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1

Oxygen regulated gene expression in facultatively anaerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In facultatively anaerobic bacteria such asEscherichia coli, oxygen and other electron acceptors fundamentally influence catabolic and anabolic pathways.E. coli is able to grow aerobically by respiration and in the absence of O2 by anaerobic respiration with nitrate, nitrite, fumarate, dimethylsulfoxide and trimethylamine N-oxide as acceptors or by fermentation. The expression of the various catabolic pathways occurs according to a hierarchy

G. Unden; S. Becker; J. Bongaerts; J. Schirawski

1994-01-01

2

Cultivation of anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria from spacecraft-associated clean rooms.  

PubMed

In the course of this biodiversity study, the cultivable microbial community of European spacecraft-associated clean rooms and the Herschel Space Observatory located therein were analyzed during routine assembly operations. Here, we focused on microorganisms capable of growing without oxygen. Anaerobes play a significant role in planetary protection considerations since extraterrestrial environments like Mars probably do not provide enough oxygen for fully aerobic microbial growth. A broad assortment of anaerobic media was used in our cultivation strategies, which focused on microorganisms with special metabolic skills. The majority of the isolated strains grew on anaerobic, complex, nutrient-rich media. Autotrophic microorganisms or microbes capable of fixing nitrogen were also cultivated. A broad range of facultatively anaerobic bacteria was detected during this study and also, for the first time, some strictly anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium and Propionibacterium) were isolated from spacecraft-associated clean rooms. The multiassay cultivation approach was the basis for the detection of several bacteria that had not been cultivated from these special environments before and also led to the discovery of two novel microbial species of Pseudomonas and Paenibacillus. PMID:19363082

Stieglmeier, Michaela; Wirth, Reinhard; Kminek, Gerhard; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

2009-04-10

3

Pectinase Activity of Anaerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Bacteria Associated with Soft Rot of Yam (Diascorea rotundata)  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria associated with soft rot of yam (Diascorea rotundata) were isolated by the looping-out method and found to consist of Clostridium (three isolates), Corynebacterium (three isolates), Vibrio (one isolate), and Bacillus lentus (one isolate). Enzyme assay for hydrolase, lyase, and pectinesterase activities by the cup-plate method showed that except for Vibrio sp., B. lentus, and two isolates of Corynebacterium no pectinase activity could be detected for organisms cultured on pectin medium. Most of the cultures on yam tissue, however, showed activities for the three enzymes. The viscometric assay for hydrolase and lyase enzymes indicated a significant level of hydrolase activity (a 40.90% decrease in viscosity for Vibrio sp. and Corynebacterium spp.), but no lyase activity for most of the isolates. Two isolates of Corynebacterium and B. lentus caused changes in fresh yams suggestive of soft rot.

Obi, Samuel K. C.

1981-01-01

4

Pectinase Activity of Anaerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Bacteria Associated with Soft Rot of Yam (Diascorea rotundata).  

PubMed

Anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria associated with soft rot of yam (Diascorea rotundata) were isolated by the looping-out method and found to consist of Clostridium (three isolates), Corynebacterium (three isolates), Vibrio (one isolate), and Bacillus lentus (one isolate). Enzyme assay for hydrolase, lyase, and pectinesterase activities by the cup-plate method showed that except for Vibrio sp., B. lentus, and two isolates of Corynebacterium no pectinase activity could be detected for organisms cultured on pectin medium. Most of the cultures on yam tissue, however, showed activities for the three enzymes. The viscometric assay for hydrolase and lyase enzymes indicated a significant level of hydrolase activity (a 40.90% decrease in viscosity for Vibrio sp. and Corynebacterium spp.), but no lyase activity for most of the isolates. Two isolates of Corynebacterium and B. lentus caused changes in fresh yams suggestive of soft rot. PMID:16345726

Obi, S K

1981-03-01

5

O 2 Sensing and O 2 -dependent gene regulation in facultatively anaerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Availability of O2 is one of the most important regulatory signals in facultatively anaerobic bacteria. Various two- or one-component sensor\\/regulator\\u000a systems control the expression of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in response to O2. Most of the sensor proteins contain heme or Fe as cofactors that interact with O2 either by binding or by a redox reaction. The ArcA\\/ArcB regulator of

G. Unden; S. Becker; J. Bongaerts; G. Holighaus; J. Schirawski

1995-01-01

6

O2Sensing and O2-dependent gene regulation in facultatively anaerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Availability of O2 is one of the most important regulatory signals in facultatively anaerobic bacteria. Various two- or one-component sensor\\/regulator\\u000a systems control the expression of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in response to O2. Most of the sensor proteins contain heme or Fe as cofactors that interact with O2 either by binding or by a redox reaction. The ArcA\\/ArcB regulator of

G. Unden; S. Becker; J. Bongaerts; G. Holighaus; J. Schirawski

1995-01-01

7

Transcriptional regulation and energetics of alternative respiratory pathways in facultatively anaerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The facultatively anaerobic Escherichia coli is able to grow by aerobic and by anaerobic respiration. Despite the large difference in the amount of free energy that could maximally be conserved from aerobic versus anaerobic respiration, the proton potential and ?g?Phos are similar under both conditions. O2 represses anaerobic respiration, and nitrate represses fumarate respiration. By this the terminal reductases of

Gottfried Unden

1998-01-01

8

Facultative or obligate anaerobic bacteria have the potential for multimodality therapy of solid tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent understanding of the unique pathology of solid tumours has shed light on the difficult and disappointing nature of their clinical treatment. All solid tumours undergo angiogenesis that results in biological changes and adaptive metabolisms, i.e. formation of defective vessels, appearance of hypoxic areas, and emergence of an heterogeneous tumour cell population.This micro-milieu provides a haven for anaerobic bacteria. The

Ming Q. Wei; Kay A. O. Ellem; Paul Dunn; Malcolm J. West; Chun Xue Bai; Bert Vogelstein

2007-01-01

9

The utility of anaerobic blood culture in detecting facultative anaerobic bacteremia in children.  

PubMed

Routine anaerobic blood culture is not recommended in children because obligate anaerobic bacteremia is rare in the pediatric population. However, a number of facultative anaerobic bacteria can cause community and hospital acquired infections in children and the utility of anaerobic blood culture for detection of these organisms is still unclear. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all blood culture samples (n = 24,356) at a children's hospital in Japan from October 2009 to June 2012. Among the samples that had paired aerobic and anaerobic blood cultures, 717 samples were considered clinically significant with 418 (58%) organisms detected from both aerobic and anaerobic cultures, 167 (23%) detected only from aerobic culture and 132 (18%) detected only from anaerobic culture. While most facultative anaerobes were detectable by aerobic culture, over 25% of Enterobacteriaceae and 15% of Staphylococcus sp. were detected from anaerobic cultures bottles only, suggesting its potential role in selected settings. PMID:23747032

Shoji, Kensuke; Komuro, Hisako; Watanabe, Yasushi; Miyairi, Isao

2013-06-07

10

Thiosphaera pantotropha gen. nov. sp. nov., a Facultatively Anaerobic, Facultatively Autotrophic Sulphur Bacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

~ During studies on a desulphurizing, denitrifying effluent-treatment system, an organism which is able to grow aerobically and anaerobically on reduced sulphur compounds and hydrogen, while fixing carbon dioxide, was isolated. The new isolate is also capable of mixotrophic and heterotrophic growth on a wide range of substrates, and is therefore a facultatively aerobic, facultative autotroph. Comparisons with two similar

LESLEY A. ROBERTSON; J. GIJS KUENEN

1983-01-01

11

Mediation of sulfur speciation by a Black Sea facultative anaerobe  

SciTech Connect

Shewanella putrefaciens, a respiratory facultative anaerobe isolated from the Black Sea, can reduce thiosulfate, sulfite, and elemental sulfur to sulfide readily and quantitatively. This widespread and anaerobically versatile microorganism, which is incapable of reducing sulfate, uses oxidized sulfur intermediates as electron acceptors during the respiratory oxidation of organic matter. Because of its widespread distribution and abundance, it may play a significant role in sulfur and trace metal cycling in the Black Sea and in other marine and freshwater anaerobic environments. 28 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Perry, K.A.; Kostka, J.E.; Luther, G.W. III (Univ. of Delaware, Lewes (United States)); Nealson, K.H. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (United States))

1993-02-05

12

Facultative to strict anaerobes ratio in the preterm infant microbiota  

PubMed Central

During recent years there has been an increasing interest on the development of strategies for modulating the process of microbiota establishment in preterm infants. For successfully developing of such strategies, a detailed knowledge of the microbiota establishment process in these infants is needed. In a previous study we evidenced clear alterations in the process of microbiota establishment in preterm newborns when compared with a control group of full-term breast-fed infants. Here we have analyzed these data more in depth, corroborating a reduced proportion of strict anaerobes with respect to facultatives in the fecal microbiota of preterm infants. The potential benefits, as well as the side effects, of strategies aimed at counterbalancing this alteration in the facultative to strict anaerobes ratio are discussed in this addendum.

Arboleya, Silvia; Solis, Gonzalo; Fernandez, Nuria; de los Reyes-Gavilan, Clara G.; Gueimonde, Miguel

2012-01-01

13

Nitrogen assimilation in facultative methylotrophic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was done of the pathways of nitrogen assimilation in the facultative methylotrophsPseudomonas MA andPseudomonas AM1, with ammonia or methylamine as nitrogen sources and with methylamine or succinate as carbon sources. When methylamine was the sole carbon and\\/or nitrogen source, both organisms possessed enzymes of the glutamine synthetase\\/glutamate synthase pathway, but when ammonia was the nitrogen sourcePseudomonas AM1 also

Edward Bellion; John A. Bolbot

1983-01-01

14

Endogenous Metabolism of Anaerobic Bacteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Further investigations of the endogenous metabolism and survival of non-spore-forming anaerobic bacteria Zymomonas anaerobia and Peptococcus prevotii under conditions of starvation are reported. To permit studies with cells whose growth has been halted by...

E. A. Dawes P. J. Large

1968-01-01

15

Iron-reducing bacteria unravel novel strategies for the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Although the aerobic degradation of aromatic com- pounds has been extensively studied in many microorganisms, the anaerobic mineralization of the aromatic ring is a more recently discovered microbial capacity on which very little information is available from facultative anaerobic bacteria. In this issue of Molecular Microbiology , Wischgoll and colleagues use proteomic and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approaches

Manuel Carmona; Eduardo Díaz

2005-01-01

16

Anaerobic Bacteria Growth Promotion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. Sterile membrane preparations from certain bacteria rapidly remove oxygen from aqueous solutions. The addition of such membranes to a variety of bacteriological medi...

1982-01-01

17

Growth of the facultative anaerobe Shewanella putrefaciens by elemental sulfur reduction.  

PubMed Central

The growth of bacteria by dissimilatory elemental sulfur reduction is generally associated with obligate anaerobes and thermophiles in particular. Here we describe the sulfur-dependent growth of the facultatively anaerobic mesophile Shewanella putrefaciens. Six of nine representative S. putrefaciens isolates from a variety of environments proved able to grow by sulfur reduction, and strain MR-1 was chosen for further study. Growth was monitored in a minimal medium (usually with 0.05% Casamino Acids added as a growth stimulant) containing 30 mM lactate and limiting concentrations of elemental sulfur. When mechanisms were provided for the removal of the metabolic end product, H2S, measurable growth was obtained at sulfur concentrations of from 2 to 30 mM. Initial doubling times were ca. 1.5 h and substrate independent over the range of sulfur concentrations tested. In the cultures with the highest sulfur concentrations, cell numbers increased by greater than 400-fold after 48 h, reaching a maximum density of 6.8 x 10(8) cells ml-1. Yields were determined as total cell carbon and ranged from 1.7 to 5.9 g of C mol of S(0) consumed-1 in the presence of the amino acid supplement and from 0.9 to 3.4 g of C mol of S(0-1) in its absence. Several lines of evidence indicate that cell-to-sulfur contact is not required for growth. Approaches for the culture of sulfur-metabolizing bacteria and potential ecological implications of sulfur reduction in Shewanella-like heterotrophs are discussed.

Moser, D P; Nealson, K H

1996-01-01

18

Metabolic reprogramming under microaerobic and anaerobic conditions in bacteria.  

PubMed

Oxygen has a great impact on the metabolism and physiology of microorganisms. It serves as the most efficient terminal electron acceptor to drive the energy conservation process of cellular respiration and is required in many biosynthetic reactions. Bacteria encounter oxygen fluctuation and limitation during their growth in both natural ecological niches and in laboratory vessels. In response to oxygen limitation, facultative bacteria undergo substantial metabolic reprogramming to switch from the aerobic respiration to either anaerobic respiration, fermentation, or photosynthesis. Two key factors determine the metabolic pathways bacteria adopt under oxygen deprived microaerobic and anaerobic conditions: maximal energy conservation and redox homeostasis. In this chapter, we first describe how the fulfillment of these two key factors governs the metabolic reprogramming of facultative bacteria and how the process is tightly controlled by several global regulatory factors: FNR, ArcBA, as well as NarL and NarP. We then utilizes fermentation of glycerol, a large surplus byproduct of biodiesel industry, as an example to illustrate how environment, process, and strain based approaches can be exploited to manipulate and engineer the anaerobic metabolic pathways so that desirable fermentation products can be achieved with optimal yield. PMID:23080250

Shan, Yue; Lai, Yong; Yan, Aixin

2012-01-01

19

Anaerobic bacteria from hypersaline environments.  

PubMed Central

Strictly anaerobic halophiles, namely fermentative, sulfate-reducing, homoacetogenic, phototrophic, and methanogenic bacteria are involved in the oxidation of organic carbon in hypersaline environments. To date, six anaerobic fermentative genera, containing nine species, have been described. Two of them are homoacetogens. Six species belong to the family Haloanaerobiaceae, as indicated by their unique 16S rRNA oligonucleotide sequences. Desulfohalobium retbaense and Desulfovibrio halophilus represent the only two moderately halophilic sulfate reducers so far reported. Among anoxygenic phototrophic anaerobes, a few purple bacteria with optimal growth at salinities between 6 and 11% NaCl have been isolated from hypersaline habitats. They belong to the genera Rhodospirillum, Chromatium, Thiocapsa, and Ectothiorhodospira. The commonest organisms isolated so far are Chromatium salexigens, Thiocapsa halophila, and Rhodospirillum salinarum. Extremely halophilic purple bacteria have most commonly been isolated from alkaline brines and require about 20 to 25% NaCl for optimal growth. They belong to the family Ectothiorodhospiraceae. Their osmoregulation involves synthesis or uptake of compatible solutes such as glycine-betaine that accumulate in their cytoplasm. The existence of methanogens in hypersaline environments is related to the presence of noncompetitive substrates such as methylamines, which originate mainly from the breakdown of osmoregulatory amines. Methanogenesis probably does not contribute to the mineralization of carbohydrates at NaCl concentrations higher than 15%. Above this concentration, sulfate reduction is probably the main way to oxidize H2 (although at rates too low to use up all the H2 formed) and occupies a terminal function kn the degradation of carbohydrates. Three genera and five species of halophilic methylotrophic methanogens have been reported. A bloom of phototrophic bacteria in the marine salterns of Salins-de-Giraud, located on the Mediterranean French coast in the Rhone Delta, is also described.

Ollivier, B; Caumette, P; Garcia, J L; Mah, R A

1994-01-01

20

Clostridium thermoalcaliphilum sp. nov., an anaerobic and thermotolerant facultative alkaliphile  

SciTech Connect

An anaerobic and thermophilic alkaliphile, strain JW/YL23-2{sub T} (T = type strain), was isolated from sewage sludge obtained from a sewage plant in Atlanta, Ga. at pH 10.1 and 50{degrees}C, the doubling time of this strain was 19 min. Strain JW/YL23-2{sub T}, a motile rod-shaped bacterium with 2 to 12 peritrichous flagella, exhibited a negative Gram stain reaction but was gram-type positive as judged by the polymyxin B test. No heat-stable (85{degrees}C, 15 min) endospores were detected. At 50{degrees}C, growth occurred at pH values ranging from 7.0 to 11.0; the optimum pH was 9.6 to 10.1. The temperature range for growth ranged from 27 to 57.5{degrees}C; the optimum temperature was 48 to 51{degrees}C (pH 10.1). Dissimilatory sulfate reduction was not detected. The organism utilized glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose, cellobiose, and Casamino Acids. The DNA G+C content was 32 mol% (as determined by chemical analysis). A 16S rRNA sequence analysis revealed a 2% inferred evolutionary distance to Clostridium paradoxum. However, the cell wall type of strain JW/YL23-2{sup T} was A4{beta} (L-Orn-D-Asp), while that of C. paradoxum was Al{sub {tau}} (m-diaminopimelic acid direct). On the basis of the alkaline pH values and high temperatures for optimal growth, the inability to form spores, and other characteristics different from C. paradoxum characteristics, strain JW/YL-23-2 was placed in a new species, Clostridium thermoalcaliphilum; JW/YL23-2 (= DSM 7309) is the type strain of this new species.

Youhong Li; Engle, M.; Wiegel, J. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)] [and others

1994-01-01

21

Genomic analysis of Melioribacter roseus, facultatively anaerobic organotrophic bacterium representing a novel deep lineage within Bacteriodetes/Chlorobi group.  

PubMed

Melioribacter roseus is a moderately thermophilic facultatively anaerobic organotrophic bacterium representing a novel deep branch within Bacteriodetes/Chlorobi group. To better understand the metabolic capabilities and possible ecological functions of M. roseus and get insights into the evolutionary history of this bacterial lineage, we sequenced the genome of the type strain P3M-2(T). A total of 2838 open reading frames was predicted from its 3.30 Mb genome. The whole proteome analysis supported phylum-level classification of M. roseus since most of the predicted proteins had closest matches in Bacteriodetes, Proteobacteria, Chlorobi, Firmicutes and deeply-branching bacterium Caldithrix abyssi, rather than in one particular phylum. Consistent with the ability of the bacterium to grow on complex carbohydrates, the genome analysis revealed more than one hundred glycoside hydrolases, glycoside transferases, polysaccharide lyases and carbohydrate esterases. The reconstructed central metabolism revealed pathways enabling the fermentation of complex organic substrates, as well as their complete oxidation through aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Genes encoding the photosynthetic and nitrogen-fixation machinery of green sulfur bacteria, as well as key enzymes of autotrophic carbon fixation pathways, were not identified. The M. roseus genome supports its affiliation to a novel phylum Ignavibateriae, representing the first step on the evolutionary pathway from heterotrophic ancestors of Bacteriodetes/Chlorobi group towards anaerobic photoautotrophic Chlorobi. PMID:23301019

Kadnikov, Vitaly V; Mardanov, Andrey V; Podosokorskaya, Olga A; Gavrilov, Sergey N; Kublanov, Ilya V; Beletsky, Alexey V; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A; Ravin, Nikolai V

2013-01-02

22

Genomic Analysis of Melioribacter roseus, Facultatively Anaerobic Organotrophic Bacterium Representing a Novel Deep Lineage within Bacteriodetes/Chlorobi Group  

PubMed Central

Melioribacter roseus is a moderately thermophilic facultatively anaerobic organotrophic bacterium representing a novel deep branch within Bacteriodetes/Chlorobi group. To better understand the metabolic capabilities and possible ecological functions of M. roseus and get insights into the evolutionary history of this bacterial lineage, we sequenced the genome of the type strain P3M-2T. A total of 2838 open reading frames was predicted from its 3.30 Mb genome. The whole proteome analysis supported phylum-level classification of M. roseus since most of the predicted proteins had closest matches in Bacteriodetes, Proteobacteria, Chlorobi, Firmicutes and deeply-branching bacterium Caldithrix abyssi, rather than in one particular phylum. Consistent with the ability of the bacterium to grow on complex carbohydrates, the genome analysis revealed more than one hundred glycoside hydrolases, glycoside transferases, polysaccharide lyases and carbohydrate esterases. The reconstructed central metabolism revealed pathways enabling the fermentation of complex organic substrates, as well as their complete oxidation through aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Genes encoding the photosynthetic and nitrogen-fixation machinery of green sulfur bacteria, as well as key enzymes of autotrophic carbon fixation pathways, were not identified. The M. roseus genome supports its affiliation to a novel phylum Ignavibateriae, representing the first step on the evolutionary pathway from heterotrophic ancestors of Bacteriodetes/Chlorobi group towards anaerobic photoautotrophic Chlorobi.

Kadnikov, Vitaly V.; Mardanov, Andrey V.; Podosokorskaya, Olga A.; Gavrilov, Sergey N.; Kublanov, Ilya V.; Beletsky, Alexey V.; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A.; Ravin, Nikolai V.

2013-01-01

23

Iron-reducing bacteria unravel novel strategies for the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds.  

PubMed

Although the aerobic degradation of aromatic compounds has been extensively studied in many microorganisms, the anaerobic mineralization of the aromatic ring is a more recently discovered microbial capacity on which very little information is available from facultative anaerobic bacteria. In this issue of Molecular Microbiology, Wischgoll and colleagues use proteomic and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approaches to identify for the first time the gene clusters involved in the central pathway for the catabolism of aromatic compounds in Geobacter metallireducens, a strictly anaerobic iron-reducing bacterium. This work highlights that the major difference in anaerobic benzoate metabolism of facultative and strictly anaerobic bacteria is the reductive process for dearomatization of benzoyl-CoA. The authors propose that a new type of benzoyl-CoA reductase, comprising molybdenum- and selenocysteine-containing proteins, is present in strictly anaerobic bacteria. This work paves the way to fundamental studies on the biochemistry and regulation of this new reductive process and provides the first genetic clues on the anaerobic catabolism of benzoate by strict anaerobes. PMID:16313610

Carmona, Manuel; Díaz, Eduardo

2005-12-01

24

Mechanisms Determining Aerobic or Anaerobic Growth in the Facultative Anaerobe Salmonella typhimurium  

Microsoft Academic Search

We isolated mutant strains of the faculative anaerobe Salmonella typhimurium that grow either aerobically or anaerobically. Strict anaerobic mutants contained a defective DNA topoisomerase I gene (topI), while strict aerobic mutants contained a defective DNA gyrase subunit A gene (gyrA, also nalA). Topoisomerase I activity was detected in cell-free extracts of strict aerobic mutants but not of strict anaerobic mutant

Nobuto Yamamoto; Mary L. Droffner

1985-01-01

25

Attack on Lignified Grass Cell Walls by a Facultatively Anaerobic Bacterium  

PubMed Central

A filamentous, facultatively anaerobic microorganism that attacked lignified tissue in forage grasses was isolated from rumen fluid with a Bermuda grass-containing anaerobic medium in roll tubes. The microbe, designated 7-1, demonstrated various colony and cellular morphologies under different growth conditions. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that 7-1 attacked lignified cell walls in aerobic and anaerobic culture. 7-1 predominately degraded tissues reacting positively for lignin with the chlorine-sulfite stain (i.e., sclerenchyma in leaf blades and parenchyma in stems) rather than the more resistant acid phloroglucinol-positive tissues (i.e., lignified vascular tissue and sclerenchyma ring in stems), although the latter tissues were occasionally attacked. Turbidimetric tests showed that 7-1 in anaerobic culture grew optimally at 39°C at a pH of 7.4 to 8.0. Tests for growth on plant cell wall carbohydrates showed that 7-1 grew on xylan and pectin slowly in aerobic cultures but not with pectin and only slightly with xylan in anaerobic culture. 7-1 was noncellulolytic as shown by filter paper tests. The microbe used the phenolic acids sinapic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acids as substrates for growth; the more highly methoxylated acids were used more effectively. Images

Akin, Danny E.

1980-01-01

26

Isolation of thermotolerant, halotolerant, facultative biosurfactant-producing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several facultative bacterial strains tolerant to high temperature and salinity were isolated from the oil reservoir brines\\u000a of an Iranian oil field (Masjed-I Soleyman). Some of these isolates were able to grow up to 60°C and at high concentration\\u000a of NaCl (15% w\\/v). One of the isolates grew at 40°C, while it was able to grow at 15% w\\/v NaCl.

H. Ghojavand; F. Vahabzadeh; M. Mehranian; M. Radmehr; Kh. A. Shahraki; F. Zolfagharian; M. A. Emadi; E. Roayaei

2008-01-01

27

Comparative antimicrobial susceptibility of aerobic and facultative bacteria from community-acquired bacteremia to ertapenem in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Background Ertapenem is a once-a-day carbapenem and has excellent activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic, facultative, and anaerobic bacteria. The susceptibility of isolates of community-acquired bacteremia to ertapenem has not been reported yet. The present study assesses the in vitro activity of ertapenem against aerobic and facultative bacterial pathogens isolated from patients with community-acquired bacteremia by determining and comparing the MICs of cefepime, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, amikacin and gentamicin. The prevalence of extended broad spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBL) producing strains of community-acquired bacteremia and their susceptibility to these antibiotics are investigated. Methods Aerobic and facultative bacteria isolated from blood obtained from hospitalized patients with community-acquired bacteremia within 48 hours of admission between August 1, 2004 and September 30, 2004 in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, Taiwan, were identified using standard procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated by Etest according to the standard guidelines provided by the manufacturer and document M100-S16 Performance Standards of the Clinical Laboratory of Standard Institute. Antimicrobial agents including cefepime, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, amikacin and gentamicin were used against the bacterial isolates to test their MICs as determined by Etest. For Staphylococcus aureus isolates, MICs of oxacillin were also tested by Etest to differentiate oxacillin-sensitive and oxacillin-resistant S. aureus. Results Ertapenem was highly active in vitro against many aerobic and facultative bacterial pathogens commonly recovered from patients with community-acquired bacteremia (128/159, 80.5 %). Ertapenem had more potent activity than ceftriaxone, piperacillin-tazobactam, or ciprofloxacin against oxacillin-susceptible S. aureus (17/17, 100%)and was more active than any of these agents against enterobacteriaceae (82/82, 100%). Conclusion Based on the microbiology pattern of community-acquired bacteremia, initial empiric treatment that requires coverage of a broad spectrum of both gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic bacteria, such as ertapenem, may be justified in moderately severe cases of community-acquired bacteremia in non-immunocompromised hosts.

Lee, Sai-Cheong; Huang, Shie-Shian; Lee, Chao-Wei; Fung, Chang-Phone; Lee, Ning; Shieh, Wen-Bin; Siu, LK

2007-01-01

28

Identification of a conserved protein involved in anaerobic unsaturated fatty acid synthesis in Neiserria gonorrhoeae: implications for facultative and obligate anaerobes that lack FabA.  

PubMed

Transcriptome analysis of the facultative anaerobe, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, revealed that many genes of unknown function were induced under anaerobic conditions. Mutation of one such gene, NGO1024, encoding a protein belonging to the 2-nitropropane dioxygenase-like superfamily of proteins, was found to result in an inability of gonococci to grow anaerobically. Anaerobic growth of an NG1024 mutant was restored upon supplementation with unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), but not with the saturated fatty acid palmitate. Gonococcal fatty acid profiles confirmed that NGO1024 was involved in UFA synthesis anaerobically, but not aerobically, demonstrating that gonococci contain two distinct pathways for the production of UFAs, with a yet unidentified aerobic mechanism, and an anaerobic mechanism involving NGO1024. Expression of genes involved in classical anaerobic UFA synthesis, fabA, fabM and fabB, was toxic in gonococci and unable to complement a NGO1024 mutation, suggesting that the chemistry involved in gonococcal anaerobic UFA synthesis is distinct from that of the classical pathway. NGO1024 homologues, which we suggest naming UfaA, form a distinct lineage within the 2-nitropropane dioxygenase-like superfamily, and are found in many facultative and obligate anaerobes that produce UFAs but lack fabA, suggesting that UfaA is part of a widespread pathway involved in UFA synthesis. PMID:21895795

Isabella, Vincent M; Clark, Virginia L

2011-09-19

29

The oral prevalence of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic gram-negative rods and yeasts in semi-recluse human vegetarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited data exist on the oral ecology of vegetarians. Hence the dental and periodontal status, and the oral prevalence of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic Gram-negative rods (AGNR) and yeasts, were studied in 36 semi-recluse, vegetarian, Buddhist monks and nuns in Hong Kong. The oral prevalence of AGNR and yeasts was 61.1% and 33.3%. There was no correlation between the prevalence

C. M. Sedgley; C. S. Chu; E. C. M. Lo; L. P. Samaranayake

1996-01-01

30

Anaerobic Oxidation of Arsenite in Mono Lake Water and by a Facultative, Arsenite-Oxidizing Chemoautotroph, Strain MLHE-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

As(III). Arsenite-grown cells demonstrated dark 14CO2 fixation, and PCR was used to indicate the presence of a gene encoding ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase\\/oxygenase. Strain MLHE-1 is a facultative chemoau- totroph, able to grow with these inorganic electron donors and nitrate as its electron acceptor, but heterotro- phic growth on acetate was also observed under both aerobic and anaerobic (nitrate) conditions. Phylogenetic analysis

Ronald S. Oremland; Shelley E. Hoeft; Joanne M. Santini; Nasreen Bano; Ryan A. Hollibaugh; James T. Hollibaugh

2002-01-01

31

Presence of Na + Stimulated P-Type ATPase in the Membrane of a Facultatively Anaerobic Alkaliphile, Exiguobacterium aurantiacum  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   It was found that a facultatively anaerobic alkaliphile, Exiguobacterium aurantiacum, possesses a membrane-bound ATPase, which was activated specifically by Na+. The Na+-stimulated ATPase activity reached a maximum value at 200 mM NaCl. In the presence of 200 mM NaCl, the activity was drastically\\u000a reduced by vanadate, a potent inhibitor of P-type ATPase, with a half-maximal inhibition at 1 ?M.

Noriyuki Koyama

1999-01-01

32

Amphibacillus jilinensis sp. nov., a facultatively anaerobic, alkaliphilic bacillus from a soda lake.  

PubMed

A facultatively anaerobic, alkaliphilic, spore-forming, Gram-positive-staining rod, designated Y1(T), was isolated under strictly anaerobic conditions from sediment of a soda lake in Jilin province, China. The strain was not dependent on Na(+) but was highly halotolerant and grew optimally in medium JY with 0.5 M Na(+) (0.06 M NaHCO(3) and 0.44 M NaCl). The optimum pH for growth was 9.0, with a range of pH 7.5-10.5. No growth occurred at pH 7.0 or 11.0. The strain was mesophilic, with a temperature range of 15-45 °C and optimum growth at 32 °C. Strain Y1(T) was able to use certain mono- and oligosaccharides. Soluble starch and casein were hydrolysed. The methyl red test, Voges-Proskauer test and tests for catalase and oxidase activities were negative. The predominant fatty acids were anteiso-C(15?:?0) and iso-C(15?:?0). Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed 93.4-96.8?% sequence similarity to members of the genus Amphibacillus. The DNA G+C content was 37.7 mol% (T(m) method). The DNA-DNA relatedness of strain Y1(T) with respect to Amphibacillus tropicus DSM 13870(T) and Amphibacillus sediminis DSM 21624(T) was 48 and 37?%, respectively. On the basis of its phylogenetic position and the DNA-DNA relatedness data as well as its physiological and biochemical properties, strain Y1(T) represents a novel species of the genus Amphibacillus, for which the name Amphibacillus jilinensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Y1(T) (=CGMCC 1.5123(T) =JCM 16149(T)). PMID:19965990

Wu, Xiao-Yue; Zheng, Gang; Zhang, Wen-Wu; Xu, Xue-Wei; Wu, Min; Zhu, Xu-Fen

2009-12-04

33

Vibrio ruber sp. nov., a red, facultatively anaerobic, marine bacterium isolated from sea water.  

PubMed

A red, heterotrophic, marine bacterium, designated strain VR1T, was isolated from a sea-water sample collected in the shallow coastal region of Keelung, Taiwan. Cells of the novel strain were facultatively anaerobic, Gram-negative rods that were motile by means of a polar flagellum. The strain grew optimally at 25-30 degrees C and pH 6-7. Growth required the presence of NaCl, the optimal concentration being about 2%. The red pigment produced by the cells was identified as prodigiosin. Strain VR1T grew anaerobically by fermenting glucose and other carbohydrates and producing acids and gases. The strain did not require either vitamins or other organic growth factors for growth. It contained 2-OH-16 : 0 and 3-OH-14 : 0 as the major cellular fatty acids. The DNA G + C content was 45.8 mol%. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characterization indicated that strain VR1T represents a novel species in the genus Vibrio. Strain VR1T is phenotypically similar to Vibrio gazogenes. However, the reduction of nitrate to nitrite, the ability to utilize D-arabinose, melibiose and L-glycine as sole carbon sources, the inability to utilize sorbitol as a sole carbon source, resistance to O/129 and susceptibility to erythromycin and novobiocin allow differentiation between V. gazogenes and strain VR1T. The name Vibrio ruber sp. nov. is proposed for the novel species, with strain VR1T (=CCRC 17186T =JCM 11486T) as the type strain. PMID:12710616

Shieh, Wung Yang; Chen, Yi-Wen; Chaw, Shu-Miaw; Chiu, Hsiu-Hui

2003-03-01

34

Isolation of halotolerant, thermotolerant, facultative polymer-producing bacteria and characterization of the exopolymer.  

PubMed

Over 200 bacterial strains were selected for anaerobic growth at 50 degrees C and extracellular polysaccharide production in a sucrose-mineral salts medium with NaNO(3) and up to 10% NaCl. The predominant cell type was an encapsulated gram-positive, motile, facultative sporeforming rod similar to Bacillus species. Strain SP018 grew and produced the polysaccharide on a variety of substrates at salinities up to 12% NaCl. Good polymer production only occurred anaerobically and was optimal between 4 and 10% NaCl. The ethanol-precipitated SP018 polymer was a charged heteropolysaccharide that contained glucose, mannose, arabinose, ribose, and low levels of allose and glucosamine. The SP018 polymer showed pseudoplastic behavior, was resistant to shearing, and had a higher viscosity at dilute concentrations and at elevated temperatures than xanthan gum. High-ionic-strength solutions reversibly decreased the viscosity of SP018 polymer solutions. The bacterium and the associated polymer have many properties that make them potentially useful for in situ microbially enhanced oil recovery processes. PMID:16347080

Pfiffner, S M; McInerney, M J; Jenneman, G E; Knapp, R M

1986-06-01

35

Isolation of halotolerant, thermotolerant, facultative polymer-producing bacteria and characterization of the exopolymer  

SciTech Connect

Over 200 bacterial strains were selected for anaerobic growth at 50/sup 0/C and extracellular polysaccharide production in a sucrose-mineral salts medium with NaNO/sub 3/ and up to 10% NaCl. The predominant cell type was an encapsulated gram-positive, motile, facultative spore-forming rod similar to Bacillus species. Strain SP018 grew and produced the polysaccharide on a variety of substrates at salinities up to 12% NaCl. Good polymer production only occurred anaerobically and was optimal between 4 and 10% NaCl. The ethanol-precipitated SP018 polymer was a charged heteropolysaccharide that contained glucose, mannose, arabinose, ribose, and low levels of allose and glucosamine. The SP018 polymer showed pseudoplastic behavior, was resistant to shearing, and had a higher viscosity at dilute concentrations and at elevated temperatures than xanthan gum. High-ionic-strength solutions reversibly decreased the viscosity of SP018 polymer solutions. The bacterium and the associated polymer have many properties that make them potentially useful for in situ microbially enhanced oil recovery processes.

Pfiffner, S.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Jenneman, G.E.; Knapp, R.M.

1986-06-01

36

Isolation of Halotolerant, Thermotolerant, Facultative Polymer-Producing Bacteria and Characterization of the Exopolymer  

PubMed Central

Over 200 bacterial strains were selected for anaerobic growth at 50°C and extracellular polysaccharide production in a sucrose-mineral salts medium with NaNO3 and up to 10% NaCl. The predominant cell type was an encapsulated gram-positive, motile, facultative sporeforming rod similar to Bacillus species. Strain SP018 grew and produced the polysaccharide on a variety of substrates at salinities up to 12% NaCl. Good polymer production only occurred anaerobically and was optimal between 4 and 10% NaCl. The ethanol-precipitated SP018 polymer was a charged heteropolysaccharide that contained glucose, mannose, arabinose, ribose, and low levels of allose and glucosamine. The SP018 polymer showed pseudoplastic behavior, was resistant to shearing, and had a higher viscosity at dilute concentrations and at elevated temperatures than xanthan gum. High-ionic-strength solutions reversibly decreased the viscosity of SP018 polymer solutions. The bacterium and the associated polymer have many properties that make them potentially useful for in situ microbially enhanced oil recovery processes.

Pfiffner, S. M.; McInerney, Michael J.; Jenneman, Gary E.; Knapp, Roy M.

1986-01-01

37

ANAEROBIC RESISTANCE TO HIGH LEVELS OF CADMIUM AND OTHER TOXIC METALS IN A FACULTATIVE ANAEROBE ISOLATED FROM PRISTINE SALT MARSH SEDIMENTS  

SciTech Connect

The authors have isolated many Cd (II) resistant bacterial strains from relatively pristine sediments collected from salt marshes in Shelter Island, New York. Detailed studies are being performed on one isolate, strain Cd-1. Strain Cd-1 is metabolically diverse, halotolerant, Gram-negative, facultative anaerobe. It can resist high amounts of Cd (II), Cr (VI), As (V), Se (IV), Co (II), Pb (II), or Zn (II) under defined anaerobic conditions. With pyruvate as the energy source, Cd-1 can grow well at examined Cd (II) concentrations ranging up to 15 mM. It can resist Cd (II) with or without marine level NaCl concentration, under acidic or neutral conditions. It can resist Cd (II) under aerobic conditions as well. These features are novel for a heavy metal resistant bacterium.

SHARMA,P.K.; VAIRAVAMURTHY,A.; KIELECZAWA,J.

1999-06-20

38

Fuel from Bacteria: Bioconversion of Carbon Dioxide to Biofuels by Facultatively Autotrophic Hydrogen Bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Electrofuels Project: Ohio State is genetically modifying bacteria to efficiently convert carbon dioxide directly into butanol, an alcohol that can be used directly as a fuel blend or converted to a hydrocarbon, which closely resembles a gasoline. Bacteria are typically capable of producing a certain amount of butanol before it becomes too toxic for the bacteria to survive. Ohio State is engineering a new strain of the bacteria that could produce up to 50% more butanol before it becomes too toxic for the bacteria to survive. Finding a way to produce more butanol more efficiently would significantly cut down on biofuel production costs and help make butanol cost competitive with gasoline. Ohio State is also engineering large tanks, or bioreactors, to grow the biofuel-producing bacteria in, and they are developing ways to efficiently recover biofuel from the tanks.

None

2010-07-01

39

Amphibacillus fermentum sp. nov. and Amphibacillus tropicussp. nov., New Alkaliphilic, Facultatively Anaerobic, Saccharolytic Bacilli from Lake Magadi  

Microsoft Academic Search

New alkaliphilic, saccharolytic, rod-shaped, gram-positive bacteria resistant to heating and drying and phylogenetically affiliated to the Bacilluslineage were isolated under strictly anaerobic conditions from sediments of the alkaline and highly mineralized Lake Magadi. Strain Z-7792 forms endospores; in strain Z-7984, endospore formation was not revealed. The strains are capable of both anaerobic growth (at the expense of fermentation of glucose

T. N. Zhilina; E. S. Garnova; T. P. Tourova; N. A. Kostrikina; G. A. Zavarzin

2001-01-01

40

Isolation and characterization of facultative mixotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria from constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

Autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) have been widely studied in constructed wetlands systems, while mixotrophic AOB have been less thoroughly examined. Heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from wastewater and rhizospheres of macrophytes of constructed wetlands, and then cultivated in a mixotrophic medium containing ammonium and acetic acid. A molecular characterization was accomplished using ITS-PCR amplification, and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Results showed the presence of 35 bacteria, among 400 initially heterotrophic isolates, that were able to remove ammonia. These 35 isolates were classified into 10 genetically different groups based on ITS pattern. Then, a collection of 10 isolates were selected because of their relatively high ammonia removal efficiencies (ARE > or = 80%) and their phylogenetic diversity. In conditions of mixotrophy, these strains were shown to be able to grow (increase of optical density OD660 during incubation with assimilation of nitrogen into cellular biomass) and to oxidize ammonia (important ammonia oxidation efficiencies, AOE between 79% and 87%). Among these facultative mixotrophic AOB, four isolates were genetically related to Firmicutes (Bacillus and Exiguobacterium), three isolates were affiliated to Actinobacteria (Arthrobacter) and three other isolates were associated with Proteobacteria (Pseudomonas, Ochrobactrum and Bordetella). PMID:22432266

Kouki, Soulwène; Saidi, Neila; M'hiri, Fadhel; Nasr, Houda; Cherif, Hanène; Ouzari, Hadda; Hassen, Abdennaceur

2011-01-01

41

Antimicrobial Properties of Hydrogen Peroxide and Sodium Bicarbonate Individually and in Combination Against Selected Oral, Gram-negative, Facultative Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topical application of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHC03), individually and in combination, has been used empirically in the treatment of periodontal diseases. In this study, we examined both minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of these disinfectants individually and in combination against selected facultative, Gram-negative oral bacteria in a microtiter dilution assay. The bacteria

K. T. Miyasaki; R. J. Genco; M. E. Wilson

1986-01-01

42

Complete Genome of Ignavibacterium album, a Metabolically Versatile, Flagellated, Facultative Anaerobe from the Phylum Chlorobi  

PubMed Central

Prior to the recent discovery of Ignavibacterium album (I. album), anaerobic photoautotrophic green sulfur bacteria (GSB) were the only members of the bacterial phylum Chlorobi that had been grown axenically. In contrast to GSB, sequence analysis of the 3.7-Mbp genome of I. album shows that this recently described member of the phylum Chlorobi is a chemoheterotroph with a versatile metabolism. I. album lacks genes for photosynthesis and sulfur oxidation but has a full set of genes for flagella and chemotaxis. The occurrence of genes for multiple electron transfer complexes suggests that I. album is capable of organoheterotrophy under both oxic and anoxic conditions. The occurrence of genes encoding enzymes for CO2 fixation as well as other enzymes of the reductive TCA cycle suggests that mixotrophy may be possible under certain growth conditions. However, known biosynthetic pathways for several amino acids are incomplete; this suggests that I. album is dependent upon on exogenous sources of these metabolites or employs novel biosynthetic pathways. Comparisons of I. album and other members of the phylum Chlorobi suggest that the physiology of the ancestors of this phylum might have been quite different from that of modern GSB.

Liu, Zhenfeng; Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Vogl, Kajetan; Iino, Takao; Ohkuma, Moriya; Overmann, Jorg; Bryant, Donald A.

2012-01-01

43

Cyclohexa-1,5-diene-1-carbonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) hydratases of Geobacter metallireducens and Syntrophus aciditrophicus: Evidence for a common benzoyl-CoA degradation pathway in facultative and strict anaerobes.  

PubMed

In the denitrifying bacterium Thauera aromatica, the central intermediate of anaerobic aromatic metabolism, benzoyl-coenzyme A (CoA), is dearomatized by the ATP-dependent benzoyl-CoA reductase to cyclohexa-1,5-diene-1-carbonyl-CoA (dienoyl-CoA). The dienoyl-CoA is further metabolized by a series of beta-oxidation-like reactions of the so-called benzoyl-CoA degradation pathway resulting in ring cleavage. Recently, evidence was obtained that obligately anaerobic bacteria that use aromatic growth substrates do not contain an ATP-dependent benzoyl-CoA reductase. In these bacteria, the reactions involved in dearomatization and cleavage of the aromatic ring have not been shown, so far. In this work, a characteristic enzymatic step of the benzoyl-CoA pathway in obligate anaerobes was demonstrated and characterized. Dienoyl-CoA hydratase activities were determined in extracts of Geobacter metallireducens (iron reducing), Syntrophus aciditrophicus (fermenting), and Desulfococcus multivorans (sulfate reducing) cells grown with benzoate. The benzoate-induced genes putatively coding for the dienoyl-CoA hydratases in the benzoate degraders G. metallireducens and S. aciditrophicus were heterologously expressed and characterized. Both gene products specifically catalyzed the reversible hydration of dienoyl-CoA to 6-hydroxycyclohexenoyl-CoA (Km, 80 and 35 microM; Vmax, 350 and 550 micromol min(-1) mg(-1), respectively). Neither enzyme had significant activity with cyclohex-1-ene-1-carbonyl-CoA or crotonyl-CoA. The results suggest that benzoyl-CoA degradation proceeds via dienoyl-CoA and 6-hydroxycyclohexanoyl-CoA in strictly anaerobic bacteria. The steps involved in dienoyl-CoA metabolism appear identical in all nonphotosynthetic anaerobic bacteria, although totally different benzene ring-dearomatizing enzymes are present in facultative and obligate anaerobes. PMID:17122342

Peters, Franziska; Shinoda, Yoshifumi; McInerney, Michael J; Boll, Matthias

2006-11-22

44

Distinct and effective biotransformation of hexavalent chromium by a novel isolate under aerobic growth followed by facultative anaerobic incubation.  

PubMed

A bacterial isolate (G161) with high Cr(VI)-reducing capacity was isolated from Cr(VI)-contaminated soil and identified as Leucobacter sp. on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The isolate was a Gram-positive, aerobic rod. The hexavalent chromate-reducing capability of the isolate was investigated under three conditions of oxygen stress. The isolate was found to reduce Cr(VI) under all conditions but performed most effectively during aerobic growth followed by facultative anaerobic incubation. Under these conditions, the isolate tolerated K(2)Cr(2)O(7) concentrations up to 1,000 mg/l and completely reduced 400 mg/l K(2)Cr(2)O(7) within 96 h. The strain reduced Cr(VI) over a wide range of pH (6.0-11.0) and temperatures (15-45 °C) with optimum performance at pH?8.0 and 35 °C. The presence of other metals, such as Ca(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Mn(2+), Ni(2+), and Zn(2+), induced no effect or else played a stimulatory role on Cr(VI)-reduction activity of the strain. The strain was tested for Cr(VI) removal in wastewaters and proved capable of completely reducing the contained Cr(VI). This is the novel report of a bacterial growth and Cr(VI)-reduction process under sequential aerobic growth and facultative anaerobic conditions. The study suggested that the isolate possesses a distinct capability for Cr(VI) reduction which could be harnessed for the detoxification of chromate-contaminated wastewaters. PMID:22926581

Ge, Shimei; Zhou, Maohong; Dong, Xinjiao; Lu, Yang; Ge, Shichao

2012-08-28

45

Growth characteristic of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in an anaerobic biological filtrated reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The doubling time of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria in an anaerobic biological filtrated (ABF) reactor was\\u000a determined. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis was used to detect and count anammox bacteria cells in anammox sludge.\\u000a As a result, the populations of anammox bacteria at 14th and 21st days were 1.1×106 and 1.7×107 cells\\/ml reactor, respectively. From these results, the doubling time of

Kazuichi Isaka; Yasuhiro Date; Tatsuo Sumino; Sachiko Yoshie; Satoshi Tsuneda

2006-01-01

46

Metabolic Interactions Between Methanogenic Consortia and Anaerobic Respiring Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most types of anaerobic respiration are able to outcompete methanogenic consortia for common substrates if the respective\\u000a electron acceptors are present in sufficient amounts. Furthermore, several products or intermediate compounds formed by anaerobic\\u000a respiring bacteria are toxic to methanogenic consortia. Despite the potentially adverse effects, only few inorganic electron\\u000a acceptors potentially utilizable for anaerobic respiration have been investigated with respect

A. J. M. Stams; S. J. W. H. Oude Elferink; P. Westermann

2003-01-01

47

Genetic diversity and phylogeny of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria isolated from the phyllosphere of tropical crop plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic diversity of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria belonging to the genus, Methylobacterium, was assessed using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing, amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), and differential\\u000a carbon-substrate utilization profile in the phyllosphere of cotton, maize, sunflower, soybean, and mentha plants. Methylobacterium populi, Methylobacterium thiocyanatum, Methylobacterium suomiense, M. aminovorans, and Methylobacterium fujisawaense were identified to colonize the phyllosphere

P. Raja; D. Balachandar; S. P. Sundaram

2008-01-01

48

Immunochemical Investigations of Cell Surface Antigens of Anaerobic Bacteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Among the anaerobic bacteria responsible for human infection, Baceteroides fragilis is the most important. This organism is particularly important in intra-abdominal septis or bacteremia. Several studies were conducted to determine whether any unique bact...

D. L. Kasper

1984-01-01

49

Intermediary Metabolism in Protists: a Sequence-based View of Facultative Anaerobic Metabolism in Evolutionarily Diverse Eukaryotes  

PubMed Central

Protists account for the bulk of eukaryotic diversity. Through studies of gene and especially genome sequences the molecular basis for this diversity can be determined. Evident from genome sequencing are examples of versatile metabolism that go far beyond the canonical pathways described for eukaryotes in textbooks. In the last 2–3 years, genome sequencing and transcript profiling has unveiled several examples of heterotrophic and phototrophic protists that are unexpectedly well-equipped for ATP production using a facultative anaerobic metabolism, including some protists that can (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) or are predicted (Naegleria gruberi, Acanthamoeba castellanii, Amoebidium parasiticum) to produce H2 in their metabolism. It is possible that some enzymes of anaerobic metabolism were acquired and distributed among eukaryotes by lateral transfer, but it is also likely that the common ancestor of eukaryotes already had far more metabolic versatility than was widely thought a few years ago. The discussion of core energy metabolism in unicellular eukaryotes is the subject of this review. Since genomic sequencing has so far only touched the surface of protist diversity, it is anticipated that sequences of additional protists may reveal an even wider range of metabolic capabilities, while simultaneously enriching our understanding of the early evolution of eukaryotes.

Ginger, Michael L.; Fritz-Laylin, Lillian K.; Fulton, Chandler; Cande, W. Zacheus; Dawson, Scott C.

2011-01-01

50

Mitochondrial genome from the facultative anaerobe and petite-positive yeast Dekkera bruxellensis contains the NADH dehydrogenase subunit genes.  

PubMed

The progenitor of the Dekkera/Brettanomyces clade separated from the Saccharomyces/Kluyveromyces clade over 200 million years ago. However, within both clades, several lineages developed similar physiological traits. Both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Dekkera bruxellensis are facultative anaerobes; in the presence of excess oxygen and sugars, they accumulate ethanol (Crabtree effect) and they both spontaneously generate respiratory-deficient mutants (petites). In order to understand the role of respiratory metabolism, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecules of two Dekkera/Brettanomyces species were analysed. Dekkera bruxellensis mtDNA shares several properties with S. cerevisiae, such as the large genome size (76 453 bp), and the organization of the intergenic sequences consisting of spacious AT-rich regions containing a number of hairpin GC-rich cluster-like elements. In addition to a basic set of the mitochondrial genes coding for the components of cytochrome oxidase, cytochrome b, subunits of ATPase, two rRNA subunits and 25 tRNAs, D. bruxellensis also carries genes for the NADH dehydrogenase complex. Apparently, in yeast, the loss of this complex is not a precondition to develop a petite-positive, Crabtree-positive and anaerobic nature. On the other hand, mtDNA from a petite-negative Brettanomyces custersianus is much smaller (30 058 bp); it contains a similar gene set and has only short intergenic sequences. PMID:20528950

Procházka, Emanuel; Poláková, Silvia; Piskur, Jure; Sulo, Pavol

2010-05-10

51

Phytase activity of anaerobic ruminal bacteria.  

PubMed

Phytase catalyses the release of phosphate from phytate (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate), the predominant form of phosphorus in cereal grains, oilseeds and legumes. The presence of phytase activity was investigated in 334 strains of 22 species of obligately anaerobic ruminal bacteria. Measurable activities were demonstrated in strains of Selenomonas ruminantium, Megasphaera elsdenii, Prevotella ruminicola, Mitsuokella multiacidus and Treponema spp. Strains isolated from fermentations with cereal grains proved to have high activity, and activity was particularly prevalent in S. ruminantium, with over 96% of the tested strains being positive. The measured phytase activity was found exclusively associated with the bacterial cells and was produced in the presence of approximately 14 mM phosphate. The most highly active strains were all S. ruminantium, with the exception of the one Mitsuokella multiacidus strain examined. Phytase activity varied greatly among positive strains but activities as high as 703 nmol phosphate released (ml culture)-1 were measured for a S. ruminantium strain and 387 nmol phosphate released (ml culture)-1 for the Mitsuokella multiacidus strain. PMID:9639927

Yanke, L J; Bae, H D; Selinger, L B; Cheng, K J

1998-06-01

52

Plutonium Oxidation State Distribution under Aerobic and Anaerobic Subsurface Conditions for Metal-Reducing Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fate and potential mobility of plutonium in the subsurface is receiving increased attention as the DOE looks to cleanup the many legacy nuclear waste sites and associated subsurface contamination. Plutonium is the near-surface contaminant of concern at several DOE sites and continues to be the contaminant of concern for the permanent disposal of nuclear waste. The mobility of plutonium is highly dependent on its redox distribution at its contamination source and along its potential migration pathways. This redox distribution is often controlled, especially in the near-surface where organic/inorganic contaminants often coexist, by the direct and indirect effects of microbial activity. The redox distribution of plutonium in the presence of facultative metal reducing bacteria (specifically Shewanella and Geobacter species) was established in a concurrent experimental and modeling study under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Pu(VI), although relatively soluble under oxidizing conditions at near-neutral pH, does not persist under a wide range of the oxic and anoxic conditions investigated in microbiologically active systems. Pu(V) complexes, which exhibit high chemical toxicity towards microorganisms, are relatively stable under oxic conditions but are reduced by metal reducing bacteria under anaerobic conditions. These facultative metal-reducing bacteria led to the rapid reduction of higher valent plutonium to form Pu(III/IV) species depending on nature of the starting plutonium species and chelating agents present in solution. Redox cycling of these lower oxidation states is likely a critical step in the formation of pseudo colloids that may lead to long-range subsurface transport. The CCBATCH biogeochemical model is used to explain the redox mechanisms and final speciation of the plutonium oxidation state distributions observed. These results for microbiologically active systems are interpreted in the context of their importance in defining the overall migration of plutonium in the subsurface.

Reed, D. T.; Swanson, J.; Khaing, H.; Deo, R.; Rittmann, B.

2009-12-01

53

Population genomics of the facultatively mutualistic bacteria Sinorhizobium meliloti and S. medicae.  

PubMed

The symbiosis between rhizobial bacteria and legume plants has served as a model for investigating the genetics of nitrogen fixation and the evolution of facultative mutualism. We used deep sequence coverage (>100×) to characterize genomic diversity at the nucleotide level among 12 Sinorhizobium medicae and 32 S. meliloti strains. Although these species are closely related and share host plants, based on the ratio of shared polymorphisms to fixed differences we found that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) between these species was confined almost exclusively to plasmid genes. Three multi-genic regions that show the strongest evidence of HGT harbor genes directly involved in establishing or maintaining the mutualism with host plants. In both species, nucleotide diversity is 1.5-2.5 times greater on the plasmids than chromosomes. Interestingly, nucleotide diversity in S. meliloti but not S. medicae is highly structured along the chromosome - with mean diversity (?(?)) on one half of the chromosome five times greater than mean diversity on the other half. Based on the ratio of plasmid to chromosome diversity, this appears to be due to severely reduced diversity on the chromosome half with less diversity, which is consistent with extensive hitchhiking along with a selective sweep. Frequency-spectrum based tests identified 82 genes with a signature of adaptive evolution in one species or another but none of the genes were identified in both species. Based upon available functional information, several genes identified as targets of selection are likely to alter the symbiosis with the host plant, making them attractive targets for further functional characterization. PMID:22876202

Epstein, Brendan; Branca, Antoine; Mudge, Joann; Bharti, Arvind K; Briskine, Roman; Farmer, Andrew D; Sugawara, Masayuki; Young, Nevin D; Sadowsky, Michael J; Tiffin, Peter

2012-08-02

54

Population Genomics of the Facultatively Mutualistic Bacteria Sinorhizobium meliloti and S. medicae  

PubMed Central

The symbiosis between rhizobial bacteria and legume plants has served as a model for investigating the genetics of nitrogen fixation and the evolution of facultative mutualism. We used deep sequence coverage (>100×) to characterize genomic diversity at the nucleotide level among 12 Sinorhizobium medicae and 32 S. meliloti strains. Although these species are closely related and share host plants, based on the ratio of shared polymorphisms to fixed differences we found that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) between these species was confined almost exclusively to plasmid genes. Three multi-genic regions that show the strongest evidence of HGT harbor genes directly involved in establishing or maintaining the mutualism with host plants. In both species, nucleotide diversity is 1.5–2.5 times greater on the plasmids than chromosomes. Interestingly, nucleotide diversity in S. meliloti but not S. medicae is highly structured along the chromosome – with mean diversity (??) on one half of the chromosome five times greater than mean diversity on the other half. Based on the ratio of plasmid to chromosome diversity, this appears to be due to severely reduced diversity on the chromosome half with less diversity, which is consistent with extensive hitchhiking along with a selective sweep. Frequency-spectrum based tests identified 82 genes with a signature of adaptive evolution in one species or another but none of the genes were identified in both species. Based upon available functional information, several genes identified as targets of selection are likely to alter the symbiosis with the host plant, making them attractive targets for further functional characterization.

Epstein, Brendan; Branca, Antoine; Mudge, Joann; Bharti, Arvind K.; Briskine, Roman; Farmer, Andrew D.; Sugawara, Masayuki; Young, Nevin D.; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Tiffin, Peter

2012-01-01

55

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation by anammox bacteria in the Black Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of fixed inorganic nitrogen (nitrate, nitrite and ammonium) limits primary productivity in many oceanic regions. The conversion of nitrate to N2 by heterotrophic bacteria (denitrification) is believed to be the only important sink for fixed inorganic nitrogen in the ocean. Here we provide evidence for bacteria that anaerobically oxidize ammonium with nitrite to N2 in the world's largest

Marcel M. M. Kuypers; A. Olav Sliekers; Gaute Lavik; Markus Schmid; Bo Barker Jørgensen; J. Gijs Kuenen; Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté; Marc Strous; Mike S. M. Jetten

2003-01-01

56

Rapid and Simple Cryopreservation of Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria  

PubMed Central

A quick and simple protocol for long-term cryopreservation of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (anammox bacteria) was developed. After 29 weeks of preservation at ?80°C, activity recovery for all tested cultures under at least one of the applied sets of preservation conditions was observed. Growth recovery was also demonstrated for a single-cell culture of “Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis.”

Ettwig, Katharina; Hu, Ziye; Jetten, Mike; Kartal, Boran

2012-01-01

57

The Genome Sequences of Cellulomonas fimi and "Cellvibrio gilvus” Reveal the Cellulolytic Strategies of Two Facultative Anaerobes, Transfer of "Cellvibrio gilvus" to the Genus Cellulomonas, and Proposal of Cellulomonas gilvus sp. nov  

PubMed Central

Actinobacteria in the genus Cellulomonas are the only known and reported cellulolytic facultative anaerobes. To better understand the cellulolytic strategy employed by these bacteria, we sequenced the genome of the Cellulomonas fimi ATCC 484T. For comparative purposes, we also sequenced the genome of the aerobic cellulolytic “Cellvibrio gilvus” ATCC 13127T. An initial analysis of these genomes using phylogenetic and whole-genome comparison revealed that “Cellvibrio gilvus” belongs to the genus Cellulomonas. We thus propose to assign “Cellvibrio gilvus” to the genus Cellulomonas. A comparative genomics analysis between these two Cellulomonas genome sequences and the recently completed genome for Cellulomonas flavigena ATCC 482T showed that these cellulomonads do not encode cellulosomes but appear to degrade cellulose by secreting multi-domain glycoside hydrolases. Despite the minimal number of carbohydrate-active enzymes encoded by these genomes, as compared to other known cellulolytic organisms, these bacteria were found to be proficient at degrading and utilizing a diverse set of carbohydrates, including crystalline cellulose. Moreover, they also encode for proteins required for the fermentation of hexose and xylose sugars into products such as ethanol. Finally, we found relatively few significant differences between the predicted carbohydrate-active enzymes encoded by these Cellulomonas genomes, in contrast to previous studies reporting differences in physiological approaches for carbohydrate degradation. Our sequencing and analysis of these genomes sheds light onto the mechanism through which these facultative anaerobes degrade cellulose, suggesting that the sequenced cellulomonads use secreted, multidomain enzymes to degrade cellulose in a way that is distinct from known anaerobic cellulolytic strategies.

Bramhacharya, Shanti; Jewell, Kelsea A.; Aylward, Frank O.; Mead, David; Brumm, Phillip J.

2013-01-01

58

The genome sequences of Cellulomonas fimi and "Cellvibrio gilvus" reveal the cellulolytic strategies of two facultative anaerobes, transfer of "Cellvibrio gilvus" to the genus Cellulomonas, and proposal of Cellulomonas gilvus sp. nov.  

PubMed

Actinobacteria in the genus Cellulomonas are the only known and reported cellulolytic facultative anaerobes. To better understand the cellulolytic strategy employed by these bacteria, we sequenced the genome of the Cellulomonas fimi ATCC 484(T). For comparative purposes, we also sequenced the genome of the aerobic cellulolytic "Cellvibrio gilvus" ATCC 13127(T). An initial analysis of these genomes using phylogenetic and whole-genome comparison revealed that "Cellvibrio gilvus" belongs to the genus Cellulomonas. We thus propose to assign "Cellvibrio gilvus" to the genus Cellulomonas. A comparative genomics analysis between these two Cellulomonas genome sequences and the recently completed genome for Cellulomonas flavigena ATCC 482(T) showed that these cellulomonads do not encode cellulosomes but appear to degrade cellulose by secreting multi-domain glycoside hydrolases. Despite the minimal number of carbohydrate-active enzymes encoded by these genomes, as compared to other known cellulolytic organisms, these bacteria were found to be proficient at degrading and utilizing a diverse set of carbohydrates, including crystalline cellulose. Moreover, they also encode for proteins required for the fermentation of hexose and xylose sugars into products such as ethanol. Finally, we found relatively few significant differences between the predicted carbohydrate-active enzymes encoded by these Cellulomonas genomes, in contrast to previous studies reporting differences in physiological approaches for carbohydrate degradation. Our sequencing and analysis of these genomes sheds light onto the mechanism through which these facultative anaerobes degrade cellulose, suggesting that the sequenced cellulomonads use secreted, multidomain enzymes to degrade cellulose in a way that is distinct from known anaerobic cellulolytic strategies. PMID:23342046

Christopherson, Melissa R; Suen, Garret; Bramhacharya, Shanti; Jewell, Kelsea A; Aylward, Frank O; Mead, David; Brumm, Phillip J

2013-01-14

59

Possible Involvement of a Single Histidine Residue in the P-Type Na + ATPase of a Facultatively Anaerobic Alkaliphile, Exiguobacterium aurantiacum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of various inhibitors on the P-type Na+-ATPase of a facultatively anaerobic alkaliphile, Exiguobacterium aurantiacum, was examined. The ATPase was extremely sensitive to p-chloromercuriphenylsulfonic acid, a modifier of SH-group. The enzyme\\u000a was also sensitive to diethylpyrocarbonate, and analysis of the inhibition kinetics by the drug indicated that modification\\u000a of a single histidine residue per ATPase molecule was sufficient to inactivate

Atsuko Hirano; Noriyuki Koyama

2001-01-01

60

Cloning, sequencing and functional expression in Escherichia coli of the gene for a P-type Na +ATPase of a facultatively anaerobic alkaliphile, Exiguobacterium aurantiacum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding a P-type Na+-ATPase of a facultatively anaerobic alkaliphile, Exiguobacterium aurantiacum, were conducted. The structural gene was composed of 2628 nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequence (876 amino acid residues; Mr, 96,664) suggested that the enzyme possesses 10 membrane-spanning regions. When the amino acid sequences of the four putative membrane regions, M4, M5, M6

Yuusuke Suzuki; Sumie Ueno; Rieko Ohnuma; Noriyuki Koyama

2005-01-01

61

The genome sequence of the obligately chemolithoautotrophic, facultatively anaerobic bacterium Thiobacillus denitfificans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete genome sequence of Thiobacillus denitrificans ATCC 25259 is the first to become available for an obligately chemolithoautotrophic, sulfur-compound-oxidizing, -proteobacterium. Analysis of the 2,909,809-bp genome will facilitate our molecular and biochemical understanding of the unusual metabolic repertoire of this bacterium, including its ability to couple denitrification to sulfur-compound oxidation, to catalyze anaerobic, nitrate-dependent oxidation of Fe(II) and U(IV), and

Harry R. Beller; Frank W Larimer; Tracy E. Letain; Anu Chakicherla; Paul M. Richardson; Matthew A. Coleman; Ann P. Wood; Donovan P. Kelly

2006-01-01

62

Occurrence of hopanoid lipids in anaerobic Geobacter species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geobacter metallireducens and G. sulfurreducens have been classified as strictly anaerobic bacteria which grow and thrive in subsurface and sediment environments. Hopanoids are pentacyclic triterpenoid lipids and are important for bacterial membrane stability and functioning. Hopanoids predominantly occur in aerobically growing bacteria of oxic environments. They rarely have been found in facultatively anaerobic bacteria and, to date, not at all

Thomas Härtner; Kristina L. Straub; Elmar Kannenberg

2005-01-01

63

Aerobic and Anaerobic Starvation Metabolism in Methanotrophic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The capacity for anaerobic metabolism of endogenous and selected exogenous substrates in carbon- and energy-starved methanotrophic bacteria was examined. The methanotrophic isolate strain WP 12 survived extended starvation under anoxic conditions while metabolizing 10-fold less endogenous substrate than did parallel cultures starved under oxic conditions. During aerobic starvation, the cell biomass decreased by 25% and protein and lipids were the preferred endogenous substrates. Aerobic protein degradation (24% of total protein) took place almost exclusively during the initial 24 h of starvation. Metabolized carbon was recovered mainly as CO(inf2) during aerobic starvation. In contrast, cell biomass decreased by only 2.4% during anaerobic starvation, and metabolized carbon was recovered mainly as organic solutes in the starvation medium. During anaerobic starvation, only the concentration of intracellular low-molecular-weight compounds decreased, whereas no significant changes were measured for cellular protein, lipids, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids. Strain WP 12 was also capable of a limited anaerobic glucose metabolism in the absence of added electron acceptors. Small amounts of CO(inf2) and organic acids, including acetate, were produced from exogenous glucose under anoxic conditions. Addition of potential anaerobic electron acceptors (fumarate, nitrate, nitrite, or sulfate) to starved cultures of the methanotrophs Methylobacter albus BG8, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, and strain WP 12 did not stimulate anaerobic survival. However, anaerobic starvation of these bacteria generally resulted in better survival than did aerobic starvation. The results suggest that methanotrophic bacteria can enter a state of anaerobic dormancy accompanied by a severe attenuation of endogenous metabolism. In this state, maintenance requirements are presumably provided for by fermentation of certain endogenous substrates. In addition, low-level catabolism of exogenous substrates may support long-term anaerobic survival of some methanotrophic bacteria.

Roslev, P.; King, G. M.

1995-01-01

64

Versatility and application of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the unique cell compartmentalization and the ability to simultaneously oxidize ammonium and reduce nitrite into nitrogen\\u000a gas, anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria have challenged our recognitions of microorganism. The research conducted\\u000a on these bacteria has been extended from bench-scale tryouts to full-scale reactor systems. This review addresses the recently\\u000a discovered versatile properties of anammox bacteria and the applications and obstacles

Da-Wen Gao; Yu Tao

2011-01-01

65

Anaerobic oxidation of arsenite in Mono Lake water and by a facultative, arsenite-oxidizing chemoautotroph, strain MLHE-1  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Arsenite [As(III)]-enriched anoxic bottom water from Mono Lake, California, produced arsenate [As(V)] during incubation with either nitrate or nitrite. No such oxidation occurred in killed controls or in live samples incubated without added nitrate or nitrite. A small amount of biological As(III) oxidation was observed in samples amended with Fe(III) chelated with nitrolotriacetic acid, although some chemical oxidation was also evident in killed controls. A pure culture, strain MLHE-1, that was capable of growth with As(III) as its electron donor and nitrate as its electron acceptor was isolated in a defined mineral salts medium. Cells were also able to grow in nitrate-mineral salts medium by using H2 or sulfide as their electron donor in lieu of As(III). Arsenite-grown cells demonstrated dark 14CO2 fixation, and PCR was used to indicate the presence of a gene encoding ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Strain MLHE-1 is a facultative chemoautotroph, able to grow with these inorganic electron donors and nitrate as its electron acceptor, but heterotrophic growth on acetate was also observed under both aerobic and anaerobic (nitrate) conditions. Phylogenetic analysis of its 16S ribosomal DNA sequence placed strain MLHE-1 within the haloalkaliphilic Ectothiorhodospira of the ??-Proteobacteria. Arsenite oxidation has never been reported for any members of this subgroup of the Proteobacteria.

Oremland, R. S.; Hoeft, S. E.; Santini, J. M.; Bano, N.; Hollibaugh, R. A.; Hollibaugh, J. T.

2002-01-01

66

Carnobacterium pleistocenium sp. nov., a novel psychrotolerant, facultative anaerobe isolated from permafrost of the Fox Tunnel in Alaska.  

PubMed

A novel, psychrotolerant, facultative anaerobe, strain FTR1T, was isolated from Pleistocene ice from the permafrost tunnel in Fox, Alaska. Gram-positive, motile, rod-shaped cells were observed with sizes 0.6-0.7 x 0.9-1.5 microm. Growth occurred within the pH range 6.5-9.5 with optimum growth at pH 7.3-7.5. The temperature range for growth of the novel isolate was 0-28 degrees C and optimum growth occurred at 24 degrees C. The novel isolate does not require NaCl; growth was observed between 0 and 5 % NaCl with optimum growth at 0.5 % (w/v). The novel isolate was a catalase-negative chemoorganoheterotroph that used as substrates sugars and some products of proteolysis. The metabolic end products were acetate, ethanol and CO2. Strain FTR1T was sensitive to ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, rifampicin, kanamycin and gentamicin. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed 99.8 % similarity between strain FTR1T and Carnobacterium alterfunditum, but DNA-DNA hybridization between them demonstrated 39+/-1.5 % relatedness. On the basis of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, it is proposed that strain FTR1T (=ATCC BAA-754T=JCM 12174T=CIP 108033T) be assigned to the novel species Carnobacterium pleistocenium sp. nov. PMID:15653921

Pikuta, Elena V; Marsic, Damien; Bej, Asim; Tang, Jane; Krader, Paul; Hoover, Richard B

2005-01-01

67

Phospholipid biosynthesis in some anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

We have identified and characterized enzymes of phospholipid synthesis in two plasmalogen-rich anaerobes. Megasphaera elsdenii and Veillonella parvula, and one anaerobe lacking plasmalogens. Desulfovibrio vulgaris. All three species contained phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase and phosphatidylserine synthase. Phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthesis was detected only D. vulgaris extracts. Phosphatidylserine (diacyl form) was the major product of the phosphatidylserine synthase assay with particles from M. elsdenii or V. parvula. The amounts of phosphatidylethanolamine formed were very low. Only D. vulgaris particles had an active phosphatidylserine decarboxylase.

Silber, P; Borie, R P; Mikowski, E J; Goldfine, H

1981-01-01

68

The Genome Sequence of the Obligately Chemolithoautotrophic, Facultatively Anaerobic Bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans  

PubMed Central

The complete genome sequence of Thiobacillus denitrificans ATCC 25259 is the first to become available for an obligately chemolithoautotrophic, sulfur-compound-oxidizing, ?-proteobacterium. Analysis of the 2,909,809-bp genome will facilitate our molecular and biochemical understanding of the unusual metabolic repertoire of this bacterium, including its ability to couple denitrification to sulfur-compound oxidation, to catalyze anaerobic, nitrate-dependent oxidation of Fe(II) and U(IV), and to oxidize mineral electron donors. Notable genomic features include (i) genes encoding c-type cytochromes totaling 1 to 2 percent of the genome, which is a proportion greater than for almost all bacterial and archaeal species sequenced to date, (ii) genes encoding two [NiFe]hydrogenases, which is particularly significant because no information on hydrogenases has previously been reported for T. denitrificans and hydrogen oxidation appears to be critical for anaerobic U(IV) oxidation by this species, (iii) a diverse complement of more than 50 genes associated with sulfur-compound oxidation (including sox genes, dsr genes, and genes associated with the AMP-dependent oxidation of sulfite to sulfate), some of which occur in multiple (up to eight) copies, (iv) a relatively large number of genes associated with inorganic ion transport and heavy metal resistance, and (v) a paucity of genes encoding organic-compound transporters, commensurate with obligate chemolithoautotrophy. Ultimately, the genome sequence of T. denitrificans will enable elucidation of the mechanisms of aerobic and anaerobic sulfur-compound oxidation by ?-proteobacteria and will help reveal the molecular basis of this organism's role in major biogeochemical cycles (i.e., those involving sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon) and groundwater restoration.

Beller, Harry R.; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Letain, Tracy E.; Chakicherla, Anu; Larimer, Frank W.; Richardson, Paul M.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Wood, Ann P.; Kelly, Donovan P.

2006-01-01

69

Modified microdilution antimicrobial susceptibility test for anaerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified microdilution antimicrobial susceptibility test is described for anaerobic bacteria. The microdilution procedure\\u000a at 24 and 48 h of incubation was compared with agar dilution using Wilkins-Chalgren (WC) broth and agar respectively. Results\\u000a showed a total of 12.2% minor and major discrepancies with the microdilution test at 24 h incubation and 7.8% at 48 h. If\\u000a anaerobic isolates are

R. W. Ryan; I. Kwasnik; R. C. Tilton

1980-01-01

70

A simple and sensitive quality control method of the anaerobic atmosphere for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

The maintenance of a strict anaerobic atmosphere is essential for the culture of strict anaerobic bacteria. We describe a simple and sensitive quality control method of the anaerobic atmosphere, based on the measurement of the zone diameter around a 5-?g metronidazole disk when testing an aerotolerant Clostridium perfringens strain. A zone diameter above 27 mm was indicative of acceptable anaerobic conditions. PMID:23535206

Justesen, Tage; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

2013-03-25

71

Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria  

SciTech Connect

We welcome you to The Power of Anaerobes. This conference serves two purposes. One is to celebrate the life of Harry D. Peck, Jr.,who was born May 18, 1927 and would have celebrated his 73rd birthday at this conference. He died November 20, 1998. The second is to gather investigators to exchange views within the realm of anaerobic microbiology, an area in which tremendous progress has been seen during recent years. It is sufficient to mention discoveries of a new form of life (the archaea), hyper or extreme thermophiles, thermophilic alkaliphiles and anaerobic fungi. With these discoveries has come a new realization about physiological and metabolic properties of microorganisms, and this in turn has demonstrated their importance for the development, maintenance and sustenance of life on Earth.

NONE

2000-05-18

72

Anaerobic Bacteria as a Cause of Mycotic Aneurysm of the Aorta: Microbiology and Antimicrobial Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes the microbiology, and antimicrobial management of mycotic aneurysm of the aorta (MAA) due to anaerobic bacteria. Anaerobic bacteria are an uncommon but important cause of MAA. Most cases of anaerobic MAA are caused anaerobic gram-negative bacilli (mostly B. fragilis group), Clostridium spp. (mostly Clostridium septicum, and Propionobacterium spp. (mostly P. acnes). Clostridial infection is frequently associated with

Itzhak Brook

2009-01-01

73

Material and method for promoting the growth of anaerobic bacteria  

DOEpatents

A material and method is disclosed for promoting the growth of anaerobic bacteria which includes a nutrient media containing a hydrogen donor and sterile membrane fragments of bacteria having an electron transfer system which reduces oxygen to water. Dissolved oxygen in the medium is removed by adding the sterile membrane fragments to the nutrient medium and holding the medium at a temperature of about 10 to about 60 C until the dissolved oxygen is removed. No Drawings

Adler, H.I.

1984-10-09

74

Trichococcus patagoniensis sp. nov., a facultative anaerobe that grows at -5 degrees C, isolated from penguin guano in Chilean Patagonia.  

PubMed

A novel, extremely psychrotolerant, facultative anaerobe, strain PmagG1(T), was isolated from guano of Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) collected in Chilean Patagonia. Gram-variable, motile cocci with a diameter of 1.3-2.0 mum were observed singularly or in pairs, short chains and irregular conglomerates. Growth occurred within the pH range 6.0-10.0, with optimum growth at pH 8.5. The temperature range for growth of the novel isolate was from -5 to 35 degrees C, with optimum growth at 28-30 degrees C. Strain PmagG1(T) did not require NaCl, as growth was observed in the presence of 0-6.5 % NaCl with optimum growth at 0.5 % (w/v). Strain PmagG1(T) was a catalase-negative chemo-organoheterotroph that used sugars and some organic acids as substrates. The metabolic end products were lactate, formate, acetate, ethanol and CO(2). Strain PmagG1(T) was sensitive to ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, rifampicin, kanamycin and gentamicin. The G+C content of its genomic DNA was 45.8 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed 100 % similarity of strain PmagG1(T) with Trichococcus collinsii ATCC BAA-296(T), but DNA-DNA hybridization between them demonstrated relatedness values of <45+/-1 %. Another phylogenetically closely related species, Trichococcus pasteurii, showed 99.85 % similarity by 16S rRNA sequencing and DNA-DNA hybridization showed relatedness values of 47+/-1.5 %. Based on genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, the novel species Trichococcus patagoniensis sp. nov. is proposed, with strain PmagG1(T) (=ATCC BAA-756(T)=JCM 12176(T)=CIP 108035(T)) as the type strain. PMID:16957099

Pikuta, Elena V; Hoover, Richard B; Bej, Asim K; Marsic, Damien; Whitman, William B; Krader, Paul E; Tang, Jane

2006-09-01

75

Activity of endodontic antibacterial agents against selected anaerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial activity of substances used as antibacterial agents (solutions of 10% calcium hydroxide, camphorated paramono- chlorophenol - PMCC, 2% chlorhexidine digluconate and 10% castor oil plant detergent) on anaerobic bacteria (Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 25586, Prevotella nigrescens ATCC 33563, Clostridium perfringens ATCC 13124 and Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 25285), using a broth dilution technique, was evaluated in vitro. For determination of

Cláudio Maniglia Ferreira; Odila Pereira da Silva; Sérgio Aparecido Torres; Flaviana Bombarda de Andrade Ferreira; Norberti Bernardinelli

2002-01-01

76

Characterization of Melioribacter roseus gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel facultatively anaerobic thermophilic cellulolytic bacterium from the class Ignavibacteria, and a proposal of a novel bacterial phylum Ignavibacteriae.  

PubMed

A novel moderately thermophilic, facultatively anaerobic chemoorganotrophic bacterium strain P3M-2(T) was isolated from a microbial mat developing on the wooden surface of a chute under the flow of hot water (46°C) coming out of a 2775-m-deep oil exploration well (Tomsk region, Russia). Strain P3M-2(T) is a moderate thermophile and facultative anaerobe growing on mono-, di- or polysaccharides by aerobic respiration, fermentation or by reducing diverse electron acceptors [nitrite, Fe(III), As(V)]. Its closest cultivated relative (90.8% rRNA gene sequence identity) is Ignavibacterium album, the only chemoorganotrophic member of the phylum Chlorobi. New genus and species Melioribacter roseus are proposed for isolate P3M-2(T) . Together with I.?album, the new organism represents the class Ignavibacteria assigned to the phylum Chlorobi. The revealed group includes a variety of uncultured environmental clones, the 16S rRNA gene sequences of some of which have been previously attributed to the candidate division ZB1. Phylogenetic analysis of M.?roseus and I.?album based on their 23S rRNA and RecA sequences confirmed that these two organisms could represent an even deeper, phylum-level lineage. Hence, we propose a new phylum Ignavibacteriae within the Bacteroidetes-Chlorobi group with a sole class Ignavibacteria, two families Ignavibacteriaceae and Melioribacteraceae and two species I.?album and M.?roseus. This proposal correlates with chemotaxonomic data and phenotypic differences of both organisms from other cultured representatives of Chlorobi. The most essential differences, supported by the analyses of complete genomes of both organisms, are motility, facultatively anaerobic and obligately organotrophic mode of life, the absence of chlorosomes and the apparent inability to grow phototrophically. PMID:23297868

Podosokorskaya, Olga A; Kadnikov, Vitaly V; Gavrilov, Sergey N; Mardanov, Andrey V; Merkel, Alexander Y; Karnachuk, Olga V; Ravin, Nikolay V; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A; Kublanov, Ilya V

2013-01-09

77

Susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria: myth, magic, or method?  

PubMed Central

The demand for susceptibility testing of anaerobes has increased, yet consensus as to procedure and interpretation in this area has not been achieved. While routine testing of anaerobic isolates is not needed, certain isolates in specific clinical settings should be tested. Also, laboratories may monitor their local antibiograms by doing periodic surveillance batch testing. The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards has published a protocol of methods approved for susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria. Both agar and broth microdilution are included; however, the broth disk elution method is no longer approved by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards because of method-related interpretive errors. A number of newer methods are undergoing evaluation and seem promising. Clinicians and microbiologists reviewing susceptibility reports should be aware of sources of variability in the test results. Variables in susceptibility testing of anaerobes include the media and methods used, organisms chosen for testing, breakpoints chosen for interpretation, antibiotic, and determination of endpoint. Clustering of MICs around the breakpoint may lead to significant variability in test results. Adherence of testing laboratories to approved methods and careful descriptions of the method and the breakpoints used for interpretation would facilitate interlaboratory comparisons and allow problems of emerging resistance to be noted. A variety of resistance mechanisms occurs in anaerobic bacteria, including the production of beta-lactamase and other drug-inactivating enzymes, alteration of target proteins, and inability of the drug to penetrate the bacterial wall. Antimicrobial resistance patterns in the United States and abroad are described.

Wexler, H M

1991-01-01

78

Identification of some anaerobic bacteria in nonspecific anaerobic infections in animals.  

PubMed Central

Over 200 anaerobic bacterial isolates were recovered in a veterinary diagnostic laboratory from nonspecific infectious disease from 72 specimens originating from ten animal species. The majority of isolates were nonsporeforming bacteria and about half were identified to species. Bacteroides species formed the major group and included B. oralis, B. fragilis, B. corrodens, B. ruminicola subspecies ruminicola, B. ruminicola subspecies brevis and various subspecies of B. melaninogenicus. Gram-positive anaerobic cocci constituted the next major group of isolates and the main species identified in cattle was Peptococcus indolicus. Clostridial species were uncommon. Nine specimens yielded a pure culture of an anaerobe and, in samples containing mixtures of bacterial species, each specimen yielded an average of 3.1 anaerobic and 1.4 aerobic bacterial species. The failure to identify many of the isolates is discussed.

Prescott, J F

1979-01-01

79

Anaerobic bacteria and herpes simplex virus in genital ulceration.  

PubMed Central

Of 91 patients with genital ulceration, herpes simplex virus was isolated from 52 (57%) and Haemophilus ducreyi from 12 (13%); none had syphilis. The difference in incidence of other aerobes in patients and controls was not significant. Anaerobes, predominantly Bacteroides spp, were isolated from a large proportion (77%) of men and women patients with ulcers but from few control men. The most common anaerobic species were B asaccharolyticus and B ureolyticus, with fewer isolates of the melaninogenicus/oralis group. The bacterial flora of herpetic and non-herpetic ulcers were similar, but Candida albicans was isolated significantly more often from non-herpetic ulcers. Anaerobic bacteria may contribute to the pathogenesis of genital ulcers.

Masfari, A N; Kinghorn, G R; Hafiz, S; Barton, I G; Duerden, B I

1985-01-01

80

Iron biomineralization by anaerobic neutrophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minerals formed by bio-oxidation of ferrous iron (Fe(II)) at neutral pH, their association with bacterial ultrastructures as well as their impact on the metabolism of iron-oxidizing bacteria remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated iron biomineralization by the anaerobic nitrate-dependent iron-oxidizing bacterium Acidovorax sp. strain BoFeN1 in the presence of dissolved Fe(II) using electron microscopy and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM).

Jennyfer Miot; Karim Benzerara; Guillaume Morin; Andreas Kappler; Sylvain Bernard; Martin Obst; Céline Férard; Fériel Skouri-Panet; Jean-Michel Guigner; Nicole Posth; Matthieu Galvez; Gordon E. Brown; François Guyot

2009-01-01

81

Anaerobic degradation of hydroaromatic compounds by newly isolated fermenting bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerobic organisms degrade hydroaromatic compounds via the hydroaromatic pathway yielding protocatechuic acid which is further metabolized by oxygenase-mediated ring fission in the 3-oxoadipate pathway. No information exists on anaerobic degradation of hydroaromatics so far. We enriched and isolated from various sources of anoxic sediments several strains of rapidly growing gram-negative bacteria fermenting quinic (1,3,4,5-tetrahydroxy-cyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid) and shikimic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxy-1-cyclohexene-1-carboxylic acid)

Andreas Brune; Berhard Schink

1992-01-01

82

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation by anammox bacteria in the Black Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of fixed inorganic nitrogen (nitrate, nitrite and ammonium) limits primary productivity in many oceanic regions. The conversion of nitrate to N2 by heterotrophic bacteria (denitrification) is believed to be the only important sink for fixed inorganic nitrogen in the ocean. Here we provide evidence for bacteria that anaerobically oxidize ammonium with nitrite to N2 in the world's largest anoxic basin, the Black Sea. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences shows that these bacteria are related to members of the order Planctomycetales performing the anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) process in ammonium-removing bioreactors. Nutrient profiles, fluorescently labelled RNA probes, 15N tracer experiments and the distribution of specific `ladderane' membrane lipids indicate that ammonium diffusing upwards from the anoxic deep water is consumed by anammox bacteria below the oxic zone. This is the first time that anammox bacteria have been identified and directly linked to the removal of fixed inorganic nitrogen in the environment. The widespread occurrence of ammonium consumption in suboxic marine settings indicates that anammox might be important in the oceanic nitrogen cycle.

Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Sliekers, A. Olav; Lavik, Gaute; Schmid, Markus; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Kuenen, J. Gijs; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Strous, Marc; Jetten, Mike S. M.

2003-04-01

83

Oxidation and methylation of dissolved elemental mercury by anaerobic bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Methylmercury is a neurotoxin that poses significant health risks to humans. Some anaerobic sulphate- and iron-reducing bacteria can methylate oxidized forms of mercury, generating methylmercury1-4. One strain of sulphate-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132) can also methylate elemental mercury5. The prevalence of this trait among different bacterial strains and species remains unclear, however. Here, we compare the ability of two strains of the sulphate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio and one strain of the iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury in a series of laboratory incubations. Experiments were carried out under dark, anaerobic conditions, in the presence of environmentally-relevant concentrations of elemental mercury. We report differences in the ability of these organisms to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury. In line with recent findings5, we show that Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 can both oxidise and methylate elemental mercury. However, the rate of methylation of elemental mercury is only about one third the rate of methylation of oxidized mercury. We also show that Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20 can oxidise, but not methylate, elemental mercury. Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA is able to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury in the presence of cysteine. We suggest that the activity of methylating and non-methylating bacteria may together enhance the formation of methylmercury in anaerobic environments.

Hu, Haiyan [ORNL; Lin, Hui [ORNL; Zheng, Wang [ORNL; Tomanicek, Stephen J [ORNL; Johs, Alexander [ORNL; Feng, Xinbin [ORNL; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL

2013-01-01

84

Oxidation and methylation of dissolved elemental mercury by anaerobic bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methylmercury is a neurotoxin that poses significant health risks to humans. Some anaerobic sulphate- and iron-reducing bacteria can methylate oxidized forms of mercury, generating methylmercury. One strain of sulphate-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio desulphuricans ND132) can also methylate elemental mercury. The prevalence of this trait among different bacterial strains and species remains unclear, however. Here, we compare the ability of two strains of the sulphate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio and one strain of the iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter to oxidize and methylate elemental mercury in a series of laboratory incubations. Experiments were carried out under dark, anaerobic conditions, in the presence of environmentally relevant concentrations of elemental mercury. We report differences in the ability of these organisms to oxidize and methylate elemental mercury. In line with recent findings, we show that D.desulphuricans ND132 can both oxidize and methylate elemental mercury. We find that the rate of methylation of elemental mercury is about one-third the rate of methylation of oxidized mercury. We also show that Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20 can oxidize, but not methylate, elemental mercury. Geobacter sulphurreducens PCA is able to oxidize and methylate elemental mercury in the presence of cysteine. We suggest that the activity of methylating and non-methylating bacteria may together enhance the formation of methylmercury in anaerobic environments.

Hu, Haiyan; Lin, Hui; Zheng, Wang; Tomanicek, Stephen J.; Johs, Alexander; Feng, Xinbin; Elias, Dwayne A.; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua

2013-09-01

85

The role of anaerobic bacteria in chronic suppurative otitis media in children: Implications for medical therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes the microbiology, diagnosis and medical management of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) in children highlighting the role of anaerobic bacteria. In studies that employed adequate method for recovery of anaerobic bacteria polymicrobial aerobic and anaerobic flora was isolated from over half of the children with CSOM. The predominant aerobic isolates were Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and

Itzhak Brook

2008-01-01

86

Comparative in vitro susceptibilities of anaerobic bacteria to cefmenoxime, cefotetan, and N-formimidoyl thienamycin.  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activities of cefmenoxime, cefotetan, and N-formimidoyl thienamycin were compared with those of other antimicrobial agents (metronidazole, clindamycin, cefoxitin, and moxalactam) against anaerobic bacteria. The data obtained indicate that N-formimidoyl thienamycin exhibits excellent activity against anaerobic bacteria; cefotetan and cefmenoxime, though less active, should be of value in treating selected anaerobic infections.

Owens, W E; Finegold, S M

1983-01-01

87

Bioremediation of acid mine water using facultatively methylotrophic metal-tolerant sulfate-reducing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microbial process is proposed for the decontamination of acid uranium mine water high in sulfates and metals. Sulfate reducers are suitable for such a process. Anaerobic reduction of sulfate results in the formation of H2S which leads to an increase in pH and the precipitation of the metals. As cheap an readily available carbon and energy source methanol was

Barbara C. Hard; S. Friedrich; W. Babel

1997-01-01

88

Evaluation of the Anaerobe-Tek system for identification of anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The Anaerobe-Tek system of Flow Laboratories, Inc. (McLean, Va.), is a new bacterial identification system which uses Gram morphology, sporulation, and reactions from 15 agar-based biochemical tests to generate a six-digit code number for identification of anaerobic bacteria. Supplemental tests are recommended when necessary to complete species identification. Individual test and identification performance of this system was evaluated by testing 216 anaerobic bacteria representing 31 species and one Centers for Disease Control unnamed group in parallel with a routine clinical laboratory identification system. Most of the tests in the Anaerobe-Tek system performed well; 85% of the organisms were correctly identified. The 32 (15%) failures in identification were due to omission from the identification code data base (38%), false-negative indole reactions (22%), and other incorrect biochemical reactions (40%). The replacement of the recommended indole test with an extraction method using the inoculum broth and an expansion of the data base of the system could raise the correct identification for this organism population to over 90% with no change in the test materials.

Buesching, W J; Svirbely, J R; Ayers, L W

1983-01-01

89

Anaerobic Metabolism of Aromatic Compounds by Phototrophic Bacteria: Progress Report, Year 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Various aromatic compounds can be broken down anaerobically by a microorganism, Rhodopseudomonas palustris. These results show that R. palustris is one of the most versatile of the anaerobic bacteria described to date with respect to aromatic degradation....

C. S. Harwood

1988-01-01

90

Evaluation of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria for phosphate solubilization.  

PubMed

Thirteen pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic (PPFM) strains isolated from Adyar and Cooum rivers in Chennai and forest soil samples in Tamil Nadu, India, along with Methylobacterium extorquens, M. organophilum, M. gregans, and M. komagatae were screened for phosphate solubilization in plates. P-solubilization index of the PPFMs grown on NBRIP-BPB plates for 7 days ranged from 1.1 to 2.7. The growth of PPFMs in tricalcium phosphate amended media was found directly proportional to the glucose concentration. Higher phosphate solubilization was observed in four strains MSF 32 (415 mg l(-l)), MDW 80 (301 mg l(-l)), M. komagatae (279 mg l(-l)), and MSF 34 (202 mg l(-l)), after 7 days of incubation. A drop in the media pH from 6.6 to 3.4 was associated with an increase in titratable acidity. Acid phosphatase activity was more pronounced in the culture filtrate than alkaline phosphatase activity. Adherence of phosphate to densely grown bacterial surface was observed under scanning electron microscope after 7-day-old cultures. Biochemical characterization and screening for methanol dehydrogenase gene (mxaF) confirmed the strains as methylotrophs. The mxaF gene sequence from MSF 32 clustered towards M. lusitanum sp. with 99% similarity. This study forms the first detailed report on phosphate solubilization by the PPFMs. PMID:21445558

Jayashree, Shanmugam; Vadivukkarasi, Ponnusamy; Anand, Kirupanithi; Kato, Yuko; Seshadri, Sundaram

2011-03-29

91

Denitrifying bacteria anaerobically oxidize methane in the absence of Archaea.  

PubMed

Recently, a microbial consortium was shown to couple the anaerobic oxidation of methane to denitrification, predominantly in the form of nitrite reduction to dinitrogen gas. This consortium was dominated by bacteria of an as yet uncharacterized division and archaea of the order Methanosarcinales. The present manuscript reports on the upscaling of the enrichment culture, and addresses the role of the archaea in methane oxidation. The key gene of methanotrophic and methanogenic archaea, mcrA, was sequenced. The associated cofactor F(430) was shown to have a mass of 905 Da, the same as for methanogens and different from the heavier form (951 Da) found in methanotrophic archaea. After prolonged enrichment (> 1 year), no inhibition of anaerobic methane oxidation was observed in the presence of 20 mM bromoethane sulfonate, a specific inhibitor of MCR. Optimization of the cultivation conditions led to higher rates of methane oxidation and to the decline of the archaeal population, as shown by fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative MALDI-TOF analysis of F(430). Mass balancing showed that methane oxidation was still coupled to nitrite reduction in the total absence of oxygen. Together, our results show that bacteria can couple the anaerobic oxidation of methane to denitrification without the involvement of Archaea. PMID:18721142

Ettwig, Katharina F; Shima, Seigo; van de Pas-Schoonen, Katinka T; Kahnt, Jörg; Medema, Marnix H; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Jetten, Mike S M; Strous, Marc

2008-08-20

92

Anaerobic Coryneform Bacteria as Normal Flora of Rabbit Skin and Regression of Shope Papillomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult domestic rabbits were found to harbor anaerobic coryneform bacteria and possess serum agglutinins against these bacteria. The isolates from rabbit skin were characterized by morphology, anaerobiosis, catalase test, and gas chromatographic analysis of volatile acid products. Preliminary findings on the effect of anaerobic coryneforms on the regression of Shope papillomas have suggested that the life of such bacteria as

Akira Seto; Sultan Ahmad Salehi; Ken Miyanomae; Tsutomu Ushijima; Yohei Ito

1980-01-01

93

Prevalence of aerobic and anaerobic uterine bacteria during peripartum period in normal and dystocia-affected buffaloes.  

PubMed

Parturition complications predispose establishment of uterine infections, which in turn affect subsequent fertility. The aim of present study was to characterize and compare the type of bacterial flora prevalent within the uterine lumen of dystocia-affected buffaloes and compare them with the normally calving buffaloes. The study was conducted on 40 buffaloes; of which 10 calved normally (Group I) and 30 were treated for dystocia (Group II). Bacteriological examination was performed using uterine swabs, which were collected before delivery, immediately after delivery and day's 24-60 postpartum. A total of 30 uterine swabs from Group I and 79 swabs from Group II were collected, of which 19 (63.3%) and 71 (89.9%) yielded significant bacterial growth, respectively. A total of 205 isolates belonging to 10 different genera of bacteria were identified, 8 facultative anaerobes and 2 obligate anaerobes. In Group II, 91.6% of the bacteria positive swabs (n = 71) yielded mixed cultures, whereas the remainder being pure cultures. In contrast, 89.5% of the bacteria positive swabs of Group I (n = 19) yielded pure cultures. Mixed infections comprised mostly Arcanobacter (Actinomyces) pyogenes together with obligate anaerobes, Fusobacterium spp. and Bacteroides spp. In Group II, the frequency of incidental and coliform group bacteria was highest at the time of parturition, i.e., before and immediately after delivery, and decreased to nil during the 24-60-day postpartum period. However, in Group I, the incidental and coliform group of bacteria present at the time of parturition apparently persisted beyond the period when uterine involution is complete. The frequency of obligate anaerobes and A. pyogenes at the time of parturition was nil in the Group I while they predominated in dystocia-affected buffaloes (Group II). During the postpartum period of 24-60 days, the frequency of both obligate anaerobes and A. pyogenes increased significantly in Group II, whereas in Group I, only occasional isolates were obtained. To conclude, at the time of calving the prevalence of obligate anaerobes and A. pyogenes occurring in combination was highest in dystocia-affected buffaloes, and further increased in the postpartum period suggesting that these infections act synergistically. PMID:16143213

Jadon, R S; Dhaliwal, G S; Jand, S K

2005-09-01

94

Degradation of PCE by Two Kinds of Anaerobic Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anaerobic decomposition of PCE was examined using Clostridium bifermentans DPH-1 with degradation ability of PCE to cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (DCE) and cis-DCE decomposing bacterium, Clostridium sp. strain KYT-1. In the serial 2 step reactions, it was demonstrated that PCE was degraded completely by Clostridium bifermentans DPH-1 in the first reaction and 39% of cis-DCE, byproduct of PCE degrading was eliminated by Clostridium sp. strain KYT-1 in the second reaction with glucose provided as carbon source. On the other hand, in the mixed culture of anaerobic bacteria, PCE was not eliminated perfectly and remained as much as 33% of initial concentration of PCE. But the accumulation of cis-DCE and VC as intermediate metabolites of PCE degradation was not shown.

Kim, Eun-Sook; Takaoka, Hidemitsu; Takamizawa, Kazuhiro

95

Isoleucine Biosynthesis from 2-Methylbutyric Acid by Anaerobic Bacteria from the Rumen  

PubMed Central

Microorganisms in ruminal ingesta and pure cultures of anaerobic ruminal bacteria of different physiological and morphological groups incorporated 14C from labeled 2-methylbutyrate during growth. The radioactivity was incorporated mainly into lipid and protein. Isoleucine was the only labeled amino acid found in acid hydrolysates of protein from either pure or mixed cultures. Radioactivity in isoleucine synthesized from 2-methylbutyrate-1-14C was entirely in carbon-2. Thus, the carboxylation of 2-methylbutyrate is a pathway for synthesis of isoleucine different from that operative in many aerobic and facultative microorganisms. The specific activity of isoleucine from 2-methylbutyrate by Bacteroides rumminicola 23 increased with higher concentrations of 2-methylbutyrate (2.6 to 44 × 10?5m) in the growth medium. At the highest concentration, the specific activity of isoleucine synthesized was 40% of the specific activity of the 2-methylbutyrate in the growth medium. The use of enzymatic casein hydrolysate, oxytocin, or vasopressin rather than ammonia as nitrogen source for growth of strain 23 depressed the incorporation of 2-methylbutyrate into isoleucine. Synthesis of isoleucine from 2-methylbutyrate appears to be an important reaction in the rumen.

Robinson, Isadore M.; Allison, Milton J.

1969-01-01

96

Obligately and facultatively autotrophic, sulfur- and hydrogen-oxidizing thermophilic bacteria isolated from hot composts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of autotrophic, sulfur- and hydrogen-oxidizing thermophilic bacteria were isolated from thermogenic composts at\\u000a temperatures of 60–80? C. All were penicillin G sensitive, which proves that they belong to the Bacteria domain. The obligately\\u000a autotrophic, non-spore-forming strains were gram-negative rods growing at 60–80?C, with an optimum at 70–75?C, but only under\\u000a microaerophilic conditions (5 kPa oxygen). These strains had

T. Beffa; Michel Blanc; Michel Aragno

1996-01-01

97

Characterization of anaerobic heterotrophic bacteria isolated from freshwater lake sediments.  

PubMed Central

Strict anaerobic culture techniques were used to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the anaerobic heterotrophic bacteria present at the sediment-water interface of hyperutrophic Wintergreen Lake (Augusta, Mich.). Anaerobic plate counts remained constant from March through December, 1973, ranging from 2.4 X 10(6) to 5.7 X 10(6) organisms/g (dry weight) of sediment. The isolatable bacteria represented a small percentage of the total microbial community, which was shown by direct microscopic counts to be 2.0 X 10'' organisms/g (dry weight) of sediment during June and July. Bacteria of the genus Clostridium dominated the isolates obtained, accounting for 71.8% of the 960 isolates examined. A single species, Clostridium bifermentens, comprised 47.7% of the total. Additional bacterial groups and the percentage in which they were isolated included: Streptococcus sp. (10.8%), unidentified curved rods (9.5%y, gram-positive nonsporing rods (5.6%), and motile gram-negative rods (1.9%). Temperature growth studies demonstrated the ability of all the isolates to grow at in situ sediment temperatures. Gas-liqid radiochromatography was used to determine the soluble metabolic end products from [U-14C]glucose and a U-14C-labeled amino acid mixture by representative sedimentary clostridial isolates and by natural sediment microbial communities. At in situ temperatures the natural sediment microflora produced soluble fermentative end products characteristic of those elaborated by the clostridial isolates tested. These results are considered strong presumptive evidence that clostridia are actively metabolizing in the sediments of Wintergreen Lake.

Molongoski, J J; Klug, M J

1976-01-01

98

Production of Value-added Products by Lactic Acid Bacteria  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a group of facultative anaerobic, catalase negative, nonmotile and nonsporeforming–Gram positive bacteria. Most LAB utilize high energy C sources including monomer sugars to produce energy to maintain cellular structure and function. This anaerobic fermentation proce...

99

Overcoming the hypoxic barrier to radiation therapy with anaerobic bacteria  

PubMed Central

The low level of oxygenation within tumors is a major cause of radiation treatment failures. We theorized that anaerobic bacteria that can selectively destroy the hypoxic regions of tumors would enhance the effects of radiation. To test this hypothesis, we used spores of Clostridium novyi-NT to treat transplanted tumors in mice. The bacteria were found to markedly improve the efficacy of radiotherapy in several of the mouse models tested. Enhancement was noted with external beam radiation derived from a Cs-137 source, systemic radioimmunotherapy with an I-131-conjugated monoclonal antibody, and a previously undescribed form of experimental brachytherapy using plaques loaded with I-125 seeds. C. novyi-NT spores added little toxicity to the radiotherapeutic regimens, and the combination resulted in long-term remissions in a significant fraction of animals.

Bettegowda, Chetan; Dang, Long H.; Abrams, Ross; Huso, David L.; Dillehay, Larry; Cheong, Ian; Agrawal, Nishant; Borzillary, Scott; McCaffery, J. Michael; Watson, E. Latice; Lin, Kuo-Shyan; Bunz, Fred; Baidoo, Kwamena; Pomper, Martin G.; Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Vogelstein, Bert; Zhou, Shibin

2003-01-01

100

Aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria from gut of red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliver is one of the insects that attack date palm trees directly and cause its death. This infection poses serious economical consequences in Saudi Arabia and other gulf countries. RPW assimilates the components of palm tree tissues. Significant amount of microbiota in the gut of RPW may contribute to success of its pathogenesis. This

Mohammad Khiyami; Essam Alyamani

101

The Requirement for Coenzyme A in the Phosphoroclastic Reaction of Anaerobic Bacteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A variety of bacteria which degrade pyruvate by the 'phosphoroclastic reaction' were examined with respect to the role of CoA in this reaction. This strictly anaerobic bacteria, which cleave pyruvate by the phosphoroclastic reaction characteristic of Clos...

R. B. Hespell R. Joseph R. P. Moftlock

1969-01-01

102

Azoreductase activity of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human intestinal microflora.  

PubMed Central

A plate assay was developed for the detection of anaerobic bacteria that produce azoreductases. With this plate assay, 10 strains of anaerobic bacteria capable of reducing azo dyes were isolated from human feces and identified as Eubacterium hadrum (2 strains), Eubacterium spp. (2 species), Clostridium clostridiiforme, a Butyrivibrio sp., a Bacteroides sp., Clostridium paraputrificum, Clostridium nexile, and a Clostridium sp. The average rate of reduction of Direct Blue 15 dye (a dimethoxybenzidine-based dye) in these strains ranged from 16 to 135 nmol of dye per min per mg of protein. The enzymes were inactivated by oxygen. In seven isolates, a flavin compound (riboflavin, flavin adenine dinucleotide, or flavin mononucleotide) was required for azoreductase activity. In the other three isolates and in Clostridium perfringens, no added flavin was required for activity. Nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that each bacterium expressed only one azoreductase isozyme. At least three types of azoreductase enzyme were produced by the different isolates. All of the azoreductases were produced constitutively and released extracellularly. Images

Rafii, F; Franklin, W; Cerniglia, C E

1990-01-01

103

Anaerobic bacteria in the gut of terrestrial isopod crustacean Porcellio scaber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic bacteria fromPorcellio scaber hindgut were identified and, subsequently, isolated using molecular approach. Phylogenetic affiliation of bacteria associated\\u000a with the hindgut wall was determined by analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences which were retrieved directly from washed\\u000a hindguts ofP. scaber. Sequences from bacteria related to obligate anaerobic bacteria from generaBacteroides andEnterococcus were retrieved, as well as sequences from ‘A1

R. Kostanjšek; A. Lapanje; M. Rupnik; J. Štrus; D. Drobne; G. Avguštin

2004-01-01

104

Coupled enzymatic production of sulfite, thiosulfate, and hydrogen sulfide from sulfur: purification and properties of a sulfur oxygenase reductase from the facultatively anaerobic archaebacterium Desulfurolobus ambivalens.  

PubMed

From aerobically grown cells of the extremely thermophilic, facultatively anaerobic chemolithoautotrophic archaebacterium Desulfurolobus ambivalens (DSM 3772), a soluble oxygenase reductase (SOR) was purified which was not detectable in anaerobically grown cells. In the presence of oxygen but not under a hydrogen atmosphere, the enzyme simultaneously produced sulfite, thiosulfate, and hydrogen sulfide from sulfur. Nonenzymatic control experiments showed that thiosulfate was produced mainly in a chemical reaction between sulfite and sulfur. The maximum specific activity of the purified SOR in sulfite production was 10.6 mumol/mg of protein at pH 7.4 and 85 degrees C. The ratio of sulfite to hydrogen sulfide production was 5:4 in the presence of zinc ions. The temperature range of enzyme activity was 50 to 108 degrees C, with a maximum at 85 degrees C. The molecular mass of the native SOR was 550 kilodaltons, determined by gel filtration. It consisted of identical subunits with an apparent molecular mass of 40 kilodaltons in sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis. The particle diameter in electron micrographs was 15 /+- 1.5 nm. The enzyme activity was inhibited by the thiol-binding reagents p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, N-ethyl maleimide, and 2-iodoacetic acid and by flavin adenine dinucleotide, Fe3+, and Fe2+. It was not affected by CN-, N3-, or reduced glutathione. PMID:2493451

Kletzin, A

1989-03-01

105

BIOFILMS AND ADHESION PROTEIN IN ANAEROBE BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM MEXICAN GAS PIPELINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pipelines plugging, souring oil and corrosion by microorganisms are a big problem in the oil industry. The pipelines plugging is produced by bacterial consortium that can produce biofilms. In these attached microbial populations, aerobes bacteria growth in the superficial layers, and, anaerobes bacteria (fermenters, sulfate-reducing bacteria, tiosulfate-reducing bacteria, methanogen growth adhered to metal. In industrial areas, surfactants, emulsifiers and

106

Anaerobic Biodegradation of Pristane by Nitrate Reducing Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent sediments, microbial biodegradation provides a control on the long-term preservation of organic matter, through the preferential loss of certain biomolecules and the alteration and concentration of other more recalcitrant molecules. Biodegradation of hydrocarbons derived from membrane lipids, has been demonstrated by both aerobic and strictly anaerobic culturing experiments. The isoprenoid pristane, once considered stable under anaerobic conditions, is in fact degraded by a denitrifying microcosm (BREGNARD et al., 1997) and a methanogenic, sulphate-reducing enrichment culture (GROSSI, 2000). We recently demonstrated pristane biodegradation and accompanying loss of nitrate by an activated sludge isolate. The measured nitrate consumption accounts for a 7.1 +/- 0.4 mg loss of pristane, 4.74% of the initial substrate, in 181 days, assuming pristane conversion to CO2. We have characterized the microorganisms active in the biodegradation process, through the creation of a 16S rDNA clone library, as well as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Experiments are in progress to enrich cultures of sulfate reducing bacteria that utilize pristane as a sole carbon source and to characterize reaction mechanisms in pristane-oxidizing pathways.

Dawson, K. S.; Freeman, K. H.; Macalady, J. L.

2007-12-01

107

Synthesis and function of polyhydroxyalkanoates in anaerobic syntrophic bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Anaerobic syntrophic bacteria degrade fatty acids and some aromatic compounds which are important intermediates in the degradation of organic matter to CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} in methanogenic environments. Several of the described syntrophic species produce poly-{beta}-hydroxyalkanoate (PHA) suggesting that the synthesis and use of PHA is important in their physiology. In the fatty acid-degrading, syntrophic bacterium, Syntrophomonas wolfei, PHA is made during exponential phase of growth and used after growth has stopped and substrate levels are low. Altering the carbon to nitrogen ratio of the medium does not affect the amount of PHA made or its monomeric composition. It is hypothesized that PHA serves as an endogenous energy source for syntrophic bacteria when the concentrations of hydrogen or acetate are too high for the degradation of the growth substrate to be thermodynamically favorable. In S. wolfei, PHA is synthesized by two routes, the direct incorporation of 3-ketoacyl-coenzyme A (CoA) generated in {beta}-oxidation without cleavage of a C-C bond, and by the condensation and subsequent reduction of two acetyl-CoA molecules. Genes that encode for the synthesis of PHA in S. wolfei have been cloned into Escherichia coli in order to understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate PHA synthesis. 61 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

McInerney, M.J.; Amos, D.A.; Kealy, K.S. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Dept. of Botany and Microbiology; Palmer, J.A. [Univ. of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

1992-12-31

108

Isolation, Characterization, and U(VI)Reducing Potential of a Facultatively Anaerobic, Acid-Resistant Bacterium from Low-pH, Nitrate and U(VI)Contaminated Subsurface Sediment and Description of Salmonella subterranea sp. nov  

Microsoft Academic Search

A facultatively anaerobic, acid-resistant bacterium, designated strain FRCl, was isolated from a low-pH, nitrate- and U(VI)-contaminated subsurface sediment at site FW-024 at the Natural and Accelerated Biore- mediation Research Field Research Center in Oak Ridge, Tenn. Strain FRCl was enriched at pH 4.5 in minimal medium with nitrate as the electron acceptor, hydrogen as the electron donor, and acetate as

Evgenya S. Shelobolina; Sara A. Sullivan; Kathleen R. O'Neill; Kelly P. Nevin; Derek R. Lovley

2004-01-01

109

Interaction between human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) and bacteria cultivated in aerobic and anaerobic conditions.  

PubMed

A study was performed on one strain of Escherichia coli (E. coli K12D22) and on one strain of Salmonella braenderup (S. braenderup S2828). The physico-chemical surface properties of the bacteria were strongly influenced by oxygen supply, viz. anaerobic growth conditions resulted in increasing of hydrophobicity. Interaction between human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and bacteria, measured as chemiluminescence, was more efficient when bacteria had been cultivated anaerobically than when cultivated aerobically. The results show the importance of the surface hydrophobicity of bacteria in interaction with PMNL, and the role of the growth conditions of bacteria in that process. PMID:3893034

Maluszynska, G M; Stendahl, O; Magnusson, K E

1985-04-01

110

Anaerobic bacteria in the gut of terrestrial isopod Crustacean Porcellio scaber.  

PubMed

Anaerobic bacteria from Porcellio scaber hindgut were identified and, subsequently, isolated using molecular approach. Phylogenetic affiliation of bacteria associated with the hindgut wall was determined by analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences which were retrieved directly from washed hindguts of P. scaber. Sequences from bacteria related to obligate anaerobic bacteria from genera Bacteroides and Enterococcus were retrieved, as well as sequences from 'A1 subcluster' of the wall-less mollicutes. Bacteria from the genus Desulfotomaculum were isolated from gut wall and cultivated under anaerobic conditions. In contrast to previous reports which suggested the absence of anaerobic bacteria in the isopod digestive system due to short retention time of the food in the tube-like hindgut, frequent renewal of the gut cuticle during the moulting process, and unsuccessful attempts to isolate anaerobic bacteria from this environment our results indicate the presence of resident anaerobic bacteria in the gut of P. scaber, in spite of apparently unsuitable, i.e. predominantly oxic, conditions. PMID:15227793

Kostanjsek, R; Lapanje, A; Rupnik, M; Strus, J; Drobne, D; Avgustin, G

2004-01-01

111

Anaerobic degradation of benzene by marine sulfate-reducing bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benzene, the archetypal aromatic hydrocarbon is a common constituent of crude oil and oil-refined products. As such, it can enter the biosphere through natural oil seeps or as a consequence of exploitation of fossil fuel reservoirs. Benzene is chemically very stable, due to the stabilizing aromatic electron system and to the lack of functional groups. Although the anaerobic degradation of benzene has been reported under denitrifying, sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions, the microorganisms involved and the initial biochemical steps of degradation remain insufficiently understood. Using marine sediment from a Mediterranean lagoon a sulfate-reducing enrichment culture with benzene as the sole organic substrate was obtained. Application of 16S rRNA gene-based methods showed that the enrichment was dominated (more than 85% of total cells) by a distinct phylotype affiliated with a clade of Deltaproteobacteria that include degraders of other aromatic hydrocarbons, such as naphthalene, ethylbenzene and m-xylene. Using benzoate as a soluble substrate in agar dilution series, several pure cultures closely related to Desulfotignum spp. and Desulfosarcina spp. were isolated. None of these strains was able to utilize benzene as a substrate and hybridizations with specific oligonucleotide probes showed that they accounted for as much as 6% of the total cells. Incubations with 13C-labeled benzene followed by Halogen in situ Hybridization - Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (HISH-SIMS) analysis showed that cells of the dominant phylotype were highly enriched in 13C, while the accompanying bacteria had little or no 13C incorporation. These results demonstrate that the dominant phylotype was indeed the apparent benzene degrader. Dense-cell suspensions of the enrichment culture did not show metabolic activity toward added phenol or toluene, suggesting that benzene degradation did not proceed through anaerobic hydroxylation or methylation. Instead, benzoate was identified in analyses of metabolites with benzene-grown cultures, suggesting an activation of benzene via carboxylation.

Musat, Florin; Wilkes, Heinz; Musat, Niculina; Kuypers, Marcel; Widdel, Friedrich

2010-05-01

112

Size-dependent antibacterial activities of silver nanoparticles against oral anaerobic pathogenic bacteria.  

PubMed

Dental caries and periodontal disease are widespread diseases for which microorganism infections have been identified as the main etiology. Silver nanoparticles (Ag Nps) were considered as potential control oral bacteria infection agent due to its excellent antimicrobial activity and non acute toxic effects on human cells. In this work, stable Ag Nps with different sizes (~5, 15 and 55 nm mean values) were synthesized by using a simple reduction method or hydrothermal method. The Nps were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The antibacterial activities were evaluated by colony counting assay and growth inhibition curve method, and corresponding minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against five anaerobic oral pathogenic bacteria and aerobic bacteria E. coli were determined. The results showed that Ag Nps had apparent antibacterial effects against the anaerobic oral pathogenic bacteria and aerobic bacteria. The MIC values of 5-nm Ag against anaerobic oral pathogenic bacteria A. actinomycetemcomitans, F. nuceatum, S. mitis, S. mutans and S. sanguis were 25, 25, 25, 50 and 50 ?g/mL, respectively. The aerobic bacteria were more susceptible to Ag NPs than the anaerobic oral pathogenic bacteria. In the mean time, Ag NPs displayed an obvious size-dependent antibacterial activity against the anaerobic bacteria. The 5-nm Ag presents the highest antibacterial activity. The results of this work indicated a potential application of Ag Nps in the inhibition of oral microorganism infections. PMID:23440430

Lu, Zhong; Rong, Kaifeng; Li, Ju; Yang, Hao; Chen, Rong

2013-02-26

113

Regulation of Multiple Carbon Monoxide Consumption Pathways in Anaerobic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide (CO), well known as a toxic gas, is increasingly recognized as a key metabolite and signaling molecule. Microbial utilization of CO is quite common, evidenced by the rapid escalation in description of new species of CO-utilizing bacteria and archaea. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH), the protein complex that enables anaerobic CO-utilization, has been well-characterized from an increasing number of microorganisms, however the regulation of multiple CO-related gene clusters in single isolates remains unexplored. Many species are extraordinarily resistant to high CO concentrations, thriving under pure CO at more than one atmosphere. We hypothesized that, in strains that can grow exclusively on CO, both carbon acquisition via the CODH/acetyl CoA synthase complex and energy conservation via a CODH-linked hydrogenase must be differentially regulated in response to the availability of CO. The CO-sensing transcriptional activator, CooA is present in most CO-oxidizing bacteria. Here we present a genomic and phylogenetic survey of CODH operons and cooA genes found in CooA-containing bacteria. Two distinct groups of CooA homologs were found: one clade (CooA-1) is found in the majority of CooA-containing bacteria, whereas the other clade (CooA-2) is found only in genomes that encode multiple CODH clusters, suggesting that the CooA-2 might be important for cross-regulation of competing CODH operons. Recombinant CooA-1 and CooA-2 regulators from the prototypical CO-utilizing bacterium Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans were purified, and promoter binding analyses revealed that CooA-1 specifically regulates the hydrogenase-linked CODH, whereas CooA-2 is able to regulate both the hydrogenase-linked CODH and the CODH/ACS operons. These studies point to the ability of dual CooA homologs to partition CO into divergent CO-utilizing pathways resulting in efficient consumption of a single limiting growth substrate available across a wide range of concentrations.

Techtmann, Stephen M.; Colman, Albert S.; Murphy, Michael B.; Schackwitz, Wendy S.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Robb, Frank T.

2011-01-01

114

Quantitative method for measurement of aerotolerance of bacteria and its application to oral indigenous anaerobes.  

PubMed

An index which expressed the aerobic to anaerobic potential was made for bacteria with intermediate tolerance for oxygen. One method used for this analysis was measurement of the relative bacterial growth ratio. The other method was based on the pattern of the absorbancy versus depth plot. The index was applied to oral indigenous anaerobes. PMID:3777936

Kikuchi, H E; Suzuki, T

1986-10-01

115

Velvet pad surface sampling of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria: an in vitro laboratory model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Velvet pads have been evaluated in an experimental, laboratory model, simulating intraoperative sampling of Staphylococcus epidermis, Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis. After sampling, the pad was placed in a transport medium and kept in an anaerobic atmosphere, before being shaken and rinsed, followed by anaerobic and aerobic culture. This technique permitted quantitatively high recoveries of the test bacteria. Velvet pad

D Raahave; A Friis-Møller

1982-01-01

116

One carbon metabolism in anaerobic bacteria: Regulation of carbon and electron flow during organic acid production.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project deals with understanding the fundamental biochemical mechanisms that physiologically control and regulate carbon and electron flow in anaerobic chemosynthetic bacteria that couple metabolism of single carbon compounds and hydrogen to the produ...

J. G. Zeikus M. Jain

1993-01-01

117

Microbial ecology of solid cellulosic materials during aerobic digestion and anaerobic fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for anaerobic digestion of cotton willow dust, pressmud and baggase after a preliminary alkaline aerobic digestion had been developed. The microbial ecologies during the aerobic digestion and anaerobic fermentation of these substrates were investigated, with respect to the isolation, identification and characterization of aerobic microorganisms. The study produced information on the survival of aerobic and facultative bacteria, actinomycetes

Charlene P D'Souza; R. H Balasubramanya

1999-01-01

118

Oxygen regulated gene expression in Escherichia coli: Control of anaerobic respiration by the FNR protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular oxygen is an important regulatory signal in facultative anaerobic bacteria and controles the expression of a great variety of genes positively or negatively. The expression of anaerobic respiration and of related functions of E. coli is controlled by the positive gene regulator FNR, which activates transcription in the absence of O2. The regulated genes carry a FNR consensus sequence

Gottfried Unden; Martin Trageser

1991-01-01

119

Telmatobacter bradus gen. nov., sp. nov., a cellulolytic facultative anaerobe from subdivision 1 of the Acidobacteria, and emended description of Acidobacterium capsulatum Kishimoto et al. 1991.  

PubMed

A gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, chemo-organotrophic, non-pigmented, slow-growing bacterium was isolated from acidic Sphagnum peat and designated strain TPB6017(T). Cells of this strain were long rods that multiplied by normal cell division and were motile by means of a single flagellum. Cells grew under reduced oxygen tension and under anoxic conditions and were able to ferment sugars and several polysaccharides, including amorphous and crystalline cellulose. Strain TPB6017(T) was a psychrotolerant acidophile capable of growth between pH 3.0 and 7.5 (optimum 4.5-5.0) and at 4-35 °C (optimum 20-28 °C). It was extremely sensitive to salt stress; growth was inhibited at NaCl concentrations above 0.1?% (w/v). The major fatty acids were iso-C(15?:?0) and iso-C(17?:?1)?9c; the polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine and a number of phospholipids and aminophospholipids with an unknown structure. The quinone was MK-8. The DNA G+C content was 57.6 mol%. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain TPB6017(T) was a member of subdivision 1 of the phylum Acidobacteria and belonged to a phylogenetic lineage defined by the acidophilic aerobic chemo-organotroph Acidobacterium capsulatum (92.3?% sequence similarity). However, cell morphology, type of flagellation, the absence of pigment, differences in fatty acid and polar lipid composition, possession of a cellulolytic capability, inability to grow under fully oxic conditions and good growth in anoxic conditions distinguished strain TPB6017(T) from A. capsulatum. Therefore, it is proposed that strain TPB6017(T) represents a novel acidobacterium species in a new genus, Telmatobacter bradus gen. nov., sp. nov.; strain TPB6017(T) (?=?DSM 23630(T)?=?VKM B-2570(T)) is the type strain. PMID:21460138

Pankratov, Timofey A; Kirsanova, Lilia A; Kaparullina, Elena N; Kevbrin, Vadim V; Dedysh, Svetlana N

2011-04-01

120

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation by Nitrosomonas spp. and anammox bacteria in a sequencing batch reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was inoculated with mixed nitrifying bacteria from an anoxic tank at the conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plant in Nongkhaem, Bangkok, Thailand. This enriched nitrifying culture was maintained under anaerobic conditions using ammonium (NH4+) as an electron donor and nitrite (NO2?) as an electron acceptor. Autotrophic ammonium oxidizing bacteria survived under these conditions. The enrichment

Siriporn Sripiboon; Mongkol Damrongsri; Junko Munakata-Marr

2009-01-01

121

Reactivation and growth of non-culturable indicator bacteria in anaerobically digested biosolids after centrifuge dewatering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent literature has reported that high concentrations of indicator bacteria such as fecal coliforms (FCs) were measured in anaerobically digested sludges immediately after dewatering even though low concentrations were measured prior to dewatering. This research hypothesized that the indicator bacteria can enter a non-culturable state during digestion, and are reactivated during centrifuge dewatering. Reactivation is defined as restoration of culturability.

Matthew J. Higgins; Yen-Chih Chen; Sudhir N. Murthy; Donald Hendrickson; Joseph Farrel; Perry Schafer

2007-01-01

122

Metabolic interactions between anaerobic bacteria in methanogenic environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In methanogenic environments organic matter is degraded by associations of fermenting, acetogenic and methanogenic bacteria. Hydrogen and formate consumption, and to some extent also acetate consumption, by methanogens affects the metabolism of the other bacteria. Product formation of fermenting bacteria is shifted to more oxidized products, while acetogenic bacteria are only able to metabolize compounds when methanogens consume hydrogen and

Alfons J. M. Stams

1994-01-01

123

Polyphosphate-accumulating and denitrifying bacteria isolated from anaerobic-anoxic and anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactors  

PubMed

In this study, phosphate-accumulating bacteria achieved complete phosphate removal in two different systems: an anaerobic-anoxic sequencing batch reactor and an anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor. This result shows that phosphate-accumulating bacteria in the A2 SBR can use nitrate as terminal electron acceptor instead of oxygen. Phosphate-accumulating bacteria accumulated phosphate with a rates between 30 and 70 mg P/L/h in the A/O SBR and between 15 and 32 mg P/L/h in the A2 SBR. Twenty denitrifying isolates were screened from A2 SBR and nine from A/O SBR. Identification of these isolates by the Biolog system and the API 20 NE identification kit revealed that the most active denitrifiers in both SBRs reactors were species of Ochrobactrum, Pseudomonas, Corynebacterium, Agrobacterium, Aquaspirillum, Haemophilus, Xanthomonas, Aeromonas, and Shewanella. The most active phosphate accumulating and denitrifying bacteria were identified as Agrobacterium tumefaciens B, Aquaspirillum dispar, and Agrobacterium radiobacter. This study showed that the active phosphate accumulating-bacteria were also the most efficient denitrifying bacteria in both reactors. PMID:9841775

Merzouki; Delgenes; Bernet; Moletta; Benlemlih

1999-01-01

124

Cellulose fermentation by nitrogen-fixing anaerobic bacteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In anaerobic natural environments cellulose is degraded to methane, carbon dioxide and other products by the combined activities of many diverse microorganisms. We are simulating processes occurring in natural environments by constructing biologically-def...

E. Canale-Parola

1992-01-01

125

Anaerobic degradation of phenol by pure cultures of newly isolated denitrifying pseudomonads  

Microsoft Academic Search

From various oxic or anoxic habitats several strains of bacteria were isolated which in the absence of molecular oxygen oxidized phenol to CO2 with nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor. All strains grew in defined mineral salts medium; two of them were further characterized. The bacteria were facultatively anaerobic Gramnegative rods; metabolism was strictly oxidative with molecular oxygen, nitrate, or

A. T. Tschech; G. Fuchs

1987-01-01

126

Thermophilic biodegradation of BTEX by two consortia of anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

Two thermophilic anaerobic bacterial consortia (ALK-1 and LLNL-1), capable of degrading the aromatic fuel hydrocarbons, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and the xylenes (BTEX compounds), were developed at 60 degrees C from the produced water of ARCO'S Kuparuk oil field at Alaska and the subsurface water at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory gasoline-spill site, respectively. Both consortia were found to grow at 45-75 degrees C on BTEX compounds as their sole carbon and energy sources with 50 degrees C being the optimal temperature. With 3.5 mg total BTEX added to sealed 50-ml serum bottles, which contained 30 ml mineral salts medium and the consortium, benzene, toluene, ethylbenze, m-xylene, and an unresolved mixture of o- and p-xylenes were biodegraded by 22%, 38%, 42%, 40%, and 38%, respectively, by ALK-1 after 14 days of incubation at 50 degrees C. Somewhat lower, but significant, percentages of the BTEX compounds also were biodegraded at 60 degrees C and 70 degrees C. The extent of biodegradation of these BTEX compounds by LLNL-1 at each of these three temperatures was slightly less than that achieved by ALK-1. Use of [ring-14C]toluene in the BTEX mixture incubated at 50 degrees C verified that 41% and 31% of the biodegraded toluene was metabolized within 14 days to water-soluble products by ALK-1 and LLNL-1, respectively. A small fraction of it was mineralized to 14CO2. The use of [U-14C]benzene revealed that 2.6%-4.3% of the biodegraded benzene was metabolized at 50 degrees C to water-soluble products by the two consortia; however, no mineralization of the degraded [U-14C]benzene to 14CO2 was observed. The biodegradation of BTEX at all three temperatures by both consortia was tightly coupled to sulfate reduction as well as H2S generation. None was observed when sulfate was omitted from the serum bottles. This suggests that sulfate-reducing bacteria are most likely responsible for the observed thermophilic biodegradation of BTEX in both consortial cultures. PMID:9274054

Chen, C I; Taylor, R T

1997-07-01

127

Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface  

SciTech Connect

A variety of different media were used to isolate facultatively (FAB) and obligately anaerobic bacteria (OAB). These bacteria were isolated from core subsamples obtained from boreholes at the Idaho National Engineering Lab. (INEL) or at the Hanford Lab. (Yakima). Core material was sampled at various depths to 600 feet below the surface. All core samples with culturable bacteria contained at least FAB making thisthe most common physiological type of anaerobic bacteria present in the deep subsurface at these two sites. INEL core samples are characterized by isolates of both FAB and OAB. No isolates of acetogenic, methanogenic, or sulfate reducing bacteria were obtained. Yakima core samples are characterized by a marked predominance of FAB in comparison to OAB. In addition, isolates of acetogenic, methanogenic, and sulfate reducing bacteria were obtained. The Yakima site has the potential for complete anaerobic mineralization of organic compounds whereas this potential appears to be lacking at INEL.

Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

1992-06-01

128

Decarboxylating and Nondecarboxylating Glutaryl-Coenzyme A Dehydrogenases in the Aromatic Metabolism of Obligately Anaerobic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In anaerobic bacteria using aromatic growth substrates, glutaryl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenases (GDHs) are involved in the catabolism of the central intermediate benzoyl-CoA to three acetyl-CoAs and CO2. In this work, we studied GDHs from the strictly anaerobic, aromatic compound-degrading organisms Geobacter metallireducens (GDHGeo) (Fe(III) reducing) and Desulfococcus multivorans (GDHDes) (sulfate reducing). GDHGeo was purified from cells grown on benzoate and

Simon Wischgoll; Martin Taubert; Franziska Peters; Nico Jehmlich; Martin von Bergen; Matthias Boll

2009-01-01

129

Effects of Alternative Dietary Substrates on Competition between Human Colonic Bacteria in an Anaerobic Fermentor System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duplicate anaerobic fermentor systems were used to examine changes in a community of human fecal bacteria supplied with different carbohydrate energy sources. A panel of group-specific fluorescent in situ hybridization probes targeting 16S rRNA sequences revealed that the fermentors supported growth of a greater proportion of Bacteroides and a lower proportion of gram-positive anaerobes related to Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Ruminococcus flavefaciens-Ruminococcus

Sylvia H. Duncan; Karen P. Scott; Alan G. Ramsay; Hermie J. M. Harmsen; Gjalt W. Welling; Colin S. Stewart; Harry J. Flint

2003-01-01

130

Carbon monoxide-dependent energy metabolism in anaerobic bacteria and archaea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its toxicity for the majority of living matter on our planet, numerous microorganisms, both aerobic and anaerobic,\\u000a can use carbon monoxide (CO) as a source of carbon and\\/or energy for growth. The capacity to employ carboxidotrophic energy\\u000a metabolism anaerobically is found in phylogenetically diverse members of the Bacteria and the Archaea. The oxidation of CO\\u000a is coupled to numerous

Ellen Oelgeschläger; Michael Rother

2008-01-01

131

Anaerobic degradation of 2-fluorobenzoate by benzoate-degrading, denitrifying bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Three strains of anaerobically benzoate-degrading, denitrifying bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas were able to grow on 2-fluorobenzoate as the sole carbon and energy source. Fluoride ion release was stoichiometric, and the reduction of dissolved organic carbon indicated total degradation. Cells grown anaerobically with benzoate were adapted for immediate growth with 2-fluorobenzoate, and both compounds were substrates for an inducible benzoyl-coenzyme A synthetase, the initial enzyme of anaerobic degradation. It is proposed that fluoride is eliminated gratuitously by a regioselective reaction in a sequence common to both carbon sources. Benzoate, but not 2-fluorobenzoate, was oxidized by aerobically grown cells.

Schennen, U; Braun, K; Knackmuss, H J

1985-01-01

132

Review of Reductive Leaching of Iron by Anaerobic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaching of iron, either as an impurity to be removed or as a metal to be recovered, requires a different approach than the oxidative leaching that dominates biohydrometallurgy of other metals. In particular, the significant increase in solubility that results from reducing Fe to Fe suggests that a reductive leaching process is most suitable. A wide range of anaerobic iron-reducing

T. C. Eisele; K. L. Gabby

2012-01-01

133

Antibiotic Susceptibility of Anaerobic Bacteria from the Human Oral Cavity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic, agar-dilution, minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 18 antibiotics are given for the numerically important bacterial groups from the human oral cavity. Strains are divided into susceptibility categories using the guidelines for interpretation of MICs suggested by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. These guidelines are based on data on antibiotic concentrations attainable in serum following various dosage regimens.

P. J. Baker; R. T. Evans; J. Slots; R. J. Genco

1985-01-01

134

Effect of medium, pH, and inoculum size on activity of ceftizoxime and Sch-34343 against anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The effect of two media, three pH values, and three inoculum densities on the activity of ceftizoxime and Sch-34343 against anaerobic bacteria was evaluated. The activities of both antimicrobial agents were affected by medium composition, especially against Bacteroides fragilis. Changes in pH and inoculum size affected only the activity of ceftizoxime against anaerobic bacteria.

Borobio, M V; Pascual, A; Dominguez, M C; Perea, E J

1986-01-01

135

Electron transfer in syntrophic communities of anaerobic bacteria and archaea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interspecies electron transfer is a key process in methanogenic and sulphate-reducing environments. Bacteria and archaea that live in syntrophic communities take advantage of the metabolic abilities of their syntrophic partner to overcome energy barriers and break down compounds that they cannot digest by themselves. Here, we review the transfer of hydrogen and formate between bacteria and archaea that helps to

Caroline M. Plugge; Alfons J. M. Stams

2009-01-01

136

Electricity generation by anaerobic bacteria and anoxic sediments from hypersaline soda lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic bacteria and anoxic sediments from soda lakes produced electricity in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). No electricity\\u000a was generated in the absence of bacterial metabolism. Arsenate respiring bacteria isolated from moderately hypersaline Mono\\u000a Lake (Bacillus selenitireducens), and salt-saturated Searles Lake, CA (strain SLAS-1) oxidized lactate using arsenate as the electron acceptor. However,\\u000a these cultures grew equally well without added arsenate

Laurence G. Miller; Ronald S. Oremland

2008-01-01

137

Survival of Anaerobic Bacteria in Various Thioglycolate and Chopped Meat Broth Formulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three commercially available formulations of thioglycolate broth and of chopped meat broth were evaluated for their abilities to maintain the viabilities of 32 strains of anaerobic bacteria during a period of 8 weeks. While thioglycolate broth supported the initial (48-h) growth of all strains tested, approximately half of the strains died off within 4 weeks. Chopped meat broths maintained the

MARINA C. CLAROS; DIANE M. CITRON; ANDELLIE J. C. GOLDSTEIN

1995-01-01

138

Selectivity of food bacteria for the growth of anaerobic ciliate Trimyema compressum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anaerobic ciliate Trimyema compressum was cultivated on various food bacteria. Significant growth was observed when Lactobacillus sp., Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Desulfovibrio vulgaris, Methanoculleus bourgense, or Pelobacter propionicus cells were fed to the ciliates. The highest cell yield which we obtained was ca. 9,000 cells\\/ml when feeding D. vulgaris. However, no growth of the ciliates was observed on the

Kazutaka Yamada; Yoichi Kamagata; Kazunori Nakamura; Yuhei Inamori; Isei Nakamura

1994-01-01

139

Isolation and characterization of phototrophic bacteria growing in lighted upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two strains of phototrophic bacteria were isolated from the effluent of a lighted upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (LUASB) reactor. Their 16S rRNA gene sequences and phenotypic characteristics suggested that two isolates were Rhodopseudomonas palustris and Blastochloris sulfoviridis strains.

Shigeki Sawayama; Satoshi Hanada; Yoichi Kamagata

2000-01-01

140

Anaerobic bacteria as a gene delivery system that is controlled by the tumor microenvironment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental obstacle in gene therapy for cancer treatment is the specific delivery of an anticancer gene product to a solid tumor. Although several strategies exist to control gene expression once a vector is directly introduced into a tumor, as yet no systemic delivery system exists that specifically targets solid tumors. Nonpathogenic, obligate anaerobic bacteria of the genus Clostridium have

MJ Lemmon; P van Zijl; ME Fox; ML Mauchline; AJ Giaccia; NP Minton; JM Brown

1997-01-01

141

In vivo IgA coating of anaerobic bacteria in human faeces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacterial flora in the human colon, although extremely diverse, has a relatively stable composition and non-infectious anaerobic bacteria are dominant. The flora forms a pool of numerous different antigens separated from mucosal immunocompetent cells by just a single layer of epithelial cells. Despite this thin barrier, however, the colonic mucosa is physiologically only mildly inflamed. This study looked at

L A van der Waaij; P C Limburg; G Mesander; D van der Waaij

1996-01-01

142

Ferredoxins in the evolution of photosynthetic systems from anaerobic bacteria to higher plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferredoxins are present in a wide range of organisms, from the primitive anaerobic bacteria to higher plants and animals, where they function in diverse electron transfer processes. They are relatively small proteins with molecular weights of 6000 to 12000, contain 2–8 Fe atoms and an equivalent amount of inorganic sulphur per molecule, and they transfer electrons at low redox potentials.

D. O. Hall; R. Cammack; K. K. Rao

1973-01-01

143

Gas chromatographic comparison of peptone yeast glucose and gas liquid chromatography growth media for anaerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth media peptone yeast extract glucose broth and gas liquid chromatography broth were compared with respect to their suitability for anaerobic bacteria, using 63 strains belonging to 12 species. After incubation for 24 and 48 h the broth cultures were subjected to viable counts and gas Chromatographic analysis of short-chain alcohols and fatty acids in head-space vapours and ether

E. Holst; L. Larsson

1987-01-01

144

PCR detection and quantitation of predominant anaerobic bacteria in human and animal fecal samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

PCR procedures based on 16S rRNA genen sequence specific for 12 anaerobic bacteria that predominate in the human intestinal tract were developed and used for quantitative detection of these species in human feces and animal feces. The reported PCR procedure including the fecal sample preparation method is simplified and rapid and eliminates the DNA isolation steps.

Rong-Fu Wang; Wei-Wen Cao; C. E. Cerniglia

1996-01-01

145

One carbon metabolism in anaerobic bacteria: Regulation of carbon and electron flow during organic acid production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project deals with understanding the fundamental biochemical mechanisms that physiologically control and regulate carbon and electron flow in anaerobic chemosynthetic bacteria that couple metabolism of single carbon compounds and hydrogen to the production of organic acids (formic, acetic, butyric, and succinic) or methane. The authors compare the regulation of carbon dioxide and hydrogen metabolism by fermentation, enzyme, and electron

J. G. Zeikus; M. Jain

1993-01-01

146

(Anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds by phototrophic bacteria: Biochemical aspects)  

SciTech Connect

Two aspects of the work proposed have received major emphasis during the period since the grant was activated: isolation and characterization of transposon insertion mutants of Rhodopseudomonas palusrtis defective in phototrophic growth on aromatic compounds, and attempts to purify and characterize the Coenzyme A ligase enzyme involved in activating 4-hydroxybenzoate. The HPLC apparatus was installed in August, and calibration of columns both for metabolite and for protein separations has been initiated. A start has also been made on synthesis of Coenzyme A thioesters of compounds that are potential intermediates in the anaerobic degradation pathways. 1 tab.

Gibson, J.

1989-01-01

147

Nitrite-driven anaerobic methane oxidation by oxygenic bacteria.  

PubMed

Only three biological pathways are known to produce oxygen: photosynthesis, chlorate respiration and the detoxification of reactive oxygen species. Here we present evidence for a fourth pathway, possibly of considerable geochemical and evolutionary importance. The pathway was discovered after metagenomic sequencing of an enrichment culture that couples anaerobic oxidation of methane with the reduction of nitrite to dinitrogen. The complete genome of the dominant bacterium, named 'Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera', was assembled. This apparently anaerobic, denitrifying bacterium encoded, transcribed and expressed the well-established aerobic pathway for methane oxidation, whereas it lacked known genes for dinitrogen production. Subsequent isotopic labelling indicated that 'M. oxyfera' bypassed the denitrification intermediate nitrous oxide by the conversion of two nitric oxide molecules to dinitrogen and oxygen, which was used to oxidize methane. These results extend our understanding of hydrocarbon degradation under anoxic conditions and explain the biochemical mechanism of a poorly understood freshwater methane sink. Because nitrogen oxides were already present on early Earth, our finding opens up the possibility that oxygen was available to microbial metabolism before the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. PMID:20336137

Ettwig, Katharina F; Butler, Margaret K; Le Paslier, Denis; Pelletier, Eric; Mangenot, Sophie; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Schreiber, Frank; Dutilh, Bas E; Zedelius, Johannes; de Beer, Dirk; Gloerich, Jolein; Wessels, Hans J C T; van Alen, Theo; Luesken, Francisca; Wu, Ming L; van de Pas-Schoonen, Katinka T; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Janssen-Megens, Eva M; Francoijs, Kees-Jan; Stunnenberg, Henk; Weissenbach, Jean; Jetten, Mike S M; Strous, Marc

2010-03-25

148

Frequency of resistance in obligate anaerobic bacteria isolated from dogs, cats, and horses to antimicrobial agents.  

PubMed

Clinical specimens from dogs, cats, and horses were examined for the presence of obligate anaerobic bacteria. Of 4,018 specimens cultured, 368 yielded 606 isolates of obligate anaerobic bacteria (248 from dogs, 50 from cats, and 308 from horses). There were 100 specimens from 94 animals from which only anaerobes were isolated (25 dogs, 8 cats, and 61 horses). The most common sites tested were abdominal fluid (dogs and cats) and intestinal contents (horses). The most common microorganism isolated from dogs, cats, and horses was Clostridium perfringens (75, 13, and101 isolates, respectively). The MICs of amoxicillin with clavulanate, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, metronidazole, and penicillin were determined using a gradient endpoint method for anaerobes. Isolates collected at necropsy were not tested for antimicrobial susceptibility unless so requested by the clinician. There were 1/145 isolates tested that were resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate (resistance breakpoint ? 16/8 ?g/ml), 7/77 isolates tested were resistant to ampicillin (resistance breakpoint ? 2 ?g/ml), 4/242 isolates tested were resistant to chloramphenicol (resistance breakpoint ? 32 ?g/ml), 12/158 isolates tested were resistant to clindamycin (resistance breakpoint ? 8 ?g/ml), 10/247 isolates tested were resistant to metronidazole (resistance breakpoint ? 32 ?g/ml), and 54/243 isolates tested were resistant to penicillin (resistance breakpoint ? 2 ?g/ml). These data suggest that anaerobes are generally susceptible to antimicrobial drugs in vitro. PMID:24025899

Lawhon, S D; Taylor, A; Fajt, V R

2013-09-11

149

Relationship between Oral Anaerobic Bacteria and Otitis Media with Effusion  

PubMed Central

Objective: In this study hypothesing the translocation of oral bacteria from oropharynx into the middle ear cavity may be involved in the pathogenesis of otitis media with effusion (OME), we aimed to investigate the presence and similarity of Fusobacterium nucleatum and Treponema denticola in saliva, nasopharyngeal secretion and the middle ear effusion samples from the children with OME. Methods: Totally 20 children with OME undergoing myringotomy and ventilation tube placement were attended. Stimulated saliva samples were collected after otorhinolaryngological and oral examinations were done. The middle ear effusion and nasopharyngeal secretions were collected during the operations. The presence of F. nucleatum and T. denticola were detected using 16SrRNA-based PCR. The clonal similarities of the bacteria were detected in the samples which the same bacteria had been detected in each samples of the same child. After DNA sequencing, clonal similarity was determined by 16SrRNA gene clone library analysis. The sequences from each clone were compared with similar sequences of reference organisms by FASTA search. Results: T. denticola was detected only in four (20%) saliva and in one (5%) nasopharyngeal sample. F. nucleatum was detected in 11 (55%) saliva, eight (40%) nasopharyngeal and six (30%) middle ear effusion samples. Sequences from F.nucleatum clones derived from three different anatomic sites within patients were similar in 33% of OME patients, indicating their genetic relatedness. Conclusions: Bacteria involved in this process most likely originate from the oropharynx since they show a close genetic relatedness with their oropharyngeal counterparts.

Topcuoglu, Nursen; Keskin, Fahriye; Ciftci, Sevgi; Paltura, Ceki; Kulekci, Mehmet; Ustek, Duran; Kulekci, Guven

2012-01-01

150

Antimicrobial resistance determinants among anaerobic bacteria isolated from footrot.  

PubMed

Antibiotic resistance has been evaluated among 36 Gram negative and anaerobic bacilli (10 Bacteroides, 11 Prevotella, 7 Porphyromonas and 8 Fusobacterium strains) isolated from clinical cases of caprine and ovine footrot (necrotic pododermatitis). The initial analysis on this bacterial consortium evaluates the relationships existing among antimicrobial resistance determinants, phenotype expression and mobilization potential. The Bacteroides strains were generally resistant to penicillins, first-generation cephalosporins, tetracycline and erythromycin, and expressed low level of ?-lactamase activity. The main determinants found among the Bacteroides strains were cepA and tetQ genes, conferring resistance to ?-lactams and tetracycline, respectively. A general susceptibility to ?-lactams was shown for most Prevotella, Porphyromonas and Fusobacterium strains, where none of the ?-lactamase genes described in Bacteroides was detected. Resistance to tetracycline and/or erythromycin was found among the three bacterial groups. Although tetQ genes were detected for several Prevotella and Porphyromonas strains, a unique ermF positive was revealed among Prevotella strains. The expression of resistance markers was not related with the polymorphism of their coding sequences. However, the finding of sequence signatures for conjugative transposons in the vicinities of tetQ and ermF suggests a mobilization potential that might have contributed to the spread of antimicrobial resistance genes. PMID:22177890

Lorenzo, María; García, Nuria; Ayala, Juan Alfonso; Vadillo, Santiago; Píriz, Segundo; Quesada, Alberto

2011-12-02

151

Facultative and Algae Ponds for Treating Beet Sugar Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A total of 11 loadings with variable recirculation rates were used to demonstrate the effect of an anaerobic-facultative-aerobic treatment system (in series) on the degradation of dissolved and suspended solids characteristically found in beet sugar flume...

J. H. Fischer R. A. Tsugita W. J. Oswald C. G. Golueke R. C. Cooper

1967-01-01

152

Enumeration and Detection of Anaerobic Ferrous Iron Oxidizing, Nitrate-Reducing Bacteria from Diverse European Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic, nitrate-dependent microbial oxidation of ferrous iron was recently recognized as a new type of metabolism. In order to study the occurrence of three novel groups of ferrous iron-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing bacteria (represented by strains BrG1, BrG2, and BrG3), 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes were developed. In pure-culture experiments, these probes were shown to be suitable for fluorescent in situ hybrid- ization,

KRISTINA L. STRAUB; BERIT E. E. BUCHHOLZ-CLEVEN

1998-01-01

153

Anaerobic degradation of 1,3-propanediol by sulfate-reducing and by fermenting bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three strains of strictly anaerobic Gram-negative, non-sporeforming, motile bacteria were enriched and isolated from freshwater sediments with 1,3-propanediol as sole energy and carbon source. Strain OttPdl was a sulfate-reducing bacterium which grew also with lactate, ethanol, propanol, butanol, 1,4-butanediol, formate or hydrogen plus CO2, the latter only in the presence of acetate. In the absence of sulfate, most of these

Beatrix Oppenberg; Bernhard Schink

1990-01-01

154

Introduction of Anaerobic Dechlorinating Bacteria into Soil Slurry Microcosms and Nested-PCR Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desulfomonile tiedjeiandDesulfitobacterium dehalogenanswere chosen as model bacteria to demonstrate the introduction of an anaerobic microbia reductive dechlorination activity into nonsterile soil slurry microcosms by inoculation. De novo 3-chlorobenzoate dechlorination activity was established with the bacteriumD. tiedjei in microcosms normally devoid of this dechlorination capacity. The addition of D. tiedjei to microcosms supplemented with 20 mM pyruvate as the cosubstrate resulted

JACQUES MAHILLON; HENRY NAVEAU; ANDSPIROS N. AGATHOS

1997-01-01

155

A comparison of magnetite particles produced anaerobically by magnetotactic and dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors compare the magnetic properties of fine-grained magnetite produced by two newly isolated anaerobic bacteria, a magnetotactic bacterium (MV-1) and a dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium (GS-15). Although room-temperature magnetic properties are generally different between the two microorganisms, MV-1 and GS-15 magnetites can be most easily distinguished by the temperature variation of saturation remanence obtained at liquid helium temperatures. Magnetite produced

Bruce M. Moskowitz; Richard B. Frankel; Dennis A. Bazylinski; Holger W. Jannasch; Derek R. Lovley

1989-01-01

156

Antibacterial effect of silver-zeolite on oral bacteria under anaerobic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of silver-zeolite (SZ) against oral bacteria under anaerobic conditions.Methods: The antibacterial activity of SZ was evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) using two-fold serial dilutions of SZ in Brain Heart Infusion broth. Release of Ag+ into the broth was measured by an atomic absorption technique.Results: SZ

K Kawahara; K Tsuruda; M Morishita; M Uchida

2000-01-01

157

Sodium Ion Pumps and Hydrogen Production in Glutamate Fermenting Anaerobic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic bacteria ferment glutamate via two different pathways to ammonia, carbon dioxide, acetate, butyrate and molecular hydrogen. The coenzyme B12-dependent pathway in Clostridium tetanomorphum via 3-methylaspartate involves pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase and a novel enzyme, a membrane-bound NADH:ferredoxin oxidoreductase. The flavin- and iron-sulfur-containing enzyme probably uses the energy difference between reduced ferredoxin and NADH to generate an electrochemical Na+ gradient, which drives

Clara D. Boiangiu; Elamparithi Jayamani; Daniela Brügel; Gloria Herrmann; Jihoe Kim; Lucia Forzi; Reiner Hedderich; Irini Vgenopoulou; Antonio J. Pierik; Julia Steuber; Wolfgang Buckel

2005-01-01

158

Comparative in vitro activities of cefpiramide and apalcillin against anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activities of two new antimicrobial agents, apalcillin and cefpiramide (SM-1652), were evaluated against 324 strains of anaerobic bacteria. Apalcillin (a penicillin derivative) and cefpiramide (a semisynthetic cephalosporin) were compared with piperacillin, moxalactam, and cefoxitin. Organisms studied included the Bacteroides fragilis group, other Bacteroides species, fusobacteria, clostridia, nonsporeforming gram-positive rods, and anaerobic cocci. Piperacillin was found to be the most active overall, inhibiting 96% of the strains tested at its achievable level in serum (128 micrograms/ml). Apalcillin was comparable in activity to piperacillin, inhibiting 93% of anaerobes tested at this concentration. The other antibiotics inhibited ca. 80% of the strains at 32 micrograms/ml. In terms of activities against particular species, apalcillin was active against 75% of B. fragilis group strains and 97 to 100% of all other anaerobes. Cefpiramide inhibited 37% of B. fragilis group strains at 32 micrograms/ml and 68% at 64 micrograms/ml (a level that may be achievable with this drug). Cefpiramide inhibited 92% of all other anaerobes at 32 micrograms/ml and 95% at 64 micrograms/ml. The clostridia other than Clostridium perfringens were the most resistant (84% inhibited at 32 micrograms/ml and 95% inhibited at 64 micrograms/ml).

Wexler, H; Carter, W T; Harris, B; Finegold, S M

1984-01-01

159

Diversity of aerobic and anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in marine sponges.  

PubMed

Aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AAOB) are known to have an important function in the marine nitrogen cycle. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) carried out by some members of Planctomycetales is also an important process in marine ecosystems. Ammonia-monooxygenase gene (amoA) fragments were amplified to investigate the potential for nitrification and the diversity of the AAOB in two marine sponges Ircinia strobilina and Mycale laxissima. All of the AmoA sequences obtained from the two sponges clustered with the AmoA sequences of the Betaproteobacteria Nitrosospira spp. To investigate the anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB) in sponges, 16S rRNA gene fragments of Planctomycetales and anammox bacteria were also amplified with specific primers, and clone libraries were constructed. The Planctomycetales diversity detected in the two sponges was different. The Planctomycetales community in M. laxissima was affiliated with Pirellula, Planctomyces and anammox bacteria, while all of the I. strobilina Planctomycetales clones were solely affiliated with the candidate phylum 'Poribacteria'. Interestingly, sequences related to anammox genera were recovered only from M. laxissima. This is the first report of anammox bacteria in marine sponges. It is intriguing to find AAOB and AnAOB in M. laxissima, but the nature of their interaction with the sponge host and with each other remains unclear. This work further supports the potential of sponge-associated microorganisms for nitrification and sheds light on anammox as a new aspect of the nitrogen cycle in marine sponges. PMID:19617876

Mohamed, Naglaa M; Saito, Keiko; Tal, Yossi; Hill, Russell T

2009-07-16

160

Effect of radiation dose on the recovery of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria from mice  

SciTech Connect

The presence of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in the blood, spleen, and liver was investigated in mice that were exposed to 7, 8, 9, or 10 Gy /sup 60/Co radiation. Microorganisms were detected more often in animals exposed to higher doses of radiation. The number of mice that were culture positive and the number of isolates in one site increased with increasing dose. Bacteria were recovered in mice killed at various times after radiation, in 3 of 100 mice exposed to 7 Gy, in 13 of 100 irradiated with 8 Gy, in 23 of 90 exposed to 9 Gy, and in 34 of 87 irradiated with 10 Gy. The predominant organisms recovered were Escherichia coli, anerobic Gram-positive cocci, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacteroides spp. Escherichia coli and anaerobes were more often isolated in animals exposed to 10 Gy, while S. aureus was more often recovered in those irradiated with 9 Gy. These data demonstrate a relationship between the dose of radiation and the rate of infection due to entire aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Reprints.

Brook, I.; Walker, R.I.; MacVittie, T.J.

1986-01-01

161

The anammoxosome organelle is crucial for the energy metabolism of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria.  

PubMed

Anammox bacteria convert ammonium and nitrite to dinitrogen gas under anaerobic conditions to obtain their energy for growth. The anammox reaction was deemed impossible until its discovery in the early 1990s. Now, anammox bacteria are recognized as major players in the global nitrogen cycle and estimated to be responsible for up to 50% of the nitrogen in the air that we breathe. In addition, anammox bacteria are extremely valuable for wastewater treatment where they are applied for the removal of ammonium. Besides their importance in industry and the environment, anammox bacteria defy some basic biological concepts. Whereas most other bacteria have only one cell compartment, the cytoplasm, anammox bacteria have three independent cell compartments bounded by bilayer membranes, from out- to inside; the paryphoplasm, riboplasm and anammoxosome. The anammoxosome is the largest compartment of the anammox cell and is proposed to be dedicated to energy conservation. As such it would be analogous to the mitochondria of eukaryotes. This review will discuss the anammox cell plan in detail, with the main focus on the anammoxosome. The identity of the anammoxosome as a prokaryotic organelle and the importance of this organelle for anammox bacteria are discussed as well as challenges these bacteria face by having three independent cell compartments. PMID:23615199

van Teeseling, Muriel C F; Neumann, Sarah; van Niftrik, Laura

2013-04-18

162

Arsenite Oxidation by Anaerobic Bacteria in Mono Lake, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mono Lake, California is a meromictic soda lake (pH = 9.8; salinity = 70-90 g/L) with exceptionally high arsenic content (200 ? M) derived from hydrothermal sources. Previous work has shown that arsenic speciation changes from arsenate [As(V)] to the more reduced arsenite [As(III)] with vertical transition from the lake's surface oxic waters to its unmixed, anoxic bottom waters and that dissimilatory reduction is responsible for the observed change in arsenic speciation (Oremland et al., 2000). Depth profiles of arsenic speciation indicate that a small amount of As(V) exists in the anoxic bottom waters, suggesting a constant re-supply by microbial oxidation of As(III). Anaerobic microbial oxidation of As(III) to As(V) was first noted in arsenate-enriched anoxic bottom water amended with nitrate, where nitrate addition caused a rapid microbial re-oxidation of arsenite to arsenate (Hoeft et al. 2001). In following, we conducted time course experiments with As(III)-amended bottom waters supplemented with either 5 mM nitrate, Fe(III)-NTA or nitrite. Nitrate-amended waters formed As(V), while killed controls did not form significant amounts and 5 mM nitrate was completely reduced to 5 mM nitrite by the end of the incubation. Live samples amended with 5mM Fe(III)-NTA produced As(V) that exceeded production of As(V) in killed controls, while nitrite-amended waters formed As(V) in excess of killed controls after an initial lag. We isolated a pure culture, strain MLHE-1, that grows in minimal salts media by oxidation of As(III) to As(V) with the reduction of equivalent quantities of nitrate to nitrite. Strain MLHE-1 appears to be a chemoautotroph. These results demonstrate that the cycling of As(V) and As(III) can be sustained in the absence of oxygen. This has implications not only for the recycling of As(V) in Mono Lake's bottom waters, but also for the mobility of arsenic in aquifers as well. Oremland, R.S. et al. 2000. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 64: 3073-3084. Hoeft, S.E. et al. 2001. Geomicrobiol. In press.

Hoeft, S. E.; Oremland, R. S.

2001-12-01

163

Dehalogenation of lindane (?-hexachlorocyclohexane) by anaerobic bacteria from marine sediments and by sulfate-reducing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine sediments from around burrows of Saccoglossus kowalevskii, a tribromopyrrole-producing marine hemichordate, were used to develop anaerobic enrichment cultures supplemented with lindane and a mixture of short chain fatty acids. These enrichments consumed lindane and both monochlorobenzene and benzene were detected as transformation products. Cultures transferred to sediment-free media containing citrate, lactate, yeast extract and sulfate also dehalogenated lindane. Lindane

Alfred W. Boyle; Max M. Häggblom; Lily Y. Young

1999-01-01

164

Community dynamics of anaerobic bacteria in deep petroleum reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature, activity and metabolism of microbes that inhabit the deep subsurface environment are a matter of ongoing debate. Primarily limited by temperature, little is known about secondary factors that restrict or enhance microbial activity or about the extent of a habitable environment deep below the surface. In particular, the degraders of chemically inert organic substrates remain elusive. Petroleum reservoirs can be regarded as natural bioreactors and are ideally suited for the study of microbial metabolism in the deep subsurface. Here we analyse series of oil samples that were biodegraded to different degrees. We find fatty acids after hydrolysis of purified crude oil fractions, indicating the presence of intact phospholipids and suggesting that indigenous bacteria inhabit petroleum reservoirs in sediment depths of up to 2,000m. A major change in bacterial community structure occurs after the removal of n-alkanes, indicating that more than one consortium is responsible for petroleum degradation. Our results suggest that further study of petroleum fluids will help understand bacterial metabolism and diversity in this habitat of the deep subsurface.

Hallmann, Christian; Schwark, Lorenz; Grice, Kliti

2008-09-01

165

Cyclohexa-1,5Diene1-Carbonyl-Coenzyme A (CoA) Hydratases of Geobacter metallireducens and Syntrophus aciditrophicus: Evidence for a Common Benzoyl-CoA Degradation Pathway in Facultative and Strict Anaerobes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the denitrifying bacterium Thauera aromatica, the central intermediate of anaerobic aromatic metabolism, benzoyl-coenzyme A (CoA), is dearomatized by the ATP-dependent benzoyl-CoA reductase to cyclohexa-1,5- diene-1-carbonyl-CoA (dienoyl-CoA). The dienoyl-CoA is further metabolized by a series of -oxidation-like reactions of the so-called benzoyl-CoA degradation pathway resulting in ring cleavage. Recently, evidence was obtained that obligately anaerobic bacteria that use aromatic growth

Franziska Peters; Yoshifumi Shinoda; Michael J. McInerney; Matthias Boll

2007-01-01

166

Living Without Oxygen: Oxygen Tolerance in Bacteria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity focuses on chemical processes, such as nitrogen fixation and denitrification, which are carried out by bacteria. Often the efficacy of these processes is determined by the amount of oxygen present in the environment in which the bacteria live. Much of the time, these processes are carried out by facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the suboxic region of lakes, oceans, sediments, and leaf litter. Students will discover whether facultatively anaerobic photoautotrophs share the same tolerance for oxygen, how differences in oxygen tolerance can be tested, and of what significance the tolerance for oxygen is in the nitrogen cycle. They will practice aseptic technique, monitor the growth of bacterial cultures, display their results graphically, and propose environmental problems associated with the oxygen tolerance of nitrogen fixers and denitifiers.

Harris, Sharon

167

Previously unclassified bacteria dominate during thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic pre-treatment of primary sludge.  

PubMed

Thermophilic biological pre-treatment enables enhanced anaerobic digestion for treatment of wastewater sludges but, at present, there is limited understanding of the hydrolytic-acidogenic microbial composition and its contribution to this process. In this study, the process was assessed by comparing the microbiology of thermophilic (50-65 °C) and mesophilic (35 °C) pre-treatment reactors treating primary sludge. A full-cycle approach for the 16S rRNA genes was applied in order to monitor the diversity of bacteria and their abundance in a thermophilic pre-treatment reactor treating primary sludge. For the thermophilic pre-treatment (TP), over 90% of the sequences were previously undetected and these had less than 97% sequence similarity to cultured organisms. During the first 83 days, members of the Betaproteobacteria dominated the community sequences and a newly designed probe was used to monitor a previously unknown bacterium affiliated with the genus Brachymonas. Between days 85 and 183, three phylotypes that affiliated with the genera Comamonas, Clostridium and Lysobacter were persistently dominant in the TP community, as revealed by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Hydrolytic and fermentative functions have been speculated for these bacteria. Mesophilic pre-treatment (MP) and TP communities were different but they were both relatively dynamic. Statistical correlation analysis and the function of closely allied reference organisms indicated that previously unclassified bacteria dominated the TP community and may have been functionally involved in the enhanced hydrolytic performance of thermophilic anaerobic pre-treatment. This study is the first to reveal the diversity and dynamics of bacteria during anaerobic digestion of primary sludge. PMID:23643091

Pervin, Hasina M; Batstone, Damien J; Bond, Philip L

2013-05-01

168

Significance of Anaerobes and Oral Bacteria in Community-Acquired Pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Background Molecular biological modalities with better detection rates have been applied to identify the bacteria causing infectious diseases. Approximately 10–48% of bacterial pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia are not identified using conventional cultivation methods. This study evaluated the bacteriological causes of community-acquired pneumonia using a cultivation-independent clone library analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of bronchoalveolar lavage specimens, and compared the results with those of conventional cultivation methods. Methods Patients with community-acquired pneumonia were enrolled based on their clinical and radiological findings. Bronchoalveolar lavage specimens were collected from pulmonary pathological lesions using bronchoscopy and evaluated by both a culture-independent molecular method and conventional cultivation methods. For the culture-independent molecular method, approximately 600 base pairs of 16S ribosomal RNA genes were amplified using polymerase chain reaction with universal primers, followed by the construction of clone libraries. The nucleotide sequences of 96 clones randomly chosen for each specimen were determined, and bacterial homology was searched. Conventional cultivation methods, including anaerobic cultures, were also performed using the same specimens. Results In addition to known common pathogens of community-acquired pneumonia [Streptococcus pneumoniae (18.8%), Haemophilus influenzae (18.8%), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (17.2%)], molecular analysis of specimens from 64 patients with community-acquired pneumonia showed relatively higher rates of anaerobes (15.6%) and oral bacteria (15.6%) than previous reports. Conclusion Our findings suggest that anaerobes and oral bacteria are more frequently detected in patients with community-acquired pneumonia than previously believed. It is possible that these bacteria may play more important roles in community-acquired pneumonia.

Yamasaki, Kei; Kawanami, Toshinori; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Noguchi, Shingo; Nagata, Shuya; Nishida, Chinatsu; Kido, Takashi; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Hatsumi; Mukae, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

169

Anaerobic metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds by sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Ecological observations suggest that sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria might metabolize nitroaromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions if appropriate electron donors and electron acceptors are present in the environment, but this ability had not been demonstrated until recently. Most studies on the microbial metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds used aerobic microorganisms. In most cases no mineralization of nitroaromatics occurs, and only superficial modifications of the structures are reported. However, under anaerobic sulfate-reducing conditions, the nitroaromatic compounds reportedly undergo a series of reductions with the formation of amino compounds. For example, trinitrotoluene under sulfate-reducing conditions is reduced to triaminotoluene by the enzyme nitrite reductase, which is commonly found in many Desulfovibrio spp. The removal of ammonia from triaminotoluene is achieved by reductive deamination catalyzed by the enzyme reductive deaminase, with the production of ammonia and toluene. Some sulfate reducers can metabolize toluene to CO{sub 2}. Similar metabolic processes could be applied to other nitroaromatic compounds like nitrobenzene, nitrobenzoic acids, nitrophenols, and aniline. Many methanogenic bacteria can reduce nitroaromatic compounds to amino compounds. In this paper we review the anaerobic metabolic processes of nitroaromatic compounds under sulfate-reducing And methanogenic conditions.

Boopathy, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kulpa, C.F. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

1994-06-01

170

Ecophysiological adaptations of anaerobic bacteria to low pH. [Sarcina ventriculi; Lactobacillus helveticus  

SciTech Connect

The ecological and physiological adaptations of anaerobic bacteria to low pH were investigated in field and laboratory studies. Determinations of hydrogen kinetic parameters demonstrated that overall hydrogen metabolism was inhibited in acid ecosystems. In particular, hydrogen metabolism became progressively uncoupled at low pH. This uncoupling resulted in a slowing of carbon flow during anaerobic digestion and the accumulation of intermediary metabolites. The addition of carbon electron donors to acid bog sediments resulted in the accumulation of hydrogen and a slowing of the overall rates of anaerobic digestion. As an adaptation to low pH, anaerobic bacterial populations shifted from production of acid intermediary metabolites (e.g. acetate and lactate) to the production of neutral intermediary metabolites (e.g. ethanol). This shift was observed both in situ and in pure cultures of hydrolytic strains isolated from bog sediments. Detailed physiological studies of Sarcina ventriculi showed an adaptation to growth at low pH by mechanisms which allowed the continued production of ethanol from glucose and the maintenance of a proton motive force at low cytoplasmic pH values. Further physiological studies Lactobacillus helveticus showed that the accumulation of acidic end-product (lactic acid) strongly influenced cellular electrochemical parameters. Based on the results of computer simulations and laboratory studies of the physiology of the organism in the presence of organic acids, a new model for the passive coupling of energy conservation to the efflux of lactic acid in an electroneutral process is proposed.

Goodwin, S.D.

1986-01-01

171

Reduction and Immobilization of Radionuclides and Toxic Metal Ions Using Combined Zero Valent Iron and Anaerobic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of zero valent iron, permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) for groundwater remediation continues to increase. AN exciting variation of this technology involves introducing anaerobic bacteria into these barriers so that both biological and abiotic pollutant removal processes are functional. This work evaluated the hypothesis that a system combining a mixed culture of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) with zero valent

Lenly J. Weathers; Lynn E. Katz

2002-01-01

172

Selected faecal bacteria and nutrients essential for antagonism of Salmonella typhimurium in anaerobic continuous flow cultures.  

PubMed

As few as five of the species of bacteria commonly found in human faeces--Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacteroides ovatus and Fusobacterium varium--when grown together in anaerobic continuous flow cultures exerted antagonistic effects on Salmonella typhimurium as great as those given by mixed bacteria from extracts of human faeces. In a single culture, the population of S. typhimurium was c. 10(8) cfu/ml but in mixed cultures with the five antagonistic bacteria or mixed faecal bacteria it was reduced to c. 10(3) cfu/ml. Antagonism appeared to be the result of competition for the growth limiting amino acids, arginine, serine, threonine and aspartic acid. Optimal manifestation of antagonism required the presence of carbon sources fermentable only by antagonistic bacteria, such as lactose 0.1%, w/v, sucrose 0.1% (w/v) and starch 0.2-0.3% w/v. These carbohydrates promoted the growth of the antagonistic bacteria, particularly E. coli and B. ovatus. However, an increase in concentration by several fold of any one of four growth-limiting amino acids in the medium diminished the antagonistic effects and the population of S. typhimurium rose 10(2)-10(3)-fold. PMID:1875391

Ushijima, T; Seto, A

1991-08-01

173

Anammox bacteria and the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium in the oxygen minimum zone off northern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anammox is the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium by nitrite or nitrate to yield N 2. This process, along with conventional denitrification, contributes to nitrogen loss in oxygen-deficient systems. Anammox is performed by a special group of bacteria belonging to the Planctomycetes phylum. However, information about the distribution, activity, and controlling factors of these anammox bacteria is still limited. Herein, we examine the phylogenetic diversity, vertical distribution, and activity of anammox bacteria in the coastal upwelling region and oxygen minimum zone off northern Chile. The phylogeny of anammox bacteria was studied using primers designed to specifically target 16S rRNA genes from Planctomycetes in samples taken during a cruise in 2004. Anammox bacteria-like sequences affiliated with Candidatus "Scalindua spp." dominated the 16S rRNA gene clone library. However, 62% of the sequences subgrouped separately within this cluster and together with a single sequence retrieved from the suboxic zone of the freshwater Lake Tanganyika. The vertical distribution and activity of anammox bacteria were explored through CARD-FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization with catalyzed reporter deposition) and 15N labeling incubations, respectively, at two different open-ocean stations during a second cruise in 2005. Anammox bacterial CARD-FISH counts (up to 3000 cells ml -1) and activity (up to 5.75 nmol N 2 L -1 d -1) were only detected at the station subjected directly to the upwelling influence. Anammox cell abundance and activity were highest at 50 m depth, which is the upper part of the OMZ. In this layer, a high abundance of cyanobacteria and a marked nitrogen deficit were also observed. Thus, our results show the presence of a new subcluster within the marine anammox phylogeny and indicate high vertical variability in the abundance and activity of anammox bacteria that could be related to an intensification of carbon and nitrogen cycling in the upper part of the OMZ.

Galán, Alexander; Molina, Verónica; Thamdrup, Bo; Woebken, Dagmar; Lavik, Gaute; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Ulloa, Osvaldo

2009-07-01

174

Detection and Quantification of Bacteria Involved in Aerobic and Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation in an Ammonium-Contaminated Aquifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerobic and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacterial guilds were studied from two multilevel samplers in an ammonium-contaminated aquifer in the UK. By end point polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the presence of betaproteobacterial ammonium-oxidizing bacteria and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) planctomycetes was demonstrated. The sequences of cloned anammox-specific PCR fragments had close relationships with known anammox strains. Real-time PCR was subsequently used to

Theo H. M. Smits; Arne Hüttmann; David N. Lerner; Christof Holliger

2009-01-01

175

Phylogenetic and functional diversity of propionate-oxidizing bacteria in an anaerobic digester sludge.  

PubMed

The phylogenetic and functional diversity of syntrophic propionate-oxidizing bacteria (POB) present in an anaerobic digester was investigated by microautoradiography combined with fluorescent in situ hybridization (MAR-FISH) that can directly link 16S rRNA phylogeny with in situ metabolic function. The syntrophic POB community in the anaerobic digester sludge consisted of at least four phylogenetic groups: Syntrophobacter, uncultured short rod Smithella (Smithella sp. SR), uncultured long rod Smithella (Smithella sp. LR), and an unidentified group. The activities of these POB groups were dependent on the propionate concentrations. The uncultured Smithella sp. SR accounted for 52-62% of the total active POB under all the propionate concentrations tested (0.5-15 mM). In contrast, uncultured Smithella sp. LR was active only at lower propionate concentrations and became a dominant active POB at 0.5 mM of propionate. Syntrophobacter accounted for 16-31% of the total active POB above 2.5 mM propionate, whereas the active Syntrophobacter population became low (ca. 6%) at 0.5 mM of propionate. The anaerobic digester was operated in a fill and draw mode, resulting in periodical changes in propionate concentration ranging from 0 to 10 mM. These phylogenetically and functionally diverse, to some extent functionally redundant, active POB communities were dynamically responding to the periodical changes in propionate concentration. PMID:17262205

Ariesyady, Herto Dwi; Ito, Tsukasa; Yoshiguchi, Kazumi; Okabe, Satoshi

2007-01-30

176

Anaerobic metabolism of phenol in proteobacteria and further studies of phenylphosphate carboxylase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic phenol metabolism was studied in three facultative aerobic denitrifying bacteria, Thauera aromatica, “Aromatoleum aromaticum” strain EbN1 (Betaproteobacteria), and Magnetospirillum sp. (Alphaproteobacterium). All species formed phenylphosphate and contained phenylphosphate carboxylase but not phenol carboxylase\\u000a activity. This is in contrast to direct phenol carboxylation by fermenting bacteria. Antisera raised against subunits of the\\u000a Thauera phenylphosphate synthase and phenylphosphate carboxylase partly cross-reacted

Sirko Schmeling; Georg Fuchs

2009-01-01

177

Effect of sodium chloride on growth of heterotrophic marine bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of NaCl on the growth rates and yields of 31 gram-negative, heterotrophic, marine bacteria was determined. The strains used were representative of aerobic genera (Alteromonas, Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Bdellovibrio) as well as genera comprised of facultative anaerobes (Beneckea, Photobacterium). Two media were used-the first, a medium designed for the cultivation of marine bacteria and, the second, a medium used

John L. Reichelt; Paul Baumann

1974-01-01

178

[Pathogen and resistance spectrum in intraoral infections of the jaw-facial area with special reference to anaerobic bacteria].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to obtain more knowledge about the aerobic and anaerobic species causing maxillofacial infections and their resistance patterns today. Samples of pus or infectious tissue obtained from 110 patients of maxillofacial surgery were investigated microbiologically by means of aerobic and anaerobic cultivation. After incubation, the cultivated species were isolated and identified. The resistance patterns of all bacteria to penicillin, doxycyclin, and clindamycin were determined. Additionally, the resistance of aerobic species to cefuroxim was documented, and the MICs of cefoxitin and metronidazole to the anaerobic species were assessed. The most frequent disease was periodontitis apicalis (70 patients). Aerobic species alone were found in 23% of the samples, 14% of the infections harbored only anaerobes, but 63% were mixed infections caused by aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. In case of detection of aerobic species, streptococci were always identified. Five patients were infected by Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative aerobic rods were found in eight patients. Most of the anaerobic species were black pigmented prevotella species (62), nonpigmented prevotellae (56), and fusobacteria (37). Metronidazole and clindamycin were highly efficient to gram-negative anaerobic rods. Most of the oral species were resistant to penicillin and doxycyclin. The indication for applying antibiotics should always be noticed and these drugs should only be used after determination of the pathogenic microorganisms and their susceptibility to the antimicrobials. PMID:10994323

Eick, S; Pfister, W; Korn-Stemme, S; Mägdefessel-Schmutzer, U; Straube, E

2000-07-01

179

Nitrogen and oxygen isotope fractionation during dissimilatory nitrate reduction by denitrifying bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the first measurements of coupled nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) isotope fractionation of nitrate by laboratory cultures of denitrifying bacteria. Two seawater strains (Pseudomonas stutzeri, Ochrobactrum sp.) and three freshwater strains (Paracoccus denitrificans, Pseudomonas chlororaphis, Rhodobacter sphaeroides) were examined. Among four strains of facultative anaerobic denitrifiers, N and O isotope effects were variable, ranging from 5% to 25%,

Julie Granger; Daniel M. Sigman; Moritz F. Lehmann; Philippe D. Tortell

2008-01-01

180

Diversity of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in a granular sludge anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) reactor.  

PubMed

The ammonium-oxidizing microbial community was investigated in a granular sludge anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) reactor that was operated for about 1 year with high anaerobic ammonium oxidation activity (up to 0.8 kg NH(4)(+)-N m(-3) day(-1)). A Planctomycetales-specific 16S rRNA gene library was constructed to analyse the diversity of the anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB). Most of the specifically amplified sequences (15/16) were similar to each other (> 99%) but were distantly related to all of the previously recognized sequences (< 94%), with the exception of an unclassified anammox-related clone, KSU-1 (98%). An ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene library was also analysed to investigate the diversity of 'aerobic' ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AAOB) from the beta-Proteobacteria. Most of the amoA gene fragments (53/55) clustered in the Nitrosomonas europaea-Nitrosococcus mobilis group which has been reported to prevail under oxygen-limiting conditions. The quantitative results from real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification showed that the dominant AnAOB comprised approximately 50% of the total bacterial 16S rRNA genes in the reactor, whereas the AAOB of beta-Proteobacteria represented only about 3%. A large fragment (4008 bp) of the rRNA gene cluster of the dominant AnAOB (AS-1) in this reactor sludge was sequenced and compared with sequences of other Planctomycetales including four anammox-related candidate genera. The partial sequence of hydrazine-oxidizing enzyme (hzo) of dominant AnAOB was also identified using new designed primers. Based on this analysis, we propose to tentatively name this new AnAOB Candidatus'Jettenia asiatica'. PMID:18479446

Quan, Zhe-Xue; Rhee, Sung-Keun; Zuo, Jian-E; Yang, Yang; Bae, Jin-Woo; Park, Ja Ryeong; Lee, Sung-Taik; Park, Yong-Ha

2008-05-09

181

Energetics of end product excretion in anaerobic bacteria and the metabolism of fatty acids by Syntrophomonas wolfei  

SciTech Connect

The study of anaerobic hydrogen-producing syntrophic bacteria is important for several reasons. These bacteria degrade fatty acids which are important intermediates in anaerobic degradation and methanogenesis. The rate and extent of anaerobic degradation of complex polymeric materials often depends on the activity of these organisms. The production of H{sub 2} during anaerobic fatty acid degradation is energetically favorable only when H{sub 2} is maintained at a low level by another bacterium such as a H{sub 2}- using methanogen. Thus, the fatty acid-degrading syntrophic associations serve as excellent models to study the biochemical aspects of mutualism. The fatty acid-degrading syntrophic bacteria are very slow growers since little free energy is released during fatty acid degradation. These bacteria must have very efficient energy conservation systems which are not understood at this time. Further study of these organisms will provide useful information on bioenergetics of living systems. We have chosen to study the metabolism and energetics of the anaerobic, syntrophic, fatty acid degrader, Syntrophomonas wolfei. This organism is the best characterized syntrophic bacterium and serves as an appropriate model organism.

McInerney, M.J.

1986-01-01

182

Reduction of nitroaromatic compounds by anaerobic bacteria isolated from the human gastrointestinal tract  

SciTech Connect

Human intestinal microbial flora were screened for their abilities to reduce nitroaromatic compounds by growing them on brain heart infusion agar plates containing 1-nitropyrene. Bacteria metabolizing 1-nitropyrene, detected by the appearance of clear zones around the colonies, were identified as Clostridium leptum, Clostridium paraputrificum, Clostridium clostridiiforme, another Clostridium sp., and a Eubacterium sp. These bacteria produced aromatic amines from nitroaromatic compounds, as shown by thin-layer chromatography, high-pressure liquid chromatography, and biochemical tests. Incubation of three of these bacteria with 1-nitropyrene, 1,3-dinitropyrene, and 1,6-dinitropyrene inactivated the direct-acting mutagenicity associated with these compounds. Menadione and o-iodosobenzoic acid inhibited nitroreductase activity in all of the isolates, indicating the involvement of sulfhydryl groups in the active site of the enzyme. The optimum pH for nitroreductase activity was 8.0. Only the Clostridium sp. required added flavin adenine dinucleotide for nitroreductase activity. The nitroreductases were constitutive and extracellular. An activity stain for the detection of nitroreductase on anaerobic native polyacrylamide gels was developed. This activity stain revealed only one isozyme in each bacterium but showed that the nitroreductases from different bacteria had distinct electrophoretic mobilities.

Rafii, F.; Franklin, W.; Heflich, R.H.; Cerniglia, C.E. (Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AK (United States))

1991-04-01

183

Distribution and diversity of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in the sediments of the Qiantang River.  

PubMed

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is an important process in the marine nitrogen cycle. However, little is known about the distribution, diversity and abundance of anammox bacteria in inland river ecosystems. Here, we found the presence of diverse anammox bacteria in a freshwater river - the Qiantang River, Zhejiang Province (China). The phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed that Brocadia genus, Kuenenia genus, Scalindua genus and three new anammox bacterial clusters could be detected together in Qiantang River sediments, suggesting a higher anammox bacterial diversity in the Qiantang River ecosystem than in open ocean environments where only Scalindua genus was detected. Brocadia and Kuenenia appeared to be the most common anammox bacterial genera in the Qiantang River. Redundancy analysis showed that the sediment organic carbon (OrgC) content had significant influence on the distribution of anammox bacteria in Qiantang River sediments. Pearson correlation analyses showed that OrgC content significantly influenced the anammox bacterial diversity. The results of real-time quantitative PCR showed spatial variations of anammox bacterial abundances which were highly correlated with the sediment total inorganic nitrogen content. These results demonstrated the distribution of diverse anammox bacteria and the influences of environmental factors on anammox bacterial communities in Qiantang River sediments. PMID:23760899

Hu, Bao-Lan; Shen, Li-Dong; Zheng, Ping; Hu, An-Hui; Chen, Ting-Ting; Cai, Chen; Liu, Shuai; Lou, Li-Ping

2012-06-19

184

Global impact and application of the anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria.  

PubMed

In the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process, ammonia is oxidized with nitrite as primary electron acceptor under strictly anoxic conditions. The reaction is catalysed by a specialized group of planctomycete-like bacteria. These anammox bacteria use a complex reaction mechanism involving hydrazine as an intermediate. The reactions are assumed to be carried out in a unique prokaryotic organelle, the anammoxosome. This organelle is surrounded by ladderane lipids, which make the organelle nearly impermeable to hydrazine and protons. The localization of the major anammox protein, hydrazine oxidoreductase, was determined via immunogold labelling to be inside the anammoxosome. The anammox bacteria have been detected in many marine and freshwater ecosystems and were estimated to contribute up to 50% of oceanic nitrogen loss. Furthermore, the anammox process is currently implemented in water treatment for the low-cost removal of ammonia from high-strength waste streams. Recent findings suggested that the anammox bacteria may also use organic acids to convert nitrate and nitrite into dinitrogen gas when ammonia is in short supply. PMID:16417514

Op den Camp, H J M; Kartal, B; Guven, D; van Niftrik, L A M P; Haaijer, S C M; van der Star, W R L; van de Pas-Schoonen, K T; Cabezas, A; Ying, Z; Schmid, M C; Kuypers, M M M; van de Vossenberg, J; Harhangi, H R; Picioreanu, C; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Kuenen, J G; Strous, M; Jetten, M S M

2006-02-01

185

Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface. Progress report, June 1, 1991--May 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

A variety of different media were used to isolate facultatively (FAB) and obligately anaerobic bacteria (OAB). These bacteria were isolated from core subsamples obtained from boreholes at the Idaho National Engineering Lab. (INEL) or at the Hanford Lab. (Yakima). Core material was sampled at various depths to 600 feet below the surface. All core samples with culturable bacteria contained at least FAB making thisthe most common physiological type of anaerobic bacteria present in the deep subsurface at these two sites. INEL core samples are characterized by isolates of both FAB and OAB. No isolates of acetogenic, methanogenic, or sulfate reducing bacteria were obtained. Yakima core samples are characterized by a marked predominance of FAB in comparison to OAB. In addition, isolates of acetogenic, methanogenic, and sulfate reducing bacteria were obtained. The Yakima site has the potential for complete anaerobic mineralization of organic compounds whereas this potential appears to be lacking at INEL.

Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

1992-06-01

186

Gene clusters involved in anaerobic benzoate degradation of Geobacter metallireducens.  

PubMed

The degradation of aromatic compounds follows different biochemical principles in aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. While aerobes dearomatize and cleave the aromatic ring by oxygenases, facultative anaerobes utilize an ATP-dependent ring reductase for the dearomatization of the activated key intermediate benzoyl-coenzyme A (CoA). In this work, the aromatic metabolism was studied in the obligately anaerobic model organism Geobacter metallireducens. The gene coding for a putative carboxylic acid-CoA ligase was heterologously overexpressed and the gene product was characterized as a highly specific benzoate-CoA ligase catalysing the initial step of benzoate metabolism. However, no evidence for the presence of an ATP-dependent benzoyl-CoA reductase as observed in facultative anaerobes was obtained. In a proteomic approach benzoate-induced proteins were identified; the corresponding genes are organized in two clusters comprising 44 genes. Induction of representative genes during growth on benzoate was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results obtained suggest that benzoate is activated to benzoyl-CoA, which is then reductively dearomatized to cyclohexa-1,5-diene-1-carbonyl-CoA, followed by beta-oxidation reactions to acetyl-CoA units, as in facultatively anaerobic bacteria. However, in G. metallireducens the process of reductive benzene ring dearomatization appears to be catalysed by a set of completely different protein components comprising putative molybdenum and selenocysteine containing enzymes. PMID:16313613

Wischgoll, Simon; Heintz, Dimitri; Peters, Franziska; Erxleben, Anika; Sarnighausen, Eric; Reski, Ralf; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Boll, Matthias

2005-12-01

187

Impact of an Aerobic Thermophilic Sequencing Batch Reactor on Antibiotic-Resistant Anaerobic Bacteria in Swine Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of antibiotics to animal feed has contributed to the selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in concentrated\\u000a animal feeding operations. The aim of this work was to characterize the impact of an aerobic thermophilic biotreatment on\\u000a anaerobic antibiotic-resistant bacteria in swine waste. Despite 162- to 6,166-fold reduction in antibiotic-resistant populations\\u000a enumerated in the swine waste at 25°C and 37°C, resistant

Martin R. Chénier; Pierre Juteau

2009-01-01

188

Effects of Hydrostatic Pressures on Anaerobic Corrosion of Various Metals and Alloys by Sulfate-Reducing Marine Bacteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Anaerobic enrichment cultures from the Caribbean Sea and the Black Sea have yielded certain strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria capable of producing a high rate of corrosion on mild steel under marine culture conditions. These sulfate-reducing cultures w...

C. A. Willingham H. L. Quinby

1971-01-01

189

Development and evaluation of a miniaturised method as an aid to the identification of clinically important anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

A miniaturised method for the identification of anaerobic bacteria is described which employs microtitre fermentation tests, a spot indole test and a nitrate reduction disc test. The results obtained are directly comparable with those produced by a standard conventional method in use at present.

Levett, P N

1984-01-01

190

In silico analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing-based methods for identification of medically important anaerobic bacteria  

PubMed Central

This study is the first study that provides useful guidelines to clinical microbiologists and technicians on the usefulness of full 16S rRNA sequencing, 5??end 527?bp 16S rRNA sequencing and the existing MicroSeq full and 500 16S rDNA bacterial identification system (MicroSeq, Perkin?Elmer Applied Biosystems Division, Foster City, California, USA) databases for the identification of all existing medically important anaerobic bacteria. Full and 527?bp 16S rRNA sequencing are able to identify 52–63% of 130 Gram?positive anaerobic rods, 72–73% of 86 Gram?negative anaerobic rods and 78% of 23 anaerobic cocci. The existing MicroSeq databases are able to identify only 19–25% of 130 Gram?positive anaerobic rods, 38% of 86 Gram?negative anaerobic rods and 39% of 23 anaerobic cocci. These represent only 45–46% of those that should be confidently identified by full and 527?bp 16S rRNA sequencing. To improve the usefulness of MicroSeq, bacterial species that should be confidently identified by full and/or 527?bp 16S rRNA sequencing but not included in the existing MicroSeq databases should be included.

Woo, Patrick C Y; Chung, Liliane M W; Teng, Jade L L; Tse, Herman; Pang, Sherby S Y; Lau, Veronica Y T; Wong, Vanessa W K; Kam, Kwok-ling; Lau, Susanna K P; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

2007-01-01

191

Active transport, substrate specificity, and methylation of Hg(II) in anaerobic bacteria  

SciTech Connect

The formation of methylmercury (MeHg), which is biomagnified in aquatic food chains and poses a risk to human health, is effected by some iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria (FeRB and SRB) in anaerobic environments. However, very little is known regarding the mechanism of uptake of inorganic Hg by these organisms, in part because of the inherent difficulty in measuring the intracellular Hg concentration. By using the FeRB Geobacter sulfurreducens and the SRB Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 as model organisms, we demonstrate that Hg(II) uptake occurs by active transport. We also establish that Hg(II) uptake by G. sulfurreducens is highly dependent on the characteristics of the thiols that bind Hg(II) in the external medium, with some thiols promoting uptake and methylation and others inhibiting both. The Hg(II) uptake system of D. desulfuricans has a higher affinity than that of G. sulfurreducens and promotes Hg methylation in the presence of stronger complexing thiols. We observed a tight coupling between Hg methylation and MeHg export from the cell, suggesting that these two processes may serve to avoid the build up and toxicity of cellular Hg. Our results bring up the question of whether cellular Hg uptake is specific for Hg(II) or accidental, occurring via some essential metal importer. Our data also point at Hg(II) complexation by thiols as an important factor controlling Hg methylation in anaerobic environments.

Schasfer, Jeffra [Princeton University; Rocks, Sara [Princeton University; Zheng, Wang [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Morel, Francois M [ORNL

2011-01-01

192

Complete Reductive Dechlorination of 1,2-Dichloropropane by Anaerobic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The transformation of 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-D) was observed in anaerobic microcosms and enrichment cultures derived from Red Cedar Creek sediment. 1-Chloropropane (1-CP) and 2-CP were detected after an incubation period of 4 weeks. After 4 months the initial amount of 1,2-D was stoichiometrically converted to propene, which was not further transformed. Dechlorination of 1,2-D was not inhibited by 2-bromoethanesulfonate. Sequential 5% (vol/vol) transfers from active microcosms yielded a sediment-free, nonmethanogenic culture, which completely dechlorinated 1,2-D to propene at a rate of 5 nmol min(sup-1) mg of protein(sup-1). No intermediate formation of 1-CP or 2-CP was detected in the sediment-free enrichment culture. A variety of electron donors, including hydrogen, supported reductive dechlorination of 1,2-D. The highest dechlorination rates were observed between 20(deg) and 25(deg)C. In the presence of 1,2-D, the hydrogen threshold concentration was below 1 ppm by volume (ppmv). In addition to 1,2-D, the enrichment culture transformed 1,1-D, 2-bromo-1-CP, tetrachloroethene, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, and 1,2-dichloroethane to less halogenated compounds. These findings extend our knowledge of the reductive dechlorination process and show that halogenated propanes can be completely dechlorinated by anaerobic bacteria.

Loffler, F. E.; Champine, J. E.; Ritalahti, K. M.; Sprague, S. J.; Tiedje, J. M.

1997-01-01

193

Isolation and characterisation of obligately anaerobic, lipolytic bacteria from the rumen of red deer.  

PubMed

Two Gram-positive, obligately anaerobic, lipolytic bacteria, isolates LIP4 and LIP5, were obtained from the rumen contents of juvenile red deer. These mesophilic bacterial strains were capable of hydrolysing the neutral lipids, tallow, tripalmitin and oliver oil, into their constituent free long-chain fatty acid and glycerol moieties. The latter compound was dissimilated by both isolates, with isolate LIP4 producing propionate as the predominant product, while isolate LIP5 produced acetate, ethanol and succinate. The lactate-utilising isolate LIP4 grew on a limited range of saccharide substrates including glucose, fructose and ribose, and exhibited an unusual cell wall structure and morphology. The isolate LIP5 grew upon a wider range of saccharides, but was unable to use lactate as a substrate. Based upon phenotypic and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, isolate LIP4 clusters with species in the genus Propionibacterium, while isolate LIP5 is a member of clostridial cluster XIVa. PMID:9741118

Jarvis, G N; Strömpl, C; Moore, E R; Thiele, J H

1998-03-01

194

Anaerobic bacteria as a gene delivery system that is controlled by the tumor microenvironment.  

PubMed

A fundamental obstacle in gene therapy for cancer treatment is the specific delivery of an anticancer gene product to a solid tumor. Although several strategies exist to control gene expression once a vector is directly introduced into a tumor, as yet no systemic delivery system exists that specifically targets solid tumors. Nonpathogenic, obligate anaerobic bacteria of the genus Clostridium have been used experimentally as anticancer agents because of their selective growth in the hypoxic regions of solid tumors after systemic application. In this report we further describe a novel approach to cancer gene therapy in which genetically engineered clostridia are used as tumor-specific vectors for the delivery of antitumor genes. We have introduced into a strain of C. beijerinckii the gene for an E. coli nitroreductase known to activate the nontoxic prodrug CB 1954 to a toxic anticancer drug. Nitroreductase produced by these clostridia enhanced the killing of tumor cells in vitro by CB 1954, by a factor of 22. To demonstrate the specificity of this approach for tumor targeting, we intravenously injected the inactive spore form of C. beijerinckii, which upon transition to a reproductive state will express the E. coli nitroreductase gene. Nitroreductase activity was detectable in 10 of 10 tumors during the first 5 days after intravenous injection of inactive clostridial spores, indicating a rapid transition from spore to reproductive state. Tumors harboring clostridial spores which did not possess the E. coli nitroreductase gene were devoid of nitroreductase activity. Most importantly, E. coli nitroreductase protein was not found in a large survey of normal mouse tissues following intravenous injection of nitroreductase containing clostridia, strongly suggesting that obligate anaerobic bacteria such as clostridia can be utilized as highly specific gene delivery vectors for cancer therapy. PMID:9338007

Lemmon, M J; van Zijl, P; Fox, M E; Mauchline, M L; Giaccia, A J; Minton, N P; Brown, J M

1997-08-01

195

Decarboxylating and nondecarboxylating glutaryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenases in the aromatic metabolism of obligately anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

In anaerobic bacteria using aromatic growth substrates, glutaryl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenases (GDHs) are involved in the catabolism of the central intermediate benzoyl-CoA to three acetyl-CoAs and CO(2). In this work, we studied GDHs from the strictly anaerobic, aromatic compound-degrading organisms Geobacter metallireducens (GDH(Geo)) (Fe[III] reducing) and Desulfococcus multivorans (GDH(Des)) (sulfate reducing). GDH(Geo) was purified from cells grown on benzoate and after the heterologous expression of the benzoate-induced bamM gene. The gene coding for GDH(Des) was identified after screening of a cosmid gene library. Reverse transcription-PCR revealed that its expression was induced by benzoate; the product was heterologously expressed and isolated. Both wild-type and recombinant GDH(Geo) catalyzed the oxidative decarboxylation of glutaryl-CoA to crotonyl-CoA at similar rates. In contrast, recombinant GDH(Des) catalyzed only the dehydrogenation to glutaconyl-CoA. The latter compound was decarboxylated subsequently to crotonyl-CoA by the addition of membrane extracts from cells grown on benzoate in the presence of 20 mM NaCl. All GDH enzymes were purified as homotetramers of a 43- to 44-kDa subunit and contained 0.6 to 0.7 flavin adenine dinucleotides (FADs)/monomer. The kinetic properties for glutaryl-CoA conversion were as follows: for GDH(Geo), the K(m) was 30 +/- 2 microM and the V(max) was 3.2 +/- 0.2 micromol min(-1) mg(-1), and for GDH(Des), the K(m) was 52 +/- 5 microM and the V(max) was 11 +/- 1 micromol min(-1) mg(-1). GDH(Des) but not GDH(Geo) was inhibited by glutaconyl-CoA. Highly conserved amino acid residues that were proposed to be specifically involved in the decarboxylation of the intermediate glutaconyl-CoA were identified in GDH(Geo) but are missing in GDH(Des). The differential use of energy-yielding/energy-demanding enzymatic processes in anaerobic bacteria that degrade aromatic compounds is discussed in view of phylogenetic relationships and constraints of overall energy metabolism. PMID:19395484

Wischgoll, Simon; Taubert, Martin; Peters, Franziska; Jehmlich, Nico; von Bergen, Martin; Boll, Matthias

2009-04-24

196

Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in marine environments: widespread occurrence but low diversity.  

PubMed

Laboratory and field studies have indicated that anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is an important process in the marine nitrogen cycle. In this study 11 additional anoxic marine sediment and water column samples were studied to substantiate this claim. In a combined approach using the molecular methods, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), qualitative and quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), as well as (15)N stable isotope activity measurements, it was shown that anammox bacteria were present and active in all samples investigated. The anammox activity measured in the sediment samples ranged from 0.08 fmol cell(-1) day(-1) N(2) in the Golfo Dulce (Pacific Ocean, Costa Rica) sediment to 0.98 fmol cell(-1) day(-1) N(2) in the Gullmarsfjorden (North Sea, Sweden) sediment. The percentage of anammox cell of the total population (stained with DAPI) as assessed by quantitative FISH was highest in the Barents Sea (9% +/- 4%) and in most of the samples well over 2%. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and phylogenetic analysis of the PCR products derived from the marine samples indicated the exclusive presence of members of the Candidatus'Scalindua' genus. This study showed the ubiquitous presence of anammox bacteria in anoxic marine ecosystems, supporting previous observations on the importance of anammox for N cycling in marine environments. PMID:17504485

Schmid, Markus C; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; van de Vossenberg, Jack; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Lavik, Gaute; Petersen, Jan; Hulth, Stefan; Thamdrup, Bo; Canfield, Don; Dalsgaard, Tage; Rysgaard, Søren; Sejr, Mikael K; Strous, Marc; den Camp, Huub J M Op; Jetten, Mike S M

2007-06-01

197

Extracellular enzyme activity in anaerobic bacterial cultures: evidence of pullulanase activity among mesophilic marine bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The extracellular enzymatic activity of a mixed culture of anaerobic marine bacteria enriched on pullulan [alpha(1,6)-linked maltotriose units] was directly assessed with a combination of gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Hydrolysis products of pullulan were separated by GPC into three fractions with molecular weights of > or = 10,000, approximately 5,000, and < or = 1,200. NMR spectra of these fractions demonstrated that pullulan was rapidly and specifically hydrolyzed at alpha(1,6) linkages by pullulanase enzymes, most likely type II pullulanase. Although isolated pullulanase enzymes have been shown to hydrolyze pullulan completely to maltotriose (S. H. Brown, H. R. Costantino, and R. M. Kelly, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56:1985-1991, 1990; M. Klingeberg, H. Hippe, and G. Antranikian, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 69:145-152, 1990; R. Koch, P. Zablowski, A. Spreinat, and G. Antranikian, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 71:21-26, 1990), the smallest carbohydrate detected in the bacterial cultures consisted of two maltotriose units linked through one alpha(1,6) linkage. Either the final hydrolysis step was closely linked to substrate uptake, or specialized porins similar to maltoporin might permit direct transport of large oligosaccharides into the bacterial cell. This is the first report of pullulanase activity among mesophilic marine bacteria. The combination of GPC and NMR could easily be used to assess other types of extracellular enzyme activity in bacterial cultures.

Arnosti, C; Repeta, D J

1994-01-01

198

Detection of bacteria from a cecal anaerobic competitive exclusion culture with an immunoassay electrochemiluminescence sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A competitive exclusion (CE) culture of chicken cecal anaerobes has been developed and used in this laboratory for control of Salmonella typhimurium in chickens. The CE culture consists of 29 different species of micro-organisms, and is known as CF3. Detection of one of the CF3 bacteria, Eubacteria, and S. typhimurium were demonstrated using a commercial immunomagnetic (IM) electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensor, the ORIGENR Analyzer. Analysis was achieved using a sandwich immunoassay. Bacteria were captured on antibody- conjugated 280 micron sized magnetic beads followed by binding of reporter antibodies labelled with ruthenium (II) tris(dipyridyl) chelate [Ru(bpy)32+]. The magnetic beads were then trapped on an electrode in the reaction cell of the ORIGENR Analyzer by a magnet, and the ECL was evoked from Ru(bpy)32+ on the tagged reporter antibodies by an electrical potential at the electrode. Preliminary IM-ECL assays with Eubacteria yielded a detection limit of 105 cfu/mL. Preliminary IM-ECL assays with S. typhimurium yielded a similar detection limit of 105 cfu/mL.

Beier, Ross C.; Young, Colin R.; Stanker, Larry H.

1999-01-01

199

Acidiferrobacter thiooxydans, gen. nov. sp. nov.; an acidophilic, thermo-tolerant, facultatively anaerobic iron- and sulfur-oxidizer of the family Ectothiorhodospiraceae.  

PubMed

A comprehensive physiological and phylogenetic characterisation was carried out of "Thiobacillus ferrooxidans" m-1, an acidophilic iron-oxidizing bacterium first described over 25 years ago. Phylogenetically, strain m-1 is a gammaproteobacterium, most closely related to alkaliphilic Ectothiorhodospira spp. and only distantly to iron-oxidizing acidithiobacilli. Physiological examination confirmed that strain m-1 can grow autotrophically not only by ferrous iron oxidation but also, in contrast to previous reports, by oxidation of elemental sulfur, sulfide and tetrathionate, using either oxygen or ferric iron as terminal electron acceptor. The bacterium was also found to be thermo-tolerant, growing optimally at 38°C and up to a maximum of 47°C. Growth in liquid media required an external osmotic potential of >2 bar, and was optimal at ~5 bar, though no growth occurred where the medium osmotic potential was close to that of sea water (~26 bar). From this, it was concluded that strain m-1 is a moderate osmophile. Strain m-1 was also shown to be diazotrophic and tolerant of elevated concentrations of many metals typically found in mine-impacted environments. On the basis of these data, m-1 is proposed as the type strain of a new genus and species of bacteria, Acidiferrobacter thiooxydans (DSM 2392, JCM 17358). PMID:21311931

Hallberg, Kevin B; Hedrich, Sabrina; Johnson, D Barrie

2011-02-11

200

Screening of thermophilic anaerobic bacteria for solid substrate cultivation on lignocellulosic substrates.  

PubMed

Interest in solid substrate cultivation (SSC) techniques is gaining for biochemical production from renewable resources; however, heat and mass transfer problems may limit application of this technique. The use of anaerobic thermophiles in SSC offers a unique solution to overcoming these challenges. The production potential of nine thermophilic anaerobic bacteria was examined on corn stover, sugar cane bagasse, paper pulp sludge, and wheat bran in submerged liquid cultivation (SmC) and SSC. Production of acetate, ethanol, and lactate was measured over a 10 day period, and total product concentrations were used to compare the performance of different organism-substrate combinations using the two cultivation methods. Overall microbial activity in SmC and SSC was dependent on the organism and growth substrate. Clostridium thermocellum strains JW20, LQRI, and 27405 performed significantly better in SSC when grown on sugar cane bagasse and paper pulp sludge, producing at least 70 and 170 mM of total products, respectively. Growth of C. thermocellum strains in SSC on paper pulp sludge proved to be most favorable, generating at least twice the concentration of total products produced in SmC (p-value < 0.05). Clostridium thermolacticum TC21 demonstrated growth on all substrates producing 30-80 and 60-116 mM of total product in SmC and SSC, respectively. Bacterial species with optimal growth temperatures of 70 degrees C grew best on wheat bran in SmC, producing total product concentrations of 45-75 mM. For some of the organism-substrate combinations total end product concentrations in SSC exceeded those in SmC, indicating that SSC may be a promising alternative for microbial activity and value-added biochemical production. PMID:16454492

Chinn, Mari S; Nokes, Sue E; Strobel, Herbert J

201

Diverse endophytic bacteria isolated from a leguminous tree Conzattia multiflora grown in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conzattia multiflora is a leguminous tree present only in Mexico and Guatemala. There is no record about its symbiotic or pathogenic microbes. In this study, we found that numerous bacteria with 104–106 individuals per gram of fresh epidermis were distributed in the tissue of this plant. All the bacteria isolated from the Conzattia epidermis were Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic rods and formed

En Tao Wang; Zhi Yuan Tan; Xian Wu Guo; Rolando Rodríguez-Duran; Gisela Boll; Esperanza Martínez-Romero

2006-01-01

202

Genes for Uranium Bioremediation in the Anaerobic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria: Desulfovibrio mutants with altered sensitivity to oxidative stress  

SciTech Connect

Sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genus Desulfovibrio are ubiquitous in anaerobic environments such as groundwater, sediments, and the gastrointestinal tract of animals. Because of the ability of Desulfovibrio to reduce radionuclides and metals through both enzymatic and chemical means, they have been proposed as a means to bioremediate heavy metal contaminated sites. Although classically thought of as strict anaerobes, Desulfovibrio species are surprisingly aerotolerant. Our objective is to understand the response of Desulfovibrio to oxidative stress so that we may more effectively utilize them in bioremediation of heavy metals in mixed aerobic-anaerobic environments. The enzymes superoxide dismutase, superoxide reductase, catalase, and rubrerythrin have been shown by others to be involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species in Desulfovibrio. Some members of the genus Desulfovibrio can even reduce molecular oxygen to water via a membrane bound electron transport chain with the concomitant production of ATP, although their ability to grow with oxygen as the sole electron acceptor is still questioned.

Payne, Rayford B.; Ringbauer, Joseph A., Jr.; Wall, Judy D.

2006-04-05

203

Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing (Anammox) Bacteria and Associated Activity in Fixed-Film Biofilters of a Marine Recirculating Aquaculture System†  

PubMed Central

Microbial communities in the biological filter and waste sludge compartments of a marine recirculating aquaculture system were examined to determine the presence and activity of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria. Community DNA was extracted from aerobic and anaerobic fixed-film biofilters and the anaerobic sludge waste collection tank and was analyzed by amplifying 16S rRNA genes by PCR using anammox-selective and universal GC-clamped primers. Separation of amplified PCR products by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing of the different phylotypes revealed a diverse biofilter microbial community. While Planctomycetales were found in all three communities, the anaerobic denitrifying biofilters contained one clone that exhibited high levels of sequence similarity to known anammox bacteria. Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies using an anammox-specific probe confirmed the presence of anammox Planctomycetales in the microbial biofilm from the denitrifying biofilters, and anammox activity was observed in these biofilters, as detected by the ability to simultaneously consume ammonia and nitrite. To our knowledge, this is the first identification of anammox-related sequences in a marine recirculating aquaculture filtration system, and our findings provide a foundation for incorporating this important pathway for complete nitrogen removal in such systems.

Tal, Yossi; Watts, Joy E. M.; Schreier, Harold J.

2006-01-01

204

Metabolism of polyethylene glycol by two anaerobic bacteria, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and a Bacteroides sp  

SciTech Connect

Two anaerobic bacteria were isolated from polyethylene glycol (PEG)-degrading, methanogenic, enrichment cultures obtained from a municipal sludge digester. One isolate, identified as Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (strain DG2), metabolized oligomers ranging from ethylene glycol (EG) to tetraethylene glycol. The other isolate, identified as a Bacteroides sp. (strain PG1), metabolized diethylene glycol and polymers of PEG up to an average molecular mass of 20,000 g/mol (PEG 20000; HO-(CH/sub 2/-CH/sub 2/-O-)/sub n/H). Both strains produced acetaldehyde as an intermediate, with acetate, ethanol, and hydrogen as end products. In coculture with a Methanobacterium sp., the end products were acetate and methane. Polypropylene glycol (HO-(CH/sub 2/-CH/sub 2/-CH/sub 2/-O-)/sub n/H) was not metabolized by either bacterium, and methanogenic enrichments could not be obtained on this substrate. Cell extracts of both bacteria dehydrogenated EG, PEGs up to PEG 400 in size, acetaldehyde, and other mono- and dihydroxylated compounds. Extracts of Bacteroides strain PGI could not dehydrogenate long polymers of PEG (less than or equal to1000 g/mol), but the bacterium grew with PEG 1000 or PEG 20000 as a substrate and therefore possesses a mechanism for PEG depolymerization not present in cell extracts. In contrast, extracts of D. desulfuricans DG2 dehydrogenated long polymers of PEG, but whole cells did not grow with these polymerase substrates. This indicated that the bacterium could not convert PEG to a product suitable for uptake.

Dwyer, D.F.; Tiedje, J.M.

1986-10-01

205

Survival of Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria in Purulent Clinical Specimens Maintained in the Copan Venturi Transystem and Becton Dickinson Port-a-Cul Transport Systems  

PubMed Central

Recovery of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria from clinical specimens maintained in the Copan Venturi Transystem and the Becton Dickinson Port-a-Cul transport was assessed. Of 54 anaerobes, 53 were recovered after 4 h, and 52 were recovered after 24 h, from both systems. After 48 h, 45 and 50 were recovered from the two systems, respectively.

Citron, Diane M.; Warren, Yumi A.; Hudspeth, Marie K.; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.

2000-01-01

206

Anaerobically grown Thauera aromatica , Desulfococcus multivorans , Geobacter sulfurreducens are more sensitive towards organic solvents than aerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of seven important pollutants and three representative organic solvents on growth of Thauera aromatica K172, as reference strain for nitrate-reducing anaerobic bacteria, was investigated. Toxicity in form of the effective concentrations\\u000a (EC50) that led to 50% growth inhibition of potential organic pollutants such as BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and\\u000a xylene), chlorinated phenols and aliphatic alcohols on cells was

Ilka Duldhardt; Ivonne Nijenhuis; Frieder Schauer; Hermann J. Heipieper

2007-01-01

207

Detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene-utilizing anaerobic bacteria by 15N and 13C incorporation.  

PubMed

2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene ((15)N or (13)C labeled) was added to Norfolk Harbor sediments to test whether anaerobic bacteria use TNT for growth. Stable-isotope probing (SIP)-terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) detected peaks in the [(15)N]TNT cultures (60, 163, and 168 bp). The 60-bp peak was also present in the [(13)C]TNT cultures and was related to Lysobacter taiwanensis. PMID:20081008

Gallagher, Erin M; Young, Lily Y; McGuinness, Lora M; Kerkhof, Lee J

2010-01-15

208

Detection of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene-Utilizing Anaerobic Bacteria by 15N and 13C Incorporation ?  

PubMed Central

2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (15N or 13C labeled) was added to Norfolk Harbor sediments to test whether anaerobic bacteria use TNT for growth. Stable-isotope probing (SIP)-terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) detected peaks in the [15N]TNT cultures (60, 163, and 168 bp). The 60-bp peak was also present in the [13C]TNT cultures and was related to Lysobacter taiwanensis.

Gallagher, Erin M.; Young, Lily Y.; McGuinness, Lora M.; Kerkhof, Lee J.

2010-01-01

209

Antiparasitic Drug Nitazoxanide Inhibits the Pyruvate Oxidoreductases of Helicobacter pylori, Selected Anaerobic Bacteria and Parasites, and Campylobacter jejuni  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitazoxanide (NTZ) exhibits broad-spectrum activity against anaerobic bacteria and parasites and the ulcer-causing pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Here we show that NTZ is a noncompetitive inhibitor (Ki ,2t o 10 M) of the pyruvate:ferredoxin\\/flavodoxin oxidoreductases (PFORs) of Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, H. pylori, and Campylobacter jejuni and is weakly active against the pyruvate dehydrogenase of

Paul S. Hoffman; Gary Sisson; Matthew A. Croxen; Kevin Welch; W. Dean Harman; Nunilo Cremades; Michael G. Morash

2007-01-01

210

Introduction of anaerobic dechlorinating bacteria into soil slurry microcosms and nested-PCR monitoring.  

PubMed

Desulfomonile tiedjei and Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans were chosen as model bacteria to demonstrate the introduction of an anaerobic microbia reductive dechlorination activity into nonsterile soil slurry microcosms by inoculation. De novo 3-chlorobenzoate dechlorination activity was established with the bacterium D. tiedjei in microcosms normally devoid of this dechlorination capacity. The addition of D. tiedjei to microcosms supplemented with 20 mM pyruvate as the cosubstrate resulted in total biotransformation of 1.5 mM 3-chlorobenzoate within 7 days. The introduction of the bacterium Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans into nonsterile microcosms resulted in a shortening of the period required for dechlorination activity to be established. In microcosms inoculated with Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans, total degradation of 6 mM 3-chloro-4-hydroxy phenoxyacetic acid (3-Cl-4-OHPA) was observed after 4 days in contrast to the result in noninoculated microcosms, where the total degradation of 3-Cl-4-OHPA by indigenous microorganisms was observed after 11 days. Both externally introduced bacterial strains were detected in soil slurry microcosms by a nested-PCR methodology. PMID:9023963

el Fantroussi, S; Mahillon, J; Naveau, H; Agathos, S N

1997-02-01

211

Introduction of anaerobic dechlorinating bacteria into soil slurry microcosms and nested-PCR monitoring.  

PubMed Central

Desulfomonile tiedjei and Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans were chosen as model bacteria to demonstrate the introduction of an anaerobic microbia reductive dechlorination activity into nonsterile soil slurry microcosms by inoculation. De novo 3-chlorobenzoate dechlorination activity was established with the bacterium D. tiedjei in microcosms normally devoid of this dechlorination capacity. The addition of D. tiedjei to microcosms supplemented with 20 mM pyruvate as the cosubstrate resulted in total biotransformation of 1.5 mM 3-chlorobenzoate within 7 days. The introduction of the bacterium Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans into nonsterile microcosms resulted in a shortening of the period required for dechlorination activity to be established. In microcosms inoculated with Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans, total degradation of 6 mM 3-chloro-4-hydroxy phenoxyacetic acid (3-Cl-4-OHPA) was observed after 4 days in contrast to the result in noninoculated microcosms, where the total degradation of 3-Cl-4-OHPA by indigenous microorganisms was observed after 11 days. Both externally introduced bacterial strains were detected in soil slurry microcosms by a nested-PCR methodology.

el Fantroussi, S; Mahillon, J; Naveau, H; Agathos, S N

1997-01-01

212

Aerobic, Endospore-Forming Bacteria from Antarctic Geothermal Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term ‘aerobic endospore-forming bacteria’ is used to embrace Bacillus species and related genera, for which the production of resistant endospores in the presence of oxygen remains the defining\\u000a feature. They are also expected to possess Gram-positive cell wall structures (but staining reactions, even in young cultures,\\u000a may be Gram-variable or frankly Gram-negative), and may be aerobic or facultatively anaerobic.

Niall A. Logan A. Logan; Raymond N. Allan N. Allan

213

[Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of aerobic gram-positive cocci and anaerobic bacteria in 2008].  

PubMed

The activity of antibacterial agents against aerobic Gram-positive cocci (25 genus or species, 1029 strains) and anaerobic bacteria (21 genus or species, 187 strains) isolated from clinical specimens in 2008 at 16 clinical facilities in Japan were studied using either broth microdilution or agar dilution method. The ratio of methicillin-resistant strains among Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis was 59.6% and 81.2%, suggesting that resistant strains were isolated at high frequency. Vancomycin (VCM), linezolid (LZD) and quinupristin/dalfopristin (QPR/DPR) had good antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis, with MIC90s of < or = 2 microg/mL. The ratio of penicillin (PC) intermediate and resistant strains classified by mutations of PC-binding proteins among Streptococcus pneumoniae was 92.0% that was highest among our previous reports. Cefpirome, carbapenems, VCM, teicoplanin (TEIC), LZD and QPR/DPR had MIC90s of < or = 1 microg/mL against PC-intermediate and resistant S. pneumoniae strains. Against all strains of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, the MICs of VCM and TEIC were under 2 microg/mL, and no resistant strain was detected, suggesting that these agents had excellent activities against these species. 15.9% of E. faecalis strains and 1.2% of E. faecium strains showed intermediate to LZD. 17.1% of E. faecium strains showed intermediate or resistant to QPR/DPR. Against all strains of Clostridium difficile, the MIC of VCM was under 1 microg/mL, suggesting that VCM had excellent activity. Carbapenems showed good activity against Clostridiales, Bacteroides spp., and Prevotella spp., but one strain of Bacteroides fragilis showed resistant to carbapenems. And so, the susceptibility of this species should be well-focused in the future at detecting continuously. PMID:22808693

Yoshida, Isamu; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Kudo, Reiko; Fuji, Rieko; Takahashi, Choichiro; Oota, Reiko; Kaku, Mitsuo; Kunishima, Hiroyuki; Okada, Masahiko; Horikawa, Yoshinori; Shiotani, Joji; Kino, Hiroyoshi; Ono, Yuka; Fujita, Shinichi; Matsuo, Shuji; Kono, Hisashi; Asari, Seishi; Toyokawa, Masahiro; Kusano, Nobuchika; Nose, Motoko; Horii, Toshinobu; Tanimoto, Ayako; Miyamoto, Hitoshi; Saikawa, Tetsunori; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Kohno, Shigeru; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Yamane, Nobuhisa; Nakasone, Isamu; Maki, Hideki; Yamano, Yoshinori

2012-02-01

214

[Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of aerobic Gram-positive cocci and anaerobic bacteria in 2006].  

PubMed

The activity of antibacterial agents against aerobic Gram-positive cocci (26 species, 1022 strains) and anaerobic bacteria (23 species, 184 strains) isolated from clinical specimens in 2006 at 16 clinical facilities in Japan were studied using either broth microdilution or agar dilution method. The ratio of methicillin-resistant strains among Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis was 53.0% and 65.8%, suggesting that resistant strains were isolated at high frequency. Vancomycin (VCM) and quinupristin/dalfopristin (QPR/DPR) had good antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis, with MIC90s of < or = 2 micrcog/mL. The ratio of penicillin (PC) intermediate and resistant strains classified by mutations of PC-binding proteins among Streptococcus pneumoniae was 87.6%. Ceftriaxone, cefpirome, cefepime, carbapenem antibiotics, VCM, teicoplanin, linezolid(LZD) and QPR/DPR had MIC90s of < or = 1 microg/mL against PC-intermediate and resistant S. pneumoniae strains. Against all strains of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, the MICs of VCM and TEIC were under 2 microg/mL, and no resistant strain was detected, suggesting that these agents had excellent activities against these species. 10.9% of E. faecalis strains or 3.5% of E. faecium strains showed intermediate or resistant to LZD. 24.4% of E. faecium strains showed intermediate or resistant to QPR/DPR. Against all strains of Clostridium difficile, the MIC of VCM were under 1 microg/mL, suggesting that VCM had excellent activity against C. difficile. Carbapenems showed good activity against Peptococcaceae, Bacteroides spp., and Prevotella spp. However since several strains of Bacteroides fragilis showed resistant to carbapenems and the susceptibility of this species should be well-focused in the future. PMID:21425596

Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Yoshida, Isamu; Itoh, Yoshihisa; Tachibana, Mineji; Takahashi, Choichiro; Kaku, Mitsuo; Kanemitsu, Keiji; Okada, Masahiko; Horikawa, Yoshinori; Shiotani, Joji; Kino, Hiroyoshi; Ono, Yuka; Baba, Hisashi; Matsuo, Shuji; Asari, Seishi; Toyokawa, Masahiro; Matsuoka, Kimiko; Kusano, Nobuchika; Nose, Motoko; Murase, Mitsuharu; Miyamoto, Hitoshi; Saikawa, Tetsunori; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Kohno, Shigeru; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Yamane, Nobuhisa; Nakasone, Isamu; Maki, Hideki; Yamano, Yoshinori

2010-12-01

215

Molecular Evidence for the Broad Distribution of Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria in Freshwater and Marine Sediments  

PubMed Central

Previously available primer sets for detecting anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria are inefficient, resulting in a very limited database of such sequences, which limits knowledge of their ecology. To overcome this limitation, we designed a new primer set that was 100% specific in the recovery of ?700-bp 16S rRNA gene sequences with >96% homology to the “Candidatus Scalindua” group of anammox bacteria, and we detected this group at all sites studied, including a variety of freshwater and marine sediments and permafrost soil. A second primer set was designed that exhibited greater efficiency than previous primers in recovering full-length (1,380-bp) sequences related to “Ca. Scalindua,” “Candidatus Brocadia,” and “Candidatus Kuenenia.” This study provides evidence for the widespread distribution of anammox bacteria in that it detected closely related anammox 16S rRNA gene sequences in 11 geographically and biogeochemically diverse freshwater and marine sediments.

Penton, C. Ryan; Devol, Allan H.; Tiedje, James M.

2006-01-01

216

Occurrence, genes and expression of the W/Se-containing class II benzoyl-coenzyme A reductases in anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

Benzoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) reductases (BCRs) are key enzymes in the anaerobic degradation of aromatic compounds and catalyse the reductive dearomatization of benzoyl-CoA to cyclohexa-1,5-dienoyl-1-carboxyl-CoA. Class I BCRs are ATP-dependent FeS enzymes, whereas class II BCRs are supposed to be ATP-independent and contain W, FeS clusters, and most probably selenocysteine. The active site components of a putative eight subunit class II BCR, BamBCDEFGHI, were recently characterized in Geobacter metallireducens. In this organism bamB was identified as structural gene for the W-containing active site subunit; bamF was predicted to code for a selenocysteine containing electron transfer subunit. In this work the occurrence and expression of BCRs in a number of anaerobic, aromatic compound degrading model microorganisms was investigated with a focus on the BamB and BamF components. Benzoate-induced class II BCR in vitro activities were determined in the soluble protein fraction in all obligately anaerobic bacteria tested. Where applicable, the results were in agreement with Western blot analysis using BamB targeting antibodies. By establishing a specific bamB targeting PCR assay, bamB homologues were identified in all tested obligately anaerobic bacteria with the capacity to degrade aromatic compounds; a number of bamB sequences from Gram-negative/positive sulfate-reducing bacteria were newly sequenced. In several organisms at least two bamB paralogues per genome were identified; however, in nearly all cases only one of them was transcribed during growth on an aromatic substrate. These benzoate-induced bamB genes are proposed to code for the active site subunit of class II BCRs; the major part of them group into a phylogenetic subcluster within the bamB homologues. Results from in silico analysis suggested that all class II BCRs contain selenocysteine in the BamF, and in many cases also in the BamE subunit. The results obtained indicate that the distribution of the two classes of BCRs in anaerobic bacteria appears to be strictly ruled by the available free energy from the oxidation of the aromatic carbon source rather than by phylogenetic relationships. PMID:21087381

Löffler, Claudia; Kuntze, Kevin; Vazquez, José Ramos; Rugor, Agnieszka; Kung, Johannes W; Böttcher, Annette; Boll, Matthias

2010-11-18

217

Anaerobic oxidization of methane in a minerotrophic peatland: enrichment of nitrite-dependent methane-oxidizing bacteria.  

PubMed

The importance of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) as a methane sink in freshwater systems is largely unexplored, particularly in peat ecosystems. Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) was recently discovered and reported to be catalyzed by the bacterium "Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera," which is affiliated with the NC10 phylum. So far, several "Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera" enrichment cultures have been obtained using a limited number of freshwater sediments or wastewater treatment sludge as the inoculum. In this study, using stable isotope measurements and porewater profiles, we investigated the potential of n-damo in a minerotrophic peatland in the south of the Netherlands that is infiltrated by nitrate-rich ground water. Methane and nitrate profiles suggested that all methane produced was oxidized before reaching the oxic layer, and NC10 bacteria could be active in the transition zone where countergradients of methane and nitrate occur. Quantitative PCR showed high NC10 bacterial cell numbers at this methane-nitrate transition zone. This soil section was used to enrich the prevalent NC10 bacteria in a continuous culture supplied with methane and nitrite at an in situ pH of 6.2. An enrichment of nitrite-reducing methanotrophic NC10 bacteria was successfully obtained. Phylogenetic analysis of retrieved 16S rRNA and pmoA genes showed that the enriched bacteria were very similar to the ones found in situ and constituted a new branch of NC10 bacteria with an identity of less than 96 and 90% to the 16S rRNA and pmoA genes of "Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera," respectively. The results of this study expand our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of NC10 bacteria in the environment and highlight their potential contribution to nitrogen and methane cycles. PMID:23042166

Zhu, Baoli; van Dijk, Gijs; Fritz, Christian; Smolders, Alfons J P; Pol, Arjan; Jetten, Mike S M; Ettwig, Katharina F

2012-10-05

218

[Community structure and spatial distribution of anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria in the sediments of Chongming eastern tidal flat in summer].  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to identify whether there were Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (ANAMMOX) bacteria in the surface sediments of Chongming eastern tidal flat in the Yangtze estuary and the feature of their community structure and spatial distribution. Based on the total DNA extracted from the surface sediments of Chongming eastern tidal flat, ANAMMOX-specific 16S rDNA fragments were amplified. PCR products were cloned and sequenced, and an ANAMMOX-specific 16S rDNA gene library was established. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using MEGA5 after the sequences were checked in the GenBank database. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the clone sequences CM-L-7 and CM-L-18 had 98% identities with ANAMMOX bacteria Candidatus 'Scalindua sp.'. CM-L-13 had 94% identities with Candidatus 'Scalindua wagneri'. CM-M-6 had 94% identities with Candidatus 'Kuenenia sp.'. CM-M-22 had 95% identities with Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing planctomycete JMK-1. CM-H-15 had 94% identities with Candidatus 'Kuenenia stuttgartiensis'. The results indicated that there were ANAMMOX bacteria in the surface sediments of Chongming eastern tidal flat, but the ANAMMOX species were diverse in different tidal flats: Candidatus 'Scalindua' was the predominant group in the low tidal flat, while Candidatus 'Kuenenia' was the major population in the high tidal flat and the middle tidal flat. In comparison with the high and low tidal flats, the community structure of ANAMMOX bacteria in the middle tidal flat was the most complicated. A portion of the sequences related to uncultivated bacteria outside the known ANAMMOX cluster, probably indicated that there were potential ANAMMOX bacteria in the sediments of Chongming eastern tidal flat. PMID:22624399

Zheng, Yan-Ling; Hou, Li-Jun; Lu, Min; Xie, Bing; Liu, Min; Li, Yong; Zhao, Hui

2012-03-01

219

Occurrence of hopanoid lipids in anaerobic Geobacter species.  

PubMed

Geobacter metallireducens and G. sulfurreducens have been classified as strictly anaerobic bacteria which grow and thrive in subsurface and sediment environments. Hopanoids are pentacyclic triterpenoid lipids and are important for bacterial membrane stability and functioning. Hopanoids predominantly occur in aerobically growing bacteria of oxic environments. They rarely have been found in facultatively anaerobic bacteria and, to date, not at all in strict anaerobes. Our research shows that anaerobically grown G. metallireducens and G. sulfurreducens bacteria contain a range of hopanoid lipids, such as diploptene (i.e. hop-22(29)-ene) and hop-21-ene, and more complex, elongated hopanoids. In geological formations, diagenetic derivatives of hopanoids are widely used as biomarkers and are recognized as molecular fossils of bacterial origin. To date, these biomarkers have largely been interpreted as those derived from ancient oxic environments. Our findings presented here suggest that this interpretation needs to be re-evaluated. In addition to the origin in oxic environments, 'geohopanoids' may originate from ancient anaerobic environments as well. PMID:15668001

Härtner, Thomas; Straub, Kristina L; Kannenberg, Elmar

2005-02-01

220

Optimization of wastewater feeding for single-cell protein production in an anaerobic wastewater treatment process utilizing purple non-sulfur bacteria in mixed culture condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impacts of operation timing of feeding and withdrawal on anaerobic wastewater treatment utilizing purple non-sulfur bacteria have been investigated in mixed culture condition with acidogenic bacteria. Simulated wastewater containing glucose was treated in a laboratory-scale chemostat reactor, changing the timing of wastewater feeding and withdrawal. Rhodopseudomonas palustris, which does not utilize glucose as a substrate, was inoculated in the reactor.

Ryo Honda; Kensuke Fukushi; Kazuo Yamamoto

2006-01-01

221

Linking ultrastructure and function in four genera of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria: cell plan, glycogen storage, and localization of cytochrome C proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is an ecologically and industrially important process and is performed by a clade of deeply branching Planctomycetes. Anammox bacteria possess an intracytoplasmic membrane-bounded organelle, the anammoxosome. In the present study, the ultrastructures of four different genera of anammox bacteria were compared with transmission electron microscopy and electron tomography. The four anammox genera shared a common cell

L. A. M. P. van Niftrik; Willie J. C. Geerts; Elly G. van Donselaar; Bruno M. Humbel; Richard I. Webb; John A. Fuerst; Arie J. Verkleij; Mike S. M. Jetten; Marc Strous

2008-01-01

222

Bacteria isolated from the duodenum, ileum, and cecum of young chicks.  

PubMed Central

Facultatively anaerobic and strictly anaerobic bacteria colonizing the intestinal tracts of 14-day-old chicks fed a corn-based diet were enumerated, isolated, and identified. Colony counts from anaerobic roll tubes (rumen fluid medium) or aerobic plates (brain heart infusion agar) recovered from homogenates of the duodenum, upper and lower ileum, and cecum varied appreciably among samples from individual birds. Anaerobic and aerobic counts from the duodenum and ileum were similar. Anaerobic counts were highest from the cecum (0.7 X 10(11) to 1.6 X 10(11)/g of dry tissue) and exceeded aerobic plate counts by a factor of at least 10(2). Facultatively anaerobic groups (Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Lactobacillus, and Escherichia coli) comprised the predominant flora of the duodenum and ileum, although large numbers of anaerobes (9 to 39% of the small intestine isolates), represented by species of Eubacterium, Propionibacterium, Clostridium, Gemmiger, and Fusobacterium, were also recovered. Strict anaerobes (anaerobic gram-positive cocci, Eubacterium, Clostridium Gemmiger, Fusobacterium, and Bacteriodes) made up nearly the entire microbial population of the cecum. Scanning electron microscopy of the intestinal epithelia of chicks revealed populations of microbes on the duodenal, ileal, and cecal mucosal surfaces. Images

Salanitro, J P; Blake, I G; Muirehead, P A; Maglio, M; Goodman, J R

1978-01-01

223

Characteristics of aerobic and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in the hyporheic zone of a contaminated river.  

PubMed

Both ?-proteobacterial aerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (ANAMMOX) bacteria were investigated in the hyporheic zone of a contaminated river in China containing high ammonium levels and low chemical oxygen demand. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and cloning-sequencing were employed in this study. FISH analysis illustrated that AOB (average population of 3.5 %) coexisted with ANAMMOX bacteria (0.7 %). The DGGE profile revealed a high abundance and diversity of bacteria at the water-air-soil interface rather than at the water-soil interface. The redundancy analysis correlated analysis showed that the diversity of ANAMMOX bacteria was positively related to the redox potential. The newly detected sequences of ANAMMOX organisms principally belonged to the genus Candidatus "Brocadia", while most ammonia monooxygenase subunit-A gene amoA sequences were affiliated with Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas. These results suggest that the water-air-soil interface performs an important function in the nitrogen removal process and that the bioresources of AOB and ANAMMOX bacteria can potentially be utilized for the eutrophication of rivers. PMID:22806720

Wang, Ziyuan; Qi, Yun; Wang, Jun; Pei, Yuansheng

2012-06-07

224

Antibiotic resistance of oral anaerobic bacteria and their effect on the management of upper respiratory tract and head and neck infections.  

PubMed

Anaerobes of oral origin are common in chronic upper respiratory tract and other head and neck infections. Anaerobes are the predominant components of the normal human oropharyngeal flora, and are therefore a common cause of bacterial infections of the upper respiratory tract that are of endogenous origin. These bacteria can be isolated in chronic otitis media, sinusitis, and tonsillitis, and their complications. Anaerobes also predominate in deep oral and neck infections and abscesses. Their isolation requires appropriate methods of collection, transportation, and cultivation of specimens. In addition to their active pathogenic role in these infections, many anaerobes express an indirect effect through their ability to produce the enzyme beta-lactamase. This enables these organisms to shield non-beta-lactamase-producing bacteria (BLPB) from penicillins. Inadequate therapy against BLPB may lead to clinical failures. Treatment of anaerobic infection is complicated by their slow growth, their polymicrobial nature, and the growing resistance of anaerobic bacteria to antimicrobials. Antimicrobial therapy is often the only form of therapy needed, whereas in other instances it is an important adjunct to a surgical approach. Because anaerobes generally are isolated mixed with aerobic organisms, therapy should provide for adequate coverage of both types of pathogens. PMID:12226799

Brook, Itzhak

2002-09-01

225

Biomarker evidence for widespread anaerobic methane oxidation in Mediterranean sediments by a consortium of methanogenic archaea and bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Although abundant geochemical data indicate that anaerobic methane oxidation occurs in marine sediments, the linkage to specific microorganisms remains unclear. In order to examine processes of methane consumption and oxidation, sediment samples from mud volcanoes at two distinct sites on the Mediterranean consumption and oxidation, sediment samples from mud volcanoes at two distinct sites on the Mediterranean Ridge were collected via the submersible Nautile. Geochemical data strongly indicate that methane is oxidized under aerobic conditions, and compound-specific carbon isotope analyses indicate that methane is oxidized under anaerobic conditions, and compound-specific carbon isotope analyses indicate that this reaction is facilitated by a consortium of archaea and bacteria. Specifically, these methane-rich sediments contain high abundances of methanogen-specific biomarkers that are significantly depleted in {sup 13}C ({delta}{sup 13}C values are as low as {minus}95%). Biomarkers inferred to derive from sulfate-reducing bacteria and other heterotrophic bacteria are similarly depleted. Consistent with previous work, such depletion can be explained by consumption of {sup 13}C-depleted methane by methanogens operating in reverse and as part a consortium of organisms in which sulfate serves as the terminal electron acceptor. Moreover, their results indicate that this process is widespread in Mediterranean mud volcanoes and in some localized settings in the predominant microbiological process.

Pancost, R.D.; Damste, J.S.S.; Lint, S. De; Maarel, M.J.E.C. van der; Gottschal, J.C.

2000-03-01

226

Anaerobic Catabolism of Aromatic Compounds: a Genetic and Genomic View  

PubMed Central

Summary: Aromatic compounds belong to one of the most widely distributed classes of organic compounds in nature, and a significant number of xenobiotics belong to this family of compounds. Since many habitats containing large amounts of aromatic compounds are often anoxic, the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds by microorganisms becomes crucial in biogeochemical cycles and in the sustainable development of the biosphere. The mineralization of aromatic compounds by facultative or obligate anaerobic bacteria can be coupled to anaerobic respiration with a variety of electron acceptors as well as to fermentation and anoxygenic photosynthesis. Since the redox potential of the electron-accepting system dictates the degradative strategy, there is wide biochemical diversity among anaerobic aromatic degraders. However, the genetic determinants of all these processes and the mechanisms involved in their regulation are much less studied. This review focuses on the recent findings that standard molecular biology approaches together with new high-throughput technologies (e.g., genome sequencing, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metagenomics) have provided regarding the genetics, regulation, ecophysiology, and evolution of anaerobic aromatic degradation pathways. These studies revealed that the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds is more diverse and widespread than previously thought, and the complex metabolic and stress programs associated with the use of aromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions are starting to be unraveled. Anaerobic biotransformation processes based on unprecedented enzymes and pathways with novel metabolic capabilities, as well as the design of novel regulatory circuits and catabolic networks of great biotechnological potential in synthetic biology, are now feasible to approach.

Carmona, Manuel; Zamarro, Maria Teresa; Blazquez, Blas; Durante-Rodriguez, Gonzalo; Juarez, Javier F.; Valderrama, J. Andres; Barragan, Maria J. L.; Garcia, Jose Luis; Diaz, Eduardo

2009-01-01

227

Production of succinate from glucose, cellobiose, and various cellulosic materials by the ruminai anaerobic bacteria Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus flavefaciens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of organic acids by two anaerobic ruminal bacteria,Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 andRuminococcus flavefaciens FD-1, was compared with glucose, cellobiose, microcrystalline cellulose, Walseth cellulose (acid swollen cellulose), pulped\\u000a paper, and steam-exploded yellow poplar as substrates. The major end product produced byF. succinogenes from each of these substrates was succinate (69.5–83%), the principal secondary product was acetate (16–30.5%). Maximum succinate\\u000a productivity

R. R. Gokarn; M. A. Eiteman; S. A. Martin; K.-E. L. Eriksson

1997-01-01

228

In Situ Activity and Spatial Organization of Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing (Anammox) Bacteria in Biofilms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated autotrophic anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) biofilms for their spatial organi- zation, community composition, and in situ activities by using molecular biological techniques combined with microelectrodes. Results of phylogenetic analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that \\

T. Kindaichi; I. Tsushima; Y. Ogasawara; M. Shimokawa; Noriatsu Ozaki; Hisashi Satoh; Satoshi Okabe

2007-01-01

229

The formation of acetic acid from carbon dioxide and hydrogen by anaerobic spore-forming bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Further experiments on an anaerobic bacillus synthesising acetic acid from CO2 and H2 are described. The organism in question was classified asClostridium aceticum n.sp. Acetic acid is also formed from sugar.

K. T. Wieringa

1939-01-01

230

Development of Vaccines to Prevent Wound Infections due to Anaerobic Bacteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bacteroides fragilis is the major cause of anaerobic bacterial sepsis and abscess formation. We have found that immunization of rats with a purified capsular polysaccharide (CP) of a B. fragilis strain protects against experimental bacteremia and intraabd...

D. L. Kasper

1982-01-01

231

Induction of anaerobic, photoautotrophic growth in the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limnetica.  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic photoautotrophic growth of the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limnetica was demonstrated under nitrogen in the presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (5micron), a constant concentration of Na2S (2.5 mM), and constant pH (7.3). The photoanaerobic growth rate (2 days doubling time) was similar to that obtained under oxygenic photoautotrophic growth conditions. The potential of oxygenic photosynthesis is constitutive in the cells; that of anoxygenic photosynthesis is rapidly (2 h) induced in the presence of Na2S in the light in a process requiring protein synthesis. The facultative anaerobic phototrophic growth physiology exhibited by O. limnetica would seem to represent an intermediate physiological pattern between the obligate anaerobic one of photosynthetic bacteria and the oxygenic one of eucaryotic algae.

Oren, A; Padan, E

1978-01-01

232

Establishment of facultative sexuals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence of sex is one of the major unsolved problems in biology. We use computer simulations to model conditions in which sex may first become established. We develop an individual-based population model and show that a hypothetical facultative sex gene can fix, provided that the initial cost is low. It is demonstrated that the equilibrium fitness in the population increases with increasing population size and decreasing mutation rate. The probability of the establishment of the sex gene is found not to be directly related to the fitness difference between the asexual and sexual populations. This change in fitness on changing the parameters of the model is investigated.

Paley, Chris J.; Taraskin, Sergei N.; Elliott, Stephen R.

2007-06-01

233

Identification of anaerobic bacteria by Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry with on-plate formic acid preparation.  

PubMed

Identification of anaerobic bacteria using phenotypic methods is often time-consuming; methods such as 16S rRNA gene sequencing are costly and may not be readily available. We evaluated 253 clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria using the Bruker MALDI Biotyper (Bruker Daltonics, Billerica, MA) matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system with a user-supplemented database and an on-plate formic acid-based preparation method and compared results to those of conventional identification using biochemical testing or 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A total of 179 (70.8%) and 232 (91.7%) isolates were correctly identified to the species and genus levels, respectively, using manufacturer-recommended score cutoffs. MALDI-TOF MS offers a rapid, inexpensive method for identification of anaerobic bacteria. PMID:23254126

Schmitt, Bryan H; Cunningham, Scott A; Dailey, Aaron L; Gustafson, Daniel R; Patel, Robin

2012-12-19

234

Anaerobic Oxidation of o-Xylene, m-Xylene, and Homologous Alkylbenzenes by New Types of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Various alkylbenzenes were depleted during growth of an anaerobic, sulfate-reducing enrichment culture with crude oil as the only source of organic substrates. From this culture, two new types of mesophilic, rod-shaped sulfate-reducing bacteria, strains oXyS1 and mXyS1, were isolated with o-xylene and m-xylene, respectively, as organic substrates. Sequence analyses of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the isolates affiliated with known completely oxidizing sulfate-reducing bacteria of the ? subclass of the class Proteobacteria. Strain oXyS1 showed the highest similarities to Desulfobacterium cetonicum and Desulfosarcina variabilis (similarity values, 98.4 and 98.7%, respectively). Strain mXyS1 was less closely related to known species, the closest relative being Desulfococcus multivorans (similarity value, 86.9%). Complete mineralization of o-xylene and m-xylene was demonstrated in quantitative growth experiments. Strain oXyS1 was able to utilize toluene, o-ethyltoluene, benzoate, and o-methylbenzoate in addition to o-xylene. Strain mXyS1 oxidized toluene, m-ethyltoluene, m-isoproyltoluene, benzoate, and m-methylbenzoate in addition to m-xylene. Strain oXyS1 did not utilize m-alkyltoluenes, whereas strain mXyS1 did not utilize o-alkyltoluenes. Like the enrichment culture, both isolates grew anaerobically on crude oil with concomitant reduction of sulfate to sulfide.

Harms, Gerda; Zengler, Karsten; Rabus, Ralf; Aeckersberg, Frank; Minz, Dror; Rossello-Mora, Ramon; Widdel, Friedrich

1999-01-01

235

Role of Anaerobic Ciliates in Planktonic Food Webs: Abundance, Feeding, and Impact on Bacteria in the Field  

PubMed Central

We studied the dynamics of two populations of anaerobic ciliates, Plagiopyla sp. and Metopus sp., and of their potential prey, heterotrophic and phototrophic purple bacteria, in Lake Cisó throughout a 1-year cycle. The abundance of both ciliates was very low (less than 2 individuals per ml). During mixing, Plagiopyla ciliates exhibited high clearance rates (about 100 nl ciliate-1 h-1), its integrated abundance increased with a net doubling time of 47 days, and its potential doubling times, as calculated from the number of bacteria consumed, ranged between 5 and 8 days. During stratification, the activity of Plagiopyla ciliates was reduced and the population decreased; this was related to the higher amounts of sulfide present. The impact of predation by the Plagiopyla population on bacterioplankton was found to be insignificant, less than 0.1% of bacterial biomass consumed per day. Thus, anaerobic ciliates cannot control the bacterioplankton in Lake Cisó because of both the low abundance over the period studied and the low feeding rates during certain periods. A review of available field studies suggests that this conclusion can be extrapolated to most other anoxic systems.

Massana, Ramon; Pedros-Alio, Carlos

1994-01-01

236

Effect of Culture Medium and Carbon Dioxide Concentration on Growth of Anaerobic Bacteria Commonly Encountered in Clinical Specimens  

PubMed Central

Representative strains of anaerobic bacteria from human infections were used to evaluate broth media, gas mixtures, and inocula for use in developing a procedure for performing minimal inhibitory concentration antimicrobic susceptibility tests. Nine commercially available media, including two that were chemically defined, were tested. Tests were performed in atmospheres with carbon dioxide concentrations between 2.5 and 10% and also in the GasPak system (BBL) that had a disposable hydrogen-carbon dioxide generator. Growth curves on each organism grown in schaedler broth and a 5% carbon dioxide atmosphere were used to determine growth characteristics, equate time of the particular growth phases to turbidity readings, and determine the numbers of viable organisms present in the culture. Schaedler broth proved to be most advantageous in combination with an atmosphere of 5% carbon dioxide, 10% hydrogen, and 85% nitrogen. The growth curve studies yielded valuable data on the rapidity and quantity of growth under these conditions. We believe these data have provided information which can be used as the basis for developing a standardized procedure for antimicrobic susceptibility testing for anaerobic bacteria.

Stalons, Don R.; Thornsberry, Clyde; Dowell, V. R.

1974-01-01

237

Distribution of epiphytic bacteria on olive leaves and the influence of leaf age and sampling time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesophilic heterotrophic, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacteria that grow on yeast tryptone glucose extract agar were\\u000a isolated from the surface of olive leaves of 3 or 4 different ages in January, April, July, and October from 1984 to 1989.\\u000a Unweighted average linkage cluster analysis on either the Jaccard coefficient or the simple matching coefficient recovered\\u000a 1,701 representative strains in 32

G. L. Ercolani

1991-01-01

238

The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and essential oil components towards oral bacteria.  

PubMed

A method for reproducibly determining minimal inhibitory concentrations and minimal bactericidal concentrations of plant extracts towards fastidiously and facultatively anaerobic oral bacteria, predicated upon measurements of optical densities in microtitre plate wells, was devised. The antimicrobial properties of some botanical oils were surveyed; of these, Australian tea tree oil, peppermint oil, and sage oil proved to be the most potent essential oils, whereas thymol and eugenol were potent essential oil components. PMID:7478759

Shapiro, S; Meier, A; Guggenheim, B

1994-08-01

239

Co-metabolic conversion of toluene in anaerobic n-alkane-degrading bacteria.  

PubMed

Diverse microorganisms have been described to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons anaerobically. Strains able to utilize n-alkanes do not grow with aromatic hydrocarbons, whereas strains able to utilize aromatic hydrocarbons do not grow with n-alkanes. To investigate this specificity in more detail, three anaerobic n-alkane degraders (two denitrifying, one sulfate-reducing) and eight anaerobic alkylbenzene degraders (five denitrifying, three sulfate-reducing) were incubated with mixtures of n-alkanes and toluene. Whereas the toluene degradationers formed only the characteristic toluene-derived benzylsuccinate and benzoate, but no n-alkane-derived metabolites, the n-alkane degraders formed toluene-derived benzylsuccinate, 4-phenylbutanoate, phenylacetate and benzoate besides the regular n-alkane-derived (1-methylalkyl)succinates and methyl-branched alkanoates. The co-metabolic conversion of toluene by anaerobic n-alkane degraders to the level of benzoate obviously follows the anaerobic n-alkane degradation pathway with C-skeleton rearrangement and decarboxylation rather than the ?-oxidation pathway of anaerobic toluene metabolism. Hence, petroleum-derived aromatic metabolites detectable in anoxic environments may not be exclusively formed by genuine alkylbenzene degraders. In addition, the hitherto largely unexplored fate of fumarate hydrogen during the activation reactions was examined with (2,3-(2) H(2) )fumarate as co-substrate. Deuterium was completely exchanged with hydrogen at the substituted carbon atom (C-2) of the succinate adducts of n-alkanes, whereas it is retained in toluene-derived benzylsuccinate, regardless of the type of enzyme catalysing the fumarate addition reaction. PMID:21880102

Rabus, Ralf; Jarling, René; Lahme, Sven; Kühner, Simon; Heider, Johann; Widdel, Friedrich; Wilkes, Heinz

2011-08-22

240

Anaerobic bacteria in upper respiratory tract and head and neck infections: microbiology and treatment.  

PubMed

Anaerobes are the predominant components of oropharyngeal mucous membranes bacterial flora, and are therefore a common cause of bacterial infections of endogenous origin of upper respiratory tract and head and neck. This review summarizes the aerobic and anaerobic microbiology and antimicrobials therapy of these infections. These include acute and chronic otitis media, mastoiditis and sinusitis, pharyngo-tonsillitis, peritonsillar, retropharyngeal and parapharyngeal abscesses, suppurative thyroiditis, cervical lymphadenitis, parotitis, siliadenitis, and deep neck infections including Lemierre Syndrome. The recovery from these infections depends on prompt and proper medical and when indicated also surgical management. PMID:22197951

Brook, Itzhak

2011-12-20

241

Prevalence of Anaerobic and Aerobic Bacteria in Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To determine prospectively the prevalence of anaerobic and aerobic infection in early onset (during 72 hours of age) neonatal sepsis, in Tehran Vali-e-Asr Hospital. Methods: Among all the live birth, neonates suspecting of having septicemia were investigated for isolation of micro- organisms. Culture bottle containing enriched tryptic soy broth was used for standard blood culture system to detect aerobes

F Nili; E Amini; F Nayeri; M Aligholi; M Emaneini

242

Application, eco-physiology and biodiversity of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demand for new and sustainable systems for nitrogen removal has increased dramatically in the last decade. It is clear that the conventional systems cannot deal with the increasing nitrogen loads in a cost effective way. As an alternative, the implementation of the anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) process in the treatment of wastewater with high ammonium concentrations has been started.

Boran Kartal; Laura van Niftrik; Olav Sliekers; Markus C. Schmid; Ingo Schmidt; Katinka van de Pas-Schoonen; Irina Cirpus; Wouter van der Star; Mark van Loosdrecht; Wiebe Abma; J. Gijs Kuenen; Jan-Willem Mulder; Mike S. M. Jetten; Huub Op den Camp; Marc Strous; Jack van de Vossenberg

2004-01-01

243

Direct Exchange of Electrons Within Aggregates of an Evolved Syntrophic Coculture of Anaerobic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial consortia that cooperatively exchange electrons play a key role in the anaerobic processing of organic matter. Interspecies hydrogen transfer is a well-documented strategy for electron exchange in dispersed laboratory cultures, but cooperative partners in natural environments often form multispecies aggregates. We found that laboratory evolution of a coculture of Geobacter metallireducens and Geobacter sulfurreducens metabolizing ethanol favored the formation

Zarath M. Summers; Heather E. Fogarty; Ching Leang; Ashley E. Franks; Nikhil S. Malvankar; Derek R. Lovley

2010-01-01

244

Multilocus enzyme analysis in aerobic and anaerobic bacteria using gel electrophoresis–nitrocellulose blotting  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optimized multilocus enzyme electrophoresis method, which involves polyacrylamide–agarose gel electrophoresis followed by electrophoretic transfers on nitrocellulose sheets, was developed for the analysis of enzyme polymorphism in several aerobic and anaerobic bacterial species including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. agalactiae, Klebsiella pneumoniae and K. oxytoca, Clostridium bifermentans and C. sordellii, and Prevotella bivia. Serial electrophoretic transfers (during 5–15 min each)

Marie-Laure Combe; Jean-François Lemeland; Martine Pestel-Caron; Jean-Louis Pons

2000-01-01

245

Trimethylamine Oxide: A Terminal Electron Acceptor in Anaerobic Respiration of Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) stimulated both the anaerobic growth rate and the growth yield of Proteus NTHC 153. The molar growth yield from glucose and pyruvate in tryptone\\/ yeast extract medium doubled in the presence of TMAO, and the organism grew anaero- bically on the non-fermentable substrates L-lactate and formate when TMAO was added to the medium. We conclude that TMAO

A. R. STROM; JAN A. OLAFSEN; HELGE LARSEN

1979-01-01

246

One carbon metabolism in anaerobic bacteria: Regulation of carbon and electron flow during organic acid production  

SciTech Connect

This reporting period, progress is reported on the following: metabolic pathway of solvent production in B. methylotrophicum; the biochemical mechanism for metabolic regulation of the succinate fermentation; models to understand the physiobiochemical function of formate metabolism in anaerobes and; models for understanding the influence of low pH on one carbon metabolism. (CBS)

Zeikus, J.G.; Jain, M.K.

1992-01-01

247

New techniques for growing anaerobic bacteria: Experiments with Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium acetobutylicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable membrane fragments derived from Escherichia coli produce and maintain strict anaerobic conditions when added to liquid or solid bacteriological media. Techniques for growing Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium acetobutylicum in membrane containing media are described. Liquid cultures initiated by very small inocula can be grown in direct contact with air. In solid media, colonies develop rapidly from individual cells even

H. I. Adler; W. D. Crow; C. T. Hadden; J. Hall; R. Machanoff

1983-01-01

248

New techniques for growing anaerobic bacteria: experiments with Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium acetobutylicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable membrane fragments derived from Escherichia coli produce and maintain strict anaerobic conditions when added to liquid or solid bacteriological media. Techniques for growing Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium acetobutylicum in membrane-containing media are described. Liquid cultures initiated by very small inocula can be grown in direct contact with air. In solid media, colonies develop rapidly from individual cells even without

H. I. Adler; W. D. Crow; C. T. Hadden; J. Hall; R. Machanoff

1983-01-01

249

Caldinitratiruptor microaerophilus , gen. nov., sp. nov. isolated from a French hot spring (Chaudes-Aigues, Massif Central): a novel cultivated facultative microaerophilic anaerobic thermophile pertaining to the Symbiobacterium branch within the Firmicutes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel facultative microaerophilic nitrate-reducing bacterium designated CA62NT was isolated from a thermal spring in France. Cells were non-motile rods (2–3 × 0.2 ?m) and showed low cytoplasmic density\\u000a when observed under a phase-contrast microscope. Strain CA62NT grew at temperatures between 50 and 75°C (optimum 65°C) and at a pH between 6.3 and 7.9 (optimum 7.0). NaCl was not required\\u000a for growth but

Marie-Laure Fardeau; Vanessa Barsotti; Jean-Luc Cayol; Sophie Guasco; Valérie Michotey; Manon Joseph; Patricia Bonin; Bernard Ollivier

2010-01-01

250

In vitro activity of the tribactam GV104326 against gram-positive, gram-negative, and anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

GV104326 is the first member of a new class of antibiotics (tribactams) selected for development. It combines a particularly broad spectrum (including gram-negative and gram-positive aerobes and anaerobes) with high potency, resistance to beta-lactamases, and complete stability to dehydropeptidases. Comparative MICs were determined for GV104326 against 415 recent clinical isolates (including beta-lactamase producers), using representative antibacterial agents (imipenem, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefpirome, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and erythromycin). GV104326 was particularly active against gram-positive bacteria; in general, its in vitro activity was equivalent to that of imipenem, equivalent to or better than that of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and superior to that of cefpirome, ciprofloxacin, and erythromycin. Against gram-negative bacteria, GV104326 possessed activity similar to that of imipenem and cefpirome against enterobacteria and Haemophilus spp. but its activity was superior to that of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. GV104326 showed excellent antianaerobe activity. GV104326 was stable to all clinically relevant beta-lactamases and was rapidly lethal to susceptible bacteria. In Escherichia coli, GV104326 bound predominantly to PBPs 1a and 2 and at low concentrations osmotically stable round forms were observed. GV104326 showed an affinity for PBPs 2 and 4 of Staphylococcus aureus.

Di Modugno, E; Erbetti, I; Ferrari, L; Galassi, G; Hammond, S M; Xerri, L

1994-01-01

251

The effect of slurry storage and anaerobic digestion on survival of pathogenic bacteria.  

PubMed

The decline in viable numbers of Salmonella typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica and Listeria monocytogene in beef cattle slurry is temperature-dependent; they decline more rapidly at 17 degrees C than at 4 degrees C. Mesophilic anaerobic digestion caused an initial rapid decline in the viable numbers of Escherichia coli, Salm. typhimurium, Y. enterocolitica and L. monocytogenes. This was followed by a period in which the viable numbers were not reduced by 90%. The T90 values of E. coli, Salm. typhimurium and Y. enterocolitica ranged from 0.7 to 0.9 d during batch digestion and 1.1 to 2.5 d during semi-continuous digestion. Listeria monocytogenes had a significantly higher mean T90 value during semi-continuous digestion (35.7 d) than batch digestion (12.3 d). Anaerobic digestion had little effect in reducing the viable numbers of Campylobacter jejuni. PMID:8420921

Kearney, T E; Larkin, M J; Levett, P N

1993-01-01

252

Behavior of cellulose-degrading bacteria in thermophilic anaerobic digestion process.  

PubMed

Previously, we found that the newly isolated Clostridium sp. strain JC3 became the dominant cellulose-degrading bacterium in thermophilic methanogenic sludge. In the present study, the behavior of strain JC3 in the thermophilic anaerobic digestion process was investigated quantitatively by molecular biological techniques. A cellulose-degrading experiment was conducted at 55 degrees C with a 9.5 L of anaerobic baffled reactor having three compartments (Nos. 1, 2, 3). Over 80% of the COD input was converted into methane when 2.5 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1) was loaded for an HRT of 27 days. A FISH probe specific for strain JC3 was applied to sludge samples harvested from the baffled reactor. Consequently, the ratio of JC3 cells to DAPI-stained cells increased from below 0.5% (undetectable) to 9.4% (compartment 1), 13.1% (compartment 2) and 21.6% (compartment 3) at day 84 (2.5 kgCOD m(-3)d(-1)). The strain JC3 cell numbers determined by FISH correlated closely with the cellulose-degrading methanogenic activities of retained sludge. A specific primer set targeting the cellulase gene (cellobiohydrolaseA: cbhA) of strain JC3 was designed and applied to digested sludge for treating solid waste such as coffee grounds, wastepaper, garbage, cellulose and so on. The strain JC3 cell numbers determined by quantitative PCR correlated closely with the cellulose-sludge loading of the thermophilic digester. Strain JC3 is thus important in the anaerobic hydrolysis of cellulose in thermophilic anaerobic digestion processes. PMID:16180412

Syutsubo, K; Nagaya, Y; Sakai, S; Miya, A

2005-01-01

253

Bioelectrochemical regulation accelerates facultatively syntrophic proteolysis.  

PubMed

Bioelectrochemical systems can affect microbial metabolism by controlling the redox potential. We constructed bioelectrochemical cultures of the proteolytic bacterium, Coprothermobacter proteolyticus strain CT-1, both as a single-culture and as a co-culture with the hydrogenotrophic methanogen, Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus strain ?H, to investigate the influences of bioelectrochemical regulation on facultatively syntrophic proteolysis. The co-culture and single-culture were cultivated at 55°C with an anaerobic medium containing casein as the carbon source. The working electrode potential of the bioelectrochemical system was controlled at -0.8V (vs. Ag/AgCl) for bioelectrochemical cultures and was not controlled for non-bioelectrochemical cultures. The cell densities of hydrogenotrophic methanogen and methane production in the bioelectrochemical co-culture were 3.6 and 1.5 times higher than those in the non-bioelectrochemical co-culture after 7 days of cultivation, respectively. Contrastingly, the cell density of Coprothermobacter sp. in the bioelectrochemical co-culture was only 1.3 times higher than that in the non-bioelectrochemical co-culture. The protein decomposition rates were nearly proportional to the cell density of Coprothermobacter sp. in the all types of cultures. These results indicate that bioelectrochemical regulation, particularly, affected the carbon fixation of the hydrogenotrophic methanogen and that facultatively syntrophic proteolysis was accelerated as a result of hydrogen consumption by the methanogens growing well in bioelectrochemical co-cultures. PMID:22421636

Sasaki, Daisuke; Sasaki, Kengo; Morita, Masahiko; Hirano, Shin-ichi; Matsumoto, Norio; Ohmura, Naoya

2012-03-14

254

In Vitro Activity of TD-1792, a Multivalent Glycopeptide-Cephalosporin Antibiotic, against 377 Strains of Anaerobic Bacteria and 34 Strains of Corynebacterium Species  

PubMed Central

TD-1792 is a multivalent glycopeptide-cephalosporin heterodimer antibiotic with potent activity against Gram-positive bacteria. We tested TD-1792 against 377 anaerobes and 34 strains of Corynebacterium species. Against nearly all Gram-positive strains, TD-1792 had an MIC90 of 0.25 ?g/ml and was typically 3 to 7 dilutions more active than vancomycin and daptomycin.

Citron, Diane M.; Warren, Yumi A.; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.

2012-01-01

255

Two new species of anaerobic oxalate-fermenting bacteria, Oxalobacter vibrioformis sp. nov. and Clostridium oxalicum sp. nov., from sediment samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of new anaerobic bacteria were isolated from anoxic freshwater sediments. They grew in mineral medium with oxalate as sole energy source and with acetate as main carbon source. Oxalate as well as oxamate (after deamination) were decarboxylated to formate with growth yields of 1.2–1.4 g dry cell matter per mol oxalate degraded. No other organic or inorganic substrates

Irmtraut Dehning; Bernhard Schink

1989-01-01

256

One-carbon metabolism in anaerobic bacteria: organic acid and methane production. Progress report, August 1980-May 1981  

SciTech Connect

The major goal of the project is to understand the basic physiology and biochemistry of one carbon metabolism in anaerobic bacteria that produce organic acids or methane. The aim is to identify key rate, yield and regulatory features of their metabolism and to relate this knowledge to the improvement or development of technology for the bioconversion of organic pyrolysis products (i.e., H/sub 2/, CO, CO/sub 2/ or methanol) to organic acids or natural gas. The studies are comparing the metabolism of two model organisms, Methanosarcina barkeri and Butyribacterium methylotrophicum, both of which grow on the same one carbon compounds but form either methane or acetic-butyric acids as end products.

Zeikus, J.G.

1981-01-01

257

Distribution of Sulfate-Reducing and Methanogenic Bacteria in Anaerobic Aggregates Determined by Microsensor and Molecular Analyses  

PubMed Central

Using molecular techniques and microsensors for H2S and CH4, we studied the population structure of and the activity distribution in anaerobic aggregates. The aggregates originated from three different types of reactors: a methanogenic reactor, a methanogenic-sulfidogenic reactor, and a sulfidogenic reactor. Microsensor measurements in methanogenic-sulfidogenic aggregates revealed that the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (2 to 3 mmol of S2? m?3 s?1 or 2 × 10?9 mmol s?1 per aggregate) was located in a surface layer of 50 to 100 ?m thick. The sulfidogenic aggregates contained a wider sulfate-reducing zone (the first 200 to 300 ?m from the aggregate surface) with a higher activity (1 to 6 mmol of S2? m?3 s?1 or 7 × 10?9 mol s?1 per aggregate). The methanogenic aggregates did not show significant sulfate-reducing activity. Methanogenic activity in the methanogenic-sulfidogenic aggregates (1 to 2 mmol of CH4 m?3 s?1 or 10?9 mmol s?1 per aggregate) and the methanogenic aggregates (2 to 4 mmol of CH4 m?3 s?1 or 5 × 10?9 mmol s?1 per aggregate) was located more inward, starting at ca. 100 ?m from the aggregate surface. The methanogenic activity was not affected by 10 mM sulfate during a 1-day incubation. The sulfidogenic and methanogenic activities were independent of the type of electron donor (acetate, propionate, ethanol, or H2), but the substrates were metabolized in different zones. The localization of the populations corresponded to the microsensor data. A distinct layered structure was found in the methanogenic-sulfidogenic aggregates, with sulfate-reducing bacteria in the outer 50 to 100 ?m, methanogens in the inner part, and Eubacteria spp. (partly syntrophic bacteria) filling the gap between sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria. In methanogenic aggregates, few sulfate-reducing bacteria were detected, while methanogens were found in the core. In the sulfidogenic aggregates, sulfate-reducing bacteria were present in the outer 300 ?m, and methanogens were distributed over the inner part in clusters with syntrophic bacteria.

Santegoeds, Cecilia M.; Damgaard, Lars Riis; Hesselink, Gijs; Zopfi, Jakob; Lens, Piet; Muyzer, Gerard; de Beer, Dirk

1999-01-01

258

In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria isolated from caprine footrot.  

PubMed

The in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-negative anaerobic bacilli commonly isolated from footrot in goats was studied. A total of 97 isolates belonging to the genera Dichelobacter, Fusobacterium, Prevotella, Porphyromonas and Bacteroides, obtained from clinical cases of footrot in south-western Spain between March 2000 and May 2001, were tested against 25 antimicrobial agents comprising beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, macrolides, chloramphenicol, quinolones, lincosamides, sulphonamides and tetracyclines in order to optimise antibiotic treatment of this disease in goats. beta-lactams, tetracyclines and metronidazole displayed the highest in vitro efficacy against the species involved in the pathogenesis of footrot. PMID:17385552

Lacombe-Antoneli, Angela; Píriz, S; Vadillo, S

2007-03-01

259

Male Circumcision Significantly Reduces Prevalence and Load of Genital Anaerobic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Male circumcision reduces female-to-male HIV transmission. Hypothesized mechanisms for this protective effect include decreased HIV target cell recruitment and activation due to changes in the penis microbiome. We compared the coronal sulcus microbiota of men from a group of uncircumcised controls (n = 77) and from a circumcised intervention group (n = 79) at enrollment and year 1 follow-up in a randomized circumcision trial in Rakai, Uganda. We characterized microbiota using16S rRNA gene-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) and pyrosequencing, log response ratio (LRR), Bayesian classification, nonmetric multidimensional scaling (nMDS), and permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PerMANOVA). At baseline, men in both study arms had comparable coronal sulcus microbiota; however, by year 1, circumcision decreased the total bacterial load and reduced microbiota biodiversity. Specifically, the prevalence and absolute abundance of 12 anaerobic bacterial taxa decreased significantly in the circumcised men. While aerobic bacterial taxa also increased postcircumcision, these gains were minor. The reduction in anaerobes may partly account for the effects of circumcision on reduced HIV acquisition.

Liu, Cindy M.; Hungate, Bruce A.; Tobian, Aaron A. R.; Serwadda, David; Ravel, Jacques; Lester, Richard; Kigozi, Godfrey; Aziz, Maliha; Galiwango, Ronald M.; Nalugoda, Fred; Contente-Cuomo, Tania L.; Wawer, Maria J.; Keim, Paul; Gray, Ronald H.; Price, Lance B.

2013-01-01

260

Dynamic and distribution of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria communities during sludge granulation in an anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor.  

PubMed

The structure dynamic of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) community and the distribution of AOB and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in granular sludge from an anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) were investigated. A combination of process studies, molecular biotechniques and microscale techniques were employed to identify and characterize these organisms. The AOB community structure in granules was substantially different from that of the initial pattern of the inoculants sludge. Along with granules formation, the AOB diversity declined due to the selection pressure imposed by process conditions. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing results demonstrated that most of Nitrosomonas in the inoculating sludge were remained because of their ability to rapidly adapt to the settling-washing out action. Furthermore, DGGE analysis revealed that larger granules benefit more AOB species surviving in the reactor. In the SBR were various size granules coexisted, granule diameter affected the distribution range of AOB and NOB. Small and medium granules (d<0.6 mm) cannot restrict oxygen mass transfer in all spaces of the sludge. Larger granules (d>0.9 mm) can result in smaller aerobic volume fraction and inhibition of NOB growth. All these observations provide support to future studies on the mechanisms responsible for the AOB in granules systems. PMID:21955984

Bin, Zhang; Zhe, Chen; Zhigang, Qiu; Min, Jin; Zhiqiang, Chen; Zhaoli, Chen; Junwen, Li; Xuan, Wang; Jingfeng, Wang

2011-09-17

261

Experimental modelling of Calcium carbonate precipitation in the presence of phototrophic anaerobic bacteria Rhodovulum sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbonate biomineralization is considered as one of the main natural processes controlling CO2 levels in the atmosphere both in the past and at present time. Haloalcaliphilic Rhodovulum sp. A-20s isolated from soda lake in southern Siberia and halophilic neutrophilic Rhodovulum sp. S-1765 isolated from hypersaline water body in Crimea steppe represent a large group of phototrophic bacteria likely to be

Irina Bundeleva; Liudmila Shirokova; Pascale Benezeth; Oleg Pokrovsky; Elena Kompantseva

2010-01-01

262

Anaerobic bacteria cultured from the tongue dorsum of subjects with oral malodor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacteria on the dorsum of the tongue are the most frequent cause of oral malodor; however, the bacterial flora of the tongue has not been well defined. Although recent studies have used DNA probes to detect the presence of certain periodontal pathogens, cultural studies have been limited because of the complexity of the flora of the tongue dorsum. The

Kerin L Tyrrell; Diane M Citron; Yumi A Warren; Sushma Nachnani; Ellie J. C Goldstein

2003-01-01

263

Direct exchange of electrons within aggregates of an evolved syntrophic coculture of anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

Microbial consortia that cooperatively exchange electrons play a key role in the anaerobic processing of organic matter. Interspecies hydrogen transfer is a well-documented strategy for electron exchange in dispersed laboratory cultures, but cooperative partners in natural environments often form multispecies aggregates. We found that laboratory evolution of a coculture of Geobacter metallireducens and Geobacter sulfurreducens metabolizing ethanol favored the formation of aggregates that were electrically conductive. Sequencing aggregate DNA revealed selection for a mutation that enhances the production of a c-type cytochrome involved in extracellular electron transfer and accelerates the formation of aggregates. Aggregate formation was also much faster in mutants that were deficient in interspecies hydrogen transfer, further suggesting direct interspecies electron transfer. PMID:21127257

Summers, Zarath M; Fogarty, Heather E; Leang, Ching; Franks, Ashley E; Malvankar, Nikhil S; Lovley, Derek R

2010-12-01

264

Anaerobic degradation of ethylbenzene and other aromatic hydrocarbons by new denitrifying bacteria.  

PubMed

Anaerobic degradation of alkylbenzenes with side chains longer than that of toluene was studied in freshwater mud samples in the presence of nitrate. Two new denitrifying strains, EbN1 and PbN1, were isolated on ethylbenzene and n-propylbenzene, respectively. For comparison, two further denitrifying strains, ToN1 and mXyN1, were isolated from the same mud with toluene and m-xylene, respectively. Sequencing of 16SrDNA revealed a close relationship of the new isolates to Thauera selenatis. The strains exhibited different specific capacities for degradation of alkylbenzenes. In addition to ethylbenzene, strain EbN1 utilized toluene, but not propylbenzene. In contrast, propylbenzene-degrading strain PbN1 did not grow on toluene, but was able to utilize ethylbenzene. Strain ToN1 used toluene as the only hydrocarbon substrate, whereas strain mXyN1 utilized both toluene and m-xylene. Measurement of the degradation balance demonstrated complete oxidation of ethylbenzene to CO2 by strain EbN1. Further characteristic substrates of strains EbN1 and PbN1 were 1-phenylethanol and acetophenone. In contrast to the other isolates, stain mXyN1 did not grow on benzyl alcohol. Benzyl alcohol (also m-methyl-benzyl alcohol) was even a specific inhibitor of toluene and m-xylene utilization by strain mXyN1. None of the strains was able to grow on any of the alkylbenzenes with oxygen as electron acceptor. However, polar aromatic compounds such as benzoate were utilized under both oxic and anoxic conditions. All four isolates grew anaerobically on crude oil. Gas chromatographic analysis of crude oil after growth of strain ToN1 revealed specific depletion of toluene. PMID:7710331

Rabus, R; Widdel, F

1995-02-01

265

Performance of a baffled facultative pond treating piggery wastes.  

PubMed

This paper shows the performance of a baffled facultative pond for the treatment of piggery wastes. The full-scale system is composed of an equalizer, one decanter (DP), two anaerobic ponds (LA1 and LA2), one facultative pond (LF), with five baffles, and one maturation pond with water hyacinths (LAG). The studies were conducted over a 12 month period in the west region of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The system was supplied daily with a volume of 3 m3/day of farm wastes. A good performance of the treatment system was obtained with average removal efficiencies of 98% for chemical oxygen demand, 93% for total solids, 98% for total phosphorus, 92% for total nitrogen, 7 log units of faecal coliforms and 5 log units of total coliforms. The facultative pond performed well, removing 43% of the chemical oxygen demand, 47% of total nitrogen and 54% of total phosphorus. It was found that the first baffle in the facultative pond was mainly responsible for the efficiency of this pond, and compared with another study the introduction of the baffles improved the removal efficiency by 20% for total phosphorus. PMID:11841057

Zanotelli, C T; Medri, W; Belli, Filho P; Perdomo, C C; Mulinari, M R; Costa, R H R

2002-01-01

266

Characterization of plant polysaccharide- and mucin-fermenting anaerobic bacteria from human feces.  

PubMed Central

Organisms able to grow on arabinogalactan, pectin, xylan, wheat bran, guar, apple cell walls, and mucin were isolated by enrichment from human feces. The number of polysaccharide fermenters and the properties of the predominant bacteria varied between subjects. The ability to use one polysaccharide was not related to the ability to use others. Some organisms (e.g., Bacteroides spp.) isolated on other substrates also utilized mucin, but were not isolated in the mucin enrichment. The mucin fermenters isolated by enrichment had a very restricted ability to utilize complex polysaccharides and their constituent monosaccharides, suggesting that the presence of plant polysaccharides in the human colon is unlikely to prevent the use of colonic mucin as an energy source by bacteria. Characterization with a range of biochemical tests showed that many of the isolates, but especially the mucin fermenters, did not resemble organisms described previously.

Bayliss, C E; Houston, A P

1984-01-01

267

Anaerobic mediastinitis.  

PubMed

Three patients with anaerobic mediastinitis associated with retropharyngeal abscess have been encountered recently. Dental infections accounted for two instances, and the third instance resulted from rupture of the thoracic esophagus from blunt trauma. Each was marked by extreme difficulty in achieving complete abscess drainage due to the initially unrecognized virulence of the causative anaerobic bacteria. Complications were frequent and included empyema, pericarditis and aspiration pneumonia. The combination of vigorous diagnostic efforts, prompt operation and reoperation when necessary plus specific antibiotic effective against anaerobes led to a successful outcome for each patient. PMID:959954

Howell, H S; Prinz, R A; Pickleman, J R

1976-09-01

268

Utilization of alkylbenzenes during anaerobic growth of pure cultures of denitrifying bacteria on crude oil  

SciTech Connect

Leakage from oil pipelines and underground fuel tanks may result in contamination of soils and deeper horizons. Even though the equilibrium partitioning of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) between oil and water is largely on the side of the hydrophobic phase, BTEX exhibit a certain water solubility higher than other oil hydrocarbons. This study evaluates the growth of four strains of denitrifying bacteria on crude oil and the resulting, strain-specific depletion of alkylbenzenes.

Rabus, R.; Widdel, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Marine Mikrobiologie, Bremen (Germany)

1996-04-01

269

Formation of Phenolic and Indolic Compounds by Anaerobic Bacteria in the Human Large Intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch culture incubations were used to investigate the effects of pH (6.8 or 5.5) and carbohydrate (starch) availability on\\u000a dissimilatory aromatic amino acid metabolism in human fecal bacteria. During growth on peptide mixtures, tyrosine and phenylalanine\\u000a fermentations occurred optimally at pH 6.8, while individual metabolic reactions were inhibited by up to 80% in the presence\\u000a of 10 g l?1 starch.

E. A. Smith; G. T. Macfarlane

1997-01-01

270

Anaerobic degradation and carbon isotopic fractionation of alkylbenzenes in crude oil by sulphate-reducing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mesophilic enrichment culture of sulphate-reducing bacteria isolated from the water phase of a North Sea oil tank using oil from the same tank as sole source of carbon and energy specifically depletes certain C1–C5 alkylbenzenes in crude oil during growth. The enrichment culture grows on oils of different origin and composition resulting in similar patterns of alkylbenzene depletion. Two

Heinz Wilkes; Chris Boreham; Gerda Harms; Karsten Zengler; Ralf Rabus

2000-01-01

271

Competition of marine psychrophilic bacteria at low temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of obligately and facultatively psychrophilic bacteria in the marine environment suggests that environmental conditions exist which can favour each of these groups in competitive processes. Differences were found in the way in which temperature affected the growth rates of obligate and facultative psychrophiles. Maximum specific growth rates of a number of obligately and facultatively psychrophilic bacteria were determined

W. Harder; H. Veldkamp

1971-01-01

272

In Vitro Activities of Cefminox against Anaerobic Bacteria Compared with Those of Nine Other Compounds  

PubMed Central

The agar dilution MIC method was used to test the activity of cefminox, a ?-lactamase-stable cephamycin, compared with those of cefoxitin, cefotetan, moxalactam, ceftizoxime, cefotiam, cefamandole, cefoperazone, clindamycin, and metronidazole against 357 anaerobes. Overall, cefminox was the most active ?-lactam, with an MIC at which 50% of isolates are inhibited (MIC50) of 1.0 ?g/ml and an MIC90 of 16.0 ?g/ml. Other ?-lactams were less active, with respective MIC50s and MIC90s of 2.0 and 64.0 ?g/ml for cefoxitin, 2.0 and 128.0 ?g/ml for cefotetan, 2.0 and 64.0 ?g/ml for moxalactam, 4.0 and >128.0 ?g/ml for ceftizoxime, 16.0 and >128.0 ?g/ml for cefotiam, 8.0 and >128.0 ?g/ml for cefamandole, and 4.0 and 128.0 ?g/ml for cefoperazone. The clindamycin MIC50 and MIC90 were 0.5 and 8.0 ?g/ml, respectively, and the metronidazole MIC50 and MIC90 were 1.0 and 4.0 ?g/ml, respectively. Cefminox was especially active against Bacteroides fragilis (MIC90, 2.0 ?g/ml), Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (MIC90, 4.0 ?g/ml), fusobacteria (MIC90, 1.0 ?g/ml), peptostreptococci (MIC90, 2.0 ?g/ml), and clostridia, including Clostridium difficile (MIC90, 2.0 ?g/ml). Time-kill studies performed with six representative anaerobic species revealed that at the MIC all compounds except ceftizoxime were bactericidal (99.9% killing) against all strains after 48 h. At 24 h, only cefminox and cefoxitin at 4× the MIC and cefoperazone at 8× the MIC were bactericidal against all strains. After 12 h, at the MIC all compounds except moxalactam, ceftizoxime, cefotiam, cefamandole, clindamycin, and metronidazole gave 90% killing of all strains. After 3 h, cefminox at 2× the MIC produced the most rapid effect, with 90% killing of all strains.

Hoellman, Dianne B.; Spangler, Sheila K.; Jacobs, Michael R.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

1998-01-01

273

Bacteria and archaea involved in anaerobic digestion of distillers grains with solubles.  

PubMed

Cereal distillers grains, a by-product from bioethanol industry, proved to be a suitable feedstock for biogas production in laboratory scale anaerobic digesters. Five continuously stirred tank reactors were run under constant conditions and monitored for biogas production and composition along with other process parameters. Iron additives for sulfide precipitation significantly improved the process stability and efficiency, whereas aerobic pretreatment of the grains had no effect. The microbial communities in the reactors were investigated for their phylogenetic composition by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The bacterial subcommunities were highly diverse, and their composition did not show any correlation with reactor performance. The dominant phylotypes were affiliated to the Bacteroidetes. The archaeal subcommunities were less diverse and correlated with the reactor performance. The well-performing reactors operated at lower organic loading rates and amended with iron chloride were dominated by aceticlastic methanogens of the genus Methanosaeta. The well-performing reactor operated at a high organic loading rate and supplemented with iron hydroxide was dominated by Methanosarcina ssp. The reactor without iron additives was characterized by propionate and acetate accumulation and high hydrogen sulfide content and was dominated by hydrogenotrophic methanogens of the genus Methanoculleus. PMID:21061007

Ziganshin, Ayrat M; Schmidt, Thomas; Scholwin, Frank; Il'inskaya, Olga N; Harms, Hauke; Kleinsteuber, Sabine

2011-03-01

274

Volatile Fatty Acids and Hydrogen as Substrates for Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Anaerobic Marine Sediment  

PubMed Central

The addition of 20 mM MoO42? (molybdate) to a reduced marine sediment completely inhibited the SO42? reduction activity by about 50 nmol g?1 h?1 (wet sediment). Acetate accumulated at a constant rate of about 25 nmol g?1 h?1 immediately after MoO42? addition and gave a measure of the preceding utilization rate of acetate by the SO42?-reducing bacteria. Similarly, propionate and butyrate (including isobutyrate) accumulated at constant rates of 3 to 7 and 2 to 4 nmol g?1 h?1, respectively. The rate of H2 accumulation was variable, and a range of 0 to 16 nmol g?1 h?1 was recorded. An immediate increase of the methanogenic activity by 2 to 3 nmol g?1 h?1 was apparently due to a release of the competition for H2 by the absence of SO42? reduction. If propionate and butyrate were completely oxidized by the SO42?-reducing bacteria, the stoichiometry of the reactions would indicate that H2, acetate, propionate, and butyrate account for 5 to 10, 40 to 50, 10 to 20, and 10 to 20%, respectively, of the electron donors for the SO42?-reducing bacteria. If the oxidations were incomplete, however, the contributions by propionate and butyrate would only be 5 to 10% each, and the acetate could account for as much as two-thirds of the SO42? reduction. The presence of MoO42? seemed not to affect the fermentative and methanogenic activities; an MoO42? inhibition technique seems promising in the search for the natural substrates of SO42? reduction in sediments.

S?rensen, Jan; Christensen, Dorte; J?rgensen, Bo Barker

1981-01-01

275

Genes for Uranium Bioremediation in the Anaerobic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the previous grant period were designed to explore the electron transport pathway employed by the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) for the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV). More specifically experiments were designed to determine whether U(VI) reduction by members of the genus Desulfovibrio was mediated by a unique, dedicated reductase or occurred as a fortuitous reaction with a reductase naturally involved in alternative reduction processes. In addition, the regulation of the hierarchical expression of terminal electron acceptors (reductases) in the SRB was to be examined.

Wall, Judy D.

2001-06-01

276

Growth and Population Dynamics of Anaerobic Methane-Oxidizing Archaea and Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in a Continuous-Flow Bioreactor  

PubMed Central

The consumption of methane in anoxic marine sediments is a biogeochemical phenomenon mediated by two archaeal groups (ANME-1 and ANME-2) that exist syntrophically with sulfate-reducing bacteria. These anaerobic methanotrophs have yet to be recovered in pure culture, and key aspects of their ecology and physiology remain poorly understood. To characterize the growth and physiology of these anaerobic methanotrophs and the syntrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria, we incubated marine sediments using an anoxic, continuous-flow bioreactor during two experiments at different advective porewater flow rates. We examined the growth kinetics of anaerobic methanotrophs and Desulfosarcina-like sulfate-reducing bacteria using quantitative PCR as a proxy for cell counts, and measured methane oxidation rates using membrane-inlet mass spectrometry. Our data show that the specific growth rates of ANME-1 and ANME-2 archaea differed in response to porewater flow rates. ANME-2 methanotrophs had the highest rates in lower-flow regimes (?ANME-2 = 0.167 · week?1), whereas ANME-1 methanotrophs had the highest rates in higher-flow regimes (?ANME-1 = 0.218 · week?1). In both incubations, Desulfosarcina-like sulfate-reducing bacterial growth rates were approximately 0.3 · week?1, and their growth dynamics suggested that sulfate-reducing bacterial growth might be facilitated by, but not dependent upon, an established anaerobic methanotrophic population. ANME-1 growth rates corroborate field observations that ANME-1 archaea flourish in higher-flow regimes. Our growth and methane oxidation rates jointly demonstrate that anaerobic methanotrophs are capable of attaining substantial growth over a range of environmental conditions used in these experiments, including relatively low methane partial pressures.

Girguis, Peter R.; Cozen, Aaron E.; DeLong, Edward F.

2005-01-01

277

Optimization of three FISH procedures for in situ detection of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria in biological wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using fluorochrome-labeled DNA oligonucleotide probes has been successfully applied for in situ detection of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria. However, application of the standard FISH protocols to visualize anammox bacteria in biofilms from a laboratory-scale wastewater reactor produced only weak signals. Increased signal intensity was achieved either by modifying the standard FISH protocol, using peptide nucleic acid probes (PNA FISH), or applying horse radish peroxidase- (HRP-) labeled probes and subsequent catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD-FISH). A comparative analysis using anammox biofilm samples and suspended anammox biomass from different laboratory wastewater bioreactors revealed that the modified standard FISH protocol and the PNA FISH probes produced equally strong fluorescence signals on suspended biomass, but only weak signals were obtained with the biofilm samples. The probe signal intensities in the biofilm samples could be enhanced by enzymatic pre-treatment of fixed cells, and by increasing the hybridization time of the PNA FISH protocol. CARD-FISH always produced up to four-fold stronger fluorescent signals but unspecific fluorescence signals, likely caused by endogenous peroxidases as reported in several previous studies, compromised the results. Interference of the development of fluorescence intensity with endogenous peroxidases was also observed in cells of aerobic ammonium oxidizers like Nitrosomonas europea, and sulfate-reducers like Desulfobacter postgatei. Interestingly, no interference was observed with other peroxidase-positive microorganisms, suggesting that CARD-FISH is not only compromised by the mere presence of peroxidases. Pre-treatment of cells to inactivate peroxidase with HCl or autoclavation/pasteurization failed to inactive peroxidases, but H(2)O(2) significantly reduced endogenous peroxidase activity. However, for optimal inactivation, different H(2)O(2) concentrations and incubation time may be needed, depending on nature of sample and should therefore always be individually determined for each study. PMID:19389431

Pavlekovic, Marko; Schmid, Markus C; Schmider-Poignee, Nadja; Spring, Stefan; Pilhofer, Martin; Gaul, Tobias; Fiandaca, Mark; Löffler, Frank E; Jetten, Mike; Schleifer, K-H; Lee, Natuschka M

2009-04-20

278

Presence and detection of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria and appraisal of anammox process for high-strength nitrogenous wastewater treatment: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until now, anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) has been widely applied as an alternative method to the conventional nitrification–denitrification\\u000a pathway for biological nitrogen removal from wastewater. Since their discovery in a denitrifying fluidized bed reactor in\\u000a the Netherlands in the early 1990s, anammox bacteria have also been detected in natural environments. Anammox is one of the\\u000a newly found drivers known to

Akihiko Terada; Sheng Zhou; Masaaki Hosomi

279

Comparative in vitro activities of trovafloxacin (CP-99,219) against 221 aerobic and 217 anaerobic bacteria isolated from patients with intra-abdominal infections.  

PubMed Central

Four hundred thirty-eight bacteria cultured from specimens of patients with serious intra-abdominal infections were tested by agar dilution against trovafloxacin and other quinolones and antimicrobial agents. Trovafloxacin inhibited 435 strains (99.3%) at < or =2 microg/ml. All the quinolones had similar activities against Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas sp., but trovafloxacin showed superior activities against streptococci, enterococci, and anaerobic organisms. Because of its excellent in vitro activities against diverse bacteria, trovafloxacin has potential use as a single agent for polymicrobial infections.

Citron, D M; Appleman, M D

1997-01-01

280

Heavy metal removal in anaerobic semi-continuous stirred tank reactors by a consortium of sulfate-reducing bacteria.  

PubMed

Removal of heavy metals by an enriched consortium of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) was evaluated through the abundance of SRB, sulfate reduction, sulfide production and heavy metal precipitation. Five parallel anaerobic semi-continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR, V = 2 L) (referred as R1-R5) were fed with synthetic wastewater containing mixtures of Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Ni(2+), and Cr(6+) in the concentrations of 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 mg L(-1) of each metal and operated with a hydraulic retention time of 20 days for 12 weeks. The loading rates of each metal in R1-R5 were 1.5, 3, 4.5, 6, and 7.5 mg L(-1) d(-1), respectively. The results showed that there was no inhibition of SRB growth and that heavy metal removal efficiencies of 94-100% for Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Ni(2+), and Cr(6+) were achieved in R1-R3 throughout the experiment and in R4 during the first 8 weeks. The toxic effect of heavy metals on the SRB consortium was revealed in R5, in which no SRB could survive and almost no heavy metal precipitation was detected after four weeks of operation. PMID:21632086

Kieu, Hoa T Q; Müller, Elizabeth; Horn, Harald

2011-05-11

281

Distribution of sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria in anaerobic aggregates determined by microsensor and molecular analyses  

SciTech Connect

Using molecular techniques and microsensors for H{sub 2}S and CH{sub 4}, the authors studied the population structure of and the activity distribution in anaerobic aggregates. The aggregates originated from three different types of reactors: a methanogenic reactor, a methanogenic-sulfidogenic reactor, and a sulfidogenic reactor. Microsensor measurements in methanogenic-sulfidogenic aggregates revealed that the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria was located in a surface layer of 50 to 100 {micro}m thick. The sulfidogenic aggregates contained a wider sulfate-reducing zone (the first 200 to 300 {micro}m from the aggregate surface) with a higher activity. The methanogenic aggregates did not show significant sulfate-reducing activity. Methanogenic activity in the methanogenic-sulfidogenic aggregates and the methanogenic aggregates was located more inward, starting at ca. 100 {micro}m from the aggregate surface. The methanogenic activity was not affected by 10 mM sulfate during a 1-day incubation. The sulfidogenic and methanogenic activities were independent of the type of electron donor, but the substrates were metabolized in different zones. The localization of the populations corresponded to the microsensor data.

Santegoeds, C.M.; Damgaard, L.R.; Hesselink, G.; Zopfi, J.; Lens, P.; Muyzer, G.; Beer, D. de

1999-10-01

282

Effect of pH on anaerobic mild steel corrosion by methanogenic bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Methanogens can use H{sub 2} produced by cathodic depolarization-mediated oxidation of elemental iron to produce methane. Thermodynamic consideration of the cathodic depolarization mechanism predicts more oxidation of Fe{sup 0} at lower pH. Methanogenic responses to pH by Methanococcus deltae, Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus, and Methanosarcina barkeri were examined. When grown on H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}, these bacteria had pH optima from 6.2 to 7.0, but when all H{sub 2} was supplied from Fe{sup 0}, methanogenic pH optima were lower, 5.4 to 6.5. Corrosion was monitored with and without cultures and at various pHs; more corrosion occurred when cultures were present, biologically induced corrosion was greatest at the pH optima for methanogenesis from Fe{sup 0}, and corrosion without cultures increased with a drop in pH.

Boopathy, R.; Daniels, L. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (USA))

1991-07-01

283

Effects of premilking teat preparation on spores of anaerobes, bacteria, and iodine residues in milk.  

PubMed

Premilking teat preparations using individual paper or cotton towels for either 6 or 20 s to reduce bacteria and iodine residues from teat surfaces were determined through Latin square designs applied to 50 cows. A cotton towel used for 20 s was most effective in cleaning teats, probably because of the physical structure of the towel, physical action on teat surface, and scrubbing of the teat ends. Premilking teat preparation of 6 s was inadequate to clean teats and to avoid iodine residues in milk. Teat end erosions increased iodine residue in milk. Two days after a treatment period, iodine content in milk from iodophor-dipped groups was similar to that of the undipped control group. Against our expectation, teat dipping with a .25% iodophor teat dip caused higher iodine residue in milk than a .50% iodophor teat dip. Differences in formulations and inert ingredients of iodophor teat dips indicate a need for further studies. PMID:1918525

Rasmussen, M D; Galton, D M; Petersson, L G

1991-08-01

284

Transformation of vivianite by anaerobic nitrate-reducing iron-oxidizing bacteria.  

PubMed

In phosphate-rich environments, vivianite (Fe(II)(3)(PO(4))(2), 8H(2)O) is an important sink for dissolved Fe(II) and is considered as a very stable mineral due to its low solubility at neutral pH. In the present study, we report the mineralogical transformation of vivianite in cultures of the nitrate-reducing iron-oxidizing bacterial strain BoFeN1 in the presence of dissolved Fe(II). Vivianite was first transformed into a greenish phase consisting mostly of an amorphous mixed valence Fe-phosphate. This precipitate became progressively orange and the final product of iron oxidation consisted of an amorphous Fe(III)-phosphate. The sub-micrometer analysis by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy of the iron redox state in samples collected at different stages of the culture indicated that iron was progressively oxidized at the contact of the bacteria and at a distance from the cells in extracellular minerals. Iron oxidation in the extracellular minerals was delayed by a few days compared with cell-associated Fe-minerals. This led to strong differences of Fe redox in between these two types of minerals and finally to local heterogeneities of redox within the sample. In the absence of dissolved Fe(II), vivianite was not significantly transformed by BoFeN1. Whereas Fe(II) oxidation at the cell contact is most probably directly catalyzed by the bacteria, vivianite transformation at a distance from the cells might result from oxidation by nitrite. In addition, processes leading to the export of Fe(III) from bacterial oxidation sites to extracellular minerals are discussed including some involving colloids observed by cryo-transmission electron microscopy in the culture medium. PMID:19573166

Miot, J; Benzerara, K; Morin, G; Bernard, S; Beyssac, O; Larquet, E; Kappler, A; Guyot, F

2009-06-01

285

Anaerobic oxidation of ferrous iron by purple bacteria, a new type of phototrophic metabolism.  

PubMed Central

Anoxic iron-rich sediment samples that had been stored in the light showed development of brown, rusty patches. Subcultures in defined mineral media with ferrous iron (10 mmol/liter, mostly precipitated as FeCO3) yielded enrichments of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria which used ferrous iron as the sole electron donor for photosynthesis. Two different types of purple bacteria, represented by strains L7 and SW2, were isolated which oxidized colorless ferrous iron under anoxic conditions in the light to brown ferric iron. Strain L7 had rod-shaped, nonmotile cells (1.3 by 2 to 3 microns) which frequently formed gas vesicles. In addition to ferrous iron, strain L7 used H2 + CO2, acetate, pyruvate, and glucose as substrate for phototrophic growth. Strain SW2 had small rod-shaped, nonmotile cells (0.5 by 1 to 1.5 microns). Besides ferrous iron, strain SW2 utilized H2 + CO2, monocarboxylic acids, glucose, and fructose. Neither strain utilized free sulfide; however, both strains grew on black ferrous sulfide (FeS) which was converted to ferric iron and sulfate. Strains L7 and SW2 grown photoheterotrophically without ferrous iron were purple to brownish red and yellowish brown, respectively; absorption spectra revealed peaks characteristic of bacteriochlorophyll a. The closest phototrophic relatives of strains L7 and SW2 so far examined on the basis of 16S rRNA sequences were species of the genera Chromatium (gamma subclass of proteobacteria) and Rhodobacter (alpha subclass), respectively. In mineral medium, the new isolates formed 7.6 g of cell dry mass per mol of Fe(II) oxidized, which is in good agreement with a photoautotrophic utilization of ferrous iron as electron donor for CO2 fixation. Dependence of ferrous iron oxidation on light and CO2 was also demonstrated in dense cell suspensions. In media containing both ferrous iron and an organic substrate (e.g., acetate, glucose), strain L7 utilized ferrous iron and the organic compound simultaneously; in contrast, strain SW2 started to oxidize ferrous iron only after consumption of the organic electron donor. Ferrous iron oxidation by anoxygenic phototrophs is understandable in terms of energetics. In contrast to the Fe3+/Fe2+ pair (E0 = +0.77 V) existing in acidic solutions, the relevant redox pair at pH 7 in bicarbonate-containing environments, Fe(OH)3 + HCO3-/FeCO3, has an E0' of +0.2 V. Ferrous iron at pH 7 can therefore donate electrons to the photosystem of anoxygenic phototrophs, which in purple bacteria has a midpoint potential around +0.45 V. The existence of ferrous iron-oxidizing anoxygenic phototrophs may offer an explanation for the deposition of early banded-iron formations in an assumed anoxic biosphere in Archean times. Images

Ehrenreich, A; Widdel, F

1994-01-01

286

Evidence that sustained growth suppression of intestinal anaerobic bacteria reduces the risk of acute graft-versus-host disease after sibling marrow transplantation.  

PubMed

The influence of intestinal bacterial decontamination on the occurrence of grades II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was retrospectively analyzed in 194 predominantly adult patients treated by genotypically identical sibling marrow transplantation under conditions of strict protective isolation and intestinal antimicrobial decontamination. Forty-five patients (23%) developed acute GVHD and univariate analysis identified four features that significantly increased the risk for this reaction: chronic myeloid leukemia as the underlying disease, as compared with all other disease categories (P < .0001); female marrow donors for male recipients, as compared with other gender combinations (P < .005); ineffective, as compared with sustained growth suppression of intestinal anaerobic bacteria (P < .006); and methotrexate as the sole immunoprophylactic compound, as compared with cyclosporine containing regimens (P < .05). Using the duration of anaerobic growth suppression as a time-dependent explanatory variable, proportional hazards regression analysis confirmed these features as independent predictors for acute GVHD with relative risk estimates of 1.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 2.7) for the immunoprophylactic regimen (P < .0004), of 1.8 (95% CI, 1.3 to 2.5) for the underlying disease (P < .0005), of 1.7 (95% CI, 1.2 to 2.5) for anaerobic decontamination (P < .002), and of 1.3 (95% CI, 1.1 to 1.6) for the donor/recipient gender combination (P < .008), respectively. Best subset selection modeling also identified the quality of anaerobic decontamination as the third most important predictor for acute GVHD, when all four significant features were included. Estimates of acute GVHD stratified by the quality of anaerobic bacterial growth suppression showed a strong influence of anaerobic decontamination in patients burdened by at least one of the other unfavorable factors (P < .009). In conclusion, this study provides strong evidence that sustained growth suppression of intestinal anaerobic bacteria after clinical sibling marrow transplantation can independently modulate the occurrence of grades II to IV acute GVHD, which is in concordance with previous results from animal transplantation models. Antimicrobial chemotherapy specifically targeted to the intestinal anaerobic bacterial microflora may be complementarily useful in preventing acute GVHD and should be investigated in a prospective trial. PMID:1421380

Beelen, D W; Haralambie, E; Brandt, H; Linzenmeier, G; Müller, K D; Quabeck, K; Sayer, H G; Graeven, U; Mahmoud, H K; Schaefer, U W

1992-11-15

287

Anaerobic degradation of methylmercaptan and dimethyl sulfide by newly isolated thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The complete oxidation of methylmercaptan (MSH) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) with sulfate or nitrate as electron acceptors was observed in enrichment cultures and dilution series using thermophilic fermentor sludge as the inoculum. Three new strains of thermophilic sulfate reducers were isolated in pure culture (strains MTS5, TDS2, and SDN4). Strain MTS5 grew on MSH and strain TDS2 grew on DMS whereas strain SDN4 grew on either MSH or DMS. The cellular growth yields were 2.57 g (dry weight)/mol of MSH for strain MTS5 and 6.02 g (dry weight)/mol of DMS for strain TDS2. All strains used sulfate, sulfite, or thiosulfate as electron acceptors, but only strain SDN4 used nitrate. DMS and MSH were oxidized to CO2 and sulfide with either sulfate or nitrate as the electron acceptor. Sulfate was stoichiometrically reduced to sulfide while nitrate was reduced to ammonium. All strains were motile rods, required biotin for growth, lacked desulfoviridin, had DNA with G+C contents of 48 to 57 mol% and probably belonged to the genus Desulfotomaculum. This is the first report of the oxidation of MSH and DMS by pure cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Images

Tanimoto, Y; Bak, F

1994-01-01

288

One carbon metabolism in anaerobic bacteria: organic acid and methane production. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

Organic acids (i.e acetate and butyrate) and methane are respectively important as a chemical commodity and a fuel source for industry. Both of these products can be generated via bacterial fermentation of single carbon compounds (i.e, H/sub 2//CO/sub 2/, HCOOH, CO CH/sub 3/OH) derived from syngas or the pyrolysis of either coals-peats or renewable biomass. This research aims to understand the pathways and regulation of one carbon metabolism in acidogenic and methanogenic bacteria by detailed physiological and biochemical studies. These investigations will characterize and compare formate, methanol, H/sub 2//CO/sub 2/, CO, and acetate metabolism of Methanosarcina barkeri with that of Butyribacterium methylotrophicum. The research will focus on: elucidation of the function of formate dehydrogenase and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase; the catabolic routes and biochemical mechanisms for transformation of single carbon compounds and acetate; and, the regulation of single carbon metabolism during growth on multiple C/sub 1/ substrates or on multicarbon substrates. 8 refs.

Zeikus, J.G.

1985-01-01

289

Activity of Telithromycin (HMR 3647) against Anaerobic Bacteria Compared to Those of Eight Other Agents by Time-Kill Methodology†  

PubMed Central

Time-kill studies examined the activities of telithromycin (HMR 3647), erythromycin A, azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, clindamycin, pristinamycin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and metronidazole against 11 gram-positive and gram-negative anaerobic bacteria. Time-kill studies were carried out with the addition of Oxyrase in order to prevent the introduction of CO2. Macrolide-azalide-ketolide MICs were 0.004 to 32.0 ?g/ml. Of the latter group, telithromycin had the lowest MICs, especially against non-Bacteroides fragilis group strains, followed by azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin A, and roxithromycin. Clindamycin was active (MIC ? 2.0 ?g/ml) against all anaerobes except Peptostreptococcus magnus and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, while pristinamycin MICs were 0.06 to 4.0 ?g/ml. Amoxicillin-clavulanate had MICs of ?1.0 ?g/ml, while metronidazole was active (MICs, 0.03 to 2.0 ?g/ml) against all except Propionibacterium acnes. After 48 h at twice the MIC, telithromycin was bactericidal (?99.9% killing) against 6 strains, with 99% killing of 9 strains and 90% killing of 10 strains. After 24 h at twice the MIC, 90, 99, and 99.9% killing of nine, six, and three strains, respectively, occurred. Lower rates of killing were seen at earlier times. Similar kill kinetics relative to the MIC were seen with other macrolides. After 48 h at the MIC, clindamycin was bactericidal against 8 strains, with 99 and 90% killing of 9 and 10 strains, respectively. After 24 h, 90% killing of 10 strains occurred at the MIC. The kinetics of clindamycin were similar to those of pristinamycin. After 48 h at the MIC, amoxicillin-clavulanate showed 99.9% killing of seven strains, with 99% killing of eight strains and 90% killing of nine strains. At four times the MIC, metronidazole was bactericidal against 8 of 10 strains tested after 48 h and against all 10 strains after 24 h; after 12 h, 99% killing of all 10 strains occurred.

Credito, Kim L.; Ednie, Lois M.; Jacobs, Michael R.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

1999-01-01

290

Anaerobic - Aerobic Ponds for Beet Sugar Waste Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sugarbeet factory transport (flume) water wastes were treated in pilot-sized anaerobic, facultative and aerobic ponds to remove BOD. Physical, chemical and mechanical data were collected on the performance of each pond which showed cause for abandoning th...

W. J. Oswald R. A. Tsugita C. G. Golueke R. C. Cooper

1973-01-01

291

The anaerobic life of Bacillus subtilis: Cloning of the genes encoding the respiratory nitrate reductase system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis, generally regarded as an aerobe, grows under strict anaerobic conditions using nitrate as an electron acceptor and should be designated as a facultative anaerobe. Growth experiments demonstrated a lag phase of 24 to 36 hours after the shift from aerobic, to the onset of anaerobic respiratory growth. Anaerobically adapted cells grew without further lag

Tamara Hoffmann; Barbara Troup; Alexandra Szabo; Christoph Hungerer; Dieter Jahn

1995-01-01

292

Antiparasitic Drug Nitazoxanide Inhibits the Pyruvate Oxidoreductases of Helicobacter pylori, Selected Anaerobic Bacteria and Parasites, and Campylobacter jejuni?  

PubMed Central

Nitazoxanide (NTZ) exhibits broad-spectrum activity against anaerobic bacteria and parasites and the ulcer-causing pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Here we show that NTZ is a noncompetitive inhibitor (Ki, 2 to 10 ?M) of the pyruvate:ferredoxin/flavodoxin oxidoreductases (PFORs) of Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, H. pylori, and Campylobacter jejuni and is weakly active against the pyruvate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli. To further mechanistic studies, the PFOR operon of H. pylori was cloned and overexpressed in E. coli, and the multisubunit complex was purified by ion-exchange chromatography. Pyruvate-dependent PFOR activity with NTZ, as measured by a decrease in absorbance at 418 nm (spectral shift from 418 to 351 nm), unlike the reduction of viologen dyes, did not result in the accumulation of products (acetyl coenzyme A and CO2) and pyruvate was not consumed in the reaction. NTZ did not displace the thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) cofactor of PFOR, and the 351-nm absorbing form of NTZ was inactive. Optical scans and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance analyses determined that the spectral shift (A418 to A351) of NTZ was due to protonation of the anion (NTZ?) of the 2-amino group of the thiazole ring which could be generated with the pure compound under acidic solutions (pKa = 6.18). We propose that NTZ? intercepts PFOR at an early step in the formation of the lactyl-TPP transition intermediate, resulting in the reversal of pyruvate binding prior to decarboxylation and in coordination with proton transfer to NTZ. Thus, NTZ might be the first example of an antimicrobial that targets the “activated cofactor” of an enzymatic reaction rather than its substrate or catalytic sites, a novel mechanism that may escape mutation-based drug resistance.

Hoffman, Paul S.; Sisson, Gary; Croxen, Matthew A.; Welch, Kevin; Harman, W. Dean; Cremades, Nunilo; Morash, Michael G.

2007-01-01

293

Antiparasitic drug nitazoxanide inhibits the pyruvate oxidoreductases of Helicobacter pylori, selected anaerobic bacteria and parasites, and Campylobacter jejuni.  

PubMed

Nitazoxanide (NTZ) exhibits broad-spectrum activity against anaerobic bacteria and parasites and the ulcer-causing pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Here we show that NTZ is a noncompetitive inhibitor (K(i), 2 to 10 microM) of the pyruvate:ferredoxin/flavodoxin oxidoreductases (PFORs) of Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, H. pylori, and Campylobacter jejuni and is weakly active against the pyruvate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli. To further mechanistic studies, the PFOR operon of H. pylori was cloned and overexpressed in E. coli, and the multisubunit complex was purified by ion-exchange chromatography. Pyruvate-dependent PFOR activity with NTZ, as measured by a decrease in absorbance at 418 nm (spectral shift from 418 to 351 nm), unlike the reduction of viologen dyes, did not result in the accumulation of products (acetyl coenzyme A and CO(2)) and pyruvate was not consumed in the reaction. NTZ did not displace the thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) cofactor of PFOR, and the 351-nm absorbing form of NTZ was inactive. Optical scans and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance analyses determined that the spectral shift (A(418) to A(351)) of NTZ was due to protonation of the anion (NTZ(-)) of the 2-amino group of the thiazole ring which could be generated with the pure compound under acidic solutions (pK(a) = 6.18). We propose that NTZ(-) intercepts PFOR at an early step in the formation of the lactyl-TPP transition intermediate, resulting in the reversal of pyruvate binding prior to decarboxylation and in coordination with proton transfer to NTZ. Thus, NTZ might be the first example of an antimicrobial that targets the "activated cofactor" of an enzymatic reaction rather than its substrate or catalytic sites, a novel mechanism that may escape mutation-based drug resistance. PMID:17158936

Hoffman, Paul S; Sisson, Gary; Croxen, Matthew A; Welch, Kevin; Harman, W Dean; Cremades, Nunilo; Morash, Michael G

2006-12-11

294

Arsenic, Anaerobes, and Autotrophy.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

That microbes have resistance to the toxic arsenic oxyanions arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] has been recognized for some time. More recently it was shown that certain prokaryotes can demonstrate As- dependent growth by conserving the energy gained from the aerobic oxidation of As(III) to As(V), or from the reduction of As(V) to As(III) under anaerobic conditions. During the course of our field studies of two alkaline, hypersaline soda lakes (Mono Lake and Searles Lake, CA) we have discovered several new anaerobic chemo- and photo-autotrophic bacteria that can center their energy gain around the redox reactions between As(III) and As(V). Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii, isolated from the water column of Mono Lake is a nitrate-respiring, As(III)-oxidizing chemoautotroph of the gamma-proteobacteria that has a highly flexible metabolism. It can function either as a facultative anaerobe or as a chemo-autotroph, or as a heterotroph (Hoeft et al., 2007). In contrast, strain MLMS-1 of the delta-proteobacteria was also isolated from Mono Lake, but to date is the first example of an obligate As(V)-respirer that is also an obligate chemo-autotroph, gaining its energy via the oxidation of sulfide to sulfate (Hoeft et al., 2004). Strain SLAS-1, isolated from salt-saturated Searles Lake is a member of the Halananerobiales, and can either grow as a heterotroph (lactate e-donor) or chemo- autotroph (sulfide e-donor) while respiring As(V). The fact that it can achieve this feat at salt-saturation (~ 340 g/L) makes it a true extremophile (Oremland et. al., 2005). Finally, strain PHS-1 isolated from a hot spring on Paoha island in Mono Lake is the first example of a photosynthetic bacterium of the gamma- proteobacteria able to link its growth to As(III)-dependent anoxygenic photosynthesis (Kulp et al., 2008). These novel microbes give us new insights into the evolution of arsenic-based metabolism and their role in the biogeochemical cycling of this toxic element. Hoeft, S.E., et al. 2007. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57: 514 - 512. Hoeft, S.E, et al. 2004. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70: 2741 - 2747. Oremland, R.S., et al. 2005. Science 308: 1305 - 1308. Kulp, T.R. et al. 2008. Science 321: 967 - 970.

Oremland, R. S.

2008-12-01

295

Biomarker Evidence for Widespread Anaerobic Methane Oxidation in Mediterranean Sediments by a Consortium of Methanogenic Archaea and Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although abundant geochemical data indicate that anaerobic methane oxidation occurs in marine sediments, the linkage to specific microorganisms remains unclear. In order to examine processes of methane consumption and oxidation, sediment samples from mud volcanoes at two distinct sites on the Mediterranean Ridge were collected via the submersible Nautile. Geochemical data strongly indicate that methane is oxidized under anaerobic conditions,

Richard D. Pancost; Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté; Saskia de Lint; Marc J. E. C. van der Maarel; Jan C. Gottschal; G. Aloisi de Larderel; J. L. Charlou; G. de Lange; J. P. Donval; A. Fiala-Medioni; J.-P. Foucher; R. Haese; P. Henry; J. Mascle; G. Nobbe; H. Pelle; C. Pierre; M. Sibuet; J. M. Woodside

2000-01-01

296

Microbial populations of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating wastewater from a gelatin industry.  

PubMed

The microbial populations of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor, used for treating wastewater from the gelatin industry, were studied by microbiological methods and phase-contrast and electron microscopy. Microscopy examination of the sludge showed a complex mixture of various rod-shaped and coccoid bacterial pluslong filaments and verymobile curved rods. In addition free-living anaerobic ciliates and flagellates were also observed. The trophic group population observed in decreasing order of dominance were hydrolytic and acetogenic at 10(6) and sulfate reducing and methanogenic at 10(5). The rate of methane production in anaerobic granular sludge cultivated in growth medium supplement with formate pressurized with H2:CO2 showed a significant increase in methane yield compared with theseed culture containingthe same substrate and atmosphere of N2:CO2. Similar rates of methane production were observed when the growth medium was supplemented with acetate pressurized either with H2:CO2 or N2:CO2. The number of total anaerobic bacteria at 10(7), fecal coliforms and total coliforms at 10(6), and fecal streptococci at 10(3) is based on colony counts on solid media. The four prevalent species of facultative anaerobic gram-negative bacteria that belong to the family of Enterobacteriaceae were identified as Escherichia coli, Esherichia fergusonii, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Citrobacter freundii. The species Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas veronii, Acinetobacter iwoffi and Stenotrophomonas maltophila were the most frequently isolated glucose fermenting and nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli. PMID:11873883

Vieira, A M; Bergamasco, R; Gimenes, M L; Nakamura, C V; Dias Filho, B P

2001-12-01

297

Anaerofilum pentosovorans gen. ~ov., sp. nov., and Anaerofilum agile sp. ~ov., Two New, Strictly Anaerobic, Mesophilic, Acidogenic Bacteria from Anaerobic Bioreactors?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strictly anaerobic, gram-positive, nonsporing, thin rod-shaped organisms whose cells were 0.2 to 0.6 by 3 to 6 pm were isolated from a Hoechst Biohochreaktor (strain FaeT (T = type strain)) and from the biofilm population of a fixed-film reactor treating sour whey (strain FT). Strain FT was vigorously motile during early logarithmic growth by means of peritrichously inserted flagella, while

GERHARD ZELLNER; ERKO STACKEBRANDT; DAGMAR NAGEL; PAUL MESSNER; NORBERT WEISS

298

The role of sulphidogenesis in anaerobic treatment phase of tannery wastewater treatment in advanced integrated wastewater pond system.  

PubMed

An outdoor experiment was conducted to study the competition between Sulphate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) and Methanogenic Archaea (MA) in anaerobic treatment phase of tannery wastewater treatment in pilot-scale Advanced Facultative Pond (AFP). The relative electron flow towards sulphate reduction was higher (59-83%) than towards methanogenesis (17-41%), although the COD recovery within the reactor varied between 15 and 90%. The results also demonstrated that the flow of electrons towards SRB increased with increase of the sulphate concentration and decrease of the COD:SO4= ratio. PMID:12889612

Tadesse, I; Green, F B; Puhakka, J A

2003-06-01

299

Ecophysiological adaptations of anaerobic bacteria to low pH: analysis of anaerobic digestion in acidic bog sediments. [Lactobacillus; Clostridium; Sarcina ventriculi  

SciTech Connect

The dynamics of anaerobic digestion were examined in the low-pH sediments of Crystal Bog in Wisconsin. The sediments (pH 4.9) contained 71% organic matter and the following concentrations of dissolved gases (micromoles per liter):CO/sub 2/, 1140; CH/sub 4/, 490; and H/sub 2/, 0.01. The rate of methane production was 6.2 ..mu..mol/liter of sediment per h, which is slower than eutrophic, neutral sediments. Microbial metabolic processes displayed the following pH optima: hydrolysis reactions, between 4.2 and 5.6; aceticlastic methanogenesis, 5.2; and hydrogen-consuming reactions, 5.6. The turnover rate constants for key intermediary metabolites were (h/sup -1/): glucose, 1.10; lactate, 0.277; acetate, 0.118; and ethanol, 0.089. The populations of anaerobes were low, with hydrolytic groups (10/sup 6//ml) several orders of magnitude higher than methanogens (10/sup 2//ml). The addition of carbon electron donors to the sediment resulted in the accumulation of hydrogen, whereas the addition of hydrogen resulted in the accumulation of fatty acids and the inhibition of hydrogen-producing acetogenic reactions. Strains of Lactobacillus, Clostridium, and Sarcina ventriculi were isolated from the bog, and their physiological attributes were characterized in relation to hydrolytic process functions in the sediments. The present studies provide evidence that the pH present in the bog sediments alter anaerobic digestion processes s, that total biocatalytic activity is lower bu the general carbon and electron flow pathways are similar to those of neutral anoxic sediments.

Goodwin, S.; Zeikus, G.J.

1987-01-01

300

Linking ultrastructure and function in four genera of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria: cell plan, glycogen storage, and localization of cytochrome C proteins.  

PubMed

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is an ecologically and industrially important process and is performed by a clade of deeply branching Planctomycetes. Anammox bacteria possess an intracytoplasmic membrane-bounded organelle, the anammoxosome. In the present study, the ultrastructures of four different genera of anammox bacteria were compared with transmission electron microscopy and electron tomography. The four anammox genera shared a common cell plan and contained glycogen granules. Differences between the four genera included cell size (from 800 to 1,100 nm in diameter), presence or absence of cytoplasmic particles, and presence or absence of pilus-like appendages. Furthermore, cytochrome c proteins were detected exclusively inside the anammoxosome. This detection provides further support for the hypothesis that this organelle is the locus of anammox catabolism. PMID:17993524

van Niftrik, Laura; Geerts, Willie J C; van Donselaar, Elly G; Humbel, Bruno M; Webb, Richard I; Fuerst, John A; Verkleij, Arie J; Jetten, Mike S M; Strous, Marc

2007-11-09

301

Comparison of the Use of the Halimeter and the Oral Chroma™ in the Assessment of the Ability of Common Cultivable Oral Anaerobic Bacteria to Produce Malodorous Volatile Sulfur Compounds from Cysteine and Methionine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the use of the Halimeter and the Oral Chroma™ to assess the ability of common oral anaerobic bacteria isolated from the Kuwaiti population to produce volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). Materials and Methods: Broth cultures of common anaerobes isolated from supragingival plaque were centrifuged and pellets resuspended in phosphate buffer (pH 7.7) with an optical density OD550 of

Nathanael O. Salako; Leeba Philip

2011-01-01

302

Histamine-producing bacteria in decomposing skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis).  

PubMed Central

Spoilage in skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) was studied under controlled conditions by incubating whole, fresh fish in seawater at 38 degrees C, the optimum temperature for histamine formation. Bacterial isolates were obtained from the loin tissue of a decomposing tuna containing 134 mg of histamine per 100 g and a total anaerobic count of 3.5 x 10(5)/g after incubation for 24 h. Over 92% of the 134 isolates obtained were facultatively or obligately anaerobic bacteria. Eighteen isolates produced histamine in culture media containing histidine, and these were identified as Clostridium perfringens, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Vibrio alginolyticus. Histidine decarboxylase activity of several isolates was measured in a tuna broth medium and with resting cells suspended in a buffered histidine solution.

Yoshinaga, D H; Frank, H A

1982-01-01

303

The survival of multidrug-resistant bacteria in thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure and waste milk.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digestion is considered as a promising method to manage animal waste with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Current research was conducted to investigate the survival of multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDRB) resistant to three groups of antibiotics: (i) cefazolin, neomycin, vancomycin, kanamycin (group 1); (ii) penicillin, oxytetracycline, ampicillin, streptomycin (group 2); and (iii) cefazolin, neomycin, vancomycin, kanamycin, penicillin, oxytetracycline, ampicillin, streptomycin (group 3), in anaerobic digestion of dairy manure and co-digestion of dairy manure and waste milk at 37°C and 55°C for 22 days, respectively. The population densities of three groups of MDRB on peptone, tryptone, yeast and glucose agar plates incubated at 30°C for 7 days before and after digestion showed 100% destruction in both digestates at thermophilic temperature. Overall reduction of more than 90% of three groups of MDRB was observed in mesophilic digestion with no significant differences (P?>?0.05) between manure and milk mixture. Co-digestion of dairy manure and waste milk always produced significantly (P?

Beneragama, Nilmini; Iwasaki, Masahiro; Lateef, Suraju A; Yamashiro, Takaki; Ihara, Ikko; Umetsu, Kazutaka

2012-12-17

304

Anaerobic oxidation of n-alkenes by sulphate-reducing bacteria from the genus Desulfatiferula: n-ketones as potential metabolites.  

PubMed

Two alkene-degrading sulphate-reducing bacteria from the genus Desulfatiferula (Desulfatiferula olefinivorans strain LM2801(T) and Desulfatiferula sp. strain BE2801) were investigated for their 1-alkene metabolism. Their total cellular fatty acids were predominantly C-even when they were grown on C-even 1-alkene (1-hexadecene), whereas a mixture of fatty acids with C-odd or C-even carbon chains predominated when cells were grown on C-odd 1-alkene (1-pentadecene). This is consistent with the fatty acid composition of other sulphate-reducing strains previously reported to grow on n-alkenes. Linear and 3-OH-fatty acids appear to be the main fatty acids produced by the two Desulfatiferula strains. The analysis of their neutral lipids led to identifying several n-alkanols and n-ketones with the same number of carbon atoms as the alkene growth substrate and with functionality located between C-1 and C-5. Growth of strains LM2801(T) and BE2801 on (per) deuterated 1-alkenes provided direct evidence of their anaerobic transformation to corresponding 1-alkanols, n-ketones and linear (3-OH-) fatty acids. These results demonstrate that Desulfatiferula strains oxidize a 1-alkene by oxidation of the double bond at C-1, but also at C-2 to C-5 (after eventual isomerization of the double bond) yielding the corresponding C-2 to C-5 n-ketones (via the corresponding n-alkanols). The formation of specific 3-OH-fatty acids by elongation of shorter chain fatty acids was also demonstrated. Based on our observations, pathways for anaerobic 1-alkene metabolism in sulphate-reducing bacteria from the genus Desulfatiferula are proposed. They indicate that n-ketones can constitute new metabolites of the biodegradation of n-alkenes in anaerobic environments. PMID:21810468

Grossi, Vincent; Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Rontani, Jean-François; Cros, Magali; Hirschler-Réa, Agnès

2011-07-20

305

Comparison of the PRAS II, AN-Ident, and RapID-ANA systems for identification of anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Two rapid systems for the identification of anaerobes were compared to a conventional growth system aided by a computer. The rapid systems (AN-Ident and RapID-ANA) are non-growth-dependent micromethods that identify anaerobes in 4 h by the action of various constitutive enzymes on chromogenic substrates. The organisms tested were 98 anaerobes, most of which were clinical isolates. The AN-Ident system identified 76 of these to species level and 86 to genus level; the RapID-ANA system correctly identified 74 of the organisms to species level and identified 93 to genus level. The PRAS II system correctly identified 77 to species level and 96 to genus level. In most instances, adequate identification could be obtained with either of the two rapid systems, but the conventional PRAS II system remains the most accurate.

Burlage, R S; Ellner, P D

1985-01-01

306

Anaerobic Infections in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Anaerobic bacteria commonly cause infection in children. Anaerobes are the most predominant components of the normal human\\u000a skin and mucous membranes bacterial flora and are therefore a common cause of bacterial infections of endogenous origin. Because\\u000a of their fastidious nature, they are difficult to isolate from infectious sites and are often overlooked. Anaerobic infections\\u000a can occur in all body sites,

Itzhak Brook

307

A longitudinal study of the cultivable subgingival anaerobic bacteria isolated from sheep during the development of broken mouth periodontitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. In a longitudinal bacteriological study of the cultivable subgingival anaerobic flora isolated from developing broken mouth periodontitis in sheep, samples were taken from five sheep on each of three farms on seven occasions over a period of 2.5 years. Ten different bacterial genera were isolated regularly but with fluctuating frequencies. Bacteroides and Fusobacteriurn organisms accounted for nearly 70% of

J. McCOURTIE; I. R. POXTON; R. BROWN; C. R. WHITTAKER; J. A. SPENCEt; G. U. AITCHISON

1990-01-01

308

Routine analysis of short-chain fatty acids for anaerobic bacteria identification using capillary electrophoresis and indirect ultraviolet detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis of anaerobes can be difficult to perform, using classical biochemical tests. Characterization of metabolic end-products such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) was often used because of their reproducible biosynthesis. Despite this, SCFA are difficult to study using gas chromatography, due to their high volatility. Furthermore, the treatment of the samples are long and fastidious. Capillary electrophoresis and indirect

Michel Arellano; Pascal Jomard; Said El Kaddouri; Christine Roques; Françoise Nepveu; François Couderc

2000-01-01

309

Celanese improves anaerobic digester  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anaerobic digestion process, developed by Celanese for the disposal of petrochemical wastes, involves feeding some of the treated effluent back into the system to dilute toxic constituents and to lower the pH. Anaerobic digestion as a disposal technique has been a problem since toxic materials and high pH kill the bacteria needed for effective operation. Operation of the process

E. R. Witt; T. E. Roberts

1979-01-01

310

Influence of decontamination on induction of arthritis in Lewis rats by cell wall fragments of Eubacterium aerofaciens. Arthropathic properties of indigenous anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Although the cause (or causes) of rheumatoid arthritis is unknown, many workers have suggested that microorganisms play a part. The intestinal flora in particular has been related to the development of joint inflammation. It has been shown previously that cell wall fragments of several anaerobic Gram positive intestinal bacteria of human origin are arthritogenic after a single intraperitoneal injection in Lewis rats. The part played by indigenous microflora in this model has now been studied by decontaminating Lewis rats before the injection of Eubacterium aerofaciens cell wall fragments. The pattern and severity of arthritis appeared to be comparable in decontaminated and control rats. The second goal of this work was to isolate arthritogenic bacteria from the autochthonous intestinal flora of rats. Only a limited number of bacteria showing a resemblance to arthritogenic strains from human intestinal flora (i.e. E aerofaciens and Bifidobacterium adolescentis) could be isolated. These strains did not induce chronic arthritis after intraperitoneal injection. This may explain why spontaneous arthritis did not develop in Lewis rats. Images

Kool, J; Severijnen, A J; Klasen, I S; Gerrits-Boeye, M Y; Hazenberg, M P

1992-01-01

311

Indigenous cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacteria enhanced rapid co-composting of lignocellulose oil palm empty fruit bunch with palm oil mill effluent anaerobic sludge.  

PubMed

The composting of lignocellulosic oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) with continuous addition of palm oil mill (POME) anaerobic sludge which contained nutrients and indigenous microbes was studied. In comparison to the conventional OPEFB composting which took 60-90days, the rapid composting in this study can be completed in 40days with final C/N ratio of 12.4 and nitrogen (2.5%), phosphorus (1.4%), and potassium (2.8%), respectively. Twenty-seven cellulolytic bacterial strains of which 23 strains were closely related to Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus firmus, Thermobifida fusca, Thermomonospora spp., Cellulomonas sp., Ureibacillus thermosphaericus, Paenibacillus barengoltzii, Paenibacillus campinasensis, Geobacillus thermodenitrificans, Pseudoxanthomonas byssovorax which were known as lignocellulose degrading bacteria and commonly involved in lignocellulose degradation. Four isolated strains related to Exiguobacterium acetylicum and Rhizobium sp., with cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic activities. The rapid composting period achieved in this study can thus be attributed to the naturally occurring cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic strains identified. PMID:24012093

Zainudin, Mohd Huzairi Mohd; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Tokura, Mitsunori; Shirai, Yoshihito

2013-08-14

312

One Carbon Metabolism in Anaerobic Bacteria. Organic Acid and Methane Production. Progress Report, June 1985-May 1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our project focussed on understanding of one and multicarbon metabolism in acetogenic and methanogenic bacteria. The studies with acetate catabolism pathway in Methanosarcina barkeri showed involvement of methyl reductase, methyl coenzyme M and carbon mon...

J. G. Zeikus

1986-01-01

313

Digestion of Herring by Indigenous Bacteria in the Minke Whale Forestomach  

PubMed Central

Northeastern Atlantic minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) have a multichambered stomach system which includes a nonglandular forestomach resembling that of ruminants. Bacteria from the forestomachs of herring-eating whales were enumerated and isolated in an anaerobic rumen-like culture medium (M8W medium). The total viable population of anaerobic bacteria ranged from 73 × 107 to 145 × 108/ml of forestomach fluid (n = 4). Lactobacillus spp. (19.7%), Streptococcus spp. (35.9%), and Ruminococcus spp. (12.8%) were the most common of the bacterial strains (n = 117) isolated by use of M8W medium from the forestomach fluid population of two minke whales. Most of the isolates stained gram positive (93.2%), 62.4% were cocci, and all strains were strictly anaerobic. The population of lipolytic bacteria in one animal, enumerated by use of a selective lipid medium, constituted 89.7% of the viable population. The total viable population of anaerobic bacteria in freshly caught and homogenized herring (Clupea harengus) ranged from 56.7 to 95.0 cells per gram of homogenized prey (n = 3) when M8W medium was used. Pediococcus spp. (30.6%) and Aerococcus spp. (25.0%) were most common of the bacterial strains (n = 72) isolated from the homogenized herring. Most of the bacterial strains were gram positive (80.6%), and 70.8% were cocci. Unlike the forestomach bacterial population, as many as 61.1% of the strains from the herring were facultatively anaerobic. All bacterial strains isolated from the prey had phenotypic patterns different from those of strains isolated from the dominant bacterial population in the forestomach, indicating that the forestomach microbiota is indigenous. Scanning electron microscopic examinations revealed large numbers of bacteria, surrounded by a glycocalyx, attached to partly digested food particles in the forestomach. These data support the hypothesis that symbiotic microbial digestion occurs in the forestomach and that the bacteria are indigenous to minke whales. Images

Olsen, Monica A.; Aagnes, Tove H.; Mathiesen, Svein D.

1994-01-01

314

Antibiotics and anaerobes of gut origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hundreds of bacterial species make up human gut flora. Of these, 99% are anaerobic bacteria. Although anaerobes are part of the normal commensal flora, they can become opportunistic pathogens, causing serious, sometimes fatal infections if they escape from the colonic milieu. Most often, this escape occurs as a result of perforation, surgery, diverticulitis or cancer. Infections involving anaerobic bacteria are

Gayatri Vedantam; David W Hecht

2003-01-01

315

Host-Bacteria Crosstalk at the Dentogingival Junction  

PubMed Central

The dentogingival junction is of crucial importance in periodontal host defense both structurally and functionally. Oral bacteria exert a constant challenge to the host cells and tissues at the dentogingival junction. The host response is set up to eliminate the pathogens by the innate and adaptive defense mechanisms. In health, the commensal bacteria and the host defense mechanisms are in a dynamic steady state. During periodontal disease progression, the dental bacterial plaque, junctional epithelium (JE), inflammatory cells, connective tissue, and bone all go through a series of changes. The tissue homeostasis is turned into tissue destruction and progression of periodontitis. The classical study of Slots showed that in the bacterial plaque, the most remarkable change is the shift from gram-positive aerobic and facultatively anaerobic flora to a predominantly gram-negative and anaerobic flora. This has been later confirmed by several other studies. Furthermore, not only the shift of the bacterial flora to a more pathogenic one, but also bacterial growth as a biofilm on the tooth surface, allows the bacteria to communicate with each other and exert their virulence aimed at favoring their growth. This paper focuses on host-bacteria crosstalk at the dentogingival junction and the models studying it in vitro.

Pollanen, M. T.; Laine, M. A.; Ihalin, R.; Uitto, V.-J.

2012-01-01

316

Quantitative detection of previously characterized syntrophic bacteria in anaerobic wastewater treatment systems by sequence-specific rRNA cleavage method.  

PubMed

Quantitative monitoring method of two important trophic groups of bacteria in methanogenic communities was established and applied to six different anaerobic processes. The method we employed was based upon our previous sequence-specific rRNA cleavage method that allows quantification of rRNA of target groups so that the populations reflecting in situ activity could be determined. We constructed a set of scissor probes targeting the Chloroflexi group known as 'semi-syntrophic' heterotrophic bacteria and fatty acid-oxidizing syntrophs to determine their relative abundance in the processes. By using the method, we found that several reactors harbored a large amount of organisms belonging to the phylum Chloroflexi accounting for up to 20% of the total prokaryotic populations. Propionate-oxidizing syntrophs, Syntrophobacter, Smithella and Pelotomaculum were also found to be significant comprising up to 3.9% of the total populations, but their distribution is highly dependent on the process examined. This is the first clear, non-PCR based quantitative evidence that those organisms play active roles under in situ methanogenic conditions. PMID:22342314

Narihiro, Takashi; Terada, Takeshi; Ohashi, Akiko; Kamagata, Yoichi; Nakamura, Kazunori; Sekiguchi, Yuji

2012-02-02

317

The effect of tannic compounds on anaerobic wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic wastewater treatment is an alternative to the conventional aerobic treatment processes for the removal of easily biodegradable organic matter in medium to high strength industrial wastestreams. Anaerobic treatment has several advantages, however one important disadvantage is the high sensitivity of the anaerobic bacteria (ie. methanogenic bacteria) to toxic compounds. The anaerobic technologies were initially developed for the treatment of

J. A. Field

1989-01-01

318

Diverse anaerobic Cr(VI) tolerant bacteria from Cr(VI)-contaminated 100H site at Hanford  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hexavalent Chromium [Cr(VI)] is a widespread contaminant found in soil, sediment, and ground water. Cr(VI) is more soluble, toxic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic compared to its reduced form Cr(III). In order to stimulate microbially mediated reduction of Cr(VI), a poly-lactate compound HRC was injected into the chromium contaminated aquifers at site 100H at Hanford. Based on the results of the bacterial community composition using high-density DNA microarray analysis of 16S rRNA gene products, we recently investigated the diversity of the dominant anaerobic culturable microbial population present at this site and their role in Cr(VI) reduction. Positive enrichments set up at 30°C using specific defined anaerobic media resulted in the isolation of an iron reducing isolate strain HAF, a sulfate reducing isolate strain HBLS and a nitrate reducing isolate, strain HLN among several others. Preliminary 16S rDNA sequence analysis identifies strain HAF as Geobacter metallireducens, strain HLN as Pseudomonas stutzeri and strain HBLS as a member of Desulfovibrio species. Strain HAF isolated with acetate as the electron donor utilized propionate, glycerol and pyruvate as alternative carbon sources, and reduced metals like Mn(IV) and Cr(VI). Growth was optimal at 37°C, pH of 6.5 and 0% salinity. Strain HLN isolated with lactate as electron donor utilized acetate, glycerol and pyruvate as alternative carbon sources, and reduced metals like Mn(IV) and Cr(VI). Optimal growth was observed at 37°C, at a pH of 7.5 and 0.3% salinity. Anaerobic active washed cell suspension of strain HLN reduced almost 95 micromolar Cr(VI) within 4 hours relative to controls. Further, with 100 micromolar Cr(VI) as the sole electron acceptor, cells of strain HLN grew to cell numbers of 4.05X 107/ml over a period of 24hrs after an initial lag, demonstrating direct enzymatic Cr(VI) reduction by this species. 10mM lactate served as the sole electron donor. These results demonstrate that Cr(VI) immobilization at the Hanford 100H site could be mediated by direct microbial metabolism apart from indirect chemical reduction of Cr(VI) by end products of microbial activity.

Chakraborty, R.; Phan, R.; Lam, S.; Leung, C.; Brodie, E. L.; Hazen, T. C.

2007-12-01

319

Redox Potentials of Certain Vitamins K: Implications for a Role in Sulfite Reduction by Obligately Anaerobic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Redox potentials of a menaquinone (MK-6), isolated in earlier researches from two species of the obligately anaerobic genus, Desulfovibrio, as well as two other vitamins K2—menaquinones (MK-5) and (MK-9)— have been determined polarographically. The measurements have been validated by determination of redox potentials of 1,4-naphthoquinone and vitamin K1 which agree with published potentiometric values. Em7 for menaquinone (MK-6) is -0.067 ± 0.010 V. Redox potentials calculated for terminal acceptor couples currently proposed in the mechanisms of sulfate reduction by Desulfovibrio are consistent with the involvement of menaquinone (MK-6) in at least one of the steps postulated during electron transfer with ultimate production of sulfide.

Wagner, G. C.; Kassner, R. J.; Kamen, M. D.

1974-01-01

320

Susceptibility Testing of Anaerobic Bacteria: Evaluation of the Redesigned (Version 96) bioM?rieux ATB ANA Device  

PubMed Central

We compared the susceptibility results for 200 clinical anaerobes with nine antibiotics obtained by using a new ATB ANA (bioMérieux) device against those obtained by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) standard agar dilution method. For better evaluation of the device, we added some resistant Bacteroides fragilis group strains from our own collection: 3, 6, and 12 strains that were resistant to imipenem, ticarcillin plus clavulanic acid, and co-amoxiclav, respectively, and 2 other strains with decreased susceptibility to metronidazole. For some strains that did not grow on ATB S medium, tests were performed by using West-Wilkins medium supplemented with 1.5% agar. The new ATB ANA device made clinical categorization of the investigated strains possible, according to French (Committee of the Antibiogram of the French Society of Microbiology) or U.S. (NCCLS) breakpoints, with the following respective results: category agreement, 94.3 and 94.9%; minor errors, 4.8 and 3.8%; major errors, 0.4 and 0.8%; and very major errors 4.6 and 4.2%. The ATB ANA device was able to detect low-level metronidazole-resistant B. fragilis strains according to the French breakpoints but not the NCCLS ones. For B. fragilis and ?-lactamase-positive Prevotella strains, the clustering effect of amoxicillin MICs around the French breakpoints led to more frequent minor errors. ATB ANA is a very convenient method to determine the antibiotic susceptibilities of anaerobes. Results obtained by ATB ANA correlated well with those obtained by the reference method.

Dubreuil, L.; Houcke, I.; Singer, E.

1999-01-01

321

Anaerobic and Aerobic Degradation of Cyanophycin by the Denitrifying Bacterium Pseudomonas alcaligenes Strain DIP1 and Role of Three Other Coisolates in a Mixed Bacterial Consortium?  

PubMed Central

Four bacterial strains were isolated from a cyanophycin granule polypeptide (CGP)-degrading anaerobic consortium, identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and assigned to species of the genera Pseudomonas, Enterococcus, Clostridium, and Paenibacillus. The consortium member responsible for CGP degradation was assigned as Pseudomonas alcaligenes strain DIP1. The growth of and CGP degradation by strain DIP1 under anaerobic conditions were enhanced but not dependent on the presence of nitrate as an electron acceptor. CGP was hydrolyzed to its constituting ?-Asp-Arg dipeptides, which were then completely utilized within 25 and 4 days under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. The end products of CGP degradation by strain DIP1 were alanine, succinate, and ornithine as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The facultative anaerobic Enterococcus casseliflavus strain ELS3 and the strictly anaerobic Clostridium sulfidogenes strain SGB2 were coisolates and utilized the ?-linked isodipeptides from the common pool available to the mixed consortium, while the fourth isolate, Paenibacillus odorifer strain PNF4, did not play a direct role in the biodegradation of CGP. Several syntrophic interactions affecting CGP degradation, such as substrate utilization, the reduction of electron acceptors, and aeration, were elucidated. This study demonstrates the first investigation of CGP degradation under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions by one bacterial strain, with regard to the physiological role of other bacteria in a mixed consortium.

Sallam, Ahmed; Steinbuchel, Alexander

2008-01-01

322

Anaerobic respiration of Bacillus macerans with fumarate, TMAO, nitrate and nitrite and regulation of the pathways by oxygen and nitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Bacillus macerans, anaerobic respiratory pathways and the regulation of facultatively anaerobic catabolism by electron acceptors were analysed. In addition to fermentative growth, B. macerans was able to grow anaerobically by fumarate, trimethylamine N-oxide, nitrate, and nitrite respiration with glycerol as donor. During growth by fumarate respiration, a membrane-bound fumarate reductase was present that was different from succinate dehydrogenase. The

Jan Schirawski; Gottfried Unden

1995-01-01

323

Evaluation of substrates for radiometric detection of bacteria in blood cultures.  

PubMed Central

Various 14C-labeled substrates were evaluated for their potential use in blood culture media. These uniformly labeled compounds were added to hypertonic and anaerobic formulations of modified Columbia broth and compared with analogous BACTEC media with the BACTEC 460. Different bacterial species gave significant growth indices when 2.0 microCi of labeled glucose, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, arginine, or formate was used alone or in combinations in the experimental media. The combination of glucose, glutamic acid, and sodium formate was selected, and simulated blood cultures with representative aerobic, facultative, and anaerobic bacteria and a yeast were compared with BACTEC vials. Under these conditions, the experimental media often became positive several hours earlier than the BACTEC vials and usually produced higher growth indices.

Bopp, H; Ellner, P D

1988-01-01

324

Facultative Symbiont Infections Affect Aphid Reproduction  

PubMed Central

Some bacterial symbionts alter their hosts reproduction through various mechanisms that enhance their transmission in the host population. In addition to its obligatory symbiont Buchnera aphidicola, the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum harbors several facultative symbionts influencing several aspects of host ecology. Aphids reproduce by cyclical parthenogenesis whereby clonal and sexual reproduction alternate within the annual life cycle. Many species, including the pea aphid, also show variation in their reproductive mode at the population level, with some lineages reproducing by cyclical parthenogenesis and others by permanent parthenogenesis. While the role of facultative symbionts has been well studied during the parthenogenetic phase of their aphid hosts, very little is known on their possible influence during the sexual phase. Here we investigated whether facultative symbionts modulate the capacity to produce sexual forms in various genetic backgrounds of the pea aphid with controlled symbiont composition and also in different aphid genotypes from natural populations with previously characterized infection status and reproductive mode. We found that most facultative symbionts exhibited detrimental effects on their hosts fitness under sex-inducing conditions in comparison with the reference lines. We also showed that the loss of sexual phase in permanently parthenogenetic lineages of A. pisum was not explained by facultative symbionts. Finally, we demonstrated that Spiroplasma infection annihilated the production of males in the host progeny by inducing a male-killing phenotype, an unexpected result for organisms such as aphids that reproduce primarily through clonal reproduction.

Simon, Jean-Christophe; Boutin, Sebastien; Tsuchida, Tsutomu; Koga, Ryuichi; Le Gallic, Jean-Francois; Frantz, Adrien; Outreman, Yannick; Fukatsu, Takema

2011-01-01

325

Reduction and immobilization of radionuclides and toxic metal ions using combined zero valent iron and anaerobic bacteria. 1998 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

'Previous research findings indicate that both zero valent iron and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) can yield significant decreases in Cr(VI) or U(VI) concentrations due to abiotic and microbial reduction, respectively. The major hypothesis associated with this research project is that a combined abiotic-biological system can synergistically combine both processes to maximize metal ion reduction in an engineered permeable reactive barrier. The overall goal of this project is to design a combined abiotic/microbial, reactive, permeable, in-situ barrier with sufficient reductive potential to prevent downgradient migration of toxic metal ions. The field-scale application of this technology would utilize anaerobic digester sludge, Fe(O) particles for supporting anaerobic biofilms, and suitable aquifer material for construction of the barrier. Successful completion of this goal requires testing of the two hypotheses listed above by evaluating: (1) the rates of abiotic metal ion reduction, and (2) the rates of microbial metal ion reduction in microbial and combined abiotic/microbial reduction systems under a range of environmental conditions. This report summarizes work after one and one-half years of a three year project. Abiotic studies: The thrust of the abiotic research conducted to date has been to determine the rates of Cr(VI) reduction in batch reactors and to evaluate the role of aquifer materials on those rates. Experiments have been conducted to determine the rates of reduction by Fe(II) and Fe(O). The parameters that have been evaluated are the effect of pH and the presence of sulfide and aquifer material.'

Weathers, L.

1998-06-01

326

Biocalalyst effects of immobilized anthraquinone on the anaerobic reduction of azo dyes by the salt-tolerant bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accelerating effect of dissolved redox mediators has been studied in details in the bio-decolorization processes, but there are little literatures about the non-dissolved redox mediators. Here we describe the accelerating effect of anthraquinone as a redox mediator in the bio-decolorization. Decolorization of azo dyes was carried out experimentally using the salt-tolerant bacteria under immobilized anthraquinone and high salt conditions.

Jianbo Guo; Jiti Zhou; Dong Wang; Cunping Tian; Ping Wang; M. Salah Uddin; Hui Yu

2007-01-01

327

Commensal anaerobic gut bacteria attenuate inflammation by regulating nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling of PPAR-? and RelA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human gut microflora is important in regulating host inflammatory responses and in maintaining immune homeostasis. The cellular and molecular bases of these actions are unknown. Here we describe a unique anti-inflammatory mechanism, activated by nonpathogenic bacteria, that selectively antagonizes transcription factor NF-?B. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron targets transcriptionally active NF-?B subunit RelA, enhancing its nuclear export through a mechanism independent of

Jamie I Campbell; Timothy P King; George Grant; Emmelie A Jansson; Alistair G P Coutts; Sven Pettersson; Shaun Conway; Denise Kelly

2003-01-01

328

Effects of selection and fate of substrates supplied to anaerobic bacteria involved in the corrosion of pipe-line steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The corrosion of AISI C1020 carbon steel in an anoxic, marine, sulphide-containing environment was examined as a function of bacterial physiology and consortial complexity. The carbon steel was exposed to three organism;Eubacterium limosum, Desulfovibrio sp. andDesulfobacter sp. which were provided with H2\\/CO2, butanol, glucose, and acetate as carbon and electron sources. A consortium of these bacteria utilizing hydrogen gave

N. J. E. Dowling; S. A. Brooks; T. J. Phelps; D. C. White

1992-01-01

329

Acetate oxidation to CO 2 in anaerobic bacteria via a novel pathway not involving reactions of the citric acid cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several sulfate-reducing bacteria capable of complete oxidation of acetate (or acetyl CoA), the citric acid cycle is not operative. No 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase activity was found in these organisms, and the labelling pattern of oxaloacetate excludes its synthesis via 2-oxo-glutarate. These sulfate-reducers contained, however, high activities of the enzymes carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase and catalyzed an isotope exchange

Rolf Schauder; Bernhard Eikmanns; Rudolf K. Thauer; Fritz Widdel; Georg Fuchs

1986-01-01

330

Structure and function of assemblages of Bacteria and Archaea in model anaerobic aquifer columns: can functional instability be practically beneficial?  

PubMed

Biodegradable organic carbon is often added to aquifers to stimulate microbial reduction of oxidized contaminants. This carbon also stimulates fermenters, which generate important metabolites that can fuel contaminant reduction and may enhance dissolution of hydrophobic compounds. Therefore, understanding how different methods of carbon addition affect the fermentative community will enable design of more effective remediation strategies. Our research objective was to evaluate the microbial communities that developed in model aquifer columns in response to pulsed or continuous molasses input. Results indicated that the continuously fed column produced relatively low concentrations of metabolic intermediates and had a greater proportion of Bacteria and methanogens, as measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, near the column inlet. In contrast, the pulsed-fed column generated periodic high concentrations of metabolic intermediates, with Bacteria and methanogens distributed throughout the length of the column. The community structures of Bacteria and Archaea, measured via automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis, in the pulsed-fed column were significantly different from those in the control column (not fed). The microbial community composition of the continuously fed column, however, became increasingly similar to the control column along the column length. These results demonstrate that a strategy of pulsed carbon addition leads to activity that is associated with functional instability, in terms of the production of periodic pulses of fermentation products and changing carbon concentration, and may be advantageous for remediation by producing large quantities of beneficial intermediates and resulting in more homogenously distributed biomass. PMID:22873515

Nelson, Denice K; Lapara, Timothy M; Novak, Paige J

2012-08-27

331

Comparison of cytochromes from anaerobically and aerobically grown cells of Pseudomonas perfectomarinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas perfectomarinus (ATCC 14405) is a facultative anaerobe capable of either oxygen respiration or anaerobic nitrate respiration, i.e., denitrification. A comparative study of the electron transfer components of cells revealed five c-type cytochromes and cytochrome cd in the soluble fraction from anaerobically grown cells and four c-type cytochromes in the soluble fraction from anaerobically grown cells. Purification procedures yielded three

M. C. Liu; W. J. Payne; H. D. Jr. Peck; J. LeGall

1983-01-01

332

In vitro activity of Biapenem plus RPX7009, a carbapenem combined with a serine ?-lactamase inhibitor, against anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

Biapenem is a carbapenem being developed in combination with RPX7009, a new inhibitor of serine ?-lactamases. Biapenem was tested alone and in combination with fixed concentrations of RPX7009 by agar dilution against 377 recent isolates of anaerobes. A separate panel of 27 isolates of Bacteroides spp. with decreased susceptibility or resistance to imipenem was also tested. Comparator drugs included meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, ampicillin-sulbactam, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, metronidazole, clindamycin, and tigecycline plus imipenem, doripenem, and ertapenem for the 27 selected strains. For recent consecutive strains of Bacteroides species, the MIC(90) for biapenem-RPX7009 was 1 ?g/ml, with a MIC(90) of 4 ?g/ml for meropenem. Other Bacteroides fragilis group species showed a MIC90 of 0.5 ?g/ml for both agents. The MIC(90)s for biapenem-RPX7009 were 0.25 ?g/ml for Prevotella spp., 0.125 ?g/ml for Fusobacterium nucleatum and Fusobacterium necrophorum, 2 ?g/ml for Fusobacterium mortiferum, 0.5 ?g/ml for Fusobacterium varium, ? 0.5 ?g/ml for Gram-positive cocci and rods, and 0.03 to 8 ?g/ml for clostridia. Against 5 B. fragilis strains harboring a known metallo-beta-lactamase, biapenem-RPX7009 MICs were comparable to those of other carbapenems (? 32 ?g/ml). Against Bacteroides strains with an imipenem MIC of 2 ?g/ml, biapenem-RPX7009 had MICs of 0.5 to 2 ?g/ml, with MICs of 0.5 to 32 ?g/ml for meropenem, doripenem, and ertapenem. For strains with an imipenem MIC of 4 ?g/ml, the MICs for biapenem-RPX7009 were 4 to 16 ?g/ml, with MICs of 8 to >32 ?g/ml for meropenem, doripenem, and ertapenem. The inhibitor RPX7009 had no antimicrobial activity when tested alone, and it showed little or no potentiation of biapenem versus anaerobes. Biapenem-RPX7009 showed activity comparable to that of imipenem and was superior to meropenem, doripenem, and ertapenem against imipenem-nonsusceptible Bacteroides spp. PMID:23529731

Goldstein, Ellie J C; Citron, Diane M; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Merriam, C Vreni

2013-03-25

333

Degradation of cinnamate via beta-oxidation to benzoate by a defined, syntrophic consortium of anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

A syntrophic consortium was enriched in a basal medium containing cinnamate as the carbon and energy source. It was found to consist of three morphologically distinct microbes, viz., a short, rod-shaped, non-motile bacterium with distinctly pointed ends, Papillibacter cinnamivorans; a rod-shaped, motile bacterium with rounded ends, Syntrophus sp.; and a methanoarchaeon, Methanobacterium sp. This methanogen was then replaced by a collection strain of Methanobacterium formicicum. A syntrophic interdependency of the three partners of the consortium was observed during growth on cinnamate. In the presence of bromoethanesulfonic acid (BESA), cinnamate was transformed to benzoate, whereas under methanogenic conditions without BESA, cinnamate was first transformed to benzoate via beta-oxidation and subsequently completely degraded into acetate, CH(4), and CO(2). Papillibacter cinnamivorans was responsible for benzoate production from cinnamate, whereas a syntrophic association between Syntrophus sp. and the methanogen degraded benzoate to acetate, CH(4), and CO(2). A new anaerobic degradation pathway of cinnamate into benzoate via beta-oxidation by a pure culture of P. cinnamivorans is proposed. PMID:12432464

Defnoun, Sabria; Ambrosio, Maurice; Garcia, Jean-Louis; Traoré, Alfred; Labat, Marc

2003-01-01

334

Horizontal gene transfer from Bacteria to rumen Ciliates indicates adaptation to their anaerobic, carbohydrates-rich environment  

PubMed Central

Background The horizontal transfer of expressed genes from Bacteria into Ciliates which live in close contact with each other in the rumen (the foregut of ruminants) was studied using ciliate Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs). More than 4000 ESTs were sequenced from representatives of the two major groups of rumen Cilates: the order Entodiniomorphida (Entodinium simplex, Entodinium caudatum, Eudiplodinium maggii, Metadinium medium, Diploplastron affine, Polyplastron multivesiculatum and Epidinium ecaudatum) and the order Vestibuliferida, previously called Holotricha (Isotricha prostoma, Isotricha intestinalis and Dasytricha ruminantium). Results A comparison of the sequences with the completely sequenced genomes of Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes, followed by large-scale construction and analysis of phylogenies, identified 148 ciliate genes that specifically cluster with genes from the Bacteria and Archaea. The phylogenetic clustering with bacterial genes, coupled with the absence of close relatives of these genes in the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, indicates that they have been acquired via Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) after the colonization of the gut by the rumen Ciliates. Conclusion Among the HGT candidates, we found an over-representation (>75%) of genes involved in metabolism, specifically in the catabolism of complex carbohydrates, a rich food source in the rumen. We propose that the acquisition of these genes has greatly facilitated the Ciliates' colonization of the rumen providing evidence for the role of HGT in the adaptation to new niches.

Ricard, Guenola; McEwan, Neil R; Dutilh, Bas E; Jouany, Jean-Pierre; Macheboeuf, Didier; Mitsumori, Makoto; McIntosh, Freda M; Michalowski, Tadeusz; Nagamine, Takafumi; Nelson, Nancy; Newbold, Charles J; Nsabimana, Eli; Takenaka, Akio; Thomas, Nadine A; Ushida, Kazunari; Hackstein, Johannes HP; Huynen, Martijn A

2006-01-01

335

Diversity of culturable halophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in hypersaline habitats.  

PubMed

Unexpectedly high culturable diversity of moderately and extremely halophilic obligately chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) was discovered in the sediments of various hypersaline habitats, including chloride-sulfate lakes in Mongolia, Russia and Ukraine, a sea saltern in Slovenia and a deep-sea salt brine from the Mediterranean. Six different groups of halophilic SOB, including four new genera, all belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria, were found. Two groups of moderately halophilic strictly aerobic SOB dominated at 2 M NaCl, including representatives of the genus Halothiobacillus (in fully aerobic conditions) and Thiomicrospira (in micro-oxic conditions). Under denitrifying conditions at 2 M NaCl, a group of moderately halophilic and facultatively anaerobic SOB was selected, capable of complete denitrification of nitrate. The group represents a new genus with closest relatives among as yet undescribed marine thiodenitrifying isolates. With thiocyanate as a substrate, an enrichment culture at 2 M NaCl yielded a pure culture of moderately halophilic SOB capable of aerobic growth with thiocyanate and thiosulfate at up to 4 M NaCl. Furthermore, this bacterium also grew anaerobically using nitrite as electron acceptor. It formed a new lineage distantly related to the genus Thiomicrospira. Enrichments at 4 M NaCl resulted in the domination of two different, previously unknown, groups of extremely halophilic SOB. Under oxic conditions, they were represented by strictly aerobic spiral-shaped bacteria, related to the Ectothiorhodospiraceae, while under denitrifying conditions a group of facultatively anaerobic nitrate-reducing bacteria with long rod-shaped cells was selected, distantly related to the genus Acidithiobacillus. PMID:17005982

Sorokin, Dimitry Yu; Tourova, Tatjana P; Lysenko, Anatoly M; Muyzer, Gerard

2006-10-01

336

Anaerobic infections in children.  

PubMed

Anaerobic bacteria commonly cause infection in children. Anaerobes are the most predominant components of the normal human skin and mucous membranes bacterial flora and are therefore a common cause of bacterial infections of endogenous origin. Because of their fastidious nature, they are difficult to isolate from infectious sites and are often overlooked. Anaerobic infections can occur in all body sites, including the central nervous system, oral cavity, head and neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, skin, and soft tissues. They colonize the newborn after delivery and have been recovered from several types of neonatal infections. These include cellulitis of the site of fetal monitoring, neonatal aspiration pneumonia, bacteremia, conjunctivitis, omphalitis, and infant botulism. The failure to direct adequate therapy against these organisms may lead to clinical failures. Their isolation requires appropriate methods of collection, transportation, and cultivation of specimens. Treatment of anaerobic infection is complicated by the slow growth of these organisms, by their polymicrobial nature, and by the growing resistance of anaerobic bacteria to antimicrobials. Antimicrobial therapy is often the only form of therapy required, whereas in others it is an important adjunct to a surgical approach. Because anaerobic bacteria generally are recovered mixed with aerobic organisms, the choice of appropriate antimicrobial agents should provide for adequate coverage of both types of pathogen. PMID:21120724

Brook, Itzhak

2011-01-01

337

Formation of Tellurium Nanocrystals during Anaerobic Growth of Bacteria That Use Te Oxyanions as Respiratory Electron Acceptors?  

PubMed Central

Certain toxic elements support the metabolism of diverse prokaryotes by serving as respiratory electron acceptors for growth. Here, we demonstrate that two anaerobes previously shown to be capable of respiring oxyanions of selenium also achieve growth by reduction of either tellurate [Te(VI)] or tellurite [Te(IV)] to elemental tellurium [Te(0)]. This reduction achieves a sizeable stable-Te-isotopic fractionation (isotopic enrichment factor [?] = ?0.4 to ?1.0 per ml per atomic mass unit) and results in the formation of unique crystalline Te(0) nanoarchitectures as end products. The Te(0) crystals occur internally within but mainly externally from the cells, and each microorganism forms a distinctly different structure. Those formed by Bacillus selenitireducens initially are nanorods (?10-nm diameter by 200-nm length), which cluster together, forming larger (?1,000-nm) rosettes composed of numerous individual shards (?100-nm width by 1,000-nm length). In contrast, Sulfurospirillum barnesii forms extremely small, irregularly shaped nanospheres (diameter < 50 nm) that coalesce into larger composite aggregates. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and selected area electron diffraction indicate that both biominerals are composed entirely of Te and are crystalline, while Raman spectroscopy confirms that they are in the elemental state. These Te biominerals have specific spectral signatures (UV-visible light, Raman) that also provide clues to their internal structures. The use of microorganisms to generate Te nanomaterials may be an alternative for bench-scale syntheses. Additionally, they may also generate products with unique properties unattainable by conventional physical/chemical methods.

Baesman, Shaun M.; Bullen, Thomas D.; Dewald, James; Zhang, Donghui; Curran, Seamus; Islam, Farhana S.; Beveridge, Terry J.; Oremland, Ronald S.

2007-01-01

338

Quantification of Enteric Viruses, Pathogen Indicators, and Salmonella Bacteria in Class B Anaerobically Digested Biosolids by Culture and Molecular Methods ?  

PubMed Central

The most common class B biosolids in the United States are generated by mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD), and MAD biosolids have been used for land application. However, the pathogen levels in MAD biosolids are still unclear, especially with respect to enteric viruses. In this study, we determined the occurrence and the quantitative levels of enteric viruses and indicators in 12 MAD biosolid samples and of Salmonella enterica in 6 MAD biosolid samples. Three dewatered biosolid samples were also included in this study for purposes of comparison. Human adenoviruses (HAdV) had the highest gene levels and were detected more frequently than other enteric viruses. The gene levels of noroviruses (NV) reported were comparable to those of enteroviruses (EV) and human polyomaviruses (HPyV). The occurrence percentages of HAdV, HAdV species F, EV, NV GI, NV GII, and HPyV in MAD samples were 83, 83, 42, 50, 75, and 58%, respectively. No hepatitis A virus was detected. Infectious HAdV was detected more frequently than infectious EV, and all infectious HAdV were detected when samples were propagated in A549 cells. Based on most-probable-number (MPN) analysis, A549 cells were more susceptible to biosolid-associated viruses than BGM cells. All indicator levels in MAD biosolids were approximately 104 MPN or PFU per gram (dry), and the dewatered biosolids had significantly higher indicator levels than the MAD biosolids. Only two MAD samples tested positive for Salmonella enterica, where the concentration was below 1.0 MPN/4 g. This study provides a broad comparison of the prevalence of different enteric viruses in MAD biosolids and reports the first detection of noroviruses in class B biosolids. The observed high quantitative and infectivity levels of adenoviruses in MAD biosolids indicate that adenovirus is a good indicator for the evaluation of sludge treatment efficiency.

Wong, Kelvin; Onan, Brandon M.; Xagoraraki, Irene

2010-01-01

339

Activities of four frog skin-derived antimicrobial peptides (temporin-1DRa, temporin-1Va and the melittin-related peptides AR23 and RV23) against anaerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activities of two antimicrobial peptides belonging to the temporin family (temporin-1DRa from Rana draytonii and temporin-1Va from Rana virgatipes) and two peptides with structural similarity to the bee venom peptide melittin (AR-23 from Rana tagoi and RV-23 from R. draytonii) were evaluated against a range of reference strains and clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria. These peptides were selected because

Elisabeth Nagy; Tibor Pál; Ágnes Sonnevend; J. Michael Conlon

2007-01-01

340

Influence of an aerobic fungus grown on solid culture on ruminal degradability and on a mixture culture of anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria.  

PubMed

In this work, the effect of a solid fungal culture of Aspergillus niger (An) grown on coffee pulp on the in situ ruminal degradability (RD) of corn stover was evaluated. In addition, the effect of its extracts on the in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD) and on a mixed culture of anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria (MCACB) was also investigated. The solid ferment was a crude culture of An, grown on coffee pulp. Regarding in situ RD, a significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between treatment with 200 g/day of the solid culture and control (no solid culture added) on dry matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fibre on RD. All the water extracts (pH 4, 7 and 10) enhanced IVDMD and stimulated the cellulolytic activity on a MCACB. Ultrafiltration results showed that active compounds with a molecular weight lower than 30 kDa were responsible for the effect on MCACB. Such results suggest that the effects of the solid An culture in RD are related to the presence of water soluble compounds having a molecular weight lower than 30 kDa. PMID:19663984

Hernández-Díaz, R; Pimentel-González, D J; Figueira, A C; Viniegra-González, G; Campos-Montiel, R G

2009-08-03

341

Purification and comparative studies of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenases from the anaerobic, glycine-utilizing bacteria Peptostreptococcus glycinophilus, Clostridium cylindrosporum, and Clostridium sporogenes.  

PubMed Central

Three different dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenases were purified to homogenity from the anaerobic glycine-utilizing bacteria Clostridium cylindrosporum, Clostridium sporogenes, and Peptostreptococcus glycinophilus, and their basic properties were determined. The enzyme isolated from P. glycinophilus showed the properties typical of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenases: it was a dimer with a subunit molecular mass of 53,000 and contained 1 mol of flavin adenine dinucleotide and 2 redox-active sulfhydryl groups per subunit. Only NADH was active as a coenzyme for reduction of lipoamide. Spectra of the oxidized enzyme exhibited maxima at 230, 270, 353, and 453 nm, with shoulders at 370, 425, and 485 nm. The dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenases of C. cylindrosporum and C. sporogenes were very similar in their structural properties to the enzyme of P. glycinophilus except for their coenzyme specificity. The enzyme of C. cylindrosporum used NAD(H) as well as NADP(H), whereas the enzyme of C. sporogenes reacted only with NADP(H), and no reaction could be detected with NAD(H). Antibodies raised against the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase of C. cylindrosporum reacted with extracts of Clostridium acidiurici, Clostridium purinolyticum, and Eubacterium angustum, whereas antibodies raised against the enzymes of P. glycinophilus and C. sporogenes showed no cross-reaction with extracts from 42 organisms tested. Images FIG. 1

Dietrichs, D; Andreesen, J R

1990-01-01

342

Energetics of end product excretion in anaerobic bacteria and the metabolism of fatty acids by Syntrophomonas wolfei. Progress report, January 31-December 15, 1985  

SciTech Connect

This work addresses the metabolism of fatty acids and the energetics of growth of the anaerobic, syntrophic, fatty acid-degrading bacterium, Syntrophomonas wolfei. S. wolfei degrades C/sub 4/ to C/sub 8/ straight chain fatty acids to acetate and H/sub 2/ or acetate, propionate and H/sub 2/; isoheptanoate is degraded to isovalerate, acetate, and H/sub 2/. S. wolfei can not use any common bacterial energy source that will allow it to grow in pure culture. A significant breakthrough in the cultivation of S. wolfei was achieved. Long term (3 months) incubation of S. wolfei cocultures in medium with crotonate selects for a population of S. wolfei cells that can use this compound. These cultures contain large numbers of S. wolfei cells and very few cells of the methanogen. Pure cultures of S. wolfei do not use butyrate. However, when pure cultures of S. wolfei are incubated in the presence of H/sub 2/-using bacteria, butyrate is degraded to acetate and H/sub 2/. These data show that the cells present in the pure cultures are in fact S. wolfei. Growth of S. wolfei with crotonate is faster and much higher cell densities are obtained. Thus, large amounts of cell material will be available for biochemical studies. 3 refs.

McInerney, M.J.

1985-01-01

343

Function and the biosynthesis of unusual corrinoids by a novel activation mechanism of aromatic compounds in anaerobic bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A corrinoid screening of several phylogenetically diverse ``archaebacteria'' revealed vitamin B12-like corrinoids. This indicates an optimized structure and function relationship of the corrinoids under different bacterial growth conditions during the early evolution of live. Some of these corrinoids have been substituted by modified corrinoids in growing cells without affecting the generation times of the bacteria. In this respect, the discovery of the unique para-cresolyl cobamide from the eubacterium Sporomusa ovata attracted attention. The unusual structure of this corrinoid was achieved by a biosynthesis proceeding via a novel and stereospecific activation mechanism of aromatic compounds. The corrinoid was detected both in the membrane fraction and in the soluble fraction of the cells. Methyltransfer is one of the probable functions of the para-cresolyl cobamide in Sporomusa.

Stupperich, E.; Eisinger, H. J.

344

Bioenergetic Conditions of Butyrate Metabolism by a Syntrophic, Anaerobic Bacterium in Coculture with Hydrogen-Oxidizing Methanogenic and Sulfidogenic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The butyrate-oxidizing, proton-reducing, obligately anaerobic bacterium NSF-2 was grown in batch cocultures with either the hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium Methanospirillum hungatei PM-1 or Desulfovibrio sp. strain PS-1. Metabolism of butyrate occurred in two phases. The first phase exhibited exponential growth kinetics (phase a) and had a doubling time of 10 h. This value was independent of whether NSF-2 was cultured with a methanogen or a sulfate reducer and likely represents the maximum specific growth rate of NSF-2. This exponential growth phase was followed by a second phase with a nearly constant rate of degradation (phase b) which dominated the time course of butyrate degradation. The specific activity of H2 uptake by the hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium controlled the bioenergetic conditions of metabolism in phase b. During this phase both the Gibbs free energy (?G?) and the butyrate degradation rate (v) were greater for NSF-2-Desulfovibrio sp. strain PS-1 (?G? = ?17.0 kJ/mol; v = 0.20 mM/h) than for NSF-2-M. hungatei PM-1 (?G? = ?3.8 kJ/mol, v = 0.12 mM/h). The ?G? value remained stable and characteristic of the two hydrogen oxidizers during phase b. The stable ?G? resulted from the close coupling of the rates of butyrate and H2 oxidation. The addition of 2-bromoethanesulfonate to a NSF-2-methanogen coculture resulted in the total inhibition of butyrate degradation; the inhibition was relieved when Desulfovibrio sp. strain PS-1 was added as a new H2 sink. When the specific activity of H2 consumption was increased by adding higher densities of the Desulfovibrio sp. to 2-bromoethanesulfonate-inhibited NSF-2-methanogen cocultures, lower H2 pool sizes and higher rates of butyrate degradation resulted. Thus, it is the kinetic parameters of H2 consumption, not the type of H2 consumer per se, that establishes the thermodynamic conditions which in turn control the rate of fatty acid degradation. The bioenergetic homeostasis we observed in phase b was a result of the kinetics of the coculture members and the feedback inhibition by hydrogen which prevents butyrate degradation rates from reaching their theoretical Vmax.

Dwyer, Daryl F.; Weeg-Aerssens, Els; Shelton, Daniel R.; Tiedje, James M.

1988-01-01

345

One carbon metabolism in anaerobic bacteria. Organic acid and methane production. Progress report, June 1985-May 1986  

SciTech Connect

Our project focussed on understanding of one and multicarbon metabolism in acetogenic and methanogenic bacteria. The studies with acetate catabolism pathway in Methanosarcina barkeri showed involvement of methyl reductase, methyl coenzyme M and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase in the proposed model of acetate catabolism. We also examined the relationship between hydrogen metabolism and methanogenesis, isotopic discrimination during methanogenesis, and sulfate dependent interspecies H/sub 2/-transfer between M. barkeri and Desulfovibrio vulgaris. Ammonia assimilation in Methanobacterium ivanovii via glutamine synthetase (GS) was confirmed by isolation of GS-deficient and GS-impared auxotrophic mutants. GS from M. ivanovii is also purified, characterized and compared with the eubacterial GS. In Butyribacterium methylotrophicum various enzymes involved in homoacetogenic catabolism of formate, formate plus CO and methanol plus CO were examined. Carbon dioxide was shown to be a required intermediate during catabolism of CO by B. methylotrophicum. Studies were also conducted for the operation of electron transport phosphorylation (ETP) in B. methylotrophicum by analyzing the proton motive force (PMF) and membrane bound electron carriers. 13 refs.

Zeikus, J.G.

1986-05-01

346

Thermophilic Anaerobic Degradation of Butyrate by a Butyrate-Utilizing Bacterium in Coculture and Triculture with Methanogenic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

We studied syntrophic butyrate degradation in thermophilic mixed cultures containing a butyrate-degrading bacterium isolated in coculture with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum or in triculture with M. thermoautotrophicum and the TAM organism, a thermophilic acetate-utilizing methanogenic bacterium. Butyrate was ?-oxidized to acetate with protons as the electron acceptors. Acetate was used concurrently with its production in the triculture. We found a higher butyrate degradation rate in the triculture, in which both hydrogen and acetate were utilized, than in the coculture, in which acetate accumulated. Yeast extract, rumen fluid, and clarified digestor fluid stimulated butyrate degradation, while the effect of Trypticase was less pronounced. Penicillin G, d-cycloserine, and vancomycin caused complete inhibition of butyrate utilization by the cultures. No growth or degradation of butyrate occurred when 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid or chloroform, specific inhibitors of methanogenic bacteria, was added to the cultures and common electron acceptors such as sulfate, nitrate, and fumarate were not used with butyrate as the electron donor. Addition of hydrogen or oxygen to the gas phase immediately stopped growth and butyrate degradation by the cultures. Butyrate was, however, metabolized at approximately the same rate when hydrogen was removed from the cultures and was metabolized at a reduced rate in the cultures previously exposed to hydrogen. Images

Ahring, Birgitte K.; Westermann, Peter

1987-01-01

347

[Manifestation of antimutagenic activity of "dark" repair under alternative levels of aeration of UV-irradiated bacteria].  

PubMed

The cease of aeration of UV-irradiated bacteria incubated in glucose-salt medium does not affect antimutagenic activity of excision repair in Escherichia coli cells but strongly inhibits that in Bacillus subtilis cells. It has been suggested that these differences are connected with various possibilities for energy (ATP) production in facultative anaerobe, which is E. coli, and obligate anaerobe, Bac. subtilis. The absence of noticeable influence of the aerobiosis----anaerobiosis shift on the kinetics of disappearance of potential mutations in E. coli cells is interpreted in terms of existence of a mechanism regulating the expenditure of cell energy reserve upon repair process. It is suggested that the low rate of disappearance of potential mutations observed in post-irradiation conditions favourable for protein synthesis is a consequence of limited supply of energy to repair process at some sites of cellular DNA, due to great expense of energy for protein synthesis. PMID:1778457

Lotareva, O V; Filippov, V D

1991-09-01

348

New Facultative Thiobacillus and a Reevaluation of the Heterotrophic Potential of Thiobacillus novellus  

PubMed Central

A new facultatively autotrophic Thiobacillus has been isolated in pure culture. The general physiological characteristics of the organism are described together with a redescription of Thiobacillus novellus. The new isolate differs from T. novellus in its ability to grow heterotrophically at faster rates and on a greater range of organic compounds. It can be transferred readily between autotrophic and heterotrophic conditions. It can grow anaerobically by nitrate respiration on a number of organic compounds, but not on thiosulfate. Some problems in the nomenclature and taxonomy of the thiobacilli are discussed with reference to the new isolate. Images

Taylor, Barrie F.; Hoare, Derek S.

1969-01-01

349

TREATMENT OF ANAEROBIC SOFT - TISSUE INFECTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of anaerobic infection needs to be prompt and appropriate in order to ensure recovery. Management includes the use of hyperbaric oxygen, surgical methods and antimicrobial therapy. In the past five years, newer agents effective against anaerobic organisms were introduced. However antibiotic resistance is increasingly common against anaerobic bacteria. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is often combined with antibiotic therapy for

T. DEM?RDAL; C. A?ALAR

350

Facultative anoxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria driven by arsenite and sulfide with evidence for the support of nitrogen fixation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rise in atmospheric oxygen (O2) over geologic time is attributed to the evolution and widespread proliferation of oxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria. However, cyanobacteria maintain a metabolic flexibility that may not always result in O2 release. In the environment, cyanobacteria may use a variety of alternative electron donors rather than water that are known to be used by other anoxygenic phototrophs (eg. purple sulfur bacteria) including reduced forms of sulfur, iron, nitrogen, and arsenic. Recent evidence suggests cyanobacteria actively take advantage of at least a few of these alternatives. We used a classical Winogradsky approach to enrich for cyanobacteria from the high salinity, elevated pH and arsenic-enriched waters of Mono Lake (CA). Experiments, optimized for cyanobacteria, revealed light-dependent, anaerobic arsenite-oxidation in sub-cultured sediment-free enrichments dominated by a filamentous cyanobacteria. We isolated and identified the dominant member of this enrichment to be a member of the Oscillatoriales by 16S rDNA. Addition of 1 mM arsenite induced facultative anoxygenic photosynthesis under continuous and circadian light. This isolate also oxidized sulfide under the same light-based conditions. Aerobic conditions elicited no arsenite oxidation in the light or dark and the isolate grew as a typical cyanobacterium using oxygenic photosynthesis. Under near-infrared light (700 nm) there was a direct correlation of enhanced growth with an increase in the rate arsenite or sulfide oxidation suggesting the use of photosystem I. Additionally, to test the wide-spread nature of this metabolism in the Oscillatoriales, we followed similar arsenite- and sulfide-driven facultative anoxygenic photosynthesis as well as nitrogen fixation (C2H2 reduction) in the axenic isolate Oscillatoria sp. CCMP 1731. Future characterization includes axenic isolation of the Mono Lake Oscillatoria sp. as well as the arsenite oxidase responsible for electron extraction and confirming the photosystem required for light capture. The geobiological implications of this phenomenon related to nitrogen-fixation and the evolution of O2 on Earth will be discussed.

Wolfe-Simon, F.; Hoeft, S. E.; Baesman, S. M.; Oremland, R. S.

2010-12-01

351

Evaluation of the Effects of Storage in Two Different Swab Fabrics and under Three Different Transport Conditions on Recovery of Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovery of six anaerobic and five aerobic pathogens from viscose swabs and polyurethane swabs (Culturette EZ) was evaluated quantitatively, and transport in aerobic dry tubes, aerobic Amies transport medium (Transwab), and anaerobic universal transport medium (Port-a-Cul) was compared. The Culturette EZ in aerobic dry tubes gave the highest recovery levels. Data obtained with clinical specimens confirmed these results.

E. Roelofsen; M. van Leeuwen; G. J. Meijer-Severs; M. H. F. Wilkinson; J. E. Degener

1999-01-01

352

Evaluation of the effects of storage in two different swab fabrics and under three different transport conditions on recovery of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

Recovery of six anaerobic and five aerobic pathogens from viscose swabs and polyurethane swabs (Culturette EZ) was evaluated quantitatively, and transport in aerobic dry tubes, aerobic Amies transport medium (Transwab), and anaerobic universal transport medium (Port-a-Cul) was compared. The Culturette EZ in aerobic dry tubes gave the highest recovery levels. Data obtained with clinical specimens confirmed these results. PMID:10449502

Roelofsen, E; van Leeuwen, M; Meijer-Severs, G J; Wilkinson, M H; Degener, J E

1999-09-01

353

Anaerobic digestion process  

Microsoft Academic Search

First, the organic waste slurry of sewage sludge and\\/or kitchen garbage is stored in a stable condition after effecting partially thereto a liquefaction treatment in advance by adding liquefying bacteria, and next this slurry is effectively digested anaerobically by way of a liquefaction\\/gasification-mixed step or a liquefaction\\/gasification separated step.

M. Ishida; R. Haga; Y. Odawara

1984-01-01

354

Microbiology and Physiology of Anaerobic Fermentations of Cellulose. Progress Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cellulytic bacteria, cellobiose fermentors, sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogenic bacteria have been isolated from established anaerobic mesophilic and thermophilic cellulose-methane fermentations and these isolates, plus known laboratory strains, ha...

H. D. Peck L. G. Ljungdahl

1981-01-01

355

Facultative bacterial symbionts in aphids confer resistance to parasitic wasps  

PubMed Central

Symbiotic relationships between animals and microorganisms are common in nature, yet the factors controlling the abundance and distributions of symbionts are mostly unknown. Aphids have an obligate association with the bacterium Buchnera aphidicola (the primary symbiont) that has been shown to contribute directly to aphid fitness. In addition, aphids sometimes harbor other vertically transmitted bacteria (secondary symbionts), for which few benefits of infection have been previously documented. We carried out experiments to determine the consequences of these facultative symbioses in Acyrthosiphon pisum (the pea aphid) for vulnerability of the aphid host to a hymenopteran parasitoid, Aphidius ervi, a major natural enemy in field populations. Our results show that, in a controlled genetic background, infection confers resistance to parasitoid attack by causing high mortality of developing parasitoid larvae. Compared with uninfected controls, experimentally infected aphids were as likely to be attacked by ovipositing parasitoids but less likely to support parasitoid development. This strong interaction between a symbiotic bacterium and a host natural enemy provides a mechanism for the persistence and spread of symbiotic bacteria.

Oliver, Kerry M.; Russell, Jacob A.; Moran, Nancy A.; Hunter, Martha S.

2003-01-01

356

Anaerobic balanoposthitis.  

PubMed

To assess the causative role of non-sporing anaerobes in cass of erosive balanoposthitis, anaerobic culture was performed on purulent discharges from 104 patients with penile ulceration, a foul-smelling discharge, and a mixed and motile bacterial flora. Most of 29 culturally confirmed infections were due to mixed anaerobes and eight to single anaerobes. A rapid response to treatment with metronidazole also confirmed the anaerobic cause of the infection. Thus, acute anaerobic balanoposthitis can be readily diagnosed clinically and is easily treated. PMID:6121604

Cree, G E; Willis, A T; Phillips, K D; Brazier, J S

1982-03-20

357

Anaerobes in nosocomial and community acquired pleural infections.  

PubMed

Anaerobes are important causes of pleural space infections. The aim of the study is to evaluate the role of the anaerobic bacteria in pleural infections. The study involved 278 consecutive clinical samples sent to the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of Tertiary Chest Hospital. Anaerobes were isolated in 39 community acquired and five nosocomial cases out of 278 anaerobic cultivations (15.8%). Total of 56 anaerobe strains were identified and 21 aerobes were accompanied to anaerobic isolates. Aerobe isolates were associated with anaerobic microorganisms in 19 cases (43.2%). Bacteroides species (21.4%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (33.3%) were the most common anaerobic and aerobic isolates. PMID:24064649

Senol, G; Coskun, M; Gunduz, A; Bicmen, C; Tibet, G

358

Titanium(III) Citrate as a Nontoxic Oxidation-Reduction Buffering System for the Culture of Obligate Anaerobes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An oxidation-reduction buffering system based on titanium(III) citrate eliminates any traces of oxygen in a culture medium, serves as an indicator for low oxidation-reduction potentials, and prevents the growth of facultative anaerobes, which frequently contaminate anaerobic cultures.

Alexander J. B. Zehnder; Karl Wuhrmann

1976-01-01

359

Reduction and immobilization of radionuclides and toxic metal ions using combined zero valent iron and anaerobic bacteria. Year one technical progress report  

SciTech Connect

'The objective of this project is to design a combined abiotic/microbial, reactive, permeable, in-situ barrier with sufficient reductive potential to prevent downgradient migration of toxic metal ions. The field-scale application of this technology would utilize anaerobic digester sludge, Fe(O) particles for supporting anaerobic biofilms, and suitable aquifer material for construction of the barrier. The major goals for Year 1 were to establish the sulfate reducing mixed culture, to obtain sources of iron metal, and to conduct background experiments which will establish baseline rates for abiotic chromium reduction rates. Research completed to date is described.'

Weathers, L.J.; Katz, L.E.

1997-10-01

360

Genome characteristics of facultatively symbiotic Frankia sp. strains reflect host range and host plant biogeography.  

PubMed

Soil bacteria that also form mutualistic symbioses in plants encounter two major levels of selection. One occurs during adaptation to and survival in soil, and the other occurs in concert with host plant speciation and adaptation. Actinobacteria from the genus Frankia are facultative symbionts that form N(2)-fixing root nodules on diverse and globally distributed angiosperms in the "actinorhizal" symbioses. Three closely related clades of Frankia sp. strains are recognized; members of each clade infect a subset of plants from among eight angiosperm families. We sequenced the genomes from three strains; their sizes varied from 5.43 Mbp for a narrow host range strain (Frankia sp. strain HFPCcI3) to 7.50 Mbp for a medium host range strain (Frankia alni strain ACN14a) to 9.04 Mbp for a broad host range strain (Frankia sp. strain EAN1pec.) This size divergence is the largest yet reported for such closely related soil bacteria (97.8%-98.9% identity of 16S rRNA genes). The extent of gene deletion, duplication, and acquisition is in concert with the biogeographic history of the symbioses and host plant speciation. Host plant isolation favored genome contraction, whereas host plant diversification favored genome expansion. The results support the idea that major genome expansions as well as reductions can occur in facultative symbiotic soil bacteria as they respond to new environments in the context of their symbioses. PMID:17151343

Normand, Philippe; Lapierre, Pascal; Tisa, Louis S; Gogarten, Johann Peter; Alloisio, Nicole; Bagnarol, Emilie; Bassi, Carla A; Berry, Alison M; Bickhart, Derek M; Choisne, Nathalie; Couloux, Arnaud; Cournoyer, Benoit; Cruveiller, Stephane; Daubin, Vincent; Demange, Nadia; Francino, Maria Pilar; Goltsman, Eugene; Huang, Ying; Kopp, Olga R; Labarre, Laurent; Lapidus, Alla; Lavire, Celine; Marechal, Joelle; Martinez, Michele; Mastronunzio, Juliana E; Mullin, Beth C; Niemann, James; Pujic, Pierre; Rawnsley, Tania; Rouy, Zoe; Schenowitz, Chantal; Sellstedt, Anita; Tavares, Fernando; Tomkins, Jeffrey P; Vallenet, David; Valverde, Claudio; Wall, Luis G; Wang, Ying; Medigue, Claudine; Benson, David R

2006-12-06

361

One carbon metabolism in anaerobic bacteria: Regulation of carbon and electron flow during organic acid production. Progress report, June 1990--May 1992  

SciTech Connect

This reporting period, progress is reported on the following: metabolic pathway of solvent production in B. methylotrophicum; the biochemical mechanism for metabolic regulation of the succinate fermentation; models to understand the physiobiochemical function of formate metabolism in anaerobes and; models for understanding the influence of low pH on one carbon metabolism. (CBS)

Zeikus, J.G.; Jain, M.K.

1992-04-01

362

Energetics of End Product Excretion in Anaerobic Bacteria and the Metabolism of Fatty Acids by Syntrophomonas Wolfei. Progress Report, January 31-December 15, 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work addresses the metabolism of fatty acids and the energetics of growth of the anaerobic, syntrophic, fatty acid-degrading bacterium, Syntrophomonas wolfei. S. wolfei degrades C sub 4 to C sub 8 straight chain fatty acids to acetate and H sub 2 or ...

M. J. McInerney

1985-01-01

363

Energetics of end product excretion in anaerobic bacteria and the metabolism of fatty acids by Syntrophomonas wolfei. Progress report, January 31December 15, 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work addresses the metabolism of fatty acids and the energetics of growth of the anaerobic, syntrophic, fatty acid-degrading bacterium, Syntrophomonas wolfei. S. wolfei degrades Câ to Câ straight chain fatty acids to acetate and Hâ or acetate, propionate and Hâ; isoheptanoate is degraded to isovalerate, acetate, and Hâ. S. wolfei can not use any common bacterial energy source that

1985-01-01

364

Transcriptome Dynamics during the Transition from Anaerobic Photosynthesis to Aerobic Respiration in Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1 is a facultative photosynthetic anaerobe that grows by anoxygenic photosyn- thesis under anaerobic-light conditions. Changes in energy generation pathways under photosynthetic and aerobic respiratory conditions are primarily controlled by oxygen tensions. In this study, we performed time series microarray analyses to investigate transcriptome dynamics during the transition from anaerobic pho- tosynthesis to aerobic respiration. Major changes in

Hiroyuki Arai; Jung Hyeob Roh; Samuel Kaplan

2008-01-01

365

Anaerobic degradation of 4-hydroxybenzoate: Reductive dehydroxylation of 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA and ATP formation during 4-hydroxybenzoate decarboxylation by the phenol-metabolizing bacteria of a stable, strictly anaerobic consortium  

Microsoft Academic Search

4-Hydroxybenzoate was activated with coenzyme A by cells of a strictly anaerobic, phenol-degrading mixed culture to 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA, which was reductively dehydroxylated to benzoyl-CoA with reduced benzylviologen as an electron donor. The specific activity of the 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA ligase in cell-free extracts of the culture was 100–200 nmol min-1 mg-1, that of 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA reductase 14.5 nmol min-1 mg-1. An increased growth yield

C. Gallert; J. Winter

1994-01-01

366

Comparative in vitro activity of ceftaroline, ceftaroline-avibactam, and other antimicrobial agents against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria cultured from infected diabetic foot wounds.  

PubMed

Foot infections are the most common infectious complication of diabetes. Moderate to severe diabetic foot infections (DFI) are typically polymicrobial with both aerobic and anaerobic organisms. The role of MRSA in these wounds has become an increasing concern. To determine if the addition of avibactam, a novel non-beta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitor, to ceftaroline would be more active than ceftaroline alone, we tested 316 aerobic pathogens and 154 anaerobic recovered from patients with moderate to severe DFI, and compared ceftaroline with and without avibactam to other agents. Testing on aerobes was done by broth microdilution and by agar dilution for anaerobes, according to CLSI M11-A8, and M7-A8 standards. Ceftaroline-avibactam MIC90 for all Staphylococcus spp. including MRSA was 0.5 ?g/mL, and for enterococci was 1 ?g/mL. The MIC90s for enteric Gram-negative rods was 0.125 ?g/mL. The addition of avibactam to ceftaroline reduced the ceftaroline MICs for 2 strains of resistant Enterobacter spp. and for 1 strain of Morganella. Against anaerobic Gram-positive cocci ceftaroline-avibactam had an MIC90 0.125 ?g/mL and for clostridia 1 ?g/mL. Avibactam improved ceftaroline's MIC90s for Bacteroides fragilis from >32 to 2 ?g/mL and for Prevotella spp. from >32 to 1 ?g/mL. Ceftaroline alone demonstrates excellent in vitro activity against most of the aerobes found in moderate to severe DFI. The addition of avibactam provides an increased spectrum of activity including the beta-lactamase producing Prevotella, Bacteroides fragilis and ceftaroline resistant gram-negative enteric organisms. PMID:23623385

Goldstein, Ellie J C; Citron, Diane M; Merriam, C Vreni; Tyrrell, Kerin L

2013-04-24

367

Anaerobic processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major review of the status of research and technology of anaerobic processes to convert wastes and biomass to energy. Among the topics covered are: the microbiology of cellulose hydrolysis and ethanol production, acidogenesis and methanogenesis; process characterization; process optimization; and process application. A summary of selected operation and performance data from anaerobic digestion studies is presented. (Refs. 79).

K. F. Fannin; J. R. Conrad; D. E. Jerger; V. Srivastava; S. Ghosh; D. P. Chynoweth

1981-01-01

368

Sulfur oxidation in rice field soil: activity, enumeration, isolation and characterization of thiosulfate-oxidizing bacteria.  

PubMed

In rice paddy fields the bulk soil is anoxic, but oxygenated zones occur in the surrounding of the rice roots to where oxygen is transported via the aerenchyma system of the rice plants. In the anaerobic soil compartments sulfate is consumed by sulfate-reducing bacteria. In the rhizosphere the reduced sulfur compounds can be reoxidized by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Measurements of the potential activity of thiosulfate-oxidizing bacteria in soil slurries derived from planted rice soil microcosms showed turnover rates of 2-6 mumol d-1 g-dw-1. Thiosulfate was oxidized to sulfate with tetrathionate as intermediate. Most probable number (MPN) enumeration with three aerobic media and one anaerobic nitrate-amended medium showed that thiosulfate-oxidizing bacteria were abundant in paddy soil and in rhizosphere soil at numbers of 10(5) to 10(6) per gram dry weight soil. Nine isolates of S-oxidizing bacteria were obtained from enrichment cultures or from the highest dilutions of the MPN series and were affiliated to four different phylogenetic groups. These isolates were characterized by physiological properties and by comparative 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Three isolates (TA1-AE1, TA1-A1 and TA12-21) were shown to be facultatively chemolithoautotrophic strains of Ancylobacter aquaticus. Three further isolates (Tv6-2b, Z2A-6A and Z4A-2A) were also facultatively chemolithoautotrophic and were affiliated with the Xanthobacter sp. group, probably representing new strains of X. flavus or X. tagetidis. Strain SZ-2111 was phylogenetically related to Bosea thiooxidans. However, the genus Bosea is described as obligately heterotrophic, whereas strain 5Z-2111 was able to grow autotrophically. The isolates 5Z-C1 and TBW3 were obligate chemolithoautotrophs and were closely affiliated with Thiobacillus thioparus. Our results showed that S-oxidizing bacteria were abundant and active in rice paddy soil and consisted of physiologically and phylogenetically diverse populations. PMID:9924825

Stubner, S; Wind, T; Conrad, R

1998-12-01

369

Comparison of two matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry methods and API 20AN for identification of clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is suitable for high-throughput and rapid microbial diagnosis at relatively low cost and can be considered an alternative to conventional biochemical and molecular identification systems in clinical microbiological laboratories, including anaerobe laboratories. Two commercially available MALDI-TOF MS systems, Bruker Microflex MS and bioMérieux VITEK MS, were evaluated for the identification of 274 isolates of clinically significant anaerobic bacteria recovered from routine cultures of clinical specimens in parallel with blinded comparison with conventional biochemical (API 20AN) or molecular methods. All were recovered cultures obtained from patients attending the Mubarak Al Kabir Hospital, Kuwait, during a 6 month period. Discrepant results after two attempts at direct colony testing had failed to provide acceptable MALDI-TOF identification were resolved by gold-standard 16S gene sequencing. The VITEK MS gave high-confidence identification of the 274 isolates, all of which were correctly identified. The Bruker Microflex MS system also gave high-confidence identification for 272 of the 274. After discrepancy testing, the Bruker MS results agreed with biochemical or molecular methods for 89.1 % of the isolates at species level and 10.2 % at genus level (0.72 % were misidentified). The level of agreement with the VITEK MS was 100 % at both species and genus level; no isolates were misidentified. Our data suggest that implementation of MALDI-TOF MS as a first step for identification will shorten the turnaround time and reduce the cost in the anaerobe laboratory. PMID:23242640

Jamal, Wafaa Y; Shahin, May; Rotimi, Vincent O

2012-12-14

370

Kinetics of anaerobic purification of industrial wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the development of an integral mathematical model describing the up-flow anaerobic sludges blanket (UASB) reactor, the kinetics of the conversion of organic wastes has to be known. The Mondod model is compared with the model proposed by Andrews, et al. Together with the assumption that the substrate for the anaerobic bacteria is formed by nonionized, volatile fatty

W. L. Bolle; J. van Breugel; G. C. van Eybergen; N. W. F. Kossen; W. van Gils

1986-01-01

371

Anaerobic Digestion of Agricultural Solid Residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural residues can be converted to methane-rich gas mixture. Anaerobic biomethane production is an effective process for conversion of a broad variety of agricultural residues to methane to substitute natural gas and medium calorific value gases. Methane generating bacteria (methanogens) and other microbes that help digest dying plants in anaerobic conditions. Agricultural solid residues (ASR) represent a potential energy resource

Ayhan Demirbas; Temel Ozturk

2005-01-01

372

Anaerobic Infections in Children with Neurological Impairments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with neurological impairments are prone to develop serious infection with anaerobic bacteria. The most common anaerobic infections are decubitus ulcers; gastrostomy site wound infections; pulmonary infections (aspiration pneumonia, lung abscesses, and tracheitis); and chronic suppurative otitis media. The unique microbiology of each of…

Brook, Itzhak

1995-01-01

373

Anaerobic Infections in Children with Neurological Impairments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children with neurological impairments are prone to develop serious infection with anaerobic bacteria. The most common anaerobic infections are decubitus ulcers; gastrostomy site wound infections; pulmonary infections (aspiration pneumonia, lung abscesses, and tracheitis); and chronic suppurative otitis media. The unique microbiology of each of…

Brook, Itzhak

1995-01-01

374

Antibiotics and anaerobes of gut origin.  

PubMed

Hundreds of bacterial species make up human gut flora. Of these, 99% are anaerobic bacteria. Although anaerobes are part of the normal commensal flora, they can become opportunistic pathogens, causing serious, sometimes fatal infections if they escape from the colonic milieu. Most often, this escape occurs as a result of perforation, surgery, diverticulitis or cancer. Infections involving anaerobic bacteria are often difficult to treat because antibiotic resistance is increasing among the genera, mediated primarily through horizontal transfer of a plethora of mobile DNA transfer factors. Some of these transfer factors can also be transmitted to aerobic bacteria. It is becoming increasingly clear that antibiotic resistance trends have to be carefully monitored, and the transfer factors and mechanisms of transfer understood at a molecular level to avoid negative clinical outcomes when infections involve anaerobic bacteria. PMID:14572537

Vedantam, Gayatri; Hecht, David W

2003-10-01

375

Factors Affecting Acetate Degradation in Anaerobic Digesters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acetate is the major source of methane produced in anaerobic digestion, accounting for about two thirds of all the methane produced. The major methanogenic bacteria responsible for this reaction are /ital Methanosarcina barkeri/ and /ital Methanosarcina m...

R. A. Mah D. R. Boone

1988-01-01

376

Sulfuritalea hydrogenivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a facultative autotroph isolated from a freshwater lake.  

PubMed

A novel facultatively autotrophic bacterium, designated strain sk43H(T), was isolated from water of a freshwater lake in Japan. Cells of the isolate were curved rods, motile and gram-reaction-negative. Strain sk43H(T) was facultatively anaerobic and autotrophic growth was observed only under anaerobic conditions. The isolate oxidized thiosulfate, elemental sulfur and hydrogen as sole energy sources for autotrophic growth and could utilize nitrate as an electron acceptor. Growth was observed at 8-32 °C (optimum 25 °C) and 6.4-7.6 (optimum pH 6.7-6.9). Optimum growth of the isolate occurred at NaCl concentrations of less than 50 mM. The G+C content of genomic DNA was around 67 mol%. The fatty acid profile of strain sk43H(T) when grown on acetate under aerobic conditions was characterized by the presence of C(16?:?0) and summed feature 3 (C(16?:?1)?7c and/or iso-C(15?:?0) 2-OH) as the major components. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the strain was a member of the class Betaproteobacteria showing highest sequence similarity with Georgfuchsia toluolica G5G6(T) (94.7?%) and Denitratisoma oestradiolicum AcBE2-1(T) (94.3?%). Phylogenetic analyses were also performed using genes involved in sulfur oxidation. On the basis of its phylogenetic and phenotypic properties, strain sk43H(T) (?=?DSM 22779(T) ?=?NBRC 105852(T)) represents a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Sulfuritalea hydrogenivorans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:20709913

Kojima, Hisaya; Fukui, Manabu

2010-08-13

377

Growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria under acidic conditions in an upflow anaerobic bioreactor as a treatment system for acid mine drainage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this investigation was to develop a system for the remediation of acid mine drainage using sulphate-reducing bacteria. An upflow porous medium bioreactor was inoculated with sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and operated under acidic conditions. The reactor was operated under continuous flow and was shown to be capable of sulfate reduction at pH 4.5, 4.0, 3.5 and 3.25 in

Phillip Elliott; Santo Ragusa; David Catcheside

1998-01-01

378

Evaluation of the Use of PCR and Reverse Transcriptase PCR for Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria in Biosolids from Anaerobic Digestors and Aerobic Composters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A PCR-based method and a reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR)-based method were developed for the detection of pathogenic bacteria in organic waste, using Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Staphylococcus aureus as model organisms. In seeded organic waste samples, detection limits of less than 10 cells per g of organic waste were achieved after one-step enrichment of bacteria, isolation, and

Carola Burtscher; Stefan Wuertz

2003-01-01

379

The capacity of hydrogenotrophic anaerobic bacteria to compete for traces of hydrogen depends on the redox potential of the terminal electron acceptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of different electron acceptors on substrate degradation was studied in pure and mixed cultures of various hydrogenotrophic homoacetogenic, methanogenic, sulfate-reducing, fumarate-reducing and nitrate-ammonifying bacteria. Two different species of these bacteria which during organic substrate degradation produce and consume hydrogen, were cocultured on a substrate which was utilized only by one of them. Hydrogen, which was excreted as intermediate

Ralf Cord-Ruwisch; Hans-Jiirgen Seitz; Ralf Conrad

1988-01-01

380

Anaerobic metabolic processes in the deep terrestrial subsurface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic microorganisms were enumerated and metabolic activities measured in deep Coastal Plain sediments sampled from three water?bearing formations at depths down to 300 m. Aseptically obtained sediment cores harbored the potential for anaerobic biodegradation of various substrates in almost all samples. Although the sediments were not predominantly anaerobic, viable methanogens and sulfate?reducing bacteria (SRB) were present almost throughout the depth

Ralph E. Jones; Ralph E. Beeman; Joseph M. Suflita

1989-01-01

381

Sulfate-reducing bacteria and their activities in cyanobacterial mats of Solar Lake (Sinai, Egypt)  

SciTech Connect

The sulfate-reducing bacteria within the surface layer of the hypersaline cyanobacterial mat of Solar Lake (Sinai, Egypt) were investigated with combined microbiological, molecular, and biogeochemical approaches. The diurnally oxic surface layer contained between 10{sup 6} and 10{sup 7} cultivable sulfate-reducing bacteria ml{sup {minus}1} day{sup {minus}1}, both in the same range as and sometimes higher than those in anaerobic deeper mat layers. In the oxic surface layer and in the mat layers below, filamentous sulfate-reducing Desulfonema bacteria were found in variable densities of 10{sup 4} and 10{sup 6} cells ml{sup {minus}1}. A Desulfonema-related, diurnally migrating bacterium was detected with PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis within and below the oxic surface layer. Facultative aerobic respiration, filamentous morphology, motility, diurnal migration, and aggregate formation were the most conspicuous adaptations of Solar Lake sulfate-reducing bacteria to the mat matrix and to diurnal oxygen stress. A comparison of sulfate reduction rates within the mat and previously published photosynthesis rates showed that CO{sub 2} from sulfate reduction in the upper 5 mm accounted for 7 to 8% of the total photosynthetic CO{sub 2} demand of the mat.

Teske, A.; Ramsing, N.B.; Habicht, K.; Kuever, J.; Joergensen, B.B. [Max Planck Inst. for Marine Microbiology, Bremen (Germany); Fukui, Manabu [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Cohen, Y. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel)

1998-08-01

382

Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates.  

PubMed

Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)-asexual reproduction by bisexual species-has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes-the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted. PMID:22977071

Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F; Eskridge, Pamela H; Hoss, Shannon K; Mendelson, Joseph R; Schuett, Gordon W

2012-09-12

383

In vitro comparison of the activity of RU 28965, a new macrolide, with that of erythromycin against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

RU 28965, a novel macrolide antibiotic, inhibited most gram-positive species at concentrations similar to that of erythromycin but was not active, even at alkaline pH, against Pseudomonas spp. or members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Staphylococci and streptococci resistant to erythromycin were resistant to RU 28965. RU 28965 inhibited Haemophilus influenzae, including a number of beta-lactamase, ampicillin-resistant isolates, and Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae at concentrations similar to those of erythromycin. Against anaerobic species, Bacteroides fragilis and Clostridia and Fusobacterium spp., RU 28965 was less active than erythromycin, but its activity against Campylobacter and Legionella spp. was similar to that of erythromycin.

Barlam, T; Neu, H C

1984-01-01

384

Interaction between smectite and bacteria: Implications for bentonite as backfill material in the disposal of nuclear waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents experimental results on the interaction between smectite clays (nontronite and MX80 bentonite) and the facultative anaerobic, heterotrophic Shewanella putrefaciens in two types of conditions: i) batch experiments with low solid to liquid ratios and agitated oxygenated conditions and ii) reaction-cell experiments with high solid to liquid ratios in anaerobic, confined volume conditions. The former was chosen to

Julia N. Perdrial; Laurence N. Warr; Nicolas Perdrial; Marie-Claire Lett; Francoise Elsass

2009-01-01

385

Sulfide production in anaerobic microcosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The source of free sulfide in tidal flat sediments and the mechanisms leading to its generation were investigated by growing mixed cultures of anaerobic sediment bacteria in media containing organic material extracted from sediments and benthic algae. Sulfide pro- duction was observed in all cultures; stoichiometric considerations indicated sulfate reduc- tion was the most important mechanism. Sulfide production rates were

Alan E. Ramml; DAVID A. BELLA

1974-01-01

386

NADH-linked aldose reductase: the key to anaerobic alcoholic fermentation of xylose by yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics and enzymology of d-xylose utilization were studied in aerobic and anaerobic batch cultures of the facultatively fermentative yeasts Candida utilis, Pachysolen tannophilus, and Pichia stipitis. These yeasts did not produce ethanol under aerobic conditions. When shifted to anaerobiosis cultures of C. utilis did not show fermentation of xylose; in Pa. tannophilus a very low rate of ethanol formation

Peter M. Bruinenberg; Peter H. M. Bot; Johannes P. Dijken; W. Alexander Scheffers

1984-01-01

387

Energetics of end product excretion in anaerobic bacteria and the metabolism of fatty acids by Syntrophomonas wolfei: Progress report, March 15, 1985--June 30, 1988  

SciTech Connect

We developed methods to physically separate cells of the anaerobic, fatty acid degrade, Syntrophomonas wolfei, from cells of the hydrogen user by Percoll gradient centrifugation and to selectively lyse S. wolfei cells using lysozyme. These methods allowed the study of the physiology of S. wolfei without significant contamination. Fatty acids were degraded by the B-oxidation pathway using a coenzyme A (CoA) transferase activity to activate the fatty acid and substrate- level phosphorylation reactions to synthesize. The substrate specificity of the CoA transferase activity in the pure culture of S. wolfei differed from that found in the coculture suggesting that the ability to use crotonate resulted from an alteration of this enzyme. S. wolfei grown alone degraded crotonate in a manner similar to that of other crotonate-fermenting anaerobes, but the molar growth yields of S. wolfei were 2 to 3 times higher than those organisms. This suggests that the reduction of crotonyl-CoA to butyryl-CoA is energy yielding. S. wolfei contained a c-type cytochrome which may be involved in this reaction. S. wolfei synthesized large amounts of the storage polymer, poly-B-hydroxybutyrate.

McInerney, M.J.

1988-01-01

388

Cytochrome cd1-containing nitrite reductase encoding gene nirS as a new functional biomarker for detection of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (Anammox) bacteria.  

PubMed

A newly designed primer set (AnnirS), together with a previously published primer set (ScnirS), was used to detect anammox bacterial nirS genes from sediments collected from three marine environments. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that all retrieved sequences were clearly different from typical denitrifiers' nirS, but do group together with the known anammox bacterial nirS. Sequences targeted by ScnirS are closely related to Scalindua nirS genes recovered from the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), whereas sequences targeted by AnnirS are more closely affiliated with the nirS of Candidatus 'Kuenenia stuttgartiensis' and even form a new phylogenetic nirS clade, which might be related to other genera of the anammox bacteria. Analysis demonstrated that retrieved sequences had higher sequence identities (>60%) with known anammox bacterial nirS genes than with denitrifiers' nirS, on both nucleotide and amino acid levels. Compared to the 16S rRNA and hydrazine oxidoreductase (hzo) genes, the anammox bacterial nirS not only showed consistent phylogenetic relationships but also demonstrated more reliable quantification of anammox bacteria because of the single copy of the nirS gene in the anammox bacterial genome and the specificity of PCR primers for different genera of anammox bacteria, thus providing a suitable functional biomarker for investigation of anammox bacteria. PMID:21417444

Li, Meng; Ford, Tim; Li, Xiaoyan; Gu, Ji-Dong

2011-03-21

389

The effect of hydraulic residence time and initial COD concentration on color and COD removal performance of the anaerobic–aerobic SBR system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anaerobic–aerobic sequencing batch reactor, SBR, was operated with a textile dyestuff (Remazol Rot RR) containing synthetic wastewater at different anaerobic–aerobic residence times (?Hanaerobic=2–19h) and initial COD concentrations (COD0=400–1800mgl?1). The total reaction time was kept constant at 23h in all experiments. A dyestuff biodegrading facultative anaerobic bacterial consortium called PDW was used as the dominant bacterial culture. The environmental conditions

Ilgi Karapinar Kapdan; Rukiye Oztekin

2006-01-01

390

Siderophore Production by Pseudomonas stutzeri under Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions?  

PubMed Central

The siderophore production of the facultative anaerobe Pseudomonas stutzeri, strain CCUG 36651, grown under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, was investigated by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The bacterial strain has been isolated at a 626-m depth at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory, where experiments concerning the geological disposal of nuclear waste are performed. In bacterial culture extracts, the iron in the siderophore complexes was replaced by gallium to facilitate siderophore identification by mass spectrometry. P. stutzeri was shown to produce ferrioxamine E (nocardamine) as the main siderophore together with ferrioxamine G and two cyclic ferrioxamines having molecular masses 14 and 28 atomic mass units lower than that of ferrioxamine E, suggested to be ferrioxamine D2 and ferrioxamine X1, respectively. In contrast, no siderophores were observed from anaerobically grown P. stutzeri. None of the siderophores produced by aerobically grown P. stutzeri were found in anaerobic natural water samples from the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory.

Essen, Sofia A.; Johnsson, Anna; Bylund, Dan; Pedersen, Karsten; Lundstrom, Ulla S.

2007-01-01

391

Inhibition of Nitrate Reduction by Chromium(VI) in Anaerobic Soil Microcosms?  

PubMed Central

Chromium is often found as a cocontaminant at sites polluted with organic compounds. For nitrate-respiring microbes, Cr(VI) may be not only directly toxic but may also specifically interfere with N reduction. In soil microcosms amended with organic electron donors, Cr(VI), and nitrate, bacteria oxidized added carbon, but relatively low doses of Cr(VI) caused a lag and then lower rates of CO2 accumulation. Cr(VI) strongly inhibited nitrate reduction; it occurred only after soluble Cr(VI) could not be detected. However, Cr(VI) additions did not eliminate Cr-sensitive populations; after a second dose of Cr(VI), bacterial activity was strongly inhibited. Differences in microbial community composition (assayed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) driven by different organic substrates (glucose and protein) were smaller than when other electron acceptors had been used. However, the selection of bacterial phylotypes was modified by Cr(VI). Nine isolated clades of facultatively anaerobic Cr(VI)-resistant bacteria were closely related to cultivated members of the phylum Actinobacteria or Firmicutes. In Bacillus cereus GNCR-4, the nature of the electron donor (fermentable or nonfermentable) affected Cr(VI) resistance level and anaerobic nitrate metabolism. Our results indicate that carbon utilization and nitrate reduction in these soils were contingent upon the reduction of added Cr(VI). The amount of Cr(VI) required to inhibit nitrate reduction was 10-fold less than for aerobic catabolism of the same organic substrate. We speculate that the resistance level of a microbial process is directly related to the diversity of microbes capable of conducting it.

Kourtev, Peter S.; Nakatsu, Cindy H.; Konopka, Allan

2009-01-01

392

Arsenic metabolism in marine bacteria and yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic metabolism was studied for two marine microorganisms, a facultative anaerobic bacterium, Serratia marinorubra, and an obligately aerobic yeast, Rhodotorula rubra. Both were cultivated in media with (74As) arsenate (As V), and the products of arsenate metabolism were determined qualitatively. Both the bacterium and the yeast produced arsenite (AS III) and methylarsonic acid [CH3AsO(OH)2]. In addition to the foregoing, only

F. V. Vidal; V. M. V. Vidal

1980-01-01

393

Reduction and immobilization of radionuclides and toxic metal ions using combined zero valent iron and anaerobic bacteria. 1998 annual progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

'Previous research findings indicate that both zero valent iron and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) can yield significant decreases in Cr(VI) or U(VI) concentrations due to abiotic and microbial reduction, respectively. The major hypothesis associated with this research project is that a combined abiotic-biological system can synergistically combine both processes to maximize metal ion reduction in an engineered permeable reactive barrier.

Weathers

1998-01-01

394

Methylophilus: a New Genus of Methanol-Utilizing Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new genus, Methyluphilus, and species of restricted facultative methanol-utilizing bacteria are described. These bacteria are aerobic gram-negative rods that occur singly and in pairs. In addition to methanol and glucose, a limited range of other carbon compounds including fructose and methylamines may be used as the sole carbon and energy source. The fatty acid composition is primarily of the

OWEN JENKINS; DAVID BYROM; DOROTHY JONES

395

Susceptibilities of 428 gram-positive and -negative anaerobic bacteria to Bay y3118 compared with their susceptibilities to ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, metronidazole, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and cefoxitin.  

PubMed Central

The susceptibilities of 428 gram-negative and gram-positive anaerobes (including selected cefoxitin-resistant strains) to Bay y3118 (a new fluoroquinolone), ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, metronidazole, cefoxitin, piperacillin, and piperacillin-tazobactam were tested. Organisms comprised 115 Bacteroides fragilis group, 116 non-B. fragilis Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Porphyromonas spp., 40 fusobacteria, 58 peptostreptococci, 48 gram-positive non-spore-forming rods, and 51 clostridia. beta-Lactamase production was demonstrated in 87% of the gram-negative rods but in none of the gram-positive organisms. Overall, Bay y3118 was the most active agent, with all organisms inhibited at an MIC of < or = 2.0 micrograms/ml (MICs for 50% [MIC50] and 90% [MIC90] of strains tested, 0.125 and 0.5 microgram/ml, respectively). By contrast, ciprofloxacin was much less active, with only 42% of strains susceptible at a breakpoint of 2.0 micrograms/ml (MIC50, 4.0 micrograms/ml; MIC90, 16.0 micrograms/ml). Metronidazole was active against all gram-negative rods, but 7% of peptostreptococci, 83% of gram-positive non-spore-forming rods, and 4% of non-Clostridium perfringens, non-Clostridium difficile clostridia were resistant to this agent (MICs, > 16.0 micrograms/ml). Clindamycin was active against 94% of Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Porphyromonas spp., 91% of peptostreptococci, and 100% of gram-positive non-spore-forming rods, but was active against only 70% of fusobacteria and 53% of clostridia. Cefoxitin was active against > or = 90% of all groups except the B. fragilis group and non-Propionibacterium acnes gram-positive non-spore-forming rods (both 85%) and C. difficile (20%). Significant enhancement of piperacillin by tazobactam was seen in all beta-lactamase-positive strains (99% susceptible; MIC90, 8.0 micrograms/ml), and all beta-lactamase-negative strains were susceptible to piperacillin (MIC90, 8.0 micrograms/ml). Clinical studies are required to delineate the role of Bay y3118 in the treatment of anaerobic infections.

Pankuch, G A; Jacobs, M R; Appelbaum, P C

1993-01-01

396

The diversity and fitness effects of infection with facultative endosymbionts in the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae.  

PubMed

Mutualisms with facultative, non-essential heritable microorganisms influence the biology of many insects, and they can have major effects on insect host fitness in certain situations. One of the best-known examples is found in aphids where the facultative endosymbiotic bacterium Hamiltonella defensa confers protection against hymenopterous parasitoids. This symbiont is widely distributed in aphids and related insects, yet its defensive properties have only been tested in two aphid species. In a wild population of the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, we identified several distinct strains of endosymbiotic bacteria, including Hamiltonella. The symbiont had no consistent effect on grain aphid fecundity, though we did find a significant interaction between aphid genotype by symbiont status. In contrast to findings in other aphid species, Hamiltonella did not reduce aphid susceptibility to two species of parasitoids (Aphidius ervi and Ephedrus plagiator), nor did it affect the fitness of wasps that successfully completed development. Despite this, experienced females of both parasitoid species preferentially oviposited into uninfected hosts when given a choice between genetically identical individuals with or without Hamiltonella. Thus, although Hamiltonella does not always increase resistance to parasitism, it may reduce the risk of parasitism in its aphid hosts by making them less attractive to searching parasitoids. PMID:23624672

Lukasik, Piotr; Dawid, Maciej A; Ferrari, Julia; Godfray, H Charles J

2013-04-27

397

Isolation and Identification of Cellulolytic Bacteria from the Gut of Holotrichia parallela Larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).  

PubMed

In this study, 207 strains of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria were isolated from the gut of Holotrichia parallela larvae. These bacterial isolates were assigned to 21 genotypes by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). A partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis and standard biochemical and physiological tests were used for the assignment of the 21 representative isolates. Our results show that the cellulolytic bacterial community is dominated by the Proteobacteria (70.05%), followed by the Actinobacteria (24.15%), the Firmicutes (4.35%), and the Bacteroidetes (1.45%). At the genus level, Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas, Ochrobactrum, Rhizobium, Cellulosimicrobium, and Microbacterium were the predominant groups, but members of Bacillus, Dyadobacter, Siphonobacter, Paracoccus, Kaistia, Devosia, Labrys, Ensifer, Variovorax, Shinella, Citrobacter, and Stenotrophomonas were also found. Furthermore, our results suggest that a significant amount of bacterial diversity exists among the cellulolytic bacteria, and that Siphonobacter aquaeclarae, Cellulosimicrobium funkei, Paracoccus sulfuroxidans, Ochrobactrum cytisi, Ochrobactrum haematophilum, Kaistia adipata, Devosia riboflavina, Labrys neptuniae, Ensifer adhaerens, Shinella zoogloeoides, Citrobacter freundii, and Pseudomonas nitroreducens are reported to be cellulolytic for the first time in this study. Our results indicate that the scarab gut is an attractive source for the study of novel cellulolytic microorganisms and enzymes useful for cellulose degradation. PMID:22489111

Huang, Shengwei; Sheng, Ping; Zhang, Hongyu

2012-02-23

398

Comparative in vitro activity of 1-oxa-beta-lactam (LY127935) and cefoperazone with other beta-lactam antibiotics against anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activity of 1-oxa-beta-lactam (LY127935), cefoperazone (T-1551), cefuroxime, cefsulodin, cefaclor, cefotaxime, and cefoxitin on 85 anaerobic clinical isolates (30 Bacteroides, 30 Clostridium, 25 Peptococcaceae) was simultaneously determined by the agar dilution test in two different media, Brucella Agar (Difco Laboratories) and Wilkins-Chalgren agar. In Wilkins-Chalgren agar, 90% of Bacteroides were inhibited by (micrograms per milliliter): LY127935, 0.5; T-1551, 64; cefoxitin or cefuroxime, 8; cefsulodin or cefotaxime, 32; and cefaclor, 128. All Clostridia were inhibited in Wilkins-Chalgren by (micrograms per milliliter): LY127935, 4; T-1551, 2; cefoxitin, 6; cefuroxime, 0.12; cefsulodin, 0.5; cefaclor, 1; and cefotaxime, 8. All Peptococccaceae were inhibited by T-1551, cefsulodin or cefotaxime at 4 microgram/ml and by cefoxitin or cefuroxime at 1 to 2 microgram/ml. With cefaclor at 8 microgram/ml, 92% of strains were inhibited, and LY127935 at 16 microgram/ml only inhibited 64% of strains. LY127935 was the most active of the antibiotics tested against Bacteroides, showing good activity against Clostridia and poor activity on Peptococcaceae, whereas T-1551 was more active against Peptococccaceae and had similar activity against Clostridia and poor activity on Bacteroides. There are no significant differences between minimal inhibitory concentrations obtained in Brucella Agar and those obtained in Wilkins-Chalgren.

Borobio, M V; Aznar, J; Jimenez, R; Garcia, F; Perea, E J

1980-01-01

399

Anaerobic Phenol Degradation by Microorganisms of Swine Manure  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Swine manure contains diverse groups of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. An anaerobic bacterial consortium containing sulfate-reducing\\u000a bacteria (SRB) and acetate-utilizing methanogenic bacteria was isolated from swine manure. This consortium used phenol as\\u000a its sole source of carbon and converted it to methane and CO2. The sulfate-reducing bacterial members of the consortium are the incomplete oxidizers, unable to carry out

Ramaraj Boopathy

1997-01-01

400

Complete genome sequences for the anaerobic, extremely thermophilic plant biomass-degrading bacteria Caldicellulosiruptor hydrothermalis, Caldicellulosiruptor kristjanssonii, Caldicellulosiruptor kronotskyensis, Caldicellulosiruptor owensenis, and Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus  

SciTech Connect

The genus Caldicellulosiruptor contains the most thermophilic, plant biomass-degrading bacteria isolated to date. Previously, genome sequences from three cellulolytic members of this genus were reported (C. saccharolyticus, C. bescii, and C. obsidiansis). To further explore the physiological and biochemical basis for polysaccharide degradation within this genus, five additional genomes were sequenced: C. hydrothermalis, C. kristjanssonii, C. kronotskyensis, C. lactoaceticus, and C. owensensis. Taken together, the seven completed and one draft-phase Caldicellulosiruptor genomes suggest that, while central metabolism is highly conserved, significant differences in glycoside hydrolase inventories and numbers of carbohydrate transporters exist, a finding which likely relates to variability observed in plant biomass degradation capacity.

Blumer-Schuette, Sara E. [North Carolina State University; Ozdemir, Inci [North Carolina State University; Mistry, Dhaval [North Carolina State University; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Walston Davenport, Karen [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Adams, Michael W. W. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Kelly, Robert M [North Carolina State University

2011-01-01

401

Oceanobacillus polygoni sp. nov., a facultatively alkaliphile isolated from indigo fermentation fluid.  

PubMed

A facultatively alkaliphilic, lactic-acid-producing and halophilic strain, designated SA9(T), was isolated from a fermented Polygonum indigo (Polygonum tinctorium Lour.) liquor sample prepared in a laboratory. The 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny suggested that strain SA9(T) was a member of the genus Oceanobacillus with the closest relative being Oceanobacillus profundus KCCM 42318(T) (99.3?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). Cells of strain SA9(T) stained Gram-positive and were facultative anaerobic straight rods that were motile by peritrichous flagella. The strain grew between 5 and 48 °C (optimum, 35 °C) and at pH 7-12 (optimum, pH 9). The isoprenoid quinone detected was menaquinone-7 (MK-7) and the DNA G+C content was 40.6±0.9 mol%. The whole-cell fatty acid profile mainly consisted of iso-C15?:?0, anteiso-C15?:?0, C16?:?0 and anteiso-C17?:?0. DNA-DNA hybridization with Oceanobacillus profundus DSM 18246(T) revealed a DNA-DNA relatedness value of 23±2?%. On the basis of the differences in phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, and the results of phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and DNA-DNA relatedness data from recognized species of the genus Oceanobacillus, strain SA9(T) merits classification as a representative of a novel species of the genus Oceanobacillus, for which the name Oceanobacillus polygoni sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SA9(T) (?=?JCM 17252(T)?=?NCIMB 14684(T)). An emended description of the genus Oceanobacillus is also provided. PMID:23504965

Hirota, Kikue; Hanaoka, Yoshiko; Nodasaka, Yoshinobu; Yumoto, Isao

2013-03-15

402

Corrosion of carbon steel influenced by anaerobic biofilm in natural seawater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacteria in the anaerobic biofilm on rusted carbon steel immersed in natural seawater were characterized by culturing and molecular biology techniques. Two types of anaerobic bacterium, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) Desulfovibrio caledoniensis and iron-reducing bacteria Clostridium sp. uncultured were found. The compositions of the rust layer were also analyzed and we found that iron oxide and sulfate green rust were

Jizhou Duan; Suru Wu; Xiaojun Zhang; Guiqiao Huang; Min Du; Baorong Hou

2008-01-01

403

Anaerobic Respiration of Escherichia coli in the Mouse Intestine ?  

PubMed Central

The intestine is inhabited by a large microbial community consisting primarily of anaerobes and, to a lesser extent, facultative anaerobes, such as Escherichia coli, which we have shown requires aerobic respiration to compete successfully in the mouse intestine (S. A. Jones et al., Infect. Immun. 75:4891-4899, 2007). If facultative anaerobes efficiently lower oxygen availability in the intestine, then their sustained growth must also depend on anaerobic metabolism. In support of this idea, mutants lacking nitrate reductase or fumarate reductase have extreme colonization defects. Here, we further explore the role of anaerobic respiration in colonization using the streptomycin-treated mouse model. We found that respiratory electron flow is primarily via the naphthoquinones, which pass electrons to cytochrome bd oxidase and the anaerobic terminal reductases. We found that E. coli uses nitrate and fumarate in the intestine, but not nitrite, dimethyl sulfoxide, or trimethylamine N-oxide. Competitive colonizations revealed that cytochrome bd oxidase is more advantageous than nitrate reductase or fumarate reductase. Strains lacking nitrate reductase outcompeted fumarate reductase mutants once the nitrate concentration in cecal mucus reached submillimolar levels, indicating that fumarate is the more important anaerobic electron acceptor in the intestine because nitrate is limiting. Since nitrate is highest in the absence of E. coli, we conclude that E. coli is the only bacterium in the streptomycin-treated mouse large intestine that respires nitrate. Lastly, we demonstrated that a mutant lacking the NarXL regulator (activator of the NarG system), but not a mutant lacking the NarP-NarQ regulator, has a colonization defect, consistent with the advantage provided by NarG. The emerging picture is one in which gene regulation is tuned to balance expression of the terminal reductases that E. coli uses to maximize its competitiveness and achieve the highest possible population in the intestine.

Jones, Shari A.; Gibson, Terri; Maltby, Rosalie C.; Chowdhury, Fatema Z.; Stewart, Valley; Cohen, Paul S.; Conway, Tyrrell

2011-01-01

404

Anaerobic Metabolism and Bioremediation of Explosives-Contaminated Soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitroaromatic compounds pollute soil, water, and food via use of pesticides, plastics, pharmaceuticals, landfill dumping of industrial wastes, and the military use of explosives. Biotransformation of trinitrotoluene and other nitroaromatics by aerobic bacteria in the laboratory has been frequently reported, but the anaerobic bacterial metabolism of nitroaromatics has not been studied as extensively perhaps due to the difficulty in working with anaerobic cultures and the slow growth of anaerobes. Sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria can metabolize nitroaromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions if appropriate electron donors and electron acceptors are present in the environment.

Boopathy, Raj

405

Characterization of selected nutrients and bacteria from anaerobic swine manure lagoons on sow, nursery, and finisher farms in the Mid-South USA.  

PubMed

Swine (Sus scrofa domestica) production in the Mid-South USA comprises sow, nursery, and finisher farms. A 2007 packing plant closure started a regional shift from finisher to sow and nursery farms. Changes in manure stored in lagoons and land-applied as fertilizer were expected but were unknown because nutrient and bacterial levels had not been characterized by farm type. The objectives of this study were to quantify selected nutrients and bacteria, compare levels by farm types, and project impacts of production shifts. Nutrients and bacteria were characterized in 17 sow, 10 nursery, and 10 finisher farm lagoons. Total and thermotolerant coliforms, Escherichia coli (Migula) Castellani and Chalmers, Enterococcus spp., Clostridium perfringens (Veillon and Zuber) Hauduroy et al., Campylobacter spp., Listeria spp., and Salmonella spp. were evaluated. Highest levels were from total coliforms (1.4- 5.7x10(5) cfu 100 mL(-1)), which occurred with E. coli, Campylobacter spp., C. perfringens, and Enterococcus spp., in every lagoon and virtually every sample. Lowest levels were from Listeria spp. and Salmonella spp. (

McLaughlin, Michael R; Brooks, John P; Adeli, Ardeshir

2009-10-29

406

3D model for a secondary facultative pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a comprehensive model of wastewater treatment in secondary facultative ponds, which combines 3D hydrodynamics with a mechanistic water quality model. The hydrodynamics are based on the Navier–Stokes equation for incompressible fluids under shallow water and Boussinesq assumptions capturing the flow dynamics along length, breadth and depth of the pond. The water quality sub model is based on

Leena Sah; Diederik P. L. Rousseau; Christine M. Hooijmans; Piet N. L. Lens

2011-01-01

407

Primary photochemistry in the facultatively aerobic green photosynthetic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus  

PubMed Central

Photochemical activity was examined in membrane fragments and a purified membrane preparation from Chloroflexus. Flash-induced absorption difference spectroscopy strongly suggests a primary donor (P865) that is more similar to the P870 bacteriochlorophyll a dimer found in the purple photosynthetic bacteria than it is to P840 found in the anaerobic green bacteria. Redox measurements on P865 and an early acceptor also indicate a photochemical system characteristic of the purple bacteria. The membrane preparation contains a tightly bound type c cytochrome, c554, that is closely coupled to the reaction center as indicated by its ability to rereduce photooxidized P865. Chloroflexus thus appears to be distinct photochemically from other families of photosynthetic bacteria and may occupy an important role in photosynthetic evolution.

Bruce, Barry D.; Fuller, R. Clinton; Blankenship, Robert E.

1982-01-01

408

Thermodesulfovibrio aggregans sp. nov. and Thermodesulfovibrio thiophilus sp. nov., anaerobic, thermophilic, sulfate-reducing bacteria isolated from thermophilic methanogenic sludge, and emended description of the genus Thermodesulfovibrio.  

PubMed

Four obligately anaerobic, thermophilic, sulfate-reducing bacterial strains, designated TGE-P1(T), TDV(T), TGL-LS1 and TSL-P1, were isolated from thermophilic (operated at 55 degrees C) methanogenic sludges from waste and wastewater treatment. The optimum temperature for growth of all the strains was in the range 55-60 degrees C. The four strains grew by reduction of sulfate with a limited range of electron donors, such as hydrogen, formate, pyruvate and lactate. In co-culture with the hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus DeltaH(T), strains TGE-P1(T), TGL-LS1 and TSL-P1 were able to utilize lactate syntrophically for growth. The DNA G+C contents of all the strains were in the range 34-35 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids of the strains were iso-C(17 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0), C(16 : 0) and anteiso-C(15 : 0). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the strains belong to the Thermodesulfovibrio clade of the phylum 'Nitrospirae'. On the basis of their physiological, chemotaxonomic and genetic properties, strains TGL-LS1 (=JCM 13214) and TSL-P1 (=JCM 13215) were classified as strains of Thermodesulfovibrio islandicus. Two novel species of the genus Thermodesulfovibrio are proposed to accommodate the other two isolates: Thermodesulfovibrio aggregans sp. nov. (type strain TGE-P1(T) =JCM 13213(T) =DSM 17283(T)) and Thermodesulfovibrio thiophilus sp. nov. (type strain TDV(T) =JCM 13216(T) =DSM 17215(T)). To examine the ecological aspects of Thermodesulfovibrio-type cells in the sludge from which the strains were originally isolated, an oligonucleotide probe targeting 16S rRNA of all Thermodesulfovibrio species was designed and applied to thin sections of thermophilic sludge granules. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using the probe revealed rod- or vibrio-shaped cells as a significant population within the sludge, indicating their important role in the original ecosystem. PMID:18984690

Sekiguchi, Yuji; Muramatsu, Mizuho; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Narihiro, Takashi; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Harada, Hideki; Hanada, Satoshi; Kamagata, Yoichi

2008-11-01

409

Bellilinea caldifistulae gen. nov., sp. nov. and Longilinea arvoryzae gen. nov., sp. nov., strictly anaerobic, filamentous bacteria of the phylum Chloroflexi isolated from methanogenic propionate-degrading consortia.  

PubMed

Thermophilic (strain GOMI-1(T)) and mesophilic (strain KOME-1(T)) strains were isolated from two different cultures of propionate-degrading consortia obtained from thermophilic digester sludge and rice paddy soil, respectively. The two strains were non-spore-forming, non-motile and Gram-negative. Both strains were obligately anaerobic micro-organisms, showing multicellular filamentous morphotypes more than 100 mum in length. The cell width for strain GOMI-1(T) was 0.2-0.4 mum and that of strain KOME-1(T) was 0.4-0.6 mum. Strain GOMI-1(T) could grow at 45-65 degrees C with a pH range of 6.0-7.5 (optimum growth at 55 degrees C, pH 7.0). The temperature range for growth of strain KOME-1(T) was 30-40 degrees C and the pH range was pH 5.0-8.5 (optimum growth around 37 degrees C, pH 7.0). Yeast extract was required for growth of both strains. Strain GOMI-1(T) was able to grow with a number of carbohydrates in the presence of yeast extract. In yeast extract-containing medium, strain KOME-1(T) could utilize proteins and a limited range of sugars for growth. The G+C contents of the DNA of strains GOMI-1(T) and KOME-1(T) were respectively 54.7 and 57.6 mol%. Major fatty acids of strain GOMI-1(T) were C(16 : 0), C(14 : 0) and iso-C(15 : 0), whereas those of strain KOME-1(T) were iso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(15 : 0) and C(14 : 0). Based on comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains GOMI-1(T) and KOME-1(T), the strains were placed in different phylogenetic positions in the class Anaerolineae of the bacterial phylum Chloroflexi. Their phenotypic and genetic traits strongly supported the conclusion that the strains should be described as two independent taxa in the class Anaerolineae. Hence, we propose the names Bellilinea caldifistulae gen. nov., sp. nov., and Longilinea arvoryzae gen. nov., sp. nov., for strains GOMI-1(T) and KOME-1(T). The type strains of Bellilinea caldifistulae and Longilinea arvoryzae are respectively GOMI-1(T) (=JCM 13669(T) =DSM 17877(T)) and KOME-1(T) (=JCM 13670(T) =KTCC 5380(T)). PMID:17911301

Yamada, Takeshi; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Harada, Hideki; Hanada, Satoshi; Kamagata, Yoichi; Sekiguchi, Yuji

2007-10-01

410

Dehydration of (R)-2-hydroxyacyl-CoA to enoyl-CoA in the fermentation of alpha-amino acids by anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

Several clostridia and fusobacteria ferment alpha-amino acids via (R)-2-hydroxyacyl-CoA, which is dehydrated to enoyl-CoA by syn-elimination. This reaction is of great mechanistic interest, since the beta-hydrogen, to be eliminated as proton, is not activated (pK 40-50). A mechanism has been proposed, in which one high-energy electron acts as cofactor and transiently reduces the electrophilic thiol ester carbonyl to a nucleophilic ketyl radical anion. The 2-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratases are two-component systems composed of an extremely oxygen-sensitive component A, an activator, and component D, the actual dehydratase. Component A, a homodimer with one [4Fe-4S]cluster, transfers an electron to component D, a heterodimer with 1-2 [4Fe-4S]clusters and FMN, concomitant with hydrolysis of two ATP. From component D the electron is further transferred to the substrate, where it facilitates elimination of the hydroxyl group. In the resulting enoxyradical the beta-hydrogen is activated (pK14). After elimination the electron is handed-over to the next incoming substrate without further hydrolysis of ATP. The helix-cluster-helix architecture of component A forms an angle of 105 degrees, which probably opens to 180 degrees upon binding of ATP resembling an archer shooting arrows. Therefore we designated component A as 'Archerase'. Here, we describe 2-hydroxyglutaryl-CoA dehydratase from Acidaminococcus fermentans, Clostridium symbiosum and Fusobacterium nucleatum, 2-phenyllactate dehydratase from Clostridium sporogenes, 2-hydroxyisocaproyl-CoA dehydratase from Clostridium difficile, and lactyl-CoA dehydratase from Clostridium propionicum. A relative of the 2-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratases is benzoyl-CoA reductase from Thauera aromatica. Analogous but unrelated archerases are the iron proteins of nitrogenase and bacterial protochlorophyllide reductase. In anaerobic organisms, which do not oxidize 2-oxo acids, a second energy-driven electron transfer from NADH to ferredoxin, the electron donor of component A, has been established. The transfer is catalysed by a membrane-bound NADH-ferredoxin oxidoreductase driven by an electrochemical Na(+)-gradient. This enzyme is related to the Rnf proteins involved in Rhodobacter capsulatus nitrogen fixation. PMID:15374661

Kim, Jihoe; Hetzel, Marc; Boiangiu, Clara Dana; Buckel, Wolfgang

2004-10-01

411

Direct identification of bacteria from BacT/ALERT anaerobic positive blood cultures by MALDI-TOF MS: MALDI Sepsityper kit versus an in-house saponin method for bacterial extraction.  

PubMed

In cases of bacteraemia, a rapid species identification of the causal agent directly from positive blood culture broths could assist clinicians in the timely targeting of empirical antimicrobial therapy. For this purpose, we evaluated the direct identification of micro-organisms from BacT/ALERT (bioMérieux) anaerobic positive blood cultures without charcoal using the Microflex matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time of flight MS (Bruker), after bacterial extraction by using two different methods: the MALDI Sepsityper kit (Bruker) and an in-house saponin lysis method. Bruker's recommended criteria for identification were expanded in this study, with acceptance of the species identification when the first three results with the best matches with the MALDI Biotyper database were identical, whatever the scores were. In total, 107 monobacterial cultures and six polymicrobial cultures from 77 different patients were included in this study. Among monomicrobial cultures, we identified up to the species level 67 and 66?% of bacteria with the MALDI Sepsityper kit and the saponin method, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two extraction methods. The direct species identification was particularly inconclusive for Gram-positive bacteria, as only 58 and 52?% of them were identified to the species level with the MALDI Sepsityper kit and the saponin method, respectively. Results for Gram-negative bacilli were better, with 82.5 and 90?% of correct identification to the species level with the MALDI Sepsityper kit and the saponin method, respectively. No misidentifications were given by the direct procedures when compared with identifications provided by the conventional method. Concerning the six polymicrobial blood cultures, whatever the extraction method used, a correct direct identification was only provided for one of the isolated bacteria on solid medium in all cases. The analysis of the time-to-result demonstrated a reduction in the turnaround time for identification ranging from 1 h 06 min to 24 h 44 min, when performing the blood culture direct identification in comparison with the conventional method, whatever the extraction method. PMID:22837218

Meex, Cécile; Neuville, Florence; Descy, Julie; Huynen, Pascale; Hayette, Marie-Pierre; De Mol, Patrick; Melin, Pierrette

2012-07-26

412

Aerobic and Anaerobic Microbiology of Wound Infection following Spinal Fusion in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of wound infections following spinal fusion in children. Methods: Retrospective review of clinical and microbiological records. Results: Aspirates of pus from 18 infection sites showed bacterial growth. Anaerobic bacteria only were recovered in 3 (17%) specimens, aerobic bacteria only in 3 (17%) and mixed aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in 12 (67%). Forty-two

Itzhak Brook; Edith H. Frazier

2000-01-01

413

Analysis of Facultative Lithotroph Distribution and Diversity on Volcanic Deposits by Use of the Large Subunit of Ribulose 1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase\\/Oxygenase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 492- to 495-bp fragment of the gene coding for the large subunit of the form I ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase\\/oxygenase (RubisCO) (rbcL) was amplified by PCR from facultatively lithotrophic aerobic CO- oxidizing bacteria, colorless and purple sulfide-oxidizing microbial mats, and genomic DNA extracts from tephra and ash deposits from Kilauea volcano, for which atmospheric CO and hydrogen have been previously

K. Nanba; G. M. King; K. Dunfield

2004-01-01

414

The anaerobic biosynthesis of vitamin B12.  

PubMed

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a cobalt-containing modified tetrapyrrole that is an essential nutrient for higher animals. Its biosynthesis is restricted to certain bacteria and requires approximately 30 enzymatic steps for its complete de novo construction. Remarkably, two distinct biosynthetic pathways exist, which are termed the aerobic and anaerobic routes. The anaerobic pathway has yet to be fully characterized due to the inherent instability of its oxygen-sensitive intermediates. Bacillus megaterium, a bacterium previously used for the commercial production of cobalamin, has a complete anaerobic pathway and this organism is now being used to investigate the anaerobic B12 pathway through the application of recent advances in recombinant protein production. The present paper provides a summary of recent findings in the anaerobic pathway and future perspectives. PMID:22616870

Moore, Simon J; Warren, Martin J

2012-06-01

415

Microbiology and physiology of anaerobic fermentations of cellulose. Progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulytic bacteria, cellobiose fermentors, sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogenic bacteria have been isolated from established anaerobic mesophilic and thermophilic cellulose-methane fermentations and these isolates, plus known laboratory strains, have been employed to partially reconstitute highly active cellulose fermentations. These mixed cultures will be utilized as model systems to study the parameters required for the maximum production of CHâ, Hâ and chemical

H. D. Jr. Peck; L. G. Ljungdahl

2008-01-01

416

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation improvement via a novel capsule bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study developed a capsule bioreactor made from polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to entrap anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) bacteria for the removal of nitrogen from synthetic wastewater. Experimental results demonstrate that the ANAMMOX bacteria were entrapped inside the capsule and not washed out from the bioreactor. This method also avoids damaging the ANAMMOX bacteria during immobilization. The proposed bioreactor also has

W. P. Chou; S. K. Tseng; C. M. Ho

2012-01-01

417

The role of atypical bacteria in chronic rhinosinusitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem: Conflicting studies exist on the microbiology of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), but none identify atypical bacteria, owing to these bacteria’s fastidious nature. Atypical bacteria are common causes of pneumonia. However, their role in upper respiratory disease is less clear. Recently the polymerase chain reaction has been valuable in detecting aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, fungi, and viruses implicated in chronic rhinosinusitis.

Raymond E. Lee; Sarita Kaza; Gregory V. Plano; Roy R. Casiano

2004-01-01

418

Normal luminal bacteria, especially Bacteroides species, mediate chronic colitis, gastritis, and arthritis in HLA-B27/human beta2 microglobulin transgenic rats.  

PubMed Central

Genetic and environmental factors are important in the pathogenesis of clinical and experimental chronic intestinal inflammation. We investigated the influence of normal luminal bacteria and several groups of selected bacterial strains on spontaneous gastrointestinal and systemic inflammation in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. Rats maintained germfree for 3-9 mo were compared with littermates conventionalized with specific pathogen-free bacteria. Subsequently, germfree transgenic rats were colonized with groups of five to eight bacteria that were either facultative or strictly anaerobic. Transgenic germfree rats had no gastroduodenitis, colitis, or arthritis, but developed epididymitis and dermatitis to the same degree as conventionalized rats. Colonic proinflammatory cytokine expression was increased in transgenic conventionalized rats but was undetectable in germfree and nontransgenic rats. Colitis progressively increased over the first 4 wk of bacterial exposure, then plateaued. Only transgenic rats colonized with defined bacterial cocktails which contained Bacteroides spp. had colitis and gastritis. Normal luminal bacteria predictably and uniformly induce chronic colonic, gastric and systemic inflammation in B27 transgenic F344 rats, but all bacterial species do not have equal activities.

Rath, H C; Herfarth, H H; Ikeda, J S; Grenther, W B; Hamm, T E; Balish, E; Taurog, J D; Hammer, R E; Wilson, K H; Sartor, R B

1996-01-01

419

Biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate by a two-member facultative anaerobic bacterial consortium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bacterial consortium capable of degrading the linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) was isolated from the wastewater treatment plant. The bacterial consortium consisted of two members, Pantoea agglomerans and Serratia odorifera 2. Cells were g