling variables were compared to determine the effect of each on both populations. Certain variables commonly…

  20. Factors Influencing the Vocational Aspirations of Victorian Year 9 Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrom, Linda K.

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of family background and attitudinal factors on occupational aspirations of Year 9 students in Victoria, Australia. A survey was made of all Victorian Year 9 students and comparisons were made between groups of students who aspired to different occupations. Discriminant function analyses were…

  1. Factors Influencing the Readability of Student-Generated Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, JoBeth

    An investigation examined student-generated texts in terms of both traditional and more theoretically valid readability to determine what factors influence comprehension when children read their own, peer, and adult-written texts. Seventy dictated stories created in an earlier study, along with 4 first-grade level stories from the "Reader's Digest…

  2. Factors Influencing Stress, Burnout, and Retention of Secondary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Molly H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the stress, burnout, satisfaction, and preventive coping skills of nearly 400 secondary teachers to determine variables contributing to these major factors influencing teachers. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics were conducted that found the burnout levels between new and experienced teachers are significantly different,…

  3. Factors Influencing the Occurrence of Adult Agricultural Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christmas, Oren L.; Warmbrod, J. Robert

    A study examined the institutional factors the influence whether or not adult agricultural education programs are offered in high schools. All Ohio secondary schools that offered vocational agriculture programs in agricultural production or farm business management during 1985-1986 (a total of 260 schools) were included in the study. Data were…

  4. Factors influencing dissolution of carbonaceous materials in liquid iron

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, H.P.

    2005-12-01

    Carbon dissolution into liquid iron was investigated by a kinetic model assuming the rate is limited by interfacial carbon dissociation and mass transfer in the liquid iron. The rate influencing factors and the inter-relations among them were discussed with the aid of the kinetic model.

  5. External and Internal Factors Influencing Happiness in Elite Collegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford…

  6. Factors Influencing Consent to Having Videotaped Mental Health Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Kenton; Goebert, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors critically reviewed the literature regarding factors influencing consent to having videotaped mental health sessions. Methods: The authors searched the literature in PubMed, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and Web of Science from the mid-1950s through February 2009. Results: The authors identified 27 studies, of which 19 (73%)…

  7. Analysis on Influence Factors of Adaptive Filter Acting on ANC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiuqun; Zou, Liang; Ni, Guangkui; Wang, Xiaojun; Han, Tao; Zhao, Quanfu

    The noise problem has become more and more serious in recent years. The adaptive filter theory which is applied in ANC [1] (active noise control) has also attracted more and more attention. In this article, the basic principle and algorithm of adaptive theory are both researched. And then the influence factor that affects its covergence rate and noise reduction is also simulated.

  8. Factors Influencing BI Data Collection Strategies: An Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramakrishnan, Thiagarajan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the external factors that influence an organizations' business intelligence (BI) data collection strategy when mediated by BI attributes. In this dissertation, data warehousing strategies are used as the basis on which to frame the exploration of BI data collection strategies. The attributes include…

  9. Factors That Influence Faculty Adoption of Learning-Centered Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Phyllis

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a recommended course of action for faculty development based upon Rogers' theory of Diffusion of Innovations and data collected in a study looking at the prevalence of use of learning-centered teaching practices. Specific faculty development strategies are aligned with Rogers' factors influencing decisions to adopt…

  10. Factors Influencing Undergraduates' Self-Evaluation of Numerical Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tariq, Vicki N.; Durrani, Naureen

    2012-01-01

    This empirical study explores factors influencing undergraduates' self-evaluation of their numerical competence, using data from an online survey completed by 566 undergraduates from a diversity of academic disciplines, across all four faculties at a post-1992 UK university. Analysis of the data, which included correlation and multiple regression…

  11. Factors Influencing Consent for Electronic Data Linkage in Urban Latinos.

    PubMed

    Bakken, Suzanne; Yoon, Sunmoo; Suero-Tejeda, Niurka

    2015-01-01

    Within the context of patient participation in a Learning Health System, this study examined consent rates and factors associated with consent for linking survey data with electronic clinical data in a sample of 2,271 Latinos. Consent rate was 96.3%. Government insurance status and health literacy significantly influenced the odds of consent. PMID:26262286

  12. FACTORS INFLUENCING FALL FOLIAGE COLOR EXPRESSION IN SUGAR MAPLE TREES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: We evaluated factors influencing red autumn coloration in leaves of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) by measuring mineral nutrition and carbohydrate concentrations, moisture content, and phenology of color development of leaves from 16 mature open-grown trees on 12 d...

  13. Improving Performance Appraisals: Confronting Subjective Factors That Influence Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Michael J.

    1986-01-01

    Explores implications of subjective factors that influence rating processes upon which formal performance appraisal systems are based and presents a strategy for addressing this problem which utilizes the critical incident method to focus objectively on employee behavior. A performance feedback worksheet to be utilized with this appraisal method…

  14. Factors Influencing Latino Participation in Community-Based Diabetes Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Sarah L.; Noterman, Amber; Litchfield, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    An Extension diabetes program (DP) was revised for Latinos; however, participation was limited. Factors influencing low participation rates were examined. Five Latinos interested in the DP participated in a focus group discussion. Transcripts were analyzed for themes. Preferred education programs were multi-session, local, group classes led by an…

  15. Adolescents Who Drive Under the Influence: Correlates and Risk Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayton, Daniel M., II; And Others

    This study was designed to determine the correlates or potential risk factors which predict whether an adolescent who drinks or uses drugs will refrain from driving under the influence, or will drive in this condition. A group of 426 rural high school seniors completed a questionnaire which assessed drug use patterns and previously identified risk…

  16. Factors Influencing Adjustment to Late-Life Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Keren Brown; DeShane, Michael R.

    Although the rate of divorce among older Americans has increased steadily, little attention has been paid to late life divorce. To describe the role of age and other factors which might influence adjustment to divorce in later life, data from a larger pilot study were used: 81 divorced persons over the age of 60 completed in-depth, structured…

  17. Factors Influencing Student Participation in College Study Abroad Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandyopadhyay, Soumava; Bandyopadhyay, Kakoli

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework to investigate the factors that influence student participation in college study abroad programs. The authors posit that students' general perceptions regarding the study abroad experience and their expectations of intercultural awareness from study abroad programs will impact their perceptions of…

  18. Factors Influencing Secondary School Teachers' Adoption of Teaching Blogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Hui-Min; Chen, Chin-Pin

    2011-01-01

    Recently, there has been a significant proliferation in the number of teaching blogs; however, little has been explored about what motivates teachers to adopt teaching blogs. The purpose of this study is to find out which factors can significantly influence teacher decisions regarding their teaching blog adoption and the relative importance of…

  19. Factors that Influence Elementary Teachers Use of Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the ways elementary teachers use computer technology for instructional purposes and the factors that influence their use of computers. The population consisted of recent graduates from the elementary teacher preparation program at a mid-Atlantic university. Data were gathered using a survey…

  20. Some Factors Influencing Air Force Simulator Training Effectiveness. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Paul W.

    A study of U.S. Air Force simulator training was conducted to identify factors that influence the effectiveness of such training and to learn how its effectiveness is being determined. The research consisted of a survey of ten representative Air Force simulator training programs and a review of the simulator training research literature. A number…

  1. An investigation of factors influencing accountability and performance ratings.

    PubMed

    Roch, Sylvia G; McNall, Laurel A

    2007-09-01

    The authors explored whether accountability has implications for performance ratings and investigated factors that may influence both accountability and performance ratings. Specifically, they investigated (a) whether feelings of accountability are directly related to performance ratings, (b) whether experimental manipulations that have been proposed to manipulate accountability in fact do so, and (c) the role of motivation-related constructs. They developed and tested a model of factors proposed to influence accountability and performance ratings. Results from 334 raters in an upward feedback situation in a classroom context provide empirical support that feelings of accountability influence rating level, as do perceptions of anonymity and the importance raters place on their jobs. However, neither anonymity nor importance perceptions were related to feelings of accountability. PMID:17933404

  2. The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

    Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

  3. Factors influencing the international spread of equine diseases.

    PubMed

    Timoney, P J

    2000-12-01

    In an era of increasing globalization, the risk of spread of infectious diseases in humans and animals, including equids, has never been greater. International movement of equids and trade in semen are the most important factors responsible for the dissemination of various equine pathogens. Other factors that can or do have the potential to influence the global distribution of equine infectious diseases include: multinational trade agreements, emergent diseases, mutation of pathogens, climate related phenomena, migration of amplifying/reservoir hosts or vectors, availability of new vectors, vaccine contamination and agroterrorism. The relative importance of each of these factors is considered in relation to the spread of equine diseases. PMID:11219348

  4. Influence of filler selection on twin screw foam granulation.

    PubMed

    Rocca, K E; Weatherley, S; Sheskey, P J; Thompson, M R

    2015-01-01

    The influence of filler selection in wet granulation was studied for the novel case where the binder is delivered as an unstable, semi-rigid aqueous foam to an extrusion process. The work primarily examined the impact of differing concentrations of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH® 101) in a formulation with spray-dried α-lactose monohydrate (Flowlac® 100) in regards to wetting and granule nucleation for this relatively new technique known as continuous foam granulation. Foam stability was varied within the work to change its drainage and coarsening behavior atop these powder excipients, by use of different foamable binding agents (METHOCEL™ F4 PLV and METHOCEL™ Premium VLV) as well as by adjusting the foam quality. A static bed penetration test was first used to study the foam behavior in wetting these powders without the processing constraints of an extruder which limit possible liquid-to-solids ratios as well as introduce shear which may complicate interpretation of the mechanism. The test found that the penetration time to saturate these powders decreased as their water absorption capacity increased which in turn decreased the size of the formed nuclei. Differences in the stability of the foamed binder had minimal influence on these attributes of wetting despite its high spread-to-soak behavior. The size of granules produced by extrusion similarly demonstrated sensitivity to the increasing water absorption capacity of the filler and little dependency on foam properties. The different liquid-to-solids ratios required to granulate these different formulations inside the extruder highlighted an evolving concept of powder lubricity for continuous foam granulation. PMID:24111830

  5. Identification of landscape features influencing gene flow: How useful are habitat selection models?

    PubMed

    Roffler, Gretchen H; Schwartz, Michael K; Pilgrim, Kristy L; Talbot, Sandra L; Sage, George K; Adams, Layne G; Luikart, Gordon

    2016-07-01

    Understanding how dispersal patterns are influenced by landscape heterogeneity is critical for modeling species connectivity. Resource selection function (RSF) models are increasingly used in landscape genetics approaches. However, because the ecological factors that drive habitat selection may be different from those influencing dispersal and gene flow, it is important to consider explicit assumptions and spatial scales of measurement. We calculated pairwise genetic distance among 301 Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) in southcentral Alaska using an intensive noninvasive sampling effort and 15 microsatellite loci. We used multiple regression of distance matrices to assess the correlation of pairwise genetic distance and landscape resistance derived from an RSF, and combinations of landscape features hypothesized to influence dispersal. Dall's sheep gene flow was positively correlated with steep slopes, moderate peak normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVI), and open land cover. Whereas RSF covariates were significant in predicting genetic distance, the RSF model itself was not significantly correlated with Dall's sheep gene flow, suggesting that certain habitat features important during summer (rugged terrain, mid-range elevation) were not influential to effective dispersal. This work underscores that consideration of both habitat selection and landscape genetics models may be useful in developing management strategies to both meet the immediate survival of a species and allow for long-term genetic connectivity. PMID:27330556

  6. Identification of landscape features influencing gene flow: How useful are habitat selection models?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roffler, Gretchen H.; Schwartz, Michael K.; Pilgrim, Kristy L.; Talbot, Sandra; Sage, Kevin; Adams, Layne G.; Luikart, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how dispersal patterns are influenced by landscape heterogeneity is critical for modeling species connectivity. Resource selection function (RSF) models are increasingly used in landscape genetics approaches. However, because the ecological factors that drive habitat selection may be different from those influencing dispersal and gene flow, it is important to consider explicit assumptions and spatial scales of measurement. We calculated pairwise genetic distance among 301 Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) in southcentral Alaska using an intensive noninvasive sampling effort and 15 microsatellite loci. We used multiple regression of distance matrices to assess the correlation of pairwise genetic distance and landscape resistance derived from an RSF, and combinations of landscape features hypothesized to influence dispersal. Dall's sheep gene flow was positively correlated with steep slopes, moderate peak normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVI), and open land cover. Whereas RSF covariates were significant in predicting genetic distance, the RSF model itself was not significantly correlated with Dall's sheep gene flow, suggesting that certain habitat features important during summer (rugged terrain, mid-range elevation) were not influential to effective dispersal. This work underscores that consideration of both habitat selection and landscape genetics models may be useful in developing management strategies to both meet the immediate survival of a species and allow for long-term genetic connectivity.

  7. Exploring the influential factors in incident clearance time: Disentangling causation from self-selection bias.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chuan; Ma, Xiaolei; Wang, Yinhai; Wang, Yunpeng

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the relationships between influential factors and incident clearance time is crucial to make effective countermeasures for incident management agencies. Although there have been a certain number of achievements on incident clearance time modeling, limited effort is made to investigate the relative role of incident response time and its self-selection in influencing the clearance time. To fill this gap, this study uses the endogenous switching model to explore the influential factors in incident clearance time, and aims to disentangle causation from self-selection bias caused by response process. Under the joint two-stage model framework, the binary probit model and switching regression model are formulated for both incident response time and clearance time, respectively. Based on the freeway incident data collected in Washington State, full information maximum likelihood (FIML) method is utilized to estimate the endogenous switching model parameters. Significant factors affecting incident response time and clearance time can be identified, including incident, temporal, geographical, environmental, traffic and operational attributes. The estimate results reveal the influential effects of incident, temporal, geographical, environmental, traffic and operational factors on incident response time and clearance time. In addition, the causality of incident response time itself and its self-selection correction on incident clearance time are found to be indispensable. These findings suggest that the causal effect of response time on incident clearance time will be overestimated if the self-selection bias is not considered. PMID:26373988

  8. Consumer's Online Shopping Influence Factors and Decision-Making Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiangbin; Dai, Shiliang

    Previous research on online consumer behavior has mostly been confined to the perceived risk which is used to explain those barriers for purchasing online. However, perceived benefit is another important factor which influences consumers’ decision when shopping online. As a result, an integrated consumer online shopping decision-making model is developed which contains three elements—Consumer, Product, and Web Site. This model proposed relative factors which influence the consumers’ intention during the online shopping progress, and divided them into two different dimensions—mentally level and material level. We tested those factors with surveys, from both online volunteers and offline paper surveys with more than 200 samples. With the help of SEM, the experimental results show that the proposed model and method can be used to analyze consumer’s online shopping decision-making process effectively.

  9. Variance of indoor radon concentration: Major influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Yarmoshenko, I; Vasilyev, A; Malinovsky, G; Bossew, P; Žunić, Z S; Onischenko, A; Zhukovsky, M

    2016-01-15

    Variance of radon concentration in dwelling atmosphere is analysed with regard to geogenic and anthropogenic influencing factors. Analysis includes review of 81 national and regional indoor radon surveys with varying sampling pattern, sample size and duration of measurements and detailed consideration of two regional surveys (Sverdlovsk oblast, Russia and Niška Banja, Serbia). The analysis of the geometric standard deviation revealed that main factors influencing the dispersion of indoor radon concentration over the territory are as follows: area of territory, sample size, characteristics of measurements technique, the radon geogenic potential, building construction characteristics and living habits. As shown for Sverdlovsk oblast and Niška Banja town the dispersion as quantified by GSD is reduced by restricting to certain levels of control factors. Application of the developed approach to characterization of the world population radon exposure is discussed. PMID:26409145

  10. Social selection and peer influence in an online social network.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kevin; Gonzalez, Marco; Kaufman, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Disentangling the effects of selection and influence is one of social science's greatest unsolved puzzles: Do people befriend others who are similar to them, or do they become more similar to their friends over time? Recent advances in stochastic actor-based modeling, combined with self-reported data on a popular online social network site, allow us to address this question with a greater degree of precision than has heretofore been possible. Using data on the Facebook activity of a cohort of college students over 4 years, we find that students who share certain tastes in music and in movies, but not in books, are significantly likely to befriend one another. Meanwhile, we find little evidence for the diffusion of tastes among Facebook friends-except for tastes in classical/jazz music. These findings shed light on the mechanisms responsible for observed network homogeneity; provide a statistically rigorous assessment of the coevolution of cultural tastes and social relationships; and suggest important qualifications to our understanding of both homophily and contagion as generic social processes. PMID:22184242

  11. Social selection and peer influence in an online social network

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Kevin; Gonzalez, Marco; Kaufman, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Disentangling the effects of selection and influence is one of social science's greatest unsolved puzzles: Do people befriend others who are similar to them, or do they become more similar to their friends over time? Recent advances in stochastic actor-based modeling, combined with self-reported data on a popular online social network site, allow us to address this question with a greater degree of precision than has heretofore been possible. Using data on the Facebook activity of a cohort of college students over 4 years, we find that students who share certain tastes in music and in movies, but not in books, are significantly likely to befriend one another. Meanwhile, we find little evidence for the diffusion of tastes among Facebook friends—except for tastes in classical/jazz music. These findings shed light on the mechanisms responsible for observed network homogeneity; provide a statistically rigorous assessment of the coevolution of cultural tastes and social relationships; and suggest important qualifications to our understanding of both homophily and contagion as generic social processes. PMID:22184242

  12. A Review on influencing criteria for selecting supplier of information technology services in the hospital

    PubMed Central

    Ajami, Sima; Rajabzadeh, Ahmad; Ketabi, Saeedeh

    2014-01-01

    Organizations try to outsource their activities as much as possible in order to prevent the problems and use organizational capabilities in Information Technology (IT) field. The purpose of this paper was first, to express the effective criteria for selecting suppliers of IT services, second, to explain the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing IT in hospitals. This study was narrative review, which search was conducted with the help of libraries, books, conference proceedings, and databases of Science Direct, PubMed, Proquest, Springer, and SID (Scientific Information Database). In our searches, we employed the following keywords and their combinations: Outsourcing, information technology, hospital, decision making, and criteria. The preliminary search resulted in 120 articles, which were published between 2000 and 2013 during July 2013. After a careful analysis of the content of each paper, a total of 46 papers were selected based on their relevancy. The criteria and sub-criteria influencing outsourcing decisions in Iranian hospitals were identified in six major categories including administrative issues, issues related to the service/product, technology factors, environmental factors, risks, and economic factors associated with 15 sub-criteria containing business integration, dependence on suppliers, human resources, focus on core competencies, facilities and physical capital, innovation, quality, speed of service delivery, flexibility, market capabilities, geographical location, security, management control, cost, and financial capability. Identify the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing and effective criteria in IT services supplier selection causes the managers be able to take the most appropriate decision to select supplier of IT services. This is a general review on influencing criteria for electing of supplier of information technology services in hospitals. PMID:25540781

  13. A Review on influencing criteria for selecting supplier of information technology services in the hospital.

    PubMed

    Ajami, Sima; Rajabzadeh, Ahmad; Ketabi, Saeedeh

    2014-01-01

    Organizations try to outsource their activities as much as possible in order to prevent the problems and use organizational capabilities in Information Technology (IT) field. The purpose of this paper was first, to express the effective criteria for selecting suppliers of IT services, second, to explain the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing IT in hospitals. This study was narrative review, which search was conducted with the help of libraries, books, conference proceedings, and databases of Science Direct, PubMed, Proquest, Springer, and SID (Scientific Information Database). In our searches, we employed the following keywords and their combinations: Outsourcing, information technology, hospital, decision making, and criteria. The preliminary search resulted in 120 articles, which were published between 2000 and 2013 during July 2013. After a careful analysis of the content of each paper, a total of 46 papers were selected based on their relevancy. The criteria and sub-criteria influencing outsourcing decisions in Iranian hospitals were identified in six major categories including administrative issues, issues related to the service/product, technology factors, environmental factors, risks, and economic factors associated with 15 sub-criteria containing business integration, dependence on suppliers, human resources, focus on core competencies, facilities and physical capital, innovation, quality, speed of service delivery, flexibility, market capabilities, geographical location, security, management control, cost, and financial capability. Identify the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing and effective criteria in IT services supplier selection causes the managers be able to take the most appropriate decision to select supplier of IT services. This is a general review on influencing criteria for electing of supplier of information technology services in hospitals. PMID:25540781

  14. Shorebird roost-site selection at two temporal scales: Is human disturbance a factor?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, K.A.; Otis, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    1. Roost-site selection in shorebirds is governed by ambient factors, including environmental conditions and human disturbance. Determination of the extent to which these factors affect roost use and the associated implications for shorebird habitat protection is important for conservation strategies and informed management of human recreational use of these habitats. Shorebird conservation as a whole is a high priority world-wide because a large proportion of shorebird species is in decline. However, little is understood about the consistency of roost use by different species, what conditions affect species-specific roost-site selection, and at what spatial and temporal scales conditions influence selection. 2. We studied high-tide roost-site selection by eight species of non-breeding shorebirds on a critically important stopover and wintering refuge. We calculated spatial and temporal variability in roost use for each species based on counts and consistency of incidence. We then examined roost-site selection in relation to structural, environmental and human disturbance factors, and how this varied across spatial and temporal scales. 3. Most roosts were used less than 50% of the time, although larger roosts were used more consistently. This varied among species, with red knot Calidris canutus tending to concentrate at a few roosts and American oystercatcher Haematopus palliatus, dowitcher Limnodromus griseus and Limnodromus scolopaceus and ruddy turnstone Arenaria interpres more diffusely distributed among roosts. 4. At an annual scale, the principal factors affecting shorebird presence at roosts were roost length (size), local region, substrate and aspect. The extent and direction of these effects varied among species. Among years, red knots avoided roosts that had high average boat activity within 1000 m, but disturbance did not appear to be a factor for other species. 5. Daily roost use was influenced primarily by wind speed and the ability of roosts to

  15. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DESIGN OF BIOACCUMULATION FACTOR AND BIOTA-SEDIMENT ACCUMULATION FACTOR FIELD STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    General guidance for designing field studies to measure bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) is not available. To develop such guidance, a series of modeling simulations were performed to evaluate the underlying factors and principles th...

  16. Selected Nonverbal Communication Factors Influencing Adult Behavior and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Barbara E.

    1985-01-01

    Examines three particular areas of nonverbal communication important to adult educators: proxemics (interrelated observations and theories of people's use of space as a specialized elaboration of culture), eye contact, and touch. The implications of nonverbal communication for teaching adults are surveyed. (CT)

  17. Factors influencing autism spectrum disorder screening by community paediatricians

    PubMed Central

    WS, Angie; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Nicholas, David; Sharon, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In most cases, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can be reliably diagnosed at two to three years of age. However, Canadian data reveal a median age at diagnosis of approximately four years. OBJECTIVE: To examine general paediatricians’ practices regarding ASD screening and identify factors that influence decisions regarding the use of ASD screening tools. METHODS: Using a qualitative inquiry-based interpretive description approach, 12 paediatricians from four practice groups participated in four focus groups and one individual interview. These were conducted using semistructured interviews, digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. RESULTS: Five main domains of themes were identified related to screening tool use: benefits; needs not addressed; elements that limit utility; elements that encourage utility; and implementation challenges. Factors influencing practice included availability of time, comfort with screening tool use, previous use and knowledge about specific tools. Systemic factors included knowledge and access to community resources, as well as the ability to provide support to the child and family. CONCLUSION: The results from the present study identified important factors that influence paediatric practice in ASD screening. As screening tools improve, it will be important to examine the implementation and effectiveness of screening tools and strategies for increased uptake. Future research will also need to attend to the practical needs of physicians and communities in the aim of earlier diagnosis and rapid access to interventional resources. PMID:26175565

  18. Intercomparison of selected fixed-area areal reduction factor methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovic, Sandra; Perica, Sanja; St Laurent, Michael; Mejía, Alfonso

    2016-06-01

    The areal reduction factor (ARF) is a concept used in many hydrologic designs to transform a point precipitation frequency estimate of a given duration and frequency to a corresponding areal estimate. Various methods have been proposed in the literature to calculate ARFs. Proposed ARFs could vary significantly, and it is unclear if discrepancies are primarily due to differences in methodologies, the dissimilar datasets used to calculate ARFs, or if they originate from regional uniqueness. Our goal in this study is to analyze differences among ARFs derived from different types of fixed-area ARF methods, which are suitable for use with precipitation frequency estimates. For this intercomparison, all the ARFs were computed using the same, high-quality rainfall-radar merged dataset for a common geographic region. The selected ARFs methods represent four commonly used approaches: empirical methods, methods that are based on the spatial correlation structure of rainfall, methods that rely on the scaling properties of rainfall in space and time, and methods that utilize extreme value theory. The state of Oklahoma was selected as the study area, as it has a good quality radar data and a dense network of rain gauges. Results indicate significant uncertainties in the ARF estimates, regardless of the method used. Even when calculated from the same dataset and for the same geographic area, the ARF estimates from the selected methods differ. The differences are more pronounced for the shorter durations and larger areas. Results also indicate some ARF dependence on the average recurrence intervals.

  19. Factors that influence general practitioners' choice of hospital when referring patients for elective surgery.

    PubMed

    Mahon, A; Whitehouse, C; Wilkin, D; Nocon, A

    1993-07-01

    To describe the factors that influence general practitioners' choice of hospital when referring patients for elective surgery in three specialties, a postal questionnaire was distributed in January 1991 to 449 doctors who had referred patients to one of six hospitals in the North Western Regional Health Authority. Responses were received from 260 general practitioners (58%). Of the respondents 95% selected 'local and convenient' as a factor that commonly influenced their choice of hospital for at least one specialty and 65% mentioned this across all three specialties. Seventy four per cent mentioned patient preference as influencing choice for at least one specialty and 57% across all three specialties. Only 32% of doctors mentioned waiting times for appointment across the three specialties and 26% waiting times for surgery across the three specialties. When asked to select the single most important factor 'local and convenient' was selected by 33% of general practitioners for a least one specialty, the general standard of clinical care by 28% and waiting time for appointment by 23%. Patient preference was only selected by 6% of doctors as the most important factor. It is of note that 33% of general practitioners perceived there to be no choice of hospital for at least one specialty and 14% thought this to be the single most important influence on choice for at least one specialty. Approximately half the general practitioners (49%) considered it always or often appropriate to give their patients a choice. Most general practitioners received waiting time information from hospitals in their own health district but fewer received such information from hospitals outside their district.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8398242

  20. Some current factors influencing the prescribing and use of psychiatric drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, R L

    1992-01-01

    A reprise of selected known factors about the influences affecting the prescribing and use of drugs, and some new developments in the drug marketplace, are the basis for this summary and observations about future expectations regarding psychotherapeutic agents. This information can be used to assist in formulating or updating, or both, conceptualizations and hypotheses for future policy and research planning in this area. PMID:1738808

  1. New Infestin-4 Mutants with Increased Selectivity against Factor XIIa

    PubMed Central

    Vuimo, Tatiana A.; Surov, Stepan S.; Ovsepyan, Ruzanna A.; Korneeva, Vera A.; Vorobiev, Ivan I.; Orlova, Nadezhda A.; Minakhin, Leonid; Kuznedelov, Konstantin; Severinov, Konstantin V.; Ataullakhanov, Fazoil I.; Panteleev, Mikhail A.

    2015-01-01

    Factor XIIa (fXIIa) is a serine protease that triggers the coagulation contact pathway and plays a role in thrombosis. Because it interferes with coagulation testing, the need to inhibit fXIIa exists in many cases. Infestin-4 (Inf4) is a Kazal-type inhibitor of fXIIa. Its specificity for fXIIa can be enhanced by point mutations in the protease-binding loop. We attempted to adapt Inf4 for the selective repression of the contact pathway under various in vitro conditions, e.g., during blood collection and in ‘global’ assays of tissue factor (TF)-dependent coagulation. First, we designed a set of new Inf4 mutants that, in contrast to wt-Inf4, had stabilized canonical conformations during molecular dynamics simulation. Off-target activities against factor Xa (fXa), plasmin, and other coagulation proteases were either reduced or eliminated in these recombinant mutants, as demonstrated by chromogenic assays. Interactions with fXIIa and fXa were also analyzed using protein-protein docking. Next, Mutant B, one of the most potent mutants (its Ki for fXIIa is 0.7 nM) was tested in plasma. At concentrations 5–20 μM, this mutant delayed the contact-activated generation of thrombin, as well as clotting in thromboelastography and thrombodynamics assays. In these assays, Mutant B did not affect coagulation initiated by TF, thus demonstrating sufficient selectivity and its potential practical significance as a reagent for coagulation diagnostics. PMID:26670620

  2. The Influence of Contextual and Psychosocial Factors on Handwashing.

    PubMed

    Seimetz, Elisabeth; Boyayo, Anne-Marie; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Even though washing hands with soap is among the most effective measures to reduce the risk of infection, handwashing rates in infrastructure-restricted settings remain seriously low. Little is known about how context alone and in interaction with psychosocial factors influence hand hygiene behavior. The aim of this article was to explore how both contextual and psychosocial factors affect handwashing practices. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 660 caregivers of primary school children in rural Burundi. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that household wealth, the amount of water per person, and having a designated place for washing hands were contextual factors significantly predicting handwashing frequency, whereas the contextual factors, time spent collecting water and amount of money spent on soap, were not significant predictors. The contextual factors explained about 13% of the variance of reported handwashing frequency. The addition of the psychosocial factors to the regression model resulted in a significant 41% increase of explained variation in handwashing frequency. In this final model, the amount of water was the only contextual factor that remained a significant predictor. The most important predictors were a belief of self-efficacy, planning how, when, and where to wash hands, and always remembering to do so. The findings suggest that contextual constraints might be perceived rather than actual barriers and highlight the role of psychosocial factors in understanding hygiene behaviors. PMID:27139449

  3. Succesful Lean Manufacturing Implementation: Internal Key Influencing Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virginia, Iuga; Claudiu, Kifor

    2015-09-01

    Manufacturing sectors and companies all over the world are successfully implementing lean principles within their processes. Nowadays, lean has become an indispensable part of global players. Companies worldwide need to be aware of multiple factors which weigh heavily on the success or failure of lean implementation. This paper focuses on giving a brief and structured overview over the fundamental organizational factors which play a substantial role for the lean manufacturing (LM) implementation process. The study below focuses on internal factors which are indispensable for a successful LM implementation within organizations. It is imperative that these internal factors are known, recognized and taken into consideration during the whole LM implementation process. Ignoring their influence on the process's implementation may lead to endangering the expected results or to making the process more difficult which could result in much higher human resource consumption.

  4. Factors Influencing Prolonged ICU Stay After Open Heart Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Azarfarin, Rasoul; Ashouri, Nasibeh; Totonchi, Ziae; Bakhshandeh, Hooman; Yaghoubi, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are different risk factors that affect the intensive care unit (ICU) stay after cardiac surgery. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate possible risk factors influencing prolonged ICU stay in a large referral hospital. Patients and Methods: We conducted a case-control study to determinate causes of prolonged ICU stay in 280 adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery in a tertiary care center for cardiovascular patients, Tehran, Iran. These patients were divided into two groups according to ICU stay ≤ 96 and > 96 hours. We evaluated perioperative risk factors of ICU stay > 96 hours. Results: Among the 280 patients studied, 184 (65.7%) had stayed ≤ 96 hours and 96 (34.3%) had stayed > 96 hours in ICU. Frequency of prolonged ICU stay was 34.2% in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), 30.8% in patients with valve surgery, and 44.8% in patients with CABG plus valve surgery. Patients with > 96 hours of ICU stay received more blood transfusion and intravenous inotropes. They also had longer anesthesia, cardiopulmonary bypass, and postoperative intubation time. There were higher incidence of postoperative tamponade, re-exploration, re-intubation, hemodialysis, and hypotension in this group (P < 0.05 for all comparisons). Conclusions: In this study, about one-third of patients had prolonged ICU stay. Factors influencing prolonged ICU stay were medical and some non-medical factors. In the present study, up to 30% of the patients had a prolonged ICU stay of > 96 hours. Additional data from well-designed investigations are needed for further assessment of the factors influencing prolonged ICU stay after cardiac surgery. PMID:25785249

  5. Health Related Quality of Life and Influencing Factors among Welders

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jingxiang; Liu, Wuzhong; Zhu, Jun; Weng, Wei; Xu, Jiaming; Ai, Zisheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. Welders are exposed to many occupational hazards; these hazards might cause some occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQL) of electric welders in Shanghai China and explore influencing factors to HRQL of welders. Methods 301 male welders (without pneumoconiosis) and 305 non-dust male workers in Shanghai were enrolled in this study. Short Form-36 (SF-36) health survey questionnaires were applied in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, working and health factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regress analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the eight dimension scores. Results Six dimensions including role-physical (RP), bodily pain (BP), general health (GH), validity (VT), social function (SF), and mental health (MH) were significantly worse in welders compared to non-dust workers. Multiple stepwise regress analysis results show that native place, monthly income, quantity of children, drinking, sleep time, welding type, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), great events in life, and some symptoms including dizziness, discomfort of cervical vertebra, low back pain, cough and insomnia may be influencing factors for HRQL of welders. Among these factors, only sleep time and the use of PPE were salutary. Conclusions Some dimensions of HRQL of these welders have been affected. Enterprises which employ welders should take measures to protect the health of these people and improve their HRQL. PMID:25048102

  6. [Seasonal variation and related influencing factors for tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z B; Lu, Z Q; Xie, H; Duan, Q H

    2016-08-10

    Tuberculosis is recognized as a chronic respiratory infectious disease and still one of the important public health issues in the world. Douglas reported an unique seasonal pattern (summer peak) of tuberculosis, when compared with most other respiratory diseases in 1996. Since then, there had been many other researchers notified various patterns of seasonality on TB. This paper reviewed all the studies published in the last five years and analyzed the current findings on seasonal variability and influencing factors, in order to explore the risk factors to provide evidence for prevention and control strategies on tuberculosis. PMID:27539356

  7. The Influence of Various Factors on the Methane Fermentation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurbanova, M. G.; Egushova, E. A.; Pozdnjakova, OG

    2015-09-01

    The article describes the stages of the methane fermentation process. The phases of methane formation are characterized. The results of the experimental data based on the study of various factors influencing the rate of biogas production and its yield are presented. Such factors as the size of the substrate particles and temperature conditions in the reactor are considered. It is revealed on the basis of experimental data which of the farm animals and poultry excrements are exposed to the most complete fermentation without special preparation. The relationship between fermentation regime, particle size of the feedstock and biogas yield is graphically presented.

  8. Children's disaster reactions: the influence of family and social factors.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Jacobs, Anne K; Houston, J Brian; Griffin, Natalie

    2015-07-01

    This review examines family (demographics, parent reactions and interactions, and parenting style) and social (remote effects, disaster media coverage, exposure to secondary adversities, and social support) factors that influence children's disaster reactions. Lower family socioeconomic status, high parental stress, poor parental coping, contact with media coverage, and exposure to secondary adversities have been associated with adverse outcomes. Social support may provide protection to children in the post-disaster environment though more research is needed to clarify the effects of certain forms of social support. The interaction of the factors described in this review with culture needs further exploration. PMID:25980512

  9. Environmental factors influencing the efficacy of probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Marco, Maria L; Tachon, Sybille

    2013-04-01

    Probiotic bacteria are not typical ingredients but rather living cells that can rapidly respond and adapt to changing conditions in their environment. Numerous factors from culture preparation and preservation, conditions in consumer product matrices, and genetic, dietary, cultural, and health differences between consumers can affect probiotic cell activity and probably influence the specific host-microbe interactions required for probiotic effects in the digestive tract. Understanding the impact of these factors on probiotic efficacy will aid in elucidating the molecular mechanisms of probiotic function, improve the design of probiotic-containing consumer products, and guide the establishment of standardized procedures for clinical studies intended to evaluate probiotic effects. PMID:23102489

  10. Metal Oxide Gas Sensors: Sensitivity and Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengxiang; Yin, Longwei; Zhang, Luyuan; Xiang, Dong; Gao, Rui

    2010-01-01

    Conductometric semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors have been widely used and investigated in the detection of gases. Investigations have indicated that the gas sensing process is strongly related to surface reactions, so one of the important parameters of gas sensors, the sensitivity of the metal oxide based materials, will change with the factors influencing the surface reactions, such as chemical components, surface-modification and microstructures of sensing layers, temperature and humidity. In this brief review, attention will be focused on changes of sensitivity of conductometric semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors due to the five factors mentioned above. PMID:22294916

  11. Factors influencing the local planning of dental services.

    PubMed

    Downer, M C; Whittle, J G; Teagle, F A

    1979-10-01

    Findings from a survey of 796 high school children in four districts constituting a health administrative area were examined to ascertain the factors influencing their dental disease experience, treatment received and attendance pattern. In three of the four districts, over 60% of the children were regular attenders, enjoying the benefit of less active caries than irregular attenders. However, in the remaining district, much of which consisted of depressed, inner city areas undergoing re-development, only one third were regular attenders. Several local factors, such as availability and accessibility of services, probably influenced the numbers seeking regular care, but one of the most important appeared to be the level of provision in the salaried Community Dental Service. The implications of the findings for planning improvements in local services are discussed. PMID:295706

  12. Gender differences in how retirees perceive factors influencing unretirement.

    PubMed

    Armstrong-Stassen, Marjorie; Staats, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Returning to paid employment after retirement is occurring in many developed countries and can be expected to increase in the future. This study compared how women (n = 202) and men (n = 347) who had retired from a managerial or professional career occupation perceived factors associated with unretirement. Retired professional women perceived reasons to unretire, age-friendly human resource practices, and re-entry barriers to have greater influence on retirees' decision to unretire than retired managerial women and retired men. Both groups of retired women perceived training and development opportunities to have more influence than retired men. A major contribution of this study is the identification of pre-retirement career occupation as having an important effect on how female, but not male, retirees perceived the various factors. The findings suggest that researchers and employers need to consider the diversity that exists among retirees, not only gender differences but also differences among retired career women. PMID:23115913

  13. An Integrative Review of Factors Influencing Breastfeeding in Adolescent Mothers.

    PubMed

    Kanhadilok, Supannee; McGrath, Jacqueline M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this integrative review was to describe factors that influence breastfeeding behaviors in adolescent mothers. Twenty-two articles met inclusion criteria. Findings showed that most adolescent mothers intended to breastfeed during pregnancy. Yet, breastfeeding initiation ranged from 39% to 69%. Almost half of adolescent mothers stopped within 1 month. Less than 25% continued to breastfeeding behaviors to 6 months. Factors that influenced breastfeeding decisions in adolescent mothers included social and cultural norms. Personal beliefs about being a good mother were important to intention and initiation of breastfeeding. Promoting maternal competence was found to be essential to breastfeeding initiation and continuation for adolescent mothers. Support from partners and professionals also led to positive attitudes toward breastfeeding initiation and continuation. PMID:26957895

  14. An Integrative Review of Factors Influencing Breastfeeding in Adolescent Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Kanhadilok, Supannee; McGrath, Jacqueline M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this integrative review was to describe factors that influence breastfeeding behaviors in adolescent mothers. Twenty-two articles met inclusion criteria. Findings showed that most adolescent mothers intended to breastfeed during pregnancy. Yet, breastfeeding initiation ranged from 39% to 69%. Almost half of adolescent mothers stopped within 1 month. Less than 25% continued to breastfeeding behaviors to 6 months. Factors that influenced breastfeeding decisions in adolescent mothers included social and cultural norms. Personal beliefs about being a good mother were important to intention and initiation of breastfeeding. Promoting maternal competence was found to be essential to breastfeeding initiation and continuation for adolescent mothers. Support from partners and professionals also led to positive attitudes toward breastfeeding initiation and continuation. PMID:26957895

  15. Patient-based radiographic exposure factor selection: a systematic review

    SciTech Connect

    Ching, William; Robinson, John; McEntee, Mark

    2014-09-15

    Digital technology has wider exposure latitude and post-processing algorithms which can mask the evidence of underexposure and overexposure. Underexposure produces noisy, grainy images which can impede diagnosis and overexposure results in a greater radiation dose to the patient. These exposure errors can result from inaccurate adjustment of exposure factors in response to changes in patient thickness. This study aims to identify all published radiographic exposure adaptation systems which have been, or are being, used in general radiography and discuss their applicability to digital systems. Studies in EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS were systematically reviewed. Some of the search terms used were exposure adaptation, exposure selection, exposure technique, 25% rule, 15% rule, DuPont™ Bit System and radiography. A manual journal-specific search was also conducted in The Radiographer and Radiologic Technology. Studies were included if they demonstrated a system of altering exposure factors to compensate for variations in patients for general radiography. Studies were excluded if they focused on finding optimal exposures for an ‘average’ patient or focused on the relationship between exposure factors and dose. The database search uncovered 11 articles and the journal-specific search uncovered 13 articles discussing systems of exposure adaptation. They can be categorised as simple one-step guidelines, comprehensive charts and computer programs. Only two papers assessed the efficacy of exposure adjustment systems. No literature compares the efficacy of exposure adaptations system for film/screen radiography with digital radiography technology nor is there literature on a digital specific exposure adaptation system.

  16. Evaluation of Midwater Trawl Selectivity and its Influence on Acoustic-Based Fish Population Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Kresimir

    , and the condition factor of the fish caught. Ambient water temperature, time of day, and the proportion of fish in spawning condition influenced model-derived estimates of catchability. Finally, the effect of trawl selectivity on the acoustic-based survey abundance estimate and Gulf of Alaska pollock assessment was evaluated. Survey biomass estimates were overestimated by up to 40 % as abundance of juvenile fish increased and adult abundance decreased. The increase in uncertainty in survey abundance estimates due to trawl selectivity had a measurable impact on the stock assessment, changing model estimates of fishing mortality, spawning biomass and recruitment by more than 10 %. The studies provide new methods for assessing selectivity, catchability and for observing fish behavior in midwater trawls, which can be used to evaluate midwater trawls used in other surveys.

  17. [Influencing factors in measuring absorption coefficient of suspended particulate matters].

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-long; Shen, Fang; Zhang, Jin-fang

    2013-05-01

    Absorption coefficient of suspended particulate matters in natural water is one of the key parameters in ocean color remote sensing. In order to study the influencing factors that affect the measurement, a series of experiments were designed to measure samples using transmittance method (T method), transmittance-reflectance method (T-R method) and absorptance method (A method). The results shows that absorption coefficient measured by the A method has a much lower error compared to the T method and T-R method due to influencing factors,such as filter-to-filter variations, water content of the filter, and homogeneity of filter load and so on. Another factor influence absorption coefficient is path-length amplification induced by multiple scattering inside the filter. To determine the path-length amplification, the true absorption was measured by AC-s (WetLabs). The linear fitting result shows that the mean path-length amplification is much higher for the A method than that of the T-R method and the T method (4.01 versus 2.20 and 2.32), and the corresponding correlation coefficient are 0.90, 0.87 and 0.80. For the A method and the T-R method, higher correlation coefficients are calculated when using polynomial fitting, and the value are 0.95 and 0.94. Analysis of the mean relative error caused by different influencing factors indicates that path-length amplification is the largest error source in measuring the absorption coefficient. PMID:23914523

  18. [Factors influencing development and progression of alcoholic liver disease].

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, K; Marot, A; Deltenre, P

    2015-09-01

    Only a minority ot excessive drinkers develop cirrhosis. The main cofactors implicated in the pathophysiology of alcoholic liver disease are obesity, diabetes or the metabolic syndrome. Several genetic polymorphisms have been associated with a higher risk of alcoholic cirrhosis. Recent data indicate that gut microbiota could play a role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. The aim of this review is to summarize the factors that influence development and progression of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:26502621

  19. Factors influencing veterinary students career choices and attitudes to animals.

    PubMed

    Serpell, James A

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of demographic and experiential factors on first-year veterinary students career choices and attitudes to animal welfare/rights. The study surveyed 329 first-year veterinary students to determine the influence of demographic factors, farm experience, and developmental exposure to different categories of animals on their career preferences and on their attitudes to specific areas of animal welfare and/or rights. A significant male gender bias toward food-animal practice was found, and prior experience with particular types of animals--companion animals, equines, food animals--tended to predict career preferences. Female veterinary students displayed greater concern for possible instances of animal suffering than males, and prior experience with different animals, as well as rural background and farm experience, were also associated with attitude differences. Seventy-two percent of students also reported that their interactions with animals (especially pets) had strongly influenced the development of their values. Animals ranked second in importance after parents in this respect. The present findings illustrate the importance to issues of animal welfare of the cultural context of past experience and influences on attitude development. The results also suggest that previous interactions with animals play a critical role in guiding veterinary students into their chosen career, as well as in helping to determine their specific employment preferences within the veterinary profession. From an animal welfare perspective, the dearth of women choosing careers in food-animal practice is a source of concern. PMID:16421833

  20. Research on Factors Influencing Individual's Behavior of Energy Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yanfeng

    With the rapid rise of distributed generation, Internet of Things, and mobile Internet, both U.S. and European smart home manufacturers have developed energy management solutions for individual usage. These applications help people manage their energy consumption more efficiently. Domestic manufacturers have also launched similar products. This paper focuses on the factors influencing Energy Management Behaviour (EMB) at the individual level. By reviewing academic literature, conducting surveys in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, the author builds an integrated behavioural energy management model of the Chinese energy consumers. This paper takes the vague term of EMB and redefines it as a function of two separate behavioural concepts: Energy Management Intention (EMI), and the traditional Energy Saving Intention (ESI). Secondly, the author conducts statistical analyses on these two behavioural concepts. EMI is the main driver behind an individual's EMB. EMI is affected by Behavioural Attitudes, Subjective Norms, and Perceived Behavioural Control (PBC). Among these three key factors, PBC exerts the strongest influence. This implies that the promotion of the energy management concept is mainly driven by good application user experience (UX). The traditional ESI also demonstrates positive influence on EMB, but its impact is weaker than the impacts arising under EMI's three factors. In other words, the government and manufacturers may not be able to change an individual's energy management behaviour if they rely solely on their traditional promotion strategies. In addition, the study finds that the government may achieve better promotional results by launching subsidies to the manufacturers of these kinds of applications and smart appliances.

  1. A real-time assessment of factors influencing medication events.

    PubMed

    Dollarhide, Adrian W; Rutledge, Thomas; Weinger, Matthew B; Fisher, Erin Stucky; Jain, Sonia; Wolfson, Tanya; Dresselhaus, Timothy R

    2014-01-01

    Reducing medical error is critical to improving the safety and quality of healthcare. Physician stress, fatigue, and excessive workload are performance-shaping factors (PSFs) that may influence medical events (actual administration errors and near misses), but direct relationships between these factors and patient safety have not been clearly defined. This study assessed the real-time influence of emotional stress, workload, and sleep deprivation on self-reported medication events by physicians in academic hospitals. During an 18-month study period, 185 physician participants working at four university-affiliated teaching hospitals reported medication events using a confidential reporting application on handheld computers. Emotional stress scores, perceived workload, patient case volume, clinical experience, total sleep, and demographic variables were also captured via the handheld computers. Medication event reports (n = 11) were then correlated with these demographic and PSFs. Medication events were associated with 36.1% higher perceived workload (p < .05), 38.6% higher inpatient caseloads (p < .01), and 55.9% higher emotional stress scores (p < .01). There was a trend for reported events to also be associated with less sleep (p = .10). These results confirm the effect of factors influencing medication events, and support attention to both provider and hospital environmental characteristics for improving patient safety. PMID:23551380

  2. Faraday rotation influence factors in tellurite-based glass and fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qiuling; Wang, Hui; Wang, Qingwei; Chen, Qiuping

    2015-09-01

    The Faraday rotation influence factors in tellurite-based glass and fibers were studied by experiments and simulations. TeO2-ZnO-Na2O-BaO glass family was fabricated and characterized in terms of the thermal and magneto-optical properties. Two core-cladding pairs for two fibers were selected from fabricated glasses. The Verdet constants of the glasses and fibers were measured at different wavelengths using a homemade optical bench, and the Verdet constant of fiber was close to that of the bulk glass. The influence from external factors (wavelength, laser power and magnetic field) and internal factors (thermal expansion coefficient difference, refractive index and Verdet constant of core and cladding) on Faraday rotation in fibers was investigated and discussed, and the purpose of this study is to improve the Faraday rotation in tellurite fibers for MO device applications both from internal material property match and external parameter configuration in measurement.

  3. Factors influencing exemplary science teachers' levels of computer use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakverdi, Meral

    This study examines exemplary science teachers' use of technology in science instruction, factors influencing their level of computer use, their level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, and their students' use of computer applications/tools in or for their science class. After a relevant review of the literature certain variables were selected for analysis. These variables included personal self-efficacy in teaching with computers, outcome expectancy, pupil-control ideology, level of computer use, age, gender, teaching experience, personal computer use, professional computer use and science teachers' level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction. The sample for this study includes middle and high school science teachers who received the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science Teaching Award (sponsored by the White House and the National Science Foundation) between the years 1997 and 2003 from all 50 states and U.S. territories. Award-winning science teachers were contacted about the survey via e-mail or letter with an enclosed return envelope. Of the 334 award-winning science teachers, usable responses were received from 92 science teachers, which made a response rate of 27.5%. Analysis of the survey responses indicated that exemplary science teachers have a variety of knowledge/skills in using computer related applications/tools. The most commonly used computer applications/tools are information retrieval via the Internet, presentation tools, online communication, digital cameras, and data collection probes. Results of the study revealed that students' use of technology in their science classroom is highly correlated with the frequency of their science teachers' use of computer applications/tools. The results of the multiple regression analysis revealed that personal self-efficacy related to

  4. Factors Potentially Influencing Student Acceptance of Biological Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiles, Jason R.

    This investigation explored scientific, religious, and otherwise nonscientific factors that may influence student acceptance of biological evolution and related concepts, how students perceived these factors to have influenced their levels of acceptance of evolution and changes therein, and what patterns arose among students' articulations of how their levels of acceptance of evolution may have changed. This exploration also measured the extent to which students' levels of acceptance changed following a treatment designed to address factors identified as potentially affecting student acceptance of evolution. Acceptance of evolution was measured using the MATE instrument (Rutledge and Warden, 1999; Rutledge and Sadler, 2007) among participants enrolled in a secondary-level academic program during the summer prior to their final year of high school and as they transitioned to the post-secondary level. Student acceptance of evolution was measured to be significantly higher than pre-treatment levels both immediately following and slightly over one year after treatment. Qualitative data from informal questionnaires, from formal course evaluations, and from semi-structured interviews of students engaged in secondary level education and former students at various stages of post-secondary education confirmed that the suspected factors were perceived by participants to have influenced their levels of acceptance of evolution. Furthermore, participant reports provided insight regarding the relative effects they perceived these factors to have had on their evolution acceptance levels. Additionally, many participants reported that their science teachers in public schools had avoided, omitted, or denigrated evolution during instruction, and several of these students expressed frustration regarding what they perceived to have been a lack of education of an important scientific principle. Finally, no students expressed feelings of being offended by having been taught about

  5. The transcription factor NRSF contributes to epileptogenesis by selective repression of a subset of target genes

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, Shawn; Brennan, Gary P; Dubé, Celine; Rajpara, Seeta; Iyer, Shruti; Richichi, Cristina; Bernard, Christophe; Baram, Tallie Z

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms generating epileptic neuronal networks following insults such as severe seizures are unknown. We have previously shown that interfering with the function of the neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF/REST), an important transcription factor that influences neuronal phenotype, attenuated development of this disorder. In this study, we found that epilepsy-provoking seizures increased the low NRSF levels in mature hippocampus several fold yet surprisingly, provoked repression of only a subset (∼10%) of potential NRSF target genes. Accordingly, the repressed gene-set was rescued when NRSF binding to chromatin was blocked. Unexpectedly, genes selectively repressed by NRSF had mid-range binding frequencies to the repressor, a property that rendered them sensitive to moderate fluctuations of NRSF levels. Genes selectively regulated by NRSF during epileptogenesis coded for ion channels, receptors, and other crucial contributors to neuronal function. Thus, dynamic, selective regulation of NRSF target genes may play a role in influencing neuronal properties in pathological and physiological contexts. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01267.001 PMID:25117540

  6. Polypyrimidine tract sequences direct selection of alternative branch sites and influence protein binding.

    PubMed Central

    Norton, P A

    1994-01-01

    IVS1, an intron derived from the rat fibronectin gene, is spliced inefficiently in vitro, involving the use of three alternative branch sites. Mutation of one branch point site, BP3, so as to increase complementarity to U2 snRNA resulted in exclusive use of that site and improved splicing efficiency, indicating that the wild type BP3 site is one determinant of poor IVS1 splicing. Deletions within the polypyrimidine tract had a variable effect on splicing efficiency and altered the pattern of branch site usage. Selection of each branch site was influenced negatively by purine substitutions ca. 20 nucleotides downstream. It is proposed that all three IVS1 branch sites are pyrimidine tract-dependent. Pyrimidine tract deletions also influenced the crosslinking of PTB (the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein), hnRNP C, and splicing factor U2AF65. All three proteins bound preferentially to distinct regions within the polypyrimidine tract and thus are candidates for mediating pyrimidine tract-dependent branch site selection. The findings indicate the complexity of the IVS1 polypyrimidine tract and suggest a crucial role for this region in modulating branch site selection and IVS1 splicing. Images PMID:7937104

  7. Quantifying the influences of various ecological factors on land surface temperature of urban forests.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yin; Deng, Lu-Ying; Zuo, Shu-Di; Song, Xiao-Dong; Liao, Yi-Lan; Xu, Cheng-Dong; Chen, Qi; Hua, Li-Zhong; Li, Zheng-Wei

    2016-09-01

    Identifying factors that influence the land surface temperature (LST) of urban forests can help improve simulations and predictions of spatial patterns of urban cool islands. This requires a quantitative analytical method that combines spatial statistical analysis with multi-source observational data. The purpose of this study was to reveal how human activities and ecological factors jointly influence LST in clustering regions (hot or cool spots) of urban forests. Using Xiamen City, China from 1996 to 2006 as a case study, we explored the interactions between human activities and ecological factors, as well as their influences on urban forest LST. Population density was selected as a proxy for human activity. We integrated multi-source data (forest inventory, digital elevation models (DEM), population, and remote sensing imagery) to develop a database on a unified urban scale. The driving mechanism of urban forest LST was revealed through a combination of multi-source spatial data and spatial statistical analysis of clustering regions. The results showed that the main factors contributing to urban forest LST were dominant tree species and elevation. The interactions between human activity and specific ecological factors linearly or nonlinearly increased LST in urban forests. Strong interactions between elevation and dominant species were generally observed and were prevalent in either hot or cold spots areas in different years. In conclusion, quantitative studies based on spatial statistics and GeogDetector models should be conducted in urban areas to reveal interactions between human activities, ecological factors, and LST. PMID:27321883

  8. Enhancing selectivity of infrared emitters through quality-factor matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakr, Enas; Zhou, Zhiguang; Bermel, Peter

    2015-09-01

    It has recently been proposed that designing selective emitters with photonic crystals (PhCs) or plasmonic metamaterials can suppress low-energy photon emission, while enhancing higher-energy photon emission. Here, we will consider multiple approaches to designing and fabricating nanophotonic structures concentrating infrared thermal radiation at energies above a critical threshold. These are based on quality factor matching, in which one creates resonant cavities that couple light out at the same rate that the underlying materials emit it. When this quality-factor matching is done properly, emissivities can approach those of a blackbody, but only within a selected range of thermal photon energies. One potential application is for improving the conversion of heat to electricity via a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system, by using thermal radiation to illuminate a photovoltaic (PV) diode. In this study, realistic simulations of system efficiencies are performed using finite-difference time domain (FDTD) and rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) to capture both thermal radiation and PV diode absorption. We first consider a previously studied 2D molybdenum photonic crystal with a commercially-available silicon PV diode, which can yield TPV efficiencies up to 26.2%. Second, a 1D-periodic samarium-doped glass emitter with a gallium antimonide (GaSb) PV diode is presented, which can yield efficiencies up to 38.5%. Finally, a 2D tungsten photonic crystal with a 1D integrated, chirped filter and the GaSb PV diode can yield efficiencies up to 38.2%; however, the fabrication procedure is expected to be more challenging. The advantages and disadvantages of each strategy will be discussed.

  9. The physician's role in selecting a factor replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Pipe, S W

    2006-03-01

    Over the past 20 years, transmissions of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus have been virtually eliminated from plasma-derived or recombinant therapy in the USA, a record that can be largely attributed to the use of effective screening and inactivation technologies for known pathogens. The next significant threat will likely come from the emergence of a new, blood-borne infectious disease, perhaps one transmitted by a non-lipid-enveloped virus or prion, for which current inactivation methods are ineffective. Following the HIV crisis of the 1980s, government, patient advocacy groups, medical and scientific communities and the manufacturers of clotting therapies can learn from the past and approach potential threats from emerging pathogens in a proactive and productive manner. For clinicians, this includes actively engaging patients in a dialogue about all the factors that may influence their choice of clotting factor therapies, including emerging pathogens, patient convenience, consistency and reliability of supply, relative cost/benefit ratios, reimbursement issues (where applicable), patient preference and brand loyalty. It is our obligation as healthcare providers to understand potential risks and help make proactive decisions with our patients, decisions that often must be made in an environment of scientific uncertainty. Threats from infectious agents that were once deemed theoretical can, and often do, ultimately become real, with serious implications for morbidity and mortality. PMID:16445814

  10. Personal and situational factors influencing coaches' perceptions of stress.

    PubMed

    Knight, Camilla J; Reade, Ian L; Selzler, Anne-Marie; Rodgers, Wendy M

    2013-01-01

    Coaching has been recognised as a demanding occupation, associated with a range of stressors. The extent to which coaches perceive stress is likely to be influenced by various personal and situational factors. The purpose of this study was to identify coaches' levels of perceived stress and examine the personal and situational factors that may influence coaches' perceptions of stress. In total, 502 coaches working with university, college, Canada Games, and/or nationally identified athletes completed this study. Coaches completed an online survey, which included questions regarding demographics, work/job-related considerations, and aspects relating to their contract. Coaches also completed the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein, 1983). Overall coaches indicated slightly below average levels of perceived stress (M = 15.13 out of 40) compared with norm-values (Cohen & Janicki-Deverts, 2012). Demographic factors, job-related characteristics, and certain aspects of their contract were associated with coaches' perceptions of stress. In particular, unclear expectations, long-working hours (>40), lack of agreed evaluation criteria, higher salaries, and a lack of social support were related to higher perceptions of stress. As such, the findings of the current study indicate that a reduction in perceived stress is likely to be achieved through a multifaceted approach that addresses multiple factors associated with coaching. PMID:23402372

  11. Factors influencing palliative care. Qualitative study of family physicians' practices.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J. B.; Sangster, M.; Swift, J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine factors that influence family physicians' decisions to practise palliative care. DESIGN: Qualitative method of in-depth interviews. SETTING: Southwestern Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Family physicians who practise palliative care on a full-time basis, who practise on a part-time basis, or who have retired from active involvement in palliative care. METHOD: Eleven in-depth interviews were conducted to explore factors that influence family physicians' decisions to practise palliative care and factors that sustain their interest in palliative care. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The analysis strategy used a phenomenological approach and occurred concurrently rather than sequentially. All interview transcriptions were read independently by the researchers, who then compared and combined their analyses. Final analysis involved examining all interviews collectively, thus permitting relationships between and among central themes to emerge. MAIN OUTCOME FINDINGS: The overriding theme was a common philosophy of palliative care focusing on acceptance of death, whole person care, compassion, communication, and teamwork. Participants' philosophies were shaped by their education and by professional and personal experiences. In addition, participants articulated personal and systemic factors currently affecting their practice of palliative care. CONCLUSIONS: Participants observed that primary care physicians should be responsible for their patients' palliative care within the context of interdisciplinary teams. For medical students to be knowledgeable and sensitive to the needs of dying patients, palliative care should be given higher priority in the curriculum. Finally, participants argued compellingly for transferring the philosophy of palliative care to the overall practice of medicine. PMID:9612588

  12. Factors influencing perceived sustainability of Dutch community health programs.

    PubMed

    Vermeer, A J M; Van Assema, P; Hesdahl, B; Harting, J; De Vries, N K

    2015-09-01

    We assessed the perceived sustainability of community health programs organized by local intersectoral coalitions, as well as the factors that collaborating partners think might influence sustainability. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among 31 collaborating partners of 5 community health programs in deprived neighborhoods in the southern part of the Netherlands. The interview guide was based on a conceptual framework that includes factors related to the context, the leading organization, leadership, the coalition, collaborating partners, interventions and outcomes. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and content analyzed using NVivo 8.0. Participants in each of the programs varied in their perceptions of the sustainability of the program, but those people collaborating in pre-existing neighborhood structures expressed relatively high faith in their continuation. The participating citizens in particular believed that these structures would continue to address the health of the community in the future. We found factors from all categories of the conceptual framework that were perceived to influence sustainability. The program leaders appeared to be crucial to the programs, as they were frequently mentioned in close interaction with other factors. Program leaders should use a motivating and supportive leadership style and should act as 'program champions'. PMID:24021354

  13. The critical factors influencing the successful implementation of mobile nursing stations: a case study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Ju-Ling; Chen, Rai-Fu; Hwang, Hsin-Ginn

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to conduct a comprehensive review of the factors affecting the successful implementation of Mobile Nursing Stations (MNS) by case study. A thorough validation process was used to identify the nine critical factors which influence the implementation of MNS, including the degree of peer competition, governmental and insurance policies, the Information Technology (IT) infrastructure, vendor selection, a clinical champion, top management support, task communications, user participation and training issues. The results of this study can enhance managements' understanding of the complete possibilities for the utilisation of MNS. PMID:18676342

  14. Factors Influencing Learning Environments in an Integrated Experiential Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koci, Peter

    The research conducted for this dissertation examined the learning environment of a specific high school program that delivered the explicit curriculum through an integrated experiential manner, which utilized field and outdoor experiences. The program ran over one semester (five months) and it integrated the grade 10 British Columbian curriculum in five subjects. A mixed methods approach was employed to identify the students' perceptions and provide richer descriptions of their experiences related to their unique learning environment. Quantitative instruments were used to assess changes in students' perspectives of their learning environment, as well as other supporting factors including students' mindfulness, and behaviours towards the environment. Qualitative data collection included observations, open-ended questions, and impromptu interviews with the teacher. The qualitative data describe the factors and processes that influenced the learning environment and give a richer, deeper interpretation which complements the quantitative findings. The research results showed positive scores on all the quantitative measures conducted, and the qualitative data provided further insight into descriptions of learning environment constructs that the students perceived as most important. A major finding was that the group cohesion measure was perceived by students as the most important attribute of their preferred learning environment. A flow chart was developed to help the researcher conceptualize how the learning environment, learning process, and outcomes relate to one another in the studied program. This research attempts to explain through the consideration of this case study: how learning environments can influence behavioural change and how an interconnectedness among several factors in the learning process is influenced by the type of learning environment facilitated. Considerably more research is needed in this area to understand fully the complexity learning

  15. Factors influencing scores on the Social Responsiveness Scale

    PubMed Central

    Hus, Vanessa; Bishop, Somer; Gotham, Katherine; Huerta, Marisela; Lord, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Background The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a parent-completed screening questionnaire often used to measure ASD severity. Although child characteristics are known to influence scores from other ASD-symptom measures, as well as parent-questionnaires more broadly, there has been limited consideration of how non-ASD-specific factors may affect interpretation of SRS scores. Previous studies have explored effects of behavior problems on SRS specificity, but have not addressed influences on the use of the SRS as a quantitative measure of ASD-symptoms. Method Raw scores (SRS-Raw) from parent-completed SRS were analyzed for 2,368 probands with ASD and 1,913 unaffected siblings. Regression analyses were used to assess associations between SRS scores and demographic, language, cognitive, and behavior measures. Results For probands, higher SRS-Raw were associated with greater non-ASD behavior problems, higher age, and more impaired language and cognitive skills, as well as scores from other parent report measures of social development and ASD-symptoms. For unaffected siblings, having more behavior problems predicted higher SRS-Raw; male gender, younger age and poorer adaptive social and expressive communication skills also showed small, but significant effects. Conclusions When using the SRS as a quantitative phenotype measure, the influence of behavior problems, age, and expressive language or cognitive level on scores must be considered. If effects of non-ASD-specific factors are not addressed, SRS scores are more appropriately interpreted as indicating general levels of impairment, than as severity of ASD-specific symptoms or social impairment. Further research is needed to consider how these factors influence the SRS’ sensitivity and specificity in large, clinical samples including individuals with disorders other than ASD. PMID:22823182

  16. Factors influencing Malaysian public attitudes to agro-biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Amin, Latifah; Ahmad, Jamil; Jahi, Jamaluddin Md; Nor, Abd Rahim Md; Osman, Mohamad; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad

    2011-09-01

    Despite considerable research in advanced countries on public perceptions of and attitudes to modern biotechnology, limited effort has been geared towards developing a structural model of public attitudes to modern biotechnology. The purpose of this paper is to identify the relevant factors influencing public attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) soybean, and to analyze the relationship between all the attitudinal factors. A survey was carried out on 1,017 respondents from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey have confirmed that attitudes towards complex issues such as biotechnology should be seen as a multifaceted process. The most important factors predicting support for GM soybean are the specific application-linked perceptions about the benefits, acceptance of risk and moral concern while risk and familiarity are significant predictors of benefit and risk acceptance. Attitudes towards GM soybean are also predicted by several general classes of attitude. PMID:22164706

  17. [Factors influencing self-perception of overweight people].

    PubMed

    Makara-Studzińska, Marta; Podstawka, Danuta; Goclon, Karolina

    2013-11-01

    Shaping of self-perception is among others influenced by physical, interpersonal, emotional, and cultural factors. In self-perception of overweight people an important role is played by interpersonal factors, which include the opinions of others and the relationship with the surrounding. The evaluation of the body image is also affect by sociocultural factors including the media, which create an unrealistic and impossible to achieve ideal of beauty. Contemporary ideal of beauty, where a slim figure is dominant, more frequently contributes to the occurrence of discrimination and stigmatization of overweight people. This phenomenon causes negative self-perception leading to the occurrence of such emotional problems as low self-esteem, lack of confidence, depression and anxiety disorders. Overweight children and adolescents are also frequently stigmatized and discriminated because of their body weight, which results in the development of a negative body image that may lead to low self-esteem and symptoms of depression. PMID:24575656

  18. Factors that influence exercise activity among women post hip fracture participating in the Exercise Plus Program

    PubMed Central

    Resnick, Barbara; Orwig, Denise; D’Adamo, Christopher; Yu-Yahiro, Janet; Hawkes, William; Shardell, Michelle; Golden, Justine; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Magaziner, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Using a social ecological model, this paper describes selected intra- and interpersonal factors that influence exercise behavior in women post hip fracture who participated in the Exercise Plus Program. Model testing of factors that influence exercise behavior at 2, 6 and 12 months post hip fracture was done. The full model hypothesized that demographic variables; cognitive, affective, physical and functional status; pain; fear of falling; social support for exercise, and exposure to the Exercise Plus Program would influence self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and stage of change both directly and indirectly influencing total time spent exercising. Two hundred and nine female hip fracture patients (age 81.0 ± 6.9), the majority of whom were Caucasian (97%), participated in this study. The three predictive models tested across the 12 month recovery trajectory suggest that somewhat different factors may influence exercise over the recovery period and the models explained 8 to 21% of the variance in time spent exercising. To optimize exercise activity post hip fracture, older adults should be helped to realistically assess their self-efficacy and outcome expectations related to exercise, health care providers and friends/peers should be encouraged to reinforce the positive benefits of exercise post hip fracture, and fear of falling should be addressed throughout the entire hip fracture recovery trajectory. PMID:18044192

  19. Factors influencing the undergraduate general education science curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWilliams, John Daniel

    The state of scientific literacy in the United States has been the focus of increasing concern in recent decades. A great deal of the blame for failing to produce citizens with a broad perspective in science has been placed on the undergraduate general education science curriculum. This was a national study designed to examine the factors that influence instructors' decision-making processes in designing the undergraduate general education science curriculum. The study also gathered information on the approaches used to present the curriculum. A mail-in questionnaire was used to collect data on the goals and factors that influence instructors' decisions related to the content of their courses, and on the associated characteristics of the instructors and programs. Questionnaires were returned by 85 instructors, representing a wide range of undergraduate programs in general education science. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-tests, and ANOVA, comparing respondents' mean ratings of factors and goals related to course content decisions. In making decisions, respondents assigned highest importance to the following factors: (a) instructor's philosophy of general education, (b) current and future needs of students, (c) demands of the discipline, and (d) the desire to incorporate an interdisciplinary perspective. Factors rated as least important were (a) recognition for tenure or promotion, (b) governmental requirements or regulations, and (c) guidance of a general education committee. As a goal for their course, respondents placed highest priority on developing students' science inquiry skills. Analysis by various groupings such as type of institution, instructor's education level, and years of teaching experience revealed few significant differences among respondents' ratings of factors and goals. Based on the findings of this study, recommendations for improving the general education science curriculum include (a) assisting instructors in developing and

  20. Factors influencing smokeless tobacco use in rural Ohio Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Julianna M; Liu, Sherry T; Klein, Elizabeth G; Ferketich, Amy K; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2012-12-01

    The burden of smokeless tobacco (ST) use disproportionally impacts males in rural Ohio Appalachia. The purpose of this study was to describe the cultural factors contributing to this disparity and to articulate the way in which culture, through interpersonal factors (i.e. social norms and social networks) and community factors (i.e. marketing and availability), impacts ST initiation and use of ST among boys and men in Ohio Appalachia. Fifteen focus groups and 23 individual qualitative interviews were conducted with adult (n = 63) and adolescent (n = 53) residents in Ohio Appalachian counties to ascertain factors associated with ST use and the impact of ST marketing. Transcriptions were independently coded according to questions and themes. ST use appears to be a rite of passage in the development of masculine identity in Ohio Appalachian culture. Interpersonal factors had the greatest influence on initiation and continued use of ST. Ohio Appalachian boys either emulated current ST users or were actively encouraged to use ST through male family and peer networks. Users perceived their acceptance into the male social network as predicated on ST use. Community factors, including ST advertisement and access to ST, reinforced and normalized underlying cultural values. In addition to policy aimed at reducing tobacco marketing and access, interventions designed to reduce ST use in Ohio Appalachia should incorporate efforts to (1) shift the perception of cultural norms regarding ST use and (2) address male social networks as vehicles in ST initiation. PMID:22427033

  1. Factors Influencing Smokeless Tobacco Use in Rural Ohio Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, Julianna M.; Liu, Sherry T.; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Ferketich, Amy K.; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Background The burden of smokeless tobacco (ST) use disproportionally impacts males in rural Ohio Appalachia. The purpose of this study was to describe the cultural factors contributing to this disparity and to articulate the way in which culture, through interpersonal factors (i.e. social norms and social networks) and community factors (i.e. marketing and availability), impacts ST initiation and use of ST among boys and men in Ohio Appalachia. Methods Fifteen focus groups and twenty-three individual qualitative interviews were conducted with adult (n=63) and adolescent (n=53) residents in Ohio Appalachian counties to ascertain factors associated with ST use and the impact of ST marketing. Transcriptions were independently coded according to questions and themes. Results ST use appears to be a rite of passage in the development of masculine identity in Ohio Appalachian culture. Interpersonal factors had the greatest influence on initiation and continued use of ST. Ohio Appalachian boys either emulated current ST users or were actively encouraged to use ST through male family and peer networks. Users perceived their acceptance into the male social network as predicated on ST use. Community factors, including ST advertisement and access to ST, reinforced and normalized underlying cultural values. Conclusions In addition to policy aimed at reducing tobacco marketing and access, interventions designed to reduce ST use in Ohio Appalachia should incorporate efforts to 1) shift the perception of cultural norms regarding ST use and 2) address male social networks as vehicles in ST initiation. PMID:22427033

  2. Factors influencing behavior in the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Bogdanova, Olena V; Kanekar, Shami; D'Anci, Kristen E; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-06-13

    The forced swim test (FST) is a behavioral test in rodents which was developed in 1978 by Porsolt and colleagues as a model for predicting the clinical efficacy of antidepressant drugs. A modified version of the FST added the classification of active behaviors into swimming and climbing, in order to facilitate the differentiation between serotonergic and noradrenergic classes of antidepressant drugs. The FST is now widely used in basic research and the pharmaceutical screening of potential antidepressant treatments. It is also one of the most commonly used tests to assess depressive-like behavior in animal models. Despite the simplicity and sensitivity of the FST procedure, important differences even in baseline immobility rates have been reported between different groups, which complicate the comparison of results across studies. In spite of several methodological papers and reviews published on the FST, the need still exists for clarification of factors which can influence the procedure. While most recent reviews have focused on antidepressant effects observed with the FST, this one considers the methodological aspects of the procedure, aiming to summarize issues beyond antidepressant action in the FST. The previously published literature is analyzed for factors which are known to influence animal behavior in the FST. These include biological factors, such as strain, age, body weight, gender and individual differences between animals; influence of preconditioning before the FST: handling, social isolation or enriched environment, food manipulations, various kinds of stress, endocrine manipulations and surgery; schedule and routes of treatment, dosage and type of the drugs as well as experimental design and laboratory environmental effects. Consideration of these factors in planning experiments may result in more consistent FST results. PMID:23685235

  3. Monitoring Athletes Through Self-Report: Factors Influencing Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Saw, Anna E.; Main, Luana C.; Gastin, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring athletic preparation facilitates the evaluation and adjustment of practices to optimize performance outcomes. Self-report measures such as questionnaires and diaries are suggested to be a simple and cost-effective approach to monitoring an athlete’s response to training, however their efficacy is dependent on how they are implemented and used. This study sought to identify the perceived factors influencing the implementation of athlete self-report measures (ASRM) in elite sport settings. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with athletes, coaches and sports science and medicine staff at a national sporting institute (n = 30). Interviewees represented 20 different sports programs and had varying experience with ASRM. Purported factors influencing the implementation of ASRM related to the measure itself (e.g., accessibility, timing of completion), and the social environment (e.g., buy-in, reinforcement). Social environmental factors included individual, inter-personal and organizational levels which is consistent with a social ecological framework. An adaptation of this framework was combined with the factors associated with the measure to illustrate the inter-relations and influence upon compliance, data accuracy and athletic outcomes. To improve implementation of ASRM and ultimately athletic outcomes, a multi-factorial and multi-level approach is needed. Key points Effective implementation of a self-report measure for monitoring athletes requires a multi-factorial and multi-level approach which addresses the particular measure used and the surrounding social environment. A well-designed self-report measure should obtain quality data with minimal burden on athletes and staff. A supportive social environment involves buy-in and coordination of all parties, at both an individual and organization level. PMID:25729301

  4. Factors considered by undergraduate medical students when selecting specialty of their future careers

    PubMed Central

    Alawad, Awad Ali Mohamed Ahmed; Khan, Waleed Shabeer; Abdelrazig, Yousif Mohammed; Elzain, Yamin Ibrahim; khalil, Hassan Osman; Ahmed, Omer Bakri Elsayed; Adam, Omeralfaroug Ahmed Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Medical students are the source of a country's physicians. Determining how medical students select their areas of specialization is the key to achieve a balanced distribution of doctors among all specialties. The objective is to identify the number of medical students who have decided their postgraduate specialty career, their career specialties preference, and factors that may influence their decision to select a particular specialty. Methods A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in September 2013 at Faculty of Medicine, University of Medical Sciences and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan. A self-administered semi-structured questionnaire comprising demographic data and questions about future specialties preferences and factors influencing those preferences was distributed to 887 male and female students, (from first to fifth academic years) recruited in the study. Results Response rate was 73% with 647 questionnaires collected, out of 887 eligible medical students. Of the returned questionnaires, 604 were valid. The majority of students (541, 89.6%) have chosen a specialty. Surgery, medicine, paediatrics and obstetrics and gynecology were the most selected specialties. The least selected specialty was anaesthesiology. A significant association was found between gender and specialty choice using Chi-square test (p = 0.00). There was no association between undergraduate level and specialty choice (p = 0.633). The most common reason for choosing a specific specialty was “Personal Interest” (215, 39.7%) followed by being “Helpful to the community” (144, 26.6%). Conclusion Surgery, medicine, paediatrics and obstetrics and gynecology were the most selected specialties. PMID:26090050

  5. Patient-based radiographic exposure factor selection: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ching, William; Robinson, John; McEntee, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Digital technology has wider exposure latitude and post-processing algorithms which can mask the evidence of underexposure and overexposure. Underexposure produces noisy, grainy images which can impede diagnosis and overexposure results in a greater radiation dose to the patient. These exposure errors can result from inaccurate adjustment of exposure factors in response to changes in patient thickness. This study aims to identify all published radiographic exposure adaptation systems which have been, or are being, used in general radiography and discuss their applicability to digital systems. Methods Studies in EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS were systematically reviewed. Some of the search terms used were exposure adaptation, exposure selection, exposure technique, 25% rule, 15% rule, DuPont™ Bit System and radiography. A manual journal-specific search was also conducted in The Radiographer and Radiologic Technology. Studies were included if they demonstrated a system of altering exposure factors to compensate for variations in patients for general radiography. Studies were excluded if they focused on finding optimal exposures for an ‘average’ patient or focused on the relationship between exposure factors and dose. Results The database search uncovered 11 articles and the journal-specific search uncovered 13 articles discussing systems of exposure adaptation. They can be categorised as simple one-step guidelines, comprehensive charts and computer programs. Conclusion Only two papers assessed the efficacy of exposure adjustment systems. No literature compares the efficacy of exposure adaptations system for film/screen radiography with digital radiography technology nor is there literature on a digital specific exposure adaptation system. PMID:26229654

  6. Factors influencing physicians' knowledge sharing on web medical forums.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tung Cheng; Lai, Ming Cheng; Yang, Shu Wen

    2016-09-01

    Web medical forums are relatively unique as knowledge-sharing platforms because physicians participate exclusively as knowledge contributors and not as knowledge recipients. Using the perspective of social exchange theory and considering both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations, this study aims to elicit the factors that significantly influence the willingness of physicians to share professional knowledge on web medical forums and develops a research model to explore the motivations that underlie physicians' knowledge-sharing attitudes. This model hypothesizes that constructs, including shared vision, reputation, altruism, and self-efficacy, positively influence these attitudes and, by extension, positively impact knowledge-sharing intention. A conventional sampling method and the direct recruitment of physicians at their outpatient clinic gathered valid data from a total of 164 physicians for analysis in the model. The empirical results support the validity of the proposed model and identified shared vision as the most significant factor of influence on knowledge-sharing attitudes, followed in descending order by knowledge-sharing self-efficacy, reputation, and altruism. PMID:25888432

  7. Factors influencing the microbial safety of fresh produce: a review.

    PubMed

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2012-10-01

    Increased consumption, larger scale production and more efficient distribution of fresh produce over the past two decades have contributed to an increase in the number of illness outbreaks caused by this commodity. Pathogen contamination of fresh produce may originate before or after harvest, but once contaminated produce is difficult to sanitize. The prospect that some pathogens invade the vascular system of plants and establish "sub-clinical" infection needs to be better understood to enable estimation of its influence upon risk of human illness. Conventional surface sanitation methods can reduce the microbial load, but cannot eliminate pathogens if present. Chlorine dioxide, electrolyzed water, UV light, cold atmospheric plasma, hydrogen peroxide, organic acids and acidified sodium chlorite show promise, but irradiation at 1 kGy in high oxygen atmospheres may prove to be the most effective means to assure elimination of both surface and internal contamination of produce by pathogens. Pathogens of greatest current concern are Salmonella (tomatoes, seed sprouts and spices) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on leafy greens (spinach and lettuce). This review considers new information on illness outbreaks caused by produce, identifies factors which influence their frequency and size and examines intervention effectiveness. Research needed to increase our understanding of the factors influencing microbial safety of fresh produce is addressed. PMID:22850369

  8. [Factors influencing psychotherapeutic treatment outcome of various syndromes].

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Sebastian; Zepf, Siegfried

    2004-12-01

    The authors investigated specific and unspecific factors influencing the psychotherapeutic treatment of various syndromes using a questionnaire which systematically replicated the Consumer Reports Study performed in the USA in 1994. The authors were particularly concerned with the degree to which certain psychotherapeutic methods - psychoanalysis, depth psychology-based psychotherapy and behavioral therapy - produced differing results following treatment of syndromes. Using cluster-analysis, two groups of syndromes could be distinguished: Patients with depressive symptoms, stress-related disorders and/or relationship problems (depression-group) and patients with anxiety disorders and/or eating-related disorders (anxiety-group). With the help of cart-analysis (Classification and Regression Trees) it was possible to identify factors influencing the improvement of symptoms. The method of treatment had not a specific effect on the improvement of symptoms. In both groups the most important predictor was the length of treatment. Furthermore in the depression group the sex of the patients and a possible restriction of the treatment by the health insurance companies influenced the treatment results and in the anxiety group the frequency of treatment and the age of the patients. PMID:15551189

  9. High Enrollment Course Success Factors in Virtual School: Factors Influencing Student Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Feng; Cavanaugh, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a study of success factors in high enrollment courses in a K-12 virtual school learning environment. The influence of variables: time student spent in the learning management system (LMS), number of times logged into the LMS, teacher comment, participation in free or reduced lunch programs, student status in the virtual school…

  10. Prelacteal feeding: influencing factors and relation to establishment of lactation.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, F U; Rahman, M E; Alam, M S

    1996-08-01

    This study was carried out with a view to finding out factors influencing prelacteal feeding and its relation to establishment of lactation in rural Bangladesh. 420 mothers in early post-partum period were interviewed at home. Prelacteal feeding was given to 77% of the babies, and honey was given to 72% of them. The common methods of prelacteal feeding were by finger (41%) and spoon (40%). Twelve socio-demographic and health care variables were studied for their probable influence on prelacteal feeding. Nine of them accounted for 22% of the variability in giving prelacteal feeding. Reasons of giving prelacteal feeding and the time of first breast feeding influenced the practice significantly (P < 0.05). Type and duration of prelacteal feeding had significant negative influence on "coming in" of milk (P < 0.05). Prelacteal feeding accounted for 44% of variations in coming in of milk. Prelacteal feeding and coming in of milk formed a vicious cycle: the former delayed initiation of lactation and on the other hand delay in coming in of milk encouraged prelacteal feeding. These observation emphasized the need for coordinated efforts for promotion of proper infant feeding practices in our rural community. PMID:9103657

  11. Lexical and Syntactic Influences on Structural Selection in Language Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazer, Alexandra Kate

    2016-01-01

    We still know surprisingly little about how grammatical structures are selected for use in sentence production. A major debate concerns whether structural selection is competitive or noncompetitive. Competitive accounts propose that alternative structures or structural components actively suppress one another's activation until one option reaches…

  12. Expecting success: Factors influencing ninth graders' science self-efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, Elizabeth

    What factors influence ninth grade students' expectations for success in science? Using social cognitive theory and bioecological systems theory as theoretical frameworks, this dissertation employs data from the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09) to examine the relative impact of teacher practices and their perceived attitudes on students' science self-efficacy. Further, as they relate to this broader issue, the relative impact of student subjective task value and teacher characteristics is also investigated. It has been well documented that U.S. students are not achieving at satisfactory levels in science. Education policy has focused on improving science teacher quality as one way to address this problem. Teacher effectiveness has been primarily measured by student achievement on standardized tests. However, not enough attention has been given to the social cognitive factors that can lead to increased achievement and persistence in science as well as how teachers may influence these factors. This study interrogates the relationship between student and teacher variables and the social cognitive construct of self-efficacy, which has proven to have a significant impact on student achievement and persistence in science. Findings add to the current literature surrounding ways that educators may increase student performance in science by employing policies and practices that benefit the development of student science self-efficacy.

  13. Factors influencing candidates' choice of a pediatric dental residency program.

    PubMed

    da Fonseca, Marcio A; Pollock, Matthew; Majewski, Robert; Tootla, Ruwaida; Murdoch-Kinch, Carol Anne

    2007-09-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the factors and program characteristics that influenced the program ranking decisions of applicants to pediatric dentistry residency programs. A questionnaire was sent to the first-year resident class in 2005 with a response rate of 69.2 percent (n=260). Approximately 55 percent were female (104/180) and 61 percent were non-His-panic white (110/180). The respondents reported that they applied to an average of nine programs, of which five were ranked. Most applicants were interested in a program that had a hospital component with a duration of two years. A program's ability to prepare the resident for an academic career was a minimal influence for 48.6 percent (87/179), and 57.5 percent (103/179) were not interested in a master's or Ph.D. degree. Factors associated with program ranking included modern clinical facilities, high ratio of dental assistants and faculty to residents, availability of assistants for sedation and general anesthesia cases, availability of a salary or stipend, and amount of clinical experience. Important non-clinical factors included hospitality during the interview, geographic location, and perceived reputation of the program. Opportunity to speak with the current residents in private, observing the interaction between residents and faculty, and touring the facilities were also highly considered. These findings may help program directors tailor their interviews and programs to suit the needs of applicants. PMID:17761626

  14. Factors Influencing the Management of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Podraza, Katherine M; Luthra, Nijee; Origitano, Thomas C; Schneck, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Background Deciding how to manage an unruptured intracranial aneurysm can be difficult for patients and physicians due to controversies about management. The decision as to when and how to intervene may be variable depending on physicians’ interpretation of available data regarding natural history and morbidity and mortality of interventions. Another significant factor in the decision process is the patients’ conception of the risks of rupture and interventions and the psychological burden of harboring an unruptured intracranial aneurysm. Objective  To describe which factors are being considered when patients and their physicians decide how to manage unruptured intracranial aneurysms.  Materials & methods  In a retrospective chart review study, we identified patients seen for evaluation of an unruptured intracranial aneurysm. Data was collected regarding patient and aneurysm characteristics. The physician note pertaining to the management decision was reviewed for documented reasons for intervention. Results  Of 88 patients included, 36 (41%) decided to undergo open or endovascular surgery for at least one unruptured intracranial aneurysm. Multiple aneurysms were present in 14 (16%) patients. Younger patients and current smokers were more likely to undergo surgery, but gender and race did not affect management. Aneurysm size and location strongly influenced management. The most common documented reasons underlying the decision of whether to intervene were the risk of rupture, aneurysm size, and risks of the procedure. For 23 aneurysms (21%), there were no factors documented for the management decision.  Conclusion  The risk of rupture of unruptured intracranial aneurysms may be underestimated by currently available natural history data. Major factors weighed by physicians in management decisions include aneurysm size and location, the patient's age, and medical comorbidities along with the risk of procedural complications. Additional data is needed to

  15. Factors Influencing the Management of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Gillani, Rebecca L; Podraza, Katherine M; Luthra, Nijee; Origitano, Thomas C; Schneck, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Background Deciding how to manage an unruptured intracranial aneurysm can be difficult for patients and physicians due to controversies about management. The decision as to when and how to intervene may be variable depending on physicians' interpretation of available data regarding natural history and morbidity and mortality of interventions. Another significant factor in the decision process is the patients' conception of the risks of rupture and interventions and the psychological burden of harboring an unruptured intracranial aneurysm. Objective  To describe which factors are being considered when patients and their physicians decide how to manage unruptured intracranial aneurysms.  Materials & methods  In a retrospective chart review study, we identified patients seen for evaluation of an unruptured intracranial aneurysm. Data was collected regarding patient and aneurysm characteristics. The physician note pertaining to the management decision was reviewed for documented reasons for intervention. Results  Of 88 patients included, 36 (41%) decided to undergo open or endovascular surgery for at least one unruptured intracranial aneurysm. Multiple aneurysms were present in 14 (16%) patients. Younger patients and current smokers were more likely to undergo surgery, but gender and race did not affect management. Aneurysm size and location strongly influenced management. The most common documented reasons underlying the decision of whether to intervene were the risk of rupture, aneurysm size, and risks of the procedure. For 23 aneurysms (21%), there were no factors documented for the management decision.  Conclusion  The risk of rupture of unruptured intracranial aneurysms may be underestimated by currently available natural history data. Major factors weighed by physicians in management decisions include aneurysm size and location, the patient's age, and medical comorbidities along with the risk of procedural complications. Additional data is needed to define

  16. The good, the bad, and the timely: how temporal order and moral judgment influence causal selection

    PubMed Central

    Reuter, Kevin; Kirfel, Lara; van Riel, Raphael; Barlassina, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Causal selection is the cognitive process through which one or more elements in a complex causal structure are singled out as actual causes of a certain effect. In this paper, we report on an experiment in which we investigated the role of moral and temporal factors in causal selection. Our results are as follows. First, when presented with a temporal chain in which two human agents perform the same action one after the other, subjects tend to judge the later agent to be the actual cause. Second, the impact of temporal location on causal selection is almost canceled out if the later agent did not violate a norm while the former did. We argue that this is due to the impact that judgments of norm violation have on causal selection—even if the violated norm has nothing to do with the obtaining effect. Third, moral judgments about the effect influence causal selection even in the case in which agents could not have foreseen the effect and did not intend to bring it about. We discuss our findings in connection to recent theories of the role of moral judgment in causal reasoning, on the one hand, and to probabilistic models of temporal location, on the other. PMID:25477851

  17. Factors influencing reductions in smoking among Australian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dessaix, Anita; Maag, Audrey; McKenzie, Jeanie; Currow, David C

    2016-01-01

    A continued increase in the proportion of adolescents who never smoke, as well as an understanding of factors that influence reductions in smoking among this susceptible population, is crucial. The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provides an appropriate structure to briefly examine Australian and New South Wales policies and programs that are influencing reductions in smoking among adolescents in Australia. This paper provides an overview of price and recent tax measures to reduce the demand for tobacco, the evolution of smoke-free environment policies, changes to tobacco labelling and packaging, public education campaigns, and restrictions to curb tobacco advertising. It also discusses supplyreduction measures that limit adolescents' access to tobacco products. Consideration is given to emerging priorities to achieve continued declines in smoking by Australian adolescents. PMID:26863168

  18. Nontechnical skills in pediatric surgery: Factors influencing operative performance.

    PubMed

    Youngson, George G

    2016-02-01

    Technical competence is an essential aspect of intraoperative performance but is in itself insufficient to ensure an optimal surgical outcome. A list of other skills complement technical ability and these relate, among others, to surgical judgment and intraoperative decision-making processes as well as the role of the operating surgeon as leader of the surgical team. This article outlines the composite set of nontechnical skills (NTS) and the factors which influence surgical performance by virtue of this skill set. A framework has been developed to allow identification, teaching, and assessment of NTS known as Nontechnical Skills for Surgeons (NOTSS), and the relevance and influence of NOTSS during the intraoperative performance of pediatric surgery is presented. PMID:26644073

  19. Acne vulgaris: nutritional factors may be influencing psychological sequelae.

    PubMed

    Katzman, Martin; Logan, Alan C

    2007-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a distressing skin condition which can carry with it significant psychological disability. Patients with acne are more likely to experience anger and are at increased risk of depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation. Certain nutrients which have been implicated as influencing the pathophysiology of acne have also been identified as important mediators of human cognition, behavior and emotions. Zinc, folic acid, selenium, chromium and omega-3 fatty acids are all examples of nutrients which have been shown to influence depression, anger and/or anxiety. These same nutrients, along with systemic oxidative stress and an altered intestinal microflora have been implicated in acne vulgaris. It is our contention that certain nutritional factors, a weakened antioxidant defense system and altered intestinal microflora may interplay to increase the risk of psychological sequelae in acne vulgaris. PMID:17448607

  20. Factors influencing choice of dental treatment by private general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Brennan, David S; Spencer, A John

    2002-01-01

    Service rate variations have focused attention on treatment decisions. The aims of this study were to examine factors considered in choosing treatments, to classify dentists in terms of clinical decision making, and to investigate the association of decision making with services provided. From a random sample of dentists (response rate 60.3%) treatment constraints (15.0%), periodontal status (12.1%), tooth status (11.3%), mouth status (10.1%), and patient factors (9.8%) were considered important factors across six alternative treatment pair choice scenarios. Cluster analysis of the treatment choice scenarios produced one cluster that reflected patient preferences, another that reflected treatment constraints such as cost, and a third that reflected oral health factors. Compared with the oral health cluster, dentists in the constraints cluster had higher rates (p < .05) of extractions (rate ratio [RR] = 1.49), bridge work (RR = 1.77), and dentures (RR = 1.32), whereas dentists in the patient cluster had higher restoration rates for two-surface ionomers (RR = 2.45) and resins on three or more surfaces (RR = 1.50) and other preventive services (RR = 1.78) such as oral hygiene instruction. Although a range of factors influenced treatment choice, a limited set accounted for the majority of responses, with cost a major determinant, ahead of oral health status and patient preference. Decision-making style was associated with service provision. PMID:12174535

  1. Factors influencing stakeholders attitudes toward genetically modified aedes mosquito.

    PubMed

    Amin, Latifah; Hashim, Hasrizul

    2015-06-01

    Dengue fever is a debilitating and infectious disease that could be life-threatening. It is caused by the dengue virus which affects millions of people in the tropical area. Currently, there is no cure for the disease as there is no vaccine available. Thus, prevention of the vector population using conventional methods is by far the main strategy but has been found ineffective. A genetically modified (GM) mosquito is among the favoured alternatives to curb dengue fever in Malaysia. Past studies have shown that development and diffusion of gene technology products depends heavily upon public acceptance. The purpose of this study is to identify the relevant factors influencing stakeholders' attitudes toward the GM Aedes mosquito and to analyse the relationships between all the factors using the structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 509 respondents from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Results of the survey have confirmed that public perception towards complex issues such as gene technology should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The perceived benefit-perceived risk balance is very important in determining the most predominant predictor of attitudes toward a GM mosquito. In this study the stakeholders perceived the benefit of the GM mosquito as outweighing its risk, translating perceived benefit as the most important direct predictor of attitudes toward the GM mosquito. Trust in key players has a direct influence on attitudes toward the GM mosquito while moral concern exhibited an indirect influence through perceived benefits. Other factors such as attitudes toward technology and nature were also indirect predictors of attitudes toward the GM mosquito while religiosity and engagement did not exhibited any significant roles. The research findings serve as a useful database to understand public acceptance and the social construct of public attitudes towards the GM mosquito to combat dengue. PMID:24906652

  2. Factors influencing trace element composition in human teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, L.; Iyengar, G.V.

    1997-12-01

    The authors recently compiled and reviewed the literature published in or after 1978 for 45 major, minor, and trace elements in human teeth as a part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) study. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the various factors that influence the concentration levels of certain trace elements in human teeth. The sampling practices and analytical techniques that are applicable for trace element analysis are also discussed. It is also our intention to identify reference range of values, where data permit such conclusions. The scrutiny was designed to identify only the healthy permanent teeth, and values from teeth with fillings, caries, or periodontal diseases were eliminated.

  3. Factors influencing evidence-based practice for community nurses.

    PubMed

    Baird, Lisa M Garland; Miller, Tess

    2015-05-01

    Factors influencing the development of evidence-based nursing practice (EBNP) were examined in Prince Edward Island, Canada. An adapted electronic questionnaire was distributed to practicing registered nurses and nurse practitioners (n=68). An analysis of variance revealed a significant difference between nurses' clinical practice setting and the EBNP scale. Significant differences were also found between age and education level when compared with the EBNP subscales where novice nurses were less likely to rely on experience and intuition, and expert nurses with a higher level of education reported being more skilful at synthesising and applying information from research findings into their nursing practice. PMID:25993372

  4. The influence of environmental factors on bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Szpalski, Caroline; Sagebin, Fabio; Barbaro, Marissa; Warren, Stephen M

    2013-05-01

    Bone repair and regeneration are dynamic processes that involve a complex interplay between the substrate, local and systemic cells, and the milieu. Although each constituent plays an integral role in faithfully recreating the skeleton, investigators have long focused their efforts on scaffold materials and design, cytokine and hormone administration, and cell-based therapies. Only recently have the intangible aspects of the milieu received their due attention. In this review, we highlight the important influence of environmental factors on bone tissue engineering. PMID:23165885

  5. Factors Influencing Dating Experiences Among African American Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Naomi M.; Lee, Anna K.; Witherspoon, Daphne D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined sociocultural factors that impact dating and sexual experiences of heterosexual African American undergraduate college students attending a historically Black institution in the Southeastern United States. Specifically, mate availability and relationship involvement were analyzed to document students’ experiences, and how these influences may be associated with sexual decision making and behavior. Data from nine focus groups (N = 57) were aggregated and four subthemes were identified: competition among women, acceptability of mates, high prevalence of casual relationships, and lowered expectations for commitment. Power dynamics emerged as a contributing factor to the types of relationship involvement, sexual decision-making, and behavior among participants. The importance of prevention programs focusing on situational and cultural variables is highlighted. Additionally, implications for professionals working with emerging adults to consider the impact of the gender ratio imbalance, and perceived power distributions on perceptions of dating relationships, and sexual decision making and behavior are addressed. PMID:25530924

  6. Influence of Lifestyle Factors on Mammographic Density in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Judith S.; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Louise; Trinh, Thang; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Hall, Per; Celebioglu, Fuat

    2013-01-01

    Background Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Apart from hormone replacement therapy (HRT), little is known about lifestyle factors that influence breast density. Methods We examined the effect of smoking, alcohol and physical activity on mammographic density in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women without breast cancer. Lifestyle factors were assessed by a questionnaire and percentage and area measures of mammographic density were measured using computer-assisted software. General linear models were used to assess the association between lifestyle factors and mammographic density and effect modification by body mass index (BMI) and HRT was studied. Results Overall, alcohol intake was positively associated with percent mammographic density (P trend  = 0.07). This association was modified by HRT use (P interaction  = 0.06): increasing alcohol intake was associated with increasing percent density in current HRT users (P trend  = 0.01) but not in non-current users (P trend  = 0.82). A similar interaction between alcohol and HRT was found for the absolute dense area, with a positive association being present in current HRT users only (P interaction  = 0.04). No differences in mammographic density were observed across categories of smoking and physical activity, neither overall nor in stratified analyses by BMI and HRT use. Conclusions Increasing alcohol intake is associated with an increase in mammography density, whereas smoking and physical activity do not seem to influence density. The observed interaction between alcohol and HRT may pose an opportunity for HRT users to lower their mammographic density and breast cancer risk. PMID:24349146

  7. The formation mechanism and the influence factor of residual stress in machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhaoxu; Li, Bin; Xiong, Liangshan

    2014-09-01

    Residual stresses generated in cutting process have important influences on workpiece performance. The paper presents a method of theoretical analysis in order to explicate the formation mechanism of residual stresses in cutting. An important conclusion is drawn that the accumulated plastic strain is the main factor which determines the nature and the magnitude of surface residual stresses in the workpiece. On the basis of the analytical model for residual stress, a series of simulations for residual stress prediction during cutting AISI 1045 steel are implemented in order to obtain the influences of cutting speed, depth of cut and tool edge radius on surface residual stress in the workpiece. And these influences are explained from the perspective of formation mechanism of residual stress in cutting. The conclusions have good applicability and can be used to guide the parameters selection in actual production.

  8. Pregnancy is not a risk factor for gallstone disease: Results of a randomly selected population sample

    PubMed Central

    Walcher, Thomas; Haenle, Mark Martin; Kron, Martina; Hay, Birgit; Mason, Richard Andrew; von Schmiesing, Alexa Friederike Alice; Imhof, Armin; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kern, Peter; Boehm, Bernhard Otto; Kratzer, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence, risk factors, and selection of the study population for cholecystolithiasis in an urban population in Germany, in relation to our own findings and to the results in the international literature. METHODS: A total of 2 147 persons (1 111 females, age 42.8 ± 12.7 years; 1 036 males, age 42.3 ± 13.1 years) participating in an investigation on the prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis were studied for risk factors and prevalence of gallbladder stone disease. Risk factors were assessed by means of a standardized interview and calculation of body mass index (BMI). A diagnostic ultrasound examination of the gallbladder was performed. Data were analyzed by multiple logistic regression, using the SAS statistical software package. RESULTS: Gallbladder stones were detected in 171 study participants (8.0%, n = 2 147). Risk factors for the development of gallbladder stone disease included age, sex, BMI, and positive family history. In a separate analysis of female study participants, pregnancy (yes/no) and number of pregnancies did not exert any influence. CONCLUSION: Findings of the present study confirm that age, female sex, BMI, and positive family history are risk factors for the development of gallbladder stone disease. Pregnancy and the number of pregnancies, however, could not be shown to be risk factors. There seem to be no differences in the respective prevalence for gallbladder stone disease in urban and rural populations. PMID:16425387

  9. Selective aggressiveness in European free-tailed bats ( Tadarida teniotis): influence of familiarity, age and sex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancillotto, Leonardo; Russo, Danilo

    2014-03-01

    Bats are highly social mammals that often form large groups and represent good models to test the role played by individual status in shaping social relationships. Social cohesion relies on the ability of group and individual recognition, which is mediated by a range of sensorial cues. In this study, we selected the European free-tailed bat Tadarida teniotis as a model species to test the effects of familiarity, sex and age on aggressiveness and mutual tolerance. We hypothesize that T. teniotis is able to recognize group members and exhibit selective aggressiveness, and thus we predict fewer aggressive events and more amicable encounters between colony mates than between strangers. As female bats are generally more sociable and perform prolonged parental care to juveniles even after weaning, we hypothesize that sex and age of bats have significant influences on aggressive behaviours and thus predict that females will perform more amicable behaviours than males and that adults of both sexes will be less aggressive towards juveniles. Our results confirm that T. teniotis is able to discriminate between familiar and stranger individuals, showing higher rates of aggressive behaviours towards the latter. Females are more prone to exhibit amicable behaviours, particularly during same-sex interactions, while males show higher level of aggressiveness. Juveniles are subjected to fewer aggressive behaviours by adults of both sexes. Familiarity appears crucial for T. teniotis in determining the degree of aggressiveness during social interactions but the rate of aggressive events is also influenced by intrinsic individual factors such as sex and age.

  10. Influence of factors on mammographic density in premenopausal Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yaping; Liu, Jieqiong; Gu, Ran; Hu, Yue; Liu, Fengtao; Yun, Miaomiao; Xiao, Qiaozhen; Wu, Mei; Liu, Qiang; Su, Fengxi

    2016-07-01

    Mammographic density is an independent strong risk factor for breast cancer. However, the influence of factors on mammographic density in premenopausal women remains unclear. In the Southern Professional Women Breast Cancer Screening Project, we assessed the associations between mammographic density and its influential factors using multivariate logistic regression in premenopausal women adjusting for BMI, age, duration of breastfeeding, number of live births, and breast size. A total of 1699 premenopausal women aged 27 to 57 years, who had been screened by mammography, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Overall, 85.2% were categorized as having dense breasts (BI-RADS density 3 and 4) and 14.8% as having fatty breasts (BI-RADS density 1 and 2). In multivariate and logistic regression analysis, only BMI and age were significantly negatively correlated with mammographic density in premenopausal women (P<0.001). No significant associations between mammographic density and number of deliveries, breastfeeding duration, education level, family history of breast cancer, as well as breast size and sleep quality, were identified in the study. Age and BMI are negatively associated with mammographic density in premenopausal Chinese women. Information on the influential factors of mammographic density in premenopausal women might provide meaningful insights into breast cancer prevention. PMID:26075657

  11. Influencing factors of hydrogen bonding intensity in beer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunfeng; Dong, Jianjun; Yin, Xiangsheng; Li, Qi; Gu, Guoxian

    2014-11-01

    The hydrogen bonding was prone to be formed by many components in beer. Different sorts of flavor substances can affect the Chemical Shift due to their different concentrations in beer. Several key factors including 4 alcohols, 2 esters, 6 ions, 9 acids, 7 polyphenols, and 2 gravity indexes (OG and RG) were determined in this research. They could be used to investigate the relationship between hydrogen bonding intensity and the flavor components in bottled larger beers through the Correlation Analysis, Principal Component Analysis and Multiple Regression Analysis. Results showed that ethanol content was the primary influencing factor, and its correlation coefficient was 0.629 for Correlation Analysis. Some factors had a positive correlation with hydrogen bonding intensity, including the content of original gravity, ethanol, isobutanol, Cl(-), K(+), pyruvic acid, lactic acid, gallic acid, vanillic acid, and Catechin in beer. A mathematic model of hydrogen bonding Chemical Shift and the content of ethanol, pyruvic acid, K(+), and gallic acid was obtained through the Principal Component Analysis and Multiple Regression Analysis , with the adjusted R(2) being 0.779 (P = 0.001). Ethanol content was proved to be the most important factor which could impact on hydrogen bonding association in beer by Principal Component Analysis. And then, a multiple non-linearity model could be obtained as follows: [Formula: see text]. The average error was 1.23 % in the validated experiment. PMID:26396290

  12. Computer visualizations: factors that influence spatial anatomy comprehension.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ngan; Nelson, Andrew J; Wilson, Timothy D

    2012-01-01

    Computer visualizations are increasingly common in education across a range of subject disciplines, including anatomy. Despite optimism about their educational potential, students sometime have difficulty learning from these visualizations. The purpose of this study was to explore a range of factors that influence spatial anatomy comprehension before and after instruction with different computer visualizations. Three major factors were considered: (1) visualization ability (VZ) of learners, (2) dynamism of the visual display, and (3) interactivity of the system. Participants (N = 60) of differing VZs (high, low) studied a group of anatomical structures in one of three visual conditions (control, static, dynamic) and one of two interactive conditions (interactive, non-interactive). Before and after the study phase, participants' comprehension of spatial anatomical information was assessed using a multiple-choice spatial anatomy task (SAT) involving the mental rotation of the anatomical structures, identification of the structures in 2D cross-sections, and localization of planes corresponding to given cross-sections. Results indicate that VZ had a positive influence on SAT performance but instruction with different computer visualizations could modulate the effect of VZ on task performance. PMID:22232125

  13. In-hospital resuscitation: opioids and other factors influencing survival

    PubMed Central

    Fecho, Karamarie; Jackson, Freeman; Smith, Frances; Overdyk, Frank J

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: “Code Blue” is a standard term used to alertt hospital staff that a patient requires resuscitation. This study determined rates of survival from Code Blue events and the role of opioids and other factors on survival. Methods: Data derived from medical records and the Code Blue and Pharmacy databases were analyzed for factors affecting survival. Results: During 2006, rates of survival from the code only and to discharge were 25.9% and 26.4%, respectively, for Code Blue events involving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR; N = 216). Survival rates for events not ultimately requiring CPR (N = 77) were higher, with 32.5% surviving the code only and 62.3% surviving to discharge. For CPR events, rates of survival to discharge correlated inversely with time to chest compressions and defibrillation, precipitating event, need for airway management, location and age. Time of week, witnessing, postoperative status, gender and opioid use did not influence survival rates. For non-CPR events, opioid use was associated with decreased survival. Survival rates were lowest for patients receiving continuous infusions (P < 0.01) or iv boluses of opioids (P < 0.05). Conclusions: One-quarter of patients survive to discharge after a CPR Code Blue event and two-thirds survive to discharge after a non-CPR event. Opioids may influence survival from non-CPR events. PMID:20057895

  14. Biology, Genetics, and Environment: Underlying Factors Influencing Alcohol Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wall, Tamara L; Luczak, Susan E; Hiller-Sturmhöfel, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Gene variants encoding several of the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), are among the largest genetic associations with risk for alcohol dependence. Certain genetic variants (i.e., alleles)--particularly the ADH1B*2, ADH1B*3, ADH1C*1, and ALDH2*2 alleles--have been associated with lower rates of alcohol dependence. These alleles may lead to an accumulation of acetaldehyde during alcohol metabolism, which can result in heightened subjective and objective effects. The prevalence of these alleles differs among ethnic groups; ADH1B*2 is found frequently in northeast Asians and occasionally Caucasians, ADH1B*3 is found predominantly in people of African ancestry, ADH1C*1 varies substantially across populations, and ALDH2*2 is found almost exclusively in northeast Asians. Differences in the prevalence of these alleles may account at least in part for ethnic differences in alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, these alleles do not act in isolation to influence the risk of AUD. For example, the gene effects of ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2 seem to interact. Moreover, other factors have been found to influence the extent to which these alleles affect a person's alcohol involvement, including developmental stage, individual characteristics (e.g., ethnicity, antisocial behavior, and behavioral undercontrol), and environmental factors (e.g., culture, religion, family environment, and childhood adversity). PMID:27163368

  15. Identification of the influencing factors on groundwater drought in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touhidul Mustafa, Syed Md.; Huysmans, Marijke

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater drought is a specific type of drought that concerns groundwater bodies. It may have a significant adverse effect on the socio-economic, agricultural, and environmental conditions. Investigating the effect of response different climatic and manmade factors on groundwater drought provides essential information for sustainable planning and management of water resources. The aim of this study is to identify the influencing factors on groundwater drought in a drought prone region in Bangladesh to understand the forcing mechanisms. The Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) and Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) have been used to quantify the aggregated deficit between precipitation and the evaporative demand of the atmosphere. The influence of land use patterns on the groundwater drought has been identified by calculating spatially distributed groundwater recharge as a function of land use. The result shows that drought intensity is more severe during the dry season (November to April) compared to the rainy season (May to October). The evapotranspiration and rainfall deficit has a significant effect on meteorological drought which has a direct relation with groundwater drought. Urbanization results in a decrease of groundwater recharge which increases groundwater drought severity. Overexploitation of groundwater for irrigation and recurrent meteorological droughts are the main causes of groundwater drought in the study area. Efficient irrigation management is essential to reduce the growing pressure on groundwater resources and ensure sustainable water management. More detailed studies on climate change and land use change effects on groundwater drought are recommended. Keywords: Groundwater drought, SPI & RDI, Spatially distributed groundwater recharge, Irrigation, Bangladesh

  16. Development of Selective Attention: Perceptual Load Influences Early versus Late Attentional Selection in Children and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.; Carr, Thomas H.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2002-01-01

    Examined in two studies the moderating effect of perceptual load on visual selective attention. Found that children's performance was as efficient as adults' under conditions of high but not low loads, suggesting that early selection engages rapidly maturing neural systems and late selection engages later-maturing systems. The onset of early…

  17. Environmental Factors Influencing Arctic Halogen Chemistry During Late Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burd, J.; Nghiem, S. V.; Simpson, W. R.

    2015-12-01

    Reactive halogen radicals (e.g. Br, Cl atoms and their oxides, BrO, ClO) are important oxidizers in the troposphere that decrease atmospheric pollutants and deplete tropospheric ozone, affecting the abundance of other oxidizers such as the hydroxyl radical. During Arctic springtime, the heterogeneous chemical cycles (often called the "bromine explosion") produce high levels of bromine monoxide (BrO), through reactions on saline snow, ice, and/or aerosol surfaces. Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measured BrO at Barrow, AK, from 2008-2009 and 2012-2015, as well at various locations above the frozen Arctic Ocean with O-Buoys in 2008 and 2011-2015. Observed BrO levels drop suddenly during late spring (May-June) and generally do not recover, which indicates the bromine explosion cycle can no longer produce significant amounts of BrO. We have established, through an objective algorithm, the local day of year of this drop in BrO as the "seasonal end." Additionally, in about half of the years, "recurrence" events were observed where BrO levels recover for at least a day. This study investigates the environmental factors influencing seasonal end and recurrence events including: temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and snowmelt. Analysis of BrO and air temperature revealed the temperature reaches 0°C within five days of the seasonal end event; however, temperatures drop below freezing during a recurrence event. In addition, there are periods where the temperature remains below freezing, but no recurrence event is observed. This BrO and temperature analysis indicates above-freezing air temperature prevents reactive bromine release; however, it is not the only environmental factor influencing this heterogeneous recycling. Further analysis of additional environmental influences on the bromine explosion cycle could help to better understand and model bromine chemistry in the Arctic.

  18. Technical Factors Influencing Cone Packing Density Estimates in Adaptive Optics Flood Illuminated Retinal Images

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, Marco; Serrao, Sebastiano; Lombardo, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the influence of various technical factors on the variation of cone packing density estimates in adaptive optics flood illuminated retinal images. Methods Adaptive optics images of the photoreceptor mosaic were obtained in fifteen healthy subjects. The cone density and Voronoi diagrams were assessed in sampling windows of 320×320 µm, 160×160 µm and 64×64 µm at 1.5 degree temporal and superior eccentricity from the preferred locus of fixation (PRL). The technical factors that have been analyzed included the sampling window size, the corrected retinal magnification factor (RMFcorr), the conversion from radial to linear distance from the PRL, the displacement between the PRL and foveal center and the manual checking of cone identification algorithm. Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess the agreement between cone density estimated within the different sampling window conditions. Results The cone density declined with decreasing sampling area and data between areas of different size showed low agreement. A high agreement was found between sampling areas of the same size when comparing density calculated with or without using individual RMFcorr. The agreement between cone density measured at radial and linear distances from the PRL and between data referred to the PRL or the foveal center was moderate. The percentage of Voronoi tiles with hexagonal packing arrangement was comparable between sampling areas of different size. The boundary effect, presence of any retinal vessels, and the manual selection of cones missed by the automated identification algorithm were identified as the factors influencing variation of cone packing arrangements in Voronoi diagrams. Conclusions The sampling window size is the main technical factor that influences variation of cone density. Clear identification of each cone in the image and the use of a large buffer zone are necessary to minimize factors influencing variation of Voronoi diagrams of the cone

  19. Age-related influences on lexical selection and orthographic encoding during homophone spelling.

    PubMed

    White, Katherine K; Abrams, Lise; Palm, Gregory M; Protasi, Meghan A

    2012-03-01

    Two experiments investigated age differences in how semantic, syntactic, and orthographic factors influence the production of homophone spelling errors in sentence contexts. Younger and older adults typed auditorily presented sentences containing homophone targets (e.g., blew) that were categorized as having a regular spelling (EW) or an irregular spelling (UE). In Experiment 1, homophones were preceded by an unrelated word, a semantic prime that was congruent with the target's meaning in the sentence (e.g., wind), or a semantic prime incongruent with the target's meaning (e.g., sky) and instead related to the competitor homophone. Experiment 2 manipulated the target's part of speech, where target and competitor homophones shared or differed in part of speech. For both age groups, significant semantic priming occurred, where homophone errors decreased following congruent semantic primes and increased following incongruent primes. However, priming only occurred when homophones shared part of speech. Further, both age groups made more errors on homophones with an irregular than a regular spelling, and this regularity effect was smaller for older adults when homophones shared part of speech. Contrary to many spoken production tasks, older adults made fewer errors overall than younger adults. These findings demonstrate age preservation in lexical selection but age differences in orthographic encoding, resulting in older adults producing fewer errors because of reduced activation to competitor homophones. These findings also illustrate that syntactic factors, such as part of speech, can influence the spellings of individual words. PMID:21787089

  20. Causal Influence of Visual Cues on Hippocampal Directional Selectivity.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Lavanya; Aghajan, Zahra M; Vuong, Cliff; Moore, Jason J; Mehta, Mayank R

    2016-01-14

    Hippocampal neurons show selectivity with respect to visual cues in primates, including humans, but this has never been found in rodents. To address this long-standing discrepancy, we measured hippocampal activity from rodents during real-world random foraging. Surprisingly, ∼ 25% of neurons exhibited significant directional modulation with respect to visual cues. To dissociate the contributions of visual and vestibular cues, we made similar measurements in virtual reality, in which only visual cues were informative. Here, we found significant directional modulation despite the severe loss of vestibular information, challenging prevailing theories of directionality. Changes in the amount of angular information in visual cues induced corresponding changes in head-directional modulation at the neuronal and population levels. Thus, visual cues are sufficient for-and play a predictable, causal role in-generating directionally selective hippocampal responses. These results dissociate hippocampal directional and spatial selectivity and bridge the gap between primate and rodent studies. PMID:26709045

  1. Metal-Size Influence in Iso-Selective Lactide Polymerization**

    PubMed Central

    Bakewell, Clare; White, Andrew J P; Long, Nicholas J; Williams, Charlotte K

    2014-01-01

    Iso-selective initiators for the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of rac-lactide are rare outside of Group 13. We describe the first examples of highly iso-selective lutetium initiators. The phosphasalen lutetium ethoxide complex shows excellent iso-selectivity, with a Pi value of 0.81–0.84 at 298 K, excellent rates, and high degrees of polymerization control. Conversely, the corresponding La derivative exhibits moderate heteroselectivity (Ps=0.74, 298 K). Thus, the choice of metal center is shown to be crucial in determining the level and mode of stereocontrol. The relative order of rates for the series of complexes is inversely related to metallic covalent radius: that is, La>Y>Lu. PMID:25044165

  2. Factors influencing the aroma composition of Chardonnay wines.

    PubMed

    Gambetta, Joanna M; Bastian, Susan E P; Cozzolino, Daniel; Jeffery, David W

    2014-07-16

    Chardonnay is one of the oldest and most widely distributed wine grape cultivars and is of commercial importance for the world's wine-producing nations. It is an extremely flexible variety that has adapted to different regions with varied weather and soil characteristics. Somewhat uniquely among white wines, Chardonnay lends itself to a wide variety of production styles, which can be tailored to the target market. Techniques such as skin maceration, barrel and stainless steel fermentation, use of selected or indigenous yeasts, malolactic fermentation, and aging in barrels with or without lees are all applicable and lead to different compositional outcomes. A number of research papers have been published with a view to understanding Chardonnay composition and quality as well as the impact of different enological techniques on the final product. This review summarizes current knowledge, explaining the influence of viticultural and production techniques on aroma composition, and poses directions for further research into Chardonnay wines. PMID:24954266

  3. Diverse influences of dietary factors on cancer in Asia.

    PubMed

    Moore, Malcolm A

    2009-01-01

    The major environmental risk factors for cancer are carcinogen and co-carcinogen exposure in tobacco, insufficient exercise and above all an unhealthy diet. What we eat or do not eat is exceedingly important in determining what cancers or other chronic disease we may suffer from. Carcinogens may be integral contaminants of the diet, like nitrosamines in some situations and aflatoxins, or may be generated by cooking processes, as is known to be the case for heterocyclic amine pyrolysis products. Examples of co-carcinogenic agents may include grit in bread products, salt in pickles or betel in chewing quids. Dietary insufficiencies, for example of zinc, may also act to increase sensitivity to genetic damage, for example. Influence on metabolism of carcinogens, like induction of phase II enzymes like glutathione S transferases, further directly impacts on carcinogenicity. Antioxidants in fruits and vegetables are typical examples of protective agents acting in this way. In addition we have dietary fibre which can decrease carcinogen exposure through accelerating passage of faeces through the gut. Other types of fibre, the soluble forms, can act to decrease uptake of glucose and thus suppress insulin exposure, an important factor for colon cancer. Natural anti-inflammatory agents like N-3 fatty acids in fish offer another example of preventive factors in the diet. Individual dietary components, like isoflavones in soy products, can interfere with hormone function to exert a beneficial action, as on the breast. Other compounds may act via stimulation of the immune system like lactoferrin and betaglucans. Perhaps the most important influence of diet on cancer, however, in a world of increasing comfort and ease of access to foodstuffs, is through over-eating and consequent obesity. Given the importance of diet to all our lives, we need to focus on all possible interactive effects in providing an evidence base to guide our choices regarding what we should eat in Asia. PMID

  4. Academic, social and cultural factors influencing medical school grade performance.

    PubMed

    Alfayez, S F; Strand, D A; Carline, J D

    1990-05-01

    Studies of medical student performance have focused on various factors, including premedical academics, maturity, familial background and support, and personal experiences with illness. Most studies have been conducted in countries with highly developed educational systems and similar cultural and social systems. It is not clear that these findings can be applied to developing countries, where the educational and cultural experiences may be very different, and where medical instruction is carried out in a non-native language. Information was obtained from a survey of 153 fifth- and sixth-year medical students at King Abdulaziz University in Saudi Arabia. The survey measured premedical educational, social and cultural experiences that might affect medical school performance. Men performed as well as women in the medical school despite heavy familial and social commitments. Women's performance seems to be more influenced by changes in living environment. Achievement in premedical years was correlated positively with grade performance in medical school. Competence in the high-school English courses was related to medical school performance. Interest in the study of medicine prior to medical school was not related to performance. Other motivations, such as social gains, financial benefits or family wish, were related to lower performance. Current interest in clinical medicine correlated negatively with performance. Students motivated by the presence of chronic ill health in their families performed significantly lower. Factors influencing medical school performance in developed countries had similar impact on medical students in a developing country. Social factors, unique to the country, also play a role in medical student performance. PMID:2355866

  5. Attention to Hierarchical Level Influences Attentional Selection of Spatial Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flevaris, Anastasia V.; Bentin, Shlomo; Robertson, Lynn C.

    2011-01-01

    Ample evidence suggests that global perception may involve low spatial frequency (LSF) processing and that local perception may involve high spatial frequency (HSF) processing (Shulman, Sullivan, Gish, & Sakoda, 1986; Shulman & Wilson, 1987; Robertson, 1996). It is debated whether SF selection is a low-level mechanism associating global and local…

  6. Risk Factors Influencing Smoking Behavior: A Turkish Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Öncel, Sevgi Yurt; Dick, Danielle M.; Maes, Hermine H.; Alıev, Fazil

    2015-01-01

    Aim In this study, we introduce the first twin study in Turkey, focusing on smoking behavior, and laying the foundation to register all twins born in Turkey for research purposes. Using Turkish twins will contribute to our understanding of health problems in the context of cultural differences. Materials and methods We assessed 309 twin pairs (339 males and 279 females) aged between 15 and 45 years living in the Kırıkkale and Ankara regions of Turkey, and administered a health and lifestyle interview that included questions about smoking status and smoking history. We analyzed the data using descriptive statistics, t-tests, chi-square tests, and bivariate and multivariate clustered logistic regression. In addition, we fit bivariate Structural Equation Models (SEM) to determine contributions of latent genetic and environmental factors to smoking outcomes in this sample. Results One hundred seventy-eight participants (28.8%) were identified as smokers, smoking every day for a month or longer, of whom 79.2% were males and 20.8% were females. Mean values for number of cigarettes per day and the Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND; Fagerstrom, 1978) score were higher in males than in females, and age of onset was earlier in males. There was a significant positive correlation between the FTND score and number of cigarettes smoked per day, and a significant negative correlation between both variables and age at onset of smoking. Our study showed that gender, presence of a smoking twin in the family, age, alcohol use, marital status, daily sports activities, and feeling moody all played a significant role in smoking behavior among twins. The twin analysis suggested that 79.5% of the liability to FTND was influenced by genetic factors and 20.5% by unique environment, while familial resemblance for smoking initiation was best explained by common environmental factors. Conclusions Marked differences in the prevalence of smoking behavior in men versus women were

  7. Patient risk factors' influence on survival of posterior composites.

    PubMed

    van de Sande, F H; Opdam, N J; Rodolpho, P A Da Rosa; Correa, M B; Demarco, F F; Cenci, M S

    2013-07-01

    This practice-based retrospective study evaluated the survival of resin composite restorations in posterior teeth, focusing on the influence of potential patient risk factors. In total, 306 posterior composite restorations placed in 44 adult patients were investigated after 10 to 18 yrs. The history of each restoration was extracted from the dental records, and a clinical evaluation was performed with those still in situ. The patient risk status was assessed for caries and "occlusal-stress" (bruxism-related). Statistical analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox-regression multivariate analysis. In total, 30% of the restorations failed, of which 82% were found in patients with 1 or 2 risk factors. Secondary caries was the main reason of failure within caries-risk patients, whereas fracture was the main reason in "occlusal-stress-risk" patients. The patient variables gender and age did not significantly affect survival, but risk did (p < .001). Tooth type (p < .001), arch (p = .013), and pulpal vitality (p = .003) significantly affected restoration survival. Within the limits of this retrospective evaluation, the survival of restorations is affected by patient risk factors, which should be included in survival analyses of restorations. PMID:23690354

  8. Perceptual factors that influence use of computer enhanced visual displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, David; Boehm-Davis, Debbie

    1993-01-01

    This document is the final report for the NASA/Langley contract entitled 'Perceptual Factors that Influence Use of Computer Enhanced Visual Displays.' The document consists of two parts. The first part contains a discussion of the problem to which the grant was addressed, a brief discussion of work performed under the grant, and several issues suggested for follow-on work. The second part, presented as Appendix I, contains the annual report produced by Dr. Ann Fulop, the Postdoctoral Research Associate who worked on-site in this project. The main focus of this project was to investigate perceptual factors that might affect a pilot's ability to use computer generated information that is projected into the same visual space that contains information about real world objects. For example, computer generated visual information can identify the type of an attacking aircraft, or its likely trajectory. Such computer generated information must not be so bright that it adversely affects a pilot's ability to perceive other potential threats in the same volume of space. Or, perceptual attributes of computer generated and real display components should not contradict each other in ways that lead to problems of accommodation and, thus, distance judgments. The purpose of the research carried out under this contract was to begin to explore the perceptual factors that contribute to effective use of these displays.

  9. Factors influencing teaching style in block-scheduled science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen Giddings, Linda

    This survey study sought to determine the extent to which teachers' personal belief systems, the leadership practices of the principal, and the nature of the organization as a professional learning community influence their teaching methodologies. The data were contributed by 172 South Carolina science teachers from 65 4 x 4 block-scheduled high schools. The teachers were pre-identified by teaching style as predominantly constructivist or traditional. The online survey consisted of two parts. Part I was the CTBA (Torff & Warburton 2005), which examined teacher beliefs regarding critical-thinking classroom strategies. Part II was the short form of the LOLSO Project Questionnaires (Shins et al., 2002), which examined teacher perceptions of their principal as a transformational leader and of their school as a learning organization. Logistic regression analysis identified two significant factors differentiating constructivist and traditional teachers. Traditional teachers were more likely to believe that low critical-thinking strategies were appropriate strategies for use in the classroom and constructivist teachers were more likely to perceive their schools as learning organizations. These two factors, when entered into the logistic regression predictive equation, could predict group membership with a 61% accuracy level. While not a differentiating factor, there was also a strong correlation between leadership and organizational learning (r = .86). These findings are consistent with other research that has found that schools which are learning organizations support more constructivist pedagogy and student-centered classrooms and are dependent upon strong support from school leadership.

  10. Factors influencing the stream-aquifer flow exchange coefficient.

    PubMed

    Morel-Seytoux, Hubert J; Mehl, Steffen; Morgado, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of river gain from or loss to a hydraulically connected water table aquifer is crucial in issues of water rights and also when attempting to optimize conjunctive use of surface and ground waters. Typically in groundwater models this exchange flow is related to a difference in head between the river and some point in the aquifer, through a "coefficient." This coefficient has been defined differently as well as the location for the head in the aquifer. This paper proposes a new coefficient, analytically derived, and a specific location for the point where the aquifer head is used in the difference. The dimensionless part of the coefficient is referred to as the SAFE (stream-aquifer flow exchange) dimensionless conductance. The paper investigates the factors that influence the value of this new conductance. Among these factors are (1) the wetted perimeter of the cross-section, (2) the degree of penetration of the cross-section, and (3) the shape of the cross-section. The study shows that these factors just listed are indeed ordered in their respective level of importance. In addition the study verifies that the analytical correct value of the coefficient is matched by finite difference simulation only if the grid system is sufficiently fine. Thus the use of the analytical value of the coefficient is an accurate and efficient alternative to ad hoc estimates for the coefficient typically used in finite difference and finite element methods. PMID:24010703

  11. Social and ecological factors influencing offspring survival in wild macaques

    PubMed Central

    Kerhoas, Daphne; Perwitasari-Farajallah, Dyah; Agil, Muhammad; Widdig, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Premature loss of offspring decreases direct fitness of parents. In gregarious mammals, both ecological and social variables impact offspring survival and may interact with each other in this regard. Although a number of studies have investigated factors influencing offspring loss in mammals, we still know very little on how different factors interact with one another. We therefore investigated fetal and infant mortality in 3 large groups of wild crested macaques (Macaca nigra) over a period of up to 5 years by including potential social causes such as maternal dominance rank, male immigration, between group encounters, and ecological conditions such as rainfall in a multivariate survival analysis using Cox proportional hazards model. Infant but not fetal survival was most impaired after a recent takeover of the alpha-male position by an immigrant male. Furthermore, infant survival probability increased when there was an increase in number of group adult females and rainfall. Fetal survival probability also increased with an increase of these 2 factors, but more in high-ranking than low-ranking females. Fetal survival, unlike that of infants, was also improved by an increase of intergroup encounter rates. Our study thus stresses the importance of survival analyses using a multivariate approach and encompassing more than a single offspring stage to investigate the determinants of female direct fitness. We further provide evidence for fitness costs and benefits of group living, possibly deriving from high pressures of both within- and between-group competition, in a wild primate population. PMID:25214754

  12. Modifiable factors influencing relapses and disability in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    D'hooghe, M B; Nagels, G; Bissay, V; De Keyser, J

    2010-07-01

    A growing body of literature indicates that the natural course of multiple sclerosis can be influenced by a number of factors. Strong evidence suggests that relapses can be triggered by infections, the postpartum period and stressful life events. Vaccinations against influenza, hepatitis B and tetanus appear to be safe. Surgery, general and epidural anaesthesia, and physical trauma are not associated with an increased risk of relapses. Factors that have been associated with a reduced relapse rate are pregnancy, exclusive breastfeeding, sunlight exposure and higher vitamin D levels. A number of medications, including hormonal fertility treatment, seem to be able to trigger relapses. Factors that may worsen progression of disability include stressful life events, radiotherapy to the head, low levels of physical activity and low vitamin D levels. Strong evidence suggests that smoking promotes disease progression, both clinically and on brain magnetic resonance imaging. There is no evidence for an increased progression of disability following childbirth in women with multiple sclerosis. Moderate alcohol intake and exercise might have a neuroprotective effect, but this needs to be confirmed. PMID:20483884

  13. Which Master of Business Administration (MBA)? Factors Influencing Prospective Students' Choice of MBA Programme--An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Factors which influence students' selection of a Master of Business Administration programme are identified and the variation in their relative importance across the student population investigated. This research also identifies the features of a university which attracts students, as well as examining the students' perceptions of the management…

  14. Factors Influencing Rural Women Cassava Processors' Intention to Participate in an Agricultural Extension Education Program. Summary of Research 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojomo, Christian O.; McCaslin, N. L.

    A study examined factors influencing female cassava processors' intentions regarding participation in an extension education program on cassava processing in rural Nigeria. Interviews were conducted with 224 women who were purposely selected from areas of zone 3 of Ondo State, Nigeria, which has large concentrations of cassava processors.…

  15. Factors Influencing Food Choices of 4-H Club Members in Williamson County, Tennessee. A Research Summary of a Graduate Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geary, Virginia Ruth; And Others

    A study was conducted to identify some of the eating habits and factors influencing food choices of selected junior (9 to 13 years old) and senior (14 to 19 years old) 4-H club members enrolled in Williamson County, Tennessee, in 1968. Data were collected through group interviews with 200 juniors and 70 seniors--116 boys and 154 girls.…

  16. Proximate and landscape factors influence grassland bird distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, M.A.; Johnson, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    Ecologists increasingly recognize that birds can respond to features well beyond their normal areas of activity, but little is known about the relative importance of landscapes and proximate factors or about the scales of landscapes that influence bird distributions. We examined the influences of tree cover at both proximate and landscape scales on grassland birds, a group of birds of high conservation concern, in the Sheyenne National Grassland in North Dakota, USA. The Grassland contains a diverse array of grassland and woodland habitats. We surveyed breeding birds on 2015 100 m long transect segments during 2002 and 2003. We modeled the occurrence of 19 species in relation to habitat features (percentages of grassland, woodland, shrubland, and wetland) within each 100-m segment and to tree cover within 200-1600 m of the segment. We used information-theoretic statistical methods to compare models and variables. At the proximate scales, tree cover was the most important variable, having negative influences on 13 species and positive influences on two species. In a comparison of multiple scales, models with only proximate variables were adequate for some species, but models combining proximate with landscape information were best for 17 of 19 species. Landscape-only models were rarely competitive. Combined models at the largest scales (800-1600 m) were best for 12 of 19 species. Seven species had best models including 1600-m landscapes plus proximate factors in at least one year. These were Wilson's Phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor), Sedge Wren (Cistothorus platensis), Field Sparrow (Spizella pusilla), Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), Bobolink (Dolychonix oryzivorus), Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), and Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater). These seven are small-bodied species; thus larger-bodied species do not necessarily respond most to the largest landscapes. Our findings suggest that birds respond to habitat features at a variety of

  17. Proximate and landscape factors influence grassland bird distributions.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Mary Ann; Johnson, Douglas H

    2006-06-01

    Ecologists increasingly recognize that birds can respond to features well beyond their normal areas of activity, but little is known about the relative importance of landscapes and proximate factors or about the scales of landscapes that influence bird distributions. We examined the influences of tree cover at both proximate and landscape scales on grassland birds, a group of birds of high conservation concern, in the Sheyenne National Grassland in North Dakota, USA. The Grassland contains a diverse array of grassland and woodland habitats. We surveyed breeding birds on 2015 100 m long transect segments during 2002 and 2003. We modeled the occurrence of 19 species in relation to habitat features (percentages of grassland, woodland, shrubland, and wetland) within each 100-m segment and to tree cover within 200-1600 m of the segment. We used information-theoretic statistical methods to compare models and variables. At the proximate scales, tree cover was the most important variable, having negative influences on 13 species and positive influences on two species. In a comparison of multiple scales, models with only proximate variables were adequate for some species, but models combining proximate with landscape information were best for 17 of 19 species. Landscape-only models were rarely competitive. Combined models at the largest scales (800-1600 m) were best for 12 of 19 species. Seven species had best models including 1600-m landscapes plus proximate factors in at least one year. These were Wilson's Phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor), Sedge Wren (Cistothorus platensis), Field Sparrow (Spizella pusilla), Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), Bobolink (Dolychonix oryzivorus), Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), and Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater). These seven are small-bodied species; thus larger-bodied species do not necessarily respond most to the largest landscapes. Our findings suggest that birds respond to habitat features at a variety of

  18. Factors that influence patient preferences for prostate cancer management options: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Showalter, Timothy N; Mishra, Mark V; Bridges, John FP

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We performed a systematic review to evaluate evidence regarding factors that influence patient preferences for management options for localized prostate cancer. Methods We followed a prespecified search protocol (PROSPERO identifier CRD42014009173) to identify studies that evaluated patient preferences for prostate cancer management options for localized prostate cancer. We queried PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) Plus, and Econ-Lit databases. Two separate reviewers completed the article selection process and review, including coding of study characteristics. Study quality was scored according to the PREFS checklist, which consists of five criteria: Purpose, Respondents, Explanation, Findings, and Significance. Reviewers summarized the primary findings of each article included in the analysis. Results Of the 606 citations identified in the literature search, there were a total of 21 articles that met all selection criteria, reporting results for a total of 4,131 subjects. Themes identified in the studies included: the importance of patient perceptions of treatment efficacy and side effects; the influence of physician recommendations on patient decision-making; and the prioritization of concerns regarding treatment side effects among those men who prefer radiation therapy or active surveillance. The articles had an average PREFS score of 3.4 (standard deviation [SD] 1.0), which is similar to a recent study for breast cancer treatment preferences. Conclusion This systematic review of factors that influence patient preferences for prostate cancer management options identified a small, but high quality, group of articles that satisfied the selection criteria. The available evidence suggests that interventions aimed at informing patients regarding the comparative effectiveness of prostate cancer management alternatives should include the influence of physician

  19. Influence of hydrothermal factors on wool development of Tan sheep in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, C. J.; Shiquan, Wang

    1992-06-01

    Hydrothermal factors in Ningxia, an arid and semi-arid area in Northwestern China, were examined to determine their influence on the geographical differentiation of the wool quality of Tan sheep lambskin. Prospective areas for extension of the Tan sheep industry were also investigated. Two sheep groups were sampled; one consisted of artificial insemination flocks (1241 lambs sampled from 25 flocks) and the other of natural mating flocks (1009 lambs from 38 flocks). Six phenotypical traits were measured for each lamb and six hydrothermal factors were collected from the meteorological stations located in the sampling areas. A significant correlation was found between wool characteristics of the lambskin and hydrothermal conditions. Data further indicated that among all the hydrothermal factors measured, those causing the geographical differentiation of soil and vegetation were the major factors responsible for the corresponding differentiation of the lambskin and wool quality of Tan sheep. Thermal factors were mostly positively correlated with wool quality, while the influence of moisture was negative. Three eco-geographical regions were defined based on a combination of the hydrothermal conditions and corresponding wool characters: (i) typical region or super-suitable region, (ii) sub-typical region or suitable region and (iii) transitional region. The delimitation could be used as a basis for the extension of the Tan sheep industry. It is also suggested that the wool quality of lambskin of Tan sheep in these three regions could be improved by means of controlled breeding and selection.

  20. Ranked Levels of Influence Model: Selecting Influence Techniques to Minimize IT Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Bartos, Christa E.; Butler, Brian S.; Crowley, Rebecca S.

    2010-01-01

    Implementation of electronic health records (EHR), particularly computerized physician/provider order entry systems (CPOE), is often met with resistance. Influence presented at the right time, in the right manner, may minimize resistance or at least limit the risk of complete system failure. Combining established theories on power, influence tactics, and resistance, we developed the Ranked Levels of Influence model. Applying it to documented examples of EHR/CPOE failures at Cedars-Sinai and Kaiser Permanente in Hawaii, we evaluated the influence applied, the resistance encountered, and the resulting risk to the system implementation. Using the Ranked Levels of Influence model as a guideline, we demonstrate that these system failures were associated with the use of hard influence tactics that resulted in higher levels of resistance. We suggest that when influence tactics remain at the soft tactics level, the level of resistance stabilizes or de-escalates and the system can be saved. PMID:20176135

  1. Organizational, financial, and environmental factors influencing deans' tenure.

    PubMed

    Levin, R; Bhak, K; Moy, E; Valente, E; Griner, P F

    1998-06-01

    At a time when continuity of leadership in medical schools is most crucial, the tenures of deans continue to decrease. In the present study of factors influencing the tenures of 382 U.S. medical school deans from 1985 to 1994, the authors focused on issues that were likely to have had a greater impact on deans' tenures in recent years. They assumed that longer tenures are associated with less complex organizational factors and more stable environmental factors. Conversely, they assumed that deans and their tenures are adversely affected by an institution's declining financial health, a complex organizational structure, and a changing clinical marketplace where there is rapid growth of managed care. The authors compared the relationships between these factors and the length of deans' tenures during the ten-year period studied. Among the most important findings were the fact that schools that were less healthy financially, that had the same owner as the primary teaching hospital, and that had smaller numbers of faculty tended to have shorter dean's tenures and higher turnovers of deans. While the reason for shorter tenures of deans at schools that are less financially healthy is understandable, the effect of common ownership of the school and teaching hospital is less obvious, but perhaps the greater preoccupation of deans with the clinical enterprise in that circumstance is a significant constraint. The authors hope that the insights from their findings will be useful to future candidates for deanships in their negotiations with university officials and will help all parties reach more explicit agreements on such issues as expectations for financial performance of the medical school and the roles and relationships of the dean and the teaching hospital director. PMID:9653400

  2. Exploring Factors Influencing Smokers' Information Seeking for Smoking Cessation.

    PubMed

    Noh, Ghee-Young; Lee, Sun Young; Choi, Jounghwa

    2016-08-01

    This study addressed the factors influencing smokers' information seeking pertaining to the health risks of smoking. In particular, this study aimed to extend the risk information seeking and processing model by taking into account the role of autonomous motivations used to stimulate smokers' information-seeking behavior. The results of a Web-based survey indicated that information insufficiency was positively associated with health information-seeking behavior and that negative affective responses were positively associated with information insufficiency and health information-seeking behavior. In addition, autonomous motivations were positively associated with information insufficiency and information-seeking behavior. The results indicated that risk perception was positively related to autonomous motivations and negative affective response. Finally, informational subjective norm was positively related to autonomous motivations and negative affective responses. The implications of this study for future research are discussed. PMID:27367187

  3. [Greenhouse gas emission from reservoir and its influence factors].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao-jie; Zhao, Tong-qian; Zheng, Hua; Duan, Xiao-nan; Chen, Fa-lin; Ouyang, Zhi-yun; Wang, Xiao-ke

    2008-08-01

    Reservoirs are significant sources of emissions of the greenhouse gases. Discussing greenhouse gas emission from the reservoirs and its influence factors are propitious to evaluate emission of the greenhouse gas accurately, reduce gas emission under hydraulic engineering and hydropower development. This paper expatiates the mechanism of the greenhouse gas production, sums three approaches of the greenhouse gas emission, which are emissions from nature emission of the reservoirs, turbines and spillways and downstream of the dam, respectively. Effects of greenhouse gas emission were discussed from character of the reservoirs, climate, pH of the water, vegetation growing in the reservoirs and so on. Finally, it has analyzed the heterogeneity of the greenhouse gas emission as well as the root of the uncertainty and carried on the forecast with emphasis to the next research. PMID:18839604

  4. Factors influencing mothers' decision to breastfeed in public.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Yvonne L

    2004-03-01

    Breastfeeding in public was a major theme that emerged in a previous Western Australian study that explored the maternal process of managing breastfeeding and subsequent weaning. This paper highlights the factors that influenced mothers' decisions to breastfeed in public. Confidence with breastfeeding, the ability to be discreet, the mother's body image, previous experience, age of the breastfeeding child, the audience, feelings of the partner, breastfeeding location and perceptions of societal expectations all impacted upon the decision of how to manage breastfeeding in public. Initiatives to promote a breastfeeding friendly community are briefly discussed as well as strategies that participants employed to manage their breastfeeding in public. These findings add to our knowledge on breastfeeding and have implications for how we support breastfeeding women. PMID:17004344

  5. [Influence of poor factors of airports on human health].

    PubMed

    Pochekaeva, E I

    2008-01-01

    The hygienic study conducted in Rostov-on-Don has shown that air transport and airports are important sources of physical and chemical pollution of the environment. Human health examinations served to illustrate the adverse impact of airports on the environmental and hygienic living conditions of the population. The performed studies provided the basis for purpose-oriented program to enhance the environment and to reduce morbidity rates in accordance with the National Environmental Hygiene Program. The developed algorithm of the assessment and reduction of a risk for diseases under the influence of poor factors associated with the activities of airports is designed to provide the authorities and concerned organizations with information, to make managerial decisions, and to work out health-improving measures. PMID:18509916

  6. Factors influencing burnout and job stress among military nurses.

    PubMed

    van Wijk, C

    1997-10-01

    Burnout among military nurses has been found to lead to job absenteeism, staff conflicts, and a high turnover of personnel. Factors influencing nurses working in smaller and often isolated military installations of the South African National Defence Force were investigated using a job-stress and burnout questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. Investigation focused on registration categories, geographic location, and age. It was found that the senior registration categories experienced more burnout, and nurses in isolated areas reported almost double the number of cases of burnout than nurses in larger centers. Age played a role in the very young (19-25 years) and older (40-50 years) nurses. The lack of support from supervisors, high responsibility, long working hours, and task overload were the four most common stressors reported. Some suggestions are forwarded to manage the risk of burnout among military nurses in similar situations. PMID:9339089

  7. Climatic factors influencing triatomine occurrence in Central-West Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Joyce Mendes; de Almeida, Paulo Silva; de Sousa, Adair Vieira; de Paula, Aécio Moraes; Machado, Ricardo Bomfim; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    We estimated the geographic distributions of triatomine species in Central-West Region of Brazil (CW) and analysed the climatic factors influencing their occurrence. A total of 3,396 records of 27 triatomine species were analysed. Using the maximum entropy method, ecological niche models were produced for eight species occurring in at least 20 municipalities based on 13 climatic variables and elevation. Triatoma sordida and Rhodnius neglectus were the species with the broadest geographic distributions in CW Brazil. The Cerrado areas in the state of Goiás were found to be more suitable for the occurrence of synanthropic triatomines than the Amazon forest areas in the northern part of the state of Mato Grosso. The variable that best explains the evaluated models is temperature seasonality. The results indicate that almost the entire region presents climatic conditions that are appropriate for at least one triatomine species. Therefore, it is recommended that entomological surveillance be reinforced in CW Brazil. PMID:23778666

  8. Factors Influencing Black Churches' Readiness to Address HIV.

    PubMed

    Pichon, Latrice C; Powell, Terrinieka Williams; Ogg, Siri A; Williams, Andrea L; Becton-Odum, Nicole

    2016-06-01

    This study employed a community-based participatory research approach to understand factors that influence church readiness to engage in HIV prevention and treatment activities. A convenience sample of twenty-six Black faith leaders participated in four focus groups. Data analysis was done through qualitative content analysis. Three themes emerged. First, the pastor's blessing and authority as the church's decision-maker determines readiness to engage in HIV prevention. Second, the church's purview of sexual health as part of a holistic ministry facilitates faith leader's readiness. Lastly, securing financial and human resources makes it feasible for faith leaders to implement activities. Findings suggest HIV-related stigma alone does not explain readiness to address HIV. Participants also discussed activities their churches are equipped to handle, including HIV testing events and health fairs. PMID:26345680

  9. Factors influencing the frequency of children's consumption of soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle; Chapman, Kathy; Miller, Caroline

    2015-08-01

    Among other focus areas, interventions designed to improve children's diets need to address key factors contributing to children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. The present study employed structural equation modelling to investigate the relationship between a broad range of predictor variables and the frequency with which Australian children consume soft drinks. In total, 1302 parents of children aged 8 to 14 years responded to an online survey about their children's food consumption behaviours. Soft drink consumption frequency was primarily influenced by parents' attitudes to soft drinks, children's pestering behaviours, and perceived social norms relating to children's consumption of these products. Importantly, pestering and social norms had significant direct effects on consumption frequency in addition to indirect effects via their impact on parents' attitudes to soft drink. PMID:25953597

  10. Factors influencing the detection of beach plastic debris.

    PubMed

    Lavers, Jennifer L; Oppel, Steffen; Bond, Alexander L

    2016-08-01

    Marine plastic pollution is a global problem with considerable ecological and economic consequences. Quantifying the amount of plastic in the ocean has been facilitated by surveys of accumulated plastic on beaches, but existing monitoring programmes assume the proportion of plastic detected during beach surveys is constant across time and space. Here we use a multi-observer experiment to assess what proportion of small plastic fragments is missed routinely by observers, and what factors influence the detection probability of different types of plastic. Detection probability across the various types of plastic ranged from 60 to 100%, and varied considerably by observer, observer experience, and biological material present on the beach that could be confused with plastic. Blue fragments had the highest detection probability, while white fragments had the lowest. We recommend long-term monitoring programmes adopt survey designs accounting for imperfect detection or at least assess the proportion of fragments missed by observers. PMID:27363010

  11. Analyzing factors that influence the folk use and phytonomy of 18 medicinal plants in Navarra

    PubMed Central

    Akerreta, Silvia; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; López, Víctor; Calvo, María Isabel

    2007-01-01

    Background This article analyzes whether the distribution or area of use of 18 medicinal plants is influenced by ecological and cultural factors which might account for their traditional use and/or phytonymy in Navarra. This discussion may be helpful for comparative studies, touching as it does on other ethnopharmacological issues: a) which cultural and ecological factors affect the selection of medicinal plants; b) substitutions of medicinal plants in popular medicine; c) the relation between local nomenclature and uses. To analyze these questions, this paper presents an example of a species used for digestive disorders (tea and camomile: Jasonia glutinosa, J. tuberosa, Sideritis hyssopifolia, Bidens aurea, Chamaemelum nobile, Santolina chamaecyparissus...), high blood pressure (Rhamnus alaternus, Olea europaea...) or skin diseases (Hylotelephium maximum, H. telephium, Anagallis arvensis, A. foemina). Methods Fieldwork began on January 2004 and continued until December 2006. During that time we interviewed 505 informants in 218 locations in Navarra. Information was collected using semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews, and we subsequently made maps using Arc-View 8.0 program to determine the area of use of each taxon. Each map was then compared with the bioclimatic and linguistic map of Navarra, using the soil and ethnographic data for the region, and with other ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological studies carried out in Europe. Results The results clearly show that ecological and cultural factors influence the selection of medicinal plants in this region. Climate and substrate are the most important ecological factors that influence the distribution and abundance of plants, which are the biological factors that affect medicinal plant selection. Conclusion The study of edaphological and climatological factors, on the one hand, and culture, on the other, can help us to understand why a plant is replaced by another one for the same purposes, either in the

  12. Physical Factors Influencing Pleasant Touch during Passive Fingertip Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Klöcker, Anne; Oddo, Calogero Maria; Camboni, Domenico; Penta, Massimo; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Objective Tactile explorations with the fingertips provide information regarding the physical properties of surfaces and their relative pleasantness. Previously, we performed an investigation in the active touch domain and linked several surface properties (i.e. frictional force fluctuations and net friction) with their pleasantness levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate physical factors being important for pleasantness perception during passive fingertip stimulation. Specifically we were interested to see whether factors, such as surfaces' topographies or their frictional characteristics could influence pleasantness. Furthermore, we ascertained how the stimulus pleasantness level was impacted by (i) the normal force of stimulus application (FN) and (ii) the stimulus temperature (TS). Methods and Results The right index fingertips of 22 blindfolded participants were stimulated using 27 different stimuli, which varied in average roughness (Ra) and TS. A 4-axis robot moved the stimuli horizontally under participants' fingertips with three levels of FN. The robot was equipped with force sensors, which recorded the FN and friction force (FT) during stimulation. Participants rated each stimulus according to a three-level pleasantness scale, as very pleasant (scored 0), pleasant (scored 1), or unpleasant (scored 2). These ordinal pleasantness ratings were logarithmically transformed into linear and unidimensional pleasantness measures with the Rasch model. Statistical analyses were conducted to investigate a possible link between the stimulus properties (i.e. Ra, FN, FT, and TS) and their respective pleasantness levels. Only the mean Ra and FT values were negatively correlated with pleasantness. No significant correlation was detected between FN or TS and pleasantness. Conclusion Pleasantness perception, resulting from passive fingertip stimulation, seems to be influenced by the surfaces' average roughness levels and average FT occurring during fingertip

  13. Talking about Relations: Factors Influencing the Production of Relational Descriptions.

    PubMed

    Baltaretu, Adriana; Krahmer, Emiel J; van Wijk, Carel; Maes, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    In a production experiment (Experiment 1) and an acceptability rating one (Experiment 2), we assessed two factors, spatial position and salience, which may influence the production of relational descriptions (such as "the ball between the man and the drawer"). In Experiment 1, speakers were asked to refer unambiguously to a target object (a ball). In Experiment 1a, we addressed the role of spatial position, more specifically if speakers mention the entity positioned leftmost in the scene as (first) relatum. The results showed a small preference to start with the left entity, which leaves room for other factors that could influence spatial reference. Thus, in the following studies, we varied salience systematically, by making one of the relatum candidates animate (Experiment 1b), and by adding attention capture cues, first subliminally by priming one relatum candidate with a flash (Experiment 1c), then explicitly by using salient colors for objects (Experiment 1d). Results indicate that spatial position played a dominant role. Entities on the left were mentioned more often as (first) relatum than those on the right (Experiments 1a-d). Animacy affected reference production in one out of three studies (in Experiment 1d). When salience was manipulated by priming visual attention or by using salient colors, there were no significant effects (Experiments 1c, d). In the acceptability rating study (Experiment 2), participants expressed their preference for specific relata, by ranking descriptions on the basis of how good they thought the descriptions fitted the scene. Results show that participants preferred most the description that had an animate entity as the first mentioned relatum. The relevance of these results for models of reference production is discussed. PMID:26903911

  14. Talking about Relations: Factors Influencing the Production of Relational Descriptions

    PubMed Central

    Baltaretu, Adriana; Krahmer, Emiel J.; van Wijk, Carel; Maes, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    In a production experiment (Experiment 1) and an acceptability rating one (Experiment 2), we assessed two factors, spatial position and salience, which may influence the production of relational descriptions (such as “the ball between the man and the drawer”). In Experiment 1, speakers were asked to refer unambiguously to a target object (a ball). In Experiment 1a, we addressed the role of spatial position, more specifically if speakers mention the entity positioned leftmost in the scene as (first) relatum. The results showed a small preference to start with the left entity, which leaves room for other factors that could influence spatial reference. Thus, in the following studies, we varied salience systematically, by making one of the relatum candidates animate (Experiment 1b), and by adding attention capture cues, first subliminally by priming one relatum candidate with a flash (Experiment 1c), then explicitly by using salient colors for objects (Experiment 1d). Results indicate that spatial position played a dominant role. Entities on the left were mentioned more often as (first) relatum than those on the right (Experiments 1a–d). Animacy affected reference production in one out of three studies (in Experiment 1d). When salience was manipulated by priming visual attention or by using salient colors, there were no significant effects (Experiments 1c, d). In the acceptability rating study (Experiment 2), participants expressed their preference for specific relata, by ranking descriptions on the basis of how good they thought the descriptions fitted the scene. Results show that participants preferred most the description that had an animate entity as the first mentioned relatum. The relevance of these results for models of reference production is discussed. PMID:26903911

  15. Factors Influencing Challenging Colonoscopies During Anesthesiologist-Assisted Deep Sedation

    PubMed Central

    Fabrizio, Cardin; Nadia, Minicuci; Alessandra, Andreotti; Elisa, Granziera; Carmelo, Militello

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Increased demand for colon cancer screening procedures can significantly impact on routine colonoscopy management at dedicated facilities, prompting a review of the factors that can negatively affect workflow. Although potential adverse effects and impact on costs of deep sedation have been documented elsewhere, this study focuses on variables that can influence performance of colonoscopy in deep sedation and interfere with normal procedure scheduling in settings where the presence of an anesthesiologist is mandatory. Patients and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of the activities of a colonoscopy screening unit, applying Bayesian Network (BN) analysis, designed to assess interdependencies among variables that can affect a process in complex, multidimensional systems. The study was performed at a teaching hospital where endoscopists and anesthesiologists of varying work experience operate on a rota basis. During a six-month period, we analyzed 1485 consecutive colonoscopies performed under deep propofol sedation, administered by an anesthesiologist via hand-controlled syringe. The BN was constructed with the variables: Gender, age, ASA status, bowel preparation, baseline blood pressure, endoscopist's experience, anesthesiologist's experience, presence of polypectomy, and the target node, “challenging procedure.” This previously undefined category refers to any events disrupting the scheduled rota. Result and Conclusion: Two distinct networks were identified. One deals mainly with relationships among the variables, patients’ demographic and clinical characteristics (procedures with polypectomy, ASA and baseline blood pressure). The other explains relationships among the variables, “challenging procedure,” bowel preparation, and endoscopist's experience. The factors associated with the anesthesiologist's activity do not influence challenging colonoscopies. PMID:26831609

  16. [Factors influencing early extubation after open heart surgery].

    PubMed

    Varró, M; Gombocz, K; Wrana, G

    2001-06-10

    The authors have performed a retrospective study in order to review the occurrence and the influencing factors of early extubation among their patients. Those patients who had any severe complication in the immediate postoperative period (pericardial tamponade, low cardiac output syndrome, re-operation due to excessive bleeding, postperfusion lung syndrome, pulmonary edema) preventing early extubation, have been excluded from the study. In the remaining 690 patients early extubation within 8 hours and within 4 hours could be carried out in 525 (76.1%) and 164 cases (23.8%) respectively. Late (beyond 12 hours) extubation occurred in 68 cases (9.9%). Anaesthesia was governed by two different methods. Midazolam and alfentanyl (group 1) were used in 137 cases (19.9%) whilst 553 patients (80.1%) received propofol and alfentanyl (group 2). In group 1 and 2 early extubation was possible in 50.4 and 82.5% respectively (p < 0.0001). In further investigations 27 pre- and intraoperative variables of each patient have been studied and analysed. For statistical analysis authors used the SPSS software including T-test, Mann-Whitney-test, chi-square test and multivariate logistical regression analysis. On the basis of multivariate regression analysis factors influencing early extubation were as follows: age (B = 0.0775; p < 0.001), sex (B = 1.2900; p < 0.001), method of anaesthesia (B = 1.9753; p < 0.001), duration of anaesthesia (B = 0.0053; p < 0.001), re-do operation (B = 1.0482; p = 0.0469) and preoperative congestive heart failure (B = 0.9008; p = 0.0125). Pulmonary diseases known from patient history have not had a deep impact on early extubation. On the basis of our study early extubation has not resulted in an increased number of either the postoperative complications or the occurrence of perioperative myocardial infarction. PMID:11433920

  17. Factors influencing organic carbon preservation in marine sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    The organic matter that escapes decomposition is buried and preserved in marine sediments, with much debate as to whether the amount depends on bottom-water O2 concentration. One group argues that decomposition is more efficient with O2, and hence, organic carbon will be preferentially oxidized in its presence, and preserved in its absence. Another group argues that the kinetics of organic matter decomposition are similar in the presence and absence of O2, and there should be no influence of O2 on preservation. A compilation of carbon preservation shows that both groups are right, depending on the circumstances of deposition. At high rates of deposition, such as near continental margins, little difference in preservation is found with varying bottom-water O2. It is important that most carbon in these sediments decomposes by anaerobic pathways regardless of bottom-water O2. Hence, little influence of bottom-water O2 on preservation would, in fact, be expected. As sedimentation rate drops, sediments deposited under oxygenated bottom water become progressively more aerobic, while euxinic sediments remain anaerobic. Under these circumstances, the relative efficiencies of aerobic and anaerobic decomposition could affect preservation. Indeed, enhanced preservation is observed in low-O2 and euxinic environments. To explore in detail the factors contributing to this enhanced carbon preservation, aspects of the biochemistries of the aerobic and anaerobic process are reviewed. Other potential influences on preservation are also explored. Finally, a new model for organic carbon decomposition, the "pseudo-G" model, is developed. This model couples the degradation of refractory organic matter to the overall metabolic activity of the sediment, and has consequences for carbon preservation due to the mixing together of labile and refractory organic matter by bioturbation.

  18. Eroticization as a factor influencing erectile dysfunction treatment effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Kukula, K C; Jackowich, R A; Wassersug, R J

    2014-01-01

    We review both the medical and psychosocial literature on factors influencing male potency in order to better understand why erectile dysfunction (ED) treatments, PDE5 drugs in particular, are abandoned when otherwise effective. We incorporate anecdotal data from websites and list serves dedicated to helping patients deal with iatrogenic ED. Our goal is to distinguish between ED treatments that are medicalized versus eroticized, and how partner participation may influence their effectiveness. Recently it has been shown that ED treatment effectiveness is aided by the involvement of the patient's partner. This permits an erotic association between the partner and the ED 'aid'. We extend this idea to suggest that having the partner involved as early as possible in the discussion of treatment, and their presence at the time of prescription, should improve ED aid effectiveness. Eroticization of ED aids shifts the focus from a perceived disability of the patient toward the sexual pleasure provided by the partner. We further suggest that ED aids used without the partner's knowledge will undermine intimacy and ultimately the treatment's effectiveness. Unpartnered patients should be advised about the importance of informing potential partners about their use of such aids, as openness and honesty may increase intimacy in the long run. PMID:23823215

  19. Pediatric Organ Donation: What Factors Most Influence Parents’ Donation Decisions?

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigue, James R.; Cornell, Danielle L.; Howard, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To identify factors that influence parents’ decisions when asked to donate a deceased child’s organs. Design Cross-sectional design with data collection via structured telephone interviews. Setting and Participants Seventy-four parents (49 donors, 25 non-donors) of donor-eligible deceased children who were previously approached by coordinators from one organ procurement organization (OPO) in the southeastern USA. Main Results Multivariate analyses showed that organ donation was more likely when the parent was a registered organ donor (OR=1.4, CI=1.1, 2.7), the parent had favorable organ donation beliefs (OR=5.5, CI=2.7, 12.3), the parent was exposed to organ donation information prior to the child’s death (OR = 2.6, CI = 1.7, 10.3), a member of the child’s healthcare team first mentioned organ donation (OR=1.4, CI=1.2, 3.7), the requestor was perceived as sensitive to the family’s needs (OR=0.4, CI=0.2, 0.7), the family had sufficient time to discuss donation (OR=5.2, CI=1.4, 11.6), and family members were in agreement about donation (OR=2.8, CI=1.3, 5.2). Conclusions This study identifies several modifiable variables that influence the donation decision-making process for parents. Strategies to facilitate targeted organ donation education and higher consent rates are discussed. PMID:18477931

  20. Cleaner wrasse influence habitat selection of young damselfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, D.; Cheney, K. L.; Werminghausen, J.; McClure, E. C.; Meekan, M. G.; McCormick, M. I.; Cribb, T. H.; Grutter, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    The presence of bluestreak cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, on coral reefs increases total abundance and biodiversity of reef fishes. The mechanism(s) that cause such shifts in population structure are unclear, but it is possible that young fish preferentially settle into microhabitats where cleaner wrasse are present. As a first step to investigate this possibility, we conducted aquarium experiments to examine whether settlement-stage and young juveniles of ambon damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis, selected a microhabitat near a cleaner wrasse (adult or juvenile). Both settlement-stage (0 d post-settlement) and juvenile (~5 weeks post-settlement) fish spent a greater proportion of time in a microhabitat adjacent to L. dimidiatus than in one next to a control fish (a non-cleaner wrasse, Halichoeres melanurus) or one where no fish was present. This suggests that cleaner wrasse may serve as a positive cue during microhabitat selection. We also conducted focal observations of cleaner wrasse and counts of nearby damselfishes (1 m radius) to examine whether newly settled fish obtained direct benefits, in the form of cleaning services, from being near a cleaner wrasse. Although abundant, newly settled recruits (<20 mm total length) were rarely (2 %) observed being cleaned in 20 min observations compared with larger damselfishes (58 %). Individual damselfish that were cleaned were significantly larger than the median size of the surrounding nearby non-cleaned conspecifics; this was consistent across four species. The selection by settlement-stage fish of a microhabitat adjacent to cleaner wrasse in the laboratory, despite only being rarely cleaned in the natural environment, suggests that even rare cleaning events and/or indirect benefits may drive their settlement choices. This behaviour may also explain the decreased abundance of young fishes on reefs from which cleaner wrasse had been experimentally removed. This study reinforces the potentially important role of

  1. Glucose and acute exercise influence factors secreted by circulating angiogenic cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Sarah; Guhanarayan, Gayatri; Burgess, Rachel

    2016-02-01

    Circulating angiogenic cells (CAC) influence vascular repair through the secretion of proangiogenic factors and cytokines. While CAC are deficient in patients with diabetes and exercise has a beneficial effect on CACs, the impact of these factors on paracrine secretion from CAC is unknown. We aimed to determine whether the in vitro secretion of selected cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) from CAC is influenced by hyperglycemia and acute exercise. Colony-forming unit CAC (CFU-CAC) were cultured from young active men (n = 9, 24 ± 2 years) at rest and after exercise under normal (5 mmol/L) and elevated (15 mmol/L) glucose. Preliminary relative multiplex cytokine analysis revealed that CAC conditioned culture media contained three of six measured cytokines: transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TGFβ1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). Single quantitative cytokine analysis was used to determine the concentration of each cytokine from the four conditions. NO was measured via Griess assay. There was a significant effect of CAC exposure to in vivo exercise on in vitro TGFβ1 secretion (P = 0.024) that was independent of glucose concentration. There was no effect of glucose or acute exercise on TNFα or MCP-1 concentration (both P > 0.05). The concentration of NO from CFU-CAC cultured in elevated glucose was lower following acute exercise (P = 0.002) suggesting that exercise did not maintain NO secretion under hyperglycemic conditions. Our results identify paracrine signaling factors that may be responsible for the proangiogenic function of CFU-CAC and an influence of acute exercise and elevated glucose on CFU-CAC soluble factor secretion. PMID:26847726

  2. Identifying influencing factors on paved roads silt loading.

    PubMed

    Teng, Hualiang; Kwigizile, Valerian; James, David E; Merle, Russell

    2007-07-01

    The factors that influence the increase or decrease of silt loadings on paved roadways have not been fully quantitatively investigated. They were identified in this study based on the quarterly silt loading sampling data collected from 20 sites by the Clark County Department of Air Quality and Environmental Management in Southern Nevada for the period from 2000 to 2003. The silt loading and associated data collected over these years at one sampling site may inherently possess site-specific characteristics that can be better incorporated by using panel data models. The factors that are identified as significant are the presence of curbs and gutters, shoulder type, pavement conditions, and the presence of construction activities in the vicinity of roadways. The presence of curbs and gutters, stabilized shoulders, and good pavement conditions would result in decreased silt loadings. Conversely, the presence of construction activities within the immediate vicinity of sampled areas would result in increases of silt loadings on the roadway surfaces. Based on the analysis of the results, it was recommended that constructing curbs, gutters and stabilized shoulders, preventing or reducing construction track-out from construction activity, and improving pavement conditions be the preferred control measures to reduce silt loading on paved roadways. PMID:17687992

  3. Understanding the factors influencing safe and unsafe motorcycle rider intentions.

    PubMed

    Tunnicliff, Deborah J; Watson, Barry C; White, Katherine M; Hyde, Melissa K; Schonfeld, Cynthia C; Wishart, Darren E

    2012-11-01

    The increasing popularity of motorcycles in Australia is a significant concern as motorcycle riders represent 15% of all road fatalities and an even greater proportion of serious injuries. This study assessed the psychosocial factors influencing motorcycle riders' intentions to perform both safe and risky riding behaviours. Using an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB), motorcycle riders (n=229) from Queensland, Australia were surveyed to assess their riding attitudes, subjective norm (general and specific), perceived behavioural control (PBC), group norm, self-identity, sensation seeking, and aggression, as well as their intentions, in relation to three safe (e.g., handle my motorcycle skilfully) and three risky (e.g., bend road rules to get through traffic) riding behaviours. Although there was variability in the predictors of intention across the behaviours, results revealed that safer rider intentions were most consistently predicted by PBC, while riskier intentions were predicted by attitudes and sensation seeking. The TPB was able to explain a greater proportion of the variance for intentions to perform risky behaviours. Overall, this study has provided insight into the complexity of factors contributing to rider intentions and suggests that different practical strategies need to be adopted to facilitate safer and reduce risky rider decisions. PMID:23036390

  4. Emotional and Social Factors influence Poker Decision Making Accuracy.

    PubMed

    Laakasuo, Michael; Palomäki, Jussi; Salmela, Mikko

    2015-09-01

    Poker is a social game, where success depends on both game strategic knowledge and emotion regulation abilities. Thus, poker provides a productive environment for studying the effects of emotional and social factors on micro-economic decision making. Previous research indicates that experiencing negative emotions, such as moral anger, reduces mathematical accuracy in poker decision making. Furthermore, various social aspects of the game—such as losing against "bad players" due to "bad luck"—seem to fuel these emotional states. We designed an Internet-based experiment, where participants' (N = 459) mathematical accuracy in five different poker decision making tasks were assessed. In addition, we manipulated the emotional and social conditions under which the tasks were presented, in a 2 × 2 experimental setup: (1) Anger versus neutral emotional state—participants were primed either with an anger-inducing, or emotionally neutral story, and (2) Social cue versus non-social cue—during the tasks, either an image of a pair of human eyes was "following" the mouse cursor, or an image of a black moving box was presented. The results showed that anger reduced mathematical accuracy of decision making only when participants were "being watched" by a pair of moving eyes. Experienced poker players made mathematically more accurate decisions than inexperienced ones. The results contribute to current understanding on how emotional and social factors influence decision making accuracy in economic games. PMID:24633674

  5. [Influence of genetic factors on human sexual orientation. Review].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Larralde, Alvaro; Paradisi, Irene

    2009-09-01

    Human sexual orientation is a complex trait, influenced by several genes, experiential and sociocultural factors. These elements interact and produce a typical pattern of sexual orientation towards the opposite sex. Some exceptions exist, like bisexuality and homosexuality, which seem to be more frequent in males than females. Traditional methods for the genetic study of behavior multifactorial characteristics consist in detecting the presence of familial aggregation. In order to identify the importance of genetic and environmental factors in this aggregation, the concordance of the trait for monozygotic and dizygotic twins and for adopted sibs, reared together and apart, is compared. These types of studies have shown that familial aggregation is stronger for male than for female homosexuality. Based on the threshold method for multifactorial traits, and varying the frequency of homosexuality in the population between 4 and 10%, heritability estimates between 0.27 and 0.76 have been obtained. In 1993, linkage between homosexuality and chromosomal region Xq28 based on molecular approaches was reported. Nevertheless, this was not confirmed in later studies. Recently, a wide search of the genome has given significant or close to significant linkage values with regions 7q36, 8p12 and 10q26, which need to be studied more closely. Deviation in the proportion of X chromosome inactivation in mothers of homosexuals seems to favor the presence of genes related with sexual orientation in this chromosome. There is still much to be known about the genetics of human homosexuality. PMID:19961060

  6. Factors influencing HIV vaccine community engagement in the urban South.

    PubMed

    Frew, Paula M; del Rio, Carlos; Clifton, Sarah; Archibald, Matthew; Hormes, Joseph T; Mulligan, Mark J

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine personal characteristics, socio-environmental conditions, and motivational factors that potentially influence HIV vaccine research community engagement. Specifically, the study identified predictive aspects that may aid in future community program development on HIV vaccine issues. A cross-sectional survey consisting of evaluative measures, demographics, social interaction, and health information-seeking behaviors was conducted. Participants were a diverse group of 452 adults (>or=18 years) at HIV vaccine awareness-building and community education gatherings in Atlanta. The sample included large numbers of women (n=251) and minorities (n=224). In multivariate analysis, the overall logistic regression model was significant, with a resulting coefficient of determination (Nagelkerke R(2)) of .505. Highly significant factors included an excellent activity/event rating (log odds beta = 4.521, P< .001), White race (beta= -.835, P= .005), greater educational attainment (beta= .725, P= .011), travel distance (beta = 1.186, P= .002), and excellent perception of the study site (beta=2.131, P< .001). Subgroup analyses by gender and race revealed similar findings. These data demonstrate the importance of building a favorable study site image and gaining familiarity in the community to aid in the promotion of HIV vaccine research on an ongoing basis. PMID:18389351

  7. Extrinsic Factors Influencing Fetal Deformations and Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Moh, Wendy; Graham, John M.; Wadhawan, Isha; Sanchez-Lara, Pedro A.

    2012-01-01

    The causes of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are multifactorial with both intrinsic and extrinsic influences. While many studies focus on the intrinsic pathological causes, the possible long-term consequences resulting from extrinsic intrauterine physiological constraints merit additional consideration and further investigation. Infants with IUGR can exhibit early symmetric or late asymmetric growth abnormality patterns depending on the fetal stage of development, of which the latter is most common occurring in 70–80% of growth-restricted infants. Deformation is the consequence of extrinsic biomechanical factors interfering with normal growth, functioning, or positioning of the fetus in utero, typically arising during late gestation. Biomechanical forces play a critical role in the normal morphogenesis of most tissues. The magnitude and direction of force impact the form of the developing fetus, with a specific tissue response depending on its pliability and stage of development. Major uterine constraining factors include primigravida, small maternal size, uterine malformation, uterine fibromata, early pelvic engagement of the fetal head, aberrant fetal position, oligohydramnios, and multifetal gestation. Corrective mechanical forces similar to those that gave rise to the deformation to reshape the deformed structures are often used and should take advantage of the rapid postnatal growth to correct form. PMID:22888434

  8. Factors influencing phenolic compounds in table olives (Olea europaea).

    PubMed

    Charoenprasert, Suthawan; Mitchell, Alyson

    2012-07-25

    The Mediterranean diet appears to be associated with a reduced risk of several chronic diseases including cancer and cardiovascular and Alzheimer's diseases. Olive products (mainly olive oil and table olives) are important components of the Mediterranean diet. Olives contain a range of phenolic compounds; these natural antioxidants may contribute to the prevention of these chronic conditions. Consequently, the consumption of table olives and olive oil continues to increase worldwide by health-conscious consumers. There are numerous factors that can affect the phenolics in table olives including the cultivar, degree of ripening, and, importantly, the methods used for curing and processing table olives. The predominant phenolic compound found in fresh olive is the bitter secoiridoid oleuropein. Table olive processing decreases levels of oleuropein with concomitant increases in the hydrolysis products hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. Many of the health benefits reported for olives are thought to be associated with the levels of hydroxytyrosol. Herein the pre- and post-harvest factors influencing the phenolics in olives, debittering methods, and health benefits of phenolics in table olives are reviewed. PMID:22720792

  9. FACTORS INFLUENCING MISTIMED AND UNWANTED PREGNANCIES AMONG NEPALI WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Pawan; Gautam, Rupesh; Aro, Arja R

    2016-03-01

    This paper assesses the factors influencing mistimed and unwanted pregnancies in Nepal separately using data from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey. Women who had given birth within the five years before the survey were interviewed about the intendedness of their last pregnancy. The data were analysed with a chi-squared test, followed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Among the total 5391 participants, 11.29% and 13.13% reported their last pregnancy as mistimed and unwanted respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that women from the hill region were more likely to report mistimed pregnancy, while women from the Western and Far-Western development regions were less likely to report mistimed pregnancy. Education status was positively correlated with the reporting of mistimed pregnancy. Women involved in agriculture, with full autonomy on household decision, with some exposure to mass media, belonging to higher age group and having third or higher parity were less likely to report mistimed pregnancy. Similarly, women from the Western development region had relatively higher odds of reporting unwanted pregnancy. Women with husbands involved in a paid job had lower odds of unwanted pregnancy. Women's autonomy was also positively correlated with unwanted pregnancy. Women with the intention to use contraceptive had lower odds of unwanted pregnancy. Interventions targeting the factors identified by this study could be useful in reduction of mistimed and unwanted pregnancies among Nepali women. PMID:26008148

  10. Abiotic factors influence plant storage lipid accumulation and composition.

    PubMed

    Singer, Stacy D; Zou, Jitao; Weselake, Randall J

    2016-02-01

    The demand for plant-derived oils has increased substantially over the last decade, and is sure to keep growing. While there has been a surge in research efforts to produce plants with improved oil content and quality, in most cases the enhancements have been small. To add further complexity to this situation, substantial differences in seed oil traits among years and field locations have indicated that plant lipid biosynthesis is also influenced to a large extent by multiple environmental factors such as temperature, drought, light availability and soil nutrients. On the molecular and biochemical levels, the expression and/or activities of fatty acid desaturases, as well as diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, have been found to be affected by abiotic factors, suggesting that they play a role in the lipid content and compositional changes seen under abiotic stress conditions. Unfortunately, while only a very small number of strategies have been developed as of yet to minimize these environmental effects on the production of storage lipids, it is clear that this feat will be of the utmost importance for developing superior oil crops with the capability to perform in a consistent manner in field conditions in the future. PMID:26795146

  11. Factors influencing STI transmission in middle-aged heterosexual individuals.

    PubMed

    Monsell, Ellen; McLuskey, John

    2016-06-23

    Research has shown that individuals aged 45-64, or the 'middle-aged' population, are at an increasing risk of contracting a sexually transmitted infection (STI). An exploration of the factors that may influence STIs in this age group was carried out to ascertain how to reduce the risk. A critical review identified 14 research papers that considered STIs in middle-aged people. The available evidence base highlighted an under-representation of women, the absence of a consistent definition of 'middle age', and a paucity of specific information on the sexual health needs of this group. Low condom use was found to be a possible contributor to increasing STI rates; men were shown to report particularly low use. Behaviours such as contact with sex workers and sexual encounters abroad were found to be additional risk factors in men, requiring further consideration. The breakdown and formation of relationships during middle age was also identified as a possible area to investigate, as were the behavioural traits of women and associated STI risk. Further research into these areas could facilitate the development of attitudes, knowledge, policy and practice that could help provide better support for individuals affected. PMID:27345071

  12. The hazard of sharp force injuries: Factors influencing outcome.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersen, Stine; Normann, Stig-André; Morild, Inge; Lilleng, Peer Kåre; Heltne, Jon-Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    The risk of dying from sharp force injury is difficult to ascertain. To the best of our knowledge, no study has been performed in Norway regarding mortality due to sharp force injury or factors that impact survival. Thus, the objective of the present study was to investigate and assess mortality in subjects with sharp force injury. This retrospective study comprises data on 136 subjects (34 female, 102 male) with suspected severe sharp force injury (self-inflicted or inflicted by others) admitted to Haukeland University Hospital between 2001 and 2010. The majority of subjects were intoxicated, and the injury was most often inflicted by a knife. The incidence of sharp force injury in Western Norway is similar to the incidence in other European countries. Almost half of the subjects with self-inflicted injury died. In cases with injury inflicted by another individual, one in five died. Mortality rates were higher in those with penetrating chest injuries than those with penetrating abdominal injuries and higher in cases with cardiac injury compared to pleural or lung injury. Sharp force injury can be fatal, but the overall mortality rate in this study was 29%. Factors influencing mortality rate were the number of injuries, the topographic regions of the body injured, the anatomical organs/structures inflicted, and emergency measures performed. PMID:26599374

  13. Factors Influencing Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Small Grain Cereals

    PubMed Central

    Wegulo, Stephen N.

    2012-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin produced by the plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum. These and other closely related fungi cause a disease known as Fusarium head blight (FHB) in small grain cereals. Other mycotoxins produced by FHB-causing fungi include nivalenol, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone. Ingestion of mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed can lead to toxicosis in humans and animals, respectively. DON is the predominant and most economically important of these mycotoxins in the majority of small grain-producing regions of the world. This review examines the factors that influence DON accumulation in small grain cereals from an agricultural perspective. The occurrence and economic importance of FHB and DON in small grain cereals, epidemiological factors and cereal production practices that favor FHB development and DON accumulation in grain under field conditions, and regulatory/advisory standards for DON in food and feed are discussed. This information can be used to develop strategies that reduce DON accumulation in grain before harvest and to mitigate the human and animal health risks associated with DON contamination of food and feed. PMID:23202310

  14. Influence of selected fluorescent dyes on small aquatic organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowiński, Paweł; Chrzanowski, Marcin

    2011-02-01

    Rhodamine B and Rhodamine WT are fluorescent dyes commonly used as tracers in hydrological investigations. Since introducing intensely red substances into rivers raises understandable doubts of ecological nature, the authors aimed at examining the influence of these dyes on small water fauna using bioindication methods. Quantitative results, calculated with the use of Bliss-Weber probit statistical method, were achieved by means of standardized ecotoxicological tests containing ready-to-hatch resting forms of fairy shrimp (Thamnocephalus platyurus). Qualitative studies included observation of water flea crustacean (Daphnia magna) and horned planorbis snail (Planorbis corneus), both typically present in rivers and representative for temperate climate, as well as guppy fish (Poecilla reticulata), paramecium protozoan (Paramaecium caudatum) and the above-mentioned fairy shrimp. The investigation revealed that both dyes in concentrations used for hydrological purposes are low enough to exert almost no toxic impact on water fauna considered.

  15. Factors Influencing the Quality of Encapsulation in Rock Bolting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Naj; Craig, Peter; Mirzaghorbanali, Ali; Nemcik, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Bolt installation quality is influenced by various factors, some are well known and others are less recognised. A programme of field and laboratory studies was undertaken to examine various factors of relevance to the load transfer mechanism between the bolt, resin and rock to ensure test methods truly represent field performance. Short encapsulation tests were undertaken as part of the Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP) funded project (C21011) with the ultimate aim of developing standard test methods for assessing bolt encapsulation with chemical resin anchor installations. The field study consisted of a series of Short Encapsulation Pull Tests (SEPT) carried out in three mines with different geological conditions to determine the most representative and practical method of SEPT. Additional field work included installation of bolts into threaded steel tubes for subsequent removal and laboratory evaluation. A series of pull tests was carried out by installing bolts in overhead rig mounted sandstone block, cast in concrete with controlled encapsulation length. Factors of importance considered included; borehole diameter, resin annulus thickness, installation time (including bolt spin to the back and "spin at back"), the effect of gloving and hole over drill. It was found that the borehole diameter had a detrimental effect on the encapsulation bonding strength. Bolt installation time of approximately 10 s constituted an acceptable time for effective bolt installation and within the resin manufacturers recommended time of 14 s. Maintaining constant length of encapsulation was paramount for obtaining consistency and repeatability of the test results. Finally, a numerical simulation study was carried out to assess the capabilities of FLAC 2D software in simulating the pull testing of rock bolts.

  16. Influences of Environmental Factors on Leaf Morphology of Chinese Jujubes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaopeng; Li, Yupeng; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    Rainfall and temperature are the primary limiting factors for optimum quality and yield of cultivated jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.). Adaptation to arid and cool environments has been and remains an important goal of many jujube improvement programs. This study summarized the survey results of 116 Chinese jujube varieties grown at 33 sites in China. The objective was to identify the environmental factors that influence leaf morphology, and the implications for breeding and introduction of new jujube varieties. Jujube leaf morphological traits were evaluated for their potential relationships with mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP). The results showed that many leaf morphological traits had a strong linear relationship with local precipitation and temperature. Longer veins per unit area (VLA) and reduced leaf area and leaf perimeter were typical of arid areas. VLA was inversely related to MAT and MAP at the centers of origin of jujube. There was a positive relationship between leaf shape (perimeter2/area) and both MAT and MAP. These results indicated that leaf vein traits of Chinese jujubes might have resulted from their adaptation to environmental factors in the course of long-term evolution. Principal component analysis allocated the 116 jujube varieties to three different groups, differentiated on the basis of morphological and physiological leaf characteristics. Jujube varieties from the Hebei, Shandong, Henan, southern Shanxi and central Shaanxi provinces were closely related, as were varieties from northwest Shanxi and northeast Shaanxi provinces, and varieties from the Gansu and Ningxia provinces. These close relationships were partially attributed to the frequent exchanges of varieties within each group. Leaf venation characteristics might be used as reference indices for jujube variety introduction between different locations. PMID:26020971

  17. Factors influencing brown trout reproductive success in Ozark tailwater rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pender, D.R.; Kwak, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    The reproductive success of brown trout Salmo trutta in White River, Arkansas, tailwater reaches is highly variable, resulting in the need for supplemental stocking. A better understanding of the physical and biotic factors affecting reproduction and survival would enhance the contribution of wild fish. We compared fecundity, reproductive chronology, physical habitat, water quality, trout density, food availability, diet, predation, and competitive interactions among four tailwater reaches to identify factors influencing brown trout reproductive success. The fecundity and condition factor of prespawning brown trout were significantly lower at Beaver Tailwater, a reach known for reproductive failure, than at other sites, among which no differences were found. Brown trout spawning was observed from 11 October to 23 November 1996, and juvenile emergence began on 28 February 1997. Significant among-site differences were detected for spawning and juvenile microhabitat variables, but the variables fell within or near suitable or optimal ranges reported in the literature for this species. Age-0 brown trout density differed significantly among sites, but growth and condition did not. Predation by Ozark sculpin Cottus hypselurus on trout eggs or age-0 trout of any species was not observed among the 418 stomachs examined. Ozark sculpin density and diet overlap with age-0 brown trout were highest and invertebrate food availability and water fertility were lowest at Beaver Tailwater relative to the other reaches. Our findings indicate that differences in trophic conditions occur among tailwater reaches, and a lower system productive capacity was identified at Beaver Tailwater. We suggest that management efforts include refining the multispecies trout stocking regime to improve production efficiency, enhancing flow regulation, and increasing habitat complexity to increase invertebrate and fish productivity. Such efforts may lead to improved natural reproduction and the

  18. Sow and litter factors influencing colostrum yield and nutritional composition.

    PubMed

    Declerck, I; Dewulf, J; Piepers, S; Decaluwé, R; Maes, D

    2015-03-01

    One of the main characteristics of colostrum intake (CI), colostrum yield (CY), and colostrum composition (CC) in pigs is its variability. The present observational study aimed to investigate factors influencing CY and CC in 10 commercial herds. In total, 100 sows of 5 different breeds and their 1,455 live-born piglets were included. Sows' CY was estimated by the CI of their suckling piglets. Colostrum composition was analyzed by LactoScope Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Colostrum yield averaged 3,500 ± 110 g and the percentage of colostral fat (CF), protein, and lactose in colostrum averaged 5.39 ± 0.12, 16.49 ± 0.14, and 2.02 ± 0.05 %, respectively. The effect of sow, litter, and parturition factors on CY and CC were evaluated with a linear mixed regression model with herd included as a random factor. Sows with a gestation length (GL) of 113 d had a higher CY (4,178 ± 506 g) than sows with a GL of 114 to 115 d (3,342 ± 107 g; = 0.04). An interaction was found between the litter birth weight of suckling piglets (LW) and GL ( = 0.03). In sows with a GL of 114 to 115 d, CY increased with higher LW ( = 0.009). A shorter interval between birth and first suckling of the litter was related to a higher CY ( < 0.01). The percentage of fat in colostrums was higher in Hypor sows (6.35 ± 0.51) than in PIC (4.98 ± 0.27; = 0.001), Topigs 20 (5.05 ± 0.14; < 0.001), and Danbred (5.34 ± 0.22; < 0.001) sows. The percentage of CF was negatively associated with parity ( = 0.02) and positively associated with the number of live-born piglets ( = 0.03). The percentages of colostral protein and lactose were not significantly associated with any factor in the multivariable model. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that CY and CF are affected by different sow and litter factors. Pig producers may implement these observations in their management to maximize production or reproduction potential by optimizing CI, CY, and CC. PMID:26020907

  19. Teacher Selection: The relationships Between Selected Factors and the Rated Effectiveness of Second-Year Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arend, Paul J.

    This study sought to determine the relationships between the rated performance effectiveness of the strongest and weakest newly employed teachers in their second year of teaching and selected characteristics of data available in their credentials utilized for their selection. The characteristics selected were prior references, interview scores,…

  20. How improper pump selection influences ESP cable failure

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.

    1984-10-01

    ESP cable failures can sometimes seem to result from high-temperature damage even though the well temperature is far below the temperature rating of the cable. Recent studies show that the problem is one of low well productivity, either from a pumped-off or a gas-locked condition, and that the excessive heat is generated in the pump. In both cases, the problem is caused by misapplied equipment. In the pumped-off condition the pump is oversized. In the gas-locked condition, a proper gas separator should be used. The importance of proper pump selection is emphasized. Both conditions cause excessive heat buildup in the pump. When flow decreases as in either of these conditions, energy continues to be added to the fluid, but pump efficiency decreases and flow decreases. The losses or inefficiencies of the system are transferred to a lesser weight of fluid, so the fluid temperature rises even more.

  1. Factors influencing the effect size distribution of adaptive substitutions

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, Christopher G.; Gould, Billie A.; Schemske, Douglas W.

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of effect sizes of adaptive substitutions has been central to evolutionary biology since the modern synthesis. Early theory proposed that because large-effect mutations have negative pleiotropic consequences, only small-effect mutations contribute to adaptation. More recent theory suggested instead that large-effect mutations could be favoured when populations are far from their adaptive peak. Here we suggest that the distributions of effect sizes are expected to differ among study systems, reflecting the wide variation in evolutionary forces and ecological conditions experienced in nature. These include selection, mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, and other factors such as the degree of pleiotropy, the distance to the phenotypic optimum, whether the optimum is stable or moving, and whether new mutation or standing genetic variation provides the source of adaptive alleles. Our goal is to review how these factors might affect the distribution of effect sizes and to identify new research directions. Until more theory and empirical work is available, we feel that it is premature to make broad generalizations about the effect size distribution of adaptive substitutions important in nature. PMID:27053750

  2. Factors producing over-selectivity in older individuals.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Michelle P; Leader, Geraldine; Reed, Phil

    2016-06-01

    Stimulus over-selectivity describes a phenomenon where only a subset of the relevant stimuli present in the environment, control an individual's behavior. The current experiment explored the degree to which over-selectivity increases in old age. The level of over-selectivity in a visual discrimination task in 60 individuals aged 60-89 years was assessed, as well as the degree to which this reflected attentional control. In addition, the intellectual functioning and cognitive flexibility of the participants were assessed. Results showed that, as age increased, three effects were revealed: levels of stimulus over-selectivity increased, IQ scores decreased, and cognitive flexibility decreased. However, over-selectivity was not related to IQ or cognitive flexibility, and appeared related most to attentional impairments. Thus, ageing is related to significant declines in effective stimulus control. These effects can have a serious impact on the physical and psychological health of old adults, as well as their quality of life, and, therefore, this area of research warrants further exploration. The results are discussed in relation to the attention-deficit and comparator theory of over-selectivity. PMID:27246694

  3. Soil type and species diversity influence selection on physiology in Panicum virgatum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species diversity influences the productivity and stability of plant communities, but its effect on the evolution of species within those communities is poorly understood. In this study, we tested whether species diversity and soil type influence selection on physiology in switchgrass (Panicum virga...

  4. Perturbation Selection and Local Influence Analysis for Nonlinear Structural Equation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Fei; Zhu, Hong-Tu; Lee, Sik-Yum

    2009-01-01

    Local influence analysis is an important statistical method for studying the sensitivity of a proposed model to model inputs. One of its important issues is related to the appropriate choice of a perturbation vector. In this paper, we develop a general method to select an appropriate perturbation vector and a second-order local influence measure…

  5. Factors Influencing Entering Teacher Candidates' Preferences for Instructional Activities: A glimpse into their orientations towards teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talanquer, Vicente; Novodvorsky, Ingrid; Tomanek, Debra

    2010-07-01

    The present study was designed to identify and characterize the major factors that influence entering science teacher candidates' preferences for different types of instructional activities, and to analyze what these factors suggest about teacher candidates' orientations towards science teaching. The study involved prospective teachers enrolled in the introductory science teaching course in an undergraduate science teacher preparation program. Our analysis was based on data collected using a teaching and learning beliefs questionnaire, together with structured interviews. Our results indicate that entering science teacher candidates have strong preferences for a few activity types. The most influential factors driving entering science teacher candidates' selections were the potential of the instructional activities to motivate students, be relevant to students' personal lives, result in transfer of skills to non-science situations, actively involve students in goal-directed learning, and implement curriculum that represents what students need to know. This set of influencing factors suggests that entering science teacher candidates' orientations towards teaching are likely driven by one or more of these three central teaching goals: (1) motivating students, (2) developing science process skills, and (3) engaging students in structured science activities. These goals, and the associated beliefs about students, teaching, and learning, can be expected to favor the development or enactment of three major orientations towards teaching in this population of future science teachers: "motivating students," "process," and "activity-driven."

  6. Factors influencing municipal solid waste generation in China: a multiple statistical analysis study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Wu, Xin-wu

    2011-04-01

    A relationship between the waste production and socio-economic factors is essential in waste management. In the present study, the factors influencing municipal solid waste generation in China were investigated by multiple statistical analysis. Twelve items were chosen for investigation: GDP, per capita GDP, urban population, the proportion of urban population, the area of urban construction, the area of paved roads, the area of urban gardens and green areas, the number of the large cities, annual per capita disposable income of urban households, annual per capita consumption expenditure of urban households, total energy consumption and annual per capital consumption for households. Two methodologies from multiple statistical analysis were selected; specifically principal components analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA). Three new dimensions were identified by PCA: component 1: economy and urban development; component 2: energy consumption; and component 3: urban scale. The three components together accounted for 99.1% of the initial variance. The results show that economy and urban development are important items influencing MSW generation. The proportion of urban population and urban population had the highest loadings in all factors. The relationship between growth of gross domestic product (GDP) and production of MSW was not as clear-cut as often assumed in China, a situation that is more likely to apply to developed countries. Energy consumption was another factor considered in our study of MSW generation. In addition, the annual MSW quantity variation was investigated by cluster analysis. PMID:20699292

  7. Default Bayes Factors for Model Selection in Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Morey, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present a Bayes factor solution for inference in multiple regression. Bayes factors are principled measures of the relative evidence from data for various models or positions, including models that embed null hypotheses. In this regard, they may be used to state positive evidence for a lack of an effect, which is not possible…

  8. Factors influencing utilization of postdischarge cognitive rehabilitation programs.

    PubMed

    Gummow, L J; Gregory, V R; Macnamara, S E

    1990-04-01

    A decision to add a new treatment program has widespread and long-lasting implications for both the patient and the organization. Information about the interactions among the institution, the patient, and the treatment modality are seldom available. Cognitive rehabilitation is a relatively new treatment modality that is being adopted in a number of programs. This report examined characteristics of stroke patients that (1) precluded their selection for cognitive rehabilitation treatment and (2) were associated with patient refusal to participate in cognitive rehabilitation. The records of stroke patients treated in three rehabilitation facilities were examined for their ability to participate in an outpatient cognitive rehabilitation program. Due to stringent criteria for the research project, fewer than half of the stroke patient population were cognitively able to participate. Of eligible patients, many declined postdischarge cognitive rehabilitation. Several variables influenced patient participation. Female stroke patients were much less likely to participate than were male patients. In addition, distance from the medical facility providing cognitive rehabilitation was a major barrier to treatment participation. Individuals who opted to participate were well educated, affluent or both. The sample of cognitive rehabilitation patients was not, therefore, representative of the population. These results suggest that medical facilities considering the addition of a centralized outpatient postdischarge cognitive rehabilitation program should first evaluate the characteristics of the target population. Suggestions about the institutional considerations involved in making the decision to add a cognitive rehabilitation program are made. PMID:2158490

  9. A Phenomenological Study: The Influence of Noncognitive Factors on Academically Unprepared College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thom, Danny Moire

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological research explored the influence of noncognitive factors in four areas: early educational factors, personal factors, affective factors, and noncognitive skill factors to understand the phenomenon of college students' academic underpreparedness. Findings related to textual categories indicated personal factors such as a…

  10. The influence of sustained selective attention on stimulus selectivity in macaque visual area MT.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Detlef; Freiwald, Winrich A; Kreiter, Andreas K

    2004-07-01

    Remarkable alterations of perception during long-lasting attentional processes have been described in several recent studies. Although these findings have gained much interest, almost nothing is known about the modulation of neuronal responses during sustained attention. Therefore, we investigated the effect of prolonged selective attention on neuronal feature selectivity. Awake macaque monkeys were trained to perform a motion-tracking task that required attending one of two simultaneously presented moving bars for up to 15 sec. Extracellular recordings were obtained from neurons in macaque motion-sensitive middle temporal visual area (MT/V5). Under conditions of attention, we found high and constant direction selectivity over time. This was expressed by a strong and persistent response contrast between presentations of preferred and nonpreferred stimuli in successive motion cycles. With attention directed to another moving bar, neuronal responses to the behaviorally irrelevant stimulus became continuously less specific for the direction of motion. In particular, increasingly higher firing rates for motion in null direction caused a strong reduction of direction selectivity, which further increased with enhanced proximity between target and distracter bar. A passive condition experiment revealed that this reduction occurred only when motion remained the behaviorally relevant feature but disappeared when attention was withdrawn from this feature domain. Thus, sustained attention seems to stabilize direction selectivity of neurons in area MT against a time and competition-dependent degradation, whereas nonattended objects suffer from a reduced neuronal representation. PMID:15240802

  11. Influence of external factors on hair cortisol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Salaberger, Theresa; Millard, Marlon; Makarem, Samy El; Möstl, Erich; Grünberger, Viktoria; Krametter-Frötscher, Reinhild; Wittek, Thomas; Palme, Rupert

    2016-07-01

    Measuring hair cortisol has attracted interest as a long term parameter for chronic stress evaluation. However, some studies support the hypothesis that locally produced cortisol, originating from the hair follicle or skin cells, affects concentrations in the hair. In an animal model the influence of different treatments (extensive brushing, administration of a hyperemising fluid that enhances blood circulation or a synthetic glucocorticoid) on the local cortisol production of hair was evaluated. Therefore eight sheep were sheared and the area of the skin surface of the back was quartered, with three quarters being daily subjected to a certain treatment and one quarter remaining untreated. The skin areas were sheared again after three weeks and cortisol concentrations of all wool samples were determined by immunoassay. Systemic cortisol concentrations were additionally monitored with faecal samples, indicating a significant decline in concentrations of glucocorticoid metabolites between week 1 and 2 or 3, respectively. We found no significant difference in hair cortisol concentrations between fields before treatment (p=0.310). Comparing matched fields before and after treatment, we found no significant differences in wool cortisol concentrations for fields treated with hyperemising fluid as well as for the control fields (p=0.329, p=0.097). Hairs exposed to either extensive brushing or dexamethasone fluid had significantly higher immunoreactive cortisol concentrations after three weeks of treatment (p=0.016, p=0.01). We therefore advise cautious interpretation when measuring hair cortisol concentrations as a parameter for chronic stress, because external factors may have a significant influence on the results. PMID:27167500

  12. Anatomical Factors Influencing Pneumatization of the Petrous Apex

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Ju; Lee, Seunghun; Choi, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Aim of the present study was to define the relationship between petrous apex pneumatization and the nearby major anatomical landmarks using temporal bone computed tomography (CT) images. Methods This retrospective, Institutional Review Board-approved study analyzed CT images of 84 patients that showed normal findings bilaterally. Pneumatization of the petrous apex was classified using two methods. Eight parameters were as follows: angle between the posterior cranial fossa and internal auditory canal, Morimitsu classification of anterior epitympanic space, distance between the carotid canal and jugular bulb, distance between the cochlear modiolus and carotid canal, distance between the tympanic segment and jugular bulb, high jugular bulb, distance between the vertical segment and jugular bulb, and distance between the lateral semicircular canals and middle cranial fossa. Results There was a significant difference in Morimitsu classification of the anterior epitympanic space between the two classification methods. Poorly pneumatic upper petrous apices were distributed uniformly in three types of Morimitsu classification, but more pneumatic upper petrous apices were found more often in anterior type. Lower petrous apex was well pneumatized regardless of the types of anterior epitympanic space, but the largest amount of pneumatization was found more frequently in the anterior type of anterior epitympanic space. Conclusion This study showed that there was no reliable anatomic marker to estimate petrous apex pneumatization and suggests that the pneumatization of the petrous apex may be an independent process from other part of the temporal bone, and may not be influenced by the nearby major anatomical structures in the temporal bone. In this study, the anterior type of anterior epitympanic space was found to be closely related to more well-pneumatized petrous apices, which implies that the anterior saccule of the saccus medius may be the main factor

  13. Factors influencing reproductive performance of northern bobwhite in South Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rolland, V.; Hostetler, J.A.; Hines, T.C.; Percival, H.F.; Oli, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive success is a critical component of individual fitness, and also an important determinant of growth rates of populations characterized by early maturity and high fecundity. We used radiotelemetry data collected during 2003-2008 to estimate reproductive parameters in a declining northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) population in South Florida, and to test hypotheses regarding factors influencing these parameters. The overall clutch size was 12.10 ?? 0.22, but females laid more eggs in their first clutch (12.43 ?? 0.24) than in subsequent clutches (10.19 ?? 0.53) within a nesting season. Daily nest survival was higher for first (0.966 ?? 0.003) than subsequent nests (0.936 ?? 0.011). Hatchability (proportion of laid eggs that hatched conditional upon nest survival to hatching) was 0.853 ?? 0.008, but was higher for nests incubated by females (0.873 ?? 0.009) than those incubated by males (0.798 ?? 0.018). The proportion of individuals attempting a second nest was 0.112 ?? 0.024 and 0.281 ?? 0.040 when the first nest was successful and failed, respectively. Hatchability was lower when the nesting habitat was burned the previous winter. We found no evidence that food strip density (a management practice to provide supplemental food) influenced any of the reproductive parameters. Mean summer temperature affected hatchability, nest survival, and proportion of nests incubated by males. Overall, the reproductive output in our study population was lower than that reported for most other bobwhite populations, indicating that low reproductive performance may have contributed to bobwhite population declines in our study site. These results suggest that current management practices, particularly those related to habitat and harvest management, need careful evaluation. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Influence of interplanetary trajectory selection on Mars atmospheric entry velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Striepe, Scott A.; Braun, Robert D.; Powell, Richard W.; Fowler, Wallace T.

    1993-01-01

    Many current manned Mars mission studies are using low lift-to-drag ratio (L/D) vehicles to aerobrake at both Mars and Earth. The use of these low L/D vehicles could limit the allowable velocity at the atmospheric interface. This paper will demonstrate that if entry velocity constraints are incorporated into the interplanetary analysis of aerobraking Mars missions, many opportunities can be achieved for a small increase in initial mass in low-Earth orbit (IMLEO). These opportunities result from varying the initial launch date and the encounter dates and possibly using a powered Venus swingby on either the inbound or outbound transfer. This paper demonstrates this technique by using three atmospheric entry velocity ranges at Mars arrival (6.0-8.5, 6.4-8.1, and 7.2-7.3 km/s), unconstrained Mars entry velocities, and an Earth return entry velocity below 14 km/s. The results indicate that, by carefully selecting the interplanetary trajectory, an optimum IMLEO mission can be found for even highly restrictive entry velocity missions in practically all of the 15 yr studied.

  15. Preparation of functional human factor V111 in mammalian cells using methotrexate based selection

    SciTech Connect

    Capon, D.J.; Lawn, R.M.; Levinson, A.D.; Vehar, G.A.; Wood, W.I.

    1990-10-23

    This patent describes a process for producing factor VII. It comprises: cotransfecting a mammalian host cell with a DNA sequence encoding factor VIII, a second DNA sequence encoding an amplifiable marker, and a third DNA sequence encoding a selectable marker; growing the transfected cell in a non-selection medium and selecting for such selectable marker resistant cells; and amplifying the amplifiable marker DNA sequence by culturing the selected cells in media containing increasing amounts of selection agent, wherein the host cell is not deficient in the amplifiable marker.

  16. Ankle Bracing and the Neuromuscular Factors Influencing Joint Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Zinder, Steven M; Granata, Kevin P; Shultz, Sandra J; Gansneder, Bruce M

    2009-01-01

    Context: Health care professionals commonly prescribe external stabilization to decrease the incidence and severity of ankle sprains. The mechanism for this decrease is not clearly understood. Examining the effects of ankle bracing on biomechanical stability and influencing factors may provide important information regarding the neuromuscular effects of bracing. Objective: To study the effects of 2 different ankle braces on the neuromuscular factors influencing ankle stiffness. Design: Mixed-model repeated-measures design. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-eight physically active participants composing 2 groups: 14 with unilateral functional ankle instability (age  =  26.19 ± 6.46 years, height  =  166.07 ± 12.90 cm, mass  =  69.90 ± 13.46 kg) and 14 with bilaterally stable ankles (age  =  23.76 ± 5.82 years, height  =  174.00 ± 11.67 cm, mass  =  68.60 ± 13.12 kg). Intervention(s): Participants were fitted with surface electromyography electrodes over the peroneus longus, peroneus brevis, tibialis anterior, and soleus muscles. Each participant received transient motion oscillations to his or her ankle on a custom-built medial-lateral swaying cradle in each of 3 conditions: no ankle brace (NB), lace-up brace (LU), and semirigid brace (SR). Main Outcome Measure(s): Ankle stiffness as measured by the cradle and preactivation levels (percentage of maximal voluntary isometric contraction) of the 4 test muscles. Results: Stiffness levels increased across brace conditions (NB  =  24.79 ± 6.59 Nm/rad, LU  =  28.29 ± 7.05 Nm/rad, SR  =  33.22 ± 8.78 Nm/rad; F2,52  =  66.185, P < .001). No differences were found between groups for rotational stiffness (stable  =  27.36 ± 6.17 Nm/rad, unstable  =  30.18 ± 8.21 Nm/rad; F1,26  =  1.084, P  =  .307). Preactivation levels did not change for any of the tested muscles with the application of an ankle brace (F2,52  =  1.326, P

  17. What Factors Influence Long-term Survivorship After Hip Arthroscopy?

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, Bryan T.; Ojeifo, Olumide; Lee, Jo Ann; Bragdon, Charles R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Hip arthroscopy is an evolving procedure. One small study suggested that a low modified Harris hip score and arthritis at the time of surgery were predictors of poor prognosis. Questions/purposes We therefore intended to confirm those findings with a large patient cohort to (1) determine the long-term nonarthritic hip score; (2) determine survivorship; (3) identify risk factors that increase the likelihood of THA; and (4) use those factors to create a usable risk assessment algorithm. Patients and Methods We retrospectively reviewed 324 patients (340 hips) who underwent arthroscopy for pain and/or catching. Of these, 106 patients (111 hips or 33%) had a minimum followup of 10 years (mean, 13 years; range, 10–20 years). The average age was 39 years (± 13) with 47 men and 59 women. We recorded patient age, gender, acetabular and femoral Outerbridge grade at surgery, and the presence of a labral tear. Followup consisted of a nonarthritic hip score or the date of a subsequent THA. We determined survivorship with the end point of THA for the acetabular and femoral Outerbridge grades. Results Overall survivorship among the 111 hips was 63% at 10 years. The average nonarthritic hip score for non-THA patients was 87.3 (± 12.1). Survivorship was greater for acetabular and femoral Outerbridge grades normal through II. Age at arthroscopy and Outerbridge grades independently predicted eventual THA. Gender and the presence of a labral tear did not influence long-term survivorship. Conclusions The long-term survivorship of labral tears with low-grade cartilage damage indicates hip arthroscopy is reasonable for treating labral tears. Level of Evidence Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:20872105

  18. The influence of riboflavin photochemistry on plasma coagulation factors

    PubMed Central

    Larrea, Luis; Calabuig, María; Roldán, Vanesa; Rivera, José; Tsai, Han-Mou; Vicente, Vicente; Roig, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Studies with riboflavin in the 1960s showed that it could be effective at inactivating pathogens when exposed to light. The principal mode of action is through electron transfer reactions, most importantly in nucleic acids. This suggested that it could act as a photosensitizer useful in the inactivation of pathogens found in blood products. Objective To study the influence of photo-inactivation with riboflavin on the coagulation factors of plasma. Methods The photo-inactivation procedure of riboflavin plus light was applied. Fifty isogroup pools of two plasmas were made from 100 U of plasma that were derived from whole blood products that had previously been held overnight. Pools were split into two bags. One of them was photo-inactivated, and post inactivation samples were obtained. The second bag was not photo-inactivated and samples were taken. Total protein, fibrinogen, FII, FV, FVII, FVIII, FIX, FX, FXI, FXIII, antithrombin III, PC, PS, α-2 antiplasmin and vWF:Ag, the multimeric structure of vWF and ADAMTS-13 were analyzed. Results In plasma, the proteins most sensitive to photo-inactivation were fibrinogen, FXI, FVIII, FV, and FIX (33%, 32%, 30%, 18% and 18% loss, respectively). Coagulation inhibitors, PS, antithrombin III and PC showed little decrease (all 2%). Retention of vWF and ADAMTS-13 were 99% and 88%, respectively. Conclusions As with other pathogen reduction procedures for plasma products, treatment with riboflavin and UV light resulted in reduction in the activity levels of several pro-coagulant factors. Coagulation inhibitors are well preserved. PMID:19782644

  19. Factors influencing the rate of job turnover among hospital pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Smith, S N; Stewart, J E; Grussing, P G

    1986-08-01

    Factors influencing the rate of job turnover among hospital pharmacists were studied. In June 1982, pharmacists and pharmacy directors in acute-care hospitals in the Chicago area with more than 100 beds were asked both open-ended and multiple-choice questions pertaining to reasons for accepting and staying at current jobs, reasons for leaving previous and possibly current jobs, career goals, and demographic data. From the sample of 529 pharmacists, 217 (41%) usable responses were received. Pharmacy directors' responses indicated that the turnover rate for pharmacists was 14.4% and that relocation and layoffs or job termination were the most common reasons for job turnover. Overall, pharmacists' pay and benefits and opportunity for promotion or advancement were the reasons pharmacists cited most frequently both for leaving a job and for staying at a job. Men ranked pay and benefits as the most important reason for taking and staying at a position and for leaving, whereas women cited hospital location as the most important reason for taking, staying at, or leaving a job. Other factors cited as important were working hours, professional challenge, job duties, and continuation of education. Pharmacists who had been in the current job for more than two years were less likely to leave. Pregnancy of the employee or spouse was not a strong reason for leaving, and relocation was a more important reason for women than for men. Approximately half the respondents indicated they had a career goal; promotion to management and continuation of education were the goals most frequently mentioned. Regional or national studies should be conducted to gain further understanding of why pharmacists accept, remain in, and change jobs. PMID:3752133

  20. Early Life Factors Influencing the Risk of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The obesity epidemic is a worldwide problem. Factors predisposing to obesity include genetics, race, socioeconomic conditions, birth by cesarean section, and perinatal antibiotic use. High protein (HP) content in infant formulas has been identified as a potential culprit predisposing to rapid weight gain in the first few months of life and leading to later obesity. In a large multicountry study the effects of lower protein (LP) formula (1.77 and 2.2 g protein/100 kcal, before and after the 5th month, respectively) were compared to those of higher protein (2.9 and 4.4 g protein/100 kcal, respectively). Results indicated that at 24 months, the weight-for-length z score of infants in the LP formula group was 0.20 (0.06, 0.34) lower than that of the HP group and was similar to that of the breastfed reference group. The authors concluded that a HP content of infant formula is associated with higher weight in the first 2 years of life but has no effect on length. LP intake in infancy might diminish the later risk of overweight and obesity. At 6 years of age HP children had a significantly higher body mass index (by 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13-0.90; p=0.009) and a 2.43 (95% CI, 1.12-5.27; p=0.024) fold greater risk of becoming obese than those who received the LP. In conclusion, several factors may influence development of metabolic syndrome and obesity. Breastfeeding should always be encouraged. An overall reduction of protein intake in formula non breastfed infants seems to be an additional way to prevent obesity. PMID:26770895

  1. Factors influencing quit attempts among male daily smokers in China✩

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Luhua; Song, Yang; Xiao, Lin; Palipudi, Krishna; Asma, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Background China has the largest population of smokers in the world, yet the quit rate is low. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey China to identify factors influencing quit attempts among male Chinese daily smokers. Methods The study sample included 3303 male daily smokers. To determine the factors that were significantly associated with making a quit attempt, we conducted logistic regression analyses. In addition, mediation anal yses were carried out to investigate how the intermediate association among demographics (age, education, urbanicity) and smoking related variables affected making a quit attempt. Results An estimated 11.0% of male daily smokers tried to quit smoking in the 12 months prior to the survey. Logistic regression analysis indicated that younger age (15–24 years), being advised to quit by a health care provider (HCP) in the past 12 months, lower cigarette cost per pack, monthly or less frequent exposure to smoking at home, and awareness of the harms of tobacco use were significantly associated with making a quit attempt. Additional mediation analyses showed that having knowledge of the harm of tobacco, exposure to smoking at home, and having been advised to quit by an HCP were mediators of making a quit attempt for other independent variables. Conclusion Evidence-based tobacco control measures such as conducting educational campaigns on the harms of tobacco use, establishing smoke-free policies at home, and integrating tobacco cessation advice into primary health care services can increase quit attempts and reduce smoking among male Chinese daily smokers. PMID:26441296

  2. The influence of metformin in the etiology of selected cancers

    PubMed Central

    Markowska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Obesity, hypertension and glucose tolerance disorders have become a growing concern in recent years. It is estimated that over 220 million people suffer from diabetes. It is a condition conducive to cardiovascular diseases, nephropathy, retinopathy and neuropathy but also to the development of many types of cancer. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia lead to increased concentration of insulin-like growth factors, activation of IGF-R receptors, activation of PI3K and Ras-Raf pathways and result in increased cell division. The greatest risk is associated with developing stomach, pancreatic, colorectal, esophageal and lung cancer as well as breast and cervical cancer. Numerous cohort studies have confirmed that diabetic patients treated with metformin show a lower cancer morbidity and mortality rate. The dominant mechanism of action is activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway and inhibition of mTOR protein, the key protein to regulate cell growth, apoptosis, proliferation and protein synthesis. Many clinical trials are currently under way to investigate the effectiveness of metformin in the prevention and treatment of neoplasms. PMID:23788884

  3. Factors influencing in situ gamma-ray measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loonstra, E. H.; van Egmond, F. M.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction In situ passive gamma-ray sensors are very well suitable for mapping physical soil properties. In order to make a qualitative sound soil map, high quality input parameters for calibration are required. This paper will focus on the factors that affect the output of in situ passive gamma-ray sensors, the primary source, soil, not taken into account. Factors The gamma-ray spectrum contains information of naturally occurring nuclides 40K, 238U and 232Th and man-made nuclides like 137Cs, as well as the total count rate. Factors that influence the concentration of these nuclides and the count rate can be classified in 3 categories. These are sensor design, environmental conditions and operational circumstances. Sensor design The main elements of an in situ gamma-ray sensor that influence the outcome and quality of the output are the crystal and the spectrum analysis method. Material and size of the crystal determine the energy resolution. Though widely used, NaI crystals are not the most efficient capturer of gamma radiation. Alternatives are BGO and CsI. BGO has a low peak resolution, which prohibits use in cases where man-made nuclides are subject of interest. The material is expensive and prone to temperature instability. CsI is robust compared to NaI and BGO. The density of CsI is higher than NaI, yielding better efficiency, especially for smaller crystal sizes. More volume results in higher energy efficiency. The reduction of the measured spectral information into concentration of radionuclides is mostly done using the Windows analysis method. In Windows, the activities of the nuclides are found by summing the intensities of the spectrum found in a certain interval surrounding a peak. A major flaw of the Windows method is the limited amount of spectral information that is incorporated into the analysis. Another weakness is the inherent use of ‘stripping factors' to account for contributions of radiation from nuclide A into the peak of nuclide B. This

  4. Factors influencing job satisfaction in post-transition economies: the case of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Čábelková, Inna; Abrhám, Josef; Strielkowski, Wadim

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of factors influencing job satisfaction in post-transition economies on the example of the Czech Republic. Our research shows that women reported higher levels of job satisfaction compared to men. Education proved to be statistically significant in one of three indicators of job satisfaction. Personal income and workplace relationships proved to be positively and significantly related to all the three indicators of job satisfaction. Most of the occupational dummies were significantly related to two out of three indicators of job satisfaction. In addition, we found that Czech entrepreneurs enjoy and value their job, which indicates strong self-selection for doing business in post-transition economies. However, human capital expressed by the level of education was significant factor for job satisfaction, meaning that well-educated people might not be satisfied with their jobs or feel that their education and experience are wasted in the market economy. PMID:26693997

  5. Factors influencing evaporation from sample cups and assessment of their effect on analytical error.

    PubMed

    Burtis, C A; Begovich, J M; Watson, J S

    1975-12-01

    We studied sample evaporation and its effect on analytical error. Several factors influencing evaporative loss have been identified and measured: environmental, instrumental, and operational factors, and the chemical and physical properties of the sample and its container. Such losses from several different types of sample cups have been measured, either chemically or gravimetrically, and compared with those calculated by using a model that allows evaporative loss from a cup of known geometry to be predicted under various environmental conditions. We discuss some steps that may be taken to minimize evaporative loss and give an example to demonstrate that analytical error from this source can be decreased to a routine 1--2% or less by selecting a particular cup design. PMID:1192582

  6. 48 CFR 16.104 - Factors in selecting contract types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... interest. (b) Price analysis. Price analysis with or without competition, may provide a basis for selecting..., the cost risk should shift to the contractor, and a fixed-price contract should be considered. (e... consider whether or not a portion of the contract can be established on a firm-fixed-price basis....

  7. ANALYSIS OF SELECTED FACTORS RELATIVE TO AUTOMATED SCHOOL SCHEDULING PROCESSES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHAFFEE, LEONARD M.; HELLER, ROBERT W.

    PROJECT PASS (PROJECT IN AUTOMATED SCHOOL SCHEDULING) WAS SPONSORED IN 1965 BY THE WESTERN NEW YORK SCHOOL STUDY COUNCIL TO PROVIDE IN-SERVICE EDUCATION FOR SCHOOL PERSONNEL CONTEMPLATING THE USE OF AUTOMATED APPROACHES TO SCHOOL SCHEDULING. TWO TECHNIQUES WERE UTILIZED--CLASS LOADING AND STUDENT SELECTION (CLASS), AND GENERAL ACADEMIC SIMULATION…

  8. Factors that Influence the Effectiveness of Sanitation Programs.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Haddad, Marilu; Ingram, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems, such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles) and by using social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always affect the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation. This article presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes, or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services. The article first describes the context and strategies of the program, which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The article analyzes social, educational, economic, demographic, and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs. PMID:26389106

  9. Factors Influencing Phosphorous Cycling in Biogeochemical 'Hot Spots'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saia, S. M.; Walter, M. T.; Buda, A. R.; Carrick, H. J.; Regan, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic alteration of the phosphorus (P) cycle has led to subsequent soil and water quality issues. For example, P build up in soils due to historic fertilizer application may become biologically available and exacerbate eutrophication and anoxia in nearby water bodies. In the humid Northeastern United States, storm runoff transports P and also stimulates biogeochemical processes, these locations are termed biogeochemical 'hot spots'. Many studies have looked at nitrogen and carbon cycling in biogeochemical hot spots but few have focused on P. We hypothesize the periodic wetting and drying of biogeochemical hot spots promotes a combination of abiotic and biotic processes that influence the mobility of P. To test this hypothesis, we took monthly soil samples (5 cm deep) from May to October in forest, pasture, and cropped land near Ithaca, NY. In-situ measurements taken with each sample included volumetric soil moisture and soil temperature. We also analyzed samples for 'runoff generated' phosphate, nitrate, and sulfate (from 0.01 M CaCl2 extraction), Fe(II), percent organic matter, pH, as well as oxalate extractable and total P, Al, and Fe. We used linear mixed effects models to test how runoff generated phosphate concentrations vary with soil moisture and whether other environmental factors strengthen/weaken this relationship. The knowledge gained from this study will improve our understanding of P cycling in biogeochemical hot spots and can be used to improve the effectiveness of agricultural management practices in the Northeastern United States.

  10. Phenotypes and enviromental factors: their influence in PCOS.

    PubMed

    Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Christakou, Charikleia; Marinakis, Evangelos

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex syndrome of unclear etiopathogenesis characterized by heterogeneity in phenotypic manifestations. The clinical phenotype of PCOS includes reproductive and hormonal aberrations, namely anovulation and hyperandrogenism, which coexist with metabolic disturbances. Reflecting the crosstalk between the reproductive system and metabolic tissues, obesity not only deteriorates the metabolic profile but also aggravates ovulatory dysfunction and hyperandrogenism. Although the pathogenesis of PCOS remains unclear, the syndrome appears to involve environmental and genetic components. Starting from early life and extending throughout lifecycle, environmental insults may affect susceptible women who finally demonstrate the clinical phenotype of PCOS. Diet emerges as the major environmental determinant of PCOS. Overnutrition leading to obesity is widely recognized to have an aggravating impact, while another detrimental dietary factor may be the high content of food in advanced glycated end products (AGEs). Environmental exposure to industrial products, particularly Bisphenol A (BPA), may also exacerbate the clinical course of PCOS. AGEs and BPA may act as endocrine disruptors in the pathogenesis of the syndrome. PCOS appears to mirror the harmful influence of the modern environment on the reproductive and metabolic balance of inherently predisposed individuals. PMID:22229564

  11. Factors influencing oral health in long term care facilities.

    PubMed

    MacEntee, M I; Weiss, R; Waxler-Morrison, N E; Morrison, B J

    1987-12-01

    In a stratified random sample of 41 long term care (LTC) facilities in Vancouver, 653 residents were chosen to investigate oral health needs and demands for treatment. All of the 603 dentists in the same area were questioned to assess their interest in attending the residents of the institutions. The information from each source was reviewed to identify factors influencing the oral health services to this predominantly elderly and medically compromised population. The majority (60%) of the residents were edentulous and they made infrequent demands on dentists. Two-thirds of those interviewed said that there was nothing wrong with their mouths, but most of those who were aware of a problem wanted it treated, preferably within the institution. They complained about loose or uncomfortable dentures most frequently, and many were dissatisfied with previous dental treatment. The oral mucosal lesions seen on examination were usually symptomless and associated with poor hygiene, while structurally defective dentures and deep carious lesions were not uncommon. The responding 334 dentists indicated that they enjoyed treating elderly patients, 19% had attended an LTC facility, usually to provide an emergency service, and 37% were willing to provide this service if asked. Interest, however, in the service was curtailed by pressures from private practice, concerns about inadequate training and the small demand and poor conditions in the facilities. Although the demand for treatment was not extensive from the residents, they did have problems that were not receiving care. PMID:3121247

  12. Preparation of Chitosan Nanoparticles: A Study of Influencing Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Anupama; Taranjit

    2011-12-01

    Chitosan (CS), a cationic polysaccharide, offers great advantages for ionic interactions with negatively charged species such as sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) leading to the formation of biocompatible crosslinked chitosan nanoparticles In the present work, an attempt has been made to systematically study the following factors influencing the ionotropic gelation of chitosan with STPP to produce CS nanoparticles: effect of pH of solution, CS concentration, STPP concentration and CS/STPP ratio. The results show that with the increase in CS concentration, the yield of the nanoparticle decreases whereas size increases. The mean size of the prepared nanoparticles varied between 120 to 720 nm and zeta potential between +14 mV to +53 mV . Nanoparticle size and yield was found to be strongly dependent on solution pH. Nanoparticle size decreased with increase in solution pH from 4 to 5 and yield was found to be maximum at pH = 5. With increase in STPP concentration, the size and yield of the nanoparticle increased. The potential of CS nanoparticles to trap amoxicillin trihydrate, taken as the model drug, was also studied. The maximum drug loading capacity was found to be 35% at a solution pH = 5 for 0.2% CS and 0.086% STPP.

  13. Combinatorial influence of environmental parameters on transcription factor activity

    PubMed Central

    Knijnenburg, T.A.; Wessels, L.F.A.; Reinders, M.J.T.

    2008-01-01

    Motivation: Cells receive a wide variety of environmental signals, which are often processed combinatorially to generate specific genetic responses. Changes in transcript levels, as observed across different environmental conditions, can, to a large extent, be attributed to changes in the activity of transcription factors (TFs). However, in unraveling these transcription regulation networks, the actual environmental signals are often not incorporated into the model, simply because they have not been measured. The unquantified heterogeneity of the environmental parameters across microarray experiments frustrates regulatory network inference. Results: We propose an inference algorithm that models the influence of environmental parameters on gene expression. The approach is based on a yeast microarray compendium of chemostat steady-state experiments. Chemostat cultivation enables the accurate control and measurement of many of the key cultivation parameters, such as nutrient concentrations, growth rate and temperature. The observed transcript levels are explained by inferring the activity of TFs in response to combinations of cultivation parameters. The interplay between activated enhancers and repressors that bind a gene promoter determine the possible up- or downregulation of the gene. The model is translated into a linear integer optimization problem. The resulting regulatory network identifies the combinatorial effects of environmental parameters on TF activity and gene expression. Availability: The Matlab code is available from the authors upon request. Contact: t.a.knijnenburg@tudelft.nl Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:18586711

  14. Factors Influencing Internal Phosphorus Loading in Spring Lake, Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinman, A.; Nemeth, L.; Rediske, R.

    2005-05-01

    Spring Lake is a eutrophic, drowned river mouth lake that drains into the Grand River about 1 km upstream from Lake Michigan. In 2003, we determined that internal P loading accounted for approximately 65% of the total annual P load to this lake, and that an alum concentration of 24 mg/L effectively inactivated P release in experimental sediment core tubes. In 2004, we studied the influence of alum concentration, sediment resuspension, and bioturbation on P release rates from the sediments. Based on laboratory incubations, we determined that P release rates were no different at alum concentrations of 15 mg alum/L than at concentrations of 25 mg/L. Resuspension of sediments substantially increased TP concentrations, even at high alum concentrations, although total soluble phosphorus concentrations remained low in the water provided alum was present. Bioturbation did not appear to play a major factor with respect to P release in these sediments. Given the current concentration of phosphorus in the Spring Lake sediments, internal P loading can continue for another 40 years, even if all external P sources were immediately eliminated.

  15. Determination of specificity influencing residues for key transcription factor families

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ronak Y.; Garde, Christian; D.Stormo, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are major modulators of transcription and subsequent cellular processes. The binding of TFs to specific regulatory elements is governed by their specificity. Considering the gap between known TFs sequence and specificity, specificity prediction frameworks are highly desired. Key inputs to such frameworks are protein residues that modulate the specificity of TF under consideration. Simple measures like mutual information (MI) to delineate specificity influencing residues (SIRs) from alignment fail due to structural constraints imposed by the three-dimensional structure of protein. Structural restraints on the evolution of the amino-acid sequence lead to identification of false SIRs. In this manuscript we extended three methods (Direct Information, PSICOV and adjusted mutual information) that have been used to disentangle spurious indirect protein residue-residue contacts from direct contacts, to identify SIRs from joint alignments of amino-acids and specificity. We predicted SIRs forhomeodomain (HD), helix-loop-helix, LacI and GntR families of TFs using these methods and compared to MI. Using various measures, we show that the performance of these three methods is comparable but better than MI. Implication of these methods in specificity prediction framework is discussed. The methods are implemented as an R package and available along with the alignments at stormo.wustl.edu/SpecPred. PMID:26753103

  16. Factors influencing adoption of manure separation technology in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Gebrezgabher, Solomie A; Meuwissen, Miranda P M; Kruseman, Gideon; Lakner, Dora; Oude Lansink, Alfons G J M

    2015-03-01

    Manure separation technologies are essential for sustainable livestock operations in areas with high livestock density as these technologies result in better utilization of manure and reduced environmental impact. Technologies for manure separation have been well researched and are ready for use. Their use, however, has been limited to the Netherlands. This paper investigates the role of farm and farmer characteristics and farmers' attitudes toward technology-specific attributes in influencing the likelihood of the adoption of mechanical manure separation technology. The analysis used survey data collected from 111 Dutch dairy farmers in 2009. The results showed that the age and education level of the farmer and farm size are important variables explaining the likelihood of adoption. In addition to farm and farmer characteristics, farmers' attitudes toward the different attributes of manure separation technology significantly affect the likelihood of adoption. The study generates useful information for policy makers, technology developers and distributors in identifying the factors that impact decision-making behaviors of farmers. PMID:25460418

  17. Factors that Influence the Effectiveness of Sanitation Programs

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Haddad, Marilu; Ingram, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems, such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles) and by using social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always affect the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation. This article presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes, or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services. The article first describes the context and strategies of the program, which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The article analyzes social, educational, economic, demographic, and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs. PMID:26389106

  18. Behavioral factors influencing spatial distributions of fish in contaminated environments

    SciTech Connect

    Little, E.E.; DeLonay, A.J.; Lipton, J.

    1994-12-31

    In addition to contaminant preference/avoidance responses, contaminant-induced behavioral factors can also influence the spatial distribution of fish. The seaward migrations of smolting anadromous salmonids, can be disrupted by a variety of contaminants, including metals such as copper. This disruption can be reflected in a delay in this normal loss of positive rheotaxis, as fish orient down stream. In estuaries, the fish may fail to show preferences for salt water as well as inhibited physiological adaptations to saltwater. Competitive interactions can also be responsible for the loss of population. Brown trout, for example, appear to be more tolerant of exposure to many contaminants than native fishes, and may also be more aggressive in their interaction with native species. Thus, native fishes in marginal habitats may be driven out by brown trout. Finally predator-prey interactions may play a role in the diminishing native fish populations through increased predation-induced mortality caused by impaired anti-predator defenses. Uniform tests or protocols are required to provide reliable, reproducible results, necessary for regulatory action. Discussion will focus on issues related to generation and establishment of consensus guidelines to encourage the application of behavior in contaminant assessment and application in measures of environmental injury.

  19. Factors influencing radiation therapy student clinical placement satisfaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bridge, Pete; Carmichael, Mary-Ann

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: Radiation therapy students at Queensland University of Technology (QUT) attend clinical placements at five different clinical departments with varying resources and support strategies. This study aimed to determine the relative availability and perceived importance of different factors affecting student support while on clinical placement. The purpose of the research was to inform development of future support mechanisms to enhance radiation therapy students’ experience on clinical placement. Methods: This study used anonymous Likert-style surveys to gather data from years 1 and 2 radiation therapy students from QUT and clinical educators from Queensland relating to availability and importance of support mechanisms during clinical placements in a semester. Results: The study findings demonstrated student satisfaction with clinical support and suggested that level of support on placement influenced student employment choices. Staff support was perceived as more important than physical resources; particularly access to a named mentor, a clinical educator and weekly formative feedback. Both students and educators highlighted the impact of time pressures. Conclusions: The support offered to radiation therapy students by clinical staff is more highly valued than physical resources or models of placement support. Protected time and acknowledgement of the importance of clinical education roles are both invaluable. Joint investment in mentor support by both universities and clinical departments is crucial for facilitation of effective clinical learning.

  20. Factors influencing the density of aerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Winkler, M-K H; Kleerebezem, R; Strous, M; Chandran, K; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, the factors influencing density of granular sludge particles were evaluated. Granules consist of microbes, precipitates and of extracellular polymeric substance. The volume fractions of the bacterial layers were experimentally estimated by fluorescent in situ hybridisation staining. The volume fraction occupied by precipitates was determined by computed tomography scanning. PHREEQC was used to estimate potential formation of precipitates to determine a density of the inorganic fraction. Densities of bacteria were investigated by Percoll density centrifugation. The volume fractions were then coupled with the corresponding densities and the total density of a granule was calculated. The sensitivity of the density of the entire granule on the corresponding settling velocity was evaluated by changing the volume fractions of precipitates or bacteria in a settling model. Results from granules originating from a Nereda reactor for simultaneous phosphate COD and nitrogen removal revealed that phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) had a higher density than glycogen-accumulating organisms leading to significantly higher settling velocities for PAO-dominated granules explaining earlier observations of the segregation of the granular sludge bed inside reactors. The model showed that a small increase in the volume fraction of precipitates (1-5 %) strongly increased the granular density and thereby the settling velocity. For nitritation-anammox granular sludge, mainly granular diameter and not density differences are causing a segregation of the biomass in the bed. PMID:23064481

  1. Investigation on influencing factors of 5-HMF content in Schisandra *

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qing; Li, Ying-hua; Lü, Xiu-yang

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the influencing factors of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (5-HMF) content in Schisandra, confirm the theory of 5-HMF deriving mainly from Schisandra processing course, and give some suggestions about the Schisandra processing method, the 5-HMF contents in decoctions of Schisandra under different heating temperature, decocting time, soaking time, processing methods and treatment with different solvents before decocting the Schisandra were measured by RP-HPLC method. The results showed that there is great difference of 5-HMF level in decoctions from differently processed Schisandra and unprocessed Schisandra; decocting time of 60 min has some effects on 5-HMF level in decoctions and there is certain quantity 5-HMF in processed Schisandra itself and very little 5-HMF in unprocessed Schisandra. Heating time, heating temperature and treating solvents all have effect on 5-HMF level in decoction of Schisandra. 5-HMF in Schisandra was mainly from processing course. Both long heating time and high heating temperature can increase 5-HMF level in Schisandra. The production of 5-HMF in Schisandra may have some relationships with some polar components, which can dissolve in water, ethanol and acetone, especially in ethanol. To control processing temperature, processing time and treatment with some solvent is very important for controlling 5-HMF level in Schisandra. PMID:17565516

  2. Factors influencing calcium phosphate cement shelf-life.

    PubMed

    Gbureck, Uwe; Dembski, Sofia; Thull, Roger; Barralet, Jake E

    2005-06-01

    Long-term stability during storage (shelf-life) is one major criterion for the use of a material as medical device. This study aimed to investigate the ageing process of beta-tricalcium phosphate/monocalcium phosphate cement powders when stored in sealed containers at ambient conditions. This kind of cement type is of interest because it is forming dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (brushite) when set, which is in contrast to hydroxyapatite resorbable in physiological conditions. The stability of cements was checked by either measuring the phase composition of powders as well as the setting time and compressive strength when mixed with sodium citrate as liquid. Critical factors influencing ageing were found to be temperature, humidity and the mixing regime of the powders. Mechanically mixed cement powders which were stored in normal laboratory atmosphere (22 degrees C, 60% rel. humidity) converted to dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (monetite) within a few days; this could be mechanistically related to a dissolution/precipitation process since humidity condensed on the particles' surfaces and acted as reaction medium. Various storage conditions were found to be effective in prolonging cement stability which were in order of effectiveness: adding solid citric acid retardant>dry argon atmosphere=gentle mixing (minimal mechanical energy input) low temperature. PMID:15621259

  3. Factors influencing the patient education: A qualitative research

    PubMed Central

    Farahani, Mansoureh A.; Mohammadi, Eesa; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Mohammadi, Nooredin

    2013-01-01

    Background: The related literatures revealed that there is a lack of effective patient/family education in the health care centers. Several studies indicate that patients, while getting discharged from hospitals, receive insufficient information about their illness and self-care. The purpose of the study was to explore the factors influencing patient education from the perspectives of nurses in Iran. Materials and Methods: We conducted a qualitative study using a content analysis approach. We used a purposive sampling technique to recruit and interview 18 nurses with at least 2 years of working experience in the cardiac care unit (CCU) and post-CCU ward of two educational hospitals in Tehran related to Tehran University. Data were collected through face-to-face audio-taped interviews and field observations. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed concurrently with data collection. Results: The major theme extracted in this study was the inappropriate organizational culture which includes eight categories listed as follows: Not putting value on education, non-professional activities, physician-oriented atmosphere, conflict and lack of coherence in education, inappropriate communication skills, ignoring patient's right in education, lack of motivation, rewarding system in the organization, and poor supervision and control. Conclusions: The results of this study show that according to the participants’ perspective, organizational culture is in a poor level. So, to improve the performance of nurses, it is necessary to increase their motivation through optimization of organizational culture. PMID:23983743

  4. Factors influencing dental students to attend for eye examination.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, R G

    1999-01-01

    This investigation sought to determine those factors influencing dental students to attend for eye examination together with the frequency of such tests and level of eyesight correction. A questionnaire was constructed and circulated to all clinical dental students attending lectures and practical classes in Dundee over a 1-week period. This ascertained the age and sex of the respondents and gathered information on what had prompted each individual to attend for eye examination. The knowledge of any visual problems and their correction was also ascertained. All 114 questionnaires that were distributed were completed. The mean elapsed time interval since the last eye examinations was 1.81 (standard deviation = 1.19) years. The frequency of attendance was not affected by gender. Those who had had their eyesight corrected were significantly (P < 0.01) more likely to attend for examination every 2 years than those without correction. Good eyesight is important for the practice of dentistry and, although this is well recognized, it is apparent that the need for regular testing has not been understood by all. Strenuous efforts should be made to ensure that this message is impressed upon dental undergraduates from an early stage in their careers so that they may undergo screening every 2 years throughout their professional careers. PMID:10080326

  5. Factors influencing Saprolegnia spp. spore numbers in Norwegian salmon hatcheries.

    PubMed

    Thoen, E; Evensen, Ø; Skaar, I

    2016-06-01

    A quantitative survey of Saprolegnia spp. in the water systems of Norwegian salmon hatcheries was performed. Water samples from 14 salmon hatcheries distributed along the Norwegian coastline were collected during final incubation in the hatcheries. Samples of inlet and effluent water were analyzed to estimate Saprolegnia propagule numbers. Saprolegnia spores were found in all samples at variable abundance. Number of spores retrieved varied from 50 to 3200 L(-1) in inlet water and from 30 to >5000 L(-1) in effluent water. A significant elevation of spore levels in effluent water compared to inlet water was detected. The estimated spore levels were related to recorded managerial and environmental parameters, and the number of spores in inlet water and temperature was the factor having most influence on the spore concentration in the incubation units (effluent water). Further, the relative impact of spore concentration on hatching rates was investigated by correlation analysis. From this was found that even high spore counts did not impact significantly on hatching success. PMID:26123005

  6. Factors that Influence Body Image Representations of Black Muslim Women

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Research on the body image perceptions of black women is limited. Although previous body image studies have explored the intersection between race and gender, the influence of religion has been neglected. Guided by a grounded theory framework, the focus of this investigation, conducted in Upstate New York, USA, was to examine the role of race and religion in the body image perceptions of 22 African-American Sunni Muslim women. Analysis of individual interviews revealed that, in contrast to using standard medical guidelines, participants’ views about their bodies were largely based on positive images of an earlier body size/shape, social and family expectations and contexts, cultural norms and values, and spirituality and religious beliefs. Although the body image perceptions of black Muslim women were similar to those expressed in previous body image studies with black women, participants expressed the importance of highlighting the spiritual versus physical self by adhering to religious guidelines regarding proper dress and appearance. These findings suggest that religion, race, and gender are all important factors to be considered when conducting body image studies with black women. PMID:18384923

  7. Staying cool in a changing landscape: the influence of maximum daily ambient temperature on grizzly bear habitat selection.

    PubMed

    Pigeon, Karine E; Cardinal, Etienne; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Côté, Steeve D

    2016-08-01

    To fulfill their needs, animals are constantly making trade-offs among limiting factors. Although there is growing evidence about the impact of ambient temperature on habitat selection in mammals, the role of environmental conditions and thermoregulation on apex predators is poorly understood. Our objective was to investigate the influence of ambient temperature on habitat selection patterns of grizzly bears in the managed landscape of Alberta, Canada. Grizzly bear habitat selection followed a daily and seasonal pattern that was influenced by ambient temperature, with adult males showing stronger responses than females to warm temperatures. Cutblocks aged 0-20 years provided an abundance of forage but were on average 6 °C warmer than mature conifer stands and 21- to 40-year-old cutblocks. When ambient temperatures increased, the relative change (odds ratio) in the probability of selection for 0- to 20-year-old cutblocks decreased during the hottest part of the day and increased during cooler periods, especially for males. Concurrently, the probability of selection for 21- to 40-year-old cutblocks increased on warmer days. Following plant phenology, the odds of selecting 0- to 20-year-old cutblocks also increased from early to late summer while the odds of selecting 21- to 40-year-old cutblocks decreased. Our results demonstrate that ambient temperatures, and therefore thermal requirements, play a significant role in habitat selection patterns and behaviour of grizzly bears. In a changing climate, large mammals may increasingly need to adjust spatial and temporal selection patterns in response to thermal constraints. PMID:27085998

  8. Factors influencing recovery and restoration following a chemical incident.

    PubMed

    Peña-Fernández, A; Wyke, S; Brooke, N; Duarte-Davidson, R

    2014-11-01

    Chemicals are an important part of our society. A wide range of chemicals are discharged into the environment every day from residential, commercial and industrial sources. Many of these discharges do not pose a threat to public health or the environment. However, global events have shown that chemical incidents or accidents can have severe consequences on human health, the environment and society. It is important that appropriate tools and technical guidance are available to ensure that a robust and efficient approach to developing a remediation strategy is adopted. The purpose of remediation is to protect human health from future exposure and to return the affected area back to normal as soon as possible. There are a range of recovery options (techniques or methods for remediation) that are applicable to a broad range of chemicals and incidents. Recovery options should be evaluated according to their appropriateness and efficacy for removing contaminants from the environment; however economic drivers and social and political considerations often influence decision makers on which remedial actions are implemented during the recovery phase of a chemical incident. To date, there is limited information in the literature on remediation strategies and recovery options that have been implemented following a chemical incident, or how successful they have been. Additional factors that can affect the approach taken for recovery are not well assessed or understood by decision makers involved in the remediation and restoration of the environment following a chemical incident. The identification of this gap has led to the development of the UK Recovery Handbook for Chemical Incidents to provide a framework for choosing an effective recovery strategy. A compendium of practical evidence-based recovery options (techniques or methods for remediation) for inhabited areas, food production systems and water environments has also been developed and is included in the chemical

  9. Factors that influence rural African American males' aspirations to attend college

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, Alesia K.

    This study was conducted to research factors which influence rural African American males in their college attendance decision. The study was an attempt to discover specific influences in the higher education pursuit from aspiration to enrollment. As African American males and low income students represent lower enrollment figures in higher education, this study attempts to provide research which may improve these numbers. The literature which provides the theoretical frame is related to Hossler (et al., 1999) and his research entitled Going to College. Hossler's study recommended additional research to study African American males. Hossler concluded this participant segment was influenced by different factors than the majority of study participants. This qualitative study includes student interviews. Three high schools in three counties in the Black Belt of rural Alabama were the sites selected for participants. Thirty African American male seniors' responses were transcribed and coded to identify themes related to influences stated by the participants. The students' voices provided insight into their college enrollment pursuit. The findings indicate rural students lack the resources and academic preparation significant for higher education admission. African American males in rural Alabama tend to be first generation students and lack information important to college enrollment. The rural high schools lack the personnel, college and career guidance to ensure participants are aware and prepared to traverse the process of college enrollment. This study identifies policy development needs to address inadequacies that African American males attending rural schools encounter during secondary enrollment. Research participants state college aspirations. Problems arise as participants move from the aspiration stage toward enrollment. Several factors will limit higher education opportunities for the participants. Inadequate knowledge on ACT scores, college cost financial

  10. Factors and Influences on High School Student's Career Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Thomas P.; Rallis, Sharon F.

    1991-01-01

    A survey (n=2213) of high school seniors from nine Rhode Island schools studied their academic and career choices related to science and engineering and the perceived influences on those choices. Gender differences are discussed for the influences of parents, pay, interest, and teachers, with the latter potentially influencing career choices of…

  11. Communication Strategies Revisited: The Influence of Proficiency on the Selection of Strategies: The Authors Outmaneuvered?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansarin, Ali Akbar; Syal, Pushpinder

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a comprehensive inventory of the communication strategies of adult English-as-a-foreign-language learners at the lexical level. Comments on the influence of the proficiency factor.(Author/VWL)

  12. A review of the factors influencing antimicrobial prescribing.

    PubMed

    Calbo, Esther; Alvarez-Rocha, Luis; Gudiol, Francisco; Pasquau, Juan

    2013-09-01

    There are multiple benefits of appropriate antimicrobial prescribing: it has a direct impact on clinical outcomes, avoids adverse effects, is cost effective and, perhaps most importantly, it helps to prevent the emergence of resistance. However, any physician can prescribe antibiotics, which is not the case with other clinically relevant drugs. There is great variability in the prescribing physician's (PP) training, motivation, workload and setting, including accessibility to infectious diseases consultants and/or diagnostic techniques, and therefore there is a high risk of inappropriate prescription. Many antibiotic prescribing errors occur around the selection and duration of treatment. This includes a low threshold for the indication of antibiotics, delayed initiation of treatment when indicated, limited knowledge of local antimicrobial resistance patterns by the PPs, errors in the final choice of dose, route or drug and a lack of de-escalation. Similarly, the prescription of prophylactic antibiotics to prevent surgical site infections, despite being commonly accepted, is suboptimal. Factors that may explain suboptimal use are related to the absence of well-defined protocols, poor knowledge of prophylactic protocols, miscommunication or disagreement between physicians, logistical problems, and a lack of audits. A proper understanding of the prescribing process can guide interventions to improve the PP's practices. Some of the potential interventions included in a stewardship program are education in antimicrobial prescribing, information on the local resistance patterns and accessibility to a qualified infectious diseases consultant. PMID:24129284

  13. Patient factors influencing dermal filler complications: prevention, assessment, and treatment

    PubMed Central

    De Boulle, Koenraad; Heydenrych, Izolda

    2015-01-01

    While rare, complications do occur with the esthetic use of dermal fillers. Careful attention to patient factors and technique can do much to avoid these complications, and a well-informed practitioner can mitigate problems when they do occur. Since cosmetic surgery is usually an elective process, requested by the patient, clinical trials are complex to organize and run. For this reason, an international group of practicing physicians in the field of esthetics came together to share knowledge and to try and produce some informed guidance for their colleagues, considering the literature and also pooling their own extensive clinical experience. This manuscript aims to summarize the crucial aspects of patient selection, including absolute contraindications as well as situations that warrant caution, and also covers important considerations for the pre- and posttreatment periods as well as during the procedure itself. Guidance is given on both immediate and long-term management of adverse reactions. The majority of complications are related to accepting patients inappropriate for treatment or issues of sterility, placement, volume, and injection technique. It is clear that esthetic practitioners need an in-depth knowledge of all aspects of treatment with dermal fillers to achieve optimal outcomes for their patients. PMID:25926750

  14. The influence of social factors on gender health.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    Male births exceed female births by 5-6% (for a sex ratio at birth of 1.05-1.06) while a women's life expectancy, on a global scale, is about 6 years longer. Thus within various age groups the male:female ratio changes over time. Until age 50 years men outnumber women; thereafter their numbers show a sharp decline. Consequently at age 80 years, there are many more women than men. An estimated 25% of this male excess mortality is due to biological causes, the rest being explained by behavioural, cultural and environmental factors. For both women and men, the main health risks related to lifestyle are smoking, alcohol, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. In the year 2010, overweight (BMI: 25-29 kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI: >30 kg/m(2)) were responsible for over 3 million deaths, with similar relative risks in men and women for overweight and obesity. Smoking and alcohol are the major causes of the global gender gap in mortality. For women in some parts of the world however pregnancy is also hazardous. On a global scale, in 2013 about 300 000 deaths were related to pregnancy, with sub-Saharan Africa registering the highest maternal mortality: over 500 maternal deaths per 100 000 births. Additional woman's health risks arise from gender discrimination, including sex-selective abortion, violence against women and early child marriage. Providers should be aware of the effect that these risks can have on both reproductive and general health. PMID:27334335

  15. [Factors that influence the sexuality of the elderly: an integrative review].

    PubMed

    Alencar, Danielle Lopes de; Marques, Ana Paula de Oliveira; Leal, Márcia Carréra Campos; Vieira, Júlia de Cássia Miguel

    2014-08-01

    The scope of this article is to analyze the scientific evidence addressing the factors that influence the sexuality of the elderly. It involved an online search carried out in pairs, including original articles published between 2006 and October 2011 in Portuguese, English or Spanish, which fulfilled the requirements of the study. The MEDLINE, LILACS, CidSaúde and BDENF databases were used with the key words: sexualidade e idoso / sexuality and elderly / sexualidad y anciano. The articles selected were assessed for methodological quality using two instruments, namely CASP and the Hierarchical Classification of Evidence. After analysis, 15 articles were included in the review, which discuss the culture of asexuality of the elderly, whereby the experience of sexuality only prevails among younger people. The absence of the partner due to widowhood, attributing value to beauty standards of the young, the occurrence of disease, use of medication, and changes in sexual physiology were identified as important factors that influence the sexuality of the elderly. The conclusion drawn is that social and cultural factors, changes in body physiology, and the occurrence of disease interfere with the sexuality of the elderly, making it necessary for nursing professionals to be proactive in debunking myths and providing orientation. PMID:25119092

  16. Scatter factor influences the formation of prostate epithelial cell colonies on bone marrow stroma in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lang, S H; Clarke, N W; George, N J; Testa, N G

    1999-06-01

    Prostate cancer metastases form selectively in the bone marrow. Previously we demonstrated motility was important for the formation of primary prostatic epithelial cell colonies in bone marrow stroma (BMS) co-culture. In this study we looked at the influence of motility factors on the colony formation of epithelial cells derived from benign (bPEC) or malignant (mPEC) prostate tissue. After 7 days co-culture we found that anti-scatter factor consistently inhibited prostate epithelial cell colony formation on BMS (7/7 mPEC and 4/7 bPEC samples showed significant inhibition). Antibodies against bFGF and 5T4 did not significantly affect colony formation. Addition of fibroblast conditioned media (derived from benign prostates) to co-cultures stimulated the colony formation of bPEC (170%) and mPEC (252%). This stimulation was eliminated by depletion of SF from the conditioned media. Immunohistochemical staining found c-Met expression in 5/6 bPEC cultures and 7/9 mPEC cultures. When grown in BMS co-culture expression of c-Met was positive in 3/6 bPEC and 2/7 mPEC samples. In conclusion, scatter factor influences the in vitro formation of prostate epithelial cell colonies on BMS co-culture. PMID:10545020

  17. Parental Factors that Influence the Career Development of College-Bound African American High School Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostic, Shenice S.

    2010-01-01

    Parents have been identified as being the most influential factor upon their children career development. There are various factors that influence the career development of individuals from different ethnic backgrounds. The purpose of the study was to identify parental factors that influence the career development of college-bound African American…

  18. A Survey of the Influencing Factors for International Academic Mobility of Chinese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Chun; Zhu, Chang; Meng, Qian

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to understand the factors influencing international academic mobility within the Chinese higher education context. The inventory of University Students' Perceptions of Influencing Factors for International Academic Mobility was developed and tested to enquire about Chinese university students' perceptions of factors influencing…

  19. 5 CFR 919.860 - What factors may influence the debarring official's decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What factors may influence the debarring...) Debarment § 919.860 What factors may influence the debarring official's decision? This section lists the mitigating and aggravating factors that the debarring official may consider in determining whether to...

  20. 2 CFR 180.860 - What factors may influence the debarring official's decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What factors may influence the debarring...) Debarment § 180.860 What factors may influence the debarring official's decision? This section lists the mitigating and aggravating factors that the debarring official may consider in determining whether to...