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1

Continuous Culture of Some Anaerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Rumen Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Strains of Streptococcw bovis, Selenomonas ruminantiurn, and an an- aerobic lipolytic bacterium (5 s) have been grown under carbohydrate- limiting conditions in continuous culture for long periods. With s. rumi- nuntium and bacterium 5 s the fermentation products varied with growth rate. Yield of organism in continuous culture of all three bacteria showed a maximum at a particular growth

P. N. HOBSON

1965-01-01

2

Prevalence of nim genes in anaerobic/facultative anaerobic bacteria isolated in South Africa.  

PubMed

This study investigated the prevalence of nim genes (proposed to encode a 5-nitroimidazole resistance product) in 64 anaerobic/facultative anaerobic bacteria. Employing universal nim gene primers, 458-bp amplified fragments were recorded as presumptive positives in 22/64 strains at an annealing temperature of 52 degrees C and 15/64 strains at 62 degrees C, of which seven were propionibacteria. DNA sequencing confirmed the presence of nimA genes in Propionibacterium spp. (five strains), Actinomyces odontolyticus (one strain), Prevotella bivia (one strain) and Clostridium bifermentans (one strain) and nimB genes from five strains of Bacteroides fragilis. nimA genes were predominant in propionibacteria indicating a potential nimA gene source in anaerobic environments. PMID:10079531

Lubbe, M M; Stanley, K; Chalkley, L J

1999-03-01

3

Cultivation of Anaerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Bacteria from Spacecraft-Associated Clean Rooms?  

PubMed Central

In the course of this biodiversity study, the cultivable microbial community of European spacecraft-associated clean rooms and the Herschel Space Observatory located therein were analyzed during routine assembly operations. Here, we focused on microorganisms capable of growing without oxygen. Anaerobes play a significant role in planetary protection considerations since extraterrestrial environments like Mars probably do not provide enough oxygen for fully aerobic microbial growth. A broad assortment of anaerobic media was used in our cultivation strategies, which focused on microorganisms with special metabolic skills. The majority of the isolated strains grew on anaerobic, complex, nutrient-rich media. Autotrophic microorganisms or microbes capable of fixing nitrogen were also cultivated. A broad range of facultatively anaerobic bacteria was detected during this study and also, for the first time, some strictly anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium and Propionibacterium) were isolated from spacecraft-associated clean rooms. The multiassay cultivation approach was the basis for the detection of several bacteria that had not been cultivated from these special environments before and also led to the discovery of two novel microbial species of Pseudomonas and Paenibacillus. PMID:19363082

Stieglmeier, Michaela; Wirth, Reinhard; Kminek, Gerhard; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

2009-01-01

4

Characterization of the biochemical-pathway of uranium (VI) reduction in facultative anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

Cultures of U(VI) reducing bacteria sourced from abandoned uranium mine tailing dam were evaluated for their ability to reduce U(VI) to U(IV). The species in the cultures reduced U(VI) in solutions with initial U(VI) concentration up to 400mgL(-)(1) under a near neutral pH of 6.5. The electron flow pathway and fate of reduced species was also analysed in the individual species in order to evaluate the potential for control and optimisation of the reduction potential at the biochemical level. The results showed that U(VI) reduction in live cells was completely blocked by the NADH-dehydrogenase inhibitor, rotenone (C23H22O6), and thioredoxin inhibitor, cadmium chloride (CdCl2), showing that U(VI) reduction involves the electron flow through NADH-dehydrogenase, a primary electron donor to the electron transport respiratory (ETR) system. Mass balance analysis of uranium species aided by visual and electron microscopy suggest that most U(VI) reduction occurred on the cell surface of the isolated species. This finding indicates the possibility of easy uranium recovery for beneficial use through biological remediation. Should the U(VI) be reduced inside the cell, recovery would require complete disruption of the cells and therefore would be difficult. The study contributes new knowledge on the underlying mechanisms in the U(VI) reduction in facultative anaerobes. PMID:25065785

Mtimunye, Phalazane J; Chirwa, Evans M N

2014-10-01

5

Aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria associated with the gut of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and whistling swans (Cygnus columbianus columbianus).  

PubMed Central

Aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria from the intestinal tracts of swans and geese were isolated and characterized as part of a larger study of the microbiological effects of migratory waterfowl on water quality. A total of 356 isolates were identified by using rapid identification methods and classified by using numerical taxonomy. A diverse population of bacteria was recovered from the waterfowl, and representative strains could be classified into 21 phena. The majority of the aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria found in the gut of the waterfowl were species of Enterobacteriaceae. Streptococcus. Lactobacillus, and Bacillus. Unfortunately, the birds that were examined did not harbor significant numbers of any waterfowl-specific bacterial species. Thus, it may not be possible to assess microbiological impact of migratory waterfowl by using and "indicator" species since avian fecal pollution could not be distinguished from animal and human fecal pollution. PMID:518085

Damare, J M; Hussong, D; Weiner, R M; Colwell, R R

1979-01-01

6

Aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria associated with the gut of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and whistling swans (Cygnus columbianus columbianus).  

PubMed

Aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria from the intestinal tracts of swans and geese were isolated and characterized as part of a larger study of the microbiological effects of migratory waterfowl on water quality. A total of 356 isolates were identified by using rapid identification methods and classified by using numerical taxonomy. A diverse population of bacteria was recovered from the waterfowl, and representative strains could be classified into 21 phena. The majority of the aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria found in the gut of the waterfowl were species of Enterobacteriaceae. Streptococcus. Lactobacillus, and Bacillus. Unfortunately, the birds that were examined did not harbor significant numbers of any waterfowl-specific bacterial species. Thus, it may not be possible to assess microbiological impact of migratory waterfowl by using and "indicator" species since avian fecal pollution could not be distinguished from animal and human fecal pollution. PMID:518085

Damaré, J M; Hussong, D; Weiner, R M; Colwell, R R

1979-08-01

7

Changes in the size and composition of intracellular pools of nonesterified coenzyme A and coenzyme A thioesters in aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Intracellular levels of three coenzyme A (CoA) molecular species, i.e., nonesterified CoA (CoASH), acetyl-CoA, and malonyl-CoA, in a variety of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria were analyzed by the acyl-CoA cycling method developed by us. It was demonstrated that there was an intrinsic difference between aerobes and facultative anaerobes in the changes in the size and composition of CoA pools. The CoA pools in the aerobic bacteria hardly changed and were significantly smaller than those of the facultatively anaerobic bacteria. On the other hand, in the facultatively anaerobic bacteria, the size and composition of the CoA pool drastically changed within minutes in response to the carbon and energy source provided. Acetyl-CoA was the major component of the CoA pool in the facultative anaerobes grown on sufficient glucose, although CoASH was dominant in the aerobes. Therefore, the acetyl-CoA/CoASH ratios in facultatively anaerobic bacteria were 10 times higher than those in aerobic bacteria. In Escherichia coli K-12 cells, the addition of reagents to inhibit the respiratory system led to a rapid decrease in the amount of acetyl-CoA with a concomitant increase in the amount of CoASH, whereas the addition of cerulenin, a specific inhibitor of fatty acid synthase, triggered the intracellular accumulation of malonyl-CoA. The acylation and deacylation of the three CoA molecular species coordinated with the energy-yielding systems and the restriction of the fatty acid-synthesizing system of cells. These data suggest that neither the accumulation of acetyl-CoA nor that of malonyl-CoA exerts negative feedback on pyruvate dehydrogenase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase, respectively. PMID:9023936

Chohnan, S; Furukawa, H; Fujio, T; Nishihara, H; Takamura, Y

1997-01-01

8

Concentration and species composition of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria released to the air of a dental operation area before and after disinfection of dental unit waterlines.  

PubMed

Bacteriological air sampling was conducted at 25 dental units during restorative treatment sessions before and after disinfection of dental unit waterlines (DUWL) with hydrogen peroxide. Air samples for determining the concentration and species composition of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria were collected with the portable Reuter Centrifugal Sampler (RCS Plus) in the dental operation area close to patient's mouth. Large concentrations of airborne bacteria in the range of 0.35-40.08 x 10(3) cfu/m(3) (median = 1.63 x 10(3) cfu/m(3)) were recorded before DUWL disinfection. After disinfection, the concentrations were significantly lower (p<0.05), ranging from 0.51-3.82 x 10(3) cfu/m(3) (median = 0.9 x 10(3) cfu/m(3)). Streptococci were most numerous among airborne bacteria before DUWL disinfection, forming 79.23 % of total isolates. The remaining isolates were staphylococci/micrococci (15.7 % ), corynebacteria (2.3 % ), endospore-forming bacilli (1.45 % ), Gram-negative bacteria (1.31 % ), and actinomycetes (0.01 % ). After DUWL disinfection, a significant decrease in the numbers of streptococci (p<0.05) and Gram-negative bacteria (p<0.01) was noted, while the numbers of other types of bacteria were unaffected. Altogether, 50 species or genera of bacteria were identified in the examined air samples before and after DUWL disinfection. Of these, 36 species or genera are considered potentially pathogenic, as a potential cause of infection, allergic disease or intoxication. In conclusion, the high pollution of dental operation area with bacteria indicates a need for use of preventive measures protecting dental staff and patients, such as DUWL disinfection that proved efficient in decrease of exposure in the present study. PMID:19061267

Szyma?ska, Jolanta; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

2008-12-01

9

Aerobic andFacultatively Anaerobic Bacteria Associated with theGutofCanadaGeese(Branta canadensis) andWhistling Swans(Cygnus columbianus columbianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerobic andfacultatively anaerobic bacteria fromtheintestinal tracts ofswans andgeesewereisolated andcharacterized aspartofa larger studyofthe microbiological effects ofmigratory waterfowl onwaterquality. A total of356 isolates wereidentified byusing rapididentification methodsandclassified by using numerical taxonomy. A diverse population ofbacteria wasrecovered from thewaterfowl, andrepresentative strains couldbeclassified into21phena. The majority oftheaerobic, heterotrophic bacteria foundinthegutofthewaterfowl werespecies ofEnterobacteriaceae, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, andBacillus. Unfortunately, thebirds thatwereexamined didnotharborsignificant numbers ofanywaterfowl-specific bacterial species. Thus,itmaynotbepossible

J. M. DAMARE; R. M. WEINER; R. R. COLWELL

1979-01-01

10

Mediation of sulfur speciation by a Black Sea facultative anaerobe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shewanella putrefaciens, a respiratory facultative anaerobe isolated from the Black Sea, can reduce thiosulfate, sulfite, and elemental sulfur to sulfide readily and quantitatively. This widespread and anaerobically versatile microorganism, which is incapable of reducing sulfate, uses oxidized sulfur intermediates as electron acceptors during the respiratory oxidation of organic matter. Because of its widespread distribution and abundance, it may play a

K. A. Perry; J. E. Kostka; G. W. Luther; K. H. Nealson

1993-01-01

11

Endocarditis due to Anaerobic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes the microbiology, diagnosis and management of endocarditis due to anaerobic bacteria. Anaerobic bacteria are an uncommon but important cause of endocarditis. Most cases of anaerobic endocarditis are caused by anaerobic cocci, Propionibacterium acnes and Bacteroides fragilis group. Predisposing factors and signs and symptoms of endocarditis caused by anaerobic bacteria are similar to those seen in endocarditis with

Itzhak Brook

2002-01-01

12

Mediation of sulfur speciation by a Black Sea facultative anaerobe  

SciTech Connect

Shewanella putrefaciens, a respiratory facultative anaerobe isolated from the Black Sea, can reduce thiosulfate, sulfite, and elemental sulfur to sulfide readily and quantitatively. This widespread and anaerobically versatile microorganism, which is incapable of reducing sulfate, uses oxidized sulfur intermediates as electron acceptors during the respiratory oxidation of organic matter. Because of its widespread distribution and abundance, it may play a significant role in sulfur and trace metal cycling in the Black Sea and in other marine and freshwater anaerobic environments. 28 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Perry, K.A.; Kostka, J.E.; Luther, G.W. III (Univ. of Delaware, Lewes (United States)); Nealson, K.H. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (United States))

1993-02-05

13

Facultative to strict anaerobes ratio in the preterm infant microbiota  

PubMed Central

During recent years there has been an increasing interest on the development of strategies for modulating the process of microbiota establishment in preterm infants. For successfully developing of such strategies, a detailed knowledge of the microbiota establishment process in these infants is needed. In a previous study we evidenced clear alterations in the process of microbiota establishment in preterm newborns when compared with a control group of full-term breast-fed infants. Here we have analyzed these data more in depth, corroborating a reduced proportion of strict anaerobes with respect to facultatives in the fecal microbiota of preterm infants. The potential benefits, as well as the side effects, of strategies aimed at counterbalancing this alteration in the facultative to strict anaerobes ratio are discussed in this addendum. PMID:22922559

Arboleya, Silvia; Solis, Gonzalo; Fernandez, Nuria; de los Reyes-Gavilan, Clara G.; Gueimonde, Miguel

2012-01-01

14

Reduction of Uranium(VI) to Uranium (IV) by Three Facultative Anaerobes at High Concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Six bacteria species were isolated from a uranium mine in Limpopo, South Africa, and three facultative anaerobes reduced U(VI) to U(IV) and aided the removal of U(VI) from solution. The pure cultures showed a high reduction rate at pH 5 to 6 for concentrations 100-800 mg/L during the first 4 to 6 hours of incubation. A biological remediation process for removing U(VI) is desirable in the nuclear industry where more expensive environmentally non-friendly physical chemical processes have been used conventionally for decades.

Chabalala, Simphiwe; Chirwa, Evans M. N.

2010-01-01

15

Anaerobic bacteria that dechlorinate perchloroethene.  

PubMed Central

In this study, we identified specific cultures of anaerobic bacteria that dechlorinate perchlorethene (PCE). The bacteria that significantly dechlorinated PCE were strain DCB-1, an obligate anaerobe previously shown to dechlorinate chlorobenzoate, and two strains of Methanosarcina. The rate of PCE dechlorination by DCB-1 compared favorably with reported rates of trichloroethene bio-oxidation by methanotrophs. Even higher PCE dechlorination rates were achieved when DCB-1 was grown in a methanogenic consortium. PMID:3426224

Fathepure, B Z; Nengu, J P; Boyd, S A

1987-01-01

16

D/H fractionation in lipids of facultative and obligate denitrifying and sulfate reducing bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrogen isotopic composition of lipids has been shown to vary broadly in both cultured bacteria and in environmental samples. Culturing studies have indicated that this variability may primarily reflect metabolism; however, the limited number of organisms studied thus far prevents application of these trends to interpretation of environmental samples. Here we report D/H fractionations in anaerobic bacteria, including both facultative and obligate anaerobic organisms with a range of electron donors, acceptors, and metabolic pathways. Experiments using the metabolically flexible alphaproteobacterium Paracoccus denitrificans probe particular central metabolic pathways using a range of terminal electron acceptors. While a large range of ?D values has been observed during aerobic metabolism, denitrifying cultures produce a more limited range in ?D values that are more similar to each other than the corresponding aerobic culture. Data from the sulfate reducing bacteria Desulfobacterium autotrophicum and Desulfobacter hydrogenophilus indicate that chemolithoautotrophy and anaerobic heterotrophy can produce similar ?D values, and are similar between bacteria despite differing metabolic pathways. These results suggest that the fractionation of D/H depends both on the specific metabolic pathway and the electron acceptor. While this is not inconsistent with previous studies, it suggests the simple correspondence between ?D and metabolism previously understood from aerobic bacteria is not universally applicable.

Osburn, M. R.; Sessions, A. L.

2012-12-01

17

Culturable Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) in Southern Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Using morphological analysis and biochemical testing, here for the first time, we determined the culturable gut bacterial flora (aerobes and facultative anaerobes) in the venomous Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) from South Asia. The findings revealed that these snakes inhabit potentially pathogenic bacteria including Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella sp., Moraxella sp., Bacillus sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Providencia rettgeri. These findings are of concern, as injury from snake bite can result in wound infections and tissue necrosis leading to sepsis/necrotizing fasciitis and/or expose consumers of snake meat/medicine in the community to infections. PMID:25002979

Iqbal, Junaid; Sagheer, Mehwish; Tabassum, Nazneen; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

2014-01-01

18

Anaerobic bacteria from hypersaline environments.  

PubMed Central

Strictly anaerobic halophiles, namely fermentative, sulfate-reducing, homoacetogenic, phototrophic, and methanogenic bacteria are involved in the oxidation of organic carbon in hypersaline environments. To date, six anaerobic fermentative genera, containing nine species, have been described. Two of them are homoacetogens. Six species belong to the family Haloanaerobiaceae, as indicated by their unique 16S rRNA oligonucleotide sequences. Desulfohalobium retbaense and Desulfovibrio halophilus represent the only two moderately halophilic sulfate reducers so far reported. Among anoxygenic phototrophic anaerobes, a few purple bacteria with optimal growth at salinities between 6 and 11% NaCl have been isolated from hypersaline habitats. They belong to the genera Rhodospirillum, Chromatium, Thiocapsa, and Ectothiorhodospira. The commonest organisms isolated so far are Chromatium salexigens, Thiocapsa halophila, and Rhodospirillum salinarum. Extremely halophilic purple bacteria have most commonly been isolated from alkaline brines and require about 20 to 25% NaCl for optimal growth. They belong to the family Ectothiorodhospiraceae. Their osmoregulation involves synthesis or uptake of compatible solutes such as glycine-betaine that accumulate in their cytoplasm. The existence of methanogens in hypersaline environments is related to the presence of noncompetitive substrates such as methylamines, which originate mainly from the breakdown of osmoregulatory amines. Methanogenesis probably does not contribute to the mineralization of carbohydrates at NaCl concentrations higher than 15%. Above this concentration, sulfate reduction is probably the main way to oxidize H2 (although at rates too low to use up all the H2 formed) and occupies a terminal function kn the degradation of carbohydrates. Three genera and five species of halophilic methylotrophic methanogens have been reported. A bloom of phototrophic bacteria in the marine salterns of Salins-de-Giraud, located on the Mediterranean French coast in the Rhone Delta, is also described. PMID:8177169

Ollivier, B; Caumette, P; Garcia, J L; Mah, R A

1994-01-01

19

Draft Genome Sequence of Cytophaga fermentans JCM 21142T, a Facultative Anaerobe Isolated from Marine Mud.  

PubMed

Cytophaga fermentans strain JCM 21142(T) is a marine-dwelling facultative anaerobe. The draft genome sequence of this strain revealed its diverse chemoorganotrophic potential, which makes it capable of metabolizing various polysaccharide substrates. The genome data will facilitate further studies on its taxonomic reclassification, its metabolism, and the mechanisms pertaining to bacterial gliding. PMID:24675859

Starns, David; Oshima, Kenshiro; Suda, Wataru; Iino, Takao; Yuki, Masahiro; Inoue, Jun-Ichi; Kitamura, Keiko; Iida, Toshiya; Darby, Alistair; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya

2014-01-01

20

Growth of the facultative anaerobe Shewanella putrefaciens by elemental sulfur reduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The growth of bacteria by dissimilatory elemental sulfur reduction is generally associated with obligate anaerobes and thermophiles in particular. Here we describe the sulfur-dependent growth of the facultatively anaerobic mesophile Shewanella putrefaciens. Six of nine representative S. putrefaciens isolates from a variety of environments proved able to grow by sulfur reduction, and strain MR-1 was chosen for further study. Growth was monitored in a minimal medium (usually with 0.05% Casamino Acids added as a growth stimulant) containing 30 mM lactate and limiting concentrations of elemental sulfur. When mechanisms were provided for the removal of the metabolic end product, H2S, measurable growth was obtained at sulfur concentrations of from 2 to 30 mM. Initial doubling times were ca. 1.5 h and substrate independent over the range of sulfur concentrations tested. In the cultures with the highest sulfur concentrations, cell numbers increased by greater than 400-fold after 48 h, reaching a maximum density of 6.8 x 10(8) cells ml-1. Yields were determined as total cell carbon and ranged from 1.7 to 5.9 g of C mol of S(0) consumed-1 in the presence of the amino acid supplement and from 0.9 to 3.4 g of C mol of S(0-1) in its absence. Several lines of evidence indicate that cell-to-sulfur contact is not required for growth. Approaches for the culture of sulfur-metabolizing bacteria and potential ecological implications of sulfur reduction in Shewanella-like heterotrophs are discussed.

Moser, D. P.; Nealson, K. H.

1996-01-01

21

Dissimilatory Metal Reduction by the Facultative Anaerobe Pantoea agglomerans SP1  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic enrichments with acetate as the electron donor and Fe(III) as the terminal electron acceptor were obtained from sediments of Salt Pond, a coastal marine basin near Woods Hole, Mass. A pure culture of a facultatively anaerobic Fe(III) reducer was isolated, and 16S rRNA analysis demonstrated that this organism was most closely related to Pantoea (formerly Enterobacter) agglomerans, a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae within the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria. This organism, designated strain SP1, can grow by coupling the oxidation of acetate or H2 to the reduction of a variety of electron acceptors, including Fe(III), Mn(IV), Cr(VI), and the humic substance analog 2,6-anthraquinone disulfonate, but not sulfate. To our knowledge, this is the first mesophilic facultative anaerobe reported to couple acetate oxidation to dissimilatory metal reduction. PMID:10653716

Francis, Chris A.; Obraztsova, Anna Y.; Tebo, Bradley M.

2000-01-01

22

Oral colonisation by aerobic and facultatively anaerobic Gram-negative rods and yeast in Tibetans living in Lhasa.  

PubMed

Sample groups of children (n=50) and adults (n=38) were selected from pools of 207 children, (11-13-year olds from two primary schools) and 94 adults (25-44-year olds from four governmental agencies) who were the subjects of an oral health survey among Tibetans living in Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region. Mean ages of the study groups of children (38% females) and adults (61% females) were 11.6+/-0.9 and 37.1+/-6.1 years, respectively. All had lived in Tibet since birth. Oral rinse samples were selective cultured to isolate, quantify and speciate aerobic and facultatively anaerobic Gram-negative rods (using the API 20E kit) and yeasts (using API 20C AUX and API ZYM kits). For children, the isolation rates for oral coliform bacteria and yeasts were 84 and 14%, respectively, for adults, the respective rates were 26 and 40%. The corresponding quantities of coliforms/yeasts for children and adults were 0.4+/-1.6 x 10(3)c.f.u./15.8+/-72.3 and 0.2+/-0.6 x 10(3)c.f.u./57.2+/-137.5c.f.u. per millilitre oral rinse, respectively. Aerobic and facultatively anaerobic Gram-negative rods and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, a free-living saprophytic and ubiquitous bacterial species of wide geographic distribution, were significantly more frequently recovered from the children's oral rinses. The isolation rates of facultatively anaerobic Gram-negative rods in adults and yeasts in both groups were similar to those found in similar cohorts from southern China in earlier studies. Randomly amplified polymeric DNA analysis showed that the S. maltophilia spp. isolated from children were of several different clonal types and were school specific. This study shows that the colonisation rate of facultatively anaerobic Gram-negative rods in adults and yeasts in both groups are similar to those in populations living at lower altitudes, the native young, urban Tibetans appear to exhibit a high oral carriage rate of S. maltophilia spp. PMID:12642230

Leung, W K; Yau, J Y Y; Cheung, B P K; Jin, L J; Zee, K-Y; Lo, E C M; Samaranayake, L P; Corbet, E F

2003-02-01

23

Basic Laboratory Culture Methods for Anaerobic Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxygen is either limiting or absent in many ecosystems. Anaerobic bacteria are often key players in such environments and these organisms have important roles in geo-elemental cycling, agriculture, and medicine. The metabolic versatility of anaerobes is exploited in a variety of industrial processes including fermented food production, biochemical synthesis, and bioremediation. There has been recent considerable interest in developing and enhancing technologies that employ anaerobes as biocatalysts. The study of anaerobic bacteria requires specialized techniques, and specific methods are described for the culture and manipulation of these microbes.

Strobel, Herbert J.

24

[Diversity of facultatively anaerobic microscopic mycelial fungi in soils].  

PubMed

The numbers of microscopic fungi isolated from soil samples after anaerobic incubation varied from tens to several hundreds of CFU per one gram of soil; a total of 30 species was found. This group is composed primarily of mitotic fungi of the ascomycete affinity belonging to the orders Hypocreales (Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, Fusarium sp., Clonostachys grammicospora, C. rosea. Acremonium sp., Gliocladium penicilloides, Trichoderma aureoviride, T. harzianum, T. polysporum, T. viride. T. koningii, Lecanicillum lecanii, and Tolypocladium inflatum) and Eurotiales (Aspergillus terreus, A. niger, and Paecilomyces lilacimus), as well as to the phylum Zygomycota, to the order Mucorales (Actinomucor elegans, Absidia glauca, Mucor circinelloides, M. hiemalis, M. racemosus, Mucor sp., Rhizopus oryzae, Zygorrhynchus moelleri, Z. heterogamus, and Umbelopsis isabellina) and the order Mortierellales (Mortierella sp.). As much as 10-30% of the total amount of fungal mycelium remains viable for a long time (one month) under anaerobic conditions. PMID:18365728

Kurakov, A V; Lavrent'ev, R B; Nechita?lo, T Iu; Golyshin, P N; Zviagintsev, D G

2008-01-01

25

Diversity of facultatively anaerobic microscopic mycelial fungi in soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The numbers of microscopic fungi isolated from soil samples after anaerobic incubation varied from tens to several hundreds\\u000a of CFU per one gram of soil; a total of 30 species was found. This group is composed primarily of mitotic fungi of the ascomycete\\u000a affinity belonging to the orders Hypocreales (Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, Fusarium sp., Clonostachys grammicospora, C. rosea, Acremonium

A. V. Kurakov; R. B. Lavrent’ev; T. Yu. Nechitailo; P. N. Golyshin; D. G. Zvyagintsev

2008-01-01

26

Genomic Analysis of Melioribacter roseus, Facultatively Anaerobic Organotrophic Bacterium Representing a Novel Deep Lineage within Bacteriodetes/Chlorobi Group  

PubMed Central

Melioribacter roseus is a moderately thermophilic facultatively anaerobic organotrophic bacterium representing a novel deep branch within Bacteriodetes/Chlorobi group. To better understand the metabolic capabilities and possible ecological functions of M. roseus and get insights into the evolutionary history of this bacterial lineage, we sequenced the genome of the type strain P3M-2T. A total of 2838 open reading frames was predicted from its 3.30 Mb genome. The whole proteome analysis supported phylum-level classification of M. roseus since most of the predicted proteins had closest matches in Bacteriodetes, Proteobacteria, Chlorobi, Firmicutes and deeply-branching bacterium Caldithrix abyssi, rather than in one particular phylum. Consistent with the ability of the bacterium to grow on complex carbohydrates, the genome analysis revealed more than one hundred glycoside hydrolases, glycoside transferases, polysaccharide lyases and carbohydrate esterases. The reconstructed central metabolism revealed pathways enabling the fermentation of complex organic substrates, as well as their complete oxidation through aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Genes encoding the photosynthetic and nitrogen-fixation machinery of green sulfur bacteria, as well as key enzymes of autotrophic carbon fixation pathways, were not identified. The M. roseus genome supports its affiliation to a novel phylum Ignavibateriae, representing the first step on the evolutionary pathway from heterotrophic ancestors of Bacteriodetes/Chlorobi group towards anaerobic photoautotrophic Chlorobi. PMID:23301019

Kadnikov, Vitaly V.; Mardanov, Andrey V.; Podosokorskaya, Olga A.; Gavrilov, Sergey N.; Kublanov, Ilya V.; Beletsky, Alexey V.; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A.; Ravin, Nikolai V.

2013-01-01

27

Growth of the Facultative Anaerobes from Antarctica, Alaska, and Patagonia at Low Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Psychotolerance, as an adaptation for surviving in extreme environments, is widespread among mesophilic microorganisms. Physico-chemical factors such as pressure, red-ox potential, pH and salinity could significantly alter the features of ecosystems by providing liquid water at subzero temperatures. Furthermore, organisms can respond to temperature changes by several known mechanisms, including changing the conformation capacities of constitutional proteins or by the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides around the cell wall and membrane. Such protective mechanisms make it possible for cells to not only passively survive low temperatures in a state of anabiosis, but also to be capable of actively metabolizing substrates and reproducing normally. The physiological and biochemical characteristics of the species, as well as genetics, could be remarkably changed due to adaptation and surviving in extreme environments. The cold shock genes of some of the studied strains of psychotolerant facultative anaerobes were reported previously. In this paper we present experimental data for psychotolerant, non spore-forming, facultative anaerobes isolated from geographically different cold regions of our planet. We show the growth response on changing from anaerobic conditions to aerobic with cultivation at low temperatures.

Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

2004-01-01

28

Differential Susceptibility of Bacteria to Mouse Paneth Cell ?-Defensins under Anaerobic Conditions  

PubMed Central

Small intestinal Paneth cells secrete ?-defensin peptides, termed cryptdins (Crps) in mice, into the intestinal lumen, where they confer immunity to oral infections and define the composition of the ileal microbiota. In these studies, facultative bacteria maintained under aerobic or anaerobic conditions displayed differential sensitivities to mouse ?-defensins under in vitro assay conditions. Regardless of oxygenation, Crps 2 and 3 had robust and similar bactericidal activities against S. Typhimurium and S. flexneri, but Crp4 activity against S. flexneri was attenuated in the absence of oxygen. Anaerobic bacteria varied in their susceptibility to Crps 2–4, with Crp4 showing less activity than Crps 2 and 3 against Enterococcus faecalis, and Bacteroides fragilis in anaerobic assays, but Fusobacterium necrophorum was killed only by Crp4 and not by Crps 2 and 3. The influence of anaerobiosis in modulating Crp bactericidal activities in vitro suggests that ?-defensin effects on the enteric microbiota may be subject to regulation by local oxygen tension. PMID:25383215

Mastroianni, Jennifer R.; Lu, Wuyuan; Selsted, Michael E.; Ouellette, Andre J.

2014-01-01

29

Characterization of a P-type Na+-ATPase of a facultatively anaerobic alkaliphile, Exiguobacterium aurantiacum.  

PubMed

A facultatively anaerobic alkaliphile, Exiguobacterium aurantiacum, possesses a P-type Na(+)-stimulated ATPase in the membrane (Koyama, N. (1999) Curr. Microbiol. 39, 27-30). In this study, we attempted to purify and characterize the enzyme. The ATPase appears to consist of a single polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 100 kDa. The enzyme exhibited an optimum pH for activity at around 9. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by vanadate (50% inhibition observed at 3 microm) and forms an acylphosphate intermediate, suggesting a P-type ATPase. The enzyme, when reconstituted into soybean phospholipid vesicles, exhibited ATP-dependent (22)Na(+) uptake, which was completely inhibited by gramicidin. The reconstituted vesicles exhibited a generation of membrane potential (positive, inside). The enzyme is likely to be involved in an electrogenic transport of Na(+). PMID:10799538

Ueno, S; Kaieda, N; Koyama, N

2000-05-12

30

Anaerobic degradation of cresols by denitrifying bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initial reactions in anaerobic metablism of methylphenols (cresols) and dimethylphenols were studied with denitrifying bacteria. A newly isolated strain, possibly a Paracoccus sp., was able to grow on o-or p-cresol as sole organic substrate with a generation time of 11 h; o-or p-cresol was completely oxidized to CO2 with nitrate being reduced to N2. A denitrifying Pseudomonas-like strain oxidized

Angelika Rudolphi; Andreas Tschech; Georg Fuchs

1991-01-01

31

Tolerance of Anaerobic Bacteria to Chlorinated Solvents  

PubMed Central

The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of four chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs), perchloroethene (PCE), carbon tetrachloride (CT), chloroform (CF) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), on the growth of eight anaerobic bacteria: four fermentative species (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Clostridium sp. and Paenibacillus sp.) and four respiring species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Geobacter sulfurreducens, Shewanella oneidensis and Desulfovibrio vulgaris). Effective concentrations of solvents which inhibited growth rates by 50% (EC50) were determined. The octanol-water partition coefficient or log Po/w of a CAH proved a generally satisfactory measure of its toxicity. Most species tolerated approximately 3-fold and 10-fold higher concentrations of the two relatively more polar CAHs CF and 1,2-DCA, respectively, than the two relatively less polar compounds PCE and CT. EC50 values correlated well with growth rates observed in solvent-free cultures, with fast-growing organisms displaying higher tolerance levels. Overall, fermentative bacteria were more tolerant to CAHs than respiring species, with iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria in particular appearing highly sensitive to CAHs. These data extend the current understanding of the impact of CAHs on a range of anaerobic bacteria, which will benefit the field of bioremediation. PMID:24441515

Koenig, Joanna C.; Groissmeier, Kathrin D.; Manefield, Mike J.

2014-01-01

32

Toxicity of organic extraction reagents to anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

Various forms of liquid-liquid extraction systems are being developed to separate products, such as ethanol and volatile fatty acids (VFA), from fermentation liquids, since distillation is energetically expensive. Continuous extraction is advantageous, as product inhibition of the fermentation is minimized. However, some extraction solvents may be toxic or inhibitory to microorganisms.Thirty organic chemicals were examined by means of a small scale (60 mL) batch fermentation bioassay procedure for their toxicity to a commercial inoculum (Methanobac, W.B.E. Ltd.), which was a mixed culture of facultatively anaerobic, acid-producing bacteria. Gas production, pH change of medium, and the concentrations of ethanol, VFA, and lactic acid were measured after 75 h growth. The optimum experimental conditions for toxicity testing were alfalfa as substrate (2 g), a buffered nutrient medium (pH 6.8), "Methanobac" inoculum (10 mL), and test chemicals at levels between 10 and 100 microL/mL.Thirteen chemicals were nontoxic, and included the paraffins (C(6)-C(12)), phthalates, organophosphorus compounds, Freon 113 (1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoro ethane), Aliquat 336 (tricaprylylmethyl ammonium chloride), di-isoamyl ether, and trioctylamine. Other amine extractants were partially toxic. Alcohols (C(5)-C(12)), ketones (C(5)-C(8)), benzene derivatives, isoamyl acetate, and di-isopropyl ether were toxic. Generally, the chemicals were not toxic unless present at levels in excess of that expected to be required to saturate the aqueous phase.Total gas production was a good indicator of toxicity even within 24 h, but the presence of homofermentative (nongas producing) lactic acid bacteria complicated interpretation."Methanobac" inoculum was compared with an inoculum derived from a rumen culture for four test chemicals. The results were essentially the same. However, the toxicity of a chemical to bacteria is likely to vary considerably between bacterial species. PMID:18548758

Playne, M J; Smith, B R

1983-05-01

33

Toxicity of organic extraction reagents to anaerobic bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Thirty organic chemicals were examined by means of a small scale (60 mL) batch fermentation bioassay procedure for their toxicity to a commercial inoculum (Methanobac, W.B.E. Ltd.), which was a mixed culture of facultatively anaerobic, acid-producing bacteria. Gas production, pH change of medium, and the concentrations of ethanol, VFA, and lactic acid were measured after 75 h growth. The optimum experimental conditions for toxicity testing were alfalfa as substrate (2 g), a buffered nutrient medium (pH 6.8), ''Methanobac'' inoculum (10 mL), and test chemicals at levels between 10 and 100 ..mu..L/mL. Thirteen chemicals were nontoxic, and included the paraffins (C/sub 6/-C/sub 12/), phthalates, organophosphorus compounds, Freon 113 (1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoro ethane), Aliquat 336 (tricaprylylmethyl ammonium chloride), di-isoamyl ether, and trioctylamine. Other amine extractants were partially toxic. Alcohols (C/sub 5/-C/sub 12/), ketones (C/sub 5/-C/sub 8/), benzene derivatives, isoamyl acetate, and di-isopropyl ether were toxic. Generally, the chemicals were not toxic unless present at levels in excess of that expected to be required to saturate the aqueous phase. Total gas production was a good indicator of toxicity even within 24 h, but the presence of homofermentative (nongas producing) lactic acid bacteria complicated interpretation. ''Methanobac'' inoculum was compared with an inoculum derived from a rumen culture for four test chemicals. The results were essentially the same. However, the toxicity of a chemical to bacteria is likely to vary considerably between bacterial species.

Playne, M.J.; Smith, B.R.

1983-05-01

34

Shewanella amazonensis sp. nov., a novel metal-reducing facultative anaerobe from Amazonian shelf muds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new bacterial species belonging to the genus Shewanella is described on the basis of phenotypic characterization and sequence analysis of its 16S rRNA-encoding and gyrase B (gyrB) genes. This organism, isolated from shallow-water marine sediments derived from the Amazon River delta, is a Gram-negative, motile, polarly flagellated, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped eubacterium and has a G&C content of 51.7 mol%. Strain SB2BT is exceptionally active in the anaerobic reduction of iron, manganese and sulfur compounds. SB2BT grows optimally at 35 degrees C, with 1-3% NaCl and over a pH range of 7-8. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence revealed a clear affiliation between strain SB2BT and members of the gamma subclass of the class Proteobacteria. High similarity values were found with certain members of the genus Shewanella, especially with Shewanella putrefaciens, and this was supported by cellular fatty acid profiles and phenotypic characterization. DNA-DNA hybridization between strain SB2BT and its phylogenetically closest relatives revealed low similarity values (24.6-42.7%) which indicated species status for strain SB2BT. That SB2BT represents a distinct bacterial species within the genus Shewanella is also supported by gyrB sequence analysis. Considering the source of the isolate, the name Shewanella amazonensis sp. nov. is proposed and strain SB2BT (= ATCC 700329T) is designated as the type strain.

Venkateswaran, K.; Dollhopf, M. E.; Aller, R.; Stackebrandt, E.; Nealson, K. H.

1998-01-01

35

Sunxiuqinia faeciviva sp. nov., a facultatively anaerobic organoheterotroph of the Bacteroidetes isolated from deep subseafloor sediment.  

PubMed

A facultatively anaerobic organoheterotroph, designated JAM-BA0302(T), was isolated from a deep subseafloor sediment at a depth of 247.1 m below the seafloor off the Shimokita Peninsula of Japan in the north-western Pacific Ocean (Site C9001?, water depth 1180 m). Cells of strain JAM-BA0302(T) showed gliding motility and were thin, long rods with peritrichous fimbriae-like structures. Growth occurred at 4-37 °C (optimum 30 °C; doubling time 8 h), at pH 5.4-8.3 (optimum pH 7.5) and with 5-60 g NaCl l(-1) (optimum 20-25 g l(-1)). The isolate utilized proteinaceous substrates such as yeast extract, tryptone, casein and Casamino acids with O2 respiration or fermentation. Strain JAM-BA0302(T) was a piezotolerant bacterium that could grow at pressures as high as 25 MPa under aerobic conditions and 10 MPa under anaerobic conditions. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 43.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain JAM-BA0302(T) was most closely related to yet-undescribed strains recently isolated from various marine sedimentary environments (>99.6?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and was moderately related to Sunxiuqinia elliptica DQHS-4(T), isolated from a sea cucumber farm sediment (95.5?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) within the Bacteroidetes. The phylogenetic analysis suggested that the isolate should belong to the genus Sunxiuqinia. However, low DNA-DNA relatedness (<11?%) and many physiological and molecular properties differentiated the isolate from those previously describedhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1601/nm.22746. We propose here a novel species of the genus Sunxiuqinia, with the name Sunxiuqinia faeciviva sp. nov. The type strain is JAM-BA0302(T) (?=?JCM 15547(T) ?=?NCIMB 14481(T)). PMID:22904218

Takai, Ken; Abe, Mariko; Miyazaki, Masayuki; Koide, Osamu; Nunoura, Takuro; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Inagaki, Fumio; Kobayashi, Tohru

2013-05-01

36

Antimicrobial resistance of aerobes and facultative anaerobes isolated from the oral cavity  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study evaluated the resistance to antimicrobials of aerobes and facultative anaerobes isolated from patients wearing complete dentures, patients with gingivitis and periodontitis, and periodontally health subjects. Material and methods Three hundred and four isolates were tested. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of the drugs were evaluated through the agar dilution method using Mueller-Hinton agar. Results The most active antimicrobial drugs were the carbapenems (meropenem and imipenem), and resistance to these drugs was restrict to 1.6-2.3% of the isolates, as well as ciprofloxacin and rifampin. Microbial resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefoxitin, cephalothin, amikacin, chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid was particularly high. In most cases, the resistance to ?-lactams was mediated by the production of hydrolytic enzymes, especially in gram-negative enteric rods, while enterococci did not evidence production of these enzymes. The association amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was not effective in 28.3% of the tested isolates. Conclusions The results of this investigation confirmed that the oral cavity of patients with periodontitis and gingivitis, and particularly edentulous patients wearing complete dentures, could harbor microorganisms with several antimicrobial resistance markers, and these microorganisms are frequently implicated in multiresistant, systemic, oral or nosocomial infections. PMID:21308284

GAETTI-JARDIM, Ellen Cristina; MARQUETI, Antonio Carlos; FAVERANI, Leonardo Perez; GAETTI-JARDIM JUNIOR, Elerson

2010-01-01

37

Pigmentiphaga litoralis sp. nov., a facultatively anaerobic bacterium isolated from a tidal flat sediment.  

PubMed

A novel Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-sporulating, non-motile, catalase- and oxidase-positive, rod-shaped bacterium (strain JSM 061001(T)) was isolated from a tidal flat in the South China Sea, China. Growth occurred with 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl [optimum, 0.5-1 % (w/v) NaCl], at pH 5.0-10.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and at 4-35 degrees C (optimum, 25-30 degrees C). The major cellular fatty acids were C(16 : 0), cyclo C(17 : 0), C(18 : 1)omega7c and C(16 : 1). Strain JSM 061001(T) contained ubiquinone Q-8 as the predominant respiratory quinone, and phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unidentified phospholipid as the polar lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 65.5 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain JSM 061001(T) belongs to the family Alcaligenaceae and was related most closely to the type strains of the two recognized species of the genus Pigmentiphaga. The three strains formed a robust cluster in the neighbour-joining, maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain JSM 061001(T) and the type strains of Pigmentiphaga daeguensis and Pigmentiphaga kullae were 15.8 and 10.5 %, respectively. The combination of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization data, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic differences supported the view that strain JSM 061001(T) represents a novel species of the genus Pigmentiphaga, for which the name Pigmentiphaga litoralis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JSM 061001(T) (=CCTCC AA207034(T)=KCTC 22165(T)). PMID:19244433

Chen, Yi-Guang; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Huang, Ke; Tang, Shu-Kun; Cao, Yao; Shi, Jin-Xiao; Xiao, Huai-Dong; Cui, Xiao-Long; Li, Wen-Jun

2009-03-01

38

Isolation of Halotolerant, Thermotolerant, Facultative Polymer-Producing Bacteria and Characterization of the Exopolymer  

PubMed Central

Over 200 bacterial strains were selected for anaerobic growth at 50°C and extracellular polysaccharide production in a sucrose-mineral salts medium with NaNO3 and up to 10% NaCl. The predominant cell type was an encapsulated gram-positive, motile, facultative sporeforming rod similar to Bacillus species. Strain SP018 grew and produced the polysaccharide on a variety of substrates at salinities up to 12% NaCl. Good polymer production only occurred anaerobically and was optimal between 4 and 10% NaCl. The ethanol-precipitated SP018 polymer was a charged heteropolysaccharide that contained glucose, mannose, arabinose, ribose, and low levels of allose and glucosamine. The SP018 polymer showed pseudoplastic behavior, was resistant to shearing, and had a higher viscosity at dilute concentrations and at elevated temperatures than xanthan gum. High-ionic-strength solutions reversibly decreased the viscosity of SP018 polymer solutions. The bacterium and the associated polymer have many properties that make them potentially useful for in situ microbially enhanced oil recovery processes. PMID:16347080

Pfiffner, S. M.; McInerney, Michael J.; Jenneman, Gary E.; Knapp, Roy M.

1986-01-01

39

Metabolism of alkylbenzenes, alkanes, and other hydrocarbons in anaerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons are the main constituents of petroleum and its refined products. Whereas degradation of hydrocarbons by oxygen-respiring microorganisms has been known for about a century, utilization of hydrocarbons under anoxic conditions has been investigated only during the past decade. Diverse strains of anaerobic bacteria have been isolated that degrade toluene anaerobically, using nitrate, iron(III), or sulfate as

Alfred M. Spormann; Friedrich Widdel

2000-01-01

40

Response of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria to hydroxylamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation is a recent addition to the microbial nitrogen cycle, and its metabolic pathway, including the production and conversion of its intermediate hydrazine, is not well understood. Therefore, the effect of hydroxylamine addition on the hydrazine metabolism of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria was studied both experimentally and by mathematical modeling. It was observed that hydroxylamine was disproportionated biologically

Maarten J. Van De Graaf; Boran Kartal; Cristian Picioreanu; Mike S. M. Jetten

2008-01-01

41

Comparison of techniques for isolation and identification of anaerobic bacteria\\  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this symposium a variety of systems for cultivation of anaerobic bacteria have been described and the advantages of some of the recently described culture techniques have been clearly shown. However, there is litfie published information on comparison of these systems, and it is difficult for microbi- ologists with limited experience in anaerobic bacteriology to choose which system(s) are most

V. R. Dowel

42

The identification of anaerobic bacteria using MALDI-TOF MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption and Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has gained more and more popularity for the identification of bacteria. Several studies show that bacterial diagnosticis is being revolutionized by the application of MALDI-TOF MS. For anaerobic bacteria, MALDI-TOF MS has been used for the identification of Prevotella spp., Fusobacterium spp., Clostridium spp., Bacteroides spp. and Gram-positive anaerobic

A. C. M. Veloo; G. W. Welling; J. E. Degener

2011-01-01

43

Fuel from Bacteria: Bioconversion of Carbon Dioxide to Biofuels by Facultatively Autotrophic Hydrogen Bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Electrofuels Project: Ohio State is genetically modifying bacteria to efficiently convert carbon dioxide directly into butanol, an alcohol that can be used directly as a fuel blend or converted to a hydrocarbon, which closely resembles a gasoline. Bacteria are typically capable of producing a certain amount of butanol before it becomes too toxic for the bacteria to survive. Ohio State is engineering a new strain of the bacteria that could produce up to 50% more butanol before it becomes too toxic for the bacteria to survive. Finding a way to produce more butanol more efficiently would significantly cut down on biofuel production costs and help make butanol cost competitive with gasoline. Ohio State is also engineering large tanks, or bioreactors, to grow the biofuel-producing bacteria in, and they are developing ways to efficiently recover biofuel from the tanks.

None

2010-07-01

44

Clinical review: Bacteremia caused by anaerobic bacteria in children  

PubMed Central

This review describes the microbiology, diagnosis and management of bacteremia caused by anaerobic bacteria in children. Bacteroides fragilis, Peptostreptococcus sp., Clostridium sp., and Fusobacterium sp. were the most common clinically significant anaerobic isolates. The strains of anaerobic organisms found depended, to a large extent, on the portal of entry and the underlying disease. Predisposing conditions include: malignant neoplasms, immunodeficiencies, chronic renal insufficiency, decubitus ulcers, perforation of viscus and appendicitis, and neonatal age. Organisms identical to those causing anaerobic bacteremia can often be recovered from other infected sites that may have served as a source of persistent bacteremia. When anaerobes resistant to penicillin are suspected or isolated, antimicrobial drugs such as clindamycin, chloramphenicol, metronidazole, cefoxitin, a carbapenem, or the combination of a beta-lactamase inhibitor and a penicillin should be administered. The early recognition of anaerobic bacteremia and administration of appropriate antimicrobial and surgical therapy play a significant role in preventing mortality and morbidity in pediatric patients. PMID:12133179

Brook, Itzhak

2002-01-01

45

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation by anammox bacteria in the Black Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of fixed inorganic nitrogen (nitrate, nitrite and ammonium) limits primary productivity in many oceanic regions. The conversion of nitrate to N2 by heterotrophic bacteria (denitrification) is believed to be the only important sink for fixed inorganic nitrogen in the ocean. Here we provide evidence for bacteria that anaerobically oxidize ammonium with nitrite to N2 in the world's largest

Marcel M. M. Kuypers; A. Olav Sliekers; Gaute Lavik; Markus Schmid; Bo Barker Jørgensen; J. Gijs Kuenen; Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté; Marc Strous; Mike S. M. Jetten

2003-01-01

46

Complete Genome of Ignavibacterium album, a Metabolically Versatile, Flagellated, Facultative Anaerobe from the Phylum Chlorobi  

PubMed Central

Prior to the recent discovery of Ignavibacterium album (I. album), anaerobic photoautotrophic green sulfur bacteria (GSB) were the only members of the bacterial phylum Chlorobi that had been grown axenically. In contrast to GSB, sequence analysis of the 3.7-Mbp genome of I. album shows that this recently described member of the phylum Chlorobi is a chemoheterotroph with a versatile metabolism. I. album lacks genes for photosynthesis and sulfur oxidation but has a full set of genes for flagella and chemotaxis. The occurrence of genes for multiple electron transfer complexes suggests that I. album is capable of organoheterotrophy under both oxic and anoxic conditions. The occurrence of genes encoding enzymes for CO2 fixation as well as other enzymes of the reductive TCA cycle suggests that mixotrophy may be possible under certain growth conditions. However, known biosynthetic pathways for several amino acids are incomplete; this suggests that I. album is dependent upon on exogenous sources of these metabolites or employs novel biosynthetic pathways. Comparisons of I. album and other members of the phylum Chlorobi suggest that the physiology of the ancestors of this phylum might have been quite different from that of modern GSB. PMID:22661972

Liu, Zhenfeng; Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Vogl, Kajetan; Iino, Takao; Ohkuma, Moriya; Overmann, Jorg; Bryant, Donald A.

2012-01-01

47

Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria  

SciTech Connect

We welcome you to The Power of Anaerobes. This conference serves two purposes. One is to celebrate the life of Harry D. Peck, Jr.,who was born May 18, 1927 and would have celebrated his 73rd birthday at this conference. He died November 20, 1998. The second is to gather investigators to exchange views within the realm of anaerobic microbiology, an area in which tremendous progress has been seen during recent years. It is sufficient to mention discoveries of a new form of life (the archaea), hyper or extreme thermophiles, thermophilic alkaliphiles and anaerobic fungi. With these discoveries has come a new realization about physiological and metabolic properties of microorganisms, and this in turn has demonstrated their importance for the development, maintenance and sustenance of life on Earth.

NONE

2000-05-18

48

Anaerobic utilization of essential oils bydenitrifying bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant volatile organic compounds are a major carbonsource in nature. We studied the degradability ofthese substances by anaerobic microorganisms inenrichment cultures with representative essential oilsas organic substrates and nitrate as electronacceptor. Lemon and pine needle oil supportedmicrobial growth in the presence of pure oil, whereasparsley seed, camphor, sage, fennel, and mint oilsupported growth only when the essential oils weredissolved in

Jens Harder; Udo Heyen

2000-01-01

49

Material and method for promoting the growth of anaerobic bacteria  

DOEpatents

A material and method for promoting the growth of anaerobic bacteria which includes a nutrient media containing a hydrogen donor and sterile membrane fragments of bacteria having an electron transfer system which reduces oxygen to water. Dissolved oxygen in the medium is removed by adding the sterile membrane fragments to the nutrient medium and holding the medium at a temperature of about 10.degree. to about 60.degree. C. until the dissolved oxygen is removed.

Adler, Howard I. (128 Indian La., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

1984-01-01

50

Material and method for promoting the growth of anaerobic bacteria  

DOEpatents

A material and method is disclosed for promoting the growth of anaerobic bacteria which includes a nutrient media containing a hydrogen donor and sterile membrane fragments of bacteria having an electron transfer system which reduces oxygen to water. Dissolved oxygen in the medium is removed by adding the sterile membrane fragments to the nutrient medium and holding the medium at a temperature of about 10 to about 60 C until the dissolved oxygen is removed. No Drawings

Adler, H.I.

1984-10-09

51

Activity of endodontic antibacterial agents against selected anaerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial activity of substances used as antibacterial agents (solutions of 10% calcium hydroxide, camphorated paramono- chlorophenol - PMCC, 2% chlorhexidine digluconate and 10% castor oil plant detergent) on anaerobic bacteria (Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 25586, Prevotella nigrescens ATCC 33563, Clostridium perfringens ATCC 13124 and Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 25285), using a broth dilution technique, was evaluated in vitro. For determination of

Cláudio Maniglia Ferreira; Odila Pereira da Silva; Sérgio Aparecido Torres; Flaviana Bombarda de Andrade Ferreira; Norberti Bernardinelli

2002-01-01

52

The Genome Sequences of Cellulomonas fimi and "Cellvibrio gilvus” Reveal the Cellulolytic Strategies of Two Facultative Anaerobes, Transfer of "Cellvibrio gilvus" to the Genus Cellulomonas, and Proposal of Cellulomonas gilvus sp. nov  

PubMed Central

Actinobacteria in the genus Cellulomonas are the only known and reported cellulolytic facultative anaerobes. To better understand the cellulolytic strategy employed by these bacteria, we sequenced the genome of the Cellulomonas fimi ATCC 484T. For comparative purposes, we also sequenced the genome of the aerobic cellulolytic “Cellvibrio gilvus” ATCC 13127T. An initial analysis of these genomes using phylogenetic and whole-genome comparison revealed that “Cellvibrio gilvus” belongs to the genus Cellulomonas. We thus propose to assign “Cellvibrio gilvus” to the genus Cellulomonas. A comparative genomics analysis between these two Cellulomonas genome sequences and the recently completed genome for Cellulomonas flavigena ATCC 482T showed that these cellulomonads do not encode cellulosomes but appear to degrade cellulose by secreting multi-domain glycoside hydrolases. Despite the minimal number of carbohydrate-active enzymes encoded by these genomes, as compared to other known cellulolytic organisms, these bacteria were found to be proficient at degrading and utilizing a diverse set of carbohydrates, including crystalline cellulose. Moreover, they also encode for proteins required for the fermentation of hexose and xylose sugars into products such as ethanol. Finally, we found relatively few significant differences between the predicted carbohydrate-active enzymes encoded by these Cellulomonas genomes, in contrast to previous studies reporting differences in physiological approaches for carbohydrate degradation. Our sequencing and analysis of these genomes sheds light onto the mechanism through which these facultative anaerobes degrade cellulose, suggesting that the sequenced cellulomonads use secreted, multidomain enzymes to degrade cellulose in a way that is distinct from known anaerobic cellulolytic strategies. PMID:23342046

Bramhacharya, Shanti; Jewell, Kelsea A.; Aylward, Frank O.; Mead, David; Brumm, Phillip J.

2013-01-01

53

Cellulose fermentation by nitrogen-fixing anaerobic bacteria  

SciTech Connect

In anaerobic natural environments cellulose is degraded to methane, carbon dioxide and other products by the combined activities of many diverse microorganisms. We are simulating processes occurring in natural environments by constructing biologically-defined, stable, heterogeneous bacterial communities (consortia) that we use as in vitro systems for quantitative studies of cellulose degradation under conditions of combined nitrogen deprivation. These studies include the investigation of (i) metabolic interactions among members of cellulose-degrading microbial populations, and (ii) processes that regulate the activity or biosynthesis of cellulolytic enzymes. In addition, we are studying the sensory mechanisms that, in natural environments, may enable motile cellulolytic bacteria to migrate toward cellulose. This part of our work includes biochemical characterization of the cellobiose chemoreceptor of cellulolytic bacteria. Finally, an important aspect of our research is the investigation of the mechanisms by which multienzyme complexes of anaerobic bacteria catalyze the depolymerization of crystalline cellulose and of other plant cell wall polysacchaddes. The research will provide fundamental information on the physiology and ecology of cellulose-fermenting, N{sub 2}-fixing bacteria, and on the intricate processes involved in C and N cycling in anaerobic environments. Furthermore, the information will be valuable for the development of practical applications, such as the conversion of plant biomass (e.g., agricultural, forestry and municipal wastes) to automotive fuels such as ethanol.

Canale-Parola, E.

1992-12-13

54

Adhesion of biodegradative anaerobic bacteria to solid surfaces  

SciTech Connect

In order to exploit the ability of anaerobic bacteria to degrade certain contaminants for bioremediation of polluted subsurface environments, the authors need to understand the mechanisms by which such bacteria partition between aqueous and solid phases, as well as the environmental conditions that influence partitioning. They studied four strictly anaerobic bacteria, Desulfomonile tiedjei, Syntrophomonas wolfei, Syntrophobacter wolinii, and Desulfovibrio sp. strain G11, which theoretically together can constitute a tetrachloroethylene- and trichloroethylene-dechlorinating consortium. Adhesion of these organisms was evaluated by microscopic determination of the numbers of cells that attached to glass coverslips exposed to cell suspensions under anaerobic conditions. The authors studied the effects of the growth phase of the organisms on adhesion, as well as the influence of electrostatic and hydrophobic properties of the substratum. Results indicate that S. wolfei adheres in considerably higher numbers to glass surfaces than the other three organisms. Starvation greatly decreases adhesion of S. wolfei and Desulfovibrio sp. strain G11 but seems to have less of an effect on the adhesion of the other bacteria. The presence of Fe{sup 3+} on the substratum, which would be electropositive, significantly increased the adhesion of S. wolfei, whereas the presence of silicon hydrophobic groups decreased the numbers of attached cells of all species. Measurements of transport of cells through hydrophobic-interaction and electro-static-interaction columns indicated that all four species had negatively charged cell surfaces and that D. tiedjei and Desulfovibrio sp. strain G11 possessed some hydrophobic cell surface properties. These findings are an early step toward understanding the dynamic attachment of anaerobic bacteria in anoxic environments.

Schie, P.M. van; Fletcher, M.

1999-11-01

55

Use of Enzyme Tests in Characterization and Identification of Aerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Gram-Positive Cocci  

PubMed Central

The contribution of enzyme tests to the accurate and rapid routine identification of gram-positive cocci is introduced. The current taxonomy of the genera of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic cocci based on genotypic and phenotypic characterization is reviewed. The clinical and economic importance of members of these taxa is briefly summarized. Tables summarizing test schemes and kits available for the identification of staphylococci, enterococci, and streptococci on the basis of general requirements, number of tests, number of taxa, test classes, and completion times are discussed. Enzyme tests included in each scheme are compared on the basis of their synthetic moiety. The current understanding of the activity of enzymes important for classification and identification of the major groups, methods of testing, and relevance to the ease and speed of identification are reviewed. Publications describing the use of different identification kits are listed, and overall identification successes and problems are discussed. The relationships between the results of conventional biochemical and rapid enzyme tests are described and considered. The use of synthetic substrates for the detection of glycosidases and peptidases is reviewed, and the advantages of fluorogenic synthetic moieties are discussed. The relevance of enzyme tests to accurate and meaningful rapid routine identification is discussed. PMID:9564566

Bascomb, Shoshana; Manafi, Mammad

1998-01-01

56

Carnobacterium pleistocenium sp. nov., a novel psychrotolerant, facultative anaerobe isolated from permafrost of the Fox Tunnel in Alaska  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel, psychrotolerant, facultative anaerobe, strain FTR1T, was isolated from Pleistocene ice from the permafrost tunnel in Fox, Alaska. Gram-positive, motile, rod-shaped cells were observed with sizes 0.6-0.7 x 0.9-1.5 microm. Growth occurred within the pH range 6.5-9.5 with optimum growth at pH 7.3-7.5. The temperature range for growth of the novel isolate was 0-28 degrees C and optimum growth occurred at 24 degrees C. The novel isolate does not require NaCl; growth was observed between 0 and 5 % NaCl with optimum growth at 0.5 % (w/v). The novel isolate was a catalase-negative chemoorganoheterotroph that used as substrates sugars and some products of proteolysis. The metabolic end products were acetate, ethanol and CO2. Strain FTR1T was sensitive to ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, rifampicin, kanamycin and gentamicin. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed 99.8 % similarity between strain FTR1T and Carnobacterium alterfunditum, but DNA-DNA hybridization between them demonstrated 39+/-1.5 % relatedness. On the basis of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, it is proposed that strain FTR1T (=ATCC BAA-754T=JCM 12174T=CIP 108033T) be assigned to the novel species Carnobacterium pleistocenium sp. nov.

Pikuta, Elena V.; Marsic, Damien; Bej, Asim; Tang, Jane; Krader, Paul; Hoover, Richard B.

2005-01-01

57

Carnobacterium pleistocenium sp. nov., a novel psychrotolerant, facultative anaerobe isolated from permafrost of the Fox Tunnel in Alaska  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel, psychrotolerant, facultative anaerobe, strain FTRl, was isolated from Pleistocene ice from the permafrost tunnel in Fox, Alaska. Gram-positive, motile, rod-shaped cells were observed with sizes 0(raised dot)6-0(raised dot)7 x 0(raised dot)9-1(raised dot)5 microns. Growth occurred within the pH range 6(raised dot)5-9(raised dot)5 with optimum growth at pH 7(raised dot)3-7(raised dot)5. The temperature range for growth of the novel isolate was 0-28 C and optimum growth occurred at 24 C. The novel isolate does not require NaCl; growth was observed between 0 and 5% NaCl with optimum growth at 0(raised dot)5% (w/v). The novel isolate was a catalase-negative chemoorganoheterotroph that used as substrates sugars and some products of proteolysis. The metabolic end products were acetate, ethanol and CO2. Strain FTRl was sensitive to ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, rifampicin, kanamycin and gentamicin. 16s rRNA gene sequence analysis showed 99(raised dot)8% similarity between strain FTR1 and Carnobacterium alterfunditum, but DNA-DNA hybridization between them demonstrated 39 plus or minus 1(raised dot)5% relatedness. On the basis of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, it is proposed that strain FTRl (= ATCC BAA-754T= JCM 12174T=CIP 108033) be assigned to the novel species Carnobacterium pleistocenium sp. nov.

Pilkuta, Elena V.; Marsic, Damien; Bej, Asim; Tang, Jane; Krader, Paul; Hoover, Richard B.

2005-01-01

58

Carnobacterium Pleistocaenium sp. nov.: A Novel Psychrotolerant, Facultative Anaerobe Isolated from Permafrost of the Fox Tunnel in Alaska  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel, psychrotolerant, facultative anaerobe, strain FTRIT1(sup T), was isolated from Pleistocene ice from the permafrost tunnel in Fox, Alaska. Gram-positive, motile, rod-shaped cells with sizes 0.6-0.7 x 0.9-1.5 micrometers were observed. Growth occurred within the pH range 6.5-9.5 and optimum at pH 7.3-7.5. The temperature range of the new isolate was 0-28 C and optimum growth occurred at 24 C. The novel isolate requires NaCl (growth absent at 0 %) and growth was observed between 0 and 5% NaCl with optimum at 0.5% (w/v). The new isolate was a catalase-negative chemoorganoheterotroph that used as substrates sugars and some products of proteolysis. The metabolic end products were: acetate, ethanol and CO2. Strain FTRl was sensitive to ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, rifampin, kanamycin, and gentamycin. The 16S rDNA sequence analysis showed 99.8% similarity of strain FTR1 with Carnobacterium alterfunditum, but the DNA-DNA hybridization between them demonstrated 39 plus or minus 5% homology. On the basis of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, it is proposed that the strain FTR1(sup T) (= ATCC BAA-754(sup T) = JSM 12174(sup T) is assigned to the new species of the genus Carnobacterium with proposed name Carnobacterium pleistocaenium sp. nov.

Pikuta, Elena V.; Marsic, Damien; Bej, Asim; Tang, Jane; Krader, Paul; Hoover, Richard B.

2004-01-01

59

Anaerobic oxidation of arsenite in Mono Lake water and by a facultative, arsenite-oxidizing chemoautotroph, strain MLHE-1  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Arsenite [As(III)]-enriched anoxic bottom water from Mono Lake, California, produced arsenate [As(V)] during incubation with either nitrate or nitrite. No such oxidation occurred in killed controls or in live samples incubated without added nitrate or nitrite. A small amount of biological As(III) oxidation was observed in samples amended with Fe(III) chelated with nitrolotriacetic acid, although some chemical oxidation was also evident in killed controls. A pure culture, strain MLHE-1, that was capable of growth with As(III) as its electron donor and nitrate as its electron acceptor was isolated in a defined mineral salts medium. Cells were also able to grow in nitrate-mineral salts medium by using H2 or sulfide as their electron donor in lieu of As(III). Arsenite-grown cells demonstrated dark 14CO2 fixation, and PCR was used to indicate the presence of a gene encoding ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Strain MLHE-1 is a facultative chemoautotroph, able to grow with these inorganic electron donors and nitrate as its electron acceptor, but heterotrophic growth on acetate was also observed under both aerobic and anaerobic (nitrate) conditions. Phylogenetic analysis of its 16S ribosomal DNA sequence placed strain MLHE-1 within the haloalkaliphilic Ectothiorhodospira of the ??-Proteobacteria. Arsenite oxidation has never been reported for any members of this subgroup of the Proteobacteria.

Oremland, R.S.; Hoeft, S.E.; Santini, J.M.; Bano, N.; Hollibaugh, R.A.; Hollibaugh, J.T.

2002-01-01

60

Streptohalobacillus salinus gen. nov., sp. nov., a moderately halophilic, Gram-positive, facultative anaerobe isolated from subsurface saline soil.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, non-sporulating, motile and moderately halophilic bacterium, designated strain H96B60(T), was isolated from a saline soil sample of the Qaidam basin, China. The strain was facultatively anaerobic. Major end products formed from glucose fermentation were acetate, ethanol and lactic acid. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The isoprenoid quinone component was menaquinone-6 (MK-6). The predominant cellular fatty acids were C(16: 0), anteiso-C(13 : 0) and anteiso-C(15 : 0). The genomic DNA G+C content of strain H96B60(T) was 36.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on comparative 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain H96B60(T) represented a novel phyletic lineage within the family Bacillaceae and was related most closely to Halolactibacillus species (96.1-96.4 % similarity). Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data presented, strain H96B60(T) is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Streptohalobacillus salinus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Streptohalobacillus salinus is H96B60(T) (?=?DSM 22440(T) ?=?CGMCC 1.7733(T)). PMID:20543154

Wang, Xiaowei; Xue, Yanfen; Ma, Yanhe

2011-05-01

61

Iron biomineralization by anaerobic neutrophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minerals formed by bio-oxidation of ferrous iron (Fe(II)) at neutral pH, their association with bacterial ultrastructures as well as their impact on the metabolism of iron-oxidizing bacteria remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated iron biomineralization by the anaerobic nitrate-dependent iron-oxidizing bacterium Acidovorax sp. strain BoFeN1 in the presence of dissolved Fe(II) using electron microscopy and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM).

Jennyfer Miot; Karim Benzerara; Guillaume Morin; Andreas Kappler; Sylvain Bernard; Martin Obst; Céline Férard; Fériel Skouri-Panet; Jean-Michel Guigner; Nicole Posth; Matthieu Galvez; Gordon E. Brown; François Guyot

2009-01-01

62

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation by anammox bacteria in the Black Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of fixed inorganic nitrogen (nitrate, nitrite and ammonium) limits primary productivity in many oceanic regions. The conversion of nitrate to N2 by heterotrophic bacteria (denitrification) is believed to be the only important sink for fixed inorganic nitrogen in the ocean. Here we provide evidence for bacteria that anaerobically oxidize ammonium with nitrite to N2 in the world's largest anoxic basin, the Black Sea. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences shows that these bacteria are related to members of the order Planctomycetales performing the anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) process in ammonium-removing bioreactors. Nutrient profiles, fluorescently labelled RNA probes, 15N tracer experiments and the distribution of specific `ladderane' membrane lipids indicate that ammonium diffusing upwards from the anoxic deep water is consumed by anammox bacteria below the oxic zone. This is the first time that anammox bacteria have been identified and directly linked to the removal of fixed inorganic nitrogen in the environment. The widespread occurrence of ammonium consumption in suboxic marine settings indicates that anammox might be important in the oceanic nitrogen cycle.

Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Sliekers, A. Olav; Lavik, Gaute; Schmid, Markus; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Kuenen, J. Gijs; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Strous, Marc; Jetten, Mike S. M.

2003-04-01

63

Oxidation and methylation of dissolved elemental mercury by anaerobic bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Methylmercury is a neurotoxin that poses significant health risks to humans. Some anaerobic sulphate- and iron-reducing bacteria can methylate oxidized forms of mercury, generating methylmercury1-4. One strain of sulphate-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132) can also methylate elemental mercury5. The prevalence of this trait among different bacterial strains and species remains unclear, however. Here, we compare the ability of two strains of the sulphate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio and one strain of the iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury in a series of laboratory incubations. Experiments were carried out under dark, anaerobic conditions, in the presence of environmentally-relevant concentrations of elemental mercury. We report differences in the ability of these organisms to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury. In line with recent findings5, we show that Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 can both oxidise and methylate elemental mercury. However, the rate of methylation of elemental mercury is only about one third the rate of methylation of oxidized mercury. We also show that Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20 can oxidise, but not methylate, elemental mercury. Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA is able to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury in the presence of cysteine. We suggest that the activity of methylating and non-methylating bacteria may together enhance the formation of methylmercury in anaerobic environments.

Hu, Haiyan [ORNL] [ORNL; Lin, Hui [ORNL] [ORNL; Zheng, Wang [ORNL] [ORNL; Tomanicek, Stephen J [ORNL] [ORNL; Johs, Alexander [ORNL] [ORNL; Feng, Xinbin [ORNL] [ORNL; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL] [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

64

Comparative in vitro susceptibilities of anaerobic bacteria to cefmenoxime, cefotetan, and N-formimidoyl thienamycin.  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activities of cefmenoxime, cefotetan, and N-formimidoyl thienamycin were compared with those of other antimicrobial agents (metronidazole, clindamycin, cefoxitin, and moxalactam) against anaerobic bacteria. The data obtained indicate that N-formimidoyl thienamycin exhibits excellent activity against anaerobic bacteria; cefotetan and cefmenoxime, though less active, should be of value in treating selected anaerobic infections. PMID:6305265

Owens, W E; Finegold, S M

1983-01-01

65

The role of anaerobic bacteria in chronic suppurative otitis media in children: Implications for medical therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes the microbiology, diagnosis and medical management of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) in children highlighting the role of anaerobic bacteria. In studies that employed adequate method for recovery of anaerobic bacteria polymicrobial aerobic and anaerobic flora was isolated from over half of the children with CSOM. The predominant aerobic isolates were Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and

Itzhak Brook

2008-01-01

66

Complete genome sequence of the facultatively anaerobic, appendaged bacterium Muricauda ruestringensis type strain (B1T)  

SciTech Connect

Muricauda ruestringensis Bruns et al. 2001 is the type species of the genus Muricauda, which belongs to the family Flavobacteriaceae in the phylum Bacteroidetes. The species is of interest because of its isolated position in the genomically unexplored genus Muricauda, which is located in a part of the tree of life containing not many organisms with sequenced genomes. The genome, which consists of a circular chromosome of 3,842,422 bp length with a total of 3,478 protein-coding and 47 RNA genes, is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Pan, Chongle [ORNL; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Spring, Stefan [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

2012-01-01

67

Osteomyelitis in dogs and cats caused by anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

Localised osteomyelitis was diagnosed in 2 dogs and 2 cats. The disease was caused by fight wounds in 3 cases. Radiographic examination demonstrated a circumscribed zone of cortical bone lysis, sequestra and periosteal new bone. Each case was treated surgically by sequestrectomy and debridement. Infection was due mainly to anaerobic bacteria. The pathogenic bacteria isolated from the lesions of dogs were Actinomyces viscosus, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Bacteroides spp, and from the lesions in cats were Clostridium villosum , Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Wolinella recta and Bacteroides gingivalis. As all the bacteria were sensitive to penicillin, each case was treated with penicillin and by irrigation of the wound. This resulted in resolution of the disease, within 4 weeks, in all cases. PMID:6732670

Johnson, K A; Lomas, G R; Wood, A K

1984-02-01

68

Paludibaculum fermentans gen. nov., sp. nov., a facultative anaerobe capable of dissimilatory iron reduction from subdivision 3 of the Acidobacteria.  

PubMed

A facultatively anaerobic, non-pigmented, non-spore-forming bacterium was isolated from a littoral wetland of a boreal lake located on Valaam Island, northern Russia, and designated strain P105(T). Cells of this isolate were Gram-negative, non-motile rods coated by S-layers with p2 lattice symmetry. Sugars were the preferred growth substrates. Under anoxic conditions, strain P105(T) was capable of fermentation and dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction. End products of fermentation were acetate, propionate and H2. Strain P105(T) was a mildly acidophilic, mesophilic organism, capable of growth at pH 4.0-7.2 (optimum pH 5.5-6.0) and at 4-35 °C (optimum at 20-28 °C). The major fatty acids were iso-C(15?:?0) and C(16?:?1)?7c; the cells also contained significant amounts of 13,16-dimethyl octacosanedioic acid (isodiabolic acid). The major polar lipids were phosphocholine and phosphoethanolamine; the quinone was MK-8. The G+C content of the DNA was 60.5 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain P105(T) belongs to subdivision 3 of the Acidobacteria and is only distantly related (90% sequence similarity) to the only currently characterized member of this subdivision, Bryobacter aggregatus. The novel isolate differs from Bryobacter aggregatus in its cell morphology and ability to grow under anoxic conditions and in the presence of iron- and nitrate-reducing capabilities as well as quinone and polar lipid compositions. These differences suggest that strain P105(T) represents a novel genus and species, for which the name Paludibaculum fermentans gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain of Paludibaculum fermentans is P105(T) (?=?DSM 26340(T)?=?VKM B-2878(T)). PMID:24867171

Kulichevskaya, Irina S; Suzina, Natalia E; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Dedysh, Svetlana N

2014-08-01

69

The effect of rumen chitinolytic bacteria on cellulolytic anaerobic fungi.  

PubMed

The polycentric anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces joyonii A4 was cultivated on microcrystalline cellulose alone and in association with the rumen chitinolytic bacterium Clostridium sp. strain ChK5, which shows strong phenotypic similarity to Clostridium tertium. The presence of strain ChK5 significantly depressed the solubilization of microcrystalline cellulose, the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and the release of endoglucanase by the fungus. Co-culture of the monocentric anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix frontalis strain RE1, Neocallimastix sp. strain G-1 and Caecomyces sp. strain SC2 with strain ChK5 also resulted in depressed fungal cellulolysis. Cell-free supernatant fluids from strain ChK5 inhibited the release of reducing sugars from carboxymethylcellulose by cell-free supernatant fluids from O. joyonii strain A4. Strain 007 of the cellulolytic anaerobe Ruminococcus flavefaciens was also shown to produce small amounts of soluble products upon incubation with colloidal chitin. Mixtures of culture supernates from this bacterium and from O. joyonii strain A4 showed cellulase activity that was less than that of the component cultures. It is suggested that the ability of some rumen bacteria to hydrolyse or transform chitin may be an important factor in the interactions between bacteria and fungi in the rumen. PMID:8862027

Kopecný, J; Hodrová, B; Stewart, C S

1996-09-01

70

Denitrifying bacteria anaerobically oxidize methane in the absence of Archaea.  

PubMed

Recently, a microbial consortium was shown to couple the anaerobic oxidation of methane to denitrification, predominantly in the form of nitrite reduction to dinitrogen gas. This consortium was dominated by bacteria of an as yet uncharacterized division and archaea of the order Methanosarcinales. The present manuscript reports on the upscaling of the enrichment culture, and addresses the role of the archaea in methane oxidation. The key gene of methanotrophic and methanogenic archaea, mcrA, was sequenced. The associated cofactor F(430) was shown to have a mass of 905 Da, the same as for methanogens and different from the heavier form (951 Da) found in methanotrophic archaea. After prolonged enrichment (> 1 year), no inhibition of anaerobic methane oxidation was observed in the presence of 20 mM bromoethane sulfonate, a specific inhibitor of MCR. Optimization of the cultivation conditions led to higher rates of methane oxidation and to the decline of the archaeal population, as shown by fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative MALDI-TOF analysis of F(430). Mass balancing showed that methane oxidation was still coupled to nitrite reduction in the total absence of oxygen. Together, our results show that bacteria can couple the anaerobic oxidation of methane to denitrification without the involvement of Archaea. PMID:18721142

Ettwig, Katharina F; Shima, Seigo; van de Pas-Schoonen, Katinka T; Kahnt, Jörg; Medema, Marnix H; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Jetten, Mike S M; Strous, Marc

2008-11-01

71

GC/IR computer-aided identification of anaerobic bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method was developed to identify anaerobic bacteria by using pattern recognition. The method is depended on GC / JR data. The system is intended for use as a precise rapid and reproduceable aid in the identification of unknown isolates. Key Words: Anaerobic bacteria Pattern recognition Computeraided identification GC / JR 1 . TNTRODUCTTON A major problem in the field of anaerobic bacteriology is the difficulty in accurately precisely and rapidly identifying unknown isolates. Tn the proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Rapid Methods and Automation in Microbiology C. M. Moss said: " Chromatographic analysis is a new future for clinical microbiology" . 12 years past and so far it seems that this is an idea whose time has not get come but it close. Now two major advances that have brought the technology forword in terms ofmaking it appropriate for use in the clinical laboratory can aldo be cited. One is the development and implementation of fused silica capillary columns. In contrast to packed columns and those of'' greater width these columns allow reproducible recovery of hydroxey fatty acids with the same carbon chain length. The second advance is the efficient data processing afforded by modern microcomputer systems. On the other hand the practical steps for sample preparation also are an advance in the clinical laboratory. Chromatographic Analysis means mainly of analysis of fatty acids. The most common

Ye, Hunian; Zhang, Feng S.; Yang, Hua; Li, Zhu; Ye, Song

1993-09-01

72

Anaerobic Coryneform Bacteria as Normal Flora of Rabbit Skin and Regression of Shope Papillomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult domestic rabbits were found to harbor anaerobic coryneform bacteria and possess serum agglutinins against these bacteria. The isolates from rabbit skin were characterized by morphology, anaerobiosis, catalase test, and gas chromatographic analysis of volatile acid products. Preliminary findings on the effect of anaerobic coryneforms on the regression of Shope papillomas have suggested that the life of such bacteria as

Akira Seto; Sultan Ahmad Salehi; Ken Miyanomae; Tsutomu Ushijima; Yohei Ito

1980-01-01

73

Susceptibility of Anaerobic Bacteria to Ten Antimicrobial Agents  

PubMed Central

The susceptibility pattern of 265 anaerobic bacteria from clinical isolates to 10 antimicrobial agents was investigated by the agar dilution technique. Penicillin G, in a concentration of 16 ?g/ml, was active against most organisms, important exceptions being 12% of Bacteroides melaninogenicus and 24% of B. fragilis strains. The susceptibility of strains to ampicillin was similar to their susceptibility to penicillin G. Carbenicillin, at ?128 ?g/ml, inhibited all but a few strains. Cefamandole was less active than the penicillins; 82% of B. melaninogenicus, 32% of B. fragilis, and 75% of Fusobacterium strains were inhibited by ?16 ?g/ml. A trend towards tetracycline resistance was seen in many bacterial groups, especially Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, and Clostridium. All organisms were susceptible to chloramphenicol and clindamycin in concentrations of ?16 ?g/ml and ?4 ?g/ml, respectively. Erythromycin was less active than clindamycin against all strains tested. Metronidazole and tinidazole were active against most anaerobes, but resistance of a few strains in each group was encountered. The increased resistance of B. melaninogenicus strains to penicillin, and emergence of anaerobes resistant to >16 ?g of imidazole per ml may have therapeutic implications. PMID:708014

Appelbaum, Peter C.; Chatterton, Sheila A.

1978-01-01

74

Anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds by phototrophic bacteria: Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Vast quantities of aromatic compounds in the form of lignin, lignin derivatives, and aromatic pollutants are continually being introduced into the biosphere and much of this material accumulates in anaerobic environments. This project seeks to elucidate anaerobic routes of benzoate and 4-hydroxybenzoate metabolism by the photorophic bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Recent evidence suggests that diverse aromatics must first be metabolized to form one or the other of these compounds prior to cleavage of the aromatic ring and so these pathways probably play general role as major degradative routes. R. palustris is particularly well suited for these studies because its ability to separate carbon metabolism from energy generating mechanisms frees it from the thermodynamic constraints that restrict the anaerobic metabolism of aromatics by pure cultures of fermentative bacteria. Studies include identification of the number and specificity of enzymes involved in benzoate and 4-hydroxybenzoate metabolism, identification of cofactors and electron carriers involved in each pathway, and a determination of the precise nature of the products formed. Mutants that are blocked in aromatic metabolism have been isolated. These mutants will be used, together with physiological approaches, to identify compounds (inducers and repressors) that regulate the expression of genes for aromatic degradation. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Harwood, C.S.; Gibson, J.

1986-12-19

75

In vitro activity of Bay Y3118 against anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The antimicrobial activity of a new quinolone, Bay Y3118, was determined against 326 strains of anaerobic bacteria and compared with the activities of ampicillin-sulbactam, cefotetan, clindamycin, imipenem, metronidazole, and sparfloxacin. The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards-approved Wadsworth agar dilution technique with Brucella-laked blood agar was used throughout the study. Breakpoints used to determine the percent susceptible were 2 micrograms/ml for Bay Y3118 and sparfloxacin, 4 micrograms/ml for clindamycin, 8 micrograms/ml for imipenem, 16 micrograms/ml for metronidazole and ampicillin-sulbactam, and 32 micrograms/ml for cefotetan. Species tested included Bacteroides fragilis (57 strains), other B. fragilis group species (79 strains), Bacteroides gracilis (10 strains), other Bacteroides spp. (9 strains), Prevotella spp. (30 strains), Porphyromonas spp. (9 strains), Fusobacterium spp. (36 strains), Bilophila wadsworthia (14 strains), Clostridium spp. (36 strains), Peptostreptococcus spp. (20 strains), and gram-positive non-spore-forming rods (26 strains). Bay Y3118 inhibited all but 1 of 326 anaerobic bacteria tested at the breakpoint level or lower. PMID:8285647

Wexler, H M; Molitoris, E; Finegold, S M

1993-01-01

76

Fourth Belgian multicentre survey of antibiotic susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria  

PubMed Central

Objectives To collect recent data on the susceptibility of anaerobes to antimicrobial agents with known activity against anaerobes, and to compare them with results from previous Belgian multicentre studies. Methods Four hundred and three strict anaerobic clinical isolates were prospectively collected from February 2011 to April 2012 in eight Belgian university hospitals. MICs were determined by one central laboratory for 11 antimicrobial agents using Etest methodology. Results According to EUCAST breakpoints, >90% of isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanate (94%), piperacillin/tazobactam (91%), meropenem (96%), metronidazole (92%) and chloramphenicol (98%), but only 70% and 40% to clindamycin and penicillin, respectively. At CLSI recommended breakpoints, only 71% were susceptible to moxifloxacin and 79% to cefoxitin. MIC50/MIC90 values for linezolid and for tigecycline were 1/4 and 0.5/4 mg/L, respectively. When compared with survey data from 2004, no major differences in susceptibility profiles were noticed. However, the susceptibility of Prevotella spp. and other Gram-negative bacilli to clindamycin decreased from 91% in 1993–94 and 82% in 2004 to 69% in this survey. Furthermore, the susceptibility of clostridia to moxifloxacin decreased from 88% in 2004 to 66% in 2011–12 and that of fusobacteria from 90% to 71%. Conclusions Compared with previous surveys, little evolution was seen in susceptibility, except a decline in activity of clindamycin against Prevotella spp. and other Gram-negative bacteria, and of moxifloxacin against clostridia. Since resistance was detected to all antibiotics, susceptibility testing of anaerobic isolates is indicated in severe infections to confirm appropriateness of antimicrobial therapy. PMID:24008826

Wybo, Ingrid; Van den Bossche, Dorien; Soetens, Oriane; Vekens, Evilien; Vandoorslaer, Kristof; Claeys, Geert; Glupczynski, Youri; Ieven, Margareta; Melin, Pierrette; Nonhoff, Claire; Rodriguez-Villalobos, Hector; Verhaegen, Jan; Pierard, Denis

2014-01-01

77

Metabolism of n-alkanes and n-alkenes by anaerobic bacteria: A summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current knowledge of the pathways for the degradation of n-alkanes and n-alkenes by anaerobic bacteria is summarized and new results questioning the existence of an alternative pathway for anaerobic alkane degradation are introduced. Remaining gaps in our knowledge are also mentioned, together with the possible use of some specific metabolites as biomarkers of anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation.

Vincent Grossi; Cristiana Cravo-Laureau; Rémy Guyoneaud; Anthony Ranchou-Peyruse; Agnès Hirschler-Réa

2008-01-01

78

Competitive reaction kinetics of sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogenic bacteria in anaerobic filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A kinetic model for the anaerobic filter (AF) that takes into account the mass fractions of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) (fSRB) and methanogenic bacteria (MB) (fMB) and an inhibiting effect of H2S on bacterial groups is proposed. When the acetate-fed AFs were maintained at the low organic loading rate of 2.5kg COD\\/m3d, variations of the influent COD\\/SO42- ratio (0.5–3.0) does not

Hsin-Hsien Chou; Ju-Sheng Huang; Wen-Guang Chen; Reiko Ohara

2008-01-01

79

Decrease of U(VI) Immobilization Capability of the Facultative Anaerobic Strain Paenibacillus sp. JG-TB8 under Anoxic Conditions Due to Strongly Reduced Phosphatase Activity  

PubMed Central

Interactions of a facultative anaerobic bacterial isolate named Paenibacillus sp. JG-TB8 with U(VI) were studied under oxic and anoxic conditions in order to assess the influence of the oxygen-dependent cell metabolism on microbial uranium mobilization and immobilization. We demonstrated that aerobically and anaerobically grown cells of Paenibacillus sp. JG-TB8 accumulate uranium from aqueous solutions under acidic conditions (pH 2 to 6), under oxic and anoxic conditions. A combination of spectroscopic and microscopic methods revealed that the speciation of U(VI) associated with the cells of the strain depend on the pH as well as on the aeration conditions. At pH 2 and pH 3, uranium was exclusively bound by organic phosphate groups provided by cellular components, independently on the aeration conditions. At higher pH values, a part (pH 4.5) or the total amount (pH 6) of the dissolved uranium was precipitated under oxic conditions in a meta-autunite-like uranyl phosphate mineral phase without supplying an additional organic phosphate substrate. In contrast to that, under anoxic conditions no mineral formation was observed at pH 4.5 and pH 6, which was clearly assigned to decreased orthophosphate release by the cells. This in turn was caused by a suppression of the indigenous phosphatase activity of the strain. The results demonstrate that changes in the metabolism of facultative anaerobic microorganisms caused by the presence or absence of oxygen can decisively influence U(VI) biomineralization. PMID:25157416

Reitz, Thomas; Rossberg, Andre; Barkleit, Astrid; Selenska-Pobell, Sonja; Merroun, Mohamed L.

2014-01-01

80

Antimicrobial properties of hydrogen peroxide and sodium bicarbonate individually and in combination against selected oral, gram-negative, facultative bacteria.  

PubMed

The topical application of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), individually and in combination, has been used empirically in the treatment of periodontal diseases. In this study, we examined both minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of these disinfectants individually and in combination against selected facultative, Gram-negative oral bacteria in a microtiter dilution assay. The bacteria studied included Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Haemophilus aphrophilus, Eikenella corrodens, and Capnocytophaga gingivalis. These bacteria exhibited MBC (one hr) values ranging from 75 mumol/L to greater than 10 mmol/L and MIC from less than 5 to 500 mumol/L for H2O2. The tested bacteria exhibited MIC values for NaHCO3 of from 23 to 182 mmol/L, and the MBC (one hr) exceeded 728 mmol/L for most of the strains examined. At sublethal (sub-MIC) concentrations, sodium bicarbonate antagonized the ability of H2O2 to inhibit bacterial growth in MIC assays, but sublethal concentrations of H2O2 had no effect on the MIC values of NaHCO3. Lethal concentrations of H2O2 and NaHCO3 exhibited synergistic antimicrobial activity in combination in one-hour bactericidal assays. Since the bactericidal properties of these antimicrobial agents are synergistic, we conclude that it may be rational to use them in combination to treat certain forms of periodontal disease. Also, lower and perhaps safer concentrations of H2O2 can be used in combination with NaHCO3 when oxidative antimicrobial chemotherapy is indicated. PMID:3016051

Miyasaki, K T; Genco, R J; Wilson, M E

1986-09-01

81

Synthesis and function of polyhydroxyalkanoates in anaerobic syntrophic bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Anaerobic syntrophic bacteria degrade fatty acids and some aromatic compounds which are important intermediates in the degradation of organic matter to CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} in methanogenic environments. Several of the described syntrophic species produce poly-{beta}-hydroxyalkanoate (PHA) suggesting that the synthesis and use of PHA is important in their physiology. In the fatty acid-degrading, syntrophic bacterium, Syntrophomonas wolfei, PHA is made during exponential phase of growth and used after growth has stopped and substrate levels are low. Altering the carbon to nitrogen ratio of the medium does not affect the amount of PHA made or its monomeric composition. It is hypothesized that PHA serves as an endogenous energy source for syntrophic bacteria when the concentrations of hydrogen or acetate are too high for the degradation of the growth substrate to be thermodynamically favorable. In S. wolfei, PHA is synthesized by two routes, the direct incorporation of 3-ketoacyl-coenzyme A (CoA) generated in {beta}-oxidation without cleavage of a C-C bond, and by the condensation and subsequent reduction of two acetyl-CoA molecules. Genes that encode for the synthesis of PHA in S. wolfei have been cloned into Escherichia coli in order to understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate PHA synthesis. 61 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

McInerney, M.J.; Amos, D.A.; Kealy, K.S. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Dept. of Botany and Microbiology] [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Dept. of Botany and Microbiology; Palmer, J.A. [Univ. of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology] [Univ. of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

1992-12-31

82

Diverse Gene Cassettes in Class 1 Integrons of Facultative Oligotrophic Bacteria of River Mahananda, West Bengal, India  

PubMed Central

Background In this study a large random collection (n?=?2188) of facultative oligotrophic bacteria, from 90 water samples gathered in three consecutive years (2007–2009) from three different sampling sites of River Mahananda in Siliguri, West Bengal, India, were investigated for the presence of class 1 integrons and sequences of the amplification products. Methodology/Principal Findings Replica plating method was employed for determining the antibiotic resistance profile of the randomly assorted facultative oligotrophic isolates. Genomic DNA from each isolate was analyzed by PCR for the presence of class 1 integron. Amplicons were cloned and sequenced. Numerical taxonomy and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses were done to ascertain putative genera of the class 1 integron bearing isolates. Out of 2188 isolates, 1667 (76.19%) were antibiotic-resistant comprising of both single-antibiotic resistance (SAR) and multiple-antibiotic resistant (MAR), and 521 (23.81%) were sensitive to all twelve different antibiotics used in this study. Ninety out of 2188 isolates produced amplicon(s) of varying sizes from 0.15 to 3.45 KB. Chi-square (?2) test revealed that the possession of class 1 integron in sensitive, SAR and MAR is not equally probable at the 1% level of significance. Diverse antibiotic-resistance gene cassettes, aadA1, aadA2, aadA4, aadA5, dfrA1, dfrA5, dfrA7, dfrA12, dfrA16, dfrA17, dfrA28, dfrA30, dfr-IIe, blaIMP-9, aacA4, Ac-6?-Ib, oxa1, oxa10 and arr2 were detected in 64 isolates. The novel cassettes encoding proteins unrelated to any known antibiotic resistance gene function were identified in 26 isolates. Antibiotic-sensitive isolates have a greater propensity to carry gene cassettes unrelated to known antibiotic-resistance genes. The integron-positive isolates under the class Betaproteobacteria comprised of only two genera, Comamonas and Acidovorax of family Comamonadaceae, while isolates under class Gammaproteobacteria fell under the families, Moraxellaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Aeromonadaceae and Enterobacteriaceae. Conclusions Oligotrophic bacteria are good sources of novel genes as well as potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance gene casettes. PMID:23951238

Chakraborty, Ranadhir; Kumar, Arvind; Bhowal, Suparna Saha; Mandal, Amit Kumar; Tiwary, Bipransh Kumar; Mukherjee, Shriparna

2013-01-01

83

Anaerobic degradation of benzene by marine sulfate-reducing bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benzene, the archetypal aromatic hydrocarbon is a common constituent of crude oil and oil-refined products. As such, it can enter the biosphere through natural oil seeps or as a consequence of exploitation of fossil fuel reservoirs. Benzene is chemically very stable, due to the stabilizing aromatic electron system and to the lack of functional groups. Although the anaerobic degradation of benzene has been reported under denitrifying, sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions, the microorganisms involved and the initial biochemical steps of degradation remain insufficiently understood. Using marine sediment from a Mediterranean lagoon a sulfate-reducing enrichment culture with benzene as the sole organic substrate was obtained. Application of 16S rRNA gene-based methods showed that the enrichment was dominated (more than 85% of total cells) by a distinct phylotype affiliated with a clade of Deltaproteobacteria that include degraders of other aromatic hydrocarbons, such as naphthalene, ethylbenzene and m-xylene. Using benzoate as a soluble substrate in agar dilution series, several pure cultures closely related to Desulfotignum spp. and Desulfosarcina spp. were isolated. None of these strains was able to utilize benzene as a substrate and hybridizations with specific oligonucleotide probes showed that they accounted for as much as 6% of the total cells. Incubations with 13C-labeled benzene followed by Halogen in situ Hybridization - Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (HISH-SIMS) analysis showed that cells of the dominant phylotype were highly enriched in 13C, while the accompanying bacteria had little or no 13C incorporation. These results demonstrate that the dominant phylotype was indeed the apparent benzene degrader. Dense-cell suspensions of the enrichment culture did not show metabolic activity toward added phenol or toluene, suggesting that benzene degradation did not proceed through anaerobic hydroxylation or methylation. Instead, benzoate was identified in analyses of metabolites with benzene-grown cultures, suggesting an activation of benzene via carboxylation.

Musat, Florin; Wilkes, Heinz; Musat, Niculina; Kuypers, Marcel; Widdel, Friedrich

2010-05-01

84

Original article Anaerobic bacteria isolated from the alimentary canals  

E-print Network

bee (Megachile rotundata) larvae under strict anaerobic conditions. In all 3 years of the study, small, Ascosphaera aggregata. © Inra/DIB/- AGIB/Elsevier, Paris Megachile rotundata / larvae / alimentary canals / anaerobic microflora 1. INTRODUCTION Alfalfa leafcutting bees (Megachile rotundata Fabricius

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

85

Regulation of Multiple Carbon Monoxide Consumption Pathways in Anaerobic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide (CO), well known as a toxic gas, is increasingly recognized as a key metabolite and signaling molecule. Microbial utilization of CO is quite common, evidenced by the rapid escalation in description of new species of CO-utilizing bacteria and archaea. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH), the protein complex that enables anaerobic CO-utilization, has been well-characterized from an increasing number of microorganisms, however the regulation of multiple CO-related gene clusters in single isolates remains unexplored. Many species are extraordinarily resistant to high CO concentrations, thriving under pure CO at more than one atmosphere. We hypothesized that, in strains that can grow exclusively on CO, both carbon acquisition via the CODH/acetyl CoA synthase complex and energy conservation via a CODH-linked hydrogenase must be differentially regulated in response to the availability of CO. The CO-sensing transcriptional activator, CooA is present in most CO-oxidizing bacteria. Here we present a genomic and phylogenetic survey of CODH operons and cooA genes found in CooA-containing bacteria. Two distinct groups of CooA homologs were found: one clade (CooA-1) is found in the majority of CooA-containing bacteria, whereas the other clade (CooA-2) is found only in genomes that encode multiple CODH clusters, suggesting that the CooA-2 might be important for cross-regulation of competing CODH operons. Recombinant CooA-1 and CooA-2 regulators from the prototypical CO-utilizing bacterium Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans were purified, and promoter binding analyses revealed that CooA-1 specifically regulates the hydrogenase-linked CODH, whereas CooA-2 is able to regulate both the hydrogenase-linked CODH and the CODH/ACS operons. These studies point to the ability of dual CooA homologs to partition CO into divergent CO-utilizing pathways resulting in efficient consumption of a single limiting growth substrate available across a wide range of concentrations. PMID:21808633

Techtmann, Stephen M.; Colman, Albert S.; Murphy, Michael B.; Schackwitz, Wendy S.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Robb, Frank T.

2011-01-01

86

DESTRUCTION BY ANAEROBIC MESOPHILIC AND THERMOPHILIC DIGESTION OF VIRUSES AND INDICATOR BACTERIA INDIGENOUS TO DOMESTIC SLUDGES  

EPA Science Inventory

In raw sludges and in mesophilically and thermophilically digested anaerobic sludges, large variations in numbers of viruses occurred over narrow ranges of numbers of fecal coliforms, total coliforms, and fecal streptococci, demonstrating that the bacteria are poor quantitative r...

87

Genes for Uranium Bioremediation in the Anaerobic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bioremediation of radionuclides and metals in the subsurface necessitate an understanding of the metabolic capacities and interactions of the anaerobic microorganisms that are found there, including members of the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Genetic ...

J. D. Wall

2009-01-01

88

A dynamic estimation scheme of specific growth rates of bacteria for an anaerobic wastewater treatment process  

E-print Network

A dynamic estimation scheme of specific growth rates of bacteria for an anaerobic wastewater anal- ysis and estimation schemes for specific growth rates for an anaerobic wastewater treatment the organic and inorganic materials) of municipal or industrial wastewater often needs to be highly reduced

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

89

Velvet pad surface sampling of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria: an in vitro laboratory model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Velvet pads have been evaluated in an experimental, laboratory model, simulating intraoperative sampling of Staphylococcus epidermis, Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis. After sampling, the pad was placed in a transport medium and kept in an anaerobic atmosphere, before being shaken and rinsed, followed by anaerobic and aerobic culture. This technique permitted quantitatively high recoveries of the test bacteria. Velvet pad

D Raahave; A Friis-Møller

1982-01-01

90

Photosynthetic electron transport and anaerobic metabolism in purple non-sulfur phototrophic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purple non-sulfur phototrophic bacteria, exemplifed byRhodobacter capsulatus andRhodobacter sphaeroides, exhibit a remarkable versatility in their anaerobic metabolism. In these bacteria the photosynthetic apparatus, enzymes involved in CO2 fixation and pathways of anaerobic respiration are all induced upon a reduction in oxygen tension. Recently, there have been significant advances in the understanding of molecular properties of the photosynthetic apparatus and the

Alastair G. McEwan

1994-01-01

91

Genome sequence of Phaeobacter daeponensis type strain (DSM 23529T), a facultatively anaerobic bacterium isolated from marine sediment, and emendation of Phaeobacter daeponensis  

PubMed Central

TF-218T is the type strain of the species Phaeobacter daeponensis Yoon et al. 2007, a facultatively anaerobic Phaeobacter species isolated from tidal flats. Here we describe the draft genome sequence and annotation of this bacterium together with previously unreported aspects of its phenotype. We analyzed the genome for genes involved in secondary metabolite production and its anaerobic lifestyle, which have also been described for its closest relative Phaeobacter caeruleus. The 4,642,596 bp long genome of strain TF-218T contains 4,310 protein-coding genes and 78 RNA genes including four rRNA operons and consists of five replicons: one chromosome and four extrachromosomal elements with sizes of 276 kb, 174 kb, 117 kb and 90 kb. Genome analysis showed that TF-218T possesses all of the genes for indigoidine biosynthesis, and on specific media the strain showed a blue pigmentation. We also found genes for dissimilatory nitrate reduction, gene-transfer agents, NRPS/ PKS genes and signaling systems homologous to the LuxR/I system. PMID:24501652

Dogs, Marco; Teshima, Hazuki; Petersen, Jorn; Fiebig, Anne; Chertkov, Olga; Dalingault, Hajnalka; Chen, Amy; Pati, Amrita; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Chain, Patrick; Detter, John C.; Ivanova, Natalia; Lapidus, Alla; Rohde, Manfred; Gronow, Sabine; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Woyke, Tanja; Simon, Meinhard; Goker, Markus; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Brinkhoff, Thorsten

2013-01-01

92

Identification of Anaerobic Selenate-Respiring Bacteria from Aquatic Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity population of microorganisms with the capability to use selenate as a terminal electron acceptor, reducing it to selenite and elemental selenium by the process known as dissimilatory selenate reduction, is largely unknown. The overall objective of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of anaerobic biotransformation of selenium in the environment, particularly anaerobic respiration, and to characterize

Priya Narasingarao; Max M. Haggblom

2007-01-01

93

Behavior of plutonium interacting with bentonite and sulfate-reducing anaerobic bacteria  

SciTech Connect

The interactions between sulfate reducing anaerobic bacteria and plutonium, with or without bentonite present, were investigated using distribution coefficients [Kd (ml/g)] as an index of the radionuclide behavior. Plutonium Kds for living bacteria varied within a large range, from 1,804 to 112,952, depending on the pH, while the Kds ranged from 1,180 to 5,931 for dead bacteria. In general, living bacteria had higher plutonium Kds than dead bacteria. Furthermore, the higher Kd values of 39,677 to 106,915 for living bacteria were obtained for a pH range between 6.83 and 8.25, while no visible pH effect was observed for dead bacteria. These Kd values were obtained using tracers for both {sup 236}Pu and {sup 239}Pu, which can check the experimental procedures and mass balance. Another comparison was conducted for plutonium Kd values of mixtures of living bacteria with bentonite and sterilized bacteria with bentonite. The range of Kd values for the non-sterilized bacteria with bentonite were 1,194 to 83,648 while Kd values for the sterilized bacteria with bentonite were from 624 to 17,236. Again, the Kd values for the living bacteria with bentonite were higher than those of sterilized bacteria with bentonite. In other words, the presence of living anaerobic bacteria with bentonite increased, by roughly 50 times, the Kd values of {sup 239}Pu when compared to the mixture of dead bacteria with bentonite. The results indicate that the effects of anaerobic bacteria within the engineered barrier system (in this case bentonite) will play a significant role in the behavior of plutonium in geologic repositories.

Kudo, A.; Zheng, J.; Cayer, I. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Fujikawa, Y. [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.; Asano, H.; Arai, K. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Isogo, Yokohama (Japan); Yoshikawa, H.; Ito, M. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Co., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

1997-12-31

94

Methanogenic and Other Strictly Anaerobic Bacteria in Desert Soil and Other Oxic Soils  

PubMed Central

Strictly anaerobic bacteria such as methanogenic, sulfate-reducing, and homoacetogenic bacteria could be enriched from all five oxic soils tested. The number of cells was lower than that in typical anoxic habitats. Spores did not always dominate the population of sulfate-reducing bacteria. In all soils, the methanogenic population displayed a long lag phase after anoxic conditions were imposed before methane production began. PMID:16535011

Peters, V.; Conrad, R.

1995-01-01

95

Research Article Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Facultative Anaerobic Filamentous Fungus from Japanese Rice Field Soil  

E-print Network

novel filamentous fungus strain designated RB-1 was isolated into pure culture from Japanese rice field soil through an anaerobic role tube technique. The strain is a mitosporic fungus that grows in both aerobic and strict anaerobic conditions using various mono-, di-, tri-, and polysaccharides with acetate and ethanol productions. The amount of acetate produced was higher than that of ethanol in both aerobic and anaerobic cultures. The characteristic verrucose or punctuate conidia of RB-1 closely resembled thoseofsomestrainsofthegenusThermomyces, a thermophilic or mesophilic anamorphic ascomycete. However, based on phylogenetic analysis with the small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) rDNA sequences, RB-1 was characterized as a member of the class Lecanoromycetes of the phylum Ascomycota. Currently, RB-1 is designated as an anamorphic ascomycete and is phylogenetically considered an incertae sedis within the class Lecanoromycetes. Copyright © 2009 Akio Tonouchi. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 1.

Akio Tonouchi

96

Presence and expression of terminal oxygen reductases in strictly anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria isolated from salt-marsh sediments.  

PubMed

In the anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough genes were found encoding membrane terminal oxygen reductases of two types: a cytochrome c oxidase and a cytochrome bd oxidase, both enzymes are terminal oxidases typical of facultative or aerobic microorganisms (Heidelberg JF, et al., The genome sequence of the anaerobic, sulfate-reducing bacterium D. vulgaris Hildenborough. Nat Biotechnol 2004; 22: 554-9). To apprehend the presence of both oxidases in other sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), several assays were performed on isolates recovered from salt-marsh sediments in Portugal, representative of the different phylogenetic groups identified. Hybridization and PCR experiments for DNA sequencing were performed on the chosen isolates. Primers were selected to amplify conserved regions of cytochrome c oxidases and cytochrome bd oxidases taking into consideration alignment of corresponding subunit I sequences. The results showed that both oxidase genes are present on the chromosome of several isolates characterized as Desulfovibrio. These genes were shown to be transcribed, as demonstrated by Reverse Transcriptase-PCR experiments on total RNA. In order to assess the relative contribution of each oxidase to oxygen consumption, oxygen uptake was measured for each isolate and further characterized by the effect of cyanide on oxygen consumption. It was concluded that cytochrome bd oxidase was the terminal membrane oxygen reductase allowing oxygen consumption. In addition, it was observed that isolates containing cytochrome bd oxidase had higher resistance to air exposure, suggesting an important role of this enzyme in survival to air exposure. The pattern for the presence of oxygen reductase genes was compared to the physiological pattern of substrate use, which was determined for each isolate. Salinity tolerance, pH and temperature growth of each isolate were also analyzed. PMID:18457966

Santana, Margarida

2008-06-01

97

Anaerobic oxidation of hydrocarbons in crude oil by new types of sulphate-reducing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

MANY crude oil constituents are biodegradable in the presence of oxygen; however, a substantial anaerobic degradation has never been demonstrated1,2. An unusually low content of n-alkanes in oils of certain deposits is commonly attributed to selective utilization of these hydrocarbons by aerobic microorganisms3,4. On the other hand, oil wells and production fluids were shown to harbour anaerobic sulphate-reducing bacteria5-8, but

Petra Rueter; Ralf Rabus; Heinz Wilkest; Frank Aeckersberg; Fred A. Rainey; Holger W. Jannasch; Friedrich Widdel

1994-01-01

98

Characterization and Description of Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans gen. nov., sp. nov., an Aryl-Halorespiring Facultative Anaerobic Myxobacterium  

PubMed Central

Five strains were isolated which form a physiologically and phylogenetically coherent group of chlororespiring microorganisms and represent the first taxon in the Myxobacteria capable of anaerobic growth. The strains were enriched and isolated from various soils and sediments based on their ability to grow using acetate as an electron donor and 2-chlorophenol (2-CPh) as an electron acceptor. They are slender gram-negative rods with a bright red pigmentation that exhibit gliding motility and form spore-like structures. These unique chlororespiring myxobacteria also grow with 2,6-dichlorophenol, 2,5-dichlorophenol, 2-bromophenol, nitrate, fumarate, and oxygen as terminal electron acceptors, with optimal growth occurring at low concentrations (<1 mM) of electron acceptor. 2-CPh is reduced by all strains as an electron acceptor in preference to nitrate, which is reduced to ammonium. Acetate, H2, succinate, pyruvate, formate, and lactate were used as electron donors. None of the strains grew by fermentation. The 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences of the five strains form a coherent cluster deeply branching within the family Myxococcaceae within the class Myxobacteria and are mostly closely associated with the Myxococcus subgroup. With the exception of anaerobic growth and lack of a characteristic fruiting body, these strains closely resemble previously characterized myxobacteria and therefore should be considered part of the Myxococcus subgroup. The anaerobic growth and 9.0% difference in 16S rDNA sequence from those of other myxobacterial genera are sufficient to place these strains in a new genus and species designated Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans. The type strain is 2CP-1 (ATCC BAA-258). PMID:11823233

Sanford, Robert A.; Cole, James R.; Tiedje, James M.

2002-01-01

99

Review of Reductive Leaching of Iron by Anaerobic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaching of iron, either as an impurity to be removed or as a metal to be recovered, requires a different approach than the oxidative leaching that dominates biohydrometallurgy of other metals. In particular, the significant increase in solubility that results from reducing Fe to Fe suggests that a reductive leaching process is most suitable. A wide range of anaerobic iron-reducing

T. C. Eisele; K. L. Gabby

2012-01-01

100

Prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing anaerobic bacteria in chronic periodontitis  

PubMed Central

Objective: Due to the rampant use of antibiotics bacteria are acquiring resistance to penicillin group of drugs, which results in prescription failure in clinical practice. Beta-lactamase producing organisms are not only more virulent they also cause surrounding bacteria to become resistant. Hence, this study was undertaken to know the prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing anaerobic bacteria in chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted for a period of 1 year from January to December 2010 at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Clinical samples were collected from the sub gingival pockets from cases of chronic periodontitis and transported to the laboratory in fluid thioglycollate medium. Gram's staining was performed and anaerobic culture put up. All the anaerobic bacteria isolated were tested for beta-lactamase production by Nitrocefin disc method. Results: A total of 60 samples yielded 121 isolates, out of which 26% were ESBL producers. Bacteroides fragilis was the most common organism followed by Fusobacterium species. Conclusion: ESBL producing anaerobic bacteria exits in chronic periodontitis cases and the present study identified 26% of the isolates to be ESBL producers. Antibiotic resistance testing is essential before starting the therapy and in emergency cases drugs should be chosen to cover ESBL producers.

Benachinmardi, Kirtilaxmi Kenchappa; Nagmoti, Jyoti; Kothiwale, Shaila; Metgud, Sharada Chidananda

2014-01-01

101

In Vitro Activities of OPT-80 and Comparator Drugs against Intestinal Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The activities of OPT-80 against 453 intestinal bacteria were compared with those of seven other drugs. OPT-80 showed good activity against most clostridia, staphylococci, and enterococci, but streptococci, aerobic and facultative gram-negative rods, anaerobic gram-negative rods, and Clostridium ramosum were resistant. Poor activity against anaerobic gram-negative rods may maintain colonization resistance. PMID:15561877

Finegold, Sydney M.; Molitoris, Denise; Vaisanen, Marja-Liisa; Song, Yuli; Liu, Chengxu; Bolanos, Mauricio

2004-01-01

102

Molecular Detection of Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing (Anammox) Bacteria in High-Temperature Petroleum Reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) process plays an important role in the nitrogen cycle of the worldwide anoxic and mesophilic\\u000a habitats. Recently, the existence and activity of anammox bacteria have been detected in some thermophilic environments, but\\u000a their existence in the geothermal subterranean oil reservoirs is still not reported. This study investigated the abundance,\\u000a distribution and functional diversity of anammox bacteria in

Hui Li; Shuo Chen; Bo-Zhong Mu; Ji-Dong Gu

2010-01-01

103

Modification of the Minitek Miniaturized Differentiation System for characterization of anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The Minitek Miniaturized System (BBL) was modified for characterization of anaerobic bacteria. The modified system and the conventional Center for Disease Control method were used to test a variety of anaerobic bacteria, and results were compared. Tests performed by both techniques were indole and H2S production, esculin hydrolysis, nitrate reduction, and fermentation of glucose, mannitol, lactose, sucrose, maltose, salicin, glycerol, xylose, arabinose, mannose, rhamnose, and trehalose. The manufacturer's recommended procedure for the Minitek system was modified by using a new suspension medium (Lombard-Dowell broth) and an inoculum equivalent to the density of a McFarland no. 5 nephelometer standard. The Minitek results, recorded after 48 h, agreed satisfactorily with the conventional test results, usually recorded after 5 to 7 days of incubation. In the examination of 80 strains representing 22 different species or subspecies of anaerobic bacteria, with 16 biochemical tests performed in triplicate, 93.8% of the Minitek test results agreed with those of the corresponding conventional tests. Only tests for indole, H2S, and nitrate reduction gave less than 90% agreement. It was concluded that the modified Minitek system is a suitable substitute for the more expensive and time-consuming conventional procedure for determining carbohydrate fermentation and esculin hydrolysis by anaerobes. This system, when used in conjunction with other tests, can effectively aid in the definitive identification of commonly isolated anaerobes. Images PMID:773959

Stargel, D; Thompson, F S; Phillips, S E; Lombard, G L; Dowell, V R

1976-01-01

104

Populations of Anaerobic Phototrophic Bacteria in a Spartina alterniflora Salt Marsh.  

PubMed

Habitat-simulating media were used with the Hungate anaerobic roll tube technique to enumerate culturable anaerobic photosynthetic bacteria in sediment, tidal waters, and Spartina alterniflora plant samples collected from the salt marsh at Sapelo Island, Ga. No phototrophs were detected in samples of creekside (low marsh) sediment or in tidal waters in creekside regions. In the high marsh region, 90% of anaerobic phototrophic bacteria occurred in the top 5 mm of sediment and none were detected below 6 mm. There was a seasonal variation, with maximal populations occurring in summer and fall (mean, 4.4 x 10 phototrophs g of dry sediment) and minimal numbers occurring in winter (mean, 3.9 x 10 phototrophs g of dry sediment). During winter and late spring, phototrophs had a patchy distribution over the high marsh sediment surface. In contrast, during late summer they had a random uniform distribution. Tidal water collected over high marsh sediment contained an average of 8.7 x 10 phototrophs ml, with no significant seasonal variation. Anaerobic phototrophic bacteria were also cultured from the lower stem tissue of S. alterniflora growing in both the high (4.3 x 10 phototrophs g of dry tissue) and creekside (4.9 x 10 phototrophs g of dry tissue) marsh regions. Chromatium buderi, Chromatium vinosum, Thiospirillum sanguineum, Rhodospirillum molischianum, and Chlorobium phaeobacteroides were the predominant anaerobic phototrophic species cultured from high marsh sediment. The two Chromatium species were dominant. PMID:16347646

Paterek, J R; Paynter, M J

1988-06-01

105

Bacteria associated with deep, alkaline, anaerobic groundwaters in Southeast Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbial diversity in two deep, confined aquifers, the Grande Ronde (1270 m) and the Priest Rapids (316 m), Hanford Reservation, Washington, USA, was investigated by sampling from artesian wells. These basaltic aquifers were alkaline (pH 8.5 to 10.5) and anaerobic (Eh -200 to -450 mV). The wells were allowed to free-flow until pH and Eh stabilized, then the microflora

T. O. Stevens; J. P. McKinley; J. K. Fredrickson

1993-01-01

106

(Anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds by phototrophic bacteria: Biochemical aspects)  

SciTech Connect

Major effort has gone into purifying and characterizing a second Coenzyme A ligase involved in anaerobic aromatic acid metabolism in Rhodopseudomonas palustris. This enzyme has some overlap in specificity with the benzoate-CoA ligase previously characterized, but differs in many other characteristics, and is antigenically unrelated. Some amino acid sequence information has been obtained, and this as well as a highly specific antiserum, will be useful for cloning the structural gene for the new ligase. In collaboration with Dr. Harwood, at the University of Iowa, we have continued to characterize a group of mutants obtained after Tn5 insertion into our clone bank, followed by transfer of the entire mutagenized bank into wild-type R. palustris. A clone which complements a group of these mutations has been insolated, and is currently being tested for ability to restore anaerobic growth on aromatic acids to other mutants isolated after chemical or uv mutagenesis of the wild-type strain. The close ties with Dr. Harwood's lab were demonstrated by the week-long visit of one of her students during last summer, to learn how to purify the benzoate CoA ligase from R. palustris. A search for possible intermediates in anaerobic metabolism of benzoyl CoA has been initiated in collaboration with Dr. Gibson, focussing on the possible role 1,4-dihydrobenzoyl CoA as a first reduction product.

Gibson, J.

1990-01-01

107

Anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds by phototrophic bacteria: Progress report, (year 2)  

SciTech Connect

Various aromatic compounds can be broken down anaerobically a model oganism, Rhodopseudomonas palustris. These results show that R. palustris is one of the most versatile of the anaerobic bacteria described to date with respect to aromatic degradation. The probable metabolic routes taken were assessed by analyzing growth patterns and the accumulation of partial degradation products by wild type strains and by a mutant blocked in anaerobic degradation of benzoate and 4-hydroxybenzoate. The main conclusion reached from these studies is that R. palustris uses two major routes for aromatic degradation; one that flows through benzoate and one that flows through 4-hydroxybenzoate. Thus there appear to be two major pathways that mediate the fission of aromatic rings under anaerobic conditions. 7 refs., 2 figs.

Harwood, C.S.

1988-01-01

108

Investigation of anaerobic bacteria associated with mortality in grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) and redfish (Sciaenops ocellatus)  

E-print Network

immensely. Sincere appreciation is expressed to Doctor N. Mandel at the University of Texas System Cancer Center, M. D. Anderson Hospital, Texas Medical Center, Houston, Texas for his assistance in determining nucleic acid base compositions. Expressed... ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 45 Gas chromatograms of volatile fatty acids and alcohols. . . . . . . ~ . . . . . ~ ~ . ~ . . ~ . . 51 Figure Page 12 Gas chromatograms of chloroform extracts of methylated nonvolatile fatty acids. . . . . . . . 52 13 Anaerobic bacteria...

Henley, Michael Waite

2012-06-07

109

PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS BY STRICTLY ANAEROBIC BACTERIA IN THE DIGESTIVE TRACT OF GNOTOXENIC MICE.  

E-print Network

OF « GNOTOXENIC » MICE. INHIBITORY EFFECT ON SHIGELLA FLEXNERI Various strains of strictly anaerobic bacteria effect of the VFA thus produced on a strain of Shigella flexneri. There is little relationship between between VFA production and the elimination of S. flexneri is very low. This strain is very efficiently

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

110

Susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria from several French hospitals to three major antibiotics.  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activity of cefoxitin was compared with those of metronidazole and clindamycin against 322 strains of anaerobic bacteria collected from several hospitals during 1982 and tested by an agar dilution method. Metronidazole and cefoxitin inhibited at least 89% of strains tested, whereas clindamycin was less active. PMID:6742819

Dubreuil, L; Devos, J; Neut, C; Romond, C

1984-01-01

111

One carbon metabolism in anaerobic bacteria: Regulation of carbon and electron flow during organic acid production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project deals with understanding the fundamental biochemical mechanisms that physiologically control and regulate carbon and electron flow in anaerobic chemosynthetic bacteria that couple metabolism of single carbon compounds and hydrogen to the production of organic acids (formic, acetic, butyric, and succinic) or methane. The authors compare the regulation of carbon dioxide and hydrogen metabolism by fermentation, enzyme, and electron

J. G. Zeikus; M. Jain

1993-01-01

112

PCR detection and quantitation of predominant anaerobic bacteria in human and animal fecal samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

PCR procedures based on 16S rRNA genen sequence specific for 12 anaerobic bacteria that predominate in the human intestinal tract were developed and used for quantitative detection of these species in human feces and animal feces. The reported PCR procedure including the fecal sample preparation method is simplified and rapid and eliminates the DNA isolation steps.

Rong-Fu Wang; Wei-Wen Cao; C. E. Cerniglia

1996-01-01

113

Unsaturated Organic Acids as Terminal Electron Acceptors for Reductase Chains of Anaerobic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the current knowledge of unsaturated organic acids in their role as terminal electron acceptors for\\u000a reductase chains of anaerobic bacteria. The mechanisms and enzyme systems involved in the reduction of fumarate by Escherichia coli, Wolinella succinogenes, and some species of the genus Shewanella are considered. Particular attention is given to reduction of the double bond of the

O. V. Arkhipova; V. K. Akimenko

2005-01-01

114

Enrichment and characterization of anaerobic TNT-degrading bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Three media constitutions were used to enrich for mixed cultures capable of degrading 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) under strictly anaerobic conditions. The media were derived from a mineral salts solution buffered to pH 7 with CO{sub 2}/bicarbonate and all contained TNT. The cultures were enriched in the TNT mineral salts medium or the TNT mineral salts medium supplemented with glucose, yeast extract, or ammonia in various combinations. Inocula were obtained from a treated soil, previously contaminated with dinoseb and then treated using anaerobic procedures, or from a bench-top aqueous culture, maintained with an extract from a munitions-contaminated soil for more than 4 years. Several cultures reduced TNT, producing 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene and 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene as the major products. The cultures were unable to effectively remove TNT when cross-transferred to the media they were not enriched on, suggesting that different media had enriched different subcultures form the original inoculum. The treated soil provided the most successful inoculum. Two media were chosen for further studies. Medium 1 contained TNT and glucose and produced a culture that might have used TNT as a nitrogen source. Medium 2, containing TNT and yeast extract, enriched cultures that degraded TNT, accumulating small amounts of p-cresol during the degradation.

Roberts, D.J.; Pendharkar, S. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

1995-12-31

115

Removal Of Heavy Metals From Electroplating Wastewater By Anaerobic Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biosorption of heavy metals from simulated wastewater and the raw electroplating wastewater with ``BM (Biosorption of Metals) bacteria'' were investigated in this study. The influence of initial pH, biosorbents dose, concentration of ions, contact time and temperature on biosorption capacity of Cr(VI) and Ni(II) were studied. The optimum pH for biosorption of Cr(VI) was found to be low, and the removal efficiency of Cr(VI) was 98.60% with ``BM bacteria'' at pH 2. The removal efficiency of Ni(II) was increased with increasing the pH, and was enhanced up to 115% compared with the wastewater without BM bacteria. In this experiment, the ``BM bacteria'' efficiently removed Cu(II), Ni(II), Cr(VI), Zn(II) and COD from the raw electroplating wastewater, and the removal efficiencies were 98.92%, 99.92%, 99.86%, 99.93% and 45.20% respectively.

Ma, Wanggang; Sun, Peide; Song, Yingqi; Zhang, Yi; Yin, Jun

2010-11-01

116

In Vitro Activity of Ceftaroline against 623 Diverse Strains of Anaerobic Bacteria ?  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activities of ceftaroline, a novel, parenteral, broad-spectrum cephalosporin, and four comparator antimicrobials were determined against anaerobic bacteria. Against Gram-positive strains, the activity of ceftaroline was similar to that of amoxicillin-clavulanate and four to eight times greater than that of ceftriaxone. Against Gram-negative organisms, ceftaroline showed good activity against ?-lactamase-negative strains but not against the members of the Bacteroides fragilis group. Ceftaroline showed potent activity against a broad spectrum of anaerobes encountered in respiratory, skin, and soft tissue infections. PMID:20100877

Citron, D. M.; Tyrrell, K. L.; Merriam, C. V.; Goldstein, E. J. C.

2010-01-01

117

Comparative Activity of Eighteen Antimicrobial Agents against Anaerobic Bacteria Isolated in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro activity of 18 antimicrobial agents was determined against 378 anaerobic bacteria isolated in Bloemfontein,\\u000a South Africa, during 1996\\/97. Against the gram-positive isolates, MICs of penicillin and cefoxitin were >0.5??g\\/ml and >16??g\\/ml,\\u000a respectively, for five and three strains of non-perfringens Clostridium spp. Seventeen Peptostreptococcus anaerobius strains were resistant to penicillin (MIC?2??g\\/ml). All gram-positive anaerobes tested except one Peptostreptococcus

M. M. Lubbe; P. L. Botha; L. J. Chalkley

1999-01-01

118

In vitro activity of an evernimicin derivative, SCH27899, against anaerobic bacteria and Propionibacterium acnes.  

PubMed

The in vitro activity of SCH27899, a novel oligosaccharide antimicrobial agent, was compared with those of representatives of six classes of antimicrobial agents (piperacillin, clarithromycin, clindamycin, vancomycin, sitafloxacin and metronidazole) against clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria and Propionibacterium acnes. Against Peptostreptococcus: spp. and Clostridium difficile, SCH27899 was the most potent (MIC(90) < 0.125 mg/L) of the agents examined. Besides these Gram-positive anaerobes, SCH27899 showed a moderate level of activity against Prevotella bivia, Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas: spp. (MIC(90)< or = 4 mg/L). PMID:10980176

Tanaka, K; Kato, N; Watanabe, K

2000-09-01

119

Clinical evaluation of a simple, rapid procedure for the presumptive identification of anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

A simple, rapid procedure for the presumptive identification of anaerobic bacteria has been evaluated. Two hundred and thirty-five clinical isolates were identified using gas-liquid chromatography and 3-ml volumes of a few selected test media. These test media were stored aerobically and incubated in GasPak anaerobic jars. The average incubation time was 39 h. This procedure, when compared to the results of our standard identification procedure, correctly identified 98% of the isolates to the genus level, 83% to the species level, and 83% of Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides melaninogenicus to the subspecies level. Fifty-three of the isolates were also identified by using 0.5-ml volumes of test media stored, inoculated, and incubated in an anaerobic glove box. The 3-ml-and the 0.5-ml-volume procedures correctly identified comparable percentages of the 53 isolates. PMID:323283

Holland, J W; Gagnet, S M; Lewis, S A; Stauffer, L R

1977-01-01

120

Anaerobic  

E-print Network

Applying animal manure to crop land is a traditional and effective means of recycling nutrients and improving the structure of the soil by adding organic matter and biological activity. Applying manure can also enhance animal and crop production by reducing the costs of fertilizer. However, manure application can cause odor complaints from neighbors and surrounding communities. Appropriate application methods and management practices based on odor emission and dispersion principles can effectively reduce odor concerns during manure application. This fact sheet presents a basic understanding of odors and odor dispersion and highlights best management practices for controlling odors during manure application. What Is Odor? Odor is an unpleasant smell caused by odorous gases and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These volatile organic compounds are organic acids, and they evaporate easily. Under ideal anaerobic conditions, manure is degraded by acid-forming microorganisms into volatile organic compounds (Figure 1). These compounds are further metabolized by methane-producing bacteria into methane, carbon dioxide, and water, which are odor-free compounds. If conditions are not correct for methane bacteria, excess volatile organic compounds are generated. Manure stored in a well-functioning treatment lagoon (purple lagoon) will be less odorous than manure from non-treatment

Lingying Zhao; Jonathan N. Rausch; Tamara L. Combs

121

Isolation and partial characterization of bacteria in an anaerobic consortium that mineralizes 3-chlorobenzoic acid  

SciTech Connect

A methanogenic consortium able to use 3-chlorobenzoic acid as its sole energy and carbon source was enriched from anaerobic sewage sludge. Seven bacteria were isolated from the consortium in mono- or coculture. They included: one dechlorinating bacterium, one benzoate-oxidizing bacterium, two butyrate-oxidizing bacteria, two H/sub 2/-consuming methanogens (methanospirillum hungatei PM-1 and Methanobacterium sp. strain PM-2), and a sulfate-reducing bacterium (Desulfovibrio sp.). The dechlorinating bacterium was a gram-negative, obligate anaerobe with a unique collar surrounding the cell. A medium containing rumen fluid supported minimal growth; pyruvate was the only substrate found to increase growth. The bacterium had a generation time of 4 to 5 days. 3-Chlorobenzoate was dechlorinated stoichiometrically to benzoate, which accumulated in the medium; the rate of dechlorination was ca. 0.1 pmol bacterium/sup -1/ day/sup -1/. The benzoate-oxidizing bacterium was a gram-negative, obligate anaerobe and could only be grown as a syntroph. Benzoate was the only substrate observed to support growth, and, when grown in coculture with M. hungatei, it was fermented to acetate and CH/sub 4/. One butyrate-oxidizing bacterium was a gram-negative, non-sporeforming, obligate anaerobe; the other was a gram-positive, sporeforming, obligate anaerobe. Both could only be grown as syntrophs. The substrates observed to support growth of both bacteria were butyrate, 2-DL-methylbutyrate, valerate, and caproate; isobutyrate supported growth of only the sporeforming bacterium. Fermentation products were acetate and CH/sub 4/ or acetate, propionate, and CH/sub 4/ when grown in coculture with M. hungatei. A mutualism among at least the dechlorinating, benzoate-oxidizing, and methane-forming members was apparently required for utilization of the 3-chlorobenzoate substrate. 21 references, 8 figures, 2 tables.

Shelton, D.R.; Tiedje, J.M.

1984-10-01

122

Isolation and Partial Characterization of Bacteria in an Anaerobic Consortium That Mineralizes 3-Chlorobenzoic Acid †  

PubMed Central

A methanogenic consortium able to use 3-chlorobenzoic acid as its sole energy and carbon source was enriched from anaerobic sewage sludge. Seven bacteria were isolated from the consortium in mono- or coculture. They included: one dechlorinating bacterium (strain DCB-1), one benzoate-oxidizing bacterium (strain BZ-2), two butyrate-oxidizing bacteria (strains SF-1 and NSF-2), two H2-consuming methanogens (Methanospirillum hungatei PM-1 and Methanobacterium sp. strain PM-2), and a sulfate-reducing bacterium (Desulfovibrio sp. strain PS-1). The dechlorinating bacterium (DCB-1) was a gram-negative, obligate anaerobe with a unique “collar” surrounding the cell. A medium containing rumen fluid supported minimal growth; pyruvate was the only substrate found to increase growth. The bacterium had a generation time of 4 to 5 days. 3-Chlorobenzoate was dechlorinated stoichiometrically to benzoate, which accumulated in the medium; the rate of dechlorination was ca. 0.1 pmol bacterium?1 day?1. The benzoate-oxidizing bacterium (BZ-2) was a gram-negative, obligate anaerobe and could only be grown as a syntroph. Benzoate was the only substrate observed to support growth, and, when grown in coculture with M. hungatei, it was fermented to acetate and CH4. One butyrate-oxidizing bacterium (NSF-2) was a gram-negative, non-sporeforming, obligate anaerobe; the other (SF-1) was a gram-positive, sporeforming, obligate anaerobe. Both could only be grown as syntrophs. The substrates observed to support growth of both bacteria were butyrate, 2-dl-methylbutyrate, valerate, and caproate; isobutyrate supported growth of only the sporeforming bacterium (SF-1). Fermentation products were acetate and CH4 (from butyrate, isobutyrate, or caproate) or acetate, propionate, and CH4 (from 2-dl-methylbutyrate or valerate) when grown in coculture with M. hungatei. A mutualism among at least the dechlorinating, benzoate-oxidizing, and methane-forming members was apparently required for utilization of the 3-chlorobenzoate substrate. Images PMID:16346648

Shelton, Daniel R.; Tiedje, James M.

1984-01-01

123

Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing (Anammox) Bacteria and Associated Activity in Fixed-Film Biofilters of a Marine Recirculating Aquaculture System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial communities in the biological filter and waste sludge compartments of a marine recirculating aqua- culture system were examined to determine the presence and activity of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria. Community DNA was extracted from aerobic and anaerobic fixed-film biofilters and the anaerobic sludge waste collection tank and was analyzed by amplifying 16S rRNA genes by PCR using anammox-selective and

Yossi Tal; Joy E. M. Watts; Harold J. Schreier

2006-01-01

124

34S/32S fractionation in sulfur cycles catalyzed by anaerobic bacteria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stable isotopic distributions in the sulfur cycle were studied with pure and mixed cultures of the anaerobic bacteria, Chlorobium vibrioforme and Desulfovibrio vulgaris. D. vulgaris and C. vibrioforme can catalyze three reactions constituting a complete anaerobic sulfur cycle: reduction of sulfate to sulfide (D. vulgaris), oxidation of sulfide to elemental sulfur (C. vibrioforme), and oxidation of sulfur to sulfate (C. vibrioforme). In all experiments, the first and last reactions favored concentration of the light 32S isotope in products (isotopic fractionation factor epsilon = -7.2 and -1.7%, respectively), whereas oxidation of sulfide favored concentration of the heavy 34S isotope in products (epsilon = +1.7%). Experimental results and model calculations suggest that elemental sulfur enriched in 34S versus sulfide may be a biogeochemical marker for the presence of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria in modern and ancient environments.

Fry, B.; Gest, H.; Hayes, J. M.

1988-01-01

125

Utilization of Alkylbenzenes during Anaerobic Growth of Pure Cultures of Denitrifying Bacteria on Crude Oil  

PubMed Central

Four pure cultures of denitrifying bacteria, which had previously been isolated on defined alkylbenzenes, were capable of anaerobic growth with crude oil as the only source of organic substrates. Chemical analyses after growth revealed that the known growth substrates toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene were selectively consumed from the oil. o-Xylene and p-xylene, which as pure compounds did not support growth, were consumed to a lesser extent. PMID:16535290

Rabus, R.; Widdel, F.

1996-01-01

126

Bio-hydrogen production of anaerobic bacteria in reverse micellar media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biohydrogen production using anaerobic mixed bacteria in dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt (AOT)\\/isooctane\\/water reverse micelles has been investigated. It was found that hydrogen production was enhanced by optimizing some relevant parameters, such as surfactant concentration, water content (w0), initial pH, temperature, and substrate concentration. The maximum hydrogen productivity was obtained as 3.51molH2\\/molglucose, which was 2.28-fold in aqueous solutions. Analysis of volatile

Xiaohua Zhi; Haijun Yang; Zhuliang Yuan; Jianquan Shen

2008-01-01

127

Effect of radiation dose on the recovery of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria from mice  

SciTech Connect

The presence of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in the blood, spleen, and liver was investigated in mice that were exposed to 7, 8, 9, or 10 Gy /sup 60/Co radiation. Microorganisms were detected more often in animals exposed to higher doses of radiation. The number of mice that were culture positive and the number of isolates in one site increased with increasing dose. Bacteria were recovered in mice killed at various times after radiation, in 3 of 100 mice exposed to 7 Gy, in 13 of 100 irradiated with 8 Gy, in 23 of 90 exposed to 9 Gy, and in 34 of 87 irradiated with 10 Gy. The predominant organisms recovered were Escherichia coli, anerobic Gram-positive cocci, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacteroides spp. Escherichia coli and anaerobes were more often isolated in animals exposed to 10 Gy, while S. aureus was more often recovered in those irradiated with 9 Gy. These data demonstrate a relationship between the dose of radiation and the rate of infection due to entire aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Reprints.

Brook, I.; Walker, R.I.; MacVittie, T.J.

1986-01-01

128

Comparative Susceptibilities of Anaerobic Bacteria to Metronidazole, Ornidazole, and SC-28538  

PubMed Central

The susceptibilities of 284 anaerobic bacteria, including 55 strains of the Bacteroides fragilis group, were determined by an agar dilution technique to metronidazole and two newer nitroimidazoles, ornidazole and SC-28538. All three agents showed marked in vitro activity against virtually all anaerobic bacteria tested. At concentrations ?1 ?g/ml, SC-28538 was significantly more active than either metronidazole or ornidazole. At concentrations of >1 ?g/ml, the activities of all three agents were comparable. Propionibacterium and Actinomyces showed significant resistance to all three agents. Anaerobic and microaerophilic members of the genus Streptococcus were also often resistant, in contrast to Peptococcus and Peptostreptococcus strains. In addition, the bactericidal activities of ornidazole and SC-28538 were determined against 27 strains of the B. fragilis group by a broth dilution technique. The minimal inhibitory and minimal bactericidal concentrations of each agent were very close. At concentrations of ?0.5 ?g/ml, SC-28538 showed greater bactericidal activity; at concentrations of ?2 ?g/ml, the activies of both agents were similar. PMID:718156

Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Sutter, Vera L.; Finegold, Sydney M.

1978-01-01

129

Enrichment of denitrifying methanotrophic bacteria for application after direct low-temperature anaerobic sewage treatment.  

PubMed

Despite many advantages of anaerobic sewage treatment over conventional activated sludge treatment, it has not yet been applied in temperate zones. This is especially because effluent from low-temperature anaerobic treatment contains nitrogen and dissolved methane. The presence of nitrogen and methane offers the opportunity to develop a reactor in which methane is used as electron donor for denitrification. Such a reactor could be used in a new concept for low-temperature anaerobic sewage treatment, consisting of a UASB-digester system, a reactor for denitrification coupled to anaerobic methane oxidation, and a nitritation reactor. In the present study denitrifying methanotrophic bacteria similar to 'Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera' were enriched. Maximum volumetric nitrite consumption rates were 33.5 mg NO(2)(-)-N/Ld (using synthetic medium) and 37.8 mg NO(2)(-)-N/Ld (using medium containing effluent from a sewage treatment plant), which are similar to the maximum rate reported so far. Though the goal was to increase the rates, in both reactors, after reaching these maximum rates, volumetric nitrite consumption rates decreased in time. Results indicate biomass washout may have significantly decelerated enrichment. Therefore, to obtain higher volumetric consumption rates, further research should focus on systems with complete biomass retention. PMID:22657102

Kampman, Christel; Hendrickx, Tim L G; Luesken, Francisca A; van Alen, Theo A; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Jetten, Mike S M; Zeeman, Grietje; Buisman, Cees J N; Temmink, Hardy

2012-08-15

130

Evaluation of the New Vitek 2 ANC Card for Identification of Medically Relevant Anaerobic Bacteria?  

PubMed Central

Of 261 anaerobic clinical isolates tested with the new Vitek 2 ANC card, 257 (98.5%) were correctly identified at the genus level. Among the 251 strains for which identification at the species level is possible with regard to the ANC database, 217 (86.5%) were correctly identified at the species level. Two strains (0.8%) were not identified, and eight were misidentified (3.1%). Of the 21 strains (8.1%) with low-level discrimination results, 14 were correctly identified at the species level by using the recommended additional tests. This system is a satisfactory new automated tool for the rapid identification of most anaerobic bacteria isolated in clinical laboratories. PMID:19386846

Mory, Francine; Alauzet, Corentine; Matuszeswski, Celine; Riegel, Philippe; Lozniewski, Alain

2009-01-01

131

MALDI-TOF MS versus VITEK 2 ANC card for identification of anaerobic bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is an accurate, rapid and inexpensive technique that has initiated a revolution in the clinical microbiology laboratory for identification of pathogens. The Vitek 2 anaerobe and Corynebacterium (ANC) identification card is a newly developed method for identification of corynebacteria and anaerobic species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the ANC card and MALDI-TOF MS techniques for identification of clinical anaerobic isolates. Methods Five reference strains and a total of 50 anaerobic bacteria clinical isolates comprising ten different genera and 14 species were identified and analyzed by the ANC card together with Vitek 2 identification system and Vitek MS together with version 2.0 database respectively. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used as reference method for accuracy in the identification. Results Vitek 2 ANC card and Vitek MS provided comparable results at species level for the five reference strains. Of 50 clinical strains, the Vitek MS provided identification for 46 strains (92%) to the species level, 47 (94%) to genus level, one (2%) low discrimination, two (4%) no identification and one (2%) misidentification. The Vitek 2 ANC card provided identification for 43 strains (86%) correct to the species level, 47 (94%) correct to the genus level, three (6%) low discrimination, three (6%) no identification and one (2%) misidentification. Conclusions Both Vitek MS and Vitek 2 ANC card can be used for accurate routine clinical anaerobe identification. Comparing to the Vitek 2 ANC card, Vitek MS is easier, faster and more economic for each test. The databases currently available for both systems should be updated and further developed to enhance performance. PMID:24822113

Li, Yang; Gu, Bing; Xia, Wenying; Fan, Kun; Mei, Yaning; Huang, Peijun; Pan, Shiyang

2014-01-01

132

Anammox bacteria and the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium in the oxygen minimum zone off northern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anammox is the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium by nitrite or nitrate to yield N 2. This process, along with conventional denitrification, contributes to nitrogen loss in oxygen-deficient systems. Anammox is performed by a special group of bacteria belonging to the Planctomycetes phylum. However, information about the distribution, activity, and controlling factors of these anammox bacteria is still limited. Herein, we examine the phylogenetic diversity, vertical distribution, and activity of anammox bacteria in the coastal upwelling region and oxygen minimum zone off northern Chile. The phylogeny of anammox bacteria was studied using primers designed to specifically target 16S rRNA genes from Planctomycetes in samples taken during a cruise in 2004. Anammox bacteria-like sequences affiliated with Candidatus "Scalindua spp." dominated the 16S rRNA gene clone library. However, 62% of the sequences subgrouped separately within this cluster and together with a single sequence retrieved from the suboxic zone of the freshwater Lake Tanganyika. The vertical distribution and activity of anammox bacteria were explored through CARD-FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization with catalyzed reporter deposition) and 15N labeling incubations, respectively, at two different open-ocean stations during a second cruise in 2005. Anammox bacterial CARD-FISH counts (up to 3000 cells ml -1) and activity (up to 5.75 nmol N 2 L -1 d -1) were only detected at the station subjected directly to the upwelling influence. Anammox cell abundance and activity were highest at 50 m depth, which is the upper part of the OMZ. In this layer, a high abundance of cyanobacteria and a marked nitrogen deficit were also observed. Thus, our results show the presence of a new subcluster within the marine anammox phylogeny and indicate high vertical variability in the abundance and activity of anammox bacteria that could be related to an intensification of carbon and nitrogen cycling in the upper part of the OMZ.

Galán, Alexander; Molina, Verónica; Thamdrup, Bo; Woebken, Dagmar; Lavik, Gaute; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Ulloa, Osvaldo

2009-07-01

133

Evaluation of the Vitek 2 ANC Card for Identification of Clinical Isolates of Anaerobic Bacteria?  

PubMed Central

An evaluation of the Vitek 2 ANC card (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France) was performed with 301 anaerobic isolates. Each strain was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, which is considered to be the reference method. The Vitek 2 ANC card correctly identified 239 (79.4%) of the 301 clinical isolates to the genus level, including 100 species that were not represented in the database. Correct species identification was obtained for 60.1% (181/301) of the clinical isolates. For the isolates not identified to the species level, a correct genus identification was obtained for 47.0% of them (47/100), and 16 were accurately designated not identified. Although the Vitek 2 ANC card allows the rapid and acceptable identification of the most common clinically important anaerobic bacteria within 6 h, improvement is required for the identification of members of the genera Fusobacterium, Prevotella, and Actinomyces and certain Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC). PMID:21411572

Lee, E. H. L.; Degener, J. E.; Welling, G. W.; Veloo, A. C. M.

2011-01-01

134

Enrichment of anaerobic syngas-converting bacteria from thermophilic bioreactor sludge.  

PubMed

Thermophilic (55 °C) anaerobic microbial communities were enriched with a synthetic syngas mixture (composed of CO, H2 , and CO2 ) or with CO alone. Cultures T-Syn and T-CO were incubated and successively transferred with syngas (16 transfers) or CO (9 transfers), respectively, with increasing CO partial pressures from 0.09 to 0.88 bar. Culture T-Syn, after 4 successive transfers with syngas, was also incubated with CO and subsequently transferred (9 transfers) with solely this substrate - cultures T-Syn-CO. Incubation with syngas and CO caused a rapid decrease in the microbial diversity of the anaerobic consortium. T-Syn and T-Syn-CO showed identical microbial composition and were dominated by Desulfotomaculum and Caloribacterium species. Incubation initiated with CO resulted in the enrichment of bacteria from the genera Thermincola and Thermoanaerobacter. Methane was detected in the first two to three transfers of T-Syn, but production ceased afterward. Acetate was the main product formed by T-Syn and T-Syn-CO. Enriched T-CO cultures showed a two-phase conversion, in which H2 was formed first and then converted to acetate. This research provides insight into how thermophilic anaerobic communities develop using syngas/CO as sole energy and carbon source can be steered for specific end products and subsequent microbial synthesis of chemicals. PMID:23899025

Alves, Joana I; Stams, Alfons J M; Plugge, Caroline M; Alves, M Madalena; Sousa, Diana Z

2013-12-01

135

Culturing Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria and Mammalian Cells with a Microfluidic Differential Oxygenator  

PubMed Central

In this manuscript, we report on the culture of anaerobic and aerobic species within a disposable multilayer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device with an integrated differential oxygenator. A gas-filled microchannel network functioning as an oxygen?nitrogen mixer generates differential oxygen concentration. By controlling the relative flow rate of the oxygen and nitrogen input gases, the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in proximal microchannels filled with culture media are precisely regulated by molecular diffusion. Sensors consisting of an oxygen-sensitive dye embedded in the fluid channels permit dynamic fluorescence-based monitoring of the DO concentration using low-cost light-emitting diodes. To demonstrate the general utility of the platform for both aerobic and anaerobic culture, three bacteria with differential oxygen requirements (E. coli, A. viscosus, and F. nucleatum), as well as a model mammalian cell line (murine embryonic fibroblast cells (3T3)), were cultured. Growth characteristics of the selected species were analyzed as a function of eight discrete DO concentrations, ranging from 0 ppm (anaerobic) to 42 ppm (fully saturated). PMID:19601655

2009-01-01

136

Fermentative degradation of dipicolinic acid (pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid) by a defined coculture of strictly anaerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degradation of dipicolinic acid (pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid) under strictly anaerobic conditions was studied in enrichment cultures from marine and freshwater sediments. In all cases, dipicolinic acid was completely degraded. From an enrichment culture from a marine sediment, a defined coculture of two bacteria was isolated. The dipicolinic acid-fermenting bacterium was a Gram-negative, non-sporeforming strictly anaerobic short rod which utilized dipicolinic acid

Birgit Seyfried I; Bernhard Schink

1990-01-01

137

Diversity and enrichment of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidizing bacteria from wastewater sludge.  

PubMed

Recently discovered microorganisms affiliated to the bacterial phylum NC10, named "Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera", perform nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation. These microorganisms could be important players in a novel way of anaerobic wastewater treatment where ammonium and residual dissolved methane might be removed at the expense of nitrate or nitrite. To find suitable inocula for reactor startup, ten selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in The Netherlands were screened for the endogenous presence of M. oxyfera using molecular diagnostic methods. We could identify NC10 bacteria with 98% similarity to M. oxyfera in nine out of ten WWTPs tested. Sludge from one selected WWTP was used to start a new enrichment culture of NC10 bacteria. This enrichment was monitored using specific pmoA primers and M. oxyfera cells were visualized with fluorescence oligonucleotide probes. After 112 days, the enrichment consumed up to 0.4 mM NO(2)(-) per day. The results of this study show that appropriate sources of biomass, enrichment strategies, and diagnostic tools existed to start and monitor pilot scale tests for the implementation of nitrite-dependent methane oxidation in wastewater treatment at ambient temperature. PMID:21667086

Luesken, Francisca A; van Alen, Theo A; van der Biezen, Erwin; Frijters, Carla; Toonen, Ger; Kampman, Christel; Hendrickx, Tim L G; Zeeman, Grietje; Temmink, Hardy; Strous, Marc; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Jetten, Mike S M

2011-11-01

138

Comparative in-vitro and in-vivo activity of AM-1155 against anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

The in-vitro activity of AM-1155, a 6-fluoro-8-methoxy quinolone, was compared with those of temafloxacin, sparfloxacin, tosufloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and cefmetazole, a cephamycin, against a variety of anaerobic bacteria. Although AM-1155 demonstrated only modest activity against the Bacteroides fragilis group and Prevotella bivia (MIC90s > or =3.13 mg/mL), 76% of the B. fragilis strains tested were inhibited at AM-1155 concentrations of 0.78 mg/L. AM-1155 was highly active against Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium spp., Clostridium perfringens and Mobiluncus spp. (MIC90s < or =0.39 mg/L). An in-vivo study using a mixed infection with AM-1155- and tosufloxacin-susceptible B. fragilis and Escherichia coli strains in rat granuloma pouch was performed. AM-1155 was effective against both organisms whereas tosufloxacin was effective only against E. coli. These results correlated well to the higher pouch levels of AM-1155 than those of tosufloxacin. Clostridium difficile overgrowth was found in the caecum of mice treated with ampicillin both 1 and 7 days after 5 days dosing, but not in AM-1155-treated mice. These results suggest that the clinical efficacy of AM-1155 against infections involving most anaerobic bacteria except for the B. fragilis group and P. bivia should be evaluated further. PMID:9421310

Kato, N; Kato, H; Tanaka-Bandoh, K; Watanabe, K; Ueno, K

1997-11-01

139

Induced cooperation between marine nitrifiers and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria by incremental exposure to oxygen.  

PubMed

In oxygen-limited marine ecosystems cooperation between marine nitrifiers and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria is of importance to nitrogen cycling. Strong evidence for cooperation between anammox bacteria and nitrifiers has been provided by environmental studies but little is known about the development of such communities, the effects of environmental parameters and the physiological traits of their constituents. In this study, a marine laboratory model system was developed. Cooperation between marine nitrifiers and anammox bacteria was induced by incremental exposure of a marine anammox community dominated by Scalindua species to oxygen in a bioreactor set-up under high ammonium (40 mM influent) conditions. Changes in the activities of the relevant functional groups (anammox bacteria, aerobic ammonia oxidizers and nitrite oxidizers) were monitored by batch tests. Changes in community composition were followed by Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) and by amplification and sequencing of 16S rRNA and amoA genes. A co-culture of Scalindua sp., an aerobic ammonia-oxidizing Nitrosomonas-like species, and an aerobic (most likely Nitrospira sp.) nitrite oxidizer was obtained. Aerobic ammonia oxidizers became active immediately upon exposure to oxygen and their numbers increased 60-fold. Crenarchaea closely related to the ammonia-oxidizer Candidatus 'Nitrosopumilus maritimus' were detected in very low numbers and their contribution to nitrification was assumed negligible. Activity of anammox bacteria was not inhibited by the increased oxygen availability. The developed marine model system proved an effective tool to study the interactions between marine anammox bacteria and nitrifiers and their responses to changes in environmentally relevant conditions. PMID:20956064

Yan, Jia; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Jetten, Mike S M; Hu, Yong Y; Haaijer, Suzanne C M

2010-11-01

140

Effect of sodium chloride on growth of heterotrophic marine bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of NaCl on the growth rates and yields of 31 gram-negative, heterotrophic, marine bacteria was determined. The strains used were representative of aerobic genera (Alteromonas, Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Bdellovibrio) as well as genera comprised of facultative anaerobes (Beneckea, Photobacterium). Two media were used-the first, a medium designed for the cultivation of marine bacteria and, the second, a medium used

John L. Reichelt; Paul Baumann

1974-01-01

141

Evaluation of the E test for susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The susceptibilities of 105 clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria were determined by a new method, the E test (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden), and were compared with the MICs for these organisms obtained by the reference agar dilution method by using supplemented brucella and Wilkins-Chalgren agars. The E test is a plastic strip with a predefined antibiotic gradient immobilized on one side and a MIC interpretive scale printed on the other side. Strips with cefoxitin, cefotaxime, imipenem, penicillin, metronidazole, and clindamycin were used in this study. A suspension of the test strain equal to the visual turbidity of a no. 0.5 McFarland standard was prepared and swabbed onto a 150-mm-diameter plate. The strips were applied in a radial fashion, and the plates were incubated under anaerobic conditions. After growth had occurred, an ellipse of inhibition was seen around each strip. At the point of intersection of the ellipse with the strip, the MIC was read from the interpretive scale. For most antibiotic-organism combinations, the ellipse was clear and the endpoint was sharp. The E-test MICs were interpreted after overnight and 48-h incubation for 58 of the strains. After overnight incubation, 87% of the E-test MICs were within 1 dilution of the agar dilution MICs, and 98% were within 2 dilutions. After 48 h of incubation, agreement was 86 and 97% respectively. E-test MICs obtained for the Bacteroides fragilis group after overnight incubation were more comparable than those obtained after 48 h of incubation to agar dilution MICs determined at 48 h for all drugs except clindamycin. On brucella agar, there was a 2% categorical discrepancy rate between the E-test MICs and agar dilution MICs, which occurred mostly with cefoxitin. The E test is easy to perform and read, is suitable for all anaerobes, can be used to test single patient isolates as needed, and offers the laboratory a reliable method for susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria. Images PMID:1939571

Citron, D M; Ostovari, M I; Karlsson, A; Goldstein, E J

1991-01-01

142

Interactions of Anaerobic Bacteria with Dental Stem Cells: An In Vitro Study  

PubMed Central

Background In patients with periodontitis, it is highly likely that local (progenitor) cells encounter pathogenic bacteria. The purpose of this in vitro study was to elucidate how human dental follicle stem cells (hDFSC) react towards a direct challenge with anaerobic periodontal pathogens under their natural oxygen-free atmosphere. HDFSC were compared to human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSC) and differentiated primary human gingival fibroblasts (hGiF), as well as permanent gingival carcinoma cells (Ca9-22). Methodology/Principal Findings The different cell types were investigated in a co-culture system with Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum). The viability of the cells and pathogens under anaerobic conditions, as well as interactions in terms of adherence and internalization, were examined. Additionally, the release of pro-inflammatory interleukin-8 (IL-8) and anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 (IL-10) was quantified via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The bacteria adhered less efficiently to hDFSC compared to Ca9-22 (P. gingivalis: 0.18% adherence to hDFSC; 3.1% adherence to Ca9-22). Similar results were observed for host cell internalization (F. nucleatum: 0.002% internalization into hDFSC; 0.09% internalization into Ca9-22). Statistically significantly less IL-8 was secreted from hDFSC after stimulation with F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis in comparison with hGiF (F. nucleatum: 2080.0 pg/ml – hGiF; 19.7 pg/ml – hDFSC). The IL-10 response of the differentiated cells was found to be low in relation to their pro-inflammatory IL-8 response. Conclusions/Significance The results indicate that dental stem cells are less prone to interactions with pathogenic bacteria than differentiated cells in an anaerobic environment. Moreover, during bacterial challenge, the stem cell immune response seems to be more towards an anti-inflammatory reaction. For a potential future therapeutic use of hDFSC, these findings support the idea of a save application. PMID:25369260

Biedermann, Anne; Kriebel, Katja; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Lang, Hermann

2014-01-01

143

Impact of an Aerobic Thermophilic Sequencing Batch Reactor on Antibiotic-Resistant Anaerobic Bacteria in Swine Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of antibiotics to animal feed has contributed to the selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in concentrated\\u000a animal feeding operations. The aim of this work was to characterize the impact of an aerobic thermophilic biotreatment on\\u000a anaerobic antibiotic-resistant bacteria in swine waste. Despite 162- to 6,166-fold reduction in antibiotic-resistant populations\\u000a enumerated in the swine waste at 25°C and 37°C, resistant

Martin R. Chénier; Pierre Juteau

2009-01-01

144

Co-occurrence of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidizing and anaerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria in two Qinghai-Tibetan saline lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane-oxidizing (n-damo) bacteria and anaerobic ammonia oxidizing (anammox) bacteria are two groups of microorganisms involved in global carbon and nitrogen cycling. In order to test whether the n-damo and anammox bacteria co-occur in natural saline environments, the DNA and cDNA samples obtained from the surficial sediments of two saline lakes (with salinity of 32 and 84 g/L, respectively) on the Tibetan Plateau were PCR-amplified with the use of anammox- and n-damo-specific primer sets, followed by clone library construction and phylogenetic analysis. DNA and cDNA-based clones affiliated with n-damo and anammox bacteria were successfully retrieved from the two samples, indicating that these two groups of bacteria can co-occur in natural saline environments with salinity as high as 84 g/L. Our finding has great implications for our understanding of the global carbon and nitrogen cycle in nature.

Yang, Jian; Jiang, Hongchen; Wu, Geng; Hou, Weiguo; Sun, Yongjuan; Lai, Zhongping; Dong, Hailiang

2012-12-01

145

16S rRNA Gene Sequencing in Routine Identification of Anaerobic Bacteria Isolated from Blood Cultures?  

PubMed Central

A comparison between conventional identification and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of anaerobic bacteria isolated from blood cultures in a routine setting was performed (n = 127). With sequencing, 89% were identified to the species level, versus 52% with conventional identification. The times for identification were 1.5 days and 2.8 days, respectively. PMID:20071555

Justesen, Ulrik Stenz; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Knudsen, Elisa; Holt, Hanne Marie; S?gaard, Per; Justesen, Tage

2010-01-01

146

Complete Reductive Dechlorination of 1,2-Dichloropropane by Anaerobic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The transformation of 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-D) was observed in anaerobic microcosms and enrichment cultures derived from Red Cedar Creek sediment. 1-Chloropropane (1-CP) and 2-CP were detected after an incubation period of 4 weeks. After 4 months the initial amount of 1,2-D was stoichiometrically converted to propene, which was not further transformed. Dechlorination of 1,2-D was not inhibited by 2-bromoethanesulfonate. Sequential 5% (vol/vol) transfers from active microcosms yielded a sediment-free, nonmethanogenic culture, which completely dechlorinated 1,2-D to propene at a rate of 5 nmol min(sup-1) mg of protein(sup-1). No intermediate formation of 1-CP or 2-CP was detected in the sediment-free enrichment culture. A variety of electron donors, including hydrogen, supported reductive dechlorination of 1,2-D. The highest dechlorination rates were observed between 20(deg) and 25(deg)C. In the presence of 1,2-D, the hydrogen threshold concentration was below 1 ppm by volume (ppmv). In addition to 1,2-D, the enrichment culture transformed 1,1-D, 2-bromo-1-CP, tetrachloroethene, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, and 1,2-dichloroethane to less halogenated compounds. These findings extend our knowledge of the reductive dechlorination process and show that halogenated propanes can be completely dechlorinated by anaerobic bacteria. PMID:16535654

Loffler, F. E.; Champine, J. E.; Ritalahti, K. M.; Sprague, S. J.; Tiedje, J. M.

1997-01-01

147

Susceptibility of Anaerobic Bacteria to Metronidazole, Ornidazole, and Tinidazole and Routine Susceptibility Testing by Standardized Methods  

PubMed Central

A total of 114 strains of anaerobic bacteria were examined for their susceptibility to metronidazole, ornidazole, and tinidazole by measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration in different media. All strains, with the exception of the isolates of Propionibacterium acnes, were inhibited by 3.1 ?g each and killed by 6.3 ?g each of all three nitroimidazole compounds per ml. No significant differences in MIC values were found among metronidazole, ornidazole, and tinidazole. Only minor differences were detected by comparing MIC values obtained in brain heart infusion agar with and without sheep blood, brucella agar, and Mueller-Hinton agar (both containing blood). When the strains were tested by the modified broth-disk method proposed by the Anaerobe Laboratory of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute (VPI), there was good correlation with the MIC values (97.4% agreement for metronidazole and 94.7% for ornidazole and tinidazole). For routine testing, use of a 30-?g-class disk of either nitroimidazole derivative is proposed for the broth-disk method, resulting in a final concentration of 6 ?g/ml in the test tubes, a concentration easily attainable in body fluids. In contrast to the broth-disk method, there was very poor correlation between inhibition zone diameters by the standardized VPI agar diffusion test and MIC values. PMID:856015

Wust, Jurg

1977-01-01

148

Active transport, substrate specificity, and methylation of Hg(II) in anaerobic bacteria  

PubMed Central

The formation of methylmercury (MeHg), which is biomagnified in aquatic food chains and poses a risk to human health, is effected by some iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria (FeRB and SRB) in anaerobic environments. However, very little is known regarding the mechanism of uptake of inorganic Hg by these organisms, in part because of the inherent difficulty in measuring the intracellular Hg concentration. By using the FeRB Geobacter sulfurreducens and the SRB Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 as model organisms, we demonstrate that Hg(II) uptake occurs by active transport. We also establish that Hg(II) uptake by G. sulfurreducens is highly dependent on the characteristics of the thiols that bind Hg(II) in the external medium, with some thiols promoting uptake and methylation and others inhibiting both. The Hg(II) uptake system of D. desulfuricans has a higher affinity than that of G. sulfurreducens and promotes Hg methylation in the presence of stronger complexing thiols. We observed a tight coupling between Hg methylation and MeHg export from the cell, suggesting that these two processes may serve to avoid the build up and toxicity of cellular Hg. Our results bring up the question of whether cellular Hg uptake is specific for Hg(II) or accidental, occurring via some essential metal importer. Our data also point at Hg(II) complexation by thiols as an important factor controlling Hg methylation in anaerobic environments. PMID:21555571

Schaefer, Jeffra K.; Rocks, Sara S.; Zheng, Wang; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua; Morel, Francois M. M.

2011-01-01

149

In silico analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing-based methods for identification of medically important anaerobic bacteria  

PubMed Central

This study is the first study that provides useful guidelines to clinical microbiologists and technicians on the usefulness of full 16S rRNA sequencing, 5??end 527?bp 16S rRNA sequencing and the existing MicroSeq full and 500 16S rDNA bacterial identification system (MicroSeq, Perkin?Elmer Applied Biosystems Division, Foster City, California, USA) databases for the identification of all existing medically important anaerobic bacteria. Full and 527?bp 16S rRNA sequencing are able to identify 52–63% of 130 Gram?positive anaerobic rods, 72–73% of 86 Gram?negative anaerobic rods and 78% of 23 anaerobic cocci. The existing MicroSeq databases are able to identify only 19–25% of 130 Gram?positive anaerobic rods, 38% of 86 Gram?negative anaerobic rods and 39% of 23 anaerobic cocci. These represent only 45–46% of those that should be confidently identified by full and 527?bp 16S rRNA sequencing. To improve the usefulness of MicroSeq, bacterial species that should be confidently identified by full and/or 527?bp 16S rRNA sequencing but not included in the existing MicroSeq databases should be included. PMID:17046845

Woo, Patrick C Y; Chung, Liliane M W; Teng, Jade L L; Tse, Herman; Pang, Sherby S Y; Lau, Veronica Y T; Wong, Vanessa W K; Kam, Kwok-ling; Lau, Susanna K P; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

2007-01-01

150

Evaluating Primers for Profiling Anaerobic Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria within Freshwater Environments  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic ammonia oxidizing (anammox) bacteria play an important role in transforming ammonium to nitrogen gas and contribute to fixed nitrogen losses in freshwater environments. Understanding the diversity and abundance of anammox bacteria requires reliable molecular tools, and these are not yet well established for these important Planctomycetes. To help validate PCR primers for the detection of anammox bacteria within freshwater ecosystems, we analyzed representative positive controls and selected samples from Grand River and groundwater sites, both from Ontario, Canada. The objectives of this study were to identify a suitable anammox denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprint method by using GC-clamp modifications to existing primers, and to verify the specificity of anammox-specific primers used for DGGE, cloning and qPCR methods. Six primer combinations were tested from four published primer sets (i.e. A438f/A684r, Amx368f/Amx820r, An7f/An1388r, and Pla46/1392r) for both direct and nested PCR amplifications. All PCR products were run subsequently on DGGE gels to compare the resulting patterns. Two anammox-specific primer combinations were also used to generate clone libraries and quantify anammox bacterial 16S rRNA genes with qPCR. The primer set A438f/A684r was highly specific to anammox bacteria, provided reliable DGGE fingerprints and generated a high proportion of anammox-related clones. A second primer set (Amx368f/Amx820r) was anammox specific, based on clone library analysis, but PCR products from different candidate species of anammox bacteria resolved poorly using DGGE analysis. Both DGGE and cloning results revealed that Ca. Brocadia and an uncharacterized anammox bacterial cluster represented the majority of anammox bacteria found in Grand River sediment and groundwater samples, respectively. Together, our results demonstrate that although Amx368f/Amx820r was useful for anammox-specific qPCR and clone library analysis, A438f/A684r was the most suitable primer set for multiple molecular assessments of anammox bacteria in freshwater environments. PMID:23505422

Sonthiphand, Puntipar; Neufeld, Josh D.

2013-01-01

151

Antimicrobial susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria in New Zealand: 1999-2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Routine susceptibility testing of all anaerobic organisms is not advocated, but it is useful for laboratories to test periodically for anaerobic organisms and provide local susceptibility data to guide therapy.Thisstudy reports thenational trendof antibiotic susceptibilityof clinically significant anaerobes in New Zealand. Methods: Clinical isolates were tested using standardized methods against a range of antibiotics commonly used to treat anaerobic

Sally A. Roberts; Keith P. Shore; Susan D. Paviour; David Holland; Arthur J. Morris

2006-01-01

152

Comparative in vitro activity of PH-027 versus linezolid and other anti-anaerobic antimicrobials against clinical isolates of Clostridium difficile and other anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

PH-027 is a new 5-triazole oxazolidinone synthesized in our laboratories, which shows strong activity against gram-positive aerobic bacteria including clinical isolates. The objective of this study was to investigate the in vitro activity of this compound in comparison with linezolid and other antibiotics against gram-positive and gram-negative anaerobes. The in vitro activity of PH-027 in comparison with those of linezolid and other antimicrobial agents was evaluated against 201 clinical isolates of gram-positive and gram-negative anaerobic bacteria by agar dilution and Etest methods. PH-027 showed excellent activity, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) in the range of 0.12-4.0 microg/ml against all isolates; MIC90s being 4.0, 1.0, 2.0, 2.0 and 2.0 microg/ml against Clostridium difficile, Peptostreptococcus spp., Bacteroides fragilis, Prevotella bivia and Fusobacterium spp. respectively. In comparison, linezolid had MIC in the range of 0.5-4.0 microg/ml against all isolates, with MIC90s of 2.0, 4.0, 4.0, 4.0 and 2.0 microg/ml against the same set of bacteria respectively. PH-027 demonstrated excellent in vitro activity that is superior to linezolid against Peptostreptococcus spp., B. fragilis and P. bivia. However, against C. difficile and Fusobacterium spp, PH-027 and linezolid showed comparable in vitro activity. Against all anaerobes, metronidazole, PH-027 and, to a lesser extent, linezolid had the most potent activity. From the results of in vitro susceptibility testing, both linezolid and PH-027 show promise in the treatment of anaerobic infections. PMID:12797385

Phillips, O A; Rotimi, V O; Jamal, W Y; Shahin, M; Verghese, T L

2003-04-01

153

Cultivation of Planktonic Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) Bacteria Using Membrane Bioreactor  

PubMed Central

Enrichment cultures of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria as planktonic cell suspensions are essential for studying their ecophysiology and biochemistry, while their cultivation is still laborious. The present study aimed to cultivate two phylogenetically distinct anammox bacteria, “Candidatus Brocadia sinica” and “Ca. Scalindua sp.” in the form of planktonic cells using membrane bioreactors (MBRs). The MBRs were continuously operated for more than 250 d with nitrogen loading rates of 0.48–1.02 and 0.004–0.09 kgN m?3 d?1 for “Ca. Brocadia sinica” and “Ca. Scalindua sp.”, respectively. Planktonic anammox bacterial cells were successfully enriched (>90%) in the MBRs, which was confirmed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization and 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. The decay rate and half-saturation constant for NO2? of “Ca. Brocadia sinica” were determined to be 0.0029–0.0081 d?1 and 0.47 mgN L?1, respectively, using enriched planktonic cells. The present study demonstrated that MBR enables the culture of planktonic anammox bacterial cells, which are suitable for studying their ecophysiology and biochemistry. PMID:24200833

Oshiki, Mamoru; Awata, Takanori; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Satoh, Hisashi; Okabe, Satoshi

2013-01-01

154

Biology, ecology, and biotechnological applications of anaerobic bacteria adapted to environmental stresses in temperature, pH, salinity, or substrates.  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic bacteria include diverse species that can grow at environmental extremes of temperature, pH, salinity, substrate toxicity, or available free energy. The first evolved archaebacterial and eubacterial species appear to have been anaerobes adapted to high temperatures. Thermoanaerobes and their stable enzymes have served as model systems for basic and applied studies of microbial cellulose and starch degradation, methanogenesis, ethanologenesis, acetogenesis, autotrophic CO2 fixation, saccharidases, hydrogenases, and alcohol dehydrogenases. Anaerobes, unlike aerobes, appear to have evolved more energy-conserving mechanisms for physiological adaptation to environmental stresses such as novel enzyme activities and stabilities and novel membrane lipid compositions and functions. Anaerobic syntrophs do not have similar aerobic bacterial counterparts. The metabolic end products of syntrophs are potent thermodynamic inhibitors of energy conservation mechanisms, and they require coordinated consumption by a second partner organism for species growth. Anaerobes adapted to environmental stresses and their enzymes have biotechnological applications in organic waste treatment systems and chemical and fuel production systems based on biomass-derived substrates or syngas. These kinds of anaerobes have only recently been examined by biologists, and considerably more study is required before they are fully appreciated by science and technology. Images PMID:8336675

Lowe, S E; Jain, M K; Zeikus, J G

1993-01-01

155

Experimental modelling of Calcium carbonate precipitation in the presence of phototrophic anaerobic bacteria Rhodovulum sp.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbonate biomineralization is considered as one of the main natural processes controlling CO2 levels in the atmosphere both in the past and at present time. Haloalcaliphilic Rhodovulum sp. A-20s isolated from soda lake in southern Siberia and halophilic neutrophilic Rhodovulum sp. S-1765 isolated from hypersaline water body in Crimea steppe represent a large group of phototrophic bacteria likely to be involved in CaCO3 formation in soda and saline lakes. These bacteria use organic substrates for non-oxygenic photosynthesis and thus may mediate CaCO3 precipitation without CO2 consumption in highly-saline, highly-alkaline, NaHCO3-rich solutions. In order to provide the link between surface properties of bacteria and their ability to precipitate Ca carbonate, we used a combination of electrophoretic mobility measurements, surface titration and Ca ion adsorption using dead (autoclaved), inactivated (NaN3 - treated) and live cells at 25 °C as a unction of pH (3-11) and NaCl concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 0.5 M). Zeta potential of both bacteria is identical for active, NaN3-inactivated and dead cells at high ionic strength (0.5 M NaCl). The pH of isoelectric point is below 3 and zeta-potential decreases or remain negative up to pH 11. However, at lower ionic strength (0.1 M and 0.01 M NaCl) for live cells the potential increases towards positive values in the alkaline solutions (pH of 9 to 10). Similar to previous results on cyanobacteria (Martinez et al., 2009) there is a net increase in zeta-potential towards more positive values at pH = 10.4 for active cells. In order to better understand this phenomenon, experiments with different concentration of Ca2+ and HCO3- ions as well as experiments with live cultures in the darkness have been carried out. The presence in solution of Ca2+ (0.01 and 0.001 M) and the absence of light in experiment do not change significantly the potential of the cells. However, the presence in solution of HCO3- strongly reduces the zeta-potential of the cells. To characterise the link between the rate of bacterial growth (biomass production) and the rate of CaCO3 precipitation, batch kinetic experiments were performed. These experiments were carried out in closed (anaerobic) bottles with initial concentration of calcium from 1 to 20 mM and from 5 to 20 mM bicarbonate. The biomass of cells, pH, [Ca2+] and [Alk] were measured as a function of time. Blank experiments (without cell or autoclaved cells) were always carried out. We found that the optimal conditions for both CaCO3 precipitation and biomass increase for the culture Rhodovulum sp. A-20s, is calcium concentration of 3 mM, whatever the concentration of bicarbonate (5, 10, 15 mM). Note also that for calcium concentration higher than 3 mM, the biomass production decreases. In the case of strictly anaerobic Rhodovulum sp. S-1765 bacteria, the optimal conditions for calcium carbonate precipitation is observed for the bicarbonate concentration of 10 mM, whatever the calcium concentration (3, 5, 10 mM). Overall, the present study allows quantitative modeling of bacterially-induced CaCO3 precipitation. It helps to distinguish between the effect of cell surface functional groups, surface electrical charge, soluble organic matter and metabolic change of solution pH on the rate and nature of precipitating calcium carbonate solid phase.

Bundeleva, Irina; Shirokova, Liudmila; Benezeth, Pascale; Pokrovsky, Oleg; Kompantseva, Elena

2010-05-01

156

Genes for Uranium Bioremediation in the Anaerobic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria: Desulfovibrio mutants with altered sensitivity to oxidative stress  

SciTech Connect

Sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genus Desulfovibrio are ubiquitous in anaerobic environments such as groundwater, sediments, and the gastrointestinal tract of animals. Because of the ability of Desulfovibrio to reduce radionuclides and metals through both enzymatic and chemical means, they have been proposed as a means to bioremediate heavy metal contaminated sites. Although classically thought of as strict anaerobes, Desulfovibrio species are surprisingly aerotolerant. Our objective is to understand the response of Desulfovibrio to oxidative stress so that we may more effectively utilize them in bioremediation of heavy metals in mixed aerobic-anaerobic environments. The enzymes superoxide dismutase, superoxide reductase, catalase, and rubrerythrin have been shown by others to be involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species in Desulfovibrio. Some members of the genus Desulfovibrio can even reduce molecular oxygen to water via a membrane bound electron transport chain with the concomitant production of ATP, although their ability to grow with oxygen as the sole electron acceptor is still questioned.

Payne, Rayford B.; Ringbauer, Joseph A., Jr.; Wall, Judy D.

2006-04-05

157

Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria and associated activity in fixed-film biofilters of a marine recirculating aquaculture system.  

PubMed

Microbial communities in the biological filter and waste sludge compartments of a marine recirculating aquaculture system were examined to determine the presence and activity of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria. Community DNA was extracted from aerobic and anaerobic fixed-film biofilters and the anaerobic sludge waste collection tank and was analyzed by amplifying 16S rRNA genes by PCR using anammox-selective and universal GC-clamped primers. Separation of amplified PCR products by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing of the different phylotypes revealed a diverse biofilter microbial community. While Planctomycetales were found in all three communities, the anaerobic denitrifying biofilters contained one clone that exhibited high levels of sequence similarity to known anammox bacteria. Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies using an anammox-specific probe confirmed the presence of anammox Planctomycetales in the microbial biofilm from the denitrifying biofilters, and anammox activity was observed in these biofilters, as detected by the ability to simultaneously consume ammonia and nitrite. To our knowledge, this is the first identification of anammox-related sequences in a marine recirculating aquaculture filtration system, and our findings provide a foundation for incorporating this important pathway for complete nitrogen removal in such systems. PMID:16597996

Tal, Yossi; Watts, Joy E M; Schreier, Harold J

2006-04-01

158

Detection of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene-Utilizing Anaerobic Bacteria by 15N and 13C Incorporation ?  

PubMed Central

2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (15N or 13C labeled) was added to Norfolk Harbor sediments to test whether anaerobic bacteria use TNT for growth. Stable-isotope probing (SIP)-terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) detected peaks in the [15N]TNT cultures (60, 163, and 168 bp). The 60-bp peak was also present in the [13C]TNT cultures and was related to Lysobacter taiwanensis. PMID:20081008

Gallagher, Erin M.; Young, Lily Y.; McGuinness, Lora M.; Kerkhof, Lee J.

2010-01-01

159

Comparative In Vitro Activities of Torezolid (DA-7157) against Clinical Isolates of Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria in South Korea ?  

PubMed Central

Resistance of Gram-positive pathogens to first-line antimicrobial agents has been increasing in many parts of the world. We compared the in vitro activities of torezolid with those of other antimicrobial agents, including linezolid, against clinical isolates of major aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Torezolid had an MIC90 of ?0.5 ?g/ml for the Gram-positive bacterial isolates tested and was more potent than either linezolid or vancomycin. PMID:20837761

Yum, Jong Hwa; Choi, Sung Hak; Yong, Dongeun; Chong, Yunsop; Im, Weon Bin; Rhee, Dong-Kwon; Lee, Kyungwon

2010-01-01

160

Broth Disk Elution Method for Anaerobic Bacteria: A Collaborative Study to Assess Its Reliability for Clinical Purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collaborative study involving seven laboratories was undertaken to evaluate the reproducibility and the reliability of the broth disk elution test against anaerobic bacteria by comparing with the reference agar dilution method. A two breakpoint broth test was also evaluated. Assays were performed using the same testing conditions (i.e. medium, temperature, atmosphere and incubation time). One hundred Gram-negative and Gram-positive

Hebe Bianchini; Liliana Fernández Canigia; Silvia C Predari; Raquel Rollet; Mirta Litterio; Pablo Berestein; Liliana Castello; Ana De Martino; Graciela Greco; Nélida Hardie

1997-01-01

161

Failure of denitrifying bacteria to utilize benzoic acid under anaerobic conditions with nitrate as the only terminal electron acceptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Ring-U)-14C-benzoate was not utilized by various denitrifying bacteria (pure cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter sp. and Moraxella sp. or a mixed population) in the presence of nitrate as the only electron acceptor (completely anaerobic conditions). In the presence of only traces of molecular oxygen (introduced by porous tubing), denitrification did occur under inappropriate experimental conditions. This indicates that an apparent

W. Fabig; J. C. G. Ottow; F. Müller

1980-01-01

162

Antiparasitic Drug Nitazoxanide Inhibits the Pyruvate Oxidoreductases of Helicobacter pylori, Selected Anaerobic Bacteria and Parasites, and Campylobacter jejuni  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitazoxanide (NTZ) exhibits broad-spectrum activity against anaerobic bacteria and parasites and the ulcer-causing pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Here we show that NTZ is a noncompetitive inhibitor (Ki ,2t o 10 M) of the pyruvate:ferredoxin\\/flavodoxin oxidoreductases (PFORs) of Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, H. pylori, and Campylobacter jejuni and is weakly active against the pyruvate dehydrogenase of

Paul S. Hoffman; Gary Sisson; Matthew A. Croxen; Kevin Welch; W. Dean Harman; Nunilo Cremades; Michael G. Morash

2007-01-01

163

Multilocus enzyme analysis in aerobic and anaerobic bacteria using gel electrophoresis-nitrocellulose blotting.  

PubMed

An optimized multilocus enzyme electrophoresis method, which involves polyacrylamide-agarose gel electrophoresis followed by electrophoretic transfers on nitrocellulose sheets, was developed for the analysis of enzyme polymorphism in several aerobic and anaerobic bacterial species including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. agalactiae, Klebsiella pneumoniae and K. oxytoca, Clostridium bifermentans and C. sordellii, and Prevotella bivia. Serial electrophoretic transfers (during 5-15 min each) from a single polyacrylamide gel could be achieved for most enzymes studied, and allowed an increased definition of enzyme bands on nitrocellulose as compared to migration gels. Four enzymes, which could not be blotted in such conditions, could still be stained in gels after blotting. Thus, the method allowed the combined analysis of several enzymes after a single gel electrophoresis separation. The analysis of enzyme polymorphism in the various species studied raised the interest of polymorphic loci such as esterase or glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase for epidemiologic studies. The method characterized a genetic diversity of enzyme loci of S. pneumoniae higher than previously reported, and is thus convenient for the analysis of genetic relationships between related isolates. Since the present method reduces the tediousness of multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and requires experimental conditions that are not specific for the bacterial population studied, it may be proposed for rapid population genetics analysis of a wide variety of bacteria. PMID:10754243

Combe, M; Lemeland, J; Pestel-Caron, M; Pons, J

2000-04-15

164

Comparative in vitro activities of ABT-773 against 362 clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

The activity of ABT-773, a novel ketolide antibiotic, against clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria was determined and compared to the activities of other antimicrobial agents. MICs at which 90% of isolates were inhibited (MIC(90)s) were 32 microg/ml, respectively, for Eubacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., Clostridium difficile, and Clostridium ramosum. The MIC(90) for Bilophila wadsworthia, Bacteroides ureolyticus, and Campylobacter gracilis was 1 microg/ml, and that for Prevotella bivia and other Prevotella spp. was 0.5 microg/ml. The MIC(90) for Fusobacterium nucleatum was 8 microg/ml, and that for Fusobacterium mortiferum and Fusobacterium varium was >32 microg/ml. The MIC(90)s for the Bacteroides fragilis group were as follows: for B. fragilis, 8 microg/ml; for Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides ovatus, Bacteroides distasonis, and Bacteroides uniformis, >32 microg/ml; and for Bacteroides vulgatus, 4 microg/ml. Telithromycin MICs for the B. fragilis group were usually 1 to 2 dilutions higher than ABT-773 MICs. For all strains, ABT-773 was more active than erythromycin by 4 or more dilutions, and for some strains this drug was more active than clindamycin. PMID:11120995

Citron, D M; Appleman, M D

2001-01-01

165

High prevalence and resistance rates to antibiotics in anaerobic bacteria in specimens from patients with chronic balanitis.  

PubMed

Aim of the study was to assess both prevalence and antibiotic resistance in anaerobic bacteria from glans penis skin of 70 adults. Strain susceptibility was determined by breakpoint susceptibility test or E test. In 9 asymptomatic, 48 untreated and 13 treated symptomatic patients, anaerobes were found in 22.2%, 70.8% and 53.3%, respectively. Gram-positive strains (GPAs) were 2.2-fold more common than Gram-negative ones. Prevalent Gram-negative (GNAs) and GPAs were Prevotella spp. and anaerobic cocci, respectively. Clostridium difficile strain was found in an untreated patient. In GNAs, resistance rates to amoxicillin, metronidazole, clindamycin, tetracycline, levofloxacin, and amoxicillin/clavulanate were 42.1, 0, 52.6, 53.3, 86.7 and 5.2%, respectively. In GPAs, the resistance rates to metronidazole, clindamycin, tetracycline, levofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanate were 18.2, 34.1, 52.6, 36.8 and 0%, respectively. In conclusion, anaerobes were 1.6-fold more frequent in untreated symptomatic patients compared with other patients, suggesting their participation in development of chronic balanitis. GPAs were more common than GNAs. The resistance rates to amoxicillin, clindamycin, tetracycline, and levofloxacin were high. Most active agents were metronidazole and amoxicillin/clavulanate. Resistance in anaerobes varies according to sites of specimens and years of study. PMID:22710106

Boyanova, Lyudmila; Mitev, Angel; Gergova, Galina; Mateev, Grisha; Mitov, Ivan

2012-08-01

166

Compartmental model for organic matter digestion in facultative ponds.  

PubMed

A model has been developed for the digestion of organic matter in facultative ponds in tropical regions. Complete mixing has been assumed for the aerobic and anaerobic compartments. Settling, aerobic layer oxidation, and anaerobic layer methanogenesis are the main processes for organic matter removal in the water column. Exchange processes between layers are dispersive or soluble exchange, solubilization and transport of organic matter from sediments to water column are also taken into account. Degradation of organic matter in the sediments produces gaseous emissions to the water column. The exchange between bubbles ascending and the water column was measured. The model was calibrated with data obtained from a pilot facultative pond built in Muña Reservoir in Bogotá. The pond was sampled during 4 months to compare data between its water hyacinth covered section and uncovered section. The results clearly show the relative importance of different BOD removal processes in facultative ponds and suggest modifications to further improve performance. The results from the model suggest that internal loadings to facultative ponds due to solubilization and return of organic matter from the sediments to the aerobic layer greatly influence the soluble BOD effluent concentration. Aerobic degradation activity in the facultative pond does not affect significantly the effluent concentration. Anaerobic degradation activity in the facultative pond can more easily achieve increases in the removal efficiencies of BOD. PMID:11833730

Giraldo, E; Garzón, A

2002-01-01

167

High abundance and diversity of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria in a paddy field profile.  

PubMed

The discovery of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) mediated by 'Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera' with nitrite and methane as substrates has connected biogeochemical carbon and nitrogen cycles in a new way. The paddy fields often carry substantial methane and nitrate, thus may be a favorable habitat for n-damo bacteria. In this paper, the vertical-temporal molecular fingerprints of M. oxyfera-like bacteria, including abundance and community composition, were investigated in a paddy soil core in Jiangyin, near the Yangtze River. Through qPCR investigation, high abundance of M. oxyfera-like bacteria up to 1.0 × 10(8) copies (g d.w.s.)(-1) in summer and 8.5 × 10(7) copies (g d.w.s.)(-1) in winter was observed in the ecotone of soil and groundwater in the paddy soil core, which was the highest in natural environments to our knowledge. In the ecotone, the ratio of M. oxyfera-like bacteria to total bacteria reached peak values of 2.80% in summer and 4.41% in winter. Phylogenetic analysis showed n-damo bacteria in the paddy soil were closely related to M. oxyfera and had high diversity in the soil/groundwater ecotone. All of the results indicated the soil/groundwater ecotone of the Jiangyin paddy field was a favorable environment for the growth of n-damo bacteria. PMID:25109910

Zhou, Leiliu; Wang, Yu; Long, Xi-En; Guo, Jianhua; Zhu, Guibing

2014-11-01

168

Diversity and Ubiquity of Bacteria Capable of Utilizing Humic Substances as Electron Donors for Anaerobic Respiration  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have demonstrated that reduced humic substances (HS) can be reoxidized by anaerobic bacteria such as Geobacter, Geothrix, and Wolinella species with a suitable electron acceptor; however, little is known of the importance of this metabolism in the environment. Recently we investigated this metabolism in a diversity of environments including marine and aquatic sediments, forest soils, and drainage ditch soils. Most-probable-number enumeration studies were performed using 2,6-anthrahydroquinone disulfonate (AHDS), an analog for reduced HS, as the electron donor with nitrate as the electron acceptor. Anaerobic organisms capable of utilizing reduced HS as an electron donor were found in all environments tested and ranged from a low of 2.31 × 101 in aquifer sediments to a high of 9.33 × 106 in lake sediments. As part of this study we isolated six novel organisms capable of anaerobic AHDS oxidation. All of the isolates coupled the oxidation of AHDS to the reduction of nitrate with acetate (0.1 mM) as the carbon source. In the absence of cells, no AHDS oxidation was apparent, and in the absence of AHDS, no cell density increase was observed. Generally, nitrate was reduced to N2. Analysis of the AHDS and its oxidized form, 2,6-anthraquinone disulfonate (AQDS), in the medium during growth revealed that the anthraquinone was not being biodegraded as a carbon source and was simply being oxidized as an energy source. Determination of the AHDS oxidized and nitrate reduced accounted for 109% of the theoretical electron transfer. In addition to AHDS, all of these isolates could also couple the oxidation of reduced humic substances to the reduction of nitrate. No HS oxidation occurred in the absence of cells and in the absence of a suitable electron acceptor, demonstrating that these organisms were capable of utilizing natural HS as an energy source and that AHDS serves as a suitable analog for studying this metabolism. Alternative electron donors included simple volatile fatty acids such as propionate, butyrate, and valerate as well as simple organic acids such as lactate and pyruvate. Analysis of the complete sequences of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that the isolates were not closely related to each other and were phylogenetically diverse, with members in the alpha, beta, gamma, and delta subdivisions of the Proteobacteria. Most of the isolates were closely related to known genera not previously recognized for their ability to couple growth to HS oxidation, while one of the isolates represented a new genus in the delta subclass of the Proteobacteria. The results presented here demonstrate that microbial oxidation of HS is a ubiquitous metabolism in the environment. This study represents the first description of HS-oxidizing isolates and demonstrates that microorganisms capable of HS oxidation are phylogenetically diverse. PMID:11976120

Coates, John D.; Cole, Kimberly A.; Chakraborty, Romy; O'Connor, Susan M.; Achenbach, Laurie A.

2002-01-01

169

Azoarcus sp. CIB, an Anaerobic Biodegrader of Aromatic Compounds Shows an Endophytic Lifestyle  

PubMed Central

Background Endophytic bacteria that have plant growth promoting traits are of great interest in green biotechnology. The previous thought that the Azoarcus genus comprises bacteria that fit into one of two major eco-physiological groups, either free-living anaerobic biodegraders of aromatic compounds or obligate endophytes unable to degrade aromatics under anaerobic conditions, is revisited here. Methodology/Principal Findings Light, confocal and electron microscopy reveal that Azoarcus sp. CIB, a facultative anaerobe ?-proteobacterium able to degrade aromatic hydrocarbons under anoxic conditions, is also able to colonize the intercellular spaces of the rice roots. In addition, the strain CIB displays plant growth promoting traits such nitrogen fixation, uptake of insoluble phosphorus and production of indoleacetic acid. Therefore, this work demonstrates by the first time that a free-living bacterium able to degrade aromatic compounds under aerobic and anoxic conditions can share also an endophytic lifestyle. The phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rDNA and nifH genes confirmed that obligate endophytes of the Azoarcus genus and facultative endophytes, such as Azoarcus sp. CIB, locate into different evolutionary branches. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report of a bacterium, Azoarcus sp. CIB, able to degrade anaerobically a significant number of aromatic compounds, some of them of great environmental concern, and to colonize the rice as a facultative endophyte. Thus, Azoarcus sp. CIB becomes a suitable candidate for a more sustainable agricultural practice and phytoremediation technology. PMID:25340341

Fernandez, Helga; Prandoni, Nicolas; Fernandez-Pascual, Mercedes; Fajardo, Susana; Morcillo, Cesar; Diaz, Eduardo; Carmona, Manuel

2014-01-01

170

Molecular Evidence for the Broad Distribution of Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria in Freshwater and Marine Sediments  

PubMed Central

Previously available primer sets for detecting anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria are inefficient, resulting in a very limited database of such sequences, which limits knowledge of their ecology. To overcome this limitation, we designed a new primer set that was 100% specific in the recovery of ?700-bp 16S rRNA gene sequences with >96% homology to the “Candidatus Scalindua” group of anammox bacteria, and we detected this group at all sites studied, including a variety of freshwater and marine sediments and permafrost soil. A second primer set was designed that exhibited greater efficiency than previous primers in recovering full-length (1,380-bp) sequences related to “Ca. Scalindua,” “Candidatus Brocadia,” and “Candidatus Kuenenia.” This study provides evidence for the widespread distribution of anammox bacteria in that it detected closely related anammox 16S rRNA gene sequences in 11 geographically and biogeochemically diverse freshwater and marine sediments. PMID:17021238

Penton, C. Ryan; Devol, Allan H.; Tiedje, James M.

2006-01-01

171

The incidence and significance of anaerobic bacteria in the equine uterus  

E-print Network

accurate than the prereduced, anaerobically sterilized tube method if preliminary identification tests for antibiotic susceptibility, Gram stain characteristics, spot indole reaction, catalase reaction and reverse CAMP test are not performed for prior... accurate than the prereduced, anaerobically sterilized tube method if preliminary identification tests for antibiotic susceptibility, Gram stain characteristics, spot indole reaction, catalase reaction and reverse CAMP test are not performed for prior...

Bolinger, Dean Roger

2012-06-07

172

Aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of infections after trauma in children.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To review the recovery of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria from infections after trauma in children over a 20 year period. METHODS: Only specimens that were studied for both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were included in the analysis. They were collected from seven separate centres in which the microbiology laboratories only accepted specimens that were properly collected without contamination and were submitted in appropriate transport media. Anaerobes and aerobic bacteria were cultured and identified using standard techniques. Clinical records were reviewed to identify post-trauma patients. RESULTS: From 1974 to 1994, 175 specimens obtained from 166 children with trauma showed bacterial growth. The trauma included blunt trauma (71), lacerations (48), bites (42), and open fractures (5). Anaerobic bacteria only were isolated in 38 specimens (22%), aerobic bacteria only in 51 (29%), and mixed aerobic-anaerobic flora in 86 (49%); 363 anaerobic (2.1/specimen) and 158 aerobic or facultative isolates (0.9/specimen) were recovered. The predominant anaerobic bacteria included Peptostreptococcus spp (115 isolates), Prevotella spp (68), Fusobacterium spp (52), B fragilis group (42), and Clostridium spp (21). The predominant aerobic bacteria included Staph aureus (51), E coli (13), Ps aeruginosa (12), Str pyogenes (11) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (9). Principal infections were: abscesses (52), bacteraemia (3), pulmonary infections (30, including aspiration pneumonia, tracheostomy associated pneumonia, empyema, and ventilator associated pneumonia), wounds (36, including cellulitis, post-traumatic wounds, decubitus ulcers, myositis, gastrostomy and tracheostomy site wounds, and fasciitis), bites (42, including 23 animal and 19 human), peritonitis (4), osteomyelitis (5), and sinusitis (3). Staph aureus and Str pyogenes were isolated at all sites. However, organisms of the oropharyngeal flora predominated in infections that originated from head and neck wounds and abscesses, and bites, and those from the gastrointestinal tract predominated in infections that originated from peritonitis, abdominal abscesses, and decubitus ulcers. CONCLUSIONS: Many infections that follow trauma in children involve multiple organisms. PMID:9639177

Brook, I

1998-01-01

173

Optimization of wastewater feeding for single-cell protein production in an anaerobic wastewater treatment process utilizing purple non-sulfur bacteria in mixed culture condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impacts of operation timing of feeding and withdrawal on anaerobic wastewater treatment utilizing purple non-sulfur bacteria have been investigated in mixed culture condition with acidogenic bacteria. Simulated wastewater containing glucose was treated in a laboratory-scale chemostat reactor, changing the timing of wastewater feeding and withdrawal. Rhodopseudomonas palustris, which does not utilize glucose as a substrate, was inoculated in the reactor.

Ryo Honda; Kensuke Fukushi; Kazuo Yamamoto

2006-01-01

174

Studies on Hydrogen Production by Photosynthetic Bacteria after Anaerobic Fermentation of Starch by a Hyperthermophile, Pyrococcus furiosus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to establish the sequential hydrogen production from waste starch using a hyperthermophile, Pyrococcus furiosus, and a photosynthetic bacterium, basic studies were done. P. furiosus produced hydrogen and acetate by anaerobic fermentation at 90°C. A photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides RV, was able to produce hydrogen from acetate under anaerobic and light conditions at 30°C. However, Rb. sphaeroides RV was not able to produce hydrogen from acetate in the presence of sodium chloride that was essential for the growth and hydrogen production of P. furiosus although it produced hydrogen from lactate at a reduced rate with 1% sodium chloride. A newly isolated strain, CST-8, from natural environment was, however, able to produce hydrogen from acetate, especially with 3 mM L-alanine and in the presence of 1% sodium chloride. The sequential hydrogen production with P. furiosus and salt-tolerant photosynthetic bacteria could be probable at least in the laboratory experiment scale.

Sugitate, Toshihiro; Fukatsu, Makoto; Ishimi, Katsuhiro; Kohno, Hideki; Wakayama, Tatsuki; Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Miyake, Jun; Asada, Yasuo

175

In vitro activity of R-95867, the active metabolite of a new oral carbapenem, CS-834, against anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

The in vitro activity of R-95867, the active metabolite of a new oral carbapenem, CS-834, was compared with those of DU-6859a, cefditoren, ampicillin/sulbactam and clindamycin against a variety of anaerobic bacteria. R-95867 inhibited 90% of anaerobic strains at

Kato, N; Tanaka, K; Kato, H; Watanabe, K

2000-03-01

176

Isolation and Characterization of Anaerobic Bacteria for Symbiotic Recycling of Uric Acid Nitrogen in the Gut of Various Termites  

PubMed Central

Recycling of the nitrogenous waste uric acid (UA) of wood-feeding termites by their gut bacteria is one of the significant aspects of symbiosis for the conservation of nitrogen sources. Diverse anaerobic UA-degrading bacteria comprising 16 species were isolated from the gut of eight termite species, and were assigned to Clostridia, Enterobacteriaceae, and low G+C Gram-positive cocci. UA-degrading Clostridia had never been isolated from termite guts. UA-degrading ability was sporadically distributed among phylogenetically various culturable anaerobic bacteria from termite guts. A strain of Clostridium sp., which was commonly isolated from three termite species and represented a probable new species in cluster XIVa of clostridia, utilized UA as a nitrogen source but not as a sole carbon and energy source. This feature is in clear contrast to that of well-studied purinolytic clostridia or previously isolated UA degraders from termite guts, which also utilize UA as a sole carbon and energy source. Ammonia is the major nitrogenous product of UA degradation. Various purines stimulated the growth of this strain when added to an otherwise growth-limiting, nitrogen poor medium. The bacterial species involved the recycling of UA nitrogen in the gut microbial community of termites are more diverse in terms of both taxonomy and nutritional physiology than previously recognized. PMID:22791052

Thong-On, Arunee; Suzuki, Katsuyuki; Noda, Satoko; Inoue, Jun-ichi; Kajiwara, Susumu; Ohkuma, Moriya

2012-01-01

177

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry: a new possibility for the identification and typing of anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

Anaerobic bacteria predominate in the normal flora of humans and are important, often life-threatening pathogens in mixed infections originating from the indigenous microbiota. The isolation and identification of anaerobes by phenotypic and DNA-based molecular methods at a species level is time-consuming and laborious. Following the successful adaptation of the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the routine laboratory identification of bacteria, the extensive development of a database has been initiated to use this method for the identification of anaerobic bacteria. Not only frequently isolated anaerobic species, but also newly recognized and taxonomically rearranged genera and species can be identified using direct smear samples or whole-cell protein extraction, and even phylogenetically closely related species can be identified correctly by means of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Typing of anaerobic bacteria on a subspecies level, determination of antibiotic resistance and direct identification of blood culture isolates will revolutionize anaerobe bacteriology in the near future. PMID:24571074

Nagy, Elizabeth

2014-02-01

178

The formation of acetic acid from carbon dioxide and hydrogen by anaerobic spore-forming bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Further experiments on an anaerobic bacillus synthesising acetic acid from CO2 and H2 are described. The organism in question was classified asClostridium aceticum n.sp. Acetic acid is also formed from sugar.

K. T. Wieringa

1939-01-01

179

Culturing Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria and Mammalian Cells with a Microfluidic Differential Oxygenator  

E-print Network

In this manuscript, we report on the culture of anaerobic and aerobic species within a disposable multilayer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device with an integrated differential oxygenator. A gas-filled microchannel ...

Lam, Raymond H. W.

180

Megasphaera indica sp. nov., an obligate anaerobic bacteria isolated from human faeces.  

PubMed

Two coccoid, non-motile, obligately anaerobic, Gram-stain-negative bacteria, occurring singly or in pairs, or as short chains, with a mean size of 1.4-2.5 µm were isolated from the faeces of two healthy human volunteers, aged 26 and 56 years, and were designated NMBHI-10(T) and BLPYG-7, respectively. Both the strains were affiliated to the sub-branch Sporomusa of the class Clostridia as revealed by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The isolates NMBHI-10(T) and BLPYG-7 showed 99.1 and 99.2% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively, with Megasphaera elsdenii JCM 1772(T). DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotypic analysis showed that both the strains were distinct from their closest relative, M. elsdenii JCM 1772(T) (42 and 53% DNA-DNA relatedness with NMBHI-10(T) and BLPYG-7, respectively), but belong to the same species (DNA-DNA relatedness of 80.9?% between the isolates). According to DNA-DNA hybridization results, the coccoid strains belong to the same genospecies, and neither is related to any of the recognized species of the genus Megasphaera. Strains NMBHI-10(T) and BLPYG-7 grew in PYG broth at temperatures of between 15 and 40 °C (optimum 37 °C), but not at 45 °C. The strains utilized a range of carbohydrates as sources of carbon and energy including glucose, lactose, cellobiose, rhamnose, galactose and sucrose. Glucose fermentation resulted in the formation of volatile fatty acids, mainly caproic acid and organic acids such as succinic acid. Phylogenetic analysis, specific phenotypic characteristics and/or DNA G+C content also differentiated the strains from each other and from their closest relatives. The DNA G+C contents of strains NMBHI-10(T) and BLPYG-7 are 57.7 and 54.9 mol%, respectively. The major fatty acids were 12 : 0 FAME and 17 : 0 CYC FAME. On the basis of these data, we conclude that strains NMBHI-10(T) and BLPYG-7 should be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Megasphaera, for which the name Megsphaera indica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NMBHI-10(T) (?= DSM 25563(T)?= MCC 2481(T)). PMID:24711592

Lanjekar, V B; Marathe, N P; Ramana, V Venkata; Shouche, Y S; Ranade, D R

2014-07-01

181

Degradation of anaerobic reductive dechlorinationproducts of Aroclor 1242 by four aerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the aerobic degradation of eight PCB congeners which comprise from 70 to 85% of the anaerobic dechlorination products from Aroclor 1242, including2-, 4-, 2,4-, 2,6-, 2,2'-, 2,4'-, 2,2',4-, and2,4,4'-chlorobiphenyl (CB), and the biodegradation of their mixtures designed to simulate anaerobic dechlorination profiles M and C. StrainsComamonas testosteroni VP44 and Rhodococcus erythreus NY05 preferentially oxidizeda para-substituted ring, while Rhodococcus

Olga V. Maltseva; Tamara V. Tsoi; John F. Quensen; Masao Fukuda; James M. Tiedje

1999-01-01

182

Successful preservation of Campylobacteraceae and related bacteria by liquid-drying under anaerobic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have successfully liquid-dried the cultures of Campylobacter coli; C. jejuni subsp. jejuni; C. fetus subsp. fetus; C. upsaliensis; Helicobacter pylori; H. mustelae; Borrelia burgdorferi and Vibrio fisheri directly from the liquid phase (without freezing) under anaerobic conditions. According to this method drops of cell suspensions were dried anaerobically in gas-tight small screw-cap glass vials with rubber septa. No constriction

Khursheed A. Malik; Elke Lang

1996-01-01

183

Isolation and identification of bacteria responsible for simultaneous anaerobic ammonium and sulfate removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfate-dependent anaerobic ammonium oxidation is a novel biological reaction, in which ammonium is oxidized with sulfate\\u000a as the electron acceptor under anoxic conditions. Ammonium and sulfate are cosmopolitan chemical species which are an integral\\u000a part of the global nitrogen and sulfur cycles. A detailed exploration of sulfate-dependent anaerobic ammonium oxidation is\\u000a quite practical. In this work, a bacterial strain named

Jing Cai; JianXiang Jiang; Ping Zheng

2010-01-01

184

Reduction and Immobilization of Radionuclides and Toxic Metal Ions Using Combined Zero Valent Iron and Anaerobic Bacteria  

SciTech Connect

The use of zero valent iron, permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) for groundwater remediation continues to increase. AN exciting variation of this technology involves introducing anaerobic bacteria into these barriers so that both biological and abiotic pollutant removal processes are functional. This work evaluated the hypothesis that a system combining a mixed culture of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) with zero valent iron would have a greater cr(VI) removal efficiency and a greater total Cr(VI) removal capacity than a zero valent iron system without the microorganisms. Hence, the overall goal of this research was to compare the performance of these types of systems with regard to their Cr(VI) removal efficiency and total Cr(VI) removal capacity. Both batch and continuous flow reactor systems were evaluated.

Lenly J. Weathers; Lynn E. Katz

2002-05-29

185

Reduction of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Present in Food Animal Manures by Composting and Anaerobic Digestion  

E-print Network

Reduction of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Present in Food Animal Manures by Composting of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria to be $4 to $5 billion U.S. dollars. Thus, antimicrobial is the largest antimicrobial resistance reservoir because most of the antibiotic-resistant bacteria arising from

Jones, Michelle

186

Identification of Anaerobic Bacteria by Bruker Biotyper Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry with On-Plate Formic Acid Preparation  

PubMed Central

Identification of anaerobic bacteria using phenotypic methods is often time-consuming; methods such as 16S rRNA gene sequencing are costly and may not be readily available. We evaluated 253 clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria using the Bruker MALDI Biotyper (Bruker Daltonics, Billerica, MA) matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system with a user-supplemented database and an on-plate formic acid-based preparation method and compared results to those of conventional identification using biochemical testing or 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A total of 179 (70.8%) and 232 (91.7%) isolates were correctly identified to the species and genus levels, respectively, using manufacturer-recommended score cutoffs. MALDI-TOF MS offers a rapid, inexpensive method for identification of anaerobic bacteria. PMID:23254126

Schmitt, Bryan H.; Cunningham, Scott A.; Dailey, Aaron L.; Gustafson, Daniel R.

2013-01-01

187

A real-time polymerase chain reaction method for monitoring anaerobic, hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria based on a catabolic gene.  

PubMed

We have developed a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method that can quantify hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in sediment samples based on a catabolic gene associated with the first step of anaerobic toluene and xylene degradation. The target gene, bssA, codes for the alpha-subunit of benzylsuccinate synthase. The primer-probe set for real-time PCR was based on consensus regions of bssA from four denitrifying bacterial strains; bssA sequences for two of these strains were determined during this study. The method proved to be sensitive (detection limit ca. 5 gene copies) and had a linear range of >7 orders of magnitude. We used the method to investigate how gasohol releases from leaking underground storage tanks could affect indigenous toluene-degrading bacteria. Microcosms inoculated with aquifer sediments from four different sites were incubated anaerobically with BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) and nitrate in the presence and absence of ethanol. Overall, population trends were consistent with observed toluene degradation activity: the microcosms with the most rapid toluene degradation also had the largest numbers of bssA copies. In the microcosms with the most rapid toluene degradation, numbers of bssA copies increased 100-to 1000-fold over the first 4 days of incubation, during which time most of the toluene had been consumed. These results were supported by slot blot analyses with unamplified DNA and by cloning and sequencing of putative bssA amplicons, which confirmed the real-time PCR method's specificity for bssA. Use of a companion real-time PCR method for estimating total eubacterial populations (based on 16S rDNA) indicated that, in some cases, ethanol disproportionately supported the growth of bacteria that did not contain bssA. The real-time PCR method for bssA could be a powerful tool for monitored natural attenuation of BTEX in fuel-contaminated groundwater. To our knowledge, this is the first reported molecular method that targets anaerobic, hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria based on a catabolic gene. PMID:12269751

Beller, Harry R; Kane, Staci R; Legler, Tina C; Alvarez, Pedro J J

2002-09-15

188

Induction of anaerobic, photoautotrophic growth in the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limnetica.  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic photoautotrophic growth of the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limnetica was demonstrated under nitrogen in the presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (5micron), a constant concentration of Na2S (2.5 mM), and constant pH (7.3). The photoanaerobic growth rate (2 days doubling time) was similar to that obtained under oxygenic photoautotrophic growth conditions. The potential of oxygenic photosynthesis is constitutive in the cells; that of anoxygenic photosynthesis is rapidly (2 h) induced in the presence of Na2S in the light in a process requiring protein synthesis. The facultative anaerobic phototrophic growth physiology exhibited by O. limnetica would seem to represent an intermediate physiological pattern between the obligate anaerobic one of photosynthetic bacteria and the oxygenic one of eucaryotic algae. PMID:415043

Oren, A; Padan, E

1978-01-01

189

Species Identification of Clinical Isolates of Anaerobic Bacteria: a Comparison of Two Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Systems ?  

PubMed Central

We compared two matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) systems (Shimadzu/SARAMIS and Bruker) on a collection of consecutive clinically important anaerobic bacteria (n = 290). The Bruker system had more correct identifications to the species level (67.2% versus 49.0%), but also more incorrect identifications (7.9% versus 1.4%). The system databases need to be optimized to increase identification levels. However, MALDI-TOF MS in its present version seems to be a fast and inexpensive method for identification of most clinically important anaerobic bacteria. PMID:21998433

Justesen, Ulrik Stenz; Holm, Anette; Knudsen, Elisa; Andersen, Line Bisgaard; Jensen, Th?ger Gorm; Kemp, Michael; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Gahrn-Hansen, Bente; M?ller, Jens Kj?lseth

2011-01-01

190

One carbon metabolism in anaerobic bacteria: Regulation of carbon and electron flow during organic acid production  

SciTech Connect

This reporting period, progress is reported on the following: metabolic pathway of solvent production in B. methylotrophicum; the biochemical mechanism for metabolic regulation of the succinate fermentation; models to understand the physiobiochemical function of formate metabolism in anaerobes and; models for understanding the influence of low pH on one carbon metabolism. (CBS)

Zeikus, J.G.; Jain, M.K.

1992-01-01

191

Efficiency of a Transport Medium for the Recovery of Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria from Applicator Swabs  

PubMed Central

The survival of four aerobic and four anaerobic pathogens was evaluated quantitatively on cotton swabs and calcium alginate swabs stored in dry tubes as compared with swabs stored in Amies Transport Medium without charcoal. Survival of the pathogens was markedly improved when stored in Amies Transport Medium, although there was considerable loss of viability after a few hours of storage. PMID:4626907

Barry, A. L.; Fay, G. D.; Sauer, R. L.

1972-01-01

192

Anaerobic biodegradation of ethylthionocarbamate by the mixed bacteria under various electron acceptor conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodegradation behavior and kinetics of ethylthionocarbamate under nitrate, sulfate and ferric reducing conditions by mixed cultures enriched from the anaerobic digester sludge was investigated. The results showed that ethylthionocarbamate could be degraded independently by the mixed cultures coupled to nitrate, sulfate, and ferric reduction, and meanwhile, nitrite, sulfide, and ferrous were accumulated as a result of nitrate, sulfate and ferric

Shaohua Chen; Wenqi Gong; Guangjun Mei; Weiyi Han

2011-01-01

193

Trimethylamine Oxide: A Terminal Electron Acceptor in Anaerobic Respiration of Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) stimulated both the anaerobic growth rate and the growth yield of Proteus NTHC 153. The molar growth yield from glucose and pyruvate in tryptone\\/ yeast extract medium doubled in the presence of TMAO, and the organism grew anaero- bically on the non-fermentable substrates L-lactate and formate when TMAO was added to the medium. We conclude that TMAO

A. R. STROM; JAN A. OLAFSEN; HELGE LARSEN

1979-01-01

194

In Vitro Activities of Gatifloxacin, Two Other Quinolones, and Five Nonquinolone Antimicrobials against Obligately Anaerobic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The activity of the new fluoroquinolone gatifloxacin was compared with those of other quinolones and antimicrobial agents of other classes against 294 anaerobes by the broth microdilution technique. For all strains tested, gatifloxacin MICs at which 50 and 90% of the isolates were inhibited were 0.5 and 2 mg/liter, respectively, and were 3 to 4 dilution steps lower than, e.g., ciprofloxacin. PMID:10543764

Schaumann, Reiner; Ackermann, Grit; Pless, Baerbel; Claros, Marina C.; Rodloff, Arne C.

1999-01-01

195

Remediation of polychlorinated biphenyl impacted sediment by concurrent bioaugmentation with anaerobic halorespiring and aerobic degrading bacteria.  

PubMed

Bioremediation of sediments contaminated with commercial polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is potentially achievable by the sequential activity of anaerobic halorespiration to convert higher chlorinated congeners to less chlorinated congeners that are susceptible to aerobic respiratory degradation. The efficacy of bioaugmentation with anaerobic halorespiring Dehalobium chlorocoercia DF1 and aerobic Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 added concurrently with granulated activated carbon (GAC) as a delivery system was determined in 2 L laboratory mesocosms containing weathered Aroclor-contaminated sediment from Baltimore Harbor, MD, USA. The greatest effect was seen in the mesocosm bioaugmented with both DF1 and LB400 together, which resulted in an 80% decrease by mass of PCBs, from 8 to <2 mg/kg after 120 days. There was no significant increase in lesser-chlorinated congeners, indicating that both anaerobic dechlorination by DF1 and aerobic degradation by LB400 occurred. In contrast, nonbioaugmented controls containing filtered culture supernatant showed only a 25% decrease in total levels of PCBs after 365 days, which was likely due to biostimulation of the indigenous population by the medium. Direct colony counts and molecular analysis targeting a putative reductive dehalogenase gene of D. chlorocoercia or the bphA gene of LB400 showed the presence of viable DF1 and LB400 in bioaugmented mesocosms after 365 days, indicating that both nonindigenous strains were sustainable within the indigenous microbial community. These results suggest that an in situ treatment employing the simultaneous application of anaerobic and aerobic microorganisms could be an effective and environmentally sustainable strategy to reduce PCBs levels in contaminated sediment. PMID:23463900

Payne, Rayford B; Fagervold, Sonja K; May, Harold D; Sowers, Kevin R

2013-04-16

196

Behavior of cellulose-degrading bacteria in thermophilic anaerobic digestion process.  

PubMed

Previously, we found that the newly isolated Clostridium sp. strain JC3 became the dominant cellulose-degrading bacterium in thermophilic methanogenic sludge. In the present study, the behavior of strain JC3 in the thermophilic anaerobic digestion process was investigated quantitatively by molecular biological techniques. A cellulose-degrading experiment was conducted at 55 degrees C with a 9.5 L of anaerobic baffled reactor having three compartments (Nos. 1, 2, 3). Over 80% of the COD input was converted into methane when 2.5 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1) was loaded for an HRT of 27 days. A FISH probe specific for strain JC3 was applied to sludge samples harvested from the baffled reactor. Consequently, the ratio of JC3 cells to DAPI-stained cells increased from below 0.5% (undetectable) to 9.4% (compartment 1), 13.1% (compartment 2) and 21.6% (compartment 3) at day 84 (2.5 kgCOD m(-3)d(-1)). The strain JC3 cell numbers determined by FISH correlated closely with the cellulose-degrading methanogenic activities of retained sludge. A specific primer set targeting the cellulase gene (cellobiohydrolaseA: cbhA) of strain JC3 was designed and applied to digested sludge for treating solid waste such as coffee grounds, wastepaper, garbage, cellulose and so on. The strain JC3 cell numbers determined by quantitative PCR correlated closely with the cellulose-sludge loading of the thermophilic digester. Strain JC3 is thus important in the anaerobic hydrolysis of cellulose in thermophilic anaerobic digestion processes. PMID:16180412

Syutsubo, K; Nagaya, Y; Sakai, S; Miya, A

2005-01-01

197

Remediation of polychlorinated biphenyl impacted sediment by concurrent bioaugmentation with anaerobic halorespiring and aerobic degrading bacteria  

PubMed Central

Bioremediation of sediments contaminated with commercial PCBs is potentially achievable by the sequential activity of anaerobic halorespiration to convert higher chlorinated congeners to less chlorinated congeners that are susceptible to aerobic respiratory degradation. The efficacy of bioaugmentation with anaerobic halorespiring “Dehalobium chlorocoercia” DF1 and aerobic Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 added concurrently with GAC as a delivery system was determined in 2-liter laboratory mesocosms containing weathered Aroclor-contaminated sediment from Baltimore Harbor, MD. The greatest effect was seen in the mesocosm bioaugmented with both DF1 and LB400 together, which resulted in an 80% decrease by mass of PCBs, from 8 mg/kg to less than 2 mg/kg after 120 days. There was no significant increase in lesser-chlorinated congeners, indicating that both anaerobic dechlorination by DF1 and aerobic degradation by LB400 occurred. In contrast, non-bioaugmented controls containing filtered culture supernatant showed only 25% decrease in total levels of PCBs after 365 days, which was likely due to biostimulation of the indigenous population by the medium. Direct colony counts and molecular analysis targeting a putative reductive dehalogenase gene of D. chlorocoercia, or the bphA gene of LB400 showed the presence of viable DF1 and LB400 in bioaugmented mesocosms after 365 days, indicating that both non-indigenous strains were sustainable within the indigenous microbial community. These results suggest that an in situ treatment employing the simultaneous application of anaerobic and aerobic microorganisms could be an effective, environmentally sustainable strategy to reduce PCBs levels in contaminated sediment. PMID:23463900

Payne, Rayford B.; Fagervold, Sonja K.; May, Harold D.; Sowers, Kevin R.

2013-01-01

198

Coexistence of aerobic chemotrophic and anaerobic phototrophic sulfur bacteria under oxygen limitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerobic chemotrophic sulfur bacterium Thiobacillus thioparus T5 and the anaerobic phototrophic sulfur bacterium Thiocapsa roseopersicina M1 were co-cultured in continuously illuminated chemostats at a dilution rate of 0.05 h?1. Sulfide was the only externally supplied electron donor, and oxygen and carbon dioxide served as electron acceptor and carbon source, respectively. Steady states were obtained with oxygen supplies ranging from

Frank P. van den Ende; Anniet M. Laverman; Hans van Gemerden

1996-01-01

199

Effects of glycerol on the growth, adhesion, and cellulolytic activity of rumen cellulolytic bacteria and anaerobic fungi.  

PubMed

The effect of glycerol on the growth, adhesion, and cellulolytic activity of two rumen cellulolytic bacterial species, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Fibrobacter succinogenes subsp. succinogenes, and of an anaerobic fungal species, Neocallimastix frontalis, was studied. At low concentrations (0.1-1%), glycerol had no effect on the growth, adhesion, and cellulolytic activity of the two bacterial species. However, at a concentration of 5%, it greatly inhibited their growth and cellulolytic activity. Glycerol did not affect the adhesion of bacteria to cellulose. The growth and cellulolytic activity of N. frontalis were inhibited by glycerol, increasingly so at higher concentrations. At a concentration of 5%, glycerol totally inhibited the cellulolytic activity of the fungus. Thus, glycerol can be added to animal feed at low concentrations. PMID:1368974

Roger, V; Fonty, G; Andre, C; Gouet, P

1992-10-01

200

Organic carbon recovery and photosynthetic bacteria population in an anaerobic membrane photo-bioreactor treating food processing wastewater.  

PubMed

Purple non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB) were cultivated by food industry wastewater in the anaerobic membrane photo-bioreactor. Organic removal and biomass production and characteristics were accomplished via an explicit examination of the long term performance of the photo-bioreactor fed with real wastewater. With the support of infra-red light transmitting filter, PNSB could survive and maintain in the system even under the continual fluctuations of influent wastewater characteristics. The average BOD and COD removal efficiencies were found at the moderate range of 51% and 58%, respectively. Observed photosynthetic biomass yield was 0.6g dried solid/g BOD with crude protein content of 0.41 g/g dried solid. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoretic analysis (DGGE) and 16S rDNA sequencing revealed the presence of Rhodopseudomonas palustris and significant changes in the photosynthetic bacterial community within the system. PMID:23489563

Chitapornpan, S; Chiemchaisri, C; Chiemchaisri, W; Honda, R; Yamamoto, K

2013-08-01

201

Biogas Production at Low Temperatures. Interim Report Concerning Propagation and Activity Tests of Anaerobic Psychrophilic Bacteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Literature concerning biogas production at low temperatures was received, showing that depending on dry matter content of added substrate psychophilic or mesophilic bacteria grow; U.A.S.B. filters are able to reduce low concentration waste water at temper...

N. Oestergaard

1985-01-01

202

Anaerobic and aerobic bacteriology of the saliva and gingiva from 16 captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis): new implications for the "bacteria as venom" model.  

PubMed

It has been speculated that the oral flora of the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) exerts a lethal effect on its prey; yet, scant information about their specific oral flora bacteriology, especially anaerobes, exists. Consequently, the aerobic and anaerobic oral bacteriology of 16 captive Komodo dragons (10 adults and six neonates), aged 2-17 yr for adults and 7-10 days for neonates, from three U.S. zoos were studied. Saliva and gingival samples were collected by zoo personnel, inoculated into anaerobic transport media, and delivered by courier to a reference laboratory. Samples were cultured for aerobes and anaerobes. Strains were identified by standard methods and 16S rRNA gene sequencing when required. The oral flora consisted of 39 aerobic and 21 anaerobic species, with some variation by zoo. Adult dragons grew 128 isolates, including 37 aerobic gram-negative rods (one to eight per specimen), especially Enterobacteriaceae; 50 aerobic gram-positive bacteria (two to nine per specimen), especially Staphylococcus sciuri and Enterococcusfaecalis, present in eight of 10 and nine of 10 dragons, respectively; and 41 anaerobes (one to six per specimen), especially clostridia. All hatchlings grew aerobes but none grew anaerobes. No virulent species were isolated. As with other carnivores, captive Komodo oral flora is simply reflective of the gut and skin flora of their recent meals and environment and is unlikely to cause rapid fatal infection. PMID:23805543

Goldstein, Ellie J C; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Citron, Diane M; Cox, Cathleen R; Recchio, Ian M; Okimoto, Ben; Bryja, Judith; Fry, Bryan G

2013-06-01

203

Phylogenetic Analysis ofAnaerobic Thermophilic Bacteria: AidforTheir Reclassification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theymoanaerobium, andThermobacteroides, 3 non-validly described species, and5isolates ofanaerobic thermophilic bacteria, providing abasis foraphylogenetic analysis ofthese organisms. Several species contain aversion ofthemolecule significantly longer thanthatof Escherichia coil because ofthepresence ofinserts. On thebasis ofnormalevolutionary distances, the phylogenetic tree indicates thatallbacteria investigated inthis study withamaximumgrowth temperature above 650Cformasupercluster within thesubphylum ofgram-positive bacteria that also contains Closridium thermosaccharolyticum andClostridium thermoaceticum, whichhavebeenpreviously sequenced. Thissuper- cluster

NAOMI L. WARD; tHUGH W. MORGAN; ROSEMARY TOALSTER; ANDERKO STACKEBRANDT

1993-01-01

204

Monitoring Methanotrophic Bacteria in Hybrid Anaerobic-Aerobic Reactors with PCR and a Catabolic Gene Probe  

PubMed Central

We attempted to mimic in small upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) bioreactors the metabolic association found in nature between methanogens and methanotrophs. UASB bioreactors were inoculated with pure cultures of methanotrophs, and the bioreactors were operated by using continuous low-level oxygenation in order to favor growth and/or survival of methanotrophs. Unlike the reactors in other similar studies, the hybrid anaerobic-aerobic bioreactors which we used were operated synchronously, not sequentially. Here, emphasis was placed on monitoring various methanotrophic populations by using classical methods and also a PCR amplification assay based on the mmoX gene fragment of the soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO). The following results were obtained: (i) under the conditions used, Methylosinus sporium appeared to survive better than Methylosinus trichosporium; (ii) the PCR method which we used could detect as few as about 2,000 sMMO gene-containing methanotrophs per g (wet weight) of granular sludge; (iii) inoculation of the bioreactors with pure cultures of methanotrophs contributed greatly to increases in the sMMO-containing population (although the sMMO-containing population decreased gradually with time, at the end of an experiment it was always at least 2 logs larger than the initial population before inoculation); (iv) in general, there was a good correlation between populations with the sMMO gene and populations that exhibited sMMO activity; and (v) inoculation with sMMO-positive cultures helped increase significantly the proportion of sMMO-positive methanotrophs in reactors, even after several weeks of operation under various regimes. At some point, anaerobic-aerobic bioreactors like those described here might be used for biodegradation of various chlorinated pollutants. PMID:9925557

Miguez, Carlos B.; Shen, Chun F.; Bourque, Denis; Guiot, Serge R.; Groleau, Denis

1999-01-01

205

Iron and Copper Act Synergistically To Delay Anaerobic Growth of Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Transition metals are known to cause toxic effects through their interaction with oxygen, but toxicity under anoxic conditions is poorly understood. Here we investigated the effects of iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) on the anaerobic growth and gene expression of the purple phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1. We found that Fe(II) and Cu(II) act synergistically to delay anaerobic growth at environmentally relevant metal concentrations. Cu(I) and Cu(II) had similar effects both alone and in the presence of ascorbate, a Cu(II) reductant, indicating that reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) by Fe(II) is not sufficient to explain the growth inhibition. Addition of Cu(II) increased the toxicity of Co(II) and Ni(II); in contrast, Ni(II) toxicity was diminished in the presence of Fe(II). The synergistic anaerobic toxicity of Fe(II) and Cu(II) was also observed for Escherichia coli MG1655, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, and Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003. Gene expression analyses for R. palustris identified three regulatory genes that respond to Cu(II) and not to Fe(II): homologs of cueR and cusR, two known proteobacterial copper homeostasis regulators, and csoR, a copper regulator recently identified in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Two P-type ATPase efflux pumps, along with an FoF1 ATP synthase, were also upregulated by Cu(II) but not by Fe(II). An Escherichia coli mutant deficient in copA, cus, and cueO showed a smaller synergistic effect, indicating that iron might interfere with one or more of the copper homeostasis systems. Our results suggest that interactive effects of transition metals on microbial physiology may be widespread under anoxic conditions, although the molecular mechanisms remain to be more fully elucidated. PMID:23563938

Bird, Lina J.; Coleman, Maureen L.

2013-01-01

206

Iron and copper act synergistically to delay anaerobic growth of bacteria.  

PubMed

Transition metals are known to cause toxic effects through their interaction with oxygen, but toxicity under anoxic conditions is poorly understood. Here we investigated the effects of iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) on the anaerobic growth and gene expression of the purple phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1. We found that Fe(II) and Cu(II) act synergistically to delay anaerobic growth at environmentally relevant metal concentrations. Cu(I) and Cu(II) had similar effects both alone and in the presence of ascorbate, a Cu(II) reductant, indicating that reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) by Fe(II) is not sufficient to explain the growth inhibition. Addition of Cu(II) increased the toxicity of Co(II) and Ni(II); in contrast, Ni(II) toxicity was diminished in the presence of Fe(II). The synergistic anaerobic toxicity of Fe(II) and Cu(II) was also observed for Escherichia coli MG1655, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, and Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003. Gene expression analyses for R. palustris identified three regulatory genes that respond to Cu(II) and not to Fe(II): homologs of cueR and cusR, two known proteobacterial copper homeostasis regulators, and csoR, a copper regulator recently identified in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Two P-type ATPase efflux pumps, along with an F(o)F(1) ATP synthase, were also upregulated by Cu(II) but not by Fe(II). An Escherichia coli mutant deficient in copA, cus, and cueO showed a smaller synergistic effect, indicating that iron might interfere with one or more of the copper homeostasis systems. Our results suggest that interactive effects of transition metals on microbial physiology may be widespread under anoxic conditions, although the molecular mechanisms remain to be more fully elucidated. PMID:23563938

Bird, Lina J; Coleman, Maureen L; Newman, Dianne K

2013-06-01

207

Male Circumcision Significantly Reduces Prevalence and Load of Genital Anaerobic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Male circumcision reduces female-to-male HIV transmission. Hypothesized mechanisms for this protective effect include decreased HIV target cell recruitment and activation due to changes in the penis microbiome. We compared the coronal sulcus microbiota of men from a group of uncircumcised controls (n = 77) and from a circumcised intervention group (n = 79) at enrollment and year 1 follow-up in a randomized circumcision trial in Rakai, Uganda. We characterized microbiota using16S rRNA gene-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) and pyrosequencing, log response ratio (LRR), Bayesian classification, nonmetric multidimensional scaling (nMDS), and permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PerMANOVA). At baseline, men in both study arms had comparable coronal sulcus microbiota; however, by year 1, circumcision decreased the total bacterial load and reduced microbiota biodiversity. Specifically, the prevalence and absolute abundance of 12 anaerobic bacterial taxa decreased significantly in the circumcised men. While aerobic bacterial taxa also increased postcircumcision, these gains were minor. The reduction in anaerobes may partly account for the effects of circumcision on reduced HIV acquisition. PMID:23592260

Liu, Cindy M.; Hungate, Bruce A.; Tobian, Aaron A. R.; Serwadda, David; Ravel, Jacques; Lester, Richard; Kigozi, Godfrey; Aziz, Maliha; Galiwango, Ronald M.; Nalugoda, Fred; Contente-Cuomo, Tania L.; Wawer, Maria J.; Keim, Paul; Gray, Ronald H.; Price, Lance B.

2013-01-01

208

Antibacterial activity of Brazilian propolis and fractions against oral anaerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propolis collected from a cerrado area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, was subjected to chromatography on silica gel column and to partition between immiscible solvents. Propolis aqueous-ethanolic extract and fractions obtained were tested for inhibitory activity against periodontitis-causing bacteria. All of the assayed bacterium species were susceptible to propolis extract. The two fractionation methodologies yielded fractions which were active against

F. A Santos; E. M. A Bastos; M Uzeda; M. A. R Carvalho; L. M Farias; E. S. A Moreira; F. C Braga

2002-01-01

209

Kinetic analysis of hydrogen production using anaerobic bacteria in reverse micelles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The micellar formation and entrapment of bacteria cell in reverse micelles were investigated by ultraviolet spectrum (UV), fluorescence spectrum, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The hydrogen production in reverse micelles was confirmed. The Gompertz equation was employed to evaluate the hydrogen-producing behavior in reverse micellar systems. Different systems including dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt (AOT)–isooctane, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)–benzene and SDS–carbon

Xiaohua Zhi; Haijun Yang; Zhuliang Yuan; Jianquan Shen

2010-01-01

210

Genes for Uranium Bioremediation in the Anaerobic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Objective A: Electron transfer components necessary for uranium reduction. Objective B: Possible FNR-analog in the sulfate-reducing bacteria. Attempts to isolate FNR or FIKJ analogs from Desuflovibrio through the design of degenerate primers for amplification of portions of the genes has not been successful. In contrast, several amplicons have been generated for the genes encoding the regulators of two-component signal sequences. Since several global regulators fall into this class, we are attempting to obtain sufficient sequence information to indicate what metabolic pathways are affected by the regulators. Cloning and sequencing of two such amplicons has revealed that bona fide two-component regulators are present in Desulfovibrio.

Wall, Judy D.

1999-06-01

211

Genes for Uranium Bioremediation in the Anaerobic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the previous grant period were designed to explore the electron transport pathway employed by the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) for the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV). More specifically experiments were designed to determine whether U(VI) reduction by members of the genus Desulfovibrio was mediated by a unique, dedicated reductase or occurred as a fortuitous reaction with a reductase naturally involved in alternative reduction processes. In addition, the regulation of the hierarchical expression of terminal electron acceptors (reductases) in the SRB was to be examined.

Wall, Judy D.

2001-06-01

212

Cefotetan: a second-generation cephalosporin active against anaerobic bacteria. Committee on Antimicrobial Agents, Canadian Infectious Disease Society.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To offer guidelines for the use of cefotetan, a cephamycin antibiotic, in order to minimize its overprescription. OPTIONS: Clinical practice options considered were treatment of infections with the use of second- and third-generation cephalosporins, carbapenems such as imipenem as well as combination regimens of agents active against anaerobic bacteria, such as metronidazole or clindamycin with an aminoglycoside. OUTCOMES: In order of importance: efficacy, side effects and cost. EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search of articles published between January 1982 and December 1993. In-vitro and pharmacokinetic studies published in recognized peer-reviewed journals that used recognized standard methods with appropriate controls were reviewed. For results of clinical trials, the reviewers emphasized randomized double-blind trials with appropriate controls. VALUES: The Antimicrobial Agents Committee of the Canadian Infectious Disease Society (CIDS) and a recognized expert (M.J.G.) recommended use of cefotetan to prevent and treat infections against which it has proved effective in randomized controlled trials. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: These guidelines should lead to less inappropriate prescribing of cefotetan, with its attendant costs and risk of development of resistant bacteria. RECOMMENDATIONS: Cefotetan could be considered an alternative single agent for prophylaxis of infection in patients undergoing elective bowel surgery. It may be used to treat patients with acute pelvic inflammatory disease and endometritis. VALIDATION: This article was prepared, reviewed and revised by the Committee on Antimicrobial Agents of the CIDS. It was then reviewed by the Council of the CIDS, and any further necessary revisions were made by the chairman of the committee. PMID:8069799

Gribble, M J

1994-01-01

213

Study of the In Vitro Activities of Rifaximin and Comparator Agents against 536 Anaerobic Intestinal Bacteria from the Perspective of Potential Utility in Pathology Involving Bowel Flora?  

PubMed Central

Rifaximin, ampicillin-sulbactam, neomycin, nitazoxanide, teicoplanin, and vancomycin were tested against 536 strains of anaerobic bacteria. The overall MIC of rifaximin at which 50% of strains were inhibited was 0.25 ?g/ml. Ninety percent of the strains tested were inhibited by 256 ?g/ml of rifaximin or less, an activity equivalent to those of teicoplanin and vancomycin but less than those of nitazoxanide and ampicillin-sulbactam. PMID:18955526

Finegold, S. M.; Molitoris, D.; Vaisanen, M.-L.

2009-01-01

214

Removal of sulfate and heavy metals by sulfate reducing bacteria in short-term bench scale upflow anaerobic packed bed reactor runs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mildly acidic metal (Cu, Zn, Ni, Fe, Al and Mg), arsenic and sulfate contaminated waters were treated, over a 14 day period at 25°C, in a bench-scale upflow anaerobic packed bed reactor filled with silica sand and employing a mixed population of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The activity of SRB increased the water pH from ?4.5 to 7.0, and enhanced the

Tony Jong; David L Parry

2003-01-01

215

In Vitro Activity of TD-1792, a Multivalent Glycopeptide-Cephalosporin Antibiotic, against 377 Strains of Anaerobic Bacteria and 34 Strains of Corynebacterium Species  

PubMed Central

TD-1792 is a multivalent glycopeptide-cephalosporin heterodimer antibiotic with potent activity against Gram-positive bacteria. We tested TD-1792 against 377 anaerobes and 34 strains of Corynebacterium species. Against nearly all Gram-positive strains, TD-1792 had an MIC90 of 0.25 ?g/ml and was typically 3 to 7 dilutions more active than vancomycin and daptomycin. PMID:22290981

Citron, Diane M.; Warren, Yumi A.; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.

2012-01-01

216

Differential Effects of Oxygen and Oxidation Reduction Potential on the Multiplication of Three Species of Anaerobic Intestinal Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The sensitivity of three strains of anaerobic intestinal bacteria, Clostridium perfringens, Bacteroides fragilis, and Peptococcus magnus, to the differential effects of oxygen and adverse oxidation-reduction potential was measured. The multiplication of the three organisms was inhibited in the presence of oxygen whether the medium was at a negative oxidation-reduction potential (Eh of -50 mV), poised by the intermittent addition of dithiothreitol, or at a positive oxidation-reduction potential (Eh of near +500 mV). However, when these organisms were cultured in the absence of oxygen, no inhibition was observed, even when the oxidation-reduction potential was maintained at an average Eh of +325 mV by the addition of potassium ferricyanide. When the cultures were aerated, the growth patterns of the three organisms demonstrated different sensitivities to oxygen. P. magnus was found to be the most sensitive. After 2 h of aerobic incubation, no viable organisms could be detected. B. fragilis was intermediately sensitive to oxygen with no viable organisms detected after 5 h of aerobic incubation. C. perfringens was the least sensitive. Under conditions of aerobic incubation, viable organisms survived for 10 h. During the experiments with Clostridium, no spores were observed by spore staining. PMID:173238

Walden, William C.; Hentges, David J.

1975-01-01

217

Growth of Facultatively Heterofermentative Lactobacilli on Starter Cell Suspensions  

PubMed Central

The growth of facultatively heterofermentative lactobacilli (FHL) on cell suspensions of the homofermentative Lactobacillus helveticus was investigated. Osmotic lysis of L. helveticus led to a significant increase of ribose. It decreased steadily in parallel with the growth of FHL, strongly suggesting that the bacteria used ribose as a growth substrate. PMID:10584024

Rapposch, S.; Eliskases-Lechner, F.; Ginzinger, W.

1999-01-01

218

Anaerobic degradation of methylmercaptan and dimethyl sulfide by newly isolated thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria.  

PubMed

The complete oxidation of methylmercaptan (MSH) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) with sulfate or nitrate as electron acceptors was observed in enrichment cultures and dilution series using thermophilic fermentor sludge as the inoculum. Three new strains of thermophilic sulfate reducers were isolated in pure culture (strains MTS5, TDS2, and SDN4). Strain MTS5 grew on MSH and strain TDS2 grew on DMS whereas strain SDN4 grew on either MSH or DMS. The cellular growth yields were 2.57 g (dry weight)/mol of MSH for strain MTS5 and 6.02 g (dry weight)/mol of DMS for strain TDS2. All strains used sulfate, sulfite, or thiosulfate as electron acceptors, but only strain SDN4 used nitrate. DMS and MSH were oxidized to CO2 and sulfide with either sulfate or nitrate as the electron acceptor. Sulfate was stoichiometrically reduced to sulfide while nitrate was reduced to ammonium. All strains were motile rods, required biotin for growth, lacked desulfoviridin, had DNA with G+C contents of 48 to 57 mol% and probably belonged to the genus Desulfotomaculum. This is the first report of the oxidation of MSH and DMS by pure cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria. PMID:8074524

Tanimoto, Y; Bak, F

1994-07-01

219

Activity of Telithromycin (HMR 3647) against Anaerobic Bacteria Compared to Those of Eight Other Agents by Time-Kill Methodology†  

PubMed Central

Time-kill studies examined the activities of telithromycin (HMR 3647), erythromycin A, azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, clindamycin, pristinamycin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and metronidazole against 11 gram-positive and gram-negative anaerobic bacteria. Time-kill studies were carried out with the addition of Oxyrase in order to prevent the introduction of CO2. Macrolide-azalide-ketolide MICs were 0.004 to 32.0 ?g/ml. Of the latter group, telithromycin had the lowest MICs, especially against non-Bacteroides fragilis group strains, followed by azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin A, and roxithromycin. Clindamycin was active (MIC ? 2.0 ?g/ml) against all anaerobes except Peptostreptococcus magnus and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, while pristinamycin MICs were 0.06 to 4.0 ?g/ml. Amoxicillin-clavulanate had MICs of ?1.0 ?g/ml, while metronidazole was active (MICs, 0.03 to 2.0 ?g/ml) against all except Propionibacterium acnes. After 48 h at twice the MIC, telithromycin was bactericidal (?99.9% killing) against 6 strains, with 99% killing of 9 strains and 90% killing of 10 strains. After 24 h at twice the MIC, 90, 99, and 99.9% killing of nine, six, and three strains, respectively, occurred. Lower rates of killing were seen at earlier times. Similar kill kinetics relative to the MIC were seen with other macrolides. After 48 h at the MIC, clindamycin was bactericidal against 8 strains, with 99 and 90% killing of 9 and 10 strains, respectively. After 24 h, 90% killing of 10 strains occurred at the MIC. The kinetics of clindamycin were similar to those of pristinamycin. After 48 h at the MIC, amoxicillin-clavulanate showed 99.9% killing of seven strains, with 99% killing of eight strains and 90% killing of nine strains. At four times the MIC, metronidazole was bactericidal against 8 of 10 strains tested after 48 h and against all 10 strains after 24 h; after 12 h, 99% killing of all 10 strains occurred. PMID:10428930

Credito, Kim L.; Ednie, Lois M.; Jacobs, Michael R.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

1999-01-01

220

Activity of telithromycin (HMR 3647) against anaerobic bacteria compared to those of eight other agents by time-kill methodology.  

PubMed

Time-kill studies examined the activities of telithromycin (HMR 3647), erythromycin A, azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, clindamycin, pristinamycin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and metronidazole against 11 gram-positive and gram-negative anaerobic bacteria. Time-kill studies were carried out with the addition of Oxyrase in order to prevent the introduction of CO(2). Macrolide-azalide-ketolide MICs were 0.004 to 32.0 microg/ml. Of the latter group, telithromycin had the lowest MICs, especially against non-Bacteroides fragilis group strains, followed by azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin A, and roxithromycin. Clindamycin was active (MIC anaerobes except Peptostreptococcus magnus and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, while pristinamycin MICs were 0.06 to 4.0 microg/ml. Amoxicillin-clavulanate had MICs of /=99.9% killing) against 6 strains, with 99% killing of 9 strains and 90% killing of 10 strains. After 24 h at twice the MIC, 90, 99, and 99.9% killing of nine, six, and three strains, respectively, occurred. Lower rates of killing were seen at earlier times. Similar kill kinetics relative to the MIC were seen with other macrolides. After 48 h at the MIC, clindamycin was bactericidal against 8 strains, with 99 and 90% killing of 9 and 10 strains, respectively. After 24 h, 90% killing of 10 strains occurred at the MIC. The kinetics of clindamycin were similar to those of pristinamycin. After 48 h at the MIC, amoxicillin-clavulanate showed 99.9% killing of seven strains, with 99% killing of eight strains and 90% killing of nine strains. At four times the MIC, metronidazole was bactericidal against 8 of 10 strains tested after 48 h and against all 10 strains after 24 h; after 12 h, 99% killing of all 10 strains occurred. PMID:10428930

Credito, K L; Ednie, L M; Jacobs, M R; Appelbaum, P C

1999-08-01

221

Aerobic and anaerobic Mg-protoporphyrin monomethyl ester cyclases in purple bacteria: a strategy adopted to bypass the repressive oxygen control system.  

PubMed

Two different mechanisms for Mg-protoporphyrin monomethyl ester (MgPMe) cyclization are shown to coexist in Rubrivivax gelatinosus and are proposed to be conserved in all facultative aerobic phototrophs: an anaerobic mechanism active under photosynthesis or low oxygenation, and an aerobic mechanism active only under high oxygenation conditions. This was confirmed by analyzing the bacteriochlorophyll accumulation in the wild type and in three mutant strains grown under low or high aeration. A mutant lacking the acsF gene is photosynthetic, exhibits normal bacteriochlorophyll accumulation under low oxygenation and anaerobiosis, and accumulates MgPMe under high oxygenation. The photosynthesis-deficient bchE mutant produces bacteriochlorophyll only under high oxygenation and accumulates MgPMe under low oxygenation and anaerobiosis. The double knockout mutant is devoid of photosystem and accumulates MgPMe under both conditions indicating the involvement of the two enzymes at the same step of the biosynthesis pathway. Oxygen-mediated expression of bchE was studied in the wild type and in a regulatory mutant. The reverse transcriptase-PCR and the bchE promoter activity results demonstrate that the expression of the bchE gene is oxygen-independent and suggest that it is rather the enzyme activity that should be oxygen-sensitive. No obvious sequence similarities were found between oxygen-dependent AcsF and the oxygen-independent anaerobic Mg-protoporphyrin monomethylester cyclase (BchE) enzymes. However, common to all BchE proteins is the conserved CXXX-CXXC sequence. This motif is essential for 4Fe-4S cluster formation in many anaerobic enzymes. Expression and purification of BchE were achieved, and the UV-visible spectral analyses confirmed the presence of an active 4Fe-4S cluster in this protein. The use of different classes of enzymes catalyzing the same reaction under different oxygen growth conditions appears to be a common feature of different biosynthetic pathways, and the benefit of possessing both aerobic and anaerobic systems is discussed. PMID:14617630

Ouchane, Soufian; Steunou, Anne-Soisig; Picaud, Martine; Astier, Chantal

2004-02-20

222

Thermotoga profunda sp. nov. and Thermotoga caldifontis sp. nov., anaerobic thermophilic bacteria isolated from terrestrial hot springs.  

PubMed

Two thermophilic, strictly anaerobic, Gram-negative bacteria, designated strains AZM34c06(T) and AZM44c09(T), were isolated from terrestrial hot springs in Japan. The optimum growth conditions for strain AZM34c06(T) were 60 °C, pH 7.4 and 0% additional NaCl, and those for strain AZM44c09(T) were 70 °C, pH 7.4 and 0% additional NaCl. Complete genome sequencing was performed for both strains, revealing genome sizes of 2.19 Mbp (AZM34c06(T)) and 2.01 Mbp (AZM44c09(T)). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and the concatenated predicted amino acid sequences of 33 ribosomal proteins showed that both strains belonged to the genus Thermotoga. The closest relatives of strains AZM34c06(T) and AZM44c09(T) were the type strains of Thermotoga lettingae (96.0% similarity based on the 16S rRNA gene and 84.1% similarity based on ribosomal proteins) and Thermotoga hypogea (98.6 and 92.7% similarity), respectively. Using blast, the average nucleotide identity was 70.4-70.5% when comparing strain AZM34c06(T) and T. lettingae TMO(T) and 76.6% when comparing strain AZM44c09(T) and T. hypogea NBRC 106472(T). Both values are far below the 95% threshold value for species delineation. In view of these data, we propose the inclusion of the two isolates in the genus Thermotoga within two novel species, Thermotoga profunda sp. nov. (type strain AZM34c06(T)?=?NBRC 106115(T)?=?DSM 23275(T)) and Thermotoga caldifontis sp. nov. (type strain AZM44c09(T)?=?NBRC 106116(T)?=?DSM 23272(T)). PMID:24676729

Mori, Koji; Yamazoe, Atsushi; Hosoyama, Akira; Ohji, Shoko; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Ken-ichiro

2014-06-01

223

Thermostable lipases from the extreme thermophilic anaerobic bacteria Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus SOL1 and Caldanaerobacter subterraneus subsp. tengcongensis.  

PubMed

Two novel genes encoding for heat and solvent stable lipases from strictly anaerobic extreme thermophilic bacteria Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus (LipTth) and Caldanaerobacter subterraneus subsp. tengcongensis (LipCst) were successfully cloned and expressed in E. coli. Recombinant proteins were purified to homogeneity by heat precipitation, hydrophobic interaction, and gel filtration chromatography. Unlike the enzymes from mesophile counterparts, enzymatic activity was measured at a broad temperature and pH range, between 40 and 90 degrees C and between pH 6.5 and 10; the half-life of the enzymes at 75 degrees C and pH 8.0 was 48 h. Inhibition was observed with 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride and phenylmethylsulfonylfluorid indicating that serine and thiol groups play a role in the active site of the enzymes. Gene sequence comparisons indicated very low identity to already described lipases from mesophilic and psychrophilic microorganisms. By optimal cultivation of E. coli Tuner (DE3) cells in 2-l bioreactors, a massive production of the recombinant lipases was achieved (53-2200 U/l) Unlike known lipases, the purified robust proteins are resistant against a large number of organic solvents (up to 99%) and detergents, and show activity toward a broad range of substrates, including triacylglycerols, monoacylglycerols, esters of secondary alcohols, and p-nitrophenyl esters. Furthermore, the enzyme from T. thermohydrosulfuricus is suitable for the production of optically pure compounds since it is highly S-stereoselective toward esters of secondary alcohols. The observed E values for but-3-yn-2-ol butyrate and but-3-yn-2-ol acetate of 21 and 16, respectively, make these enzymes ideal candidates for kinetic resolution of synthetically useful compounds. PMID:19579003

Royter, Marina; Schmidt, M; Elend, C; Höbenreich, H; Schäfer, T; Bornscheuer, U T; Antranikian, G

2009-09-01

224

Evaluation of enrichment, storage, and age of blood agar medium in relation to its ability to support growth of anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

By measuring the colony size of a variety of anaerobic bacteria isolated from clinical specimens, an evaluation was made of the benefits derived from the addition of several enrichments to blood agar medium commonly used for the growth of anaerobes. Similar methods were used to study the effects of various storage conditions and age of the medium. The results were compared with those obtained on freshly prepared and enriched blood agar plates as well as commercially available blood agar plates. Freshly prepared and enriched blood agar was found to give substantially larger colonies than could be grown on commercially obtained blood agar plates when both were inoculated and incubated under identical conditions. Storage of plating media under CO2 for periods of up to 72 h had only a minor effect on the growth of the anaerobic bacteria studied, but longer periods of storage under CO2 resulted in a less efficient plating medium. Nonenriched brain heart infusion (BHI) was found to be a better basal medium than Trypticase soy agar (TSA) medium. Colony size on fully enriched BHI blood agar plates was greater than nonenriched BHI greater than nonenriched TSA greater than commercially prepared nonenriched TSA plates. The data suggest that freshness of the plates may be as important as using rich media. PMID:11226

Hanson, C W; Martin, W J

1976-11-01

225

Bio-beads with immobilized anaerobic bacteria, zero-valent iron, and active carbon for the removal of trichloroethane from groundwater.  

PubMed

Chlorinated hydrocarbons are the most common organic pollutants in groundwater systems worldwide. In this study, we developed bio-beads with immobilized anaerobic bacteria, zero-valent iron (ZVI), and activated carbon (AC) powder and evaluated their efficacy in removing 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) from groundwater. Bio-beads were produced by polyvinyl alcohol, alginate, and AC powder. We found that the concentration of AC powder used significantly affected the mechanical properties of immobilized bio-beads and that 1.0 % (w/v) was the optimal concentration. The bio-beads effectively degraded TCA (160 mg L(-1)) in the anaerobic medium and could be reused up to six times. The TCA degradation rate of bio-beads was 1.5 and 2.3 times greater, respectively, than ZVI + AC treatment or microbes + AC treatment. Measuring FeS produced by microbial reactions indicated that TCA removal occurred via FeS-catalyzed dechlorination. Analysis of clonal libraries derived from bio-beads demonstrated that the dominant species in the community were Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, which may contribute to the long-term stability of ZVI reactivity during TCA dechlorination. This study shows that the combined use of immobilized anaerobic bacteria, ZVI, and AC in bio-beads is effective and practical for TCA dechlorination and suggests they may be applicable towards developing a groundwater treatment system for the removal of TCA. PMID:24906831

Zhou, Ya-Zhen; Yang, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Li; Pan, Yue-Qing; Li, Hui; Zhou, Dong; Liu, Yong-Di; Wang, Ping; Gu, Ji-Dong; Lu, Qiang; Qiu, Yue-Feng; Lin, Kuang-Fei

2014-10-01

226

Controlled Clinical Comparison of BACTEC Plus Anaerobic/F to Standard Anaerobic/F as the Anaerobic Companion Bottle to Plus Aerobic/F Medium for Culturing Blood from Adults  

PubMed Central

To determine the optimal anaerobic companion bottle to pair with BACTEC Plus Aerobic/F medium for recovery of pathogenic microorganisms from adult patients with bacteremia and fungemia, we compared Plus Anaerobic/F bottles with Standard Anaerobic/F bottles, each of which was filled with 4 to 6 ml of blood. The two bottles were paired with a Plus Aerobic/F bottle filled with 8 to 12 ml of blood. A total of 14,011 blood culture sets were obtained. Of these, 11,583 sets were received with all three bottles filled adequately and 12,257 were received with both anaerobic bottles filled adequately. Of 818 clinically important isolates detected in one or both adequately filled anaerobic bottles, significantly more staphylococci (P < 0.001), streptococci (P < 0.005), Escherichia coli isolates (P < 0.02), Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates (P < 0.005), and all microorganisms combined (P < 0.001) were detected in Plus Anaerobic/F bottles. In contrast, significantly more anaerobic gram-negative bacilli were detected in Standard Anaerobic/F bottles (P < 0.05). Of 397 unimicrobial episodes of septicemia, 354 were detected with both pairs, 30 were detected with Plus Aerobic/F–Plus Anaerobic/F pairs only, and 13 were detected with Plus Aerobic/F–Standard Anaerobic/F pairs only (P < 0.05). Significantly more episodes of bacteremia caused by members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (P < 0.05) and aerobic and facultative gram-positive bacteria (P < 0.025) were detected with Plus Anaerobic/F bottles only. In a paired-bottle analysis, 810 of 950 isolates were recovered from both pairs, 90 were recovered from Plus Aerobic/F–Plus Anaerobic/F pairs only, and 50 were recovered from Plus Aerobic/F–Standard Anaerobic/F pairs only (P < 0.001). Paired Plus Aerobic/F–Plus Anaerobic/F bottles yielded significantly more staphylococci (P < 0.001), streptococci (P < 0.05), and members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (P <0.001). We conclude that Plus Anaerobic/F bottles detect more microorganisms and episodes of bacteremia and fungemia than Standard Anaerobic/F bottles as companion bottles to Plus Aerobic/F bottles in the BACTEC 9240 blood culture system. PMID:11230415

Wilson, Michael L.; Mirrett, Stanley; Meredith, Frances T.; Weinstein, Melvin P.; Scotto, Vincenzo; Reller, L. Barth

2001-01-01

227

Arsenic, Anaerobes, and Autotrophy.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

That microbes have resistance to the toxic arsenic oxyanions arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] has been recognized for some time. More recently it was shown that certain prokaryotes can demonstrate As- dependent growth by conserving the energy gained from the aerobic oxidation of As(III) to As(V), or from the reduction of As(V) to As(III) under anaerobic conditions. During the course of our field studies of two alkaline, hypersaline soda lakes (Mono Lake and Searles Lake, CA) we have discovered several new anaerobic chemo- and photo-autotrophic bacteria that can center their energy gain around the redox reactions between As(III) and As(V). Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii, isolated from the water column of Mono Lake is a nitrate-respiring, As(III)-oxidizing chemoautotroph of the gamma-proteobacteria that has a highly flexible metabolism. It can function either as a facultative anaerobe or as a chemo-autotroph, or as a heterotroph (Hoeft et al., 2007). In contrast, strain MLMS-1 of the delta-proteobacteria was also isolated from Mono Lake, but to date is the first example of an obligate As(V)-respirer that is also an obligate chemo-autotroph, gaining its energy via the oxidation of sulfide to sulfate (Hoeft et al., 2004). Strain SLAS-1, isolated from salt-saturated Searles Lake is a member of the Halananerobiales, and can either grow as a heterotroph (lactate e-donor) or chemo- autotroph (sulfide e-donor) while respiring As(V). The fact that it can achieve this feat at salt-saturation (~ 340 g/L) makes it a true extremophile (Oremland et. al., 2005). Finally, strain PHS-1 isolated from a hot spring on Paoha island in Mono Lake is the first example of a photosynthetic bacterium of the gamma- proteobacteria able to link its growth to As(III)-dependent anoxygenic photosynthesis (Kulp et al., 2008). These novel microbes give us new insights into the evolution of arsenic-based metabolism and their role in the biogeochemical cycling of this toxic element. Hoeft, S.E., et al. 2007. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57: 514 - 512. Hoeft, S.E, et al. 2004. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70: 2741 - 2747. Oremland, R.S., et al. 2005. Science 308: 1305 - 1308. Kulp, T.R. et al. 2008. Science 321: 967 - 970.

Oremland, R. S.

2008-12-01

228

The anaerobic life of Bacillus subtilis: Cloning of the genes encoding the respiratory nitrate reductase system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis, generally regarded as an aerobe, grows under strict anaerobic conditions using nitrate as an electron acceptor and should be designated as a facultative anaerobe. Growth experiments demonstrated a lag phase of 24 to 36 hours after the shift from aerobic, to the onset of anaerobic respiratory growth. Anaerobically adapted cells grew without further lag

Tamara Hoffmann; Barbara Troup; Alexandra Szabo; Christoph Hungerer; Dieter Jahn

1995-01-01

229

The performance of an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor treating domestic sewage colonized by anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are few reports on morphological characterization of microbial population colonizing anaerobic bioreactors and the aim of this work was to access such variable in an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor treating the University of Sao Paulo (Sao Carlos city, Brazil) domestic sewage. This pilot-scale reactor (1.2m3) has been treating 0.65m3 of liquid waste under cycles of 8h. The ASBBR

A. Sarti; E. Pozzi; F. A. Chinalia; M. Zaiat; E. Foresti

2006-01-01

230

Anaerobic degradation of alkylbenzenes in crude oil. II. Changes of oil composition upon incubation with sulfate-reducing and denitrifying bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Various alkylbenzenes in crude oils are degradable by several newly isolated sulfate-reducing and nitrate-reducing bacteria under strictly anoxic conditions. A mesophilic enrichment culture consisting of at least two different types of sulfate-reducing bacteria, depletes toluene, o- and m-xylene, o- and m-ethyltoluene, m-propyltoluene and m-cymene in crude oils at different rates. Experiments with different oils reveal that in general the degradation efficiency seems to depend not very strongly on the composition of the incubated oils. Results of our experiments with nitrate-reducing bacteria show that at least toluene, ethyltoluene and m-, p- and o-xylene in crude oils are biodegradable under denitrifying conditions. All organisms isolated so far exhibit a high substrate specifity. Up to now no indications for the alteration of other oil fractions, i.e. n-alkanes, biomarkers and PAH`s, could be observed with any of the bacteria used in this study. The possible role of alkylbenzene-degrading anaerobic bacteria in biodegradation of petroleums in natural environments will be discussed.

Wilkes, H.; Willsch, H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Rabus, R.; Aeckersberg, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Marine Mikrobiologie, Bremen (Germany)] [and others

1996-10-01

231

Linking Ultrastructure and Function in Four Genera of Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria: Cell Plan, Glycogen Storage, and Localization of Cytochrome c Proteins?  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is an ecologically and industrially important process and is performed by a clade of deeply branching Planctomycetes. Anammox bacteria possess an intracytoplasmic membrane-bounded organelle, the anammoxosome. In the present study, the ultrastructures of four different genera of anammox bacteria were compared with transmission electron microscopy and electron tomography. The four anammox genera shared a common cell plan and contained glycogen granules. Differences between the four genera included cell size (from 800 to 1,100 nm in diameter), presence or absence of cytoplasmic particles, and presence or absence of pilus-like appendages. Furthermore, cytochrome c proteins were detected exclusively inside the anammoxosome. This detection provides further support for the hypothesis that this organelle is the locus of anammox catabolism. PMID:17993524

van Niftrik, Laura; Geerts, Willie J. C.; van Donselaar, Elly G.; Humbel, Bruno M.; Webb, Richard I.; Fuerst, John A.; Verkleij, Arie J.; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Strous, Marc

2008-01-01

232

Ceftaroline plus avibactam demonstrates bactericidal activity against pathogenic anaerobic bacteria in a one-compartment in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model.  

PubMed

Anaerobic pathogens are often associated with polymicrobial infections, such as diabetic foot infections. Patients with these infections are often treated with broad-spectrum, multidrug therapies targeting resistant Gram-positive bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, as well as Gram-negative bacteria and anaerobes. The broad-spectrum, non-beta-lactam, beta-lactamase inhibitor avibactam has been combined with ceftaroline and may provide a single-product alternative for complicated polymicrobial infections. We compared the activity of ceftaroline-avibactam (CPA) to that of ertapenem (ERT) against common anaerobic pathogens in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model. Simulations of doses of ceftaroline-fosamil at 600 mg every 8 h (q8h) (maximum free drug concentration [fCmax], 17.04 mg/liter, and half-life [t1/2], 2.66 h) plus avibactam at 600 mg q8h (fCmax, 11.72 mg/liter, and t1/2, 1.8 h) and of ertapenem at 1 g q24h (fCmax, 13 mg/liter, and t1/2, 4 h) were evaluated against two strains of Bacteroides fragilis, one strain of Prevotella bivia, and one strain of Finegoldia magna in an anaerobic one-compartment in vitro PK/PD model over 72 h with a starting inoculum of ?8 log10 CFU/ml. Bactericidal activity was defined as a reduction of ?3 log10 CFU/ml from the starting inoculum. Both CPA and ERT were bactericidal against all four strains. CPA demonstrated improved activity against Bacteroides strains compared to that of ERT but had similar activity against Finegoldia magna and P. bivia, although modest regrowth was observed with CPA against P. bivia. No resistance emerged from any of the models. The pharmacokinetics achieved were 92 to 105% of the targets. CPA has potent in vitro activity against common anaerobic pathogens at clinically relevant drug exposures and may be a suitable single product for the management of complicated polymicrobial infections. PMID:24217692

Werth, Brian J; Rybak, Michael J

2014-01-01

233

Ceftaroline plus Avibactam Demonstrates Bactericidal Activity against Pathogenic Anaerobic Bacteria in a One-Compartment In Vitro Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic pathogens are often associated with polymicrobial infections, such as diabetic foot infections. Patients with these infections are often treated with broad-spectrum, multidrug therapies targeting resistant Gram-positive bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, as well as Gram-negative bacteria and anaerobes. The broad-spectrum, non-beta-lactam, beta-lactamase inhibitor avibactam has been combined with ceftaroline and may provide a single-product alternative for complicated polymicrobial infections. We compared the activity of ceftaroline-avibactam (CPA) to that of ertapenem (ERT) against common anaerobic pathogens in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model. Simulations of doses of ceftaroline-fosamil at 600 mg every 8 h (q8h) (maximum free drug concentration [fCmax], 17.04 mg/liter, and half-life [t1/2], 2.66 h) plus avibactam at 600 mg q8h (fCmax, 11.72 mg/liter, and t1/2, 1.8 h) and of ertapenem at 1 g q24h (fCmax, 13 mg/liter, and t1/2, 4 h) were evaluated against two strains of Bacteroides fragilis, one strain of Prevotella bivia, and one strain of Finegoldia magna in an anaerobic one-compartment in vitro PK/PD model over 72 h with a starting inoculum of ?8 log10 CFU/ml. Bactericidal activity was defined as a reduction of ?3 log10 CFU/ml from the starting inoculum. Both CPA and ERT were bactericidal against all four strains. CPA demonstrated improved activity against Bacteroides strains compared to that of ERT but had similar activity against Finegoldia magna and P. bivia, although modest regrowth was observed with CPA against P. bivia. No resistance emerged from any of the models. The pharmacokinetics achieved were 92 to 105% of the targets. CPA has potent in vitro activity against common anaerobic pathogens at clinically relevant drug exposures and may be a suitable single product for the management of complicated polymicrobial infections. PMID:24217692

Werth, Brian J.

2014-01-01

234

Anaerobic degradation and toxicity of commercial cationic surfactants in anaerobic screening tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic biodegradability and toxicity on anaerobic bacteria of di(hydrogenated tallow) dimethyl ammonium chloride (DHTDMAC) and two esterquats have been investigated. A batch test system containing municipal digester solids as a source of anaerobic bacteria, based on the method proposed by the ECETOC, has been applied. To evaluate the potential toxicity of such surfactants on anaerobic sludge, a co-substrate, an easily

M. T. Garc??a; E. Campos; J. Sánchez-Leal; I. Ribosa

2000-01-01

235

Histamine-producing bacteria in decomposing skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis).  

PubMed

Spoilage in skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) was studied under controlled conditions by incubating whole, fresh fish in seawater at 38 degrees C, the optimum temperature for histamine formation. Bacterial isolates were obtained from the loin tissue of a decomposing tuna containing 134 mg of histamine per 100 g and a total anaerobic count of 3.5 x 10(5)/g after incubation for 24 h. Over 92% of the 134 isolates obtained were facultatively or obligately anaerobic bacteria. Eighteen isolates produced histamine in culture media containing histidine, and these were identified as Clostridium perfringens, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Vibrio alginolyticus. Histidine decarboxylase activity of several isolates was measured in a tuna broth medium and with resting cells suspended in a buffered histidine solution. PMID:6289747

Yoshinaga, D H; Frank, H A

1982-08-01

236

Effect of Carbon Dioxide on Growth of Meat Spoilage Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The ability of CO2 to inhibit respiration and growth of representative strains of seven species of meat spoilage bacteria was examined. Enterobacter and Microbacterium thermosphactum were unaffected by CO2. Both respiration and growth of the other species were inhibited. With four of the species (fluorescent and nonfluorescent Pseudomonas, Alteromonas putrefaciens, and Yersinia enterocolitica), the inhibition pattern in a complex medium was similar, and inhibition was incomplete and reached a maximum level at comparatively low concentrations of CO2. With Acinetobacter, inhibition continued to increase with increasing CO2 concentration. The degree of inhibition with a constant concentration of CO2 in solution increased with decreasing temperature for all CO2-susceptible species except the nonfluorescent Pseudomonas. Anaerobic growth of CO2-susceptible facultative anaerobes was unaffected by CO2. PMID:16345503

Gill, C. O.; Tan, K. H.

1980-01-01

237

Effect of carbon dioxide on growth of meat spoilage bacteria.  

PubMed

The ability of CO(2) to inhibit respiration and growth of representative strains of seven species of meat spoilage bacteria was examined. Enterobacter and Microbacterium thermosphactum were unaffected by CO(2). Both respiration and growth of the other species were inhibited. With four of the species (fluorescent and nonfluorescent Pseudomonas, Alteromonas putrefaciens, and Yersinia enterocolitica), the inhibition pattern in a complex medium was similar, and inhibition was incomplete and reached a maximum level at comparatively low concentrations of CO(2). With Acinetobacter, inhibition continued to increase with increasing CO(2) concentration. The degree of inhibition with a constant concentration of CO(2) in solution increased with decreasing temperature for all CO(2)-susceptible species except the nonfluorescent Pseudomonas. Anaerobic growth of CO(2)-susceptible facultative anaerobes was unaffected by CO(2). PMID:16345503

Gill, C O; Tan, K H

1980-02-01

238

Facult des sciences sociales et politiques FacultY oF social and political sciences  

E-print Network

Faculté des sciences sociales et politiques FacultY oF social and political sciences Vous êtesUxelles (Ulb) Faculté des Sciences sociales et politiques (FSP) Faculty of Social and Political Sciences INFORMATION Avec près de 3000 étudiants, la Faculté des Sciences sociales et politiques (FSP) est l'une des

Cerf, Nicolas

239

[Facultative and obligate aerobic methylobacteria synthesize cytokinins].  

PubMed

The presence and expression of genes controlling the synthesis and secretion of cytokinins by the pink-pigmented facultative methylotroph Methylobacterium mesophilicum VKM B-2143 with the serine pathway and nonpigmented obligate methylotroph Methylovorus mays VKM B-2221 with the ribulose monophosphate pathway of C1 metabolism were shown using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription-PCR methods. The presence of the corresponding mRNA in M. mesophilicum cells grown on methanol or succinate suggests that the expression of these genes is constitutive. The cytokinin activity of culture liquid and its fractions was determined by a biotest with Amarantus caudatus L. seedlings. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis, we detected zeatin (riboside) in the culture liquid of both bacteria studied. The data obtained show that the aerobic methylobacteria are phytosymbionts that are able to utilize the single- and polycarbon compounds secreted by symbiotic plants and to synthesize cytokinins. PMID:11195573

Ivanova, E G; Doronina, N V; Shepeliakovskaia, A O; Laman, A G; Brovko, F A; Trotsenko, Iu A

2000-01-01

240

Bone and joint infections due to anaerobic bacteria: an analysis of 61 cases and review of the literature.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of anaerobic bone and joint infections (BJI) were underestimated before the advent of molecular identification and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). We report 61 cases of anaerobic infections based on our 4-year experience with the management of BJI. A total of 75% of cases were post-surgical infections, associated with osteosynthesis devices (65%). Early infections occurred in 27% of cases, delayed infections in 17.5% of cases, and late infections in 55% of cases. We recorded 36 species of 93 anaerobic strains using MALDI-TOF MS (91) and molecular methods (2). We identified 20 strains of Propionibacterium acnes, 13 of Finegoldia magna, six of Peptoniphilus asaccharolyticus, and six of P. harei. Polymicrobial infections occurred in 50 cases. Surgical treatment was performed in 93.5% of cases. The antibiotic treatments included amoxicillin (30%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (16%), metronidazole (30%), and clindamycin (26%). Hyperbaric oxygen therapy was used in 17 cases (28%). The relapse rate (27%) was associated with lower limbs localization (p?=?0.001). P. acnes BJI was associated with shoulder (p?=?0.019), vertebra (p?=?0.021), and head flap localization (p?=?0.011), and none of these cases relapsed (p?=?0.007). F. magna BJI was associated with ankle localization (p?=?0.014). Anaerobic BJI is typically considered as a post-surgical polymicrobial infection, and the management of this infection combines surgical and medical treatments. MALDI-TOF MS and molecular identification have improved diagnosis. Thus, physicians should be aware of the polymicrobial nature of anaerobic BJI to establish immediate broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment during the post-surgical period until accurate microbiological results have been obtained. PMID:24577953

Walter, G; Vernier, M; Pinelli, P O; Million, M; Coulange, M; Seng, P; Stein, A

2014-08-01

241

On strict and facultative biennials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most so-called biennial plants may flower in their second growing season, but usually take longer in the field. Work reported here and in four recent papers on six different species has identified natural populations of strictly biennial plants, which flower only in their second year. The strict biennials and facultative biennials seem to form two distinct groups. All six strict

David Kelly

1985-01-01

242

Effects of glycerol on the growth, adhesion, and cellulolytic activity of rumen cellulolytic bacteria and anaerobic fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of glycerol on the growth, adhesion, and cellulolytic activity of two rumen cellulolytic bacterial species,Ruminococcus flavefaciens andFibrobacter succinogenes subsp.succinogenes, and of an anaerobic fungal species,Neocallimastix frontalis, was studied. At low concentrations (0.1–1%), glycerol had no effect on the growth, adhesion, and cellulolytic activity of the two bacterial species. However, at a concentration of 5%, it greatly inhibited their

Velérie Roger; Gérard Fonty; Cécile Andre; Philippe Gouet

1992-01-01

243

Properties of Desulfovibrio carbinolicus sp. nov. and other sulfate-reducing bacteria isolated from an anaerobic-purification plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several sulfate-reducing microorganisms were isolated from an anaerobic-purification plant. Four strains were classified as Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfovibrio sapovorans, Desulfobulbus propionicus, and Desulfovibrio sp. The D. sapovorans strain contained poly-..beta..-hydroxybutyrate granules and seemed to form extracellular vesicles. A fifth isolate, Desulfovibrio sp. strain EDK82, was a gram-negative, non-spore-forming, nonmotile, curved organism. It was able to oxidize several substrates, including methanol. Sulfate,

H. J. Nanninga; J. C. Gottschal

1987-01-01

244

Routine analysis of short-chain fatty acids for anaerobic bacteria identification using capillary electrophoresis and indirect ultraviolet detection.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of anaerobes can be difficult to perform, using classical biochemical tests. Characterization of metabolic end-products such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) was often used because of their reproducible biosynthesis. Despite this, SCFA are difficult to study using gas chromatography, due to their high volatility. Furthermore, the treatment of the samples are long and fastidious. Capillary electrophoresis and indirect UV detection (CE-indirect UV) is a well-known analytical method to study inorganic or organic anions. In this work, we validate the analysis of SCFA using CE-indirect UV detection. To do this, we studied the culture media of 98 anaerobic strains for the detection and quantitation of the following acids: succinic, pyruvic, acetic, lactic, propionic, 2-hydroxybutyric, butyric, 2-hydroxyvaleric, isovaleric, isocaproic, and 3-phenylpropionic. We verified that the CE-indirect UV detection analysis of SCFA for taxonomical data can be used as a mean for rapid identification for the study of anaerobes. PMID:10839136

Arellano, M; Jomard, P; El Kaddouri, S; Roques, C; Nepveu, F; Couderc, F

2000-04-28

245

Comparative In Vitro Activities of LFF571 against Clostridium difficile and 630 Other Intestinal Strains of Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activities of LFF571, a novel analog of GE2270A that inhibits bacterial growth by binding with high affinity for protein synthesis elongation factor Tu, fidaxomicin, and 10 other antimicrobial agents were determined against 50 strains of Clostridium difficile and 630 other anaerobic and aerobic organisms of intestinal origin. LFF571 possesses potent activity against C. difficile and most other Gram-positive anaerobes (MIC90, ?0.25 ?g/ml), with the exception of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. The MIC90s for aerobes, including enterococci, Staphylococcus aureus (as well as methicillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA] isolates), Streptococcus pyogenes, and other streptococci were 0.06, 0.125, 2, and 8 ?g/ml, respectively. Comparatively, fidaxomicin showed variable activity against Gram-positive organisms: MIC90s against C. difficile, Clostridium perfringens, and Bifidobacterium spp. were 0.5, ?0.015, and 0.125 ?g/ml, respectively, but >32 ?g/ml against Clostridium ramosum and Clostridium innocuum. MIC90 for S. pyogenes and other streptococci was 16 and >32 ?g/ml, respectively. LFF571 and fidaxomicin were generally less active against Gram-negative anaerobes. PMID:22290948

Tyrrell, Kerin L.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.

2012-01-01

246

Indigenous cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacteria enhanced rapid co-composting of lignocellulose oil palm empty fruit bunch with palm oil mill effluent anaerobic sludge.  

PubMed

The composting of lignocellulosic oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) with continuous addition of palm oil mill (POME) anaerobic sludge which contained nutrients and indigenous microbes was studied. In comparison to the conventional OPEFB composting which took 60-90 days, the rapid composting in this study can be completed in 40 days with final C/N ratio of 12.4 and nitrogen (2.5%), phosphorus (1.4%), and potassium (2.8%), respectively. Twenty-seven cellulolytic bacterial strains of which 23 strains were closely related to Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus firmus, Thermobifida fusca, Thermomonospora spp., Cellulomonas sp., Ureibacillus thermosphaericus, Paenibacillus barengoltzii, Paenibacillus campinasensis, Geobacillus thermodenitrificans, Pseudoxanthomonas byssovorax which were known as lignocellulose degrading bacteria and commonly involved in lignocellulose degradation. Four isolated strains related to Exiguobacterium acetylicum and Rhizobium sp., with cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic activities. The rapid composting period achieved in this study can thus be attributed to the naturally occurring cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic strains identified. PMID:24012093

Zainudin, Mohd Huzairi Mohd; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Tokura, Mitsunori; Shirai, Yoshihito

2013-11-01

247

REDUCTION AND IMMOBILIZATION OF RADIONUCLIDES AND TOXIC METAL IONS USING COMBINED ZERO VALENT IRON AND ANAEROBIC BACTERIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Large groundwater plumes contaminated with toxic metal ions, including radionuclides, exist at several DOE facilities. Previous research indicated that both zero valent iron and sulfate reducing bacteria can yield significant decreases in concentrations of redox sensitive metals ...

248

Metabolic versatility of toluene-degrading, iron-reducing bacteria in tidal flat sediment, characterized by stable isotope probing-based metagenomic analysis.  

PubMed

DNA stable isotope probing and metagenomic sequencing were used to assess the metabolic potential of iron-reducing bacteria involved in anaerobic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation in oil spill-affected tidal flats. In a microcosm experiment, (13) C-toluene was degraded with the simultaneous reduction of Fe(III)-NTA, which was also verified by quasi-stoichiometric (13) C-CO2 release. The metabolic potential of the dominant member affiliated with the genus Desulfuromonas in the heavy DNA fraction was inferred using assembled scaffolds (designated TF genome, 4.40 Mbp with 58.8 GC mol%), which were obtained by Illumina sequencing. The gene clusters with peripheral pathways for toluene and benzoate conversion possessed the features of strict and facultative anaerobes. In addition to the class II-type benzoyl-CoA reductase (Bam) of strict anaerobes, the class I-type (Bcr) of facultative anaerobes was encoded. Genes related to the utilization of various anaerobic electron acceptors, including iron, nitrate (to ammonia), sulfur and fumarate, were identified. Furthermore, genes encoding terminal oxidases (caa3 , cbb3 and bd) and a diverse array of genes for oxidative stress responses were detected in the TF genome. This metabolic versatility may be an adaptation to the fluctuating availability of electron acceptors and donors in tidal flats. PMID:24118987

Kim, So-Jeong; Park, Soo-Je; Cha, In-Tae; Min, Deullae; Kim, Jin-Seog; Chung, Won-Hyung; Chae, Jong-Chan; Jeon, Che Ok; Rhee, Sung-Keun

2014-01-01

249

In Vitro Activities of Ramoplanin, Teicoplanin, Vancomycin, Linezolid, Bacitracin, and Four Other Antimicrobials against Intestinal Anaerobic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

By using an agar dilution method, the in vitro activities of ramoplanin, teicoplanin, vancomycin, linezolid, and five other agents were determined against 300 gram-positive and 54 gram-negative strains of intestinal anaerobes. Ramoplanin was active at ?2 ?g/ml against 287 of 300 (95.7%) gram-positive organisms, including 18 strains of Clostridium difficile for which MICs of ramoplanin were 0.25 to 0.5 ?g/ml; for 3 of these, linezolid MICs were 8 to 16 ?g/ml. Nineteen Clostridium innocuum strains for which the vancomycin MIC at which 90% of strains were inhibited was 16 ?g/ml were susceptible to ramoplanin at 0.06 to 0.25 ?g/ml and to teicoplanin at 0.125 to 1.0 ?g/ml. All strains of Eubacterium, Actinomyces, Propionibacterium, and Peptostreptococcus spp. were inhibited by ?0.25 ?g of ramoplanin per ml and ?1 ?g of vancomycin per ml. Ramoplanin was also active at ?4 ?g/ml against 15 of 22 of the Prevotella and Porphyromonas strains tested, but ramoplanin MICs for all 31 strains of the Bacteroides fragilis group, the Fusobacterium mortiferum-Fusobacterium varium group, and Veillonella spp. were ?256 ?g/ml. Ramoplanin displays excellent activity against C. difficile and other gram-positive enteric anaerobes, including vancomycin-resistant strains; however, it has poor activity against most gram-negative anaerobes and thus potentially has a lesser effect on the ecological balance of normal fecal flora. PMID:12821492

Citron, D. M.; Merriam, C. V.; Tyrrell, K. L.; Warren, Y. A.; Fernandez, H.; Goldstein, E. J. C.

2003-01-01

250

Paracoccus alcaliphilus sp. nov., an Alkaliphilic and Facultatively Methy lo trop hic Bacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaliphilic facultatively methanol-utilizing bacteria were investigated with respect to their phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics. These bacteria were gram-negative, nonsporeforming, nonmotile, coccoid or short rod-shaped organisms, grew at pH 7.0 to 9.5, and did not grow below pH 6.5 and above pH 10.0. The deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) base composition was 64 to 66 mol% guanine plus cytosine. These bacteria resemble Paracoccus

TEIZI URAKAMI; JIN TAMAOKA; KEN-ICHIRO SUZUKI; KAZUO KOMAGATA

251

Faculative Anaerobic Bacteria in the Digestive Tract of Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) Maintained in Fresh Water Under Defined Culture Conditions  

PubMed Central

The bacterial flora in the digestive tract of chum salmon growing in fresh water under defined and controlled culture conditions was examined both qualitatively and quantitatively. The predominant species present in the digestive tract were identified as Aeromonas, with Aeromonas hydrophila being the most common isolate. These aeromonads were not isolated from the diet. Other bacterial species commonly isolated included Bacillus, Enterobacter, nonpigmented pseudomonads, Micrococcus, and Acinetobacter. These species were also isolated from the diet or tank water. As many as 108 viable bacteria per g (wet weight) of digestive tract plus contents were counted. After 75 days of starvation, 106 viable bacteria were counted, whereas fish fed a sterile feed contained 105 viable bacteria per g (wet weight) of digestive tract plus contents. PMID:1147605

Trust, T. J.

1975-01-01

252

DIVISION INFORMATIQUE Facult des lettres  

E-print Network

courrier électronique est un canal de communication officiel, qui est utilisé pour les inscriptions en://redirection.unige.ch/ · testez à l'avance le fonctionnement de votre courrier électronique UniGe ! #12;DIVISION INFORMATIQUE 19 première inscription IEL en Faculté des lettres doit être formulé officiellement par courrier , manuscrit

Halazonetis, Thanos

253

Horizontal gene transfer from Bacteria to rumen Ciliates indicates adaptation to their anaerobic, carbohydrates-rich environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The horizontal transfer of expressed genes from Bacteria into Ciliates which live in close contact with each other in the rumen (the foregut of ruminants) was studied using ciliate Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs). More than 4000 ESTs were sequenced from representatives of the two major groups of rumen Cilates: the order Entodiniomorphida (Entodinium simplex, Entodinium caudatum, Eudiplodinium maggii, Metadinium

Guénola Ricard; Neil R McEwan; Bas E Dutilh; Jean-Pierre Jouany; Didier Macheboeuf; Makoto Mitsumori; Freda M McIntosh; Tadeusz Michalowski; Takafumi Nagamine; Nancy Nelson; Charles J Newbold; Eli Nsabimana; Akio Takenaka; Nadine A Thomas; Kazunari Ushida; Johannes HP Hackstein; Martijn A Huynen

2006-01-01

254

Diverse anaerobic Cr(VI) tolerant bacteria from Cr(VI)-contaminated 100H site at Hanford  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hexavalent Chromium [Cr(VI)] is a widespread contaminant found in soil, sediment, and ground water. Cr(VI) is more soluble, toxic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic compared to its reduced form Cr(III). In order to stimulate microbially mediated reduction of Cr(VI), a poly-lactate compound HRC was injected into the chromium contaminated aquifers at site 100H at Hanford. Based on the results of the bacterial community composition using high-density DNA microarray analysis of 16S rRNA gene products, we recently investigated the diversity of the dominant anaerobic culturable microbial population present at this site and their role in Cr(VI) reduction. Positive enrichments set up at 30°C using specific defined anaerobic media resulted in the isolation of an iron reducing isolate strain HAF, a sulfate reducing isolate strain HBLS and a nitrate reducing isolate, strain HLN among several others. Preliminary 16S rDNA sequence analysis identifies strain HAF as Geobacter metallireducens, strain HLN as Pseudomonas stutzeri and strain HBLS as a member of Desulfovibrio species. Strain HAF isolated with acetate as the electron donor utilized propionate, glycerol and pyruvate as alternative carbon sources, and reduced metals like Mn(IV) and Cr(VI). Growth was optimal at 37°C, pH of 6.5 and 0% salinity. Strain HLN isolated with lactate as electron donor utilized acetate, glycerol and pyruvate as alternative carbon sources, and reduced metals like Mn(IV) and Cr(VI). Optimal growth was observed at 37°C, at a pH of 7.5 and 0.3% salinity. Anaerobic active washed cell suspension of strain HLN reduced almost 95 micromolar Cr(VI) within 4 hours relative to controls. Further, with 100 micromolar Cr(VI) as the sole electron acceptor, cells of strain HLN grew to cell numbers of 4.05X 107/ml over a period of 24hrs after an initial lag, demonstrating direct enzymatic Cr(VI) reduction by this species. 10mM lactate served as the sole electron donor. These results demonstrate that Cr(VI) immobilization at the Hanford 100H site could be mediated by direct microbial metabolism apart from indirect chemical reduction of Cr(VI) by end products of microbial activity.

Chakraborty, R.; Phan, R.; Lam, S.; Leung, C.; Brodie, E. L.; Hazen, T. C.

2007-12-01

255

(Anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds by phototrophic bacteria: biochemical aspects): Annual progress report, April 1988--March 1989  

SciTech Connect

Intensive efforts to define a protocol for generating transposon mutations in R. palustris have continued. An indirect approach, in which a transposon is introduced into a pLAFR1 cosmid containing an approximately 20 kb fragment of R. palustris DNA from a lambda derivative containing Tn5, appears promising. Both plasmids can be introduced into E. coli, and the antibiotic resistances coded for by each subsequently mated into wild-type R. palustris. A mutant isolated following chemical mutagenesis which is unable to grow aerobically on 4-OH benzoate (CGA033) has been complemented biochemically by the same clone which functions in the absence of the transposon; in addition, and more importantly, this indirect tranposon mutagenesis appears to yield mutants with novel phenotypes affecting the anaerobic pathway for 4-OH benzoate utilization. 2 refs.

Harwood, C.S.; Gibson, J.

1989-01-01

256

UNIVERSIT ' Section de math'ematiques FACULT '  

E-print Network

UNIVERSIT ' E DE GEN ` EVE Section de math'ematiques FACULT ' E DES SCIENCES Professeur J.­P. Imhof sociales), J.­P. IMHOF, professeur honoraire et r'epondant de la facult'e des sciences (Section de math'emoign'ee, pour son aide, ses pr'ecieux conseils. ffl Jean­Pierre Imhof et Christopher Field pour avoir accept'e d

Genève, Université de

257

Volatile Fatty Acids andHydrogen asSubstrates forSulfate- Reducing Bacteria inAnaerobic Marine Sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theaddition of20mM MoO2-(molybdate) toareduced marinesediment completely inhibited theSO-reduction activity byabout50nmolg-1h-'(wet sediment). Acetate accumulated ataconstant rateofabout25nmolg-1h-1 immediately afterMoO4- addition andgaveameasure ofthepreceding utilization rate ofacetate bytheSO4--reducing bacteria. Similarly, propionate andbutyrate (including isobutyrate) accumulated atconstant rates of3to7and2to4nmol g'h-1, respectively. TherateofH2accumulation wasvariable, andarange of0 to16nmolg-1h-'wasrecorded. Animmediate increase ofthemethanogenic activity by2to3nmolg-1h-1 wasapparently duetoarelease ofthecompetition forH2bytheabsence ofSO4-reduction. Ifpropionate andbutyrate were completely oxidized bytheSO4-reducing bacteria, thestoichiometry ofthe

JAN S; DORTE CHRISTENSEN

1981-01-01

258

In Vitro Activity of Biapenem plus RPX7009, a Carbapenem Combined with a Serine ?-Lactamase Inhibitor, against Anaerobic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Biapenem is a carbapenem being developed in combination with RPX7009, a new inhibitor of serine ?-lactamases. Biapenem was tested alone and in combination with fixed concentrations of RPX7009 by agar dilution against 377 recent isolates of anaerobes. A separate panel of 27 isolates of Bacteroides spp. with decreased susceptibility or resistance to imipenem was also tested. Comparator drugs included meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, ampicillin-sulbactam, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, metronidazole, clindamycin, and tigecycline plus imipenem, doripenem, and ertapenem for the 27 selected strains. For recent consecutive strains of Bacteroides species, the MIC90 for biapenem-RPX7009 was 1 ?g/ml, with a MIC90 of 4 ?g/ml for meropenem. Other Bacteroides fragilis group species showed a MIC90 of 0.5 ?g/ml for both agents. The MIC90s for biapenem-RPX7009 were 0.25 ?g/ml for Prevotella spp., 0.125 ?g/ml for Fusobacterium nucleatum and Fusobacterium necrophorum, 2 ?g/ml for Fusobacterium mortiferum, 0.5 ?g/ml for Fusobacterium varium, ?0.5 ?g/ml for Gram-positive cocci and rods, and 0.03 to 8 ?g/ml for clostridia. Against 5 B. fragilis strains harboring a known metallo-beta-lactamase, biapenem-RPX7009 MICs were comparable to those of other carbapenems (?32 ?g/ml). Against Bacteroides strains with an imipenem MIC of 2 ?g/ml, biapenem-RPX7009 had MICs of 0.5 to 2 ?g/ml, with MICs of 0.5 to 32 ?g/ml for meropenem, doripenem, and ertapenem. For strains with an imipenem MIC of 4 ?g/ml, the MICs for biapenem-RPX7009 were 4 to 16 ?g/ml, with MICs of 8 to >32 ?g/ml for meropenem, doripenem, and ertapenem. The inhibitor RPX7009 had no antimicrobial activity when tested alone, and it showed little or no potentiation of biapenem versus anaerobes. Biapenem-RPX7009 showed activity comparable to that of imipenem and was superior to meropenem, doripenem, and ertapenem against imipenem-nonsusceptible Bacteroides spp. PMID:23529731

Citron, Diane M.; Tyrrell, Kerin L.; Merriam, C. Vreni

2013-01-01

259

Group-specific PCR-RFLP and real-time PCR methods for detection and tentative discrimination of strictly anaerobic beer-spoilage bacteria of the class Clostridia.  

PubMed

The strictly anaerobic brewery contaminants of the genera Pectinatus, Megasphaera, Selenomonas and Zymophilus in the class Clostridia constitute an important group of spoilage bacteria of unpasteurised, packaged beers. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate group-specific PCR methods to detect and differentiate these bacteria in beer. A group-specific primer pair targeting a 342-bp variable region of the 16S rRNA gene was designed and evaluated in end-point PCR with gel electrophoresis and in real-time PCR with SYBR Green I dye. Significant cross-reactions with DNAs from any of the forty-two brewery-related, non-target microbes or from real brewery samples were not detected in either PCR system. The group-specific end-point and real-time PCR products could be differentiated according to species/genus and spoilage potential using restriction fragment length polymorphism (KpnI, XmnI, BssHII, ScaI) and melting point curve analysis, respectively. In combination with a rapid DNA extraction method, the PCR reactions detected ca 10(0)-10(3) CFU per 25 ml of beer depending on the strain and on the PCR system. The end-point and real-time PCR analysis took 6-7 h and 2-3 h, respectively. Pre-PCR enrichment of beer samples for 1-3 days ensured the detection of even a single cultivable cell. The PCR and cultivation results of real brewery samples were mostly congruent but the PCR methods were occasionally more sensitive. The PCR methods developed allow the detection of all the nine beer-spoilage Pectinatus, Megasphaera, Selenomonas and Zymophilus species in a single reaction and their differentiation below group level and reduce the analysis time for testing of their presence in beer samples by 1-2 days. The methods can be applied for brewery routine quality control and for studying occurrence, diversity and numbers of the strictly anaerobic beer spoilers in the brewing process. PMID:18502530

Juvonen, Riikka; Koivula, Teija; Haikara, Auli

2008-07-15

260

Worldwide populations of the aphid Aphis craccivora are infected with diverse facultative bacterial symbionts.  

PubMed

Facultative bacterial endosymbionts can play an important role in the evolutionary trajectory of their hosts. Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are infected with a wide variety of facultative endosymbionts that can confer ecologically relevant traits, which in turn may drive microevolutionary processes in a dynamic selective environment. However, relatively little is known about how symbiont diversity is structured in most aphid species. Here, we investigate facultative symbiont species richness and prevalence among world-wide populations of the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch. We surveyed 44 populations of A. craccivora, and detected 11 strains of facultative symbiotic bacteria, representing six genera. There were two significant associations between facultative symbiont and aphid food plant: the symbiont Arsenophonus was found at high prevalence in A. craccivora populations collected from Robinia sp. (locust), whereas the symbiont Hamiltonella was almost exclusively found in A. craccivora populations from Medicago sativa (alfalfa). Aphids collected from these two food plants also had divergent mitochondrial haplotypes, potentially indicating the formation of specialized aphid lineages associated with food plant (host-associated differentiation). The role of facultative symbionts in this process remains to be determined. Overall, observed facultative symbiont prevalence in A. craccivora was lower than that of some other well-studied aphids (e.g., Aphis fabae and Acyrthosiphon pisum), possibly as a consequence of A. craccivora's almost purely parthenogenetic life history. Finally, most (70 %) of the surveyed populations were polymorphic for facultative symbiont infection, indicating that even when symbiont prevalence is relatively low, symbiont-associated phenotypic variation may allow population-level evolutionary responses to local selection. PMID:24233285

Brady, Cristina M; Asplen, Mark K; Desneux, Nicolas; Heimpel, George E; Hopper, Keith R; Linnen, Catherine R; Oliver, Kerry M; Wulff, Jason A; White, Jennifer A

2014-01-01

261

Enzymes involved in the anaerobic degradation of meta-substituted halobenzoates.  

PubMed

Organohalides are environmentally relevant compounds that can be degraded by aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. The denitrifying Thauera chlorobenzoica is capable of degrading halobenzoates as sole carbon and energy source under anaerobic conditions. LC-MS/MS-based coenzyme A (CoA) thioester analysis revealed that 3-chloro- or 3-bromobenzoate were preferentially metabolized via non-halogenated CoA-ester intermediates of the benzoyl-CoA degradation pathway. In contrast, 3-fluorobenzoate, which does not support growth, was converted to dearomatized fluorinated CoA ester dead-end products. Extracts from cells grown on 3-chloro-/3-bromobenzoate catalysed the Ti(III)-citrate- and ATP-dependent reductive dehalogenation of 3-chloro/3-bromobenzoyl-CoA to benzoyl-CoA, whereas 3-fluorobenzoyl-CoA was converted to a fluorinated cyclic dienoyl-CoA compound. The reductive dehalogenation reactions were identified as previously unknown activities of ATP-dependent class I benzoyl-CoA reductases (BCR) present in all facultatively anaerobic, aromatic compound degrading bacteria. A two-step dearomatization/H-halide elimination mechanism is proposed. A halobenzoate-specific carboxylic acid CoA ligase was characterized in T.?chlorobenzoica; however, no such enzyme is present in Thauera aromatica, which cannot grow on halobenzoates. In conclusion, it appears that the presence of a halobenzoate-specific carboxylic acid CoA ligase rather than a specific reductive dehalogenase governs whether an aromatic compound degrading anaerobe is capable of metabolizing halobenzoates. PMID:22010634

Kuntze, Kevin; Kiefer, Patrick; Baumann, Sven; Seifert, Jana; von Bergen, Martin; Vorholt, Julia A; Boll, Matthias

2011-11-01

262

Facult de Biologie et de Mdecine Dpartement d'Ecologie et d'Evolution  

E-print Network

Faculté de Biologie et de Médecine Département d'Ecologie et d'Evolution Interactions between feather-degrading bacteria and an avian host: zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) Thèse de doctorat ès Cherix, Expert Prof. Marcel Lambrechts, Expert Lausanne 2005 #12;2 #12;It is not only fine feathers

Alvarez, Nadir

263

Formation of Tellurium Nanocrystals during Anaerobic Growth of Bacteria That Use Te Oxyanions as Respiratory Electron Acceptors?  

PubMed Central

Certain toxic elements support the metabolism of diverse prokaryotes by serving as respiratory electron acceptors for growth. Here, we demonstrate that two anaerobes previously shown to be capable of respiring oxyanions of selenium also achieve growth by reduction of either tellurate [Te(VI)] or tellurite [Te(IV)] to elemental tellurium [Te(0)]. This reduction achieves a sizeable stable-Te-isotopic fractionation (isotopic enrichment factor [?] = ?0.4 to ?1.0 per ml per atomic mass unit) and results in the formation of unique crystalline Te(0) nanoarchitectures as end products. The Te(0) crystals occur internally within but mainly externally from the cells, and each microorganism forms a distinctly different structure. Those formed by Bacillus selenitireducens initially are nanorods (?10-nm diameter by 200-nm length), which cluster together, forming larger (?1,000-nm) rosettes composed of numerous individual shards (?100-nm width by 1,000-nm length). In contrast, Sulfurospirillum barnesii forms extremely small, irregularly shaped nanospheres (diameter < 50 nm) that coalesce into larger composite aggregates. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and selected area electron diffraction indicate that both biominerals are composed entirely of Te and are crystalline, while Raman spectroscopy confirms that they are in the elemental state. These Te biominerals have specific spectral signatures (UV-visible light, Raman) that also provide clues to their internal structures. The use of microorganisms to generate Te nanomaterials may be an alternative for bench-scale syntheses. Additionally, they may also generate products with unique properties unattainable by conventional physical/chemical methods. PMID:17277198

Baesman, Shaun M.; Bullen, Thomas D.; Dewald, James; Zhang, Donghui; Curran, Seamus; Islam, Farhana S.; Beveridge, Terry J.; Oremland, Ronald S.

2007-01-01

264

Activities of four frog skin-derived antimicrobial peptides (temporin-1DRa, temporin-1Va and the melittin-related peptides AR23 and RV23) against anaerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activities of two antimicrobial peptides belonging to the temporin family (temporin-1DRa from Rana draytonii and temporin-1Va from Rana virgatipes) and two peptides with structural similarity to the bee venom peptide melittin (AR-23 from Rana tagoi and RV-23 from R. draytonii) were evaluated against a range of reference strains and clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria. These peptides were selected because

Elisabeth Nagy; Tibor Pál; Ágnes Sonnevend; J. Michael Conlon

2007-01-01

265

Bioelectricity Aware of bacteria  

E-print Network

Bioelectricity Aware of bacteria Bacteria of the genus Geobacter carry out anaerobic respiration the mechanism that makes these bacteria conductors of electricity. Researchers have studied this for a population of G. sulfurreducens, endowed with bacteria nanometric filaments (pili) that enable them

Lovley, Derek

266

Predatory prokaryotes: predation and primary consumption evolved in bacteria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two kinds of predatory bacteria have been observed and characterized by light and electron microscopy in samples from freshwater sulfurous lakes in northeastern Spain. The first bacterium, named Vampirococcus, is Gram-negative and ovoidal (0.6 micrometer wide). An anaerobic epibiont, it adheres to the surface of phototrophic bacteria (Chromatium spp.) by specific attachment structures and, as it grows and divides by fission, destroys its prey. An important in situ predatory role can be inferred for Vampirococcus from direct counts in natural samples. The second bacterium, named Daptobacter, is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic straight rod (0.5 x 1.5 micrometers) with a single polar flagellum, which collides, penetrates, and grows inside the cytoplasm of its prey (several genera of Chromatiaceae). Considering also the well-known case of Bdellovibrio, a Gram-negative, aerobic curved rod that penetrates and divides in the periplasmic space of many chemotrophic Gram-negative bacteria, there are three types of predatory prokaryotes presently known (epibiotic, cytoplasmic, and periplasmic). Thus, we conclude that antagonistic relationships such as primary consumption, predation, and scavenging had already evolved in microbial ecosystems prior to the appearance of eukaryotes. Furthermore, because they represent methods by which prokaryotes can penetrate other prokaryotes in the absence of phagocytosis, these associations can be considered preadaptation for the origin of intracellular organelles.

Guerrero, R.; Pedros-Alio, C.; Esteve, I.; Mas, J.; Chase, D.; Margulis, L.

1986-01-01

267

Genome-scale analysis of anaerobic benzoate and phenol metabolism in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Ferroglobus placidus.  

PubMed

Insight into the mechanisms for the anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds by the hyperthermophilic archaeon Ferroglobus placidus is expected to improve understanding of the degradation of aromatics in hot (>80°?C) environments and to identify enzymes that might have biotechnological applications. Analysis of the F. placidus genome revealed genes predicted to encode enzymes homologous to those previously identified as having a role in benzoate and phenol metabolism in mesophilic bacteria. Surprisingly, F. placidus lacks genes for an ATP-independent class II benzoyl-CoA (coenzyme A) reductase (BCR) found in all strictly anaerobic bacteria, but has instead genes coding for a bzd-type ATP-consuming class I BCR, similar to those found in facultative bacteria. The lower portion of the benzoate degradation pathway appears to be more similar to that found in the phototroph Rhodopseudomonas palustris, than the pathway reported for all heterotrophic anaerobic benzoate degraders. Many of the genes predicted to be involved in benzoate metabolism were found in one of two gene clusters. Genes for phenol carboxylation proceeding through a phenylphosphate intermediate were identified in a single gene cluster. Analysis of transcript abundance with a whole-genome microarray and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that most of the genes predicted to be involved in benzoate or phenol metabolism had higher transcript abundance during growth on those substrates vs growth on acetate. These results suggest that the general strategies for benzoate and phenol metabolism are highly conserved between microorganisms living in moderate and hot environments, and that anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds might be analyzed in a wide range of environments with similar molecular targets. PMID:21776029

Holmes, Dawn E; Risso, Carla; Smith, Jessica A; Lovley, Derek R

2012-01-01

268

Denitrification by extremely halophilic bacteria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extremely halophilic bacteria were isolated from widely separated sites by anaerobic enrichment in the presence of nitrate. The anaerobic growth of several of these isolates was accompanied by the production of nitrite, nitrous oxide, and dinitrogen. These results are a direct confirmation of the existence of extremely halophilic denitrifying bacteria, and suggest that such bacteria may be common inhabitants of hypersaline environments.

Hochstein, L. I.; Tomlinson, G. A.

1985-01-01

269

FACULT DES SCIENCES HUMAINES ET SOCIALES -SORBONNE  

E-print Network

FACULT� DES SCIENCES HUMAINES ET SOCIALES - SORBONNE LICENCE EN SCIENCES HUMAINES ET SOCIALES ANN�E UNIVERSITAIRE 2013-2014 MENTION SCIENCES DU Vaillant 92100 Boulogne-Billancourt L3, M1 et M2 Faculté des Sciences

Pellier, Damien

270

FACULT DES SCIENCES HUMAINES ET SOCIALES -SORBONNE  

E-print Network

FACULT� DES SCIENCES HUMAINES ET SOCIALES - SORBONNE LICENCE EN SCIENCES HUMAINES ET SOCIALES ANN�E UNIVERSITAIRE 2013-2014 MENTION SCIENCES DE L'�DUCATION L3 Faculté des Sciences humaines et sociales

Pellier, Damien

271

Anaerobic bacteria in 118 patients with deep-space head and neck infections from the University Hospital of Maxillofacial Surgery, Sofia, Bulgaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and susceptibility to antibacterial agents of anaerobic strains in 118 patients with head and neck abscesses (31) and cellulitis (87). Odontogenic infection was the most common identified source, occurring in 73 (77?7%) of 94 patients. The incidence of anaerobes in abscesses and cellulitis was 71 and 75?9%, respectively, and that

Lyudmila Boyanova; Rossen Kolarov; Galina Gergova; Elitsa Deliverska; Jivko Madjarov; Milen Marinov; Ivan Mitov

2006-01-01

272

Iron, Sulfur, Arsenic and Water: Geochemical Implications of Facultative Anoxygenic Photosynthesis in Cyanobacteria and the Slow Rise of Oxygen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over geologic time, the global rise in atmospheric oxygen (O2) is attributed to the evolution and wide spread proliferation of oxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria. However, cyanobacteria maintain a metabolic flexibility that may not always result in O2 release. Specifically, cyanobacteria can use a variety of alternative electron donors, rather than water, that are also readily oxidized. These may include sulfur, iron, and arsenic. Cyanobacteria are thus not uniquely constrained towards O2 production. Changes in the bioavailability of these key elements may have had dramatic consequences for and resulted in the slow accumulation of O2 in the atmosphere. In particular, by using facultative anoxygenic photosynthesis the cells maintain advantageous anaerobic conditions for N2-fixation. Although other types of bacteria are capable of N2-fixation, cyanobacteria singularly possess the dynamic capability of generating and surviving O2. These two processes "pull" the cells in opposite directions, metabolically speaking, around an aerobic-anaerobic continuum. Such a strategy also confers a distinct competitive advantage for cyanobacteria over photosynthetic eukaryotes, as they can endure widespread euxinia and maintain their cellular N quota. In an anoxic and/or sulfidic ocean, cyanobacteria would be expected to dominate over eukaryotic algae. Here we present Bayesian constructed phylogenetic distribution of specific genes and the metabolic role of key enzymes that form the basis of this hypothesis. We further suggest that the consequences of this proposed ecosystem structure altered the redox balance of the fluid Earth (atmosphere and oceans) and can help explain the observed long-term geochemical stasis and slow rates of eukaryotic diversification. We suggest that the underlying control for global oxygenation was a synergistic interplay between the evolution and elastic physiology of cyanobacteria as they impacted the redox state of early Earth.

Wolfe-Simon, F.; Johnston, D. T.; Girguis, P. R.; Pearson, A.; Knoll, A. H.

2008-12-01

273

Could petroleum biodegradation be a joint achievement of aerobic and anaerobic microrganisms in deep sea reservoirs?  

PubMed Central

Several studies suggest that petroleum biodegradation can be achieved by either aerobic or anaerobic microorganisms, depending on oxygen input or other electron acceptors and appropriate nutrients. Evidence from in vitro experiments with samples of petroleum formation water and oils from Pampo Field indicate that petroleum biodegradation is more likely to be a joint achievement of both aerobic and anaerobic bacterial consortium, refining our previous observations of aerobic degradation. The aerobic consortium depleted, in decreasing order, hydrocarbons > hopanes > steranes > tricyclic terpanes while the anaerobic consortium depleted hydrocarbons > steranes > hopanes > tricyclic terpanes. The oxygen content of the mixed consortia was measured from time to time revealing alternating periods of microaerobicity (O2 ~0.8 mg.L-1) and of aerobicity (O2~6.0 mg.L-1). In this experiment, the petroleum biodegradation changed from time to time, alternating periods of biodegradation similar to the aerobic process and periods of biodegradation similar to the anaerobic process. The consortia showed preferences for metabolizing hydrocarbons > hopanes > steranes > tricyclic terpanes during a 90-day period, after which this trend changed and steranes were more biodegraded than hopanes. The analysis of aerobic oil degrading microbiota by the 16S rRNA gene clone library detected the presence of Bacillus, Brevibacterium, Mesorhizobium and Achromobacter, and the analysis of the anaerobic oil degrading microbiota using the same technique detected the presence of Bacillus and Acinetobacter (facultative strains). In the mixed consortia Stenotrophomonas, Brevibacterium, Bacillus, Rhizobium, Achromobacter and 5% uncultured bacteria were detected. This is certainly a new contribution to the study of reservoir biodegradation processes, combining two of the more important accepted hypotheses. PMID:22196374

2011-01-01

274

Anaerobic thermophiles.  

PubMed

The term "extremophile" was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of "extreme" environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally "hot environments" on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong to the Archaea has definitely made this area of investigation more exciting. Particularly fascinating are their structural and physiological features allowing them to withstand extremely selective environmental conditions. These properties are often due to specific biomolecules (DNA, lipids, enzymes, osmolites, etc.) that have been studied for years as novel sources for biotechnological applications. In some cases (DNA-polymerase, thermostable enzymes), the search and applications successful exceeded preliminary expectations, but certainly further exploitations are still needed. PMID:25370030

Canganella, Francesco; Wiegel, Juergen

2014-01-01

275

Anaerobic Thermophiles  

PubMed Central

The term “extremophile” was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of “extreme” environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally “hot environments” on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong to the Archaea has definitely made this area of investigation more exciting. Particularly fascinating are their structural and physiological features allowing them to withstand extremely selective environmental conditions. These properties are often due to specific biomolecules (DNA, lipids, enzymes, osmolites, etc.) that have been studied for years as novel sources for biotechnological applications. In some cases (DNA-polymerase, thermostable enzymes), the search and applications successful exceeded preliminary expectations, but certainly further exploitations are still needed.

Canganella, Francesco; Wiegel, Juergen

2014-01-01

276

Bacteria associated with false-positive most-probable-number coliform test results for shellfish and estuaries.  

PubMed Central

Aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria isolated from false-positive, presumptive, total coliform, most-probable-number tests of Chesapeake Bay oyster, water, and sediment samples were characterized and then classified by numerical taxonomy. A total of 538 bacterial strains clustered into 17 phena, the predominant groups of which were Enterobacteriaceae (including Escherichia coli), Aeromonas spp., and Bacillus spp. Bacillus spp. were recovered most frequently from sediment samples. Gas-producing strains which were not members of the Enterobacteriaceae were not isolated during this study. However, disproportionately large numbers of atypical and anaerogenic lactose-fermenting strains were encountered. We concluded that no single, specific bacterial group can be identified as being responsible for the false-positive reaction in the presumptive coliform test. Instead, the false-positive reaction is a result of complex interactions among various genera, representing predominantly bacteria other than coliforms. PMID:7013700

Hussong, D; Damare, J M; Weiner, R M; Colwell, R R

1981-01-01

277

Occurrence and diversity of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation bacteria in the sediments of the South China Sea revealed by amplification of both 16S rRNA and pmoA genes.  

PubMed

Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) process is unique in linking the microbial carbon and nitrogen cycles, but the presence of n-damo bacteria in marine ecosystem and the associated environmental factors are still poorly understood. In the present study, detection of n-damo bacteria using 16S rRNA and pmoA gene-based PCR primers was successfully employed to reveal their diversity and distribution in the surface and subsurface sediments of the South China Sea (SCS). The widespread occurrence of n-damo bacteria in both the surface and subsurface sediments with high diversity has been confirmed in this study. The pmoA gene-amplified sequences clustered within three newly erected subclusters, namely SCS-1, SCS-2, and SCS-3, suggesting the unique niche specificity of n-damo bacteria in the marine ecosystem. Results indicated the presence of n-damo bacteria in the west Pacific Ocean with a wide distribution from the continental shelf (E201S) to the deep abyss (E407S and E407B). Community structures of n-damo bacteria in SCS are clearly different from those of nonmarine ones known. It is also found that NO x (-) and NH4 (+) affected the community structures and distribution of n-damo bacteria in the SCS sediments differently. Salinity is another important factor identified, shaping the n-damo communities in marine environments. The community based on pmoA gene-amplified sequences, and community richness and diversity based on 16S rRNA gene-amplified sequences correlated with temperature. PMID:24769903

Chen, Jing; Zhou, Zhi-Chao; Gu, Ji-Dong

2014-06-01

278

Titanium(III) Citrate as a Nontoxic Oxidation-Reduction Buffering System for the Culture of Obligate Anaerobes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An oxidation-reduction buffering system based on titanium(III) citrate eliminates any traces of oxygen in a culture medium, serves as an indicator for low oxidation-reduction potentials, and prevents the growth of facultative anaerobes, which frequently contaminate anaerobic cultures.

Alexander J. B. Zehnder; Karl Wuhrmann

1976-01-01

279

Facultative hyperaccumulation of heavy metals and metalloids.  

PubMed

Approximately 500 species of plants are known to hyperaccumulate heavy metals and metalloids. The majority are obligate metallophytes, species that are restricted to metalliferous soils. However, a smaller but increasing list of plants are "facultative hyperaccumulators" that hyperaccumulate heavy metals when occurring on metalliferous soils, yet also occur commonly on normal, non-metalliferous soils. This paper reviews the biology of facultative hyperaccumulators and the opportunities they provide for ecological and evolutionary research. The existence of facultative hyperaccumulator populations across a wide edaphic range allows intraspecific comparisons of tolerance and uptake physiology. This approach has been used to study zinc and cadmium hyperaccumulation by Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri, and it will be instructive to make similar comparisons on species that are distributed even more abundantly on normal soil. Over 90% of known hyperaccumulators occur on serpentine (ultramafic) soil and accumulate nickel, yet there have paradoxically been few experimental studies of facultative nickel hyperaccumulation. Several hypotheses suggested to explain the evolution of hyperaccumulation seem unlikely when most populations of a species occur on normal soil, where plants cannot hyperaccumulate due to low metal availability. In such species, it may be that hyperaccumulation is an ancestral phylogenetic trait or an anomalous manifestation of physiological mechanisms evolved on normal soils, and may or may not have direct adaptive benefits. PMID:24467891

Pollard, A Joseph; Reeves, Roger D; Baker, Alan J M

2014-03-01

280

Facultative anoxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria driven by arsenite and sulfide with evidence for the support of nitrogen fixation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rise in atmospheric oxygen (O2) over geologic time is attributed to the evolution and widespread proliferation of oxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria. However, cyanobacteria maintain a metabolic flexibility that may not always result in O2 release. In the environment, cyanobacteria may use a variety of alternative electron donors rather than water that are known to be used by other anoxygenic phototrophs (eg. purple sulfur bacteria) including reduced forms of sulfur, iron, nitrogen, and arsenic. Recent evidence suggests cyanobacteria actively take advantage of at least a few of these alternatives. We used a classical Winogradsky approach to enrich for cyanobacteria from the high salinity, elevated pH and arsenic-enriched waters of Mono Lake (CA). Experiments, optimized for cyanobacteria, revealed light-dependent, anaerobic arsenite-oxidation in sub-cultured sediment-free enrichments dominated by a filamentous cyanobacteria. We isolated and identified the dominant member of this enrichment to be a member of the Oscillatoriales by 16S rDNA. Addition of 1 mM arsenite induced facultative anoxygenic photosynthesis under continuous and circadian light. This isolate also oxidized sulfide under the same light-based conditions. Aerobic conditions elicited no arsenite oxidation in the light or dark and the isolate grew as a typical cyanobacterium using oxygenic photosynthesis. Under near-infrared light (700 nm) there was a direct correlation of enhanced growth with an increase in the rate arsenite or sulfide oxidation suggesting the use of photosystem I. Additionally, to test the wide-spread nature of this metabolism in the Oscillatoriales, we followed similar arsenite- and sulfide-driven facultative anoxygenic photosynthesis as well as nitrogen fixation (C2H2 reduction) in the axenic isolate Oscillatoria sp. CCMP 1731. Future characterization includes axenic isolation of the Mono Lake Oscillatoria sp. as well as the arsenite oxidase responsible for electron extraction and confirming the photosystem required for light capture. The geobiological implications of this phenomenon related to nitrogen-fixation and the evolution of O2 on Earth will be discussed.

Wolfe-Simon, F.; Hoeft, S. E.; Baesman, S. M.; Oremland, R. S.

2010-12-01

281

One carbon metabolism in anaerobic bacteria: Regulation of carbon and electron flow during organic acid production. Progress report, June 1990--May 1992  

SciTech Connect

This reporting period, progress is reported on the following: metabolic pathway of solvent production in B. methylotrophicum; the biochemical mechanism for metabolic regulation of the succinate fermentation; models to understand the physiobiochemical function of formate metabolism in anaerobes and; models for understanding the influence of low pH on one carbon metabolism. (CBS)

Zeikus, J.G.; Jain, M.K.

1992-04-01

282

Association experiments with aerobic and anaerobic pathogens: a model of in-vitro susceptibility testing in mixed infections. Activity of enoxacin, clindamycin, and metronidazole  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In infections of polymicrobial etiology, it seems mandatory to combine an antibiotic with marginal activity against anaerobes with an anti-anaerobic drug, e. g. metronidazole or clindamycin. We investigated the effect of associations of anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic pathogens on MBCs of enoxacin, clindamycin, metronidazole, and combinations of enoxacin plus clindamycin or metronidazole. Single testing, and associations ofBacteroides fragilis withEscherichia

W. R. Heizmann; R. Schmid; F. Heilmann; H. Werner

1989-01-01

283

Oxidative metabolism of inorganic sulfur compounds by bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of the elucidation of the microbiology and biochemistry of the oxidation of inorganic sulfur compounds in chemolithotrophic bacteria is briefly reviewed, and the contribution of Martinus Beijerinck to the study of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria highlighted. Recent developments in the biochemistry, enzymology and molecular biology of sulfur oxidation in obligately and facultatively lithotrophic bacteria are summarized, and the existence of

Donovan P. Kelly; Jasvinder K. Shergill; Wei-Ping Lu; Ann P. Wood

1997-01-01

284

Iron and manganese in anaerobic respiration: environmental significance, physiology, and regulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dissimilatory iron and/or manganese reduction is known to occur in several organisms, including anaerobic sulfur-reducing organisms such as Geobacter metallireducens or Desulfuromonas acetoxidans, and facultative aerobes such as Shewanella putrefaciens. These bacteria couple both carbon oxidation and growth to the reduction of these metals, and inhibitor and competition experiments suggest that Mn(IV) and Fe(III) are efficient electron acceptors similar to nitrate in redox abilities and capable of out-competing electron acceptors of lower potential, such as sulfate (sulfate reduction) or CO2 (methanogenesis). Field studies of iron and/or manganese reduction suggest that organisms with such metabolic abilities play important roles in coupling the oxidation of organic carbon to metal reduction under anaerobic conditions. Because both iron and manganese oxides are solids or colloids, they tend to settle downward in aquatic environments, providing a physical mechanism for the movement of oxidizing potential into anoxic zones. The resulting biogeochemical metal cycles have a strong impact on many other elements including carbon, sulfur, phosphorous, and trace metals.

Nealson, K. H.; Saffarini, D.

1994-01-01

285

Transcriptome Dynamics during the Transition from Anaerobic Photosynthesis to Aerobic Respiration in Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1 is a facultative photosynthetic anaerobe that grows by anoxygenic photosyn- thesis under anaerobic-light conditions. Changes in energy generation pathways under photosynthetic and aerobic respiratory conditions are primarily controlled by oxygen tensions. In this study, we performed time series microarray analyses to investigate transcriptome dynamics during the transition from anaerobic pho- tosynthesis to aerobic respiration. Major changes in

Hiroyuki Arai; Jung Hyeob Roh; Samuel Kaplan

2008-01-01

286

Enumeration, Isolation, and Characterization of N2-Fixing Bacteria from Seawater  

PubMed Central

Marine pelagic N2-fixing bacteria have not, in general, been identified or quantified, since low or negligible rates of N2 fixation have been recorded for seawater when blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) are absent. In the study reported here, marine N2-fixing bacteria were found in all samples of seawater collected and were analyzed by using a most-probable-number (MPN) method. Two different media were used which allowed growth of microaerophiles, as well as that of aerobes and facultative anaerobes. MPN values obtained for N2-fixing bacteria ranged from 0.4 to 1 × 103 per liter for water collected off the coast of Puerto Rico and from 2 to 5.5 × 102 per liter for Chesapeake Bay water. Over 100 strains of N2-fixing bacteria were isolated from the MPN tubes and classified, yielding four major groups of NaCl-requiring bacteria based on biochemical characteristics. Results of differential filtration studies indicate that N2-fixing bacteria may be associated with phytoplankton. In addition, when N2-fixing bacteria were inoculated into unfiltered seawater and incubated in situ, nitrogenase activity could be detected within 1 h. However, no nitrogenase activity was detected in uninoculated seawater or when bacteria were incubated in 0.2-?m-filtered (phytoplankton-free) seawater. The ability of these isolates to fix N2 at ambient conditions in seawater and the large variety of N2-fixing bacteria isolated and identified lead to the conclusion that N2 fixation in the ocean may occur to a greater degree than previously believed. PMID:16346855

Guerinot, Mary Lou; Colwell, Rita R.

1985-01-01

287

The capacity of hydrogenotrophic anaerobic bacteria to compete for traces of hydrogen depends on the redox potential of the terminal electron acceptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of different electron acceptors on substrate degradation was studied in pure and mixed cultures of various hydrogenotrophic homoacetogenic, methanogenic, sulfate-reducing, fumarate-reducing and nitrate-ammonifying bacteria. Two different species of these bacteria which during organic substrate degradation produce and consume hydrogen, were cocultured on a substrate which was utilized only by one of them. Hydrogen, which was excreted as intermediate

Ralf Cord-Ruwisch; Hans-Jiirgen Seitz; Ralf Conrad

1988-01-01

288

Molecular Biology of Anaerobic Aromatic Biodegradation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aromatic acids are intermediates in the biodegradation of structurally diverse aromatic compounds, including lignin monomers and environmental pollutants, by many metabolic types of anaerobic bacteria. They are also the starting compounds for central path...

C. S. Harwood

1992-01-01

289

Anaerobic Digestion of Agricultural Solid Residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural residues can be converted to methane-rich gas mixture. Anaerobic biomethane production is an effective process for conversion of a broad variety of agricultural residues to methane to substitute natural gas and medium calorific value gases. Methane generating bacteria (methanogens) and other microbes that help digest dying plants in anaerobic conditions. Agricultural solid residues (ASR) represent a potential energy resource

Ayhan Demirbas; Temel Ozturk

2005-01-01

290

Anaerobic Infections in Children with Neurological Impairments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with neurological impairments are prone to develop serious infection with anaerobic bacteria. The most common anaerobic infections are decubitus ulcers; gastrostomy site wound infections; pulmonary infections (aspiration pneumonia, lung abscesses, and tracheitis); and chronic suppurative otitis media. The unique microbiology of each of…

Brook, Itzhak

1995-01-01

291

Application of molecular techniques to evaluate the methanogenic archaea and anaerobic bacteria in the presence of oxygen with different COD:sulfate ratios in a UASB reactor.  

PubMed

In this paper, the microbial characteristics of the granular sludge in the presence of oxygen (3.0+/-0.7 mg O2 l(-1)) were analyzed using molecular biology techniques. The granules were provided by an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) operated over 469 days and fed with synthetic substrate. Ethanol and sulfate were added to obtain different COD/SO4(2-) ratios (3.0, 2.0, and 1.6). The results of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses showed that archaeal cells, detected by the ARC915 probe, accounted for 77%, 84%, and 75% in the COD/SO(4)(2-) ratios (3.0, 2.0, and 1.6, respectively). Methanosaeta sp. was the predominant acetoclastic archaea observed by optical microscopy and FISH analyses, and confirmed by sequencing of the excised bands of the DGGE gel with a similarity of 96%. The sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris subsp. vulgaris (similarity of 99%) was verified by sequencing of the DGGE band. Others identified microorganism were similar to Shewanella sp. and Desulfitobacterium hafniense, with similarities of 95% and 99%, respectively. These results confirmed that the presence of oxygen did not severely affect the metabolism of microorganisms that are commonly considered strictly anaerobic. We obtained mean efficiencies of organic matter conversion and sulfate reducing higher than 74%. PMID:18634895

Hirasawa, Julia Sumiko; Sarti, Arnaldo; Del Aguila, Nora Katia Saavedra; Varesche, Maria Bernadete A

2008-10-01

292

Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria and Their Activities in Cyanobacterial Mats of Solar Lake (Sinai, Egypt)  

PubMed Central

The sulfate-reducing bacteria within the surface layer of the hypersaline cyanobacterial mat of Solar Lake (Sinai, Egypt) were investigated with combined microbiological, molecular, and biogeochemical approaches. The diurnally oxic surface layer contained between 106 and 107 cultivable sulfate-reducing bacteria ml?1 and showed sulfate reduction rates between 1,000 and 2,200 nmol ml?1 day?1, both in the same range as and sometimes higher than those in anaerobic deeper mat layers. In the oxic surface layer and in the mat layers below, filamentous sulfate-reducing Desulfonema bacteria were found in variable densities of 104 to 106 cells ml?1. A Desulfonema-related, diurnally migrating bacterium was detected with PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis within and below the oxic surface layer. Facultative aerobic respiration, filamentous morphology, motility, diurnal migration, and aggregate formation were the most conspicuous adaptations of Solar Lake sulfate-reducing bacteria to the mat matrix and to diurnal oxygen stress. A comparison of sulfate reduction rates within the mat and previously published photosynthesis rates showed that CO2 from sulfate reduction in the upper 5 mm accounted for 7 to 8% of the total photosynthetic CO2 demand of the mat. PMID:9687455

Teske, Andreas; Ramsing, Niels B.; Habicht, Kirsten; Fukui, Manabu; Kuver, Jan; J?rgensen, Bo Barker; Cohen, Yehuda

1998-01-01

293

Sulfate-reducing bacteria and their activities in cyanobacterial mats of Solar Lake (Sinai, Egypt)  

SciTech Connect

The sulfate-reducing bacteria within the surface layer of the hypersaline cyanobacterial mat of Solar Lake (Sinai, Egypt) were investigated with combined microbiological, molecular, and biogeochemical approaches. The diurnally oxic surface layer contained between 10{sup 6} and 10{sup 7} cultivable sulfate-reducing bacteria ml{sup {minus}1} day{sup {minus}1}, both in the same range as and sometimes higher than those in anaerobic deeper mat layers. In the oxic surface layer and in the mat layers below, filamentous sulfate-reducing Desulfonema bacteria were found in variable densities of 10{sup 4} and 10{sup 6} cells ml{sup {minus}1}. A Desulfonema-related, diurnally migrating bacterium was detected with PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis within and below the oxic surface layer. Facultative aerobic respiration, filamentous morphology, motility, diurnal migration, and aggregate formation were the most conspicuous adaptations of Solar Lake sulfate-reducing bacteria to the mat matrix and to diurnal oxygen stress. A comparison of sulfate reduction rates within the mat and previously published photosynthesis rates showed that CO{sub 2} from sulfate reduction in the upper 5 mm accounted for 7 to 8% of the total photosynthetic CO{sub 2} demand of the mat.

Teske, A.; Ramsing, N.B.; Habicht, K.; Kuever, J.; Joergensen, B.B. [Max Planck Inst. for Marine Microbiology, Bremen (Germany); Fukui, Manabu [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Cohen, Y. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel)

1998-08-01

294

Diversity of anaerobic halophilic microorganisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life in the presence of high salt concentrations is compatible with life in the absence of oxygen. Halophilic and halotolerant anaerobic prokaryotes are found both in the archaeal and in the bacterial domain, and they display a great metabolic diversity. Many of the representatives of the Halobacteriales (Archaea), which are generally considered aerobes, have the potential of anaerobic growth. Some can use alternative electron acceptors such as nitrate, fumarate, dimethylsulfoxide or trimethylamine-N-oxide Halobacterium salinarum can also grow fermentatively on L-arginine, and bacteriorhodopsin-containing cells may even grow anaerobically, energized by light. Obligatory anaerobic halophilic methanogenic Archaea also exist. The bacterial domain contains many anaerobic halophiles, including sulfate reducers. There is also a group of specialized obligatory anaerobic Bacteria, phylogenetically clustering in the low G + C branch of the Firmicutes. Most representatives of this group (order Haloanaerobiales, families Haloanaerobiaceae and Halobacteroidaceae) are fermentative, using a variety of carbohydrates and amino acids. One species combines the potential for anaerobic growth at high salt concentrations with a preference for high temperatures. Others are homoacetogens; Acetohalobium arabaticum can grow anaerobically as a chemolithotroph, producing acetate from hydrogen and CO2. The Haloanaerobiales accumulate high concentrations of K+ and Cl- in their cytoplasm, thereby showing a strategy of salt adaptation similar to that used by the Halobacteriales. Recently a new representative of the Haloanaerobiales was isolated from bottom sediments of the Dead Sea (strain DSSe1), which grows anaerobically by oxidation of glycerol to acetate and CO2 while reducing selenate to selenite and elementary selenium. Other electron acceptors supporting anaerobic growth of this strain are nitrate and trimethylamine-N-oxide. The versatility of life at high salt concentrations with respect to the variety of substrates used, the types of dissimilatory metabolism, and the diversity of potential electron acceptors has important implications for the potential for life in hostile environments lacking oxygen and high in salt, implications that may also be relevant to astrobiology.

Oren, Aharon; Oremland, Roland S.

2000-12-01

295

Phylogenetic and metabolic diversity of bacteria associated with cystic fibrosis  

PubMed Central

In patients afflicted with cystic fibrosis (CF), morbidity and mortality are primarily associated with the adverse consequences of chronic microbial bronchial infections, which are thought to be caused by a few opportunistic pathogens. However, recent evidence suggests the presence of other microorganisms, which may significantly affect the course and outcome of the infection. Using a combination of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, bacterial culturing and pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA amplicons, the microbial communities present in CF patient sputum samples were examined. In addition to previously recognized CF pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, >60 phylogenetically diverse bacterial genera that are not typically associated with CF pathogenesis were also detected. A surprisingly large number of fermenting facultative and obligate anaerobes from multiple bacterial phyla was present in each sample. Many of the bacteria and sequences found were normal residents of the oropharyngeal microflora and with many containing opportunistic pathogens. Our data suggest that these undersampled organisms within the CF lung are part of a much more complex microbial ecosystem than is normally presumed. Characterization of these communities is the first step in elucidating potential roles of diverse bacteria in disease progression and to ultimately facilitate advances in CF therapy. PMID:20631810

Guss, Adam M; Roeselers, Guus; Newton, Irene L G; Young, C Robert; Klepac-Ceraj, Vanja; Lory, Stephen; Cavanaugh, Colleen M

2011-01-01

296

[Anaerobic paraproctitis].  

PubMed

An analysis of 25 cases of anaerobic paraproctitis has shown that in most cases they were people over 60 having severe concomitant diseases. Primary necrotic proctitis should be distinguished as a special morphological form. Sepsis was found to develop mostly in necrotic forms and ascending anaerobic lymphadenitis. An urgent wide opening of paraproctitis with a radical dissection of the tissues suspected of a damage is thought to be a necessary condition for the favourable outcome of the disease. PMID:6326371

Dolidze, N G; Kakoishvili, G A; Gvasaliia, G N

1984-03-01

297

Time-Resolved DNA Stable Isotope Probing Links Desulfobacterales- and Coriobacteriaceae-Related Bacteria to Anaerobic Degradation of Benzene under Methanogenic Conditions  

PubMed Central

To identify the microorganisms involved in benzene degradation, DNA-stable isotope probing (SIP) with 13C-benzene was applied to a methanogenic benzene-degrading enrichment culture. Pyrosequencing of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences revealed that the community structure was highly complex in spite of a 3-year incubation only with benzene. The culture degraded 98% of approximately 1 mM 13C-benzene and mineralized 72% of that within 63 d. The terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) profiles of the buoyant density fractions revealed the incorporation of 13C into two phylotypes after 64 d. These two phylotypes were determined to be Desulfobacterales- and Coriobacteriaceae-related bacteria by cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene in the 13C-labeled DNA abundant fraction. Comparative pyrosequencing analysis of the buoyant density fractions of 12C- and 13C-labeled samples indicated the incorporation of 13C into three bacterial and one archaeal OTUs related to Desulfobacterales, Coriobacteriales, Rhodocyclaceae, and Methanosarcinales. The first two OTUs included the bacteria detected by T-RFLP-cloning-sequencing analysis. Furthermore, time-resolved SIP analysis confirmed that the activity of all these microbes appeared at the earliest stage of degradation. In this methanogenic culture, Desulfobacterales- and Coriobacteriaceae-related bacteria were most likely to be the major benzene degraders. PMID:24909708

Noguchi, Mana; Kurisu, Futoshi; Kasuga, Ikuro; Furumai, Hiroaki

2014-01-01

298

Time-resolved DNA stable isotope probing links Desulfobacterales- and Coriobacteriaceae-related bacteria to anaerobic degradation of benzene under methanogenic conditions.  

PubMed

To identify the microorganisms involved in benzene degradation, DNA-stable isotope probing (SIP) with 13C-benzene was applied to a methanogenic benzene-degrading enrichment culture. Pyrosequencing of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences revealed that the community structure was highly complex in spite of a 3-year incubation only with benzene. The culture degraded 98% of approximately 1 mM 13C-benzene and mineralized 72% of that within 63 d. The terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) profiles of the buoyant density fractions revealed the incorporation of 13C into two phylotypes after 64 d. These two phylotypes were determined to be Desulfobacterales- and Coriobacteriaceae-related bacteria by cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene in the 13C-labeled DNA abundant fraction. Comparative pyrosequencing analysis of the buoyant density fractions of 12C- and 13C-labeled samples indicated the incorporation of 13C into three bacterial and one archaeal OTUs related to Desulfobacterales, Coriobacteriales, Rhodocyclaceae, and Methanosarcinales. The first two OTUs included the bacteria detected by T-RFLP-cloning-sequencing analysis. Furthermore, time-resolved SIP analysis confirmed that the activity of all these microbes appeared at the earliest stage of degradation. In this methanogenic culture, Desulfobacterales- and Coriobacteriaceae-related bacteria were most likely to be the major benzene degraders. PMID:24909708

Noguchi, Mana; Kurisu, Futoshi; Kasuga, Ikuro; Furumai, Hiroaki

2014-01-01

299

NADH-linked aldose reductase: the key to anaerobic alcoholic fermentation of xylose by yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics and enzymology of d-xylose utilization were studied in aerobic and anaerobic batch cultures of the facultatively fermentative yeasts Candida utilis, Pachysolen tannophilus, and Pichia stipitis. These yeasts did not produce ethanol under aerobic conditions. When shifted to anaerobiosis cultures of C. utilis did not show fermentation of xylose; in Pa. tannophilus a very low rate of ethanol formation

Peter M. Bruinenberg; Peter H. M. Bot; Johannes P. Dijken; W. Alexander Scheffers

1984-01-01

300

Genome characteristics of facultatively symbiotic Frankia sp. strains reflect host range and host plant biogeography  

PubMed Central

Soil bacteria that also form mutualistic symbioses in plants encounter two major levels of selection. One occurs during adaptation to and survival in soil, and the other occurs in concert with host plant speciation and adaptation. Actinobacteria from the genus Frankia are facultative symbionts that form N2-fixing root nodules on diverse and globally distributed angiosperms in the “actinorhizal” symbioses. Three closely related clades of Frankia sp. strains are recognized; members of each clade infect a subset of plants from among eight angiosperm families. We sequenced the genomes from three strains; their sizes varied from 5.43 Mbp for a narrow host range strain (Frankia sp. strain HFPCcI3) to 7.50 Mbp for a medium host range strain (Frankia alni strain ACN14a) to 9.04 Mbp for a broad host range strain (Frankia sp. strain EAN1pec.) This size divergence is the largest yet reported for such closely related soil bacteria (97.8%–98.9% identity of 16S rRNA genes). The extent of gene deletion, duplication, and acquisition is in concert with the biogeographic history of the symbioses and host plant speciation. Host plant isolation favored genome contraction, whereas host plant diversification favored genome expansion. The results support the idea that major genome expansions as well as reductions can occur in facultative symbiotic soil bacteria as they respond to new environments in the context of their symbioses. PMID:17151343

Normand, Philippe; Lapierre, Pascal; Tisa, Louis S.; Gogarten, Johann Peter; Alloisio, Nicole; Bagnarol, Emilie; Bassi, Carla A.; Berry, Alison M.; Bickhart, Derek M.; Choisne, Nathalie; Couloux, Arnaud; Cournoyer, Benoit; Cruveiller, Stephane; Daubin, Vincent; Demange, Nadia; Francino, Maria Pilar; Goltsman, Eugene; Huang, Ying; Kopp, Olga R.; Labarre, Laurent; Lapidus, Alla; Lavire, Celine; Marechal, Joelle; Martinez, Michele; Mastronunzio, Juliana E.; Mullin, Beth C.; Niemann, James; Pujic, Pierre; Rawnsley, Tania; Rouy, Zoe; Schenowitz, Chantal; Sellstedt, Anita; Tavares, Fernando; Tomkins, Jeffrey P.; Vallenet, David; Valverde, Claudio; Wall, Luis G.; Wang, Ying; Medigue, Claudine; Benson, David R.

2007-01-01

301

Buffering capacity and membrane H+ conductance of protease producing facultative alkaliphilic bacterium Bacillus flexus from mangrove soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A facultative alkaliphilic protease-producing gram-positive rod-shaped bacteria (EMGA 5) was isolated from mangrove soil and confirmed as Bacillus flexus by the 16S rDNA sequence. Buffering capacity and membrane H+ conductance of this alkaliphilic isolate were investigated for the cells grown at pH 7.2 and 10.5 using acid pulse technique. Suspensions of B. flexus cells grown in poly peptone yeast glucose

P Kannan; S Ignacimuthu; M Gabriel Paulraj

302

Microbiology of Anaerobic Sludge Fermentation  

PubMed Central

An anaerobic medium containing sludge supernatant fluid and glucose was used for enumeration of bacteria from the sludge fermentation. Comparison of viable counts from several separate samples consistently showed 10 to 100 times more anaerobic than aerobic bacteria. However, viable counts of the various samples differed by as much as 10 times; this variation probably reflects a change in the natural environment or sampling errors, or a combination of the two. Direct microscopic counts yielded values of about 1010/ml. The discrepancy between viable (108 to 109/ml) and direct counts may be due to large numbers of dead cells. Random isolates of representative colonies from high dilutions exhibited the ability to ferment sugars and are not likely to be methane bacteria. PMID:5645419

Mah, Robert A.; Sussman, Carol

1968-01-01

303

Susceptibilities of 428 gram-positive and -negative anaerobic bacteria to Bay y3118 compared with their susceptibilities to ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, metronidazole, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and cefoxitin.  

PubMed Central

The susceptibilities of 428 gram-negative and gram-positive anaerobes (including selected cefoxitin-resistant strains) to Bay y3118 (a new fluoroquinolone), ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, metronidazole, cefoxitin, piperacillin, and piperacillin-tazobactam were tested. Organisms comprised 115 Bacteroides fragilis group, 116 non-B. fragilis Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Porphyromonas spp., 40 fusobacteria, 58 peptostreptococci, 48 gram-positive non-spore-forming rods, and 51 clostridia. beta-Lactamase production was demonstrated in 87% of the gram-negative rods but in none of the gram-positive organisms. Overall, Bay y3118 was the most active agent, with all organisms inhibited at an MIC of < or = 2.0 micrograms/ml (MICs for 50% [MIC50] and 90% [MIC90] of strains tested, 0.125 and 0.5 microgram/ml, respectively). By contrast, ciprofloxacin was much less active, with only 42% of strains susceptible at a breakpoint of 2.0 micrograms/ml (MIC50, 4.0 micrograms/ml; MIC90, 16.0 micrograms/ml). Metronidazole was active against all gram-negative rods, but 7% of peptostreptococci, 83% of gram-positive non-spore-forming rods, and 4% of non-Clostridium perfringens, non-Clostridium difficile clostridia were resistant to this agent (MICs, > 16.0 micrograms/ml). Clindamycin was active against 94% of Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Porphyromonas spp., 91% of peptostreptococci, and 100% of gram-positive non-spore-forming rods, but was active against only 70% of fusobacteria and 53% of clostridia. Cefoxitin was active against > or = 90% of all groups except the B. fragilis group and non-Propionibacterium acnes gram-positive non-spore-forming rods (both 85%) and C. difficile (20%). Significant enhancement of piperacillin by tazobactam was seen in all beta-lactamase-positive strains (99% susceptible; MIC90, 8.0 micrograms/ml), and all beta-lactamase-negative strains were susceptible to piperacillin (MIC90, 8.0 micrograms/ml). Clinical studies are required to delineate the role of Bay y3118 in the treatment of anaerobic infections. PMID:8215278

Pankuch, G A; Jacobs, M R; Appelbaum, P C

1993-01-01

304

Potential competitive exclusion bacteria from poultry inhibitory to Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to isolate from chickens potential competitive exclusion bacteria (CE) that are inhibitory to Campylobacter jejuni or Salmonella, or to both, for subsequent development of a defined CE product for use in poultry. Adult chickens from family farms, commercial farms, and broiler chicken research centers were sampled to identify and select C. jejuni-free donor chickens. A challenge treatment, which included administering perorally 106 CFU C. jejuni per chicken and determining undetectable cecal shedding of campylobacters at 4 weeks, was important for identifying the best CE donor chickens. Screening of bacterial colonies obtained from nine donor chickens by using selective and nonselective media yielded 636 isolates inhibitory to six C. jejuni strains in vitro, with 194 isolates being strongly inhibitory. Of the 194 isolates, 145 were from ceca, and 117 were facultative anaerobic bacteria. One hundred forty-three isolates were inhibitory to six strains of Salmonella (including five different serotypes) in vitro. Of these, 41 were strongly inhibitory to all C. jejuni and Salmonella strains evaluated, and most were Lactobacillus salivarius. A direct overlay method, which involved directly applying soft agar on plates with discrete colonies from mucus scrapings of gastrointestinal tracts, was more effective in isolating CE than was the frequently practiced isolation method of picking and transferring discrete colonies and then overlaying them with soft agar. The best approach for obtaining bacteria highly inhibitory to Salmonella and C. jejuni from chickens was to isolate bacteria from ceca under anaerobic conditions. Free-range chickens from family farms were better donors of potential CE strongly inhibitory to both Salmonella and Campylobacter than were chickens from commercial farms and broiler chicken research centers. PMID:17477254

Zhang, Guodong; Ma, Li; Doyle, Michael P

2007-04-01

305

Selenate Reduction to Elemental Selenium by Anaerobic Bacteria in Sediments and Culture: Biogeochemical Significance of a Novel, Sulfate-Independent Respiration †  

PubMed Central

Interstitial water profiles of SeO42?, SeO32?, SO42?, and Cl? in anoxic sediments indicated removal of the seleno-oxyanions by a near-surface process unrelated to sulfate reduction. In sediment slurry experiments, a complete reductive removal of SeO42? occurred under anaerobic conditions, was more rapid with H2 or acetate, and was inhibited by O2, NO3?, MnO2, or autoclaving but not by SO42? or FeOOH. Oxidation of acetate in sediments could be coupled to selenate but not to molybdate. Reduction of selenate to elemental selenium was determined to be the mechanism for loss from solution. Selenate reduction was inhibited by tungstate and chromate but not by molybdate. A small quantity of the elemental selenium precipitated into sediments from solution could be resolublized by oxidation with either nitrate or FeOOH, but not with MnO2. A bacterium isolated from estuarine sediments demonstrated selenate-dependent growth on acetate, forming elemental selenium and carbon dioxide as respiratory end products. These results indicate that dissimilatory selenate reduction to elemental selenium is the major sink for selenium oxyanions in anoxic sediments. In addition, they suggest application as a treatment process for removing selenium oxyanions from wastewaters and also offer an explanation for the presence of selenite in oxic waters. PMID:16348014

Oremland, Ronald S.; Hollibaugh, James T.; Maest, Ann S.; Presser, Theresa S.; Miller, Laurence G.; Culbertson, Charles W.

1989-01-01

306

The potential of bacteria isolated from ruminal contents of seaweed-eating North Ronaldsay sheep to hydrolyse seaweed components and produce methane by anaerobic digestion in vitro  

PubMed Central

The production of methane biofuel from seaweeds is limited by the hydrolysis of polysaccharides. The rumen microbiota of seaweed-eating North Ronaldsay sheep was studied for polysaccharidic bacterial isolates degrading brown-seaweed polysaccharides. Only nine isolates out of 65 utilized > 90% of the polysaccharide they were isolated on. The nine isolates (eight Prevotella spp. and one Clostridium butyricum) utilized whole Laminaria hyperborea extract and a range of seaweed polysaccharides, including alginate (seven out of nine isolates), laminarin and carboxymethylcellulose (eight out of nine isolates); while two out of nine isolates additionally hydrolysed fucoidan to some extent. Crude enzyme extracts from three of the isolates studied further had diverse glycosidases and polysaccharidase activities; particularly against laminarin and alginate (two isolates were shown to have alginate lyase activity) and notably fucoidan and carageenan (one isolate). In serial culture rumen microbiota hydrolysed a range of seaweed polysaccharides (fucoidan to a notably lesser degree) and homogenates of L. hyperborea, mixed Fucus spp. and Ascophyllum nodosum to produce methane and acetate. The rumen microbiota and isolates represent potential adjunct organisms or enzymes which may improve hydrolysis of seaweed components and thus improve the efficiency of seaweed anaerobic digestion for methane biofuel production. PMID:23170956

Williams, Allan G; Withers, Susan; Sutherland, Alastair D

2013-01-01

307

Complete genome sequences for the anaerobic, extremely thermophilic plant biomass-degrading bacteria Caldicellulosiruptor hydrothermalis, Caldicellulosiruptor kristjanssonii, Caldicellulosiruptor kronotskyensis, Caldicellulosiruptor owensenis, and Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus  

SciTech Connect

The genus Caldicellulosiruptor contains the most thermophilic, plant biomass-degrading bacteria isolated to date. Previously, genome sequences from three cellulolytic members of this genus were reported (C. saccharolyticus, C. bescii, and C. obsidiansis). To further explore the physiological and biochemical basis for polysaccharide degradation within this genus, five additional genomes were sequenced: C. hydrothermalis, C. kristjanssonii, C. kronotskyensis, C. lactoaceticus, and C. owensensis. Taken together, the seven completed and one draft-phase Caldicellulosiruptor genomes suggest that, while central metabolism is highly conserved, significant differences in glycoside hydrolase inventories and numbers of carbohydrate transporters exist, a finding which likely relates to variability observed in plant biomass degradation capacity.

Blumer-Schuette, Sara E. [North Carolina State University; Ozdemir, Inci [North Carolina State University; Mistry, Dhaval [North Carolina State University; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Walston Davenport, Karen [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Adams, Michael W. W. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Kelly, Robert M [North Carolina State University

2011-01-01

308

[Anaerobic paraproctitis].  

PubMed

The authors had 80 patients, most of them (90%) of an old age, with anaerobic paraproctitis. Delayed hospitalization was encountered in 62 cases, in 16 of these cases an erroneous diagnosis had been established. Severe concomitant diseases complicated the course of anaerobic paraproctitis in 80% of cases (in each group of three patients one had diabetes mellitus). The authors describe characteristic clinical manifestations and the course of various forms of anaerobic paraproctitis, the results of bacteriological examination, and the order in which the surgical treatment is applied. They suggest a scheme of drug therapy which is maximally approximated to cleansing of a microbial cenosis, including ultraviolet irradiation of the blood. All these measures allowed the mortality rate to be decreased from 33.3% to 17.7%. PMID:7723255

Koplatadze, A M; Bondarev, Iu A; Egorkin, M A

1994-10-01

309

Forty-five years of developmental biology of photosynthetic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental biology and cell differentiation of photosynthetic prokaryotes are less noticed fields than the showpieces of eukaryotes, e.g. Drosophila melanogaster. The large metabolic versatility of the facultative purple bacteria and their great capability to adapt to different ecological conditions, however, aroused the inquisitiveness to investigate the process of cell differentiation and to use these bacteria as model system to study

Drews Gerhart

1996-01-01

310

Isolation and Identification of Cellulolytic Bacteria from the Gut of Holotrichia parallela Larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).  

PubMed

In this study, 207 strains of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria were isolated from the gut of Holotrichia parallela larvae. These bacterial isolates were assigned to 21 genotypes by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). A partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis and standard biochemical and physiological tests were used for the assignment of the 21 representative isolates. Our results show that the cellulolytic bacterial community is dominated by the Proteobacteria (70.05%), followed by the Actinobacteria (24.15%), the Firmicutes (4.35%), and the Bacteroidetes (1.45%). At the genus level, Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas, Ochrobactrum, Rhizobium, Cellulosimicrobium, and Microbacterium were the predominant groups, but members of Bacillus, Dyadobacter, Siphonobacter, Paracoccus, Kaistia, Devosia, Labrys, Ensifer, Variovorax, Shinella, Citrobacter, and Stenotrophomonas were also found. Furthermore, our results suggest that a significant amount of bacterial diversity exists among the cellulolytic bacteria, and that Siphonobacter aquaeclarae, Cellulosimicrobium funkei, Paracoccus sulfuroxidans, Ochrobactrum cytisi, Ochrobactrum haematophilum, Kaistia adipata, Devosia riboflavina, Labrys neptuniae, Ensifer adhaerens, Shinella zoogloeoides, Citrobacter freundii, and Pseudomonas nitroreducens are reported to be cellulolytic for the first time in this study. Our results indicate that the scarab gut is an attractive source for the study of novel cellulolytic microorganisms and enzymes useful for cellulose degradation. PMID:22489111

Huang, Shengwei; Sheng, Ping; Zhang, Hongyu

2012-01-01

311

Isolation and Identification of Cellulolytic Bacteria from the Gut of Holotrichia parallela Larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)  

PubMed Central

In this study, 207 strains of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria were isolated from the gut of Holotrichia parallela larvae. These bacterial isolates were assigned to 21 genotypes by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). A partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis and standard biochemical and physiological tests were used for the assignment of the 21 representative isolates. Our results show that the cellulolytic bacterial community is dominated by the Proteobacteria (70.05%), followed by the Actinobacteria (24.15%), the Firmicutes (4.35%), and the Bacteroidetes (1.45%). At the genus level, Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas, Ochrobactrum, Rhizobium, Cellulosimicrobium, and Microbacterium were the predominant groups, but members of Bacillus, Dyadobacter, Siphonobacter, Paracoccus, Kaistia, Devosia, Labrys, Ensifer, Variovorax, Shinella, Citrobacter, and Stenotrophomonas were also found. Furthermore, our results suggest that a significant amount of bacterial diversity exists among the cellulolytic bacteria, and that Siphonobacter aquaeclarae, Cellulosimicrobium funkei, Paracoccus sulfuroxidans, Ochrobactrum cytisi, Ochrobactrum haematophilum, Kaistia adipata, Devosia riboflavina, Labrys neptuniae, Ensifer adhaerens, Shinella zoogloeoides, Citrobacter freundii, and Pseudomonas nitroreducens are reported to be cellulolytic for the first time in this study. Our results indicate that the scarab gut is an attractive source for the study of novel cellulolytic microorganisms and enzymes useful for cellulose degradation. PMID:22489111

Huang, Shengwei; Sheng, Ping; Zhang, Hongyu

2012-01-01

312

Activities of four frog skin-derived antimicrobial peptides (temporin-1DRa, temporin-1Va and the melittin-related peptides AR-23 and RV-23) against anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

The activities of two antimicrobial peptides belonging to the temporin family (temporin-1DRa from Rana draytonii and temporin-1Va from Rana virgatipes) and two peptides with structural similarity to the bee venom peptide melittin (AR-23 from Rana tagoi and RV-23 from R. draytonii) were evaluated against a range of reference strains and clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria. These peptides were selected because they show broad-spectrum growth inhibitory activity against reference strains of several medically important aerobic microorganisms and against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. All peptides showed relatively high potency (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)

Urbán, Edit; Nagy, Elisabeth; Pál, Tibor; Sonnevend, Agnes; Conlon, J Michael

2007-03-01

313

Methanotrophic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Methane-utilizing bacteria (methanotrophs) are a diverse group of gram-negative bacteria that are related to other members of the Proteobacteria. These bacteria are classified into three groups based on the pathways used for assimilation of formaldehyde, the major source of cell carbon, and other physiological and morphological features. The type I and type X methanotrophs are found within the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria and employ the ribulose monophosphate pathway for formaldehyde assimilation, whereas type II methanotrophs, which employ the serine pathway for formaldehyde assimilation, form a coherent cluster within the beta subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Methanotrophic bacteria are ubiquitous. The growth of type II bacteria appears to be favored in environments that contain relatively high levels of methane, low levels of dissolved oxygen, and limiting concentrations of combined nitrogen and/or copper. Type I methanotrophs appear to be dominant in environments in which methane is limiting and combined nitrogen and copper levels are relatively high. These bacteria serve as biofilters for the oxidation of methane produced in anaerobic environments, and when oxygen is present in soils, atmospheric methane is oxidized. Their activities in nature are greatly influenced by agricultural practices and other human activities. Recent evidence indicates that naturally occurring, uncultured methanotrophs represent new genera. Methanotrophs that are capable of oxidizing methane at atmospheric levels exhibit methane oxidation kinetics different from those of methanotrophs available in pure cultures. A limited number of methanotrophs have the genetic capacity to synthesize a soluble methane monooxygenase which catalyzes the rapid oxidation of environmental pollutants including trichloroethylene. PMID:8801441

Hanson, R S; Hanson, T E

1996-01-01

314

Anaerobic Metabolism and Bioremediation of Explosives-Contaminated Soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitroaromatic compounds pollute soil, water, and food via use of pesticides, plastics, pharmaceuticals, landfill dumping of industrial wastes, and the military use of explosives. Biotransformation of trinitrotoluene and other nitroaromatics by aerobic bacteria in the laboratory has been frequently reported, but the anaerobic bacterial metabolism of nitroaromatics has not been studied as extensively perhaps due to the difficulty in working with anaerobic cultures and the slow growth of anaerobes. Sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria can metabolize nitroaromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions if appropriate electron donors and electron acceptors are present in the environment.

Boopathy, Raj

315

Anaerobic Metabolism 1 ANAEROBIC METABOLISM  

E-print Network

to aerobic metabolsm. This said, it is not uncommon to hear microbiologists talk about anaerobic respiration and respiration together since respiration historically implies breathing. Breathing, of course, is closely tied and if respiration is thought of as the catabolic pathways that yield ATP for other reactions, then this is certainly

Prestwich, Ken

316

Antibacterial activity of medicinal plant extracts against periodontopathic bacteria.  

PubMed

This study was performed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Althaea officinalis L. roots, Arnica montana L. flowers, Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hamamelis virginiana L. leaves, Illicium verum Hook. fruits and Melissa officinalis L. leaves, against anaerobic and facultative aerobic periodontal bacteria: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella spp., Fusobacterium nucleatum, Capnocytophaga gingivalis, Veilonella parvula, Eikenella corrodens, Peptostreptococcus micros and Actinomyces odontolyticus. The methanol extracts of H. virginiana and A. montana and, to a lesser extent, A. officinalis were shown to possess an inhibiting activity (MIC < or = 2048 mg/L) against many of the species tested. In comparison, M. officinalis and C. officinalis extracts had a lower inhibiting activity (MIC > or = 2048 mg/L) against all the tested species with the exception of Prevotella sp. Illicium verum methanol extract was not very active though it had a particular good activity against E. corrodens. The results suggest the use of the alcohol extracts of H. virginiana, A. montana and A. officinalis for topical medications in periodontal prophylactics. PMID:12820224

Iauk, L; Lo Bue, A M; Milazzo, I; Rapisarda, A; Blandino, G

2003-06-01

317

Fg/tudiants/AESS/formulaires/Facult Pharma.Conv.Stage 26/08/2013 1/3 FACULTE DE PHARMACIE Anne acadmique  

E-print Network

Fg/étudiants/AESS/formulaires/Faculté Pharma.Conv.Stage 26/08/2013 1/3 FACULTE DE PHARMACIE Année stage : école qui accueille le stagiaire #12;Fg/étudiants/AESS/formulaires/Faculté Pharma.Conv.Stage 26

Cerf, Nicolas

318

Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)—asexual reproduction by bisexual species—has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes—the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted. PMID:22977071

Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F.; Eskridge, Pamela H.; Hoss, Shannon K.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Schuett, Gordon W.

2012-01-01

319

Biochemistry and Evolution of Anaerobic Energy Metabolism in Eukaryotes  

PubMed Central

Summary: Major insights into the phylogenetic distribution, biochemistry, and evolutionary significance of organelles involved in ATP synthesis (energy metabolism) in eukaryotes that thrive in anaerobic environments for all or part of their life cycles have accrued in recent years. All known eukaryotic groups possess an organelle of mitochondrial origin, mapping the origin of mitochondria to the eukaryotic common ancestor, and genome sequence data are rapidly accumulating for eukaryotes that possess anaerobic mitochondria, hydrogenosomes, or mitosomes. Here we review the available biochemical data on the enzymes and pathways that eukaryotes use in anaerobic energy metabolism and summarize the metabolic end products that they generate in their anaerobic habitats, focusing on the biochemical roles that their mitochondria play in anaerobic ATP synthesis. We present metabolic maps of compartmentalized energy metabolism for 16 well-studied species. There are currently no enzymes of core anaerobic energy metabolism that are specific to any of the six eukaryotic supergroup lineages; genes present in one supergroup are also found in at least one other supergroup. The gene distribution across lineages thus reflects the presence of anaerobic energy metabolism in the eukaryote common ancestor and differential loss during the specialization of some lineages to oxic niches, just as oxphos capabilities have been differentially lost in specialization to anoxic niches and the parasitic life-style. Some facultative anaerobes have retained both aerobic and anaerobic pathways. Diversified eukaryotic lineages have retained the same enzymes of anaerobic ATP synthesis, in line with geochemical data indicating low environmental oxygen levels while eukaryotes arose and diversified. PMID:22688819

Muller, Miklos; Mentel, Marek; van Hellemond, Jaap J.; Henze, Katrin; Woehle, Christian; Gould, Sven B.; Yu, Re-Young; van der Giezen, Mark

2012-01-01

320

[Anaerobic paraproctitis].  

PubMed

Anaerobic paraproctitis (AP) was seen in 8.6% of 1057 cases with acute paraproctitis. Severe general condition of the patient, vast damage, fetid wound secretion, extensive detachment and necrosis of tissues were the main AP symptoms. Radical excision of affected tissues with daily revision and sanatation in combination with intensive general therapy permits to reduce mortality to 4.3%. In early postoperative period reversible insufficiency of anal sphincter developed in 16.1% AP patients. It is necessary to close wounds as early as possible. Perforated cutaneous pedicle flap from posterior wall of the scrotum may be successfully used for plastic repair of perineum wound. PMID:12418322

Trenin, S O; Gel'fenbe?n, L S; Shishkov, A V

2002-01-01

321

Evaluation of Fastidious Anaerobe Broth as a blood culture medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three commercial blood culture media were compared with a freshly prepared cooked meat medium in tests to stimulate the recovery of small inocula of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria in routine blood cultures. The cooked meat medium gave the most reliable recovery and supported continued viability, whilst Fastidious Anaerobe Broth (LAB M) was a good alternative. Results with Southern Group thioglycollate

L A Ganguli; L J Turton; G S Tillotson

1982-01-01

322

The diversity and fitness effects of infection with facultative endosymbionts in the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae.  

PubMed

Mutualisms with facultative, non-essential heritable microorganisms influence the biology of many insects, and they can have major effects on insect host fitness in certain situations. One of the best-known examples is found in aphids where the facultative endosymbiotic bacterium Hamiltonella defensa confers protection against hymenopterous parasitoids. This symbiont is widely distributed in aphids and related insects, yet its defensive properties have only been tested in two aphid species. In a wild population of the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, we identified several distinct strains of endosymbiotic bacteria, including Hamiltonella. The symbiont had no consistent effect on grain aphid fecundity, though we did find a significant interaction between aphid genotype by symbiont status. In contrast to findings in other aphid species, Hamiltonella did not reduce aphid susceptibility to two species of parasitoids (Aphidius ervi and Ephedrus plagiator), nor did it affect the fitness of wasps that successfully completed development. Despite this, experienced females of both parasitoid species preferentially oviposited into uninfected hosts when given a choice between genetically identical individuals with or without Hamiltonella. Thus, although Hamiltonella does not always increase resistance to parasitism, it may reduce the risk of parasitism in its aphid hosts by making them less attractive to searching parasitoids. PMID:23624672

?ukasik, Piotr; Dawid, Maciej A; Ferrari, Julia; Godfray, H Charles J

2013-11-01

323

A novel methyl transferase induced by osmotic stress in the facultative halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.  

PubMed Central

Molecular mechanisms of osmotic stress tolerance were studied in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (ice plant), a facultative halophyte capable of adjusting to and surviving in highly saline conditions. We screened a subtracted cDNA library enriched for salt stress-induced mRNAs to identify transcripts involved in this plant's adaptation to salinity. One mRNA, Imt1, was found to be up-regulated in leaves and, transiently, in roots. Nuclear run-on assays indicated that this mRNA is transcriptionally regulated. Imt1 encoded a predicted polypeptide of M(r) 40,250 which exhibited sequence similarity to several hydroxymethyl transferases. Expression of the protein in Escherichia coli and subsequent activity assays identified the protein as a novel myoinositol O-methyl transferase which catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of the cyclic sugar alcohol pinitol. Pinitol accumulates in salt-stressed M.crystallinum and is abundant in a number of salt- and drought-tolerant plants. The presence of high levels of sugar alcohols correlates with osmotolerance in a diverse range of organisms, including bacteria, fungi and algae, as well as higher plants. The stress-initiated transcriptional induction of IMT1 expression in a facultative halophyte provides strong support for the importance of sugar alcohols in establishing tolerance to osmotic stress in higher plants. Images PMID:1600940

Vernon, D M; Bohnert, H J

1992-01-01

324

Unrelated facultative endosymbionts protect aphids against a fungal pathogen.  

PubMed

The importance of microbial facultative endosymbionts to insects is increasingly being recognized, but our understanding of how the fitness effects of infection are distributed across symbiont taxa is limited. In the pea aphid, some of the seven known species of facultative symbionts influence their host's resistance to natural enemies, including parasitoid wasps and a pathogenic fungus. Here we show that protection against this entomopathogen, Pandora neoaphidis, can be conferred by strains of four distantly related symbionts (in the genera Regiella, Rickettsia, Rickettsiella and Spiroplasma). They reduce mortality and also decrease fungal sporulation on dead aphids which may help protect nearby genetically identical insects. Pea aphids thus obtain protection from natural enemies through association with a wider range of microbial associates than has previously been thought. Providing resistance against natural enemies appears to be a particularly common way for facultative endosymbionts to increase in frequency within host populations. PMID:23137173

?ukasik, Piotr; van Asch, Margriet; Guo, Huifang; Ferrari, Julia; Godfray, H Charles J

2013-02-01

325

Oceanobacillus indicireducens sp. nov., a facultative alkaliphile that reduces an indigo dye.  

PubMed

An indigo-reducing facultatively alkaliphilic and halophilic strain, designated strain A21(T), was isolated from a fermented Polygonum indigo (Polygonum tinctorium Lour.) liquor sample aged for 4 days prepared in a laboratory. 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny suggested that strain A21(T) was a member of the genus Oceanobacillus with the closest relative being the type strain of Oceanobacillus chironomi (similarity: 96.0?%). The cells of the isolate stained Gram-positive and were facultatively anaerobic straight rods that were motile by peritrichous flagella. The strain grew between 18 and 48 °C with optimum growth at 39 °C. It grew in the pH range of 7-12. It hydrolysed casein, gelatin and Tween 20 but not Tweens 40, 60 and 80, starch or DNA. No isoprenoid quinone was detected and the DNA G+C content was 39.7 mol%. The whole-cell fatty acid profile mainly consisted of iso-C15?:?0, anteiso-C15?:?0 and C16?:?0. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments with O. chironomi revealed 13?% relatedness. Owing to the differences in phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, and phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and DNA-DNA relatedness data from reported Oceanobacillus species, the isolate merits classification as a representative of a novel species, for which the name Oceanobacillus indicireducens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is A21(T) (?=?JCM 17251(T) ?=?NCIMB 14685(T)). The description of the genus Oceanobacillus is also emended. PMID:22843722

Hirota, Kikue; Aino, Kenichi; Nodasaka, Yoshinobu; Yumoto, Isao

2013-04-01

326

Oceanobacillus polygoni sp. nov., a facultatively alkaliphile isolated from indigo fermentation fluid.  

PubMed

A facultatively alkaliphilic, lactic-acid-producing and halophilic strain, designated SA9(T), was isolated from a fermented Polygonum indigo (Polygonum tinctorium Lour.) liquor sample prepared in a laboratory. The 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny suggested that strain SA9(T) was a member of the genus Oceanobacillus with the closest relative being Oceanobacillus profundus KCCM 42318(T) (99.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). Cells of strain SA9(T) stained Gram-positive and were facultative anaerobic straight rods that were motile by peritrichous flagella. The strain grew between 5 and 48 °C (optimum, 35 °C) and at pH 7-12 (optimum, pH 9). The isoprenoid quinone detected was menaquinone-7 (MK-7) and the DNA G+C content was 40.6 ± 0.9 mol%. The whole-cell fatty acid profile mainly consisted of iso-C(15:0), anteiso-C(15:0), C(16:0) and anteiso-C(17:0). DNA-DNA hybridization with Oceanobacillus profundus DSM 18246(T) revealed a DNA-DNA relatedness value of 23 ± 2%. On the basis of the differences in phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, and the results of phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and DNA-DNA relatedness data from recognized species of the genus Oceanobacillus, strain SA9(T) merits classification as a representative of a novel species of the genus Oceanobacillus, for which the name Oceanobacillus polygoni sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SA9(T) (?=JCM 17252(T)?=NCIMB 14684(T)). An emended description of the genus Oceanobacillus is also provided. PMID:23504965

Hirota, Kikue; Hanaoka, Yoshiko; Nodasaka, Yoshinobu; Yumoto, Isao

2013-09-01

327

New perspectives on anaerobic methane oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Anaerobic methane oxidation is a globally important but poorly understood process. Four lines of evidence have recently improved our understanding of this process. First, studies of recent marine sediments indicate that a consortium of methanogens and sulphate-reducing bacteria are responsible for anae- robic methane oxidation; a mechanism of 'reverse methanogenesis' was proposed, based on the prin- ciple of interspecies

David L. Valentine; William S. Reeburgh

2000-01-01

328

Isolation andPresumptive Identification ofAdherent Epithelial Bacteria (\\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Onehundredsixty-one strains ofadherent bacteria were isolated underanaer- obicconditions fromfoursites on therumen epithelial surface ofsheepfedhay or a hay-grain ration. Before isolation ofbacteria, rumen tissue was washedsix timesinan anaerobic dilution solution, andviable bacteria suspended inthe washings were counted. Calculation indicated thatunattached bacteria would havebeenremovedfromthetissue bythisprocedure, buta slowandprogressive release ofattached bacteria alsooccurred. Nevertheless, a widerangeofcharac- teristic morphological typesremained associated withtheepithelium as demon- strated

LORNA J. MEAD; G. A. JONES

1981-01-01

329

Evaluation of the Oxyrase OxyPlate Anaerobe Incubation System  

PubMed Central

The Oxyrase OxyPlate anaerobe incubation system was evaluated for its ability to support the growth of clinically significant anaerobic bacteria previously identified by the Anaerobe Reference Laboratory at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The results were compared with those obtained with conventional anaerobe blood agar plates incubated in an anaerobe chamber. We tested 251 anaerobic bacterial strains. Plates were read at 24, 48, and 72 h; growth was scored by a numerical coding system that combines the degree of growth and the colony size. Organisms (number of strains tested) used in this study were Actinomyces (32), Anaerobiospirillum (8), Bacteroides (39), Campylobacter (8), Clostridium (96), Fusobacterium (12), Leptotrichia (8), Mobiluncus (8), Peptostreptococcus (16), and Propionibacterium (24). At 24 h, 101 (40.2%) of the 251 strains tested showed better growth with the anaerobe chamber than with the OxyPlate system, 10 (4.1%) showed better growth with the OxyPlate system, and the remaining 140 (55.8%) showed equal growth with both systems. At 48 h, 173 (68.9%) showed equal growth with both systems, while 78 (31.1%) showed better growth with the anaerobe chamber. At 72 h, 176 (70.1%) showed equal growth with both systems, while 75 (29.9%) showed better growth with the anaerobe chamber. The OxyPlate system performed well for the most commonly isolated anaerobes but was inadequate for some strains. These results indicate that the Oxyrase OxyPlate system was effective in creating an anaerobic atmosphere and supporting the growth of anaerobic bacteria within 72 h. OxyPlates would be a useful addition to the clinical microbiology laboratory lacking resources for traditional anaerobic culturing techniques. PMID:10655335

Wiggs, Lois S.; Cavallaro, Joseph J.; Miller, J. Michael

2000-01-01

330

Nitroimidazoles: in vitro activity and efficacy in anaerobic infections.  

PubMed

Nitroimidazoles, including metronidazole, tinidazole and ornidazole, are low molecular weight antimicrobial compounds with excellent activity against anaerobic microorganisms. These compounds are usually bactericidal at low concentrations and their spectrum of activity encompasses almost all the anaerobic bacteria and some capnophylic organisms. The few anaerobic bacteria known to be resistant to the nitroimidazoles include occasional anaerobic cocci, some nonsporing gram positive bacilli and Propionibacterium. Nitroimidazoles are the most active antimicrobial agents known against Bacteroides fragilis, the most resistant of anaerobic bacteria. Kill-curve studies demonstrate that there is a 2 to 5 log decrease in the number of colony forming units with Bacteroides fragilis and clostridium perfringens within one hour. The killing is unaffected by inoculum, growth rate or components of the medium. However, a metronidazole resistant isolate of B. fragilis has been shown to have decreased ability to take up 14C-metronidazole as well as lessened ability to reduce metronidazole. This is associated with a decrease in the nitroreductase activity. The in vitro observations have also been demonstrated in vivo. Clinical studies have shown nitroimidazoles to be efficacious in the therapy of a variety of anaerobic infections including non-traumatic brain abscess, intraabdominal abscesses, pelvic suppuration and necrotizing soft tissue infections. However, there have been disappointing results in the therapy of anaerobic pleuropulmonary infections, with a number of superinfections caused by aerobic bacteria. PMID:6941456

Tally, F P; Goldin, B; Sullivan, N E

1981-01-01

331

LOW PATHOGENIC POTENTIAL IN HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA FROM POTABLE WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Forty-five isolates of HPC bacteria, most of which express virulence-related characteristics are being tested for pathogenicity in immunocompromised mice. All forty-five were negative for facultative intracellular pathogenicity. All twenty-three isolates tested thus far were a...

332

Microcosm studies of subsurface PAH-degrading bacteria from a former manufactured gas plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was conducted to evaluate the potential for natural in situ biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) in the subsurface at the site of a former manufactured gas plant. Fifty-seven samples of unconsolidated subsurface sediments were aseptically obtained from five boreholes across the site. Bacteria capable of aerobically degrading PAH's without an acclimation period were detected throughout shallow (2.7 m) and deep (24.7 m) areas of the subsurface in both relatively clean (<20 ?g L -1 naphthalene) and contaminated (4400 ?g L -1 naphthalene) zones. Significant ( p < 0.05) quantities of naphthalene (8±3% to 43±7%) and/or phenanthrene (3±1% to 31±3%) were mineralized in sediment-groundwater microcosms during 4 weeks of aerobic incubation at 22°C. Three samples out of 11 were able to aerobically mineralize significant quantities of benzene (6±2% to 24±1%). Of 11 samples tested for anaerobic mineralization, naphthalene biodegradation (7±1% to 13±2%) in the presence of N03 was observed in two samples. Compound removals were first order with respect to substrate concentration during the first 10-15 days of incubation. Compound biodegradation plateaued in the later stages of incubation (15-40 days), most likely from diminishing bioavailability and nutrient and oxygen depletion. Population densities in the sediments were typically low, with viable aerobic counts ranging from 0 to 10 5 CFU gdw -1, viable anaerobic counts ranging from 0 to 104 CFU gdw -1, and total counts (AODC) usually 10-fold greater than viable counts. Total counts exhibited a strong ( p < 0.01) positive correlation with sample grain size. Viable aerobic and anaerobic populations commonly occurred in the same sample, suggesting the presence of facultative anaerobes. Bacteria were metabolically active in samples from groundwaters with low pH (3.7) and high naphthalene concentrations (11,000 ?g L -1). Data from these enumeration and microcosm studies suggest that natural in situ biodegradation is occurring at the site.

Durant, Neal D.; Wilson, Liza P.; Bouwer, Edward J.

1995-01-01

333

Thioredoxin is Essential for Rhodobacter Sphaeroides Growth by Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the biological role of thioredoxin in the facultative photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacfer sphaeroides, attempts were made to construct a thioredoxin-def icient mutant by site-specif ic mutagenesis, using the Tn903 kanamycin resistance gene for selection. In situ and Southern hybridization analyses have demonstrated that the TmA- mutation is lethal for R. sphaeroides growth under anaerobic conditions with DMSO as terminal

Cede Pasternak; K. Assemat; J. D. Clement-Metral; G. Klug

1997-01-01

334

In vitro activity of Bay 12-8039, a new 8-methoxyquinolone, compared to the activities of 11 other oral antimicrobial agents against 390 aerobic and anaerobic bacteria isolated from human and animal bite wound skin and soft tissue infections in humans.  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activity of Bay 12-8039, a new oral 8-methoxyquinolone, was compared to the activities of 11 other oral antimicrobial agents (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ofloxacin, sparfloxacin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, amoxicillin clavulanate, penicillin, cefuroxime, cefpodoxime, and doxycycline) against 250 aerobic and 140 anaerobic bacteria recently isolated from animal and human bite wound infections. Bay 12-8039 was active against all aerobic isolates, both gram-positive and gram-negative isolates, at < or = 1.0 microg/ml (MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited [MIC90s < or = 0.25 microg/ml) and was active against most anaerobes at < or = 0.5 microg/ml; the exceptions were Fusobacterium nucleatum and other Fusobacterium species (MIC90s, > or = 4.0 microg/ml) and one strain of Prevotella loeschii (MICs, 2.0 microg/ml). In comparison, the other quinolones tested had similar in vitro activities against the aerobic strains but were less active against the anaerobes, including peptostreptococci, Porphyromonas species, and Prevotella species. The fusobacteria were relatively resistant to all the antimicrobial agents tested except penicillin G (one penicillinase-producing strain of F. nucleatum was found) and amoxicillin clavulanate. PMID:9210683

Goldstein, E J; Citron, D M; Hudspeth, M; Hunt Gerardo, S; Merriam, C V

1997-01-01

335

Facultative Lagoons. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The textual material for a unit on facultative lagoons is presented in this student manual. Topic areas discussed include: (1) loading; (2) microbial theory; (3) structure and design; (4) process control; (5) lagoon start-up; (6) data handling and analysis; (7) lagoon maintenance (considering visual observations, pond structure, safety, odor,…

Andersen, Lorri

336

Schooling properties of an obligate and a facultative fish species  

E-print Network

Schooling properties of an obligate and a facultative fish species M. SORIA* , P. FREON § and P, Nouvelle-Calédonie, France Schooling fish species are conventionally subdivided into obligate interactions, Schooling behaviour, Polarity, Pelagic fish Running headline: Schooling properties of two fish

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

337

Facult des arts et des sciences Dpartement de communication  

E-print Network

Faculté des arts et des sciences Département de communication Plans de cours cadre Cours des programmes de premier cycle en sciences de la communication Comité des études de premier cycle Adopté par l..................................................................................................................................3 COM 1150 Rédaction en communication 1

Parrott, Lael

338

Formation of facultative heterochromatin in the absence of HP1  

PubMed Central

Facultative heterochromatin is a cytological manifestation of epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression. Constitutive heterochromatin is marked by distinctive histone H3 methylation and the presence of HP1 proteins, but the chromatin modifications of facultative heterochromatin are less clear. We have examined histone modifications and HP1 in the facultative heterochromatin of nucleated erythrocytes and show that mouse and chicken erythrocytes have different mechanisms of heterochromatin formation. Mouse embryonic erythrocytes have abundant HP1, increased tri-methylation of H3 at K9 and loss of H3 tri-methylation at K27. In contrast, we show that HP1 proteins are lost during the differentiation of chicken erythrocytes, and that H3 tri-methylation at both K9 and K27 is reduced. This coincides with the appearance of the variant linker histone H5. HP1s are also absent from erythrocytes of Xenopus and zebrafish. Our data show that in the same cell lineage there are different mechanisms for forming facultative heterochromatin in vertebrates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cell types that lack HP1s and that have gross changes in the levels of histone modifications. PMID:14532126

Gilbert, Nick; Boyle, Shelagh; Sutherland, Heidi; de Las Heras, Jose; Allan, James; Jenuwein, Thomas; Bickmore, Wendy A.

2003-01-01

339

Supplementary Information Pre-enrichment procedure for enhanced start-up of anaerobic facultatively  

E-print Network

biocathodes. Pre-enrichment (with e- donor/ substrate in batch culture) Inoculation of BES cathode chamber-enrichment with glucose in batch culture (2 weeks) Inoculation of BES cathode chamber + acclimation with glucose (2 weeks zero of BES operation are from degassing of medium and reactor headspace with 20% CO2 and from sodium

340

Spore-Forming Bacteria that Resist Sterilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A report presents a phenotypic and genotypic characterization of a bacterial species that has been found to be of the genus Bacillus and has been tentatively named B. odysseensis because it was isolated from surfaces of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft as part of continuing research on techniques for sterilizing spacecraft to prevent contamination of remote planets by terrestrial species. B. odysseensis is a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that forms round spores. The exosporium has been conjectured to play a role in the elevated resistance to sterilization. Research on the exosporium is proposed as a path toward improved means of sterilization, medical treatment, and prevention of biofouling.

LaDuc, Myron; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

2003-01-01

341

Bacteremia After Tooth Extractions Studied with the Aid of Prereduced Anaerobically Sterilized Culture Media  

PubMed Central

Both prereduced molten agar and broth and aerobic molten agar and broth were inoculated with blood samples collected from patients with periodontitis, but in otherwise good health, both before and after extraction of two or more teeth. Postoperative blood samples from 23 of 25 patients sampled yielded anaerobic and facultative species. Colony counts from nine samples yielded from less than 1 to over 100 colonies per ml of blood. Organisms detected were species belonging to the genera Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Peptostreptococcus, Leptotrichia, Propionibacterium, Peptococcus, Veillonella, plus Streptococcus mitis, S. salivarius, vibrio forms, and strains resembling S. mutans. The data indicate that prereduced anaerobically sterilized culture medium with polyanethol sulfonate is effective for detecting anaerobic species in bacteremia and that anaerobic species can be prevalent in bacteremias immediately after tooth extraction in patients with periodontitis. Images PMID:4598226

Crawford, James J.; Sconyers, J. R.; Moriarty, John D.; King, Ronald C.; West, Jeffrey F.

1974-01-01

342

Anaerobic alkalithermophiles, a novel group of extremophiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although some anaerobic and aerobic mesophiles have long been known to grow at alkaline pH (above 9.5), little was known\\u000a until recently about thermophilic alkaliphiles, termed now alkalithermophiles. This minireview describes presently known and\\u000a recently validly described anaerobic alkalithermophilic bacteria (pHopt\\u000a 55C > 8.5; Topt > 55°C) and alkalitolerant thermophiles (pHopt\\u000a 55C max\\u000a 55C above 9.0). Some of these are

Juergen Wiegel

1998-01-01

343

Anaerobic electron acceptor chemotaxis in Shewanella putrefaciens  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shewanella putrefaciens MR-1 can grow either aerobically or anaerobically at the expense of many different electron acceptors and is often found in abundance at redox interfaces in nature. Such redox interfaces are often characterized by very strong gradients of electron acceptors resulting from rapid microbial metabolism. The coincidence of S. putrefaciens abundance with environmental gradients prompted an examination of the ability of MR-1 to sense and respond to electron acceptor gradients in the laboratory. In these experiments, taxis to the majority of the electron acceptors that S. putrefaciens utilizes for anaerobic growth was seen. All anaerobic electron acceptor taxis was eliminated by the presence of oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, elemental sulfur, or dimethyl sulfoxide, even though taxis to the latter was very weak and nitrate and nitrite respiration was normal in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide. Studies with respiratory mutants of MR-1 revealed that several electron acceptors that could not be used for anaerobic growth nevertheless elicited normal anaerobic taxis. Mutant M56, which was unable to respire nitrite, showed normal taxis to nitrite, as well as the inhibition of taxis to other electron acceptors by nitrite. These results indicate that electron acceptor taxis in S. putrefaciens does not conform to the paradigm established for Escherichia coli and several other bacteria. Carbon chemo-taxis was also unusual in this organism: of all carbon compounds tested, the only positive response observed was to formate under anaerobic conditions.

Nealson, K. H.; Moser, D. P.; Saffarini, D. A.

1995-01-01

344

Symbiosis of methanogenic bacteria and sapropelic protozoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescent bacteria were demonstrated to be abundantly spread as single cells throughout the cytoplasm of the giant amoeba Pelomyxa palustris, the sapropelic ciliate Metopus striatus and six other anaerobic protozoa examined. The endosymbionts of P. palustris and M. striatus were identified as methanogenic bacteria on the basis of the presence of the deazaflavin coenzyme F420 and the pterin compound F342.

Johan J. A. van Bruggen; Claudius K. Stumm; Godfried D. Vogels

1983-01-01

345

Bile salt biotransformations by human intestinal bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary bile acids, produced solely by intesti- nal bacteria, can accumulate to high levels in the enter- ohepatic circulation of some individuals and may contribute to the pathogenesis of colon cancer, gallstones, and other gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. Bile salt hydrolysis and hy- droxy group dehydrogenation reactions are carried out by a broad spectrum of intestinal anaerobic bacteria, whereas bile acid

Jason M. Ridlon; Dae-Joong Kang; Phillip B. Hylemon

2005-01-01

346

Arsenite-oxidizing and arsenate-reducing bacteria associated with arsenic-rich groundwater in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Drinking highly arsenic-contaminated groundwater is a likely cause of blackfoot disease in Taiwan, but microorganisms that potentially control arsenic mobility in the subsurface remain unstudied. The objective of this study was to investigate the relevant arsenite-oxidizing and arsenate-reducing microbial community that exists in highly arsenic-contaminated groundwater in Taiwan. We cultured and identified arsenic-transforming bacteria, analyzed arsenic resistance and transformation, and determined the presence of genetic markers for arsenic transformation. In total, 11 arsenic-transforming bacterial strains with different colony morphologies and varying arsenic transformation abilities were isolated, including 10 facultative anaerobic arsenate-reducing bacteria and one strictly aerobic arsenite-oxidizing bacterium. All of the isolates exhibited high levels of arsenic resistance with minimum inhibitory concentrations of arsenic ranging from 2 to 200 mM. Strain AR-11 was able to rapidly oxidize arsenite to arsenate at concentrations relevant to environmental groundwater samples without the addition of any electron donors or acceptors. We provide evidence that arsenic-reduction activity may be conferred by the ars operon(s) that were not amplified by the designed primers currently in use. The 16S rRNA sequence analysis grouped the isolates into the following genera: Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Psychrobacter, Vibrio, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, and Bosea. Among these genera, we present the first report of the genus Psychrobacter being involved in arsenic reduction. Our results further support the hypothesis that bacteria capable of either oxidizing arsenite or reducing arsenate coexist and are ubiquitous in arsenic-contaminated groundwater. PMID:21216490

Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan; Chu, Yu-Ju; Su, Yu-Chen; Hsiao, Sung-Yun; Wei, Chia-Cheng; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Liao, Chung-Min; Shen, Wei-Chiang; Chang, Fi-John

2011-04-01

347

Identification and phylogenetic analysis of new sulfate-reducing bacteria isolated from oilfield samples.  

PubMed

Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) caused by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) has been investigated in an oilfield injection water system. Strain CW-01 was isolated from an oilfield and strain CW-04 was isolated from biofilm dirt of pipeline walls. The strains were facultative anaerobes, non-motile, Gram-positive, pole flagellum, and spore-forming curved rods. The growth was observed over the temperature range 20-70 degrees C. Strain CW-01 grew optimally at 37 degrees C. The pH range for growth was 3.0-11, optimal at pH 6.0. Strain CW-04 grew optimally at 48 degrees C. The pH range for growth was 3.0-10, optimal at pH 7.2. The strains grew at a very broad range of salt concentrations. Optimal growth was observed with 1.5 g/L NaCl for strain CW-01 and 0.7 g/L NaCl for strain CW-04. The strains showed most similarity in physiological characteristics, except for acetone and saccharose. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences allowed strains CW-01 and CW-04 to be classified into the genus Desulfotomaculum. The corrosion speciality of the strains had been comparatively investigated. Especially SRB's growth curve, bearable oxygen capability, drug fastness and corrosion rate had been analyzed. The results showed that it is difficult to prevent bacterial corrosion caused by these two strains. PMID:19526722

Chen, Wu; Xiang, Fu; Fu, Jie; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Wenjun; Zeng, Qingfu; Yu, Longjiang

2009-01-01

348

Multihost saprobes are facultative pathogens of bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus eggs.  

PubMed

Pathogens that infect more than one host species create complex linkages in ecological communities. We tested whether saprobes that grow on multiple host species in aquatic systems can be facultative pathogens of amphibian eggs. We isolated oomycetes from dead arthropods, vertebrates, plant leaves, and frog eggs that coexisted in a small pond. Analysis of internal transcribed spacer regions of rDNA (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) indicated that several of the strains colonized more than one substrate, including bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus eggs. In a controlled experiment, isolates from 7 different host species were pathogenic to L. catesbeianus eggs. These results demonstrate that dead organisms can serve as reservoirs for facultative pathogens. PMID:23047187

Ruthig, Gregory R; Provost-Javier, Katie N

2012-10-10

349

Facult des Sciences Appliques Anne Acadmique 2009-2010  

E-print Network

Faculté des Sciences Appliquées Année Académique 2009-2010 Prediction of breast cancer survival explores a new machine learning technique to predict the clinical outcome of breast cancer patients. Breast résultats cliniques des patients atteints d'un cancer du sein. Le cancer du sein est une des causes les plus

Libre de Bruxelles, Université

350

Vespa dybowskii André as a facultative temporary social parasite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vespa dybowskii André can establish the nest either by the independent foundation like as other hornets, or by the usurpation of the nests ofV. crabro L. orV. xanthoptera Cameron already established. Namely, this hornet belongs to the facultative temporary social parasite like asVespula squamosa (Drury) and certain bumblebees. The marked aggressiveness of this hornet and other biological observations were described

Shoichi F. Sakagami; Kuni'ichi Fukushima

1957-01-01

351

Cellulase Production by Pink Pigmented Facultative Methylotrophic Strains (PPFMs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pink pigmented facultative methylotrophs (PPFM) isolated from water samples of Cooum and Adyar rivers in Chennai and soil\\u000a samples of forests located in various districts of Tamil Nadu, India were screened for cellulase production using carboxymethylcellulose\\u000a agar (CMC agar) medium. The strains showed wide variations in the production of clearing zones around the colonies on CMC\\u000a agar medium flooded with

Shanmugam Jayashree; Rajendran Lalitha; Ponnusamy Vadivukkarasi; Yuko Kato; Sundaram Seshadri

2011-01-01

352

BOURSE MUSODOC Facult des arts et des sciences  

E-print Network

BOURSE MUS�ODOC Faculté des arts et des sciences Doctorat La bourse Muséodoc est offerte chaque muséologie. La bourse vise à encourager le développement et la réalisation de projets de recherche créatifs candidature plusieurs années de suite. Toutefois, la bourse ne peut être attribuée qu'une seule fois à la même

Parrott, Lael

353

ANNEE UNIVERSITAIRE 2009/2010 FACULTE DES SCIENCES ET TECHNIQUES  

E-print Network

communication 2 1,5 1,5 10 Anglais 1,5 1,5 10 Environnement Informatique 1 1 20 UNITE D'ENSEIGNEMENT LIBRE (U.E.L.)* UEL (au choix sur le site www.univ-lemans.fr) 2 2 #12;ANNEE UNIVERSITAIRE 2009/2010 FACULTE DES progiciels 1 pour les Mathématiques 1,5 1,5 15 UNITE D'ENSEIGNEMENT LIBRE (U.E.L.)* UEL (au choix sur le site

Di Girolami, Cristina

354

UNIVERSIT DE MONTRAL Facult des arts et des sciences  

E-print Network

UNIVERSIT� DE MONTR�AL Faculté des arts et des sciences Département d'informatique et de recherche'étudiant :_____________________________________________________________ (en caractère d'imprimerie) Code permanent : ________________________________________ Programme : M.Sc. Maîtrise (2-175-1-0) Informatique Ph.D. Doctorat (3-175-1-0) Informatique Trimestre/Année du début des

Montréal, Université de

355

Sulfurihydrogenibium yellowstonense sp. nov., an extremely thermophilic, facultatively heterotrophic,  

E-print Network

. Graphs showing the effects of temperature, pH, and NaCl and O2 concentrations on the growth. The cells were motile rods (1?2­2?8 mm long and 0?6­0?8 mm wide). The new isolate was a facultative %, v/v) as an electron acceptor. Hydrogen did not support growth. The isolate grew autotrophically

Reysenbach, Anna-Louise

356

Genomes of three facultatively symbiotic Frankia sp. strainsreflect host plant biogeography  

SciTech Connect

Filamentous actinobacteria from the genus Frankia anddiverse woody trees and shrubs together form N2-fixing actinorhizal rootnodule symbioses that are a major source of new soil nitrogen in widelydiverse biomes 1. Three major clades of Frankia sp. strains are defined;each clade is associated with a defined subset of plants from among theeight actinorhizal plant families 2,3. The evolution arytrajectoriesfollowed by the ancestors of both symbionts leading to current patternsof symbiont compatibility are unknown. Here we show that the competingprocesses of genome expansion and contraction have operated in differentgroups of Frankia strains in a manner that can be related to thespeciation of the plant hosts and their geographic distribution. Wesequenced and compared the genomes from three Frankia sp. strains havingdifferent host plant specificities. The sizes of their genomes variedfrom 5.38 Mbp for a narrow host range strain (HFPCcI3) to 7.50Mbp for amedium host range strain (ACN14a) to 9.08 Mbp for a broad host rangestrain (EAN1pec.) This size divergence is the largest yet reported forsuch closely related bacteria. Since the order of divergence of thestrains is known, the extent of gene deletion, duplication andacquisition could be estimated and was found to be inconcert with thebiogeographic history of the symbioses. Host plant isolation favoredgenome contraction, whereas host plant diversification favored genomeexpansion. The results support the idea that major genome reductions aswell as expansions can occur in facultatively symbiotic soil bacteria asthey respond to new environments in the context of theirsymbioses.

Normand, Philippe; Lapierre, Pascal; Tisa, Louis S.; Gogarten, J.Peter; Alloisio, Nicole; Bagnarol, Emilie; Bassi, Carla A.; Berry,Alison; Bickhart, Derek M.; Choisne, Nathalie; Couloux, Arnaud; Cournoyer, Benoit; Cruveiller, Stephane; Daubin, Vincent; Demange, Nadia; Francino, M. Pilar; Ggoltsman, Eugene; Huang, Ying; Kopp, Olga; Labarre,Laurent; Lapidus, Alla; Lavire, Celine; Marechal, Joelle; Martinez,Michele; Mastronunzio, Juliana E.; Mullin, Beth; Niemann, James; Pujic,Pierre; Rawnsley, Tania; Rouy, Zoe; Schenowitz, Chantal; Sellstedt,Anita; Tavares, Fernando; Tomkins, Jeffrey P.; Vallenet, David; Valverde,Claudio; Wall, Luis; Wang, Ying; Medigue, Claudine; Benson, David R.

2006-02-01

357

Enrichment of anaerobic methanotrophs in sulfate-reducing membrane bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in marine sediments is coupled to sulfate reduction (SR). AOM is mediated by distinct groups of archaea, called anaerobic methanotrophs (ANME). ANME co-exist with sulfate-reducing bacteria, which are also involved in AOM coupled SR. The microorganisms involved in AOM coupled to SR are extremely difficult to grow in vitro. Here, a novel well-mixed submerged-membrane bioreactor

Roel J. W. Meulepas; Christian G. Jagersma; Jarno Gieteling; Cees J. N. Buisman; Alfons J. M. Stams; Piet N. L. Lens

2009-01-01

358

[Evaluation for anaerobic culture system: Anoxomat Mart II].  

PubMed

Anoxomat Mart II (Mart Microbiology BV, Lichtenvooorde, Netherlands, Central Scientific Commerce Inc., Tokyo, Japan) is an anaerobic jar apparatus which uses a vacuum pump in combination with catalyst as gas replacement procedure to remove all traces of oxygen. As we had a chance to use Anoxomat Mart II, we compared it with other two anaerobic culture methods; namely AnaeroPack anaero (Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Co., Tokyo, Japan) which employs anaerobic jar method, and Concept400 (RUSKINN TECHNOLOGY LTD, England; Central Scientific Commerce INc., Tokyo, Japan) which uses anaerobic chamber method. We used 10 different species of anaerobic bacteria obtained from ATCC. One strain each of 10 species was cultured and examined for measurement of the sensitibity of an anaerobic indicator, th number of bacteria after 48 hour culture, the diameter of colonies, and MIC value. As a result, the time to reach the anaerobic condition was around 30 minutes by the Mart II against around 60 minutes by the AnaeroPack anaero. There was no difference concerning the number of bacteria after 48 hour culture among three methods. But anaerobic bacteria cultured by Mart II tended to make bigger colonies compared to other two methods in the 5 strains out of 9, except for one strain in which the diameter of colonies could not be measured. On the other hand, the comparison of MIC value showed good correlation in 11 antibiotics out of 12 among three methods. The MIC value of 11 antibiotics fitted within 1-fold difference, and 2-fold difference was observed in only one antibiotic. Mart II is so small that it does cheep consumables. From these reasons, we concluded that Mart II can be one of the useful anerobic culture methods. PMID:17803362

Kikuchi, Yuji; Sasaki, Hiromi; Furuhata, Yukie; Tazawa, Yoko; Horiuchi, Hajime; Okada, Jun

2007-01-01

359

Influence of cyanide on the anaerobic degradation of glucose.  

PubMed

Bacteria in the anaerobic degradation process convert the substrate to the final products methane and carbon dioxide. Toxic substances can change the process substantially. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of toxic cyanide on biogas production in anaerobic degradation of glucose at 40°C. The OxiTop respirometric system offers a quick and simple method for measurement of the biogas formed. Concentrations of cyanide (CN(-)) added to 640?mg?COD/L of glucose varied from 0.325 up to 31.000?mg/L. The inhibition of anaerobic degradation of glucose was evaluated from the lag phase, the coefficient of anaerobic degradation (D(h)), the volume and composition of the biogas and degradation of COD in the liquid phase. If the concentration of cyanide was above 2.600?mg/L inhibition of the anaerobic process was substantial. PMID:20962395

Pirc, E Tratar; Levstek, Meta; Bukovec, Peter

2010-01-01

360

Effect of methanogenic substrates on anaerobic oxidation of methane and sulfate reduction by an anaerobic methanotrophic enrichment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to sulfate reduction (SR) is assumed to be a syntrophic process, in which methanotrophic\\u000a archaea produce an interspecies electron carrier (IEC), which is subsequently utilized by sulfate-reducing bacteria. In this\\u000a paper, six methanogenic substrates are tested as candidate-IECs by assessing their effect on AOM and SR by an anaerobic methanotrophic\\u000a enrichment. The presence of

Roel J. W. Meulepas; Christian G. Jagersma; Ahmad F. Khadem; Alfons J. M. Stams; Piet N. L. Lens

2010-01-01

361

SHEWANELLA: NOVEL STRATEGIES FOR ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal-reducing members of the genus Shewanella are important components of the microbial community residing in redox-strati.ed freshwater and marine environments. Metal-reducing\\u000a gram-negative bacteria such as Shewanella, however, are presented with a unique physiological challenge: they are required to respire anaerobically on terminal electron\\u000a acceptors which are either highly insoluble (Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-oxides) and reduced to soluble end-products or highly soluble

Thomas J. DiChristina; David J. Bates; Justin L. Burns; Jason R. Dale; Amanda N. Payne

362

Rapid presumptive diagnosis of anaerobic infections in animals by gas-liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

The detection of volatile fatty acids (VFA) by gas chromatography of 85 purulent specimens from abscesses or pyogenic infections in cats, dogs, rodents, and ruminants was compared with the results of bacteriologic culturing, and proved to be a rapid means of presumptively diagnosing anaerobic infections. Of 83 bacteriologically positive specimens, 52 (61%) yielded obligate anaerobes and in 50 specimens, 1 or more VFA (butyric acid, isobutyric acid, valeric acid, isovaleric acid, caproic acid, or isocaproic acid) was detected. Forty-six specimens were positive for culturing of anaerobes and for detection of 1 or more of these VFA. By contrast, pus from infections caused by (facultative) aerobic microorganisms contained no VFA or only acetic and/or propionic acid. PMID:2679251

van den Bogaard, A E; Hazen, M J; Maes, J H

1989-09-01

363

Bacteria Community in the Terrestrial Deep Subsurface Microbiology Research of the Chinese Continent Scientific Drilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial communities in the deep drill cores from the Chinese Continent Scientific Drilling were analyzed with culture-independent and dependent techniques. Genomic DNA was extracted from two metamorphic rocks: S1 from 430 and S13 from 1033 meters below the ground surface. The 16S rRNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by cloning and sequencing. The total cell number was counted using the 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and biomass of two specific bacteria were quantified using real-time PCR. Enrichment was set up for a rock from 3911 meters below the surface in medium for authotrophic methanogens (i.e., CO2 + H2). The total cell number in S13 was 1.0 × 104 cells per gram of rock. 16S rRNA gene analysis indicated that low G + C Gram positive sequences were dominant (50 percent of all 54 clone sequenced) followed by the alpha-, beta, and gamma-Proteobacteria. Within the low G + C Gram positive bacteria, most clone sequences were similar to species of Bacillus from various natural environments (deserts, rivers etc.). Within the Proteobacteria, our clone sequences were similar to species of Acinetobacter, Acidovorax, and Aeromonas. The RT-RCP results showed that biomass of two particular clone sequences (CCSD1305, similar to Aeromonas caviae and CCSD1307, similar to Acidovorax facilis) was 95 and 1258 cells/g, respectively. A bacterial isolate was obtained from the 3911-m rock in methanogenic medium. It was Gram negative with no flagella, immobile, and facultative anaerobic, and grows optimally at 65oC. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that it was closely related to the genus of Bacillus. Physiological tests further revealed that it was a strain of Bacillus caldotenax.

Wang, Y.; Xia, Y.; Dong, H.; Dong, X.; Yang, K.; Dong, Z.; Huang, L.

2005-12-01

364

Anaerobic thermophilic culture  

DOEpatents

A newly discovered thermophilic anaerobe is described that was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC 3/550. T. Ethanolicus is cultured in aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions and is used in a novel process for producing ethanol by subjecting carbohydrates, particularly the saccharides, to fermentation action of the new microorganism in a biologically pure culture.

Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Wiegel, Jurgen K. W. (Gottingen, DE)

1981-01-01

365

Contribution of Anaerobic Digesters to Emissions Mitigation and Electricity Generation Under U.S. Climate Policy  

E-print Network

Livestock husbandry in the U.S. significantly contributes to many environmental problems, including the release of methane, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG). Anaerobic digesters (ADs) break down organic wastes using bacteria ...

Zaks, David P. M.

366

In Vitro Activities of Telavancin and Six Comparator Agents against Anaerobic Bacterial Isolates?  

PubMed Central

The antimicrobial activities of telavancin and six comparators were evaluated against 460 isolates of anaerobic bacteria. Telavancin demonstrated excellent activity against gram-positive anaerobes (MIC90, 2 ?g/ml) and was the most potent agent tested against Clostridium difficile (MIC90, 0.25 ?g/ml). As expected, gram-negative isolates were not inhibited by telavancin. PMID:19581457

Finegold, Sydney M.; Bolanos, Mauricio; Sumannen, Paula H.; Molitoris, Denise R.

2009-01-01

367

Succinate synthesis and excretion by Penicillium simplicissimum under aerobic and anaerobic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Succinate is an interesting chemical for industries producing food and pharmaceutical products, surfactants, detergents and biodegradable plastics. Succinate is produced mainly by a mixed-acid fermentation process using anaerobically growing bacteria. However, succinate excretion is also widespread among fungi. In this article we report results on the intracellular concentration and the excretion of succinate by Penicillium simplicissimum under aerobic and anaerobic

Martin Gallmetzer; Joachim Meraner; Wolfgang Burgstaller

2002-01-01

368

Assessing trophic interactions in a guild of primary parasitoids and facultative hyperparasitoids: stable isotope analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facultative hyperparasitism is likely to be the most common form of intraguild predation among parasitoids. However, difficulties associated with studying facultative hyperparasitoids in the field have hampered a thorough understanding of their trophic ecology. In this study, we used a combination of stable isotope analysis and published natural history information to infer trophic interactions in a guild of field-collected primary

Gail A. Langellotto; Jay A. Rosenheim; Megan R. Williams

2006-01-01

369

Effects of plant size on reproductive output and offspring performance in the facultative biennial Digitalis purpurea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1 Monocarpy in facultative biennials can be favoured by selection when there is a more than proportional increase in fitness with size. The possible contributions of larger reproductive output and higher offspring quality to such an increase were investigated in the facultative biennial plant Digitalis purpurea . Straw mass (rosette leaves and flower- ing stem excluding fruits and seeds)

Nina Sletvold

2002-01-01

370

Body Size Shapes Caste Expression, and Cleptoparasitism Reduces Body Size in the Facultatively Eusocial Bees  

E-print Network

Body Size Shapes Caste Expression, and Cleptoparasitism Reduces Body Size in the Facultatively is associated with social caste. Behavioral observations showed that non-reproductive foragers were an association of body size with caste expression in a facultatively social species with relatively weak seasonal

O'Donnell, Sean

371

ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER  

SciTech Connect

During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the reactor. Batch tests were conducted to examine naphthenic acid biodegradability under several conditions. The conditions used were seed from the anaerobic reactor, wetland sediments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and a sterile control. The naphthenic acid was from a commercial source isolated from Gulf Coast petroleum as was dosed at 2 mg/mL. The incubations were for 30 days at 30 C. The results showed that the naphthenic acids were not biodegraded under anaerobic conditions, but were degraded under aerobic conditions. Despite poor performance of the anaerobic reactor, it remains likely that anaerobic treatment of acetate, toluene, and, potentially, other produced-water components is feasible.

John R. Gallagher

2001-07-31

372

Floral scents repel facultative flower visitors, but attract obligate ones  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Biological mutualisms rely on communication between partners, but also require protective measures against exploitation. Animal-pollinated flowers need to attract pollinators but also to avoid conflicts with antagonistic consumers. The view of flower visitors as mutualistic and antagonistic agents considers primarily the plants' interest. A classification emphasizing the consumer's point of view, however, may be more useful when considering animal's adaptations to flower visits which may include a tolerance against defensive floral scent compounds. Methods In a meta-analysis covering 18 studies on the responses of animals to floral scents, the animals were assigned to the categories of obligate and facultative flower visitors which considers their dependency on floral resources. Their responses on floral scents were compared. Key Results On average, obligate flower visitors, often corresponding to pollinators, were attracted to floral scent compounds. In contrast, facultative and mainly antagonistic visitors were strongly repelled by floral scents. The findings confirm that floral scents have a dual function both as attractive and defensive cues. Conclusions Whether an animal depends on floral resources determines its response to these signals, suggesting that obligate flower visitors evolved a tolerance against primarily defensive compounds. Therefore, floral scent bouquets in conjunction with nutritious rewards may solve the conflicting tasks of attracting mutualists while repelling antagonists. PMID:20228087

Junker, Robert R.; Blüthgen, Nico

2010-01-01

373

Contribution of Aerobic Photoheterotrophic Bacteria to the Carbon Cycle in the Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vertical distribution of bacteriochlorophyll a, the numbers of infrared fluorescent cells, and the variable fluorescence signal at 880 nanometers wave- length, all indicate that photosynthetically competent anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are abundant in the upper open ocean and comprise at least 11% of the total microbial community. These organisms are facultative photohetero- trophs, metabolizing organic carbon when available, but are

Zbigniew S. Kolber; F. Gerald Plumley; Andrew S. Lang; J. Thomas Beatty; Robert E. Blankenship; Cindy L. VanDover; Costantino Vetriani; Michal Koblizek; Christopher Rathgeber; Paul G. Falkowski

2001-01-01

374

Evolution and Diversity of Clonal Bacteria: The Paradigm of Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

E-print Network

Evolution and Diversity of Clonal Bacteria: The Paradigm of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Tiago Dos, Faculte´ de Me´dicine, Universite´ Paris V, Paris, France Background. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complexR) genes in a comprehensive selection of M. tuberculosis complex strains from across the world

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

375

Diversity of Anaerobic Microbes in Spacecraft Assembly Clean Rooms ? †  

PubMed Central

Although the cultivable and noncultivable microbial diversity of spacecraft assembly clean rooms has been previously documented using conventional and state-of-the-art molecular techniques, the occurrence of obligate anaerobes within these clean rooms is still uncertain. Therefore, anaerobic bacterial communities of three clean-room facilities were analyzed during assembly of the Mars Science Laboratory rover. Anaerobic bacteria were cultured on several media, and DNA was extracted from suitable anaerobic enrichments and examined with conventional 16S rRNA gene clone library, as well as high-density phylogenetic 16S rRNA gene microarray (PhyloChip) technologies. The culture-dependent analyses predominantly showed the presence of clostridial and propionibacterial strains. The 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from clone libraries revealed distinct microbial populations associated with each clean-room facility, clustered exclusively within gram-positive organisms. PhyloChip analysis detected a greater microbial diversity, spanning many phyla of bacteria, and provided a deeper insight into the microbial community structure of the clean-room facilities. This study presents an integrated approach for assessing the anaerobic microbial population within clean-room facilities, using both molecular and cultivation-based analyses. The results reveal that highly diverse anaerobic bacterial populations persist in the clean rooms even after the imposition of rigorous maintenance programs and will pose a challenge to planetary protection implementation activities. PMID:20228115

Probst, Alexander; Vaishampayan, Parag; Osman, Shariff; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Andersen, Gary L.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

2010-01-01

376

Bacteria Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Who knew that bacteria had their own virtual museum? Here, visitors will "learn that not all bacteria are harmful, how they are used in industry, that they belong to the oldest living creatures on Earth", and many more interesting facts to discover about the diverse world of bacteria. The "Bacterial Species Files" tab at the top of the page, allows visitors to look up information on 40 different specific bacteria, from Anthrax to Yersinia enterocolitica. The information provided for each bacterium includes photographs, consumer guides, fact sheets, and scientific links. Visitors will find that the "Main Exhibits" tab addresses the basics about bacteria, as well as "Pathogenic Bacteria", "Evolution", "How We Fight Bacteria", and "Food and Water Safety". Visitors will surely enjoy the "Good Bacteria in Food" link found in the Food and Water Safety section, as it explains how some foods benefit from good bacteria, such as Swiss cheese, sausage, sauerkraut, chocolate, and coffee.

377

Impact of fertilizing with raw or anaerobically digested sewage sludge on the abundance of antibiotic-resistant coliforms, antibiotic resistance genes, and pathogenic bacteria in soil and on vegetables at harvest.  

PubMed

The consumption of crops fertilized with human waste represents a potential route of exposure to antibiotic-resistant fecal bacteria. The present study evaluated the abundance of bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes by using both culture-dependent and molecular methods. Various vegetables (lettuce, carrots, radish, and tomatoes) were sown into field plots fertilized inorganically or with class B biosolids or untreated municipal sewage sludge and harvested when of marketable quality. Analysis of viable pathogenic bacteria or antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria by plate counts did not reveal significant treatment effects of fertilization with class B biosolids or untreated sewage sludge on the vegetables. Numerous targeted genes associated with antibiotic resistance and mobile genetic elements were detected by PCR in soil and on vegetables at harvest from plots that received no organic amendment. However, in the season of application, vegetables harvested from plots treated with either material carried gene targets not detected in the absence of amendment. Several gene targets evaluated by using quantitative PCR (qPCR) were considerably more abundant on vegetables harvested from sewage sludge-treated plots than on vegetables from control plots in the season of application, whereas vegetables harvested the following year revealed no treatment effect. Overall, the results of the present study suggest that producing vegetable crops in ground fertilized with human waste without appropriate delay or pretreatment will result in an additional burden of antibiotic resistance genes on harvested crops. Managing human exposure to antibiotic resistance genes carried in human waste must be undertaken through judicious agricultural practice. PMID:25172864

Rahube, Teddie O; Marti, Romain; Scott, Andrew; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Murray, Roger; Sabourin, Lyne; Zhang, Yun; Duenk, Peter; Lapen, David R; Topp, Edward

2014-11-15

378

Anaerobic digestion of secondary residuals from an anaerobic bioreactor at a brewery to enhance bioenergy generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many beer breweries use high-rate anaerobic digestion (AD) systems to treat their soluble high-strength wastewater. Biogas\\u000a from these AD systems is used to offset nonrenewable energy utilization in the brewery. With increasing nonrenewable energy\\u000a costs, interest has mounted to also digest secondary residuals from the high-rate digester effluent, which consists of yeast\\u000a cells, bacteria, methanogens, and small (hemi)cellulosic particles. Mesophilic

Benjamin T. Bocher; Matthew T. Agler; Marcelo L. Garcia; Allen R. Beers; Largus T. Angenent

2008-01-01

379

Involvement of periodontopathic anaerobes in aspiration pneumonia.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence has linked the anaerobic bacteria forming periodontopathic biofilms with aspiration pneumonia in elderly persons. In experiments designed to eliminate the potent respiratory pathogens forming biofilms in the oral cavity, we have shown that the mechanical and chemical oral cleansing using povidone-iodine effectively reduced the detection rates and numbers of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus species, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae in patients scheduled to undergo oral surgery requiring endotracheal intubation. We confirmed the pathogenicity of periodontopathic anaerobic bacteria for aspiration pneumonia in an experimental mouse model. Based upon the finding of the coexistence of Porphyromonas gingivalis with Treponema denticola in chronic periodontitis lesions, we innoculated a mixed culture of P. gingivalis and T. denticola into the mouse trachea; the resulting infection induced inflammatory cytokine production and caused pneumonia. In another series of investigations, professional oral health care (POHC), mainly cleansing administered by dental hygienists once a week for 24 months to elderly persons requiring daily care, resulted in the reduction of the number of total anaerobes, Candida albicans, and Staphylococcus species and in the number of cases of fatal aspiration pneumonia. We also found that the POHC treatment of elderly persons for 6 months in the winter season reduced the salivary levels of protease, trypsin-like activity, and neuraminidase and also decreased the frequency of influenza cases. PMID:16277588

Okuda, Katsuji; Kimizuka, Ryuta; Abe, Shu; Kato, Tetsuo; Ishihara, Kazuyuki

2005-11-01

380

Agar medium for gas-liquid chromatography of anaerobes.  

PubMed

This study evaluates a method of performing gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) by direct extraction of fatty acids from agar for identification of clinically significant anaerobic bacteria. The potential use of agar cultures for GLC was studied by comparing chromatograms of 117 clinically isolated anaerobes grown in peptone yeast glucose broth and chopped meat carbohydrate broth, and on enriched brucella blood agar. For 98 of 117 anaerobes, fatty acid patterns from agar cultures were similar to those in broth. Significant differences were only found with Streptococcus intermedius, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium tertium, and Actinomyces species, which produced less of certain fatty acids on agar than in broth. Results of this study indicate that GLC of short chain fatty acids produced on agar medium by anaerobes, combined with simple tests such as Gram's stain and colonial morphology, may allow fir direct presumptive genus identification from an initial pure agar culture. PMID:3940426

Pankuch, G A; Appelbaum, P C

1986-01-01

381

Biogeochemical activity of anaerobic microorganisms from buried permafrost sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permafrost sediment samples, ranging in age from 7 thousand to 2 million years, from the northeastern region of Russian Arctic were analyzed for evidence of reducing conditions, viable populations of anaerobic bacteria and their metabolic end products. Field analyses of samples showed that all sediments were reduced with a redox potential ranging from +40 to —256 mV. Ferrous iron, acid?soluble

E. Rivkina; D. Gilichinsky; S. Wagener; J. Tiedje; J. McGrath

1998-01-01

382

Anaerobic respiration with elemental sulfur and with disulfides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic respiration with elemental sulfur\\/polysulfide or organic disulfides is performed by several bacteria and archaea, but has only been investigated in a few organisms in detail. The electron transport chain that catalyzes polysulfide reduction in the Gram-negative bacterium Wolinella succinogenes consists of a dehydrogenase (formate dehydrogenase or hydrogenase) and polysulfide reductase. The enzymes are integrated in the cytoplasmic membrane with

Reiner Hedderich; Oliver Klimmek; Achim Kröger; Reinhard Dirmeier; Martin Keller; Karl O. Stetter

1998-01-01

383

Arsenic, Anaerobes, and Astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arsenic is an element best known for its highly poisonous nature, so it is not something one would associate with being a well-spring for life. Yet discoveries made over the past two decades have delineated that not only are some microbes resistant to arsenic, but that this element's primary redox states can be exploited to conserve energy and support prokaryotic growth ('arsenotrophy') in the absence of oxygen. Hence, arsenite [As(III)] can serve as an electron donor for chemo- or photo-autotrophy while arsenate [As(V)] will serve as an electron acceptor for chemo-heterotrophs and chemo-autotrophs. The phylogenetic diversity of these microbes is broad, encompassing many individual species from diverse taxonomic groups in the Domain Bacteria, with fewer representatives in the Domain Archaea. Speculation with regard to the evolutionary origins of the key functional genes in anaerobic arsenic transformations (arrA and arxA) and aerobic oxidation (aioB) has led to a disputation as to which gene and function is the most ancient and whether arsenic metabolism extended back into the Archaean. Regardless of its origin, robust arsenic metabolism has been documented in extreme environments that are rich in their arsenic content, such as hot springs and especially hypersaline soda lakes associated with volcanic regions. Searles Lake, CA is an extreme, salt-saturated end member where vigorous arsenic metabolism occurs, but there is no detectable sulfate-reduction or methanogenesis. The latter processes are too weak bio-energetically to survive as compared with arsenotrophy, and are also highly sensitive to the abundance of borate ions present in these locales. These observations have implications with respect to the search for microbial life elsewhere in the Solar System where volcanic-like processes have been operative. Hence, because of the likelihood of encountering dense brines in the regolith of Mars (formed by evapo-concentration) or beneath the ice layers of Europa, Ganymede, Titan or Enceladus (formed by cryo-concentration), arsenotrophy could serve as a credible means of microbial energy conservation. Regrettably, the direct search for arsenic biomarkers is restricted because only one stable isotope exists (75As), which rules out the use of stable isotopic ratios in this regard. However, antimony oxyanions often co-occur with arsenic in the environment. Its two stable isotopes (123Sb and 121Sb) hold the potential to be exploited as a proxy isotopic biomarker for the fingerprint of microbial arsenotrophy. Whether such an approach is feasible needs to be investigated.

Stolz, J. F.; Oremland, R. S.; Switzer Blum, J.; Hoeft, S. E.; Baesman, S. M.; Bennett, S.; Miller, L. G.; Kulp, T. R.; Saltikov, C.

2013-12-01

384

Aphid facultative symbionts reduce survival of the predatory lady beetle Hippodamia convergens  

PubMed Central

Background Non-essential facultative endosymbionts can provide their hosts with protection from parasites, pathogens, and predators. For example, two facultative bacterial symbionts of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum), Serratia symbiotica and Hamiltonella defensa, protect their hosts from parasitism by two species of parasitoid wasp. Previous studies have not explored whether facultative symbionts also play a defensive role against predation in this system. We tested whether feeding on aphids harboring different facultative symbionts affected the fitness of an aphid predator, the lady beetle Hippodamia convergens. Results While these aphid faculative symbionts did not deter lady beetle feeding, they did decrease survival of lady beetle larvae. Lady beetle larvae fed a diet of aphids with facultative symbionts had significantly reduced survival from egg hatching to pupation and therefore had reduced survival to adult emergence. Additionally, lady beetle adults fed aphids with facultative symbionts were significantly heavier than those fed facultative symbiont-free aphids, though development time was not significantly different. Conclusions Aphids reproduce clonally and are often found in large groups. Thus, aphid symbionts, by reducing the fitness of the aphid predator H. convergens, may indirectly defend their hosts’ clonal descendants against predation. These findings highlight the often far-reaching effects that symbionts can have in ecological systems. PMID:24555501

2014-01-01

385

Environmental distribution and abundance of the facultative methanotroph Methylocella  

PubMed Central

Methylocella spp. are facultative methanotrophs, which are able to grow not only on methane but also on multicarbon substrates such as acetate, pyruvate or malate. Methylocella spp. were previously thought to be restricted to acidic soils such as peatlands, in which they may have a key role in methane oxidation. There is little information on the abundance and distribution of Methylocella spp. in the environment. New primers were designed, and a real-time quantitative PCR method was developed and validated targeting Methylocella mmoX (encoding the ?-subunit of the soluble methane monooxygenase) that allowed the quantification of Methylocella spp. in environmental samples. We also developed and validated specific PCR assays, which target 16S rRNA genes of known Methylocella spp. These were used to investigate the distribution of Methylocella spp. in a variety of environmental samples. It was revealed that Methylocella species are widely distributed in nature and not restricted to acidic environments. PMID:21160537

Rahman, Md Tanvir; Crombie, Andrew; Chen, Yin; Stralis-Pavese, Nancy; Bodrossy, Levente; Meir, Patrick; McNamara, Niall P; Murrell, J Colin

2011-01-01

386

New perspectives on anaerobic methane oxidation.  

PubMed

Anaerobic methane oxidation is a globally important but poorly understood process. Four lines of evidence have recently improved our understanding of this process. First, studies of recent marine sediments indicate that a consortium of methanogens and sulphate-reducing bacteria are responsible for anaerobic methane oxidation; a mechanism of 'reverse methanogenesis' was proposed, based on the principle of interspecies hydrogen transfer. Second, studies of known methanogens under low hydrogen and high methane conditions were unable to induce methane oxidation, indicating that 'reverse methanogenesis' is not a widespread process in methanogens. Third, lipid biomarker studies detected isotopically depleted archaeal and bacterial biomarkers from marine methane vents, and indicate that Archaea are the primary consumers of methane. Finally, phylogenetic studies indicate that only specific groups of Archaea and SRB are involved in methane oxidation. This review integrates results from these recent studies to constrain the responsible mechanisms. PMID:11233156

Valentine, D L; Reeburgh, W S

2000-10-01

387

[Rapid diagnosis of anaerobic infections by means of the direct gaschromatographic study of clinical materials].  

PubMed

Current methods for isolation and identification of obligately anaerobic bacteria are laborious and time-consuming. Direct gas-liquid chromatography of purulent and serous specimens for short-chain fatty acids allows a presumptive diagnosis of anaerobic infection. Good correlation was found for the cultural recovery of anaerobic bacteria and the presence of propionic acid in concentrations of greater than or equal to 1 muMol/ml, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, valeric, isocaproic and caproic acid at greater than or equal to 0.1 muMol/ml, and succinic acid at greater than or equal to 2 muMol/ml (either as single acids or in combination). Specimens yielding no anaerobic bacteria in culture contained only acetic, lactic and small amounts of succinic acid, but none of the volatile acids. PMID:7394465

Wüst, J

1980-03-01

388

ACETOGENIC BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH SEAGRASS ROOTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Seagrasses are adapted to being rooted in reduced, anoxic sediments with high rates of sulfate reduction. During the day, an oxygen gradient is generated around the roots, becoming anoxic at night. Thus, obligate anaerobic bacteria in the rhizosphere have to tolerate elevated oxy...

389

COMITE DE DIRECTION DU CENTRE DE NEUROSCIENCES Prof. Claude-Alain Hauert (Facult de Psychologie  

E-print Network

, Faculté des Sciences) Prof. Patrik Vuilleumier (Neurosciences cliniques, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève, HUG) CONTACTS Prof. Patrik Vuilleumier, directeur Patrik.Vuilleumier@medecine.unige.ch | + 41 22

Halazonetis, Thanos

390

sitologie-maladies parasitaires, CP 3013, 44087 Nantes cedex 03 ;2Facult de  

E-print Network

, El-Sherif LS, Farid HA (1992) Electrophoretic separation of two Aedes caspius Pal- las forms from Lyon;4Labo- ratoire de parasitologie, faculté de pharma- cie, 35043 Rennes cedex, France) Dans le cadre

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

391

Atmospheric vs. anaerobic processing of metabolome samples for the metabolite profiling of a strict anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium acetobutylicum.  

PubMed

Well-established metabolome sample preparation is a prerequisite for reliable metabolomic data. For metabolome sampling of a Gram-positive strict anaerobe, Clostridium acetobutylicum, fast filtration and metabolite extraction with acetonitrile/methanol/water (2:2:1, v/v) at -20°C under anaerobic conditions has been commonly used. This anaerobic metabolite processing method is laborious and time-consuming since it is conducted in an anaerobic chamber. Also, there have not been any systematic method evaluation and development of metabolome sample preparation for strict anaerobes and Gram-positive bacteria. In this study, metabolome sampling and extraction methods were rigorously evaluated and optimized for C. acetobutylicum by using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabolomics, in which a total of 116 metabolites were identified. When comparing the atmospheric (i.e., in air) and anaerobic (i.e., in an anaerobic chamber) processing of metabolome sample preparation, there was no significant difference in the quality and quantity of the metabolomic data. For metabolite extraction, pure methanol at -20°C was a better solvent than acetonitrile/methanol/water (2:2:1, v/v/v) at -20°C that is frequently used for C. acetobutylicum, and metabolite profiles were significantly different depending on extraction solvents. This is the first evaluation of metabolite sample preparation under aerobic processing conditions for an anaerobe. This method could be applied conveniently, efficiently, and reliably to metabolome analysis for strict anaerobes in air. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2014;111: 2528-2536. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24942337

Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Sooah; Kwon, Min-A; Jung, Young Hoon; Shin, Yong-An; Kim, Kyoung Heon

2014-12-01

392

THERMOPHILIC ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF PHENOLICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a series of anaerobic microbial acclimation and treatment performance tests with synthetic phenolic substrates. The research is a feasibility level assessment of substituting anaerobic biodegradation of phenolics for solvent extraction. The tests showe...

393

Protection against a fungal pathogen conferred by the aphid facultative endosymbionts Rickettsia and Spiroplasma is expressed in multiple host genotypes and species and is not influenced by co-infection with another symbiont.  

PubMed

Many insects harbour facultative endosymbiotic bacteria, often more than one type at a time. These symbionts can have major effects on their hosts' biology, which may be modulated by the presence of other symbiont species and by the host's genetic background. We investigated these effects by transferring two sets of facultative endosymbionts (one Hamiltonella and Rickettsia, the other Hamiltonella and Spiroplasma) from naturally double-infected pea aphid hosts into five novel host genotypes of two aphid species. The symbionts were transferred either together or separately. We then measured aphid fecundity and susceptibility to an entomopathogenic fungus. The pathogen-protective phenotype conferred by the symbionts Rickettsia and Spiroplasma varied among host genotypes, but was not influenced by co-infection with Hamiltonella. Fecundity varied across single and double infections and between symbiont types, aphid genotypes and species. Some host genotypes benefit from harbouring more than one symbiont type. PMID:24118386

?ukasik, P; Guo, H; van Asch, M; Ferrari, J; Godfray, H C J

2013-12-01

394

Practical anaerobic broth-disk elution susceptibility test.  

PubMed Central

A modified broth-disk elution method for routine susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria was compared with the proposed reference agar dilution method under study by the National Committee on Clinical Laboratory Standards. The broth-disk elution method used a 24-h test incubation period, Schaedler broth medium supplemented with menadione, and GasPak (BBL Microbiology Systems) incubation. Results obtained by this method compared favorably with carbenicillin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, and penicillin minimal inhibitory concentrations. The 24-h incubation period led to major discrepancies with tetracycline disk elution tests. This method represents a practical routine procedure for testing of anaerobic bacterial isolates in hospital clinical microbiology laboratories. PMID:7396464

Jorgensen, J H; Alexander, G A; Johnson, J E

1980-01-01

395

Phylogenetic Analysis of an Anaerobic, Trichlorobenzene-Transforming Microbial Consortium  

PubMed Central

A culture-independent phylogenetic survey for an anaerobic trichlorobenzene-transforming microbial community was carried out. Small-subunit rRNA genes were PCR amplified from community DNA by using primers specific for Bacteria or Euryarchaeota and were subsequently cloned. Application of a new hybridization-based screening approach revealed 51 bacterial clone families, one of which was closely related to dechlorinating Dehalobacter species. Several clone sequences clustered to rDNA sequences obtained from a molecular study of an anaerobic aquifer contaminated with hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents (Dojka et al., Appl. Env. Microbiol. 64:3869–3877, 1998). PMID:9872791

von Wintzingerode, Friedrich; Selent, Burkhard; Hegemann, Werner; Göbel, Ulf B.

1999-01-01

396

Anaerobic propane oxidation in marine hydrocarbon seep sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Propane (C 3H 8) is an abundant hydrocarbon in subsurface reservoirs with significance to atmospheric chemistry and to marine biogeochemistry. The anaerobic oxidation of propane coupled to sulfate reduction may prevent sub-seafloor accumulations of propane from entering the ocean and atmosphere. Anaerobic oxidation of propane has recently been demonstrated in cultures of novel sulfate-reducing bacteria, but has not been directly demonstrated or quantified in nature. In this work we describe a method involving incubation with 13C-propane to quantify rates of anaerobic oxidation of propane in anoxic sediment, and we conclusively demonstrate the oxidation of propane under sulfidic conditions in fresh sediments of a marine hydrocarbon seep. Observed rates of anaerobic oxidation of propane adhere to first-order kinetic behavior, enabling the modification of this method for whole core rate determinations. Whole core rates in nine cores from two hydrocarbon seeps measured 0.04-2100 nmoles C 3H 8 cm -3 day -1 by this method. The seep persistently supplied with more propane displayed substantially higher rates of anaerobic oxidation of propane, by 1-2 orders of magnitude when averaged over the top 10-cm, suggesting the development of the microbial community is strongly modulated by the availability of propane. This work is the first to estimate rates for anaerobic oxidation of propane in any environment, and demonstrates the potential importance of the process as a filter for preventing propane from entering the ocean and atmosphere.

Quistad, Steven D.; Valentine, David L.

2011-04-01

397

Anaerobic treatment of effluents from an industrial polymers synthesis plant  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of the anaerobic treatment of an industrial polymer synthesis plant effluent was evaluated. The composition of the wastewater includes acrylates, styrene, detergents, a minor amount of silicates and a significant amount of ferric chloride. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) corresponding is about 2,000 mg/l. The anaerobic biodegradability of the effluent is shown and the toxicity effect on the populations of anaerobic bacteria is evaluated. The results of the anaerobic biodegradation assays show that 62% of the wastewater compounds, measured as COD, could be consumed. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was used in the evaluation, it has a diameter-height ratio of 1:7, and 4-liter volume. The inoculum was obtained from a UASB pilot plant that treats brewery wastewaters. At the beginning of the operation, the biomass showed an anaerobic activity of 0.58 gCOD/(gVSS {times} d), it decreased only 2.5% in the subsequent 4 months. After 35 days of continuous operation, the reactor was operated at different steady states for 140 days. The COD was maintained at 2,200 mg/l in the feed. The results were: organic loading rate (OLR): 4.3 kg COD/(m{sup 3} {times} d), hydraulic retention time: 12 h, superficial velocity: 1 m/h, average biogas productivity: 290 L CH{sub 4}/kg COD fed, biogas composition: 70--75% methane and a COD removal percentage > 75%.

Araya, P.; Aroca, G.; Chamy, R. [Univ. Catolica de Valparaiso (Chile). School of Biochemical Engineering] [Univ. Catolica de Valparaiso (Chile). School of Biochemical Engineering

1999-06-01

398

Formation of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) by phototrophic and chemolithotrophic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoic acid), PHA, by various strains of chemolithotrophic and phototrophic bacteria has\\u000a been examined. Chemolithotrophic bacteria were grown aerobically under nitrogen-limiting conditions on various aliphatic organic\\u000a acids. Phototrophic bacteria were grown anaerobically in the light on a nitrogen-rich medium and were subsequently transferred\\u000a to a nitrogen-free medium containing acetate, propionate, valerate, heptanoate or octanoate as carbon source.

Matthias Liebergesell; Eilert Hustede; Arnulf Timm; Alexander Steinbiichel; R. Clinton Fuller; Robert W. Lenz; Hans G. Schlegel

1991-01-01

399

Rumex acetosa Y chromosomes: constitutive or facultative heterochromatin?  

PubMed

Condensed Y chromosomes in Rumex acetosa L. root-tip nuclei were studied using 5-azaC treatment and immunohistochemical detection of methylated histones. Although Y chromosomes were decondensed within root meristem in vivo, they became condensed and heteropycnotic in roots cultured in vitro. 5-azacytidine (5-azaC) treatment of cultured roots caused transitional dispersion of their Y chromosome bodies, but 7 days after removal of the drug from the culture medium, Y heterochromatin recondensed and again became visible. The response of Rumex sex chromatin to 5-azaC was compared with that of condensed segments of pericentromeric heterochromatin in Rhoeo spathacea (Sw.) Steam roots. It was shown that Rhoeo chromocentres, composed of AT-rich constitutive heterochromatin, did not undergo decondensation after 5-azaC treatment. The Y-bodies observed within male nuclei of R. acetosa were globally enriched with H3 histone, demethylated at lysine 4 and methylated at lysine 9. This is the first report of histone tail-modification in condensed sex chromatin in plants. Our results suggest that the interphase condensation of Y chromosomes in Rumex is facultative rather than constitutive. Furthermore, the observed response of Y-bodies to 5-azaC may result indirectly from demethylation and the subsequent altered expression of unknown genes controlling tissue-specific Y-inactivation as opposed to the global demethylation of Y-chromosome DNA. PMID:16201317

Mosio?ek, Magdalena; Pasierbek, Pawe?; Malarz, Janusz; Mo?, Maria; Joachimiak, Andrzej J

2005-01-01

400

The Persistence of Facultative Parthenogenesis in Drosophila albomicans  

PubMed Central

Parthenogenesis has evolved independently in more than 10 Drosophila species. Most cases are tychoparthenogenesis, which is occasional or accidental parthenogenesis in normally bisexual species with a low hatching rate of eggs produced by virgin females; this form is presumed to be an early stage of parthenogenesis. To address how parthenogenesis and sexual reproduction coexist in Drosophila populations, we investigated several reproductive traits, including the fertility, parthenogenetic capability, diploidization mechanisms, and mating propensity of parthenogenetic D. albomicans. The fertility of mated parthenogenetic females was significantly higher than that of virgin females. The mated females could still produce parthenogenetic offspring but predominantly produced offspring by sexual reproduction. Both mated parthenogenetic females and their parthenogenetic-sexual descendants were capable of parthenogenesis. The alleles responsible for parthenogenesis can be propagated through both parthenogenesis and sexual reproduction. As diploidy is restored predominantly by gamete duplication, heterozygosity would be very low in parthenogenetic individuals. Hence, genetic variation in parthenogenetic genomes would result from sexual reproduction. The mating propensity of females after more than 20 years of isolation from males was decreased. If mutations reducing mating propensities could occur under male-limited conditions in natural populations, decreased mating propensity might accelerate tychoparthenogenesis through a positive feedback mechanism. This process provides an opportunity for the evolution of obligate parthenogenesis. Therefore, the persistence of facultative parthenogenesis may be an adaptive reproductive strategy in Drosophila when a few founders colonize a new niche or when small populations are distributed at the edge of a species' range, consistent with models of geographical parthenogenesis. PMID:25415200

Chang, Ching-Ho; Fang, Shu; Chang, Hwei-yu

2014-01-01

401

Fluctuations in oxygen influence facultative endothermy in bumblebees.  

PubMed

Bumblebees are facultative endotherms, having the ability to elevate thorax temperature above ambient temperature by elevating metabolism. Here, we investigated the influence of hypoxia on metabolic demands and thermoregulatory capabilities of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris. We measured thorax temperature, rates of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production, and abdominal pumping rates of bees randomly exposed to oxygen levels of 20, 15, 10 and 5 kPa at 26°C. Under normoxia, bumblebees maintained an elevated mean thorax temperature of 35.5°C. There was no significant change in thorax temperature at 15 kPa O2 (33.4°C). Mean thorax temperature decreased significantly at 10 kPa O2 (31.6°C) and 5 kPa O2 (27.3°C). Bees were able to maintain an elevated metabolic rate at 15 and 10 kPa O2. In normoxia, endothermic bees exhibited periods of rapid abdominal pumping (327 min(-1)) interspaced by periods of no abdominal pumping. At 10 kPa O2, abdominal pumping rate decreased (255 min(-1)) but became more continuous. Upon exposure to 5 kPa, metabolic rate and abdominal pumping rate (152 min(-1)) decreased, although the animals continued abdominal pumping at the reduced rate throughout the exposure period. Bumblebees are able to meet the energetic demands of endothermy at 15 kPa O2, but become compromised at levels of 10 kPa O2 and below. PMID:25355849

Dzialowski, Edward M; Tattersall, Glenn J; Nicol, Stewart C; Frappell, Peter B

2014-11-01

402

Minimum inhibitory concentrations of some antimicrobial drugs against bacteria causing uterine infections in cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of oxytetracycline, cephapirin, cephapirin\\/mecillinam, cefquinome, ceftiofur and enrofloxacin, candidate antibiotics for the principal bacteria associated with uterine infections: Escherichia coli, Arcanobacterium pyogenes and the anaerobic bacteria Fusobacterium necrophorum and Prevotella melaninogenicus, were determined by the agar dilution method. The bacteria were isolated from animals with clinical metritis and\\/or endometritis. For E coli, cefquinome and enrofloxacin

I. M. Sheldon; M. Bushnell; J. Montgomery; A. N. Rycroft

2004-01-01

403

Bacteria Transformation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students construct paper recombinant plasmids to simulate the methods genetic engineers use to create modified bacteria. They learn what role enzymes, DNA and genes play in the modification of organisms. For the particular model they work on, they isolate a mammal insulin gene and combine it with a bacteria's gene sequence (plasmid DNA) for production of the protein insulin.

National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

404

Anaerobic thermophilic culture system  

DOEpatents

A mixed culture system of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC31550 and the microorganism Clostridium thermocellum ATCC31549 is described. In a mixed nutrient culture medium that contains cellulose, these microorganisms have been coupled and cultivated to efficiently ferment cellulose to produce recoverable quantities of ethanol under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions.

Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Wiegel, Jurgen K. W. (Gottingen, DE)

1981-01-01

405

Effects of ferric iron on the anaerobic treatment and microbial biodiversity in a coupled microbial electrolysis cell (MEC)--anaerobic reactor.  

PubMed

Adding Fe(III) into a MEC - anaerobic reactor enhanced the degradation of organic matters. To clarify the respective effects of combining Fe(III) dosage and a MEC and Fe(III) dosage only on strengthening anaerobic digestion, three anaerobic reactors were operated in parallel: a MEC - anaerobic reactor with dosing Fe(OH)3 (R1), an anaerobic reactor with dosing Fe(OH)3 (R2) and a common anaerobic reactor (R3). With increasing influent COD from 1500 to 4000 mg/L, the COD removal in R1 was maintained at 88.3% under a voltage of 0.8 V, which was higher than that in reactor R2 and R3. When the power was cut off, the COD removal in R1 decreased by 5.9%. The addition of Fe(OH)3 enhanced both anaerobic digestion and anodic oxidation, resulting in the effective mineralization of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). The reduced Fe(II) combined with electric field resulted more extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production. Quantitative real - time PCR showed a higher abundance of bacteria in the anodic biofilm and R1. Pyrosequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis revealed that the dominant bacteria and archaea communities were richer and more abundant in the anode biofilm and R1. PMID:23886545

Zhang, Jingxin; Zhang, Yaobin; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo

2013-10-01

406

Analysis of Facultative Lithotroph Distribution and Diversity on Volcanic Deposits by Use of the Large Subunit of Ribulose 1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase†  

PubMed Central

A 492- to 495-bp fragment of the gene coding for the large subunit of the form I ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) (rbcL) was amplified by PCR from facultatively lithotrophic aerobic CO-oxidizing bacteria, colorless and purple sulfide-oxidizing microbial mats, and genomic DNA extracts from tephra and ash deposits from Kilauea volcano, for which atmospheric CO and hydrogen have been previously documented as important substrates. PCR products from the mats and volcanic sites were used to construct rbcL clone libraries. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the rbcL sequences from all isolates clustered with form IC rbcL sequences derived from facultative lithotrophs. In contrast, the microbial mat clone sequences clustered with sequences from obligate lithotrophs representative of form IA rbcL. Clone sequences from volcanic sites fell within the form IC clade, suggesting that these sites were dominated by facultative lithotrophs, an observation consistent with biogeochemical patterns at the sites. Based on phylogenetic and statistical analyses, clone libraries differed significantly among volcanic sites, indicating that they support distinct lithotrophic assemblages. Although some of the clone sequences were similar to known rbcL sequences, most were novel. Based on nucleotide diversity and average pairwise difference, a forested site and an 1894 lava flow were found to support the most diverse and least diverse lithotrophic populations, respectively. These indices of diversity were not correlated with rates of atmospheric CO and hydrogen uptake but were correlated with estimates of respiration and microbial biomass. PMID:15066819

Nanba, K.; King, G. M.; Dunfield, K.

2004-01-01

407

Analysis of facultative lithotroph distribution and diversity on volcanic deposits by use of the large subunit of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase.  

PubMed

A 492- to 495-bp fragment of the gene coding for the large subunit of the form I ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) (rbcL) was amplified by PCR from facultatively lithotrophic aerobic CO-oxidizing bacteria, colorless and purple sulfide-oxidizing microbial mats, and genomic DNA extracts from tephra and ash deposits from Kilauea volcano, for which atmospheric CO and hydrogen have been previously documented as important substrates. PCR products from the mats and volcanic sites were used to construct rbcL clone libraries. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the rbcL sequences from all isolates clustered with form IC rbcL sequences derived from facultative lithotrophs. In contrast, the microbial mat clone sequences clustered with sequences from obligate lithotrophs representative of form IA rbcL. Clone sequences from volcanic sites fell within the form IC clade, suggesting that these sites were dominated by facultative lithotrophs, an observation consistent with biogeochemical patterns at the sites. Based on phylogenetic and statistical analyses, clone libraries differed significantly among volcanic sites, indicating that they support distinct lithotrophic assemblages. Although some of the clone sequences were similar to known rbcL sequences, most were no