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1

Anaerobic dechlorination and degradation of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers by anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening studies with strict and facultative anaerobic bacteria showed that Clostridium app. and several other representatives of Bacillaceae and Enterobacteriaceae actively degraded ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH) under anaerobic conditions. Representatives of Lactobacillaceae and Propronibacterium were inactive. With 36Cl-labelled ?-HCH a nearly complete dechlorination was shown to occur in 4–6 days by Clostridium butyricum, C. pasteurianum and Citrobacter freundii, while other facultative anaerobic

G. Jagnow; K. Haider; P.-Chr. Ellwardt

1977-01-01

2

Oxygen regulated gene expression in facultatively anaerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In facultatively anaerobic bacteria such asEscherichia coli, oxygen and other electron acceptors fundamentally influence catabolic and anabolic pathways.E. coli is able to grow aerobically by respiration and in the absence of O2 by anaerobic respiration with nitrate, nitrite, fumarate, dimethylsulfoxide and trimethylamine N-oxide as acceptors or by fermentation. The expression of the various catabolic pathways occurs according to a hierarchy

G. Unden; S. Becker; J. Bongaerts; J. Schirawski

1994-01-01

3

Enhancement of Growth of Aerobic, Anaerobic, and Facultative Bacteria in Mixed Infections with Anaerobic and Facultative Gram-Positive Cocci,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Anaerobic and facultative gram-positive cocci (AFGPC) mixed with other bacteria are frequently recovered from infections at different sites in the body. Although many of these organisms are synergistic, the exact role of AFGPC in these infections and thei...

I. Brook

1988-01-01

4

Role of anaerobic flora in the translocation of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic intestinal bacteria.  

PubMed Central

It is thought that the normal enteric microflora acts not only to prevent intestinal colonization but also to prevent subsequent systemic dissemination of ingested, potentially pathogenic bacteria. To determine the relative roles of specific components of the intestinal bacterial flora in bacterial translocation out of the gut, mice were given various antimicrobial agents to selectively eliminate specific groups of intestinal bacteria. The cecal flora and the translocating bacteria in mesenteric lymph nodes were monitored both before and after oral inoculation with antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli C25. Orally administered streptomycin selectively eliminated cecal facultative gram-negative bacilli, orally administered bacitracin-streptomycin eliminated all cecal bacterial species except low numbers of aerobic sporeformers, and parenterally administered metronidazole selectively eliminated cecal anaerobic bacteria. Compared with control mice, only metronidazole-treated mice had significantly increased rates of dissemination of intestinal bacteria into mesenteric lymph nodes, indicating that the exclusive absence of anaerobic bacteria facilitated the translocation of the intestinal facultative bacteria. In a parallel experiment with streptomycin-resistant E. coli C25 as a marker, parallel results were obtained. Metronidazole increased the translocation of the marker strain and the indigenous strains of intestinal bacteria. Thus, anaerobes appeared to play a key role in confining indigenous bacteria to the gut. However, intestinal colonization and translocation of E. coli C25 occurred most readily after bacitracin-streptomycin treatment, suggesting that in addition to anaerobic bacteria, other bacterial groups may play a role in limiting the intestinal colonization and extraintestinal dissemination of E. coli C25.

Wells, C L; Maddaus, M A; Reynolds, C M; Jechorek, R P; Simmons, R L

1987-01-01

5

Cultivation of Anaerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Bacteria from Spacecraft-Associated Clean Rooms?  

PubMed Central

In the course of this biodiversity study, the cultivable microbial community of European spacecraft-associated clean rooms and the Herschel Space Observatory located therein were analyzed during routine assembly operations. Here, we focused on microorganisms capable of growing without oxygen. Anaerobes play a significant role in planetary protection considerations since extraterrestrial environments like Mars probably do not provide enough oxygen for fully aerobic microbial growth. A broad assortment of anaerobic media was used in our cultivation strategies, which focused on microorganisms with special metabolic skills. The majority of the isolated strains grew on anaerobic, complex, nutrient-rich media. Autotrophic microorganisms or microbes capable of fixing nitrogen were also cultivated. A broad range of facultatively anaerobic bacteria was detected during this study and also, for the first time, some strictly anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium and Propionibacterium) were isolated from spacecraft-associated clean rooms. The multiassay cultivation approach was the basis for the detection of several bacteria that had not been cultivated from these special environments before and also led to the discovery of two novel microbial species of Pseudomonas and Paenibacillus.

Stieglmeier, Michaela; Wirth, Reinhard; Kminek, Gerhard; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

2009-01-01

6

Cultivation of anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria from spacecraft-associated clean rooms.  

PubMed

In the course of this biodiversity study, the cultivable microbial community of European spacecraft-associated clean rooms and the Herschel Space Observatory located therein were analyzed during routine assembly operations. Here, we focused on microorganisms capable of growing without oxygen. Anaerobes play a significant role in planetary protection considerations since extraterrestrial environments like Mars probably do not provide enough oxygen for fully aerobic microbial growth. A broad assortment of anaerobic media was used in our cultivation strategies, which focused on microorganisms with special metabolic skills. The majority of the isolated strains grew on anaerobic, complex, nutrient-rich media. Autotrophic microorganisms or microbes capable of fixing nitrogen were also cultivated. A broad range of facultatively anaerobic bacteria was detected during this study and also, for the first time, some strictly anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium and Propionibacterium) were isolated from spacecraft-associated clean rooms. The multiassay cultivation approach was the basis for the detection of several bacteria that had not been cultivated from these special environments before and also led to the discovery of two novel microbial species of Pseudomonas and Paenibacillus. PMID:19363082

Stieglmeier, Michaela; Wirth, Reinhard; Kminek, Gerhard; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

2009-06-01

7

Dissimilatory Reduction of Inorganic Sulfur by Facultatively Anaerobic Marine Bacteria1  

PubMed Central

Three strains, selected from a large number of newly isolated, facultatively anaerobic marine bacteria, reduced inorganic sulfur compounds other than sulfate anaerobically in defined culture media in the following different patterns: (i) sulfite and thiosulfate were reduced to sulfide, and tetrathionate was reduced to thiosulfate; (ii) tetrathionate was reduced to thiosulfate only; or (iii) thiosulfate was reduced to sulfide only when pyruvate was the substrate. Comparison of anaerobic growth in the presence or absence of inorganic sulfur compounds indicated true dissimilatory reductions.

Tuttle, Jon H.; Jannasch, Holger W.

1973-01-01

8

Effects of gamma ray and electron-beam irradiations on survival of anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

An extension of the approval for food irradiation is desired due to the increase in the incidence of food poisoning in the world. One anaerobic (Clostridium perfringens) and four facultatively anaerobic (Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Enteritidis) bacteria irradiated with gamma ray or electron beam (E-beam) were tested in terms of survival on agar under packaging atmosphere. Using pouch pack, effects of two irradiations on survival of anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria were evaluated comparatively. E-beam irradiation was more effective than gamma ray irradiation in decreasing the D10 value of B. cereus at 4 degrees C, slightly more effective in that of E. coli O157, and similarly effective in that of the other three bacteria at 4 degrees C. The gamma irradiation of the bacteria without incubation at 4 degrees C before irradiation was more effective than that of the bacteria with incubation overnight at 4 degrees C before irradiation in decreasing the D10 values of these bacteria (B. cereus, E. coli O157, and L. monocytogenes). Furthermore, ground beef patties inoculated with bacteria were irradiated with 1 kGy by E-beam (5 MeV) at 4 degrees C. The inoculated bacteria in the 1-9 mm beef patties were killed by 1 kGy E-beam irradiation and some bacteria in more than 9 mm beef patties were not killed by the irradiation. PMID:12638185

Miyahara, Michiko; Miyahara, Makoto

2002-01-01

9

Characterization of the biochemical-pathway of uranium (VI) reduction in facultative anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

Cultures of U(VI) reducing bacteria sourced from abandoned uranium mine tailing dam were evaluated for their ability to reduce U(VI) to U(IV). The species in the cultures reduced U(VI) in solutions with initial U(VI) concentration up to 400mgL(-)(1) under a near neutral pH of 6.5. The electron flow pathway and fate of reduced species was also analysed in the individual species in order to evaluate the potential for control and optimisation of the reduction potential at the biochemical level. The results showed that U(VI) reduction in live cells was completely blocked by the NADH-dehydrogenase inhibitor, rotenone (C23H22O6), and thioredoxin inhibitor, cadmium chloride (CdCl2), showing that U(VI) reduction involves the electron flow through NADH-dehydrogenase, a primary electron donor to the electron transport respiratory (ETR) system. Mass balance analysis of uranium species aided by visual and electron microscopy suggest that most U(VI) reduction occurred on the cell surface of the isolated species. This finding indicates the possibility of easy uranium recovery for beneficial use through biological remediation. Should the U(VI) be reduced inside the cell, recovery would require complete disruption of the cells and therefore would be difficult. The study contributes new knowledge on the underlying mechanisms in the U(VI) reduction in facultative anaerobes. PMID:25065785

Mtimunye, Phalazane J; Chirwa, Evans M N

2014-10-01

10

Comparison of lysis-centrifugation with a biphasic blood culture medium for the recovery of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The Du Pont Isolator tube and Roche Septi-Chek blood culture bottle employ solid media which facilitate the removal of bacteria from static or cidal substances in blood to increase recovery and decrease detection time. In a comparison of 11,567 blood culture sets, the Isolator tube and vented Roche Septi-Chek bottle were positive for 533 (80%) and 494 (74%) of the aerobic and facultatively anaerobic organisms recovered, respectively. This difference was not significant. A significant difference was found in the overall detection time. The Isolator tube recovered the bacteria ca. 1 day earlier. The earlier detection time was most notable with Staphylococcus aureus, viridans streptococci, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among the 355 bacteremic episodes analyzed by a computer program, the Isolator tube was responsible more often for the first report of bacteremia in a given patient. Both systems performed well for the recovery of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria, but it is recommended that either be used in combination with an unvented broth-containing bottle.

Henry, N K; Grewell, C M; Van Grevenhof, P E; Ilstrup, D M; Washington, J A

1984-01-01

11

Comparison of lysis-centrifugation with a biphasic blood culture medium for the recovery of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

The Du Pont Isolator tube and Roche Septi-Chek blood culture bottle employ solid media which facilitate the removal of bacteria from static or cidal substances in blood to increase recovery and decrease detection time. In a comparison of 11,567 blood culture sets, the Isolator tube and vented Roche Septi-Chek bottle were positive for 533 (80%) and 494 (74%) of the aerobic and facultatively anaerobic organisms recovered, respectively. This difference was not significant. A significant difference was found in the overall detection time. The Isolator tube recovered the bacteria ca. 1 day earlier. The earlier detection time was most notable with Staphylococcus aureus, viridans streptococci, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among the 355 bacteremic episodes analyzed by a computer program, the Isolator tube was responsible more often for the first report of bacteremia in a given patient. Both systems performed well for the recovery of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria, but it is recommended that either be used in combination with an unvented broth-containing bottle. PMID:6386858

Henry, N K; Grewell, C M; Van Grevenhof, P E; Ilstrup, D M; Washington, J A

1984-09-01

12

Anaerobic bacteria  

MedlinePLUS

Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that do not live or grow in the presence of oxygen. In humans, ... Goldstein EJ. Diseases caused by non-spore forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

13

Facultative anaerobic halophilic and alkaliphilic bacteria isolated from a natural smear ecosystem inhibit Listeria growth in early ripening stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro and in situ anti-listerial properties of 3 strains of Facultative Anaerobic Halophilic and Alkaliphilic (FAHA) species, i.e. Alkalibacterium kapii ALK 6, Marinilactibacillus psychrotolerans ALK 9 and Facklamia tabacinasalis ALK 1, were investigated. The 3 strains were isolated from a smear ecosystem originating from a commercial Raclette type cheese and exhibiting strong anti-listerial activity in situ on cheese surface.In

Emmanuelle Roth; Susanne Miescher Schwenninger; Elisabeth Eugster-Meier; Christophe Lacroix

2011-01-01

14

Concentration and species composition of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria released to the air of a dental operation area before and after disinfection of dental unit waterlines.  

PubMed

Bacteriological air sampling was conducted at 25 dental units during restorative treatment sessions before and after disinfection of dental unit waterlines (DUWL) with hydrogen peroxide. Air samples for determining the concentration and species composition of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria were collected with the portable Reuter Centrifugal Sampler (RCS Plus) in the dental operation area close to patient's mouth. Large concentrations of airborne bacteria in the range of 0.35-40.08 x 10(3) cfu/m(3) (median = 1.63 x 10(3) cfu/m(3)) were recorded before DUWL disinfection. After disinfection, the concentrations were significantly lower (p<0.05), ranging from 0.51-3.82 x 10(3) cfu/m(3) (median = 0.9 x 10(3) cfu/m(3)). Streptococci were most numerous among airborne bacteria before DUWL disinfection, forming 79.23 % of total isolates. The remaining isolates were staphylococci/micrococci (15.7 % ), corynebacteria (2.3 % ), endospore-forming bacilli (1.45 % ), Gram-negative bacteria (1.31 % ), and actinomycetes (0.01 % ). After DUWL disinfection, a significant decrease in the numbers of streptococci (p<0.05) and Gram-negative bacteria (p<0.01) was noted, while the numbers of other types of bacteria were unaffected. Altogether, 50 species or genera of bacteria were identified in the examined air samples before and after DUWL disinfection. Of these, 36 species or genera are considered potentially pathogenic, as a potential cause of infection, allergic disease or intoxication. In conclusion, the high pollution of dental operation area with bacteria indicates a need for use of preventive measures protecting dental staff and patients, such as DUWL disinfection that proved efficient in decrease of exposure in the present study. PMID:19061267

Szyma?ska, Jolanta; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

2008-12-01

15

Mediation of sulfur speciation by a Black Sea facultative anaerobe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shewanella putrefaciens, a respiratory facultative anaerobe isolated from the Black Sea, can reduce thiosulfate, sulfite, and elemental sulfur to sulfide readily and quantitatively. This widespread and anaerobically versatile microorganism, which is incapable of reducing sulfate, uses oxidized sulfur intermediates as electron acceptors during the respiratory oxidation of organic matter. Because of its widespread distribution and abundance, it may play a

K. A. Perry; J. E. Kostka; G. W. Luther; K. H. Nealson

1993-01-01

16

Mediation of sulfur speciation by a Black Sea facultative anaerobe  

SciTech Connect

Shewanella putrefaciens, a respiratory facultative anaerobe isolated from the Black Sea, can reduce thiosulfate, sulfite, and elemental sulfur to sulfide readily and quantitatively. This widespread and anaerobically versatile microorganism, which is incapable of reducing sulfate, uses oxidized sulfur intermediates as electron acceptors during the respiratory oxidation of organic matter. Because of its widespread distribution and abundance, it may play a significant role in sulfur and trace metal cycling in the Black Sea and in other marine and freshwater anaerobic environments. 28 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Perry, K.A.; Kostka, J.E.; Luther, G.W. III (Univ. of Delaware, Lewes (United States)); Nealson, K.H. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (United States))

1993-02-05

17

[Topics on anaerobic bacteria and anaerobic infection].  

PubMed

Considerable information has been accumulated in the field of anaerobic bacteria and anaerobic infections in the last ten years. Here we tried to briefly introduce several selected topics of clinical importance in this field: Proposal of the term "Nanaerobe", Changes of classification and nomenclature of anaerobes, Anaerobic bacteremia, Lemierre's syndrome as a revival anaerobic infection, Atopobium vaginae as Bacterial Vaginosis-associated bacteria, and new actions of the Clostridium perfringens toxins. PMID:16629490

Watanabe, Kunitomo

2006-03-01

18

Reduction of Uranium(VI) to Uranium (IV) by Three Facultative Anaerobes at High Concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Six bacteria species were isolated from a uranium mine in Limpopo, South Africa, and three facultative anaerobes reduced U(VI) to U(IV) and aided the removal of U(VI) from solution. The pure cultures showed a high reduction rate at pH 5 to 6 for concentrations 100-800 mg/L during the first 4 to 6 hours of incubation. A biological remediation process for removing U(VI) is desirable in the nuclear industry where more expensive environmentally non-friendly physical chemical processes have been used conventionally for decades.

Chabalala, Simphiwe; Chirwa, Evans M. N.

2010-01-01

19

Anaerobic bacteria that dechlorinate perchloroethene.  

PubMed Central

In this study, we identified specific cultures of anaerobic bacteria that dechlorinate perchlorethene (PCE). The bacteria that significantly dechlorinated PCE were strain DCB-1, an obligate anaerobe previously shown to dechlorinate chlorobenzoate, and two strains of Methanosarcina. The rate of PCE dechlorination by DCB-1 compared favorably with reported rates of trichloroethene bio-oxidation by methanotrophs. Even higher PCE dechlorination rates were achieved when DCB-1 was grown in a methanogenic consortium.

Fathepure, B Z; Nengu, J P; Boyd, S A

1987-01-01

20

Heparinase production by anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The production of heparinase by a wide range of anaerobic bacteria isolated from clinical specimens was investigated. None of the 29 strains of Bacteroides fragilis produced heparinase. Of 62 other Bacteroides tested, only two of four strains of B ovatus, two of three strains of B thetaiotaomicron, and two of four strains of B uniformis were heparinase producers. None of the 48 strains of fusobacteria or seven strains of Veillonella produced heparinase. The anaerobic cocci (19 peptococci and seven peptostreptococci) were also negative for heparinase production as were 46 Clostridium spp tested. It was concluded that heparinase production by anaerobic bacteria was unlikely to play a part in the regional thrombophlebitis that sometimes occurs in anaerobic infections.

Riley, T V

1987-01-01

21

Rapid isolation of a facultative anaerobic electrochemically active bacterium capable of oxidizing acetate for electrogenesis and azo dyes reduction.  

PubMed

In this study, 27 strains of electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) were rapidly isolated and their capabilities of extracellular electron transfer were identified using a photometric method based on WO3 nanoclusters. These strains caused color change of WO3 from white to blue in a 24-well agar plate within 40 h. Most of the isolated EAB strains belonged to the genera of Aeromonas and Shewanella. One isolate, Pantoea agglomerans S5-44, was identified as an EAB that can utilize acetate as the carbon source to produce electricity and reduce azo dyes under anaerobic conditions. The results confirmed the capability of P. agglomerans S5-44 for extracellular electron transfer. The isolation of this acetate-utilizing, facultative EBA reveals the metabolic diversity of environmental bacteria. Such strains have great potential for environmental applications, especially at interfaces of aerobic and anaerobic environments, where acetate is the main available carbon source. PMID:24648142

Shen, Nan; Yuan, Shi-Jie; Wu, Chao; Cheng, Yuan-Yuan; Song, Xiang-Ning; Li, Wen-Wei; Tong, Zhong-Hua; Yu, Han-Qing

2014-05-01

22

Culturable Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) in Southern Pakistan.  

PubMed

Using morphological analysis and biochemical testing, here for the first time, we determined the culturable gut bacterial flora (aerobes and facultative anaerobes) in the venomous Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) from South Asia. The findings revealed that these snakes inhabit potentially pathogenic bacteria including Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella sp., Moraxella sp., Bacillus sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Providencia rettgeri. These findings are of concern, as injury from snake bite can result in wound infections and tissue necrosis leading to sepsis/necrotizing fasciitis and/or expose consumers of snake meat/medicine in the community to infections. PMID:25002979

Iqbal, Junaid; Sagheer, Mehwish; Tabassum, Nazneen; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

2014-01-01

23

Culturable Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) in Southern Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Using morphological analysis and biochemical testing, here for the first time, we determined the culturable gut bacterial flora (aerobes and facultative anaerobes) in the venomous Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) from South Asia. The findings revealed that these snakes inhabit potentially pathogenic bacteria including Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella sp., Moraxella sp., Bacillus sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Providencia rettgeri. These findings are of concern, as injury from snake bite can result in wound infections and tissue necrosis leading to sepsis/necrotizing fasciitis and/or expose consumers of snake meat/medicine in the community to infections.

Iqbal, Junaid; Sagheer, Mehwish; Tabassum, Nazneen; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

2014-01-01

24

Transfer of the Facultatively Anaerobic Organism Bacteroides corrodens Eiken to a New Genus, Eikenella  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is proposed that the facultatively anaerobic, gram-neptive organism described by Eiken (1958) and named by him Bacteroides corrodens be transferred to a new genus, which the authors name Eikenella. Organisms of this kind form a fairly homogeneous group and differ in important respects from the generally accepted Bacteroides species and from the members of the currently recognized genera of

F. L. JACKSON; YVONNE E. GOODMAN

25

Draft Genome Sequence of Cytophaga fermentans JCM 21142T, a Facultative Anaerobe Isolated from Marine Mud  

PubMed Central

Cytophaga fermentans strain JCM 21142T is a marine-dwelling facultative anaerobe. The draft genome sequence of this strain revealed its diverse chemoorganotrophic potential, which makes it capable of metabolizing various polysaccharide substrates. The genome data will facilitate further studies on its taxonomic reclassification, its metabolism, and the mechanisms pertaining to bacterial gliding.

Starns, David; Oshima, Kenshiro; Suda, Wataru; Iino, Takao; Yuki, Masahiro; Inoue, Jun-Ichi; Kitamura, Keiko; Iida, Toshiya; Darby, Alistair; Hattori, Masahira

2014-01-01

26

Genome Sequence of a Promising Hydrogen-Producing Facultative Anaerobic Bacterium, Brevundimonas naejangsanensis Strain B1  

PubMed Central

Brevundimonas naejangsanensis strain B1 is a newly isolated, facultative anaerobic bacterium capable of producing hydrogen with high efficiency. Here, we present a 2.94-Mb assembly of the genome sequence of strain B1, which may provide further insights into the molecular mechanism of hydrogen production from bioresource.

Zhang, Ting; Bao, Meidan; Jiang, Yixin; Wang, Yu; Tan, Tianwei

2014-01-01

27

Growth of the facultative anaerobe Shewanella putrefaciens by elemental sulfur reduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The growth of bacteria by dissimilatory elemental sulfur reduction is generally associated with obligate anaerobes and thermophiles in particular. Here we describe the sulfur-dependent growth of the facultatively anaerobic mesophile Shewanella putrefaciens. Six of nine representative S. putrefaciens isolates from a variety of environments proved able to grow by sulfur reduction, and strain MR-1 was chosen for further study. Growth was monitored in a minimal medium (usually with 0.05% Casamino Acids added as a growth stimulant) containing 30 mM lactate and limiting concentrations of elemental sulfur. When mechanisms were provided for the removal of the metabolic end product, H2S, measurable growth was obtained at sulfur concentrations of from 2 to 30 mM. Initial doubling times were ca. 1.5 h and substrate independent over the range of sulfur concentrations tested. In the cultures with the highest sulfur concentrations, cell numbers increased by greater than 400-fold after 48 h, reaching a maximum density of 6.8 x 10(8) cells ml-1. Yields were determined as total cell carbon and ranged from 1.7 to 5.9 g of C mol of S(0) consumed-1 in the presence of the amino acid supplement and from 0.9 to 3.4 g of C mol of S(0-1) in its absence. Several lines of evidence indicate that cell-to-sulfur contact is not required for growth. Approaches for the culture of sulfur-metabolizing bacteria and potential ecological implications of sulfur reduction in Shewanella-like heterotrophs are discussed.

Moser, D. P.; Nealson, K. H.

1996-01-01

28

Anaerobic bacteria from hypersaline environments.  

PubMed

Strictly anaerobic halophiles, namely fermentative, sulfate-reducing, homoacetogenic, phototrophic, and methanogenic bacteria are involved in the oxidation of organic carbon in hypersaline environments. To date, six anaerobic fermentative genera, containing nine species, have been described. Two of them are homoacetogens. Six species belong to the family Haloanaerobiaceae, as indicated by their unique 16S rRNA oligonucleotide sequences. Desulfohalobium retbaense and Desulfovibrio halophilus represent the only two moderately halophilic sulfate reducers so far reported. Among anoxygenic phototrophic anaerobes, a few purple bacteria with optimal growth at salinities between 6 and 11% NaCl have been isolated from hypersaline habitats. They belong to the genera Rhodospirillum, Chromatium, Thiocapsa, and Ectothiorhodospira. The commonest organisms isolated so far are Chromatium salexigens, Thiocapsa halophila, and Rhodospirillum salinarum. Extremely halophilic purple bacteria have most commonly been isolated from alkaline brines and require about 20 to 25% NaCl for optimal growth. They belong to the family Ectothiorodhospiraceae. Their osmoregulation involves synthesis or uptake of compatible solutes such as glycine-betaine that accumulate in their cytoplasm. The existence of methanogens in hypersaline environments is related to the presence of noncompetitive substrates such as methylamines, which originate mainly from the breakdown of osmoregulatory amines. Methanogenesis probably does not contribute to the mineralization of carbohydrates at NaCl concentrations higher than 15%. Above this concentration, sulfate reduction is probably the main way to oxidize H2 (although at rates too low to use up all the H2 formed) and occupies a terminal function kn the degradation of carbohydrates. Three genera and five species of halophilic methylotrophic methanogens have been reported. A bloom of phototrophic bacteria in the marine salterns of Salins-de-Giraud, located on the Mediterranean French coast in the Rhone Delta, is also described. PMID:8177169

Ollivier, B; Caumette, P; Garcia, J L; Mah, R A

1994-03-01

29

[Diversity of facultatively anaerobic microscopic mycelial fungi in soils].  

PubMed

The numbers of microscopic fungi isolated from soil samples after anaerobic incubation varied from tens to several hundreds of CFU per one gram of soil; a total of 30 species was found. This group is composed primarily of mitotic fungi of the ascomycete affinity belonging to the orders Hypocreales (Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, Fusarium sp., Clonostachys grammicospora, C. rosea. Acremonium sp., Gliocladium penicilloides, Trichoderma aureoviride, T. harzianum, T. polysporum, T. viride. T. koningii, Lecanicillum lecanii, and Tolypocladium inflatum) and Eurotiales (Aspergillus terreus, A. niger, and Paecilomyces lilacimus), as well as to the phylum Zygomycota, to the order Mucorales (Actinomucor elegans, Absidia glauca, Mucor circinelloides, M. hiemalis, M. racemosus, Mucor sp., Rhizopus oryzae, Zygorrhynchus moelleri, Z. heterogamus, and Umbelopsis isabellina) and the order Mortierellales (Mortierella sp.). As much as 10-30% of the total amount of fungal mycelium remains viable for a long time (one month) under anaerobic conditions. PMID:18365728

Kurakov, A V; Lavrent'ev, R B; Nechita?lo, T Iu; Golyshin, P N; Zviagintsev, D G

2008-01-01

30

Draft Genome Sequence of Amphibacillus jilinensis Y1T, a Facultatively Anaerobic, Alkaliphilic and Halotolerant Bacterium  

PubMed Central

The genus Amphibacillus was established in 1990, and seven additional species were described in the past two decades. Amphibacillus jilinensis Y1T is a facultatively anaerobic and alkaliphilic bacterium isolated from a soda lake in China. Here we describe the structural and genetic features of the draft genome about the type strain Y1T (3,831,075 bp, with a G+C content of 37.27%). This is the first genome report of the Amphibacillus genus.

Cheng, Hong; Fang, Ming-Xu; Jiang, Xia-Wei; Wu, Min; Zhu, Xu-Fen; Zheng, Gang; Yang, Zhi-Jian

2013-01-01

31

Oxygen Effect on the Low Temperature Tolerance of Facultative Anaerobes from Antarctica, Alaska, and Patagonia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Psychrotolerance as an adaptation to survival in extreme environments is widespread among many of the mesophilic microorganisms. Red-ox potential, pH and salinity could significantly alter the features of ecosystems by providing liquid water at subzero temperatures. Furthermore, organisms can respond to temperature changes by several known mechanisms, including changing the conformation capacities of constitutional proteins or by the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides around the cell wall and membrane. Such protective mechanisms make it possible for cells to not only passively survive low-temperature in a state of anabiosis, but also to be capable of actively metabolizing substrates and reproducing normally. The physiological and biochemical characteristics of species as well as genetics could be remarkably changed due to -on and surviving m extreme environments. The cold shock genes for some of the studied strains of psychrotolerant facultative anaerobes already were published In this paper we present experimental data for psychrotolerant facultative anaerobes isolated from geographically different cold regions of our planet. We show the growth response on the changing of anaerobic conditions to aerobic with cultivation at subzero temperatures.

Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

2004-01-01

32

Growth of the Facultative Anaerobes from Antarctica, Alaska, and Patagonia at Low Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Psychotolerance, as an adaptation for surviving in extreme environments, is widespread among mesophilic microorganisms. Physico-chemical factors such as pressure, red-ox potential, pH and salinity could significantly alter the features of ecosystems by providing liquid water at subzero temperatures. Furthermore, organisms can respond to temperature changes by several known mechanisms, including changing the conformation capacities of constitutional proteins or by the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides around the cell wall and membrane. Such protective mechanisms make it possible for cells to not only passively survive low temperatures in a state of anabiosis, but also to be capable of actively metabolizing substrates and reproducing normally. The physiological and biochemical characteristics of the species, as well as genetics, could be remarkably changed due to adaptation and surviving in extreme environments. The cold shock genes of some of the studied strains of psychotolerant facultative anaerobes were reported previously. In this paper we present experimental data for psychotolerant, non spore-forming, facultative anaerobes isolated from geographically different cold regions of our planet. We show the growth response on changing from anaerobic conditions to aerobic with cultivation at low temperatures.

Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

2004-01-01

33

Identification of Anaerobic Selenate-Respiring Bacteria from Aquatic Sediments?  

PubMed Central

The diversity population of microorganisms with the capability to use selenate as a terminal electron acceptor, reducing it to selenite and elemental selenium by the process known as dissimilatory selenate reduction, is largely unknown. The overall objective of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of anaerobic biotransformation of selenium in the environment, particularly anaerobic respiration, and to characterize the microorganisms catalyzing this process. Here, we demonstrate the isolation and characterization of four novel anaerobic dissimilatory selenate-respiring bacteria enriched from a variety of sources, including sediments from three different water bodies in Chennai, India, and a tidal estuary in New Jersey. Strains S5 and S7 from India, strain KM from the Meadowlands, NJ, and strain pn1, categorized as a laboratory contaminant, were all phylogenetically distinct, belonging to various phyla in the bacterial domain. The 16S rRNA gene sequence shows that strain S5 constitutes a new genus belonging to Chrysiogenetes, while strain S7 belongs to the Deferribacteres, with greater than 98% 16S rRNA gene similarity to Geovibrio ferrireducens. Strain KM is related to Malonomonas rubra, Pelobacter acidigallici, and Desulfuromusa spp., with 96 to 97% 16S rRNA gene similarity. Strain pn1 is 99% similar to Pseudomonas stutzeri. Strains S5, S7, and KM are obligately anaerobic selenate-respiring microorganisms, while strain pn1 is facultatively anaerobic. Besides respiring selenate, all these strains also respire nitrate.

Narasingarao, Priya; Haggblom, Max M.

2007-01-01

34

Detection of periodontopathogenic bacteria in pregnant women by traditional anaerobic culture method and by a commercial molecular genetic method  

Microsoft Academic Search

To culture facultative and strict anaerobic bacteria is a well-established method for analyzing subgingival plaque samples. Micro-IDent® and micro-IDent®Plus (HAIN Lifescience GmbH, Nehren, Germany) tests are two commercially available rapid PCR-based methods for the identification and quantification of putative periodontopathogen bacteria. In this study, we compared these commercial PCR-based hybridization methods with conventional anaerobic culture technique. A total of 36

Gabriella Terhes; Márta Radnai; István Gorzó; Elisabeth Nagy

2010-01-01

35

[Key enzymes in butanol fermentation by a facultative anaerobe Bacillus sp. TSH1].  

PubMed

Bacillus sp. TSH1 is a butanol-producing microorganism newly isolated in our laboratory; it can grow and ferment under facultative anaerobic conditions, while sharing similar fermentation pathways and products with Clostridium acetobutylicum. To illustrate the relationships between the products and the enzyme activities in Bacillus sp. TSH1, key butanol- and ethanol-forming enzymes were studied, including butyraldehyde dehydrogenase, butanol dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase. The activities of the three enzymes increased rapidly after the initiation of fermentation. Activities of three enzymes peaked before 21 h, and simultaneously, product concentrations also began to increase gradually. The maximum activity of alcohol dehydrogenase was 0.054 U/mg at 12 h, butyraldehyde dehydrogenase 0.035 U/mg at 21 h and butanol dehydrogenase 0.055 U/mg at 15 h. The enzyme activities then decreased, but remained constant at a low level after 24 h, while the concentrations of butanol, acetone, and ethanol continued increasing until the end of the fermentation. The results will attribute to the understanding of the butanol metabolic mechanism, and provide a reference for further study of a facultative Bacillus metabolic pathway. PMID:24010360

Duan, Xiaorui; Wang, Genyu; Liu, Hongjuan; Xue, Jianwei; Zhang, Jian'an

2013-05-01

36

Identification of a conserved protein involved in anaerobic unsaturated fatty acid synthesis in Neiserria gonorrhoeae: implications for facultative and obligate anaerobes that lack FabA  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Transcriptome analysis of the facultative anaerobe, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, revealed that many genes of unknown function were induced under anaerobic conditions. Mutation of one such gene, NGO1024, encoding a protein belonging to the 2-nitropropane dioxygenase-like superfamiliy of proteins, was found to result in an inability of gonococci to grow anaerobically. Anaerobic growth of an NG1024 mutant was restored upon supplementation with unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), but not with the saturated fatty acid palmitate. Gonococcal fatty acid profiles confirmed that NGO1024 was involved in UFA synthesis anaerobically, but not aerobically, demonstrating that gonococci contain two distinct pathways for the production of UFAs, with a yet unidentified aerobic mechanism, and an anaerobic mechanism involving NGO1024. Expression of genes involved in classical anaerobic UFA synthesis, fabA, fabM, and fabB, was toxic in gonococci and unable to complement a NGO1024 mutation, suggesting that the chemistry involved in gonococcal anaerobic UFA synthesis is distinct from that of the classical pathway. NGO1024 homologs, which we suggest naming UfaA, form a distinct lineage within the 2-nitropropane dioxygenase-like superfamily, and are found in many facultative and obligate anaerobes that produce UFAs but lack fabA, suggesting that UfaA is part of a widespread pathway involved in UFA synthesis.

Isabella, Vincent M.; Clark, Virginia L.

2011-01-01

37

Interaction between Penicillin Clindamycin or Metronidazole and Gentamicin Against Species of Clostridia and Anaerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Gram-Positive cocci.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seven anaerobic and facultative Gram-positive cocci and 12 clostridial species were tested for in-vitro and in-vivo susceptibilities to penicillin, clindamycin, and metronidazole, used singly or in combination with gentamicin. The in-vitro tests consisted...

I. Brook R. I. Walker

1985-01-01

38

Isolation of thermotolerant, halotolerant, facultative biosurfactant-producing bacteria.  

PubMed

Several facultative bacterial strains tolerant to high temperature and salinity were isolated from the oil reservoir brines of an Iranian oil field (Masjed-I Soleyman). Some of these isolates were able to grow up to 60 degrees C and at high concentration of NaCl (15% w/v). One of the isolates grew at 40 degrees C, while it was able to grow at 15% w/v NaCl. Tolerances to NaCl levels decreased as the growth temperatures were increased. Surfactant production ability was detected in some of these isolates. The use of biosurfactant is considered as an effective mechanism in microbial-enhanced oil recovery processes detected in some of these isolates. The surfactant producers were able to grow at high temperatures and salinities to about 55 degrees C and 10% w/v, respectively. These isolates exhibited morphological and physiological characteristics of the Bacillus genus. The partial sequencing of the 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid gene of the selected isolates was assigned them to Bacillus subtilis group. The biosurfactant produced by these isolates caused a substantial decrease in the surface tension of the culture media to 26.7 mN/m. By the use of thin-layer chromatography technique, the presence of the three compounds was detected in the tested biosurfactant. Infrared spectroscopy and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance analysis were used, and the partial structural characterization of the biosurfactant mixture of the three compounds was found to be lipopeptidic in nature. The possibility of use of the selected bacterial strains reported, in the present study, in different sectors of the petroleum industry has been addressed. PMID:18682926

Ghojavand, H; Vahabzadeh, F; Mehranian, M; Radmehr, M; Shahraki, Kh A; Zolfagharian, F; Emadi, M A; Roayaei, E

2008-10-01

39

Endogenous Metabolism of Anaerobic Bacteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation of the possible role of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in the anaerobe Zymomonas anaerobia has been carried out. he enzymic constitution of cells grown in both complex and defined medium has been examined and only four enzymes of the cycle,...

E. A. Dawes M. Ishaq M. Midgley

1970-01-01

40

Plant colonization by pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria (PPFMs).  

PubMed

Bacteria belonging to the genus Methylobacterium are characterized by being able to rely on methanol as a sole carbon and energy source and by presenting a more or less intense pink reddish pigmentation. These bacteria, also referred to as pink-pigmented methylotrophic bacteria (PPFMs), are common inhabitants of the phyllosphere and are found in many other environmental samples. Since they grow slowly they are often overlooked and their impact on phyllosphere microbial communities and on the plants harboring them is not well studied nor has their ecology been elucidated. In a survey of PPFM colonization in three different agricultural sites, PPFM populations were identified on both red clover and winter wheat, but red clover was more consistently colonized. Isolations from collected leaves showed PPFM populations to decrease from spring towards summer, but they increased again towards the end of the cropping season. Isolates from red clover readily colonized winter wheat leaves and vice versa in greenhouse experiments, but population sizes were dependent on the application procedure. Tested isolates had also good potential to colonize the rhizosphere, especially after seed inoculations. Confocal scanning laser microscopy showed gfp-tagged isolates to colonize the surface of clover leaves by forming large aggregates. PMID:19712320

Omer, Zahra S; Tombolini, Riccardo; Gerhardson, Berndt

2004-03-01

41

Phytase activity of anaerobic ruminal bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytase catalyses the release of phosphate from phytate (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate), the predominant form of phosphorus in cereal grains, oilseeds and legumes. The presence of phytase activity was investigated in 334 strains of 22 species of obligately anaerobic ruminal bacteria. Measurable activities were demonstrated in strains of Selenomonas ruminantium, Megasphaera elsdenii, Prevotella ruminicola, Mitsuokella multiacidus and Treponema spp. Strains isolated from

L. J. Yanke; H. D. Bae; L. B. Selinger; K.-J. Cheng

1998-01-01

42

Isolation and identification of rumen bacteria capable of anaerobic phloroglucinol degradation.  

PubMed

Eight strains of rumen bacteria capable of degrading phloroglucinol (1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene) under anaerobic conditions were isolated from enrichment cultures of the bovine rumen microflora established in a prereduced medium containing 0.02 M phloroglucinol. Five of the strains were facultatively anaerobic Gram-positive streptococci which were identified as Streptococcus bovis. Three strains of obligately anaerobic Gram-positive cocci were assigned to the genus Coprococcus. Anaerobic cultures of the Streptococcus bovis strains in a 40% rumen fluid medium initially containing 0.02 M phloroglucinol degraded 50-80% of the substrate within 2 days, whereas cultures of the Coprococcus strains degraded more than 80% of the substrate under the same conditions. The Streptococcus bovis strains were incapable of degrading phloroglucinol in brain heart infusion or in the medium of de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe (MRS broth) incubated aerobically. PMID:1170929

Tsai, C G; Jones, G A

1975-06-01

43

Biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanaotes by a novel facultatively anaerobic Vibrio sp. under marine conditions.  

PubMed

Marine bacteria have recently attracted attention as potentially useful candidates for the production of practical materials from marine ecosystems, including the oceanic carbon dioxide cycle. The advantages of using marine bacteria for the biosynthesis of poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA), one of the eco-friendly bioplastics, include avoiding contamination with bacteria that lack salt-water resistance, ability to use filtered seawater as a culture medium, and the potential for extracellular production of PHA, all of which would contribute to large-scale industrial production of PHA. A novel marine bacterium, Vibrio sp. strain KN01, was isolated and characterized in PHA productivity using various carbon sources under aerobic and aerobic-anaerobic marine conditions. The PHA contents of all the samples under the aerobic-anaerobic condition, especially when using soybean oil as the sole carbon source, were enhanced by limiting the amount of dissolved oxygen. The PHA accumulated using soybean oil as a sole carbon source under the aerobic-anaerobic condition contained 14% 3-hydroxypropionate (3HP) and 3% 5-hydroxyvalerate (5HV) units in addition to (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) units and had a molecular weight of 42?×?10³ g/mol. The present result indicates that the activity of the beta-oxidation pathway under the aerobic-anaerobic condition is reduced due to a reduction in the amount of dissolved oxygen. These findings have potential for use in controlling the biosynthesis of long main-chain PHA by regulating the activity of the beta-oxidation pathway, which also could be regulated by varying the dissolved oxygen concentration. PMID:22068389

Numata, Keiji; Doi, Yoshiharu

2012-06-01

44

Sunxiuqinia faeciviva sp. nov., a facultatively anaerobic organoheterotroph of the Bacteroidetes isolated from deep subseafloor sediment.  

PubMed

A facultatively anaerobic organoheterotroph, designated JAM-BA0302(T), was isolated from a deep subseafloor sediment at a depth of 247.1 m below the seafloor off the Shimokita Peninsula of Japan in the north-western Pacific Ocean (Site C9001?, water depth 1180 m). Cells of strain JAM-BA0302(T) showed gliding motility and were thin, long rods with peritrichous fimbriae-like structures. Growth occurred at 4-37 °C (optimum 30 °C; doubling time 8 h), at pH 5.4-8.3 (optimum pH 7.5) and with 5-60 g NaCl l(-1) (optimum 20-25 g l(-1)). The isolate utilized proteinaceous substrates such as yeast extract, tryptone, casein and Casamino acids with O2 respiration or fermentation. Strain JAM-BA0302(T) was a piezotolerant bacterium that could grow at pressures as high as 25 MPa under aerobic conditions and 10 MPa under anaerobic conditions. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 43.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain JAM-BA0302(T) was most closely related to yet-undescribed strains recently isolated from various marine sedimentary environments (>99.6?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and was moderately related to Sunxiuqinia elliptica DQHS-4(T), isolated from a sea cucumber farm sediment (95.5?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) within the Bacteroidetes. The phylogenetic analysis suggested that the isolate should belong to the genus Sunxiuqinia. However, low DNA-DNA relatedness (<11?%) and many physiological and molecular properties differentiated the isolate from those previously describedhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1601/nm.22746. We propose here a novel species of the genus Sunxiuqinia, with the name Sunxiuqinia faeciviva sp. nov. The type strain is JAM-BA0302(T) (?=?JCM 15547(T) ?=?NCIMB 14481(T)). PMID:22904218

Takai, Ken; Abe, Mariko; Miyazaki, Masayuki; Koide, Osamu; Nunoura, Takuro; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Inagaki, Fumio; Kobayashi, Tohru

2013-05-01

45

Shewanella amazonensis sp. nov., a novel metal-reducing facultative anaerobe from Amazonian shelf muds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new bacterial species belonging to the genus Shewanella is described on the basis of phenotypic characterization and sequence analysis of its 16S rRNA-encoding and gyrase B (gyrB) genes. This organism, isolated from shallow-water marine sediments derived from the Amazon River delta, is a Gram-negative, motile, polarly flagellated, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped eubacterium and has a G&C content of 51.7 mol%. Strain SB2BT is exceptionally active in the anaerobic reduction of iron, manganese and sulfur compounds. SB2BT grows optimally at 35 degrees C, with 1-3% NaCl and over a pH range of 7-8. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence revealed a clear affiliation between strain SB2BT and members of the gamma subclass of the class Proteobacteria. High similarity values were found with certain members of the genus Shewanella, especially with Shewanella putrefaciens, and this was supported by cellular fatty acid profiles and phenotypic characterization. DNA-DNA hybridization between strain SB2BT and its phylogenetically closest relatives revealed low similarity values (24.6-42.7%) which indicated species status for strain SB2BT. That SB2BT represents a distinct bacterial species within the genus Shewanella is also supported by gyrB sequence analysis. Considering the source of the isolate, the name Shewanella amazonensis sp. nov. is proposed and strain SB2BT (= ATCC 700329T) is designated as the type strain.

Venkateswaran, K.; Dollhopf, M. E.; Aller, R.; Stackebrandt, E.; Nealson, K. H.

1998-01-01

46

Antimicrobial resistance of aerobes and facultative anaerobes isolated from the oral cavity  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study evaluated the resistance to antimicrobials of aerobes and facultative anaerobes isolated from patients wearing complete dentures, patients with gingivitis and periodontitis, and periodontally health subjects. Material and methods Three hundred and four isolates were tested. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of the drugs were evaluated through the agar dilution method using Mueller-Hinton agar. Results The most active antimicrobial drugs were the carbapenems (meropenem and imipenem), and resistance to these drugs was restrict to 1.6-2.3% of the isolates, as well as ciprofloxacin and rifampin. Microbial resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefoxitin, cephalothin, amikacin, chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid was particularly high. In most cases, the resistance to ?-lactams was mediated by the production of hydrolytic enzymes, especially in gram-negative enteric rods, while enterococci did not evidence production of these enzymes. The association amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was not effective in 28.3% of the tested isolates. Conclusions The results of this investigation confirmed that the oral cavity of patients with periodontitis and gingivitis, and particularly edentulous patients wearing complete dentures, could harbor microorganisms with several antimicrobial resistance markers, and these microorganisms are frequently implicated in multiresistant, systemic, oral or nosocomial infections.

GAETTI-JARDIM, Ellen Cristina; MARQUETI, Antonio Carlos; FAVERANI, Leonardo Perez; GAETTI-JARDIM JUNIOR, Elerson

2010-01-01

47

Tolerance of anaerobic bacteria to chlorinated solvents.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of four chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs), perchloroethene (PCE), carbon tetrachloride (CT), chloroform (CF) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), on the growth of eight anaerobic bacteria: four fermentative species (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Clostridium sp. and Paenibacillus sp.) and four respiring species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Geobacter sulfurreducens, Shewanella oneidensis and Desulfovibrio vulgaris). Effective concentrations of solvents which inhibited growth rates by 50% (EC50) were determined. The octanol-water partition coefficient or log Po/w of a CAH proved a generally satisfactory measure of its toxicity. Most species tolerated approximately 3-fold and 10-fold higher concentrations of the two relatively more polar CAHs CF and 1,2-DCA, respectively, than the two relatively less polar compounds PCE and CT. EC50 values correlated well with growth rates observed in solvent-free cultures, with fast-growing organisms displaying higher tolerance levels. Overall, fermentative bacteria were more tolerant to CAHs than respiring species, with iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria in particular appearing highly sensitive to CAHs. These data extend the current understanding of the impact of CAHs on a range of anaerobic bacteria, which will benefit the field of bioremediation. PMID:24441515

Koenig, Joanna C; Groissmeier, Kathrin D; Manefield, Mike J

2014-01-01

48

Antimicrobial activity of metronidazole in anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial activity of metronidazole was investigated in anaerobic bacteria by use of time-viability studies. This antimicrobial agent has a rapid onset of bactericidal activity under proper reducing conditions. The bactericidal rates were not affected by inoculum size or nutritional requirements, nor by inhibition of growth and protein synthesis by chloramphenicol. Using supernatant fractions of actively growing cultures of susceptible organisms, we observed a disappearance of metronidazole and a loss of biological activity, but there was no significant change in preparations from resistant bacteria. The decrease in drug concentration with susceptible cells occurred during the time that its bactericidal action was being exerted. Extracts from susceptible organisms rapidly reduced the concentration of metronidazole, confirming previous observations which suggest that the drug acts as a terminal electron acceptor. Radioisotope experiments with [14C]metronidazole revealed that the compound was taken up by both resistant and susceptible bacteria, although there was a difference in rate and extent of accumulation. These studies demonstrate that metronidazole's antimicrobial activity against anaerobic bacteria is bactericidal and independent of growth rate, and that it involves the uptake and metabolism of the compound. PMID:233729

Tally, F P; Goldin, B R; Sullivan, N; Johnston, J; Gorbach, S L

1978-03-01

49

Tolerance of Anaerobic Bacteria to Chlorinated Solvents  

PubMed Central

The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of four chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs), perchloroethene (PCE), carbon tetrachloride (CT), chloroform (CF) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), on the growth of eight anaerobic bacteria: four fermentative species (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Clostridium sp. and Paenibacillus sp.) and four respiring species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Geobacter sulfurreducens, Shewanella oneidensis and Desulfovibrio vulgaris). Effective concentrations of solvents which inhibited growth rates by 50% (EC50) were determined. The octanol-water partition coefficient or log Po/w of a CAH proved a generally satisfactory measure of its toxicity. Most species tolerated approximately 3-fold and 10-fold higher concentrations of the two relatively more polar CAHs CF and 1,2-DCA, respectively, than the two relatively less polar compounds PCE and CT. EC50 values correlated well with growth rates observed in solvent-free cultures, with fast-growing organisms displaying higher tolerance levels. Overall, fermentative bacteria were more tolerant to CAHs than respiring species, with iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria in particular appearing highly sensitive to CAHs. These data extend the current understanding of the impact of CAHs on a range of anaerobic bacteria, which will benefit the field of bioremediation.

Koenig, Joanna C.; Groissmeier, Kathrin D.; Manefield, Mike J.

2014-01-01

50

Biofilm-growing intestinal anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

Sessile growth of anaerobic bacteria from the human intestinal tract has been poorly investigated, so far. We recently reported data on the close association existing between biliary stent clogging and polymicrobial biofilm development in its lumen. By exploiting the explanted stents as a rich source of anaerobic bacterial strains belonging to the genera Bacteroides, Clostridium, Fusobacterium, Finegoldia, Prevotella, and Veillonella, the present study focused on their ability to adhere, to grow in sessile mode and to form in vitro mono- or dual-species biofilms. Experiments on dual-species biofilm formation were planned on the basis of the anaerobic strains isolated from each clogged biliary stent, by selecting those in which a couple of anaerobic strains belonging to different species contributed to the polymicrobial biofilm development. Then, strains were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy to reveal if they are able to grow as mono- and/or dual-species biofilms. As far as we know, this is the first report on the ability to adhere and form mono/dual-species biofilms exhibited by strains belonging to the species Bacteroides oralis, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium baratii, Clostridium fallax, Clostridium bifermentans, Finegoldia magna, and Fusobacterium necrophorum. PMID:22444687

Donelli, Gianfranco; Vuotto, Claudia; Cardines, Rita; Mastrantonio, Paola

2012-07-01

51

Isolation of Halotolerant, Thermotolerant, Facultative Polymer-Producing Bacteria and Characterization of the Exopolymer  

PubMed Central

Over 200 bacterial strains were selected for anaerobic growth at 50°C and extracellular polysaccharide production in a sucrose-mineral salts medium with NaNO3 and up to 10% NaCl. The predominant cell type was an encapsulated gram-positive, motile, facultative sporeforming rod similar to Bacillus species. Strain SP018 grew and produced the polysaccharide on a variety of substrates at salinities up to 12% NaCl. Good polymer production only occurred anaerobically and was optimal between 4 and 10% NaCl. The ethanol-precipitated SP018 polymer was a charged heteropolysaccharide that contained glucose, mannose, arabinose, ribose, and low levels of allose and glucosamine. The SP018 polymer showed pseudoplastic behavior, was resistant to shearing, and had a higher viscosity at dilute concentrations and at elevated temperatures than xanthan gum. High-ionic-strength solutions reversibly decreased the viscosity of SP018 polymer solutions. The bacterium and the associated polymer have many properties that make them potentially useful for in situ microbially enhanced oil recovery processes.

Pfiffner, S. M.; McInerney, Michael J.; Jenneman, Gary E.; Knapp, Roy M.

1986-01-01

52

Plasmid-mediated biodegradative fate of monohalogenated biphenyls in facultatively anaerobic sediments.  

PubMed

The results of these studies have demonstrated that model PCB substrates can be mineralized by indigenous microbial population in contaminated sediments. This catabolic function can be rate limited at the microenvironmental level by physical-chemical processes such as physical partitioning and accumulation. At the biochemical level, this catabolic function is determined by the existence of plasmid borne genes that, under laboratory conditions, can be maintained and expressed in pure or mixed culture. Numerous limitations are encountered in establishing the significance of these biodegradative bacteria and the catabolic plasmids at the environmental level. Relatively little information is available concerning frequencies and stability of the bacteria or the plasmid encoded genes within the community. There is no information on the incompatibility grouping of the isolated plasmid relative to other plasmids maintained within the populations. Such factors will influence the development of gene screening techniques to monitor gene frequency distributions in the sediment community. Although mineralization of 4CBP was observed under moderately reducing conditions, it remains suspect that transient or trace levels of dissolved oxygen may have permitted conventional aerobic metabolism of the substrate. If this is true, demonstrating anaerobic metabolism of environmental contaminants will require strict and tedious cultivation under highly reduced conditions (approximately-300 mV). Large deletions of cryptic DNA observed under laboratory conditions may affect bacterial survival and gene maintenance and transfer under environmental conditions. Little information exists on regulation of catabolic activity of selective pressures required to maintain the degradative genes under environmental conditions. Such limitation encountered in these studies are shared by virtually all attempts to utilize genetically manipulated bacteria or newly isolated strains and plasmids. Perhaps the fundamental question is whether the catabolic genes are maintained and expressed within the community rather than whether the host bacterium can survive in the environment. PMID:6422923

Sayler, G S; Kong, H L; Shields, M S

1984-01-01

53

[Identification of anaerobic bacteria isolated from various clinical specimens and determination of antibiotic susceptibilities].  

PubMed

Routine isolation, identification and susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria present several difficulties leading to defects in the determination of local susceptibility patterns which will guide empirical treatment protocols. This study was carried out to identify the anaerobic bacteria isolated from various clinical materials obtained from the suspected patients with anaerobic infection and to determine the antibiotic susceptibilities against several antibiotics. One hundred clinical specimens (36 blood, 31 abscess, 12 peritoneal fluid, 7 joint fluid, 7 pleural fluid, 3 biopsies, 3 cerebrospinal fluids and 1 surgical wound) that were examined in our laboratory during March 20-October 30 2007, were included in the study. The specimens were collected and transported under anaerobic conditions and inoculated to conventional aerobic media and to Wilkins Chalgren agar, Schaedler agar and chopped-meat broth for anaerobic isolation. Isolated anaerobic bacteria were identified with API 20A panels (Bio-Merieux, France) via conventional methods and by the help of AN-IDENT Discs (Oxoid, England). Penicillin G, clindamycin, cefoxitin, metronidazole, piperacillin/tazobactam and imipenem susceptibility tests were performed with E- test method. Twenty two anaerobic bacteria were isolated from 14 clinical specimens; 7 of the specimens yielding the growth of more than one type of anaerobic bacteria and 8 specimens yielding both anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacterial (4 Escherichia coli and 4 Enterococcus spp.) growth. Anaerobic bacteria were isolated in 89 abscess and in 6 peritoneal fluid specimens. The distribution of the anaerobic bacteria identified among these specimens were as follows: Bacteroides fragilis (n = 6), Bacteroides spp. other than B.fragilis (n = 4), Clostridium spp. (n = 2), Fusobacterium necrophorum/nucleatum (n = 1), Prevotella intermedia/disiens (n = 1), Peptococcus niger (n = 2), Peptostreptococcus spp. (n = 5), and Lactobacillus acidophilus/lenseii (n = 1). Beta-lactamase activity was detected only in 2 of the 6 B. fragilis isolates. All of the isolates were susceptible to imipenem and piperacillin/tazobactam. The highest rate of resistance was detected against penicillin G (9/22; 41%). While anaerobic gram-positive cocci (n = 7) were found to be sensitive to all antibiotics, the rate of resistance among anaerobic gram-negative bacilli were 75% (9/12) to penicillin, 33.3% (4/12) to clindamycin, 8.3% (1/12) to metronidazole. Among anaerobic gram-positive bacilli (n = 3), 2 were resistant to metronidazole, one to clindamycin and one to cefoxitin. The results of this first anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibility testing study performed at Konya area in Turkey revealed that penicillin was not appropriate in empirical treatment of anaerobic infections, clindamycin susceptibility should be tested before use, metronidazole and cefoxitin could be used in empirical treatment and imipenem and piperacillin/tazobactam should be saved for the treatment of complicated infections and infections caused by resistant bacteria. PMID:20549955

Do?an, Metin; Baysal, Bülent

2010-04-01

54

Anaerobic  

MedlinePLUS

Anaerobic means "without oxygen." The term has many uses in medicine. Anaerobic bacteria are able to survive and grow in ... types of illness such as tetanus or gangrene. Anaerobic exercise, such as weight lifting, uses energy produced ...

55

Complete Genome of Ignavibacterium album, a Metabolically Versatile, Flagellated, Facultative Anaerobe from the Phylum Chlorobi  

PubMed Central

Prior to the recent discovery of Ignavibacterium album (I. album), anaerobic photoautotrophic green sulfur bacteria (GSB) were the only members of the bacterial phylum Chlorobi that had been grown axenically. In contrast to GSB, sequence analysis of the 3.7-Mbp genome of I. album shows that this recently described member of the phylum Chlorobi is a chemoheterotroph with a versatile metabolism. I. album lacks genes for photosynthesis and sulfur oxidation but has a full set of genes for flagella and chemotaxis. The occurrence of genes for multiple electron transfer complexes suggests that I. album is capable of organoheterotrophy under both oxic and anoxic conditions. The occurrence of genes encoding enzymes for CO2 fixation as well as other enzymes of the reductive TCA cycle suggests that mixotrophy may be possible under certain growth conditions. However, known biosynthetic pathways for several amino acids are incomplete; this suggests that I. album is dependent upon on exogenous sources of these metabolites or employs novel biosynthetic pathways. Comparisons of I. album and other members of the phylum Chlorobi suggest that the physiology of the ancestors of this phylum might have been quite different from that of modern GSB.

Liu, Zhenfeng; Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Vogl, Kajetan; Iino, Takao; Ohkuma, Moriya; Overmann, Jorg; Bryant, Donald A.

2012-01-01

56

Oxygen sensitivity of various anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

Anaerobes differ in their sensitivity to oxygen, as two patterns were recognizable in the organisms included in this study. Strict anaerobes were species incapable of agar surface growth at pO(2) levels greater than 0.5%. Species that were found to be strict anaerobes were Treponema macrodentium, Treponema denticola, Treponema oralis n. sp., Clostridium haemolyticum, Selenomonas ruminatium, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens, and Lachnospira multiparus. Moderate anaerobes would include those species capable of growth in the presence of oxygen levels as high as 2 to 8%. The moderate anaerobes could be exposed to room atmosphere for 60 to 90 min without appreciable loss of viability. Species considered as moderate anaerobes were Bacteroides fragilis, B. melaninogenicus, B. oralis, Fusobacteria nucleatum, Clostridium novyi type A, and Peptostreptococcus elsdenii. The recognition of at least two general types of anaerobes would seem to have practical import in regard to the primary isolation of anaerobes from source material. PMID:5370458

Loesche, W J

1969-11-01

57

Metabolism of alkylbenzenes, alkanes, and other hydrocarbons in anaerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons are the main constituents of petroleum and its refined products. Whereas degradation of hydrocarbons by oxygen-respiring microorganisms has been known for about a century, utilization of hydrocarbons under anoxic conditions has been investigated only during the past decade. Diverse strains of anaerobic bacteria have been isolated that degrade toluene anaerobically, using nitrate, iron(III), or sulfate as

Alfred M. Spormann; Friedrich Widdel

2000-01-01

58

Intermediary Metabolism in Protists: a Sequence-based View of Facultative Anaerobic Metabolism in Evolutionarily Diverse Eukaryotes  

PubMed Central

Protists account for the bulk of eukaryotic diversity. Through studies of gene and especially genome sequences the molecular basis for this diversity can be determined. Evident from genome sequencing are examples of versatile metabolism that go far beyond the canonical pathways described for eukaryotes in textbooks. In the last 2–3 years, genome sequencing and transcript profiling has unveiled several examples of heterotrophic and phototrophic protists that are unexpectedly well-equipped for ATP production using a facultative anaerobic metabolism, including some protists that can (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) or are predicted (Naegleria gruberi, Acanthamoeba castellanii, Amoebidium parasiticum) to produce H2 in their metabolism. It is possible that some enzymes of anaerobic metabolism were acquired and distributed among eukaryotes by lateral transfer, but it is also likely that the common ancestor of eukaryotes already had far more metabolic versatility than was widely thought a few years ago. The discussion of core energy metabolism in unicellular eukaryotes is the subject of this review. Since genomic sequencing has so far only touched the surface of protist diversity, it is anticipated that sequences of additional protists may reveal an even wider range of metabolic capabilities, while simultaneously enriching our understanding of the early evolution of eukaryotes.

Ginger, Michael L.; Fritz-Laylin, Lillian K.; Fulton, Chandler; Cande, W. Zacheus; Dawson, Scott C.

2011-01-01

59

Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Facultative Anaerobic Filamentous Fungus from Japanese Rice Field Soil  

PubMed Central

A novel filamentous fungus strain designated RB-1 was isolated into pure culture from Japanese rice field soil through an anaerobic role tube technique. The strain is a mitosporic fungus that grows in both aerobic and strict anaerobic conditions using various mono-, di-, tri-, and polysaccharides with acetate and ethanol productions. The amount of acetate produced was higher than that of ethanol in both aerobic and anaerobic cultures. The characteristic verrucose or punctuate conidia of RB-1 closely resembled those of some strains of the genus Thermomyces, a thermophilic or mesophilic anamorphic ascomycete. However, based on phylogenetic analysis with the small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) rDNA sequences, RB-1 was characterized as a member of the class Lecanoromycetes of the phylum Ascomycota. Currently, RB-1 is designated as an anamorphic ascomycete and is phylogenetically considered an incertae sedis within the class Lecanoromycetes.

Tonouchi, Akio

2009-01-01

60

Rapid and simple cryopreservation of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria.  

PubMed

A quick and simple protocol for long-term cryopreservation of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (anammox bacteria) was developed. After 29 weeks of preservation at -80°C, activity recovery for all tested cultures under at least one of the applied sets of preservation conditions was observed. Growth recovery was also demonstrated for a single-cell culture of "Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis." PMID:22307300

Heylen, Kim; Ettwig, Katharina; Hu, Ziye; Jetten, Mike; Kartal, Boran

2012-04-01

61

Rapid and Simple Cryopreservation of Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria  

PubMed Central

A quick and simple protocol for long-term cryopreservation of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (anammox bacteria) was developed. After 29 weeks of preservation at ?80°C, activity recovery for all tested cultures under at least one of the applied sets of preservation conditions was observed. Growth recovery was also demonstrated for a single-cell culture of “Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis.”

Ettwig, Katharina; Hu, Ziye; Jetten, Mike; Kartal, Boran

2012-01-01

62

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation by anammox bacteria in the Black Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of fixed inorganic nitrogen (nitrate, nitrite and ammonium) limits primary productivity in many oceanic regions. The conversion of nitrate to N2 by heterotrophic bacteria (denitrification) is believed to be the only important sink for fixed inorganic nitrogen in the ocean. Here we provide evidence for bacteria that anaerobically oxidize ammonium with nitrite to N2 in the world's largest

Marcel M. M. Kuypers; A. Olav Sliekers; Gaute Lavik; Markus Schmid; Bo Barker Jørgensen; J. Gijs Kuenen; Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté; Marc Strous; Mike S. M. Jetten

2003-01-01

63

The Genome Sequences of Cellulomonas fimi and "Cellvibrio gilvus” Reveal the Cellulolytic Strategies of Two Facultative Anaerobes, Transfer of "Cellvibrio gilvus" to the Genus Cellulomonas, and Proposal of Cellulomonas gilvus sp. nov  

PubMed Central

Actinobacteria in the genus Cellulomonas are the only known and reported cellulolytic facultative anaerobes. To better understand the cellulolytic strategy employed by these bacteria, we sequenced the genome of the Cellulomonas fimi ATCC 484T. For comparative purposes, we also sequenced the genome of the aerobic cellulolytic “Cellvibrio gilvus” ATCC 13127T. An initial analysis of these genomes using phylogenetic and whole-genome comparison revealed that “Cellvibrio gilvus” belongs to the genus Cellulomonas. We thus propose to assign “Cellvibrio gilvus” to the genus Cellulomonas. A comparative genomics analysis between these two Cellulomonas genome sequences and the recently completed genome for Cellulomonas flavigena ATCC 482T showed that these cellulomonads do not encode cellulosomes but appear to degrade cellulose by secreting multi-domain glycoside hydrolases. Despite the minimal number of carbohydrate-active enzymes encoded by these genomes, as compared to other known cellulolytic organisms, these bacteria were found to be proficient at degrading and utilizing a diverse set of carbohydrates, including crystalline cellulose. Moreover, they also encode for proteins required for the fermentation of hexose and xylose sugars into products such as ethanol. Finally, we found relatively few significant differences between the predicted carbohydrate-active enzymes encoded by these Cellulomonas genomes, in contrast to previous studies reporting differences in physiological approaches for carbohydrate degradation. Our sequencing and analysis of these genomes sheds light onto the mechanism through which these facultative anaerobes degrade cellulose, suggesting that the sequenced cellulomonads use secreted, multidomain enzymes to degrade cellulose in a way that is distinct from known anaerobic cellulolytic strategies.

Bramhacharya, Shanti; Jewell, Kelsea A.; Aylward, Frank O.; Mead, David; Brumm, Phillip J.

2013-01-01

64

Aerobic and Anaerobic Starvation Metabolism in Methanotrophic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The capacity for anaerobic metabolism of endogenous and selected exogenous substrates in carbon- and energy-starved methanotrophic bacteria was examined. The methanotrophic isolate strain WP 12 survived extended starvation under anoxic conditions while metabolizing 10-fold less endogenous substrate than did parallel cultures starved under oxic conditions. During aerobic starvation, the cell biomass decreased by 25% and protein and lipids were the preferred endogenous substrates. Aerobic protein degradation (24% of total protein) took place almost exclusively during the initial 24 h of starvation. Metabolized carbon was recovered mainly as CO(inf2) during aerobic starvation. In contrast, cell biomass decreased by only 2.4% during anaerobic starvation, and metabolized carbon was recovered mainly as organic solutes in the starvation medium. During anaerobic starvation, only the concentration of intracellular low-molecular-weight compounds decreased, whereas no significant changes were measured for cellular protein, lipids, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids. Strain WP 12 was also capable of a limited anaerobic glucose metabolism in the absence of added electron acceptors. Small amounts of CO(inf2) and organic acids, including acetate, were produced from exogenous glucose under anoxic conditions. Addition of potential anaerobic electron acceptors (fumarate, nitrate, nitrite, or sulfate) to starved cultures of the methanotrophs Methylobacter albus BG8, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, and strain WP 12 did not stimulate anaerobic survival. However, anaerobic starvation of these bacteria generally resulted in better survival than did aerobic starvation. The results suggest that methanotrophic bacteria can enter a state of anaerobic dormancy accompanied by a severe attenuation of endogenous metabolism. In this state, maintenance requirements are presumably provided for by fermentation of certain endogenous substrates. In addition, low-level catabolism of exogenous substrates may support long-term anaerobic survival of some methanotrophic bacteria.

Roslev, P.; King, G. M.

1995-01-01

65

Versatility and application of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the unique cell compartmentalization and the ability to simultaneously oxidize ammonium and reduce nitrite into nitrogen\\u000a gas, anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria have challenged our recognitions of microorganism. The research conducted\\u000a on these bacteria has been extended from bench-scale tryouts to full-scale reactor systems. This review addresses the recently\\u000a discovered versatile properties of anammox bacteria and the applications and obstacles

Da-Wen Gao; Yu Tao

2011-01-01

66

Carnobacterium pleistocenium sp. nov., a novel psychrotolerant, facultative anaerobe isolated from permafrost of the Fox Tunnel in Alaska  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel, psychrotolerant, facultative anaerobe, strain FTRl, was isolated from Pleistocene ice from the permafrost tunnel in Fox, Alaska. Gram-positive, motile, rod-shaped cells were observed with sizes 0(raised dot)6-0(raised dot)7 x 0(raised dot)9-1(raised dot)5 microns. Growth occurred within the pH range 6(raised dot)5-9(raised dot)5 with optimum growth at pH 7(raised dot)3-7(raised dot)5. The temperature range for growth of the novel isolate was 0-28 C and optimum growth occurred at 24 C. The novel isolate does not require NaCl; growth was observed between 0 and 5% NaCl with optimum growth at 0(raised dot)5% (w/v). The novel isolate was a catalase-negative chemoorganoheterotroph that used as substrates sugars and some products of proteolysis. The metabolic end products were acetate, ethanol and CO2. Strain FTRl was sensitive to ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, rifampicin, kanamycin and gentamicin. 16s rRNA gene sequence analysis showed 99(raised dot)8% similarity between strain FTR1 and Carnobacterium alterfunditum, but DNA-DNA hybridization between them demonstrated 39 plus or minus 1(raised dot)5% relatedness. On the basis of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, it is proposed that strain FTRl (= ATCC BAA-754T= JCM 12174T=CIP 108033) be assigned to the novel species Carnobacterium pleistocenium sp. nov.

Pilkuta, Elena V.; Marsic, Damien; Bej, Asim; Tang, Jane; Krader, Paul; Hoover, Richard B.

2005-01-01

67

Carnobacterium pleistocenium sp. nov., a novel psychrotolerant, facultative anaerobe isolated from permafrost of the Fox Tunnel in Alaska  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel, psychrotolerant, facultative anaerobe, strain FTR1T, was isolated from Pleistocene ice from the permafrost tunnel in Fox, Alaska. Gram-positive, motile, rod-shaped cells were observed with sizes 0.6-0.7 x 0.9-1.5 microm. Growth occurred within the pH range 6.5-9.5 with optimum growth at pH 7.3-7.5. The temperature range for growth of the novel isolate was 0-28 degrees C and optimum growth occurred at 24 degrees C. The novel isolate does not require NaCl; growth was observed between 0 and 5 % NaCl with optimum growth at 0.5 % (w/v). The novel isolate was a catalase-negative chemoorganoheterotroph that used as substrates sugars and some products of proteolysis. The metabolic end products were acetate, ethanol and CO2. Strain FTR1T was sensitive to ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, rifampicin, kanamycin and gentamicin. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed 99.8 % similarity between strain FTR1T and Carnobacterium alterfunditum, but DNA-DNA hybridization between them demonstrated 39+/-1.5 % relatedness. On the basis of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, it is proposed that strain FTR1T (=ATCC BAA-754T=JCM 12174T=CIP 108033T) be assigned to the novel species Carnobacterium pleistocenium sp. nov.

Pikuta, Elena V.; Marsic, Damien; Bej, Asim; Tang, Jane; Krader, Paul; Hoover, Richard B.

2005-01-01

68

Carnobacterium Pleistocaenium sp. nov.: A Novel Psychrotolerant, Facultative Anaerobe Isolated from Permafrost of the Fox Tunnel in Alaska  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel, psychrotolerant, facultative anaerobe, strain FTRIT1(sup T), was isolated from Pleistocene ice from the permafrost tunnel in Fox, Alaska. Gram-positive, motile, rod-shaped cells with sizes 0.6-0.7 x 0.9-1.5 micrometers were observed. Growth occurred within the pH range 6.5-9.5 and optimum at pH 7.3-7.5. The temperature range of the new isolate was 0-28 C and optimum growth occurred at 24 C. The novel isolate requires NaCl (growth absent at 0 %) and growth was observed between 0 and 5% NaCl with optimum at 0.5% (w/v). The new isolate was a catalase-negative chemoorganoheterotroph that used as substrates sugars and some products of proteolysis. The metabolic end products were: acetate, ethanol and CO2. Strain FTRl was sensitive to ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, rifampin, kanamycin, and gentamycin. The 16S rDNA sequence analysis showed 99.8% similarity of strain FTR1 with Carnobacterium alterfunditum, but the DNA-DNA hybridization between them demonstrated 39 plus or minus 5% homology. On the basis of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, it is proposed that the strain FTR1(sup T) (= ATCC BAA-754(sup T) = JSM 12174(sup T) is assigned to the new species of the genus Carnobacterium with proposed name Carnobacterium pleistocaenium sp. nov.

Pikuta, Elena V.; Marsic, Damien; Bej, Asim; Tang, Jane; Krader, Paul; Hoover, Richard B.

2004-01-01

69

Use of Enzyme Tests in Characterization and Identification of Aerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Gram-Positive Cocci  

PubMed Central

The contribution of enzyme tests to the accurate and rapid routine identification of gram-positive cocci is introduced. The current taxonomy of the genera of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic cocci based on genotypic and phenotypic characterization is reviewed. The clinical and economic importance of members of these taxa is briefly summarized. Tables summarizing test schemes and kits available for the identification of staphylococci, enterococci, and streptococci on the basis of general requirements, number of tests, number of taxa, test classes, and completion times are discussed. Enzyme tests included in each scheme are compared on the basis of their synthetic moiety. The current understanding of the activity of enzymes important for classification and identification of the major groups, methods of testing, and relevance to the ease and speed of identification are reviewed. Publications describing the use of different identification kits are listed, and overall identification successes and problems are discussed. The relationships between the results of conventional biochemical and rapid enzyme tests are described and considered. The use of synthetic substrates for the detection of glycosidases and peptidases is reviewed, and the advantages of fluorogenic synthetic moieties are discussed. The relevance of enzyme tests to accurate and meaningful rapid routine identification is discussed.

Bascomb, Shoshana; Manafi, Mammad

1998-01-01

70

The genome sequence of the obligately chemolithoautotrophic, facultatively anaerobic bacterium Thiobacillus denitfificans.  

SciTech Connect

The complete genome sequence of Thiobacillus denitrificans ATCC 25259 is the first to become available for an obligately chemolithoautotrophic, sulfur-compound-oxidizing, {beta}-proteobacterium. Analysis of the 2,909,809-bp genome will facilitate our molecular and biochemical understanding of the unusual metabolic repertoire of this bacterium, including its ability to couple denitrification to sulfur-compound oxidation, to catalyze anaerobic, nitrate-dependent oxidation of Fe(II) and U(IV), and to oxidize mineral electron donors. Notable genomic features include (i) genes encoding c-type cytochromes totaling 1 to 2 percent of the genome, which is a proportion greater than for almost all bacterial and archaeal species sequenced to date, (ii) genes encoding two [NiFe]hydrogenases, which is particularly significant because no information on hydrogenases has previously been reported for T. denitrificans and hydrogen oxidation appears to be critical for anaerobic U(IV) oxidation by this species, (iii) a diverse complement of more than 50 genes associated with sulfur-compound oxidation (including sox genes, dsr genes, and genes associated with the AMP-dependent oxidation of sulfite to sulfate), some of which occur in multiple (up to eight) copies, (iv) a relatively large number of genes associated with inorganic ion transport and heavy metal resistance, and (v) a paucity of genes encoding organic-compound transporters, commensurate with obligate chemolithoautotrophy. Ultimately, the genome sequence of T. denitrificans will enable elucidation of the mechanisms of aerobic and anaerobic sulfur-compound oxidation by {beta}-proteobacteria and will help reveal the molecular basis of this organism's role in major biogeochemical cycles (i.e., those involving sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon) and groundwater restoration.

Beller, H R [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Larimer, Frank W [ORNL

2006-02-01

71

Isolation and characterization of omnitherms and facultative anaerobes from Cape Canaveral soil samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a bacterial population profile of interplanetary spacecraft environments based upon temperature and oxygen requirements, several isolates demonstrated the ability to grow over a temperature range from 3 C to 55 C, and most grew aerobically and anaerobically. Because of the adaptability of these organisms, they may be of significance to planetary contamination. To verify that these were actively growing in this range of temperatures, they were streaked onto trypticase soy agar (TSA) and incubated at the extreme temperatures (3 C and 55 C). Isolated colonies were transferred to fresh TSA and immediately incubated at the opposite extreme temperatures. Almost all of the isolates grew quite well at both temperatures. Because these have been subcultured numerous times and still possess the ability to grow over a broad temperature range, this appears to be a stable characteristic. Many of these isolates possess the ability to grow anaerobically at 3, 32 and 55 C. All of these organisms are sporeformers, and data are presented concerning their heat resistance and biochemical activity.

Brewer, J. H.; Foster, T. L.

1977-01-01

72

Antimicrobial activity of HR810 against 419 strict anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

HR810 and four other new beta-lactams were tested against 419 recent clinical anaerobic bacterial isolates. HR810 was found to have an antimicrobial spectrum most similar to that of cefotaxime, inhibiting 52.6% of Bacteroides fragilis group strains and 97.2% of all other anaerobic strains at an MIC of less than or equal to 16 micrograms/ml. Cefoxitin was found to have a narrower antimicrobial spectrum against the gram-positive anaerobic bacteria (8.4 to 10.1% less) than HR810 and cefotaxime, respectively.

Jones, R N; Gerlach, E H

1985-01-01

73

Anaerobic degradation of 2-aminobenzoate (anthranilic acid) by denitrifying bacteria.  

PubMed Central

In the presence of oxygen many aminoaromatic compounds polymerize to form recalcitrant macromolecules. To circumvent undesirable oxidation reactions, the anaerobic biodegradation of a simple member of this class of compounds was investigated. Two strains of bacteria were isolated which degrade 2-aminobenzoate anaerobically under denitrifying conditions, with nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor. Both organisms, which were assigned to the genus Pseudomonas, oxidized 2-aminobenzoate completely to CO2 and NH4+. Nitrate was reduced to nitrite. When nitrate was deplete from the growth medium the accumulated nitrite was reduced to nitrogen. The results establish a model system for the anaerobic, rapid, and complete oxidation of an aminoaromatic compound. Images

Braun, K; Gibson, D T

1984-01-01

74

Adhesion of anaerobic bacteria to platelet containers.  

PubMed

Anaerobic Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus saccharolyticus are frequently isolated during platelet screening with anaerobic culture methods. Although neither P. acnes nor S. saccharolyticus proliferates during platelet storage, both species survive well in this environment. This study was aimed at determining whether strains of P. acnes and/or S. saccharolyticus form surface-attached bacterial cell aggregates, known as biofilms, under platelet storage conditions. We report that these organisms are able to adhere to the inner surface of platelet containers in tight interaction with activated platelets. PMID:24602052

Kumaran, D; Kalab, M; Rood, I G H; de Korte, D; Ramirez-Arcos, S

2014-08-01

75

Sulfate-reducing bacteria in anaerobic bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of industrial wastewaters containing high amounts of easily degradable organic compounds in anaerobic bioreactors is a well-established process. Similarly, wastewaters which in addition to organic compounds also contain sulfate can be treated in this way. For a long time, the occurrence of sulfate reduction was considered to be undesired. However, there are some recent developments in which sulfate

S. J. W. H. Oude Elferink

1998-01-01

76

Complete genome sequence of the facultatively anaerobic, appendaged bacterium Muricauda ruestringensis type strain (B1(T)).  

PubMed

Muricauda ruestringensis Bruns et al. 2001 is the type species of the genus Muricauda, which belongs to the family Flavobacteriaceae in the phylum Bacteroidetes. The species is of interest because of its isolated position in the genomically unexplored genus Muricauda, which is located in a part of the tree of life containing not many organisms with sequenced genomes. The genome, which consists of a circular chromosome of 3,842,422 bp length with a total of 3,478 protein-coding and 47 RNA genes, is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project. PMID:22768362

Huntemann, Marcel; Teshima, Hazuki; Lapidus, Alla; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Hammon, Nancy; Deshpande, Shweta; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Tapia, Roxanne; Goodwin, Lynne A; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Pan, Chongle; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; Rohde, Manfred; Spring, Stefan; Göker, Markus; Detter, John C; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja

2012-05-25

77

Complete genome sequence of the facultatively anaerobic, appendaged bacterium Muricauda ruestringensis type strain (B1T)  

SciTech Connect

Muricauda ruestringensis Bruns et al. 2001 is the type species of the genus Muricauda, which belongs to the family Flavobacteriaceae in the phylum Bacteroidetes. The species is of interest because of its isolated position in the genomically unexplored genus Muricauda, which is located in a part of the tree of life containing not many organisms with sequenced genomes. The genome, which consists of a circular chromosome of 3,842,422 bp length with a total of 3,478 protein-coding and 47 RNA genes, is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Pan, Chongle [ORNL; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Spring, Stefan [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

2012-01-01

78

Trichococcus Patagoniensis sp. nov., a Facultative Anaerobe that grows at -5 C, Isolated from Penguin Guano in Chilean Patagonia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel, extremely psychrotolerant, facultative anaerobe, strain PmagGl(sup T), was isolated from guano of Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) collected in Chilean Patagonia. Gram-variable, motile cocci with a diameter of 1.3-2.0 micrometers were observed singularly or in pairs, short chains and irregular conglomerates. Growth occurred within the pH range 6.0-10.0, with optimum growth at pH 8.5. The temperature range for growth of the novel isolate was from -5 to 35 C, with optimum growth at 28-30 C. Strain PmagG1(sup T) did not require NaCl, as growth was observed in the presence of 0-6.5% NaCl with optimum growth at 0.5% (w/v). Strain PmagGl(sup T) was a catalase-negative chemo-organoheterotroph that used sugars and some organic acids as substrates. The metabolic end products were lactate, formate, acetate, ethanol and Con. Strain PmagG1(sup T) was sensitive to ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, rifampicin, kanamycin and gentamicin. The G+C content of its genomic DNA was 45.8 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed 100 % similarity of strain PmagG1(sup T) with Trichococcus collinsii ATCC BAA-296(sup T), but DNA-DNA hybridization between them demonstrated relatedness values of less than 45 plus or minus 1%. Another phylogenetically closely related species, Trichococcus pasteurii, showed 99.85 % similarity by 16s rRNA sequencing and DNA-DNA hybridization showed relatedness values of 47 plus or minus 1.5%. Based on genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, the novel species Trichococcus patagoniensis sp. nov. is proposed, with strain PmagG1(sup T) (=ATCC BAA-756(sup T)=JCM 12176(sup T)=CIP 108035(sup T)) as the type strain.

Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Bej, Asim K.; Marsic, Damien; Whitman, William B.; Krader, Paul E.; Tang, Jane

2006-01-01

79

Versatility and application of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria.  

PubMed

With the unique cell compartmentalization and the ability to simultaneously oxidize ammonium and reduce nitrite into nitrogen gas, anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria have challenged our recognitions of microorganism. The research conducted on these bacteria has been extended from bench-scale tryouts to full-scale reactor systems. This review addresses the recently discovered versatile properties of anammox bacteria and the applications and obstacles of implementing the anammox process in ammonia-rich wastewater treatment. We also discuss the merits and drawbacks of traditional and anammox-based processes for nitrogen removal and suggest areas for improvement. PMID:21701984

Gao, Da-Wen; Tao, Yu

2011-08-01

80

Growth characteristic of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in an anaerobic biological filtrated reactor.  

PubMed

The doubling time of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria in an anaerobic biological filtrated (ABF) reactor was determined. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis was used to detect and count anammox bacteria cells in anammox sludge. As a result, the populations of anammox bacteria at 14th and 21st days were 1.1 x 10(6) and 1.7 x 10(7) cells/ml reactor, respectively. From these results, the doubling time of anammox bacteria was calculated as 1.8 days, and the specific growth rate (mu) was 0.39 day(-1). This result indicated that the anammox bacteria have higher growth rate than the reported value (doubling time, 11 days). Furthermore, it was clearly demonstrated that nitrogen conversion rate was proportional to the population of anammox bacteria. Maintaining the ideal environment for the growth of anammox bacteria in the ABF reactor might lead to faster growth. This is the first report of the growth rate of anammox bacteria based on the direct counting of anammox bacteria. PMID:16021484

Isaka, Kazuichi; Date, Yasuhiro; Sumino, Tatsuo; Yoshie, Sachiko; Tsuneda, Satoshi

2006-03-01

81

Cellulose fermentation by nitrogen-fixing anaerobic bacteria  

SciTech Connect

In anaerobic natural environments cellulose is degraded to methane, carbon dioxide and other products by the combined activities of many diverse microorganisms. We are simulating processes occurring in natural environments by constructing biologically-defined, stable, heterogeneous bacterial communities (consortia) that we use as in vitro systems for quantitative studies of cellulose degradation under conditions of combined nitrogen deprivation. These studies include the investigation of (i) metabolic interactions among members of cellulose-degrading microbial populations, and (ii) processes that regulate the activity or biosynthesis of cellulolytic enzymes. In addition, we are studying the sensory mechanisms that, in natural environments, may enable motile cellulolytic bacteria to migrate toward cellulose. This part of our work includes biochemical characterization of the cellobiose chemoreceptor of cellulolytic bacteria. Finally, an important aspect of our research is the investigation of the mechanisms by which multienzyme complexes of anaerobic bacteria catalyze the depolymerization of crystalline cellulose and of other plant cell wall polysacchaddes. The research will provide fundamental information on the physiology and ecology of cellulose-fermenting, N{sub 2}-fixing bacteria, and on the intricate processes involved in C and N cycling in anaerobic environments. Furthermore, the information will be valuable for the development of practical applications, such as the conversion of plant biomass (e.g., agricultural, forestry and municipal wastes) to automotive fuels such as ethanol.

Canale-Parola, E.

1992-12-13

82

Adhesion of Biodegradative Anaerobic Bacteria to Solid Surfaces  

PubMed Central

In order to exploit the ability of anaerobic bacteria to degrade certain contaminants for bioremediation of polluted subsurface environments, we need to understand the mechanisms by which such bacteria partition between aqueous and solid phases, as well as the environmental conditions that influence partitioning. We studied four strictly anaerobic bacteria, Desulfomonile tiedjei, Syntrophomonas wolfei, Syntrophobacter wolinii, and Desulfovibrio sp. strain G11, which theoretically together can constitute a tetrachloroethylene- and trichloroethylene-dechlorinating consortium. Adhesion of these organisms was evaluated by microscopic determination of the numbers of cells that attached to glass coverslips exposed to cell suspensions under anaerobic conditions. We studied the effects of the growth phase of the organisms on adhesion, as well as the influence of electrostatic and hydrophobic properties of the substratum. Results indicate that S. wolfei adheres in considerably higher numbers to glass surfaces than the other three organisms. Starvation greatly decreases adhesion of S. wolfei and Desulfovibrio sp. strain G11 but seems to have less of an effect on the adhesion of the other bacteria. The presence of Fe3+ on the substratum, which would be electropositive, significantly increased the adhesion of S. wolfei, whereas the presence of silicon hydrophobic groups decreased the numbers of attached cells of all species. Measurements of transport of cells through hydrophobic-interaction and electrostatic-interaction columns indicated that all four species had negatively charged cell surfaces and that D. tiedjei and Desulfovibrio sp. strain G11 possessed some hydrophobic cell surface properties. These findings are an early step toward understanding the dynamic attachment of anaerobic bacteria in anoxic environments.

van Schie, Paula M.; Fletcher, Madilyn

1999-01-01

83

Killing of anaerobic pathogens by predatory bacteria.  

PubMed

Recently, the predation of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus on a periodontal pathogen has been described. The current study explores the potential antimicrobial activity of a range of predatory bacteria against key periodontal pathogens. A number of representatives from the Bdellovibrio, Bacteriovorax and Peredibacter lineages (called 'BALOs') were tested for their activity towards a group of key periodontal pathogens and an optimal multiplicity of infection was established. As the oral cavity contains a wide variety of bacteria that are not preyed upon, it was investigated if they can have an effect on the predation efficiency of BALOs. It was concluded that a number of important variables involved in bacterial predation are found to be compatible with the composition of the oral microbiota. This finding makes the case for continued study of the potential for BALOs to combat periodontal pathogens. PMID:21214872

Van Essche, M; Quirynen, M; Sliepen, I; Loozen, G; Boon, N; Van Eldere, J; Teughels, W

2011-02-01

84

Anaerobic bacteria and herpes simplex virus in genital ulceration.  

PubMed Central

Of 91 patients with genital ulceration, herpes simplex virus was isolated from 52 (57%) and Haemophilus ducreyi from 12 (13%); none had syphilis. The difference in incidence of other aerobes in patients and controls was not significant. Anaerobes, predominantly Bacteroides spp, were isolated from a large proportion (77%) of men and women patients with ulcers but from few control men. The most common anaerobic species were B asaccharolyticus and B ureolyticus, with fewer isolates of the melaninogenicus/oralis group. The bacterial flora of herpetic and non-herpetic ulcers were similar, but Candida albicans was isolated significantly more often from non-herpetic ulcers. Anaerobic bacteria may contribute to the pathogenesis of genital ulcers.

Masfari, A N; Kinghorn, G R; Hafiz, S; Barton, I G; Duerden, B I

1985-01-01

85

Degradation potential and growth of anaerobic bacteria in produced water.  

PubMed

The efficiency of an anaerobic biological treatment for the reduction of essential contaminants of produced water from an offshore oilfield was investigated using a microbial consortium enriched with sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Experiments were conducted in a bench bioreactor at 35 degrees C, 250 rpm, with intermittent purges of N2 gas in order to establish anaerobic conditions and to remove the H2S generated. The results showed that pH control effectively influenced the activity of the anaerobic bacteria leading to COD removal of 57%. Meanwhile, pH control was found to have no influence on the removal efficiencies of oil and grease and total phenols. In all experiments, removals of oil and grease and total phenols of 60% and 58-67%, respectively, were obtained after a 15-day process. In studies carried out with biomass reuse the reductions obtained were 61% for oil and grease and 78% for total phenols over the same period. Such results point to the technical feasibility of anaerobic biodegradation for oilfield wastewater treatment. PMID:16128390

Vieira, D S; Sérvulo, E F C; Cammarota, M C

2005-08-01

86

Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing of Anaerobic Bacteria by the Breakpoint Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A shortened form of the agar dilution procedure (breakpoint method) was studied for susceptibility testing of 363 strains of anaerobic bacteria under routine conditions. Mezlocillin inhibited 99%, piperacillin 96%, cefoxitin 99%, latamoxef 90%, clindamycin 96% and metronidazole 100% of Bacteroidaceae strains tested. Peptococcaceae were susceptible to penicillins, cephalosporins and metronidazole. We did not find noticeable resistance of Clostridium perfringens strains

Ulrich Höffler; Gerhard Pulverer

1984-01-01

87

Iron biomineralization by anaerobic neutrophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minerals formed by bio-oxidation of ferrous iron (Fe(II)) at neutral pH, their association with bacterial ultrastructures as well as their impact on the metabolism of iron-oxidizing bacteria remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated iron biomineralization by the anaerobic nitrate-dependent iron-oxidizing bacterium Acidovorax sp. strain BoFeN1 in the presence of dissolved Fe(II) using electron microscopy and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM).

Jennyfer Miot; Karim Benzerara; Guillaume Morin; Andreas Kappler; Sylvain Bernard; Martin Obst; Céline Férard; Fériel Skouri-Panet; Jean-Michel Guigner; Nicole Posth; Matthieu Galvez; Gordon E. Brown; François Guyot

2009-01-01

88

In vitro Sensitivity of Anaerobic Bacteria to Fosfomycin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined in 98 strains of anaerobic bacteria that came from clinical samples against fosfomycin, penicillin, cephalothin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, clindamycin and lincomycin. The results obtained indicate that fosfomycin is usually inactive against Bacteroides sp. and is active up to 32 ?g\\/ml or less against 85% of Peptococcus and 95% of Peptostrepto-coccus, being consequently comparatively less active

Gutiérrez Altés; Rodríguez Noriega

1977-01-01

89

Cultivation, detection, and ecophysiology of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria.  

PubMed

Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria oxidize ammonium with nitrite under anoxic conditions. The anammox process is currently used to remove ammonium from wastewater and contributes significantly to the loss of fixed nitrogen from the oceans. In this chapter, we focus on the ecophysiology of anammox bacteria and describe new methodologies to grow these microorganisms. Now, it is possible to enrich anammox bacteria up to 95% with a membrane bioreactor that removes forces of selection for fast settling aggregates and facilitates the growth of planktonic cells. The biomass from this system has a high anaerobic ammonium oxidation rate (50 fmol NH(4)(+) · cell(-1) day(-1)) and is suitable for many ecophysiological and molecular experiments. A high throughput Percoll density gradient centrifugation protocol may be applied on this biomass for further enrichment (>99.5%) of anammox bacteria. Furthermore, we provide an up-to-date list of commonly used primers and introduce protocols for quantification and detection of functional genes of anammox bacteria in their natural environment. PMID:21185432

Kartal, Boran; Geerts, Wim; Jetten, Mike S M

2011-01-01

90

Detection of anaerobic bacteria in high numbers in sputum from patients with Cystic Fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

using anaerobic bacteriologic techniques and bacteria within the samples were quantified and identified. Measurements and Main Results: Anaerobic species primarily within the genera Prevotella, Veillonella, Propionibacterium, and Actinomyces were isolated in high numbers from 42 of 66 (64%) sputum samples from adult patients with CF. Colonization with Pseudomonas aerugi- nosa significantly increased the likelihood that anaerobic bacteria would be present

Michael M Tunney; Tyler R Field; Thomas F Moriarty; Sheila Patrick; Gerd Doering; Marianne S Muhlebach; Matthew Wolfgang; Richard Boucher; Deirdre F Gilpin; Andrew McDowell; J. Stuart Elborn

2008-01-01

91

The isolation and properties of the predominant anaerobic bacteria in the caeca of chickens and turkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several anaerobic techniques and a number of different media were compared for the isolation of the anaerobic bacteria from chicken and turkey caeca. Under optimal conditions it was possible to isolate more than 25 per cent of the total flora. An analysis was made of the anaerobic bacteria isolated from 5?week?old chickens, the organisms being divided into groups based on

Ella M. Barnes; C. S. Impey

1970-01-01

92

Effect of solvents on obligately anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

Growth of Acetobacterium woodii and Clostridium sporogenes was studied in the presence of water-immiscible solvents. Nitrogen purging, vacuum distillation or distillation under nitrogen were all suitable as methods to remove oxygen from the solvents, since growth rates and yields of A. woodii were unaffected in the presence of tetradecane which had been degassed by these methods. Varying the solvent volume from 20% to 80% of the culture volume had little effect on growth rate of A. woodii. A.woodii was relatively sensitive to organic solvents since growth was inhibited by alkanes with logP(octanol/water) values below 7.1. C. sporogenes was less solvent sensitive, since it grew without inhibition when the logP of the solvent was > or = 6.6. Nevertheless, both A. woodii and C. sporogenes were more sensitive to solvent polarity than aerobic bacteria. PMID:18083050

Rodriguez Martinez, Maria Fernanda; Kelessidou, Niki; Law, Zoe; Gardiner, John; Stephens, Gill

2008-02-01

93

Phylogenetic analysis of anaerobic thermophilic bacteria: aid for their reclassification.  

PubMed Central

Small subunit rDNA sequences were determined for 20 species of the genera Acetogenium, Clostridium, Thermoanaerobacter, Thermoanaerobacterium, Thermoanaerobium, and Thermobacteroides, 3 non-validly described species, and 5 isolates of anaerobic thermophilic bacteria, providing a basis for a phylogenetic analysis of these organisms. Several species contain a version of the molecule significantly longer than that of Escherichia coli because of the presence of inserts. On the basis of normal evolutionary distances, the phylogenetic tree indicates that all bacteria investigated in this study with a maximum growth temperature above 65 degrees C form a supercluster within the subphylum of gram-positive bacteria that also contains Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum and Clostridium thermoaceticum, which have been previously sequenced. This supercluster appears to be equivalent in its phylogenetic depth to the supercluster of mesophilic clostridia and their nonspore-forming relatives. Several phylogenetically and phenotypically coherent clusters that are defined by sets of signature nucleotides emerge within the supercluster of thermophiles. Clostridium thermobutyricum and Clostridium thermopalmarium are members of Clostridium group I. A phylogenetic tree derived from transversion distances demonstrated the artificial clustering of some organisms with high rDNA G+C moles percent, i.e., Clostridium fervidus and the thermophilic, cellulolytic members of the genus Clostridium. The results of this study can be used as an aid for future taxonomic restructuring of anaerobic sporogenous and asporogenous thermophillic, gram-positive bacteria.

Rainey, F A; Ward, N L; Morgan, H W; Toalster, R; Stackebrandt, E

1993-01-01

94

Prevalence of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in contaminated groundwater.  

PubMed

Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria perform an important step in the global nitrogen cycle: anaerobic oxidation of ammonium and reduction of nitrite to form dinitrogen gas (N(2)). Anammox organisms appear to be widely distributed in natural and artificial environments. However, their roles in groundwater ammonium attenuation remain unclear and only limited biomarker-based data confirmed their presence prior to this study. We used complementary molecular and isotope-based methods to assess anammox diversity and activity occurring at three ammonium-contaminated groundwater sites: quantitative PCR, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and (15)N-tracer incubations. Here we show that anammox performing organisms were abundant bacterial community members. Although all sites were dominated by Candidatus Brocadia-like sequences, the community at one site was particularly diverse, possessing four of five known genera of anammox bacteria. Isotope data showed that anammox produced up to 18 and 36% of N(2) at these sites. By combining molecular and isotopic results we have demonstrated the diversity, abundance, and activity of these autotrophic bacteria. Our results provide strong evidence for their important biogeochemical role in attenuating groundwater ammonium contamination. PMID:21786759

Moore, Tara A; Xing, Yangping; Lazenby, Brent; Lynch, Michael D J; Schiff, Sherry; Robertson, William D; Timlin, Robert; Lanza, Sadia; Ryan, M Cathryn; Aravena, Ramon; Fortin, Danielle; Clark, Ian D; Neufeld, Josh D

2011-09-01

95

Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria: unique microorganisms with exceptional properties.  

PubMed

Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria defy many microbiological concepts and share numerous properties with both eukaryotes and archaea. Among their most intriguing characteristics are their compartmentalized cell plan and archaeon-like cell wall. Here we review our current knowledge about anammox cell biology. The anammox cell is divided into three separate compartments by bilayer membranes. The anammox cell consists of (from outside to inside) the cell wall, paryphoplasm, riboplasm, and anammoxosome. Not much is known about the composition or function of both the anammox cell wall and the paryphoplasm compartment. The cell wall is proposed to be proteinaceous and to lack both peptidoglycan and an outer membrane typical of Gram-negative bacteria. The function of the paryphoplasm is unknown, but it contains the cell division ring. The riboplasm resembles the standard cytoplasmic compartment of other bacteria; it contains ribosomes and the nucleoid. The anammoxosome occupies most of the cell volume and is a so-called "prokaryotic organelle" analogous to the eukaryotic mitochondrion. This is the site where the anammox reaction takes place, coupled over the curved anammoxosome membrane, possibly giving rise to a proton motive force and subsequent ATP synthesis. With these unique properties, anammox bacteria are food for thought concerning the early evolution of the domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. PMID:22933561

van Niftrik, Laura; Jetten, Mike S M

2012-09-01

96

Anaerobic decolorization bacteria for the treatment of azo dye in a sequential anaerobic and aerobic membrane bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textile dyeing wastewater is harmful to both marine organisms and human beings. This study focused on the treatment of wastewater containing an azo dye, Reactive Black 5 (RB5), using an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) combined with an aerobic membrane bioreactor (aerobic MBR). In addition the anaerobic RB5 degrading bacteria were isolated and their individual performance were tested separately. Nearly

Sheng-Jie You; Jun-Yu Teng

2009-01-01

97

Diverse Gene Cassettes in Class 1 Integrons of Facultative Oligotrophic Bacteria of River Mahananda, West Bengal, India  

PubMed Central

Background In this study a large random collection (n?=?2188) of facultative oligotrophic bacteria, from 90 water samples gathered in three consecutive years (2007–2009) from three different sampling sites of River Mahananda in Siliguri, West Bengal, India, were investigated for the presence of class 1 integrons and sequences of the amplification products. Methodology/Principal Findings Replica plating method was employed for determining the antibiotic resistance profile of the randomly assorted facultative oligotrophic isolates. Genomic DNA from each isolate was analyzed by PCR for the presence of class 1 integron. Amplicons were cloned and sequenced. Numerical taxonomy and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses were done to ascertain putative genera of the class 1 integron bearing isolates. Out of 2188 isolates, 1667 (76.19%) were antibiotic-resistant comprising of both single-antibiotic resistance (SAR) and multiple-antibiotic resistant (MAR), and 521 (23.81%) were sensitive to all twelve different antibiotics used in this study. Ninety out of 2188 isolates produced amplicon(s) of varying sizes from 0.15 to 3.45 KB. Chi-square (?2) test revealed that the possession of class 1 integron in sensitive, SAR and MAR is not equally probable at the 1% level of significance. Diverse antibiotic-resistance gene cassettes, aadA1, aadA2, aadA4, aadA5, dfrA1, dfrA5, dfrA7, dfrA12, dfrA16, dfrA17, dfrA28, dfrA30, dfr-IIe, blaIMP-9, aacA4, Ac-6?-Ib, oxa1, oxa10 and arr2 were detected in 64 isolates. The novel cassettes encoding proteins unrelated to any known antibiotic resistance gene function were identified in 26 isolates. Antibiotic-sensitive isolates have a greater propensity to carry gene cassettes unrelated to known antibiotic-resistance genes. The integron-positive isolates under the class Betaproteobacteria comprised of only two genera, Comamonas and Acidovorax of family Comamonadaceae, while isolates under class Gammaproteobacteria fell under the families, Moraxellaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Aeromonadaceae and Enterobacteriaceae. Conclusions Oligotrophic bacteria are good sources of novel genes as well as potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance gene casettes.

Chakraborty, Ranadhir; Kumar, Arvind; Bhowal, Suparna Saha; Mandal, Amit Kumar; Tiwary, Bipransh Kumar; Mukherjee, Shriparna

2013-01-01

98

Iron biomineralization by anaerobic neutrophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minerals formed by bio-oxidation of ferrous iron (Fe(II)) at neutral pH, their association with bacterial ultrastructures as well as their impact on the metabolism of iron-oxidizing bacteria remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated iron biomineralization by the anaerobic nitrate-dependent iron-oxidizing bacterium Acidovorax sp. strain BoFeN1 in the presence of dissolved Fe(II) using electron microscopy and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM). All detected minerals consisted mainly of amorphous iron phosphates, but based on their morphology and localization, three types of precipitates could be discriminated: (1) mineralized filaments at distance from the cells, (2) globules of 100 ± 25 nm in diameter, at the cell surface and (3) a 40-nm thick mineralized layer within the periplasm. All of those phases were shown to be intimately associated with organic molecules. Periplasmic encrustation was accompanied by an accumulation of protein moieties. In the same way, exopolysaccharides were associated with the extracellular mineralized filaments. The evolution of cell encrustation was followed by TEM over the time course of a culture: cell encrustation proceeded progressively, with rapid precipitation in the periplasm (in a few tens of minutes), followed by the formation of surface-bound globules. Moreover, we frequently observed an asymmetric mineral thickening at the cell poles. In parallel, the evolution of iron oxidation was quantified by STXM: iron both contained in the bacteria and in the extracellular precipitates reached complete oxidation within 6 days. While a progressive oxidation of Fe in the bacteria and in the medium could be observed, spatial redox (oxido-reduction state) heterogeneities were detected at the cell poles and in the extracellular precipitates after 1 day. All these findings provide new information to further the understanding of molecular processes involved in iron biomineralization by anaerobic iron-oxidizing bacteria and offer potential signatures of those metabolisms that can be looked for in the geological record.

Miot, Jennyfer; Benzerara, Karim; Morin, Guillaume; Kappler, Andreas; Bernard, Sylvain; Obst, Martin; Férard, Céline; Skouri-Panet, Fériel; Guigner, Jean-Michel; Posth, Nicole; Galvez, Matthieu; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.; Guyot, François

2009-02-01

99

Metabolism of n-alkanes and n-alkenes by anaerobic bacteria: A summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current knowledge of the pathways for the degradation of n-alkanes and n-alkenes by anaerobic bacteria is summarized and new results questioning the existence of an alternative pathway for anaerobic alkane degradation are introduced. Remaining gaps in our knowledge are also mentioned, together with the possible use of some specific metabolites as biomarkers of anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation.

Vincent Grossi; Cristiana Cravo-Laureau; Rémy Guyoneaud; Anthony Ranchou-Peyruse; Agnès Hirschler-Réa

2008-01-01

100

Fourth Belgian multicentre survey of antibiotic susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria  

PubMed Central

Objectives To collect recent data on the susceptibility of anaerobes to antimicrobial agents with known activity against anaerobes, and to compare them with results from previous Belgian multicentre studies. Methods Four hundred and three strict anaerobic clinical isolates were prospectively collected from February 2011 to April 2012 in eight Belgian university hospitals. MICs were determined by one central laboratory for 11 antimicrobial agents using Etest methodology. Results According to EUCAST breakpoints, >90% of isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanate (94%), piperacillin/tazobactam (91%), meropenem (96%), metronidazole (92%) and chloramphenicol (98%), but only 70% and 40% to clindamycin and penicillin, respectively. At CLSI recommended breakpoints, only 71% were susceptible to moxifloxacin and 79% to cefoxitin. MIC50/MIC90 values for linezolid and for tigecycline were 1/4 and 0.5/4 mg/L, respectively. When compared with survey data from 2004, no major differences in susceptibility profiles were noticed. However, the susceptibility of Prevotella spp. and other Gram-negative bacilli to clindamycin decreased from 91% in 1993–94 and 82% in 2004 to 69% in this survey. Furthermore, the susceptibility of clostridia to moxifloxacin decreased from 88% in 2004 to 66% in 2011–12 and that of fusobacteria from 90% to 71%. Conclusions Compared with previous surveys, little evolution was seen in susceptibility, except a decline in activity of clindamycin against Prevotella spp. and other Gram-negative bacteria, and of moxifloxacin against clostridia. Since resistance was detected to all antibiotics, susceptibility testing of anaerobic isolates is indicated in severe infections to confirm appropriateness of antimicrobial therapy.

Wybo, Ingrid; Van den Bossche, Dorien; Soetens, Oriane; Vekens, Evilien; Vandoorslaer, Kristof; Claeys, Geert; Glupczynski, Youri; Ieven, Margareta; Melin, Pierrette; Nonhoff, Claire; Rodriguez-Villalobos, Hector; Verhaegen, Jan; Pierard, Denis

2014-01-01

101

Isolation of hydrogen-producing bacteria from granular sludge of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

H2-producing bacteria were isolated from anaerobic granular sludge. Out of 72 colonies (36 grown under aerobic conditions and\\u000a 36 under anaerobic conditions) arbitrarily chosen from the agar plate cultures of a suspended sludge, 34 colonies (15 under\\u000a aerobic conditions and 19 under anaerobic conditions) produced H2 under anaerobic conditions. Based on various biochemical tests and microscopic observations, they were classified

You-Kwan Oh; Mi So Park; Eun-Hee Seol; Sang-Joon Lee; Sunghoon Park

2003-01-01

102

Genome sequence of Phaeobacter daeponensis type strain (DSM 23529T), a facultatively anaerobic bacterium isolated from marine sediment, and emendation of Phaeobacter daeponensis  

PubMed Central

TF-218T is the type strain of the species Phaeobacter daeponensis Yoon et al. 2007, a facultatively anaerobic Phaeobacter species isolated from tidal flats. Here we describe the draft genome sequence and annotation of this bacterium together with previously unreported aspects of its phenotype. We analyzed the genome for genes involved in secondary metabolite production and its anaerobic lifestyle, which have also been described for its closest relative Phaeobacter caeruleus. The 4,642,596 bp long genome of strain TF-218T contains 4,310 protein-coding genes and 78 RNA genes including four rRNA operons and consists of five replicons: one chromosome and four extrachromosomal elements with sizes of 276 kb, 174 kb, 117 kb and 90 kb. Genome analysis showed that TF-218T possesses all of the genes for indigoidine biosynthesis, and on specific media the strain showed a blue pigmentation. We also found genes for dissimilatory nitrate reduction, gene-transfer agents, NRPS/ PKS genes and signaling systems homologous to the LuxR/I system.

Dogs, Marco; Teshima, Hazuki; Petersen, Jorn; Fiebig, Anne; Chertkov, Olga; Dalingault, Hajnalka; Chen, Amy; Pati, Amrita; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Chain, Patrick; Detter, John C.; Ivanova, Natalia; Lapidus, Alla; Rohde, Manfred; Gronow, Sabine; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Woyke, Tanja; Simon, Meinhard; Goker, Markus; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Brinkhoff, Thorsten

2013-01-01

103

Response of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria to hydroxylamine.  

PubMed

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation is a recent addition to the microbial nitrogen cycle, and its metabolic pathway, including the production and conversion of its intermediate hydrazine, is not well understood. Therefore, the effect of hydroxylamine addition on the hydrazine metabolism of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria was studied both experimentally and by mathematical modeling. It was observed that hydroxylamine was disproportionated biologically in the absence of nitrite into dinitrogen gas and ammonium. Little hydrazine accumulated during this process; however, rapid hydrazine production was observed when nearly all hydroxylamine was consumed. A mechanistic model is proposed in which hydrazine is suggested to be continuously produced from ammonium and hydroxylamine (possibly via nitric oxide) and subsequently oxidized to N(2). The electron acceptor for hydrazine oxidation is hydroxylamine, which is reduced to ammonium. A decrease in the hydroxylamine reduction rate, therefore, leads to a decrease in the hydrazine oxidation rate, resulting in the observed hydrazine accumulation. The proposed mechanism was verified by a mathematical model which could explain and predict most of the experimental data. PMID:18515490

van der Star, Wouter R L; van de Graaf, Maarten J; Kartal, Boran; Picioreanu, Cristian; Jetten, Mike S M; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

2008-07-01

104

Response of Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria to Hydroxylamine?  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation is a recent addition to the microbial nitrogen cycle, and its metabolic pathway, including the production and conversion of its intermediate hydrazine, is not well understood. Therefore, the effect of hydroxylamine addition on the hydrazine metabolism of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria was studied both experimentally and by mathematical modeling. It was observed that hydroxylamine was disproportionated biologically in the absence of nitrite into dinitrogen gas and ammonium. Little hydrazine accumulated during this process; however, rapid hydrazine production was observed when nearly all hydroxylamine was consumed. A mechanistic model is proposed in which hydrazine is suggested to be continuously produced from ammonium and hydroxylamine (possibly via nitric oxide) and subsequently oxidized to N2. The electron acceptor for hydrazine oxidation is hydroxylamine, which is reduced to ammonium. A decrease in the hydroxylamine reduction rate, therefore, leads to a decrease in the hydrazine oxidation rate, resulting in the observed hydrazine accumulation. The proposed mechanism was verified by a mathematical model which could explain and predict most of the experimental data.

van der Star, Wouter R. L.; van de Graaf, Maarten J.; Kartal, Boran; Picioreanu, Cristian; Jetten, Mike S. M.; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.

2008-01-01

105

Anaerobic Biodegradation of Pristane by Nitrate Reducing Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent sediments, microbial biodegradation provides a control on the long-term preservation of organic matter, through the preferential loss of certain biomolecules and the alteration and concentration of other more recalcitrant molecules. Biodegradation of hydrocarbons derived from membrane lipids, has been demonstrated by both aerobic and strictly anaerobic culturing experiments. The isoprenoid pristane, once considered stable under anaerobic conditions, is in fact degraded by a denitrifying microcosm (BREGNARD et al., 1997) and a methanogenic, sulphate-reducing enrichment culture (GROSSI, 2000). We recently demonstrated pristane biodegradation and accompanying loss of nitrate by an activated sludge isolate. The measured nitrate consumption accounts for a 7.1 +/- 0.4 mg loss of pristane, 4.74% of the initial substrate, in 181 days, assuming pristane conversion to CO2. We have characterized the microorganisms active in the biodegradation process, through the creation of a 16S rDNA clone library, as well as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Experiments are in progress to enrich cultures of sulfate reducing bacteria that utilize pristane as a sole carbon source and to characterize reaction mechanisms in pristane-oxidizing pathways.

Dawson, K. S.; Freeman, K. H.; Macalady, J. L.

2007-12-01

106

Microcultivation of anaerobic bacteria single cells entrapped in alginate microbeads.  

PubMed

Alginate microbeads, produced by emulsion/internal gelation, were studied for the entrapment and microcultivation of microbial cells with biotechnological potential. An anaerobic consortium which was selected for its capacity to degrade complex carbohydrates, and a pure culture of cellulose degrading bacteria were used for entrapment studies. Optimization of conditions for the formation of spherical alginate microbeads in sizes between 20 and 80 ?m were examined. The best conditions were achieved by combining rapeseed methyl ester as oil phase and stirring at 100 rpm using a rotation impeller. Calcium alginate microbeads produced under these conditions were shown to present morphological stability, with large pores in the internal matrix that favours microcolony development. Finally, single cells were observed inside the beads after the entrapment procedure and microcolony formation was confirmed after cultivation in cellobiose. PMID:23224821

Börner, Rosa Aragão; Aliaga, Maria Teresa Alvarez; Mattiasson, Bo

2013-03-01

107

Anaerobic degradation of benzene by marine sulfate-reducing bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benzene, the archetypal aromatic hydrocarbon is a common constituent of crude oil and oil-refined products. As such, it can enter the biosphere through natural oil seeps or as a consequence of exploitation of fossil fuel reservoirs. Benzene is chemically very stable, due to the stabilizing aromatic electron system and to the lack of functional groups. Although the anaerobic degradation of benzene has been reported under denitrifying, sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions, the microorganisms involved and the initial biochemical steps of degradation remain insufficiently understood. Using marine sediment from a Mediterranean lagoon a sulfate-reducing enrichment culture with benzene as the sole organic substrate was obtained. Application of 16S rRNA gene-based methods showed that the enrichment was dominated (more than 85% of total cells) by a distinct phylotype affiliated with a clade of Deltaproteobacteria that include degraders of other aromatic hydrocarbons, such as naphthalene, ethylbenzene and m-xylene. Using benzoate as a soluble substrate in agar dilution series, several pure cultures closely related to Desulfotignum spp. and Desulfosarcina spp. were isolated. None of these strains was able to utilize benzene as a substrate and hybridizations with specific oligonucleotide probes showed that they accounted for as much as 6% of the total cells. Incubations with 13C-labeled benzene followed by Halogen in situ Hybridization - Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (HISH-SIMS) analysis showed that cells of the dominant phylotype were highly enriched in 13C, while the accompanying bacteria had little or no 13C incorporation. These results demonstrate that the dominant phylotype was indeed the apparent benzene degrader. Dense-cell suspensions of the enrichment culture did not show metabolic activity toward added phenol or toluene, suggesting that benzene degradation did not proceed through anaerobic hydroxylation or methylation. Instead, benzoate was identified in analyses of metabolites with benzene-grown cultures, suggesting an activation of benzene via carboxylation.

Musat, Florin; Wilkes, Heinz; Musat, Niculina; Kuypers, Marcel; Widdel, Friedrich

2010-05-01

108

Characterization and Description of Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans gen. nov., sp. nov., an Aryl-Halorespiring Facultative Anaerobic Myxobacterium  

PubMed Central

Five strains were isolated which form a physiologically and phylogenetically coherent group of chlororespiring microorganisms and represent the first taxon in the Myxobacteria capable of anaerobic growth. The strains were enriched and isolated from various soils and sediments based on their ability to grow using acetate as an electron donor and 2-chlorophenol (2-CPh) as an electron acceptor. They are slender gram-negative rods with a bright red pigmentation that exhibit gliding motility and form spore-like structures. These unique chlororespiring myxobacteria also grow with 2,6-dichlorophenol, 2,5-dichlorophenol, 2-bromophenol, nitrate, fumarate, and oxygen as terminal electron acceptors, with optimal growth occurring at low concentrations (<1 mM) of electron acceptor. 2-CPh is reduced by all strains as an electron acceptor in preference to nitrate, which is reduced to ammonium. Acetate, H2, succinate, pyruvate, formate, and lactate were used as electron donors. None of the strains grew by fermentation. The 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences of the five strains form a coherent cluster deeply branching within the family Myxococcaceae within the class Myxobacteria and are mostly closely associated with the Myxococcus subgroup. With the exception of anaerobic growth and lack of a characteristic fruiting body, these strains closely resemble previously characterized myxobacteria and therefore should be considered part of the Myxococcus subgroup. The anaerobic growth and 9.0% difference in 16S rDNA sequence from those of other myxobacterial genera are sufficient to place these strains in a new genus and species designated Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans. The type strain is 2CP-1 (ATCC BAA-258).

Sanford, Robert A.; Cole, James R.; Tiedje, James M.

2002-01-01

109

Genes for Uranium Bioremediation in the Anaerobic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bioremediation of radionuclides and metals in the subsurface necessitate an understanding of the metabolic capacities and interactions of the anaerobic microorganisms that are found there, including members of the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Genetic ...

J. D. Wall

2009-01-01

110

DESTRUCTION BY ANAEROBIC MESOPHILIC AND THERMOPHILIC DIGESTION OF VIRUSES AND INDICATOR BACTERIA INDIGENOUS TO DOMESTIC SLUDGES  

EPA Science Inventory

In raw sludges and in mesophilically and thermophilically digested anaerobic sludges, large variations in numbers of viruses occurred over narrow ranges of numbers of fecal coliforms, total coliforms, and fecal streptococci, demonstrating that the bacteria are poor quantitative r...

111

Nitrogen removal by autotrophic ammonium oxidizing bacteria enrichment under anaerobic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Sludge from an anoxic tank at the centralized wastewater treatment plant, Nong Khaem, Bangkok, Thailand, was ino- culated in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR). The optimal compositions and operating conditions of the stock of autotrophic ammonium,oxidizing bacteria medium,were determined. The process of oxidizing ammonium,with bacteria under anaerobic conditions is often referred to as the Anammox process (NO 2

Chalermraj Wantawin; Siriporn Sripiboon; Sanya Sirivitayapakorn; Mongkol Damrongsri

2008-01-01

112

Anammox bacteria enrichment in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) reaction in a labscale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor.\\u000a Our aim was to detect and enrich the organisms responsible for the anammox reaction using a synthetic medium that contained\\u000a low concentrations of substrates (ammonium and nitrite). The reactor was inoculated with granular sludge collected from a\\u000a full-scale anaerobic digestor used for treating

Tran-Hung Thuan; Deok-Jin Jahng; Jin-Young Jung; Dong-Jin Kim; Won-Kyoung Kim; Young-Joo Park; Ji-Eun Kim; Dae-Hee Ahn

2004-01-01

113

Novel [NiFe]- and [FeFe]-Hydrogenase Gene Transcripts Indicative of Active Facultative Aerobes and Obligate Anaerobes in Earthworm Gut Contents?†  

PubMed Central

The concomitant occurrence of molecular hydrogen (H2) and organic acids along the alimentary canal of the earthworm is indicative of ongoing fermentation during gut passage. Fermentative H2 production is catalyzed by [FeFe]-hydrogenases and group 4 [NiFe]-hydrogenases in obligate anaerobes (e.g., Clostridiales) and facultative aerobes (e.g., Enterobacteriaceae), respectively, functional groups that might respond differently to contrasting redox conditions. Thus, the objectives of this study were to assess the redox potentials of the alimentary canal of Lumbricus terrestris and analyze the hydrogenase transcript diversities of H2 producers in glucose-supplemented gut content microcosms. Although redox potentials in the core of the alimentary canal were variable on an individual worm basis, average redox potentials were similar. The lowest redox potentials occurred in the foregut and midgut regions, averaging 40 and 110 mV, respectively. Correlation plots between hydrogenase amino acid sequences and 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that closely related hydrogenases belonged to closely related taxa, whereas distantly related hydrogenases did not necessarily belong to distantly related taxa. Of 178 [FeFe]-hydrogenase gene transcripts, 177 clustered in 12 Clostridiales-affiliated operational taxonomic units, the majority of which were indicative of heretofore unknown hydrogenases. Of 86 group 4 [NiFe]-hydrogenase gene transcripts, 79% and 21% were affiliated with organisms in the Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonadaceae, respectively. The collective results (i) suggest that fermenters must cope with variable and moderately oxidative redox conditions along the alimentary canal, (ii) demonstrate that heretofore undetected hydrogenases are present in the earthworm gut, and (iii) corroborate previous findings implicating Clostridiaceae and Enterobacteriaceae as active fermentative taxa in earthworm gut content.

Schmidt, Oliver; Wust, Pia K.; Hellmuth, Susanne; Borst, Katharina; Horn, Marcus A.; Drake, Harold L.

2011-01-01

114

Identification of Anaerobic Selenate-Respiring Bacteria from Aquatic Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity population of microorganisms with the capability to use selenate as a terminal electron acceptor, reducing it to selenite and elemental selenium by the process known as dissimilatory selenate reduction, is largely unknown. The overall objective of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of anaerobic biotransformation of selenium in the environment, particularly anaerobic respiration, and to characterize

Priya Narasingarao; Max M. Haggblom

2007-01-01

115

[Species diversity and ecological distribution of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria].  

PubMed

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is an important discovery in microbiology and environmental sciences, which can simultaneously remove NH4(+) -N and NO3(-) -N, being valuable in environmental engineering. However, anaerobic ammonium oxidizers are extremely slow-growing, and their population's doubling time is longer than 11 days, which seriously restricts the application of anammox process. Therefore, the study of anammox bacteria is of significance. It has been proved that besides planctomycetes, the first recognized anammox bacteria, both nitrifying bacteria and denitrifying bacteria are also capable of anaerobic ammonium oxidation. These anammox bacteria have wide-spread habitats, which offered a chance to exploit new bacterial resources for anammox. Nitrifying bacteria and denitrifying bacteria have the function of anammox, and their metabolic diversity provides a basis to speed up the start-up of anammox reactor. It was revealed that anaerobic digestion sludge can present anammox activity, with sulphate as electron acceptor. The new bioreaction lays a foundation for the development of novel N-removal biotechnology, being conducive to the development and application of anammox to get more bacterial resources for anammox and to make clear the ecological distribution of anammox bacteria. PMID:19803186

Chen, Ting-Ting; Zheng, Ping; Hu, Bao-Lan

2009-05-01

116

Induced cooperation between marine nitrifiers and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria by incremental exposure to oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

In oxygen-limited marine ecosystems cooperation between marine nitrifiers and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria is of importance to nitrogen cycling. Strong evidence for cooperation between anammox bacteria and nitrifiers has been provided by environmental studies but little is known about the development of such communities, the effects of environmental parameters and the physiological traits of their constituents. In this study, a

Jia Yan; Mike S. M. Jetten; Yong Y. Hu; Suzanne C. M. Haaijer

2010-01-01

117

Metabolic interactions between anaerobic bacteria in methanogenic environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In methanogenic environments organic matter is degraded by associations of fermenting, acetogenic and methanogenic bacteria. Hydrogen and formate consumption, and to some extent also acetate consumption, by methanogens affects the metabolism of the other bacteria. Product formation of fermenting bacteria is shifted to more oxidized products, while acetogenic bacteria are only able to metabolize compounds when methanogens consume hydrogen and

Alfons J. M. Stams

1994-01-01

118

Anaerobic Metabolism of Aromatic Compounds by Phototrophic Bacteria: Progress Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vast quantities of aromatic compounds in the form of lignin, lignin derivatives, and aromatic pollutants are continually being introduced into the biosphere and much of this material accumulates in anaerobic environments. This project seeks to elucidate a...

C. S. Harwood J. Gibson

1986-01-01

119

Thermophilic biodegradation of BTEX by two consortia of anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

Two thermophilic anaerobic bacterial consortia (ALK-1 and LLNL-1), capable of degrading the aromatic fuel hydrocarbons, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and the xylenes (BTEX compounds), were developed at 60 degrees C from the produced water of ARCO'S Kuparuk oil field at Alaska and the subsurface water at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory gasoline-spill site, respectively. Both consortia were found to grow at 45-75 degrees C on BTEX compounds as their sole carbon and energy sources with 50 degrees C being the optimal temperature. With 3.5 mg total BTEX added to sealed 50-ml serum bottles, which contained 30 ml mineral salts medium and the consortium, benzene, toluene, ethylbenze, m-xylene, and an unresolved mixture of o- and p-xylenes were biodegraded by 22%, 38%, 42%, 40%, and 38%, respectively, by ALK-1 after 14 days of incubation at 50 degrees C. Somewhat lower, but significant, percentages of the BTEX compounds also were biodegraded at 60 degrees C and 70 degrees C. The extent of biodegradation of these BTEX compounds by LLNL-1 at each of these three temperatures was slightly less than that achieved by ALK-1. Use of [ring-14C]toluene in the BTEX mixture incubated at 50 degrees C verified that 41% and 31% of the biodegraded toluene was metabolized within 14 days to water-soluble products by ALK-1 and LLNL-1, respectively. A small fraction of it was mineralized to 14CO2. The use of [U-14C]benzene revealed that 2.6%-4.3% of the biodegraded benzene was metabolized at 50 degrees C to water-soluble products by the two consortia; however, no mineralization of the degraded [U-14C]benzene to 14CO2 was observed. The biodegradation of BTEX at all three temperatures by both consortia was tightly coupled to sulfate reduction as well as H2S generation. None was observed when sulfate was omitted from the serum bottles. This suggests that sulfate-reducing bacteria are most likely responsible for the observed thermophilic biodegradation of BTEX in both consortial cultures. PMID:9274054

Chen, C I; Taylor, R T

1997-07-01

120

Present-day biogeochemical activities of anaerobic bacteria and their relevance to future exobiological investigations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

If the primordial atmosphere was reducing, then the first microbial ecosystem was probably composed of anaerobic bacteria. However, despite the presence of an oxygen-rich atmosphere, anaerobic habitats are important, commonplace components of the Earth's present biosphere. The geochemical activities displayed by these anaerobes impact the global cycling of certain elements (e.g., C, N, S, Fe, Mn, etc.). Methane provides an obvious example of how human-enhanced activities on a global scale can influence the content of a "radiative" (i.e., infrared absorbing) trace gas in the atmosphere. Methane can be oxidized by anaerobic bacteria, but this does not appear to support their growth. Acetylene, however, does support such growth. This may form the basis for future exobiological investigations of the atmospheres of anoxic, hydrocarbon-rich planets like Jupiter and Saturn, as well as the latter's satellite Titan. ?? 1989.

Oremland, R. S.

1989-01-01

121

Isolation and some characteristics of anaerobic oxalate-degrading bacteria from the rumen.  

PubMed Central

Obligately anaerobic oxalate-degrading bacteria were isolated from an enriched population of rumen bacteria in an oxalate-containing medium that had been depleted of other readily metabolized substrates. These organisms, which are the first reported anaerobic oxalate degraders isolated from the rumen, were gram negative, nonmotile rods. They grew in a medium containing sodium oxalate, yeast extract, cysteine, and minerals. The only substrate that supported growth was oxalate. Growth was directly related to the concentration of oxalate in the medium (1 to 111 mM), and cell yields were approximately 1.1 g (dry weight)/mol of oxalate degraded. Oxalate was stoichiometrically degraded to CO2 and formate. These anaerobes occupy a unique ecological niche and are distinct from any previously described oxalate-degrading bacteria. Images

Dawson, K A; Allison, M J; Hartman, P A

1980-01-01

122

Anaerobic and aerobic skin bacteria before and after skin-disinfection with chlorhexidine: an experimental study in volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount, composition, and localization of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria in the normal skin before and after disinfection were the subject of a volunteer study. The superficial bacterial flora were sampled by velvet pad imprints, and the deep flora were determined from whole skin biopsies. Only one anaerobic species, Propionebacterium acnes, was encountered even though other and more strict anaerobic

M L Nielsen; D Raahave; J G Stage; T Justesen

1975-01-01

123

Comparison of two transport systems available in Japan (TERUMO kenkiporter II and BBL Port-A-Cul) for maintenance of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

The kenkiporter II (KP II) transport system is commonly used in many hospitals in Japan for transporting bacterial specimens to microbiology laboratories. Recently, the BBL Port-A-Cul (PAC) fluid vial became available. However, no reports thus far have compared the effectiveness of these two transport systems. We chose 4 aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria as well as 8 anaerobic organisms, and prepared three strains of each bacterium in culture media for placement into PAC and KP II containers. We compared the effectiveness of each transport system for preserving each organism at 6, 24, and 48 h after inoculation at room temperature. Thirty-six strains out of 12 bacteria were used in this study. The PAC system yielded better recovery in quantity of organisms than the KP II system at 6, 24 and 48 h. More strains were significantly recovered with the PAC system than with the KP II at 24 h (36/36 vs. 23/36, P < 0.001) and 48 h (30/36 vs. 12/36, P < 0.001). The PAC system was better in the recovery of viable organisms counted at 24 and 48 h after inoculation compared with the KP II system. The PAC system may be recommended for the transfer of bacterial specimens in clinical settings. PMID:24462420

Fujimoto, Daichi; Takegawa, Hiroshi; Doi, Asako; Sakizono, Kenji; Kotani, Yoko; Miki, Kanji; Naito, Takuya; Niki, Marie; Miyamoto, Junko; Tamai, Koji; Nagata, Kazuma; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Tachikawa, Ryo; Otsuka, Kojiro; Katakami, Nobuyuki; Tomii, Keisuke

2014-01-01

124

Formation of amphetamine from its nitro analogue by anaerobic intestinal bacteria.  

PubMed

1. Microbial reduction of 1-phenyl-2-nitropropane 1 was carried out using 40 strains of intestinal anaerobic bacteria. Among them, 12 strains (Mitsuokella multiacidus, Clostridium perfringens, C. innocuum, C. clostiriiforme, C. difficile, C. butyricum, C. sp., Eubacterium limosum, E. aerofaciens, E. multiforme, Peptostreptococcus anaerobius and P. productus) had the ability to reduce 1 to amphetamine 2 (0.1-1% yield). 2. Clostridium species were more active than another intestinal anaerobic bacteria. 3. When Clostridium perfringens was used in preparative fermentation, the yield of 2 was increased, and its absolute structure had an (S)-configuration with an optical purity of 68% in enantiomeric excess. PMID:2219956

Mori, A; Ishiyama, I; Akita, H; Suzuki, K; Mitsuoka, T; Oishi, T

1990-06-01

125

Degradation of Dehydrodivanillin by Anaerobic Bacteria from Cow Rumen Fluid  

PubMed Central

Dehydrodivanillin (DDV; 0.15 g/liter) was biodegradable at 37°C under strictly anaerobic conditions by microflora from cow rumen fluid to the extent of 25% within 2 days in a yeast extract medium. The anaerobes were acclimated on DDV for 2 weeks, leading to DDV-degrading microflora with rates of degradation eight times higher than those initially. Dehydrodivanillic acid and vanillic acid were detected in an ethylacetate extract of a DDV-enriched culture broth by thin-layer, gas, and high-performance liquid chromatographies and by mass spectrometry.

Chen, Wei; Ohmiya, Kunio; Shimizu, Shoichi; Kawakami, Hidekuni

1985-01-01

126

Anaerobic and aerobic skin bacteria before and after skin-disinfection with chlorhexidine: an experimental study in volunteers.  

PubMed Central

The amount, composition, and localization of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria in the normal skin before and after disinfection were the subject of a volunteer study. The superficial bacterial flora were sampled by velvet pad imprints, and the deep flora were determined from whole skin biopsies. Only one anaerobic species, Propionebacterium acnes, was encountered even though other and more strict anaerobic bacteria could have been grown with the anaerobic technique employed. Staphylococcus albus dominated among the aerobic superficial bacteria, while diphtheroids, Micrococcus spp., and lactobacilli occurred sporadically. The deep aerobic bacteria were present in a significantly greater amount than the anaerobic. A two-step cleansing/disinfection procedure was evaluated in vivo in volunteers as well as in surgical patients, and aqueous cetrimide/chlorhexidine (Savlon) followed by chlorhexidine in alcohol (Hibitane) almost eradicated both the superficial and deep anaerobic and aerobic skin flora.

Nielsen, M L; Raahave, D; Stage, J G; Justesen, T

1975-01-01

127

Methods for testing antibiotic sensitivity of anaerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Problems are still encountered in the performance and interpretation of tests of anaerobe sensitivity to antibiotics. A review of the methods currently used was carried out in order to determine factors modifying the activity of antibiotics. The sensitivity ofEscherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus andClostridium perfringens to various drugs was tested under different conditions (including different culture media and incubation atmospheres).

J. A. Garctikyaa-Rodriguez; J. E. Garctikyaa-Sánchez; J. Prieto-Prieto

1980-01-01

128

Review of Reductive Leaching of Iron by Anaerobic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaching of iron, either as an impurity to be removed or as a metal to be recovered, requires a different approach than the oxidative leaching that dominates biohydrometallurgy of other metals. In particular, the significant increase in solubility that results from reducing Fe to Fe suggests that a reductive leaching process is most suitable. A wide range of anaerobic iron-reducing

T. C. Eisele; K. L. Gabby

2012-01-01

129

Sulfide and thiosulfate-oxidizing bacteria in anoxic marine basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of sulfide and thiosulfate-oxidizing bacteria was examined in waters and sediments of the Black Sea and the Caraco Trench. Isolates obtained by enrichment-culture techniques exhibited facultative autotrophic-growth characteristics and oxidized thiosulfate or sulfide. Acid was not formed during growth in mineral medium. Most of the isolates were facultatively anaerobic, using nitrate as the terminal hydrogen acceptor. Strictly aerobic

J. H. Tuttle; H. W. Jannasch

1973-01-01

130

Removal of heavy metals from anaerobically digested sewage sludge by isolated indigenous iron-oxidizing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni and Pb) from anaerobically digested sludge from the Yuen Long wastewater treatment plant, Hong Kong, has been studied in a batch system using isolated indigenous iron-oxidizing bacteria. The inoculation of indigenous iron-oxidizing bacteria and the addition of FeSO4 accelerated the solubilization of Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni and Pb from the sludge.

L Xiang; L. C Chan; J. W. C Wong

2000-01-01

131

Degradation of BTEX by anaerobic bacteria: physiology and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollution of the environment with aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (so-called BTEX)\\u000a is often observed. The cleanup of these toxic compounds has gained much attention in the last decades. In situ bioremediation\\u000a of aromatic hydrocarbons contaminated soils and groundwater by naturally occurring microorganisms or microorganisms that are\\u000a introduced is possible. Anaerobic bioremediation is an attractive technology

Sander A. B. Weelink; Miriam H. A. van Eekert; Alfons J. M. Stams

2010-01-01

132

Thermophilic biodegradation of BTEX by two consortia of anaerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two thermophilic anaerobic bacterial consortia (ALK-1 and LLNL-1), capable of degrading the aromatic fuel hydrocarbons, benzene,\\u000a toluene, ethylbenzene, and the xylenes (BTEX compounds), were developed at 60?C from the produced water of ARCO'S Kuparuk\\u000a oil field at Alaska and the subsurface water at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory gasoline-spill site, respectively.\\u000a Both consortia were found to grow at 45–75?C on

C.-I. Chen; R. T. Taylor

1997-01-01

133

Anaerobic oxidation of thiosulfate to tetrathionate by obligately heterotrophic bacteria, belonging to the Pseudomonas stutzeri group  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of strains of heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from various environments on the basis of their potential to oxidize inorganic sulfur compounds to tetrathionate. The isolates were screened for the ability to oxidize thiosulfate under denitrifying conditions. Many of them could grow anaerobically with acetate and nitrate, and eight strains could oxidize thiosulfate to tetrathionate under the same conditions.

Dimitry Yu. Sorokin; Andreas Teske; Lesley A. Robertson; J. Gijs Kuenen

1999-01-01

134

PCR detection and quantitation of predominant anaerobic bacteria in human and animal fecal samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

PCR procedures based on 16S rRNA genen sequence specific for 12 anaerobic bacteria that predominate in the human intestinal tract were developed and used for quantitative detection of these species in human feces and animal feces. The reported PCR procedure including the fecal sample preparation method is simplified and rapid and eliminates the DNA isolation steps.

Rong-Fu Wang; Wei-Wen Cao; C. E. Cerniglia

1996-01-01

135

Effect of Radiation Dose on the Recovery of Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria from Mice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The presence of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in the blood, spleen, and liver was investigated in mice that were exposed to 7, 8, 9. or 10 Gy CO60 radiation. Microorganisms were detected more often in animals exposed to higher doses of radiation. The num...

I. Brook R. I. Walker T. J. MacVittie

1986-01-01

136

Frequency of Resistance in Obligate Anaerobic Bacteria Isolated from Dogs, Cats, and Horses to Antimicrobial Agents  

PubMed Central

Clinical specimens from dogs, cats, and horses were examined for the presence of obligate anaerobic bacteria. Of 4,018 specimens cultured, 368 yielded 606 isolates of obligate anaerobic bacteria (248 from dogs, 50 from cats, and 308 from horses). There were 100 specimens from 94 animals from which only anaerobes were isolated (25 dogs, 8 cats, and 61 horses). The most common sites tested were abdominal fluid (dogs and cats) and intestinal contents (horses). The most common microorganism isolated from dogs, cats, and horses was Clostridium perfringens (75, 13, and101 isolates, respectively). The MICs of amoxicillin with clavulanate, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, metronidazole, and penicillin were determined using a gradient endpoint method for anaerobes. Isolates collected at necropsy were not tested for antimicrobial susceptibility unless so requested by the clinician. There were 1/145 isolates tested that were resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate (resistance breakpoint ? 16/8 ?g/ml), 7/77 isolates tested were resistant to ampicillin (resistance breakpoint ? 2 ?g/ml), 4/242 isolates tested were resistant to chloramphenicol (resistance breakpoint ? 32 ?g/ml), 12/158 isolates tested were resistant to clindamycin (resistance breakpoint ? 8 ?g/ml), 10/247 isolates tested were resistant to metronidazole (resistance breakpoint ? 32 ?g/ml), and 54/243 isolates tested were resistant to penicillin (resistance breakpoint ? 2 ?g/ml). These data suggest that anaerobes are generally susceptible to antimicrobial drugs in vitro.

Taylor, A.; Fajt, V. R.

2013-01-01

137

Benzaldehyde conversion by two anaerobic bacteria isolated from an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A benzaldehyde-degrading enrichment culture was obtained from mesophilic methanogenic granular sludge from a UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge bed) reactor treating potato starch wastewater. The enrichment culture degraded benzaldehyde rapidly to benzylalcohol and benzoate. Two benzaldehyde-degrading bacterial strains were isolated from the enrichment. Both strains could grow on yeast extract in the presence or absence of benzaldehyde. Strain BOR (DSM 12?858)

S. N. Parshina; R. Kleerebezem; E van Kempen; A. N. Nozhevnikova; G. Lettinga; A. J. M. Stams

2000-01-01

138

The cellulosome and cellulose degradation by anaerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its simple chemical composition, cellulose exists in a number of crystalline and amorphous topologies. Its insolubility and heterogeneity makes native cellulose a recalcitrant substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis. Microorganisms meet this challenge with the aid of a multi-enzyme system. Aerobic bacteria produce numerous individual, extra-cellular enzymes with binding modules for different cellulose conformations. Specific enzymes act in synergy to elicit

W. H. Schwarz

2001-01-01

139

Routine testing for anaerobic bacteria in cerebrospinal fluid cultures improves recovery of clinically significant pathogens.  

PubMed

In North America, the widespread use of vaccines targeting Haemophilus influenzae type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae have dramatically altered the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis, while the methodology for culturing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens has remained largely unchanged. The aims of this study were 2-fold: to document the current epidemiology of bacterial meningitis at a tertiary care medical center and to assess the clinical utility of routinely querying for anaerobes in CSF cultures. To that end, we assessed CSF cultures submitted over a 2-year period. A brucella blood agar (BBA) plate, incubated anaerobically for 5 days, was included in the culture procedure for all CSF specimens during the second year of evaluation. In the pre- and postimplementation years, 2,353 and 2,302 CSF specimens were cultured, with 49 and 99 patients having positive culture results, respectively. The clinical and laboratory data for patients with positive cultures were reviewed. Anaerobic bacteria were isolated in the CSF samples from 33 patients post-BBA compared to two patients pre-BBA (P = 0.01). The anaerobic isolates included Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (n = 1), Propionibacterium species (n = 15), and Propionibacterium acnes (n = 19) isolates; all of these isolates were recovered on the BBA. Eight of the 35 patients from whom anaerobic organisms were isolated received antimicrobial therapy. Although six of these patients had central nervous system hardware, two patients did not have a history of a neurosurgical procedure and had community-acquired anaerobic bacterial meningitis. This study demonstrates that the simple addition of an anaerobically incubated BBA to the culture of CSF specimens enhances the recovery of clinically significant anaerobic pathogens. PMID:24622102

Pittman, Meredith E; Thomas, Benjamin S; Wallace, Meghan A; Weber, Carol J; Burnham, Carey-Ann D

2014-06-01

140

Propionate Oxidation by and Methanol Inhibition of Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is a recently discovered microbial pathway and a cost-effective way to remove ammonium from wastewater. Anammox bacteria have been described as obligate chemolithoautotrophs. However, many chemolithoautotrophs (i.e., nitrifiers) can use organic compounds as a supplementary carbon source. In this study, the effect of organic compounds on anammox bacteria was investigated. It was shown that alcohols inhibited anammox bacteria, while organic acids were converted by them. Methanol was the most potent inhibitor, leading to complete and irreversible loss of activity at concentrations as low as 0.5 mM. Of the organic acids acetate and propionate, propionate was consumed at a higher rate (0.8 nmol min?1 mg of protein?1) by Percoll-purified anammox cells. Glucose, formate, and alanine had no effect on the anammox process. It was shown that propionate was oxidized mainly to CO2, with nitrate and/or nitrite as the electron acceptor. The anammox bacteria carried out propionate oxidation simultaneously with anaerobic ammonium oxidation. In an anammox enrichment culture fed with propionate for 150 days, the relative amounts of anammox cells and denitrifiers did not change significantly over time, indicating that anammox bacteria could compete successfully with heterotrophic denitrifiers for propionate. In conclusion, this study shows that anammox bacteria have a more versatile metabolism than previously assumed.

Guven, Didem; Dapena, Ana; Kartal, Boran; Schmid, Markus C.; Maas, Bart; van de Pas-Schoonen, Katinka; Sozen, Seval; Mendez, Ramon; Op den Camp, Huub J. M.; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Strous, Marc; Schmidt, Ingo

2005-01-01

141

Propionate oxidation by and methanol inhibition of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria.  

PubMed

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is a recently discovered microbial pathway and a cost-effective way to remove ammonium from wastewater. Anammox bacteria have been described as obligate chemolithoautotrophs. However, many chemolithoautotrophs (i.e., nitrifiers) can use organic compounds as a supplementary carbon source. In this study, the effect of organic compounds on anammox bacteria was investigated. It was shown that alcohols inhibited anammox bacteria, while organic acids were converted by them. Methanol was the most potent inhibitor, leading to complete and irreversible loss of activity at concentrations as low as 0.5 mM. Of the organic acids acetate and propionate, propionate was consumed at a higher rate (0.8 nmol min(-1) mg of protein(-1)) by Percoll-purified anammox cells. Glucose, formate, and alanine had no effect on the anammox process. It was shown that propionate was oxidized mainly to CO(2), with nitrate and/or nitrite as the electron acceptor. The anammox bacteria carried out propionate oxidation simultaneously with anaerobic ammonium oxidation. In an anammox enrichment culture fed with propionate for 150 days, the relative amounts of anammox cells and denitrifiers did not change significantly over time, indicating that anammox bacteria could compete successfully with heterotrophic denitrifiers for propionate. In conclusion, this study shows that anammox bacteria have a more versatile metabolism than previously assumed. PMID:15691967

Güven, Didem; Dapena, Ana; Kartal, Boran; Schmid, Markus C; Maas, Bart; van de Pas-Schoonen, Katinka; Sozen, Seval; Mendez, Ramon; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Jetten, Mike S M; Strous, Marc; Schmidt, Ingo

2005-02-01

142

Cupriavidus pinatubonensis sp. nov. and Cupriavidus laharis sp. nov., novel hydrogen-oxidizing, facultatively chemolithotrophic bacteria isolated from volcanic mudflow deposits from Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines.  

PubMed

Taxonomic studies were performed on ten hydrogen-oxidizing, facultatively chemolithotrophic bacteria that were isolated from volcanic mudflow deposits derived from the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines in 1991. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that these isolates belonged to the genus Cupriavidus of the Betaproteobacteria; sequence similarity values with their nearest phylogenetic neighbour, Cupriavidus basilensis, were 97.1-98.3 %. In addition to phylogenetic analysis, results of whole-cell protein profiles and biochemical tests revealed that these strains were members of two distinct species. DNA-DNA hybridizations and whole-cell protein profiles enabled these isolates to be differentiated from related Cupriavidus species with validly published names. The isolates were aerobic, Gram-negative, non-sporulating, peritrichously flagellated rods. Their G+C contents ranged from 65.2 to 65.9 mol% and their major isoprenoid quinone was ubiquinone Q-8. On the basis of these results, two novel species are proposed, Cupriavidus pinatubonensis sp. nov. [nine strains, with 1245T (=CIP 108725T=PNCM 10346T) as the type strain] and Cupriavidus laharis sp. nov. [one strain, the type strain 1263aT (=CIP 108726T=PNCM 10347T)]. It is also suggested that Ralstonia sp. LMG 1197 (=JMP 134) should be included in the species C. pinatubonensis. PMID:16627640

Sato, Yoshinori; Nishihara, Hirofumi; Yoshida, Masao; Watanabe, Makiko; Rondal, Jose D; Concepcion, Rogelio N; Ohta, Hiroyuki

2006-05-01

143

Effective reduction of enteric bacteria and viruses during the anaerobic digestion of biomass and wastes  

SciTech Connect

Natural resource depletion increases the amount of waste requiring efficient and affordable disposal alternatives. Through effective management, many of these so-called wastes can be utilized as important energy and agricultural resources. One such management approach involves the utilization of emergent aquatic plant species, such as water hyacinth, to remove nutrients from the wastewater during growth. This process produces an energy-containing biomass that can then be anaerobically digested either separately or with other waste components to produce energy-containing methane and an effluent residue containing significant quantities of protein and nutrients. This residue can be utilized as an effective fertilizer, soil conditioner, or animal feed supplement provided it is rendered reasonably safe from such contaminants as enteric microorganisms. This study was conducted to identify the digester operating parameters that affect the survival of enteric bacteria and viruses during the anaerobic digestion of blends of water hyacinth and primary sewage sludge. Solids retetion time and temperature were demonstrated to be important parameters affecting the survival of poliovirus, f-2 coliphage, Streptoccus fecalis, and Escherichia coli during anaerobic digestion. The die-off rates of the coliphages were similar to those of the poliovirus at 35/sup 0/C. S. fecalis appeared to be the most stable of any of the bacteria and viruses studied. All organisms were more stable at 25 than at 35/sup 0/C. The data demonstrate that the concentration of enteric bacteria and viruses can be effectively reduced during anaerobic digestion using techniques, such as increased solids retention times and mesophilic temperatures, that are consistent with achieving high methane yields. The survival of enteric viruses during anaerobic digestion may be affected by the characteristics of the feedstock as well as by the process operating conditions.

Fannin, K.F.; Hsu, P.H.; Mensinger, J.; Cahill, C.

1984-01-01

144

Dechlorination of Chlorocatechols by Stable Enrichment Cultures of Anaerobic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Metabolically stable anaerobic cultures obtained by enrichment with 5-bromovanillin, 5-chlorovanillin, catechin, and phloroglucinol were used to study dechlorination of chlorocatechols. A high degree of specificity in dechlorination was observed, and some chlorocatechols were appreciably more resistant to dechlorination than others: only 3,5-dichlorocatechol, 4,5-dichlorocatechol, 3,4,5-trichlorocatechol, and tetrachlorocatechol were dechlorinated, and not all of them were dechlorinated by the same consortium. 3,5-Dichlorocatechol produced 3-chlorocatechol, 4,5-dichlorocatechol produced 4-chlorocatechol, and 3,4,5-trichlorocatechol produced either 3,5-dichlorocatechol or 3,4-dichlorocatechol; tetrachlorocatechol produced only 3,4,6-trichlorocatechol. Incubation of uncontaminated sediments without additional carbon sources brought about dechlorination of 3,4,5-trichlorocatechol to 3,5-dichlorocatechol. O-demethylation of chloroguaiacols was generally accomplished by enrichment cultures, except that catechin enrichment was unable to O-demethylate tetrachloroguaiacol. None of the enrichments dechlorinated any of the polychlorinated phenols examined. The results suggested that dechlorination was not dependent on enrichment with or growth at the expense of chlorinated compounds and that it would be premature to formulate general rules for the structural dependence of the dechlorination reaction.

Allard, Ann-Sofie; Hynning, Per-Ake; Lindgren, Carin; Remberger, Mikael; Neilson, Alasdair H.

1991-01-01

145

Candidatus "Anammoxoglobus propionicus" a new propionate oxidizing species of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria.  

PubMed

The bacteria that mediate the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium (anammox) are detected worldwide in natural and man-made ecosystems, and contribute up to 50% to the loss of inorganic nitrogen in the oceans. Two different anammox species rarely live in a single habitat, suggesting that each species has a defined but yet unknown niche. Here we describe a new anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacterium with a defined niche: the co-oxidation of propionate and ammonium. The new anammox species was enriched in a laboratory scale bioreactor in the presence of ammonium and propionate. Interestingly, this particular anammox species could out-compete other anammox bacteria and heterotrophic denitrifiers for the oxidation of propionate in the presence of ammonium, nitrite and nitrate. We provisionally named the new species Candidatus "Anammoxoglobus propionicus". PMID:16644170

Kartal, Boran; Rattray, Jayne; van Niftrik, Laura A; van de Vossenberg, Jack; Schmid, Markus C; Webb, Richard I; Schouten, Stefan; Fuerst, John A; Damsté, Jaap Sinninghe; Jetten, Mike S M; Strous, Marc

2007-01-01

146

34S/32S fractionation in sulfur cycles catalyzed by anaerobic bacteria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stable isotopic distributions in the sulfur cycle were studied with pure and mixed cultures of the anaerobic bacteria, Chlorobium vibrioforme and Desulfovibrio vulgaris. D. vulgaris and C. vibrioforme can catalyze three reactions constituting a complete anaerobic sulfur cycle: reduction of sulfate to sulfide (D. vulgaris), oxidation of sulfide to elemental sulfur (C. vibrioforme), and oxidation of sulfur to sulfate (C. vibrioforme). In all experiments, the first and last reactions favored concentration of the light 32S isotope in products (isotopic fractionation factor epsilon = -7.2 and -1.7%, respectively), whereas oxidation of sulfide favored concentration of the heavy 34S isotope in products (epsilon = +1.7%). Experimental results and model calculations suggest that elemental sulfur enriched in 34S versus sulfide may be a biogeochemical marker for the presence of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria in modern and ancient environments.

Fry, B.; Gest, H.; Hayes, J. M.

1988-01-01

147

Spore Structure of Two New Species of Anaerobic Bacteria -- Clostridium Taenisporum n. SP. And Bacillus Penicillus n. SP..  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The morphological, cultural and bio-chemical properties of two new species of anaerobic bacteria isolated from silt and classified as Clostridium taenisporum and Bacillus penicillus are described. Protrusions on the spores of these species, differing in t...

N. A. Krasilnikov V. I. Duda G. E. Pivovarov

1968-01-01

148

FINAL REPORT. REDUCTION AND IMMOBILIZATION OF RADIONUCLIDES AND TOXIC METAL IONS USING COMBINED ZERO VALENT IRON AND ANAEROBIC BACTERIA  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of zero valent iron, permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) for groundwater remediation continues to increase. An exciting variation of this technology involves introducing anaerobic bacteria into these barriers so that both biological and abiotic pollutant removal processes ...

149

Detection of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in Ago Bay sediments.  

PubMed

We identified 16S rRNA gene sequences in sediment samples from Ago Bay in Japan, forming a new branch of the anammox group or closely related to anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacterial sequences. Anammox activity in the sediment samples was detected by (15)N tracer assays. These results, along with the results of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, suggest the presence of anammox bacteria in the marine sediments. PMID:18685192

Nakajima, Jun; Sakka, Makiko; Kimura, Tetsuya; Sakka, Kazuo

2008-08-01

150

Stable Carbon Isotopic Fractionations Associated with Inorganic Carbon Fixation by Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Isotopic analyses of Candidatus “Brocadia anammoxidans,” a chemolithoautotrophic bacterium that anaerobically oxidizes ammonium (anammox), show that it strongly fractionates against 13C; i.e., lipids are depleted by up to 47‰ versus CO2. Similar results were obtained for the anammox bacterium Candidatus “Scalindua sorokinii,” which thrives in the anoxic water column of the Black Sea, suggesting that different anammox bacteria use identical carbon fixation pathways, which may be either the Calvin cycle or the acetyl coenzyme A pathway.

Schouten, Stefan; Strous, Marc; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Rijpstra, W. Irene C.; Baas, Marianne; Schubert, Carsten J.; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Sinninghe Damste, Jaap S.

2004-01-01

151

Bio-hydrogen production of anaerobic bacteria in reverse micellar media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biohydrogen production using anaerobic mixed bacteria in dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt (AOT)\\/isooctane\\/water reverse micelles has been investigated. It was found that hydrogen production was enhanced by optimizing some relevant parameters, such as surfactant concentration, water content (w0), initial pH, temperature, and substrate concentration. The maximum hydrogen productivity was obtained as 3.51molH2\\/molglucose, which was 2.28-fold in aqueous solutions. Analysis of volatile

Xiaohua Zhi; Haijun Yang; Zhuliang Yuan; Jianquan Shen

2008-01-01

152

Comparative activity of the quinolones against anaerobic bacteria isolated at community hospitals.  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activity of five quinolone compounds, amoxicillin, and clindamycin against 118 strains of anaerobic bacteria isolated at community hospitals was determined by an agar dilution method. Nalidixic acid and cinoxacin had poor activity, and norfloxacin and enoxacin showed relatively poor activity. Ciprofloxacin was active against Bacteroides fragilis, Fusobacterium species, Clostridium perfringens, and gram-positive cocci. At peak levels achievable in the feces, norfloxacin and enoxacin had moderate activity.

Goldstein, E J; Citron, D M

1985-01-01

153

The ultrastructure of the compartmentalized anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria is linked to their energy metabolism.  

PubMed

The most striking example of a complex prokaryotic intracytoplasmic organization can be found in the members of the phylum Planctomycetes. Among them are the anammox (anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing) bacteria, which possess a unique cell compartment with an unprecedented function in bacteria: the anammoxosome is a prokaryotic cell organelle evolved for energy metabolism. It is an independent entity, which is enclosed by a contiguous membrane. Several lines of evidence indicate its importance in the anammox reaction and the unusual subcellular organization may well be essential for the lifestyle of anammox bacteria. The present review summarizes our knowledge about the ultrastructure of anammox cells and the connection between the anammoxosome and the energy metabolism of the cell. In the future, much more research will be necessary to validate the current models and to answer questions on the functional cell biology of anammox bacteria. PMID:22103530

Neumann, Sarah; Jetten, Mike S M; van Niftrik, Laura

2011-12-01

154

Thermophilic, anaerobic bacteria isolated from a deep borehole in granite in Sweden.  

PubMed Central

A borehole drilled to a total depth of 6779 m in granitic rock in Gravberg, Sweden, was sampled and examined for the presence of anaerobic, thermophilic, fermenting bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria. Growth in enrichment cultures was obtained only from water samples collected from a specific sampling depth in the borehole (3500 m). The hole was cased down to a depth of 5278 m and open to the formation below that level. All the water below 2000 m in depth standing in the borehole at the time of sampling must have entered at the 5278-m level or below, during a prior pumping operation. A strong salinity stratification certifies that no major amount of vertical mixing had taken place. The depth from which bacteria could be enriched was that of a pronounced local minimum of salinity. Pure cultures of thermophilic, anaerobic, fermenting bacteria were obtained with the following substrates: glucose, starch, xylan, ethanol, and lactate. The morphology and physiology of the glucose- and starch-degrading strains indicate a relationship to Thermoanaerobacter and Thermoanaerobium species. All but one of the newly isolated strains differ however from those by lacking acetate as a fermentation product. The glucose-degrading strain Gluc1 is phylogenetically related to Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum, with an evolutionary distance based upon rRNA sequence comparisons of 3%. No sulfate-reducing or methanogenic bacteria were found.

Szewzyk, U; Szewzyk, R; Stenstrom, T A

1994-01-01

155

The anammoxosome organelle is crucial for the energy metabolism of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria.  

PubMed

Anammox bacteria convert ammonium and nitrite to dinitrogen gas under anaerobic conditions to obtain their energy for growth. The anammox reaction was deemed impossible until its discovery in the early 1990s. Now, anammox bacteria are recognized as major players in the global nitrogen cycle and estimated to be responsible for up to 50% of the nitrogen in the air that we breathe. In addition, anammox bacteria are extremely valuable for wastewater treatment where they are applied for the removal of ammonium. Besides their importance in industry and the environment, anammox bacteria defy some basic biological concepts. Whereas most other bacteria have only one cell compartment, the cytoplasm, anammox bacteria have three independent cell compartments bounded by bilayer membranes, from out- to inside; the paryphoplasm, riboplasm and anammoxosome. The anammoxosome is the largest compartment of the anammox cell and is proposed to be dedicated to energy conservation. As such it would be analogous to the mitochondria of eukaryotes. This review will discuss the anammox cell plan in detail, with the main focus on the anammoxosome. The identity of the anammoxosome as a prokaryotic organelle and the importance of this organelle for anammox bacteria are discussed as well as challenges these bacteria face by having three independent cell compartments. PMID:23615199

van Teeseling, Muriel C F; Neumann, Sarah; van Niftrik, Laura

2013-01-01

156

Explicit hypoxia targeting with tumor suppression by creating an "obligate" anaerobic Salmonella Typhimurium strain  

PubMed Central

Using bacteria as therapeutic agents against solid tumors is emerging as an area of great potential in the treatment of cancer. Obligate and facultative anaerobic bacteria have been shown to infiltrate the hypoxic regions of solid tumors, thereby reducing their growth rate or causing regression. However, a major challenge for bacterial therapy of cancer with facultative anaerobes is avoiding damage to normal tissues. Consequently the virulence of bacteria must be adequately attenuated for therapeutic use. By placing an essential gene under a hypoxia conditioned promoter, Salmonella Typhimurium strain SL7207 was engineered to survive only in anaerobic conditions (strain YB1) without otherwise affecting its functions. In breast tumor bearing nude mice, YB1 grew within the tumor, retarding its growth, while being rapidly eliminated from normal tissues. YB1 provides a safe bacterial vector for anti-tumor therapies without compromising the other functions or tumor fitness of the bacterium as attenuation methods normally do.

Yu, Bin; Yang, Mei; Shi, Lei; Yao, Yandan; Jiang, Qinqin; Li, Xuefei; Tang, Lei-Han; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Smith, David K.; Song, Erwei; Huang, Jian-Dong

2012-01-01

157

Significance of Anaerobes and Oral Bacteria in Community-Acquired Pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Background Molecular biological modalities with better detection rates have been applied to identify the bacteria causing infectious diseases. Approximately 10–48% of bacterial pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia are not identified using conventional cultivation methods. This study evaluated the bacteriological causes of community-acquired pneumonia using a cultivation-independent clone library analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of bronchoalveolar lavage specimens, and compared the results with those of conventional cultivation methods. Methods Patients with community-acquired pneumonia were enrolled based on their clinical and radiological findings. Bronchoalveolar lavage specimens were collected from pulmonary pathological lesions using bronchoscopy and evaluated by both a culture-independent molecular method and conventional cultivation methods. For the culture-independent molecular method, approximately 600 base pairs of 16S ribosomal RNA genes were amplified using polymerase chain reaction with universal primers, followed by the construction of clone libraries. The nucleotide sequences of 96 clones randomly chosen for each specimen were determined, and bacterial homology was searched. Conventional cultivation methods, including anaerobic cultures, were also performed using the same specimens. Results In addition to known common pathogens of community-acquired pneumonia [Streptococcus pneumoniae (18.8%), Haemophilus influenzae (18.8%), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (17.2%)], molecular analysis of specimens from 64 patients with community-acquired pneumonia showed relatively higher rates of anaerobes (15.6%) and oral bacteria (15.6%) than previous reports. Conclusion Our findings suggest that anaerobes and oral bacteria are more frequently detected in patients with community-acquired pneumonia than previously believed. It is possible that these bacteria may play more important roles in community-acquired pneumonia.

Yamasaki, Kei; Kawanami, Toshinori; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Noguchi, Shingo; Nagata, Shuya; Nishida, Chinatsu; Kido, Takashi; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Hatsumi; Mukae, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

158

Ecophysiological adaptations of anaerobic bacteria to low pH. [Sarcina ventriculi; Lactobacillus helveticus  

SciTech Connect

The ecological and physiological adaptations of anaerobic bacteria to low pH were investigated in field and laboratory studies. Determinations of hydrogen kinetic parameters demonstrated that overall hydrogen metabolism was inhibited in acid ecosystems. In particular, hydrogen metabolism became progressively uncoupled at low pH. This uncoupling resulted in a slowing of carbon flow during anaerobic digestion and the accumulation of intermediary metabolites. The addition of carbon electron donors to acid bog sediments resulted in the accumulation of hydrogen and a slowing of the overall rates of anaerobic digestion. As an adaptation to low pH, anaerobic bacterial populations shifted from production of acid intermediary metabolites (e.g. acetate and lactate) to the production of neutral intermediary metabolites (e.g. ethanol). This shift was observed both in situ and in pure cultures of hydrolytic strains isolated from bog sediments. Detailed physiological studies of Sarcina ventriculi showed an adaptation to growth at low pH by mechanisms which allowed the continued production of ethanol from glucose and the maintenance of a proton motive force at low cytoplasmic pH values. Further physiological studies Lactobacillus helveticus showed that the accumulation of acidic end-product (lactic acid) strongly influenced cellular electrochemical parameters. Based on the results of computer simulations and laboratory studies of the physiology of the organism in the presence of organic acids, a new model for the passive coupling of energy conservation to the efflux of lactic acid in an electroneutral process is proposed.

Goodwin, S.D.

1986-01-01

159

Living Without Oxygen: Oxygen Tolerance in Bacteria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity focuses on chemical processes, such as nitrogen fixation and denitrification, which are carried out by bacteria. Often the efficacy of these processes is determined by the amount of oxygen present in the environment in which the bacteria live. Much of the time, these processes are carried out by facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the suboxic region of lakes, oceans, sediments, and leaf litter. Students will discover whether facultatively anaerobic photoautotrophs share the same tolerance for oxygen, how differences in oxygen tolerance can be tested, and of what significance the tolerance for oxygen is in the nitrogen cycle. They will practice aseptic technique, monitor the growth of bacterial cultures, display their results graphically, and propose environmental problems associated with the oxygen tolerance of nitrogen fixers and denitifiers.

Harris, Sharon

160

Broad Distribution of Diverse Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria in Chinese Agricultural Soils  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria have been detected in many marine and freshwater ecosystems. However, little is known about the distribution, diversity, and abundance of anammox bacteria in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, anammox bacteria were found to be present in various agricultural soils collected from 32 different locations in China. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA genes showed “Candidatus Brocadia,” “Candidatus Kuenenia,” “Candidatus Anammoxoglobus,” and “Candidatus Jettenia” in the collected soils, with “Candidatus Brocadia” being the dominant genus. Quantitative PCR showed that the abundance of anammox bacteria ranged from 6.38 × 104 ± 0.42 × 104 to 3.69 × 106 ± 0.25 × 106 copies per gram of dry weight. Different levels of diversity, composition, and abundance of the anammox bacterial communities were observed, and redundancy analysis indicated that the soil organic content and the distribution of anammox communities were correlated in the soils examined. Furthermore, Pearson correlation analysis showed that the diversity of the anammox bacteria was positively correlated with the soil ammonium content and the organic content, while the anammox bacterial abundance was positively correlated with the soil ammonium content. These results demonstrate the broad distribution of diverse anammox bacteria and its correlation with the soil environmental conditions within an extensive range of Chinese agricultural soils.

Shen, Li-dong; Liu, Shuai; Lou, Li-ping; Liu, Wei-ping; Xu, Xiang-yang; Zheng, Ping

2013-01-01

161

Growth of silicone-immobilized bacteria on polycarbonate membrane filters, a technique to study microcolony formation under anaerobic conditions.  

PubMed

A technique was developed to study microcolony formation by silicone-immobilized bacteria on polycarbonate membrane filters under anaerobic conditions. A sudden shift to anaerobiosis was obtained by submerging the filters in medium which was depleted for oxygen by a pure culture of bacteria. The technique was used to demonstrate that preinduction of nitrate reductase under low-oxygen conditions was necessary for nonfermenting, nitrate-respiring bacteria, e.g., Pseudomonas spp., to cope with a sudden lack of oxygen. In contrast, nitrate-respiring, fermenting bacteria, e.g., Bacillus and Escherichia spp., formed microcolonies under anaerobic conditions with or without the presence of nitrate and irrespective of aerobic or anaerobic preculture conditions. PMID:9212439

Højberg, O; Binnerup, S J; Sørensen, J

1997-07-01

162

MALDI-TOF MS versus VITEK 2 ANC card for identification of anaerobic bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is an accurate, rapid and inexpensive technique that has initiated a revolution in the clinical microbiology laboratory for identification of pathogens. The Vitek 2 anaerobe and Corynebacterium (ANC) identification card is a newly developed method for identification of corynebacteria and anaerobic species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the ANC card and MALDI-TOF MS techniques for identification of clinical anaerobic isolates. Methods Five reference strains and a total of 50 anaerobic bacteria clinical isolates comprising ten different genera and 14 species were identified and analyzed by the ANC card together with Vitek 2 identification system and Vitek MS together with version 2.0 database respectively. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used as reference method for accuracy in the identification. Results Vitek 2 ANC card and Vitek MS provided comparable results at species level for the five reference strains. Of 50 clinical strains, the Vitek MS provided identification for 46 strains (92%) to the species level, 47 (94%) to genus level, one (2%) low discrimination, two (4%) no identification and one (2%) misidentification. The Vitek 2 ANC card provided identification for 43 strains (86%) correct to the species level, 47 (94%) correct to the genus level, three (6%) low discrimination, three (6%) no identification and one (2%) misidentification. Conclusions Both Vitek MS and Vitek 2 ANC card can be used for accurate routine clinical anaerobe identification. Comparing to the Vitek 2 ANC card, Vitek MS is easier, faster and more economic for each test. The databases currently available for both systems should be updated and further developed to enhance performance.

Li, Yang; Gu, Bing; Xia, Wenying; Fan, Kun; Mei, Yaning; Huang, Peijun; Pan, Shiyang

2014-01-01

163

Anaerobic Roll Tube Media for Nonselective Enumeration and Isolation of Bacteria in Human Feces  

PubMed Central

Medium 10 (M10), developed for rumen bacteria and containing small amounts of sugars, starch, volatile fatty acids, hemin, Trypticase, yeast extract, cysteine, and sulfide, plus agar, minerals and CO2-HCO3-buffer, was used with the Hungate anaerobic method as a basal medium to evaluate the efficacy of various ingredients. Three-day-old colony counts from adults on normal diets (17 samples) were 0.55 × 1011 to 1.7 × 1011 per g (mean, 1.15 × 1011) for M10. Single deletion of volatile fatty acids, Trypticase, yeast extract, or sulfide did not reduce counts. Deletion of hemin or both Trypticase and yeast extract significantly lowered counts. Addition of fecal extract, rumen fluid, 1% dehydrated Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) or 2 to 6% liver infusion did not increase counts; 1% dehydrated bile or 3.7% BHI markedly depressed them. Decreasing the gas-phase CO2 concentration from 100 to 5% with N2 and correspondingly lowering the HCO3 had little effect. Counts in supplemented Brewer Thioglycollate (Difco), BHI, and Trypticase soy agar were similar or lower than in M10; ease in counting was best in M10. Comparison of features of 88 predominant strains of fecal bacteria randomly isolated indicated that M10 supported growth of as many or more species of bacteria as compared to supplemented BHI. The results suggest that predominant bacteria of human feces, in general, are not as nutritionally fastidious as rumen bacteria and indicate that media for counts or isolation containing large amounts of rich organic materials are neither necessary nor desirable when adequate anaerobic techniques are used.

Eller, Charles; Crabill, Melvin R.; Bryant, Marvin P.

1971-01-01

164

Quantification of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in enrichment cultures by real-time PCR.  

PubMed

The anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (ANAMMOX) bacteria were enriched from a rotating disk reactor (RDR) biofilm in semi-batch cultures. Based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, this enrichment led to a relative population size of 36% ANAMMOX bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the detected clones were related to the previously reported ANAMMOX bacteria, Candidatus Brocadia anammoxidans (AF375994), with 92% sequence similarity. Furthermore, we successfully developed a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to quantify populations of ANAMMOX bacteria in the enrichment cultures. For this real-time PCR assay, PCR primer sets targeting 16S ribosomal RNA genes of ANAMMOX bacteria were designed and used. The quantification range of this assay was 6 orders of magnitude, from 8.9x10(1) to 8.9x10(6) copies per PCR, corresponding to the detection limit of 3.6x10(3) target copies mL(-1). A significant correlation was found between the increase in copy numbers of 16S rRNA gene of ANAMMOX bacteria and the increase in nitrogen removal rates in the enrichment cultures. Quantifying ANAMMOX bacterial populations in the enrichment culture made it possible to estimate the doubling time of the enriched ANAMMOX bacteria to be 3.6 to 5.4 days. The real-time PCR assay gave comparable population sizes in the enrichment cultures with the FISH results. These results suggest that the real-time PCR assay developed in this study is useful and reliable for quantifying the populations of ANAMMOX bacteria in environmental and engineering samples. PMID:17215016

Tsushima, Ikuo; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Okabe, Satoshi

2007-02-01

165

Stable carbon isotopic fractionations associated with inorganic carbon fixation by anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria.  

PubMed

Isotopic analyses of Candidatus "Brocadia anammoxidans," a chemolithoautotrophic bacterium that anaerobically oxidizes ammonium (anammox), show that it strongly fractionates against (13)C; i.e., lipids are depleted by up to 47 per thousand versus CO(2). Similar results were obtained for the anammox bacterium Candidatus "Scalindua sorokinii," which thrives in the anoxic water column of the Black Sea, suggesting that different anammox bacteria use identical carbon fixation pathways, which may be either the Calvin cycle or the acetyl coenzyme A pathway. PMID:15184193

Schouten, Stefan; Strous, Marc; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Baas, Marianne; Schubert, Carsten J; Jetten, Mike S M; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S

2004-06-01

166

Production of phytoestrogen S-equol from daidzein in mixed culture of two anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

An anaerobic incubation mixture of two bacterial strains Eggerthella sp. Julong 732 and Lactobacillus sp. Niu-O16, which have been known to transform dihydrodaidzein to S-equol and daidzein to dihydrodaidzein respectively, produced S-equol from daidzein through dihydrodaidzein. The biotransformation kinetics of daidzein by the mixed cultures showed that the production of S-equol from daidzein was significantly enhanced, as compared to the production of S-equol from dihydrodaidzein by Eggerthella sp. Julong 732 alone. The substrate daidzein in the mixed culture was almost completely converted to S-equol in 24 h of anaerobic incubation. The increased production of S-equol from daidzein by the mixed culture is likely related to the increased bacterial numbers of Eggerthella sp. Julong 732. In the mixture cultures, the growth of Eggerthella sp. Julong 732 was significantly increased while the growth of Lactobacillus sp. Niu-O16 was suppressed as compared to either the single culture of Eggerthella sp. Julong 732 or Lactobacillus sp. Niu-O16. This is the first report in which two metabolic pathways to produce S-equol from daidzein by a mixed culture of bacteria isolated from human and bovine intestinal environments were successfully linked under anaerobic conditions. PMID:17109177

Wang, Xiu-Ling; Kim, Ho-Jin; Kang, Su-Il; Kim, Su-Il; Hur, Hor-Gil

2007-02-01

167

Colonizing the embryonic zebrafish gut with anaerobic bacteria derived from the human gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed

The zebrafish has become increasingly popular for microbiological research. It has been used as an infection model for a variety of pathogens, and is also emerging as a tool for studying interactions between a host and its resident microbial communities. The mouse microbiota has been transplanted into the zebrafish gut, but to our knowledge, there has been no attempt to introduce a bacterial community derived from the human gut. We explored two methods for colonizing the developing gut of 5-day-old germ-free zebrafish larvae with a defined anaerobic microbial community derived from a single human fecal sample. Both environmental exposure (static immersion) and direct microinjection into the gut resulted in the establishment of two species-Lactobacillus paracasei and Eubacterium limosum-from a community of 30 strains consisting of 22 anaerobic species. Of particular interest is E. limosum, which, as a strict anaerobe, represents a group of bacteria which until now have not been shown to colonize the developing zebrafish gut. Our success here indicates that further investigation of zebrafish as a tool for studying human gut microbial communities is warranted. PMID:23530761

Toh, Michael C; Goodyear, Mara; Daigneault, Michelle; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Van Raay, Terence J

2013-06-01

168

Enrichment of anaerobic syngas-converting bacteria from thermophilic bioreactor sludge.  

PubMed

Thermophilic (55 °C) anaerobic microbial communities were enriched with a synthetic syngas mixture (composed of CO, H2 , and CO2 ) or with CO alone. Cultures T-Syn and T-CO were incubated and successively transferred with syngas (16 transfers) or CO (9 transfers), respectively, with increasing CO partial pressures from 0.09 to 0.88 bar. Culture T-Syn, after 4 successive transfers with syngas, was also incubated with CO and subsequently transferred (9 transfers) with solely this substrate - cultures T-Syn-CO. Incubation with syngas and CO caused a rapid decrease in the microbial diversity of the anaerobic consortium. T-Syn and T-Syn-CO showed identical microbial composition and were dominated by Desulfotomaculum and Caloribacterium species. Incubation initiated with CO resulted in the enrichment of bacteria from the genera Thermincola and Thermoanaerobacter. Methane was detected in the first two to three transfers of T-Syn, but production ceased afterward. Acetate was the main product formed by T-Syn and T-Syn-CO. Enriched T-CO cultures showed a two-phase conversion, in which H2 was formed first and then converted to acetate. This research provides insight into how thermophilic anaerobic communities develop using syngas/CO as sole energy and carbon source can be steered for specific end products and subsequent microbial synthesis of chemicals. PMID:23899025

Alves, Joana I; Stams, Alfons J M; Plugge, Caroline M; Alves, M Madalena; Sousa, Diana Z

2013-12-01

169

Anammox bacteria and the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium in the oxygen minimum zone off northern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anammox is the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium by nitrite or nitrate to yield N 2. This process, along with conventional denitrification, contributes to nitrogen loss in oxygen-deficient systems. Anammox is performed by a special group of bacteria belonging to the Planctomycetes phylum. However, information about the distribution, activity, and controlling factors of these anammox bacteria is still limited. Herein, we examine the phylogenetic diversity, vertical distribution, and activity of anammox bacteria in the coastal upwelling region and oxygen minimum zone off northern Chile. The phylogeny of anammox bacteria was studied using primers designed to specifically target 16S rRNA genes from Planctomycetes in samples taken during a cruise in 2004. Anammox bacteria-like sequences affiliated with Candidatus "Scalindua spp." dominated the 16S rRNA gene clone library. However, 62% of the sequences subgrouped separately within this cluster and together with a single sequence retrieved from the suboxic zone of the freshwater Lake Tanganyika. The vertical distribution and activity of anammox bacteria were explored through CARD-FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization with catalyzed reporter deposition) and 15N labeling incubations, respectively, at two different open-ocean stations during a second cruise in 2005. Anammox bacterial CARD-FISH counts (up to 3000 cells ml -1) and activity (up to 5.75 nmol N 2 L -1 d -1) were only detected at the station subjected directly to the upwelling influence. Anammox cell abundance and activity were highest at 50 m depth, which is the upper part of the OMZ. In this layer, a high abundance of cyanobacteria and a marked nitrogen deficit were also observed. Thus, our results show the presence of a new subcluster within the marine anammox phylogeny and indicate high vertical variability in the abundance and activity of anammox bacteria that could be related to an intensification of carbon and nitrogen cycling in the upper part of the OMZ.

Galán, Alexander; Molina, Verónica; Thamdrup, Bo; Woebken, Dagmar; Lavik, Gaute; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Ulloa, Osvaldo

2009-07-01

170

[Pathogen and resistance spectrum in intraoral infections of the jaw-facial area with special reference to anaerobic bacteria].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to obtain more knowledge about the aerobic and anaerobic species causing maxillofacial infections and their resistance patterns today. Samples of pus or infectious tissue obtained from 110 patients of maxillofacial surgery were investigated microbiologically by means of aerobic and anaerobic cultivation. After incubation, the cultivated species were isolated and identified. The resistance patterns of all bacteria to penicillin, doxycyclin, and clindamycin were determined. Additionally, the resistance of aerobic species to cefuroxim was documented, and the MICs of cefoxitin and metronidazole to the anaerobic species were assessed. The most frequent disease was periodontitis apicalis (70 patients). Aerobic species alone were found in 23% of the samples, 14% of the infections harbored only anaerobes, but 63% were mixed infections caused by aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. In case of detection of aerobic species, streptococci were always identified. Five patients were infected by Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative aerobic rods were found in eight patients. Most of the anaerobic species were black pigmented prevotella species (62), nonpigmented prevotellae (56), and fusobacteria (37). Metronidazole and clindamycin were highly efficient to gram-negative anaerobic rods. Most of the oral species were resistant to penicillin and doxycyclin. The indication for applying antibiotics should always be noticed and these drugs should only be used after determination of the pathogenic microorganisms and their susceptibility to the antimicrobials. PMID:10994323

Eick, S; Pfister, W; Korn-Stemme, S; Mägdefessel-Schmutzer, U; Straube, E

2000-07-01

171

In vitro activity of BAY y 3118, and nine other antimicrobial agents against anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

The antibacterial activity of BAY y 3118, a new chlorofluoroquinolone, was determined against 257 strains of anaerobic bacteria and compared with the activities of ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, sparfloxacin, imipenem, cefoxitin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, metronidazole, and ornidazole. Overall, BAY y 3118 was the most active agent tested against the Bacteroides fragilis group. Its activity (MIC90, 0.5 mg/L) was 16-fold lower than that of sparfloxacin (MIC90, 8 mg/L), and more than 100-fold lower than that of ofloxacin (MIC90, 64 mg/L) and ciprofloxacin (MIC90, 128 mg/L) against the group. No strains belonging to this group were resistant to metronidazole (MICs range, 0.12-2 mg/L) and ornidazole (MICs range, 0.12-4 mg/L). BAY y 3118 was more active than those quinolones against Prevotella and Porphyromonas spp., Fusobacterium spp., Clostridium perfringens and C. difficile (MIC90, 0.12, 0.06, 0.12 and 0.25 mg/L, respectively). The activity of BAY y 3118 against Peptostreptococcus spp. (MIC90, 1 mg/L) was slightly lower than that of the other Gram-positive bacteria tested. In general, BAY y 3118 was more active than cefoxitin, and it was superior to antianaerobic chemical agents like metronidazole, ornidazole and clindamycin. Pharmacokinetic and clinical trials are required to define the role of BAY y 3118 in the treatment of anaerobic infections. PMID:7562012

García-Rodríguez, J A; García-Sánchez, J E; Trujillano-Martín, I; García-Sánchez, E; García-García, M I; Fresnadillo-Martínez, M J

1995-06-01

172

Role of anaerobic bacteria in the metabolic welfare of the colonic mucosa in man.  

PubMed Central

Suspensions of isolated epithelial cells (colonocytes) from the human colon were used to assess utilisation of respiratory fuels which are normally available to the colonic mucosa in vivo. Cells were prepared from operative specimens of the ascending colon (seven) and descending colon (seven). The fuels that were used were the short chain fatty acid n-butyrate, produced only by anaerobic bacteria in the colonic lumen, together with glucose and glutamine, normally present in the circulation. The percentage oxygen consumption attributable to n-butyrate, when this was the only substrate, was 73% in the ascending colon and 75% in the descending colon. In the presence of 10 mM glucose these proportions changed to 59% and 72%. Aerobic glycolysis was observed in both the ascending and descending colon. Glucose oxidation accounted for 85% of the oxygen consumption in the ascending colon and 30% in the descending colon. In the presence of 10 mM n-butyrate these proportions decreased to 41% in the ascending colon and 16% in the descending colon. Based on the assumption that events in the isolated colonocytes reflect utilization of fuels in vivo, the hypothesis is put forward that fatty acids of anaerobic bacteria are a major source of energy for the colonic mucosa, particularly of the distal colon.

Roediger, W E

1980-01-01

173

Diversity of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in a granular sludge anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) reactor.  

PubMed

The ammonium-oxidizing microbial community was investigated in a granular sludge anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) reactor that was operated for about 1 year with high anaerobic ammonium oxidation activity (up to 0.8 kg NH(4)(+)-N m(-3) day(-1)). A Planctomycetales-specific 16S rRNA gene library was constructed to analyse the diversity of the anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB). Most of the specifically amplified sequences (15/16) were similar to each other (> 99%) but were distantly related to all of the previously recognized sequences (< 94%), with the exception of an unclassified anammox-related clone, KSU-1 (98%). An ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene library was also analysed to investigate the diversity of 'aerobic' ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AAOB) from the beta-Proteobacteria. Most of the amoA gene fragments (53/55) clustered in the Nitrosomonas europaea-Nitrosococcus mobilis group which has been reported to prevail under oxygen-limiting conditions. The quantitative results from real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification showed that the dominant AnAOB comprised approximately 50% of the total bacterial 16S rRNA genes in the reactor, whereas the AAOB of beta-Proteobacteria represented only about 3%. A large fragment (4008 bp) of the rRNA gene cluster of the dominant AnAOB (AS-1) in this reactor sludge was sequenced and compared with sequences of other Planctomycetales including four anammox-related candidate genera. The partial sequence of hydrazine-oxidizing enzyme (hzo) of dominant AnAOB was also identified using new designed primers. Based on this analysis, we propose to tentatively name this new AnAOB Candidatus'Jettenia asiatica'. PMID:18479446

Quan, Zhe-Xue; Rhee, Sung-Keun; Zuo, Jian-E; Yang, Yang; Bae, Jin-Woo; Park, Ja Ryeong; Lee, Sung-Taik; Park, Yong-Ha

2008-11-01

174

Distribution and diversity of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in the sediments of the Qiantang River.  

PubMed

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is an important process in the marine nitrogen cycle. However, little is known about the distribution, diversity and abundance of anammox bacteria in inland river ecosystems. Here, we found the presence of diverse anammox bacteria in a freshwater river - the Qiantang River, Zhejiang Province (China). The phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed that Brocadia genus, Kuenenia genus, Scalindua genus and three new anammox bacterial clusters could be detected together in Qiantang River sediments, suggesting a higher anammox bacterial diversity in the Qiantang River ecosystem than in open ocean environments where only Scalindua genus was detected. Brocadia and Kuenenia appeared to be the most common anammox bacterial genera in the Qiantang River. Redundancy analysis showed that the sediment organic carbon (OrgC) content had significant influence on the distribution of anammox bacteria in Qiantang River sediments. Pearson correlation analyses showed that OrgC content significantly influenced the anammox bacterial diversity. The results of real-time quantitative PCR showed spatial variations of anammox bacterial abundances which were highly correlated with the sediment total inorganic nitrogen content. These results demonstrated the distribution of diverse anammox bacteria and the influences of environmental factors on anammox bacterial communities in Qiantang River sediments. PMID:23760899

Hu, Bao-Lan; Shen, Li-Dong; Zheng, Ping; Hu, An-Hui; Chen, Ting-Ting; Cai, Chen; Liu, Shuai; Lou, Li-Ping

2012-10-01

175

Quantification of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in enrichment cultures by quantitative competitive PCR.  

PubMed

The anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (ANAMMOX) bacteria were enriched from a sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR). A quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction (QC-PCR) system was successfully developed to detect and quantify ANAMMOX bacteria in environmental samples. For QC-PCR system, PCR primer sets targeting 16S ribosomal RNA genes of ANAMMOX bacteria were designed and used. The quantification range of this system was 4 orders of magnitude, from 10(3) to 10(6) copies per PCR, corresponding to the detection limit of 300 target copies per mL. A 312-bp internal standard was constructed, which showed very similar amplification efficiency with the target amxC fragment (349 bp) over 4 orders of magnitude (10(3)-10(6)). The linear regressions were obtained with R2 of 0.9824 for 10(3) copies, 0.9882 for 10(4) copies, 0.9857 for 10(5) copies and 0.9899 for 10(6) copies, respectively. Using this method, ANAMMOX bacteria were quantified in a shortcut nitrification/denitrification-anammox system which was set for piggery wastewater treatment. PMID:20108690

Hao, Chun; Wang, Huan; Liu, Qinhua; Li, Xudong

2009-01-01

176

Reduction of nitroaromatic compounds by anaerobic bacteria isolated from the human gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed Central

Human intestinal microbial flora were screened for their abilities to reduce nitroaromatic compounds by growing them on brain heart infusion agar plates containing 1-nitropyrene. Bacteria metabolizing 1-nitropyrene, detected by the appearance of clear zones around the colonies, were identified as Clostridium leptum, Clostridium paraputrificum, Clostridium clostridiiforme, another Clostridium sp., and a Eubacterium sp. These bacteria produced aromatic amines from nitroaromatic compounds, as shown by thin-layer chromatography, high-pressure liquid chromatography, and biochemical tests. Incubation of three of these bacteria with 1-nitropyrene, 1,3-dinitropyrene, and 1,6-dinitropyrene inactivated the direct-acting mutagenicity associated with these compounds. Menadione and o-iodosobenzoic acid inhibited nitroreductase activity in all of the isolates, indicating the involvement of sulfhydryl groups in the active site of the enzyme. The optimum pH for nitroreductase activity was 8.0. Only the Clostridium sp. required added flavin adenine dinucleotide for nitroreductase activity. The nitroreductases were constitutive and extracellular. An activity stain for the detection of nitroreductase on anaerobic native polyacrylamide gels was developed. This activity stain revealed only one isozyme in each bacterium but showed that the nitroreductases from different bacteria had distinct electrophoretic mobilities. Images

Rafil, F; Franklin, W; Heflich, R H; Cerniglia, C E

1991-01-01

177

Induced cooperation between marine nitrifiers and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria by incremental exposure to oxygen.  

PubMed

In oxygen-limited marine ecosystems cooperation between marine nitrifiers and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria is of importance to nitrogen cycling. Strong evidence for cooperation between anammox bacteria and nitrifiers has been provided by environmental studies but little is known about the development of such communities, the effects of environmental parameters and the physiological traits of their constituents. In this study, a marine laboratory model system was developed. Cooperation between marine nitrifiers and anammox bacteria was induced by incremental exposure of a marine anammox community dominated by Scalindua species to oxygen in a bioreactor set-up under high ammonium (40 mM influent) conditions. Changes in the activities of the relevant functional groups (anammox bacteria, aerobic ammonia oxidizers and nitrite oxidizers) were monitored by batch tests. Changes in community composition were followed by Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) and by amplification and sequencing of 16S rRNA and amoA genes. A co-culture of Scalindua sp., an aerobic ammonia-oxidizing Nitrosomonas-like species, and an aerobic (most likely Nitrospira sp.) nitrite oxidizer was obtained. Aerobic ammonia oxidizers became active immediately upon exposure to oxygen and their numbers increased 60-fold. Crenarchaea closely related to the ammonia-oxidizer Candidatus 'Nitrosopumilus maritimus' were detected in very low numbers and their contribution to nitrification was assumed negligible. Activity of anammox bacteria was not inhibited by the increased oxygen availability. The developed marine model system proved an effective tool to study the interactions between marine anammox bacteria and nitrifiers and their responses to changes in environmentally relevant conditions. PMID:20956064

Yan, Jia; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Jetten, Mike S M; Hu, Yong Y; Haaijer, Suzanne C M

2010-11-01

178

Isolation and characterization of enteric bacteria from the hindgut of Formosan termite.  

PubMed

The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, is an aggressive, invasive termite species that has caused billions of dollars of damage across the United States for the past 50 years. Termites depend on intestinal microorganisms for cellulose digestion. Symbiotic microorganisms in the termite gut play key physiological functions such as cellulose and hemicellulose digestion, acetogenesis, hydrogenesis, methanogenesis, sulfate reduction, and nitrogen fixation. Additionally, intestinal microbes create suitable conditions for symbiotic protozoans through the production of nutrients and the maintenance of the pH and the anaerobic conditions in the gut. Although extensive research has been done on the symbiotic relationship of these termites and the microbes found in its gut, there is little information available on the role of facultative anaerobes in the gut. We isolated four enteric bacteria from the hindgut of Formosan subterranean termite, C. formosanus. All isolates were facultative anaerobes and G-. The isolates were identified as Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter aerogens, Enterobacter cloacae, and Citrobacter farmeri by using BIOLOG assay and fatty acid methyl ester analysis (FAME). Each isolate was characterized using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and biochemical study. This is the first report on the presence of facultative microbes in termite gut. Results of this first study on facultative microbes in the termite gut indicate that the role of facultative organisms in the Formosan termite gut may be to scavenge oxygen and create anaerobic conditions for the anaerobic microorganisms, which are essential for digestion of cellulose consumed by the termite. PMID:15978992

Adams, Leith; Boopathy, Raj

2005-09-01

179

MALDI-TOF MS identification of anaerobic bacteria: assessment of pre-analytical variables and specimen preparation techniques.  

PubMed

Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as a tool for identifying clinically relevant anaerobes. We evaluated the analytical performance characteristics of the Bruker Microflex with Biotyper 3.0 software system for identification of anaerobes and examined the impact of direct formic acid (FA) treatment and other pre-analytical factors on MALDI-TOF MS performance. A collection of 101 anaerobic bacteria were evaluated, including Clostridium spp., Propionibacterium spp., Fusobacterium spp., Bacteroides spp., and other anaerobic bacterial of clinical relevance. The results of our study indicate that an on-target extraction with 100% FA improves the rate of accurate identification without introducing misidentification (P<0.05). In addition, we modify the reporting cutoffs for the Biotyper "score" yielding acceptable identification. We found that a score of ?1.700 can maximize the rate of identification. Of interest, MALDI-TOF MS can correctly identify anaerobes grown in suboptimal conditions, such as on selective culture media and following oxygen exposure. In conclusion, we report on a number of simple and cost-effective pre- and post-analytical modifications could enhance MALDI-TOF MS identification for anaerobic bacteria. PMID:24666700

Hsu, Yen-Michael S; Burnham, Carey-Ann D

2014-06-01

180

Molecular Detection of Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing (Anammox) Bacteria in High-Temperature Petroleum Reservoirs  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) process plays an important role in the nitrogen cycle of the worldwide anoxic and mesophilic habitats. Recently, the existence and activity of anammox bacteria have been detected in some thermophilic environments, but their existence in the geothermal subterranean oil reservoirs is still not reported. This study investigated the abundance, distribution and functional diversity of anammox bacteria in nine out of 17 high-temperature oil reservoirs by molecular ecology analysis. High concentration (5.31–39.2 mg l?1) of ammonium was detected in the production water from these oilfields with temperatures between 55°C and 75°C. Both 16S rRNA and hzo molecular biomarkers indicated the occurrence of anammox bacteria in nine out of 17 samples. Most of 16S rRNA gene phylotypes are closely related to the known anammox bacterial genera Candidatus Brocadia, Candidatus Kuenenia, Candidatus Scalindua, and Candidatus Jettenia, while hzo gene phylotypes are closely related to the genera Candidatus Anammoxoglobus, Candidatus Kuenenia, Candidatus Scalindua, and Candidatus Jettenia. The total bacterial and anammox bacterial densities were 6.4?±?0.5?×?103 to 2.0?±?0.18?×?106 cells ml?1 and 6.6?±?0.51?×?102 to 4.9?±?0.36?×?104 cell ml?1, respectively. The cluster I of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed distant identity (<92%) to the known Candidatus Scalindua species, inferring this cluster of anammox bacteria to be a new species, and a tentative name Candidatus “Scalindua sinooilfield” was proposed. The results extended the existence of anammox bacteria to the high-temperature oil reservoirs.

Li, Hui; Chen, Shuo; Mu, Bo-Zhong

2010-01-01

181

Anaerobic Respiration on Tellurate and Other Metalloids in Bacteria from Hydrothermal Vent Fields in the Eastern Pacific Ocean  

PubMed Central

This paper reports the discovery of anaerobic respiration on tellurate by bacteria isolated from deep ocean (1,543 to 1,791 m) hydrothermal vent worms. The first evidence for selenite- and vanadate-respiring bacteria from deep ocean hydrothermal vents is also presented. Enumeration of the anaerobic metal(loid)-resistant microbial community associated with hydrothermal vent animals indicates that a greater proportion of the bacterial community associated with certain vent fauna resists and reduces metal(loid)s anaerobically than aerobically, suggesting that anaerobic metal(loid) respiration might be an important process in bacteria that are symbiotic with vent fauna. Isolates from Axial Volcano and Explorer Ridge were tested for their ability to reduce tellurate, selenite, metavanadate, or orthovanadate in the absence of alternate electron acceptors. In the presence of metal(loid)s, strains showed an ability to grow and produce ATP, whereas in the absence of metal(loid)s, no growth or ATP production was observed. The protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone depressed metal(loid) reduction. Anaerobic tellurate respiration will be a significant component in describing biogeochemical cycling of Te at hydrothermal vents.

Csotonyi, Julius T.; Stackebrandt, Erko; Yurkov, Vladimir

2006-01-01

182

Segregation of biomass in cyclic anaerobic/aerobic granular sludge allows the enrichment of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria at low temperatures.  

PubMed

A cyclic anaerobic/aerobic bubble column reactor was run for 420 days to study the competition for nitrite between nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) and anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (Anammox) at low temperatures. An anaerobic feeding period with nitrite and ammonium in the influent followed by an aerated period was applied resulting in a biomass specific conversion rate of 0.18 ± 0.02 [gN(2) - N · gVSS(-1)· day(-1)] when the dissolved oxygen concentration was maintained at 1.0 mgO(2) · L(-1). An increase in white granules was observed in the reactor which were mainly located at the top of the settled sludge bed, whereas red granules were located at the bottom. FISH, activity tests, and qPCR techniques revealed that red biomass was dominated by Anammox bacteria and white granules by NOB. Granules from the top of the sludge bed were smaller and therefore had a higher aerobic volume fraction, a lower density, and consequently a slower settling rate. Sludge was manually removed from the top of the settled sludge bed to selectively remove NOB which resulted in an increased overall biomass specific N-conversion rate of 0.32 ± 0.02 [gN(2) - N · gVSS(-1) · day(-1)]. Biomass segregation in granular sludge reactors gives an extra opportunity to select for specific microbial groups by applying a different SRT for different microbial groups. PMID:21744798

Winkler, Mari K H; Kleerebezem, Robbert; Kuenen, J Gijs; Yang, Jingjing; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

2011-09-01

183

Active transport, substrate specificity, and methylation of Hg(II) in anaerobic bacteria  

SciTech Connect

The formation of methylmercury (MeHg), which is biomagnified in aquatic food chains and poses a risk to human health, is effected by some iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria (FeRB and SRB) in anaerobic environments. However, very little is known regarding the mechanism of uptake of inorganic Hg by these organisms, in part because of the inherent difficulty in measuring the intracellular Hg concentration. By using the FeRB Geobacter sulfurreducens and the SRB Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 as model organisms, we demonstrate that Hg(II) uptake occurs by active transport. We also establish that Hg(II) uptake by G. sulfurreducens is highly dependent on the characteristics of the thiols that bind Hg(II) in the external medium, with some thiols promoting uptake and methylation and others inhibiting both. The Hg(II) uptake system of D. desulfuricans has a higher affinity than that of G. sulfurreducens and promotes Hg methylation in the presence of stronger complexing thiols. We observed a tight coupling between Hg methylation and MeHg export from the cell, suggesting that these two processes may serve to avoid the build up and toxicity of cellular Hg. Our results bring up the question of whether cellular Hg uptake is specific for Hg(II) or accidental, occurring via some essential metal importer. Our data also point at Hg(II) complexation by thiols as an important factor controlling Hg methylation in anaerobic environments.

Schasfer, Jeffra [Princeton University; Rocks, Sara [Princeton University; Zheng, Wang [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Morel, Francois M [ORNL

2011-01-01

184

Active transport, substrate specificity, and methylation of Hg(II) in anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

The formation of methylmercury (MeHg), which is biomagnified in aquatic food chains and poses a risk to human health, is effected by some iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria (FeRB and SRB) in anaerobic environments. However, very little is known regarding the mechanism of uptake of inorganic Hg by these organisms, in part because of the inherent difficulty in measuring the intracellular Hg concentration. By using the FeRB Geobacter sulfurreducens and the SRB Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 as model organisms, we demonstrate that Hg(II) uptake occurs by active transport. We also establish that Hg(II) uptake by G. sulfurreducens is highly dependent on the characteristics of the thiols that bind Hg(II) in the external medium, with some thiols promoting uptake and methylation and others inhibiting both. The Hg(II) uptake system of D. desulfuricans has a higher affinity than that of G. sulfurreducens and promotes Hg methylation in the presence of stronger complexing thiols. We observed a tight coupling between Hg methylation and MeHg export from the cell, suggesting that these two processes may serve to avoid the build up and toxicity of cellular Hg. Our results bring up the question of whether cellular Hg uptake is specific for Hg(II) or accidental, occurring via some essential metal importer. Our data also point at Hg(II) complexation by thiols as an important factor controlling Hg methylation in anaerobic environments. PMID:21555571

Schaefer, Jeffra K; Rocks, Sara S; Zheng, Wang; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua; Morel, François M M

2011-05-24

185

Comparison of spiral gradient and conventional agar dilution for susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed on brucella laked blood agar with 340 isolates and 14 antimicrobial agents by the standard agar dilution technique and the spiral gradient technique in which antibiotic concentrations were established by diffusion from the agar surface. For comparison, spiral gradient MICs were determined by calculating antimicrobial concentrations at growth endpoints and rounding up to the next twofold incremental concentration. The cumulative percentage of strains susceptible at the breakpoint determined from spiral gradient data was within 10%, generally, of the percentage of strains susceptible at the breakpoint determined from agar dilution data. The overall agreement between the two techniques (within one doubling dilution) was 90.6%. The spiral gradient agar dilution technique is a reasonable alternative to the conventional agar dilution technique for susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria. Images

Wexler, H M; Molitoris, E; Jashnian, F; Finegold, S M

1991-01-01

186

Evaluating Primers for Profiling Anaerobic Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria within Freshwater Environments  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic ammonia oxidizing (anammox) bacteria play an important role in transforming ammonium to nitrogen gas and contribute to fixed nitrogen losses in freshwater environments. Understanding the diversity and abundance of anammox bacteria requires reliable molecular tools, and these are not yet well established for these important Planctomycetes. To help validate PCR primers for the detection of anammox bacteria within freshwater ecosystems, we analyzed representative positive controls and selected samples from Grand River and groundwater sites, both from Ontario, Canada. The objectives of this study were to identify a suitable anammox denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprint method by using GC-clamp modifications to existing primers, and to verify the specificity of anammox-specific primers used for DGGE, cloning and qPCR methods. Six primer combinations were tested from four published primer sets (i.e. A438f/A684r, Amx368f/Amx820r, An7f/An1388r, and Pla46/1392r) for both direct and nested PCR amplifications. All PCR products were run subsequently on DGGE gels to compare the resulting patterns. Two anammox-specific primer combinations were also used to generate clone libraries and quantify anammox bacterial 16S rRNA genes with qPCR. The primer set A438f/A684r was highly specific to anammox bacteria, provided reliable DGGE fingerprints and generated a high proportion of anammox-related clones. A second primer set (Amx368f/Amx820r) was anammox specific, based on clone library analysis, but PCR products from different candidate species of anammox bacteria resolved poorly using DGGE analysis. Both DGGE and cloning results revealed that Ca. Brocadia and an uncharacterized anammox bacterial cluster represented the majority of anammox bacteria found in Grand River sediment and groundwater samples, respectively. Together, our results demonstrate that although Amx368f/Amx820r was useful for anammox-specific qPCR and clone library analysis, A438f/A684r was the most suitable primer set for multiple molecular assessments of anammox bacteria in freshwater environments.

Sonthiphand, Puntipar; Neufeld, Josh D.

2013-01-01

187

Cultivation of Planktonic Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) Bacteria Using Membrane Bioreactor  

PubMed Central

Enrichment cultures of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria as planktonic cell suspensions are essential for studying their ecophysiology and biochemistry, while their cultivation is still laborious. The present study aimed to cultivate two phylogenetically distinct anammox bacteria, “Candidatus Brocadia sinica” and “Ca. Scalindua sp.” in the form of planktonic cells using membrane bioreactors (MBRs). The MBRs were continuously operated for more than 250 d with nitrogen loading rates of 0.48–1.02 and 0.004–0.09 kgN m?3 d?1 for “Ca. Brocadia sinica” and “Ca. Scalindua sp.”, respectively. Planktonic anammox bacterial cells were successfully enriched (>90%) in the MBRs, which was confirmed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization and 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. The decay rate and half-saturation constant for NO2? of “Ca. Brocadia sinica” were determined to be 0.0029–0.0081 d?1 and 0.47 mgN L?1, respectively, using enriched planktonic cells. The present study demonstrated that MBR enables the culture of planktonic anammox bacterial cells, which are suitable for studying their ecophysiology and biochemistry.

Oshiki, Mamoru; Awata, Takanori; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Satoh, Hisashi; Okabe, Satoshi

2013-01-01

188

Electricity generation by anaerobic bacteria and anoxic sediments from hypersaline soda lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Anaerobic bacteria and anoxic sediments from soda lakes produced electricity in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). No electricity was generated in the absence of bacterial metabolism. Arsenate respiring bacteria isolated from moderately hypersaline Mono Lake (Bacillus selenitireducens), and salt-saturated Searles Lake, CA (strain SLAS-1) oxidized lactate using arsenate as the electron acceptor. However, these cultures grew equally well without added arsenate using the MFC anode as their electron acceptor, and in the process oxidized lactate more efficiently. The decrease in electricity generation by consumption of added alternative electron acceptors (i.e. arsenate) which competed with the anode for available electrons proved to be a useful indicator of microbial activity and hence life in the fuel cells. Shaken sediment slurries from these two lakes also generated electricity, with or without added lactate. Hydrogen added to sediment slurries was consumed but did not stimulate electricity production. Finally, electricity was generated in statically incubated "intact" sediment cores from these lakes. More power was produced in sediment from Mono Lake than from Searles Lake, however microbial fuel cells could detect low levels of metabolism operating under moderate and extreme conditions of salt stress. ?? 2008 US Government.

Miller, L. G.; Oremland, R. S.

2008-01-01

189

Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in marine environments: widespread occurrence but low diversity.  

PubMed

Laboratory and field studies have indicated that anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is an important process in the marine nitrogen cycle. In this study 11 additional anoxic marine sediment and water column samples were studied to substantiate this claim. In a combined approach using the molecular methods, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), qualitative and quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), as well as (15)N stable isotope activity measurements, it was shown that anammox bacteria were present and active in all samples investigated. The anammox activity measured in the sediment samples ranged from 0.08 fmol cell(-1) day(-1) N(2) in the Golfo Dulce (Pacific Ocean, Costa Rica) sediment to 0.98 fmol cell(-1) day(-1) N(2) in the Gullmarsfjorden (North Sea, Sweden) sediment. The percentage of anammox cell of the total population (stained with DAPI) as assessed by quantitative FISH was highest in the Barents Sea (9% +/- 4%) and in most of the samples well over 2%. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and phylogenetic analysis of the PCR products derived from the marine samples indicated the exclusive presence of members of the Candidatus'Scalindua' genus. This study showed the ubiquitous presence of anammox bacteria in anoxic marine ecosystems, supporting previous observations on the importance of anammox for N cycling in marine environments. PMID:17504485

Schmid, Markus C; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; van de Vossenberg, Jack; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Lavik, Gaute; Petersen, Jan; Hulth, Stefan; Thamdrup, Bo; Canfield, Don; Dalsgaard, Tage; Rysgaard, Søren; Sejr, Mikael K; Strous, Marc; den Camp, Huub J M Op; Jetten, Mike S M

2007-06-01

190

Detection of bacteria from a cecal anaerobic competitive exclusion culture with an immunoassay electrochemiluminescence sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A competitive exclusion (CE) culture of chicken cecal anaerobes has been developed and used in this laboratory for control of Salmonella typhimurium in chickens. The CE culture consists of 29 different species of micro-organisms, and is known as CF3. Detection of one of the CF3 bacteria, Eubacteria, and S. typhimurium were demonstrated using a commercial immunomagnetic (IM) electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensor, the ORIGENR Analyzer. Analysis was achieved using a sandwich immunoassay. Bacteria were captured on antibody- conjugated 280 micron sized magnetic beads followed by binding of reporter antibodies labelled with ruthenium (II) tris(dipyridyl) chelate [Ru(bpy)32+]. The magnetic beads were then trapped on an electrode in the reaction cell of the ORIGENR Analyzer by a magnet, and the ECL was evoked from Ru(bpy)32+ on the tagged reporter antibodies by an electrical potential at the electrode. Preliminary IM-ECL assays with Eubacteria yielded a detection limit of 105 cfu/mL. Preliminary IM-ECL assays with S. typhimurium yielded a similar detection limit of 105 cfu/mL.

Beier, Ross C.; Young, Colin R.; Stanker, Larry H.

1999-01-01

191

Cultivation of planktonic anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria using membrane bioreactor.  

PubMed

Enrichment cultures of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria as planktonic cell suspensions are essential for studying their ecophysiology and biochemistry, while their cultivation is still laborious. The present study aimed to cultivate two phylogenetically distinct anammox bacteria, "Candidatus Brocadia sinica" and "Ca. Scalindua sp." in the form of planktonic cells using membrane bioreactors (MBRs). The MBRs were continuously operated for more than 250 d with nitrogen loading rates of 0.48-1.02 and 0.004-0.09 kgN m(-3) d(-1) for "Ca. Brocadia sinica" and "Ca. Scalindua sp.", respectively. Planktonic anammox bacterial cells were successfully enriched (>90%) in the MBRs, which was confirmed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization and 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. The decay rate and half-saturation constant for NO2(-) of "Ca. Brocadia sinica" were determined to be 0.0029-0.0081 d(-1) and 0.47 mgN L(-1), respectively, using enriched planktonic cells. The present study demonstrated that MBR enables the culture of planktonic anammox bacterial cells, which are suitable for studying their ecophysiology and biochemistry. PMID:24200833

Oshiki, Mamoru; Awata, Takanori; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Satoh, Hisashi; Okabe, Satoshi

2013-01-01

192

Anaerobic ammonium-oxidising bacteria: A biological source of the bacteriohopanetetrol stereoisomer in marine sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterially-derived bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) are abundant, well preserved lipids in modern and paleo-environments. Bacteriohopanetetrol (BHT) is a ubiquitously produced BHP while its less common stereoisomer (BHT isomer) has previously been associated with anoxic environments; however, its biological source remained unknown. We investigated the occurrence of BHPs in Golfo Dulce, an anoxic marine fjord-like enclosure located in Costa Rica. The distribution of BHT isomer in four sediment cores and a surface sediment transect closely followed the distribution of ladderane fatty acids, unique biomarkers for bacteria performing anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). This suggests that BHT isomer and ladderane lipids likely shared the same biological source in Golfo Dulce. This was supported by examining the BHP lipid compositions of two enrichment cultures of a marine anammox species ('Candidatus Scalindua profunda'), which were found to contain both BHT and BHT isomer. Remarkably, the BHT isomer was present in higher relative abundance than BHT. However, a non-marine anammox enrichment contained only BHT, which explains the infrequence of BHT isomer observations in terrestrial settings, and indicates that marine anammox bacteria are likely responsible for at least part of the environmentally-observed marine BHT isomer occurrences. Given the substantially greater residence time of BHPs in sediments, compared to ladderanes, BHT isomer is a potential biomarker for past anammox activity.

Rush, Darci; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Poulton, Simon W.; Thamdrup, Bo; Garside, A. Leigh; Acuña González, Jenaro; Schouten, Stefan; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Talbot, Helen M.

2014-09-01

193

[In vitro activity of several cytostatic drugs against aerobic and anaerobic intestinal bacteria].  

PubMed

The human normal intestinal flora prevents the colonization of exogenous bacteria, maintaining a constant microecology: this property is called "colonization resistance". In leukemia patients antibiotics used for prevention and/or therapy of infectious episodes can alter the intestinal microecology, so that the gut can represent the trigger zone for generalized septicemia. Moreover cytotoxic drugs used in these patients can favour intestinal disturbances. In our study we evaluated the in vitro activity of three commonly used antineoplastic drugs (Daunorubicin, Cytosine arabinoside, Methotrexate) against aerobic and anaerobic intestinal bacteria and Clostridium difficile that is the aetiological agent of pseudomembranous colitis. Daunorubicin proved to be the most active inhibiting, in concentration ranging from 16 to 128 micrograms/ml, 50% of Bacteroides strains and 90% of Clostridium difficile and Enterococci strains tested. Methotrexate showed activity only against some Bacteroides strains, while Cytosine arabinoside had no activity at all. We conclude that in these patients the use of these drugs may represent another factor of risk altering the intestinal flora and so lowering the colonization resistance. PMID:6534396

Vetere, A; Giuliano, M; Pantosti, A; Panichi, G

1984-01-01

194

Biology, ecology, and biotechnological applications of anaerobic bacteria adapted to environmental stresses in temperature, pH, salinity, or substrates.  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic bacteria include diverse species that can grow at environmental extremes of temperature, pH, salinity, substrate toxicity, or available free energy. The first evolved archaebacterial and eubacterial species appear to have been anaerobes adapted to high temperatures. Thermoanaerobes and their stable enzymes have served as model systems for basic and applied studies of microbial cellulose and starch degradation, methanogenesis, ethanologenesis, acetogenesis, autotrophic CO2 fixation, saccharidases, hydrogenases, and alcohol dehydrogenases. Anaerobes, unlike aerobes, appear to have evolved more energy-conserving mechanisms for physiological adaptation to environmental stresses such as novel enzyme activities and stabilities and novel membrane lipid compositions and functions. Anaerobic syntrophs do not have similar aerobic bacterial counterparts. The metabolic end products of syntrophs are potent thermodynamic inhibitors of energy conservation mechanisms, and they require coordinated consumption by a second partner organism for species growth. Anaerobes adapted to environmental stresses and their enzymes have biotechnological applications in organic waste treatment systems and chemical and fuel production systems based on biomass-derived substrates or syngas. These kinds of anaerobes have only recently been examined by biologists, and considerably more study is required before they are fully appreciated by science and technology. Images

Lowe, S E; Jain, M K; Zeikus, J G

1993-01-01

195

Diversity and abundance of aerobic and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in freshwater sediments of the Xinyi River (China).  

PubMed

Here we report on the biodiversity and abundance of aerobic and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in sediment samples from the Xinyi River, Jinagsu Province (China). The biodiversity of aerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in the sediment was assessed using the amoA gene as functional marker. The retrieved amoA clones were affiliated to environmental sequences from freshwater habitats. The closest cultivated relative was Nitrosomonas urea. Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria were studied using anammox and planctomycete-specific 16S rRNA gene primers. The sediments contained 16S rRNA genes and bacterial cells closely related to the known anammox bacterium Candidatus'Brocadia anammoxidans'. Anaerobic continuous flow reactors were set up to enrich anammox organisms from the sediments. After an adaptation period of about 25 days the reactors started to consume ammonium and nitrite, indicating that the anammox reaction was occurring with a rate of 41-58 nmol cm(-3) h(-1). Community analysis of the enrichments by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization showed an increase in the abundance of anammox bacteria from < 1% to 6 +/- 2% of the total population. Analysis of the 16S rRNA genes showed that the enriched anammox organisms were related to the Candidatus'Scalindua' genus. PMID:17686033

Zhang, Ying; Ruan, Xiao-Hong; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Smits, Toine J M; Jetten, Mike S M; Schmid, Markus C

2007-09-01

196

Nitrate-Dependent Ferrous Iron Oxidation by Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) Bacteria  

PubMed Central

We examined nitrate-dependent Fe2+ oxidation mediated by anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria. Enrichment cultures of “Candidatus Brocadia sinica” anaerobically oxidized Fe2+ and reduced NO3? to nitrogen gas at rates of 3.7 ± 0.2 and 1.3 ± 0.1 (mean ± standard deviation [SD]) nmol mg protein?1 min?1, respectively (37°C and pH 7.3). This nitrate reduction rate is an order of magnitude lower than the anammox activity of “Ca. Brocadia sinica” (10 to 75 nmol NH4+ mg protein?1 min?1). A 15N tracer experiment demonstrated that coupling of nitrate-dependent Fe2+ oxidation and the anammox reaction was responsible for producing nitrogen gas from NO3? by “Ca. Brocadia sinica.” The activities of nitrate-dependent Fe2+ oxidation were dependent on temperature and pH, and the highest activities were seen at temperatures of 30 to 45°C and pHs ranging from 5.9 to 9.8. The mean half-saturation constant for NO3? ± SD of “Ca. Brocadia sinica” was determined to be 51 ± 21 ?M. Nitrate-dependent Fe2+ oxidation was further demonstrated by another anammox bacterium, “Candidatus Scalindua sp.,” whose rates of Fe2+ oxidation and NO3? reduction were 4.7 ± 0.59 and 1.45 ± 0.05 nmol mg protein?1 min?1, respectively (20°C and pH 7.3). Co-occurrence of nitrate-dependent Fe2+ oxidation and the anammox reaction decreased the molar ratios of consumed NO2? to consumed NH4+ (?NO2?/?NH4+) and produced NO3? to consumed NH4+ (?NO3?/?NH4+). These reactions are preferable to the application of anammox processes for wastewater treatment.

Oshiki, M.; Ishii, S.; Yoshida, K.; Fujii, N.; Ishiguro, M.; Satoh, H.

2013-01-01

197

[Capability and bacteria community analysis of an anaerobic baffled reactor treating soybean wastewater].  

PubMed

Capability and process characteristic of anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) treating soybean wastewater were investigated in a 4-compartment ABR with an effective volume of 28 L. During an operation period of 100 days, the organic loading rate (OLR) increased by stages and its influence on the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was researched. The bacteria community structures in anaerobic activated sludge from different stages were also investigated by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) with the eubacterium universal primers SRV3-2P and BSF8/20, while the microbial genetic distance being analyzed by UPGMA communities clustering method. With an inoculated aerobic activated sludge of 18.0 g x L(-1) in terms of mixed liquor volatile suspend solid (MLVSS), the reactor started up at COD concentration of 2000 mg/L, hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 39.5 h and temperature of (35 +/- 1) degrees C for 31 d, the ABR achieved a stable state that resulted in 96% COD removal. When OLR increased stage by stage from 1.2 kg x (m3 x d)(-1) to 6.0 kg x (m3 x d)(-1), the reactor could performed steadily with a COD removal efficiency as high as 98%, and this indicated that compartmentalized ABR held a good performance during shock loadings. It was found that a step change in OLR had a remarkably effect on the structure and distribution of microbial communities in each compartment. With the organic loading rate increase, the genetic distances among the microbial communities in the compartments extended gradually, indicating that the specificity of microbial communities in each compartment was enhanced. PMID:18839574

Bao, Li-xin; Li, Jian-zheng; Chang, Sheng; Huang, Xiao-fei; Ren, Nan-qi

2008-08-01

198

Experimental modelling of Calcium carbonate precipitation in the presence of phototrophic anaerobic bacteria Rhodovulum sp.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbonate biomineralization is considered as one of the main natural processes controlling CO2 levels in the atmosphere both in the past and at present time. Haloalcaliphilic Rhodovulum sp. A-20s isolated from soda lake in southern Siberia and halophilic neutrophilic Rhodovulum sp. S-1765 isolated from hypersaline water body in Crimea steppe represent a large group of phototrophic bacteria likely to be involved in CaCO3 formation in soda and saline lakes. These bacteria use organic substrates for non-oxygenic photosynthesis and thus may mediate CaCO3 precipitation without CO2 consumption in highly-saline, highly-alkaline, NaHCO3-rich solutions. In order to provide the link between surface properties of bacteria and their ability to precipitate Ca carbonate, we used a combination of electrophoretic mobility measurements, surface titration and Ca ion adsorption using dead (autoclaved), inactivated (NaN3 - treated) and live cells at 25 °C as a unction of pH (3-11) and NaCl concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 0.5 M). Zeta potential of both bacteria is identical for active, NaN3-inactivated and dead cells at high ionic strength (0.5 M NaCl). The pH of isoelectric point is below 3 and zeta-potential decreases or remain negative up to pH 11. However, at lower ionic strength (0.1 M and 0.01 M NaCl) for live cells the potential increases towards positive values in the alkaline solutions (pH of 9 to 10). Similar to previous results on cyanobacteria (Martinez et al., 2009) there is a net increase in zeta-potential towards more positive values at pH = 10.4 for active cells. In order to better understand this phenomenon, experiments with different concentration of Ca2+ and HCO3- ions as well as experiments with live cultures in the darkness have been carried out. The presence in solution of Ca2+ (0.01 and 0.001 M) and the absence of light in experiment do not change significantly the potential of the cells. However, the presence in solution of HCO3- strongly reduces the zeta-potential of the cells. To characterise the link between the rate of bacterial growth (biomass production) and the rate of CaCO3 precipitation, batch kinetic experiments were performed. These experiments were carried out in closed (anaerobic) bottles with initial concentration of calcium from 1 to 20 mM and from 5 to 20 mM bicarbonate. The biomass of cells, pH, [Ca2+] and [Alk] were measured as a function of time. Blank experiments (without cell or autoclaved cells) were always carried out. We found that the optimal conditions for both CaCO3 precipitation and biomass increase for the culture Rhodovulum sp. A-20s, is calcium concentration of 3 mM, whatever the concentration of bicarbonate (5, 10, 15 mM). Note also that for calcium concentration higher than 3 mM, the biomass production decreases. In the case of strictly anaerobic Rhodovulum sp. S-1765 bacteria, the optimal conditions for calcium carbonate precipitation is observed for the bicarbonate concentration of 10 mM, whatever the calcium concentration (3, 5, 10 mM). Overall, the present study allows quantitative modeling of bacterially-induced CaCO3 precipitation. It helps to distinguish between the effect of cell surface functional groups, surface electrical charge, soluble organic matter and metabolic change of solution pH on the rate and nature of precipitating calcium carbonate solid phase.

Bundeleva, Irina; Shirokova, Liudmila; Benezeth, Pascale; Pokrovsky, Oleg; Kompantseva, Elena

2010-05-01

199

Genes for Uranium Bioremediation in the Anaerobic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria: Desulfovibrio mutants with altered sensitivity to oxidative stress  

SciTech Connect

Sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genus Desulfovibrio are ubiquitous in anaerobic environments such as groundwater, sediments, and the gastrointestinal tract of animals. Because of the ability of Desulfovibrio to reduce radionuclides and metals through both enzymatic and chemical means, they have been proposed as a means to bioremediate heavy metal contaminated sites. Although classically thought of as strict anaerobes, Desulfovibrio species are surprisingly aerotolerant. Our objective is to understand the response of Desulfovibrio to oxidative stress so that we may more effectively utilize them in bioremediation of heavy metals in mixed aerobic-anaerobic environments. The enzymes superoxide dismutase, superoxide reductase, catalase, and rubrerythrin have been shown by others to be involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species in Desulfovibrio. Some members of the genus Desulfovibrio can even reduce molecular oxygen to water via a membrane bound electron transport chain with the concomitant production of ATP, although their ability to grow with oxygen as the sole electron acceptor is still questioned.

Payne, Rayford B.; Ringbauer, Joseph A., Jr.; Wall, Judy D.

2006-04-05

200

Antiparasitic Drug Nitazoxanide Inhibits the Pyruvate Oxidoreductases of Helicobacter pylori, Selected Anaerobic Bacteria and Parasites, and Campylobacter jejuni  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitazoxanide (NTZ) exhibits broad-spectrum activity against anaerobic bacteria and parasites and the ulcer-causing pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Here we show that NTZ is a noncompetitive inhibitor (Ki ,2t o 10 M) of the pyruvate:ferredoxin\\/flavodoxin oxidoreductases (PFORs) of Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, H. pylori, and Campylobacter jejuni and is weakly active against the pyruvate dehydrogenase of

Paul S. Hoffman; Gary Sisson; Matthew A. Croxen; Kevin Welch; W. Dean Harman; Nunilo Cremades; Michael G. Morash

2007-01-01

201

Anaerobically grown Thauera aromatica , Desulfococcus multivorans , Geobacter sulfurreducens are more sensitive towards organic solvents than aerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of seven important pollutants and three representative organic solvents on growth of Thauera aromatica K172, as reference strain for nitrate-reducing anaerobic bacteria, was investigated. Toxicity in form of the effective concentrations\\u000a (EC50) that led to 50% growth inhibition of potential organic pollutants such as BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and\\u000a xylene), chlorinated phenols and aliphatic alcohols on cells was

Ilka Duldhardt; Ivonne Nijenhuis; Frieder Schauer; Hermann J. Heipieper

2007-01-01

202

Thermostable lipases from the extreme thermophilic anaerobic bacteria Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus SOL1 and Caldanaerobacter subterraneus subsp. tengcongensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two novel genes encoding for heat and solvent stable lipases from strictly anaerobic extreme thermophilic bacteria Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus (LipTth) and Caldanaerobacter subterraneus subsp. tengcongensis (LipCst) were successfully cloned and expressed in E. coli. Recombinant proteins were purified to homogeneity by heat precipitation, hydrophobic interaction, and gel filtration chromatography.\\u000a Unlike the enzymes from mesophile counterparts, enzymatic activity was measured at a

Marina Royter; M. Schmidt; C. Elend; H. Höbenreich; T. Schäfer; U. T. Bornscheuer; G. Antranikian

2009-01-01

203

Decoloration of textile wastewater by means of a fluidized-bed loop reactor and immobilized anaerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textile wastewater was treated by means of a fluidized-bed loop reactor and immobilized anaerobic bacteria. The main target of this treatment was decoloration of the wastewater and transformation of the non-biodegradable azo-reactive dyes to the degradable, under aerobic biological conditions, aromatic amines. Special porous beads (Siran®) were utilized as the microbial carriers. Acetic acid solution, enriched with nutrients and trace

D. Georgiou; A. Aivasidis

2006-01-01

204

Environmental detection of octahaem cytochrome c hydroxylamine/hydrazine oxidoreductase genes of aerobic and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria.  

PubMed

Bacterial aerobic ammonium oxidation and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) are important processes in the global nitrogen cycle. Key enzymes in both processes are the octahaem cytochrome c (OCC) proteins, hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (HAO) of aerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), which catalyses the oxidation of hydroxylamine to nitrite, and hydrazine oxidoreductase (HZO) of anammox bacteria, which converts hydrazine to N(2). While the genomes of AOB encode up to three nearly identical copies of hao operons, genome analysis of Candidatus'Kuenenia stuttgartiensis' showed eight highly divergent octahaem protein coding regions as possible candidates for the HZO. Based on their phylogenetic relationship and biochemical characteristics, the sequences of these eight gene products grouped in three clusters. Degenerate primers were designed on the basis of available gene sequences with the aim to detect hao and hzo genes in various ecosystems. The hao primer pairs amplified gene fragments from 738 to 1172 bp and the hzo primer pairs amplified gene fragments from 289 to 876 bp in length, when tested on genomic DNA isolated from a variety of AOB and anammox bacteria. A selection of these primer pairs was also used successfully to amplify and analyse the hao and hzo genes in community DNA isolated from different ecosystems harbouring both AOB and anammox bacteria. We propose that OCC protein-encoding genes are suitable targets for molecular ecological studies on both aerobic and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:18973625

Schmid, Markus C; Hooper, Alan B; Klotz, Martin G; Woebken, Dagmar; Lam, Phyllis; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Pommerening-Roeser, Andreas; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Jetten, Mike S M

2008-11-01

205

Antimicrobial activity of some Pacific Northwest woods against anaerobic bacteria and yeast.  

PubMed

Extracts of woods commonly used for animal bedding were tested for antimicrobial activity. Essential oils from Alaska cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) and old growth Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) as well as methanol extracts of wood from these trees plus western red cedar (Thuja plicata) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) were tested for antimicrobial activity against anaerobic bacteria and yeast. The test microbes included Fusobacterium necrophorum, Clostridium perfringens, Actinomyces bovis and Candida albicans which are common to foot diseases and other infections in animals. The essential oils and methanol extracts were tested using a standardized broth assay. Only extracts of Alaska cedar and western juniper showed significant antimicrobial activity against each of the microbes tested. The essential oil of Douglas fir did show antimicrobial activity against A. bovis at the concentrations tested. The methanol extracts of the heartwood of Douglas fir and the sapwood of ponderosa pine showed no antimicrobial activity. The major chemical components of western juniper (cedrol and alpha- and beta-cedrene) and Alaska cedar (nootkatin) were also tested. In western juniper, alpha- and beta-cedrene were found to be active components. Nootkatin showed activity only against C. albicans. The inhibitory activity in Alaska cedar oil was high enough to justify further efforts to define the other chemical components responsible for the antimicrobial activity. PMID:11746838

Johnston, W H; Karchesy, J J; Constantine, G H; Craig, A M

2001-11-01

206

Introduction of anaerobic dechlorinating bacteria into soil slurry microcosms and nested-PCR monitoring.  

PubMed Central

Desulfomonile tiedjei and Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans were chosen as model bacteria to demonstrate the introduction of an anaerobic microbia reductive dechlorination activity into nonsterile soil slurry microcosms by inoculation. De novo 3-chlorobenzoate dechlorination activity was established with the bacterium D. tiedjei in microcosms normally devoid of this dechlorination capacity. The addition of D. tiedjei to microcosms supplemented with 20 mM pyruvate as the cosubstrate resulted in total biotransformation of 1.5 mM 3-chlorobenzoate within 7 days. The introduction of the bacterium Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans into nonsterile microcosms resulted in a shortening of the period required for dechlorination activity to be established. In microcosms inoculated with Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans, total degradation of 6 mM 3-chloro-4-hydroxy phenoxyacetic acid (3-Cl-4-OHPA) was observed after 4 days in contrast to the result in noninoculated microcosms, where the total degradation of 3-Cl-4-OHPA by indigenous microorganisms was observed after 11 days. Both externally introduced bacterial strains were detected in soil slurry microcosms by a nested-PCR methodology.

el Fantroussi, S; Mahillon, J; Naveau, H; Agathos, S N

1997-01-01

207

Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are a relatively recently discovered bacterial group. Although taxonomically and phylogenetically heterogeneous, these bacteria share the following distinguishing features: the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into reaction center and light-harvesting complexes, low levels of the photosynthetic unit in cells, an abundance of carotenoids, a strong inhibition by light of bacteriochlorophyll synthesis, and the inability to grow photosynthetically under anaerobic conditions. Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are classified in two marine (Erythrobacter and Roseobacter) and six freshwater (Acidiphilium, Erythromicrobium, Erythromonas, Porphyrobacter, Roseococcus, and Sandaracinobacter) genera, which phylogenetically belong to the ?-1, ?-3, and ?-4 subclasses of the class Proteobacteria. Despite this phylogenetic information, the evolution and ancestry of their photosynthetic properties are unclear. We discuss several current proposals for the evolutionary origin of aerobic phototrophic bacteria. The closest phylogenetic relatives of aerobic phototrophic bacteria include facultatively anaerobic purple nonsulfur phototrophic bacteria. Since these two bacterial groups share many properties, yet have significant differences, we compare and contrast their physiology, with an emphasis on morphology and photosynthetic and other metabolic processes.

Yurkov, Vladimir V.; Beatty, J. Thomas

1998-01-01

208

Molecular evidence for the broad distribution of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in freshwater and marine sediments.  

PubMed

Previously available primer sets for detecting anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria are inefficient, resulting in a very limited database of such sequences, which limits knowledge of their ecology. To overcome this limitation, we designed a new primer set that was 100% specific in the recovery of approximately 700-bp 16S rRNA gene sequences with >96% homology to the "Candidatus Scalindua" group of anammox bacteria, and we detected this group at all sites studied, including a variety of freshwater and marine sediments and permafrost soil. A second primer set was designed that exhibited greater efficiency than previous primers in recovering full-length (1,380-bp) sequences related to "Ca. Scalindua," "Candidatus Brocadia," and "Candidatus Kuenenia." This study provides evidence for the widespread distribution of anammox bacteria in that it detected closely related anammox 16S rRNA gene sequences in 11 geographically and biogeochemically diverse freshwater and marine sediments. PMID:17021238

Penton, C Ryan; Devol, Allan H; Tiedje, James M

2006-10-01

209

Methylocella Species Are Facultatively Methanotrophic  

PubMed Central

All aerobic methanotrophic bacteria described to date are unable to grow on substrates containing carbon-carbon bonds. Here we demonstrate that members of the recently discovered genus Methylocella are an exception to this. These bacteria are able to use as their sole energy source the one-carbon compounds methane and methanol, as well as the multicarbon compounds acetate, pyruvate, succinate, malate, and ethanol. To conclusively verify facultative growth, acetate and methane were used as model substrates in growth experiments with the type strain Methylocella silvestris BL2. Quantitative real-time PCR targeting the mmoX gene, which encodes a subunit of soluble methane monooxygenase, showed that copies of this gene increased in parallel with cell counts during growth on either acetate or methane as the sole substrate. This verified that cells possessing the genetic basis of methane oxidation grew on acetate as well as methane. Cloning of 16S rRNA genes and fluorescence in situ hybridization with strain-specific and genus-specific oligonucleotide probes detected no contaminants in cultures. The growth rate and carbon conversion efficiency were higher on acetate than on methane, and when both substrates were provided in excess, acetate was preferably used and methane oxidation was shut down. Our data demonstrate that not all methanotrophic bacteria are limited to growing on one-carbon compounds. This could have major implications for understanding the factors controlling methane fluxes in the environment.

Dedysh, Svetlana N.; Knief, Claudia; Dunfield, Peter F.

2005-01-01

210

Methylocella species are facultatively methanotrophic.  

PubMed

All aerobic methanotrophic bacteria described to date are unable to grow on substrates containing carbon-carbon bonds. Here we demonstrate that members of the recently discovered genus Methylocella are an exception to this. These bacteria are able to use as their sole energy source the one-carbon compounds methane and methanol, as well as the multicarbon compounds acetate, pyruvate, succinate, malate, and ethanol. To conclusively verify facultative growth, acetate and methane were used as model substrates in growth experiments with the type strain Methylocella silvestris BL2. Quantitative real-time PCR targeting the mmoX gene, which encodes a subunit of soluble methane monooxygenase, showed that copies of this gene increased in parallel with cell counts during growth on either acetate or methane as the sole substrate. This verified that cells possessing the genetic basis of methane oxidation grew on acetate as well as methane. Cloning of 16S rRNA genes and fluorescence in situ hybridization with strain-specific and genus-specific oligonucleotide probes detected no contaminants in cultures. The growth rate and carbon conversion efficiency were higher on acetate than on methane, and when both substrates were provided in excess, acetate was preferably used and methane oxidation was shut down. Our data demonstrate that not all methanotrophic bacteria are limited to growing on one-carbon compounds. This could have major implications for understanding the factors controlling methane fluxes in the environment. PMID:15968078

Dedysh, Svetlana N; Knief, Claudia; Dunfield, Peter F

2005-07-01

211

Anaerobic Oxidization of Methane in a Minerotrophic Peatland: Enrichment of Nitrite-Dependent Methane-Oxidizing Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The importance of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) as a methane sink in freshwater systems is largely unexplored, particularly in peat ecosystems. Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) was recently discovered and reported to be catalyzed by the bacterium “Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera,” which is affiliated with the NC10 phylum. So far, several “Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera” enrichment cultures have been obtained using a limited number of freshwater sediments or wastewater treatment sludge as the inoculum. In this study, using stable isotope measurements and porewater profiles, we investigated the potential of n-damo in a minerotrophic peatland in the south of the Netherlands that is infiltrated by nitrate-rich ground water. Methane and nitrate profiles suggested that all methane produced was oxidized before reaching the oxic layer, and NC10 bacteria could be active in the transition zone where countergradients of methane and nitrate occur. Quantitative PCR showed high NC10 bacterial cell numbers at this methane-nitrate transition zone. This soil section was used to enrich the prevalent NC10 bacteria in a continuous culture supplied with methane and nitrite at an in situ pH of 6.2. An enrichment of nitrite-reducing methanotrophic NC10 bacteria was successfully obtained. Phylogenetic analysis of retrieved 16S rRNA and pmoA genes showed that the enriched bacteria were very similar to the ones found in situ and constituted a new branch of NC10 bacteria with an identity of less than 96 and 90% to the 16S rRNA and pmoA genes of “Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera,” respectively. The results of this study expand our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of NC10 bacteria in the environment and highlight their potential contribution to nitrogen and methane cycles.

Zhu, Baoli; van Dijk, Gijs; Fritz, Christian; Smolders, Alfons J. P.; Pol, Arjan; Jetten, Mike S. M.

2012-01-01

212

Linking ultrastructure and function in four genera of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria: cell plan, glycogen storage, and localization of cytochrome C proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is an ecologically and industrially important process and is performed by a clade of deeply branching Planctomycetes. Anammox bacteria possess an intracytoplasmic membrane-bounded organelle, the anammoxosome. In the present study, the ultrastructures of four different genera of anammox bacteria were compared with transmission electron microscopy and electron tomography. The four anammox genera shared a common cell

L. A. M. P. van Niftrik; Willie J. C. Geerts; Elly G. van Donselaar; Bruno M. Humbel; Richard I. Webb; John A. Fuerst; Arie J. Verkleij; Mike S. M. Jetten; Marc Strous

2008-01-01

213

Assessment of routine use of an anaerobic bottle in a three-component, high-volume blood culture system.  

PubMed Central

The relative value of routine anaerobic blood culture for recovery of organisms and identification of episodes of bloodstream infection was assessed in a three-component, high-volume blood culture system which employs aerobic and anaerobic bottles of BacT/Alert (Organon-Teknika, Durham, N.C.) and aerobic cultures of Isolator (Wampole Laboratories, Cranbury, N.J.). The results of 5,595 blood culture sets from patients with suspected bloodstream infection were analyzed. Compared with either the aerobic BacT/Alert bottle or aerobic culture of Isolator, the BacT/Alert anaerobic bottle recovered significantly fewer isolates (242 versus 294, P < 0.05; 242 versus 298, P < 0.05) but did not detect significantly fewer episodes of bloodstream infection (141 versus 157, P > 0.05; 141 versus 147, P > 0.05). The BacT/Alert anaerobic bottle recovered significantly more isolates of obligately anaerobic bacteria (16 versus 4, P < 0.05; 16 versus 0, P < 0.05) and detected significantly more episodes of bloodstream infection caused by obligately anaerobic bacteria (10 versus 3, P < 0.05; 10 versus 0, P < 0.05) than either the aerobic bottle of BacT/Alert or the aerobic culture of Isolator. The combination of the BacT/Alert anaerobic bottle and the aerobic culture of Isolator recovered as may isolates (374 versus 377) and detected as many episodes of bloodstream infection (194 versus 191) as the combination of the aerobic bottle of BacT/Alert and the aerobic culture of Isolator, and both of these combinations identified at least 8% more isolates and detected at least 3% more bloodstream infections than the combination of the BacT/Alert aerobic and anaerobic bottles. Further analysis of the data revealed that the utility of the BacT/Alert anaerobic bottle, especially when combined with the aerobic culture of Isolator, resulted from not only enhanced recovery of obligately anaerobic bacteria but also effective recovery of facultatively anaerobic bacteria. These results demonstrate the utility of the anaerobic BacT/Alert bottle for detecting bloodstream infection caused by either facultatively anaerobic bacteria or obligately anaerobic bacteria and support the routine inclusion of anaerobic blood culture in the three-component blood culture system used in our hospital.

Hellinger, W C; Cawley, J J; Alvarez, S; Hogan, S F; Harmesen, W S; Ilstrup, D M; Cockerill, F R

1996-01-01

214

Characteristics of aerobic and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in the hyporheic zone of a contaminated river.  

PubMed

Both ?-proteobacterial aerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (ANAMMOX) bacteria were investigated in the hyporheic zone of a contaminated river in China containing high ammonium levels and low chemical oxygen demand. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and cloning-sequencing were employed in this study. FISH analysis illustrated that AOB (average population of 3.5 %) coexisted with ANAMMOX bacteria (0.7 %). The DGGE profile revealed a high abundance and diversity of bacteria at the water-air-soil interface rather than at the water-soil interface. The redundancy analysis correlated analysis showed that the diversity of ANAMMOX bacteria was positively related to the redox potential. The newly detected sequences of ANAMMOX organisms principally belonged to the genus Candidatus "Brocadia", while most ammonia monooxygenase subunit-A gene amoA sequences were affiliated with Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas. These results suggest that the water-air-soil interface performs an important function in the nitrogen removal process and that the bioresources of AOB and ANAMMOX bacteria can potentially be utilized for the eutrophication of rivers. PMID:22806720

Wang, Ziyuan; Qi, Yun; Wang, Jun; Pei, Yuansheng

2012-09-01

215

Bacteria isolated from the duodenum, ileum, and cecum of young chicks.  

PubMed Central

Facultatively anaerobic and strictly anaerobic bacteria colonizing the intestinal tracts of 14-day-old chicks fed a corn-based diet were enumerated, isolated, and identified. Colony counts from anaerobic roll tubes (rumen fluid medium) or aerobic plates (brain heart infusion agar) recovered from homogenates of the duodenum, upper and lower ileum, and cecum varied appreciably among samples from individual birds. Anaerobic and aerobic counts from the duodenum and ileum were similar. Anaerobic counts were highest from the cecum (0.7 X 10(11) to 1.6 X 10(11)/g of dry tissue) and exceeded aerobic plate counts by a factor of at least 10(2). Facultatively anaerobic groups (Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Lactobacillus, and Escherichia coli) comprised the predominant flora of the duodenum and ileum, although large numbers of anaerobes (9 to 39% of the small intestine isolates), represented by species of Eubacterium, Propionibacterium, Clostridium, Gemmiger, and Fusobacterium, were also recovered. Strict anaerobes (anaerobic gram-positive cocci, Eubacterium, Clostridium Gemmiger, Fusobacterium, and Bacteriodes) made up nearly the entire microbial population of the cecum. Scanning electron microscopy of the intestinal epithelia of chicks revealed populations of microbes on the duodenal, ileal, and cecal mucosal surfaces. Images

Salanitro, J P; Blake, I G; Muirehead, P A; Maglio, M; Goodman, J R

1978-01-01

216

Isolation and Characterization of Anaerobic Bacteria for Symbiotic Recycling of Uric Acid Nitrogen in the Gut of Various Termites  

PubMed Central

Recycling of the nitrogenous waste uric acid (UA) of wood-feeding termites by their gut bacteria is one of the significant aspects of symbiosis for the conservation of nitrogen sources. Diverse anaerobic UA-degrading bacteria comprising 16 species were isolated from the gut of eight termite species, and were assigned to Clostridia, Enterobacteriaceae, and low G+C Gram-positive cocci. UA-degrading Clostridia had never been isolated from termite guts. UA-degrading ability was sporadically distributed among phylogenetically various culturable anaerobic bacteria from termite guts. A strain of Clostridium sp., which was commonly isolated from three termite species and represented a probable new species in cluster XIVa of clostridia, utilized UA as a nitrogen source but not as a sole carbon and energy source. This feature is in clear contrast to that of well-studied purinolytic clostridia or previously isolated UA degraders from termite guts, which also utilize UA as a sole carbon and energy source. Ammonia is the major nitrogenous product of UA degradation. Various purines stimulated the growth of this strain when added to an otherwise growth-limiting, nitrogen poor medium. The bacterial species involved the recycling of UA nitrogen in the gut microbial community of termites are more diverse in terms of both taxonomy and nutritional physiology than previously recognized.

Thong-On, Arunee; Suzuki, Katsuyuki; Noda, Satoko; Inoue, Jun-ichi; Kajiwara, Susumu; Ohkuma, Moriya

2012-01-01

217

Biomarker evidence for widespread anaerobic methane oxidation in Mediterranean sediments by a consortium of methanogenic archaea and bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Although abundant geochemical data indicate that anaerobic methane oxidation occurs in marine sediments, the linkage to specific microorganisms remains unclear. In order to examine processes of methane consumption and oxidation, sediment samples from mud volcanoes at two distinct sites on the Mediterranean consumption and oxidation, sediment samples from mud volcanoes at two distinct sites on the Mediterranean Ridge were collected via the submersible Nautile. Geochemical data strongly indicate that methane is oxidized under aerobic conditions, and compound-specific carbon isotope analyses indicate that methane is oxidized under anaerobic conditions, and compound-specific carbon isotope analyses indicate that this reaction is facilitated by a consortium of archaea and bacteria. Specifically, these methane-rich sediments contain high abundances of methanogen-specific biomarkers that are significantly depleted in {sup 13}C ({delta}{sup 13}C values are as low as {minus}95%). Biomarkers inferred to derive from sulfate-reducing bacteria and other heterotrophic bacteria are similarly depleted. Consistent with previous work, such depletion can be explained by consumption of {sup 13}C-depleted methane by methanogens operating in reverse and as part a consortium of organisms in which sulfate serves as the terminal electron acceptor. Moreover, their results indicate that this process is widespread in Mediterranean mud volcanoes and in some localized settings in the predominant microbiological process.

Pancost, R.D.; Damste, J.S.S.; Lint, S. De; Maarel, M.J.E.C. van der; Gottschal, J.C.

2000-03-01

218

Biomarker Evidence for Widespread Anaerobic Methane Oxidation in Mediterranean Sediments by a Consortium of Methanogenic Archaea and Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Although abundant geochemical data indicate that anaerobic methane oxidation occurs in marine sediments, the linkage to specific microorganisms remains unclear. In order to examine processes of methane consumption and oxidation, sediment samples from mud volcanoes at two distinct sites on the Mediterranean Ridge were collected via the submersible Nautile. Geochemical data strongly indicate that methane is oxidized under anaerobic conditions, and compound-specific carbon isotope analyses indicate that this reaction is facilitated by a consortium of archaea and bacteria. Specifically, these methane-rich sediments contain high abundances of methanogen-specific biomarkers that are significantly depleted in 13C (?13C values are as low as ?95‰). Biomarkers inferred to derive from sulfate-reducing bacteria and other heterotrophic bacteria are similarly depleted. Consistent with previous work, such depletion can be explained by consumption of 13C-depleted methane by methanogens operating in reverse and as part a consortium of organisms in which sulfate serves as the terminal electron acceptor. Moreover, our results indicate that this process is widespread in Mediterranean mud volcanoes and in some localized settings is the predominant microbiological process.

Pancost, Richard D.; Sinninghe Damste, Jaap S.; de Lint, Saskia; van der Maarel, Marc J. E. C.; Gottschal, Jan C.

2000-01-01

219

Candidatus "Scalindua brodae", sp. nov., Candidatus "Scalindua wagneri", sp. nov., two new species of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria.  

PubMed

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is both a promising process in wastewater treatment and a long overlooked microbial physiology that can contribute significantly to biological nitrogen cycling in the world's oceans. Anammox is mediated by a monophyletic group of bacteria that branches deeply in the Planctomycetales. Here we describe a new genus and species of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing planctomycetes, discovered in a wastewater treatment plant (wwtp) treating landfill leachate in Pitsea, UK. The biomass from this wwtp showed high anammox activity (5.0 +/- 0.5 nmol/mg protein/min) and produced hydrazine from hydroxylamine, one of the unique features of anammox bacteria. Eight new planctomycete 16S rRNA gene sequences were present in the 16S rRNA gene clone library generated from the biomass. Four of these were affiliated to known anammox 16S rRNA gene sequences, but branched much closer to the root of the planctomycete line of descent. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with oligonucleotide probes specific for these new sequences showed that two species (belonging to the same genus) together made up > 99% of the planctomycete population which constituted 20% of the total microbial community. The identification of these organisms as typical anammox bacteria was confirmed with electron microscopy and lipid analysis. The new species, provisionally named Candidatus "Scalindua brodae" and "Scalindua wagneri" considerably extend the biodiversity of the anammox lineage on the 16S rRNA gene level, but otherwise resemble known anammox bacteria. Simultaneously, another new species of the same genus, Candidatus "Scalindua sorokinii", was detected in the water column of the Black Sea, making this genus the most widespread of all anammox bacteria described so far. PMID:14666981

Schmid, Markus; Walsh, Kerry; Webb, Rick; Rijpstra, W Irene C; van de Pas-Schoonen, Katinka; Verbruggen, Mark Jan; Hill, Thomas; Moffett, Bruce; Fuerst, John; Schouten, Stefan; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; Harris, James; Shaw, Phil; Jetten, Mike; Strous, Marc

2003-11-01

220

Degradation of anaerobic reductive dechlorinationproducts of Aroclor 1242 by four aerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the aerobic degradation of eight PCB congeners which comprise from 70 to 85% of the anaerobic dechlorination products from Aroclor 1242, including2-, 4-, 2,4-, 2,6-, 2,2'-, 2,4'-, 2,2',4-, and2,4,4'-chlorobiphenyl (CB), and the biodegradation of their mixtures designed to simulate anaerobic dechlorination profiles M and C. StrainsComamonas testosteroni VP44 and Rhodococcus erythreus NY05 preferentially oxidizeda para-substituted ring, while Rhodococcus

Olga V. Maltseva; Tamara V. Tsoi; John F. Quensen; Masao Fukuda; James M. Tiedje

1999-01-01

221

[Identification and susceptibility to antimicrobial agents of strictly anaerobic bacteria isolated from hospitalized patients].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify anaerobic strains isolated in 2001 from clinical specimens obtained from patients of Warsaw hospital and to evaluate a susceptibility of these strains to antimicrobial agents. In 2001 two hundred and twenty five clinical strains of obligate anaerobes were cultured, which were identified in the automatic ATB system (bioMérieux, France) using biochemical tests API 20 A. Drug-susceptibility of strains was determined also in ATB system with the use of ATB ANA strips. C. difficile strains were isolated on selective CCCA medium. Toxins A/B of C. difficile directly in stool specimens were detected by means of ELISA test (TechLab, USA). Fifty four strains of Gram-negative anaerobes (B. fragilis strains dominated) and 171 strains of Gram-positive anaerobes (the greatest number of strains belonged to genus Peptostreptococcus) were cultured from clinical specimens. In the cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhea 28 C. difficile strains were isolated and C. difficile toxins A/B were detected in 39 stool samples. The most active in vitro antimicrobials against Gram-negative anaerobes were metronidazole, imipenem, ticarcillin combined with clavulanic acid and piperacillin with tazobactam. Gram-positive, clinical strains of anaerobes were the most susceptible in vitro to beta-lactam antibiotics combined with beta-lactamase inhibitors (amoxicillin/clavulanate, piperacillin/tazobactam, ticarcillin/clavulanate) and imipenem. PMID:12632658

Kot, Katarzyna; Rokosz, Alicja; Sawicka-Grzelak, Anna; ?uczak, Miros?aw

2002-01-01

222

Induction of anaerobic, photoautotrophic growth in the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limnetica.  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic photoautotrophic growth of the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limnetica was demonstrated under nitrogen in the presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (5micron), a constant concentration of Na2S (2.5 mM), and constant pH (7.3). The photoanaerobic growth rate (2 days doubling time) was similar to that obtained under oxygenic photoautotrophic growth conditions. The potential of oxygenic photosynthesis is constitutive in the cells; that of anoxygenic photosynthesis is rapidly (2 h) induced in the presence of Na2S in the light in a process requiring protein synthesis. The facultative anaerobic phototrophic growth physiology exhibited by O. limnetica would seem to represent an intermediate physiological pattern between the obligate anaerobic one of photosynthetic bacteria and the oxygenic one of eucaryotic algae.

Oren, A; Padan, E

1978-01-01

223

Ammonium removal performance of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria immobilized in polyethylene glycol gel carrier: anammox bacteria immobilized in gel carrier.  

PubMed

Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria were immobilized in polyethylene glycol gel carriers. A small amount of seed sludge [0.24% (w/v)] was entrapped in the carriers, and continuous feeding tests were performed. Nitrogen removal activity increased gradually, reaching 3.7 kg N/m(3) reactor per day on day 67. The average of nitrogen conversion rate was calculated as 3.4 kg N/m(3) reactor per day. Microscopic examination clearly showed that small red clusters formed in the gel carrier. Moreover, fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed that these clusters consisted of anammox bacteria. From real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, the growth of anammox bacteria in the gel carriers was clearly shown by increased concentration of 16S rRNA gene of planctomycete from 4.3 x 10(8) to 4.2 x 10(9) copies/ml between days 41 and 55. To determine the effects of inoculation on the start-up of the reactor, the amount of seed sludge in the gel carrier was varied and it was found that the start-up period could be reduced to as little as 25 days when a sludge concentration of 1.4% (w/v) was used. This is the first report of successful immobilization and cultivation of anammox bacteria in a gel carrier. PMID:17653541

Isaka, Kazuichi; Date, Yasuhiro; Sumino, Tatsuo; Tsuneda, Satoshi

2007-10-01

224

Enumeration and Detection of Anaerobic Ferrous Iron-Oxidizing, Nitrate-Reducing Bacteria from Diverse European Sediments  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic, nitrate-dependent microbial oxidation of ferrous iron was recently recognized as a new type of metabolism. In order to study the occurrence of three novel groups of ferrous iron-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing bacteria (represented by strains BrG1, BrG2, and BrG3), 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes were developed. In pure-culture experiments, these probes were shown to be suitable for fluorescent in situ hybridization, as well as for hybridization analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) patterns. However, neither enumeration by in situ hybridization nor detection by the DGGE-hybridization approach was feasible with sediment samples. Therefore, the DGGE-hybridization approach was combined with microbiological methods. Freshwater sediment samples from different European locations were used for enrichment cultures and most-probable-number (MPN) determinations. Bacteria with the ability to oxidize ferrous iron under nitrate-reducing conditions were detected in all of the sediment samples investigated. At least one of the previously described types of bacteria was detected in each enrichment culture. MPN studies showed that sediments contained from 1 × 105 to 5 × 108 ferrous iron-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing bacteria per g (dry weight) of sediment, which accounted for at most 0.8% of the nitrate-reducing bacteria growing with acetate. Type BrG1, BrG2, and BrG3 bacteria accounted for an even smaller fraction (0.2% or less) of the ferrous iron-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing community. The DGGE patterns of MPN cultures suggested that more organisms than those isolated thus far are able to oxidize ferrous iron with nitrate. A comparison showed that among the anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, organisms that have the ability to oxidize ferrous iron also account for only a minor fraction of the population.

Straub, Kristina L.; Buchholz-Cleven, Berit E. E.

1998-01-01

225

Molecular evidence for nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane-oxidising bacteria in the Jiaojiang Estuary of the East Sea (China).  

PubMed

Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (N-DAMO) is a recently discovered process linking the global carbon and nitrogen cycles. This process was reported to be mediated by "Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera". To date, M. oxyfera-like bacteria have been detected in a limited number of freshwater habitats, but whether these bacteria occur in estuarine habitats is currently unknown. In this study, the distribution, diversity and abundance of M. oxyfera-like bacteria were studied in the sediment of the Jiaojiang Estuary of the East Sea (China). Both the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and pmoA genes confirmed the occurrence of M. oxyfera-like bacteria in the examined estuary. The recovered 16S rRNA gene sequences showed 91.5-97.2 % identity to the 16S rRNA gene of M. oxyfera, and the recovered pmoA gene sequences showed 85.1-95.4 % identity to the pmoA gene of M. oxyfera. Quantitative PCR further confirmed the occurrence of M. oxyfera-like bacteria in this estuary, with the abundance varying from 5.80?±?0.28?×?10(4) to 8.35?±?0.52?×?10(7) copies g?(dry weight)(-1). Correlation analysis indicated that the sediment organic content was the most important factor affecting the distribution of M. oxyfera-like bacterial communities in the examined sediments among the environmental factors investigated. This study demonstrated for the first time the existence of M. oxyfera-like bacteria in an estuarine environment and showed the correlations between the distribution of these bacteria and the estuarine environmental conditions. PMID:24515728

Li-Dong, Shen; Qun, Zhu; Shuai, Liu; Ping, Du; Jiang-Ning, Zeng; Dong-Qing, Cheng; Xiang-Yang, Xu; Ping, Zheng; Bao-Lan, Hu

2014-06-01

226

Anaerobic Oxidation of o-Xylene, m-Xylene, and Homologous Alkylbenzenes by New Types of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Various alkylbenzenes were depleted during growth of an anaerobic, sulfate-reducing enrichment culture with crude oil as the only source of organic substrates. From this culture, two new types of mesophilic, rod-shaped sulfate-reducing bacteria, strains oXyS1 and mXyS1, were isolated with o-xylene and m-xylene, respectively, as organic substrates. Sequence analyses of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the isolates affiliated with known completely oxidizing sulfate-reducing bacteria of the ? subclass of the class Proteobacteria. Strain oXyS1 showed the highest similarities to Desulfobacterium cetonicum and Desulfosarcina variabilis (similarity values, 98.4 and 98.7%, respectively). Strain mXyS1 was less closely related to known species, the closest relative being Desulfococcus multivorans (similarity value, 86.9%). Complete mineralization of o-xylene and m-xylene was demonstrated in quantitative growth experiments. Strain oXyS1 was able to utilize toluene, o-ethyltoluene, benzoate, and o-methylbenzoate in addition to o-xylene. Strain mXyS1 oxidized toluene, m-ethyltoluene, m-isoproyltoluene, benzoate, and m-methylbenzoate in addition to m-xylene. Strain oXyS1 did not utilize m-alkyltoluenes, whereas strain mXyS1 did not utilize o-alkyltoluenes. Like the enrichment culture, both isolates grew anaerobically on crude oil with concomitant reduction of sulfate to sulfide.

Harms, Gerda; Zengler, Karsten; Rabus, Ralf; Aeckersberg, Frank; Minz, Dror; Rossello-Mora, Ramon; Widdel, Friedrich

1999-01-01

227

Decoloration of textile wastewater by means of a fluidized-bed loop reactor and immobilized anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

Textile wastewater was treated by means of a fluidized-bed loop reactor and immobilized anaerobic bacteria. The main target of this treatment was decoloration of the wastewater and transformation of the non-biodegradable azo-reactive dyes to the degradable, under aerobic biological conditions, aromatic amines. Special porous beads (Siran) were utilized as the microbial carriers. Acetic acid solution, enriched with nutrients and trace elements, served both as a pH-regulator and as an external substrate for the growth of methanogenic bacteria. The above technique was firstly applied on synthetic wastewater (an aqueous solution of a mixture of different azo-reactive dyes). Hydraulic residence time was gradually decreased from 24 to 6 h over a period of 3 months. Full decoloration of the wastewater could be achieved even at such a low hydraulic residence time (6 h), while methane-rich biogas was also produced. The same technique was then applied on real textile wastewater with excellent results (full decoloration at a hydraulic residence time of 6 h). Furthermore, the effluent proved to be highly biodegradable by aerobic microbes (activated-sludge). Thus, the above-described anaerobic/aerobic biological technique seems to be a very attractive method for treating textile wastewater since it is cost-effective and environment-friendly. PMID:16423456

Georgiou, D; Aivasidis, A

2006-07-31

228

Role of Anaerobic Ciliates in Planktonic Food Webs: Abundance, Feeding, and Impact on Bacteria in the Field  

PubMed Central

We studied the dynamics of two populations of anaerobic ciliates, Plagiopyla sp. and Metopus sp., and of their potential prey, heterotrophic and phototrophic purple bacteria, in Lake Cisó throughout a 1-year cycle. The abundance of both ciliates was very low (less than 2 individuals per ml). During mixing, Plagiopyla ciliates exhibited high clearance rates (about 100 nl ciliate-1 h-1), its integrated abundance increased with a net doubling time of 47 days, and its potential doubling times, as calculated from the number of bacteria consumed, ranged between 5 and 8 days. During stratification, the activity of Plagiopyla ciliates was reduced and the population decreased; this was related to the higher amounts of sulfide present. The impact of predation by the Plagiopyla population on bacterioplankton was found to be insignificant, less than 0.1% of bacterial biomass consumed per day. Thus, anaerobic ciliates cannot control the bacterioplankton in Lake Cisó because of both the low abundance over the period studied and the low feeding rates during certain periods. A review of available field studies suggests that this conclusion can be extrapolated to most other anoxic systems.

Massana, Ramon; Pedros-Alio, Carlos

1994-01-01

229

Anaerobic nitrite-dependent methane-oxidizing bacteria - novel participants in methane cycling of drained peatlands ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northern peatlands are one of the key sources of atmospheric methane. Process-based studies of methane dynamic are based on the hypothesis of the balance between microbial methane production and oxidation, but this doesn't explain all variations in and constraints on peatland CH4 emissions. One of the reasons for this discrepancy could be anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM) - the process which is still poorly studied and remained controversial. Very little is known about AOM in peatlands, where it could work as an important 'internal' sink for CH4. This lack of knowledge primarily originated from researchers who generally consider AOM quantitatively insignificant or even non-existent in northern peatland ecosystems. But not far ago, Smemo and Yavitt (2007) presented evidence for AOM in freshwater peatlands used indirect techniques including isotope dilution assays and selective methanogenic inhibitors. Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation NC10 group bacteria (n-damo) were detected in a minerotrophic peatland in the Netherlands that is infiltrated by nitrate-rich ground water (Zhu et al., 2012). Present study represents the first, to our knowledge, characterization of AOM in human disturbed peatlands, including hydrological elements of artificial drainage network. The experiments were conducted with samples of peat from drained peatlands, as well as of water and bottom sediments of ditches from drained Dubnensky mire massif, Moscow region (Chistotin et al., 2006; Sirin et al., 2012). This is the key testing area of our research group in European part of Russia for the long-term greenhouse gases fluxes measurements supported by testing physicochemical parameters, intensity and genomic diversity of CH4-cycling microbial communities. Only in sediments of drainage ditches the transition anaerobic zone was found, where methane and nitrate occurred, suggested the possible ecological niche for n-damo bacteria. The NC10 group methanotrophs were analyzed by PCR amplification of 16S rRNA (Ettwig et al. 2009) and pmoA (Luesken et al. 2011) genes followed by construction of clone libraries. Phylogenetic analysis revealed only one n-damo bacterium distantly related to uncultured anaerobic methanotrophs found in situ. It may represent a new cluster of NC10 bacteria with an identity of less than 96 and 86% to the 16S rRNA and pmoA genes of "Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera," respectively. An enrichment of nitrite-reducing methanotrophic NC10 bacteria was successfully obtained from this sample in a static anaerobic culture with methane and nitrite at an in situ pH of 6.3. The bacterial abundance in enrichment was estimated using quantitative PCR and FISH (DBACT-0193-a-A probe) analysis and was found to increase up to 10 times for 120 days. The results of this study expand our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of NC10 bacteria in the environment and their potential contribution to nitrogen and methane cycles in northern peatland ecosystems. We think that AOM may be more active in anthropogenic disturbed peatlands with greater supply of elements that could potentially serve as electron acceptors. In spite of generally low concentration, seasonal increases in nitrate content in drained peatlands may work as an important control of CH4 fluxes. The study was partially supported by RFBR research project # 12-05-01029_a.

Kravchenko, Irina; Sukhacheva, Marina; Menko, Ekaterina; Sirin, Andrey

2014-05-01

230

A real-time polymerase chain reaction method for monitoring anaerobic, hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria based on a catabolic gene.  

PubMed

We have developed a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method that can quantify hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in sediment samples based on a catabolic gene associated with the first step of anaerobic toluene and xylene degradation. The target gene, bssA, codes for the alpha-subunit of benzylsuccinate synthase. The primer-probe set for real-time PCR was based on consensus regions of bssA from four denitrifying bacterial strains; bssA sequences for two of these strains were determined during this study. The method proved to be sensitive (detection limit ca. 5 gene copies) and had a linear range of >7 orders of magnitude. We used the method to investigate how gasohol releases from leaking underground storage tanks could affect indigenous toluene-degrading bacteria. Microcosms inoculated with aquifer sediments from four different sites were incubated anaerobically with BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) and nitrate in the presence and absence of ethanol. Overall, population trends were consistent with observed toluene degradation activity: the microcosms with the most rapid toluene degradation also had the largest numbers of bssA copies. In the microcosms with the most rapid toluene degradation, numbers of bssA copies increased 100-to 1000-fold over the first 4 days of incubation, during which time most of the toluene had been consumed. These results were supported by slot blot analyses with unamplified DNA and by cloning and sequencing of putative bssA amplicons, which confirmed the real-time PCR method's specificity for bssA. Use of a companion real-time PCR method for estimating total eubacterial populations (based on 16S rDNA) indicated that, in some cases, ethanol disproportionately supported the growth of bacteria that did not contain bssA. The real-time PCR method for bssA could be a powerful tool for monitored natural attenuation of BTEX in fuel-contaminated groundwater. To our knowledge, this is the first reported molecular method that targets anaerobic, hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria based on a catabolic gene. PMID:12269751

Beller, Harry R; Kane, Staci R; Legler, Tina C; Alvarez, Pedro J J

2002-09-15

231

Distribution of epiphytic bacteria on olive leaves and the influence of leaf age and sampling time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesophilic heterotrophic, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacteria that grow on yeast tryptone glucose extract agar were\\u000a isolated from the surface of olive leaves of 3 or 4 different ages in January, April, July, and October from 1984 to 1989.\\u000a Unweighted average linkage cluster analysis on either the Jaccard coefficient or the simple matching coefficient recovered\\u000a 1,701 representative strains in 32

G. L. Ercolani

1991-01-01

232

A genomic view of methane oxidation by aerobic bacteria and anaerobic archaea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent sequencing of the genome and proteomic analysis of a model aerobic methanotrophic bacterium, Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) has revealed a highly versatile metabolic potential. In parallel, environmental genomics has provided glimpses into anaerobic methane oxidation by certain archaea, further supporting the hypothesis of reverse methanogenesis.

Ludmila Chistoserdova; Julia A Vorholt; Mary E Lidstrom

2005-01-01

233

Anaerobic bacteria in urine before and after prostatic massage of infertile men  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study 25 infertile men delivered urine before and after prostatic massage. Expressed prostatic secretion (EPS) was obtained from 11 men. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial analyses showed that a total of 33 isolates was found in samples of urine voided before massage as compared to 59 isolates after massage of the prostate. There was an increase in the

P. J. Moberg; C. E. Nord

1985-01-01

234

One carbon metabolism in anaerobic bacteria: Regulation of carbon and electron flow during organic acid production  

SciTech Connect

This reporting period, progress is reported on the following: metabolic pathway of solvent production in B. methylotrophicum; the biochemical mechanism for metabolic regulation of the succinate fermentation; models to understand the physiobiochemical function of formate metabolism in anaerobes and; models for understanding the influence of low pH on one carbon metabolism. (CBS)

Zeikus, J.G.; Jain, M.K.

1992-01-01

235

Unusual anaerobic bacteria in keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis: diagnosis using molecular biology methods.  

PubMed

Laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) was performed in the left eye of a 57-year-old man for residual ametropia after phacoemulsification. The patient was given topical tobramycin and a corticosteroid for 1 week postoperatively. Fifteen days later, he developed 3 corneal infiltrates beneath the flap with a gas bubble, suggesting an anaerobic infection. Tobramycin and ofloxacin were administered every 2 hours, but the condition worsened. Corneal scrapings were taken from beneath the flap for microbiological cultures and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. The PCR amplification was negative for fungi and mycobacteria and positive for bacterial DNA. Sequence analysis showed Propionibacterium granulosum as the causal agent, but cultures were negative. Treatment with vancomycin and cefazolin led to clinical improvement, with resolution of corneal infiltrates. Anaerobic microorganisms can cause keratitis after LASIK. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and DNA typing can help detect microorganisms involved in these ocular infections. PMID:15313309

Ferrer, Consuelo; Rodríguez-Prats, Jose L; Abad, José L; Alió, Jorge L

2004-08-01

236

Modification of the gas-liquid chromatography procedure and evaluation of a new column packing material for the identification of anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Gas-liquid chromatography has become a useful aid for the identification of anaerobic bacteria in the clinical laboratory. When many extracted samples are to be analyzed, time is of prime importance. By altering the operating conditions of the chromatograph, we have decreased the total elution time of the volatile fatty acids examined to approximately 12 min. There is, however, a decrease in the ability to resolve propionic and isobutyric acids. A new column packing material, SP-1220 (Supelco), was found to give excellent separation of propionic and isobutyric acids as well as demonstrating the presence of formic acid which was not seen with the previously used Resoflex. Extracts of clinical isolates of anaerobic organisms were processed using the altered conditions and new column packing material with excellent resolution of all acids. The use of SP-1220 in the clinical laboratory will facilitate the identification of anaerobic bacteria.

Hauser, K J; Zabransky, R J

1975-01-01

237

Production of phytoestrogen S -equol from daidzein in mixed culture of two anaerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anaerobic incubation mixture of two bacterial strains Eggerthella sp. Julong 732 and Lactobacillus sp. Niu-O16, which have been known to transform dihydrodaidzein to S-equol and daidzein to dihydrodaidzein respectively, produced S-equol from daidzein through dihydrodaidzein. The biotransformation kinetics of daidzein by the mixed cultures showed that\\u000a the production of S-equol from daidzein was significantly enhanced, as compared to the

Xiu-Ling Wang; Ho-Jin Kim; Su-Il Kang; Su-Il Kim; Hor-Gil Hur

2007-01-01

238

Remediation of polychlorinated biphenyl impacted sediment by concurrent bioaugmentation with anaerobic halorespiring and aerobic degrading bacteria  

PubMed Central

Bioremediation of sediments contaminated with commercial PCBs is potentially achievable by the sequential activity of anaerobic halorespiration to convert higher chlorinated congeners to less chlorinated congeners that are susceptible to aerobic respiratory degradation. The efficacy of bioaugmentation with anaerobic halorespiring “Dehalobium chlorocoercia” DF1 and aerobic Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 added concurrently with GAC as a delivery system was determined in 2-liter laboratory mesocosms containing weathered Aroclor-contaminated sediment from Baltimore Harbor, MD. The greatest effect was seen in the mesocosm bioaugmented with both DF1 and LB400 together, which resulted in an 80% decrease by mass of PCBs, from 8 mg/kg to less than 2 mg/kg after 120 days. There was no significant increase in lesser-chlorinated congeners, indicating that both anaerobic dechlorination by DF1 and aerobic degradation by LB400 occurred. In contrast, non-bioaugmented controls containing filtered culture supernatant showed only 25% decrease in total levels of PCBs after 365 days, which was likely due to biostimulation of the indigenous population by the medium. Direct colony counts and molecular analysis targeting a putative reductive dehalogenase gene of D. chlorocoercia, or the bphA gene of LB400 showed the presence of viable DF1 and LB400 in bioaugmented mesocosms after 365 days, indicating that both non-indigenous strains were sustainable within the indigenous microbial community. These results suggest that an in situ treatment employing the simultaneous application of anaerobic and aerobic microorganisms could be an effective, environmentally sustainable strategy to reduce PCBs levels in contaminated sediment.

Payne, Rayford B.; Fagervold, Sonja K.; May, Harold D.; Sowers, Kevin R.

2013-01-01

239

Proteins and protein complexes involved in the biochemical reactions of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria.  

PubMed

It has been less than two decades since anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) coupled to nitrite reduction has been discovered. Already, this process has been recognized as an important sink for fixed nitrogen in the natural environment and has been implemented as a cost-effective ammonium removal technology. Still, little is known about the molecular mechanism of this remarkable reaction. In this mini review, we present an insight into how ammonium and nitrite are combined to form dinitrogen gas. PMID:21265793

de Almeida, Naomi M; Maalcke, Wouter J; Keltjens, Jan T; Jetten, Mike S M; Kartal, Boran

2011-01-01

240

Anaerobic degradation of ethylbenzene and other aromatic hydrocarbons by new denitrifying bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic degradation of alkylbenzenes with side chains longer than that of toluene was studied in freshwater mud samples in the presence of nitrate. Two new denitrifying strains, EbN1 and PbN1, were isolated on ethylbenzene and n-propylbenzene, respectively. For comparison, two further denitrifying strains, ToN1 and mXyN1, were isolated from the same mud with toluene and m-xylene, respectively. Sequencing of 16SrDNA

Ralf Rabus; Friedrich Widdel

1995-01-01

241

Characterization of 13 newly isolated strains of anaerobic, cellulolytic, thermophilic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Characteristics of 13 newly isolated thermophilic, anaerobic, and cellulolytic strains were compared with previously described\\u000a strains of Clostridium thermocellum: ATCC 27405 and JW20 (ATCC 31549). Colony morphology, antibiotic sensitivity, fermentation end-products, and cellulose degradation\\u000a were documented. All 13 strains were sensitive to erythromycin (5 ?g\\/ml) and chloramphenicol (25 ?g\\/ml), and all strains but\\u000a one were sensitive to kanamycin (20 ?g\\/ml).

M Ozkan; SG Desai; Y Zhang; DM Stevenson; J Beane; EA White; ML Guerinot; LR Lynd

2001-01-01

242

Anaerobic naphthalene degradation by Gram-positive, iron-reducing bacteria.  

PubMed

An anaerobic naphthalene-degrading culture (N49) was enriched with ferric iron as electron acceptor. A closed electron balance indicated the total oxidation of naphthalene to CO(2). In all growing cultures, the concentration of the presumed central metabolite of naphthalene degradation, 2-naphthoic acid, increased concomitantly with growth. The first metabolite of anaerobic methylnaphthalene degradation, naphthyl-2-methyl-succinic acid, was not identified in culture supernatants, which does not support a methylation to methylnaphthalene as the initial activation reaction of naphthalene, but rather a carboxylation, as proposed for other naphthalene-degrading cultures. Substrate utilization tests revealed that the culture was able to grow on 1-methyl-naphthalene, 2-methyl-naphthalene, 1-naphthoic acid or 2-naphthoic acid, whereas it did not grow on 1-naphthol, 2-naphthol, anthracene, phenanthrene, indane and indene. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses revealed that the microbial community of the culture was dominated by one bacterial microorganism, which was closely related (99% 16S sequence similarity) to the major organism in the iron-reducing, benzene-degrading enrichment culture BF [ISME J (2007) 1: 643; Int J Syst Evol Microbiol (2010) 60: 686]. The phylogenetic classification supports a new candidate species and genus of Gram-positive spore-forming iron-reducers that can degrade non-substituted aromatic hydrocarbons. It furthermore indicates that Gram-positive microorganisms might also play an important role in anaerobic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degradation. PMID:22066721

Kleemann, Rita; Meckenstock, Rainer U

2011-12-01

243

Monitoring Methanotrophic Bacteria in Hybrid Anaerobic-Aerobic Reactors with PCR and a Catabolic Gene Probe  

PubMed Central

We attempted to mimic in small upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) bioreactors the metabolic association found in nature between methanogens and methanotrophs. UASB bioreactors were inoculated with pure cultures of methanotrophs, and the bioreactors were operated by using continuous low-level oxygenation in order to favor growth and/or survival of methanotrophs. Unlike the reactors in other similar studies, the hybrid anaerobic-aerobic bioreactors which we used were operated synchronously, not sequentially. Here, emphasis was placed on monitoring various methanotrophic populations by using classical methods and also a PCR amplification assay based on the mmoX gene fragment of the soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO). The following results were obtained: (i) under the conditions used, Methylosinus sporium appeared to survive better than Methylosinus trichosporium; (ii) the PCR method which we used could detect as few as about 2,000 sMMO gene-containing methanotrophs per g (wet weight) of granular sludge; (iii) inoculation of the bioreactors with pure cultures of methanotrophs contributed greatly to increases in the sMMO-containing population (although the sMMO-containing population decreased gradually with time, at the end of an experiment it was always at least 2 logs larger than the initial population before inoculation); (iv) in general, there was a good correlation between populations with the sMMO gene and populations that exhibited sMMO activity; and (v) inoculation with sMMO-positive cultures helped increase significantly the proportion of sMMO-positive methanotrophs in reactors, even after several weeks of operation under various regimes. At some point, anaerobic-aerobic bioreactors like those described here might be used for biodegradation of various chlorinated pollutants.

Miguez, Carlos B.; Shen, Chun F.; Bourque, Denis; Guiot, Serge R.; Groleau, Denis

1999-01-01

244

Antibacterial activity of Brazilian propolis and fractions against oral anaerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propolis collected from a cerrado area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, was subjected to chromatography on silica gel column and to partition between immiscible solvents. Propolis aqueous-ethanolic extract and fractions obtained were tested for inhibitory activity against periodontitis-causing bacteria. All of the assayed bacterium species were susceptible to propolis extract. The two fractionation methodologies yielded fractions which were active against

F. A Santos; E. M. A Bastos; M Uzeda; M. A. R Carvalho; L. M Farias; E. S. A Moreira; F. C Braga

2002-01-01

245

Use of Nucleic-Acid Homologies in the Taxonomy of Anaerobic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleic acid homology studies are providing a common base for establishing bacterial groups. Few phenotypic characteristics have consistently correlated with homology data among the various groups of organisms that we have investigated. However, there are correlations that are specific for a given group of bacteria such that nucleic-acid homology data can be used to select those phenotypic properties that will

JOHN L. JOHNSON

1973-01-01

246

Anaerobic transformation of quercetin-3-glucoside by bacteria from the human intestinal tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

From human feces two phenotypically different types of bacteria were isolated on quercetin-3-glucoside as carbon and energy\\u000a source. Isolates of one type were identified as strains of Enterococcus casseliflavus. They utilized the sugar moiety of the glycoside, but did not degrade the aglycon further. The sugar moiety (4 mM) was fermented\\u000a to 5.5 ± 2.1 mM formate, 2.1 ± 0.7

Heiko Schneider; Andreas Schwiertz; Matthew David Collins; M. Blaut

1999-01-01

247

Anaerobic degradation and carbon isotopic fractionation of alkylbenzenes in crude oil by sulphate-reducing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mesophilic enrichment culture of sulphate-reducing bacteria isolated from the water phase of a North Sea oil tank using oil from the same tank as sole source of carbon and energy specifically depletes certain C1–C5 alkylbenzenes in crude oil during growth. The enrichment culture grows on oils of different origin and composition resulting in similar patterns of alkylbenzene depletion. Two

Heinz Wilkes; Chris Boreham; Gerda Harms; Karsten Zengler; Ralf Rabus

2000-01-01

248

Kinetic analysis of hydrogen production using anaerobic bacteria in reverse micelles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The micellar formation and entrapment of bacteria cell in reverse micelles were investigated by ultraviolet spectrum (UV), fluorescence spectrum, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The hydrogen production in reverse micelles was confirmed. The Gompertz equation was employed to evaluate the hydrogen-producing behavior in reverse micellar systems. Different systems including dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt (AOT)–isooctane, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)–benzene and SDS–carbon

Xiaohua Zhi; Haijun Yang; Zhuliang Yuan; Jianquan Shen

2010-01-01

249

Potential Application of Anaerobic Extremophiles for Hydrogen Production  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During substrate fermentation many anaerobes produce the hydrogen as a waste product, which often regulates the growth of the cultures as an inhibitor. In nature the hydrogen is usually removed from the ecosystem due to its physical properties or by consumption of hydrogen by secondary anaerobes, which sometimes behave as competitors for electron donors as is seen in the classical example in anaerobic microbial communities via the interaction between methanogens and sulfate- or sulfur- reducers. It was demonstrated previously on mixed cultures of anaerobes at neutral pH that bacterial hydrogen production could provide an alternative energy source. But at neutral pH the original cultures can easily be contaminated by methanogens, a most unpleasant side effect of these conditions is the development of pathogenic bacteria. In both cases the rate of hydrogen production was dramatically decreased since some part of the hydrogen was transformed to methane, and the cultivation of human pathogens on a global scale is very dangerous. In our laboratory, experiments with obligately alkaliphilic bacteria that excrete hydrogen as the end metabolic product were performed at different temperature regimes. Mesophilic and moderately thermophilic bacterial cultures have been studied and compared for the most effective hydrogen production. For high-mineralized media with pH 9.5-10.0 not many methanogens are known to exist. Furthermore, the development of pathogenic contaminant microorganisms is virtually impossible: carbonate-saturated solutions are used as antiseptics in medicine. Therefore the cultivation of alkaliphilic hydrogen producing bacteria could be considered as most safe process for global Scale industry in future. Here we present experimental data on the rates of hydrogen productivity for mesophilic, alkaliphilic, obligately anaerobic bacterium Spirocheta americana ASpG1 and moderately thermophilic, alkaliphilic, facultative anaerobe Anoxybacillus pushchinoensis K1 and discuss the potential implications for alternative energy sources.

Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

2004-01-01

250

Diversity of culturable psychrophilic and psychrotrophic anaerobic bacteria isolated from beef abattoirs and their environments.  

PubMed

This study identified 431 psychrophilic or psychrotrophic isolates from commercial Irish beef abattoir environments and "blown packs" of vacuum-packed beef, using PCR and 16S rRNA sequencing, and estimated their intraspecies genetic diversity using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and spacer region PCR (SR-PCR). Twenty-five species were identified in the 431 isolates, with the most frequently recovered species being Clostridium gasigenes (n=315), Clostridium estertheticum (n=17), and a potentially novel species designated strain TC1 (n=52). These species were previously found to be associated with a particular type of spoilage known as blown-pack spoilage (BPS), which occurs in chilled-stored (i.e., -1.5°C to 4°C) vacuum-packaged meat within 2 to 4 weeks and involves the production of large volumes of gas. Overall, the study demonstrates the considerable and not previously reported diversity of the anaerobic microflora in abattoirs and the presence of a wide range of organisms capable of causing BPS at chilled temperatures. PMID:21498765

Moschonas, G; Bolton, D J; McDowell, D A; Sheridan, J J

2011-07-01

251

Competition of marine psychrophilic bacteria at low temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of obligately and facultatively psychrophilic bacteria in the marine environment suggests that environmental conditions exist which can favour each of these groups in competitive processes. Differences were found in the way in which temperature affected the growth rates of obligate and facultative psychrophiles. Maximum specific growth rates of a number of obligately and facultatively psychrophilic bacteria were determined

W. Harder; H. Veldkamp

1971-01-01

252

Facultative symbionts in aphids and the horizontal transfer of ecologically important traits.  

PubMed

Aphids engage in symbiotic associations with a diverse assemblage of heritable bacteria. In addition to their obligate nutrient-provisioning symbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, aphids may also carry one or more facultative symbionts. Unlike obligate symbionts, facultative symbionts are not generally required for survival or reproduction and can invade novel hosts, based on both phylogenetic analyses and transfection experiments. Facultative symbionts are mutualistic in the context of various ecological interactions. Experiments on pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) have demonstrated that facultative symbionts protect against entomopathogenic fungi and parasitoid wasps, ameliorate the detrimental effects of heat, and influence host plant suitability. The protective symbiont, Hamiltonella defensa, has a dynamic genome, exhibiting evidence of recombination, phage-mediated gene uptake, and horizontal gene transfer and containing virulence and toxin-encoding genes. Although transmitted maternally with high fidelity, facultative symbionts occasionally move horizontally within and between species, resulting in the instantaneous acquisition of ecologically important traits, such as parasitoid defense. PMID:19728837

Oliver, Kerry M; Degnan, Patrick H; Burke, Gaelen R; Moran, Nancy A

2010-01-01

253

Cefotetan: a second-generation cephalosporin active against anaerobic bacteria. Committee on Antimicrobial Agents, Canadian Infectious Disease Society.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To offer guidelines for the use of cefotetan, a cephamycin antibiotic, in order to minimize its overprescription. OPTIONS: Clinical practice options considered were treatment of infections with the use of second- and third-generation cephalosporins, carbapenems such as imipenem as well as combination regimens of agents active against anaerobic bacteria, such as metronidazole or clindamycin with an aminoglycoside. OUTCOMES: In order of importance: efficacy, side effects and cost. EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search of articles published between January 1982 and December 1993. In-vitro and pharmacokinetic studies published in recognized peer-reviewed journals that used recognized standard methods with appropriate controls were reviewed. For results of clinical trials, the reviewers emphasized randomized double-blind trials with appropriate controls. VALUES: The Antimicrobial Agents Committee of the Canadian Infectious Disease Society (CIDS) and a recognized expert (M.J.G.) recommended use of cefotetan to prevent and treat infections against which it has proved effective in randomized controlled trials. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: These guidelines should lead to less inappropriate prescribing of cefotetan, with its attendant costs and risk of development of resistant bacteria. RECOMMENDATIONS: Cefotetan could be considered an alternative single agent for prophylaxis of infection in patients undergoing elective bowel surgery. It may be used to treat patients with acute pelvic inflammatory disease and endometritis. VALIDATION: This article was prepared, reviewed and revised by the Committee on Antimicrobial Agents of the CIDS. It was then reviewed by the Council of the CIDS, and any further necessary revisions were made by the chairman of the committee.

Gribble, M J

1994-01-01

254

The acute phase of experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi is more severe in mice monoassociated with strict anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

1. The influence of some components of the normal human intestinal flora on the acute phase of experimental infection with strain CL of Trypanosoma cruzi was studied in 30-day-old germ-free or gnotobiotic CFW (LOB) mice monoassociated with Bacteroides fragilis, Peptostreptococcus sp or Clostridium sp by intragastric inoculation of 10(6) bacteria 10 days before the intraperitoneal infection with 5 x 10(3) trypomastigotes/g body weight. 2. Significantly earlier parasitemia peak and mortality were observed in Bacteroides fragilis- and Clostridium-associated mice (16.75 +/- 0.96 and 15.00 +/- 1.15 days, respectively) when compared with germfree animals (18.83 +/- 1.17 days). More precocious mortality (10.40 +/- 2.06 days) and, curiously, much lower blood parasitemia were observed in Peptostreptococcus-associated mice than in other gnotobiotic mice. 3. The extent of cardiac tissue parasitism decreased in the following order: germfree, B. fragilis-associated, Clostridium-associated, and Peptostreptococcus-associated animals. The levels of inflammatory reaction decreased in the following order: germfree, Peptostreptococcus-associated, Clostridium-associated, and B. fragilis-associated mice. 4. These results show that the acute phase of experimental infection with T. cruzi was more severe in mice associated with strict anaerobic bacteria when compared with germfree animals. This suggests that a normal intestinal flora may be another factor, in addition to nutritional and genetic factors, responsible for the different susceptibility of organisms of the same species infected with T. cruzi. PMID:1342224

Barros, M C; Vieira, E C; Silva, M E; Silva, M E; Bambirra, E A; Nicoli, J R

1992-01-01

255

Advantages of anaerobic digestion of sludge in microaerobic conditions.  

PubMed

The paper reviews results and experience of microaerobic experiments at both high and low sulphide concentrations and evaluates advantages and drawbacks of the anaerobic digestion of sludge in microaerobic conditions as regards biogas quality, digested sludge quality, organic pollutants biodegradability and methanogenic activity of biomass. The innovative microaerobic modification of the anaerobic sludge digestion technology was studied in both laboratory and full scale. Microaerobic conditions are obtained by dosing of a limited amount of the air into the liquid phase of the anaerobic digester. It was shown that anaerobic bacteria including methanogens can be active also in such system. In a mixed culture, even strict anaerobes can survive without inhibition, if the facultative microorganisms are able to consume the present oxygen quickly and fully. Until now, the microaerobic conditions were predominantly used for hydrogen sulphide removal from biogas. In the paper the role of the surplus oxygen was studied also at low sulphide concentration, when the oxygen is consumed in high extent for other processes beside sulphide oxidation. PMID:20651449

Jenicek, P; Koubova, J; Bindzar, J; Zabranska, J

2010-01-01

256

Anaerobic hydrocarbon and fatty acid metabolism by syntrophic bacteria and their impact on carbon steel corrosion.  

PubMed

The microbial metabolism of hydrocarbons is increasingly associated with the corrosion of carbon steel in sulfate-rich marine waters. However, how such transformations influence metal biocorrosion in the absence of an electron acceptor is not fully recognized. We grew a marine alkane-utilizing, sulfate-reducing bacterium, Desulfoglaeba alkanexedens, with either sulfate or Methanospirillum hungatei as electron acceptors, and tested the ability of the cultures to catalyze metal corrosion. Axenically, D. alkanexedens had a higher instantaneous corrosion rate and produced more pits in carbon steel coupons than when the same organism was grown in syntrophic co-culture with the methanogen. Since anaerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation pathways converge on fatty acid intermediates, the corrosive ability of a known fatty acid-oxidizing syntrophic bacterium, Syntrophus aciditrophicus was compared when grown in pure culture or in co-culture with a H2-utilizing sulfate-reducing bacterium (Desulfovibrio sp., strain G11) or a methanogen (M. hungatei). The instantaneous corrosion rates in the cultures were not substantially different, but the syntrophic, sulfate-reducing co-culture produced more pits in coupons than other combinations of microorganisms. Lactate-grown cultures of strain G11 had higher instantaneous corrosion rates and coupon pitting compared to the same organism cultured with hydrogen as an electron donor. Thus, if sulfate is available as an electron acceptor, the same microbial assemblages produce sulfide and low molecular weight organic acids that exacerbated biocorrosion. Despite these trends, a surprisingly high degree of variation was encountered with the corrosion assessments. Differences in biomass, initial substrate concentration, rates of microbial activity or the degree of end product formation did not account for the variations. We are forced to ascribe such differences to the metallurgical properties of the coupons. PMID:24744752

Lyles, Christopher N; Le, Huynh M; Beasley, William Howard; McInerney, Michael J; Suflita, Joseph M

2014-01-01

257

Anaerobic Mineralization of Quaternary Carbon Atoms: Isolation of Denitrifying Bacteria on Pivalic Acid (2,2-Dimethylpropionic Acid)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradability of pivalic acid was established by the isolation of several facultative denitrifying strains belonging to Zoogloea resiniphila ,t oThauera and Herbaspirillum, and to Comamonadaceae, related to (Aquaspi- rillum) and Acidovorax, and of a nitrate-reducing bacterium affiliated with Moraxella osloensis. Pivalic acid was completely mineralized to carbon dioxide. The catabolic pathways may involve an oxidation to dimethyl- malonate or

Christina Probian; Annika Wulfing; Jens Harder

2003-01-01

258

Effect of pH on Anaerobic Mild Steel Corrosion by Methanogenic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Methanogens can use H2 produced by cathodic depolarization-mediated oxidation of elemental iron to produce methane. Thermodynamic consideration of the cathodic depolarization mechanism predicts more oxidation of Fe0 at lower pH. Methanogenic responses to pH by Methanococcus deltae, Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus, and Methanosarcina barkeri were examined. When grown on H2-CO2, these bacteria had pH optima from 6.2 to 7.0, but when all H2 was supplied from Fe0, methanogenic pH optima were lower, 5.4 to 6.5. Corrosion was monitored with and without cultures and at various pHs; more corrosion occurred when cultures were present, biologically induced corrosion was greatest at the pH optima for methanogenesis from Fe0, and corrosion without cultures increased with a drop in pH.

Boopathy, R.; Daniels, L.

1991-01-01

259

Effect of pH on anaerobic mild steel corrosion by methanogenic bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Methanogens can use H{sub 2} produced by cathodic depolarization-mediated oxidation of elemental iron to produce methane. Thermodynamic consideration of the cathodic depolarization mechanism predicts more oxidation of Fe{sup 0} at lower pH. Methanogenic responses to pH by Methanococcus deltae, Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus, and Methanosarcina barkeri were examined. When grown on H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}, these bacteria had pH optima from 6.2 to 7.0, but when all H{sub 2} was supplied from Fe{sup 0}, methanogenic pH optima were lower, 5.4 to 6.5. Corrosion was monitored with and without cultures and at various pHs; more corrosion occurred when cultures were present, biologically induced corrosion was greatest at the pH optima for methanogenesis from Fe{sup 0}, and corrosion without cultures increased with a drop in pH.

Boopathy, R.; Daniels, L. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (USA))

1991-07-01

260

Dissimilatory Reduction of Elemental Selenium to Selenide in Sediments and Anaerobic Cultures of Selenium Respiring Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selenium contaminated environments often contain elemental Se (Se0) in their sediments that originates from dissimilatory reduction of Se oxyanions. The forms of Se in sedimentary rocks similarly contain high proportions of Se0, but much of the Se is also in the form of metal selenides, Se-2. It is not clear if the occurrence of these selenides is due to microbial reduction of Se0, or some other biological or chemical process. In this investigation we examined the possibility that bacterial respiratory reduction of Se0 to Se-2 could explain the presence of the latter species in sedimentary rocks. We conducted incubations of anoxic sediment slurries amended with different forms of Se0. High levels of Se0 (mM) were added to San Francisco Bay sediments in order to enhance the detection of soluble HSe-, which was precipitated with Cu2+ then redissolved and quantified by ICP-MS. Concentrations of HSe- were highest in live samples amended with red amorphous Se0 formed by either microbial reduction of Se+4 ("biogenic Se0") or by chemical oxidation of H2Se(g) ("chem. Se0"); very little HSe- was formed in those amended with black crystalline Se0, indicating the general lack of reactivity of this allotrope. Controls poisoned with 10% formalin did not produce HSe- from additions of chem. Se0. Reduction of both forms of red amorphous Se0 to HSe- occurred vigorously in growing cultures of Bacillus selenitireducens, an anaerobic halophile previously isolated from sediments of Mono Lake, CA. Up to 73% and 68% of red amorphous, biogenic Se0 or chem. Se0, respectively, was reduced to HSe- during growth of B. selenitireducens, (incubation time ~ 200 hrs): oxidation of lactate to acetate as well as cell density increases indicated that a dissimilatory reduction pathway was likely. Reduction was most enhanced when cells were previously grown on elemental sulfur or Se+4. In contrast to the growth experiments, washed cell suspensions of B. selenitireducens exhibited no HSe- production when amended with red amorphous or black Se0; however, they could convert up to 34% of added Se+4 to HSe- after its complete reduction to Se0 first occurred. These findings indicate that reduction of Se0 in sediments to HSe- or metal selenides is a bacterial dissimilatory processes, that explains the presence of selenides in some sedimentary rocks.

Herbel, M. J.; Switzer-Blum, J.; Oremland, R. S.

2001-12-01

261

Anaerobic oxidation of ferrous iron by purple bacteria, a new type of phototrophic metabolism.  

PubMed

Anoxic iron-rich sediment samples that had been stored in the light showed development of brown, rusty patches. Subcultures in defined mineral media with ferrous iron (10 mmol/liter, mostly precipitated as FeCO3) yielded enrichments of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria which used ferrous iron as the sole electron donor for photosynthesis. Two different types of purple bacteria, represented by strains L7 and SW2, were isolated which oxidized colorless ferrous iron under anoxic conditions in the light to brown ferric iron. Strain L7 had rod-shaped, nonmotile cells (1.3 by 2 to 3 microns) which frequently formed gas vesicles. In addition to ferrous iron, strain L7 used H2 + CO2, acetate, pyruvate, and glucose as substrate for phototrophic growth. Strain SW2 had small rod-shaped, nonmotile cells (0.5 by 1 to 1.5 microns). Besides ferrous iron, strain SW2 utilized H2 + CO2, monocarboxylic acids, glucose, and fructose. Neither strain utilized free sulfide; however, both strains grew on black ferrous sulfide (FeS) which was converted to ferric iron and sulfate. Strains L7 and SW2 grown photoheterotrophically without ferrous iron were purple to brownish red and yellowish brown, respectively; absorption spectra revealed peaks characteristic of bacteriochlorophyll a. The closest phototrophic relatives of strains L7 and SW2 so far examined on the basis of 16S rRNA sequences were species of the genera Chromatium (gamma subclass of proteobacteria) and Rhodobacter (alpha subclass), respectively. In mineral medium, the new isolates formed 7.6 g of cell dry mass per mol of Fe(II) oxidized, which is in good agreement with a photoautotrophic utilization of ferrous iron as electron donor for CO2 fixation. Dependence of ferrous iron oxidation on light and CO2 was also demonstrated in dense cell suspensions. In media containing both ferrous iron and an organic substrate (e.g., acetate, glucose), strain L7 utilized ferrous iron and the organic compound simultaneously; in contrast, strain SW2 started to oxidize ferrous iron only after consumption of the organic electron donor. Ferrous iron oxidation by anoxygenic phototrophs is understandable in terms of energetics. In contrast to the Fe3+/Fe2+ pair (E0 = +0.77 V) existing in acidic solutions, the relevant redox pair at pH 7 in bicarbonate-containing environments, Fe(OH)3 + HCO3-/FeCO3, has an E0' of +0.2 V. Ferrous iron at pH 7 can therefore donate electrons to the photosystem of anoxygenic phototrophs, which in purple bacteria has a midpoint potential around +0.45 V. The existence of ferrous iron-oxidizing anoxygenic phototrophs may offer an explanation for the deposition of early banded-iron formations in an assumed anoxic biosphere in Archean times. PMID:7811087

Ehrenreich, A; Widdel, F

1994-12-01

262

Anaerobic oxidation of ferrous iron by purple bacteria, a new type of phototrophic metabolism.  

PubMed Central

Anoxic iron-rich sediment samples that had been stored in the light showed development of brown, rusty patches. Subcultures in defined mineral media with ferrous iron (10 mmol/liter, mostly precipitated as FeCO3) yielded enrichments of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria which used ferrous iron as the sole electron donor for photosynthesis. Two different types of purple bacteria, represented by strains L7 and SW2, were isolated which oxidized colorless ferrous iron under anoxic conditions in the light to brown ferric iron. Strain L7 had rod-shaped, nonmotile cells (1.3 by 2 to 3 microns) which frequently formed gas vesicles. In addition to ferrous iron, strain L7 used H2 + CO2, acetate, pyruvate, and glucose as substrate for phototrophic growth. Strain SW2 had small rod-shaped, nonmotile cells (0.5 by 1 to 1.5 microns). Besides ferrous iron, strain SW2 utilized H2 + CO2, monocarboxylic acids, glucose, and fructose. Neither strain utilized free sulfide; however, both strains grew on black ferrous sulfide (FeS) which was converted to ferric iron and sulfate. Strains L7 and SW2 grown photoheterotrophically without ferrous iron were purple to brownish red and yellowish brown, respectively; absorption spectra revealed peaks characteristic of bacteriochlorophyll a. The closest phototrophic relatives of strains L7 and SW2 so far examined on the basis of 16S rRNA sequences were species of the genera Chromatium (gamma subclass of proteobacteria) and Rhodobacter (alpha subclass), respectively. In mineral medium, the new isolates formed 7.6 g of cell dry mass per mol of Fe(II) oxidized, which is in good agreement with a photoautotrophic utilization of ferrous iron as electron donor for CO2 fixation. Dependence of ferrous iron oxidation on light and CO2 was also demonstrated in dense cell suspensions. In media containing both ferrous iron and an organic substrate (e.g., acetate, glucose), strain L7 utilized ferrous iron and the organic compound simultaneously; in contrast, strain SW2 started to oxidize ferrous iron only after consumption of the organic electron donor. Ferrous iron oxidation by anoxygenic phototrophs is understandable in terms of energetics. In contrast to the Fe3+/Fe2+ pair (E0 = +0.77 V) existing in acidic solutions, the relevant redox pair at pH 7 in bicarbonate-containing environments, Fe(OH)3 + HCO3-/FeCO3, has an E0' of +0.2 V. Ferrous iron at pH 7 can therefore donate electrons to the photosystem of anoxygenic phototrophs, which in purple bacteria has a midpoint potential around +0.45 V. The existence of ferrous iron-oxidizing anoxygenic phototrophs may offer an explanation for the deposition of early banded-iron formations in an assumed anoxic biosphere in Archean times. Images

Ehrenreich, A; Widdel, F

1994-01-01

263

One carbon metabolism in anaerobic bacteria: organic acid and methane production. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

Organic acids (i.e acetate and butyrate) and methane are respectively important as a chemical commodity and a fuel source for industry. Both of these products can be generated via bacterial fermentation of single carbon compounds (i.e, H/sub 2//CO/sub 2/, HCOOH, CO CH/sub 3/OH) derived from syngas or the pyrolysis of either coals-peats or renewable biomass. This research aims to understand the pathways and regulation of one carbon metabolism in acidogenic and methanogenic bacteria by detailed physiological and biochemical studies. These investigations will characterize and compare formate, methanol, H/sub 2//CO/sub 2/, CO, and acetate metabolism of Methanosarcina barkeri with that of Butyribacterium methylotrophicum. The research will focus on: elucidation of the function of formate dehydrogenase and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase; the catabolic routes and biochemical mechanisms for transformation of single carbon compounds and acetate; and, the regulation of single carbon metabolism during growth on multiple C/sub 1/ substrates or on multicarbon substrates. 8 refs.

Zeikus, J.G.

1985-01-01

264

Anaerobic degradation of methylmercaptan and dimethyl sulfide by newly isolated thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The complete oxidation of methylmercaptan (MSH) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) with sulfate or nitrate as electron acceptors was observed in enrichment cultures and dilution series using thermophilic fermentor sludge as the inoculum. Three new strains of thermophilic sulfate reducers were isolated in pure culture (strains MTS5, TDS2, and SDN4). Strain MTS5 grew on MSH and strain TDS2 grew on DMS whereas strain SDN4 grew on either MSH or DMS. The cellular growth yields were 2.57 g (dry weight)/mol of MSH for strain MTS5 and 6.02 g (dry weight)/mol of DMS for strain TDS2. All strains used sulfate, sulfite, or thiosulfate as electron acceptors, but only strain SDN4 used nitrate. DMS and MSH were oxidized to CO2 and sulfide with either sulfate or nitrate as the electron acceptor. Sulfate was stoichiometrically reduced to sulfide while nitrate was reduced to ammonium. All strains were motile rods, required biotin for growth, lacked desulfoviridin, had DNA with G+C contents of 48 to 57 mol% and probably belonged to the genus Desulfotomaculum. This is the first report of the oxidation of MSH and DMS by pure cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Images

Tanimoto, Y; Bak, F

1994-01-01

265

Novel chemolithotrophic, thermophilic, anaerobic bacteria Thermolithobacter ferrireducens gen. nov., sp. nov. and Thermolithobacter carboxydivorans sp. nov.  

PubMed

Three thermophilic strains of chemolithoautotrophic Fe(III)-reducers were isolated from mixed sediment and water samples (JW/KA-1 and JW/KA-2(T): Calcite Spring, Yellowstone N.P., WY, USA; JW/JH-Fiji-2: Savusavu, Vanu Levu, Fiji). All were Gram stain positive rods (approximately 0.5 x 1.8 microm). Cells occurred singly or in V-shaped pairs, and they formed long chains in complex media. All utilized H(2) to reduce amorphous iron (III) oxide/hydroxide to magnetite at temperatures from 50 to 75 degrees C (opt. approximately 73 degrees C). Growth occurred within the pH(60C) range of 6.5-8.5 (opt. pH(60C) 7.1-7.3). Magnetite production by resting cells occurred at pH(60C) 5.5-10.3 (opt. 7.3). The iron (III) reduction rate was 1.3 mumol Fe(II) produced x h(-1) x ml(-1) in a culture with 3 x 10(7) cells, one of the highest rates reported. In the presence or absence of H(2), JW/KA-2(T) did not utilize CO. The G + C content of the genomic DNA of the type strain is 52.7 +/- 0.3 mol%. Strains JW/KA-1 and JW/KA-2(T) each contain two different 16S rRNA gene sequences. The 16S rRNA gene sequences from JW/KA-1, JW/KA-2(T), or JW/JH-Fiji-2 possessed >99% similarity to each other but also 99% similarity to the 16S rRNA gene sequence from the anaerobic, thermophilic, hydrogenogenic CO-oxidizing bacterium 'Carboxydothermus restrictus' R1. DNA-DNA hybridization between strain JW/KA-2(T) and strain R1(T) yielded 35% similarity. Physiological characteristics and the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the strains represent two novel species and are placed into the novel genus Thermolithobacter within the phylum 'Firmicutes'. In addition, the levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the lineage containing the Thermolithobacter and well-established members of the three existing classes of the 'Firmicutes' is less than 85%. Therefore, Thermolithobacter is proposed to constitute the first genus within a novel class of the 'Firmicutes', Thermolithobacteria. The Fe(III)-reducing Thermolithobacter ferrireducens gen. nov., sp. nov. is designated as the type species with strain JW/KA-2(T) (ATCC 700985(T), DSM 13639(T)) as its type strain. Strain R1(T) is the type strain for the hydrogenogenic, CO-oxidizing Thermolithobacter carboxydivorans sp. nov. (DSM 7242(T), VKM 2359(T)). PMID:17021657

Sokolova, T; Hanel, J; Onyenwoke, R U; Reysenbach, A-L; Banta, A; Geyer, R; González, J M; Whitman, W B; Wiegel, J

2007-01-01

266

Pathogenicity of anaerobic gram-positive cocci.  

PubMed Central

The pathogenicity of 20 strains of facultative or anaerobic gram-positive cocci (AGPC) was investigated by injecting them alone or mixed with other flora into mice, utilizing the subcutaneous abscess model. Abscesses induced by a mixture of two organisms were uniformly larger than those induced by single organisms. The relationships among seven AGPC strains, eight aerobes, and two Bacteroides spp. were determined by treating the infected animals with antibiotics and observing the effect of therapy directed against one or both organisms present in the abscess. A total of 70 different combinations were tested. As judged by their responses to antimicrobial therapy, facultative cocci or AGPC were relatively more important than the other species in 6 combinations, equally important in 35 combinations, and less important in 29 combinations. The AGPC most often found to be equal to or more important than the other bacteria were Peptococcus magnus, Streptococcus constellatus, and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius. Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus were frequently found to be of more importance than the AGPC.

Brook, I; Walker, R I

1984-01-01

267

Anaerobic Consumers of Monosaccharides in a Moderately Acidic Fen? †  

PubMed Central

16S rRNA-based stable isotope probing identified active xylose- and glucose-fermenting Bacteria and active Archaea, including methanogens, in anoxic slurries of material obtained from a moderately acidic, CH4-emitting fen. Xylose and glucose were converted to fatty acids, CO2, H2, and CH4 under moderately acidic, anoxic conditions, indicating that the fen harbors moderately acid-tolerant xylose- and glucose-using fermenters, as well as moderately acid-tolerant methanogens. Organisms of the families Acidaminococcaceae, Aeromonadaceae, Clostridiaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Pseudomonadaceae and the order Actinomycetales, including hitherto unknown organisms, utilized xylose- or glucose-derived carbon, suggesting that highly diverse facultative aerobes and obligate anaerobes contribute to the flow of carbon in the fen under anoxic conditions. Uncultured Euryarchaeota (i.e., Methanosarcinaceae and Methanobacteriaceae) and Crenarchaeota species were identified by 16S rRNA analysis of anoxic slurries, demonstrating that the acidic fen harbors novel methanogens and Crenarchaeota organisms capable of anaerobiosis. Fermentation-derived molecules are conceived to be the primary drivers of methanogenesis when electron acceptors other than CO2 are absent, and the collective findings of this study indicate that fen soils harbor diverse, acid-tolerant, and novel xylose-utilizing as well as glucose-utilizing facultative aerobes and obligate anaerobes that form trophic links to novel moderately acid-tolerant methanogens.

Hamberger, Alexandra; Horn, Marcus A.; Dumont, Marc G.; Murrell, J. Colin; Drake, Harold L.

2008-01-01

268

Thermotoga profunda sp. nov. and Thermotoga caldifontis sp. nov., anaerobic thermophilic bacteria isolated from terrestrial hot springs.  

PubMed

Two thermophilic, strictly anaerobic, Gram-negative bacteria, designated strains AZM34c06(T) and AZM44c09(T), were isolated from terrestrial hot springs in Japan. The optimum growth conditions for strain AZM34c06(T) were 60 °C, pH 7.4 and 0?% additional NaCl, and those for strain AZM44c09(T) were 70 °C, pH 7.4 and 0?% additional NaCl. Complete genome sequencing was performed for both strains, revealing genome sizes of 2.19 Mbp (AZM34c06(T)) and 2.01 Mbp (AZM44c09(T)). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and the concatenated predicted amino acid sequences of 33 ribosomal proteins showed that both strains belonged to the genus Thermotoga. The closest relatives of strains AZM34c06(T) and AZM44c09(T) were the type strains of Thermotoga lettingae (96.0?% similarity based on the 16S rRNA gene and 84.1?% similarity based on ribosomal proteins) and Thermotoga hypogea (98.6 and 92.7?% similarity), respectively. Using blast, the average nucleotide identity was 70.4-70.5?% when comparing strain AZM34c06(T) and T. lettingae TMO(T) and 76.6?% when comparing strain AZM44c09(T) and T. hypogea NBRC 106472(T). Both values are far below the 95?% threshold value for species delineation. In view of these data, we propose the inclusion of the two isolates in the genus Thermotoga within two novel species, Thermotoga profunda sp. nov. (type strain AZM34c06(T)?=?NBRC 106115(T)?=?DSM 23275(T)) and Thermotoga caldifontis sp. nov. (type strain AZM44c09(T)?=?NBRC 106116(T)?=?DSM 23272(T)). PMID:24676729

Mori, Koji; Yamazoe, Atsushi; Hosoyama, Akira; Ohji, Shoko; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Ishibashi, Jun-Ichiro; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Ken-Ichiro

2014-06-01

269

Anaerobic mineralization of quaternary carbon atoms: isolation of denitrifying bacteria on pivalic acid (2,2-dimethylpropionic acid).  

PubMed

The degradability of pivalic acid was established by the isolation of several facultative denitrifying strains belonging to Zoogloea resiniphila, to Thauera and Herbaspirillum, and to Comamonadaceae, related to [Aquaspirillum] and Acidovorax, and of a nitrate-reducing bacterium affiliated with Moraxella osloensis. Pivalic acid was completely mineralized to carbon dioxide. The catabolic pathways may involve an oxidation to dimethylmalonate or a carbon skeleton rearrangement, a putative 2,2-dimethylpropionyl coenzyme A mutase. PMID:12620885

Probian, Christina; Wülfing, Annika; Harder, Jens

2003-03-01

270

Oral administration of antigens from intestinal flora anaerobic bacteria reduces the severity of experimental acute colitis in BALB/c mice.  

PubMed

Homeostasis between indigenous intestinal flora and host response may be broken in inflammatory bowel disease. The present study explores whether repeated oral administration of intestinal flora antigens can protect mice against dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis. Sonicates of Gram-positive, Gram-negative, or anaerobic resident bacteria isolated from mouse intestinal flora were fed to BALB/c mice by gastric gavage, with or without cholera toxin. After four weekly doses of 1 mg of these antigen preparations (or of PBS as control), DSS colitis was induced. One week later colitis was evaluated by clinical scores and histology. Mice fed a pool of the three sonicates had decreased inflammation scores (5 (1-14); median (range)) compared with PBS-fed control animals (15 (7-19); P < 0.05). Decreased inflammation was observed in mice fed anaerobic bacteria antigens (7 (6-11); P < 0.05 versus control), but not in mice fed a pool of Gram-positive and -negative sonicates (16 (12-16)). Inflammation scores of mice fed antigens with cholera toxin were similar to those of PBS-fed control animals. DSS-induced colitis can be suppressed by oral administration of normal intestinal flora antigens containing anaerobes. PMID:10759762

Verdù, E F; Bercik, P; Cukrowska, B; Farre-Castany, M A; Bouzourene, H; Saraga, E; Blum, A L; Corthésy-Theulaz, I; Tlaskalova-Hogenova, H; Michetti, P

2000-04-01

271

Anaerofilum pentosovorans gen. ~ov., sp. nov., and Anaerofilum agile sp. ~ov., Two New, Strictly Anaerobic, Mesophilic, Acidogenic Bacteria from Anaerobic Bioreactors?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strictly anaerobic, gram-positive, nonsporing, thin rod-shaped organisms whose cells were 0.2 to 0.6 by 3 to 6 pm were isolated from a Hoechst Biohochreaktor (strain FaeT (T = type strain)) and from the biofilm population of a fixed-film reactor treating sour whey (strain FT). Strain FT was vigorously motile during early logarithmic growth by means of peritrichously inserted flagella, while

GERHARD ZELLNER; ERKO STACKEBRANDT; DAGMAR NAGEL; PAUL MESSNER; NORBERT WEISS

272

Evaluation of the in vitro activity of ertapenem and nine other comparator agents against 337 anaerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ertapenem activity in vitro was compared with that of nine reference antibiotics against 337 anaerobes by determining minimal inhibition concentrations (MICs). Amongst 246 Gram-negative anaerobes, 4, 8, 3, 4, 7, 2 and 52 strains showed resistance to ertapenem, amoxicillin\\/clavulanic acid, ticarcillin\\/clavulanic acid, piperacillin\\/tazobactam, cefoxitin, imipenem and clindamycin, respectively, and all strains were inhibited by metronidazole. Ertapenem MIC50 values were 0.5,

J. Behra-Miellet; L. Dubreuil; L. Calvet

2006-01-01

273

Ecophysiological adaptations of anaerobic bacteria to low pH: analysis of anaerobic digestion in acidic bog sediments. [Lactobacillus; Clostridium; Sarcina ventriculi  

SciTech Connect

The dynamics of anaerobic digestion were examined in the low-pH sediments of Crystal Bog in Wisconsin. The sediments (pH 4.9) contained 71% organic matter and the following concentrations of dissolved gases (micromoles per liter):CO/sub 2/, 1140; CH/sub 4/, 490; and H/sub 2/, 0.01. The rate of methane production was 6.2 ..mu..mol/liter of sediment per h, which is slower than eutrophic, neutral sediments. Microbial metabolic processes displayed the following pH optima: hydrolysis reactions, between 4.2 and 5.6; aceticlastic methanogenesis, 5.2; and hydrogen-consuming reactions, 5.6. The turnover rate constants for key intermediary metabolites were (h/sup -1/): glucose, 1.10; lactate, 0.277; acetate, 0.118; and ethanol, 0.089. The populations of anaerobes were low, with hydrolytic groups (10/sup 6//ml) several orders of magnitude higher than methanogens (10/sup 2//ml). The addition of carbon electron donors to the sediment resulted in the accumulation of hydrogen, whereas the addition of hydrogen resulted in the accumulation of fatty acids and the inhibition of hydrogen-producing acetogenic reactions. Strains of Lactobacillus, Clostridium, and Sarcina ventriculi were isolated from the bog, and their physiological attributes were characterized in relation to hydrolytic process functions in the sediments. The present studies provide evidence that the pH present in the bog sediments alter anaerobic digestion processes s, that total biocatalytic activity is lower bu the general carbon and electron flow pathways are similar to those of neutral anoxic sediments.

Goodwin, S.; Zeikus, G.J.

1987-01-01

274

Linking ultrastructure and function in four genera of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria: cell plan, glycogen storage, and localization of cytochrome C proteins.  

PubMed

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is an ecologically and industrially important process and is performed by a clade of deeply branching Planctomycetes. Anammox bacteria possess an intracytoplasmic membrane-bounded organelle, the anammoxosome. In the present study, the ultrastructures of four different genera of anammox bacteria were compared with transmission electron microscopy and electron tomography. The four anammox genera shared a common cell plan and contained glycogen granules. Differences between the four genera included cell size (from 800 to 1,100 nm in diameter), presence or absence of cytoplasmic particles, and presence or absence of pilus-like appendages. Furthermore, cytochrome c proteins were detected exclusively inside the anammoxosome. This detection provides further support for the hypothesis that this organelle is the locus of anammox catabolism. PMID:17993524

van Niftrik, Laura; Geerts, Willie J C; van Donselaar, Elly G; Humbel, Bruno M; Webb, Richard I; Fuerst, John A; Verkleij, Arie J; Jetten, Mike S M; Strous, Marc

2008-01-01

275

Linking Ultrastructure and Function in Four Genera of Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria: Cell Plan, Glycogen Storage, and Localization of Cytochrome c Proteins?  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is an ecologically and industrially important process and is performed by a clade of deeply branching Planctomycetes. Anammox bacteria possess an intracytoplasmic membrane-bounded organelle, the anammoxosome. In the present study, the ultrastructures of four different genera of anammox bacteria were compared with transmission electron microscopy and electron tomography. The four anammox genera shared a common cell plan and contained glycogen granules. Differences between the four genera included cell size (from 800 to 1,100 nm in diameter), presence or absence of cytoplasmic particles, and presence or absence of pilus-like appendages. Furthermore, cytochrome c proteins were detected exclusively inside the anammoxosome. This detection provides further support for the hypothesis that this organelle is the locus of anammox catabolism.

van Niftrik, Laura; Geerts, Willie J. C.; van Donselaar, Elly G.; Humbel, Bruno M.; Webb, Richard I.; Fuerst, John A.; Verkleij, Arie J.; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Strous, Marc

2008-01-01

276

Ceftaroline plus Avibactam Demonstrates Bactericidal Activity against Pathogenic Anaerobic Bacteria in a One-Compartment In Vitro Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic pathogens are often associated with polymicrobial infections, such as diabetic foot infections. Patients with these infections are often treated with broad-spectrum, multidrug therapies targeting resistant Gram-positive bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, as well as Gram-negative bacteria and anaerobes. The broad-spectrum, non-beta-lactam, beta-lactamase inhibitor avibactam has been combined with ceftaroline and may provide a single-product alternative for complicated polymicrobial infections. We compared the activity of ceftaroline-avibactam (CPA) to that of ertapenem (ERT) against common anaerobic pathogens in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model. Simulations of doses of ceftaroline-fosamil at 600 mg every 8 h (q8h) (maximum free drug concentration [fCmax], 17.04 mg/liter, and half-life [t1/2], 2.66 h) plus avibactam at 600 mg q8h (fCmax, 11.72 mg/liter, and t1/2, 1.8 h) and of ertapenem at 1 g q24h (fCmax, 13 mg/liter, and t1/2, 4 h) were evaluated against two strains of Bacteroides fragilis, one strain of Prevotella bivia, and one strain of Finegoldia magna in an anaerobic one-compartment in vitro PK/PD model over 72 h with a starting inoculum of ?8 log10 CFU/ml. Bactericidal activity was defined as a reduction of ?3 log10 CFU/ml from the starting inoculum. Both CPA and ERT were bactericidal against all four strains. CPA demonstrated improved activity against Bacteroides strains compared to that of ERT but had similar activity against Finegoldia magna and P. bivia, although modest regrowth was observed with CPA against P. bivia. No resistance emerged from any of the models. The pharmacokinetics achieved were 92 to 105% of the targets. CPA has potent in vitro activity against common anaerobic pathogens at clinically relevant drug exposures and may be a suitable single product for the management of complicated polymicrobial infections.

Werth, Brian J.

2014-01-01

277

Ceftaroline plus avibactam demonstrates bactericidal activity against pathogenic anaerobic bacteria in a one-compartment in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model.  

PubMed

Anaerobic pathogens are often associated with polymicrobial infections, such as diabetic foot infections. Patients with these infections are often treated with broad-spectrum, multidrug therapies targeting resistant Gram-positive bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, as well as Gram-negative bacteria and anaerobes. The broad-spectrum, non-beta-lactam, beta-lactamase inhibitor avibactam has been combined with ceftaroline and may provide a single-product alternative for complicated polymicrobial infections. We compared the activity of ceftaroline-avibactam (CPA) to that of ertapenem (ERT) against common anaerobic pathogens in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model. Simulations of doses of ceftaroline-fosamil at 600 mg every 8 h (q8h) (maximum free drug concentration [fCmax], 17.04 mg/liter, and half-life [t1/2], 2.66 h) plus avibactam at 600 mg q8h (fCmax, 11.72 mg/liter, and t1/2, 1.8 h) and of ertapenem at 1 g q24h (fCmax, 13 mg/liter, and t1/2, 4 h) were evaluated against two strains of Bacteroides fragilis, one strain of Prevotella bivia, and one strain of Finegoldia magna in an anaerobic one-compartment in vitro PK/PD model over 72 h with a starting inoculum of ?8 log10 CFU/ml. Bactericidal activity was defined as a reduction of ?3 log10 CFU/ml from the starting inoculum. Both CPA and ERT were bactericidal against all four strains. CPA demonstrated improved activity against Bacteroides strains compared to that of ERT but had similar activity against Finegoldia magna and P. bivia, although modest regrowth was observed with CPA against P. bivia. No resistance emerged from any of the models. The pharmacokinetics achieved were 92 to 105% of the targets. CPA has potent in vitro activity against common anaerobic pathogens at clinically relevant drug exposures and may be a suitable single product for the management of complicated polymicrobial infections. PMID:24217692

Werth, Brian J; Rybak, Michael J

2014-01-01

278

Bone and joint infections due to anaerobic bacteria: an analysis of 61 cases and review of the literature.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of anaerobic bone and joint infections (BJI) were underestimated before the advent of molecular identification and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). We report 61 cases of anaerobic infections based on our 4-year experience with the management of BJI. A total of 75 % of cases were post-surgical infections, associated with osteosynthesis devices (65 %). Early infections occurred in 27 % of cases, delayed infections in 17.5 % of cases, and late infections in 55 % of cases. We recorded 36 species of 93 anaerobic strains using MALDI-TOF MS (91) and molecular methods (2). We identified 20 strains of Propionibacterium acnes, 13 of Finegoldia magna, six of Peptoniphilus asaccharolyticus, and six of P. harei. Polymicrobial infections occurred in 50 cases. Surgical treatment was performed in 93.5 % of cases. The antibiotic treatments included amoxicillin (30 %), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (16 %), metronidazole (30 %), and clindamycin (26 %). Hyperbaric oxygen therapy was used in 17 cases (28 %). The relapse rate (27 %) was associated with lower limbs localization (p?=?0.001). P. acnes BJI was associated with shoulder (p?=?0.019), vertebra (p?=?0.021), and head flap localization (p?=?0.011), and none of these cases relapsed (p?=?0.007). F. magna BJI was associated with ankle localization (p?=?0.014). Anaerobic BJI is typically considered as a post-surgical polymicrobial infection, and the management of this infection combines surgical and medical treatments. MALDI-TOF MS and molecular identification have improved diagnosis. Thus, physicians should be aware of the polymicrobial nature of anaerobic BJI to establish immediate broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment during the post-surgical period until accurate microbiological results have been obtained. PMID:24577953

Walter, G; Vernier, M; Pinelli, P O; Million, M; Coulange, M; Seng, P; Stein, A

2014-08-01

279

Worldwide populations of the aphid Aphis craccivora are infected with diverse facultative bacterial symbionts.  

PubMed

Facultative bacterial endosymbionts can play an important role in the evolutionary trajectory of their hosts. Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are infected with a wide variety of facultative endosymbionts that can confer ecologically relevant traits, which in turn may drive microevolutionary processes in a dynamic selective environment. However, relatively little is known about how symbiont diversity is structured in most aphid species. Here, we investigate facultative symbiont species richness and prevalence among world-wide populations of the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch. We surveyed 44 populations of A. craccivora, and detected 11 strains of facultative symbiotic bacteria, representing six genera. There were two significant associations between facultative symbiont and aphid food plant: the symbiont Arsenophonus was found at high prevalence in A. craccivora populations collected from Robinia sp. (locust), whereas the symbiont Hamiltonella was almost exclusively found in A. craccivora populations from Medicago sativa (alfalfa). Aphids collected from these two food plants also had divergent mitochondrial haplotypes, potentially indicating the formation of specialized aphid lineages associated with food plant (host-associated differentiation). The role of facultative symbionts in this process remains to be determined. Overall, observed facultative symbiont prevalence in A. craccivora was lower than that of some other well-studied aphids (e.g., Aphis fabae and Acyrthosiphon pisum), possibly as a consequence of A. craccivora's almost purely parthenogenetic life history. Finally, most (70 %) of the surveyed populations were polymorphic for facultative symbiont infection, indicating that even when symbiont prevalence is relatively low, symbiont-associated phenotypic variation may allow population-level evolutionary responses to local selection. PMID:24233285

Brady, Cristina M; Asplen, Mark K; Desneux, Nicolas; Heimpel, George E; Hopper, Keith R; Linnen, Catherine R; Oliver, Kerry M; Wulff, Jason A; White, Jennifer A

2014-01-01

280

A newly designed degenerate PCR primer based on pmoA gene for detection of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria from different ecological niches.  

PubMed

A new pmoA gene-based PCR primer set was designed for detection of nitrite-dependent anaerobic oxidation of methane (n-damo) bacteria from four different ecosystems, namely rice paddy soil, freshwater reservoir, reed bed, and sludge from wastewater treatment plant. This primer set showed high specificity and efficiency in recovering n-damo bacteria from these diverse samples. The obtained sequences showed 88-94 and 90-96% similarity to nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively, with the known NC10 phylum bacterium. According to the UniFrac principal coordinates analysis (PCoA), DNA sequences retrieved by the new PCR primer set in this study formed a separate group from the reported sequences, indicating higher diversity of n-damo in the environment. This newly designed PCR primer is capable of amplifying not only the currently known n-damo bacteria but also those that have not been reported, providing new information on the ecological diversity and distribution of this group of microorganisms in the ecosystem. PMID:24201910

Han, Ping; Gu, Ji-Dong

2013-12-01

281

Influence of decontamination on induction of arthritis in Lewis rats by cell wall fragments of Eubacterium aerofaciens. Arthropathic properties of indigenous anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Although the cause (or causes) of rheumatoid arthritis is unknown, many workers have suggested that microorganisms play a part. The intestinal flora in particular has been related to the development of joint inflammation. It has been shown previously that cell wall fragments of several anaerobic Gram positive intestinal bacteria of human origin are arthritogenic after a single intraperitoneal injection in Lewis rats. The part played by indigenous microflora in this model has now been studied by decontaminating Lewis rats before the injection of Eubacterium aerofaciens cell wall fragments. The pattern and severity of arthritis appeared to be comparable in decontaminated and control rats. The second goal of this work was to isolate arthritogenic bacteria from the autochthonous intestinal flora of rats. Only a limited number of bacteria showing a resemblance to arthritogenic strains from human intestinal flora (i.e. E aerofaciens and Bifidobacterium adolescentis) could be isolated. These strains did not induce chronic arthritis after intraperitoneal injection. This may explain why spontaneous arthritis did not develop in Lewis rats. Images

Kool, J; Severijnen, A J; Klasen, I S; Gerrits-Boeye, M Y; Hazenberg, M P

1992-01-01

282

Metabolic versatility of toluene-degrading, iron-reducing bacteria in tidal flat sediment, characterized by stable isotope probing-based metagenomic analysis.  

PubMed

DNA stable isotope probing and metagenomic sequencing were used to assess the metabolic potential of iron-reducing bacteria involved in anaerobic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation in oil spill-affected tidal flats. In a microcosm experiment, (13) C-toluene was degraded with the simultaneous reduction of Fe(III)-NTA, which was also verified by quasi-stoichiometric (13) C-CO2 release. The metabolic potential of the dominant member affiliated with the genus Desulfuromonas in the heavy DNA fraction was inferred using assembled scaffolds (designated TF genome, 4.40 Mbp with 58.8 GC mol%), which were obtained by Illumina sequencing. The gene clusters with peripheral pathways for toluene and benzoate conversion possessed the features of strict and facultative anaerobes. In addition to the class II-type benzoyl-CoA reductase (Bam) of strict anaerobes, the class I-type (Bcr) of facultative anaerobes was encoded. Genes related to the utilization of various anaerobic electron acceptors, including iron, nitrate (to ammonia), sulfur and fumarate, were identified. Furthermore, genes encoding terminal oxidases (caa3 , cbb3 and bd) and a diverse array of genes for oxidative stress responses were detected in the TF genome. This metabolic versatility may be an adaptation to the fluctuating availability of electron acceptors and donors in tidal flats. PMID:24118987

Kim, So-Jeong; Park, Soo-Je; Cha, In-Tae; Min, Deullae; Kim, Jin-Seog; Chung, Won-Hyung; Chae, Jong-Chan; Jeon, Che Ok; Rhee, Sung-Keun

2014-01-01

283

Anaerobic Co-Culture of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Anaerobic Pathogens - A New In Vitro Model System  

PubMed Central

Background Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are multipotent by nature and are originally isolated from bone marrow. In light of a future application of hMSCs in the oral cavity, a body compartment with varying oxygen partial pressures and an omnipresence of different bacterial species i.e. periodontitis pathogens, we performed this study to gain information about the behavior of hMSC in an anaerobic system and the response in interaction with oral bacterial pathogens. Methodology/Principal Findings We established a model system with oral pathogenic bacterial species and eukaryotic cells cultured in anaerobic conditions. The facultative anaerobe bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were studied. Their effects on hMSCs and primary as well as permanent gingival epithelial cells (Ca9-22, HGPEC) were comparatively analyzed. We show that hMSCs cope with anoxic conditions, since 40% vital cells remain after 72 h of anaerobic culture. The Ca9-22 and HGPEC cells are significantly more sensitive to lack of oxygen. All bacterial species reveal a comparatively low adherence to and internalization into hMSCs (0.2% and 0.01% of the initial inoculum, respectively). In comparison, the Ca9-22 and HGPEC cells present better targets for bacterial adherence and internalization. The production of the pro-inflammatory chemokine IL-8 is higher in both gingival epithelial cell lines compared to hMSCs and Fusobacterium nucleatum induce a time-dependent cytokine secretion in both cell lines. Porphyromonas gingivalis is less effective in stimulating secretion of IL-8 in the co-cultivation experiments. Conclusions/significance HMSCs are suitable for use in anoxic regions of the oral cavity. The interaction with local pathogenic bacteria does not result in massive pro-inflammatory cytokine responses. The test system established in this study allowed further investigation of parameters prior to set up of oral hMSC in vivo studies.

Kriebel, Katja; Biedermann, Anne; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Lang, Hermann

2013-01-01

284

Purification of NADPH-dependent electron-transferring flavoproteins and N-terminal protein sequence data of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenases from anaerobic, glycine-utilizing bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Three electron-transferring flavoproteins were purified to homogeneity from anaerobic, amino acid-utilizing bacteria (bacterium W6, Clostridium sporogenes, and Clostridium sticklandii), characterized, and compared with the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase of Eubacterium acidaminophilum. All the proteins were found to be dimers consisting of two identical subunits with a subunit Mr of about 35,000 and to contain about 1 mol of flavin adenine dinucleotide per subunit. Spectra of the oxidized proteins exhibited characteristic absorption of flavoproteins, and the reduced proteins showed an A580 indicating a neutral semiquinone. Many artificial electron acceptors, including methyl viologen, could be used with NADPH as the electron donor but not with NADH. Unlike the enzyme of E. acidaminophilum, which exhibited by itself a dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase activity (W. Freudenberg, D. Dietrichs, H. Lebertz, and J. R. Andreesen, J. Bacteriol. 171:1346-1354, 1989), the electron-transferring flavoprotein purified from bacterium W6 reacted with lipoamide only under certain assay conditions, whereas the proteins of C. sporogenes and C. sticklandii exhibited no dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase activity. The three homogeneous electron-transferring flavoproteins were very similar in their structural and biochemical properties to the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase of E. acidaminophilum and exhibited cross-reaction with antibodies raised against the latter enzyme. N-terminal sequence analysis demonstrated a high degree of homology between the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase of E. acidaminophilum and the electron-transferring flavoprotein of C. sporogenes to the thioredoxin reductase of Escherichia coli. Unlike these proteins, the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenases purified from the anaerobic, glycine-utilizing bacteria Peptostreptococcus glycinophilus, Clostridium cylindrosporum, and C. sporogenes exhibited a high homology to dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenases known from other organisms.

Dietrichs, D; Meyer, M; Schmidt, B; Andreesen, J R

1990-01-01

285

REDUCTION AND IMMOBILIZATION OF RADIONUCLIDES AND TOXIC METAL IONS USING COMBINED ZERO VALENT IRON AND ANAEROBIC BACTERIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Large groundwater plumes contaminated with toxic metal ions, including radionuclides, exist at several DOE facilities. Previous research indicated that both zero valent iron and sulfate reducing bacteria can yield significant decreases in concentrations of redox sensitive metals ...

286

Role of Encapsulation in the Pathogenesis of Anaerobic Gram-Positive Cocci.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The pathogenicity of 22 anaerobic and facultative Gram-positive cocci (AFGPC) was investigated by inoculating then into mice and determining their ability to cause subcutaneous abscesses. Only 11 heavily encapsulated isolates (> 50% of the cells were enca...

I. Brook R. I. Walker

1985-01-01

287

Facultative autotrophic denitrifiers in denitrifying sulfide removal granules.  

PubMed

The denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) process applied autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrification pathways to achieve simultaneous conversion of nitrate to N, sulfide to elementary sulfur, and organic substances to CO. However, autotrophic denitrifiers and heterotrophic denitrifiers have to grow at comparable rates so the long-term DSR stability can be maintained. This work assessed the autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrification activities by 16 isolates from anaerobic granules collected from a DSR-expanded granular sludge bed reactor. A group of strains with closest relatives as Pseudomonas sp. (89.9-98.3% similarity), Agrobacterium sp. (94.6% similarity) and Acinetobacter sp. (96.6% similarity) were identified with both autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrification capabilities. These facultative autotrophic denitrifiers can be applied as potential strains for lifting the limitation by balanced growth of two distinct bacterial groups in the DSR reactor. PMID:23265816

Lee, Duu-Jong; Pan, Xiangliang; Wang, Aijie; Ho, Kuo-Lin

2013-03-01

288

Occurrence of facultative anoxygenic photosynthesis among filamentous and unicellular cyanobacteria.  

PubMed Central

Eleven of 21 cyanobacteria strains examined are capable of facultative anoxygenic photosynthesis, as shown by their ability to photoassimilate CO2 in the presence of Na2S, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea and 703-nm light. These include different cyanobacterial types (filamentous and unicellular) of different growth histories (aerobic, anaerobic, and marine and freshwater). Oscillatoria limnetica, Aphanothece halophytica (7418), and Lyngbya (7104) have different optimal concentrations of Na2S permitting CO2 photoassimilation, above which the rate decreases: 3.5, 0.7, and 0.1 mM, respectively. In A. halophytica, for each CO2 molecule photoassimilated two sulfide molecules are oxidized to elemental sulfur, which is excreted from the cells.The ecological and evolutionary significance of anoxygenic photosynthesis in the cyanobacteria is discussed.

Garlick, S; Oren, A; Padan, E

1977-01-01

289

[Observations of characteristics of the mechanisms of biological oxidation of cell wall-deficient bacteria].  

PubMed

The L-forms were induced from Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus by beta-lactam antibiotics and then observations on the properties of oxygen requirement, sugar fermentation and sensitive to cyanide of the L-forms were done. The results were shown that the L-forms derived from the obligate aerobe or the facultative anaerobe did not ferment sugars and were highly oxygen-dependent and more sensitive to cyanide than their parent bacteria. The metabolic activities which were same as the parent bacteria of the L-forms would return after the L-forms reverted to the typical bacteria forms. It was possible that the changes of biological oxidation mechanism were due to the deficiency of the cell wall which led to loss of the periplasmic space or the membrane-wall interlayer so that the enzymes for fermentation existed in the space could not be hold. PMID:12549407

Wang, H; Cheng, Z

1998-10-01

290

The predominant bacteria isolated from radicular cysts  

PubMed Central

Purpose To detect predominant bacteria associated with radicular cysts and discuss in light of the literature. Material and methods Clinical materials were obtained from 35 radicular cysts by aspiration. Cultures were made from clinical materials by modern laboratory techniques, they underwent microbiologic analysis. Results The following are microorganisms isolated from cultures: Streptococcus milleri Group (SMG) (23.8%) [Streptococcus constellatus (19.1%) and Streptococcus anginosus (4.7%)], Streptococcus sanguis (14.3%), Streptococcus mitis (4.7%), Streptococcus cremoris (4.7%), Peptostreptococcus pevotii (4.7%), Prevotella buccae (4.7%), Prevotella intermedia (4.7%), Actinomyces meyeri (4.7%), Actinomyces viscosus (4.7%), Propionibacterium propionicum (4.7%), Bacteroides capillosus (4.7%), Staphylococcus hominis (4.7%), Rothia denticariosa (4.7%), Gemella haemolysans (4.7%), and Fusobacterium nucleatum (4.7%). Conclusions Results of this study demonstrated that radicular cysts show a great variety of anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacterial flora. It was observed that all isolated microorganisms were the types commonly found in oral flora. Although no specific microorganism was found, Streptococcus spp. bacteria (47.5%) – especially SMG (23.8%) – were predominantly found in the microorganisms isolated. Furthermore, radicular cysts might be polymicrobial originated. Although radicular cyst is an inflammatory cyst, some radicular cyst fluids might be sterile.

2013-01-01

291

Evolution and Diversity of Facultative Symbionts from the Aphid Subfamily Lachninae? †  

PubMed Central

Many aphids harbor a variety of endosymbiotic bacteria. The functions of these symbionts can range from an obligate nutritional role to a facultative role in protecting their hosts against environmental stresses. One such symbiont is “Candidatus Serratia symbiotica,” which is involved in defense against heat and potentially also in aphid nutrition. Lachnid aphids have been the focus of several recent studies investigating the transition of this symbiont from a facultative symbiont to an obligate symbiont. In a phylogenetic analysis of Serratia symbionts from 51 lachnid hosts, we found that diversity in symbiont morphology, distribution, and function is due to multiple independent origins of symbiosis from ancestors belonging to Serratia and possibly also to evolution within distinct symbiont clades. Our results do not support cocladogenesis of “Ca. Serratia symbiotica” with Cinara subgenus Cinara species and weigh against an obligate nutritional role. Finally, we show that species belonging to the subfamily Lachninae have a high incidence of facultative symbiont infection.

Burke, Gaelen R.; Normark, Benjamin B.; Favret, Colin; Moran, Nancy A.

2009-01-01

292

Evolution and diversity of facultative symbionts from the aphid subfamily Lachninae.  

PubMed

Many aphids harbor a variety of endosymbiotic bacteria. The functions of these symbionts can range from an obligate nutritional role to a facultative role in protecting their hosts against environmental stresses. One such symbiont is "Candidatus Serratia symbiotica," which is involved in defense against heat and potentially also in aphid nutrition. Lachnid aphids have been the focus of several recent studies investigating the transition of this symbiont from a facultative symbiont to an obligate symbiont. In a phylogenetic analysis of Serratia symbionts from 51 lachnid hosts, we found that diversity in symbiont morphology, distribution, and function is due to multiple independent origins of symbiosis from ancestors belonging to Serratia and possibly also to evolution within distinct symbiont clades. Our results do not support cocladogenesis of "Ca. Serratia symbiotica" with Cinara subgenus Cinara species and weigh against an obligate nutritional role. Finally, we show that species belonging to the subfamily Lachninae have a high incidence of facultative symbiont infection. PMID:19542349

Burke, Gaelen R; Normark, Benjamin B; Favret, Colin; Moran, Nancy A

2009-08-01

293

Function and the biosynthesis of unusual corrinoids by a novel activation mechanism of aromatic compounds in anaerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A corrinoid screening of several phylogenetically diverse ``archaebacteria'' revealed vitamin B12-like corrinoids. This indicates an optimized structure and function relationship of the corrinoids under different bacterial growth conditions during the early evolution of live. Some of these corrinoids have been substituted by modified corrinoids in growing cells without affecting the generation times of the bacteria. In this respect, the discovery

E. Stupperich; H. J. Eisinger

1989-01-01

294

Diverse anaerobic Cr(VI) tolerant bacteria from Cr(VI)-contaminated 100H site at Hanford  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hexavalent Chromium [Cr(VI)] is a widespread contaminant found in soil, sediment, and ground water. Cr(VI) is more soluble, toxic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic compared to its reduced form Cr(III). In order to stimulate microbially mediated reduction of Cr(VI), a poly-lactate compound HRC was injected into the chromium contaminated aquifers at site 100H at Hanford. Based on the results of the bacterial community composition using high-density DNA microarray analysis of 16S rRNA gene products, we recently investigated the diversity of the dominant anaerobic culturable microbial population present at this site and their role in Cr(VI) reduction. Positive enrichments set up at 30°C using specific defined anaerobic media resulted in the isolation of an iron reducing isolate strain HAF, a sulfate reducing isolate strain HBLS and a nitrate reducing isolate, strain HLN among several others. Preliminary 16S rDNA sequence analysis identifies strain HAF as Geobacter metallireducens, strain HLN as Pseudomonas stutzeri and strain HBLS as a member of Desulfovibrio species. Strain HAF isolated with acetate as the electron donor utilized propionate, glycerol and pyruvate as alternative carbon sources, and reduced metals like Mn(IV) and Cr(VI). Growth was optimal at 37°C, pH of 6.5 and 0% salinity. Strain HLN isolated with lactate as electron donor utilized acetate, glycerol and pyruvate as alternative carbon sources, and reduced metals like Mn(IV) and Cr(VI). Optimal growth was observed at 37°C, at a pH of 7.5 and 0.3% salinity. Anaerobic active washed cell suspension of strain HLN reduced almost 95 micromolar Cr(VI) within 4 hours relative to controls. Further, with 100 micromolar Cr(VI) as the sole electron acceptor, cells of strain HLN grew to cell numbers of 4.05X 107/ml over a period of 24hrs after an initial lag, demonstrating direct enzymatic Cr(VI) reduction by this species. 10mM lactate served as the sole electron donor. These results demonstrate that Cr(VI) immobilization at the Hanford 100H site could be mediated by direct microbial metabolism apart from indirect chemical reduction of Cr(VI) by end products of microbial activity.

Chakraborty, R.; Phan, R.; Lam, S.; Leung, C.; Brodie, E. L.; Hazen, T. C.

2007-12-01

295

Anaerobic and aerobic degradation of cyanophycin by the denitrifying bacterium Pseudomonas alcaligenes strain DIP1 and role of three other coisolates in a mixed bacterial consortium.  

PubMed

Four bacterial strains were isolated from a cyanophycin granule polypeptide (CGP)-degrading anaerobic consortium, identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and assigned to species of the genera Pseudomonas, Enterococcus, Clostridium, and Paenibacillus. The consortium member responsible for CGP degradation was assigned as Pseudomonas alcaligenes strain DIP1. The growth of and CGP degradation by strain DIP1 under anaerobic conditions were enhanced but not dependent on the presence of nitrate as an electron acceptor. CGP was hydrolyzed to its constituting beta-Asp-Arg dipeptides, which were then completely utilized within 25 and 4 days under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. The end products of CGP degradation by strain DIP1 were alanine, succinate, and ornithine as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The facultative anaerobic Enterococcus casseliflavus strain ELS3 and the strictly anaerobic Clostridium sulfidogenes strain SGB2 were coisolates and utilized the beta-linked isodipeptides from the common pool available to the mixed consortium, while the fourth isolate, Paenibacillus odorifer strain PNF4, did not play a direct role in the biodegradation of CGP. Several syntrophic interactions affecting CGP degradation, such as substrate utilization, the reduction of electron acceptors, and aeration, were elucidated. This study demonstrates the first investigation of CGP degradation under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions by one bacterial strain, with regard to the physiological role of other bacteria in a mixed consortium. PMID:18424548

Sallam, Ahmed; Steinbüchel, Alexander

2008-06-01

296

Comparative in vitro activities of a new quinolone, WIN 57273, and piperacillin plus tazobactam against anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activities of a new quinolone, WIN 57273, and the combination of piperacillin and tazobactam, a beta-lactamase inhibitor, were compared with those of cefoxitin, ceftizoxime, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, imipenem, metronidazole, and piperacillin for 123 clinical anaerobic isolates. Ceftizoxime and cefoxitin had equivalent activities, while metronidazole was active against gram-negative isolates. In the Bacteroides fragilis group, species other than B. fragilis were the most resistant. The combination of piperacillin with tazobactam in a ratio of 8 to 1 was more effective than piperacillin against B. fragilis group organisms when the MIC of piperacillin was greater than or equal to 64 micrograms/ml. Overall, WIN 57273 (i) and imipenem (ii) were the most active agents, with MICs for 50 and 90% of strains of (i) 0.25 and 0.5 and (ii) 0.125 and 2 microgram/ml, respectively.

Venezia, R A; Yocum, D M; Robbiano, E M; Echols, R M

1990-01-01

297

Bacteria from the Gut of Australian Termites  

PubMed Central

The major gut bacteria of the worker caste of nine species of Australian termites, belonging to four families, were isolated and identified to generic level. All species were either facultative anaerobes or strict aerobes. A correlation appears to exist between the major gut bacterium and the family to which the termite belongs. The major bacterium from the two lowest termites, Mastotermes darwiniensis (family Mastotermitidae) and Cryptotermes primus (family Kalotermitidae), was Streptococcus; from four species belonging to the Rhinotermitidae (Heterotermes ferox, Coptotermes acinaciformis, C. lacteus, Schedorhinotermes intermedius intermedius) it was Enterobacter; and from three species of the Termitidae (Nasutitermes exitiosus, N. graveolus, N. walkeri) it was Staphylococcus. Enterobacter was a minor symbiont of M. darwiniensis, C. primus, and N. graveolus; Streptococcus was a minor symbiont of H. ferox, C. lacteus, S. intermedius intermedius, and N. exitiosus; and Bacillus was a minor symbiont of C. acinaciformis and S. intermedius intermedius. M. darwiniensis possessed another minor symbiont tentatively identified as Flavobacterium. C. acinaciformis from three widely separated locations possessed a similar microbiota, indicating some form of control on the composition of the gut bacteria. Bacteria, capable of growth on N-free medium in the presence of nitrogen gas, were isolated from all termites, except N. exitiosus and N. walkeri, and were identified as Enterobacter. No cellulose-degrading bacteria were isolated.

Eutick, M. L.; O'Brien, R. W.; Slaytor, M.

1978-01-01

298

Reduction and immobilization of radionuclides and toxic metal ions using combined zero valent iron and anaerobic bacteria. 1998 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

'Previous research findings indicate that both zero valent iron and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) can yield significant decreases in Cr(VI) or U(VI) concentrations due to abiotic and microbial reduction, respectively. The major hypothesis associated with this research project is that a combined abiotic-biological system can synergistically combine both processes to maximize metal ion reduction in an engineered permeable reactive barrier. The overall goal of this project is to design a combined abiotic/microbial, reactive, permeable, in-situ barrier with sufficient reductive potential to prevent downgradient migration of toxic metal ions. The field-scale application of this technology would utilize anaerobic digester sludge, Fe(O) particles for supporting anaerobic biofilms, and suitable aquifer material for construction of the barrier. Successful completion of this goal requires testing of the two hypotheses listed above by evaluating: (1) the rates of abiotic metal ion reduction, and (2) the rates of microbial metal ion reduction in microbial and combined abiotic/microbial reduction systems under a range of environmental conditions. This report summarizes work after one and one-half years of a three year project. Abiotic studies: The thrust of the abiotic research conducted to date has been to determine the rates of Cr(VI) reduction in batch reactors and to evaluate the role of aquifer materials on those rates. Experiments have been conducted to determine the rates of reduction by Fe(II) and Fe(O). The parameters that have been evaluated are the effect of pH and the presence of sulfide and aquifer material.'

Weathers, L.

1998-06-01

299

Commensal anaerobic gut bacteria attenuate inflammation by regulating nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling of PPAR-? and RelA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human gut microflora is important in regulating host inflammatory responses and in maintaining immune homeostasis. The cellular and molecular bases of these actions are unknown. Here we describe a unique anti-inflammatory mechanism, activated by nonpathogenic bacteria, that selectively antagonizes transcription factor NF-?B. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron targets transcriptionally active NF-?B subunit RelA, enhancing its nuclear export through a mechanism independent of

Jamie I Campbell; Timothy P King; George Grant; Emmelie A Jansson; Alistair G P Coutts; Sven Pettersson; Shaun Conway; Denise Kelly

2003-01-01

300

Acetate oxidation to CO 2 in anaerobic bacteria via a novel pathway not involving reactions of the citric acid cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several sulfate-reducing bacteria capable of complete oxidation of acetate (or acetyl CoA), the citric acid cycle is not operative. No 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase activity was found in these organisms, and the labelling pattern of oxaloacetate excludes its synthesis via 2-oxo-glutarate. These sulfate-reducers contained, however, high activities of the enzymes carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase and catalyzed an isotope exchange

Rolf Schauder; Bernhard Eikmanns; Rudolf K. Thauer; Fritz Widdel; Georg Fuchs

1986-01-01

301

Stoichiometric and molecular evidence for the enrichment of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria from wastewater treatment plant sludge samples.  

PubMed

Anammox enrichments were readily developed from seven municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) sludge, but not with methanogenic granular sludge from two agro-industrial WWTPs. Only 50d was required for the first evidence of anammox activity from a return activated sludge obtained from a WWTP operated for nutrient removal. The molar ratios of nitrite and ammonium consumption of approximately 1.32 as well as nitrate and dinitrogen gas product ratios of approximately 0.095 provided evidence of the anammox reaction. The presence of anammox was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primer sets (PLA46F and AMX820R) specific for anammox bacteria. The 16S rRNA gene fragment of anammox bacteria was detected in seven enrichment cultures (ECs) with demonstrated anammox activity but not in the original inocula from which the ECs were derived and also not in the two methanogenic sludge samples, which indicates the PCR predicted the anammox activity. Two genera, Brocadia and Kuenenia, were successfully identified as the Planctomycetes occurring in the clone libraries of successful anammox enrichments. Brocadia dominated in cultures that were respiked extensively; whereas Kuenenia predominated in cultures that were less aggressively respiked. These findings indicate that respiking management may play an important role on selecting the genus of anammox bacteria. The batch enrichment results clearly illustrate that anammox can be readily enriched from municipal sludge from a wide variety of process operations at WWTPs. PMID:21620436

Sun, Wenjie; Banihani, Qais; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, Jim A

2011-08-01

302

Iron, Sulfur, Arsenic and Water: Geochemical Implications of Facultative Anoxygenic Photosynthesis in Cyanobacteria and the Slow Rise of Oxygen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over geologic time, the global rise in atmospheric oxygen (O2) is attributed to the evolution and wide spread proliferation of oxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria. However, cyanobacteria maintain a metabolic flexibility that may not always result in O2 release. Specifically, cyanobacteria can use a variety of alternative electron donors, rather than water, that are also readily oxidized. These may include sulfur, iron, and arsenic. Cyanobacteria are thus not uniquely constrained towards O2 production. Changes in the bioavailability of these key elements may have had dramatic consequences for and resulted in the slow accumulation of O2 in the atmosphere. In particular, by using facultative anoxygenic photosynthesis the cells maintain advantageous anaerobic conditions for N2-fixation. Although other types of bacteria are capable of N2-fixation, cyanobacteria singularly possess the dynamic capability of generating and surviving O2. These two processes "pull" the cells in opposite directions, metabolically speaking, around an aerobic-anaerobic continuum. Such a strategy also confers a distinct competitive advantage for cyanobacteria over photosynthetic eukaryotes, as they can endure widespread euxinia and maintain their cellular N quota. In an anoxic and/or sulfidic ocean, cyanobacteria would be expected to dominate over eukaryotic algae. Here we present Bayesian constructed phylogenetic distribution of specific genes and the metabolic role of key enzymes that form the basis of this hypothesis. We further suggest that the consequences of this proposed ecosystem structure altered the redox balance of the fluid Earth (atmosphere and oceans) and can help explain the observed long-term geochemical stasis and slow rates of eukaryotic diversification. We suggest that the underlying control for global oxygenation was a synergistic interplay between the evolution and elastic physiology of cyanobacteria as they impacted the redox state of early Earth.

Wolfe-Simon, F.; Johnston, D. T.; Girguis, P. R.; Pearson, A.; Knoll, A. H.

2008-12-01

303

In vitro activity of Biapenem plus RPX7009, a carbapenem combined with a serine ?-lactamase inhibitor, against anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

Biapenem is a carbapenem being developed in combination with RPX7009, a new inhibitor of serine ?-lactamases. Biapenem was tested alone and in combination with fixed concentrations of RPX7009 by agar dilution against 377 recent isolates of anaerobes. A separate panel of 27 isolates of Bacteroides spp. with decreased susceptibility or resistance to imipenem was also tested. Comparator drugs included meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, ampicillin-sulbactam, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, metronidazole, clindamycin, and tigecycline plus imipenem, doripenem, and ertapenem for the 27 selected strains. For recent consecutive strains of Bacteroides species, the MIC(90) for biapenem-RPX7009 was 1 ?g/ml, with a MIC(90) of 4 ?g/ml for meropenem. Other Bacteroides fragilis group species showed a MIC90 of 0.5 ?g/ml for both agents. The MIC(90)s for biapenem-RPX7009 were 0.25 ?g/ml for Prevotella spp., 0.125 ?g/ml for Fusobacterium nucleatum and Fusobacterium necrophorum, 2 ?g/ml for Fusobacterium mortiferum, 0.5 ?g/ml for Fusobacterium varium, ? 0.5 ?g/ml for Gram-positive cocci and rods, and 0.03 to 8 ?g/ml for clostridia. Against 5 B. fragilis strains harboring a known metallo-beta-lactamase, biapenem-RPX7009 MICs were comparable to those of other carbapenems (? 32 ?g/ml). Against Bacteroides strains with an imipenem MIC of 2 ?g/ml, biapenem-RPX7009 had MICs of 0.5 to 2 ?g/ml, with MICs of 0.5 to 32 ?g/ml for meropenem, doripenem, and ertapenem. For strains with an imipenem MIC of 4 ?g/ml, the MICs for biapenem-RPX7009 were 4 to 16 ?g/ml, with MICs of 8 to >32 ?g/ml for meropenem, doripenem, and ertapenem. The inhibitor RPX7009 had no antimicrobial activity when tested alone, and it showed little or no potentiation of biapenem versus anaerobes. Biapenem-RPX7009 showed activity comparable to that of imipenem and was superior to meropenem, doripenem, and ertapenem against imipenem-nonsusceptible Bacteroides spp. PMID:23529731

Goldstein, Ellie J C; Citron, Diane M; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Merriam, C Vreni

2013-06-01

304

Facultative Symbiont Infections Affect Aphid Reproduction  

PubMed Central

Some bacterial symbionts alter their hosts reproduction through various mechanisms that enhance their transmission in the host population. In addition to its obligatory symbiont Buchnera aphidicola, the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum harbors several facultative symbionts influencing several aspects of host ecology. Aphids reproduce by cyclical parthenogenesis whereby clonal and sexual reproduction alternate within the annual life cycle. Many species, including the pea aphid, also show variation in their reproductive mode at the population level, with some lineages reproducing by cyclical parthenogenesis and others by permanent parthenogenesis. While the role of facultative symbionts has been well studied during the parthenogenetic phase of their aphid hosts, very little is known on their possible influence during the sexual phase. Here we investigated whether facultative symbionts modulate the capacity to produce sexual forms in various genetic backgrounds of the pea aphid with controlled symbiont composition and also in different aphid genotypes from natural populations with previously characterized infection status and reproductive mode. We found that most facultative symbionts exhibited detrimental effects on their hosts fitness under sex-inducing conditions in comparison with the reference lines. We also showed that the loss of sexual phase in permanently parthenogenetic lineages of A. pisum was not explained by facultative symbionts. Finally, we demonstrated that Spiroplasma infection annihilated the production of males in the host progeny by inducing a male-killing phenotype, an unexpected result for organisms such as aphids that reproduce primarily through clonal reproduction.

Simon, Jean-Christophe; Boutin, Sebastien; Tsuchida, Tsutomu; Koga, Ryuichi; Le Gallic, Jean-Francois; Frantz, Adrien; Outreman, Yannick; Fukatsu, Takema

2011-01-01

305

Methods for the development of tumor-targeting bacteria.  

PubMed

Introduction: For at least two centuries, there have been reports that cancer patients infected with various bacteria had what appeared to be spontaneous remission. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, W.B. Coley, of what is now the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, pioneered bacterial therapy of cancer in the clinic with considerable success. After Coley died in 1936, bacterial therapy of cancer started to go out of favor. In the current twenty-first century, there is great resurgent interest in developing bacterial therapy for treating cancer using either obligate or facultative anaerobic bacteria. There is also controversy about which bacteria are optimum for cancer treatment and whether bacteria should be used as tumor-targeting vectors, immune stimulators, or for direct tumor killing. Areas covered: This review covers various types of bacteria currently used for tumor targeting. It also covers methods used to develop maximal tumor targeting and minimally attenuated bacteria, which grow in viable as well as necrotic areas of tumors and directly kill cancer cells. Expert opinion: The current paradigm of cancer chemotherapy lacks sufficient efficacy, and a new paradigm is needed. Bacterial therapy is a candidate for a 'new' approach to cancer treatment. In the authors' opinion, the current revival of bacterial therapy of cancer is one of the most promising approaches to treatment. PMID:24949888

Hoffman, Robert M; Zhao, Ming

2014-07-01

306

The value of MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria in routine laboratories.  

PubMed

Between 2010 and 2011, 283 clinically relevant non-duplicate anaerobic isolates were analysed by MALDI-TOF MS and the results were compared with conventional identification. Immediately after isolation, an ethanol precipitation was carried out on isolated colonies and the stabilized samples were anonymized and sent to the laboratory of Bruker Daltonik, Bremen, Germany, where the identification was done using the standard protocol for micro-organism identification on a Microflex LT mass spectrometer equipped with the MALDI Biotyper 3.0 software. Of 283 isolates, 218 (77?%) were identified at species level [log(score) ?2.0], 31 isolates (10.95?%) were identified at genus level [log(score) 1.7-2.0] and 34 (12?%) gave non-reliable identification [log(score) <1.7]. Out of the 31 isolates with log(score) 1.7-2.0, in the case of 24 isolates the species name given by the MALDI Biotyper was accepted if it was the same as for the classical identification. Of 218 isolates identified at species level, 40 results were discordant with phenotypic identification, and of the 31 isolates identified at genus level according to the manufacturer's score cut-off, four gave results discordant with the phenotypic method. For the 44 discordant results, 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed MALDI-TOF MS identification in 41 cases, leaving three isolates (0.7?%) that had been misidentified by MALDI-TOF MS. PMID:22700545

Nagy, Elisabeth; Becker, Simone; Kostrzewa, Markus; Barta, Noémi; Urbán, Edit

2012-10-01

307

Efficacy of an anaerobic swab transport system to maintain aerobic and anaerobic microorganism viability after storage at -80 degrees C.  

PubMed

An Amies agar gel swab transport system was evaluated for its ability to maintain bacterial viability and relative quantity after freezing at -80°C. Nine American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) bacterial strains were used: 3 anaerobic strains (Propionibacterium acnes, Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, and Clostridium sporogenes) and 6 facultative or strict aerobic bacterial strains (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Escherichia coli ([ATCC 25922 and ATCC 11775], Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Lactobacillus casei). The bacterial species were chosen because they corresponded to bacteria identified in psittacine feces and cloacal samples. There were no significant differences between growth scores at baseline and after storage at -80°C for 40 days for any of the bacteria examined after 48 and 72 hr of incubation, with the exception of P. anaerobius. For P. anaerobius, there was a significant reduction (P < 0.001) in the growth score after storage at -80°C for 40 days from that of the baseline; however, the bacteria were still viable. The tested swab transport system may be useful when lengthy storage and transport times necessitate freezing samples prior to culture. PMID:21217035

Musser, Jeffrey M B; Gonzalez, Rosa

2011-01-01

308

Carbon conversion efficiency and population dynamics of a marine algae-bacteria consortium growing on simplified synthetic digestate: first step in a bioprocess coupling algal production and anaerobic digestion.  

PubMed

Association of microalgae culture and anaerobic digestion seems a promising technology for sustainable algal biomass and biogas production. The use of digestates for sustaining the growth of microalgae reduces the costs and the environmental impacts associated with the substantial algal nutrient requirements. A natural marine algae-bacteria consortium was selected by growing on a medium containing macro nutrients (ammonia, phosphate and acetate) specific of a digestate, and was submitted to a factorial experimental design with different levels of temperature, light and pH. The microalgal consortium reached a maximum C conversion efficiency (i.e. ratio between carbon content produced and carbon supplied through light photosynthetic C conversion and acetate) of 3.6%. The presence of bacteria increased this maximum C conversion efficiency up to 6.3%. The associated bacterial community was considered beneficial to the total biomass production by recycling the carbon lost during photosynthesis and assimilating organic by-products from anaerobic digestion. PMID:22728186

Vasseur, Christophe; Bougaran, Gaël; Garnier, Matthieu; Hamelin, Jérôme; Leboulanger, Christophe; Le Chevanton, Myriam; Mostajir, Behzad; Sialve, Bruno; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Fouilland, Eric

2012-09-01

309

Evaluation of the Use of PCR and Reverse Transcriptase PCR for Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria in Biosolids from Anaerobic Digestors and Aerobic Composters  

PubMed Central

A PCR-based method and a reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR)-based method were developed for the detection of pathogenic bacteria in organic waste, using Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Staphylococcus aureus as model organisms. In seeded organic waste samples, detection limits of less than 10 cells per g of organic waste were achieved after one-step enrichment of bacteria, isolation, and purification of DNA or RNA before PCR or RT-PCR amplification. To test the reproducibility and reliability of the newly developed methods, 46 unseeded samples were collected from diverse aerobic (composting) facilities and anaerobic digestors and analyzed by both culture-based classical and newly developed PCR-based procedures. No false-positive but some false-negative results were generated by the PCR- or RT-PCR-based methods after one-step enrichment when compared to the classical detection methods. The results indicated that the level of activity of the tested bacteria in unseeded samples was very low compared to that of freshly inoculated cells, preventing samples from reaching the cell density required for PCR-based detection after one-step enrichment. However, for Salmonella spp., a distinct PCR product could be obtained for all 22 nonamended samples that tested positive for Salmonella spp. by the classical detection procedure when a selective two-step enrichment (20 h in peptone water at 37°C and 24 h in Rappaport Vassiliadis medium at 43°C) was performed prior to nucleic acid extraction and PCR. Hence, the classical procedure was shortened, since cell plating and further differentiation of isolated colonies can be omitted, substituted for by highly sensitive and reliable detection based on nucleic acid extraction and PCR. Similarly, 2 of the 22 samples in which Salmonella spp. were detected also tested positive for Listeria monocytogenes according to a two-step enrichment procedure followed by PCR, compared to 3 samples that tested positive when classical isolation procedures were followed. The study shows that selective two-step enrichment is useful when very low numbers of bacterial pathogens must be detected in organic waste materials, such as biosolids. There were no false-positive results derived from DNA of dead cells in the waste sample, suggesting that it is not necessary to perform RT-PCR analyses when PCR is combined with selective enrichment. Large numbers of added nontarget bacteria did not affect detection of Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes, and Y. enterocolitica but increased the detection limit of Staphylococcus aureus from <10 to 104 CFU/g of organic waste. Overall, the detection methods developed using seeded organic waste samples from one waste treatment facility (WTF) needed to be modified for satisfactory detection of pathogens in samples from other WTFs, emphasizing the need for extensive field testing of laboratory-derived PCR protocols. A survey of 13 WTFs in Germany revealed that all facilities complied with the German Biowaste Ordinance, which mandates that the end product after anaerobic digestion or aerobic composting be free of Salmonella. In addition, all biosolids were free of L. monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Y. enterocolitica, as evidenced by both classical and PCR-based detection methods.

Burtscher, Carola; Wuertz, Stefan

2003-01-01

310

16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer and 23S rDNA of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria: implications for phylogeny and in situ detection.  

PubMed

Recently, anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AAOB) were identified by comparative 16S rDNA sequence analysis as a novel, deep-branching lineage within the Planctomycetales. This lineage consists currently of only two, not yet culturable bacteria which have been provisionally described as Candidatus 'Brocadia anammoxidans' and Candidatus 'Kuenenia stuttgartiensis'. In this study, a large fragment of the rDNA operon, including the 16S rDNA, the intergenic spacer region (ISR) and approximately 2 000 bases of the 23S rDNA, was polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified, cloned and sequenced from both AAOB. The retrieved 16S rDNA sequences of both species contain an insertion at helix 9 with a previously overlooked pronounced secondary structure (new subhelices 9a and 9b). This insertion, which is absent in all other known prokaryotes, is detectable by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and thus present in the mature 16S rRNA. In contrast with the genera Pirellula, Planctomyces and Gemmata that possess unlinked 16S and 23S rRNA genes, both AAOB have the respective genes linked together by an ISR of approximately 450 bp in length. Phylogenetic analysis of the obtained 23S rRNA-genes confirmed the deep branching of the AAOB within the Planctomycetales and allowed the design of additional specific FISH probes. Remarkably, the ISR of the AAOB also could be successfully detected by FISH via simultaneous application of four monolabelled oligonucleotide probes. Quantitative FISH experiments with cells of Candidatus 'Brocadia anammoxidans' that were inhibited by exposure to oxygen for different time periods demonstrated that the concentration of transcribed ISR reflected the activity of the cells more accurately than the 16S or 23S rRNA concentration. Thus the developed ISR probes might become useful tools for in situ monitoring of the activity of AAOB in their natural environment. PMID:11553235

Schmid, M; Schmitz-Esser, S; Jetten, M; Wagner, M

2001-07-01

311

Horizontal gene transfer from Bacteria to rumen Ciliates indicates adaptation to their anaerobic, carbohydrates-rich environment  

PubMed Central

Background The horizontal transfer of expressed genes from Bacteria into Ciliates which live in close contact with each other in the rumen (the foregut of ruminants) was studied using ciliate Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs). More than 4000 ESTs were sequenced from representatives of the two major groups of rumen Cilates: the order Entodiniomorphida (Entodinium simplex, Entodinium caudatum, Eudiplodinium maggii, Metadinium medium, Diploplastron affine, Polyplastron multivesiculatum and Epidinium ecaudatum) and the order Vestibuliferida, previously called Holotricha (Isotricha prostoma, Isotricha intestinalis and Dasytricha ruminantium). Results A comparison of the sequences with the completely sequenced genomes of Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes, followed by large-scale construction and analysis of phylogenies, identified 148 ciliate genes that specifically cluster with genes from the Bacteria and Archaea. The phylogenetic clustering with bacterial genes, coupled with the absence of close relatives of these genes in the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, indicates that they have been acquired via Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) after the colonization of the gut by the rumen Ciliates. Conclusion Among the HGT candidates, we found an over-representation (>75%) of genes involved in metabolism, specifically in the catabolism of complex carbohydrates, a rich food source in the rumen. We propose that the acquisition of these genes has greatly facilitated the Ciliates' colonization of the rumen providing evidence for the role of HGT in the adaptation to new niches.

Ricard, Guenola; McEwan, Neil R; Dutilh, Bas E; Jouany, Jean-Pierre; Macheboeuf, Didier; Mitsumori, Makoto; McIntosh, Freda M; Michalowski, Tadeusz; Nagamine, Takafumi; Nelson, Nancy; Newbold, Charles J; Nsabimana, Eli; Takenaka, Akio; Thomas, Nadine A; Ushida, Kazunari; Hackstein, Johannes HP; Huynen, Martijn A

2006-01-01

312

Predatory prokaryotes: predation and primary consumption evolved in bacteria.  

PubMed

Two kinds of predatory bacteria have been observed and characterized by light and electron microscopy in samples from freshwater sulfurous lakes in northeastern Spain. The first bacterium, named Vampirococcus, is Gram-negative and ovoidal (0.6 micrometer wide). An anaerobic epibiont, it adheres to the surface of phototrophic bacteria (Chromatium spp.) by specific attachment structures and, as it grows and divides by fission, destroys its prey. An important in situ predatory role can be inferred for Vampirococcus from direct counts in natural samples. The second bacterium, named Daptobacter, is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic straight rod (0.5 x 1.5 micrometers) with a single polar flagellum, which collides, penetrates, and grows inside the cytoplasm of its prey (several genera of Chromatiaceae). Considering also the well-known case of Bdellovibrio, a Gram-negative, aerobic curved rod that penetrates and divides in the periplasmic space of many chemotrophic Gram-negative bacteria, there are three types of predatory prokaryotes presently known (epibiotic, cytoplasmic, and periplasmic). Thus, we conclude that antagonistic relationships such as primary consumption, predation, and scavenging had already evolved in microbial ecosystems prior to the appearance of eukaryotes. Furthermore, because they represent methods by which prokaryotes can penetrate other prokaryotes in the absence of phagocytosis, these associations can be considered preadaptation for the origin of intracellular organelles. PMID:11542073

Guerrero, R; Pedros-Alio, C; Esteve, I; Mas, J; Chase, D; Margulis, L

1986-04-01

313

Quantification of Enteric Viruses, Pathogen Indicators, and Salmonella Bacteria in Class B Anaerobically Digested Biosolids by Culture and Molecular Methods ?  

PubMed Central

The most common class B biosolids in the United States are generated by mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD), and MAD biosolids have been used for land application. However, the pathogen levels in MAD biosolids are still unclear, especially with respect to enteric viruses. In this study, we determined the occurrence and the quantitative levels of enteric viruses and indicators in 12 MAD biosolid samples and of Salmonella enterica in 6 MAD biosolid samples. Three dewatered biosolid samples were also included in this study for purposes of comparison. Human adenoviruses (HAdV) had the highest gene levels and were detected more frequently than other enteric viruses. The gene levels of noroviruses (NV) reported were comparable to those of enteroviruses (EV) and human polyomaviruses (HPyV). The occurrence percentages of HAdV, HAdV species F, EV, NV GI, NV GII, and HPyV in MAD samples were 83, 83, 42, 50, 75, and 58%, respectively. No hepatitis A virus was detected. Infectious HAdV was detected more frequently than infectious EV, and all infectious HAdV were detected when samples were propagated in A549 cells. Based on most-probable-number (MPN) analysis, A549 cells were more susceptible to biosolid-associated viruses than BGM cells. All indicator levels in MAD biosolids were approximately 104 MPN or PFU per gram (dry), and the dewatered biosolids had significantly higher indicator levels than the MAD biosolids. Only two MAD samples tested positive for Salmonella enterica, where the concentration was below 1.0 MPN/4 g. This study provides a broad comparison of the prevalence of different enteric viruses in MAD biosolids and reports the first detection of noroviruses in class B biosolids. The observed high quantitative and infectivity levels of adenoviruses in MAD biosolids indicate that adenovirus is a good indicator for the evaluation of sludge treatment efficiency.

Wong, Kelvin; Onan, Brandon M.; Xagoraraki, Irene

2010-01-01

314

Quantification of enteric viruses, pathogen indicators, and Salmonella bacteria in class B anaerobically digested biosolids by culture and molecular methods.  

PubMed

The most common class B biosolids in the United States are generated by mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD), and MAD biosolids have been used for land application. However, the pathogen levels in MAD biosolids are still unclear, especially with respect to enteric viruses. In this study, we determined the occurrence and the quantitative levels of enteric viruses and indicators in 12 MAD biosolid samples and of Salmonella enterica in 6 MAD biosolid samples. Three dewatered biosolid samples were also included in this study for purposes of comparison. Human adenoviruses (HAdV) had the highest gene levels and were detected more frequently than other enteric viruses. The gene levels of noroviruses (NV) reported were comparable to those of enteroviruses (EV) and human polyomaviruses (HPyV). The occurrence percentages of HAdV, HAdV species F, EV, NV GI, NV GII, and HPyV in MAD samples were 83, 83, 42, 50, 75, and 58%, respectively. No hepatitis A virus was detected. Infectious HAdV was detected more frequently than infectious EV, and all infectious HAdV were detected when samples were propagated in A549 cells. Based on most-probable-number (MPN) analysis, A549 cells were more susceptible to biosolid-associated viruses than BGM cells. All indicator levels in MAD biosolids were approximately 10(4) MPN or PFU per gram (dry), and the dewatered biosolids had significantly higher indicator levels than the MAD biosolids. Only two MAD samples tested positive for Salmonella enterica, where the concentration was below 1.0 MPN/4 g. This study provides a broad comparison of the prevalence of different enteric viruses in MAD biosolids and reports the first detection of noroviruses in class B biosolids. The observed high quantitative and infectivity levels of adenoviruses in MAD biosolids indicate that adenovirus is a good indicator for the evaluation of sludge treatment efficiency. PMID:20693452

Wong, Kelvin; Onan, Brandon M; Xagoraraki, Irene

2010-10-01

315

Formation of Tellurium Nanocrystals during Anaerobic Growth of Bacteria That Use Te Oxyanions as Respiratory Electron Acceptors?  

PubMed Central

Certain toxic elements support the metabolism of diverse prokaryotes by serving as respiratory electron acceptors for growth. Here, we demonstrate that two anaerobes previously shown to be capable of respiring oxyanions of selenium also achieve growth by reduction of either tellurate [Te(VI)] or tellurite [Te(IV)] to elemental tellurium [Te(0)]. This reduction achieves a sizeable stable-Te-isotopic fractionation (isotopic enrichment factor [?] = ?0.4 to ?1.0 per ml per atomic mass unit) and results in the formation of unique crystalline Te(0) nanoarchitectures as end products. The Te(0) crystals occur internally within but mainly externally from the cells, and each microorganism forms a distinctly different structure. Those formed by Bacillus selenitireducens initially are nanorods (?10-nm diameter by 200-nm length), which cluster together, forming larger (?1,000-nm) rosettes composed of numerous individual shards (?100-nm width by 1,000-nm length). In contrast, Sulfurospirillum barnesii forms extremely small, irregularly shaped nanospheres (diameter < 50 nm) that coalesce into larger composite aggregates. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and selected area electron diffraction indicate that both biominerals are composed entirely of Te and are crystalline, while Raman spectroscopy confirms that they are in the elemental state. These Te biominerals have specific spectral signatures (UV-visible light, Raman) that also provide clues to their internal structures. The use of microorganisms to generate Te nanomaterials may be an alternative for bench-scale syntheses. Additionally, they may also generate products with unique properties unattainable by conventional physical/chemical methods.

Baesman, Shaun M.; Bullen, Thomas D.; Dewald, James; Zhang, Donghui; Curran, Seamus; Islam, Farhana S.; Beveridge, Terry J.; Oremland, Ronald S.

2007-01-01

316

Influence of an aerobic fungus grown on solid culture on ruminal degradability and on a mixture culture of anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria.  

PubMed

In this work, the effect of a solid fungal culture of Aspergillus niger (An) grown on coffee pulp on the in situ ruminal degradability (RD) of corn stover was evaluated. In addition, the effect of its extracts on the in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD) and on a mixed culture of anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria (MCACB) was also investigated. The solid ferment was a crude culture of An, grown on coffee pulp. Regarding in situ RD, a significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between treatment with 200 g/day of the solid culture and control (no solid culture added) on dry matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fibre on RD. All the water extracts (pH 4, 7 and 10) enhanced IVDMD and stimulated the cellulolytic activity on a MCACB. Ultrafiltration results showed that active compounds with a molecular weight lower than 30 kDa were responsible for the effect on MCACB. Such results suggest that the effects of the solid An culture in RD are related to the presence of water soluble compounds having a molecular weight lower than 30 kDa. PMID:19663984

Hernández-Díaz, R; Pimentel-González, D J; Figueira, A C; Viniegra-González, G; Campos-Montiel, R G

2010-06-01

317

Purification and comparative studies of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenases from the anaerobic, glycine-utilizing bacteria Peptostreptococcus glycinophilus, Clostridium cylindrosporum, and Clostridium sporogenes.  

PubMed Central

Three different dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenases were purified to homogenity from the anaerobic glycine-utilizing bacteria Clostridium cylindrosporum, Clostridium sporogenes, and Peptostreptococcus glycinophilus, and their basic properties were determined. The enzyme isolated from P. glycinophilus showed the properties typical of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenases: it was a dimer with a subunit molecular mass of 53,000 and contained 1 mol of flavin adenine dinucleotide and 2 redox-active sulfhydryl groups per subunit. Only NADH was active as a coenzyme for reduction of lipoamide. Spectra of the oxidized enzyme exhibited maxima at 230, 270, 353, and 453 nm, with shoulders at 370, 425, and 485 nm. The dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenases of C. cylindrosporum and C. sporogenes were very similar in their structural properties to the enzyme of P. glycinophilus except for their coenzyme specificity. The enzyme of C. cylindrosporum used NAD(H) as well as NADP(H), whereas the enzyme of C. sporogenes reacted only with NADP(H), and no reaction could be detected with NAD(H). Antibodies raised against the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase of C. cylindrosporum reacted with extracts of Clostridium acidiurici, Clostridium purinolyticum, and Eubacterium angustum, whereas antibodies raised against the enzymes of P. glycinophilus and C. sporogenes showed no cross-reaction with extracts from 42 organisms tested. Images FIG. 1

Dietrichs, D; Andreesen, J R

1990-01-01

318

Function and the biosynthesis of unusual corrinoids by a novel activation mechanism of aromatic compounds in anaerobic bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A corrinoid screening of several phylogenetically diverse ``archaebacteria'' revealed vitamin B12-like corrinoids. This indicates an optimized structure and function relationship of the corrinoids under different bacterial growth conditions during the early evolution of live. Some of these corrinoids have been substituted by modified corrinoids in growing cells without affecting the generation times of the bacteria. In this respect, the discovery of the unique para-cresolyl cobamide from the eubacterium Sporomusa ovata attracted attention. The unusual structure of this corrinoid was achieved by a biosynthesis proceeding via a novel and stereospecific activation mechanism of aromatic compounds. The corrinoid was detected both in the membrane fraction and in the soluble fraction of the cells. Methyltransfer is one of the probable functions of the para-cresolyl cobamide in Sporomusa.

Stupperich, E.; Eisinger, H. J.

319

Distribution of xanthine oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase specificity types among bacteria.  

PubMed Central

A diverse collection of xanthine-metabolizing bacteria was examined for xanthine-, 1-methylxanthine-, and 3-methylxanthine-oxidizing activity. Both particulate and soluble fractions of extracts from aerobically grown gram-negative bacteria exhibited oxidation of all three substrates; however, when facultative gram-negative bacteria were grown anaerobically, low particulate and 3-methylxanthine activities were detected. Gram-positive and obligately anaerobic bacteria showed no particulate activity or 3-methylxanthine oxidation. Substrate specificity studies indicate two types of enzyme distributed among the bacteria along taxonomic lines, although other features indicate diversity of the enzyme within these two major groups. The soluble and particulate enzymes from Pseudomonas putida and the enzyme from Arthrobacter S-2 were examined as type examples with a series of purine and analogues differing in the number and position of oxygen groups. Each preparation was active with a variety of compounds, but the compounds and position attacked by each enzyme was different, both from the other enzymes examined and from previously investigated enzymes. The soluble enzyme from Pseudomonas was inhibited in a competitive manner by uric acid, whereas the Arthrobacter enzyme was not. This was correlated with the ability of Pseudomonas, but not Arthrobacter, to incorporate radioactivity from [2-14C]uric acid into cellular material.

Woolfolk, C A; Downard, J S

1977-01-01

320

Facultative hyperaccumulation of heavy metals and metalloids.  

PubMed

Approximately 500 species of plants are known to hyperaccumulate heavy metals and metalloids. The majority are obligate metallophytes, species that are restricted to metalliferous soils. However, a smaller but increasing list of plants are "facultative hyperaccumulators" that hyperaccumulate heavy metals when occurring on metalliferous soils, yet also occur commonly on normal, non-metalliferous soils. This paper reviews the biology of facultative hyperaccumulators and the opportunities they provide for ecological and evolutionary research. The existence of facultative hyperaccumulator populations across a wide edaphic range allows intraspecific comparisons of tolerance and uptake physiology. This approach has been used to study zinc and cadmium hyperaccumulation by Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri, and it will be instructive to make similar comparisons on species that are distributed even more abundantly on normal soil. Over 90% of known hyperaccumulators occur on serpentine (ultramafic) soil and accumulate nickel, yet there have paradoxically been few experimental studies of facultative nickel hyperaccumulation. Several hypotheses suggested to explain the evolution of hyperaccumulation seem unlikely when most populations of a species occur on normal soil, where plants cannot hyperaccumulate due to low metal availability. In such species, it may be that hyperaccumulation is an ancestral phylogenetic trait or an anomalous manifestation of physiological mechanisms evolved on normal soils, and may or may not have direct adaptive benefits. PMID:24467891

Pollard, A Joseph; Reeves, Roger D; Baker, Alan J M

2014-03-01

321

RNA-Based Stable Isotope Probing and Isolation of Anaerobic Benzene-Degrading Bacteria from Gasoline-Contaminated Groundwater  

PubMed Central

Stable isotope probing (SIP) of benzene-degrading bacteria in gasoline-contaminated groundwater was coupled to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of DNA fragments amplified by reverse transcription-PCR from community 16S rRNA molecules. Supplementation of the groundwater with [13C6]benzene together with an electron acceptor (nitrate, sulfate, or oxygen) showed that a phylotype affiliated with the genus Azoarcus specifically appeared in the 13C-RNA fraction only when nitrate was supplemented. This phylotype was also observed as the major band in DGGE analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified by PCR from the gasoline-contaminated groundwater. In order to isolate the Azoarcus strains, the groundwater sample was streaked on agar plates containing nonselective diluted CGY medium, and the DGGE analysis was used to screen colonies formed on the plates. This procedure identified five bacterial isolates (from 60 colonies) that corresponded to the SIP-identified Azoarcus phylotype, among which two strains (designated DN11 and AN9) degraded benzene under denitrifying conditions. Incubation of these strains with [14C]benzene showed that the labeled carbon was mostly incorporated into 14CO2 within 14 days. These results indicate that the Azoarcus population was involved in benzene degradation in the gasoline-contaminated groundwater under denitrifying conditions. We suggest that RNA-based SIP identification coupled to phylogenetic screening of nonselective isolates facilitates the isolation of enrichment/isolation-resistant microorganisms with a specific function.

Kasai, Yuki; Takahata, Yoh; Manefield, Mike; Watanabe, Kazuya

2006-01-01

322

The depth-specific significance and relative abundance of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in estuarine sediments (Medway Estuary, UK).  

PubMed

Variations in the overall and depth-specific significance of anammox were measured using (15) N isotope experiments in both bioirrigated and undisturbed sediments of the Medway Estuary, UK. This was performed over two surveys, alongside FISH experiments, to identify and track shifts in the relative abundance of anammox organisms with depth. In Survey 1 (initially screening for the presence of anammox), the potential for anammox (ra) decreased from 32% upstream to 6% downstream. In Survey 2, depth-specific values of ra varied between a maximum of 37% upstream and a minimum of 4% downstream. This was linked to a small population of anammox organisms accounting for < 1-8% of total bacteria with depth in Survey 1 and < 1-3% in Survey 2. The relationship between the relative abundance of anammox cells and the potential contribution of anammox to total N(2) production did not however correlate. In Survey 2, infaunal disruption of the sediment substrata, and concomitant fluctuations of O(2) over depth, did not appear to inhibit the potential for anammox, even at the most bioturbated site. Moreover, deficits detected in the retrieval of (15) N gas from denitrification in Survey 2 may imply potential links between dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium and anammox in estuarine sediments. PMID:22133008

Rooks, Christine; Schmid, Markus C; Mehsana, Wahida; Trimmer, Mark

2012-04-01

323

New Facultative Thiobacillus and a Reevaluation of the Heterotrophic Potential of Thiobacillus novellus  

PubMed Central

A new facultatively autotrophic Thiobacillus has been isolated in pure culture. The general physiological characteristics of the organism are described together with a redescription of Thiobacillus novellus. The new isolate differs from T. novellus in its ability to grow heterotrophically at faster rates and on a greater range of organic compounds. It can be transferred readily between autotrophic and heterotrophic conditions. It can grow anaerobically by nitrate respiration on a number of organic compounds, but not on thiosulfate. Some problems in the nomenclature and taxonomy of the thiobacilli are discussed with reference to the new isolate. Images

Taylor, Barrie F.; Hoare, Derek S.

1969-01-01

324

A survey of the fecal bacteria of bison (Bison bison) for potential pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility of bison-origin E. coli  

PubMed Central

An observational study determined the normal fecal bacterial flora of clinically healthy bison, detected the presence of common potential zoonotic pathogens, and determined the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated E. coli strains. Ninety-six fecal samples from 10 captive herds were cultured for aerobic, anaerobic, facultative, and microaerophillic bacteria. Nineteen major genera of gram-positive and 8 genera of gram-negative bacteria were identified. Salmonella spp. were not detected but some of the isolated bacteria are potential gastrointestinal pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 24 antimicrobials were determined for the E. coli isolated. Nearly all were susceptible to 23 of the 24 antimicrobials but there was a reduced susceptibility to sulphonamide. There were fewer resistant strains than were reported in recent studies of generic E. coli from cattle living in the same area.

Woodbury, Murray R.; Chirino-Trejo, Manuel

2011-01-01

325

Could petroleum biodegradation be a joint achievement of aerobic and anaerobic microrganisms in deep sea reservoirs?  

PubMed Central

Several studies suggest that petroleum biodegradation can be achieved by either aerobic or anaerobic microorganisms, depending on oxygen input or other electron acceptors and appropriate nutrients. Evidence from in vitro experiments with samples of petroleum formation water and oils from Pampo Field indicate that petroleum biodegradation is more likely to be a joint achievement of both aerobic and anaerobic bacterial consortium, refining our previous observations of aerobic degradation. The aerobic consortium depleted, in decreasing order, hydrocarbons > hopanes > steranes > tricyclic terpanes while the anaerobic consortium depleted hydrocarbons > steranes > hopanes > tricyclic terpanes. The oxygen content of the mixed consortia was measured from time to time revealing alternating periods of microaerobicity (O2 ~0.8 mg.L-1) and of aerobicity (O2~6.0 mg.L-1). In this experiment, the petroleum biodegradation changed from time to time, alternating periods of biodegradation similar to the aerobic process and periods of biodegradation similar to the anaerobic process. The consortia showed preferences for metabolizing hydrocarbons > hopanes > steranes > tricyclic terpanes during a 90-day period, after which this trend changed and steranes were more biodegraded than hopanes. The analysis of aerobic oil degrading microbiota by the 16S rRNA gene clone library detected the presence of Bacillus, Brevibacterium, Mesorhizobium and Achromobacter, and the analysis of the anaerobic oil degrading microbiota using the same technique detected the presence of Bacillus and Acinetobacter (facultative strains). In the mixed consortia Stenotrophomonas, Brevibacterium, Bacillus, Rhizobium, Achromobacter and 5% uncultured bacteria were detected. This is certainly a new contribution to the study of reservoir biodegradation processes, combining two of the more important accepted hypotheses.

2011-01-01

326

Mangroves: obligate or facultative halophytes? A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity plays significant roles in regulating the growth and distribution of mangroves, and the salt tolerance mechanisms\\u000a of mangroves have been the focus of research for several decades. There are contradictory views regarding the relationship\\u000a between mangroves and salt: (1) Mangroves are facultative halophytes, i.e. freshwater is a physiological requirement and salt\\u000a water is an ecological requirement for mangroves because

Wenqing Wang; Zhongzheng Yan; Siyang You; Yihui Zhang; Luzhen Chen; Guanghui Lin

327

Engineering an anaerobic metabolic regime in Pseudomonas putida KT2440 for the anoxic biodegradation of 1,3-dichloroprop-1-ene.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas putida KT2440, a microbial cell factory of reference for industrial whole-cell biocatalysis, is unable to support biochemical reactions that occur under anoxic conditions, limiting its utility for a large number of relevant biotransformations. Unlike (facultative) anaerobes, P. putida resorts to NADH oxidation via an oxic respiratory chain and completely lacks a true fermentation metabolism. Therefore, it cannot achieve the correct balances of energy and redox couples (i.e., ATP/ADP and NADH/NAD(+)) that are required to sustain an O(2)-free lifestyle. To overcome this state of affairs, the acetate kinase (ackA) gene of the facultative anaerobe Escherichia coli and the pyruvate decarboxylase (pdc) and alcohol dehydrogenase II (adhB) genes of the aerotolerant Zymomonas mobilis were knocked-in to a wild-type P. putida strain. Biochemical and genetic assays showed that conditional expression of the entire enzyme set allowed the engineered bacteria to adopt an anoxic regime that maintained considerable metabolic activity. The resulting strain was exploited as a host for the heterologous expression of a 1,3-dichloroprop-1-ene degradation pathway recruited from Pseudomonas pavonaceae 170, enabling the recombinants to degrade this recalcitrant chlorinated compound anoxically. These results underscore the value of P. putida as a versatile agent for biotransformations able to function at progressively lower redox statuses. PMID:23149123

Nikel, Pablo I; de Lorenzo, Víctor

2013-01-01

328

The effects of stress hormones on growth of selected periodontitis related bacteria.  

PubMed

The focus of this study was to examine in vitro the effects of stress hormones (catecholamines: epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine and hydrocortisone: cortisol) on the growth of four anaerobic species of periodontitis-related bacteria (Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Tannerella forsythia) and one facultative anaerobic species (Eikenella corrodens). Bacterial growth was determined by two different methods: fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and the viable count by culture method. To simulate stress, each single strain was grown in a special growth medium with three different concentrations of each hormone, using an anaerobic chamber at 37 °C. Growth of F. nucleatum increased in the presence of all stress hormones. Growth of P. gingivalis was not significantly influenced by any hormone. Growth of P. intermedia and E. corrodens was inhibited by almost all stress hormones tested. Both methods of analysis revealed that the highest concentrations of norepinephrine and cortisol increased the growth of T. forsythia. Different hormones have a different effect on the growth of periodontitis-related bacteria in vitro. It appears that bacterial viability is more strongly influenced than is bacterial metabolic activity. The growth of F. nucleatum particularly and partially of T. forsythia is increased by several stress hormones and may have an additional negative impact on periodontal disease. PMID:24036419

Jentsch, H F R; März, Diana; Krüger, Monika

2013-12-01

329

Facultative bacterial symbionts in aphids confer resistance to parasitic wasps.  

PubMed

Symbiotic relationships between animals and microorganisms are common in nature, yet the factors controlling the abundance and distributions of symbionts are mostly unknown. Aphids have an obligate association with the bacterium Buchnera aphidicola (the primary symbiont) that has been shown to contribute directly to aphid fitness. In addition, aphids sometimes harbor other vertically transmitted bacteria (secondary symbionts), for which few benefits of infection have been previously documented. We carried out experiments to determine the consequences of these facultative symbioses in Acyrthosiphon pisum (the pea aphid) for vulnerability of the aphid host to a hymenopteran parasitoid, Aphidius ervi, a major natural enemy in field populations. Our results show that, in a controlled genetic background, infection confers resistance to parasitoid attack by causing high mortality of developing parasitoid larvae. Compared with uninfected controls, experimentally infected aphids were as likely to be attacked by ovipositing parasitoids but less likely to support parasitoid development. This strong interaction between a symbiotic bacterium and a host natural enemy provides a mechanism for the persistence and spread of symbiotic bacteria. PMID:12563031

Oliver, Kerry M; Russell, Jacob A; Moran, Nancy A; Hunter, Martha S

2003-02-18

330

Modified Device for Anaerobic Dispensing of Reduced Media.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A problem often confronting those engaged in the culture of obligate anaerobic bacteria is the dispensation of culture media while attempting to maintain anaerobic conditions. A modification of the technique reported in this report makes the apparatus and...

C. A. Willingham

1964-01-01

331

Occurrence and diversity of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation bacteria in the sediments of the South China Sea revealed by amplification of both 16S rRNA and pmoA genes.  

PubMed

Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) process is unique in linking the microbial carbon and nitrogen cycles, but the presence of n-damo bacteria in marine ecosystem and the associated environmental factors are still poorly understood. In the present study, detection of n-damo bacteria using 16S rRNA and pmoA gene-based PCR primers was successfully employed to reveal their diversity and distribution in the surface and subsurface sediments of the South China Sea (SCS). The widespread occurrence of n-damo bacteria in both the surface and subsurface sediments with high diversity has been confirmed in this study. The pmoA gene-amplified sequences clustered within three newly erected subclusters, namely SCS-1, SCS-2, and SCS-3, suggesting the unique niche specificity of n-damo bacteria in the marine ecosystem. Results indicated the presence of n-damo bacteria in the west Pacific Ocean with a wide distribution from the continental shelf (E201S) to the deep abyss (E407S and E407B). Community structures of n-damo bacteria in SCS are clearly different from those of nonmarine ones known. It is also found that NO x (-) and NH4 (+) affected the community structures and distribution of n-damo bacteria in the SCS sediments differently. Salinity is another important factor identified, shaping the n-damo communities in marine environments. The community based on pmoA gene-amplified sequences, and community richness and diversity based on 16S rRNA gene-amplified sequences correlated with temperature. PMID:24769903

Chen, Jing; Zhou, Zhi-Chao; Gu, Ji-Dong

2014-06-01

332

Bovine Intestinal Bacteria Inactivate and Degrade Ceftiofur and Ceftriaxone with Multiple ?-Lactamases?  

PubMed Central

The veterinary cephalosporin drug ceftiofur is rapidly degraded in the bovine intestinal tract. A cylinder-plate assay was used to detect microbiologically active ceftiofur, and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to quantify the amount of ceftiofur remaining after incubation with bovine intestinal anaerobic bacteria, which were isolated from colon contents or feces from 8 cattle. Ninety-six percent of the isolates were able to inactivate ceftiofur to some degree, and 54% actually degraded the drug. None of 9 fungal isolates inactivated or degraded ceftiofur. Facultative and obligate anaerobic bacterial species that inactivated or degraded ceftiofur were identified with Vitek and Biolog systems, respectively. A subset of ceftiofur degraders also degraded the chemically similar drug ceftriaxone. Most of the species of bacteria that degraded ceftiofur belonged to the genera Bacillus and Bacteroides. PCR analysis of bacterial DNA detected specific ?-lactamase genes. Bacillus cereus and B. mycoides isolates produced extended-spectrum ?-lactamases and metallo-?-lactamases. Seven isolates of Bacteroides spp. produced multiple ?-lactamases, including possibly CepA, and metallo-?-lactamases. Isolates of Eubacterium biforme, Bifidobacterium breve, and several Clostridium spp. also produced ceftiofur-degrading ?-lactamases. An agar gel overlay technique on isoelectric focusing separations of bacterial lysates showed that ?-lactamase enzymes were sufficient to degrade ceftiofur. These results suggest that ceftiofur is inactivated nonenzymatically and degraded enzymatically by multiple ?-lactamases from bacteria in the large intestines of cattle.

Wagner, R. Doug; Johnson, Shemedia J.; Cerniglia, Carl E.; Erickson, Bruce D.

2011-01-01

333

Effect of high influent sulfate on anaerobic wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

A laboratory-scale study was conducted using a completely mixed reactor with a constant influent-total-organic carbon (TOC) of 3750 mg/L to evaluate the effect of increasing influent-sulfate levels on anaerobic-treatment performance. The sulfate levels were increased stepwise from 333 to 666, 1000, 1333 and 1666 mg S/L. The results showed that an elevation of influent sulfate actually increased the TOC removal efficiency as long as the produced sulfide level did not induce toxicity. At 1333 mg S/L influent sulfate, the produced dissolved sulfide was 613 mg S/L (free sulfide = 228 mg S/L), which started to impose toxicity to the methane-producing bacteria (MPB). It was also found that the percent electron flow to the sulfate-reducing pathway increased with the increasing influent sulfate, but the direction toward the methanogenesis was correspondingly reduced. Nevertheless, under the experimental conditions tested, the majority of the influent organics was still degraded through the methanogenic pathway. Through this study, an oxidation-reduction-potential (ORP)-based oxygenation process was developed for online oxidation of sulfide in recirculating biogas. With controlled oxygen injection to raise the reactor's ORP by 25 mV, the residual sulfide in the reactor was almost totally eliminated. In case of over oxygenation, any excess oxygen was quickly consumed by the facultative organisms in the reactor, thereby imposing no toxicity to the MPB. PMID:16381151

Khanal, Samir Kumar; Huang, Ju-Chang

2005-01-01

334

Reprogramming of Escherichia coli K-12 Metabolism during the Initial Phase of Transition from an Anaerobic to a Micro-Aerobic Environment  

PubMed Central

Background Many bacteria undergo transitions between environments with differing O2 availabilities as part of their natural lifestyles and during biotechnological processes. However, the dynamics of adaptation when bacteria experience changes in O2 availability are understudied. The model bacterium and facultative anaerobe Escherichia coli K-12 provides an ideal system for exploring this process. Methods and Findings Time-resolved transcript profiles of E. coli K-12 during the initial phase of transition from anaerobic to micro-aerobic conditions revealed a reprogramming of gene expression consistent with a switch from fermentative to respiratory metabolism. The changes in transcript abundance were matched by changes in the abundances of selected central metabolic proteins. A probabilistic state space model was used to infer the activities of two key regulators, FNR (O2 sensing) and PdhR (pyruvate sensing). The model implied that both regulators were rapidly inactivated during the transition from an anaerobic to a micro-aerobic environment. Analysis of the external metabolome and protein levels suggested that the cultures transit through different physiological states during the process of adaptation, characterized by the rapid inactivation of pyruvate formate-lyase (PFL), a slower induction of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) activity and transient excretion of pyruvate, consistent with the predicted inactivation of PdhR and FNR. Conclusion Perturbation of anaerobic steady-state cultures by introduction of a limited supply of O2 combined with time-resolved transcript, protein and metabolite profiling, and probabilistic modeling has revealed that pyruvate (sensed by PdhR) is a key metabolic signal in coordinating the reprogramming of E. coli K-12 gene expression by working alongside the O2 sensor FNR during transition from anaerobic to micro-aerobic conditions.

Trotter, Eleanor W.; Rolfe, Matthew D.; Hounslow, Andrea M.; Craven, C. Jeremy; Williamson, Michael P.; Sanguinetti, Guido; Poole, Robert K.; Green, Jeffrey

2011-01-01

335

Comparison of Vitek GNI and GNI+ Cards for Identification of Gram-Negative Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The GNI+ card has been developed by bioMerieux Vitek as an improvement over the GNI card for the identification of certain species of aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria. In this study, we tested 304 organisms from 30 different species on both the GNI and GNI+ cards. The GNI card correctly identified 285 (93.8%) of the isolates tested, and the GNI+ card correctly identified 287 (94.4%) of the isolates tested. The average time to reporting was 4.1 h for the GNI+ card compared to 5.7 h for the GNI card (P < 0.001). Overall, the GNI and GNI+ cards were comparable in identifying the organisms in this study while the GNI+ card gave substantially faster final test results.

Bourbeau, Paul P.; Heiter, Barbara J.

1998-01-01

336

Octreotide induced prolongation of colonic transit increases faecal anaerobic bacteria, bile acid metabolising enzymes, and serum deoxycholic acid in patients with acromegaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Acromegalic patients have slow colonic transit, increased rates of deoxycholic acid formation, and an increased prevalence of cholesterol gall stones, especially during long term octreotide treatment. However, the effects of this prolonged large bowel transit time on the numbers of faecal anaerobes and the activities of the enzyme systems which biotransform conjugated cholic acid into unconjugated deoxycholic acid (cholylglycine

L A Thomas; M J Veysey; G M Murphy; D Russell-Jones; G L French; J A H Wass; R H Dowling

2005-01-01

337

One carbon metabolism in anaerobic bacteria: Regulation of carbon and electron flow during organic acid production. Progress report, June 1990--May 1992  

SciTech Connect

This reporting period, progress is reported on the following: metabolic pathway of solvent production in B. methylotrophicum; the biochemical mechanism for metabolic regulation of the succinate fermentation; models to understand the physiobiochemical function of formate metabolism in anaerobes and; models for understanding the influence of low pH on one carbon metabolism. (CBS)

Zeikus, J.G.; Jain, M.K.

1992-04-01

338

Iron and manganese in anaerobic respiration: environmental significance, physiology, and regulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dissimilatory iron and/or manganese reduction is known to occur in several organisms, including anaerobic sulfur-reducing organisms such as Geobacter metallireducens or Desulfuromonas acetoxidans, and facultative aerobes such as Shewanella putrefaciens. These bacteria couple both carbon oxidation and growth to the reduction of these metals, and inhibitor and competition experiments suggest that Mn(IV) and Fe(III) are efficient electron acceptors similar to nitrate in redox abilities and capable of out-competing electron acceptors of lower potential, such as sulfate (sulfate reduction) or CO2 (methanogenesis). Field studies of iron and/or manganese reduction suggest that organisms with such metabolic abilities play important roles in coupling the oxidation of organic carbon to metal reduction under anaerobic conditions. Because both iron and manganese oxides are solids or colloids, they tend to settle downward in aquatic environments, providing a physical mechanism for the movement of oxidizing potential into anoxic zones. The resulting biogeochemical metal cycles have a strong impact on many other elements including carbon, sulfur, phosphorous, and trace metals.

Nealson, K. H.; Saffarini, D.

1994-01-01

339

Bacteria Associated with the Gut Tract of Larval Stages of the Aquatic Cranefly Tipula abdominalis (Diptera; Tipulidae) †  

PubMed Central

Scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy, and direct isolations were used to examine the distribution and diversity of bacteria in the gut tracts of larval stages of Tipula abdominalis. The animal had an enlarged hindgut which housed a diverse bacterial community in the lumen and directly attached to the gut wall. Distinct localization was noted, with the most dense and most diverse community anterior to the rectum. A distinct architecture of bacteria occurred in this region, characterized by a layering or a “weblike” array of filamentous bacteria overlying mats of bacteria closely associated with the gut wall. Although morphological diversity was high in the hindgut, filamentous bacteria were the dominant morphology observed. The attached microbiota, sloughed during ecdysis, recolonized to the same density and diversity observed before the molt. The majority of the isolatable bacterial types were facultatively anaerobic. The distinct localization and attached nature of the hindgut bacteria and the recolonization after each molt suggest they are indigenous to this region of the gut tract. Images

Klug, M. J.; Kotarski, S.

1980-01-01

340

Buffering capacity and membrane H+ conductance of protease producing facultative alkaliphilic bacterium Bacillus flexus from mangrove soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A facultative alkaliphilic protease-producing gram-positive rod-shaped bacteria (EMGA 5) was isolated from mangrove soil and confirmed as Bacillus flexus by the 16S rDNA sequence. Buffering capacity and membrane H+ conductance of this alkaliphilic isolate were investigated for the cells grown at pH 7.2 and 10.5 using acid pulse technique. Suspensions of B. flexus cells grown in poly peptone yeast glucose

P Kannan; S Ignacimuthu; M Gabriel Paulraj

341

Anaerobic Digestion of Agricultural Solid Residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural residues can be converted to methane-rich gas mixture. Anaerobic biomethane production is an effective process for conversion of a broad variety of agricultural residues to methane to substitute natural gas and medium calorific value gases. Methane generating bacteria (methanogens) and other microbes that help digest dying plants in anaerobic conditions. Agricultural solid residues (ASR) represent a potential energy resource

Ayhan Demirbas; Temel Ozturk

2005-01-01

342

Anaerobic Infections in Children with Neurological Impairments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with neurological impairments are prone to develop serious infection with anaerobic bacteria. The most common anaerobic infections are decubitus ulcers; gastrostomy site wound infections; pulmonary infections (aspiration pneumonia, lung abscesses, and tracheitis); and chronic suppurative otitis media. The unique microbiology of each of…

Brook, Itzhak

1995-01-01

343

Biochemistry and Evolution of Anaerobic Energy Metabolism in Eukaryotes  

PubMed Central

Summary: Major insights into the phylogenetic distribution, biochemistry, and evolutionary significance of organelles involved in ATP synthesis (energy metabolism) in eukaryotes that thrive in anaerobic environments for all or part of their life cycles have accrued in recent years. All known eukaryotic groups possess an organelle of mitochondrial origin, mapping the origin of mitochondria to the eukaryotic common ancestor, and genome sequence data are rapidly accumulating for eukaryotes that possess anaerobic mitochondria, hydrogenosomes, or mitosomes. Here we review the available biochemical data on the enzymes and pathways that eukaryotes use in anaerobic energy metabolism and summarize the metabolic end products that they generate in their anaerobic habitats, focusing on the biochemical roles that their mitochondria play in anaerobic ATP synthesis. We present metabolic maps of compartmentalized energy metabolism for 16 well-studied species. There are currently no enzymes of core anaerobic energy metabolism that are specific to any of the six eukaryotic supergroup lineages; genes present in one supergroup are also found in at least one other supergroup. The gene distribution across lineages thus reflects the presence of anaerobic energy metabolism in the eukaryote common ancestor and differential loss during the specialization of some lineages to oxic niches, just as oxphos capabilities have been differentially lost in specialization to anoxic niches and the parasitic life-style. Some facultative anaerobes have retained both aerobic and anaerobic pathways. Diversified eukaryotic lineages have retained the same enzymes of anaerobic ATP synthesis, in line with geochemical data indicating low environmental oxygen levels while eukaryotes arose and diversified.

Muller, Miklos; Mentel, Marek; van Hellemond, Jaap J.; Henze, Katrin; Woehle, Christian; Gould, Sven B.; Yu, Re-Young; van der Giezen, Mark

2012-01-01

344

Competition and coexistence of sulfate-reducing bacteria, acetogens and methanogens in a lab-scale anaerobic bioreactor as affected by changing substrate to sulfate ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbial population structure and function of natural anaerobic communities maintained in lab-scale continuously stirred\\u000a tank reactors at different lactate to sulfate ratios and in the absence of sulfate were analyzed using an integrated approach\\u000a of molecular techniques and chemical analysis. The population structure, determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis\\u000a and by the use of oligonucleotide probes, was linked to

Shabir A. Dar; Robbert Kleerebezem; Alfons J. M. Stams; J. Gijs Kuenen; Gerard Muyzer

2008-01-01

345

Enumeration, Isolation, and Characterization of N2-Fixing Bacteria from Seawater  

PubMed Central

Marine pelagic N2-fixing bacteria have not, in general, been identified or quantified, since low or negligible rates of N2 fixation have been recorded for seawater when blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) are absent. In the study reported here, marine N2-fixing bacteria were found in all samples of seawater collected and were analyzed by using a most-probable-number (MPN) method. Two different media were used which allowed growth of microaerophiles, as well as that of aerobes and facultative anaerobes. MPN values obtained for N2-fixing bacteria ranged from 0.4 to 1 × 103 per liter for water collected off the coast of Puerto Rico and from 2 to 5.5 × 102 per liter for Chesapeake Bay water. Over 100 strains of N2-fixing bacteria were isolated from the MPN tubes and classified, yielding four major groups of NaCl-requiring bacteria based on biochemical characteristics. Results of differential filtration studies indicate that N2-fixing bacteria may be associated with phytoplankton. In addition, when N2-fixing bacteria were inoculated into unfiltered seawater and incubated in situ, nitrogenase activity could be detected within 1 h. However, no nitrogenase activity was detected in uninoculated seawater or when bacteria were incubated in 0.2-?m-filtered (phytoplankton-free) seawater. The ability of these isolates to fix N2 at ambient conditions in seawater and the large variety of N2-fixing bacteria isolated and identified lead to the conclusion that N2 fixation in the ocean may occur to a greater degree than previously believed.

Guerinot, Mary Lou; Colwell, Rita R.

1985-01-01

346

IN SITU\\/EX SITU ACCELERATED ANAEROBIC REDUCTION OF PERCHLORATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anaerobic reduction of perchlorate via indigenous subsurface bacteria is fast becoming a widely accepted tool for the remediation of perchlorate-impacted soil and groundwater. Pilot tests were initiated in 2001 to determine the applicability and effectiveness of stimulating the anaerobic biological treatment of soils and groundwater. Anaerobic composting was demonstrated as an effective ex situ method for treating heavily perchlorate-impacted

William Smith; Kevin A. Morris; Christopher Underwood

347

The capacity of hydrogenotrophic anaerobic bacteria to compete for traces of hydrogen depends on the redox potential of the terminal electron acceptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of different electron acceptors on substrate degradation was studied in pure and mixed cultures of various hydrogenotrophic homoacetogenic, methanogenic, sulfate-reducing, fumarate-reducing and nitrate-ammonifying bacteria. Two different species of these bacteria which during organic substrate degradation produce and consume hydrogen, were cocultured on a substrate which was utilized only by one of them. Hydrogen, which was excreted as intermediate

Ralf Cord-Ruwisch; Hans-Jiirgen Seitz; Ralf Conrad

1988-01-01

348

Abundance and diversity of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)-metabolizing bacteria in UXO-contaminated marine sediments.  

PubMed

Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) is a toxic explosive known to be resistant to biodegradation. In this study, we found that sediment collected from two unexploded ordnance (UXO) disposal sites (UXO-3, UXO-5) and one nearby reference site (midref) in Hawaii contained anaerobic bacteria capable of removing HMX. Two groups of HMX-removing bacteria were found in UXO-5: group I contained aerotolerant anaerobes and microaerophiles, and group II contained facultative anaerobes. In UXO-3 and midref sediments, HMX-metabolizing bacteria were strictly anaerobic (group III and group IV). Using 16S rRNA sequencing, group I was assigned to a novel phylogenetic cluster of Clostridiales, and groups II and III were related to Paenibacillus and Tepidibacter of Firmicutes, respectively. Group IV bacteria were identified as Desulfovibrio of Deltaproteobacteria. Using [UL-(14)C]-HMX, group IV isolates were found to mineralize HMX (26.8% in 308 d) as determined by liberated (14)CO(2), but negligible mineralization was observed in groups I-III. Resting cells of isolates metabolized HMX to N(2)O and HCHO via the intermediary formation of 1-nitroso-octahydro-3,5,7-trinitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine together with methylenedinitramine. These experimental findings suggest that HMX biotransformation occurred either via initial denitration followed by ring cleavage or via reduction of one or more of the N-NO(2) group(s) to the corresponding N-NO bond(s) prior to ring cleavage. PMID:17381523

Zhao, Jian-Shen; Manno, Dominic; Hawari, Jalal

2007-03-01

349

Diversity of anaerobic halophilic microorganisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life in the presence of high salt concentrations is compatible with life in the absence of oxygen. Halophilic and halotolerant anaerobic prokaryotes are found both in the archaeal and in the bacterial domain, and they display a great metabolic diversity. Many of the representatives of the Halobacteriales (Archaea), which are generally considered aerobes, have the potential of anaerobic growth. Some can use alternative electron acceptors such as nitrate, fumarate, dimethylsulfoxide or trimethylamine-N-oxide Halobacterium salinarum can also grow fermentatively on L-arginine, and bacteriorhodopsin-containing cells may even grow anaerobically, energized by light. Obligatory anaerobic halophilic methanogenic Archaea also exist. The bacterial domain contains many anaerobic halophiles, including sulfate reducers. There is also a group of specialized obligatory anaerobic Bacteria, phylogenetically clustering in the low G + C branch of the Firmicutes. Most representatives of this group (order Haloanaerobiales, families Haloanaerobiaceae and Halobacteroidaceae) are fermentative, using a variety of carbohydrates and amino acids. One species combines the potential for anaerobic growth at high salt concentrations with a preference for high temperatures. Others are homoacetogens; Acetohalobium arabaticum can grow anaerobically as a chemolithotroph, producing acetate from hydrogen and CO2. The Haloanaerobiales accumulate high concentrations of K+ and Cl- in their cytoplasm, thereby showing a strategy of salt adaptation similar to that used by the Halobacteriales. Recently a new representative of the Haloanaerobiales was isolated from bottom sediments of the Dead Sea (strain DSSe1), which grows anaerobically by oxidation of glycerol to acetate and CO2 while reducing selenate to selenite and elementary selenium. Other electron acceptors supporting anaerobic growth of this strain are nitrate and trimethylamine-N-oxide. The versatility of life at high salt concentrations with respect to the variety of substrates used, the types of dissimilatory metabolism, and the diversity of potential electron acceptors has important implications for the potential for life in hostile environments lacking oxygen and high in salt, implications that may also be relevant to astrobiology.

Oren, Aharon; Oremland, Roland S.

2000-12-01

350

Sulfate-reducing bacteria and their activities in cyanobacterial mats of Solar Lake (Sinai, Egypt)  

SciTech Connect

The sulfate-reducing bacteria within the surface layer of the hypersaline cyanobacterial mat of Solar Lake (Sinai, Egypt) were investigated with combined microbiological, molecular, and biogeochemical approaches. The diurnally oxic surface layer contained between 10{sup 6} and 10{sup 7} cultivable sulfate-reducing bacteria ml{sup {minus}1} day{sup {minus}1}, both in the same range as and sometimes higher than those in anaerobic deeper mat layers. In the oxic surface layer and in the mat layers below, filamentous sulfate-reducing Desulfonema bacteria were found in variable densities of 10{sup 4} and 10{sup 6} cells ml{sup {minus}1}. A Desulfonema-related, diurnally migrating bacterium was detected with PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis within and below the oxic surface layer. Facultative aerobic respiration, filamentous morphology, motility, diurnal migration, and aggregate formation were the most conspicuous adaptations of Solar Lake sulfate-reducing bacteria to the mat matrix and to diurnal oxygen stress. A comparison of sulfate reduction rates within the mat and previously published photosynthesis rates showed that CO{sub 2} from sulfate reduction in the upper 5 mm accounted for 7 to 8% of the total photosynthetic CO{sub 2} demand of the mat.

Teske, A.; Ramsing, N.B.; Habicht, K.; Kuever, J.; Joergensen, B.B. [Max Planck Inst. for Marine Microbiology, Bremen (Germany); Fukui, Manabu [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Cohen, Y. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel)

1998-08-01

351

Sulfide production in anaerobic microcosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The source of free sulfide in tidal flat sediments and the mechanisms leading to its generation were investigated by growing mixed cultures of anaerobic sediment bacteria in media containing organic material extracted from sediments and benthic algae. Sulfide pro- duction was observed in all cultures; stoichiometric considerations indicated sulfate reduc- tion was the most important mechanism. Sulfide production rates were

Alan E. Ramml; DAVID A. BELLA

1974-01-01

352

A comparison of primer sets for detecting 16S rRNA and hydrazine oxidoreductase genes of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in marine sediments.  

PubMed

Published polymerase chain reaction primer sets for detecting the genes encoding 16S rRNA gene and hydrazine oxidoreductase (hzo) in anammox bacteria were compared by using the same coastal marine sediment samples. While four previously reported primer sets developed to detect the 16S rRNA gene showed varying specificities between 12% and 77%, an optimized primer combination resulted in up to 98% specificity, and the recovered anammox 16S rRNA gene sequences were >95% sequence identical to published sequences from anammox bacteria in the Candidatus "Scalindua" group. Furthermore, four primer sets used in detecting the hzo gene of anammox bacteria were highly specific (up to 92%) and efficient, and the newly designed primer set in this study amplified longer hzo gene segments suitable for phylogenetic analysis. The optimized primer set for the 16S rRNA gene and the newly designed primer set for the hzo gene were successfully applied to identify anammox bacteria from marine sediments of aquaculture zone, coastal wetland, and deep ocean where the three ecosystems form a gradient of anthropogenic impact. Results indicated a broad distribution of anammox bacteria with high niche-specific community structure within each marine ecosystem. PMID:20107988

Li, Meng; Hong, Yiguo; Klotz, Martin Gunter; Gu, Ji-Dong

2010-03-01

353

Phylogenetic and metabolic diversity of bacteria associated with cystic fibrosis  

PubMed Central

In patients afflicted with cystic fibrosis (CF), morbidity and mortality are primarily associated with the adverse consequences of chronic microbial bronchial infections, which are thought to be caused by a few opportunistic pathogens. However, recent evidence suggests the presence of other microorganisms, which may significantly affect the course and outcome of the infection. Using a combination of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, bacterial culturing and pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA amplicons, the microbial communities present in CF patient sputum samples were examined. In addition to previously recognized CF pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, >60 phylogenetically diverse bacterial genera that are not typically associated with CF pathogenesis were also detected. A surprisingly large number of fermenting facultative and obligate anaerobes from multiple bacterial phyla was present in each sample. Many of the bacteria and sequences found were normal residents of the oropharyngeal microflora and with many containing opportunistic pathogens. Our data suggest that these undersampled organisms within the CF lung are part of a much more complex microbial ecosystem than is normally presumed. Characterization of these communities is the first step in elucidating potential roles of diverse bacteria in disease progression and to ultimately facilitate advances in CF therapy.

Guss, Adam M; Roeselers, Guus; Newton, Irene L G; Young, C Robert; Klepac-Ceraj, Vanja; Lory, Stephen; Cavanaugh, Colleen M

2011-01-01

354

Phylogenetic and metabolic diversity of bacteria associated with cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed

In patients afflicted with cystic fibrosis (CF), morbidity and mortality are primarily associated with the adverse consequences of chronic microbial bronchial infections, which are thought to be caused by a few opportunistic pathogens. However, recent evidence suggests the presence of other microorganisms, which may significantly affect the course and outcome of the infection. Using a combination of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, bacterial culturing and pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA amplicons, the microbial communities present in CF patient sputum samples were examined. In addition to previously recognized CF pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, >60 phylogenetically diverse bacterial genera that are not typically associated with CF pathogenesis were also detected. A surprisingly large number of fermenting facultative and obligate anaerobes from multiple bacterial phyla was present in each sample. Many of the bacteria and sequences found were normal residents of the oropharyngeal microflora and with many containing opportunistic pathogens. Our data suggest that these undersampled organisms within the CF lung are part of a much more complex microbial ecosystem than is normally presumed. Characterization of these communities is the first step in elucidating potential roles of diverse bacteria in disease progression and to ultimately facilitate advances in CF therapy. PMID:20631810

Guss, Adam M; Roeselers, Guus; Newton, Irene L G; Young, C Robert; Klepac-Ceraj, Vanja; Lory, Stephen; Cavanaugh, Colleen M

2011-01-01

355

Bacteria bites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Naturally occurring bacteria may be a future solution for myriad pollution problems, mounting laboratory evidence suggests. Last month, USGS scientists reported in Nature that microbes living in oxygen-free sediments can break down derivatives of hydrofluorocarbons, which are among the compounds under consideration to replace ozone-destroying chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). And now, another USGS scientist reports in the July 14 Nature that microbes which degrade toxic and carcinogenic aromatic hydrocarbons like benzene and toluene can be boosted with an iron additive or chemical binder to work in anaerobic conditions that are commonly found in heavily polluted aquifers. Previously, scientists thought the bacteria could reduce the hard pollutants only if plenty of dissolved oxygen was in the water. Other bacteria have been shown to convert uranium to a highly insoluble form in cbntaminated waters as well.

356

Cultivable Anaerobic Microbiota of Infected Root Canals  

PubMed Central

Objective. Periapical periodontitis is an infectious and inflammatory disease of the periapical tissues caused by oral bacteria invading the root canal. In the present study, profiling of the microbiota in infected root canals was performed using anaerobic culture and molecular biological techniques for bacterial identification. Methods. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects (age ranges, 34–71 years). Nine infected root canals with periapical lesions from 7 subjects were included. Samples from infected root canals were collected, followed by anaerobic culture on CDC blood agar plates. After 7 days, colony forming units (CFU) were counted and isolated bacteria were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results. The mean bacterial count (CFU) in root canals was (0.5 ± 1.1) × 106 (range 8.0 × 101–3.1 × 106), and anaerobic bacteria were predominant (89.8%). The predominant isolates were Olsenella (25.4%), Mogibacterium (17.7%), Pseudoramibacter (17.7%), Propionibacterium (11.9%) and Parvimonas (5.9%). Conclusion. The combination of anaerobic culture and molecular biological techniques makes it possible to analyze rapidly the microbiota in infected root canals. The overwhelming majority of the isolates from infected root canals were found to be anaerobic bacteria, suggesting that the environment in root canals is anaerobic and therefore support the growth of anaerobes.

Sato, Takuichi; Yamaki, Keiko; Ishida, Naoko; Hashimoto, Kazuhiro; Takeuchi, Yasuhisa; Shoji, Megumi; Sato, Emika; Matsuyama, Junko; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

2012-01-01

357

Application of molecular techniques to evaluate the methanogenic archaea and anaerobic bacteria in the presence of oxygen with different COD:sulfate ratios in a UASB reactor.  

PubMed

In this paper, the microbial characteristics of the granular sludge in the presence of oxygen (3.0+/-0.7 mg O2 l(-1)) were analyzed using molecular biology techniques. The granules were provided by an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) operated over 469 days and fed with synthetic substrate. Ethanol and sulfate were added to obtain different COD/SO4(2-) ratios (3.0, 2.0, and 1.6). The results of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses showed that archaeal cells, detected by the ARC915 probe, accounted for 77%, 84%, and 75% in the COD/SO(4)(2-) ratios (3.0, 2.0, and 1.6, respectively). Methanosaeta sp. was the predominant acetoclastic archaea observed by optical microscopy and FISH analyses, and confirmed by sequencing of the excised bands of the DGGE gel with a similarity of 96%. The sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris subsp. vulgaris (similarity of 99%) was verified by sequencing of the DGGE band. Others identified microorganism were similar to Shewanella sp. and Desulfitobacterium hafniense, with similarities of 95% and 99%, respectively. These results confirmed that the presence of oxygen did not severely affect the metabolism of microorganisms that are commonly considered strictly anaerobic. We obtained mean efficiencies of organic matter conversion and sulfate reducing higher than 74%. PMID:18634895

Hirasawa, Julia Sumiko; Sarti, Arnaldo; Del Aguila, Nora Katia Saavedra; Varesche, Maria Bernadete A

2008-10-01

358

Practical removal of radioactivity from soil in Fukushima using immobilized photosynthetic bacteria combined with anaerobic digestion and lactic acid fermentation as pre-treatment.  

PubMed

Practical removal of radioactivity from polluted soil in Fukushima, Japan was done using a photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides SSI, immobilized in alginate beads. The beads were put in a mesh bag and soaked in which soil was suspended (5 kg of soil/10 L of tap water). The radioactivity of the broth decreased by 31% after 15 d of aerobic treatment. When lactic acid bacterial culture broth was added to the suspend broth, about 50% of the radioactivity was transferred to a suspend broth fraction consisting of small particles from the soil after 3 d of fermentation and 20 s of sedimentation. The results suggest that organic matter in the soil was decomposed by anaerobic digestion and lactic acid fermentation simultaneously, and was then transferred into the liquid as small particles. With combined treatment by anaerobic digestion and lactic acid fermentation for 5 d and immobilized bead aerobic treatment for an additional 19 d, the radioactivity of suspend broth decreased by 66%. The radioactivity of the original soil (10.56 µSv/h) ultimately decreased by 67% (3.52 µSv/h) after the combined treatment. PMID:22972354

Sasaki, Ken; Morikawa, Hiroyo; Kishibe, Takashi; Takeno, Kenji; Mikami, Ayaka; Harada, Toshihiko; Ohta, Masahiro

2012-01-01

359

COMBINED ANAEROBIC - ALGAL OXIDATION TREATMENT OF WINE DISTILLERY EFFLUENT: THE A2O PROCESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of a novel process train for the treatment of wine distillery effluent is reported. An anaerobic baffle reactor (ABR) is operated in such a way as to rapidly remove the easily degradable organic fraction, while generating enough alkalinity to maintain a neutral pH in the system. An algal integrated ponding system, which consists of facultative pond and high

L. G. Dekker; O. O. Hart; P. D. Rose

360

Inhibition of nitrate reduction by chromium (VI) in anaerobic soil microcosms.  

PubMed

Chromium is often found as a cocontaminant at sites polluted with organic compounds. For nitrate-respiring microbes, Cr(VI) may be not only directly toxic but may also specifically interfere with N reduction. In soil microcosms amended with organic electron donors, Cr(VI), and nitrate, bacteria oxidized added carbon, but relatively low doses of Cr(VI) caused a lag and then lower rates of CO(2) accumulation. Cr(VI) strongly inhibited nitrate reduction; it occurred only after soluble Cr(VI) could not be detected. However, Cr(VI) additions did not eliminate Cr-sensitive populations; after a second dose of Cr(VI), bacterial activity was strongly inhibited. Differences in microbial community composition (assayed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) driven by different organic substrates (glucose and protein) were smaller than when other electron acceptors had been used. However, the selection of bacterial phylotypes was modified by Cr(VI). Nine isolated clades of facultatively anaerobic Cr(VI)-resistant bacteria were closely related to cultivated members of the phylum Actinobacteria or Firmicutes. In Bacillus cereus GNCR-4, the nature of the electron donor (fermentable or nonfermentable) affected Cr(VI) resistance level and anaerobic nitrate metabolism. Our results indicate that carbon utilization and nitrate reduction in these soils were contingent upon the reduction of added Cr(VI). The amount of Cr(VI) required to inhibit nitrate reduction was 10-fold less than for aerobic catabolism of the same organic substrate. We speculate that the resistance level of a microbial process is directly related to the diversity of microbes capable of conducting it. PMID:19684175

Kourtev, Peter S; Nakatsu, Cindy H; Konopka, Allan

2009-10-01

361

Inhibition of Nitrate Reduction by Chromium(VI) in Anaerobic Soil Microcosms?  

PubMed Central

Chromium is often found as a cocontaminant at sites polluted with organic compounds. For nitrate-respiring microbes, Cr(VI) may be not only directly toxic but may also specifically interfere with N reduction. In soil microcosms amended with organic electron donors, Cr(VI), and nitrate, bacteria oxidized added carbon, but relatively low doses of Cr(VI) caused a lag and then lower rates of CO2 accumulation. Cr(VI) strongly inhibited nitrate reduction; it occurred only after soluble Cr(VI) could not be detected. However, Cr(VI) additions did not eliminate Cr-sensitive populations; after a second dose of Cr(VI), bacterial activity was strongly inhibited. Differences in microbial community composition (assayed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) driven by different organic substrates (glucose and protein) were smaller than when other electron acceptors had been used. However, the selection of bacterial phylotypes was modified by Cr(VI). Nine isolated clades of facultatively anaerobic Cr(VI)-resistant bacteria were closely related to cultivated members of the phylum Actinobacteria or Firmicutes. In Bacillus cereus GNCR-4, the nature of the electron donor (fermentable or nonfermentable) affected Cr(VI) resistance level and anaerobic nitrate metabolism. Our results indicate that carbon utilization and nitrate reduction in these soils were contingent upon the reduction of added Cr(VI). The amount of Cr(VI) required to inhibit nitrate reduction was 10-fold less than for aerobic catabolism of the same organic substrate. We speculate that the resistance level of a microbial process is directly related to the diversity of microbes capable of conducting it.

Kourtev, Peter S.; Nakatsu, Cindy H.; Konopka, Allan

2009-01-01

362

Time-Resolved DNA Stable Isotope Probing Links Desulfobacterales- and Coriobacteriaceae-Related Bacteria to Anaerobic Degradation of Benzene under Methanogenic Conditions  

PubMed Central

To identify the microorganisms involved in benzene degradation, DNA-stable isotope probing (SIP) with 13C-benzene was applied to a methanogenic benzene-degrading enrichment culture. Pyrosequencing of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences revealed that the community structure was highly complex in spite of a 3-year incubation only with benzene. The culture degraded 98% of approximately 1 mM 13C-benzene and mineralized 72% of that within 63 d. The terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) profiles of the buoyant density fractions revealed the incorporation of 13C into two phylotypes after 64 d. These two phylotypes were determined to be Desulfobacterales- and Coriobacteriaceae-related bacteria by cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene in the 13C-labeled DNA abundant fraction. Comparative pyrosequencing analysis of the buoyant density fractions of 12C- and 13C-labeled samples indicated the incorporation of 13C into three bacterial and one archaeal OTUs related to Desulfobacterales, Coriobacteriales, Rhodocyclaceae, and Methanosarcinales. The first two OTUs included the bacteria detected by T-RFLP-cloning-sequencing analysis. Furthermore, time-resolved SIP analysis confirmed that the activity of all these microbes appeared at the earliest stage of degradation. In this methanogenic culture, Desulfobacterales- and Coriobacteriaceae-related bacteria were most likely to be the major benzene degraders.

Noguchi, Mana; Kurisu, Futoshi; Kasuga, Ikuro; Furumai, Hiroaki

2014-01-01

363

Methylophilus: a New Genus of Methanol-Utilizing Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new genus, Methyluphilus, and species of restricted facultative methanol-utilizing bacteria are described. These bacteria are aerobic gram-negative rods that occur singly and in pairs. In addition to methanol and glucose, a limited range of other carbon compounds including fructose and methylamines may be used as the sole carbon and energy source. The fatty acid composition is primarily of the

OWEN JENKINS; DAVID BYROM; DOROTHY JONES

364

Carbon and hydrogen stable isotope fractionation associated with the anaerobic degradation of propane and butane by marine sulfate-reducing bacteria.  

PubMed

The anaerobic degradation of propane and butane is typically initiated by activation via addition to fumarate. Here we investigated the mechanism of activation under sulfate-reducing conditions by one pure culture (strain BuS5) and three enrichment cultures employing stable isotope analysis. Stable isotope fractionation was compared for cultures incubated with or without substrate diffusion limitation. Bulk enrichment factors were significantly higher in mixed vs. static incubations. Two dimensional factors, given by the correlation of stable isotope fractionation of both carbon and hydrogen at their reactive positions (Lambda reactive position, ?rp), were compared to analyse the activation mechanisms. A characteristic reactive position isotope fractionation pattern was observed, distinct from aerobic degradation. ?rp values ranged from 10.5 to 11.8 for propane and from 7.8 to 9.4 for butane. Incubations of strain BuS5 with deuterium-labelled n-alkanes indicated that butane was activated solely at the subterminal C atom. In contrast, propane was activated mainly at the subterminal C atom but also significantly at the terminal C atoms. A conservative estimate suggests that about 70% of the propane activation events occurred at the subterminal C atom and about 30% at the terminal C atoms. PMID:24028539

Jaekel, Ulrike; Vogt, Carsten; Fischer, Anko; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Musat, Florin

2014-01-01

365

Selenate Reduction to Elemental Selenium by Anaerobic Bacteria in Sediments and Culture: Biogeochemical Significance of a Novel, Sulfate-Independent Respiration †  

PubMed Central

Interstitial water profiles of SeO42?, SeO32?, SO42?, and Cl? in anoxic sediments indicated removal of the seleno-oxyanions by a near-surface process unrelated to sulfate reduction. In sediment slurry experiments, a complete reductive removal of SeO42? occurred under anaerobic conditions, was more rapid with H2 or acetate, and was inhibited by O2, NO3?, MnO2, or autoclaving but not by SO42? or FeOOH. Oxidation of acetate in sediments could be coupled to selenate but not to molybdate. Reduction of selenate to elemental selenium was determined to be the mechanism for loss from solution. Selenate reduction was inhibited by tungstate and chromate but not by molybdate. A small quantity of the elemental selenium precipitated into sediments from solution could be resolublized by oxidation with either nitrate or FeOOH, but not with MnO2. A bacterium isolated from estuarine sediments demonstrated selenate-dependent growth on acetate, forming elemental selenium and carbon dioxide as respiratory end products. These results indicate that dissimilatory selenate reduction to elemental selenium is the major sink for selenium oxyanions in anoxic sediments. In addition, they suggest application as a treatment process for removing selenium oxyanions from wastewaters and also offer an explanation for the presence of selenite in oxic waters.

Oremland, Ronald S.; Hollibaugh, James T.; Maest, Ann S.; Presser, Theresa S.; Miller, Laurence G.; Culbertson, Charles W.

1989-01-01

366

The potential of bacteria isolated from ruminal contents of seaweed-eating North Ronaldsay sheep to hydrolyse seaweed components and produce methane by anaerobic digestion in vitro  

PubMed Central

The production of methane biofuel from seaweeds is limited by the hydrolysis of polysaccharides. The rumen microbiota of seaweed-eating North Ronaldsay sheep was studied for polysaccharidic bacterial isolates degrading brown-seaweed polysaccharides. Only nine isolates out of 65 utilized > 90% of the polysaccharide they were isolated on. The nine isolates (eight Prevotella spp. and one Clostridium butyricum) utilized whole Laminaria hyperborea extract and a range of seaweed polysaccharides, including alginate (seven out of nine isolates), laminarin and carboxymethylcellulose (eight out of nine isolates); while two out of nine isolates additionally hydrolysed fucoidan to some extent. Crude enzyme extracts from three of the isolates studied further had diverse glycosidases and polysaccharidase activities; particularly against laminarin and alginate (two isolates were shown to have alginate lyase activity) and notably fucoidan and carageenan (one isolate). In serial culture rumen microbiota hydrolysed a range of seaweed polysaccharides (fucoidan to a notably lesser degree) and homogenates of L. hyperborea, mixed Fucus spp. and Ascophyllum nodosum to produce methane and acetate. The rumen microbiota and isolates represent potential adjunct organisms or enzymes which may improve hydrolysis of seaweed components and thus improve the efficiency of seaweed anaerobic digestion for methane biofuel production.

Williams, Allan G; Withers, Susan; Sutherland, Alastair D

2013-01-01

367

The potential of bacteria isolated from ruminal contents of seaweed-eating North Ronaldsay sheep to hydrolyse seaweed components and produce methane by anaerobic digestion in vitro.  

PubMed

The production of methane biofuel from seaweeds is limited by the hydrolysis of polysaccharides. The rumen microbiota of seaweed-eating North Ronaldsay sheep was studied for polysaccharidic bacterial isolates degrading brown-seaweed polysaccharides. Only nine isolates out of 65 utilized >90% of the polysaccharide they were isolated on. The nine isolates (eight Prevotella spp. and one Clostridium butyricum) utilized whole Laminaria hyperborea extract and a range of seaweed polysaccharides, including alginate (seven out of nine isolates), laminarin and carboxymethylcellulose (eight out of nine isolates); while two out of nine isolates additionally hydrolysed fucoidan to some extent. Crude enzyme extracts from three of the isolates studied further had diverse glycosidases and polysaccharidase activities; particularly against laminarin and alginate (two isolates were shown to have alginate lyase activity) and notably fucoidan and carageenan (one isolate). In serial culture rumen microbiota hydrolysed a range of seaweed polysaccharides (fucoidan to a notably lesser degree) and homogenates of L.?hyperborea, mixed Fucus spp. and Ascophyllum nodosum to produce methane and acetate. The rumen microbiota and isolates represent potential adjunct organisms or enzymes which may improve hydrolysis of seaweed components and thus improve the efficiency of seaweed anaerobic digestion for methane biofuel production. PMID:23170956

Williams, Allan G; Withers, Susan; Sutherland, Alastair D

2013-01-01

368

Isolation and Identification of Cellulolytic Bacteria from the Gut of Holotrichia parallela Larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)  

PubMed Central

In this study, 207 strains of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria were isolated from the gut of Holotrichia parallela larvae. These bacterial isolates were assigned to 21 genotypes by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). A partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis and standard biochemical and physiological tests were used for the assignment of the 21 representative isolates. Our results show that the cellulolytic bacterial community is dominated by the Proteobacteria (70.05%), followed by the Actinobacteria (24.15%), the Firmicutes (4.35%), and the Bacteroidetes (1.45%). At the genus level, Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas, Ochrobactrum, Rhizobium, Cellulosimicrobium, and Microbacterium were the predominant groups, but members of Bacillus, Dyadobacter, Siphonobacter, Paracoccus, Kaistia, Devosia, Labrys, Ensifer, Variovorax, Shinella, Citrobacter, and Stenotrophomonas were also found. Furthermore, our results suggest that a significant amount of bacterial diversity exists among the cellulolytic bacteria, and that Siphonobacter aquaeclarae, Cellulosimicrobium funkei, Paracoccus sulfuroxidans, Ochrobactrum cytisi, Ochrobactrum haematophilum, Kaistia adipata, Devosia riboflavina, Labrys neptuniae, Ensifer adhaerens, Shinella zoogloeoides, Citrobacter freundii, and Pseudomonas nitroreducens are reported to be cellulolytic for the first time in this study. Our results indicate that the scarab gut is an attractive source for the study of novel cellulolytic microorganisms and enzymes useful for cellulose degradation.

Huang, Shengwei; Sheng, Ping; Zhang, Hongyu

2012-01-01

369

Comparative performance evaluation of full-scale anaerobic and aerobic wastewater treatment processes in Brazil.  

PubMed

This article evaluates and compares the actual behavior of 166 full-scale anaerobic and aerobic wastewater treatment plants in operation in Brazil, providing information on the performance of the processes in terms of the quality of the generated effluent and the removal efficiency achieved. The observed results of effluent concentrations and removal efficiencies of the constituents BOD, COD, TSS (total suspended solids), TN (total nitrogen), TP (total phosphorus) and FC (faecal or thermotolerant coliforms) have been compared with the typical expected performance reported in the literature. The treatment technologies selected for study were: (a) predominantly anaerobic: (i) septic tank + anaerobic filter (ST + AF), (ii) UASB reactor without post-treatment (UASB) and (iii) UASB reactor followed by several post-treatment processes (UASB + POST); (b) predominantly aerobic: (iv) facultative pond (FP), (v) anaerobic pond followed by facultative pond (AP + FP) and (vi) activated sludge (AS). The results, confirmed by statistical tests, showed that, in general, the best performance was achieved by AS, but closely followed by UASB reactor, when operating with any kind of post-treatment. The effluent quality of the anaerobic processes ST + AF and UASB reactor without post-treatment was very similar to the one presented by facultative pond, a simpler aerobic process, regarding organic matter. PMID:19151481

von Sperling, M; Oliveira, S C

2009-01-01

370

Complete genome sequences for the anaerobic, extremely thermophilic plant biomass-degrading bacteria Caldicellulosiruptor hydrothermalis, Caldicellulosiruptor kristjanssonii, Caldicellulosiruptor kronotskyensis, Caldicellulosiruptor owensenis, and Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus  

SciTech Connect

The genus Caldicellulosiruptor contains the most thermophilic, plant biomass-degrading bacteria isolated to date. Previously, genome sequences from three cellulolytic members of this genus were reported (C. saccharolyticus, C. bescii, and C. obsidiansis). To further explore the physiological and biochemical basis for polysaccharide degradation within this genus, five additional genomes were sequenced: C. hydrothermalis, C. kristjanssonii, C. kronotskyensis, C. lactoaceticus, and C. owensensis. Taken together, the seven completed and one draft-phase Caldicellulosiruptor genomes suggest that, while central metabolism is highly conserved, significant differences in glycoside hydrolase inventories and numbers of carbohydrate transporters exist, a finding which likely relates to variability observed in plant biomass degradation capacity.

Blumer-Schuette, Sara E. [North Carolina State University; Ozdemir, Inci [North Carolina State University; Mistry, Dhaval [North Carolina State University; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Walston Davenport, Karen [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Adams, Michael W. W. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Kelly, Robert M [North Carolina State University

2011-01-01

371

The diversity and fitness effects of infection with facultative endosymbionts in the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae.  

PubMed

Mutualisms with facultative, non-essential heritable microorganisms influence the biology of many insects, and they can have major effects on insect host fitness in certain situations. One of the best-known examples is found in aphids where the facultative endosymbiotic bacterium Hamiltonella defensa confers protection against hymenopterous parasitoids. This symbiont is widely distributed in aphids and related insects, yet its defensive properties have only been tested in two aphid species. In a wild population of the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, we identified several distinct strains of endosymbiotic bacteria, including Hamiltonella. The symbiont had no consistent effect on grain aphid fecundity, though we did find a significant interaction between aphid genotype by symbiont status. In contrast to findings in other aphid species, Hamiltonella did not reduce aphid susceptibility to two species of parasitoids (Aphidius ervi and Ephedrus plagiator), nor did it affect the fitness of wasps that successfully completed development. Despite this, experienced females of both parasitoid species preferentially oviposited into uninfected hosts when given a choice between genetically identical individuals with or without Hamiltonella. Thus, although Hamiltonella does not always increase resistance to parasitism, it may reduce the risk of parasitism in its aphid hosts by making them less attractive to searching parasitoids. PMID:23624672

?ukasik, Piotr; Dawid, Maciej A; Ferrari, Julia; Godfray, H Charles J

2013-11-01

372

A novel methyl transferase induced by osmotic stress in the facultative halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.  

PubMed

Molecular mechanisms of osmotic stress tolerance were studied in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (ice plant), a facultative halophyte capable of adjusting to and surviving in highly saline conditions. We screened a subtracted cDNA library enriched for salt stress-induced mRNAs to identify transcripts involved in this plant's adaptation to salinity. One mRNA, Imt1, was found to be up-regulated in leaves and, transiently, in roots. Nuclear run-on assays indicated that this mRNA is transcriptionally regulated. Imt1 encoded a predicted polypeptide of M(r) 40,250 which exhibited sequence similarity to several hydroxymethyl transferases. Expression of the protein in Escherichia coli and subsequent activity assays identified the protein as a novel myoinositol O-methyl transferase which catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of the cyclic sugar alcohol pinitol. Pinitol accumulates in salt-stressed M.crystallinum and is abundant in a number of salt- and drought-tolerant plants. The presence of high levels of sugar alcohols correlates with osmotolerance in a diverse range of organisms, including bacteria, fungi and algae, as well as higher plants. The stress-initiated transcriptional induction of IMT1 expression in a facultative halophyte provides strong support for the importance of sugar alcohols in establishing tolerance to osmotic stress in higher plants. PMID:1600940

Vernon, D M; Bohnert, H J

1992-06-01

373

Anaerobic Metabolism and Bioremediation of Explosives-Contaminated Soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitroaromatic compounds pollute soil, water, and food via use of pesticides, plastics, pharmaceuticals, landfill dumping of industrial wastes, and the military use of explosives. Biotransformation of trinitrotoluene and other nitroaromatics by aerobic bacteria in the laboratory has been frequently reported, but the anaerobic bacterial metabolism of nitroaromatics has not been studied as extensively perhaps due to the difficulty in working with anaerobic cultures and the slow growth of anaerobes. Sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria can metabolize nitroaromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions if appropriate electron donors and electron acceptors are present in the environment.

Boopathy, Raj

374

Ribonucleotide Reduction in Pseudomonas Species: Simultaneous Presence of Active Enzymes from Different Classes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three separate classes of ribonucleotide reductases exist in nature. They differ widely in protein structure. Class I enzymes are found in aerobic bacteria and eukaryotes; class II enzymes are found in aerobic and anaerobic bacteria; class III enzymes are found in strict and facultative anaerobic bacteria. Usually, but not always, one organism contains only one or two (in facultative anaerobes)

ALBERT JORDAN; EDUARD TORRENTS; IRMA SALA; ULF HELLMAN; ISIDRE GIBERT

1999-01-01

375

Comparison of nitrogen removal rates and nitrous oxide production from enriched anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria in suspended and attached growth reactors.  

PubMed

Attached growth-systems for the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process have been postulated for implementation in the field. However, information about the anammox process in attached growth-systems is limited. This study compared nitrogen removal rates and nitrous oxide (N2O) production of enriched anammox cultures in both suspended and attached growth sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). Suspended growth reactors (SBR-S) and attached growth reactors using polystyrene sponge as a medium (SBR-A) were used in these experiments. After inoculation with an enriched anammox culture, significant nitrogen removals of ammonium (NH4 (+)) and nitrite (NO2 (-)) were observed under NH4 (+):NO2 (-) ratios ranging from 1:1 to 1:2 in both types of SBRs. The specific rates of total nitrogen removal in SBR-S and SBR-A were 0.52 mg N/mg VSS-d and 0.44 mg N/mg VSS-d, respectively, at an NH4 (+):NO2 (-) ratio of 1:2. N2O production by the enriched anammox culture in both SBR-S and SBR-A was significantly higher at NH4 (+):NO2 (-) ratio of 1:2 than at NH4 (+):NO2 (-) ratios of 1:1 and 1:1.32. In addition, N2O production was higher at a pH of 6.8 than at pH 7.3, 7.8, and 8.3 in both SBR-S and SBR-A. The results of this investigation demonstrate that the anammox process may avoid N2O emission by maintaining an NH4 (+):NO2 (-) ratio of less than 1:2 and pH higher than 6.8. PMID:24679093

Panwivia, Supaporn; Sirvithayapakorn, Sanya; Wantawin, Chalermraj; Noophan, Pongsak Lek; Munakata-Marr, Junko

2014-01-01

376

Oceanobacillus indicireducens sp. nov., a facultative alkaliphile that reduces an indigo dye.  

PubMed

An indigo-reducing facultatively alkaliphilic and halophilic strain, designated strain A21(T), was isolated from a fermented Polygonum indigo (Polygonum tinctorium Lour.) liquor sample aged for 4 days prepared in a laboratory. 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny suggested that strain A21(T) was a member of the genus Oceanobacillus with the closest relative being the type strain of Oceanobacillus chironomi (similarity: 96.0?%). The cells of the isolate stained Gram-positive and were facultatively anaerobic straight rods that were motile by peritrichous flagella. The strain grew between 18 and 48 °C with optimum growth at 39 °C. It grew in the pH range of 7-12. It hydrolysed casein, gelatin and Tween 20 but not Tweens 40, 60 and 80, starch or DNA. No isoprenoid quinone was detected and the DNA G+C content was 39.7 mol%. The whole-cell fatty acid profile mainly consisted of iso-C15?:?0, anteiso-C15?:?0 and C16?:?0. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments with O. chironomi revealed 13?% relatedness. Owing to the differences in phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, and phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and DNA-DNA relatedness data from reported Oceanobacillus species, the isolate merits classification as a representative of a novel species, for which the name Oceanobacillus indicireducens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is A21(T) (?=?JCM 17251(T) ?=?NCIMB 14685(T)). The description of the genus Oceanobacillus is also emended. PMID:22843722

Hirota, Kikue; Aino, Kenichi; Nodasaka, Yoshinobu; Yumoto, Isao

2013-04-01

377

Oceanobacillus polygoni sp. nov., a facultatively alkaliphile isolated from indigo fermentation fluid.  

PubMed

A facultatively alkaliphilic, lactic-acid-producing and halophilic strain, designated SA9(T), was isolated from a fermented Polygonum indigo (Polygonum tinctorium Lour.) liquor sample prepared in a laboratory. The 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny suggested that strain SA9(T) was a member of the genus Oceanobacillus with the closest relative being Oceanobacillus profundus KCCM 42318(T) (99.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). Cells of strain SA9(T) stained Gram-positive and were facultative anaerobic straight rods that were motile by peritrichous flagella. The strain grew between 5 and 48 °C (optimum, 35 °C) and at pH 7-12 (optimum, pH 9). The isoprenoid quinone detected was menaquinone-7 (MK-7) and the DNA G+C content was 40.6 ± 0.9 mol%. The whole-cell fatty acid profile mainly consisted of iso-C(15:0), anteiso-C(15:0), C(16:0) and anteiso-C(17:0). DNA-DNA hybridization with Oceanobacillus profundus DSM 18246(T) revealed a DNA-DNA relatedness value of 23 ± 2%. On the basis of the differences in phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, and the results of phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and DNA-DNA relatedness data from recognized species of the genus Oceanobacillus, strain SA9(T) merits classification as a representative of a novel species of the genus Oceanobacillus, for which the name Oceanobacillus polygoni sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SA9(T) (?=JCM 17252(T)?=NCIMB 14684(T)). An emended description of the genus Oceanobacillus is also provided. PMID:23504965

Hirota, Kikue; Hanaoka, Yoshiko; Nodasaka, Yoshinobu; Yumoto, Isao

2013-09-01

378

Sulfurisoma sediminicola gen. nov., sp. nov., a facultative autotroph isolated from a freshwater lake.  

PubMed

A novel facultatively autotrophic bacterium, strain BSN1T was isolated from sediment of a freshwater lake in Japan. The cells were rod-shaped, motile and Gram-stain-negative. As sole energy sources for autotrophic growth, the strain oxidized thiosulfate, elemental sulfur and hydrogen. Strain BSN1T was a facultative anaerobe utilizing nitrate as an electron acceptor. Growth was observed at temperatures lower than 34 °C, and the optimum growth was observed at 30-32 °C. The range of pH for growth was pH 6.8-8.8, and the optimum pH was pH 7.8-8.1. The optimum growth of the isolate occurred at concentrations of NaCl less than 50 mM. The G+C content of genomic DNA was 67 mol%. The major component in the fatty acid profile of strain BSN1T grown on fumarate was summed feature 3 (C16:1?7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the strain was a member of the class Betaproteobacteria, and it showed the highest sequence similarity with Georgfuchsia toluolica G5G6T (96.2%). Phylogenetic analyses were also performed on genes involved in sulfur oxidation. On the basis of its phylogenetic and phenotypic properties, strain BSN1T (=DSM 26916T=NBRC 109412T) is proposed as the type strain of a novel species of a novel genus, Sulfurisoma sediminicola gen. nov., sp. nov. PMID:24480906

Kojima, Hisaya; Fukui, Manabu

2014-05-01

379

A Comparative Study on Rat Intestinal Epithelial Cells and Resident Gut Bacteria (ii) Effect of Arsenite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective In order to use facultative gut bacteria as an alternate to animals for the initial gastrointestinal toxicity screening of heavy metals, a comparative study on rat intestinal epithelial cells and resident gut bacteria was undertaken. Methods in vitro growth rate of four gut bacteria, dehydrogenase (DHA) and esterase (EA) activity test, intestinal epithelial and bacterial cell membrane enzymes and

RAJ K. UPRETI; A. KANNAN; RICHA SHRIVASTAVA; U. C. CHATURVEDI

2006-01-01

380

Direct identification of bacteria from BacT/ALERT anaerobic positive blood cultures by MALDI-TOF MS: MALDI Sepsityper kit versus an in-house saponin method for bacterial extraction.  

PubMed

In cases of bacteraemia, a rapid species identification of the causal agent directly from positive blood culture broths could assist clinicians in the timely targeting of empirical antimicrobial therapy. For this purpose, we evaluated the direct identification of micro-organisms from BacT/ALERT (bioMérieux) anaerobic positive blood cultures without charcoal using the Microflex matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time of flight MS (Bruker), after bacterial extraction by using two different methods: the MALDI Sepsityper kit (Bruker) and an in-house saponin lysis method. Bruker's recommended criteria for identification were expanded in this study, with acceptance of the species identification when the first three results with the best matches with the MALDI Biotyper database were identical, whatever the scores were. In total, 107 monobacterial cultures and six polymicrobial cultures from 77 different patients were included in this study. Among monomicrobial cultures, we identified up to the species level 67 and 66?% of bacteria with the MALDI Sepsityper kit and the saponin method, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two extraction methods. The direct species identification was particularly inconclusive for Gram-positive bacteria, as only 58 and 52?% of them were identified to the species level with the MALDI Sepsityper kit and the saponin method, respectively. Results for Gram-negative bacilli were better, with 82.5 and 90?% of correct identification to the species level with the MALDI Sepsityper kit and the saponin method, respectively. No misidentifications were given by the direct procedures when compared with identifications provided by the conventional method. Concerning the six polymicrobial blood cultures, whatever the extraction method used, a correct direct identification was only provided for one of the isolated bacteria on solid medium in all cases. The analysis of the time-to-result demonstrated a reduction in the turnaround time for identification ranging from 1 h 06 min to 24 h 44 min, when performing the blood culture direct identification in comparison with the conventional method, whatever the extraction method. PMID:22837218

Meex, Cécile; Neuville, Florence; Descy, Julie; Huynen, Pascale; Hayette, Marie-Pierre; De Mol, Patrick; Melin, Pierrette

2012-11-01

381

Online oxygen control for sulfide oxidation in anaerobic treatment of high-sulfate wastewater.  

PubMed

A new technique for sulfide control was investigated in an upflow-anaerobic filter (UAF) treating high-strength, sulfate-rich wastewater. The technique used periodic oxygen injection using oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) as a controlling parameter to regulate oxygen injection. The UAF was operated at a constant influent total-organic carbon of 6740 mg/L but with different influent sulfates of 1000, 3000, and 6000 mg/L. At 1000 and 3000 mg/L influent sulfates, the produced sulfide did not impose any inhibition to methane-producing bacteria (MPB). However, at 6000 mg/L influent sulfate, the produced dissolved sulfide of 804 mg S/L (free sulfide = 280 mg S/L) severely inhibited the methanogenesis, but not the sulfidogenesis. Upon oxygen injection at elevated ORP of -265 mV, sulfides were almost completely eliminated with a concomitant improvement in methane yield by 46%. If oxygenation was excessive because of an oversetting of ORP, the excess oxygen could be used rapidly by facultative heterotrophs, thereby protecting the MPB from oxygen stress. Regarding online sulfide oxidation, it was found that the biogas and injected oxygen needed to pass through an aqueous layer containing trace metals, which were found to have a significant catalytic effect on abiotic sulfide oxidation. PMID:16749308

Khanal, Samir Kumar; Huang, Ju-Chang

2006-04-01

382

Effects of hyperbaric oxygen on aggressive periodontitis and subgingival anaerobes in Chinese patients  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) on aggressive periodontitis (AgP), and subgingival obligate anaerobes in Chinese patients. Materials and Methods: Sixty cases of Chinese patients with AgP were randomly divided into two groups –the HBO2 group (30 cases) and the control group (30 cases). Study teeth were divided into four groups –: the HBO2 therapy, the HBO2 + scaling scaling group, the scaling group and the control group. Subgingival anaerobic organisms were measured with anaerobic culture, and number of obligate anaerobes and facultative anaerobes and Bacteroides melaninogenicus was counted. Comparisons of changes in the clinical indices, and subgingival anaerobes were made between the groups. Results: Highly significant differences in gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), attachment loss (AL), and Plaque index (PLI), and tooth odontoseisis (TO) were seen in the HBO2, the HBO2 + scaling and the scaling groups when compared with the control group (P<0.01). The number of subgingival anaerobes as well as the types of obligate anaerobes and facultative anaerobes and the number of Bacteroides melaninogenicus were reduced markedly in these three treatment groups. Highly statistical differences in clinical indices, subgingival anaerobe number and types of obligate anaerobes and facultative anaerobes and Bacteroides melaninogenicus were found when comparisons were made between the HBO2 + scaling and the HBO2 groups, as well as between the HBO2 + scaling and the scaling groups. Clinical follow-ups indicated that the GI, PD, AL, TO, PLI and subgingival anaerobes number of the three therapeutic groups were reduced more severely than the control group. Conclusions: HBO2 had good therapeutic effects on Chinese patients with AgP. HBO2 therapy combined with scaling and root planing was the most beneficial in the treatment of AgP. The therapeutic effect of HBO2 on AgP is most likely through inhibition of the growth of subgingival anaerobes. Clinical follow-ups suggest that the effect could last more than 2 years.

Chen, Tie-Lou; Xu, Bing; Liu, Jing-Chang; Li, Shu-Guang; Li, De-Yi; Gong, Guo-chuan; Wu, Zhi-Fen; Lin, Shi-Long; Zhou, Yi-Jun

2012-01-01

383

Inhibitory activity of papain on facultative pathogens--short communication.  

PubMed

Papain, a proteolytic enzyme obtained from papaya was found inhibitory on few facultative pathogens. While Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus albus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae were inhibited at concentration from 200 ppm on the cell density of Staphylococcus faecalis decreased only at higher concentration of papain (400-800 ppm). PMID:2124762

Rajashekhara, E; Tippannavar, C M; Sreenivasa, M N; Sharma, J S

1990-01-01

384

Comparative in vitro activities of ertapenem against aerobic and facultative bacterial pathogens from patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the in vitro activities of ertapenem (Merck & Co., Inc.), ceftriaxone, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and piperacillin-tazobactam against 518 aerobic and facultative bacterial pathogens isolated from 340 patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections. Ciprofloxacin was also tested against Gram-negative isolates. Gram-positive cocci accounted for 68.1% of the aerobic bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolate (45.6%). The

Barbara A Pelak; Ken Bartizal; Gail L Woods; Richard M Gesser; Mary Motyl

2002-01-01

385