Science.gov

Sample records for factors influencing selection

  1. Factors influencing equipment selection in electron beam processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, J. W.

    2003-08-01

    During the eighties and nineties accelerator manufacturers dramatically increased the beam power available for high-energy equipment. This effort was directed primarily at meeting the demands of the sterilization industry. During this era, the perception that bigger (higher power, higher energy) was always better prevailed since the operating and capital costs of accelerators did not increase with power and energy as fast as the throughput. High power was needed to maintain per unit costs low for treatment. This philosophy runs counter to certain present-day realities of the sterilization business as well as conditions influencing accelerator selection in other electron beam applications. Recent experience in machine selection is described and factors affecting choice are presented.

  2. Selecting a provider: what factors influence patients' decision making?

    PubMed

    Abraham, Jean; Sick, Brian; Anderson, Joseph; Berg, Andrea; Dehmer, Chad; Tufano, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Each year consumers make a variety of decisions relating to their healthcare. Some experts argue that stronger consumer engagement in decisions about where to obtain medical care is an important mechanism for improving efficiency in healthcare delivery and financing. Consumers' ability and motivation to become more active decision makers are affected by several factors, including financial incentives and access to information. This study investigates the set of factors that consumers consider when selecting a provider, including attributes of the provider and the care experience and the reputation of the provider. Additionally, the study evaluates consumers awareness and use of formal sources of provider selection information. Our results from analyzing data from a survey of 467 patients at four clinics in Minnesota suggest that the factors considered of greatest importance include reputation of the physician and reputation of the healthcare organization. Contractual and logistical factors also play a role, with respondents highlighting the importance of seeing a provider affiliated with their health plan and appointment availability. Few respondents indicated that advertisements or formal sources of quality information affected their decision making. The key implication for provider organizations is to carefully manage referral sources to ensure that they consistently meet the needs of referrers. Excellent service to existing patients and to the network of referring physicians yields patient and referrer satisfaction that is critical to attracting new patients. Finally, organizations more generally may want to explore the capabilities of new media and social networking sites for building reputation. PMID:21495529

  3. Factors influencing pharmacists' selection of their first practice setting.

    PubMed

    Carter, E A; Segal, R

    1989-11-01

    Factors that influenced the choice of initial practice setting among pharmacists who had completed the majority of their experiential training in a hospital setting were determined. A questionnaire was mailed to all eligible pharmacists who successfully completed the Ohio pharmacist licensure examination in June or September 1987. Respondents were asked to (1) provide demographic data, (2) rate the importance of 23 factors that a pharmacist might consider when choosing a practice site, and (3) rate the desirability of a pharmacist position in their major hospital internship site, as well as positions they had considered in other hospitals and in community pharmacies. The predictive accuracy of four decision-making models--the weighted compensatory choice model, the unweighted compensatory choice model, the lexicographic model, and the conjunctive model--also was determined. Of 105 pharmacists surveyed, 53 returned usable questionnaires. Twenty-five had chosen to practice in hospital settings, and 28 had chosen community settings. The factor "is personally rewarding" was mentioned most often by hospital and community pharmacists as the factor that was most important when choosing their first position. The lexicographic model, which postulates that a pharmacist will choose the practice site with the highest performance rating for the most important factor, was the most accurate predictor of respondents' initial practice sites. Pharmacists' perception of how practice sites would rate in terms of the single job-related factor most important to them was the best predictor of whether they chose hospital or community practice initially and whether they chose to work in the hospital in which they served their internship, another hospital, or a community pharmacy. PMID:2589346

  4. Reading Strategies in Hypertexts and Factors Influencing Hyperlink Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protopsaltis, Aristidis

    2008-01-01

    Previous work applying cognitive load theory has demonstrated the effect of various text/graphic/narration relations on learning using multimedia material. Other work has looked at how the degree of integration between the text and graphics influences their use. This study set out to look at how the degree of integration between text and graphics…

  5. Factors That Influence State or Private University Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kargic, Lejla; Poturak, Mersid

    2014-01-01

    Selection of the university is one of the most important life decisions among young people. With a continually rising assortment of educational options, future students look for institutions that will provide them a distinctive educational knowledge that they will keep in their minds for a lifetime. Also, students usually seek an educational…

  6. Factors Influencing College Selection by NCAA Division I, II, and III Lacrosse Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauline, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine factors influencing college selection by NCAA Division I, II and III lacrosse players. The Influential Factors Survey for Student-Athletes-Revised was used to collect data from 792 male and female collegiate lacrosse players. Descriptive statistics showed the most influential factors were: career…

  7. Influence of selected factors on browning of Camembert cheese.

    PubMed

    Carreira, Alexandra; Dillinger, Klaus; Eliskases-Lechner, Frieda; Loureiro, Virgílio; Ginzinger, Wolfgang; Rohm, Harald

    2002-05-01

    Experimental Camembert cheeses were made to investigate the effects on browning of the following factors: inoculation with Yarrowia lipolytica, the use of Penicillium candidum strains with different proteolytic activity, the addition of tyrosine, and the addition of Mn2+ thus leading to 16 different variants of cheese. Two physical colour parameters were used to describe browning, depending on the location in the cheeses: a whiteness index for the outside browning (mould mycelium), and a brownness index for the inside browning (surface of the cheese body). Mn2+ promoted a significant increase of browning at both locations, whereas Yar. lipolytica had the opposite effect. Outside browning was significantly more intense when using the Pen. candidum strain with higher proteolytic activity. A significant interaction was found between Yar. lipolytica and Pen. candidum. The yeast had no effect in combination with a low proteolytic strain of Pen. candidum, but significantly reduced proteolysis and browning in combination with a high proteolytic strain of Pen. candidum. We further confirmed that both strains of Pen. candidum were able to produce brown pigments from tyrosine and thus both are presumably responsible for the browning activity in this type of cheese. PMID:12222805

  8. Factors influencing the selection of toys for handicapped and normally developing preschool children.

    PubMed

    Fallon, M A; Harris, M B

    1989-06-01

    Factors influencing the selection and purchase of toys for children's use were investigated. Subjects were 73 parents or adult friends of normally developing or handicapped preschool children. In addition to providing demographic information about themselves, the subjects rated the importance of 17 factors influencing their selection and purchase of toys. Contrary to previous research, the sex of the child was reported to be of only minor importance in toy selection, as was the picture on the toy package. Two factors, safety and teaching new skills, were rated as extremely important. There were no significant differences in ratings as a result of sex, ethnicity, or whether or not the subjects were parents of a handicapped child. The findings suggest a substantial degree of agreement among parents about what they consider important when choosing toys for children. PMID:2527967

  9. Selected Factors Influencing Student Enrollment at Area Vocational Schools in East, Middle and West Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Willie E., Jr.

    An analysis was made of selected factors influencing students to enroll in area postsecondary vocational schools in East, Middle, and West Tennessee. Four hundred forty-three students were surveyed concerning three broad areas of dependent variables: domestic environment, perceived opportunities, and assessment of program. Data were analyzed by…

  10. The Influence of Selected Academic, Demographic, and Instructional Program Related Factors on Elementary Student Retention Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Marshall, III

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of selected academic, demographic, and instructional program related factors on the retention rates of elementary school students. More specifically, this study was concerned with the relationship and predictability of the reading and mathematics variables scores, gender, ethnicity, program…

  11. Factors Influencing Selection of Vaginal, Open Abdominal, or Robotic Surgery to Treat Apical Vaginal Vault Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Mallika; Weaver, Amy L.; Fruth, Kristin M.; Gebhart, John B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine factors influencing selection of Mayo-McCall culdoplasty (MMC), open abdominal sacrocolpopexy (ASC), or robotic sacrocolpopexy (RSC) for posthysterectomy vaginal vault prolapse. Methods We retrospectively searched for the records of patients undergoing posthysterectomy apical vaginal prolapse surgery between January 1, 2000, and June 30, 2012, at our institution. Baseline characteristics and explicit selection factors were abstracted from the electronic medical records. Factors were compared between groups using χ2 tests for categorical variables, ANOVA for continuous variables, and Kruskal-Wallis tests for ordinal variables. Results Among the 512 patients identified who met inclusion criteria, the MMC group (n=174) had more patients who were older, American Society of Anesthesiologists class 3+ or greater, had anterior vaginal prolapse grade 3+, desired to avoid abdominal surgery, and did not desire a functional vagina. Patients in the ASC (n=237) and RSC (n=101) groups had more failed prolapse surgeries, suspected abdominopelvic pathologic processes, and chronic pain. Advanced prolapse was more frequently cited as an explicit selection factor for ASC than for either MMC or RSC. Conclusions The most common factors that influenced the type of apical vaginal vault prolapse surgery overlapped with characteristics that differed at baseline. In general, MMC was chosen for advanced anterior vaginal prolapse and baseline characteristics that increased surgical risks, ASC for advanced apical prolapse, and ASC or RSC for recurrent prolapse, suspected abdominal pathology, and patients with chronic pain or lifestyles including heavy lifting. Thus, efforts should be made to attempt to control for selection bias when comparing these procedures. PMID:26945273

  12. Sustaining the edge: factors influencing strategy selection in academic health centers.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Anne M; Szabat, Kathryn

    2002-01-01

    Competition within the acute care sector as well as increased penetration by managed care organizations has influenced the structure and role of academic health centers during the past decade. The market factors confronting academic health centers are not dissimilar from conditions that confront other organizations competing in mature industries characterized by declining profitability and intense rivalry for market share. When confronted with intense competition or adverse external events, organizations in other industries have responded to potential threats by forming alliances, developing joint ventures, or merging with another firm to maintain their competitive advantage. Although mergers and acquisitions dominated the strategic landscape in the healthcare industry during the past decade, recent evidence suggests that other types of strategic ventures may offer similar economic and contracting benefits to member organizations. Academic health centers have traditionally been involved in network relationships with multiple partners via their shared technology, collaborative research, and joint educational endeavors. These quasi-organizational relationships appear to have provided a framework for strategic decisions and allowed executives of academic health centers to select strategies that were competitive yet closely aligned with their organizational mission. The analysis of factors that influenced strategy selection by executives of academic health centers suggests a deliberate and methodical approach to achieving market share objectives, expanding managed care contracts, and developing physician networks. PMID:12469571

  13. A Flight Evaluation of the Factors which Influence the Selection of Landing Approach Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drinkwater, Fred J., III; Cooper, George E.

    1958-01-01

    The factors which influence the selection of landing approach speeds are discussed from the pilot's point of view. Concepts were developed and data were obtained during a landing approach flight investigation of a large number of jet airplane configurations which included straight-wing, swept-wing, and delta-wing airplanes as well as several applications of boundary-layer control. Since the fundamental limitation to further reductions in approach speed on most configurations appeared to be associated with the reduction in the pilot's ability to control flight path angle and airspeed, this problem forms the basis of the report. A simplified equation is presented showing the basic parameters which govern the flight path angle and airspeed changes, and pilot control techniques are discussed in relation to this equation. Attention is given to several independent aerodynamic characteristics which do not affect the flight path angle or airspeed directly but which determine to a large extent the effort and attention required of the pilot in controlling these factors during the approach. These include stall characteristics, stability about all axes, and changes in trim due to thrust adjustments. The report considers the relationship between piloting technique and all of the factors previously mentioned. A piloting technique which was found to be highly desirable for control of high-performance airplanes is described and the pilot's attitudes toward low-speed flight which bear heavily on the selection of landing approach speeds under operational conditions are discussed.

  14. The influence of selected factors and sport results of endurance horses on their saliva cortisol concentration.

    PubMed

    Janczarek, I; Bereznowski, A; Strzelec, K

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the influence of the selected factors (gender, age, transportation time, riding distance and air temperature during the ride) on the cortisol secretion and finding a correlation between the hormone level and the horses' sport results (veterinary parameters and the ride route parameters). The research was performed on 38 Arabian pure breed horses taking part in the endurance rides. The cortisol level was measured with enzyme-immunological method in saliva samples, taken four times from each horse. In order to verify the differences between the mean results the repeated measures design was applied. The significance of the differences between the mean values was determined by the Tukey test. To evaluate the interrelations between the analysed attributes Pearson's correlation analysis was applied. The cortisol level at rest was not affected by any of the analysed factors. In case of other results, the most significant influence (P < or = 0.05) was related to the gender, as well as the ride distance and air temperature during the ride. Higher cortisol level was noted in mares, horses running the longest distances and at the highest temperatures. A significant increase in the cortisol level was noted when the ride distance was longer. There were no clear correlation between the adrenal cortex activity and the veterinary parameters at different riding speed. High cortisol concentration can negatively affect the heart rate (HR) by increasing it, but it can simultaneously stimulate the body to fight dehydration. PMID:24195289

  15. Physician choice criteria: factors influencing patient selection of generalists versus specialists.

    PubMed

    Hanna, N; Schoenbachler, D D; Gordon, G L

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an exploratory study designed to (1) ascertain the primary sources of information patients use when selecting physicians and (2) identify differences in patient selection factor importance by type of physician under consideration (specialists versus generalists). The results support previous research which finds word-of-mouth and physician referrals the primary sources of information. Selection factors considered important when selecting a generalist were significantly different from factors considered important when selecting a specialist. Implications of the study's findings for effective physician marketing and future research are discussed. PMID:10141082

  16. Factors that Influence Science Teachers' Selection and Usage of Technologies in High School Science Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waight, Noemi; Chiu, Ming Ming; Whitford, Melinda

    2014-10-01

    This study contributed to our understanding of those factors that serve as predictors of science teachers' selection and use of technologies and more specifically, how selection and usage was realized among teachers of different science disciplines. Notable descriptive statistics were examined, and we tested an explanatory model of how demographics, school context, pedagogical approaches and professional development (PD) influenced the likelihood of a teacher using a tool via a multilevel cross-classification-ordered logit analysis (Goldstein 1995). The findings revealed that science teachers were more likely to use hardware than software; more specifically, this included instructional tools (i.e., SMARTboards, clickers) and laboratory tools (probeware). Differences in teachers' use of tools were largely due to differences in tools as opposed to differences in teacher characteristics. Use of a tool was more likely by teachers who taught physics, who taught via inquiry, or who had more PD with a tool. These findings have implications for how we conceptualize selection and usage of technologies that enter the science education pipeline; which tools become sustainable in the science classroom and how technological take-up differs across science disciplines.

  17. Influence of age and selected environmental factors on reproductive performance of canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serie, J.R.; Trauger, D.L.; Austin, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Age, productivity, and other factors affecting breeding performance of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) are poorly understood. Consequently, we tested whether reproductive performance of female canvasbacks varied with age and selected environmental factors in southwestern Manitoba from 1974 to 1980. Neither clutch size, nest parasitism, nest success, nor the number of ducklings/brood varied with age. Return rates, nest initiation dates, renesting, and hen success were age-related. Return rates averaged 21% for second-year (SY) and 69% for after-second-year (ASY) females (58% for third-year and 79% for after-third-year females). Additionally, water conditions and spring temperatures influenced chronology of arrival, timing of nesting, and reproductive success. Nest initiation by birds of all ages was affected by minimum April temperatures. Clutch size was higher in nests initiated earlier. Interspecific nest parasitism did not affect clutch size, nest success, hen success, or hatching success. Nest success was lower in dry years (17%) than in moderately wet (54%) or wet (60%) years. Nests per female were highest during wet years. No nests of SY females were found in dry years. In years of moderate to good wetland conditions, females of all ages nested. Predation was the primary factor influencing nest success. Hen success averaged 58% over all years. The number of ducklings surviving 20 days averaged 4.7/brood. Because SY females have lower return rates and hen success than ASY females, especially during drier years, management to increase canvasback populations might best be directed to increasing first year recruitment (no. of females returning to breed) and to increasing overall breeding success by reducing predation and enhancing local habitat conditions during nesting.

  18. Factors Influencing the Selection of Speech Pathology as a Career: A Qualitative Analysis Utilising the Systems Theory Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Factors identified by 16 participants during in-depth interviews as influencing selection of speech pathology as a career were described using the Systems Theory Framework (STF, Patton & McMahon, 2006). Participants were highly likely to identify factors from the individual and social systems, but not the environmental-societal system, of the STF…

  19. Factors influencing student selection of marriage and family therapy graduate programs.

    PubMed

    Hertlein, Katherine M; Lambert-Shute, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    To understand which factors students consider most important in choosing a marriage and family therapy (MFT) graduate program and how programs met or did not meet these expectations of students over the course of graduate study, we conducted an online mixed-method investigation. One hundred twelve graduate students in Commission on Accreditation for Marriage and Family Therapy Education-accredited programs responded to an online survey assessing what factors led them to select a specific graduate program in MFT. In the quantitative portion, students ranked each factor (personal fit, faculty, funding, research, clinical work, and teaching) as well as characteristics of each factor in relation to its importance in their selection of an MFT program. Additionally, students indicated to what level their programs meet their expectations. In the qualitative portion, students described how they believed their chosen program was or was not meeting their expectations. Both doctoral and master's students ranked personal fit as the top factor affecting their choice of graduate program in MFT, but they differed on the characteristics of each of these factors and their importance in selecting an MFT program. Implications for this research include program evaluation and program advertising, and are consistent with the scientist-practitioner model. PMID:17257378

  20. Factors Influencing the Selection of Standardized Tests for the Diagnosis of Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, Stacy K.; Eickhoff, Jessica R.; Sullivan, Shanleigh F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Standardized tests are one of the primary assessment tools used by speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to diagnose child language impairment. Numerous child language tests are commercially available; however, it is unknown what factors lead clinicians to select particular tests to use in clinical practice. This study investigated whether…

  1. An Examination of Factors Influencing Students Selection of Business Majors Using TRA Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Poonam

    2013-01-01

    Making decisions regarding the selection of a business major is both very important and challenging for students. An understanding of this decision-making process can be valuable for students, parents, and university programs. The current study applies the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) consumer decision-making model to examine factors that…

  2. Demographic Factors Influencing Selection of an Ideal Graduate Institution: A Literature Review with Recommendations for Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Simon A.; Chuang, Ning-Kuang

    2010-01-01

    Choosing a graduate (masters and doctoral) program of study at an ideal institution is probably one of the most important decisions students and their family will make. The graduate college selection involves identifying the most critical academic and non-academic factors, and weighing their importance against the large quantity of choices…

  3. Using a fuzzy DEMATEL method for analyzing the factors influencing subcontractors selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozik, Renata

    2016-06-01

    Subcontracting is a long-standing practice in the construction industry. This form of project organization, if manage properly, could provide the better quality, reduction in project time and costs. Subcontractors selection is a multi-criterion problem and can be determined by many factors. Identifying the importance of each of them as well as the direction of cause-effect relations between various types of factors can improve the management process. Their values could be evaluated on the basis of the available expert opinions with the application of a fuzzy multi-stage grading scale. In this paper it is recommended to use fuzzy DEMATEL method to analyze the relationship between factors affecting subcontractors selection.

  4. Influences of Vehicle Size and Mass and Selected Driver Factors on Odds of Driver Fatality

    PubMed Central

    Padmanaban, Jeya

    2003-01-01

    Research was undertaken to determine vehicle size parameters influencing driver fatality odds, independent of mass, in two-vehicle collisions. Forty vehicle parameters were evaluated for 1,500 vehicle groupings. Logistic regression analyses show driver factors (belt use, age, drinking) collectively contribute more to fatality odds than vehicle factors, and that mass is the most important vehicular parameter influencing fatality odds for all crash configurations. In car crashes, other vehicle parameters with statistical significance had a second order effect compared to mass. In light truck-to-car crashes, “vehicle type-striking vehicle is light truck” was the most important parameter after mass, followed by vehicle height and bumper height, with second order effect. To understand the importance of “vehicle type” variable, further investigation of vehicle “stiffness” and other passenger car/light truck differentiating parameters is warranted. PMID:12941244

  5. A factors influencing applicant selection of entry-level physical therapist education programs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Kim Curbow; Weber, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Physical therapist education programs must compete for qualified applicants due to a nationwide reduction in the applicant pool. To develop successful recruitment strategies, faculty members need information on factors influencing applicant selection of a program. The purpose of this study was to analyze factors influencing selection of an entry-level physical therapist education program. Survey subjects were students enrolled in the first professional year of an accredited entry-level physical therapist education program. A survey instrument was developed based on the literature and interviews with physical therapist students and faculty members. Results of pilot studies to determine face and content validity were acceptable. Stratified random cluster sampling was applied to select 66 entry-level physical therapy programs from an available population of 150 of the 199 accredited programs. Forty-nine programs were not included in the population for various reasons. Using a five-point Likert scale, subjects rated the influence of 51 items on their selection of a specific physical therapist education program. The overall return rate was 70.4% (1,250 surveys returned). Data were analyzed by response frequency. Four factors were selected as "very influential" by 50% or more of the subjects: degree offered, accreditation status, perception of educational quality, and program atmosphere. Additional factors selected by 45% or more of respondents as "very influential" were pass rate on licensing examination, marketability of degree, student/faculty ratio, and small class size. Factors rated "not influential" by 50% or more of subjects included ethnic, cultural, and gender issues. Since 1998, the physical therapy profession has experienced changes in entry-level degree requirements, practice requirements, and employment opportunities, resulting in increased competition for qualified applicants to education programs. The information gained in this study may assist faculty in

  6. Influence of selected factors on the performance of amperometric glucose biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legawiec-Jarzyna, Marta; Zawicki, Ignacy

    1997-02-01

    Effects of different ways of sample feed to the sensor, types of used membranes, extent of stretching the membrane pack by working electrode and timing of excitation voltage on performance of amperometric glucose biosensor with oxygen indicating electrode were investigated. In the sensors, enzymatic membranes containing immobilized glucose oxidase and some auxiliary membranes constituted an easily detachable laminated pack. In one of the tested sensors position of the membrane pack with respect to working electrode was adjustable. It was found that the above factors, except the timing of excitation voltage, have not essential influence on performance of O2-type glucose biosensor.

  7. New influence factor inducing difficulty in selective flotation separation of Cu-Zn mixed sulfide minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jiu-shuai; Mao, Ying-bo; Wen, Shu-ming; Liu, Jian; Xian, Yong-jun; Feng, Qi-cheng

    2015-02-01

    Selective flotation separation of Cu-Zn mixed sulfides has been proven to be difficult. Thus far, researchers have found no satisfactory way to separate Cu-Zn mixed sulfides by selective flotation, mainly because of the complex surface and interface interaction mechanisms in the flotation solution. Undesired activation occurs between copper ions and the sphalerite surfaces. In addition to recycled water and mineral dissolution, ancient fluids in the minerals are observed to be a new source of metal ions. In this study, significant amounts of ancient fluids were found to exist in Cu-Zn sulfide and gangue minerals, mostly as gas-liquid fluid inclusions. The concentration of copper ions released from the ancient fluids reached 1.02 × 10-6 mol/L, whereas, in the cases of sphalerite and quartz, this concentration was 0.62 × 10-6 mol/L and 0.44 × 10-6 mol/L, respectively. As a result, the ancient fluid is a significant source of copper ions compared to mineral dissolution under the same experimental conditions, which promotes the unwanted activation of sphalerite. Therefore, the ancient fluid is considered to be a new factor that affects the selective flotation separation of Cu-Zn mixed sulfide ores.

  8. Factors influencing the magnitude and clinical significance of drug interactions between azole antifungals and select immunosuppressants.

    PubMed

    Saad, Aline H; DePestel, Daryl D; Carver, Peggy L

    2006-12-01

    The magnitude of drug interactions between azole antifungals and immunosuppressants is drug and patient specific and depends on the potency of the azole inhibitor involved, the resulting plasma concentrations of each drug, the drug formulation, and interpatient variability. Many factors contribute to variability in the magnitude and clinical significance of drug interactions between an immunosuppressant such as cyclosporine, tacrolimus, or sirolimus and an antifungal agent such as ketoconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, or posaconazole. By bringing similarities and differences among these agents and their potential interactions to clinicians' attention, they can appreciate and apply these findings in a individualized patient approach rather than follow only the one-size-fits-all dosing recommendations suggested in many tertiary references. Differences in metabolism and in the inhibitory potency of cytochrome P450 3A4 and P-glycoprotein influence the onset, magnitude, and resolution of drug interactions and their potential effect on clinical outcomes. Important issues are the route of administration and the decision to preemptively adjust dosages versus intensive monitoring with subsequent dosage adjustments. We provide recommendations for the concomitant use of these agents, including suggestions regarding contraindicated combinations, those best avoided, and those requiring close monitoring of drug dosages and plasma concentrations. PMID:17125435

  9. Selective influence of Sox2 on POU transcription factor binding in embryonic and neural stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Mistri, Tapan Kumar; Devasia, Arun George; Chu, Lee Thean; Ng, Wei Ping; Halbritter, Florian; Colby, Douglas; Martynoga, Ben; Tomlinson, Simon R; Chambers, Ian; Robson, Paul; Wohland, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic stem cell (ESC) identity is orchestrated by co-operativity between the transcription factors (TFs) Sox2 and the class V POU-TF Oct4 at composite Sox/Oct motifs. Neural stem cells (NSCs) lack Oct4 but express Sox2 and class III POU-TFs Oct6, Brn1 and Brn2. This raises the question of how Sox2 interacts with POU-TFs to transcriptionally specify ESCs versus NSCs. Here, we show that Oct4 alone binds the Sox/Oct motif and the octamer-containing palindromic MORE equally well. Sox2 binding selectively increases the affinity of Oct4 for the Sox/Oct motif. In contrast, Oct6 binds preferentially to MORE and is unaffected by Sox2. ChIP-Seq in NSCs shows the MORE to be the most enriched motif for class III POU-TFs, including MORE subtypes, and that the Sox/Oct motif is not enriched. These results suggest that in NSCs, co-operativity between Sox2 and class III POU-TFs may not occur and that POU-TF-driven transcription uses predominantly the MORE cis architecture. Thus, distinct interactions between Sox2 and POU-TF subclasses distinguish pluripotent ESCs from multipotent NSCs, providing molecular insight into how Oct4 alone can convert NSCs to pluripotency. PMID:26265007

  10. Factors Influencing the Likelihood of Overeducation: A Bivariate Probit with Sample Selection Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubb, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Contrary to expectations, the likelihood of overeducation is shown to be inversely related to unemployment rates when not control for selectivity. Furthermore, incidence data show that overeducation is more common among men than women and among Whites than Blacks. At issue is selectivity: employment must be selected for overeducation to occur.…

  11. Factors that influence utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing at a selected university campus.

    PubMed

    Ndabarora, Eléazar; Mchunu, Gugu

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have reported that university students, who are mostly young people, rarely use existing HIV/AIDS preventive methods. Although studies have shown that young university students have a high degree of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and HIV modes of transmission, they are still not utilising the existing HIV prevention methods and still engage in risky sexual practices favourable to HIV. Some variables, such as awareness of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods, have been associated with utilisation of such methods. The study aimed to explore factors that influence use of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing in a selected campus, using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework. A quantitative research approach and an exploratory-descriptive design were used to describe perceived factors that influence utilisation by university students of HIV/AIDS prevention methods. A total of 335 students completed online and manual questionnaires. Study findings showed that the factors which influenced utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods were mainly determined by awareness of the existing university-based HIV/AIDS prevention strategies. Most utilised prevention methods were voluntary counselling and testing services and free condoms. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS score was also found to correlate with HIV risk index score. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS showed correlation with self-efficacy on condoms and their utilisation. Most HBM variables were not predictors of utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students. Intervention aiming to improve the utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students at the selected university should focus on removing identified barriers, promoting HIV/AIDS prevention services and providing appropriate resources to implement such programmes. PMID:25444096

  12. Socio-Cultural Factors Influencing Occupational Choice: The Selection of a Nursing Career by Ex-Soviet Immigrant Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagy, Shifra; Liberman, Orly

    1997-01-01

    Data from 136 Soviet immigrants to Israel identified the sociocultural factors that influenced the choice of nursing as a career. Gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnic origin had less influence than parents, peers, and academic achievement. (JOW)

  13. College Choice for Black Males in the Community College: Factors Influencing Institutional Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, J. Luke; Harrison, John D.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we examined the college choice process for Black males attending community colleges. Using data from the Educational Longitudinal Study, findings indicated that Black males who attend community colleges select their institutions based upon having a degree in their chosen field, the coursework/curriculum, job placement record,…

  14. Examining Factors Influencing Attrition at a Small, Private, Selective Liberal Arts College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gansemer-Topf, Ann M.; Zhang, Yi; Beatty, Cameron C.; Paja, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Despite a diverse body of literature on college student retention, studies focusing on small, private, selective liberal arts colleges are limited. This study utilized a mixed methodology beginning with logistic regression analyses and followed with a qualitative inquiry that included interviews with students who had not persisted. While variables…

  15. Influence of Selected Factors upon the Learning of Landscape Design Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Craig Stanley

    A study was designed to determine the relative effectiveness of a series of landscape meetings and a supplemental illustrated landscape circular in teaching landscape design concepts to interested groups. The cooperation of county agents was secured. Five counties were selected as experimental; five, as control. Teaching objectives were formulated…

  16. Food Preferences and Factors Influencing Food Selectivity for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreck, Kimberly A.; Williams, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Although clinicians and parents widely accept that children with autism spectrum disorder exhibit more feeding problems than their typically developing peers, little information is available concerning the characteristic food items accepted by these children or the possible factors contributing to these feeding problems. This article used an…

  17. Factors Influencing Student Selection of Marriage and Family Therapy Graduate Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertlein, Katherine M.; Lambert-Shute, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    To understand which factors students consider most important in choosing a marriage and family therapy (MFT) graduate program and how programs met or did not meet these expectations of students over the course of graduate study, we conducted an online mixed-method investigation. One hundred twelve graduate students in Commission on Accreditation…

  18. The developmental potential of iPSCs is greatly influenced by reprogramming factor selection.

    PubMed

    Buganim, Yosef; Markoulaki, Styliani; van Wietmarschen, Niek; Hoke, Heather; Wu, Tao; Ganz, Kibibi; Akhtar-Zaidi, Batool; He, Yupeng; Abraham, Brian J; Porubsky, David; Kulenkampff, Elisabeth; Faddah, Dina A; Shi, Linyu; Gao, Qing; Sarkar, Sovan; Cohen, Malkiel; Goldmann, Johanna; Nery, Joseph R; Schultz, Matthew D; Ecker, Joseph R; Xiao, Andrew; Young, Richard A; Lansdorp, Peter M; Jaenisch, Rudolf

    2014-09-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are commonly generated by transduction of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and Myc (OSKM) into cells. Although iPSCs are pluripotent, they frequently exhibit high variation in terms of quality, as measured in mice by chimera contribution and tetraploid complementation. Reliably high-quality iPSCs will be needed for future therapeutic applications. Here, we show that one major determinant of iPSC quality is the combination of reprogramming factors used. Based on tetraploid complementation, we found that ectopic expression of Sall4, Nanog, Esrrb, and Lin28 (SNEL) in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) generated high-quality iPSCs more efficiently than other combinations of factors including OSKM. Although differentially methylated regions, transcript number of master regulators, establishment of specific superenhancers, and global aneuploidy were comparable between high- and low-quality lines, aberrant gene expression, trisomy of chromosome 8, and abnormal H2A.X deposition were distinguishing features that could potentially also be applicable to human. PMID:25192464

  19. On the selection and evaluation of visual display symbology Factors influencing search and identification times

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger; Williams, Douglas

    1986-01-01

    Three single-target visual search tasks were used to evaluate a set of cathode-ray tube (CRT) symbols for a helicopter situation display. The search tasks were representative of the information extraction required in practice, and reaction time was used to measure the efficiency with which symbols could be located and identified. Familiar numeric symbols were responded to more quickly than graphic symbols. The addition of modifier symbols, such as a nearby flashing dot or surrounding square, had a greater disruptive effect on the graphic symbols than did the numeric characters. The results suggest that a symbol set is, in some respects, like a list that must be learned. Factors that affect the time to identify items in a memory task, such as familiarity and visual discriminability, also affect the time to identify symbols. This analogy has broad implications for the design of symbol sets. An attempt was made to model information access with this class of display.

  20. Factors which influence levels of selected organisms in saliva of older individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Loesche, W J; Schork, A; Terpenning, M S; Chen, Y M; Stoll, J

    1995-01-01

    The most commonly measured bacterial parameters in saliva are the levels of the mutans group streptococci and lactobacilli, which have diagnostic implications for the incidence of dental decay. Diagnostic guidelines which are applicable to children and young adults in whom most, if not all, teeth are present and in whom the rate of stimulated saliva is almost always greater than 0.5 ml/min have been developed. Dental decay is a potential health problem of considerable magnitude among elderly individuals. In elderly individuals, missing teeth, the presence of dentures, and a reduced salivary flow could confound the interpretation of salivary levels of cariogenic bacteria. In the present study, in which saliva was collected from more than 560 elderly individuals (average age, 70 +/- 8 years), there was a significant positive relationship between the salivary levels of Streptococcus mutans and increased numbers of teeth. There was a positive association between the salivary levels of S. mutans and decay when the data were stratified for the presence of a complaint of xerostomia and the presence of dentures. However, a similar analysis indicated that lactobacilli and yeasts were more likely to be associated with decay. The various variables which could influence the bacterial counts per milliliter of saliva, e.g., independent or dependent living status, complaint of xerostomia, stimulated salivary flow, salivary pH, the presence of dentures, number of teeth, and decay, were analyzed simultaneously by using a multivariable linear model. In that analysis the number of decayed teeth was significantly associated with the presence of lactobacilli (P = 0.0001) and yeasts (P = 0.025) but not with the presence of S. mutans.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8567881

  1. Factors which influence levels of selected organisms in saliva of older individuals.

    PubMed

    Loesche, W J; Schork, A; Terpenning, M S; Chen, Y M; Stoll, J

    1995-10-01

    The most commonly measured bacterial parameters in saliva are the levels of the mutans group streptococci and lactobacilli, which have diagnostic implications for the incidence of dental decay. Diagnostic guidelines which are applicable to children and young adults in whom most, if not all, teeth are present and in whom the rate of stimulated saliva is almost always greater than 0.5 ml/min have been developed. Dental decay is a potential health problem of considerable magnitude among elderly individuals. In elderly individuals, missing teeth, the presence of dentures, and a reduced salivary flow could confound the interpretation of salivary levels of cariogenic bacteria. In the present study, in which saliva was collected from more than 560 elderly individuals (average age, 70 +/- 8 years), there was a significant positive relationship between the salivary levels of Streptococcus mutans and increased numbers of teeth. There was a positive association between the salivary levels of S. mutans and decay when the data were stratified for the presence of a complaint of xerostomia and the presence of dentures. However, a similar analysis indicated that lactobacilli and yeasts were more likely to be associated with decay. The various variables which could influence the bacterial counts per milliliter of saliva, e.g., independent or dependent living status, complaint of xerostomia, stimulated salivary flow, salivary pH, the presence of dentures, number of teeth, and decay, were analyzed simultaneously by using a multivariable linear model. In that analysis the number of decayed teeth was significantly associated with the presence of lactobacilli (P = 0.0001) and yeasts (P = 0.025) but not with the presence of S. mutans. Our findings indicate that salivary levels of lactobacilli and yeasts, as well as the salivary levels of S. mutans, should be monitored when seeking microbial indicators that might predict the incidence of caries in elderly individuals. PMID:8567881

  2. Finding Factors Influencing Risk: Comparing Variable Selection Methods Applied to Logistic Regression Models of Cases and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Michael D.; Yu, Robert K.; Shete, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    When modeling the risk of a disease, the very act of selecting the factors to include can heavily impact the results. This study compares the performance of several variable selection techniques applied to logistic regression. We performed realistic simulation studies to compare five methods of variable selection: (1) a confidence interval approach for significant coefficients (CI), (2) backward selection, (3) forward selection, (4) stepwise selection, and (5) Bayesian stochastic search variable selection (SSVS) using both informed and uniformed priors. We defined our simulated diseases mimicking odds ratios for cancer risk found in the literature for environmental factors, such as smoking; dietary risk factors, such as fiber; genetic risk factors such as XPD; and interactions. We modeled the distribution of our covariates, including correlation, after the reported empirical distributions of these risk factors. We also used a null data set to calibrate the priors of the Bayesian method and evaluate its sensitivity. Of the standard methods (95% CI, backward, forward and stepwise selection) the CI approach resulted in the highest average percent of correct associations and lowest average percent of incorrect associations. SSVS with an informed prior had higher average percent of correct associations and lower average percent of incorrect associations than did the CI approach. This study shows that Bayesian methods offer a way to use prior information to both increase power and decrease false-positive results when selecting factors to model complex disease risk. PMID:18937224

  3. Breeding site selection by coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in relation to large wood additions and factors that influence reproductive success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Steven M.; Dunham, Jason B.; McEnroe, Jeffery R.; Lightcap, Scott W.

    2014-01-01

    The fitness of female Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) with respect to breeding behavior can be partitioned into at least four fitness components: survival to reproduction, competition for breeding sites, success of egg incubation, and suitability of the local environment near breeding sites for early rearing of juveniles. We evaluated the relative influences of habitat features linked to these fitness components with respect to selection of breeding sites by coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). We also evaluated associations between breeding site selection and additions of large wood, as the latter were introduced into the study system as a means of restoring habitat conditions to benefit coho salmon. We used a model selection approach to organize specific habitat features into groupings reflecting fitness components and influences of large wood. Results of this work suggest that female coho salmon likely select breeding sites based on a wide range of habitat features linked to all four hypothesized fitness components. More specifically, model parameter estimates indicated that breeding site selection was most strongly influenced by proximity to pool-tail crests and deeper water (mean and maximum depths). Linkages between large wood and breeding site selection were less clear. Overall, our findings suggest that breeding site selection by coho salmon is influenced by a suite of fitness components in addition to the egg incubation environment, which has been the emphasis of much work in the past.

  4. Factors That Influence Science Teachers' Selection and Usage of Technologies in High School Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waight, Noemi; Chiu, Ming Ming; Whitford, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    This study contributed to our understanding of those factors that serve as predictors of science teachers' selection and use of technologies and more specifically, how selection and usage was realized among teachers of different science disciplines. Notable descriptive statistics were examined, and we tested an explanatory model of how…

  5. A population-based study on infertility and its influencing factors in four selected provinces in Iran (2008-2010)

    PubMed Central

    Rostami Dovom, Marzieh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Abedini, Mehrandokht; Amirshekari, Golshan; Hashemi, Somayeh; Noroozzadeh, Mahsa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Infertility has a varied impact on multiple dimensions of health and functioning of women. Objective: We aimed to identify the burden of infertility and its influencing factors based on a population based study conducted in four provinces of Iran. Materials and Methods: A sample of 1126 women, aged 18-45 years, was selected using the multi stage, stratified probability sampling procedure; those met the eligibility criteria were invited for further comprehensive interview. This study used the definition of infertility proposed by World Health Organization “the woman has never conceived despite cohabitation and exposure to pregnancy for a period of 1 year”. Results : The overall prevalence of lifetime infertility and current primary infertility were 21.1% (95% CI: 18.4- 23.8) and 6.4% (95% CI: 4.8-8) respectively. The probability of first pregnancy at the end of 2 years of marriage was 94% for all ever-married women. Infertility were observed as significantly higher among women age 31-35 (OR: 4.6; 95% CI: 1.9-11.5; p=0.001) and women with more than 9 years of education (OR: 2.8; 95% CI: 1.5-3.3; p<0.0001). Conclusion: The necessities of modern living have compelled many women to postpone childbearing to their late reproductive years; however they must be informed of being at risk of infertility with ageing. PMID:25408706

  6. Factors Influencing the Selection of the Systems Integration Organizational Model Type for Planning and Implementing Government High-Technology Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Leann; Utley, Dawn

    2006-01-01

    While there has been extensive research in defining project organizational structures for traditional projects, little research exists to support high technology government project s organizational structure definition. High-Technology Government projects differ from traditional projects in that they are non-profit, span across Government-Industry organizations, typically require significant integration effort, and are strongly susceptible to a volatile external environment. Systems Integration implementation has been identified as a major contributor to both project success and failure. The literature research bridges program management organizational planning, systems integration, organizational theory, and independent project reports, in order to assess Systems Integration (SI) organizational structure selection for improving the high-technology government project s probability of success. This paper will describe the methodology used to 1) Identify and assess SI organizational structures and their success rate, and 2) Identify key factors to be used in the selection of these SI organizational structures during the acquisition strategy process.

  7. An Analysis of Background Factors Influencing Selection of Residency Facility for Dental Students in Universities Located in Rural Areas in Japan

    PubMed Central

    H, Kono; H, Sasahara; S, Furukawa; N, Taguchi

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Japan, since 2006, participation in a 1-year residency programme by all dentists who have passed the National Board Dental Examination has been mandatory. Therefore, a ‘matching system’ has become necessary for dental students in their final year to decide their desired residency facility, but the rate of matching in dental schools located in rural areas is still low. Aim : The principal aim of this study was to elucidate the background factors influencing the selection of residency facilities by dental students in rural areas to facilitate the training of dentists working in local communities. Methods : Using the matching results from 554 final-year students of Kagoshima University Faculty of Dentistry from 2005 to 2013, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed on the background factors of the subjects. Results : Concerning the selection of the residency facility, it was verified that there were strong background factors for subjects to select residency facilities in their hometown, but compared with subjects from other regions, those from Kinki and Kanto regions did not select residency facilities in their hometown. Compared with males, a significantly higher number of females selected residency facilities in their hometown. A significantly higher number of subjects who repeated a school year selected the residency facility of their alma mater. Conclusion : In dental schools of national universities located in provinces, the establishment of a quota system for students from the region, where possible, is one of the most effective steps for securing future dental trainees. PMID:26140061

  8. Individual Influence on Model Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterba, Sonya K.; Pek, Jolynn

    2012-01-01

    Researchers in psychology are increasingly using model selection strategies to decide among competing models, rather than evaluating the fit of a given model in isolation. However, such interest in model selection outpaces an awareness that one or a few cases can have disproportionate impact on the model ranking. Though case influence on the fit…

  9. Factors influencing the selection of delivery with no one present in Northern Nigeria: implications for policy and programs

    PubMed Central

    Fapohunda, Bolaji; Orobaton, Nosakhare

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of demographic, socioeconomic, and women’s autonomy factors on the utilization of delivery assistance in Sokoto State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from the Nigeria 2008 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). Bivariate analysis and logistic regression procedures were conducted. The study revealed that delivery with no one present and with unskilled attendance accounted for roughly 95% of all births in Sokoto State. Mothers with existing high risk factors, including higher parity, were more likely to select unsafe/unskilled delivery practices than younger, lower-parity mothers. Evidenced by the high prevalence of delivery with traditional birth attendants, this study demonstrates that expectant mothers are willing to obtain care from a provider, and their odds of using accessible, affordable, skilled delivery is high, should such an option be presented. This conclusion is supported by the high correlation between a mother’s socioeconomic status and the likelihood of using skilled attendance. To improve the access to, and increase the affordability of, skilled health attendants, we recommended two solutions: 1) the use of cash subsidies to augment women’s incomes in order to reduce finance-related barriers in the use of formal health services, thus increasing demand; and 2) a structural improvement that will increase women’s economic security by improving their access to higher education, income, and urban ideation. PMID:24516341

  10. Factors influencing the utilization of research findings by health policy-makers in a developing country: the selection of Mali's essential medicines

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Michael A; Fretheim, Atle; Maïga, Diadié

    2007-01-01

    Background Research findings are increasingly being recognized as an important input in the formation of health policy. There is concern that research findings are not being utilized by health policy-makers to the extent that they could be. The factors influencing the utilization of various types of research by health policy-makers are beginning to emerge in the literature, however there is still little known about these factors in developing countries. The object of this study was to explore these factors by examining the policy-making process for a pharmaceutical policy common in developing countries; an essential medicines list. Methods A study of the selection and updating of Mali's national essential medicines list was undertaken using qualitative methods. In-depth semi-structured interviews and a natural group discussion were held with national policy-makers, most specifically members of the national commission that selects and updates the country's list. The resulting text was analyzed using a phenomenological approach. A document analysis was also performed. Results Several factors emerged from the textual data that appear to be influencing the utilization of health research findings for these policy-makers. These factors include: access to information, relevance of the research, use of research perceived as a time consuming process, trust in the research, authority of those who presented their view, competency in research methods, priority of research in the policy process, and accountability. Conclusion Improving the transfer of research to policy will require effort on the part of researchers, policy-makers, and third parties. This will include: collaboration between researchers and policy-makers, increased production and dissemination of relevant and useful research, and continued and improved technical support from networks and multi-national organizations. Policy-makers from developing countries will then be better equipped to make informed decisions

  11. [Modulated electromagnetic field as a factor of selective influence on animal mechanisms of goal-directed behavior].

    PubMed

    Sudakov, K V

    1976-01-01

    Proceeding from P.K. Anokhin's theory of the functional systems, the paper considers the action of a modulated electromagnetic field (MEMF) on different stages of the central architectonics of purposeful behaviour of rats: afferent synthesis, decisions making, acceptor of the action results. The action of MEMF was studied in different experimental situations: choice of an alimentary or defensive reaction to one conditioned stimulus in different situations; extinction of conditioned alimentary reactions; elaboration and extinction of alimentary conditioned reactions in animals group contacts; choice of the side of reinforcement in a T-shaped maze, and, lastly, self-stimulation reactions. The experiments have shown that MEMF has a selective effect on the animals' emotional reactions. Greater disturbances are observed in the mechanisms of the animals' appraisal of the action of situational and trigger stimuli or surrounding individuals of their species and, hence, of decisions making and anticipation of future results of the action, the acceptor of the action results. PMID:997935

  12. Influence of selected lifestyle factors on breast and ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers from Poland.

    PubMed

    Gronwald, Jacek; Byrski, Tomasz; Huzarski, Tomasz; Cybulski, Cezary; Sun, Ping; Tulman, Anna; Narod, Steven A; Lubinski, Jan

    2006-01-01

    It has been estimated that the lifetime risk of breast cancer among women who inherit a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation is as high as 80%, and the risk estimates for ovarian cancer range from 15 to 40%. Several environmental and lifestyle factors are believed to contribute to the development of breast cancer in the general population and it is of interest to establish if these factors operate among mutation carriers as well. To evaluate the effects of age of menarche, parity, breast-feeding, oophorectomy and oral contraceptive use, as well as smoking and coffee consumption, on the risks of breast and ovarian cancer, we conducted a matched case-control study of Polish women with BRCA1 mutations. There were 348 breast cancer patients, 150 ovarian cancer patients and similar numbers of age-matched controls. BRCA1 carriers with late age of menarche, lower parity and long-term breast-feeding were less likely to develop breast cancer. Oral contraceptives protected against ovarian cancer. PMID:16261399

  13. Influence of selected environmental factors on the abundance of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs in peat-bog lakes.

    PubMed

    Lew, Sylwia; Lew, Marcin; Koblížek, Michal

    2016-07-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (AAPs) are photoheterotrophic prokaryotes that are widespread in many limnic and marine environments. So far, little is known about their distribution in peat-bog lakes. Seventeen peat-bog lakes were sampled during three summer seasons 2009, 2011, and 2012, and the vertical distribution of AAPs was determined by infrared epifluorescence microscopy. The analysis demonstrated that in the surface layers of the studied lakes, AAP abundance ranged from 0.3 to 12.04 × 10(5) cells mL(-1), which represents <1 to 18.3 % of the total bacteria. The vertical distribution of AAPs confirmed their presence in the upper parts of the water column with minimum numbers in the anoxic bottom waters. We have shown that the AAP abundance was significantly positively correlated with the water pH, and the highest proportion of photoheterotrophs was found in peat-bog lakes with a pH between 6.7 and 7.6. Our results demonstrated an influence of water acidity on the abundance of AAPs, which may reflect a fundamental difference in the microbial composition between acidic and pH neutral peat-bog lakes. PMID:27032635

  14. Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

  15. "Push-Pull" Factors Influencing International Student Destination Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzarol, Tim; Soutar, Geoffrey N.

    2002-01-01

    Examined factors motivating international student choice of host country. Found that economic and social factors within the home country serve to "push" students abroad, while a variety of "pull" factors influence selection of a host country. (EV)

  16. Factors That Influence Teacher Attrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    External, employment, and personal factors which influence teacher decisions to stay, leave, or transfer from teaching assignments are discussed, with emphasis on special education teachers. Factors attributed to teacher attrition in urban and rural environments also are briefly reviewed, along with attrition of related services professionals.…

  17. Emotional reactivity to incentive downshift as a correlated response to selection of high and low alcohol preferring mice and an influencing factor on ethanol intake.

    PubMed

    Matson, Liana M; Grahame, Nicholas J

    2015-11-01

    Losing a job or significant other are examples of incentive loss that result in negative emotional reactions. The occurrence of negative life events is associated with increased drinking (Keyes, Hatzenbuehler, & Hasin, 2011). Further, certain genotypes are more likely to drink alcohol in response to stressful negative life events (Blomeyer et al., 2008; Covault et al., 2007). Shared genetic factors may contribute to alcohol drinking and emotional reactivity, but this relationship is not currently well understood. We used an incentive downshift paradigm to address whether emotional reactivity is elevated in mice predisposed to drink alcohol. We also investigated if ethanol drinking is influenced in High Alcohol Preferring mice that had been exposed to an incentive downshift. Incentive downshift procedures have been widely utilized to model emotional reactivity, and involve shifting a high reward group to a low reward and comparing the shifted group to a consistently rewarded control group. Here, we show that replicate lines of selectively bred High Alcohol Preferring mice exhibited larger successive negative contrast effects than their corresponding replicate Low Alcohol Preferring lines, providing strong evidence for a genetic association between alcohol drinking and susceptibility to the emotional effects of negative contrast. These mice can be used to study the shared neurological and genetic underpinnings of emotional reactivity and alcohol preference. Unexpectedly, an incentive downshift suppressed ethanol drinking immediately following an incentive downshift. This could be due to a specific effect of negative contrast on ethanol consumption or a suppressive effect on consummatory behavior in general. These data suggest that either alcohol intake does not provide the anticipated negative reinforcement, or that a single test was insufficient for animals to learn to drink following incentive downshift. However, the emotional intensity following incentive

  18. Selective factors governing in vitro β-carotene bioaccessibility: negative influence of low filtration cutoffs and alterations by emulsifiers and food matrices.

    PubMed

    Corte-Real, Joana; Richling, Elke; Hoffmann, Lucien; Bohn, Torsten

    2014-12-01

    Because of their putative health benefits, the biological fate of carotenoids after digestion has been met with much interest, and ex vivo methods using carotenoid standards to study their digestion and further metabolism have been developed. In the absence of a complex food matrix, that is, when studying isolated carotenoids, protocol conditions of gastrointestinal digestion models have to be adjusted. In this investigation, we hypothesized that certain selected factors would significantly influence the bioaccessibility of β-carotene in vitro. The factors considered included (i) type of lipid matrix employed (milk, cream, or oil), (ii) presence/absence of emulsifiers (e.g. lecithin and taurocholate), (iii) addition of a gastric lipase, and (iv) final filtration (20 or 200 nm) of the digesta. Adding an emulsifier mixture (10 mg lecithin + 50 mg monoolein + 5 mg oleic acid) enhanced β-carotene bioaccessibility 3 times (P < 0.001), whereas additional taurocholate and the presence/absence of gastric lipase added before intestinal digestion had no significant effect. β-Carotene bioaccessibility was superior with oil than with milk (18.8% ± 0.7% and 6.1% ± 0.7%, respectively; P = 0.03), especially after filtration, thus suggesting incomplete micelle formation after addition of milk. Filtration through 20 nm filters reduced carotenoid concentration in the aqueous fraction (from 7.1% ± 0.2% to 5.5% ± 0.2% in samples digested with canola oil, P < 0.001), indicating that not all formed micelles compared in size with those normally formed in vivo. When studying carotenoid standards during in vitro digestion, care should be taken to separate mixed micelles by filtration, and the choice of emulsifier and matrix should be considered. PMID:25476193

  19. Factors influencing dental decision making.

    PubMed

    Grembowski, D; Milgrom, P; Fiset, L

    1988-01-01

    In clinical decision making, dentists routinely choose between alternative treatments such as crown vs amalgam/composite buildup, root canal vs extraction, fixed bridge vs removable partial denture, and prophylaxis vs subgingival curettage or periodontal scaling. A number of technical and patient factors can influence dentists' choice of treatment in these situations; however, little is known about their relative importance. To address this issue, a list of technical (e.g., periodontal status and caries rate) and patient (e.g., cost and patient preference) factors possibly influencing choice of treatment was developed for each pair of services. Responding to a mail questionnaire, 156 general dentists in Washington State listed the top three factors influencing their choice of service in each pair. Results revealed that dentists took different factors into account in choosing among alternative treatments. Technical factors dominated over patient concerns; only about 33 percent of the dentists considered patient factors important in choosing alternative therapies. The latter group was less preventively oriented, were solo practitioners, worked longer hours, and had lower prices. Results suggest patients may have little influence on prescriptions of therapy among experienced general dentists. PMID:3045303

  20. Factors Influencing College Science Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tai, Robert H.; Sadler, Philip M.; Mintzes, Joel J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors report some of the salient findings of a large-scale, four-year national study, conducted at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, entitled "Factors Influencing College Science Success" (FICSS), which surveyed college students who enrolled in first-year biology, chemistry, and physics courses throughout the…

  1. Soft Factors Influence College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence about the role that "soft factors" like student engagement and school environment play in influencing whether high school students go on to enroll in college is hard to come by. Over the past two years, the Center for Labor Market Studies (CLMS) of Northeastern University, with support from the Nellie Mae Education Foundation and the…

  2. Variables influencing victim selection in genocide.

    PubMed

    Komar, Debra A

    2008-01-01

    While victims of racially motivated violence may be identified through observation of morphological features, those targeted because of their ethnic, religious, or national identity are not easily recognized. This study examines how perpetrators of genocide recognize their victims. Court documents, including indictments, witness statements, and testimony from the International Criminal Tribunals for Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia (FY) detail the interactions between victim and assailant. A total of 6012 decedents were included in the study; only 20.8% had been positively identified. Variables influencing victim selection in Rwanda included location, segregation, incitement, and prior relationship, while significant factors in FY were segregation, location, age/gender, and social data. Additional contributing factors in both countries included self-identification, victim behavior, linguistic or clothing evidence, and morphological features. Understanding the system of recognition used by perpetrators aids investigators tasked with establishing victim identity in such prosecutions. PMID:18005010

  3. An Examination of Influences and Factors on the Institutional Selection Processes of Freshmen Student-Athletes at Small Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goss, Benjamin D.; Jubenville, Colby B.; Orejan, Jaime

    2006-01-01

    This study sought to identify institutional selection factors most influential upon small-college student-athletes. Mean scores for 229 freshman student-athletes from six institutions were analyzed using a modified Student-Athlete College Choice Profile Scale. The sample was also stratified by gender and sports-program categories. Overall, four of…

  4. Factors potentially influencing aminoglycoside use and expenditure

    SciTech Connect

    DiPiro, J.T.; Kilsdonk, G.F.; Amerson, A.B.; Record, K.E.

    1982-07-01

    Factors that may have influenced aminoglycoside use and expenditure in one hospital were examined. Factors that were evaluated as to their influence on aminoglycoside-use patterns were: (1) formulary status; (2) bacterial susceptibility patterns; (3) identified or perceived differences in toxicity; (4) changes in patient population; (5) price paid by the hospital for aminoglycosides; (6) distribution of newsletters or memoranda; (7) advertising and detailing; and (8) pharmacy policies. For FY 1976-77 to 1979-80, the largest proportion of aminoglycoside expense was for gentamicin. During FY 1980-81, the expenditure for gentamicin decreased and tobramycin accounted for the largest proportion of total expenditure. Monthly gentamicin use decreased 20% during FY 1980-81 from the previous year. Tobramycin use increased from January 1979 to November 1980 and decreased from December 1980 to June 1981. Kanamycin use and amikacin use were fairly constant during the study period. Based on temporal relationships, the following factors appeared to influence aminoglycoside use and expenditure: (1) a study conducted at the institution from June 1977 to June 1979 comparing gentamicin and tobramycin nephrotoxicity; (2) a comparative nephrotoxicity study published in a widely circulated medical journal in May 1980; and (3) an intramural newsletter and memorandum distributed in March 1981 encouraging selective aminoglycoside use. The identification of factors that potentially influenced aminoglycoside use can be used to anticipate the future impact of similar events and to devise strategies to influence antimicrobial use.

  5. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sam SX; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori; Abbiss, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing) within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon. PMID:25258562

  6. Factors influencing clinical trial site selection in Europe: the Survey of Attitudes towards Trial sites in Europe (the SAT-EU Study)

    PubMed Central

    Gehring, Marta; Taylor, Rod S; Mellody, Marie; Casteels, Brigitte; Piazzi, Angela; Gensini, Gianfranco; Ambrosio, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Applications to run clinical trials in Europe fell 25% between 2007 and 2011. Costs, speed of approvals and shortcomings of European Clinical Trial Directive are commonly invoked to explain this unsatisfactory performance. However, no hard evidence is available on the actual weight of these factors or has it been previously investigated whether other criteria may also impact clinical trial site selection. Design The Survey of Attitudes towards Trial sites in Europe (SAT-EU Study) was an anonymous, cross-sectional web-based survey that systematically assessed factors impacting European clinical trial site selection. It explored 19 factors across investigator-driven, hospital-driven and environment-driven criteria, and costs. It also surveyed perceptions of the European trial environment. Setting and participants Clinical research organisations (CROs), academic clinical trial units (CTUs) and industry invited to respond. Outcome measures Primary outcome: weight assigned to each factor hypothesised to impact trial site selection and trial incidence. Secondary outcome: desirability of European countries to run clinical trials. Results Responses were obtained from 485 professionals in 34 countries: 49% from BioPharma, 40% from CTUs or CROs. Investigator-dependent, environment-dependent and hospital-dependent factors were rated highly important, costs being less important (p<0.0001). Within environment-driven criteria, pool of eligible patients, speed of approvals and presence of disease-management networks were significantly more important than costs or government financial incentives (p<0.0001). The pattern of response was consistent across respondent groupings (CTU vs CRO vs industry). Considerable variability was demonstrated in the perceived receptivity of countries to undertake clinical trials, with Germany, the UK and the Netherlands rated the best trial markets (p<0.0001). Conclusions Investigator-dependent factors and ease of approval dominate trial

  7. Factors influencing healthcare service quality

    PubMed Central

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods: Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results: Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion: This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality. PMID:25114946

  8. Genetic selection for resistance to mycoplasmal pneumonia of swine (MPS) in the Landrace line influences the expression of soluble factors in blood after MPS vaccine sensitization.

    PubMed

    Shimazu, Tomoyuki; Borjigin, Liushiqi; Katayama, Yuki; Li, Meihua; Satoh, Takumi; Watanabe, Kouichi; Kitazawa, Haruki; Roh, Sang-gun; Aso, Hisashi; Kazuo, Katoh; Suda, Yoshihito; Sakuma, Akiko; Nakajo, Mituru; Suzuki, Keiichi

    2014-04-01

    We recently developed a Landrace line that is resistant to mycoplasmal pneumonia of swine (MPS) infection by genetic selection for five generations, and we reported that the immunophenotype of this line is different from that of the non-selected line in terms of changes in peripheral blood leukocyte population after MPS vaccination. This study followed up previous findings demonstrating changes in soluble factors in blood, namely, hormones, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), and cytokines. These two lines were injected with MPS vaccine on days -7 and 0 after blood sampling on those days, and blood samples were collected on days -14, -7, 0, 2, 7 and 14. We found changes in the levels of many hormones and cytokines in both lines. However, we found that only growth hormone (GH) and interferon (IFN)-γ levels were statistically different between these two lines. GH concentration was reduced (day 0) and IFN-γ concentration was increased (day 14) in the MPS-selected line compared with the non-selected line, despite unchanged IFN-γ messenger RNA expression in blood cells. Although detailed mechanisms underlying these phenotypes remain unsolved, these traits would be useful to improve MPS resistance in pig production and provide an insight into MPS infection. PMID:24329865

  9. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Quansah, Emmanuel; Ohene, Lilian Akorfa; Norman, Linda; Mireku, Michael Osei; Karikari, Thomas K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals’ target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal. Methods ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review. Results Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence), family income (wealth/poverty) and high dependency (multiparousity). These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices. Conclusions Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother’s health knowledge is emphasised. PMID:26745277

  10. Factors influencing permanent teeth eruption. Part one--general factors.

    PubMed

    Almonaitiene, Ruta; Balciuniene, Irena; Tutkuviene, Janina

    2010-01-01

    Variation in the normal eruption of teeth is a common finding, but significant deviation from established norms should alert the clinician to take some diagnostic procedures in order to evaluate patient health and development. Disturbance in tooth eruption time could be a symptom of general condition or indication of altered physiology and craniofacial development. The aim of this review is to analyze general factors that could influence permanent teeth eruption. The articles from 1965 to 2009 in English related to topic were identified. 84 articles were selected for data collection. Although permanent teeth eruption is under significant genetic control, various general factors such as gender, socioeconomic status, craniofacial morphology, body composition can influence this process. Most significant disturbance in teeth emergence is caused by systemic diseases and syndromes. PMID:21063135

  11. An Analysis of the Influence of Selected Genetic and Hormonal Factors on the Occurrence of Depressive Symptoms in Late-Reproductive-Age Women

    PubMed Central

    Jurczak, Anna; Szkup, Małgorzata; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Grzywacz, Anna; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Karakiewicz, Beata; Dołęgowska, Barbara; Grochans, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of genetic and hormonal factors on incidences of depressive symptoms in late-reproductive-age women. Methods: The study was performed using the Beck Depression Inventory, the PCR, and genetic tests of 347 healthy late-reproductive-age Polish women. Results: The relationship between the level of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and depressive symptoms was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Increases in age and FSH levels were accompanied by a decrease in AMH level in a significant way (p < 0.05). There were no statistically significant relationships between the distribution of genotypes and the frequency of alleles of the investigated polymorphisms and depressive symptoms according to the Beck Depression Inventory. Conclusions: (1) The presence of the s/s genotype of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the serotonin transporter promoter region and the 3/3 genotype of the 30-bp VNTR polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A promoter region does not contribute to the development of depressive symptoms in late-reproductive-age women. (2) A relationship between the level of anti-Müllerian hormone and depressive symptoms was not confirmed in the group of healthy late-reproductive-age women. (3) AMH level correlates negatively with FSH level and age, which confirms that AMH can be regarded as a factor reflecting the ovarian reserve. PMID:25826396

  12. Environmental factors influencing blackfly populations

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, G.

    1967-01-01

    Much more information is required on the distribution of blackflies in various parts of the world, and in many cases an adequate methodology for obtaining such information still has to be worked out. A detailed methodology for the collection of information about blackflies is given, which was developed for investigations mainly in the Holarctic regions but is basically applicable to other parts of the world. A brief survey of the population dynamics of various species of blackflies in various parts of the Holarctic regions is given, and the main factors influencing the population dynamics are discussed. Interspecific and intraspecific fluctuations in natural blackfly populations are attributed chiefly to abiotic environmental factors rather than to competition. Larval competition in a given microhabitat is mainly individual, though specimens belonging to a given species may have a slightly more favourable position than others. The use of parasites and in particular the replacement of one species by another are promising methods of blackfly control. Predators are not generally likely to prove useful for this purpose. PMID:5300046

  13. Factors influencing boar sperm cryosurvival.

    PubMed

    Roca, J; Hernández, M; Carvajal, G; Vázquez, J M; Martínez, E A

    2006-10-01

    Optimal sperm cryopreservation is a prerequisite for the sustainable commercial application of frozen-thawed boar semen for AI. Three experiments were performed to identify factors influencing variability of postthaw sperm survival among 464 boar ejaculates. Sperm-rich ejaculate fractions were cryopre-served using a standard freezing-thawing procedure for 0.5-mL plastic straws and computer-controlled freezing equipment. Postthaw sperm motility (assessed with a computer-assisted semen analysis system) and viability (simultaneously probed by flow cytometry analysis after triple-fluorescent stain), evaluated 30 and 150 min postthaw, were used to estimate the success of cryopreservation. In the first experiment, 168 unselected ejaculates (1 ejaculate/boar), from boars of 6 breeds with a wide age range (8 to 48 mo), were cryopreserved over a 12-mo period to evaluate the predictive value of boar (breed and age), semen collection, transport variables (season of ejaculate collection, interval between collections, and ejaculate temperature exposure), initial semen traits, and sperm quality before freezing on sperm survival after freezing-thawing. In Exp. 2, 4 ejaculates from each of 29 boars, preselected according to their initial semen traits and sperm quality before freezing, were collected and frozen over a 6-mo period to evaluate the influence of interboar and intraboar ejaculate variability in the survival of sperm after cryopreservation. In Exp. 3, 12 ejaculates preselected as for Exp. 2, from each of 15 boars with known good sperm cryosurvival, were collected and frozen over a 12-mo period to estimate the sustainability of sperm cryosurvival between ejaculates over time. Boar and semen collection and transport variables were not predictive of sperm cryosurvival among ejaculates. Initial semen traits and sperm quality variables observed before freezing explained 23.2 and 10.9%, respectively, of the variation in postthaw sperm motility and viability. However, more that

  14. [Endocrine factors influencing melanoma progression].

    PubMed

    Dobos, Judit

    2009-03-01

    According to recent findings that beside cancers traditionally considered as hormone-dependent, several other tumor types show different behavior in the two sexes, indicating the possible role of endocrine factors in the course of these diseases. The possibility that endocrine factors may influence the clinical course of human malignant melanoma is suggested by the higher survival rate in premenopausal vs. postmenopausal women or men of any ages. However, investigations on the sex hormone receptor status of human cutaneous melanomas and experiments attempting to support the epidemiological results yielded conflicting results. In our human melanoma cell lines we failed to detect steroid receptors at protein level, while quantitative PCR demonstrated that their mRNA expression level was orders of magnitude lower compared to the positive control cell lines. Sex hormones did not influence the in vitro features of the human melanoma cells considerably. On the other hand, glucocorticoid receptor was present both at mRNA and protein level, although dexamethasone was effective in vitro only at high doses. Our previous experiments showed that intrasplenic injection of human melanoma cells resulted in a significantly higher number of liver colonies in male than in female SCID mice. We now show that this difference evolves during the first day. After injection into the tail vein we did not observe gender-dependent difference in the efficiency of pulmonary colonization. Examining the pattern of metastasis formation after intracardiac injection, we have found differences between the two sexes in the incidence or number of colonies only in the case of the liver but not in other organs. We concluded that the observed phenomenon is specific to the liver; therefore we investigated the effects of 2-methoxyestradiol, an endogenous metabolite of estradiol produced mainly in the liver, with an estrogen receptor-independent antitumor activity. 2ME2 effectively inhibited melanoma cell

  15. [Influence of weather factors on suicidal hangings].

    PubMed

    Trepińska, Janina; Piotrowicz, Katarzyna; Bakowski, Rafał; Bolechała, Filip; Trela, Franciszek

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a certain biometeorological problem. The evaluation of influence of weather factors on frequency of suicidal cases by hanging in the area of Cracow City during 1991-2002 was examined. Rapid changes of air pressure, air temperature, hot, sweltering and sultry days, very frosty days, days with strong or foehn wind, days with thunderstorms, fog and haze were selected as unfavourable weather factors. They give an occasion for strong psychical stress. The results of detailed investigations are next: more frequency of cases of suicide during the advance of cold fronts, rapid decreases of air pressure during hot, sweltering and sultry days, days with thunderstorms and foehn winds in the Tatra Mountains. PMID:16521499

  16. Factors Influencing School Choice in a School District in Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, John J., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study is to examine the factors that influenced parents in a school district in Delaware when they selected a high school for their child. This study also sought to examine the sources of information that parents used. Also examined was the impact of socio-economic status in the high school selection process. A…

  17. Factors influencing global antiretroviral procurement prices

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral medicines (ARVs) are one of the most costly parts of HIV/AIDS treatment. Many countries are struggling to provide universal access to ARVs for all people living with HIV and AIDS. Although substantial price reductions of ARVs have occurred, especially between 2002 and 2008, achieving sustainable access for the next several decades remains a major challenge for most low- and middle-income countries. The objectives of the present study were twofold: first, to analyze global ARV prices between 2005 and 2008 and associated factors, particularly procurement methods and key donor policies on ARV procurement efficiency; second, to discuss the options of procurement processes and policies that should be considered when implementing or reforming access to ARV programs. Methods An ARV-medicines price-analysis was carried out using the Global Price Reporting Mechanism from the World Health Organization. For a selection of 12 ARVs, global median prices and price variation were calculated. Linear regression models for each ARV were used to identify factors that were associated with lower procurement prices. Logistic regression models were used to identify the characteristics of those countries which procure below the highest and lowest direct manufactured costs. Results Three key factors appear to have an influence on a country's ARV prices: (a) whether the product is generic or not; (b) the socioeconomic status of the country; (c) whether the country is a member of the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative. Factors which did not influence procurement below the highest direct manufactured costs were HIV prevalence, procurement volume, whether the country belongs to the least developed countries or a focus country of the United States President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief. Conclusion One of the principal mechanisms that can help to lower prices for ARV over the next several decades is increasing procurement efficiency. Benchmarking prices could be one useful

  18. Factors that Influence Participation in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vonderwell, Selma; Zachariah, Sajit

    2005-01-01

    This study explored what factors influenced learner participation in two sections of a graduate online course at a Midwestern university. Findings indicated that online learner participation and patterns of participation are influenced by the following factors: technology and interface characteristics, content area experience, student roles and…

  19. Factors influencing dust suppressant effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, C.R.; Eisele, T.C.; Chesney, D.J.; Kawatra, S.K.

    2008-11-15

    Water sprays are a common method used to reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions. Various factors such as wettability, surface area coverage, fine particle engulfment rates, interparticle adhesion forces, suppressant penetration and suppressant longevity have all been suggested as critical factors in achieving effective PM control. However, it has not been established which of these factors are the most important. Experimental work indicated that suppressant penetration is the most critical of these factors. The length of time after application that suppressants were effective was also improved by using hygroscopic reagents that retained moisture to prevent evaporation. Maximizing suppressant penetration and improving suppressant longevity led to an average 86% reduction in PM10 concentrations in laboratory dust tower tests.

  20. Genetic factors influencing alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Mayfield, R D; Harris, R A; Schuckit, M A

    2008-01-01

    Plentiful data from both animal and human studies support the importance of genetic influences in substance abuse and dependence (Bierut et al., 1998; Tsuang et al., 1998; Kendler et al., 2003). This review summarizes the evidence supporting such genetic influences, places them into perspective regarding animal and human studies, discusses the importance of both genes and environment, and highlights some specific genes of interest regarding the vulnerabilities for problems associated with alcohol use disorders. A long history of repetitive heavy use of alcohol exists across generations as well as the high prevalence of alcohol-related problems in Western societies. Moreover, the information offered here addresses the importance of more general issues regarding genetics and gene expression related to alcohol abuse and dependence. PMID:18362899

  1. Maternal Factors That Influence Children's Positive Behavior: Demonstration of a Structural Equation Analysis of Selected Data from the Berkeley Growth Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crano, William D.; Mendoza, Jorge L.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis using data drawn from Nancy Bayley's Berkeley Growth Study is performed for didactic purposes to illustrate the use of structural equation modeling on a child development data set. Alternatives to standard latent factor approaches are demonstrated for use in research situations in which the subject-to-variable ratio is less than…

  2. The Environmental Factors Influencing Attrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villella, Edward F.

    1986-01-01

    Offers an economics/business-management perspective on student attrition, focusing on the external macro-environment (including such factors as government funding of education, changing enrollment patterns, and the increased number of postsecondary institutions) and the internal micro-environment (exhibiting characteristics of intangibility,…

  3. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of a new model of arylpiperazines. Part 7: Study of the influence of lipophilic factors at the terminal amide fragment on 5-HT(1A) affinity/selectivity.

    PubMed

    López-Rodríguez, María L; Ayala, David; Viso, Alma; Benhamú, Bellinda; de La Pradilla, Roberto Fernández; Zarza, Fernando; Ramos, José A

    2004-03-15

    The influence of lipophilic factors at the amide fragment of a new series of (+/-)-7a-alkyl-2-[4-(4-arylpiperazin-1-yl)butyl]-1,3-dioxoperhydropyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazoles 2 and of (+/-)-7a-alkyl-2-[(4-arylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl]-1,3-dioxoperhydropyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazoles 3 has been studied. Variations of logP have been carried out by introducing different hydrocarbonated substituents (R(1)) at the position 7a of the bicyclohydantoin, namely the non-pharmacophoric part. All the new compounds exhibit high potency for the 5-HT(1A) receptor; however, affinities for the alpha(1) receptor are high for compounds 2a-l while compounds 3a-f are selective over this adrenergic receptor. On the other hand, differences in logP do not notably affect the K(i) values for the above receptors. PMID:15018929

  4. Factors influencing perceived angular velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Calderone, Jack B.

    1991-01-01

    Angular velocity perception is examined for rotations both in depth and in the image plane and the influence of several object properties on this motion parameter is explored. Two major object properties are considered, namely, texture density which determines the rate of edge transitions for rotations in depth, i.e., the number of texture elements that pass an object's boundary per unit of time, and object size which determines the tangential linear velocities and 2D image velocities of texture elements for a given angular velocity. Results of experiments show that edge-transition rate biased angular velocity estimates only when edges were highly salient. Element velocities had an impact on perceived angular velocity; this bias was associated with 2D image velocity rather than 3D tangential velocity. Despite these biases judgements were most strongly determined by the true angular velocity. Sensitivity to this higher order motion parameter appeared to be good for rotations both in depth (y-axis) and parallel to the line of sight (z-axis).

  5. Factors That Influence the Understanding of Good Mathematics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Kwan Eu

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the factors that influenced the understanding of good mathematics teaching. A mixed methodology was used investigate the beliefs of beginning secondary teachers on good mathematics teaching. The two research instruments used in this study were the survey questionnaire and an interview. Beginning teachers selected Immediate…

  6. What Factors Influence Wind Perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Tatiana

    Over the last decade, wind power has emerged as a possible source of energy and has attracted the attention of homeowners and policy makers worldwide. Many technological hurdles have been overcome in the last few years that make this technology feasible and economical. The United States has added more wind power than any other type of electric generation in 2012. Depending on the location, wind resources have shown to have the potential to offer 20% of the nation's electricity; a single, large wind turbine has the capacity to produce enough electricity to power 350 homes. Throughout the development of wind turbines, however, energy companies have seen significant public opposition towards the tall white structures. The purpose of this research was to measure peoples' perceptions on wind turbine development throughout their growth, from proposal to existing phase. Three hypotheses were developed based on the participant's political affiliation, proximity and knowledge of wind turbines. To validate these hypotheses, participants were asked an array of questions regarding their perception on economic, environmental, and social impacts of wind turbines with an online service called Amazon Mechanical Turk. The responses were from residents living in the United States and required them to provide their zip code for subsequent analysis. The analysis from the data obtained suggests that participants are favorable towards wind turbine development and would be supportive of using the technology in their community. Political affiliation and proximity to the nearest wind turbine in any phase of development (proposal, construction, existing) were also analyzed to determine if they had an effect on a person's overall perception on wind turbines and their technology. From the analysis, political affiliation was seen to be an indirect factor to understanding favorability towards wind turbines; the more liberal you are, the more supportive you will be towards renewable energy use

  7. Factors Influencing the Fatigue Strength of Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollenrath, F

    1941-01-01

    A number of factors are considered which influence the static and fatigue strength of materials under practical operating conditions as contrasted with the relations obtaining under conditions of the usual testing procedure. Such factors are interruptions in operation, periodically fluctuating stress limits and mean stresses with periodic succession of several groups and stress states, statistical changes and succession of stress limits and mean stresses, frictional corrosion at junctures, and notch effects.

  8. It Takes Three: Selection, Influence, and De-Selection Processes of Depression in Adolescent Friendship Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Kerr, Margaret; Branje, Susan J. T.; Stattin, Hakan; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors of this study tested a selection-influence-de-selection model of depression. This model explains friendship influence processes (i.e., friends' depressive symptoms increase adolescents' depressive symptoms) while controlling for two processes: friendship selection (i.e., selection of friends with similar levels of depressive symptoms)…

  9. Personality factors in selection and flight proficiency.

    PubMed

    Christy, R L

    1975-03-01

    Personality development is a dynamic process involving life forces, instinct drives, growth processes, life stresses, reactions to significant persons, both in and out of the family, and reactions to the environment in general, along with the mastery of methods and techniques for coping in solving problems and in providing for the satisfaction of one's needs. The love and fear of flying and the motivation and conflicts in flying involve many personality factors which deserve careful evaluation in selection of pilot and other flight personnel. These personality factors, variations, and traits also require close surveillance of pilot personnel by flight surgeons, aviation medical and operational personnel in predicting and preventing potential breakdown or difficulties and, more importantly, in the interest of maintaining optimum personnel effectiveness, proficiency, and safety in aviation. PMID:1115735

  10. Technology Education Graduate Education: Factors Influencing Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Phillip L.; Rogers, George E.

    A modified Delphi technique was used to identify the factors that positively influence technology education teachers' decision to enroll in graduate education programs and the barriers to their enrollment in advanced degree programs. Two pairs of Delphi panels were established. The doctoral panels consisted of 15 recent doctoral graduates and 30…

  11. Factors Influencing Learning at a Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marvin L.

    The Walberg Educational Productivity Model theorizes that learning in its affective, behavioral, and cognitive aspects is causally influenced by factors in the areas of individual aptitude (i.e., prior achievement, age or stage of maturation, and motivation), instructional treatment (i.e., quantity of time spent in learning situations and…

  12. Factors Influencing the Successful Introduction of Portfolios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Tartwijk, Jan; Driessen, Erik; Van Der Vleuten, Cees; Stokking, Karel

    2007-01-01

    Factors influencing the successful introduction of portfolios are described. A portfolio is a purposeful collection of all kinds of documents and other artefacts that together give an impression of how tasks were fulfilled and how competence has developed. A portfolio can also contain reflections and plans for future development. Although…

  13. Factors Influencing Employee Learning in Small Businesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coetzer, Alan; Perry, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify key factors influencing employee learning from the perspective of owners/managers. Design/methodology/research: Data were gathered from owners/managers in a total of 27 small manufacturing and services firms through interviews and analysed using content analytic procedures. Findings: The…

  14. Factors Influencing High School Students' Career Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Mei; Pan, Wei; Newmeyer, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the factors influencing high school students' career aspirations with a study analyzing 141 high school students. The Social Cognitive Career Development Model was utilized to examine the interactive relationships among learning experiences, career self-efficacy, outcome expectations, career interests, and career choices. The…

  15. Factors Influencing Teaching Choice in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilinc, Ahmet; Watt, Helen M. G.; Richardson, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Why choose to become a teacher in Turkey? The authors examined motivations and perceptions among preservice teachers (N = 1577) encompassing early childhood, primary and secondary education. The Factors Influencing Teaching Choice (FIT-Choice) instrument was translated into Turkish and its construct validity and reliability assessed. Altruistic…

  16. Factors that influence women's dispositions toward science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atria, Catherine Graczyk

    Females have been underrepresented in the study of science and science careers for decades although advancements have been made in closing this gender gap, the gap persists particularly in the physical sciences. Variables which influence a woman's desire to pursue and maintain a science course of study and career must be discovered. The United States lags behind other industrialized countries in the fields of science, math, and engineering. Females comprise an estimated half of the population; their potential contributions cannot be ignored or overlooked. This retrospective research study explores the personal experiences of ten women enrolled in science majors, with science related career plans. The goal of this study is to describe the factors that influence the participants' interest in science. The findings, the effect of science coursework, science teachers' personality and manner, other influential educational personnel, role models and mentors, external influences exclusive of school, parental influence, locus of control and positive attitudes toward science confirm what other researchers have found.

  17. "I could cry, the amount of shoes I can't get into": A qualitative exploration of the factors that influence retail footwear selection in women with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies have reported that women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are not wearing NHS supplied therapeutic footwear; therefore it is likely they are wearing footwear sourced through retailers. Previous research gives limited information (largely associated with cosmesis) on people's perceptions on the relationships that exist between retail footwear, well-being and quality of life. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of women with RA regarding their choice of retail footwear and identify the factors influencing retail footwear selection. Methods Eleven women with RA wearing normal retail footwear were recruited from an out-patient podiatry clinic in the south east of England. Semi-structured interviews were carried out and an interpretative phenomenological approach was adopted for data collection and transcript analysis. Results Six key themes were revealed from the analysis: (1) the nature of foot complaints and deformities, (2) aesthetic appearance and design of footwear, (3) body image, (4) psychosocial aspects, (5) Perceptions of footwear and (6) the therapeutic value of retail shoes. These contributed to an overarching concept of loss of choice associated with retail footwear. In particular, the areas discussed most frequently throughout were themes (2), (3) and (4), which were notably more 'emotional' in nature. Conclusions Limitations in retail footwear for these women have impacted on their individuality, linking significantly with their body image. The loss of choice in footwear as a consequence of the disease impacts negatively on emotions, wellbeing and was identified in reduced self-perceived quality of life. PMID:21794134

  18. Factors Influencing Seminar Learning and Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Spruijt, Annemarie; Leppink, Jimmie; Wolfhagen, Ineke; Bok, Harold; Mainhard, Tim; Scherpbier, Albert; van Beukelen, Peter; Jaarsma, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Many veterinary curricula use seminars, interactive educational group formats in which some 25 students discuss questions and issues relating to course themes. To get indications on how to optimize the seminar learning process for students, we aimed to investigate relationships between factors that seem to be important for the seminar learning process, and to determine how these seminar factors account for differences in students' achievement scores. A 57-item seminar evaluation (USEME) questionnaire was administered to students right after they attended a seminar. In total, 80 seminars distributed over years 1, 2, and 3 of an undergraduate veterinary medicine curriculum were sampled and 988 questionnaires were handed in. Principal factor analysis (PFA) was conducted on 410 questionnaires to examine which items could be grouped together as indicators of the same factor, and to determine correlations between the derived factors. Multilevel regression analysis was performed to explore the effects of these seminar factors and students' prior achievement scores on students' achievement scores. Within the questionnaire, four factors were identified that influence the seminar learning process: teacher performance, seminar content, student preparation, and opportunities for interaction within seminars. Strong correlations were found between teacher performance, seminar content, and group interaction. Prior achievement scores and, to a much lesser extent, the seminar factor group interaction appeared to account for differences in students' achievement scores. The factors resulting from the present study and their relation to the method of assessment should be examined further, for example, in an experimental setup. PMID:26075625

  19. A Review of Factors Influencing Athletes' Food Choices.

    PubMed

    Birkenhead, Karen L; Slater, Gary

    2015-11-01

    Athletes make food choices on a daily basis that can affect both health and performance. A well planned nutrition strategy that includes the careful timing and selection of appropriate foods and fluids helps to maximize training adaptations and, thus, should be an integral part of the athlete's training programme. Factors that motivate food selection include taste, convenience, nutrition knowledge and beliefs. Food choice is also influenced by physiological, social, psychological and economic factors and varies both within and between individuals and populations. This review highlights the multidimensional nature of food choice and the depth of previous research investigating eating behaviours. Despite numerous studies with general populations, little exploration has been carried out with athletes, yet the energy demands of sport typically require individuals to make more frequent and/or appropriate food choices. While factors that are important to general populations also apply to athletes, it seems likely, given the competitive demands of sport, that performance would be an important factor influencing food choice. It is unclear if athletes place the same degree of importance on these factors or how food choice is influenced by involvement in sport. There is a clear need for further research exploring the food choice motives of athletes, preferably in conjunction with research investigating dietary intake to establish if intent translates into practice. PMID:26243016

  20. Influence of organizational factors on safety

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, S.B.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Political and economic factors influencing contraceptive uptake.

    PubMed

    Sai, F T

    1993-01-01

    International, national and local level politics influence the uptake of contraception through consensuses, laws, financial and moral support or the creation of an enabling atmosphere. Opposition to contraception generally comes from some churches and groups opposed to particular technologies. Socio-economic factors, particularly education, the health care system and the perceived or actual cost of fertility regulation as compared to benefits expected from children also powerfully influence contraceptive use. For many poor women in developing countries their powerlessness in relation to their male partners is an important obstacle. PMID:8324609

  2. Influencing factor on the prognosis of arthrocentesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoon Ho; Jeong, Tae Min; Pang, Kang Mi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this article is to evaluate factors influencing prognosis of arthrocentesis in patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder. Materials and Methods The subjects included 145 patients treated with arthrocentesis at the Dental Center of Ajou University Hospital from 2011 to 2013 for the purpose of recovering mouth opening limitation (MOL) and pain relief. Prognosis of arthrocentesis was evaluated 1 month after the operation. Improvement on MOL was defined as an increase from below 30 mm (MOL ≤30 mm) to above 40 mm (MOL ≥40 mm), and pain relief was defined as when a group with TMJ pain with a visual analog scale (VAS) score of 4 or more (VAS ≥4) decreased to a score of 3 or more. The success of arthrocentesis was determined when either mouth opening improved or pain relief was fulfilled. To determine the factors influencing the success of arthrocentesis, the patients were classified by age, gender, diagnosis group (the anterior disc displacement without reduction group, the anterior disc displacement with reduction group, or other TMJ disorders group), time of onset and oral habits (clenching, bruxism) to investigate the correlations between these factors and prognosis. Results One hundred twenty out of 145 patients who underwent arthrocentesis (83.4%) were found to be successful. Among the influencing factors mentioned above, age, diagnosis and time of onset had no statistically significant correlation with the success of arthrocentesis. However, a group of patients in their fifties showed a lower success rate (ANOVA P=0.053) and the success rate of the group with oral habits was 71% (Pearson's chi-square test P=0.035). Conclusion From this study, we find that factors influencing the success of arthrocentesis include age and oral habits. We also conclude that arthrocentesis is effective in treating mouth opening symptoms and for pain relief. PMID:25247144

  3. Factors Influencing Renewable Energy Production & Supply - A Global Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Anika; Saqlawi, Juman Al

    2016-04-01

    Renewable energy is one of the key technologies through which the energy needs of the future can be met in a sustainable and carbon-neutral manner. Increasing the share of renewable energy in the total energy mix of each country is therefore a critical need. While different countries have approached this in different ways, there are some common aspects which influence the pace and effectiveness of renewable energy incorporation. This presentation looks at data and information from 34 selected countries, analyses the patterns, compares the different parameters and identifies the common factors which positively influence renewable energy incorporation. The most successful countries are analysed for their renewable energy performance against their GDP, policy/regulatory initiatives in the field of renewables, landmass, climatic conditions and population to identify the most influencing factors to bring about positive change in renewable energy share.

  4. Natural selection on floral morphology can be influenced by climate.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Diane R; Powers, John M

    2015-06-01

    Climate has the potential to influence evolution, but how it influences the strength or direction of natural selection is largely unknown. We quantified the strength of selection on four floral traits of the subalpine herb Ipomopsis sp. in 10 years that differed in precipitation, causing extreme temporal variation in the date of snowmelt in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. The chosen floral traits were under selection by hummingbird and hawkmoth pollinators, with hawkmoth abundance highly variable across years. Selection for flower length showed environmental sensitivity, with stronger selection in years with later snowmelt, as higher water resources can allow translation of pollination success into fitness based on seed production. Selection on corolla width also varied across years, favouring narrower corolla tubes in two unusual years with hawkmoths, and wider corollas in another late snowmelt year. Our results illustrate how changes in climate could alter natural selection even when the primary selective agent is not directly influenced. PMID:25972465

  5. Natural selection on floral morphology can be influenced by climate

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Diane R.; Powers, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Climate has the potential to influence evolution, but how it influences the strength or direction of natural selection is largely unknown. We quantified the strength of selection on four floral traits of the subalpine herb Ipomopsis sp. in 10 years that differed in precipitation, causing extreme temporal variation in the date of snowmelt in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. The chosen floral traits were under selection by hummingbird and hawkmoth pollinators, with hawkmoth abundance highly variable across years. Selection for flower length showed environmental sensitivity, with stronger selection in years with later snowmelt, as higher water resources can allow translation of pollination success into fitness based on seed production. Selection on corolla width also varied across years, favouring narrower corolla tubes in two unusual years with hawkmoths, and wider corollas in another late snowmelt year. Our results illustrate how changes in climate could alter natural selection even when the primary selective agent is not directly influenced. PMID:25972465

  6. Perceptual Load Influences Selective Attention across Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couperus, Jane W.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that visual selective attention develops across childhood. However, there is relatively little understanding of the neurological changes that accompany this development, particularly in the context of adult theories of selective attention, such as N. Lavie's (1995) perceptual load theory of attention. This study examined visual…

  7. Factors influencing union formation in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Bocquier, Philippe; Khasakhala, Anne

    2009-07-01

    Using retrospective data from the Urban Integration Survey conducted in 2001 in Nairobi, Kenya, on a sample of 955 women and men aged 25-54, this paper compares factors influencing entry into union formation for men and women. The analysis uses event history methods, specifically Cox Proportional Hazards regression, stratified by age cohort and run separately by sex. The results indicate that delay in union formation is more pronounced for women than for men. Cohabitation without formal marriage is the prominent form of union, especially among the younger generation, and appears to have increased. For men, the timing of union is more dependent upon human capital acquisition than on cultural factors. These findings show that the marriage search model, which was first applied in Western countries, can also hold in cities of developing countries. Nonetheless, neither the search model nor the integration or the independence models apply to women's union formation, which very few exogenous factors can explain. PMID:19250585

  8. Factors influencing internal color of cooked meats.

    PubMed

    Suman, Surendranath P; Nair, Mahesh N; Joseph, Poulson; Hunt, Melvin C

    2016-10-01

    This manuscript overviews the pertinent research on internal color of uncured cooked meats, biochemical processes involved in meat cookery, and fundamental mechanisms governing myoglobin thermal stability. Heat-induced denaturation of myoglobin, responsible for the characteristic dull-brown color of cooked meats, is influenced by a multitude of endogenous (i.e., pH, muscle source, species, redox state) and exogenous (i.e., packaging, ingredients, storage) factors. The interactions between these factors critically influence the internal cooked color and can confuse the consumers, who often perceive cooked color to be a reliable indicator for doneness and safety. While certain phenomena in cooked meat color are cosmetic in nature, others can mislead consumers and result in foodborne illnesses. Research in meat color suggests that processing technologies and cooking practices in industry as well as households influence the internal cooked color. Additionally, the guidelines of many international public health and regulatory authorities recommend using meat thermometers to determine safe cooking endpoint temperature and to ensure product safety. PMID:27131513

  9. Onset rivalry: factors that succeed and fail to bias selection.

    PubMed

    Attarha, Mouna; Moore, Cathleen M

    2015-02-01

    This project examined whether previous visual history can bias perceptual dominance during onset rivalry. A predictive sequence of non-rivalrous stimuli preceded dichoptically presented rivalrous displays. One of the dichoptic images was the implied next step of the preceding sequence while the other was not. Observers reported their initial dominant percept. Across five experiments, we found that motion sequences biased perceptual selection such that a rivalrous stimulus that continued a motion sequence tended to dominate one that did not. However, signals generated by complex pattern of motion information or verbal-semantic information had no influence on selection. These results are consistent with the view that onset rivalry is an early phase of rivalry that is likely insensitive to modulation by factors originating beyond the visual system. PMID:25384763

  10. Factors influencing aircraft ground handling performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft ground handling operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and aircraft wet runway accident investigation are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  11. Factors influencing variation in dentist service rates.

    PubMed

    Grembowski, D; Milgrom, P; Fiset, L

    1990-01-01

    In the previous article, we calculated dentist service rates for 200 general dentists based on a homogeneous, well-educated, upper-middle-class population of patients. Wide variations in the rates were detected. In this analysis, factors influencing variation in the rates were identified. Variation in rates for categories of dental services was explained by practice characteristics, patient exposure to fluoridated water supplies, and non-price competition in the dental market. Rates were greatest in large, busy practices in markets with high fees. Older practices consistently had lower rates across services. As a whole, these variables explained between 5 and 30 percent of the variation in the rates. PMID:2118182

  12. Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma - factors influencing outcome and disease-free survival

    PubMed Central

    Fahrner, René; Dondorf, Felix; Ardelt, Michael; Dittmar, Yves; Settmacher, Utz; Rauchfuß, Falk

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Liver transplantation can be a curative treatment in selected patients. However, there are several factors that influence disease-free survival after transplantation. This review addresses the pre-, intra- and postoperative factors that influence the risk of tumor recurrence after liver transplantation. PMID:26576092

  13. Factors that Influence Policy Decisions in Literacy: Perspectives of Key Policy Informants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mraz, Maryann E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perspectives of key policy informants on the factors that they believed influence policy decisions in literacy education. Participants were selected because they had significantly influenced, or had attempted to influence, policy decisions in literacy at either the national or state level.…

  14. Critical incidents influencing students' selection of elective science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essary, Danny Ray

    Purpose of the study. The purpose of the study was to investigate the critical incidents that determined high school students' self selection into and out of elective science classes. The Critical Incident Technique was used to gather data. Procedure. Subjects for study were 436 students attending five high schools within the geographical boundaries of a Northeast Texas County. Each student was enrolled in a senior level government/economics course during the spring semester of 1997. Students enrolled and in attendance during data collection procedures were subjects of the study. The subjects recorded 712 usable critical incidents. Incidents were categorized by examiners and a total of eleven incident categories emerged for analysis purposes. Incident frequencies were categorized by sample population, selectors, and nonselectors; subdivided by gender. Findings. The following categories emerged for study; (A) Mentored, (B) Requirements, (C) Personal Interest(s), (D) Level of Difficulty, (E) Time Restraints, (F) Future Concerns, (G) Grades, (H) Teacher, (I) Peer Influence, (J) Challenge, (K) Other Academic Experiences. Data were analyzed qualitatively to answer research questions and quantitatively to test hypotheses. There was an emergence of ten incident categories for nonselectors and an emergence of eleven incident categories for selectors. Of the twelve hypotheses, four failed to be rejected and eight were rejected. Conclusions. Nonselectors and selectors of elective science were influenced by various external factors. Requirements were influential for nonselectors. Nonselectors chose to select the minimum number of science classes necessary for graduation. Selectors were influenced by curriculum requirements, future concerns and mentors. Special programs that required extra science classes were influential in students' decisions to enroll in elective science. Gender differences were not influential for selectors or nonselectors of elective science.

  15. Factors influencing breast changes after pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rauh, Claudia; Faschingbauer, Florian; Haeberle, Lothar; Jud, Sebastian M; Heusinger, Katharina; Fasching, Peter A; Goecke, Tamme W; Rajakaruna, Nadeeka; Voigt, Franziska; Bani, Mayada R; Lux, Michael P; Renner, Stefan P; Loehberg, Christian R; Hartmann, Arndt; Schulz-Wendtland, Ruediger; Beckmann, Matthias W; Bayer, Christian M

    2013-05-01

    Pregnancy and breastfeeding are major factors reducing breast cancer (BC) risk. A potential mechanism for this effect might be changes in mammographic density, but other factors might be involved. The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing changes in breast size and breast stiffness after pregnancy. Of a consecutive cohort of 5991 women who gave birth between 1996 and 1999, 559 replied to a questionnaire including questions about breast changes. The women completed their own assessments of changes in breast size and stiffness since their last pregnancy. Factors being investigated regarding their predictive value for these changes were: BMI before pregnancy, weight gain, age at first full-term pregnancy (FFTP), number of pregnancies, breastfeeding, and BMI of the children's fathers. A decrease in breast size was reported in 21.8% of the participants and an increase in 35.1%. With regard to the breast stiffness, 66.4% reported a decrease and only 5% reported an increase. Independent predictors for increased breast size were age at FFTP, increase in BMI since last pregnancy, BMI before pregnancy, and time since FFTP. Factors predictive of greater breast stiffness included age at FFTP, BMI before FFTP, time since FFTP, breastfeeding status, and number of pregnancies. Breast changes after pregnancy depend on several variables, which are described as BC-risk factors. Individual reaction of the female breast to a pregnancy leads to different outcomes with regard to breast size and stiffness. Further studies are needed to clarify whether these individual responses interact with the effect of pregnancy on the BC risk. PMID:23022745

  16. Factors that influence engagement in collaborative practice

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Carol P.; Bainbridge, Lesley; Bickford, Julia; Baptiste, Susan; Brajtman, Susan; Dryden, Trish; Hall, Pippa; Risdon, Cathy; Solomon, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To generate hypotheses regarding factors that might influence engagement in collaborative practice. DESIGN Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. SETTING Participants interviewed each other in dyads. The pairing was based upon geographical location and proximity to each other. PARTICIPANTS Eight professionals from the disciplines of medicine, nursing, occupational therapy, physical therapy, and massage therapy. METHOD Semistructured interviews, lasting 30 to 45 minutes each, were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were read by all research team members using independent content analysis for common words, phrases, statements, or units of text for key themes. At a subsequent face-to-face meeting, the team used an iterative process of comparing and contrasting key themes until consensus was reached. The transcripts were then analyzed further for subthemes using NVivo software. MAIN FINDINGS Initial findings suggest that some common characteristics grounded in family history, school experiences, social interactions, and professional training might influence collaborative practice choices. The narrative form of the interview broke down interpersonal and interprofessional barriers, creating a new level of trust and respect that could improve professional collaboration. CONCLUSION This study suggests that life experiences from childhood into later adulthood can and do influence professional choices. PMID:17872847

  17. 36 CFR 51.17 - What are the selection factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the selection factors? 51.17 Section 51.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONCESSION CONTRACTS Solicitation, Selection and Award Procedures § 51.17 What are the selection factors? (a) The five principal...

  18. Factors influencing BMI classifications of Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ae Kyung; Choi, Jin Yi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to identify factors influencing the BMI classifications of 3,583 Korean adults using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. [Subjects and Methods] Measures included lifestyle factors, physiologic factors, perceived health state, stress, subjective body recognition, health-related quality of life, and weight control behavior. [Results] Body perception scores were lower with underweight and higher with overweight and obesity than with a healthy weight. There was a lower proportion of underweight men and a higher proportion of overweight or obese men than women. Instances of Alcohol Use Identification Scores (AUDIT) ≥ 9 were proportionately lower with underweight and more with overweight or obesity relative to an AUDIT score < 9 with healthy weight. Hemoglobin A1c and systolic blood pressure were higher with obesity than with healthy weight. The total cholesterol level was greater with overweight and obesity than with healthy weight. [Conclusion] These results suggest that obesity intervention for adults should be based on age and sex and should include drinking habits and physical activity. PMID:26157264

  19. Factors influencing the uptake of orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, K; McComb, J L; Fox, N; Wright, J

    1996-11-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the factors that influenced the uptake of orthodontic treatment for patients who were referred for orthodontic treatment to two types of orthodontic treatment provider; a fee per item and hospital service. The following data were collected: (i) basic demographic data; (ii) the need for orthodontic treatment as measured by IOTN; and (iii) the outcome of the consultation. The data analysis with logistic regression revealed that the following variables had a predictive effect on the uptake of treatment: (i) the need for orthodontic treatment; and (ii) the patient's gender. Most of the patients that were referred and accepted for treatment had a definite need for orthodontic treatment. PMID:8985570

  20. Factors influencing human leukocyte adherence in vitro.

    PubMed

    Stepniewicz, W; Tchórzewski, H; Luciak, M

    1983-01-01

    Studies were performed on factors influencing leucocyte adherence in vitro. Blood condensation was found to increase leukocyte adherence. Addition of heparin, dextran or ethanol caused a significant reduction of white blood cell count in blood samples in comparison with blood mixed with sodium EDTA or ACD solution. This suggests the existence of two granulocyte subpopulations; viz, rapidly adhering and slowly adhering. Heparin enhanced granulocyte adherence, while dextran and ethanol decreased it. Five-day storage of ACD blood led to a decrease in granulocyte adherence, while addition of heparin or histamine to ACD blood prevented this change to occur. The glucose concentration of 1,000 mg/dl augmented granulocyte adherence, while higher glucose concentrations induced its progressive fall below the control values. There was no significant change of lymphocyte adherence during the experiments. PMID:6194070

  1. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Petrovici, Dan A; Ritson, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet) regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB) and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels) is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly sources and risks associated

  2. Factors Influencing Early Dental Implant Failures.

    PubMed

    Chrcanovic, B R; Kisch, J; Albrektsson, T; Wennerberg, A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the influence of local and systemic factors on the occurrence of dental implant failures up to the second-stage surgery (abutment connection). This retrospective study is based on 2,670 patients who received 10,096 implants and were consecutively treated with implant-supported prostheses between 1980 and 2014 at 1 specialist clinic. Several anatomic-, patient-, health-, and implant-related factors were collected. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the patients and implants. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used at the patient level as well as the implant level to evaluate the effect of explanatory variables on the failure of implants up to abutment connection. A generalized estimating equation method was used for the implant-level analysis to account for the fact that repeated observations (several implants) were available for a single patient. Overall, 642 implants (6.36%) failed, of which 176 (1.74%) in 139 patients were lost up to second-stage surgery. The distribution of implants in sites of different bone quantities and qualities was quite similar between implants lost up to and after abutment connection. Smoking and the intake of antidepressants were the statistically significant predictors in the multivariate model (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02369562). PMID:27146701

  3. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called "brite" or "beige" adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:26903879

  4. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called “brite” or “beige” adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:26903879

  5. Depression Following Hysterectomy and the Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bahri, Narjes; Tohidinik, Hamid Reza; Fathi Najafi, Tahereh; Larki, Mona; Amini, Thoraya; Askari Sartavosi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background Hysterectomy is one of the most common gynecological surgeries performed worldwide. However, women undergoing this surgery often experience negative emotional reactions. Objectives This study was done with the aim of investigating the relationship between hysterectomy and postoperative depression, three months after the procedure. Materials and Methods This longitudinal study was conducted in the province of Khorasan-Razavi in Iran, using multistage sampling. At first, three cities were selected from the province by cluster sampling; then, five hospitals were randomly selected from these cities. The participants included 53 women who were hysterectomy candidates in one of the five selected hospitals. The participants’ demographics and hysterectomy procedure information were entered into two separate questionnaires, and the Beck depression inventory (BDI) was employed to measure their severity of depression before and three months after the surgery. The statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 16 was used for the statistical analysis, and a P value of < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The means and standard deviations of the participants’ depression scores before and three months after their hysterectomies were 13.01 ± 10.1 and 11.02 ± 10.3, respectively. Although the mean score of depression decreased three months after the hysterectomy, the difference was not statistically significant. However, a significant relationship was found between the satisfaction with the outcome of the hysterectomy and the postoperative depression score (P = 0.04). Conclusions In this study, undergoing a hysterectomy did not show a relationship with postoperative depression three months after the surgery. Moreover, the only factor related to depression following a hysterectomy was satisfaction with the surgery. PMID:27066267

  6. Factors Affecting the Vocational Choice of Women of Different Ages Selecting Clerical and Secretarial Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willmarth, John Gary

    An attempt was made to examine the factors affecting women of different ages in their selection of clerical and secretarial occupations. The factors considered were: health, intelligence, interests, previous work experience, stated reasons for present occupational choice, knowledge of employment opportunities and job requirements, influence of…

  7. Mechanisms and Factors that Influence High Frequency Retroviral Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Delviks-Frankenberry, Krista; Galli, Andrea; Nikolaitchik, Olga; Mens, Helene; Pathak, Vinay K.; Hu, Wei-Shau

    2011-01-01

    With constantly changing environmental selection pressures, retroviruses rely upon recombination to reassort polymorphisms in their genomes and increase genetic diversity, which improves the chances for the survival of their population. Recombination occurs during DNA synthesis, whereby reverse transcriptase undergoes template switching events between the two copackaged RNAs, resulting in a viral recombinant with portions of the genetic information from each parental RNA. This review summarizes our current understanding of the factors and mechanisms influencing retroviral recombination, fidelity of the recombination process, and evaluates the subsequent viral diversity and fitness of the progeny recombinant. Specifically, the high mutation rates and high recombination frequencies of HIV-1 will be analyzed for their roles in influencing HIV-1 global diversity, as well as HIV-1 diagnosis, drug treatment, and vaccine development. PMID:21994801

  8. DEVELOPMENT AND SELECTION OF AMMONIA EMISSION FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report compiles recent literature on ammonia (NH') emission factors for application in the United States. ost of the recent research supports acid deposition studies in the European community (specifically, the Netherlands, Great Britain, and Scandinavia) but some research h...

  9. Factors in Selecting Residence Hall Fellows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullozzi, Anthony, Jr.; Spees, Emil R.

    1971-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which empathy, self actualization, and leadership in group discussion situations would predict the criterion of who would be hired as resident fellows (RF). Since leaderless group discussion did differentiate with some degree of "accuracy" it promises to be an excellent future device for use with RF selection.…

  10. Factors influencing birth control habits in Victoria.

    PubMed

    Selwood, T; Leeton, J

    1981-02-01

    A survey was conducted in March 1978 for the purpose of comparing the contraceptive habits of Melbourne and ex-Melbourne populations in Victoria. Of the 1312 records of sexually active persons collected in 1978, 1254 of those persons were between the ages of 15 and 49. Recorded information included age, sex, marital status, and place of domicile (Melbourne or ex-Melbourne, Victoria). When the Melbourne population was compared with the rest of Victoria, the proportion using each method of contraception was much the same for each group. A marked difference was the proportion using withdrawal in Melbourne; this was over 3 times the proportion among the ex-Melbourne population. Over 35% of persons under age 30 used oral contraceptives (OCs), compared with 24.2 in the over 30 age range. Barrier methods and natural family planning methods and withdrawal were commonly used by the older age groups. A large proportion of the over age 30 group used sterilization and hysterectomy as forms of birth control. Individuals in "de facto" relationships showed a tendency towards more reliable forms of contraception than did other groups. Only 20.3% were not using some form of contraception. Single persons were frequent OC users and users of barrier methods. 28.1% used no form of contraception. The sex of the person interviewed in the survey revealed a bias. Males tended to report male birth control methods and female reported female methods rather than those used by partners of the opposite sex. Marital status influenced birth control choice. The choice of birth control for each marital status was influenced by the confounding factor of mean age of each group. PMID:7247847

  11. Social Influence and Selection Processes as Predictors of Normative Perceptions and Alcohol Use across the Transition to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abar, Caitlin C.; Maggs, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that social influences impact college students' alcohol consumption; however, how selection processes may serve as an influential factor predicting alcohol use in this population has not been widely addressed. A model of influence and selection processes contributing to alcohol use across the transition to college was examined…

  12. Selection of student-selected component [SSCs] modules across the medical undergraduate curriculum: relationship with motivational factors.

    PubMed

    O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P; Duggan, Eileen; Khashan, Ali S; Boylan, Geraldine B; O'Flynn, Siún

    2012-01-01

    Student-selected components (SSCs) encourage the following within the undergraduate medical curriculum: greater exploration of core curriculum topics; exploration of non-core subjects/experiences; research and self-directed learning; and personal and professional development opportunities. This study examined the motivational factors which influence SSC choice to assess (a) SSC selection patterns across each year of the curriculum (direct and graduate entry) and (b) motivation underlying SSC selection across the curriculum. During SSC registration at University College Cork, all medical undergraduates (years 1-3, graduate-entry medicine) were required to select an SSC and provide a written justification for their selection. Five primary motivational factors were identified: correction of perceived deficits; genuine interest in subject and wish to study in more depth; career strategy; exam strategy; and taking a chance. A complex pattern of relationships emerged in relation to matching of motivational factors with SSC categories, e.g. selection of research skills SSCs was strongly associated with the 'career strategy' motivation. Significant differences were observed across curriculum years, as well as between direct-entry versus graduate-entry undergraduates, with respect to SSC selections and underlying motivation. This study provides insight into changing patterns of SSC selection in medicine, as well as accompanying motivational factors, across the undergraduate years. PMID:23043517

  13. Popularity and adolescent friendship networks: selection and influence dynamics.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Borch, Casey

    2013-07-01

    This study examined the dynamics of popularity in adolescent friendship networks across 3 years in middle school. Longitudinal social network modeling was used to identify selection and influence in the similarity of popularity among friends. It was argued that lower status adolescents strive to enhance their status through befriending higher status adolescents, whereas higher status adolescents strive to maintain their status by keeping lower status adolescents at a distance. The results largely supported these expectations. Selection partially accounted for similarity in popularity among friends; adolescents preferred to affiliate with similar-status or higher status peers, reinforcing the attractiveness of popular adolescents and explaining stability of popularity at the individual level. Influence processes also accounted for similarity in popularity over time, showing that peers increase in popularity and become more similar to their friends. The results showed how selection and influence processes account for popularity dynamics in adolescent networks over time. PMID:22985296

  14. Peer Influence and Selection Processes in Adolescent Smoking Behavior: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescent smoking studies find evidence of active peer influence and selection processes. However, studies have shown that these processes operate differently depending on context. This study uses SIENA to model coevolutionary processes between smoking and changes in friendship ties, comparing two high schools in which data were collected in identical fashion to explore influence and selection mechanisms with respect to current smoking, and smoking levels. Methods: This is a longitudinal survey with 2 waves of data. In-home surveys were conducted with students from 2 large high schools in the United States: a West Coast school, and a Midwestern school. Participants were consented students in 10th and 11th grades at the first wave of data collection. The primary measures were self-reported smoking behavior and friendship nominations. Results: There is evidence of influence and selection in both schools for adolescents’ smoking status (1 = any smoking) and for level of smoking. Conclusions: These models reflect great similarities in influence and selection processes across schools for different smoking behaviors. However, smoking prevalence may impact the exact mechanisms by which influence and selection operate. Researchers should consider smoking interventions with independent modules addressing different selection and influence processes, implemented based on contextual factors such as the prevalence of smoking. PMID:22944605

  15. What Factors Influence a Teacher's Commitment to Student Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dannetta, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    Study of the personal, organizational, student-related factors influencing teacher commitment to student learning. Finds, for example, that among personal factors intrinsic rewards are more important than extrinsic rewards, that among organization factors collegiality is an important influence on commitment to student learning, and that among…

  16. Perspectives of Elementary General Music Teachers on Factors Influencing Student Participation in Secondary Music Ensembles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Gabrielle; Mizener, Charlotte P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to consider characteristics of elementary general music teachers and their views of factors influencing students to take part in secondary music programs, including their own influence and characteristics of their music programs. The following research questions concerning selected characteristics of elementary…

  17. Factors influencing riverine fish assemblages in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, David S.; Richards, Todd A.; Levin, Sara B.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, and the Massachusetts Department of Fish and Game, conducted an investigation of fish assemblages in small- to medium-sized Massachusetts streams. The objective of this study was to determine relations between fish-assemblage characteristics and anthropogenic factors, including impervious cover and estimated flow alteration, relative to the effects of environmental factors, including physical-basin characteristics and land use. The results of this investigation supersede those of a preliminary analysis published in 2010. Fish data were obtained for 669 fish-sampling sites from the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife fish-community database. A review of the literature was used to select fish metrics - species richness, abundance of individual species, and abundances of species grouped on life history traits - responsive to flow alteration. The contributing areas to the fish-sampling sites were delineated and used with a geographic information system to determine a set of environmental and anthropogenic factors that were tested for use as explanatory variables in regression models. Reported and estimated withdrawals and return flows were used together with simulated unaltered streamflows to estimate altered streamflows and indicators of flow alteration for each fish-sampling site. Altered streamflows and indicators of flow alteration were calculated on the basis of methods developed in a previous U.S. Geological Survey study in which unaltered daily streamflows were simulated for a 44-year period (water years 1961-2004), and streamflow alterations were estimated by use of water-withdrawal and wastewater-return data previously reported to the State for the 2000-04 period and estimated domestic-well withdrawals and septic-system discharges. A variable selection process, conducted using principal

  18. An Assessment of Students' Perceptions toward Factors Influencing Supervised Agricultural Experience Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lauren J.; Rayfield, John; Moore, Lori L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate student perceptions toward factors influencing Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) participation. This descriptive study was conducted in 120 randomly selected agricultural education programs throughout four purposively selected states representative of the National FFA regions. Within each state…

  19. The Hull Method for Selecting the Number of Common Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Kiers, Henk A. L.

    2011-01-01

    A common problem in exploratory factor analysis is how many factors need to be extracted from a particular data set. We propose a new method for selecting the number of major common factors: the Hull method, which aims to find a model with an optimal balance between model fit and number of parameters. We examine the performance of the method in an…

  20. Choosing the Optimal Number of Factors in Exploratory Factor Analysis: A Model Selection Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preacher, Kristopher J.; Zhang, Guangjian; Kim, Cheongtag; Mels, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    A central problem in the application of exploratory factor analysis is deciding how many factors to retain ("m"). Although this is inherently a model selection problem, a model selection perspective is rarely adopted for this task. We suggest that Cudeck and Henly's (1991) framework can be applied to guide the selection process. Researchers must…

  1. Factors influencing informal care-giving.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Ann M.; Deb, Partha

    1998-07-01

    BACKGROUND: As downsizing of institutional care continues, patients discharged are likely to have more severe mental illnesses, and to have experienced longer tenures within institutions than patients who have been discharged in the past. As greater numbers of patients are removed from mental hospitals, the objective burden experienced by informal care-givers may increase, particularly if formal care levels are inadequate. AIMS OF THE STUDY: This paper documents who assumes informal care-giver roles, and the form such care-giving takes for patients discharged from a state hospital. Specifically, this paper identifies (i) what factors affect a person's decision to assume a care-giver role, including the participation of other network members in care-giving, (ii) what factors influence whether care-giving is provided in time or in direct purchase of care and (iii) how the patient's treatment location affects the decision of the network member to assume any care-giving role. DATA AND ANALYTICAL METHODS: Data for this paper are taken from a longitudinal study of the closure of a state mental hospital in central Indiana. Seventy-seven patients were asked to identify their community networks. Ninety-eight network members were surveyed about the informal care, both in time or through direct expenditures, they provided to these patients one year after discharge. Care-giving relationships were estimated using a multivariate probit model. Such a model estimates the extent to which the decision to provide care in either form depends on the care-giving activities assumed by other network members associated with a given patient, as well as the characteristics of individual patients and network members. RESULTS: Forty-one per cent of network members provided some level of informal care, with 13.3% providing some care in time, and 35.7% providing some care through direct expenditures. A positive relationship was found between participation in informal care-giving and the

  2. Influence of selected physicochemical parameters on microbiological activity of mucks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Całka, A.; Sokołowska, Z.; Warchulska, P.; Dąbek-Szreniawska, M.

    2009-04-01

    One of the basic factor decided about soil fertility are microorganisms that together with flora, determine trend and character of biochemical processes as well totality of fundamental transformations connected with biogeochemistry and physicochemical properties of soil. Determination of general bacteria number, quantity of selected groups of microorganisms and investigation of respiration intensity let estimate microbiological activity of soil. Intensity of microbiological processes is directly connected with physicochemical soil parameters. In that case, such structural parameters as bulk density, porosity, surface or carbon content play significant role. Microbiological activity also changes within the bounds of mucks with different stage of humification and secondary transformation. Knowledge of relations between structural properties, microorganism activity and degree of transformation and humification can lead to better understanding microbiological processes as well enable to estimate microbiological activity at given physicochemical conditions and at progressing process of soil transformation. The study was carried out on two peaty-moorsh (muck) soils at different state of secondary transformation and humification degree. Soil samples were collected from Polesie Lubelskie (layer depth: 5 - 25 cm). Investigated mucks originated from soils formed from low peatbogs. Soil sample marked as I belonged to muck group weakly secondary transformed. Second sample (II) represented soil group with middle stage of secondary transformation. The main purpose of the research was to examine the relations between some physicochemical and surface properties and their biological activity. Total number and respiration activity of microorganisms were determined. The effectiveness of utilizing the carbon substances from the soil by the bacteria increased simultaneously with the transformation state of the peat-muck soils. Quantity of organic carbon decreased distinctly in the soil

  3. Popularity and Adolescent Friendship Networks: Selection and Influence Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Borch, Casey

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the dynamics of popularity in adolescent friendship networks across 3 years in middle school. Longitudinal social network modeling was used to identify selection and influence in the similarity of popularity among friends. It was argued that lower status adolescents strive to enhance their status through befriending higher…

  4. Friendship and Delinquency: Selection and Influence Processes in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knecht, Andrea; Snijders, Tom A. B.; Baerveldt, Chris; Steglich, Christian E. G.; Raub, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Positive association of relevant characteristics is a widespread pattern among adolescent friends. A positive association may be caused by the selection of similar others as friends and by the deselection of dissimilar ones, but also by influence processes where friends adjust their behavior to each other. Social control theory argues that…

  5. Perceptions of Administrators and Instructors Concerning Factors Influencing Vocational Agriculture Enrollment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riesenberg, Lou E.; Lierman, Shannan R.

    A study was conducted to determine the contribution of selected factors to the decline in enrollment in secondary vocational agricultural education programs in Idaho. It investigated the perceptions of 73 Idaho secondary school administrators and 81 vocational agriculture instructors toward the influence of the factors on enrollment. Data were…

  6. Factors influencing wetland use by Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naugle, D.E.; Gleason, J.S.; Jenks, J.A.; Higgins, K.F.; Mammenga, P.W.; Nusser, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Seasonal and semi-permanent wetlands in eastern South Dakota were surveyed in 1995 and 1996 to identify habitat characteristics influencing wetland use by Canada geese (Branta canadensis maxima). Position of a wetland within the landscape and its area were important landscape-scale features influencing wetland use by geese. Our delineation of potential Canada goose habitat using a wetland geographic information system indicated that distribution and area of semi-permanent wetlands likely limit Canada goose occurrence in regions outside the Prairie Coteau. Periodicity in hydrologic cycles within landscapes also may influence goose use of wetlands in eastern South Dakota.

  7. Factors Identified When Selecting a Major in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Malissia; Torres, Robert M.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural education majors at New Mexico State University (n=115) rated prior agricultural experiences as the most influential factor in their selection of a major. Department/college environment, professional role models, and job prospects were also influential. (SK)

  8. Factors concerned with sanitary landfill site selection: General discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, W. J.; Stone, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    A general view of factors affecting site selection for sanitary landfill sites is presented. Examinations were made of operational methods, possible environment pollution, types of waste to be disposed, base and cover materials, and the economics involved in the operation.

  9. Factors contributing to parents' selection of a communication mode to use with their deaf children.

    PubMed

    Eleweke, C J; Rodda, M

    2000-10-01

    This study examines factors contributing to parents' selection of a communication mode to use with their children with hearing loss. More than 90% of children with prelingual hearing loss have normally hearing parents. Communication difficulties are among the obstacles facing these parents in connection with these children's development. Controversy over manual and aural/oral methods of communication creates further complications. Case studies of two families with deaf children were conducted to identify factors that could influence parents' selection of a communication method. Semistructured questionnaires and unstructured interviews were used in data collection. A qualitative approach was used in data analysis. Based on the results, the factors influencing parental choice were grouped under four themes: (a) the influence of information provided to parents, (b) parents' perceptions of assistive technology, (c) attitudes of service professionals and educational authorities, and (d) quality and availability of support services. Implications of these themes for service provision are discussed. PMID:11037069

  10. 36 CFR 51.17 - What are the selection factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... factors? 51.17 Section 51.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONCESSION CONTRACTS Solicitation, Selection and Award Procedures § 51.17 What are the selection... area; (2) The responsiveness of the proposal to the objectives, as described in the prospectus,...

  11. Factors in students' seat selection: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Losonczy-Marshall, Marta; Marshall, P Douglas

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore reasons for students' seat selection. Participants were 346 college students (14% freshmen, 47% sophomores, 24% juniors, and 14% seniors) from 12 classes (six sections of two courses). A 20-item questionnaire was used to ask students why they chose their seats in class. An exploratory factor analysis reduced the items to five seat-selection factors: Performance, Social, Asocial, Noticeability, and Environment. Seat selection factors were analyzed in terms of seating location: by row, by front/middle/back of the room, by center versus perimeter of the room, and by mid-room versus sides of the room. Performance and Noticeability ratings decreased by row from the front toward the back of the room. The Asocial factor was rated higher by those who sat in the back of the room, while the Environment factor was rated higher by those who sat in the center of the room. PMID:23833891

  12. Marketing Factors Influencing the Overall Satisfaction of Marriage Education Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Michael Lane; Cooper, Catherine; Gross, Kevin H.

    1999-01-01

    Seventy-one married couples attending marriage education workshops were surveyed regarding price, product, place, people, and promotional marketing factors influencing their overall satisfaction as workshop participants. Findings suggest both similar and unique marketing factors influenced husbands' and wives' satisfaction. Recommendations for…

  13. Selective Influences of Precision and Power Grips on Speech Categorization

    PubMed Central

    Tiainen, Mikko; Tiippana, Kaisa; Vainio, Martti; Peromaa, Tarja; Komeilipoor, Naeem; Vainio, Lari

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that articulatory gestures are systematically associated with specific manual grip actions. Here we show that executing such actions can influence performance on a speech-categorization task. Participants watched and/or listened to speech stimuli while executing either a power or a precision grip. Grip performance influenced the syllable categorization by increasing the proportion of responses of the syllable congruent with the executed grip (power grip—[ke] and precision grip—[te]). Two follow-up experiments indicated that the effect was based on action-induced bias in selecting the syllable. PMID:26978074

  14. Selective Influences of Precision and Power Grips on Speech Categorization.

    PubMed

    Tiainen, Mikko; Tiippana, Kaisa; Vainio, Martti; Peromaa, Tarja; Komeilipoor, Naeem; Vainio, Lari

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that articulatory gestures are systematically associated with specific manual grip actions. Here we show that executing such actions can influence performance on a speech-categorization task. Participants watched and/or listened to speech stimuli while executing either a power or a precision grip. Grip performance influenced the syllable categorization by increasing the proportion of responses of the syllable congruent with the executed grip (power grip-[ke] and precision grip-[te]). Two follow-up experiments indicated that the effect was based on action-induced bias in selecting the syllable. PMID:26978074

  15. Factors Influencing Simultaneous Communication Behaviors in Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, David A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Simultaneous communication used by four teachers in formal lessons was investigated, to determine the extent to which signs and speech matched and to delineate factors predicting communication behavior. Simultaneous communication was found to be sign-driven or speech-driven depending on factors such as student comprehension, teacher's expertise,…

  16. Is Subjective Status Influenced by Psychosocial Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Johanna; Kristenson, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Associations between subjective status and health are still relatively unexplored. This study aimed at testing whether subjective status is uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors compared to objective status, and what factors that may predict subjective status. Design: A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based, random sample…

  17. Factors Influencing Career Choice among Police Recruits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative, non-experimental study examined the career choice factors of 154 (n = 154) police recruits to determine a correlation of age group generation to the five career choice factors presented in the Sibson Reward of Work Model. Law enforcement agencies faced a shortage of viable candidates to fill vacant positions. While extensive…

  18. Abiotic environmental factors influencing blowfly colonisation patterns in the field.

    PubMed

    George, Kelly A; Archer, Melanie S; Toop, Tes

    2013-06-10

    The accuracy of minimum post-mortem interval (mPMI) estimates usually hinges upon the ability of forensic entomologists to predict the conditions under which calliphorids will colonise bodies. However, there can be delays between death and colonisation due to poorly understood abiotic and biotic factors, hence the need for a mPMI. To quantify the importance of various meteorological and light-level factors, beef liver baits were placed in the field (Victoria, Australia) on 88 randomly selected days over 3 years in all seasons and observed every 60-90 min for evidence of colonisation. Baits were exposed during daylight, and the following parameters were measured: barometric pressure, light intensity, wind speed, ambient temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. Collected data were analysed using backward LR logistic regression to produce an equation of colonisation probability. This type of analysis removes factors with the least influence on colonisation in successive steps until all remaining variables significantly increase the accuracy of predicting colonisation presence or absence. Ambient temperature was a positive predictor variable (an increase in temperature increased the probability of calliphorid colonisation). Relative humidity was a negative predictor variable (an increase in humidity decreased the probability of calliphorid colonisation). Barometric pressure, light intensity, wind speed and rainfall did not enhance the accuracy of the probability model; however, analysis of species activity patterns suggests that heavy rainfall and strong wind speeds inhibit calliphorid colonisation. PMID:23683914

  19. Factors Influencing L2 Gender Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordag, Denisa; Pechmann, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    In four experiments we explored processes underlying L2 gender retrieval. We focused on L1 interference and on the influence of the L2 noun's termination. In Experiments 1 and 2 we tried to manipulate the intensity of L1 interference. We found that L2 speakers cannot eliminate or substantially reduce the interlingual interference neither when they…

  20. Factors Influencing Curricular Reform; An Irish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Helena; Joyce, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    There are various influences and obstacles when planning an educational curriculum. The imprint of globalisation on the landscape of Irish medicine highlights the importance of delivering a diverse curriculum with international dimensions so that knowledge and skills can transfer across borders. It is also clear that medical emigration has a…

  1. Factors Influencing Early Lexical Acquisition: Lexical Orientation and Phonological Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Laurence B.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Children exhibiting a referential orientation seem more likely to acquire new object names than nonreferentially oriented children. Also, children's selection of words may be influenced by the phonological structure of the words. (Author/RH)

  2. FACTORS AND PRACTICES THAT INFLUENCE LIVESTOCK DISTRIBUTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inconsistent livestock distribution in extensive rangeland pastures continues as a vexing problem for land and livestock managers. Dispersal patterns of cattle are affected by abiotic factors like degree of slope, distance from water, shade, physical barriers, temperature extremes and precipitation...

  3. Factors Influencing Cypriot Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Chedzoy, Sue M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present selected findings from a larger study, which set out to examine the physical activity levels of Cypriot primary school children and determinants of their activity. Twenty parents of children who obtained high and low activity scores based on pedometer counts and self-reports scores were interviewed. By…

  4. Z-Selective Olefin Metathesis on Peptides: Investigation of Side-Chain Influence, Preorganization, and Guidelines in Substrate Selection

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Olefin metathesis has emerged as a promising strategy for modulating the stability and activity of biologically relevant compounds; however, the ability to control olefin geometry in the product remains a challenge. Recent advances in the design of cyclometalated ruthenium catalysts has led to new strategies for achieving such control with high fidelity and Z selectivity, but the scope and limitations of these catalysts on substrates bearing multiple functionalities, including peptides, remained unexplored. Herein, we report an assessment of various factors that contribute to both productive and nonproductive Z-selective metathesis on peptides. The influence of sterics, side-chain identity, and preorganization through peptide secondary structure are explored by homodimerization, cross metathesis, and ring-closing metathesis. Our results indicate that the amino acid side chain and identity of the olefin profoundly influence the activity of cyclometalated ruthenium catalysts in Z-selective metathesis. The criteria set forth for achieving high conversion and Z selectivity are highlighted by cross metathesis and ring-closing metathesis on diverse peptide substrates. The principles outlined in this report are important not only for expanding the scope of Z-selective olefin metathesis to peptides but also for applying stereoselective olefin metathesis in general synthetic endeavors. PMID:25102124

  5. What psychosocial factors influence adolescents' oral health?

    PubMed

    Baker, S R; Mat, A; Robinson, P G

    2010-11-01

    Few studies have examined, comprehensively and prospectively, determinants of oral-health-related quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between psychosocial factors and oral health status, health perceptions, and quality of life. Measures of symptom and functional status, health perceptions, quality of life, oral health beliefs, and psychological (sense of coherence, self-esteem, health locus of control) and social factors (parents' income and education) were collected from 439 12- and 13-year-olds at baseline and six-month follow-up, together with a clinical examination at baseline. Structural equation modeling indicated that increased levels of caries and more symptoms predicted more functional limitations, and, cross-sectionally, greater functional impact was associated with worse health perceptions, which were linked to lower quality of life. Sense of coherence was the most important psychosocial predictor. These factors are important in understanding how oral health affects young people's daily lives. PMID:20739689

  6. Factors influencing bird foraging preferences among conspecific fruit trees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    The rates at which birds visit fruiting individuals of Allophylus edulis (Sapindaceae) differ substantially among trees. Such avian feeding preferences are well-known, but usually involve fruits and trees of different species. Factors controlling avian preferences for particular trees in a population of conspecifics are generally undocumented. To address this issue, I attempted to correlate rates at which individual birds and species fed in trees of Allophylus with 27 fruit or plant characteristics. Birds that swallow fruits whole were considered separately from those that feed in other ways. Plant characters were selected on the basis of their potential influence on feeding efficiency or predation risk, assuming that birds would select feeding trees so as to maximize the net rate of energy or nutrient intake and to minimize predation. Correlations were found between feeding visits by some groups of birds and percent water in the pulp, milligrams of mineral ash in the pulp, and crop size. No character was correlated with feeding visits by all groups of birds in both years of the study. The correlations with water and mineral ash are unexplained and may be artifacts. The correlation with crop size may represent a tactic to minimize predation.

  7. Factors Influencing the Elimination of Dietary Restraint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, C. Peter; Polivy, Janet

    Recent research by Herman, Polivy, and their colleagues has been concerned with the determinants of self-control and disinhibition in dieters. The present paper summarizes a number of studies in which the reactions of dieters and nondieters to a variety of disinhibitory factors (preloading, emotional arousal, intoxication) were investigated. The…

  8. Factors Influencing Recruitment in Educational Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederickson, Norah

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation of the factors that educational psychologists in training (EPiTs) look for when applying for jobs in educational psychology services. Relevant literature on "job attraction" is reviewed and a three-stage research process employed. This involved a focus group approach to questionnaire generation followed by…

  9. The Influence of Noneconomic Factors on Negotiators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Lane

    1974-01-01

    Certain noneconomic factors in collective bargaining are directly related to the negotiator's personal inclination to settle for the new contract. In this study, the pattern of relationships between the parties, the nature of the work itself, favorable recognition, team policy, and interpersonal relationships proved to be significantly related to…

  10. Factors Influencing uUniversity Research Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Fiona; Geare, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This research extends our understanding of research productivity by examining features of managerial practice and culture within university departments. Adopting a robust comparative research design, capturing both interview and survey data sourced from multiple stakeholders from New Zealand universities, we seek to identify factors associated…

  11. Environmental factors influencing growth and pubertal development.

    PubMed Central

    Delemarre-van de Waal, H A

    1993-01-01

    Postnatal growth is based on hereditary signals and environmental factors in a complex regulatory network. Each factor must be in an optimal state for normal growth of the child. Fetal conditions may also have consequences on postnatal height. Intrauterine growth retardation can be recovered postnatally, although postnatal growth remains depressed in about one-third of cases. After birth, the environment may exert either a positive or negative effect on growth. In underdeveloped countries, malnutrition plays a major role in inhibiting the growth process. Children from families of higher socioeconomic classes are taller than their coevals in the lower socioeconomic groups. Urbanization also has a positive effect on growth. Better child care is supported by sufficient food supply, appropriate health and sanitation services, and a higher level of education. Over the last century, these factors have induced a taller stature and a more rapid maturity in Europe, North America, and Australia; a phenomenon which has been referred to as "the secular trend" in growth. Recently, a secular trend has also been reported in some developing countries. Although urbanization in general appears to be associated with better conditions of living, this is not the case in the slums of South America or in Africa where rural children are better off than children living in the poor cities. This paper describes in more detail the different hereditary and environmental factors that act during the fetal period and postnatally, and which play a role in human growth and pubertal development. PMID:8243404

  12. Selection Strategies for Social Influence in the Threshold Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karampourniotis, Panagiotis; Szymanski, Boleslaw; Korniss, Gyorgy

    The ubiquity of online social networks makes the study of social influence extremely significant for its applications to marketing, politics and security. Maximizing the spread of influence by strategically selecting nodes as initiators of a new opinion or trend is a challenging problem. We study the performance of various strategies for selection of large fractions of initiators on a classical social influence model, the Threshold model (TM). Under the TM, a node adopts a new opinion only when the fraction of its first neighbors possessing that opinion exceeds a pre-assigned threshold. The strategies we study are of two kinds: strategies based solely on the initial network structure (Degree-rank, Dominating Sets, PageRank etc.) and strategies that take into account the change of the states of the nodes during the evolution of the cascade, e.g. the greedy algorithm. We find that the performance of these strategies depends largely on both the network structure properties, e.g. the assortativity, and the distribution of the thresholds assigned to the nodes. We conclude that the optimal strategy needs to combine the network specifics and the model specific parameters to identify the most influential spreaders. Supported in part by ARL NS-CTA, ARO, and ONR.

  13. The Influence of Free Space Environment in the Mission Life Cycle: Material Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, David; Burns, Howard; De Groh, Kim

    Abstract The natural space environment has a great influence on the ability of space systems to perform according to mission design specification. Understanding the natural space environment and its influence on space system performance is critical to the concept formulation, design, development, and operation of space systems. Compatibility with the natural space environment is a primary factor in determining the functional lifetime of the space system. Space systems being designed and developed today are growing in complexity. In many instances, the increased complexity also increases its sensitivity to space environmental effects. Sensitivities to the natural space environment can be tempered through appropriate design measures, material selection, ground processing, mitigation strategies, and/or the acceptance of known risks. The design engineer must understand the effects of the natural space environment on the space system and its components. This paper will discuss the influence of the natural space environment in the mission life cycle with a specific focus on the role of material selection.

  14. The Influence of Free Space Environment in the Mission Life Cycle: Material Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David L.; Burns, Howard D.; de Groh, Kim K.

    2014-01-01

    The natural space environment has a great influence on the ability of space systems to perform according to mission design specification. Understanding the natural space environment and its influence on space system performance is critical to the concept formulation, design, development, and operation of space systems. Compatibility with the natural space environment is a primary factor in determining the functional lifetime of the space system. Space systems being designed and developed today are growing in complexity. In many instances, the increased complexity also increases its sensitivity to space environmental effects. Sensitivities to the natural space environment can be tempered through appropriate design measures, material selection, ground processing, mitigation strategies, and/or the acceptance of known risks. The design engineer must understand the effects of the natural space environment on the space system and its components. This paper will discuss the influence of the natural space environment in the mission life cycle with a specific focus on the role of material selection.

  15. Socially selected ornaments influence hormone titers of signalers and receivers.

    PubMed

    Tibbetts, Elizabeth A; Crocker, Katherine; Huang, Zachary Y

    2016-07-26

    Decades of behavioral endocrinology research have shown that hormones and behavior have a bidirectional relationship; hormones both influence and respond to social behavior. In contrast, hormones are often thought to have a unidirectional relationship with ornaments. Hormones influence ornament development, but little empirical work has tested how ornaments influence hormones throughout life. Here, we experimentally alter a visual signal of fighting ability in Polistes dominulus paper wasps and measure the behavioral and hormonal consequences of signal alteration in signalers and receivers. We find wasps that signal inaccurately high fighting ability receive more aggression than controls and receiving aggression reduces juvenile hormone (JH) titers. As a result, immediately after contests, inaccurate signalers have lower JH titers than controls. Ornaments also directly influence rival JH titers. Three hours after contests, wasps who interacted with rivals signaling high fighting ability have higher JH titers than wasps who interacted with rivals signaling low fighting ability. Therefore, ornaments influence hormone titers of both signalers and receivers. We demonstrate that relationships between hormones and ornaments are flexible and bidirectional rather than static and unidirectional. Dynamic relationships among ornaments, behavior, and physiology may be an important, but overlooked factor in the evolution of honest communication. PMID:27402762

  16. Factors influencing the intensity of magnetospheric substorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpherron, R. L.; Baker, D. N.

    1993-01-01

    A definition of the substorm is presented, and it is shown that the typical isolated substorm is produced by the superposition of effects of processes directly driven by the solar wind through dayside reconnection and those driven by unloading through nighttime reconnection. The single factor that determines whether a substorm will occur or not is the clock angle of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) around the earth-sun line. Only when this field points south of the GSM equatorial plane do the auroral electrojet indices depart from their quiet values. For a given clock angle, the level of activity increases with the IMF strength and solar wind velocity.

  17. Social factors and health: the causation-selection issue revisited.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, N

    1994-01-01

    Since social scientists rarely have access to experimental data, they rely heavily upon observational studies. As a consequence, their attempts to make causal inferences about the effects of social factors--such as occupation or marital status--on health are plagued by potential selection problems. Some researchers have addressed this selection-causation problem on the basis of the presence or absence of a particular aggregate pattern of health status. The rationale underlying this approach derives from the investigators' hypotheses that the presence of selection would lead to a particular type of pattern that is distinct from the pattern that would result in the absence of selection. Although intuitively appealing, this strategy appears to be seriously flawed. The essential weakness is that the range of patterns that can result from selection is often much broader than researchers have speculated. PMID:8108396

  18. Factors Influencing Childhood Immunization in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the factors associated with childhood immunization in Uganda. We used nationally-representative data from Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) of 2006. Both bivariate and multivariate approaches were employed in the analysis. The bivariate approach involved generating average percentages of children who were immunized, with analysis of pertinent background characteristics. The multivariate approach involved employing maximum likelihood probit technique and generating marginal effects to ascertain the probability of being immunized, given the same background characteristics. It revealed that slightly over 50% of children in Uganda were fully immunized. Additionally, 89%, 24%, 52%, and 64% received BCG, DPT, polio and measles vaccines respectively. Factors which have a significant association with childhood immunization are: maternal education (especially at post-secondary level), exposure to media, maternal healthcare utilization, maternal age, occupation type, immunization plan, and regional and local peculiarities. Children whose mothers had post-secondary education were twice as likely to be fully immunized compared to their counterparts whose mothers had only primary education (p<0.01). Thus, gender parity in education enhancement efforts is crucial. There is also a need to increase media penetration, maternal healthcare utilization, and to ensure parity across localities and regions. PMID:23617212

  19. Factors influencing childhood immunization in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bbaale, Edward

    2013-03-01

    This paper investigates the factors associated with childhood immunization in Uganda. We used nationally-representative data from Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) of 2006. Both bivariate and multivariate approaches were employed in the analysis. The bivariate approach involved generating average percentages of children who were immunized, with analysis of pertinent background characteristics. The multivariate approach involved employing maximum likelihood probit technique and generating marginal effects to ascertain the probability of being immunized, given the same background characteristics. It revealed that slightly over 50% of children in Uganda were fully immunized. Additionally, 89%, 24%, 52%, and 64% received BCG, DPT, polio and measles vaccines respectively. Factors which have a significant association with childhood immunization are: maternal education (especially at post-secondary level), exposure to media, maternal healthcare utilization, maternal age, occupation type, immunization plan, and regional and local peculiarities. Children whose mothers had post-secondary education were twice as likely to be fully immunized compared to their counterparts whose mothers had only primary education (p < 0.01). Thus, gender parity in education enhancement efforts is crucial. There is also a need to increase media penetration, maternal healthcare utilization, and to ensure parity across localities and regions. PMID:23617212

  20. Factors influencing the spinal motoneurons in development

    PubMed Central

    Wiese, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The development of the spinal cord needs a concerted interaction of transcription factors activating diverse genes and signals from outside acting on the specification of the different cells. Signals have to act on the segments of the embryo as well as on the cranial-caudal axis and the dorso-ventral axis. Additionally the axons of the motoneurons have to cross the central nervous system barrier to connect to the periphery. Intensive anatomical studies have been followed by molecular characterization of the different subsets of transcription factors that are expressed by cells of the developing spinal cord. Here, intensive studies for the most important appearing cells, the motoneurons, have resulted in a good knowledge on the expression patterns of these proteins. Nonetheless motoneurons are by far not the only important cells and the concert activity of all cells besides them is necessary for the correct function and integrity of motoneurons within the spinal cord. This article will briefly summarize the different aspects on spinal cord development and focuses on the differentiation as well as the functionalization of motoneurons. PMID:26807112

  1. Factors influencing whether children walk to school.

    PubMed

    Su, Jason G; Jerrett, Michael; McConnell, Rob; Berhane, Kiros; Dunton, Genevieve; Shankardass, Ketan; Reynolds, Kim; Chang, Roger; Wolch, Jennifer

    2013-07-01

    Few studies have simultaneously evaluated multiple levels of influence on whether children walk to school. A large cohort of 4338 subjects from 10 communities was used to identify the determinants of walking through (1) a one-level logistic regression model for individual-level variables and (2) a two-level mixed regression model for individual and school-level variables. Walking rates were positively associated with home-to-school proximity, greater age, and living in neighborhoods characterized by lower traffic density. Greater land use mix around the home was, however, associated with lower rates of walking. Rates of walking to school were also higher amongst recipients of the Free and Reduced Price Meals Program and attendees of schools with higher percentage of English language learners. Designing schools in the same neighborhood as residential districts should be an essential urban planning strategy to reduce walking distance to school. Policy interventions are needed to encourage children from higher socioeconomic status families to participate in active travel to school and to develop walking infrastructures and other measures that protect disadvantaged children. PMID:23707968

  2. Factors Influencing Whether Children Walk to School

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jason G.; Jerrett, Michael; Mcconnell, Rob; Berhane, Kiros; Dunton, Genevieve; Shankardass, Ketan; Reynolds, Kim; Chang, Roger; Wolch, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated multiple levels of influence simultaneously on whether children walk to school. A large cohort of 4,338 subjects from ten communities was used to identify the determinants of walking through (1) a one-level logistic regression model for individual-level variables and (2) a two-level mixed regression model for individual and school-level variables. Walking rates were positively associated with home-to-school proximity, greater age, and living in neighborhoods characterized by lower traffic density. Greater land use mix around the home was, however, associated with lower rates of walking. Rates of walking to school were also higher amongst recipients of the Free and Reduced Price Meals Program and attendees of schools with higher percentage of English language learners. Designing schools in the same neighborhood as residential districts should be an essential urban planning strategy to reduce walking distance to school. Policy interventions are needed to encourage children from higher socioeconomic status families to participate in active travel to school and to develop walking infrastructures and other measures that protect disadvantaged children. PMID:23707968

  3. The Hull Method for Selecting the Number of Common Factors.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Timmerman, Marieke E; Kiers, Henk A L

    2011-04-11

    A common problem in exploratory factor analysis is how many factors need to be extracted from a particular data set. We propose a new method for selecting the number of major common factors: the Hull method, which aims to find a model with an optimal balance between model fit and number of parameters. We examine the performance of the method in an extensive simulation study in which the simulated data are based on major and minor factors. The study compares the method with four other methods such as parallel analysis and the minimum average partial test, which were selected because they have been proven to perform well and/or they are frequently used in applied research. The Hull method outperformed all four methods at recovering the correct number of major factors. Its usefulness was further illustrated by its assessment of the dimensionality of the Five-Factor Personality Inventory ( Hendriks, Hofstee, & De Raad, 1999 ). This inventory has 100 items, and the typical methods for assessing dimensionality prove to be useless: the large number of factors they suggest has no theoretical justification. The Hull method, however, suggested retaining the number of factors that the theoretical background to the inventory actually proposes. PMID:26741331

  4. Factors influencing publication choice: why faculty choose open access

    PubMed Central

    Warlick, Stefanie E; Vaughan, KTL

    2007-01-01

    Background In an attempt to identify motivating factors involved in decisions to publish in open access and open archives (OA) journals, individual interviews with biomedical faculty members at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-Chapel Hill) and Duke University, two major research universities, were conducted. The interviews focused on faculty identified as early adopters of OA/free full-text publishing. Methods Searches conducted in PubMed and PubMed Central identified faculty from the two institutions who have published works in OA/free full-text journals. The searches targeted authors with multiple OA citations during a specified 18 month period. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the most prolific OA authors at each university. Individual interviews attempted to determine whether the authors were aware they published in OA journals, why they chose to publish in OA journals, what factors influenced their publishing decisions, and their general attitude towards OA publishing models. Results & Discussion Fourteen interviews were granted and completed. Respondents included a fairly even mix of Assistant, Associate and Full professors. Results indicate that when targeting biomedical faculty at UNC-Chapel Hill and Duke, speed of publication and copyright retention are unlikely motivating factors or incentives for the promotion of OA publishing. In addition, author fees required by some open access journals are unlikely barriers or disincentives. Conclusion It appears that publication quality is of utmost importance when choosing publication venues in general, while free access and visibility are specifically noted incentives for selection of OA journals. Therefore, free public availability and increased exposure may not be strong enough incentives for authors to choose open access over more traditional and respected subscription based publications, unless the quality issue is also addressed. PMID:17349038

  5. Selection Factors among International Medical Graduates and Psychiatric Residency Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiroma, Paulo R.; Alarcon, Renato D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors examine the association between the selection factors used in a psychiatric residency program and subsequent clinical and academic performance among international medical graduate (IMG) candidates. Methods: The authors completed a retrospective review of application files and residency evaluations of 50 IMG residents who…

  6. Weight Factor Selection in Double Exponential Smoothing Enrollment Forecasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Don E.

    1981-01-01

    The merits of double exponential smoothing are discussed relative to other types of pattern-based enrollment forecasting methods. The basic assumptions and formulas for its use are outlined. The difficulties associated with selecting an appropriate weight factor are discussed, and the potential effect on prediction results is illustrated.…

  7. Causal Factors Influencing Adversity Quotient of Twelfth Grade and Third-Year Vocational Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pangma, Rachapoom; Tayraukham, Sombat; Nuangchalerm, Prasart

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: The aim of this research was to study the causal factors influencing students' adversity between twelfth grade and third-year vocational students in Sisaket province, Thailand. Six hundred and seventy two of twelfth grade and 376 third-year vocational students were selected by multi-stage random sampling techniques. Approach:…

  8. Perceptions of College Students on Social Factors That Influence Student Matriculation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Jeremy L.; LaVergne, Douglas D.; Boone, Harry N., Jr.; Boone, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed undergraduate students' (n = 280) attitudes toward selected social factors that would influence and discourage student persistence at a four-year research university. Using a modified Delphi technique to construct the questionnaire, the researchers discovered that family encouragement, positive relationships with professors,…

  9. A Comparative Study of Factors Influencing Male and Female Lecturers' Job Satisfaction in Ghanaian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amos, Patricia Mawusi; Acquah, Sakina; Antwi, Theresa; Adzifome, Nixon Saba

    2015-01-01

    The study sought to compare factors influencing male and female lecturers' job satisfaction. Cross-sectional survey designs employing both quantitative and qualitative approaches were adopted for the study. Simple random sampling was used to select 163 lecturers from the four oldest public universities in Ghana. Celep's (2000) Organisational…

  10. FACTORS INFLUENCING PERCEPTIONS OF THE IDEAL ADULT VOCATIONAL PROGRAM FOR PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FRANK, HARRY ELMER, JR.

    TO ASCERTAIN THE INFLUENCE OF SELECTED SITUATIONAL AND PERSONAL FACTORS ON THE PERCEPTION OF THE IDEAL ADULT VOCATIONAL PROGRAM FOR PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS, OPINIONNAIRES RETURNED BY 388 VOCATIONAL TEACHERS AND ADMINISTRATORS IN OKLAHOMA PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS WERE STUDIED. OPINIONNAIRES CONTAINED 38 STATEMENTS OF CONDITIONS IDENTIFIED AS…

  11. Factors Influencing College Decision-Making for First-Generation Appalachian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Kristy Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This investigation determined the degree of importance for selected personal-psychological, academic, peer, financial, and family factors influencing the decision to attend college by first-generation, Appalachian (FGA) sophomore students. Outcomes were further related to the degree of academic and social integration in college and the likelihood…

  12. [Positive influence on cardiovascular risk factor by blocking the endocannabinoid system].

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, T; Ritz, A; Ince, H; Nienaber, Ch A; Rehders, T C

    2008-05-28

    Intra-abdominal fat mass, or central adiposity, and cardiovascular risk are strongly correlated. Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that secretes hormones and cytokines influencing appetite, energy metabolism, and atherosclerosis. Rimonabant is the first selective blocker of the cannabinoid-1 receptor in development for the treatment of obesity, diabetes mellitus typ 2, and cardiometabolic risk factors. This article provides an review of efficacy of rimonabant the first selective blocker of the cannabinoid-1 receptor. PMID:18592956

  13. Factors influencing kenaf harvesting and processing in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The selection of the appropriate kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L., Malvaceae) production and harvest system is dependent on many factors, including location, equipment availability, storage options, processing plants, plant utilization, and economics. Since its first domestication, kenaf has consisten...

  14. Breast cancer diagnosis and factors influencing treatment decisions in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Aziato, Lydia; Clegg-Lamptey, Joe Nat A

    2015-01-01

    Researchers in this study explored the reactions of women with breast cancer and identified factors influencing treatment decisions. A qualitative exploratory approach was employed. Participants were recruited from a tertiary hospital and a breast cancer support group. Purposive sampling recruited 12 women. It was found that women identified breast lesions accidentally or intentionally and that diagnosis was delayed. Emotional reactions to diagnosis included shock and sadness. Factors that influenced treatment were the influence of other people, alternative sources of treatment, faith and support, knowledge, "tuning the mind," and effects on intimacy. Health professionals should develop effective communication and counseling skills for clients. PMID:24750095

  15. Factors influencing single mother's employment status.

    PubMed

    Youngblut, J M; Brady, N R; Brooten, D; Thomas, D J

    2000-03-01

    Changes in the welfare system limit the length of time a person can receive welfare benefits, thus mandating employment for many current welfare recipients. Single mothers with young children who do not become employed will lose financial support for housing, food, clothing, and health care and place their own and their children's health and safety at risk. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore women's experiences of being unemployed and to examine the barriers to employment perceived by single mothers who expressed a desire to be employed. Nine mothers were recruited from a larger sample of single mothers who had participated in a quantitative study about employment conducted 1 to 2 years earlier. Using focus group interviews, mothers were asked what it was like to be a single mother, and then what barriers to their employment they perceived. Two dimensions were identified from the mothers' statements. The first, a sense of obligation, included themes of "being there" for their own and their child's benefit and doing what it takes to optimize the child's growth and development. The second, negotiating the obstacles, referred to problems regarding child care, lack of involvement of the child's father and lack of support from relatives and friends for the mother's efforts toward securing employment. These findings have important implications for welfare reform, namely, that efforts aimed at moving nonemployed single mothers into the workforce will fail if these factors are not considered. PMID:10818834

  16. Factors influencing phototaxis in nocturnal migrating birds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xuebing; Chen, Mingyan; Wu, Zhaolu; Wang, Zijiang

    2014-12-01

    Many migratory bird species fly during the night (nocturnal migrants) and have been shown to display some phototaxis to artificial light. During 2006 to 2009, we investigated phototaxis in nocturnal migrants at Jinshan Yakou in Xinping County (N23°56', E101°30'; 2400 m above sea-level), and at the Niaowang Mountain in Funing County (N23°30', E105°35'; 1400 m above sea-level), both in the Yunnan Province of Southwest China. A total of 5069 birds, representing 129 species, were captured by mist-netting and artificial light. The extent of phototaxis effect on bird migration was examined during all four seasons, three phases of the moon, and under two weather conditions (mist and wind). Data were statistically analyzed to determine the extent to which these factors may impact phototaxis of nocturnal migrants. The results point to phototaxis in birds migrating in the spring and autumn, especially in the autumn. Furthermore, migrating birds were more readily attracted to artificial lights during nights with little moonlight, mist, and a headwind. Regardless of the initial orientation in which birds flew, either following the wind or against the wind, birds would always fly against the wind when flying towards the light. This study broadens our understanding of the nocturnal bird migration, potentially resulting in improved bird ringing practices, increased awareness, and better policies regarding bird protection. PMID:25483789

  17. Factors that influence the patient centredness of a consultation.

    PubMed Central

    Law, S A; Britten, N

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Research suggests that patients are more satisfied with patient-centred consultations than with doctor-centred consultations and that some health measures are positively influenced by this type of consultation. Research on the factors that influence the patient centredness of the consultation is sparse but suggests that women doctors are more patient centred than men doctors. AIM. A study was designed, first, to confirm or reject the suggestion that women general practitioners are more patient centred than men general practitioners and, secondly, to determine some of the factors that might influence the patient centredness of a general practitioner. METHOD. The audiotaped consultations of 41 general practitioners were analysed using an instrument designed to measure patient centredness. The general practitioners were selected from a group of volunteers to represent both sexes as well as a wide range of age and experience. RESULTS. The results of the analysis showed that women general practitioners, particularly trainers, had higher patient-centredness scores than men general practitioners. This behaviour is characterized by an increased frequency of open questions and greater attention to patient offers (anything of potential significance that a patient brings to the general practitioner consultation). Additionally, the combination of sexes in a consultation seemed to have an effect on the interaction, with woman general practitioner/female patient dyads (pairings) having the highest median patient-centredness score, woman general practitioner/male patient and man general practitioner/male patient dyads scoring the same as each other and man general practitioner/female patient dyads having the lowest median scores. CONCLUSION. The results suggest that women general practitioners, in this sample, were more patient centred than men general practitioners. The results also suggest that inherent inequalities exist, with female patients receiving a more

  18. A Study of Factors Influencing Teacher Salaries in Vermont.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callas, Rosanne; McCormick, Rod

    A study was done of factors affecting differences in teacher salaries among Vermont towns. Data from 181 local education agencies were used for the study and a set of factors was examined that included family, community, and school information to determine what influences teacher salaries. Findings included the following: (1) average teacher's…

  19. Factors Influencing Technology Planning in Developing Countries: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keengwe, Jared; Malapile, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    This article is a literature review concerning the factors that play an important role in the development of educational technology plans in the educational system of developing countries (DCs). Largely, the technology plans are influenced by factors that emanates from within the country (internal) and those outside of their borders (external).…

  20. Factors Influencing Digital Reference Triage: A Think-Aloud Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a think-aloud study conducted to identify factors that influence the decisions made by digital reference "triagers" when performing triage on questions received by digital reference services. This study follows and expands on a Delphi study that identified factors that triagers agreed on after the fact of their performance…

  1. Factors Influencing Students' Achievement in Form 5 Islamic Studies Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    bin Che Noh, Mohd Aderi; Omar, Noraini binti; bin Kasan, Hasnan

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at analyzing the factors influencing the achievements of students in the subject of Islamic Studies for Form 5 SPM (KBSM) in schools in the area of Samarahan, Sarawak. The factors analysed is attitude and interest. This is a survey based study and data was compiled from the survey forms which had the topic "Factors…

  2. Factors Influencing Pursuit of Higher Education: Validating a Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Sandra M.

    This paper explains the process used to validate the construct validity of the Factors Influencing Pursuit of Higher Education Questionnaire. This questionnaire is a literature-based, researcher-developed instrument which gathers information on the factors thought to affect a person's decision to pursue higher education. The questionnaire includes…

  3. Factors influencing visits to school nurses by pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chen, S P; Telleen, S; Mitchell, D R; Chen, E H

    1992-01-01

    The influence of five factors on the first visit to school nurses by pregnant adolescents and adequacy of prenatal care was analyzed. Only one factor, age of baby's father, was found to be associated with adequacy of prenatal care. PMID:1518672

  4. From Hospital to Nursing Facility: Factors Influencing Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Susan E.; Auerbach, Charles; LaPorte, Heidi Heft

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the factors influencing decisions to send medicine-surgical (med-surg) patients home or to nursing facilities (NFs). The sample (n = 7,852) was taken from a large, urban, teaching, med-surg unit where discharges were documented and data collected over a two-and-a-half-year period. Using logistical regression, the factors found…

  5. Factors Influencing International Students' Career Choice: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaravelu, Hemla D.; White, Lyle J.; Bringaze, Tammy B.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the career development behavior of Asian international, non-Asian international, and domestic students, specifically the certainty of career and major choice and environmental factors that have influenced their choices. Environmental factors include family, school counselors, teacher, friends, and government. The results show…

  6. Alternative Administrative Certification: Socializing Factors Influencing Program Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickmore, Dana L.; Bickmore, Steven T.; Raines, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This study used an organizational socialization lens to examine factors influencing participants' decision to pursue the principalship and choice to engage in an alternate administration certification program. Through an analysis of participant focus groups and interviews, factors emerged from the codes that were compared with dimensions of…

  7. Psychosocial Factors Influencing Competency of Children's Statements on Sexual Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Tae Kyung; Choi, Soul; Shin, Yee Jin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess children's competence to state their traumatic experience and to determine psychosocial factors influencing the competency of children's statements, such as emotional factors of children and parents and trauma-related variables, in Korean child sex abuse victims. Methods: We enrolled 214…

  8. Factors Influencing Psychological Help Seeking in Adults: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topkaya, Nursel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current research is to identify which factors, and in what direction these factors influence adults' decisions to seek psychological help for their personal problems. The research was designed as a phenomenology model; the data was gathered through the semi-structured interview technique, which is mostly used in qualitative research…

  9. Factors influencing nursing career choices and choice of study program.

    PubMed

    Haron, Yafa; Reicher, Sima; Riba, Shoshana

    2014-01-01

    In advance of a recruitment campaign, Israeli first-year nursing students of all ethnicities were surveyed to elucidate what factors had influenced them to make nursing their career and what sort of training track they preferred. The responses made it clear that different factors influence different groups differently. There were noticeable differences by gender, age, and ethnicity. Overall, training institutions were chosen for their closeness to the student's home but other factors also operated among particular groups, such as institutional prestige and flexible entry criteria. There was a blatant preference for academic, particularly university-sited, programs over diploma programs. PMID:24878405

  10. Nurturing Sport Expertise: Factors Influencing the Development of Elite Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Joseph; Horton, Sean; Robertson-Wilson, Jennifer; Wall, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The development of expertise in sport is the result of successful interaction of biological, psychological, and sociological constraints. This review examines the training and environmental factors that influence the acquisition of sport expertise. Research examining the quality and quantity of training indicate that these two elements are crucial predictors of attainment. In addition, the possession of resources such as parental support and adequate coaching are essential. Social factors such as cultural influences and the relative age effect are also considered as determinants of sport expertise. Although it is evident that environmental factors are essential to the acquisition of high levels of sport development, further research is clearly required. PMID:24616603

  11. The contribution of cognitive, kinematic, and dynamic factors to anticipatory grasp selection.

    PubMed

    Herbort, Oliver; Butz, Martin V; Kunde, Wilfried

    2014-06-01

    Object-directed grasping movements are usually adjusted in anticipation of the direction and extent of a subsequent object rotation. Such anticipatory grasp selections have been mostly explained in terms of the kinematics of the arm movement. However, object rotations of different directions and extents also differ in their dynamics and in how the tasks are represented. Here, we examined how the dynamics, the kinematics, and the cognitive representation of an object manipulation affect anticipatory grasp selections. We asked participants to grasp an object and rotate it by different angles and in different directions. To examine the influence of dynamic factors, we varied the object's weight. To examine the influence of the cognitive task representation, we instructed identical object rotations as either toward-top or away-from-top rotations. While instructed object rotation and cognitive task representation did affect grasp selection over the entire course of the experiment, a rather small effect of object weight only appeared late in the experiment. We suggest that grasp selections are determined on different levels. The representation of the kinematics of the object movement determines grasp selection on a trial-by-trial basis. The effect of object weight affects grasp selection by a slower adaptation process. This result implies that even simple motor acts, such as grasping, can only be understood when cognitive factors, such as the task representation, are taken into account. PMID:24534913

  12. College choice of natural science students: The factors and sources that influence enrollment decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Samuel

    This dissertation studied how institutional factors and sources of influence affected the enrollment decisions of natural science students admitted to a selective, private research institution. In terms of institutional factors, participants were asked to rate both the importance of factors and how satisfied they were with these factors at the survey institution. Institutional factors were divided into four sub-categories: cost-related factors, campus-related factors, academic opportunities and extra-curricular opportunities. Participants were also asked to rate the importance of sources of information/influence on their final enrollment decision; these sources were divided into three categories: student's network, institutional sources and reputation. Results were also disaggregated by enrollment decision and demographic variables (gender, ethnicity, SES, mother's educational level and father's educational level) to determine if differences existed between groups. An online survey was used to collect data and these results were based on quantitative analysis using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Factors that were considered important to natural science students in their college choice were campus, major availability, research opportunities, faculty contact, student activities and total cost. The factors that students were satisfied with at the survey institution were major availability and campus. The sources that were most important to students in making their college choice were the university's reputation and major reputation. Significant differences were found between groups based on demographic and enrollment variables in their ratings of factor importance, factor satisfaction and importance of sources of information/influence.

  13. Factors influencing adherence among older people with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Loew, Laurianne; Brosseau, Lucie; Kenny, Glen P; Durand-Bush, Natalie; Poitras, Stéphane; De Angelis, Gino; Wells, George A

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to identify potential factors that could affect adherence and influence the implementation of an evidence-based structured walking program, among older adults diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis. A total of 69 participants with mild to moderate osteoarthritis of the knee fulfilled an online survey on potential factors that could affect their adherence to an evidence-based structured walking program. Adherence with regard to the influencing factors was explored using a logistic regression model. Results tend to show higher odds of adhering to the evidence-based walking program if the participants were supervised (more than 2.9 times as high), supported by family/friends (more than 3.7 times as high), and not influenced by emotional involvement (more than 11 times as high). The odds of adhering were 3.6 times lower for participants who indicated a change in their medication intake and 3.1 times lower for individuals who considered themselves as less physically active (95 % confidence interval (CI)). Our exploratory findings identified and defined potential adherence factors that could guide health professionals in their practice to better identify positive influences and obstacles to treatment adherence, which would lead to the adoption of a more patient-centered approach. A large-scale study is required to clearly delineate the key factors that would influence adherence. We addressed a new knowledge gap by identifying the main strategies to promote the long-term adherence of community-based walking program. PMID:26646111

  14. Behavioural cues surpass habitat factors in explaining prebreeding resource selection by a migratory diving duck

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neil, Shawn T.; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Takekawa, John Y.; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Cutting, Kyle A.; Parker, Michael W.; Yee, Julie L.

    2014-01-01

    Prebreeding habitat selection in birds can often be explained in part by habitat characteristics. However, females may also select habitats on the basis of fidelity to areas of previous reproductive success or use by conspecifics. The relative influences of sociobehavioural attributes versus habitat characteristics in habitat selection has been primarily investigated in songbirds, while less is known about how these factors affect habitat selection processes in migratory waterfowl. Animal resource selection models often exhibit much unexplained variation; spatial patterns driven by social and behavioural characteristics may account for some of this. We radiomarked female lesser scaup, Aythya affinis, in the southwestern extent of their breeding range to explore hypotheses regarding relative roles of habitat quality, site fidelity and conspecific density in prebreeding habitat selection. We used linear mixed-effects models to relate intensity of use within female home ranges to habitat features, distance to areas of reproductive success during the previous breeding season and conspecific density. Home range habitats included shallow water (≤118 cm), moderate to high densities of flooded emergent vegetation/open water edge and open water areas with submerged aquatic vegetation. Compared with habitat features, conspecific female density and proximity to successful nesting habitats from the previous breeding season had greater influences on habitat use within home ranges. Fidelity and conspecific attraction are behavioural characteristics in some waterfowl species that may exert a greater influence than habitat features in influencing prebreeding space use and habitat selection within home ranges, particularly where quality habitat is abundant. These processes may be of critical importance to a better understanding of habitat selection in breeding birds.

  15. Critical factors and paths influencing construction workers' safety risk tolerances.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiayuan; Zou, Patrick X W; Li, Penny P

    2016-08-01

    While workers' safety risk tolerances have been regarded as a main reason for their unsafe behaviors, little is known about why different people have different risk tolerances even when confronting the same situation. The aim of this research is to identify the critical factors and paths that influence workers' safety risk tolerance and to explore how they contribute to accident causal model from a system thinking perceptive. A number of methods were carried out to analyze the data collected through interviews and questionnaire surveys. In the first and second steps of the research, factor identification, factor ranking and factor analysis were carried out, and the results show that workers' safety risk tolerance can be influenced by four groups of factors, namely: (1) personal subjective perception; (2) work knowledge and experiences; (3) work characteristics; and (4) safety management. In the third step of the research, hypothetical influencing path model was developed and tested by using structural equation modeling (SEM). It is found that the effects of external factors (safety management and work characteristics) on risk tolerance are larger than that of internal factors (personal subjective perception and work knowledge & experiences). Specifically, safety management contributes the most to workers' safety risk tolerance through its direct effect and indirect effect; while personal subjective perception comes the second and can act as an intermedia for work characteristics. This research provides an in-depth insight of workers' unsafe behaviors by depicting the contributing factors as shown in the accident causal model developed in this research. PMID:26775077

  16. Factors That Influence the Practice of Elective Induction of Labor

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jennifer; Low, Lisa Kane

    2012-01-01

    Elective induction of labor has been linked to increased rates of prematurity and rising rates of cesarean birth. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate current trends in induction of labor scholarship focusing on evidence-based factors that influence the practice of elective induction. A key word search was conducted to identify studies on the practice of elective induction of labor. Analysis of the findings included clustering and identification of recurrent themes among the articles with 3 categories being identified. Under each category, the words/phrases were further clustered until a construct could be named. A total of 49 articles met inclusion criteria: 7 patient, 6 maternity care provider, and 4 organization factors emerged. Only 4 of the articles identified were evidence based. Patient factors were divided into preferences/convenience, communication, fear, pressure/influence, trust, external influences, and technology. Provider factors were then divided into practice preferences/convenience, lack of information, financial incentives, fear, patient desire/demand, and technology. Organization factors were divided into lack of enforcement/accountability, hospital culture, scheduling of staff, and market share issues. Currently, there is limited data-based information focused on factors that influence elective induction of labor. Despite patient and provider convenience/preferences being cited in the literature, the evidence does not support this practice. PMID:22843006

  17. Selective recruitment of host factors by HSV-1 replication centers

    PubMed Central

    LANG, Feng-Chao; LI, Xin; VLADMIROVA, Olga; LI, Zhuo-Ran; CHEN, Gui-Jun; XIAO, Yu; LI, Li-Hong; LU, Dan-Feng; HAN, Hong-Bo; ZHOU, Ju-Min

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) enters productive infection after infecting epithelial cells, where it controls the host nucleus to make viral proteins, starts viral DNA synthesis and assembles infectious virions. In this process, replicating viral genomes are organized into replication centers to facilitate viral growth. HSV-1 is known to use host factors, including host chromatin and host transcription regulators, to transcribe its genes; however, the invading virus also encounters host defense and stress responses to inhibit viral growth. Recently, we found that HSV-1 replication centers recruit host factor CTCF but exclude βH2A.X. Thus, HSV-1 replication centers may selectively recruit cellular factors needed for viral growth, while excluding host factors that are deleterious for viral transcription or replication. Here we report that the viral replication centers selectively excluded modified histone H3, including heterochromatin mark H3K9me3, H3S10P and active chromatin mark H3K4me3, but not unmodified H3. We found a dynamic association between the viral replication centers and host RNA polymerase II. The centers also recruited components of the DNA damage response pathway, including 53BP1, BRCA1 and host antiviral protein SP100. Importantly, we found that ATM kinase was needed for the recruitment of CTCF to the viral centers. These results suggest that the HSV-1 replication centers took advantage of host signaling pathways to actively recruit or exclude host factors to benefit viral growth. PMID:26018857

  18. Factors Affecting Option Choices Relative to the Uptake of Design and Technology at a Selected Hong Kong International School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Marshall

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study described in this paper was to identify those factors which affect Year 9 students at Sha Tin College, Hong Kong, as they make option choices at the end of Key Stage 3 (Year 9: age 14). The main focus of the investigation was how these factors influence the selection or rejection of the four subjects offered under the…

  19. Factors influencing DOC leaching from terrestrial ecosystems: a database analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camino Serrano, M.; Janssens, I.; Luyssaert, S.; Ciais, P.; Gielen, B.

    2012-04-01

    for DIC, DON and DIN. Moreover, a meta-analysis will be carried out to link spatial and temporal variation in DOC concentration and fluxes to their respective drivers. The findings from this analysis will have two main important applications: firstly, the relationships achieved from this database can shed light on the factors that influence DOC formation and transport processes in the soil, and can therefore help in future design of strategies to mitigate soil organic carbon loss; secondly, the growing dataset will be very useful for the development, improvement and validation of DOC models, allowing to account for lateral DOC fluxes in global carbon models and thus improving the predictions of responses to climate change . Specifically, this database will support the future development of the DOC production module in the global land surface model ORCHIDEE, and will be used to test and validate the selected model structures.

  20. Temperature Influences Selective Mortality during the Early Life Stages of a Coral Reef Fish

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Tauna L.; Sponaugle, Su

    2011-01-01

    For organisms with complex life cycles, processes occurring at the interface between life stages can disproportionately impact survival and population dynamics. Temperature is an important factor influencing growth in poikilotherms, and growth-related processes are frequently correlated with survival. We examined the influence of water temperature on growth-related early life history traits (ELHTs) and differential mortality during the transition from larval to early juvenile stage in sixteen monthly cohorts of bicolor damselfish Stegastes partitus, sampled on reefs of the upper Florida Keys, USA over 6 years. Otolith analysis of settlers and juveniles coupled with environmental data revealed that mean near-reef water temperature explained a significant proportion of variation in pelagic larval duration (PLD), early larval growth, size-at-settlement, and growth during early juvenile life. Among all cohorts, surviving juveniles were consistently larger at settlement, but grew more slowly during the first 6 d post-settlement. For the other ELHTs, selective mortality varied seasonally: during winter and spring months, survivors exhibited faster larval growth and shorter PLDs, whereas during warmer summer months, selection on PLD reversed and selection on larval growth became non-linear. Our results demonstrate that temperature not only shapes growth-related traits, but can also influence the direction and intensity of selective mortality. PMID:21559305

  1. Temperature influences selective mortality during the early life stages of a coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Tauna L; Sponaugle, Su

    2011-01-01

    For organisms with complex life cycles, processes occurring at the interface between life stages can disproportionately impact survival and population dynamics. Temperature is an important factor influencing growth in poikilotherms, and growth-related processes are frequently correlated with survival. We examined the influence of water temperature on growth-related early life history traits (ELHTs) and differential mortality during the transition from larval to early juvenile stage in sixteen monthly cohorts of bicolor damselfish Stegastes partitus, sampled on reefs of the upper Florida Keys, USA over 6 years. Otolith analysis of settlers and juveniles coupled with environmental data revealed that mean near-reef water temperature explained a significant proportion of variation in pelagic larval duration (PLD), early larval growth, size-at-settlement, and growth during early juvenile life. Among all cohorts, surviving juveniles were consistently larger at settlement, but grew more slowly during the first 6 d post-settlement. For the other ELHTs, selective mortality varied seasonally: during winter and spring months, survivors exhibited faster larval growth and shorter PLDs, whereas during warmer summer months, selection on PLD reversed and selection on larval growth became non-linear. Our results demonstrate that temperature not only shapes growth-related traits, but can also influence the direction and intensity of selective mortality. PMID:21559305

  2. Structural deterministic safety factors selection criteria and verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verderaime, V.

    1992-01-01

    Though current deterministic safety factors are arbitrarily and unaccountably specified, its ratio is rooted in resistive and applied stress probability distributions. This study approached the deterministic method from a probabilistic concept leading to a more systematic and coherent philosophy and criterion for designing more uniform and reliable high-performance structures. The deterministic method was noted to consist of three safety factors: a standard deviation multiplier of the applied stress distribution; a K-factor for the A- or B-basis material ultimate stress; and the conventional safety factor to ensure that the applied stress does not operate in the inelastic zone of metallic materials. The conventional safety factor is specifically defined as the ratio of ultimate-to-yield stresses. A deterministic safety index of the combined safety factors was derived from which the corresponding reliability proved the deterministic method is not reliability sensitive. The bases for selecting safety factors are presented and verification requirements are discussed. The suggested deterministic approach is applicable to all NASA, DOD, and commercial high-performance structures under static stresses.

  3. [Chloroquine influence on lipid metabolism and selected laboratory parameters].

    PubMed

    Woźniacka, Anna; Lesiak, Aleksandra; Smigielski, Janusz; Sysa-Jedrzejowska, Anna

    2005-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune connective tissue disease with complex pathogenesis, various clinical presentation and chronic course with relapses. Mode of treatment depends on the disease activity and kind of internal organ involvement. In most cases clinical remission could be obtained after antimalarials, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, and photoprotection use. Despite the approved antimalarials therapeutic value, the mechanisms by which they provide benefit in lupus, patients are not fully understood. Literature data indicate that they can influence lipid metabolism. The aim of the performed study was the objective evaluation of the influence of 3-month chloroquine treatment (Arechin, 250 mg/day) on lipid metabolism and selected laboratory parameters. In 34 patients with SLE clinical and laboratory evaluation was performed twice, before and after 3-month treatment. After 3 months significantly lower total cholesterol level was observed (mean value 184.91 mg%, 165.26 mg%, p < 0.001). Also LDL level was evidently lowered (111.27 mg%, 99.25 mg%). Similar tendency was noticed in triglycerides, which level after 3 months decreased from the average 152.38 mg% to 104.97 mg%, p < 0.001. Moreover the lowering of sedimentation rate, increasing hemoglobin level and lengthening coagulation time was perceived. The results of the study indicate the influence of chloroquine on decreasing of the disease activity, its anti-inflammatory properties and mainly the drug impact on lipid metabolism. Not only does antimalarials treatment reduce the risk of atherosclerosis development but it also minimizes corticosteroids side effects, which are considered to be the basic medication in lupus patients. PMID:16541717

  4. Energy availability influences microclimate selection of hibernating bats.

    PubMed

    Boyles, Justin G; Dunbar, Miranda B; Storm, Jonathan J; Brack, Virgil

    2007-12-01

    Many species hibernate to conserve energy during periods of low food and water availability. It has long been assumed that the optimal hibernation strategy involves long, deep bouts of torpor that minimize energy expenditure. However, hibernation has ecological (e.g. decreased predator avoidance) and physiological (e.g. sleep deprivation) costs that must be balanced with energy savings; therefore, individuals possessing sufficient energy reserves may reduce their use of deep torpor. We tested the hypothesis that energy (fat) availability influences temperature selection of two fat-storing bat species during hibernation. We predicted that individuals with small energy reserves would select colder temperatures for hibernation in order to minimize energy expenditure, while individuals with larger energy reserves would choose warmer temperatures to minimize the costs of hibernation. Results from our field experiment indicate that little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) hibernating in warm microclimates were significantly heavier than individuals hibernating in cooler microclimates. To determine if energy availability was mediating this relationship, we limited fatty acid availability with mercaptoacetate (MA) and quantified its effect on torpid metabolic rate (TMR) and thermal preference of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Administration of MA caused a 43% drop in TMR at 10 degrees C and caused bats to choose significantly colder temperatures for hibernation. Our results suggest that fat-storing bats minimize torpor expression using both physiological and behavioral mechanisms. PMID:18055623

  5. Influence analysis for the factor analysis model with ranking data.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Poon, Wai-Yin; Lee, Sik-Yum

    2008-05-01

    Influence analysis is an important component of data analysis, and the local influence approach has been widely applied to many statistical models to identify influential observations and assess minor model perturbations since the pioneering work of Cook (1986). The approach is often adopted to develop influence analysis procedures for factor analysis models with ranking data. However, as this well-known approach is based on the observed data likelihood, which involves multidimensional integrals, directly applying it to develop influence analysis procedures for the factor analysis models with ranking data is difficult. To address this difficulty, a Monte Carlo expectation and maximization algorithm (MCEM) is used to obtain the maximum-likelihood estimate of the model parameters, and measures for influence analysis on the basis of the conditional expectation of the complete data log likelihood at the E-step of the MCEM algorithm are then obtained. Very little additional computation is needed to compute the influence measures, because it is possible to make use of the by-products of the estimation procedure. Influence measures that are based on several typical perturbation schemes are discussed in detail, and the proposed method is illustrated with two real examples and an artificial example. PMID:18482479

  6. Task frequency influences stimulus-driven effects on task selection during voluntary task switching.

    PubMed

    Arrington, Catherine M; Reiman, Kaitlin M

    2015-08-01

    Task selection during voluntary task switching involves both top-down (goal-directed) and bottom-up (stimulus-driven) mechanisms. The factors that shift the balance between these two mechanisms are not well characterized. In the present research, we studied the role that task frequency plays in determining the extent of stimulus-driven task selection. In two experiments, we used the basic paradigm adapted from Arrington (Memory & Cognition, 38, 991-997, 2008), in which the effect of stimulus availability serves as a marker of stimulus-driven task selection. A number and letter appeared on each trial with varying stimulus onset asynchronies, and participants performed either a consonant/vowel or an even/odd judgment. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed as to the relative frequency with which each task was to be performed (i.e., 50/50, 60/40, or 75/25) and were further instructed to make their transitions between tasks unpredictable. In Experiment 2, participants were given no instructions about how to select tasks, resulting in naturally occurring variation in task frequency. With both instructed (Exp. 1) and naturally occurring (Exp. 2) relative task frequencies, the less frequently performed task showed a greater effect of stimulus availability on task selection, suggestive of a larger influence of stimulus-driven mechanisms during task performance for the less frequent task. When goal-directed mechanisms of task choice are engaged less frequently, the relative influence of the stimulus environment increases. PMID:26106057

  7. Influence of Life Style Factors on Barrett's Oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Horna Strand, A; Franzén, T

    2014-01-01

    Background. Since the incidence of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus is rising, the prognosis is poor, and surveillance programs are expensive and mostly cost ineffective, there is a need to increase the knowledge of risk factors in Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal cancer in order to be able to give attention to medical prevention and/or surveillance programs. Aim. To study if there is a correlation between the development of Barrett's oesophagus and GOR (gastro oesophageal reflux), family history of GOR, and life style factors, such as alcohol, smoking habits, and mental stress. Methods. Fifty-five consecutively selected patients with Barrett's oesophagus (BO) examined at Linköping University Hospital's Oesophageal Laboratory were matched by sex, age, and duration of reflux symptoms with 55 GOR patients without Barrett's oesophagus at the Oesophageal Laboratory. The medical charts in respective groups were examined for comparison of life style factors, mental stress, medication, duration of gastroesophageal acid reflux at 24 hr-pH-metry, and incidence of antireflux surgery and of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus (ACO). Also, potential gender differences and diagnosis of ACO were studied. Results. Mean percentage reflux time on 24 hr-pH-metry was higher for the Barrett's oesophagus group, 18% for women and 17% for men compared to 4% for women and 4% for men in the control group (P < 0.05). Family history of GOR was more frequent in Barrett's oesophagus patients (62%) than in the control group (35%) (P < 0.05). Male patients with Barrett's oesophagus had medical therapy for their GOR symptoms to a higher extent (38%) than male controls (65%) (P < 0.05). No difference was found in the number of tobacco users or former tobacco users between Barrett's oesophagus patients and controls. Barrett's oesophagus patients had the same level of alcohol consumption and the same average BMI as the control subjects. Female patients with Barrett's oesophagus rated

  8. Adolescent Friendships, BMI, and Physical Activity: Untangling Selection and Influence Through Longitudinal Social Network Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Simpkins, Sandra D.; Schaefer, David R.; Price, Chara D.; Vest, Andrea E.

    2012-01-01

    Bioecological theory suggests that adolescents’ health is a result of selection and socialization processes occurring between adolescents and their microsettings. This study examines the association between adolescents’ friends and health using a social network model and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 1,896, mean age = 15.97 years). Results indicated evidence of friend influence on BMI and physical activity. Friendships were more likely among adolescents who engaged in greater physical activity and who were similar to one another in BMI and physical activity. These effects emerged after controlling for alternative friend selection factors, such as endogenous social network processes and propinquity through courses and activities. Some selection effects were moderated by gender, popularity, and reciprocity. PMID:24222971

  9. Hunting influences the diel patterns in habitat selection by northern pintails Anas acuta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, Peter S.; Miller, Michael R.; Overton, Cory T.; Yparraguirre, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    Northern pintail Anas acuta (hereafter pintail) populations wintering within Suisun Marsh, a large estuarine managed wetland near San Francisco Bay, California,USA, have declined markedly over the last four decades. The reasons for this decline are unclear. Information on how hunting and other factors influence the selection of vegetation types and sanctuaries would be beneficial to manage pintail populations in SuisunMarsh. During 1991-1993, we radio-marked and relocated female pintails (individuals: N = 203, relocations: N = 7,688) within Suisun Marsh to investigate habitat selection during the non-breeding months (winter). We calculated selection ratios for different vegetation types and for sanctuaries, and examined differences in those ratios between hunting season (i.e. hunting and non-hunting), age (hatchyear and after-hatch-year), and time of day (daylight or night hours). We found that diel patterns in selection were influenced by hunting disturbance. For example, prior to the hunting season and during daylight hours, pintails selected areas dominated by brass buttons Cotula coronopifolia, a potentially important food source, usually outside of sanctuary boundaries. However, during the hunting season, pintails did not select brass buttons during daylight hours, but instead highly selected permanent pools, mostly within sanctuaries. Also, during the hunting season, pintails showed strong selection for brass buttons at night. Sanctuaries provided more area of permanent water pools than within hunting areas and appeared to function as important refugia during daylight hours of the hunting season. Wildlife managers should encourage large protected permanent pools adjacent to hunted wetlands to increase pintail numbers within wetland environments and responsibly benefit hunting opportunities while improving pintail conservation.

  10. Prioritizing factors influencing nurses' satisfaction with hospital information systems: a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process approach.

    PubMed

    Kimiafar, Khalil; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Sheikhtaheri, Abbas; Sarbaz, Masoumeh

    2014-04-01

    Our aim was to use the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process approach to prioritize the factors that influence nurses' satisfaction with a hospital information system. First, we reviewed the related literature to identify and select possible factors. Second, we developed an analytic hierarchy process framework with three main factors (quality of services, of systems, and of information) and 22 subfactors. Third, we developed a questionnaire based on pairwise comparisons and invited 10 experienced nurses who were identified through snowball sampling to rate these factors. Finally, we used Chang's fuzzy extent analysis method to compute the weights of these factors and prioritize them. We found that information quality was the most important factor (58%), followed by service quality (22%) and then system quality (19%). In conclusion, although their weights were not similar, all factors were important and should be considered in evaluating nurses' satisfaction. PMID:24469556

  11. Factors Influencing Latino Participation in Community-Based Diabetes Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Sarah L.; Noterman, Amber; Litchfield, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    An Extension diabetes program (DP) was revised for Latinos; however, participation was limited. Factors influencing low participation rates were examined. Five Latinos interested in the DP participated in a focus group discussion. Transcripts were analyzed for themes. Preferred education programs were multi-session, local, group classes led by an…

  12. Adolescents Who Drive Under the Influence: Correlates and Risk Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayton, Daniel M., II; And Others

    This study was designed to determine the correlates or potential risk factors which predict whether an adolescent who drinks or uses drugs will refrain from driving under the influence, or will drive in this condition. A group of 426 rural high school seniors completed a questionnaire which assessed drug use patterns and previously identified risk…

  13. Factors Influencing Adjustment to Late-Life Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Keren Brown; DeShane, Michael R.

    Although the rate of divorce among older Americans has increased steadily, little attention has been paid to late life divorce. To describe the role of age and other factors which might influence adjustment to divorce in later life, data from a larger pilot study were used: 81 divorced persons over the age of 60 completed in-depth, structured…

  14. FACTORS INFLUENCING FALL FOLIAGE COLOR EXPRESSION IN SUGAR MAPLE TREES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: We evaluated factors influencing red autumn coloration in leaves of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) by measuring mineral nutrition and carbohydrate concentrations, moisture content, and phenology of color development of leaves from 16 mature open-grown trees on 12 d...

  15. Improving Performance Appraisals: Confronting Subjective Factors That Influence Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Michael J.

    1986-01-01

    Explores implications of subjective factors that influence rating processes upon which formal performance appraisal systems are based and presents a strategy for addressing this problem which utilizes the critical incident method to focus objectively on employee behavior. A performance feedback worksheet to be utilized with this appraisal method…

  16. Factors that Influence Informal Learning in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Shelley A.; Chyung, Seung Youn

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to investigate factors that influence informal learning in the workplace and the types of informal learning activities people engage in at work. More specifically, the research examined: the relationship between informal learning engagement and the presence of learning organization characteristics; and…

  17. Abuse of Working Children and Influencing Factors, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oncu, Emine; Kurt, Ahmet Oner; Esenay, Figen Isik; Ozer, Fatma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The study was planned as the research of the kind/kinds of abuse and the factors influencing the abuse that the children under 18 who are working full-time at a workplace and enrolled in a vocational training center subjected to. Method: Questionnaires were administered to 595 apprentices who were attending a vocational training center.…

  18. Key Factors that Influence Recruiting Young Chinese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhenmin

    2007-01-01

    The discussion in this paper is based on the assumption that international education is equated to recruiting and educating international students, even though its true concept goes far beyond this narrow understanding. The purpose of this research is to look at the key factors that influence recruiting young Chinese students, and make sure all…

  19. Social and Environmental Factors Influencing In-Prison Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodall, James

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is a strong political imperative to regard the prison as a key social setting for health promotion, but evidence indicates that drug misuse continues to be a significant issue for many prisoners. This paper aims to examine the social and environmental factors within the setting that influence individuals' drug taking.…

  20. Factors Influencing Career Choice of Management Students in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwala, Tanuja

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the influence of a range of factors on the career choice of management students in India. The importance of different individuals in the family and at work in making career choices among these students is also to be explored. In addition, the study seeks to address the relationship of the cultural values of…

  1. Multilevel Factors Influencing Maternal Stress during the First Three Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulsow, Miriam; Caldera, Yvonne M.; Pursley, Marta; Reifman, Alan; Huston, Aletha C.

    2002-01-01

    Study applies family stress theory to the influence of personal, child, and familial factors on a mother's parenting stress during the first 3 years of her infant's life. Mother's personality was most predictive of parenting stress. Counterintuitively, mothers who were more satisfied with work or school choices were more likely to be chronically…

  2. Factors Influencing Faculty Engagement--Then, Now, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Barbara A.

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, author Barbara Holland reflects on her 1999 "Journal of Public Service & Outreach" article, "Factors and Strategies That Influence Faculty Involvement in Public Service" (EJ589785) reprinted in this 20th anniversary issue of "Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement." In the late…

  3. Factors Influencing Students' Decisions about Post-Year 10 Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beswick, Kim; Hay, Ian; Watson, Jane; Allen, Jeanne; Cranston, Neil

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports pilot data from an instrument devised as part of a large ARC funded project that aims, among other things, to investigate factors that influence the decisions of students in rural and/or disadvantaged areas to continue their schooling beyond Year 10. One section of the pilot student questionnaire comprised 42 items designed to…

  4. Factors Influencing the Dielectric Properties of Agricultural and Food Materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dielectric properties of materials are defined, and the major factors that influence these properties of agricultural and food materials, namely, frequency of the applied radio-frequency or microwave electric fields, and water content, temperature, and density of the materials, are discussed on the ...

  5. Environmental Volunteers: Factors Influencing Their Involvement in Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liarakou, Georgia; Kostelou, Eleni; Gavrilakis, Costas

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the factors that influence volunteers to become involved in environmental action. The research focused on volunteers undertaking action in summer camps organised by an environmental non-governmental organisation (NGO) in Greece. The results suggest that the environmental issues addressed in volunteer…

  6. Factors Influencing Active Learning in Small Enterprises. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawke, Geof

    The factors influencing active learning in small enterprises were examined. Data from earlier Australian studies were examined in an attempt to provide a framework that might inform the relationship between educational systems and small enterprises. Special attention was paid to a 1988 study of systematic differences between small businesses that…

  7. Against Conventional Wisdom: Factors Influencing Hispanic Students' Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percell, Jay C.; Kaufman, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The researchers performed a variable analysis of the 2002 Educational Longitudinal Study data investigating factors that influence students' reading scores on standardized tests. Hispanic and non-Hispanic Scores were analyzed and controlling variables were compared to determine the effect of each on both populations. Certain variables commonly…

  8. Factors Influencing the Vocational Aspirations of Victorian Year 9 Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrom, Linda K.

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of family background and attitudinal factors on occupational aspirations of Year 9 students in Victoria, Australia. A survey was made of all Victorian Year 9 students and comparisons were made between groups of students who aspired to different occupations. Discriminant function analyses were…

  9. Factors Influencing the Readability of Student-Generated Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, JoBeth

    An investigation examined student-generated texts in terms of both traditional and more theoretically valid readability to determine what factors influence comprehension when children read their own, peer, and adult-written texts. Seventy dictated stories created in an earlier study, along with 4 first-grade level stories from the "Reader's Digest…

  10. Factors Influencing Stress, Burnout, and Retention of Secondary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Molly H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the stress, burnout, satisfaction, and preventive coping skills of nearly 400 secondary teachers to determine variables contributing to these major factors influencing teachers. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics were conducted that found the burnout levels between new and experienced teachers are significantly different,…