Sample records for facultative anaerobic bacteria

  1. Cultivation of anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria from spacecraft-associated clean rooms.

    PubMed

    Stieglmeier, Michaela; Wirth, Reinhard; Kminek, Gerhard; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2009-06-01

    In the course of this biodiversity study, the cultivable microbial community of European spacecraft-associated clean rooms and the Herschel Space Observatory located therein were analyzed during routine assembly operations. Here, we focused on microorganisms capable of growing without oxygen. Anaerobes play a significant role in planetary protection considerations since extraterrestrial environments like Mars probably do not provide enough oxygen for fully aerobic microbial growth. A broad assortment of anaerobic media was used in our cultivation strategies, which focused on microorganisms with special metabolic skills. The majority of the isolated strains grew on anaerobic, complex, nutrient-rich media. Autotrophic microorganisms or microbes capable of fixing nitrogen were also cultivated. A broad range of facultatively anaerobic bacteria was detected during this study and also, for the first time, some strictly anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium and Propionibacterium) were isolated from spacecraft-associated clean rooms. The multiassay cultivation approach was the basis for the detection of several bacteria that had not been cultivated from these special environments before and also led to the discovery of two novel microbial species of Pseudomonas and Paenibacillus. PMID:19363082

  2. Cultivation of Anaerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Bacteria from Spacecraft-Associated Clean Rooms?

    PubMed Central

    Stieglmeier, Michaela; Wirth, Reinhard; Kminek, Gerhard; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2009-01-01

    In the course of this biodiversity study, the cultivable microbial community of European spacecraft-associated clean rooms and the Herschel Space Observatory located therein were analyzed during routine assembly operations. Here, we focused on microorganisms capable of growing without oxygen. Anaerobes play a significant role in planetary protection considerations since extraterrestrial environments like Mars probably do not provide enough oxygen for fully aerobic microbial growth. A broad assortment of anaerobic media was used in our cultivation strategies, which focused on microorganisms with special metabolic skills. The majority of the isolated strains grew on anaerobic, complex, nutrient-rich media. Autotrophic microorganisms or microbes capable of fixing nitrogen were also cultivated. A broad range of facultatively anaerobic bacteria was detected during this study and also, for the first time, some strictly anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium and Propionibacterium) were isolated from spacecraft-associated clean rooms. The multiassay cultivation approach was the basis for the detection of several bacteria that had not been cultivated from these special environments before and also led to the discovery of two novel microbial species of Pseudomonas and Paenibacillus. PMID:19363082

  3. Metabolism of tannin-protein complex by facultatively anaerobic bacteria isolated from koala feces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ro Osawa; Terry P. Walsh; Steven J. Cork

    1993-01-01

    The metabolic pathways involved in degradation of tannin-protein complex (T-PC) were investigated in various facultatively anaerobic bacteria, with specific reference to fecal isolates from the koala including T-PC-degrading enterobacteria (T-PCDE),Streptococcus bovis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, andK. oxytoca. It was demonstrated that T-PCDE andS. bovis biotype I were capable of degrading protein complexed with gallotannin (a hydrolyzable tannin), but not that complexed with

  4. Transcriptional regulation and energetics of alternative respiratory pathways in facultatively anaerobic bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gottfried Unden

    1998-01-01

    The facultatively anaerobic Escherichia coli is able to grow by aerobic and by anaerobic respiration. Despite the large difference in the amount of free energy that could maximally be conserved from aerobic versus anaerobic respiration, the proton potential and ?g?Phos are similar under both conditions. O2 represses anaerobic respiration, and nitrate represses fumarate respiration. By this the terminal reductases of

  5. Characterization of the biochemical-pathway of uranium (VI) reduction in facultative anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mtimunye, Phalazane J; Chirwa, Evans M N

    2014-10-01

    Cultures of U(VI) reducing bacteria sourced from abandoned uranium mine tailing dam were evaluated for their ability to reduce U(VI) to U(IV). The species in the cultures reduced U(VI) in solutions with initial U(VI) concentration up to 400mgL(-)(1) under a near neutral pH of 6.5. The electron flow pathway and fate of reduced species was also analysed in the individual species in order to evaluate the potential for control and optimisation of the reduction potential at the biochemical level. The results showed that U(VI) reduction in live cells was completely blocked by the NADH-dehydrogenase inhibitor, rotenone (C23H22O6), and thioredoxin inhibitor, cadmium chloride (CdCl2), showing that U(VI) reduction involves the electron flow through NADH-dehydrogenase, a primary electron donor to the electron transport respiratory (ETR) system. Mass balance analysis of uranium species aided by visual and electron microscopy suggest that most U(VI) reduction occurred on the cell surface of the isolated species. This finding indicates the possibility of easy uranium recovery for beneficial use through biological remediation. Should the U(VI) be reduced inside the cell, recovery would require complete disruption of the cells and therefore would be difficult. The study contributes new knowledge on the underlying mechanisms in the U(VI) reduction in facultative anaerobes. PMID:25065785

  6. Cultivation of Anaerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Bacteria from Spacecraft-Associated Clean Rooms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michaela Stieglmeier; Reinhard Wirth; Gerhard Kminek; Christine Moissl-Eichinger

    2009-01-01

    In the course of this biodiversity study, the cultivable microbial community of European spacecraft-associ- ated clean rooms and the Herschel Space Observatory located therein were analyzed during routine assembly operations. Here, we focused on microorganisms capable of growing without oxygen. Anaerobes play a signif- icant role in planetary protection considerations since extraterrestrial environments like Mars probably do not provide enough

  7. Aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria associated with the gut of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and whistling swans (Cygnus columbianus columbianus).

    PubMed

    Damaré, J M; Hussong, D; Weiner, R M; Colwell, R R

    1979-08-01

    Aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria from the intestinal tracts of swans and geese were isolated and characterized as part of a larger study of the microbiological effects of migratory waterfowl on water quality. A total of 356 isolates were identified by using rapid identification methods and classified by using numerical taxonomy. A diverse population of bacteria was recovered from the waterfowl, and representative strains could be classified into 21 phena. The majority of the aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria found in the gut of the waterfowl were species of Enterobacteriaceae. Streptococcus. Lactobacillus, and Bacillus. Unfortunately, the birds that were examined did not harbor significant numbers of any waterfowl-specific bacterial species. Thus, it may not be possible to assess microbiological impact of migratory waterfowl by using and "indicator" species since avian fecal pollution could not be distinguished from animal and human fecal pollution. PMID:518085

  8. Aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria associated with the gut of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and whistling swans (Cygnus columbianus columbianus).

    PubMed Central

    Damaré, J M; Hussong, D; Weiner, R M; Colwell, R R

    1979-01-01

    Aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria from the intestinal tracts of swans and geese were isolated and characterized as part of a larger study of the microbiological effects of migratory waterfowl on water quality. A total of 356 isolates were identified by using rapid identification methods and classified by using numerical taxonomy. A diverse population of bacteria was recovered from the waterfowl, and representative strains could be classified into 21 phena. The majority of the aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria found in the gut of the waterfowl were species of Enterobacteriaceae. Streptococcus. Lactobacillus, and Bacillus. Unfortunately, the birds that were examined did not harbor significant numbers of any waterfowl-specific bacterial species. Thus, it may not be possible to assess microbiological impact of migratory waterfowl by using and "indicator" species since avian fecal pollution could not be distinguished from animal and human fecal pollution. PMID:518085

  9. Facultative or obligate anaerobic bacteria have the potential for multimodality therapy of solid tumours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming Q. Wei; Kay A. O. Ellem; Paul Dunn; Malcolm J. West; Chun Xue Bai; Bert Vogelstein

    2007-01-01

    Recent understanding of the unique pathology of solid tumours has shed light on the difficult and disappointing nature of their clinical treatment. All solid tumours undergo angiogenesis that results in biological changes and adaptive metabolisms, i.e. formation of defective vessels, appearance of hypoxic areas, and emergence of an heterogeneous tumour cell population.This micro-milieu provides a haven for anaerobic bacteria. The

  10. Arsenate and Selenate Reduction by Some Facultative Bacteria in the Nile Delta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ghada A. Youssef; Samy A. El-Aassar; Mahmoud Berekaa; Mohamed El-Shaer; J. Stolz

    2 Abstract: Facultative anaerobic bacteria capable of reducing arsenate and selenate oxyanions were isolated from water and sediment samples collected from sites contaminated with industrial and agricultural wastes from Kafr el Dawar and Edko (Behera Governorate) and from kafr el Zayat (Gharbeya Governorate). Microbiological analysis and heavy metals determination of the collected samples was carried out. Three of the obtained

  11. Isolation of hexavalent chromium-reducing Cr-tolerant facultative anaerobes from tannery effluent.

    PubMed

    Srinath, Thiruneelakantan; Khare, Shilpi; Ramteke, Pramod W.

    2001-12-01

    Several facultative anaerobes tolerant to high levels of chromate (>400 mg/ml) were isolated from tannery effluents. These isolates displayed varying degrees of Cr(VI) reduction under aerobic and anaerobic conditions at room temperature (24+/-2 degrees C). Interestingly, eight isolates were efficient in reducing 70% Cr(VI) anaerobically. This includes 5 isolates of genus Aerococcus, two isolates of Micrococcus and single isolate of genus Aeromonas. These isolates were subjected to further characterization for possible use in Cr(VI) detoxification of industrial wastes. This is the first report of Aerococcus sp. capable of Cr(VI) reduction >70% anaerobically. These bacteria were further checked for tolerance to a variety of other heavy metals. Our study indicates the possible use of these bacteria in environmental clean up. PMID:12483605

  12. Iron-reducing bacteria unravel novel strategies for the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Carmona; Eduardo Díaz

    2005-01-01

    Summary Although the aerobic degradation of aromatic com- pounds has been extensively studied in many microorganisms, the anaerobic mineralization of the aromatic ring is a more recently discovered microbial capacity on which very little information is available from facultative anaerobic bacteria. In this issue of Molecular Microbiology , Wischgoll and colleagues use proteomic and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approaches

  13. Characteristics of bacteria isolated by the anaerobic roll-tube method from cheeses and ground beef.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, W M; Johnson, M G

    1976-01-01

    In this study the methods of Hungate were used to quantitate the anaerobic bacteria present in commercially available ground beef, cheddar cheese, and German hand cheese. Of 235 anaerobic roll-tube isolates from ground beef and German hand cheese, all were facultative anaerobes. Of 213 anaerobic roll-tube isolates from cheddar cheese, 91% were facultative anaerobes and 9% were obligate anaerobes. Using results of biochemical tests, 14 or the 17 obligately anaerobic isolates from cheddar cheese were Propionibacterium acnes, two were strains of Propionibacterium that could not be speciated, and one was tentatively identified as a strain of Streptococcus evolutus. Obligate anaerobes were estimated to be present in the cheddar cheese at a level of about 10(6)/g. The possible significance of these levels of P. acnes in nonsterile foods is discussed. PMID:793523

  14. Anaerobic bacteria from hypersaline environments.

    PubMed Central

    Ollivier, B; Caumette, P; Garcia, J L; Mah, R A

    1994-01-01

    Strictly anaerobic halophiles, namely fermentative, sulfate-reducing, homoacetogenic, phototrophic, and methanogenic bacteria are involved in the oxidation of organic carbon in hypersaline environments. To date, six anaerobic fermentative genera, containing nine species, have been described. Two of them are homoacetogens. Six species belong to the family Haloanaerobiaceae, as indicated by their unique 16S rRNA oligonucleotide sequences. Desulfohalobium retbaense and Desulfovibrio halophilus represent the only two moderately halophilic sulfate reducers so far reported. Among anoxygenic phototrophic anaerobes, a few purple bacteria with optimal growth at salinities between 6 and 11% NaCl have been isolated from hypersaline habitats. They belong to the genera Rhodospirillum, Chromatium, Thiocapsa, and Ectothiorhodospira. The commonest organisms isolated so far are Chromatium salexigens, Thiocapsa halophila, and Rhodospirillum salinarum. Extremely halophilic purple bacteria have most commonly been isolated from alkaline brines and require about 20 to 25% NaCl for optimal growth. They belong to the family Ectothiorodhospiraceae. Their osmoregulation involves synthesis or uptake of compatible solutes such as glycine-betaine that accumulate in their cytoplasm. The existence of methanogens in hypersaline environments is related to the presence of noncompetitive substrates such as methylamines, which originate mainly from the breakdown of osmoregulatory amines. Methanogenesis probably does not contribute to the mineralization of carbohydrates at NaCl concentrations higher than 15%. Above this concentration, sulfate reduction is probably the main way to oxidize H2 (although at rates too low to use up all the H2 formed) and occupies a terminal function kn the degradation of carbohydrates. Three genera and five species of halophilic methylotrophic methanogens have been reported. A bloom of phototrophic bacteria in the marine salterns of Salins-de-Giraud, located on the Mediterranean French coast in the Rhone Delta, is also described. PMID:8177169

  15. Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans , sp. nov.; facultatively anaerobic, psychrotolerant iron-, and sulfur-oxidizing acidophiles isolated from metal mine-impacted environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin B. Hallberg; Elena González-Toril; D. Barrie Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Phenotypic and genotypic analysis was carried out on four iron- and sulfur-oxidizing acidophilic bacteria (the “NO-37 group”)\\u000a isolated from different parts of the world. 16S rRNA phylogeny showed that they are highly related to each other, but are\\u000a less related to the type strain of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The NO-37 group isolates are obligate chemolithoautotrophs, facultative anaerobes, diazotrophic, and psychrotolerant. They

  16. Culturable aerobic and facultative bacteria from the gut of the polyphagic dung beetle Thorectes lusitanicus.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Noemi; Escudero, José A; San Millán, Álvaro; González-Zorn, Bruno; Lobo, Jorge M; Verdú, José R; Suárez, Mónica

    2015-04-01

    Unlike other dung beetles, the Iberian geotrupid, Thorectes lusitanicus, exhibits polyphagous behavior; for example, it is able to eat acorns, fungi, fruits, and carrion in addition to the dung of different mammals. This adaptation to digest a wider diet has physiological and developmental advantages and requires key changes in the composition and diversity of the beetle's gut microbiota. In this study, we isolated aerobic, facultative anaerobic, and aerotolerant microbiota amenable to grow in culture from the gut contents of T. lusitanicus and resolved isolate identity to the species level by sequencing 16S rRNA gene fragments. Using BLAST similarity searches and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses, we were able to reveal that the analyzed fraction (culturable, aerobic, facultative anaerobic, and aerotolerant) of beetle gut microbiota is dominated by the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Among Proteobacteria, members of the order Enterobacteriales (Gammaproteobacteria) were the most abundant. The main functions associated with the bacteria found in the gut of T. lusitanicus would likely include nitrogen fixation, denitrification, detoxification, and diverse defensive roles against pathogens. PMID:24339348

  17. Differential Susceptibility of Bacteria to Mouse Paneth Cell ?-Defensins under Anaerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mastroianni, Jennifer R.; Lu, Wuyuan; Selsted, Michael E.; Ouellette, André J.

    2014-01-01

    Small intestinal Paneth cells secrete ?-defensin peptides, termed cryptdins (Crps) in mice, into the intestinal lumen, where they confer immunity to oral infections and define the composition of the ileal microbiota. In these studies, facultative bacteria maintained under aerobic or anaerobic conditions displayed differential sensitivities to mouse ?-defensins under in vitro assay conditions. Regardless of oxygenation, Crps 2 and 3 had robust and similar bactericidal activities against S. Typhimurium and S. flexneri, but Crp4 activity against S. flexneri was attenuated in the absence of oxygen. Anaerobic bacteria varied in their susceptibility to Crps 2–4, with Crp4 showing less activity than Crps 2 and 3 against Enterococcus faecalis, and Bacteroides fragilis in anaerobic assays, but Fusobacterium necrophorum was killed only by Crp4 and not by Crps 2 and 3. The influence of anaerobiosis in modulating Crp bactericidal activities in vitro suggests that ?-defensin effects on the enteric microbiota may be subject to regulation by local oxygen tension. PMID:25383215

  18. Growth of the facultative anaerobe Shewanella putrefaciens by elemental sulfur reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, D. P.; Nealson, K. H.

    1996-01-01

    The growth of bacteria by dissimilatory elemental sulfur reduction is generally associated with obligate anaerobes and thermophiles in particular. Here we describe the sulfur-dependent growth of the facultatively anaerobic mesophile Shewanella putrefaciens. Six of nine representative S. putrefaciens isolates from a variety of environments proved able to grow by sulfur reduction, and strain MR-1 was chosen for further study. Growth was monitored in a minimal medium (usually with 0.05% Casamino Acids added as a growth stimulant) containing 30 mM lactate and limiting concentrations of elemental sulfur. When mechanisms were provided for the removal of the metabolic end product, H2S, measurable growth was obtained at sulfur concentrations of from 2 to 30 mM. Initial doubling times were ca. 1.5 h and substrate independent over the range of sulfur concentrations tested. In the cultures with the highest sulfur concentrations, cell numbers increased by greater than 400-fold after 48 h, reaching a maximum density of 6.8 x 10(8) cells ml-1. Yields were determined as total cell carbon and ranged from 1.7 to 5.9 g of C mol of S(0) consumed-1 in the presence of the amino acid supplement and from 0.9 to 3.4 g of C mol of S(0-1) in its absence. Several lines of evidence indicate that cell-to-sulfur contact is not required for growth. Approaches for the culture of sulfur-metabolizing bacteria and potential ecological implications of sulfur reduction in Shewanella-like heterotrophs are discussed.

  19. Genomic Analysis of Melioribacter roseus, Facultatively Anaerobic Organotrophic Bacterium Representing a Novel Deep Lineage within Bacteriodetes/Chlorobi Group

    PubMed Central

    Kadnikov, Vitaly V.; Mardanov, Andrey V.; Podosokorskaya, Olga A.; Gavrilov, Sergey N.; Kublanov, Ilya V.; Beletsky, Alexey V.; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A.; Ravin, Nikolai V.

    2013-01-01

    Melioribacter roseus is a moderately thermophilic facultatively anaerobic organotrophic bacterium representing a novel deep branch within Bacteriodetes/Chlorobi group. To better understand the metabolic capabilities and possible ecological functions of M. roseus and get insights into the evolutionary history of this bacterial lineage, we sequenced the genome of the type strain P3M-2T. A total of 2838 open reading frames was predicted from its 3.30 Mb genome. The whole proteome analysis supported phylum-level classification of M. roseus since most of the predicted proteins had closest matches in Bacteriodetes, Proteobacteria, Chlorobi, Firmicutes and deeply-branching bacterium Caldithrix abyssi, rather than in one particular phylum. Consistent with the ability of the bacterium to grow on complex carbohydrates, the genome analysis revealed more than one hundred glycoside hydrolases, glycoside transferases, polysaccharide lyases and carbohydrate esterases. The reconstructed central metabolism revealed pathways enabling the fermentation of complex organic substrates, as well as their complete oxidation through aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Genes encoding the photosynthetic and nitrogen-fixation machinery of green sulfur bacteria, as well as key enzymes of autotrophic carbon fixation pathways, were not identified. The M. roseus genome supports its affiliation to a novel phylum Ignavibateriae, representing the first step on the evolutionary pathway from heterotrophic ancestors of Bacteriodetes/Chlorobi group towards anaerobic photoautotrophic Chlorobi. PMID:23301019

  20. [Incidence of anaerobic bacteria in respiratory tract infections].

    PubMed

    Kedzia, Anna; Kwapisz, Ewa; Wierzbowska, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria are predominant components of normal oral cavity, upper respiratory tract, gastrointestinal, genital and skin flora. They are involved in infections such as pneumonia, aspiration pneumonia, lung abscess and empyema. Laboratory diagnosis of anaerobic infections is based on recovering the etiological agents from clinical materials. Appropriatte specimens include: pus, purulent fluid, biopsy specimen of lung, transtracheal aspirates and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Lower respiratory infections are usually either polymicrobial or mixed anaerobic-aerobic infections. Peptostreptococcus, Fusobacterium, Prevotella and Bacteroides are the most common anaerobes. Anaerobic bacteria are susceptible to metronidazole, tinidazole (exception of Gram-positive rods), amoxicillin/clavulanate, ampicillin/sulbactam, piperacillin/tazobactam, imipenem and clindamycin. Treatment includes an antibiotics regimen with an agent active against anaerobic and aerobic bacteria (therapy with 2 or 3 antimicrobial drugs). PMID:12959026

  1. Growth characteristic of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in an anaerobic biological filtrated reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuichi Isaka; Yasuhiro Date; Tatsuo Sumino; Sachiko Yoshie; Satoshi Tsuneda

    2006-01-01

    The doubling time of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria in an anaerobic biological filtrated (ABF) reactor was\\u000a determined. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis was used to detect and count anammox bacteria cells in anammox sludge.\\u000a As a result, the populations of anammox bacteria at 14th and 21st days were 1.1×106 and 1.7×107 cells\\/ml reactor, respectively. From these results, the doubling time of

  2. Oxygen Effect on the Low Temperature Tolerance of Facultative Anaerobes from Antarctica, Alaska, and Patagonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-01-01

    Psychrotolerance as an adaptation to survival in extreme environments is widespread among many of the mesophilic microorganisms. Red-ox potential, pH and salinity could significantly alter the features of ecosystems by providing liquid water at subzero temperatures. Furthermore, organisms can respond to temperature changes by several known mechanisms, including changing the conformation capacities of constitutional proteins or by the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides around the cell wall and membrane. Such protective mechanisms make it possible for cells to not only passively survive low-temperature in a state of anabiosis, but also to be capable of actively metabolizing substrates and reproducing normally. The physiological and biochemical characteristics of species as well as genetics could be remarkably changed due to -on and surviving m extreme environments. The cold shock genes for some of the studied strains of psychrotolerant facultative anaerobes already were published In this paper we present experimental data for psychrotolerant facultative anaerobes isolated from geographically different cold regions of our planet. We show the growth response on the changing of anaerobic conditions to aerobic with cultivation at subzero temperatures.

  3. Metabolic Interactions Between Methanogenic Consortia and Anaerobic Respiring Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. M. Stams; S. J. W. H. Oude Elferink; P. Westermann

    2003-01-01

    Most types of anaerobic respiration are able to outcompete methanogenic consortia for common substrates if the respective\\u000a electron acceptors are present in sufficient amounts. Furthermore, several products or intermediate compounds formed by anaerobic\\u000a respiring bacteria are toxic to methanogenic consortia. Despite the potentially adverse effects, only few inorganic electron\\u000a acceptors potentially utilizable for anaerobic respiration have been investigated with respect

  4. Response of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria to hydroxylamine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maarten J. Van De Graaf; Boran Kartal; Cristian Picioreanu; Mike S. M. Jetten

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation is a recent addition to the microbial nitrogen cycle, and its metabolic pathway, including the production and conversion of its intermediate hydrazine, is not well understood. Therefore, the effect of hydroxylamine addition on the hydrazine metabolism of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria was studied both experimentally and by mathematical modeling. It was observed that hydroxylamine was disproportionated biologically

  5. Attack on Lignified Grass Cell Walls by a Facultatively Anaerobic Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Akin, Danny E.

    1980-01-01

    A filamentous, facultatively anaerobic microorganism that attacked lignified tissue in forage grasses was isolated from rumen fluid with a Bermuda grass-containing anaerobic medium in roll tubes. The microbe, designated 7-1, demonstrated various colony and cellular morphologies under different growth conditions. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that 7-1 attacked lignified cell walls in aerobic and anaerobic culture. 7-1 predominately degraded tissues reacting positively for lignin with the chlorine-sulfite stain (i.e., sclerenchyma in leaf blades and parenchyma in stems) rather than the more resistant acid phloroglucinol-positive tissues (i.e., lignified vascular tissue and sclerenchyma ring in stems), although the latter tissues were occasionally attacked. Turbidimetric tests showed that 7-1 in anaerobic culture grew optimally at 39°C at a pH of 7.4 to 8.0. Tests for growth on plant cell wall carbohydrates showed that 7-1 grew on xylan and pectin slowly in aerobic cultures but not with pectin and only slightly with xylan in anaerobic culture. 7-1 was noncellulolytic as shown by filter paper tests. The microbe used the phenolic acids sinapic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acids as substrates for growth; the more highly methoxylated acids were used more effectively. Images PMID:16345651

  6. Preparation of prereduced anaerobically sterilized media and their use in cultivation of anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, E C; deVries, J; Harvey, R F

    1978-01-01

    Several modifications of the roll-tube method have made it simpler for routine use in the isolation and growth of anaerobic bacteria. These include use of a check valve for the production of prereduced anaerobically sterilized media; a Salvarsan tube under oxygen-free gas pressure for the dispensing of molten prereduced anaerobically sterilized agar medium; a Kelly infusion bottle with a graduated pipette side arm (also under gas pressure) for quantitative delivery of fluid prereduced anaerobically sterilized media; and screw-capped prescription bottles for the cultivation of anaerobes. Colonies of Bacteroides melaninogenicus were easily identified and counted by this method. Other anaerobic bacteria have also been cultivated successfully. Images PMID:29909

  7. Cultivation, Detection, and Ecophysiology of Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boran Kartal; Wim Geerts; Mike S. M. Jetten

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria oxidize ammonium with nitrite under anoxic conditions. The anammox process is currently used to remove ammonium from wastewater and contributes significantly to the loss of fixed nitrogen from the oceans. In this chapter, we focus on the ecophysiology of anammox bacteria and describe new methodologies to grow these microorganisms. Now, it is possible to enrich anammox

  8. [Activity of fusidic acid on strictly anaerobic bacteria].

    PubMed

    Canzi, A M; Weber, P; Boussougant, Y

    1987-05-01

    Fusidic acid is a well known antimicrobial agent due to its narrow spectrum of activity against Gram positive bacteria and especially staphylococci. Therefore, it is after used preventively against bacterial infection in traumatology, but the susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria is not well known. We have studied, the in vitro activity of sodium fusidate against 147 strains of anaerobic bacteria. This antibiotic has a moderate activity against Bacteroides, more significant against Clostridium, Peptococcus et Peptostreptococcus; it has no bactericidal activity. Clostridium difficile is different from other anaerobic bacteria because of its slow MIC and its MBC near to its MIC. Fusidic acid could be proposed for the treatment of pseudomembranous and antibiotic-associated colitis induced by Clostridium difficile. PMID:3302863

  9. Versatility and application of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Da-Wen Gao; Yu Tao

    2011-01-01

    With the unique cell compartmentalization and the ability to simultaneously oxidize ammonium and reduce nitrite into nitrogen\\u000a gas, anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria have challenged our recognitions of microorganism. The research conducted\\u000a on these bacteria has been extended from bench-scale tryouts to full-scale reactor systems. This review addresses the recently\\u000a discovered versatile properties of anammox bacteria and the applications and obstacles

  10. Anaerobic degradation of 2-aminobenzoate (anthranilic acid) by denitrifying bacteria.

    PubMed

    Braun, K; Gibson, D T

    1984-07-01

    In the presence of oxygen many aminoaromatic compounds polymerize to form recalcitrant macromolecules. To circumvent undesirable oxidation reactions, the anaerobic biodegradation of a simple member of this class of compounds was investigated. Two strains of bacteria were isolated which degrade 2-aminobenzoate anaerobically under denitrifying conditions, with nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor. Both organisms, which were assigned to the genus Pseudomonas, oxidized 2-aminobenzoate completely to CO2 and NH4+. Nitrate was reduced to nitrite. When nitrate was deplete from the growth medium the accumulated nitrite was reduced to nitrogen. The results establish a model system for the anaerobic, rapid, and complete oxidation of an aminoaromatic compound. PMID:6476825

  11. Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2000-05-18

    We welcome you to The Power of Anaerobes. This conference serves two purposes. One is to celebrate the life of Harry D. Peck, Jr.,who was born May 18, 1927 and would have celebrated his 73rd birthday at this conference. He died November 20, 1998. The second is to gather investigators to exchange views within the realm of anaerobic microbiology, an area in which tremendous progress has been seen during recent years. It is sufficient to mention discoveries of a new form of life (the archaea), hyper or extreme thermophiles, thermophilic alkaliphiles and anaerobic fungi. With these discoveries has come a new realization about physiological and metabolic properties of microorganisms, and this in turn has demonstrated their importance for the development, maintenance and sustenance of life on Earth.

  12. In vitro sensitivity of oral, gram-negative, facultative bacteria to the bactericidal activity of human neutrophil defensins.

    PubMed

    Miyasaki, K T; Bodeau, A L; Ganz, T; Selsted, M E; Lehrer, R I

    1990-12-01

    Neutrophils play a major role in defending the periodontium against infection by oral, gram-negative, facultative bacteria, such as Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Eikenella corrodens, and Capnocytophaga spp. We examined the sensitivity of these bacteria to a mixture of low-molecular-weight peptides and highly purified individual defensin peptides (HNP-1, HNP-2, and HNP-3) isolated from human neutrophils. Whereas the Capnocytophaga spp. strains were killed significantly by the mixed human neutrophil peptides, the A. actinomycetemcomitans and E. corrodens strains were resistant. Killing was attributable to the defensins. The bactericidal activities of purified defensins HNP-1 and HNP-2 were equal, and both of these activities were greater than HNP-3 activity against strains of Capnocytophaga sputigena and Capnocytophaga gingivalis. The strain of Capnocytophaga ochracea was more sensitive to defensin-mediated bactericidal activity than either C. sputigena or C. gingivalis was. The three human defensins were equipotent in killing C. ochracea. C. ochracea was killed under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and over a broad pH range. Killing was most effective under hypotonic conditions but also occurred at physiologic salt concentrations. We concluded that Capnocytophaga spp. are sensitive to oxygen-independent killing by human defensins. Additional studies will be required to identify other components that may equip human neutrophils to kill A. actinomycetemcomitans, E. corrodens, and other oral gram-negative bacteria. PMID:2254020

  13. Anaerobic utilization of essential oils bydenitrifying bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens Harder; Udo Heyen

    2000-01-01

    Plant volatile organic compounds are a major carbonsource in nature. We studied the degradability ofthese substances by anaerobic microorganisms inenrichment cultures with representative essential oilsas organic substrates and nitrate as electronacceptor. Lemon and pine needle oil supportedmicrobial growth in the presence of pure oil, whereasparsley seed, camphor, sage, fennel, and mint oilsupported growth only when the essential oils weredissolved in

  14. Material and method for promoting the growth of anaerobic bacteria

    DOEpatents

    Adler, Howard I. (128 Indian La., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

    1984-01-01

    A material and method for promoting the growth of anaerobic bacteria which includes a nutrient media containing a hydrogen donor and sterile membrane fragments of bacteria having an electron transfer system which reduces oxygen to water. Dissolved oxygen in the medium is removed by adding the sterile membrane fragments to the nutrient medium and holding the medium at a temperature of about 10.degree. to about 60.degree. C. until the dissolved oxygen is removed.

  15. Material and method for promoting the growth of anaerobic bacteria

    DOEpatents

    Adler, H.I.

    1984-10-09

    A material and method is disclosed for promoting the growth of anaerobic bacteria which includes a nutrient media containing a hydrogen donor and sterile membrane fragments of bacteria having an electron transfer system which reduces oxygen to water. Dissolved oxygen in the medium is removed by adding the sterile membrane fragments to the nutrient medium and holding the medium at a temperature of about 10 to about 60 C until the dissolved oxygen is removed. No Drawings

  16. Engineering We now know that some anaerobic bacteria gain

    E-print Network

    Chemical Engineering We now know that some anaerobic bacteria gain energy through extracellular for respiration outside the cells. In addition to the fundamental implications for physiology and microbial communication, a physics-based understanding of this extracellular respiration will impact the transmission

  17. Cell biology of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. M. P. van Niftrik

    2008-01-01

    Anammox bacteria perform anaerobic ammonium oxidation to dinitrogen gas and belong to the phylum Planctomycetes. Whereas most Prokaryotes consist of one compartment, the cytoplasm bounded by the cytoplasmic membrane and cell wall, the species within this phylum are compartmentalized by intracellular membranes. In the anammox case, compartmentalization results in the cytoplasm being divided into three compartments surrounded by individual bilayer

  18. Anaerobic Oxidation of Arsenite in Mono Lake Water and by a Facultative, Arsenite-Oxidizing Chemoautotroph, Strain MLHE-1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald S. Oremland; Shelley E. Hoeft; Joanne M. Santini; Nasreen Bano; Ryan A. Hollibaugh; James T. Hollibaugh

    2002-01-01

    As(III). Arsenite-grown cells demonstrated dark 14CO2 fixation, and PCR was used to indicate the presence of a gene encoding ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase\\/oxygenase. Strain MLHE-1 is a facultative chemoau- totroph, able to grow with these inorganic electron donors and nitrate as its electron acceptor, but heterotro- phic growth on acetate was also observed under both aerobic and anaerobic (nitrate) conditions. Phylogenetic analysis

  19. Propionicicella superfundia gen. nov., sp. nov., a chlorosolvent-tolerant propionate-forming, facultative anaerobic bacterium isolated from contaminated groundwater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hee-Sung Bae; William M. Moe; Jun Yan; Igor Tiago; Milton S. da Costa; Fred A. Rainey

    2006-01-01

    A novel strain, designated as BL-10T, was characterized using a polyphasic approach after isolation from groundwater contaminated by a mixture of chlorosolvents that included 1,1,2-trichloroethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, and vinyl chloride. Stain BL-10T is a facultatively anaerobic bacterium able to ferment glucose to form propionate, acetate, formate, lactate, and succinate. Fermentation occurred in the presence of 1,2-dichloroethane and 1,1,2-trichloroethane at concentrations to

  20. Biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanaotes by a novel facultatively anaerobic Vibrio sp. under marine conditions.

    PubMed

    Numata, Keiji; Doi, Yoshiharu

    2012-06-01

    Marine bacteria have recently attracted attention as potentially useful candidates for the production of practical materials from marine ecosystems, including the oceanic carbon dioxide cycle. The advantages of using marine bacteria for the biosynthesis of poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA), one of the eco-friendly bioplastics, include avoiding contamination with bacteria that lack salt-water resistance, ability to use filtered seawater as a culture medium, and the potential for extracellular production of PHA, all of which would contribute to large-scale industrial production of PHA. A novel marine bacterium, Vibrio sp. strain KN01, was isolated and characterized in PHA productivity using various carbon sources under aerobic and aerobic-anaerobic marine conditions. The PHA contents of all the samples under the aerobic-anaerobic condition, especially when using soybean oil as the sole carbon source, were enhanced by limiting the amount of dissolved oxygen. The PHA accumulated using soybean oil as a sole carbon source under the aerobic-anaerobic condition contained 14% 3-hydroxypropionate (3HP) and 3% 5-hydroxyvalerate (5HV) units in addition to (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) units and had a molecular weight of 42?×?10³ g/mol. The present result indicates that the activity of the beta-oxidation pathway under the aerobic-anaerobic condition is reduced due to a reduction in the amount of dissolved oxygen. These findings have potential for use in controlling the biosynthesis of long main-chain PHA by regulating the activity of the beta-oxidation pathway, which also could be regulated by varying the dissolved oxygen concentration. PMID:22068389

  1. Anaerobic bacteria and herpes simplex virus in genital ulceration.

    PubMed Central

    Masfari, A N; Kinghorn, G R; Hafiz, S; Barton, I G; Duerden, B I

    1985-01-01

    Of 91 patients with genital ulceration, herpes simplex virus was isolated from 52 (57%) and Haemophilus ducreyi from 12 (13%); none had syphilis. The difference in incidence of other aerobes in patients and controls was not significant. Anaerobes, predominantly Bacteroides spp, were isolated from a large proportion (77%) of men and women patients with ulcers but from few control men. The most common anaerobic species were B asaccharolyticus and B ureolyticus, with fewer isolates of the melaninogenicus/oralis group. The bacterial flora of herpetic and non-herpetic ulcers were similar, but Candida albicans was isolated significantly more often from non-herpetic ulcers. Anaerobic bacteria may contribute to the pathogenesis of genital ulcers. PMID:2984108

  2. Killing of anaerobic pathogens by predatory bacteria.

    PubMed

    Van Essche, M; Quirynen, M; Sliepen, I; Loozen, G; Boon, N; Van Eldere, J; Teughels, W

    2011-02-01

    Recently, the predation of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus on a periodontal pathogen has been described. The current study explores the potential antimicrobial activity of a range of predatory bacteria against key periodontal pathogens. A number of representatives from the Bdellovibrio, Bacteriovorax and Peredibacter lineages (called 'BALOs') were tested for their activity towards a group of key periodontal pathogens and an optimal multiplicity of infection was established. As the oral cavity contains a wide variety of bacteria that are not preyed upon, it was investigated if they can have an effect on the predation efficiency of BALOs. It was concluded that a number of important variables involved in bacterial predation are found to be compatible with the composition of the oral microbiota. This finding makes the case for continued study of the potential for BALOs to combat periodontal pathogens. PMID:21214872

  3. The isolation and properties of the predominant anaerobic bacteria in the caeca of chickens and turkeys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ella M. Barnes; C. S. Impey

    1970-01-01

    Several anaerobic techniques and a number of different media were compared for the isolation of the anaerobic bacteria from chicken and turkey caeca. Under optimal conditions it was possible to isolate more than 25 per cent of the total flora. An analysis was made of the anaerobic bacteria isolated from 5?week?old chickens, the organisms being divided into groups based on

  4. Anaerobic degradation of hydroaromatic compounds by newly isolated fermenting bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Brune; Berhard Schink

    1992-01-01

    Aerobic organisms degrade hydroaromatic compounds via the hydroaromatic pathway yielding protocatechuic acid which is further metabolized by oxygenase-mediated ring fission in the 3-oxoadipate pathway. No information exists on anaerobic degradation of hydroaromatics so far. We enriched and isolated from various sources of anoxic sediments several strains of rapidly growing gram-negative bacteria fermenting quinic (1,3,4,5-tetrahydroxy-cyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid) and shikimic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxy-1-cyclohexene-1-carboxylic acid)

  5. Iron biomineralization by anaerobic neutrophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennyfer Miot; Karim Benzerara; Guillaume Morin; Andreas Kappler; Sylvain Bernard; Martin Obst; Céline Férard; Fériel Skouri-Panet; Jean-Michel Guigner; Nicole Posth; Matthieu Galvez; Gordon E. Brown; François Guyot

    2009-01-01

    Minerals formed by bio-oxidation of ferrous iron (Fe(II)) at neutral pH, their association with bacterial ultrastructures as well as their impact on the metabolism of iron-oxidizing bacteria remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated iron biomineralization by the anaerobic nitrate-dependent iron-oxidizing bacterium Acidovorax sp. strain BoFeN1 in the presence of dissolved Fe(II) using electron microscopy and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM).

  6. Use of Presumpto Plates to identify anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Whaley, D N; Wiggs, L S; Miller, P H; Srivastava, P U; Miller, J M

    1995-01-01

    Identification of anaerobic bacteria requires special media and growth conditions that contribute to a higher cost per identification than that for aerobic isolates. Newer rapid methods streamline the identification process, but confirmation to the species level is often difficult. The Presumpto Plate method for the identification of commonly encountered anaerobes consists of three quadrant plates, each containing four conventional media, that result in the generation of 21 test parameters: growth on Lombard-Dowell medium; production of indole, indole derivative, catalase, lecithinase, and lipase; proteolysis of milk, H2S, and esculin; growth on 20% bile; precipitate on bile; DNase, glucose, casein, starch, and gelatin hydrolysis; and fermentation of lactose, mannitol, and rhamnose. Identification charts were developed by using the results from 2,300 anaerobic isolates. Because conventional media were used, there was a high degree of agreement between the Presumpto Plate method and the reference method when testing commonly encountered anaerobes. The Presumpto Plate method is as accurate as commercially available enzyme systems for the identification of many anaerobic species but is less expensive to perform. PMID:7615728

  7. Killing of anaerobic pathogens by predatory bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Van Essche; M. Quirynen; I. Sliepen; G. Loozen; N. Boon; J. Van Eldere; W. Teughels

    2011-01-01

    PRecently, the predation of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus on a periodontal\\u000a pathogen has been described. The current study explores the potential\\u000a antimicrobial activity of a range of predatory bacteria against key\\u000a periodontal pathogens. A number of representatives from the\\u000a Bdellovibrio, Bacteriovorax and Peredibacter lineages (called `BALOs')\\u000a were tested for their activity towards a group of key periodontal\\u000a pathogens and an optimal multiplicity

  8. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation by anammox bacteria in the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Sliekers, A. Olav; Lavik, Gaute; Schmid, Markus; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Kuenen, J. Gijs; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Strous, Marc; Jetten, Mike S. M.

    2003-04-01

    The availability of fixed inorganic nitrogen (nitrate, nitrite and ammonium) limits primary productivity in many oceanic regions. The conversion of nitrate to N2 by heterotrophic bacteria (denitrification) is believed to be the only important sink for fixed inorganic nitrogen in the ocean. Here we provide evidence for bacteria that anaerobically oxidize ammonium with nitrite to N2 in the world's largest anoxic basin, the Black Sea. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences shows that these bacteria are related to members of the order Planctomycetales performing the anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) process in ammonium-removing bioreactors. Nutrient profiles, fluorescently labelled RNA probes, 15N tracer experiments and the distribution of specific `ladderane' membrane lipids indicate that ammonium diffusing upwards from the anoxic deep water is consumed by anammox bacteria below the oxic zone. This is the first time that anammox bacteria have been identified and directly linked to the removal of fixed inorganic nitrogen in the environment. The widespread occurrence of ammonium consumption in suboxic marine settings indicates that anammox might be important in the oceanic nitrogen cycle.

  9. Bacillus haikouensis sp. nov., a facultatively anaerobic halotolerant bacterium isolated from a paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Jibing; Yang, Guiqin; Lu, Qin; Zhao, Yong; Zhou, Shungui

    2014-10-01

    A Gram-stain positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming and facultatively anaerobic halotolerant bacterium, designated as C-89(T), was isolated from a paddy field soil in Haikou, Hainan Province, People's Republic of China. Optimal growth was observed at 37 °C and pH 7.0 in the presence of 4% NaCl (w/v). The predominant menaquinone was identified as MK-7, the major cellular fatty acids were identified as anteiso-C(15:0) and iso-C(15:0), and the major cellular polar lipids were identified as phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and two unknown phospholipids. The peptidoglycan type was determined to be based on meso-DAP. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the closest phylogenetic relatives were identified as Bacillus vietnamensis JCM 11124(T) (98.8% sequence similarity), Bacillus aquimaris JCM 11545(T) (98.6%) and Bacillus marisflavi JCM 11544(T) (98.5%). The DNA G+C content of strain C-89(T) was determined to be 45.4 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness values of strain C-89(T) with its closest relatives were below 18%. Therefore, on the basis of phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic, and phenotypic results, strain C-89(T) can be considered to represent a novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus haikouensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is C-89(T) (=KCTC 33545(T) = CCTCC AB 2014076(T)). PMID:25100188

  10. Metabolic activity of pathogenic bacteria during semicontinuous anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, T E; Larkin, M J; Levett, P N

    1994-01-01

    In natural environments such as anaerobic digesters, bacteria are frequently subjected to the stress of nutrient fluxes because of the continual changes in the flow of nutrients, and to survive, they must be capable of adapting readily to nutrient changes. In this study, the metabolic activities of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter jejuni were studied within culture bags (Versapor-200 filters, 0.22-microns pore size) in laboratory anaerobic digesters. The metabolic activity of these bacteria was indicated by their adenylate energy charge (EC) ratios and their ability to incorporate [3H]thymidine, which was related to the respective changes in viable numbers within the culture bags during anaerobic digestion. Fluctuations in the adenylate EC ratios, the uptake of [3H]thymidine, and the viable numbers of E. coli, S. typhimurium, Y. enterocolitica, and L. monocytogenes cells were probably due to constant changes in the amount of available nutrients within the anaerobic digesters. The viability of S. typhimurium increased quickly after a fresh supply of nutrients was added to the system as indicated by the uptake of [3H]thymidine and an increase in the adenylate EC ratios. The viable numbers of E. coli, S. typhimurium, Y. enterocolitica, and L. monocytogenes organisms declined rapidly from 10(7) to 10(8) CFU/ml to 10(3) to 10(4) CFU/ml and remained at this level for an indefinite period. The decimal reduction time calculated during the period of exponential decline ranged from 0.8 to 1.2 days for these bacteria. C. jejuni had the greatest mean decimal reduction time value (3.6 days).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7986040

  11. Distribution of anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in a subterranean estuary James P. Senz a,

    E-print Network

    , bacteria capable of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox bacteria) may play a role in the removal of fixedDistribution of anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in a subterranean estuary James P. Sáenz a terrestrial sources. Within a coastal aquifer where organic carbon is scarce and ammonium is abundant

  12. Osteomyelitis in dogs and cats caused by anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K A; Lomas, G R; Wood, A K

    1984-02-01

    Localised osteomyelitis was diagnosed in 2 dogs and 2 cats. The disease was caused by fight wounds in 3 cases. Radiographic examination demonstrated a circumscribed zone of cortical bone lysis, sequestra and periosteal new bone. Each case was treated surgically by sequestrectomy and debridement. Infection was due mainly to anaerobic bacteria. The pathogenic bacteria isolated from the lesions of dogs were Actinomyces viscosus, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Bacteroides spp, and from the lesions in cats were Clostridium villosum , Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Wolinella recta and Bacteroides gingivalis. As all the bacteria were sensitive to penicillin, each case was treated with penicillin and by irrigation of the wound. This resulted in resolution of the disease, within 4 weeks, in all cases. PMID:6732670

  13. Superoxide dismutase in anaerobic bacteria of clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Tally, F P; Goldin, B R; Jacobus, N V; Gorbach, S L

    1977-04-01

    Twenty-two anaerobic bacteria isolated from infected sites and normal fecal flora were assayed for superoxide dismutase (SOD). The organisms were also classified according to their oxygen tolerance into aerotolerant, intermediate, and extremely oxygen-sensitive groups. There was a correlation between the enzyme level and the oxygen tolerance, in that the aerotolerant and intermediate organisms had SOD, whereas the extremely oxygen-sensitive isolates had low or undetectable enzyme. Among the oxygen-tolerant organisms, gram-negative bacteria had higher levels of SOD than gram-positive organisms. Oxygen was shown to induce SOD production in a strain of Bacteriodes fragilis grown in minimal medium under continuous-culture conditions. Enzyme levels in this isolate grown under static conditions were lower in minimal medium than in complex medium, indicating that other components in the complex medium were stimulating the production of SOD. Our data suggest that the variation in oxygen tolerance of anaerobes is usually related to their level of SOD. It is postulated that SOD may be a virulence factor that allows pathogenic anaerobes to survive in oxygenated tissues until the proper reduced conditions are established for their growth. PMID:326669

  14. MICROAEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC BACTERIAL ACTIVITIES INVOLVED IN FORMATION OF WETWOOD AND DISCOLOURED WOOD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernhard Schink; James C. Ward

    Summary High numbers (10 6 -10 7 cells\\/g) of strictly and facultatively anaerobic bacteria were found in wetwood samples taken from Eastern cot­ tonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) and Ameri­ can elm (Ulmus americana L.). Typical products of anaerobic fermentations (methane, alcohols, fatty acids) and indications of pectinolytic acti­ vities (pectinolytic bacteria, free pectinolytic enzymes, destroyed pit membranes) were de­ tected

  15. Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Anaerobic Bacteria: Recent Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Staneck, Joseph L.; Washington, John A.

    1974-01-01

    Minimal inhibitory concentrations of clindamycin, minocycline, metronidazole, penicillin, and carbenicillin were determined by agar dilution against 150 recent clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria. Ninety-nine percent of Bacteroides fragilis and all B. melaninogenicus, Clostridium perfringens, and Fusobacterium were inhibited by clindamycin at 3.1 ?g/ml. Only 58% of other clostridial species were inhibited by this concentration of clindamycin. Minocycline at 3.1 ?g/ml inhibited 72% of C. perfringens, 81% of other Clostridium species, and 66, 75, and 100% of B. fragilis, B. melaninogenicus, and Fusobacterium, respectively. Metronidazole at 12.5 ?g/ml inhibited all bacteria tested. B. fragilis was resistant to both penicillin and carbenicillin at 6.2 ?g/ml. Concentrations of 25 ?g/ml for penicillin and 100 ?g/ml for carbenicillin were needed to inhibit more than 90% of B. fragilis. Organisms other than B. fragilis were moderately or extremely susceptible to the penicillins. PMID:15830478

  16. A novel mode of lactate metabolism in strictly anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Weghoff, Marie Charlotte; Bertsch, Johannes; Müller, Volker

    2015-03-01

    Lactate is a common substrate for major groups of strictly anaerobic bacteria, but the biochemistry and bioenergetics of lactate oxidation is obscure. The high redox potential of the pyruvate/lactate pair of E0 '?=?-190?mV excludes direct NAD(+) reduction (E0 '?=?-320?mV). To identify the hitherto unknown electron acceptor, we have purified the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from the strictly anaerobic, acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii. The LDH forms a stable complex with an electron-transferring flavoprotein (Etf) that exhibited NAD(+) reduction only when reduced ferredoxin (Fd(2-) ) was present. Biochemical analyses revealed that the LDH/Etf complex of A.?woodii uses flavin-based electron confurcation to drive endergonic lactate oxidation with NAD(+) as oxidant at the expense of simultaneous exergonic electron flow from reduced ferredoxin (E0 '???-500?mV) to NAD(+) according to: lactate?+?Fd(2-) ?+?2 NAD(+) ???pyruvate?+?Fd?+?2 NADH. The reduced Fd(2-) is regenerated from NADH by a sequence of events that involves conversion of chemical (ATP) to electrochemical ( ? ? ˜ Na + ) and finally redox energy (Fd(2-) from NADH) via reversed electron transport catalysed by the Rnf complex. Inspection of genomes revealed that this metabolic scenario for lactate oxidation may also apply to many other anaerobes. PMID:24762045

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus Strain P1XP2, a Polysaccharide-Degrading, Thermophilic, Facultative Anaerobic Bacterium Isolated from a Commercial Bioreactor Degrading Food Waste

    PubMed Central

    Adelskov, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of the ~5.8-Mb draft genome sequence of a moderately thermophilic, heterotrophic, facultative anaerobic bacterium, Paenibacillus strain P1XP2, identified genes for enzymes with the potential for degrading complex food wastes, a property consistent with the ecological habitat of the isolate. PMID:25635015

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus Strain P1XP2, a Polysaccharide-Degrading, Thermophilic, Facultative Anaerobic Bacterium Isolated from a Commercial Bioreactor Degrading Food Waste.

    PubMed

    Adelskov, Joseph; Patel, Bharat K C

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of the ~5.8-Mb draft genome sequence of a moderately thermophilic, heterotrophic, facultative anaerobic bacterium, Paenibacillus strain P1XP2, identified genes for enzymes with the potential for degrading complex food wastes, a property consistent with the ecological habitat of the isolate. PMID:25635015

  19. In vitro activity of Bay Y3118 against anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Wexler, H M; Molitoris, E; Finegold, S M

    1993-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of a new quinolone, Bay Y3118, was determined against 326 strains of anaerobic bacteria and compared with the activities of ampicillin-sulbactam, cefotetan, clindamycin, imipenem, metronidazole, and sparfloxacin. The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards-approved Wadsworth agar dilution technique with Brucella-laked blood agar was used throughout the study. Breakpoints used to determine the percent susceptible were 2 micrograms/ml for Bay Y3118 and sparfloxacin, 4 micrograms/ml for clindamycin, 8 micrograms/ml for imipenem, 16 micrograms/ml for metronidazole and ampicillin-sulbactam, and 32 micrograms/ml for cefotetan. Species tested included Bacteroides fragilis (57 strains), other B. fragilis group species (79 strains), Bacteroides gracilis (10 strains), other Bacteroides spp. (9 strains), Prevotella spp. (30 strains), Porphyromonas spp. (9 strains), Fusobacterium spp. (36 strains), Bilophila wadsworthia (14 strains), Clostridium spp. (36 strains), Peptostreptococcus spp. (20 strains), and gram-positive non-spore-forming rods (26 strains). Bay Y3118 inhibited all but 1 of 326 anaerobic bacteria tested at the breakpoint level or lower. PMID:8285647

  20. PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS BY STRICTLY ANAEROBIC BACTERIA IN THE DIGESTIVE TRACT OF GNOTOXENIC MICE.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SUMMARY PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS BY STRICTLY ANAEROBIC BACTERIA IN THE DIGESTIVE TRACT OF « GNOTOXENIC » MICE. INHIBITORY EFFECT ON SHIGELLA FLEXNERI Various strains of strictly anaerobic bacteria of holoxenic animals, were implanted in the digestive tract of axenic mice. The in vivo production of VFA

  1. Isolation of halotolerant, thermotolerant, facultative polymer-producing bacteria and characterization of the exopolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Pfiffner, S.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Jenneman, G.E.; Knapp, R.M.

    1986-06-01

    Over 200 bacterial strains were selected for anaerobic growth at 50/sup 0/C and extracellular polysaccharide production in a sucrose-mineral salts medium with NaNO/sub 3/ and up to 10% NaCl. The predominant cell type was an encapsulated gram-positive, motile, facultative spore-forming rod similar to Bacillus species. Strain SP018 grew and produced the polysaccharide on a variety of substrates at salinities up to 12% NaCl. Good polymer production only occurred anaerobically and was optimal between 4 and 10% NaCl. The ethanol-precipitated SP018 polymer was a charged heteropolysaccharide that contained glucose, mannose, arabinose, ribose, and low levels of allose and glucosamine. The SP018 polymer showed pseudoplastic behavior, was resistant to shearing, and had a higher viscosity at dilute concentrations and at elevated temperatures than xanthan gum. High-ionic-strength solutions reversibly decreased the viscosity of SP018 polymer solutions. The bacterium and the associated polymer have many properties that make them potentially useful for in situ microbially enhanced oil recovery processes.

  2. The Genome Sequences of Cellulomonas fimi and “Cellvibrio gilvus” Reveal the Cellulolytic Strategies of Two Facultative Anaerobes, Transfer of “Cellvibrio gilvus” to the Genus Cellulomonas, and Proposal of Cellulomonas gilvus sp. nov

    PubMed Central

    Bramhacharya, Shanti; Jewell, Kelsea A.; Aylward, Frank O.; Mead, David; Brumm, Phillip J.

    2013-01-01

    Actinobacteria in the genus Cellulomonas are the only known and reported cellulolytic facultative anaerobes. To better understand the cellulolytic strategy employed by these bacteria, we sequenced the genome of the Cellulomonas fimi ATCC 484T. For comparative purposes, we also sequenced the genome of the aerobic cellulolytic “Cellvibrio gilvus” ATCC 13127T. An initial analysis of these genomes using phylogenetic and whole-genome comparison revealed that “Cellvibrio gilvus” belongs to the genus Cellulomonas. We thus propose to assign “Cellvibrio gilvus” to the genus Cellulomonas. A comparative genomics analysis between these two Cellulomonas genome sequences and the recently completed genome for Cellulomonas flavigena ATCC 482T showed that these cellulomonads do not encode cellulosomes but appear to degrade cellulose by secreting multi-domain glycoside hydrolases. Despite the minimal number of carbohydrate-active enzymes encoded by these genomes, as compared to other known cellulolytic organisms, these bacteria were found to be proficient at degrading and utilizing a diverse set of carbohydrates, including crystalline cellulose. Moreover, they also encode for proteins required for the fermentation of hexose and xylose sugars into products such as ethanol. Finally, we found relatively few significant differences between the predicted carbohydrate-active enzymes encoded by these Cellulomonas genomes, in contrast to previous studies reporting differences in physiological approaches for carbohydrate degradation. Our sequencing and analysis of these genomes sheds light onto the mechanism through which these facultative anaerobes degrade cellulose, suggesting that the sequenced cellulomonads use secreted, multidomain enzymes to degrade cellulose in a way that is distinct from known anaerobic cellulolytic strategies. PMID:23342046

  3. Response of Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria to Hydroxylamine?

    PubMed Central

    van der Star, Wouter R. L.; van de Graaf, Maarten J.; Kartal, Boran; Picioreanu, Cristian; Jetten, Mike S. M.; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation is a recent addition to the microbial nitrogen cycle, and its metabolic pathway, including the production and conversion of its intermediate hydrazine, is not well understood. Therefore, the effect of hydroxylamine addition on the hydrazine metabolism of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria was studied both experimentally and by mathematical modeling. It was observed that hydroxylamine was disproportionated biologically in the absence of nitrite into dinitrogen gas and ammonium. Little hydrazine accumulated during this process; however, rapid hydrazine production was observed when nearly all hydroxylamine was consumed. A mechanistic model is proposed in which hydrazine is suggested to be continuously produced from ammonium and hydroxylamine (possibly via nitric oxide) and subsequently oxidized to N2. The electron acceptor for hydrazine oxidation is hydroxylamine, which is reduced to ammonium. A decrease in the hydroxylamine reduction rate, therefore, leads to a decrease in the hydrazine oxidation rate, resulting in the observed hydrazine accumulation. The proposed mechanism was verified by a mathematical model which could explain and predict most of the experimental data. PMID:18515490

  4. Fuel from Bacteria: Bioconversion of Carbon Dioxide to Biofuels by Facultatively Autotrophic Hydrogen Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2010-07-01

    Electrofuels Project: Ohio State is genetically modifying bacteria to efficiently convert carbon dioxide directly into butanol, an alcohol that can be used directly as a fuel blend or converted to a hydrocarbon, which closely resembles a gasoline. Bacteria are typically capable of producing a certain amount of butanol before it becomes too toxic for the bacteria to survive. Ohio State is engineering a new strain of the bacteria that could produce up to 50% more butanol before it becomes too toxic for the bacteria to survive. Finding a way to produce more butanol more efficiently would significantly cut down on biofuel production costs and help make butanol cost competitive with gasoline. Ohio State is also engineering large tanks, or bioreactors, to grow the biofuel-producing bacteria in, and they are developing ways to efficiently recover biofuel from the tanks.

  5. Synthesis and function of polyhydroxyalkanoates in anaerobic syntrophic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    McInerney, M.J.; Amos, D.A.; Kealy, K.S. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Dept. of Botany and Microbiology] [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Dept. of Botany and Microbiology; Palmer, J.A. [Univ. of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology] [Univ. of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    1992-12-31

    Anaerobic syntrophic bacteria degrade fatty acids and some aromatic compounds which are important intermediates in the degradation of organic matter to CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} in methanogenic environments. Several of the described syntrophic species produce poly-{beta}-hydroxyalkanoate (PHA) suggesting that the synthesis and use of PHA is important in their physiology. In the fatty acid-degrading, syntrophic bacterium, Syntrophomonas wolfei, PHA is made during exponential phase of growth and used after growth has stopped and substrate levels are low. Altering the carbon to nitrogen ratio of the medium does not affect the amount of PHA made or its monomeric composition. It is hypothesized that PHA serves as an endogenous energy source for syntrophic bacteria when the concentrations of hydrogen or acetate are too high for the degradation of the growth substrate to be thermodynamically favorable. In S. wolfei, PHA is synthesized by two routes, the direct incorporation of 3-ketoacyl-coenzyme A (CoA) generated in {beta}-oxidation without cleavage of a C-C bond, and by the condensation and subsequent reduction of two acetyl-CoA molecules. Genes that encode for the synthesis of PHA in S. wolfei have been cloned into Escherichia coli in order to understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate PHA synthesis. 61 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  6. Anaerobic Degradation of Uric Acid by Gut Bacteria of Termites †

    PubMed Central

    Potrikus, C. J.; Breznak, John A.

    1980-01-01

    A study was done of anaerobic degradation of uric acid (UA) by representative strains of uricolytic bacteria isolated from guts of Reticulitermes flavipes termites. Streptococcus strain UAD-1 degraded UA incompletely, secreting a fluorescent compound into the medium, unless formate (or a formicogenic compound) was present as a cosubstrate. Formate functioned as a reductant, and its oxidation to CO2 by formate dehydrogenase provided 2H+ + 2e? needed to drive uricolysis to completion. Uricolysis by Streptococcus UAD-1 thus corresponded to the following equation: 1UA + 1formate ? 4CO2 + 1acetate + 4NH3. Urea did not appear to be an intermediate in CO2 and NH3 formation during uricolysis by strain UAD-1. Formate dehydrogenase and uricolytic activities of strain UAD-1 were inducible by growth of cells on UA. Bacteroides termitidis strain UAD-50 degraded UA as follows: 1UA ? 3.5 CO2 + 0.75acetate + 4NH3. Exogenous formate was neither required for nor stimulatory to uricolysis by strain UAD-50. Studies of UA catabolism by Citrobacter strains were limited, because only small amounts of UA were metabolized by cells in liquid medium. Uricolytic activity of such bacteria in situ could be important to the carbon, nitrogen, and energy economy of R. flavipes. PMID:16345588

  7. Complete Genome of Ignavibacterium album, a Metabolically Versatile, Flagellated, Facultative Anaerobe from the Phylum Chlorobi

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenfeng; Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Vogl, Kajetan; Iino, Takao; Ohkuma, Moriya; Overmann, Jörg; Bryant, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    Prior to the recent discovery of Ignavibacterium album (I. album), anaerobic photoautotrophic green sulfur bacteria (GSB) were the only members of the bacterial phylum Chlorobi that had been grown axenically. In contrast to GSB, sequence analysis of the 3.7-Mbp genome of I. album shows that this recently described member of the phylum Chlorobi is a chemoheterotroph with a versatile metabolism. I. album lacks genes for photosynthesis and sulfur oxidation but has a full set of genes for flagella and chemotaxis. The occurrence of genes for multiple electron transfer complexes suggests that I. album is capable of organoheterotrophy under both oxic and anoxic conditions. The occurrence of genes encoding enzymes for CO2 fixation as well as other enzymes of the reductive TCA cycle suggests that mixotrophy may be possible under certain growth conditions. However, known biosynthetic pathways for several amino acids are incomplete; this suggests that I. album is dependent upon on exogenous sources of these metabolites or employs novel biosynthetic pathways. Comparisons of I. album and other members of the phylum Chlorobi suggest that the physiology of the ancestors of this phylum might have been quite different from that of modern GSB. PMID:22661972

  8. Active transport, substrate specificity, and methylation of Hg(II) in anaerobic bacteria

    E-print Network

    Morel, François M. M.

    -reducing bacteria (FeRB and SRB) that live in soil and sediments (3­6). Although mechanisms of Hg(II) methylationActive transport, substrate specificity, and methylation of Hg(II) in anaerobic bacteria Jeffra K-reducing bacteria (FeRB and SRB) in anaero- bic environments. However, very little is known regarding the mechanism

  9. Isolation of anaerobic oxalate-degrading bacteria from freshwater lake sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard L. Smith; Frances E. Strohmaier; Ronald S. Oremland

    1985-01-01

    Enrichment cultures that anaerobically degraded oxalate were obtained from lake sediment inocula. From these, 5 pure cultures of anaerobic oxalate-degrading bacteria were isolated and partially characterized. The isolates were Gram-negative, non-sporeforming, non-motile, obligate anaerobes. Oxalate was required for growth and was stoichiometrically converted to formate; 14CO2 was also recovered when 14C-oxalate was added. Maximal growth occurred when the oxalate concentration

  10. Standardized Single-Disc MethodforAntibiotic Susceptibility Testing ofAnaerobic Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. D. WILKINS; I. J. ABRAMSON; W. E. C. MOORE

    1972-01-01

    A method was developed fordetermination oftheantibiotic susceptibility ofanaero- bicbacteria byuse ofa single-disc diffusion technique andincorporation ofthe inoculum inpourplates. Themethod was standardized bycorrelation ofzone diam- eters withminimal inhibitory concentrations determined inbroth. Zonediameters could beusedtoapproximate theminimal inhibitory concentrations oftheseven antibiotics tested: ampicillin, bacitracin, carbenicillin, cephalothin, clindamycin, penicillin, andtetracycline. Anaerobic bacteria arebeing isolated from tissue infections withincreasing frequency as clinical anaerobic methods haveimproved.

  11. Rapid enzymatic characterization of clinically encountered anaerobic bacteria with the API ZYM system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Marler; S. Allen; J. Siders

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if enzyme profiles of anaerobic bacteria, obtained with the API ZYM system, are sufficiently distinctive and reproducible to merit future development of the system and an expanded data base for the four major groups of clinically encountered anaerobes. Of the total 155 clinical isolates and reference strains that were tested, 88 %

  12. Candidatus “Anammoxoglobus propionicus” a new propionate oxidizing species of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boran Kartal; Jayne Rattray; Laura A. van Niftrik; Jack van de Vossenberg; Markus C. Schmid; Richard I. Webb; Stefan Schouten; John A. Fuerst; Jaap Sinninghe Damsté; Mike S. M. Jetten; Marc Strous

    2007-01-01

    The bacteria that mediate the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium (anammox) are detected worldwide in natural and man-made ecosystems, and contribute up to 50% to the loss of inorganic nitrogen in the oceans. Two different anammox species rarely live in a single habitat, suggesting that each species has a defined but yet unknown niche. Here we describe a new anaerobic ammonium

  13. A dynamic estimation scheme of specific growth rates of bacteria for an anaerobic wastewater treatment process

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A dynamic estimation scheme of specific growth rates of bacteria for an anaerobic wastewater anal- ysis and estimation schemes for specific growth rates for an anaerobic wastewater treatment the organic and inorganic materials) of municipal or industrial wastewater often needs to be highly reduced

  14. Anaerobic degradation of 2-aminobenzoate (anthranilic acid) by denitrifying bacteria. [Pseudomonas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Braun; D. T. Gibson

    1984-01-01

    In the presence of oxygen many aminoaromatic compounds polymerize to form recalcitrant macromolecules. To circumvent undesirable oxidation reactions, the anaerobic biodegradation of a simple member of this class of compounds was investigated. Two strains of bacteria were isolated which degrade 2-aminobenzoate anaerobically under denitrifying conditions, with nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor. Both organisms, which were assigned to the genus

  15. Oxygen regulated gene expression in Escherichia coli: Control of anaerobic respiration by the FNR protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gottfried Unden; Martin Trageser

    1991-01-01

    Molecular oxygen is an important regulatory signal in facultative anaerobic bacteria and controles the expression of a great variety of genes positively or negatively. The expression of anaerobic respiration and of related functions of E. coli is controlled by the positive gene regulator FNR, which activates transcription in the absence of O2. The regulated genes carry a FNR consensus sequence

  16. Induced cooperation between marine nitrifiers and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria by incremental exposure to oxygen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jia Yan; Mike S. M. Jetten; Yong Y. Hu; Suzanne C. M. Haaijer

    2010-01-01

    In oxygen-limited marine ecosystems cooperation between marine nitrifiers and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria is of importance to nitrogen cycling. Strong evidence for cooperation between anammox bacteria and nitrifiers has been provided by environmental studies but little is known about the development of such communities, the effects of environmental parameters and the physiological traits of their constituents. In this study, a

  17. Propionate oxidation by and methanol inhibition of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Didem Guven; Ana Dapena; M. B. Kartal; Markus C. Schmid; Bart Maas; Katinka van de Pas-Schoonen; Seval Sozen; Ramon Mendez; Mike S. M. Jetten; Marc Strous; Ingo Schmidt

    2005-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is a recently discovered microbial pathway and a cost-effective way to remove ammonium from wastewater. Anammox bacteria have been described as obligate chemolitho- autotrophs. However, many chemolithoautotrophs (i.e., nitrifiers) can use organic compounds as a supple- mentary carbon source. In this study, the effect of organic compounds on anammox bacteria was investigated. It was shown that

  18. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation by Nitrosomonas spp. and anammox bacteria in a sequencing batch reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siriporn Sripiboon; Mongkol Damrongsri; Junko Munakata-Marr

    2009-01-01

    A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was inoculated with mixed nitrifying bacteria from an anoxic tank at the conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plant in Nongkhaem, Bangkok, Thailand. This enriched nitrifying culture was maintained under anaerobic conditions using ammonium (NH4+) as an electron donor and nitrite (NO2?) as an electron acceptor. Autotrophic ammonium oxidizing bacteria survived under these conditions. The enrichment

  19. Identification of Anaerobic Selenate-Respiring Bacteria from Aquatic Sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Priya Narasingarao; Max M. Haggblom

    2007-01-01

    The diversity population of microorganisms with the capability to use selenate as a terminal electron acceptor, reducing it to selenite and elemental selenium by the process known as dissimilatory selenate reduction, is largely unknown. The overall objective of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of anaerobic biotransformation of selenium in the environment, particularly anaerobic respiration, and to characterize

  20. Quantification of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in enrichment cultures by quantitative competitive PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun HAO; Huan WANG; Qinhua LIU; Xudong LI

    2009-01-01

    The anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (ANAMMOX) bacteria were enriched from a sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR). A quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction (QC-PCR) system was successfully developed to detect and quantify ANAMMOX bacteria in environmental samples. For QC-PCR system, PCR primer sets targeting 16S ribosomal RNA genes of ANAMMOX bacteria were designed and used. The quantification range of this system was 4

  1. Quantification of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in enrichment cultures by real-time PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ikuo Tsushima; Tomonori Kindaichi; Satoshi Okabe

    2007-01-01

    The anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (ANAMMOX) bacteria were enriched from a rotating disk reactor (RDR) biofilm in semi-batch cultures. Based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, this enrichment led to a relative population size of 36% ANAMMOX bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the detected clones were related to the previously reported ANAMMOX bacteria, Candidatus Brocadia anammoxidans (AF375994), with 92% sequence

  2. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Facultative Anaerobic Filamentous Fungus from Japanese Rice Field Soil

    PubMed Central

    Tonouchi, Akio

    2009-01-01

    A novel filamentous fungus strain designated RB-1 was isolated into pure culture from Japanese rice field soil through an anaerobic role tube technique. The strain is a mitosporic fungus that grows in both aerobic and strict anaerobic conditions using various mono-, di-, tri-, and polysaccharides with acetate and ethanol productions. The amount of acetate produced was higher than that of ethanol in both aerobic and anaerobic cultures. The characteristic verrucose or punctuate conidia of RB-1 closely resembled those of some strains of the genus Thermomyces, a thermophilic or mesophilic anamorphic ascomycete. However, based on phylogenetic analysis with the small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) rDNA sequences, RB-1 was characterized as a member of the class Lecanoromycetes of the phylum Ascomycota. Currently, RB-1 is designated as an anamorphic ascomycete and is phylogenetically considered an incertae sedis within the class Lecanoromycetes. PMID:20148171

  3. Use of Enzyme Tests in Characterization and Identification of Aerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Gram-Positive Cocci

    PubMed Central

    Bascomb, Shoshana; Manafi, Mammad

    1998-01-01

    The contribution of enzyme tests to the accurate and rapid routine identification of gram-positive cocci is introduced. The current taxonomy of the genera of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic cocci based on genotypic and phenotypic characterization is reviewed. The clinical and economic importance of members of these taxa is briefly summarized. Tables summarizing test schemes and kits available for the identification of staphylococci, enterococci, and streptococci on the basis of general requirements, number of tests, number of taxa, test classes, and completion times are discussed. Enzyme tests included in each scheme are compared on the basis of their synthetic moiety. The current understanding of the activity of enzymes important for classification and identification of the major groups, methods of testing, and relevance to the ease and speed of identification are reviewed. Publications describing the use of different identification kits are listed, and overall identification successes and problems are discussed. The relationships between the results of conventional biochemical and rapid enzyme tests are described and considered. The use of synthetic substrates for the detection of glycosidases and peptidases is reviewed, and the advantages of fluorogenic synthetic moieties are discussed. The relevance of enzyme tests to accurate and meaningful rapid routine identification is discussed. PMID:9564566

  4. Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

    1992-06-01

    A variety of different media were used to isolate facultatively (FAB) and obligately anaerobic bacteria (OAB). These bacteria were isolated from core subsamples obtained from boreholes at the Idaho National Engineering Lab. (INEL) or at the Hanford Lab. (Yakima). Core material was sampled at various depths to 600 feet below the surface. All core samples with culturable bacteria contained at least FAB making thisthe most common physiological type of anaerobic bacteria present in the deep subsurface at these two sites. INEL core samples are characterized by isolates of both FAB and OAB. No isolates of acetogenic, methanogenic, or sulfate reducing bacteria were obtained. Yakima core samples are characterized by a marked predominance of FAB in comparison to OAB. In addition, isolates of acetogenic, methanogenic, and sulfate reducing bacteria were obtained. The Yakima site has the potential for complete anaerobic mineralization of organic compounds whereas this potential appears to be lacking at INEL.

  5. Initial reactions in the anaerobic oxidation of toluene and m-xylene by denitrifying bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Seyfried, B.; Glod, G.; Schocher, R.; Tschech, A.; Zeyer, J. [Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Schlieren (Switzerland)

    1994-11-01

    Anaerobic degradation of toluene has been observed under different redox conditions, and several pure cultures of bacteria which grow anaerobically with toluene have been isolated. Both denitrifying Pseufomonas sp. strain T and denitrifying Pseudomonas sp. strain K172 grow anaerobically with toluene, benzaldehyde, and benzoate, but only strain K172 also grows with benzlyalchohol. Carboxylation of toluene to yield phenylacetate or methylbenzoate does not occur in strains K172 and T. Utilization of benzylalcohol might be considered a prerequisite for initial activation of toluene via methyl group oxidation. This paper describes studies examining the initial reaction in anaerobic toluene degradation by strains T and K172. The initial reaction in anaerobic degradation of m-xylene by strain T. was also examined. The results indicate that initial direct oxidation of the methyl groups of toluene and m-xylene occurs. 21 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Isolation and some characteristics of anaerobic oxalate-degrading bacteria from the rumen.

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, K A; Allison, M J; Hartman, P A

    1980-01-01

    Obligately anaerobic oxalate-degrading bacteria were isolated from an enriched population of rumen bacteria in an oxalate-containing medium that had been depleted of other readily metabolized substrates. These organisms, which are the first reported anaerobic oxalate degraders isolated from the rumen, were gram negative, nonmotile rods. They grew in a medium containing sodium oxalate, yeast extract, cysteine, and minerals. The only substrate that supported growth was oxalate. Growth was directly related to the concentration of oxalate in the medium (1 to 111 mM), and cell yields were approximately 1.1 g (dry weight)/mol of oxalate degraded. Oxalate was stoichiometrically degraded to CO2 and formate. These anaerobes occupy a unique ecological niche and are distinct from any previously described oxalate-degrading bacteria. Images PMID:7425628

  7. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria and sulfide-dependent denitrifiers coexist in the water column of a meromictic south-alpine lake

    E-print Network

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria and sulfide-dependent denitrifiers coexist are incomplete. Alternative pathways, such as anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) or sulfide Abstract In addition to organotrophic denitrification, alternative pathways, such as anaerobic ammonium

  8. Clinical evaluation of the RapID-ANA II panel for identification of anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Celig, D M; Schreckenberger, P C

    1991-01-01

    The accuracy of the RapID-ANA II system (Innovative Diagnostic Systems, Inc., Atlanta, Ga.) was evaluated by comparing the results obtained with that system with results obtained by the methods described by the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Three hundred anaerobic bacteria were tested, including 259 clinical isolates and 41 stock strains of anaerobic microorganisms representing 16 genera and 48 species. When identifications to the genus level only were included, 96% of the anaerobic gram-negative bacilli, 94% of the Clostridium species, 83% of the anaerobic, nonsporeforming, gram-positive bacilli, and 97% of the anaerobic cocci were correctly identified. When correct identifications to the genus and species levels were compared, 86% of 152 anaerobic gram-negative bacilli, 76% of 34 Clostridium species, 81% of 41 anaerobic, nonsporeforming, gram-positive bacilli, and 97% of 73 anaerobic cocci were correctly identified. Eight isolates (3%) produced inadequate identification in which the correct identification was listed with one or two other possible choices and extra tests were required for separation. A total of 9 isolates (3%) were misidentified by the RapID-ANA II panel. Overall, the system was able to correctly identify 94% of all the isolates to the genus level and 87% of the isolates to the species level in 4 h by using aerobic incubation. PMID:2037661

  9. Molecular Detection of Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing (Anammox) Bacteria in High-Temperature Petroleum Reservoirs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Li; Shuo Chen; Bo-Zhong Mu; Ji-Dong Gu

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) process plays an important role in the nitrogen cycle of the worldwide anoxic and mesophilic\\u000a habitats. Recently, the existence and activity of anammox bacteria have been detected in some thermophilic environments, but\\u000a their existence in the geothermal subterranean oil reservoirs is still not reported. This study investigated the abundance,\\u000a distribution and functional diversity of anammox bacteria in

  10. Electricity generation by anaerobic bacteria and anoxic sediments from hypersaline soda lakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence G. Miller; Ronald S. Oremland

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria and anoxic sediments from soda lakes produced electricity in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). No electricity\\u000a was generated in the absence of bacterial metabolism. Arsenate respiring bacteria isolated from moderately hypersaline Mono\\u000a Lake (Bacillus selenitireducens), and salt-saturated Searles Lake, CA (strain SLAS-1) oxidized lactate using arsenate as the electron acceptor. However,\\u000a these cultures grew equally well without added arsenate

  11. Role of anaerobic bacteria in the metabolic welfare of the colonic mucosa in man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W E Roediger

    1980-01-01

    Suspensions of isolated epithelial cells (colonocytes) from the human colon were used to assess utilisation of respiratory fuels which are normally available to the colonic mucosa in vivo. Cells were prepared from operative specimens of the ascending colon (seven) and descending colon (seven). The fuels that were used were the short chain fatty acid n-butyrate, produced only by anaerobic bacteria

  12. Comparative Genomic Analysis of dha Regulon and Related Genes for Anaerobic Glycerol Metabolism in Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jibin Sun; Joop van den Heuvel; Philippe Soucaille; Yinbo Qu; An-Ping Zeng

    2003-01-01

    The dihydroxyacetone (dha) regulon of bacteria encodes genes for the anaerobic metabolism of glycerol. In this work, genomic data are used to analyze and compare the dha regulon and related genes in different organisms in silico with respect to gene organization, sequence similarity, and possible functions. Database searches showed that among the organisms, the genomes of which have been sequenced

  13. Understanding How Commensal Obligate Anaerobic Bacteria Regulate Immune Functions in the Large Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Eva; Anderson, Rachel C.; Roy, Nicole C.

    2014-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised by trillions of commensal bacteria, most of which are obligate anaerobes residing in the large intestine. Appropriate bacterial colonisation is generally known to be critical for human health. In particular, the development and function of the immune system depends on microbial colonisation, and a regulated cross-talk between commensal bacteria, intestinal epithelial cells and immune cells is required to maintain mucosal immune homeostasis. This homeostasis is disturbed in various inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel diseases. Several in vitro and in vivo studies indicate a role for Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides fragilis, Akkermansia muciniphila and segmented filamentous bacteria in maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis. These obligate anaerobes are abundant in the healthy intestine but reduced in several inflammatory diseases, suggesting an association with protective effects on human health. However, knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the effects of obligate anaerobic intestinal bacteria remains limited, in part due to the difficulty of co-culturing obligate anaerobes together with oxygen-requiring human epithelial cells. By using novel dual-environment co-culture models, it will be possible to investigate the effects of the unstudied majority of intestinal microorganisms on the human epithelia. This knowledge will provide opportunities for improving human health and reducing the risk of inflammatory diseases. PMID:25545102

  14. Degradation of BTEX by anaerobic bacteria: physiology and application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sander A. B. Weelink; Miriam H. A. van Eekert; Alfons J. M. Stams

    2010-01-01

    Pollution of the environment with aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (so-called BTEX)\\u000a is often observed. The cleanup of these toxic compounds has gained much attention in the last decades. In situ bioremediation\\u000a of aromatic hydrocarbons contaminated soils and groundwater by naturally occurring microorganisms or microorganisms that are\\u000a introduced is possible. Anaerobic bioremediation is an attractive technology

  15. Mastoiditis and Gradenigo’s Syndrome with anaerobic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gradenigo’s syndrome is a rare disease, which is characterized by the triad of the following conditions: suppurative otitis media, pain in the distribution of the first and the second division of trigeminal nerve, and abducens nerve palsy. The full triad may often not be present, but can develop if the condition is not treated correctly. Case presentation We report a case of a 3-year-old girl, who presented with fever and left-sided acute otitis media. She developed acute mastoiditis, which was initially treated by intravenous antibiotics, ventilation tube insertion and cortical mastoidectomy. After 6 days the clinical picture was complicated by development of left-sided abducens palsy. MRI-scanning showed osteomyelitis within the petro-mastoid complex, and a hyper intense signal of the adjacent meninges. Microbiological investigations showed Staphylococcus aureus and Fusobacterium necrophorum. She was treated successfully with intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy with anaerobic coverage. After 8 weeks of follow-up there was no sign of recurrent infection or abducens palsy. Conclusion Gradenigo’s syndrome is a rare, but life-threatening complication to middle ear infection. It is most commonly caused by aerobic microorganisms, but anaerobic microorganisms may also be found why anaerobic coverage should be considered when determining the antibiotic treatment. PMID:22978305

  16. [Anaerobic bacteria involved in the degradation of aromatic sulfonates to methane].

    PubMed

    Shcherbakova, V A; Laurinavichyus, K S; Chuvil'skaya, N A; Ryzhmanova, Ya V; Akimenko, V K

    2015-01-01

    An anaerobic microbial consortium that degrades benzene- and p-toluenesulfonate to form methane and fatty acids has been produced. Pure cultures of three strains of anaerobic spore-forming bacteria Clostridium spp., as well as the sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio sp., were isolated and characterized. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains showed that pure cultures of clostridia strains 14, 24, and 21 are close to Clostridium lituseburense DSM 797T, C. sartagoforme DSM 1292T, and C. pascui DSM 10365T, and the sulfate-reducing strain SR1 is genotypically closer to Desulfovibrio aminophilus ALA-3T. Preliminary characterization of isolated bacteria makes it possible to assume that these are new species of the genera Clostridium and Desulfovibrio, the distinctive feature of which is the ability to incorporate aromatic sulfonates in their metabolisms. PMID:26027356

  17. Complete genome sequence of the facultatively anaerobic, appendaged bacterium Muricauda ruestringensis type strain (B1T)

    SciTech Connect

    Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Pan, Chongle [ORNL; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Spring, Stefan [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2012-01-01

    Muricauda ruestringensis Bruns et al. 2001 is the type species of the genus Muricauda, which belongs to the family Flavobacteriaceae in the phylum Bacteroidetes. The species is of interest because of its isolated position in the genomically unexplored genus Muricauda, which is located in a part of the tree of life containing not many organisms with sequenced genomes. The genome, which consists of a circular chromosome of 3,842,422 bp length with a total of 3,478 protein-coding and 47 RNA genes, is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  18. Complete genome sequence of the facultative anaerobic magnetotactic bacterium Magnetospirillum sp. strain AMB-1.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Tadashi; Okamura, Yoshiko; Fukuda, Yorikane; Wahyudi, Aris Tri; Murase, Yaeko; Takeyama, Haruko

    2005-01-01

    Magnetospirillum sp. strain AMB-1 is a Gram-negative alpha-proteobacterium that synthesizes nano-sized magnetites, referred to as magnetosomes, aligned intracellularly in a chain. The potential of this nano-sized material is growing and will be applicable to broad research areas. It has been expected that genome analysis would elucidate the mechanism of magnetosome formation by magnetic bacteria. Here we describe the genome of Magnetospirillum sp. AMB-1 wild type, which consists of a single circular chromosome of 4967148 bp. For identification of genes required for magnetosome formation, transposon mutagenesis and determination of magnetosome membrane proteins were performed. Analysis of a non-magnetic transposon mutant library focused on three unknown genes from 2752 unknown genes and three genes from 205 signal transduction genes. Partial proteome analysis of the magnetosome membrane revealed that the membrane contains numerous oxidation/reduction proteins and a signal response regulator that may function in magnetotaxis. Thus, oxidation/reduction proteins and elaborate multidomain signaling proteins were analyzed. This comprehensive genome analysis will enable resolution of the mechanisms of magnetosome formation and provide a template to determine how magnetic bacteria maintain a species-specific, nano-sized, magnetic single domain and paramagnetic morphology. PMID:16303747

  19. Enrichment and characterization of anaerobic TNT-degrading bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.J.; Pendharkar, S. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Three media constitutions were used to enrich for mixed cultures capable of degrading 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) under strictly anaerobic conditions. The media were derived from a mineral salts solution buffered to pH 7 with CO{sub 2}/bicarbonate and all contained TNT. The cultures were enriched in the TNT mineral salts medium or the TNT mineral salts medium supplemented with glucose, yeast extract, or ammonia in various combinations. Inocula were obtained from a treated soil, previously contaminated with dinoseb and then treated using anaerobic procedures, or from a bench-top aqueous culture, maintained with an extract from a munitions-contaminated soil for more than 4 years. Several cultures reduced TNT, producing 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene and 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene as the major products. The cultures were unable to effectively remove TNT when cross-transferred to the media they were not enriched on, suggesting that different media had enriched different subcultures form the original inoculum. The treated soil provided the most successful inoculum. Two media were chosen for further studies. Medium 1 contained TNT and glucose and produced a culture that might have used TNT as a nitrogen source. Medium 2, containing TNT and yeast extract, enriched cultures that degraded TNT, accumulating small amounts of p-cresol during the degradation.

  20. Decrease of U(VI) Immobilization Capability of the Facultative Anaerobic Strain Paenibacillus sp. JG-TB8 under Anoxic Conditions Due to Strongly Reduced Phosphatase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Reitz, Thomas; Rossberg, Andre; Barkleit, Astrid; Selenska-Pobell, Sonja; Merroun, Mohamed L.

    2014-01-01

    Interactions of a facultative anaerobic bacterial isolate named Paenibacillus sp. JG-TB8 with U(VI) were studied under oxic and anoxic conditions in order to assess the influence of the oxygen-dependent cell metabolism on microbial uranium mobilization and immobilization. We demonstrated that aerobically and anaerobically grown cells of Paenibacillus sp. JG-TB8 accumulate uranium from aqueous solutions under acidic conditions (pH 2 to 6), under oxic and anoxic conditions. A combination of spectroscopic and microscopic methods revealed that the speciation of U(VI) associated with the cells of the strain depend on the pH as well as on the aeration conditions. At pH 2 and pH 3, uranium was exclusively bound by organic phosphate groups provided by cellular components, independently on the aeration conditions. At higher pH values, a part (pH 4.5) or the total amount (pH 6) of the dissolved uranium was precipitated under oxic conditions in a meta-autunite-like uranyl phosphate mineral phase without supplying an additional organic phosphate substrate. In contrast to that, under anoxic conditions no mineral formation was observed at pH 4.5 and pH 6, which was clearly assigned to decreased orthophosphate release by the cells. This in turn was caused by a suppression of the indigenous phosphatase activity of the strain. The results demonstrate that changes in the metabolism of facultative anaerobic microorganisms caused by the presence or absence of oxygen can decisively influence U(VI) biomineralization. PMID:25157416

  1. Proteolytic anaerobic bacteria from lake sediments of Antarctica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Smita Dube; Lokendra Singh; S. I Alam

    2001-01-01

    Amongst twenty five proteolytic bacteria isolated from lake sediment samples of Antarctica, six isolates were selected based on SDS PAGE protein profile and zone of hydrolysis on casein agar at 10°C. Most of the cultures were rod shaped and motile with two showing terminal bulging spores. Isolates grew between 5°C to 37°C and protease was induced in the late log,

  2. Removal Of Heavy Metals From Electroplating Wastewater By Anaerobic Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wanggang; Sun, Peide; Song, Yingqi; Zhang, Yi; Yin, Jun

    2010-11-01

    Biosorption of heavy metals from simulated wastewater and the raw electroplating wastewater with "BM (Biosorption of Metals) bacteria" were investigated in this study. The influence of initial pH, biosorbents dose, concentration of ions, contact time and temperature on biosorption capacity of Cr(VI) and Ni(II) were studied. The optimum pH for biosorption of Cr(VI) was found to be low, and the removal efficiency of Cr(VI) was 98.60% with "BM bacteria" at pH 2. The removal efficiency of Ni(II) was increased with increasing the pH, and was enhanced up to 115% compared with the wastewater without BM bacteria. In this experiment, the "BM bacteria" efficiently removed Cu(II), Ni(II), Cr(VI), Zn(II) and COD from the raw electroplating wastewater, and the removal efficiencies were 98.92%, 99.92%, 99.86%, 99.93% and 45.20% respectively.

  3. Anaerobic degradation of 2-aminobenzoate (anthranilic acid) by denitrifying bacteria. [Pseudomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, K.; Gibson, D.T.

    1984-07-01

    In the presence of oxygen many aminoaromatic compounds polymerize to form recalcitrant macromolecules. To circumvent undesirable oxidation reactions, the anaerobic biodegradation of a simple member of this class of compounds was investigated. Two strains of bacteria were isolated which degrade 2-aminobenzoate anaerobically under denitrifying conditions, with nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor. Both organisms, which were assigned to the genus Pseudomonas, oxidized 2-aminobenzoate completely to CO/sub 2/ and NH/sub 4//sup +/. Nitrate was reduced to nitrite. When nitrate was depleted from the growth medium the accumulated nitrite was reduced to nitrogen. The results establish a model system for the anaerobic, rapid, and complete oxidation of an aminoaromatic compound.

  4. Biogas production from brewery spent grain enhanced by bioaugmentation with hydrolytic anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    ?ater, Maša; Fanedl, Lijana; Malovrh, Špela; Marinšek Logar, Romana

    2015-06-01

    Lignocellulosic substrates are widely available but not easily applied in biogas production due to their poor anaerobic degradation. The effect of bioaugmentation by anaerobic hydrolytic bacteria on biogas production was determined by the biochemical methane potential assay. Microbial biomass from full scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating brewery wastewater was a source of active microorganisms and brewery spent grain a model lignocellulosic substrate. Ruminococcus flavefaciens 007C, Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans Mz5(T), Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 and Clostridium cellulovorans as pure and mixed cultures were used to enhance the lignocellulose degradation and elevate the biogas production. P. xylanivorans Mz5(T) was the most successful in elevating methane production (+17.8%), followed by the coculture of P. xylanivorans Mz5(T) and F. succinogenes S85 (+6.9%) and the coculture of C. cellulovorans and F. succinogenes S85 (+4.9%). Changes in microbial community structure were detected by fingerprinting techniques. PMID:25836034

  5. Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing (Anammox) Bacteria and Associated Activity in Fixed-Film Biofilters of a Marine Recirculating Aquaculture System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yossi Tal; Joy E. M. Watts; Harold J. Schreier

    2006-01-01

    Microbial communities in the biological filter and waste sludge compartments of a marine recirculating aqua- culture system were examined to determine the presence and activity of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria. Community DNA was extracted from aerobic and anaerobic fixed-film biofilters and the anaerobic sludge waste collection tank and was analyzed by amplifying 16S rRNA genes by PCR using anammox-selective and

  6. Effective reduction of enteric bacteria and viruses during the anaerobic digestion of biomass and wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Fannin, K.F.; Hsu, P.H.; Mensinger, J.; Cahill, C.

    1984-01-01

    Natural resource depletion increases the amount of waste requiring efficient and affordable disposal alternatives. Through effective management, many of these so-called wastes can be utilized as important energy and agricultural resources. One such management approach involves the utilization of emergent aquatic plant species, such as water hyacinth, to remove nutrients from the wastewater during growth. This process produces an energy-containing biomass that can then be anaerobically digested either separately or with other waste components to produce energy-containing methane and an effluent residue containing significant quantities of protein and nutrients. This residue can be utilized as an effective fertilizer, soil conditioner, or animal feed supplement provided it is rendered reasonably safe from such contaminants as enteric microorganisms. This study was conducted to identify the digester operating parameters that affect the survival of enteric bacteria and viruses during the anaerobic digestion of blends of water hyacinth and primary sewage sludge. Solids retetion time and temperature were demonstrated to be important parameters affecting the survival of poliovirus, f-2 coliphage, Streptoccus fecalis, and Escherichia coli during anaerobic digestion. The die-off rates of the coliphages were similar to those of the poliovirus at 35/sup 0/C. S. fecalis appeared to be the most stable of any of the bacteria and viruses studied. All organisms were more stable at 25 than at 35/sup 0/C. The data demonstrate that the concentration of enteric bacteria and viruses can be effectively reduced during anaerobic digestion using techniques, such as increased solids retention times and mesophilic temperatures, that are consistent with achieving high methane yields. The survival of enteric viruses during anaerobic digestion may be affected by the characteristics of the feedstock as well as by the process operating conditions.

  7. FINAL REPORT. REDUCTION AND IMMOBILIZATION OF RADIONUCLIDES AND TOXIC METAL IONS USING COMBINED ZERO VALENT IRON AND ANAEROBIC BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of zero valent iron, permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) for groundwater remediation continues to increase. An exciting variation of this technology involves introducing anaerobic bacteria into these barriers so that both biological and abiotic pollutant removal processes ...

  8. Candidatus “Scalindua brodae”, sp. nov., Candidatus “Scalindua wagneri”, sp. nov., Two New Species of Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidizing Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Schmid; Kerry Walsh; Rick Webb; W. Irene Rijpstra; Katinka van de Pas-Schoonen; Mark Jan Verbruggen; Thomas Hill; Bruce Moffett; John Fuerst; Stefan Schouten; Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté; James Harris; Phil Shaw; Mike Jetten; Marc Strous

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is both a promising process in wastewater treatment and a long overlooked microbial physiology that can contribute significantly to biological nitrogen cycling in the world's oceans. Anammox is mediated by a monophyletic group of bacteria that branches deeply in the Planctomycetales. Here we describe a new genus and species of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing planctomycetes, discovered in

  9. Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria gain antibiotic resistance during long-term acclimatization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheng-Zhe; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Guo, Qiong; Chen, Qian-Qian; Jiang, Xiao-Yan; Jin, Ren-Cun

    2015-09-01

    Three broad-spectrum antibiotics, amoxicillin (AMX), florfenicol (FF) and sulfamethazine (SMZ), that inhibit bacteria via different target sites, were selected to evaluate the acute toxicity and long-term effects on anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) granules. The specific anammox activity (SAA) levels reduced by approximately half within the first 3days in the presence of antibiotics but no nitrite accumulation was observed in continuous-flow experiments. However, the SAA levels and heme c content gradually recovered as the antibiotic concentrations increased. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) analysis suggested that anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria gradually developed a better survival strategy during long-term acclimatization, which reduced the antibiotic stress via increased EPS secretion that provided a protective 'cocoon.' In terms of nitrogen removal efficiency, anammox granules could resist 60mg-AMXL(-1), 10mg-FFL(-1) and 100mg-SMZL(-1). This study supported the feasibility of using anammox granules to treat antibiotic-containing wastewater. PMID:26111629

  10. Anaerobic Bacteria on the Mucosal Epithelium of the Murine Large Bowel

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Dwayne C.; McAllister, Julia S.; Davis, C. Patrick

    1971-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria can be detected at population levels of 1011 organisms per g of cecum or colon in adult mice from four different colonies widely spaced in the United States. Most of these microorganisms are oxygen-intolerant fusiform-shaped bacteria. At least one type of these tapered, rod-shaped bacteria can be seen in layers in the epithelial mucin in frozen-section histological preparations of the large bowels of mice. In addition, such microorganisms can be seen within 0.5 ?m of the epithelium in ultrathin sections of colon or cecum examined in an electron microscope. These fusiform-shaped bacteria predominate in the mucin layers. However, spiral-shaped microorganisms can be found as well near the mucosal epithelia in ultrathin sections of colon. Also, such organisms can be seen in negatively-stained preparations of washings of the colonic mucosal epithelia examined in an electron microscope. At least three types of spiral-shaped organisms, including both spiral-shaped bacteria and spirochetes, can be found in preparations from mice from three of the four colonies. Such spiral-shaped microorganisms can be detected at population levels as great as 109 organisms per g of cecum or colon in anaerobic cultures of the large bowels of mice from all four colonies. One anaerobic spiral bacterium was isolated in pure culture. This particular organism was found by immunofluorescence to be intermingled with the fusiform-shaped bacteria in the mucin on the mucosal epithelium in the mouse large bowel. Images PMID:4949504

  11. Effect of COD\\/Sulfate Ratios on Batch Anaerobic Digestion Using Sulfate-Reduction Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heng-heng Cao; Hong-guo Zhang; Ding-gui Luo; Yong-heng Chen

    2011-01-01

    A study on effects of the COD\\/sulfate ratio on characteristics of sulfate-reduction bacteria (SRB) in activated sludge of a UASB reactor was performed in batch anaerobic digestion experiment. Changes of pH in samples were 7.22~8.17 which was beneficial to the growth of SRB with high sulfate removal efficiency. Sulfate reduction efficiencies of COD\\/sulfate ratios from 0.43 to 3.03 were 18.7(R1),

  12. Nitrogen removal and sludge reduction in a symbiotic activated sludge system between anaerobic archaea and bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-B. Jun; S.-M. Park; N.-B. Park; S.-H. Lee

    The possible symbiosis between bacteria and anaerobic archaea was investigated in intermittent aeration (I\\/A) systems. Archaea solution added to I\\/A reactor might play an important role in biological activities as well as in improvement of mineralization of organic matter. I\\/A reactor with archaea solution (I\\/A- arch) could increase both nitrification and denitrification rate and also reduce the sludge yield remarkably.

  13. Active transport, substrate specificity, and methylation of Hg(II) in anaerobic bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Schaefer; Sara Rocks; Wang Zheng; Liyuan Liang; Baohua Gu; Francois M Morel

    2011-01-01

    The formation of methylmercury (MeHg), which is biomagnified in aquatic food chains and poses a risk to human health, is effected by some iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria (FeRB and SRB) in anaerobic environments. However, very little is known regarding the mechanism of uptake of inorganic Hg by these organisms, in part because of the inherent difficulty in measuring the intracellular

  14. Utilization of Alkylbenzenes during Anaerobic Growth of Pure Cultures of Denitrifying Bacteria on Crude Oil

    PubMed Central

    Rabus, R.; Widdel, F.

    1996-01-01

    Four pure cultures of denitrifying bacteria, which had previously been isolated on defined alkylbenzenes, were capable of anaerobic growth with crude oil as the only source of organic substrates. Chemical analyses after growth revealed that the known growth substrates toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene were selectively consumed from the oil. o-Xylene and p-xylene, which as pure compounds did not support growth, were consumed to a lesser extent. PMID:16535290

  15. Thermophilic, anaerobic bacteria isolated from a deep borehole in granite in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Szewzyk, U; Szewzyk, R; Stenström, T A

    1994-03-01

    A borehole drilled to a total depth of 6779 m in granitic rock in Gravberg, Sweden, was sampled and examined for the presence of anaerobic, thermophilic, fermenting bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria. Growth in enrichment cultures was obtained only from water samples collected from a specific sampling depth in the borehole (3500 m). The hole was cased down to a depth of 5278 m and open to the formation below that level. All the water below 2000 m in depth standing in the borehole at the time of sampling must have entered at the 5278-m level or below, during a prior pumping operation. A strong salinity stratification certifies that no major amount of vertical mixing had taken place. The depth from which bacteria could be enriched was that of a pronounced local minimum of salinity. Pure cultures of thermophilic, anaerobic, fermenting bacteria were obtained with the following substrates: glucose, starch, xylan, ethanol, and lactate. The morphology and physiology of the glucose- and starch-degrading strains indicate a relationship to Thermoanaerobacter and Thermoanaerobium species. All but one of the newly isolated strains differ however from those by lacking acetate as a fermentation product. The glucose-degrading strain Gluc1 is phylogenetically related to Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum, with an evolutionary distance based upon rRNA sequence comparisons of 3%. No sulfate-reducing or methanogenic bacteria were found. PMID:11607462

  16. [Cerebellar abscess due to infection with the anaerobic bacteria fusobacterium nucleatum: a case report].

    PubMed

    Shimogawa, Takafumi; Sayama, Tetsuro; Haga, Sei; Akiyama, Tomoaki; Morioka, Takato

    2015-02-01

    We report a rare case of cerebellar abscess produced by anaerobic bacteria. A 76-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with a history of fever, vomiting, and dizziness lasting 14 days. Computed tomography(CT)scan and magnetic resonance images showed the presence of a multiloculated cerebellar abscess with a right subdural abscess. The patient underwent aspiration of the abscess through a suboccipital craniotomy. Fusobacterium nucleatum, which is an anaerobic bacteria naturally present in the human oral cavity, was detected in cultures of the aspirated abscess. The patient was administered antibiotic treatment combined with hyperbaric oxygen therapy(HBO). The symptoms were briefly relieved but the cerebellar abscess recurred, which required a second aspiration. The combined treatment with antibiotics and HBO was maintained after the second operation. After 6 weeks of treatment, the cerebellar abscess was completely controlled. We conclude that antibiotic treatment combined with HBO is useful for treatment of cerebellar abscesses caused by infection with anaerobic bacteria. PMID:25672555

  17. Arsenite Oxidation by Anaerobic Bacteria in Mono Lake, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeft, S. E.; Oremland, R. S.

    2001-12-01

    Mono Lake, California is a meromictic soda lake (pH = 9.8; salinity = 70-90 g/L) with exceptionally high arsenic content (200 ? M) derived from hydrothermal sources. Previous work has shown that arsenic speciation changes from arsenate [As(V)] to the more reduced arsenite [As(III)] with vertical transition from the lake's surface oxic waters to its unmixed, anoxic bottom waters and that dissimilatory reduction is responsible for the observed change in arsenic speciation (Oremland et al., 2000). Depth profiles of arsenic speciation indicate that a small amount of As(V) exists in the anoxic bottom waters, suggesting a constant re-supply by microbial oxidation of As(III). Anaerobic microbial oxidation of As(III) to As(V) was first noted in arsenate-enriched anoxic bottom water amended with nitrate, where nitrate addition caused a rapid microbial re-oxidation of arsenite to arsenate (Hoeft et al. 2001). In following, we conducted time course experiments with As(III)-amended bottom waters supplemented with either 5 mM nitrate, Fe(III)-NTA or nitrite. Nitrate-amended waters formed As(V), while killed controls did not form significant amounts and 5 mM nitrate was completely reduced to 5 mM nitrite by the end of the incubation. Live samples amended with 5mM Fe(III)-NTA produced As(V) that exceeded production of As(V) in killed controls, while nitrite-amended waters formed As(V) in excess of killed controls after an initial lag. We isolated a pure culture, strain MLHE-1, that grows in minimal salts media by oxidation of As(III) to As(V) with the reduction of equivalent quantities of nitrate to nitrite. Strain MLHE-1 appears to be a chemoautotroph. These results demonstrate that the cycling of As(V) and As(III) can be sustained in the absence of oxygen. This has implications not only for the recycling of As(V) in Mono Lake's bottom waters, but also for the mobility of arsenic in aquifers as well. Oremland, R.S. et al. 2000. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 64: 3073-3084. Hoeft, S.E. et al. 2001. Geomicrobiol. In press.

  18. Isolation of Anaerobic Bacteria from Human Gingiva and Mouse Cecum by Means of a Simplified Glove Box Procedure1

    PubMed Central

    Aranki, Alexander; Syed, Salam A.; Kenney, Ernest B.; Freter, Rolf

    1969-01-01

    An anaerobic glove box constructed of clear flexible vinyl plastic is described. It is sufficiently inexpensive and simple in operation to be used not only in research but also in a clinical laboratory by technicians without special training. Conventional bacteriological techniques may be used inside the glove box for culturing and transferring anaerobic bacteria. The box may be heated to 37 C and thus serve as an anaerobic incubator as well, permitting inspection of cultures at any time. Media may be prepared and agar plates may be poured on the laboratory bench in the conventional manner. An overlay of trace amounts of palladium black catalyst over plated agar media reduces the medium to an oxidation-reduction (O-R) potential of - 300 mv within 2 days after introduction into the glove box. In spite of its greater simplicity, the system matched or excelled the roll tube method with respect to all parameters tested, including O-R potential obtainable in the media, O2 concentration in the gas phase, and efficiency in isolating anaerobic bacteria from the mouse cecum. Comparative studies indicate that the conventional anaerobic jar method was inadequate for the isolation of strict anaerobes from human gingival specimens and from the mouse cecum. This was due to the exposure of specimens and media to air during plating on the open laboratory bench. Anaerobic jars were adequate for maintaining the proper conditions for growth of anaerobic bacteria once these had been established in the glove box. Images PMID:4890748

  19. Optimization of three FISH procedures for in situ detection of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria in biological wastewater treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marko Pavlekovic; Markus C. Schmid; Nadja Schmider-Poignee; Stefan Spring; Martin Pilhofer; Tobias Gaul; Mark Fiandaca; Frank E. Löffler; Mike Jetten; K.-H. Schleifer; Natuschka M. Lee

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using fluorochrome-labeled DNA oligonucleotide probes has been successfully applied for in situ detection of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria. However, application of the standard FISH protocols to visualize anammox bacteria in biofilms from a laboratory-scale wastewater reactor produced only weak signals. Increased signal intensity was achieved either by modifying the standard FISH protocol, using peptide

  20. Enrichment culture of marine anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria from sediment of sea-based waste disposal site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasunori Kawagoshi; Yasuhiro Nakamura; Hirotaka Kawashima; Koichiro Fujisaki; Aya Fujimoto; Kenji Furukawa

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the enrichment of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria in the marine environment using sediment samples obtained from a sea-based waste disposal site and discusses the construction of marine anammox bioreactor. Enrichment of bacteria related to Candidatus Scalindua wagneri along with simultaneous removal of nitrite and ammonium ions was observed in the continuous bioreactor culture under a

  1. Sulfate-reducing bacteria mediate thionation of diphenylarsinic acid under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ling; Shiiya, Ayaka; Hisatomi, Shihoko; Fujii, Kunihiko; Nonaka, Masanori; Harada, Naoki

    2015-02-01

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) is often found as a toxic intermediate metabolite of diphenylchloroarsine or diphenylcyanoarsine that were produced as chemical warfare agents and were buried in soil after the World Wars. In our previous study Guan et al. (J Hazard Mater 241-242:355-362, 2012), after application of sulfate and carbon sources, anaerobic transformation of DPAA in soil was enhanced with the production of diphenylthioarsinic acid (DPTAA) as a main metabolite. This study aimed to isolate and characterize anaerobic soil microorganisms responsible for the metabolism of DPAA. First, we obtained four microbial consortia capable of transforming DPAA to DPTAA at a high transformation rate of more than 80% after 4 weeks of incubation. Sequencing for the bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed from the consortia revealed that all the positive consortia contained Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans species. In contrast, the absence of dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrAB) which is unique to sulfate-reducing bacteria was confirmed in the negative consortia showing no DPAA reduction. Finally, strain DEA14 showing transformation of DPAA to DPTAA was isolated from one of the positive consortia. The isolate was assigned to D. acetoxidans based on the partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Thionation of DPAA was also carried out in a pure culture of a known sulfate-reducing bacterial strain, Desulfovibrio aerotolerans JCM 12613(T). These facts indicate that sulfate-reducing bacteria are microorganisms responsible for the transformation of DPAA to DPTAA under anaerobic conditions. PMID:25228086

  2. Ecophysiological adaptations of anaerobic bacteria to low pH. [Sarcina ventriculi; Lactobacillus helveticus

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, S.D.

    1986-01-01

    The ecological and physiological adaptations of anaerobic bacteria to low pH were investigated in field and laboratory studies. Determinations of hydrogen kinetic parameters demonstrated that overall hydrogen metabolism was inhibited in acid ecosystems. In particular, hydrogen metabolism became progressively uncoupled at low pH. This uncoupling resulted in a slowing of carbon flow during anaerobic digestion and the accumulation of intermediary metabolites. The addition of carbon electron donors to acid bog sediments resulted in the accumulation of hydrogen and a slowing of the overall rates of anaerobic digestion. As an adaptation to low pH, anaerobic bacterial populations shifted from production of acid intermediary metabolites (e.g. acetate and lactate) to the production of neutral intermediary metabolites (e.g. ethanol). This shift was observed both in situ and in pure cultures of hydrolytic strains isolated from bog sediments. Detailed physiological studies of Sarcina ventriculi showed an adaptation to growth at low pH by mechanisms which allowed the continued production of ethanol from glucose and the maintenance of a proton motive force at low cytoplasmic pH values. Further physiological studies Lactobacillus helveticus showed that the accumulation of acidic end-product (lactic acid) strongly influenced cellular electrochemical parameters. Based on the results of computer simulations and laboratory studies of the physiology of the organism in the presence of organic acids, a new model for the passive coupling of energy conservation to the efflux of lactic acid in an electroneutral process is proposed.

  3. Living Without Oxygen: Oxygen Tolerance in Bacteria

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sharon Harris

    This activity focuses on chemical processes, such as nitrogen fixation and denitrification, which are carried out by bacteria. Often the efficacy of these processes is determined by the amount of oxygen present in the environment in which the bacteria live. Much of the time, these processes are carried out by facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the suboxic region of lakes, oceans, sediments, and leaf litter. Students will discover whether facultatively anaerobic photoautotrophs share the same tolerance for oxygen, how differences in oxygen tolerance can be tested, and of what significance the tolerance for oxygen is in the nitrogen cycle. They will practice aseptic technique, monitor the growth of bacterial cultures, display their results graphically, and propose environmental problems associated with the oxygen tolerance of nitrogen fixers and denitifiers.

  4. Diversity and distribution of planktonic anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in the Dongjiang River, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Xia, Chunyu; Xu, Meiying; Guo, Jun; Wang, Aijie; Sun, Guoping

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) process has recently been recognized as an important pathway for removing fixed nitrogen (N) from aquatic ecosystems. Anammox organisms are widely distributed in freshwater environments. However, little is known about their presence in the water column of riverine ecosystems. Here, the existence of a diverse anammox community was revealed in the water column of the Dongjiang River by analyzing 16S rRNA and hydrazine oxidation (hzo) genes of anammox bacteria. Phylogenetic analyses of hzo genes showed that Candidatus Jettenia related clades of anammox bacteria were dominant in the river, suggesting the ecological microniche distinction from freshwater/estuary and marine anammox bacteria with Ca. Brocadia and Kuenenia genera mainly detected in freshwater/estuary ecosystems, and Ca. Scalindua genus mainly detected in marine ecosystems. The abundance and diversity of anammox bacteria along the river were both significantly correlated with concentrations of NH4(+)-N based on Pearson and partial correlation analyses. Redundancy analyses showed the contents of NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N and the ratio of NH4(+)-N to NO2(-)-N significantly influenced the spatial distributions of anammox bacteria in the water column of the Dongjiang River. These results expanded our understanding of the distribution and potential roles of anammox bacteria in the water column of the river ecosystem. PMID:24932882

  5. In vitro activities of trovafloxacin against 557 strains of anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Wexler, H M; Molitoris, E; Molitoris, D; Finegold, S M

    1996-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of trovafloxacin for 557 strains of anaerobic bacteria was determined by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards-approved Wadsworth agar dilution technique. The species tested included Bacteroides fragilis (n = 91), other members of the B. fragilis group (n = 130), Campylobacter gracilis (n = 15), other Bacteroides spp. (n = 16), Prevotella spp. (n = 49), Porphyromonas spp. (n = 15), Fusobacterium spp. (n = 62), Bilophila wadsworthia (n = 24), Sutterella wadsworthensis (n = 21), Clostridium spp. (n = 61), Peptostreptococcus spp. (n = 38), and gram-positive non-spore-forming rods (n = 35). Trovafloxacin inhibited all strains of B. fragilis at < or = 0.5 microgram/ml, 99% of other B. fragilis group species at < or = 2 micrograms/ml, and 96% of all anaerobes tested at < or = 2 micrograms/ml. PMID:8878617

  6. Anaerobic Roll Tube Media for Nonselective Enumeration and Isolation of Bacteria in Human Feces

    PubMed Central

    Eller, Charles; Crabill, Melvin R.; Bryant, Marvin P.

    1971-01-01

    Medium 10 (M10), developed for rumen bacteria and containing small amounts of sugars, starch, volatile fatty acids, hemin, Trypticase, yeast extract, cysteine, and sulfide, plus agar, minerals and CO2-HCO3-buffer, was used with the Hungate anaerobic method as a basal medium to evaluate the efficacy of various ingredients. Three-day-old colony counts from adults on normal diets (17 samples) were 0.55 × 1011 to 1.7 × 1011 per g (mean, 1.15 × 1011) for M10. Single deletion of volatile fatty acids, Trypticase, yeast extract, or sulfide did not reduce counts. Deletion of hemin or both Trypticase and yeast extract significantly lowered counts. Addition of fecal extract, rumen fluid, 1% dehydrated Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) or 2 to 6% liver infusion did not increase counts; 1% dehydrated bile or 3.7% BHI markedly depressed them. Decreasing the gas-phase CO2 concentration from 100 to 5% with N2 and correspondingly lowering the HCO3 had little effect. Counts in supplemented Brewer Thioglycollate (Difco), BHI, and Trypticase soy agar were similar or lower than in M10; ease in counting was best in M10. Comparison of features of 88 predominant strains of fecal bacteria randomly isolated indicated that M10 supported growth of as many or more species of bacteria as compared to supplemented BHI. The results suggest that predominant bacteria of human feces, in general, are not as nutritionally fastidious as rumen bacteria and indicate that media for counts or isolation containing large amounts of rich organic materials are neither necessary nor desirable when adequate anaerobic techniques are used. PMID:4943269

  7. Ammonium removal performance of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria immobilized in polyethylene glycol gel carrier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuichi Isaka; Yasuhiro Date; Tatsuo Sumino; Satoshi Tsuneda

    2007-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria were immobilized in polyethylene glycol gel carriers. A small amount of seed\\u000a sludge [0.24% (w\\/v)] was entrapped in the carriers, and continuous feeding tests were performed. Nitrogen removal activity increased gradually,\\u000a reaching 3.7 kg N\\/m3 reactor per day on day 67. The average of nitrogen conversion rate was calculated as 3.4 kg N\\/m3 reactor per day. Microscopic examination

  8. Vertical distribution of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane-oxidising bacteria in natural freshwater wetland soils.

    PubMed

    Shen, Li-dong; Huang, Qian; He, Zhan-fei; Lian, Xu; Liu, Shuai; He, Yun-feng; Lou, Li-ping; Xu, Xiang-yang; Zheng, Ping; Hu, Bao-lan

    2015-01-01

    Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) is a recently discovered process that is catalysed by "Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera". In the present study, the vertical distribution (0-10, 20-30, 50-60 and 90-100 cm) of M. oxyfera-like bacteria was investigated in Xiazhuhu wetland, the largest natural wetland on the southern Yangtze River (China). Phylogenetic analyses showed that group A of M. oxyfera-like bacteria and pmoA genes occurred primarily at depths of 50-60 and 90-100 cm. Quantitative PCR further confirmed the presence of M. oxyfera-like bacteria in soil cores from different depths, with the highest abundance of 5.1?×?10(7) copies g(-1) dry soil at depth of 50-60 cm. Stable isotope experiments demonstrated that the n-damo process occurred primarily at depths of 50-60 and 90-100 cm, with the potential rates ranging from 0.2 to 14.5 nmol CO2?g(-1) dry soil d(-1). It was estimated that the methane flux may increase by approximately 2.7-4.3% in the examined wetland in the absence of n-damo. This study shows that the deep wetland soils (50-60 and 90-100 cm) are the preferred habitats for M. oxyfera-like bacteria. The study also highlights the potential importance of these bacteria in the methane and nitrogen cycles in deep wetland soils. PMID:25242345

  9. Detection and Quantification of Bacteria Involved in Aerobic and Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation in an Ammonium-Contaminated Aquifer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theo H. M. Smits; Arne Hüttmann; David N. Lerner; Christof Holliger

    2009-01-01

    The aerobic and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacterial guilds were studied from two multilevel samplers in an ammonium-contaminated aquifer in the UK. By end point polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the presence of betaproteobacterial ammonium-oxidizing bacteria and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) planctomycetes was demonstrated. The sequences of cloned anammox-specific PCR fragments had close relationships with known anammox strains. Real-time PCR was subsequently used to

  10. Development of bioconcrete material using an enrichment culture of novel thermophilic anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, P; Mandal, S; Pal, S; Bandyopadhyaya, G; Chattopadhyay, B D

    2006-04-01

    In the biosphere, bacteria can function as geo-chemical agents, promoting the dispersion, fractionation and/or concentration of materials. Microbial mineral precipitation is resulted from metabolic activities of microorganisms. Based on this biomineralogy concept, an attempt has been made to develop bioconcrete material incorporating of an enrichment culture of thermophilic and anaerobic bacteria within cement-sand mortar/concrete. The results showed a significant increase in compressive strength of both cement-sand mortar and concrete due to the development of filler material within the pores of cement sand matrix. Maximum strength was observed at concentration 10(5)cell/ml of water used in mortar/concrete. Addition of Escherichia coil or media composition on mortar showed no such improvement in strength. PMID:16629379

  11. Anammox bacteria and the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium in the oxygen minimum zone off northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galán, Alexander; Molina, Verónica; Thamdrup, Bo; Woebken, Dagmar; Lavik, Gaute; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Ulloa, Osvaldo

    2009-07-01

    Anammox is the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium by nitrite or nitrate to yield N 2. This process, along with conventional denitrification, contributes to nitrogen loss in oxygen-deficient systems. Anammox is performed by a special group of bacteria belonging to the Planctomycetes phylum. However, information about the distribution, activity, and controlling factors of these anammox bacteria is still limited. Herein, we examine the phylogenetic diversity, vertical distribution, and activity of anammox bacteria in the coastal upwelling region and oxygen minimum zone off northern Chile. The phylogeny of anammox bacteria was studied using primers designed to specifically target 16S rRNA genes from Planctomycetes in samples taken during a cruise in 2004. Anammox bacteria-like sequences affiliated with Candidatus "Scalindua spp." dominated the 16S rRNA gene clone library. However, 62% of the sequences subgrouped separately within this cluster and together with a single sequence retrieved from the suboxic zone of the freshwater Lake Tanganyika. The vertical distribution and activity of anammox bacteria were explored through CARD-FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization with catalyzed reporter deposition) and 15N labeling incubations, respectively, at two different open-ocean stations during a second cruise in 2005. Anammox bacterial CARD-FISH counts (up to 3000 cells ml -1) and activity (up to 5.75 nmol N 2 L -1 d -1) were only detected at the station subjected directly to the upwelling influence. Anammox cell abundance and activity were highest at 50 m depth, which is the upper part of the OMZ. In this layer, a high abundance of cyanobacteria and a marked nitrogen deficit were also observed. Thus, our results show the presence of a new subcluster within the marine anammox phylogeny and indicate high vertical variability in the abundance and activity of anammox bacteria that could be related to an intensification of carbon and nitrogen cycling in the upper part of the OMZ.

  12. In vitro activities of three of the newer quinolones against anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Wexler, H M; Molitoris, E; Finegold, S M

    1992-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of three new quinolone compounds, sparfloxacin, temafloxacin, and WIN 57273, against anaerobic bacteria were determined in three separate studies. The Wadsworth agar dilution technique using brucella-laked blood agar was used throughout. The activities of other antimicrobial agents, including ciprofloxacin, imipenem, chloramphenicol, metronidazole, cefotetan, cefoxitin, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, were also determined. The breakpoints of the new quinolones were 2 micrograms/ml for sparfloxacin and WIN 57273 and 4 micrograms/ml for temafloxacin. WIN 57273 displayed very good activity against anaerobes, inhibiting all strains of Bacteroides fragilis group species at 2 micrograms/ml. Only two strains of Fusobacterium species were resistant (MIC, 4 micrograms/ml). Sparfloxacin inhibited 78% of B. fragilis strains and 44% of other B. fragilis group isolates at 2 micrograms/ml. At 2 micrograms/ml, the percentages of other anaerobic species susceptible were as follows: B. gracilis, 70%; other Bacteroides species, 61%; Clostridium species, 50%; Fusobacterium species, 70%; Peptostreptococcus species, 91%; non-spore-forming gram-positive rods, 71%. Temafloxacin inhibited 91% of B. fragilis strains and 87% of other B. fragilis group species at 4 micrograms/ml. All strains of other Bacteroides species, 78% of Fusobacterium species, 80% of Clostridium species, and 90% of Peptostreptococcus species were inhibited at 4 micrograms of temafloxacin per ml. PMID:1317149

  13. Diversity and enrichment of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidizing bacteria from wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Luesken, Francisca A; van Alen, Theo A; van der Biezen, Erwin; Frijters, Carla; Toonen, Ger; Kampman, Christel; Hendrickx, Tim L G; Zeeman, Grietje; Temmink, Hardy; Strous, Marc; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Jetten, Mike S M

    2011-11-01

    Recently discovered microorganisms affiliated to the bacterial phylum NC10, named "Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera", perform nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation. These microorganisms could be important players in a novel way of anaerobic wastewater treatment where ammonium and residual dissolved methane might be removed at the expense of nitrate or nitrite. To find suitable inocula for reactor startup, ten selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in The Netherlands were screened for the endogenous presence of M. oxyfera using molecular diagnostic methods. We could identify NC10 bacteria with 98% similarity to M. oxyfera in nine out of ten WWTPs tested. Sludge from one selected WWTP was used to start a new enrichment culture of NC10 bacteria. This enrichment was monitored using specific pmoA primers and M. oxyfera cells were visualized with fluorescence oligonucleotide probes. After 112 days, the enrichment consumed up to 0.4 mM NO(2)(-) per day. The results of this study show that appropriate sources of biomass, enrichment strategies, and diagnostic tools existed to start and monitor pilot scale tests for the implementation of nitrite-dependent methane oxidation in wastewater treatment at ambient temperature. PMID:21667086

  14. Effect of inoculum sources on the enrichment of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    He, Zhanfei; Cai, Chen; Shen, Lidong; Lou, Liping; Zheng, Ping; Xu, Xinhua; Hu, Baolan

    2015-01-01

    Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) is a newly discovered biological process that couples anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) to nitrite reduction. In this study, three different inocula, methanogenic sludge, paddy soil, and freshwater sediment were used to enrich n-damo bacteria in three sequencing batch reactors (SBRs), and three n-damo enrichment cultures, C1, C2 and C3, were obtained, respectively. After 500 days of incubation, Methylomirabilis oxyfera-like bacteria and n-damo activities were observed in cultures C1, C2, and C3, and the specific activities were 0.8 ± 0.1, 1.4 ± 0.1, and 1.0 ± 0.1 ?mol CH4?h(-1) g(-1) VSS, respectively. The copy numbers of 16S rRNA genes from cultures C1, C2, and C3 were 5.0 ± 0.4 × 10(8), 6.1 ± 0.1 × 10(9), and 1.0 ± 0.2 × 10(9) copies g(-1) dry weight, respectively. The results indicated that paddy soil is an excellent inoculum for n-damo bacterial enrichment. This work expanded the alternative source of n-damo inoculum and benefited the further research of n-damo process. PMID:25186148

  15. Mechanism of Aminoglycoside Antibiotic Resistance in Anaerobic Bacteria: Clostridium perfringens and Bacteroides fragilis

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, L. E.; Kowand, S. K.; Van Den Elzen, H. M.

    1979-01-01

    Cell-free amino acid incorporation using ribosomes from strains of either Clostridium perfringens or Bacteroides fragilis was shown to be susceptible to inhibition by streptomycin and gentamicin. Ribosomes bound dihydrostreptomycin as effectively as ribosomes from Escherichia coli. No inactivation of streptomycin or gentamicin was detected by cell extracts of either anaerobic bacterial species. B. fragilis, grown without added hemin, menadione, and fumarate, and C. perfringens did not show any time-dependent accumulation of dihydrostreptomycin or gentamicin at concentrations tested. Decreased resistance to aminoglycosides and time-dependent uptake of dihydrostreptomycin at 500 ?g/ml was observed with B. fragilis grown with hemin, menadione, and fumarate. With the last additions, cytochrome b was detected by cytochrome spectra of B. fragilis. These results demonstrate that anaerobic bacteria unable to carry out oxygen- or nitrate-dependent electron transport are resistant to streptomycin and gentamicin because of failure to transport aminoglycosides. The induction of fumarate-dependent electron transport in B. fragilis is associated with some aminoglycoside transport that is of poor efficiency relative to bacteria with electron transport to oxygen or nitrate. PMID:218500

  16. Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane Coupled to Nitrite Reduction by Halophilic Marine NC10 Bacteria.

    PubMed

    He, Zhanfei; Geng, Sha; Cai, Chaoyang; Liu, Shuai; Liu, Yan; Pan, Yawei; Lou, Liping; Zheng, Ping; Xu, Xinhua; Hu, Baolan

    2015-08-15

    Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to nitrite reduction is a novel AOM process that is mediated by denitrifying methanotrophs. To date, enrichments of these denitrifying methanotrophs have been confined to freshwater systems; however, the recent findings of 16S rRNA and pmoA gene sequences in marine sediments suggest a possible occurrence of AOM coupled to nitrite reduction in marine systems. In this research, a marine denitrifying methanotrophic culture was obtained after 20 months of enrichment. Activity testing and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis were then conducted and showed that the methane oxidation activity and the number of NC10 bacteria increased correlatively during the enrichment period. 16S rRNA gene sequencing indicated that only bacteria in group A of the NC10 phylum were enriched and responsible for the resulting methane oxidation activity, although a diverse community of NC10 bacteria was harbored in the inoculum. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that NC10 bacteria were dominant in the enrichment culture after 20 months. The effect of salinity on the marine denitrifying methanotrophic culture was investigated, and the apparent optimal salinity was 20.5‰, which suggested that halophilic bacterial AOM coupled to nitrite reduction was obtained. Moreover, the apparent substrate affinity coefficients of the halophilic denitrifying methanotrophs were determined to be 9.8 ± 2.2 ?M for methane and 8.7 ± 1.5 ?M for nitrite. PMID:26048927

  17. Reduction of nitroaromatic compounds by anaerobic bacteria isolated from the human gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed Central

    Rafil, F; Franklin, W; Heflich, R H; Cerniglia, C E

    1991-01-01

    Human intestinal microbial flora were screened for their abilities to reduce nitroaromatic compounds by growing them on brain heart infusion agar plates containing 1-nitropyrene. Bacteria metabolizing 1-nitropyrene, detected by the appearance of clear zones around the colonies, were identified as Clostridium leptum, Clostridium paraputrificum, Clostridium clostridiiforme, another Clostridium sp., and a Eubacterium sp. These bacteria produced aromatic amines from nitroaromatic compounds, as shown by thin-layer chromatography, high-pressure liquid chromatography, and biochemical tests. Incubation of three of these bacteria with 1-nitropyrene, 1,3-dinitropyrene, and 1,6-dinitropyrene inactivated the direct-acting mutagenicity associated with these compounds. Menadione and o-iodosobenzoic acid inhibited nitroreductase activity in all of the isolates, indicating the involvement of sulfhydryl groups in the active site of the enzyme. The optimum pH for nitroreductase activity was 8.0. Only the Clostridium sp. required added flavin adenine dinucleotide for nitroreductase activity. The nitroreductases were constitutive and extracellular. An activity stain for the detection of nitroreductase on anaerobic native polyacrylamide gels was developed. This activity stain revealed only one isozyme in each bacterium but showed that the nitroreductases from different bacteria had distinct electrophoretic mobilities. Images PMID:2059053

  18. Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface. Progress report, June 1, 1991--May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

    1992-06-01

    A variety of different media were used to isolate facultatively (FAB) and obligately anaerobic bacteria (OAB). These bacteria were isolated from core subsamples obtained from boreholes at the Idaho National Engineering Lab. (INEL) or at the Hanford Lab. (Yakima). Core material was sampled at various depths to 600 feet below the surface. All core samples with culturable bacteria contained at least FAB making thisthe most common physiological type of anaerobic bacteria present in the deep subsurface at these two sites. INEL core samples are characterized by isolates of both FAB and OAB. No isolates of acetogenic, methanogenic, or sulfate reducing bacteria were obtained. Yakima core samples are characterized by a marked predominance of FAB in comparison to OAB. In addition, isolates of acetogenic, methanogenic, and sulfate reducing bacteria were obtained. The Yakima site has the potential for complete anaerobic mineralization of organic compounds whereas this potential appears to be lacking at INEL.

  19. Reduced Bacterial Colony Count of Anaerobic Bacteria Is Associated with a Worsening in Lung Clearance Index and Inflammation in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Judy M.; Johnston, Elinor; McGrath, Stephanie; McIlreavey, Leanne; Rowan, Stephen; Reid, Alastair; Bradbury, Ian; Einarsson, Gisli

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria have been identified in abundance in the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects. The impact their presence and abundance has on lung function and inflammation is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the colony count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, lung clearance index (LCI), spirometry and C-Reactive Protein (CRP) in patients with CF. Sputum and blood were collected from CF patients at a single cross-sectional visit when clinically stable. Community composition and bacterial colony counts were analysed using extended aerobic and anaerobic culture. Patients completed spirometry and a multiple breath washout (MBW) test to obtain LCI. An inverse correlation between colony count of aerobic bacteria (n = 41, r = -0.35; p = 0.02), anaerobic bacteria (n = 41, r = -0.44, p = 0.004) and LCI was observed. There was an inverse correlation between colony count of anaerobic bacteria and CRP (n = 25, r = -0.44, p = 0.03) only. The results of this study demonstrate that a lower colony count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria correlated with a worse LCI. A lower colony count of anaerobic bacteria also correlated with higher CRP levels. These results indicate that lower abundance of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria may reflect microbiota disruption and disease progression in the CF lung. PMID:25992575

  20. Nitrate removal by organotrophic anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria with C2/C3 fatty acid in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuhai; Li, Dong; Zhang, Xiaojing; Zeng, Huiping; Yang, Yin; Zhang, Jie

    2015-10-01

    In anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process, a harsh ratio of nitrite to ammonia in influent was demanded, and the max nitrogen removal efficiency could only achieve to 89%, both of which limited the development of Anammox. The aim of this work was to study the nitrate removal by organotrophic anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AAOB) with C2/C3 fatty acid in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors. In this study, organotrophic AAOB was successfully enriched by adding acetate and propionate with the total organic carbon to nitrogen (TOC/N) ratio of 0.1. In the condition of low substrate, the TN removal efficiency reached 90%, with the effluent TN of around 11.8mgL(-1). After the addition of acetate and propionate, the predominant species in Anammox granular sludge transformed to Candidatus Jettenia that belonging to organotrophic AAOB from the Candidatus Kuenenia relating to general AAOB. PMID:26151852

  1. Enrichment culture of marine anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria from sediment of sea-based waste disposal site.

    PubMed

    Kawagoshi, Yasunori; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Kawashima, Hirotaka; Fujisaki, Koichiro; Fujimoto, Aya; Furukawa, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the enrichment of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria in the marine environment using sediment samples obtained from a sea-based waste disposal site and discusses the construction of marine anammox bioreactor. Enrichment of bacteria related to Candidatus Scalindua wagneri along with simultaneous removal of nitrite and ammonium ions was observed in the continuous bioreactor culture under a total nitrogen loading rate of 0.4 kg-N m(-3) day(-1). PMID:19147111

  2. Diversity and abundance of aerobic and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in freshwater sediments of the Xinyi River (China)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Zhang; Xiao-Hong Ruan; Toine J. M. Smits; Mike S. M. Jetten; Markus C. Schmid

    2007-01-01

    Here we report on the biodiversity and abundance of aerobic and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in sediment samples from the Xinyi River, Jinagsu Province (China). The biodiversity of aerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in the sediment was assessed using the amoA gene as functional marker. The retrieved amoA clones were affiliated to environmental sequences from freshwater habitats. The closest cultivated relative was Nitrosomonas

  3. Impact of an Aerobic Thermophilic Sequencing Batch Reactor on Antibiotic-Resistant Anaerobic Bacteria in Swine Waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin R. Chénier; Pierre Juteau

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of antibiotics to animal feed has contributed to the selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in concentrated\\u000a animal feeding operations. The aim of this work was to characterize the impact of an aerobic thermophilic biotreatment on\\u000a anaerobic antibiotic-resistant bacteria in swine waste. Despite 162- to 6,166-fold reduction in antibiotic-resistant populations\\u000a enumerated in the swine waste at 25°C and 37°C, resistant

  4. Interactions of Anaerobic Bacteria with Dental Stem Cells: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Biedermann, Anne; Kriebel, Katja; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Lang, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    Background In patients with periodontitis, it is highly likely that local (progenitor) cells encounter pathogenic bacteria. The purpose of this in vitro study was to elucidate how human dental follicle stem cells (hDFSC) react towards a direct challenge with anaerobic periodontal pathogens under their natural oxygen-free atmosphere. HDFSC were compared to human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSC) and differentiated primary human gingival fibroblasts (hGiF), as well as permanent gingival carcinoma cells (Ca9-22). Methodology/Principal Findings The different cell types were investigated in a co-culture system with Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum). The viability of the cells and pathogens under anaerobic conditions, as well as interactions in terms of adherence and internalization, were examined. Additionally, the release of pro-inflammatory interleukin-8 (IL-8) and anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 (IL-10) was quantified via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The bacteria adhered less efficiently to hDFSC compared to Ca9-22 (P. gingivalis: 0.18% adherence to hDFSC; 3.1% adherence to Ca9-22). Similar results were observed for host cell internalization (F. nucleatum: 0.002% internalization into hDFSC; 0.09% internalization into Ca9-22). Statistically significantly less IL-8 was secreted from hDFSC after stimulation with F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis in comparison with hGiF (F. nucleatum: 2080.0 pg/ml – hGiF; 19.7 pg/ml – hDFSC). The IL-10 response of the differentiated cells was found to be low in relation to their pro-inflammatory IL-8 response. Conclusions/Significance The results indicate that dental stem cells are less prone to interactions with pathogenic bacteria than differentiated cells in an anaerobic environment. Moreover, during bacterial challenge, the stem cell immune response seems to be more towards an anti-inflammatory reaction. For a potential future therapeutic use of hDFSC, these findings support the idea of a save application. PMID:25369260

  5. Monitoring the dynamics of syntrophic ?-oxidizing bacteria during anaerobic degradation of oleic acid by quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Ziels, Ryan M; Beck, David A C; Martí, Magalí; Gough, Heidi L; Stensel, H David; Svensson, Bo H

    2015-04-01

    The ecophysiology of long-chain fatty acid-degrading syntrophic ?-oxidizing bacteria has been poorly understood due to a lack of quantitative abundance data. Here, TaqMan quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays targeting the 16S rRNA gene of the known mesophilic syntrophic ?-oxidizing bacterial genera Syntrophomonas and Syntrophus were developed and validated. Microbial community dynamics were followed using qPCR and Illumina-based high-throughput amplicon sequencing in triplicate methanogenic bioreactors subjected to five consecutive batch feedings of oleic acid. With repeated oleic acid feeding, the initial specific methane production rate significantly increased along with the relative abundances of Syntrophomonas and methanogenic archaea in the bioreactor communities. The novel qPCR assays showed that Syntrophomonas increased from 7 to 31% of the bacterial community 16S rRNA gene concentration, whereas that of Syntrophus decreased from 0.02 to less than 0.005%. High-throughput amplicon sequencing also revealed that Syntrophomonas became the dominant genus within the bioreactor microbiomes. These results suggest that increased specific mineralization rates of oleic acid were attributed to quantitative shifts within the microbial communities toward higher abundances of syntrophic ?-oxidizing bacteria and methanogenic archaea. The novel qPCR assays targeting syntrophic ?-oxidizing bacteria may thus serve as monitoring tools to indicate the fatty acid ?-oxidization potential of anaerobic digester communities. PMID:25873606

  6. Co-occurrence of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidizing and anaerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria in two Qinghai-Tibetan saline lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jian; Jiang, Hongchen; Wu, Geng; Hou, Weiguo; Sun, Yongjuan; Lai, Zhongping; Dong, Hailiang

    2012-12-01

    Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane-oxidizing (n-damo) bacteria and anaerobic ammonia oxidizing (anammox) bacteria are two groups of microorganisms involved in global carbon and nitrogen cycling. In order to test whether the n-damo and anammox bacteria co-occur in natural saline environments, the DNA and cDNA samples obtained from the surficial sediments of two saline lakes (with salinity of 32 and 84 g/L, respectively) on the Tibetan Plateau were PCR-amplified with the use of anammox- and n-damo-specific primer sets, followed by clone library construction and phylogenetic analysis. DNA and cDNA-based clones affiliated with n-damo and anammox bacteria were successfully retrieved from the two samples, indicating that these two groups of bacteria can co-occur in natural saline environments with salinity as high as 84 g/L. Our finding has great implications for our understanding of the global carbon and nitrogen cycle in nature.

  7. Interference by Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria in Children With Recurrent Group A b-Hemolytic Streptococcal Tonsillitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Itzhak Brook; Alan E. Gober

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To compare the frequency of recovery of aero- bic and anaerobic bacteria with interfering capability of group A b-hemolytic streptococci (GABHS) in the ton- sils of children with and without a history of recurrent GABHS pharyngotonsillitis. Patients and Methods: Tonsillar cultures were taken from a group of 20 children with and 20 without history of recurrent GABHS pharyngotonsillitis. Results:

  8. Transformations of chloroguaiacols, chloroveratroles, and chlorocatechols by stable consortia of anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Neilson, A H; Allard, A S; Lindgren, C; Remberger, M

    1987-01-01

    Metabolically stable consortia of anaerobic bacteria obtained by enrichment of sediment samples with 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate (TMBA), 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate (gallate [GA]), or 5-chlorovanillin (CV) were used to study the anaerobic transformation of a series of chloroveratroles, chloroguaiacols, and chlorocatechols used as cosubstrates. Experiments were carried out with growing cultures, and the following pathways were demonstrated for metabolism of the growth substrates: (i) TMBA produced GA, which was further degraded without the formation of aromatic intermediates; (ii) GA formed pyrogallol, which was stable to further transformation; and (iii) CV was degraded by a series of steps involving de-O-methylation, oxidation of the aldehyde group, and decarboxylation to 3-chlorocatechol before ring cleavage. Mono-de-O-methylation of the cosubstrates occurred rapidly in the order 4,5,6-trichloroguaiacol greater than 3,4,5-trichloroguaiacol approximately 3,4,5-trichloroveratrole approximately tetrachloroveratrole greater than tetrachloroguaiacol and was concomitant with degradation of the growth substrates. For the polymethoxy compounds--chloroveratroles, 1,2,3-trichloro-4,5,6-trimethoxybenzene, and 4,5,6-trichlorosyringol--de-O-methylation took place sequentially. The resulting chlorocatechols were stable to further transformation until the cultures had exhausted the growth substrates; selective dechlorination then occurred with the formation of 3,5-dichlorocatechol from 3,4,5-trichlorocatechol and of 3,4,6-trichlorocatechol from tetrachlorocatechol. 2,4,5-, 2,4,6-, and 3,4,5-trichoroanisole and 2,3,4,5-tetrachloroanisole were de-O-methylated, but the resulting chlorophenols were resistant to dechlorination. These results extend those of a previous study with spiked sediment samples and their endogenous microflora and illustrate some of the transformations of chloroguaiacols and chlorocatechols which may be expected to occur in anaerobic sediments. PMID:3426218

  9. Active transport, substrate specificity, and methylation of Hg(II) in anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Jeffra K; Rocks, Sara S; Zheng, Wang; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua; Morel, François M M

    2011-05-24

    The formation of methylmercury (MeHg), which is biomagnified in aquatic food chains and poses a risk to human health, is effected by some iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria (FeRB and SRB) in anaerobic environments. However, very little is known regarding the mechanism of uptake of inorganic Hg by these organisms, in part because of the inherent difficulty in measuring the intracellular Hg concentration. By using the FeRB Geobacter sulfurreducens and the SRB Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 as model organisms, we demonstrate that Hg(II) uptake occurs by active transport. We also establish that Hg(II) uptake by G. sulfurreducens is highly dependent on the characteristics of the thiols that bind Hg(II) in the external medium, with some thiols promoting uptake and methylation and others inhibiting both. The Hg(II) uptake system of D. desulfuricans has a higher affinity than that of G. sulfurreducens and promotes Hg methylation in the presence of stronger complexing thiols. We observed a tight coupling between Hg methylation and MeHg export from the cell, suggesting that these two processes may serve to avoid the build up and toxicity of cellular Hg. Our results bring up the question of whether cellular Hg uptake is specific for Hg(II) or accidental, occurring via some essential metal importer. Our data also point at Hg(II) complexation by thiols as an important factor controlling Hg methylation in anaerobic environments. PMID:21555571

  10. Complete Reductive Dechlorination of 1,2-Dichloropropane by Anaerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Loffler, F. E.; Champine, J. E.; Ritalahti, K. M.; Sprague, S. J.; Tiedje, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    The transformation of 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-D) was observed in anaerobic microcosms and enrichment cultures derived from Red Cedar Creek sediment. 1-Chloropropane (1-CP) and 2-CP were detected after an incubation period of 4 weeks. After 4 months the initial amount of 1,2-D was stoichiometrically converted to propene, which was not further transformed. Dechlorination of 1,2-D was not inhibited by 2-bromoethanesulfonate. Sequential 5% (vol/vol) transfers from active microcosms yielded a sediment-free, nonmethanogenic culture, which completely dechlorinated 1,2-D to propene at a rate of 5 nmol min(sup-1) mg of protein(sup-1). No intermediate formation of 1-CP or 2-CP was detected in the sediment-free enrichment culture. A variety of electron donors, including hydrogen, supported reductive dechlorination of 1,2-D. The highest dechlorination rates were observed between 20(deg) and 25(deg)C. In the presence of 1,2-D, the hydrogen threshold concentration was below 1 ppm by volume (ppmv). In addition to 1,2-D, the enrichment culture transformed 1,1-D, 2-bromo-1-CP, tetrachloroethene, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, and 1,2-dichloroethane to less halogenated compounds. These findings extend our knowledge of the reductive dechlorination process and show that halogenated propanes can be completely dechlorinated by anaerobic bacteria. PMID:16535654

  11. Evaluating Primers for Profiling Anaerobic Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria within Freshwater Environments

    PubMed Central

    Sonthiphand, Puntipar; Neufeld, Josh D.

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonia oxidizing (anammox) bacteria play an important role in transforming ammonium to nitrogen gas and contribute to fixed nitrogen losses in freshwater environments. Understanding the diversity and abundance of anammox bacteria requires reliable molecular tools, and these are not yet well established for these important Planctomycetes. To help validate PCR primers for the detection of anammox bacteria within freshwater ecosystems, we analyzed representative positive controls and selected samples from Grand River and groundwater sites, both from Ontario, Canada. The objectives of this study were to identify a suitable anammox denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprint method by using GC-clamp modifications to existing primers, and to verify the specificity of anammox-specific primers used for DGGE, cloning and qPCR methods. Six primer combinations were tested from four published primer sets (i.e. A438f/A684r, Amx368f/Amx820r, An7f/An1388r, and Pla46/1392r) for both direct and nested PCR amplifications. All PCR products were run subsequently on DGGE gels to compare the resulting patterns. Two anammox-specific primer combinations were also used to generate clone libraries and quantify anammox bacterial 16S rRNA genes with qPCR. The primer set A438f/A684r was highly specific to anammox bacteria, provided reliable DGGE fingerprints and generated a high proportion of anammox-related clones. A second primer set (Amx368f/Amx820r) was anammox specific, based on clone library analysis, but PCR products from different candidate species of anammox bacteria resolved poorly using DGGE analysis. Both DGGE and cloning results revealed that Ca. Brocadia and an uncharacterized anammox bacterial cluster represented the majority of anammox bacteria found in Grand River sediment and groundwater samples, respectively. Together, our results demonstrate that although Amx368f/Amx820r was useful for anammox-specific qPCR and clone library analysis, A438f/A684r was the most suitable primer set for multiple molecular assessments of anammox bacteria in freshwater environments. PMID:23505422

  12. Occurrence and importance of anaerobic ammonium-oxidising bacteria in vegetable soils.

    PubMed

    Shen, Li-Dong; Wu, Hong-Sheng; Gao, Zhi-Qiu; Xu, Xiang-Hua; Chen, Tie-Xi; Liu, Shuai; Cheng, Hai-Xiang

    2015-07-01

    The quantitative importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) has been described in paddy fields, while the presence and importance of anammox in subsurface soil from vegetable fields have not been determined yet. Here, we investigated the occurrence and activity of anammox bacteria in five different types of vegetable fields located in Jiangsu Province, China. Stable isotope experiments confirmed the anammox activity in the examined soils, with the potential rates of 2.1 and 23.2 nmol N2?g(-1) dry soil day(-1), and the anammox accounted for 5.9-20.5 % of total soil dinitrogen gas production. It is estimated that a total loss of 7.1-78.2 g N m(-2) year(-1) could be linked to the anammox process in the examined vegetable fields. Phylogenetic analyses showed that multiple co-occurring anammox genera were present in the examined soils, including Candidatus Brocadia, Candidatus Kuenenia, Candidatus Anammoxoglobus and Candidatus Jettenia, and Candidatus Brocadia appeared to be the most common anammox genus. Quantitative PCR further confirmed the presence of anammox bacteria in the examined soils, with the abundance varying from 2.8?×?10(5) to 3.0?×?10(6) copies g(-1) dry soil. Correlation analyses suggested that the soil ammonium concentration had significant influence on the activity and abundance of anammox bacteria in the examined soils. The results of our study showed the presence of diverse anammox bacteria and indicated that the anammox process could serve as an important nitrogen loss pathway in vegetable fields. PMID:25690313

  13. Decarboxylating and nondecarboxylating glutaryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenases in the aromatic metabolism of obligately anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wischgoll, Simon; Taubert, Martin; Peters, Franziska; Jehmlich, Nico; von Bergen, Martin; Boll, Matthias

    2009-07-01

    In anaerobic bacteria using aromatic growth substrates, glutaryl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenases (GDHs) are involved in the catabolism of the central intermediate benzoyl-CoA to three acetyl-CoAs and CO(2). In this work, we studied GDHs from the strictly anaerobic, aromatic compound-degrading organisms Geobacter metallireducens (GDH(Geo)) (Fe[III] reducing) and Desulfococcus multivorans (GDH(Des)) (sulfate reducing). GDH(Geo) was purified from cells grown on benzoate and after the heterologous expression of the benzoate-induced bamM gene. The gene coding for GDH(Des) was identified after screening of a cosmid gene library. Reverse transcription-PCR revealed that its expression was induced by benzoate; the product was heterologously expressed and isolated. Both wild-type and recombinant GDH(Geo) catalyzed the oxidative decarboxylation of glutaryl-CoA to crotonyl-CoA at similar rates. In contrast, recombinant GDH(Des) catalyzed only the dehydrogenation to glutaconyl-CoA. The latter compound was decarboxylated subsequently to crotonyl-CoA by the addition of membrane extracts from cells grown on benzoate in the presence of 20 mM NaCl. All GDH enzymes were purified as homotetramers of a 43- to 44-kDa subunit and contained 0.6 to 0.7 flavin adenine dinucleotides (FADs)/monomer. The kinetic properties for glutaryl-CoA conversion were as follows: for GDH(Geo), the K(m) was 30 +/- 2 microM and the V(max) was 3.2 +/- 0.2 micromol min(-1) mg(-1), and for GDH(Des), the K(m) was 52 +/- 5 microM and the V(max) was 11 +/- 1 micromol min(-1) mg(-1). GDH(Des) but not GDH(Geo) was inhibited by glutaconyl-CoA. Highly conserved amino acid residues that were proposed to be specifically involved in the decarboxylation of the intermediate glutaconyl-CoA were identified in GDH(Geo) but are missing in GDH(Des). The differential use of energy-yielding/energy-demanding enzymatic processes in anaerobic bacteria that degrade aromatic compounds is discussed in view of phylogenetic relationships and constraints of overall energy metabolism. PMID:19395484

  14. Metabolism of polyethylene glycol by two anaerobic bacteria, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and a Bacteroides sp.

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, D F; Tiedje, J M

    1986-01-01

    Two anaerobic bacteria were isolated from polyethylene glycol (PEG)-degrading, methanogenic, enrichment cultures obtained from a municipal sludge digester. One isolate, identified as Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (strain DG2), metabolized oligomers ranging from ethylene glycol (EG) to tetraethylene glycol. The other isolate, identified as a Bacteroides sp. (strain PG1), metabolized diethylene glycol and polymers of PEG up to an average molecular mass of 20,000 g/mol [PEG 20000; HO-(CH2-CH2-O-)nH]. Both strains produced acetaldehyde as an intermediate, with acetate, ethanol, and hydrogen as end products. In coculture with a Methanobacterium sp., the end products were acetate and methane. Polypropylene glycol [HO-(CH2-CH2-CH2-O-)nH] was not metabolized by either bacterium, and methanogenic enrichments could not be obtained on this substrate. Cell extracts of both bacteria dehydrogenated EG, PEGs up to PEG 400 in size, acetaldehyde, and other mono- and dihydroxylated compounds. Extracts of Bacteroides strain PG1 could not dehydrogenate long polymers of PEG (greater than or equal to 1,000 g/mol), but the bacterium grew with PEG 1000 or PEG 20000 as a substrate and therefore possesses a mechanism for PEG depolymerization not present in cell extracts. In contrast, extracts of D. desulfuricans DG2 dehydrogenated long polymers of PEG, but whole cells did not grow with these polymers as substrates. This indicated that the bacterium could not convert PEG to a product suitable for uptake. PMID:3777930

  15. Anaerobic ammonium-oxidising bacteria: A biological source of the bacteriohopanetetrol stereoisomer in marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rush, Darci; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Poulton, Simon W.; Thamdrup, Bo; Garside, A. Leigh; Acuña González, Jenaro; Schouten, Stefan; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Talbot, Helen M.

    2014-09-01

    Bacterially-derived bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) are abundant, well preserved lipids in modern and paleo-environments. Bacteriohopanetetrol (BHT) is a ubiquitously produced BHP while its less common stereoisomer (BHT isomer) has previously been associated with anoxic environments; however, its biological source remained unknown. We investigated the occurrence of BHPs in Golfo Dulce, an anoxic marine fjord-like enclosure located in Costa Rica. The distribution of BHT isomer in four sediment cores and a surface sediment transect closely followed the distribution of ladderane fatty acids, unique biomarkers for bacteria performing anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). This suggests that BHT isomer and ladderane lipids likely shared the same biological source in Golfo Dulce. This was supported by examining the BHP lipid compositions of two enrichment cultures of a marine anammox species (‘Candidatus Scalindua profunda’), which were found to contain both BHT and BHT isomer. Remarkably, the BHT isomer was present in higher relative abundance than BHT. However, a non-marine anammox enrichment contained only BHT, which explains the infrequence of BHT isomer observations in terrestrial settings, and indicates that marine anammox bacteria are likely responsible for at least part of the environmentally-observed marine BHT isomer occurrences. Given the substantially greater residence time of BHPs in sediments, compared to ladderanes, BHT isomer is a potential biomarker for past anammox activity.

  16. Biology, ecology, and biotechnological applications of anaerobic bacteria adapted to environmental stresses in temperature, pH, salinity, or substrates.

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, S E; Jain, M K; Zeikus, J G

    1993-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria include diverse species that can grow at environmental extremes of temperature, pH, salinity, substrate toxicity, or available free energy. The first evolved archaebacterial and eubacterial species appear to have been anaerobes adapted to high temperatures. Thermoanaerobes and their stable enzymes have served as model systems for basic and applied studies of microbial cellulose and starch degradation, methanogenesis, ethanologenesis, acetogenesis, autotrophic CO2 fixation, saccharidases, hydrogenases, and alcohol dehydrogenases. Anaerobes, unlike aerobes, appear to have evolved more energy-conserving mechanisms for physiological adaptation to environmental stresses such as novel enzyme activities and stabilities and novel membrane lipid compositions and functions. Anaerobic syntrophs do not have similar aerobic bacterial counterparts. The metabolic end products of syntrophs are potent thermodynamic inhibitors of energy conservation mechanisms, and they require coordinated consumption by a second partner organism for species growth. Anaerobes adapted to environmental stresses and their enzymes have biotechnological applications in organic waste treatment systems and chemical and fuel production systems based on biomass-derived substrates or syngas. These kinds of anaerobes have only recently been examined by biologists, and considerably more study is required before they are fully appreciated by science and technology. Images PMID:8336675

  17. Telmatobacter bradus gen. nov., sp. nov., a cellulolytic facultative anaerobe from subdivision 1 of the Acidobacteria, and emended description of Acidobacterium capsulatum Kishimoto et al. 1991.

    PubMed

    Pankratov, Timofey A; Kirsanova, Lilia A; Kaparullina, Elena N; Kevbrin, Vadim V; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2012-02-01

    A gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, chemo-organotrophic, non-pigmented, slow-growing bacterium was isolated from acidic Sphagnum peat and designated strain TPB6017(T). Cells of this strain were long rods that multiplied by normal cell division and were motile by means of a single flagellum. Cells grew under reduced oxygen tension and under anoxic conditions and were able to ferment sugars and several polysaccharides, including amorphous and crystalline cellulose. Strain TPB6017(T) was a psychrotolerant acidophile capable of growth between pH 3.0 and 7.5 (optimum 4.5-5.0) and at 4-35 °C (optimum 20-28 °C). It was extremely sensitive to salt stress; growth was inhibited at NaCl concentrations above 0.1?% (w/v). The major fatty acids were iso-C(15?:?0) and iso-C(17?:?1)?9c; the polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine and a number of phospholipids and aminophospholipids with an unknown structure. The quinone was MK-8. The DNA G+C content was 57.6 mol%. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain TPB6017(T) was a member of subdivision 1 of the phylum Acidobacteria and belonged to a phylogenetic lineage defined by the acidophilic aerobic chemo-organotroph Acidobacterium capsulatum (92.3?% sequence similarity). However, cell morphology, type of flagellation, the absence of pigment, differences in fatty acid and polar lipid composition, possession of a cellulolytic capability, inability to grow under fully oxic conditions and good growth in anoxic conditions distinguished strain TPB6017(T) from A. capsulatum. Therefore, it is proposed that strain TPB6017(T) represents a novel acidobacterium species in a new genus, Telmatobacter bradus gen. nov., sp. nov.; strain TPB6017(T) (?=?DSM 23630(T)?=?VKM B-2570(T)) is the type strain. PMID:21460138

  18. Start-up and maturation phases of a full-scale, high-rate anaerobic pond bioreactor(®) plus improved facultative ponds to treat municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Peña, M R; Aponte, A; Toro, A F

    2015-01-01

    Results of the start-up and maturation phases of a full-scale, high-rate anaerobic pond bioreactor (HRAPB)(®) plus improved facultative ponds (IFPs) to treat municipal wastewater are presented (CODt: 759 mg L(-1), CODf: 219 mg L(-1), S-SO4(2-): 102 mg L(-1), and Cr(+): 1,500 ?gL(-1)). The start-up of the HRAPB(®) comprised, first, the application of a selective pressure increasing up-flow velocity rates. Second, batch stages between successive rates were allowed until 70% of the initial CODf was removed. The IFPs were left in batch and ended when in-pond Chlorophyll-a concentration reached 800 ?gL(-1). Subsequently, the system underwent gradual maturation and reached effluent concentrations of CODt: 223 mg L(-1), CODf: 50 mg L(-1), and Cr(+): 60 ?gL(-1). The actual efficiency of the system compared with the expected design efficiency was lower given the characteristics of the influent wastewater biochemical oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand ratios < 0.4, presence of Cr(+) >1,000 ?gL(-1), and variations in both conductivity (500-4,500 ?Scm(-1)) and pH (6.5-10.5 units). Nonetheless, the system exhibited an adaptation state in less than 1.5 months and yielded an ST/SV ratio of 0.46, and specific methanogenic activity of 0.43 g-CH4-CODg(-1)SV(-1)d(-1) for HRAPB(®); the in-pond Chlorophyll-a was on average 1,200 ?gL(-1) in the IFPs, which demonstrated the robustness of these eco-technologies in tropical conditions. PMID:25746640

  19. Nitrate-dependent ferrous iron oxidation by anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria.

    PubMed

    Oshiki, M; Ishii, S; Yoshida, K; Fujii, N; Ishiguro, M; Satoh, H; Okabe, S

    2013-07-01

    We examined nitrate-dependent Fe(2+) oxidation mediated by anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria. Enrichment cultures of "Candidatus Brocadia sinica" anaerobically oxidized Fe(2+) and reduced NO3(-) to nitrogen gas at rates of 3.7 ± 0.2 and 1.3 ± 0.1 (mean ± standard deviation [SD]) nmol mg protein(-1) min(-1), respectively (37°C and pH 7.3). This nitrate reduction rate is an order of magnitude lower than the anammox activity of "Ca. Brocadia sinica" (10 to 75 nmol NH4(+) mg protein(-1) min(-1)). A (15)N tracer experiment demonstrated that coupling of nitrate-dependent Fe(2+) oxidation and the anammox reaction was responsible for producing nitrogen gas from NO3(-) by "Ca. Brocadia sinica." The activities of nitrate-dependent Fe(2+) oxidation were dependent on temperature and pH, and the highest activities were seen at temperatures of 30 to 45°C and pHs ranging from 5.9 to 9.8. The mean half-saturation constant for NO3(-) ± SD of "Ca. Brocadia sinica" was determined to be 51 ± 21 ?M. Nitrate-dependent Fe(2+) oxidation was further demonstrated by another anammox bacterium, "Candidatus Scalindua sp.," whose rates of Fe(2+) oxidation and NO3(-) reduction were 4.7 ± 0.59 and 1.45 ± 0.05 nmol mg protein(-1) min(-1), respectively (20°C and pH 7.3). Co-occurrence of nitrate-dependent Fe(2+) oxidation and the anammox reaction decreased the molar ratios of consumed NO2(-) to consumed NH4(+) (?NO2(-)/?NH4(+)) and produced NO3(-) to consumed NH4(+) (?NO3(-)/?NH4(+)). These reactions are preferable to the application of anammox processes for wastewater treatment. PMID:23624480

  20. Enrichment of acetogenic bacteria in high rate anaerobic reactors under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions.

    PubMed

    Ryan, P; Forbes, C; McHugh, S; O'Reilly, C; Fleming, G T A; Colleran, E

    2010-07-01

    The objective of the current study was to expand the knowledge of the role of acetogenic Bacteria in high rate anaerobic digesters. To this end, acetogens were enriched by supplying a variety of acetogenic growth supportive substrates to two laboratory scale high rate upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors operated at 37 degrees C (R1) and 55 degrees C (R2). The reactors were initially fed a glucose/acetate influent. Having achieved high operational performance and granular sludge development and activity, both reactors were changed to homoacetogenic bacterial substrates on day 373 of the trial. The reactors were initially fed with sodium vanillate as a sole substrate. Although % COD removal indicated that the 55 degrees C reactor out performed the 37 degrees C reactor, effluent acetate levels from R2 were generally higher than from R1, reaching values as high as 5023 mg l(-1). Homoacetogenic activity in both reactors was confirmed on day 419 by specific acetogenic activity (SAA) measurement, with higher values obtained for R2 than R1. Sodium formate was introduced as sole substrate to both reactors on day 464. It was found that formate supported acetogenic activity at both temperatures. By the end of the trial, no specific methanogenic activity (SMA) was observed against acetate and propionate indicating that the methane produced was solely by hydrogenotrophic Archaea. Higher SMA and SAA values against H(2)/CO(2) suggested development of a formate utilising acetogenic population growing in syntrophy with hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Throughout the formate trial, the mesophilic reactor performed better overall than the thermophilic reactor. PMID:20554304

  1. Comparative genomic analysis of dha regulon and related genes for anaerobic glycerol metabolism in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jibin; van den Heuvel, Joop; Soucaille, Philippe; Qu, Yinbo; Zeng, An-Ping

    2003-01-01

    The dihydroxyacetone (dha) regulon of bacteria encodes genes for the anaerobic metabolism of glycerol. In this work, genomic data are used to analyze and compare the dha regulon and related genes in different organisms in silico with respect to gene organization, sequence similarity, and possible functions. Database searches showed that among the organisms, the genomes of which have been sequenced so far, only two, i.e., Klebsiella pneumoniae MGH 78578 and Clostridium perfringens contain a complete dha regulon bearing all known enzymes. The components and their organization in the dha regulon of these two organisms differ considerably from each other and also from the previously partially sequenced dha regulons in Citrobacter freundii, Clostridium pasteurianum, and Clostridium butyricum. Unlike all of the other organisms, genes for the oxidative and reductive pathways of anaerobic glycerol metabolism in C. perfringens are located in two separate organization units on the chromosome. Comparisons of deduced protein sequences of genes with similar functions showed that the dha regulon components in K. pneumoniae and C. freundii have high similarities (80-95%) but lower similarities to those of the Clostridium species (30-80%). Interestingly, the protein sequence similarities among the dha genes of the Clostridium species are in many cases even lower than those between the Clostridium species and K. pneumoniae or C. freundii, suggesting two different types of dha regulon in the Clostridium species studied. The in silico reconstruction and comparison of dha regulons revealed several new genes in the microorganisms studied. In particular, a novel dha kinase that is phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent is identified and experimentally confirmed for K. pneumoniae in addition to the known ATP-dependent dha kinase. This finding gives new insights into the regulation of glycerol metabolism in K. pneumoniae and explains some hitherto not well understood experimental observations. PMID:12675558

  2. Genes for Uranium Bioremediation in the Anaerobic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria: Desulfovibrio mutants with altered sensitivity to oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Rayford B.; Ringbauer, Joseph A., Jr.; Wall, Judy D.

    2006-04-05

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genus Desulfovibrio are ubiquitous in anaerobic environments such as groundwater, sediments, and the gastrointestinal tract of animals. Because of the ability of Desulfovibrio to reduce radionuclides and metals through both enzymatic and chemical means, they have been proposed as a means to bioremediate heavy metal contaminated sites. Although classically thought of as strict anaerobes, Desulfovibrio species are surprisingly aerotolerant. Our objective is to understand the response of Desulfovibrio to oxidative stress so that we may more effectively utilize them in bioremediation of heavy metals in mixed aerobic-anaerobic environments. The enzymes superoxide dismutase, superoxide reductase, catalase, and rubrerythrin have been shown by others to be involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species in Desulfovibrio. Some members of the genus Desulfovibrio can even reduce molecular oxygen to water via a membrane bound electron transport chain with the concomitant production of ATP, although their ability to grow with oxygen as the sole electron acceptor is still questioned.

  3. Diverse endophytic bacteria isolated from a leguminous tree Conzattia multiflora grown in Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    En Tao Wang; Zhi Yuan Tan; Xian Wu Guo; Rolando Rodríguez-Duran; Gisela Boll; Esperanza Martínez-Romero

    2006-01-01

    Conzattia multiflora is a leguminous tree present only in Mexico and Guatemala. There is no record about its symbiotic or pathogenic microbes. In this study, we found that numerous bacteria with 104–106 individuals per gram of fresh epidermis were distributed in the tissue of this plant. All the bacteria isolated from the Conzattia epidermis were Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic rods and formed

  4. Growth and Population Dynamics of Anaerobic Methane-Oxidizing Archaea and Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in a Continuous-Flow Bioreactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter R. Girguis; Aaron E. Cozen; Edward F. DeLong

    2005-01-01

    The consumption of methane in anoxic marine sediments is a biogeochemical phenomenon mediated by two archaeal groups (ANME-1 and ANME-2) that exist syntrophically with sulfate-reducing bacteria. These anaerobic methanotrophs have yet to be recovered in pure culture, and key aspects of their ecology and physiology remain poorly understood. To characterize the growth and physiology of these anaerobic meth- anotrophs and

  5. Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing (Anammox) Bacteria and Associated Activity in Fixed-Film Biofilters of a Marine Recirculating Aquaculture System†

    PubMed Central

    Tal, Yossi; Watts, Joy E. M.; Schreier, Harold J.

    2006-01-01

    Microbial communities in the biological filter and waste sludge compartments of a marine recirculating aquaculture system were examined to determine the presence and activity of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria. Community DNA was extracted from aerobic and anaerobic fixed-film biofilters and the anaerobic sludge waste collection tank and was analyzed by amplifying 16S rRNA genes by PCR using anammox-selective and universal GC-clamped primers. Separation of amplified PCR products by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing of the different phylotypes revealed a diverse biofilter microbial community. While Planctomycetales were found in all three communities, the anaerobic denitrifying biofilters contained one clone that exhibited high levels of sequence similarity to known anammox bacteria. Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies using an anammox-specific probe confirmed the presence of anammox Planctomycetales in the microbial biofilm from the denitrifying biofilters, and anammox activity was observed in these biofilters, as detected by the ability to simultaneously consume ammonia and nitrite. To our knowledge, this is the first identification of anammox-related sequences in a marine recirculating aquaculture filtration system, and our findings provide a foundation for incorporating this important pathway for complete nitrogen removal in such systems. PMID:16597996

  6. Comparative In Vitro Activities of Gemifloxacin, Other Quinolones, and Nonquinolone Antimicrobials against Obligately Anaerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kleinkauf, Niels; Ackermann, Grit; Schaumann, Reiner; Rodloff, Arne C.

    2001-01-01

    The in vitro activity of gemifloxacin was compared to that of other quinolone and nonquinolone antimicrobials against 204 anaerobes by the agar dilution technique. The data indicate that gemifloxacin has a rather selective anaerobic activity. Most Peptostreptococcus, Porphyromonas, and Fusobacterium species are susceptible, while gemifloxacin's activity against other gram-negative anaerobes appears to be variable. PMID:11353648

  7. Decoloration of textile wastewater by means of a fluidized-bed loop reactor and immobilized anaerobic bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Georgiou; A. Aivasidis

    2006-01-01

    Textile wastewater was treated by means of a fluidized-bed loop reactor and immobilized anaerobic bacteria. The main target of this treatment was decoloration of the wastewater and transformation of the non-biodegradable azo-reactive dyes to the degradable, under aerobic biological conditions, aromatic amines. Special porous beads (Siran®) were utilized as the microbial carriers. Acetic acid solution, enriched with nutrients and trace

  8. Antiparasitic Drug Nitazoxanide Inhibits the Pyruvate Oxidoreductases of Helicobacter pylori, Selected Anaerobic Bacteria and Parasites, and Campylobacter jejuni

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul S. Hoffman; Gary Sisson; Matthew A. Croxen; Kevin Welch; W. Dean Harman; Nunilo Cremades; Michael G. Morash

    2007-01-01

    Nitazoxanide (NTZ) exhibits broad-spectrum activity against anaerobic bacteria and parasites and the ulcer-causing pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Here we show that NTZ is a noncompetitive inhibitor (Ki ,2t o 10 M) of the pyruvate:ferredoxin\\/flavodoxin oxidoreductases (PFORs) of Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, H. pylori, and Campylobacter jejuni and is weakly active against the pyruvate dehydrogenase of

  9. Investigation of the diversity of homoacetogenic bacteria in mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic sludges using the formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase gene.

    PubMed

    Ryan, P; Forbes, C; Colleran, E

    2008-01-01

    Homoacetogenic bacteria are strict anaerobes capable of autotrophic growth on H(2)/CO(2) or CO, and of heterotrophic growth on a wide range of sugars, alcohols, methoxylated aromatic compounds and one carbon compounds, yielding acetate as their sole metabolic end-product. Batch activity tests on anaerobic granular sludge, using H(2)/CO(2) as a substrate and 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES) as a specific methanogenic inhibitor revealed that H(2)/CO(2) conversion and concomitant acetate production commenced only after a lag period of 60-100 h. This finding suggests that the homoacetogenic population of digester sludge could be maintained by heterotrophic growth on sugars or other organic compounds, rather than by autotrophic growth on H(2)/CO(2). In the present study, two upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors were operated at 37 degrees C and 55 degrees C for two distinct trial periods, each characterised by the application of influents designed to enrich for homoacetogenic bacteria. Specific primers designed for the amplification of the functional gene encoding formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (FTHFS), a key enzyme in the acetyl-CoA pathway of acetogenesis, were used as a specific probe for acetogenic bacteria. The diversity of acetogens in the granular sludge cultivated in each reactor was revealed by application of FTHFS targeted PCR. Results show that biomass acetogenic composition was dependent upon the operational temperature of the reactor and the substrate supplied as influent. PMID:18401137

  10. Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane-oxidising bacteria: unique microorganisms with special properties.

    PubMed

    Shen, Li-Dong; He, Zhan-Fei; Wu, Hong-Sheng; Gao, Zhi-Qiu

    2015-04-01

    Microbial mediated nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (N-DAMO), which couples the oxidation of methane to nitrite reduction, is a recently discovered process. The discovery of N-DAMO process makes great contributions to complete the biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nitrogen, and to develop novel economic biotechnology for simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal. This process is catalysed by the unique bacterium "Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera" (M. oxyfera), which belongs to the candidate phylum NC10, a phylum having no members in pure culture. In recent years, some microbiological properties of M. oxyfera have been unravelled. The most prominent examples are the discoveries of the special ultrastructure (star-like) of the cell shape and the unique chemical composition (10MeC16:1?7) of M. oxyfera that have not been found in other bacteria yet. More importantly, a new intra-aerobic pathway was discovered in M. oxyfera. It seems that M. oxyfera produces oxygen intracellularly by the conversion of two nitric oxide molecules to dinitrogen gas and oxygen, and the produced oxygen is then used for methane oxidation and normal respiration. The current paper is a systematic review in the microbiological properties of M. oxyfera, especially for its special properties. PMID:25519694

  11. Antimicrobial activity of some Pacific Northwest woods against anaerobic bacteria and yeast.

    PubMed

    Johnston, W H; Karchesy, J J; Constantine, G H; Craig, A M

    2001-11-01

    Extracts of woods commonly used for animal bedding were tested for antimicrobial activity. Essential oils from Alaska cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) and old growth Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) as well as methanol extracts of wood from these trees plus western red cedar (Thuja plicata) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) were tested for antimicrobial activity against anaerobic bacteria and yeast. The test microbes included Fusobacterium necrophorum, Clostridium perfringens, Actinomyces bovis and Candida albicans which are common to foot diseases and other infections in animals. The essential oils and methanol extracts were tested using a standardized broth assay. Only extracts of Alaska cedar and western juniper showed significant antimicrobial activity against each of the microbes tested. The essential oil of Douglas fir did show antimicrobial activity against A. bovis at the concentrations tested. The methanol extracts of the heartwood of Douglas fir and the sapwood of ponderosa pine showed no antimicrobial activity. The major chemical components of western juniper (cedrol and alpha- and beta-cedrene) and Alaska cedar (nootkatin) were also tested. In western juniper, alpha- and beta-cedrene were found to be active components. Nootkatin showed activity only against C. albicans. The inhibitory activity in Alaska cedar oil was high enough to justify further efforts to define the other chemical components responsible for the antimicrobial activity. PMID:11746838

  12. Molecular evidence for the broad distribution of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in freshwater and marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Penton, C Ryan; Devol, Allan H; Tiedje, James M

    2006-10-01

    Previously available primer sets for detecting anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria are inefficient, resulting in a very limited database of such sequences, which limits knowledge of their ecology. To overcome this limitation, we designed a new primer set that was 100% specific in the recovery of approximately 700-bp 16S rRNA gene sequences with >96% homology to the "Candidatus Scalindua" group of anammox bacteria, and we detected this group at all sites studied, including a variety of freshwater and marine sediments and permafrost soil. A second primer set was designed that exhibited greater efficiency than previous primers in recovering full-length (1,380-bp) sequences related to "Ca. Scalindua," "Candidatus Brocadia," and "Candidatus Kuenenia." This study provides evidence for the widespread distribution of anammox bacteria in that it detected closely related anammox 16S rRNA gene sequences in 11 geographically and biogeochemically diverse freshwater and marine sediments. PMID:17021238

  13. Survival of Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria in Purulent Clinical Specimens Maintained in the Copan Venturi Transystem and Becton Dickinson Port-a-Cul Transport Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DIANE M. CITRON; YUMI A. WARREN; MARIE K. HUDSPETH; ELLIE J. C. GOLDSTEIN

    2000-01-01

    Protection of anaerobic bacteria from exposure to oxygen during the transport of clinical specimens to the laboratory is crucial for the survival of these organisms. Because the use of swabs may encourage collection of superficial specimens that represent colonizing bacteria instead of the etiologic agents found deeper in the infected tissues, aspirates have always been preferable to swab systems for

  14. Linking ultrastructure & function in four genera of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria: cell plan, glycogen storage and localization of cytochrome c proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. van Niftrik; W. J. Geerts; E. G. van Donselaar; B. M. Humbel; R. I. Webb; J. A. Fuerst; A. J. Verkleij; M. S. Jetten; M. Strous

    2007-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is an ecologically and industrially important process and is performed by a clade of deeply branching Planctomycetes. Anammox bacteria possess an intracytoplasmic membrane-bounded organelle; the anammoxosome. In the present study, the ultrastructure of four different genera of anammox bacteria was compared with transmission electron microscopy and electron tomography. The four anammox genera shared a common cell

  15. Linking ultrastructure and function in four genera of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria: cell plan, glycogen storage, and localization of cytochrome C proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. M. P. van Niftrik; Willie J. C. Geerts; Elly G. van Donselaar; Bruno M. Humbel; Richard I. Webb; John A. Fuerst; Arie J. Verkleij; Mike S. M. Jetten; Marc Strous

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is an ecologically and industrially important process and is performed by a clade of deeply branching Planctomycetes. Anammox bacteria possess an intracytoplasmic membrane-bounded organelle, the anammoxosome. In the present study, the ultrastructures of four different genera of anammox bacteria were compared with transmission electron microscopy and electron tomography. The four anammox genera shared a common cell

  16. Optimization of wastewater feeding for single-cell protein production in an anaerobic wastewater treatment process utilizing purple non-sulfur bacteria in mixed culture condition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryo Honda; Kensuke Fukushi; Kazuo Yamamoto

    2006-01-01

    Impacts of operation timing of feeding and withdrawal on anaerobic wastewater treatment utilizing purple non-sulfur bacteria have been investigated in mixed culture condition with acidogenic bacteria. Simulated wastewater containing glucose was treated in a laboratory-scale chemostat reactor, changing the timing of wastewater feeding and withdrawal. Rhodopseudomonas palustris, which does not utilize glucose as a substrate, was inoculated in the reactor.

  17. Anaerobic Oxidization of Methane in a Minerotrophic Peatland: Enrichment of Nitrite-Dependent Methane-Oxidizing Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Baoli; van Dijk, Gijs; Fritz, Christian; Smolders, Alfons J. P.; Pol, Arjan; Jetten, Mike S. M.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) as a methane sink in freshwater systems is largely unexplored, particularly in peat ecosystems. Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) was recently discovered and reported to be catalyzed by the bacterium “Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera,” which is affiliated with the NC10 phylum. So far, several “Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera” enrichment cultures have been obtained using a limited number of freshwater sediments or wastewater treatment sludge as the inoculum. In this study, using stable isotope measurements and porewater profiles, we investigated the potential of n-damo in a minerotrophic peatland in the south of the Netherlands that is infiltrated by nitrate-rich ground water. Methane and nitrate profiles suggested that all methane produced was oxidized before reaching the oxic layer, and NC10 bacteria could be active in the transition zone where countergradients of methane and nitrate occur. Quantitative PCR showed high NC10 bacterial cell numbers at this methane-nitrate transition zone. This soil section was used to enrich the prevalent NC10 bacteria in a continuous culture supplied with methane and nitrite at an in situ pH of 6.2. An enrichment of nitrite-reducing methanotrophic NC10 bacteria was successfully obtained. Phylogenetic analysis of retrieved 16S rRNA and pmoA genes showed that the enriched bacteria were very similar to the ones found in situ and constituted a new branch of NC10 bacteria with an identity of less than 96 and 90% to the 16S rRNA and pmoA genes of “Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera,” respectively. The results of this study expand our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of NC10 bacteria in the environment and highlight their potential contribution to nitrogen and methane cycles. PMID:23042166

  18. Investigation of anaerobic bacteria associated with mortality in grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) and redfish (Sciaenops ocellatus) 

    E-print Network

    Henley, Michael Waite

    1976-01-01

    . . . . . . . . . 58-59 Various Marine Fish with Anaerobic Bacterial Sepsis of Brain Tissue. 61 vii ( I 1ST OF FIGURES F igure Page Gram positive rods in an impression smear of brain tissue from grey mullet (~Bi) ~hl ). B = 5 ' *o ( ). . . . 34 Anaerobic Gram...

  19. Reduction of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Present in Food Animal Manures by Composting and Anaerobic Digestion

    E-print Network

    Jones, Michelle

    and Anaerobic Digestion Frederick C. Michel, Food, Agricultural, and Biological Engineering Zhongtang Yu, Animal digestion and composting at mesophilic or moderate temperature significantly reduced the antimicrobial concluded that both anaerobic digestion and composting--especially at elevated temperatures--are effective

  20. Susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria to nine antimicrobial agents and demonstration of decreased susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens to penicillin.

    PubMed

    Marrie, T J; Haldane, E V; Swantee, C A; Kerr, E A

    1981-01-01

    The activity of moxalactam, cefoxitin, cephalothin, cefamandole, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, metronidazole, and ticarcillin was determined against 344 isolates of anaerobic bacteria. The activity of penicillin G was determined as well for 234 isolates not of the Bacteroides fragilis group. Moxalactam was more active than cephalothin and cefamandole and slightly less active than cefoxitin. Metronidazole was the most active antimicrobial agent against the B. fragilis group, whereas chloramphenicol was most active overall. Clostridium species were the most resistant group of organisms tested. Relatively high concentrations of penicillin were required to inhibit the C. perfringens strains: 80% at 0.5 U/ml and 100% at 16 U/ml. Our study demonstrates the need for periodic anaerobe susceptibility testing in order to better guide empiric antibiotic therapy. PMID:6264842

  1. Biomarker evidence for widespread anaerobic methane oxidation in Mediterranean sediments by a consortium of methanogenic archaea and bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Pancost, R.D.; Damste, J.S.S.; Lint, S. De; Maarel, M.J.E.C. van der; Gottschal, J.C.

    2000-03-01

    Although abundant geochemical data indicate that anaerobic methane oxidation occurs in marine sediments, the linkage to specific microorganisms remains unclear. In order to examine processes of methane consumption and oxidation, sediment samples from mud volcanoes at two distinct sites on the Mediterranean consumption and oxidation, sediment samples from mud volcanoes at two distinct sites on the Mediterranean Ridge were collected via the submersible Nautile. Geochemical data strongly indicate that methane is oxidized under aerobic conditions, and compound-specific carbon isotope analyses indicate that methane is oxidized under anaerobic conditions, and compound-specific carbon isotope analyses indicate that this reaction is facilitated by a consortium of archaea and bacteria. Specifically, these methane-rich sediments contain high abundances of methanogen-specific biomarkers that are significantly depleted in {sup 13}C ({delta}{sup 13}C values are as low as {minus}95%). Biomarkers inferred to derive from sulfate-reducing bacteria and other heterotrophic bacteria are similarly depleted. Consistent with previous work, such depletion can be explained by consumption of {sup 13}C-depleted methane by methanogens operating in reverse and as part a consortium of organisms in which sulfate serves as the terminal electron acceptor. Moreover, their results indicate that this process is widespread in Mediterranean mud volcanoes and in some localized settings in the predominant microbiological process.

  2. Removal of micropollutants, facultative pathogenic and antibiotic resistant bacteria in a full-scale retention soil filter receiving combined sewer overflow.

    PubMed

    Scheurer, Marco; Heß, Stefanie; Lüddeke, Frauke; Sacher, Frank; Güde, Hans; Löffler, Herbert; Gallert, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Combined sewer systems collect surface runoff as well as wastewater of industrial and domestic origin. During periods of heavy rainfall the capacity of the sewer system is exceeded and the overflow is discharged into receiving waters without any treatment. Consequently, combined sewer overflow (CSO) is considered as a major source of water pollution. This study investigates the effectiveness of a retention soil filter (RSF) for the removal of micropollutants as well as facultative pathogenic and antibiotic resistant bacteria from CSO. The removal of organic group parameters like total organic carbon was excellent and the removal efficiency for micropollutants of the RSF and the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), which treats wastewater of the same origin during dry and normal weather conditions, was comparable. Compounds of high environmental concern like estrogens or certain pharmaceuticals, e.g. diclofenac, were completely eliminated or removed to a high degree during RSF passage. RSF treatment also reduced the number of E. coli, enterococci and staphylococci by 2.7, 2.2 and 2.4 log-units (median values), respectively. Obviously, some Staphylococcus species can better adapt to the conditions of the RSF than others as a shift of the abundance of the different species was observed when comparing the diversity of staphylococci obtained from the RSF influent and effluent. RSF treatment also decreased the absolute number of antibiotic resistant bacteria. The percentage of antibiotic resistant E. coli and staphylococci isolates also decreased during passage of the RSF, whereas the percentage of resistant enterococci did not change. For E. coli ampicillin and for enterococci and staphylococci erythromycin determined the antibiotic resistance level. The results demonstrate that RSFs can be considered as an adequate treatment option for CSO. The performance for the removal of micropollutants is comparable with a medium sized WWTP with conventional activated sludge treatment. The number of facultative pathogenic and antibiotic resistant bacteria was considerably decreased during RSF passage. However, as RSF effluents still contained antibiotic resistance genes and traces of micropollutants; receiving waters may still be at risk from negative environmental impacts. PMID:25479187

  3. Anaerobic Catabolism of Aromatic Compounds: a Genetic and Genomic View

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, Manuel; Zamarro, María Teresa; Blázquez, Blas; Durante-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Juárez, Javier F.; Valderrama, J. Andrés; Barragán, María J. L.; García, José Luis; Díaz, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Aromatic compounds belong to one of the most widely distributed classes of organic compounds in nature, and a significant number of xenobiotics belong to this family of compounds. Since many habitats containing large amounts of aromatic compounds are often anoxic, the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds by microorganisms becomes crucial in biogeochemical cycles and in the sustainable development of the biosphere. The mineralization of aromatic compounds by facultative or obligate anaerobic bacteria can be coupled to anaerobic respiration with a variety of electron acceptors as well as to fermentation and anoxygenic photosynthesis. Since the redox potential of the electron-accepting system dictates the degradative strategy, there is wide biochemical diversity among anaerobic aromatic degraders. However, the genetic determinants of all these processes and the mechanisms involved in their regulation are much less studied. This review focuses on the recent findings that standard molecular biology approaches together with new high-throughput technologies (e.g., genome sequencing, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metagenomics) have provided regarding the genetics, regulation, ecophysiology, and evolution of anaerobic aromatic degradation pathways. These studies revealed that the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds is more diverse and widespread than previously thought, and the complex metabolic and stress programs associated with the use of aromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions are starting to be unraveled. Anaerobic biotransformation processes based on unprecedented enzymes and pathways with novel metabolic capabilities, as well as the design of novel regulatory circuits and catabolic networks of great biotechnological potential in synthetic biology, are now feasible to approach. PMID:19258534

  4. Distribution and diversity of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria in the sediment of a eutrophic freshwater lake, Lake Kitaura, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Ikuo; Amano, Teruki; Yamagishi, Takao; Okada, Kentaro; Ueda, Shingo; Sako, Yoshihiko; Suwa, Yuichi

    2011-01-01

    Although the emission of N(2) via anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is a key process in the elimination of nitrogenous compounds from aquatic environments, little information is available regarding its significance and the relevant microorganisms (anammox bacteria) in eutrophic freshwater lakes. In the present study, the anammox bacteria in the sediment of a eutrophic lake in Japan, Lake Kitaura, were examined using a (15)N-tracer technique to measure their potential anammox activity. Potential anammox activity was localized to the northern region of the lake where a stable supply of both NH(4)(+) and NO(3)(-) existed in the sediment. These results suggest the contribution of anammox bacteria to the total emission of N(2) from sediment in this eutrophic lake to not be negligible. Moreover, selective PCR successfully amplified anammox bacteria-related (Brocadiales-related) 16S rRNA genes from sediment samples in which potential anammox activity was observed. The clone libraries consisted of diverse phylotypes except the genus "Scalindua"-lineages, and the lineages of genus "Brocadia" were dominantly recovered, followed by the genus "Kuenenia"-lineages. Most of them, however, were novel and phylogenetically distinguishable from known Brocadiales species. A unique population of anammox bacteria inhabits and potentially contributes to the emission of N(2) from Lake Kitaura. PMID:21558678

  5. In Situ Activity and Spatial Organization of Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing (Anammox) Bacteria in Biofilms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kindaichi; I. Tsushima; Y. Ogasawara; M. Shimokawa; Noriatsu Ozaki; Hisashi Satoh; Satoshi Okabe

    2007-01-01

    We investigated autotrophic anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) biofilms for their spatial organi- zation, community composition, and in situ activities by using molecular biological techniques combined with microelectrodes. Results of phylogenetic analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that \\

  6. Culturing Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria and Mammalian Cells with a Microfluidic Differential Oxygenator

    E-print Network

    Lam, Raymond H. W.

    In this manuscript, we report on the culture of anaerobic and aerobic species within a disposable multilayer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device with an integrated differential oxygenator. A gas-filled microchannel ...

  7. A survey of culturable aerobic and anaerobic marine bacteria in de novo biofilm formation on natural substrates in St. Andrews Bay, Scotland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucy Finnegan; Manuel Garcia-Melgares; Tomasz Gmerek; W. Ryan Huddleston; Alexander Palmer; Andrew Robertson; Sarah Shapiro; Shiela E. Unkles

    This study reports a novel study of marine biofilm formation comprising aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Samples of quartz\\u000a and feldspar, minerals commonly found on the earth, were suspended 5 m deep in the North Sea off the east coast of St. Andrews,\\u000a Scotland for 5 weeks. The assemblage of organisms attached to these stones was cultivated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions\\u000a in

  8. Identification of Anaerobic Bacteria by Bruker Biotyper Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry with On-Plate Formic Acid Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Bryan H.; Cunningham, Scott A.; Dailey, Aaron L.; Gustafson, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    Identification of anaerobic bacteria using phenotypic methods is often time-consuming; methods such as 16S rRNA gene sequencing are costly and may not be readily available. We evaluated 253 clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria using the Bruker MALDI Biotyper (Bruker Daltonics, Billerica, MA) matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system with a user-supplemented database and an on-plate formic acid-based preparation method and compared results to those of conventional identification using biochemical testing or 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A total of 179 (70.8%) and 232 (91.7%) isolates were correctly identified to the species and genus levels, respectively, using manufacturer-recommended score cutoffs. MALDI-TOF MS offers a rapid, inexpensive method for identification of anaerobic bacteria. PMID:23254126

  9. Induction of anaerobic, photoautotrophic growth in the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limnetica.

    PubMed Central

    Oren, A; Padan, E

    1978-01-01

    Anaerobic photoautotrophic growth of the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limnetica was demonstrated under nitrogen in the presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (5micron), a constant concentration of Na2S (2.5 mM), and constant pH (7.3). The photoanaerobic growth rate (2 days doubling time) was similar to that obtained under oxygenic photoautotrophic growth conditions. The potential of oxygenic photosynthesis is constitutive in the cells; that of anoxygenic photosynthesis is rapidly (2 h) induced in the presence of Na2S in the light in a process requiring protein synthesis. The facultative anaerobic phototrophic growth physiology exhibited by O. limnetica would seem to represent an intermediate physiological pattern between the obligate anaerobic one of photosynthetic bacteria and the oxygenic one of eucaryotic algae. PMID:415043

  10. Anaerobic Oxidation of o-Xylene, m-Xylene, and Homologous Alkylbenzenes by New Types of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Gerda; Zengler, Karsten; Rabus, Ralf; Aeckersberg, Frank; Minz, Dror; Rosselló-Mora, Ramon; Widdel, Friedrich

    1999-01-01

    Various alkylbenzenes were depleted during growth of an anaerobic, sulfate-reducing enrichment culture with crude oil as the only source of organic substrates. From this culture, two new types of mesophilic, rod-shaped sulfate-reducing bacteria, strains oXyS1 and mXyS1, were isolated with o-xylene and m-xylene, respectively, as organic substrates. Sequence analyses of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the isolates affiliated with known completely oxidizing sulfate-reducing bacteria of the ? subclass of the class Proteobacteria. Strain oXyS1 showed the highest similarities to Desulfobacterium cetonicum and Desulfosarcina variabilis (similarity values, 98.4 and 98.7%, respectively). Strain mXyS1 was less closely related to known species, the closest relative being Desulfococcus multivorans (similarity value, 86.9%). Complete mineralization of o-xylene and m-xylene was demonstrated in quantitative growth experiments. Strain oXyS1 was able to utilize toluene, o-ethyltoluene, benzoate, and o-methylbenzoate in addition to o-xylene. Strain mXyS1 oxidized toluene, m-ethyltoluene, m-isoproyltoluene, benzoate, and m-methylbenzoate in addition to m-xylene. Strain oXyS1 did not utilize m-alkyltoluenes, whereas strain mXyS1 did not utilize o-alkyltoluenes. Like the enrichment culture, both isolates grew anaerobically on crude oil with concomitant reduction of sulfate to sulfide. PMID:10049854

  11. ANAEROBIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACTS OF BULLFROG TADPOLES (RANA CATESBEIANA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GREGORY S. PRYOR

    The taxonomic identities and biochemical roles of symbiotic microbes living within the guts of amphibians remain very poorly studied to date. This is unfortunate because the normal microbiota has profound significance on the life history of larval amphibians. In this study, I investigated the bacterial flora of the gastrointestinal tracts of wild-caught Rana catesbeiana tadpoles under anaerobic conditions. I isolated

  12. Trimethylamine Oxide: A Terminal Electron Acceptor in Anaerobic Respiration of Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. STROM; JAN A. OLAFSEN; HELGE LARSEN

    1979-01-01

    Trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) stimulated both the anaerobic growth rate and the growth yield of Proteus NTHC 153. The molar growth yield from glucose and pyruvate in tryptone\\/ yeast extract medium doubled in the presence of TMAO, and the organism grew anaero- bically on the non-fermentable substrates L-lactate and formate when TMAO was added to the medium. We conclude that TMAO

  13. Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in marine environments: widespread occurrence but low diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus C. Schmid; Nils Risgaard-Petersen; Jack van de Vossenberg; Marcel M. M. Kuypers; Gaute Lavik; Jan Petersen; Stefan Hulth; Bo Thamdrup; Don Canfield; Tage Dalsgaard; Søren Rysgaard; Mikael K. Sejr; Marc Strous; Mike S. M. Jetten

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory and field studies have indicated that anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is an important process in the marine nitrogen cycle. In this study 11 additional anoxic marine sediment and water column samples were studied to substantiate this claim. In a combined approach using the molecular methods, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), qualitative and quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), as well

  14. Application, eco-physiology and biodiversity of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boran Kartal; Laura van Niftrik; Olav Sliekers; Markus C. Schmid; Ingo Schmidt; Katinka van de Pas-Schoonen; Irina Cirpus; Wouter van der Star; Mark van Loosdrecht; Wiebe Abma; J. Gijs Kuenen; Jan-Willem Mulder; Mike S. M. Jetten; Huub Op den Camp; Marc Strous; Jack van de Vossenberg

    2004-01-01

    The demand for new and sustainable systems for nitrogen removal has increased dramatically in the last decade. It is clear that the conventional systems cannot deal with the increasing nitrogen loads in a cost effective way. As an alternative, the implementation of the anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) process in the treatment of wastewater with high ammonium concentrations has been started.

  15. Anaerobic biodegradation of 13C6-phenol: Analysis of bacteria population involved in two different degradation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and their impact in the phenol degradation kinetic during the anaerobic digestion process. MATERIALS AND METHODS degradation kinetics. C. Hoyos-Hernandez, I. Limam, E. Desmond, T. Bouchez, L. Mazeas. Hydrosystems mineralisation was observed under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions during the degradation of municipal

  16. A Study of the Relative Dominance of Selected Anaerobic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in a Continuous Bioreactor by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Icgen; S. Moosa; S. T. L. Harrison

    2007-01-01

    The diversity and the community structure of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in an anaerobic continuous bioreactor used for\\u000a treatment of a sulfate-containing wastewater were investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Hybridization to the 16S rRNA probe EUB338 for the domain Bacteria was performed, followed by a nonsense probe\\u000a NON338 as a control for nonspecific staining. Sulfate-reducing consortia were identified by using

  17. Characterization and Detection of a Widely Distributed Gene Cluster That Predicts Anaerobic Choline Utilization by Human Gut Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-del Campo, Ana; Bodea, Smaranda; Hamer, Hilary A.; Marks, Jonathan A.; Haiser, Henry J.; Turnbaugh, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the human gut microbiota’s effects on health and disease has been complicated by difficulties in linking metabolic functions associated with the gut community as a whole to individual microorganisms and activities. Anaerobic microbial choline metabolism, a disease-associated metabolic pathway, exemplifies this challenge, as the specific human gut microorganisms responsible for this transformation have not yet been clearly identified. In this study, we established the link between a bacterial gene cluster, the choline utilization (cut) cluster, and anaerobic choline metabolism in human gut isolates by combining transcriptional, biochemical, bioinformatic, and cultivation-based approaches. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis and in vitro biochemical characterization of two cut gene products linked the entire cluster to growth on choline and supported a model for this pathway. Analyses of sequenced bacterial genomes revealed that the cut cluster is present in many human gut bacteria, is predictive of choline utilization in sequenced isolates, and is widely but discontinuously distributed across multiple bacterial phyla. Given that bacterial phylogeny is a poor marker for choline utilization, we were prompted to develop a degenerate PCR-based method for detecting the key functional gene choline TMA-lyase (cutC) in genomic and metagenomic DNA. Using this tool, we found that new choline-metabolizing gut isolates universally possessed cutC. We also demonstrated that this gene is widespread in stool metagenomic data sets. Overall, this work represents a crucial step toward understanding anaerobic choline metabolism in the human gut microbiota and underscores the importance of examining this microbial community from a function-oriented perspective. PMID:25873372

  18. Bacteria and archaea involved in anaerobic digestion of distillers grains with solubles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayrat M. Ziganshin; Thomas Schmidt; Frank Scholwin; Olga N. Il’inskaya; Hauke Harms; Sabine Kleinsteuber

    2011-01-01

    Cereal distillers grains, a by-product from bioethanol industry, proved to be a suitable feedstock for biogas production in\\u000a laboratory scale anaerobic digesters. Five continuously stirred tank reactors were run under constant conditions and monitored\\u000a for biogas production and composition along with other process parameters. Iron additives for sulfide precipitation significantly\\u000a improved the process stability and efficiency, whereas aerobic pretreatment of

  19. Advances in methods for detection of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meng Li; Ji-Dong Gu

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), the biochemical process oxidizing ammonium into dinitrogen gas using nitrite as an\\u000a electron acceptor, has only been recognized for its significant role in the global nitrogen cycle not long ago, and its ubiquitous\\u000a distribution in a wide range of environments has changed our knowledge about the contributors to the global nitrogen cycle.\\u000a Currently, several groups of

  20. The incidence and significance of anaerobic bacteria in the equine uterus 

    E-print Network

    Bolinger, Dean Roger

    1987-01-01

    of active endometrial inflammation. Mixed bacterial contamination occurred in this study with no significant difference in frequency between the fertile and subfertile mares. A significant difference in incidence of endometritis was shown between... of swab samples collected from mare uteri 2 ? Number of samples with bacterial growth 3 ? Summary of bacterial growth patterns ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 4 ? Summary of bacterial growth and inflammation patterns 5 - Anaerobes isolated from uterine biopsy swabs...

  1. The behavior of sulfate-reducing bacteria in acidogenic phase of anaerobic digestion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Mizuno; Y. Y. Li; T. Noike

    1998-01-01

    The effect of sulfate reduction on the acidogenic phase was investigated using anaerobic chemostat systems at 35°C. Sucrose (10,000mg COD\\/l) was used as the sole organic substrate. Chemostat systems were maintained at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10h. The sulfate concentration in the substrate was increased to 0 (control), 600, 1200 and 2400mg\\/l. Sulfate reduction

  2. Fermentative degradation of dipicolinic acid (pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid) by a defined coculture of strictly anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Seyfried, B; Schink, B

    1990-01-01

    Degradation of dipicolinic acid (pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid) under strictly anaerobic conditions was studied in enrichment cultures from marine and freshwater sediments. In all cases, dipicolinic acid was completely degraded. From an enrichment culture from a marine sediment, a defined coculture of two bacteria was isolated. The dipicolinic acid-fermenting bacterium was a Gram-negative, non-sporeforming strictly anaerobic short rod which utilized dipicolinic acid as sole source of carbon, energy, and nitrogen, and fermented it to acetate, propionate, ammonia, and 2CO2. No other substrate was fermented. This bacterium could be cultivated only in coculture with another Gram-negative, non-sporeforming rod from the same enrichment culture which oxidized acetate to CO2 with fumarate, malate, or elemental sulfur as electron acceptor, similar to Desulfuromonas acetoxidans. Since this metabolic activity is not important in substrate degradation by the coculture, the basis of the dependence of the dipicolinic acid-degrading bacterium on the sulfur reducer may be sought in the assimilatory metabolism. PMID:1368138

  3. Anaerobic naphthalene degradation by Gram-positive, iron-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kleemann, Rita; Meckenstock, Rainer U

    2011-12-01

    An anaerobic naphthalene-degrading culture (N49) was enriched with ferric iron as electron acceptor. A closed electron balance indicated the total oxidation of naphthalene to CO(2). In all growing cultures, the concentration of the presumed central metabolite of naphthalene degradation, 2-naphthoic acid, increased concomitantly with growth. The first metabolite of anaerobic methylnaphthalene degradation, naphthyl-2-methyl-succinic acid, was not identified in culture supernatants, which does not support a methylation to methylnaphthalene as the initial activation reaction of naphthalene, but rather a carboxylation, as proposed for other naphthalene-degrading cultures. Substrate utilization tests revealed that the culture was able to grow on 1-methyl-naphthalene, 2-methyl-naphthalene, 1-naphthoic acid or 2-naphthoic acid, whereas it did not grow on 1-naphthol, 2-naphthol, anthracene, phenanthrene, indane and indene. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses revealed that the microbial community of the culture was dominated by one bacterial microorganism, which was closely related (99% 16S sequence similarity) to the major organism in the iron-reducing, benzene-degrading enrichment culture BF [ISME J (2007) 1: 643; Int J Syst Evol Microbiol (2010) 60: 686]. The phylogenetic classification supports a new candidate species and genus of Gram-positive spore-forming iron-reducers that can degrade non-substituted aromatic hydrocarbons. It furthermore indicates that Gram-positive microorganisms might also play an important role in anaerobic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degradation. PMID:22066721

  4. The influence of incubation time, sample preparation and exposure to oxygen on the quality of the MALDI-TOF MS spectrum of anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Veloo, A C M; Elgersma, P E; Friedrich, A W; Nagy, E; van Winkelhoff, A J

    2014-12-01

    With matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), bacteria can be identified quickly and reliably. This accounts especially for anaerobic bacteria. Because growth rate and oxygen sensitivity differ among anaerobic bacteria, we aimed to study the influence of incubation time, exposure to oxygen and sample preparation on the quality of the spectrum using the Bruker system. Also, reproducibility and inter-examiner variability were determined. Twenty-six anaerobic species, representing 17 genera, were selected based on gram-stain characteristics, growth rate and colony morphology. Inter-examiner variation showed that experience in the preparation of the targets can be a significant variable. The influence of incubation time was determined between 24 and 96 h of incubation. Reliable species identification was obtained after 48 h of incubation for gram-negative anaerobes and after 72 h for gram-positive anaerobes. Exposure of the cultures to oxygen did not influence the results of the MALDI-TOF MS identifications of all tested gram-positive species. Fusobacterium necrophorum and Prevotella intermedia could not be identified after >24 h and 48 h of exposure to oxygen, respectively. Other tested gram-negative bacteria could be identified after 48 h of exposure to oxygen. Most of the tested species could be identified using the direct spotting method. Bifidobacterium longum and Finegoldia magna needed on-target extraction with 70% formic acid in order to obtain reliable species identification and Peptoniphilus ivorii a full extraction. Spectrum quality was influenced by the amount of bacteria spotted on the target, the homogeneity of the smear and the experience of the examiner. PMID:25039504

  5. Diversity of Ferrous Iron-Oxidizing, Nitrate-Reducing Bacteria and their Involvement in Oxygen-Independent Iron Cycling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristina L. Straub; Wilhelm A. Schönhuber; Berit E. E. Buchholz-Cleven; Bernhard Schink

    2004-01-01

    In previous studies, three different strains (BrG1, BrG2, and BrG3) of ferrous iron-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing bacteria were obtained from freshwater sediments. All three strains were facultative anaerobes and utilized a variety of organic substrates and molecular hydrogen with nitrate as electron acceptor. In this study, analyses of 16S rDNA sequences showed that strain BrG1 was affiliated with the genus Acidovorax, strain

  6. Iron and Copper Act Synergistically To Delay Anaerobic Growth of Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Lina J.; Coleman, Maureen L.

    2013-01-01

    Transition metals are known to cause toxic effects through their interaction with oxygen, but toxicity under anoxic conditions is poorly understood. Here we investigated the effects of iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) on the anaerobic growth and gene expression of the purple phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1. We found that Fe(II) and Cu(II) act synergistically to delay anaerobic growth at environmentally relevant metal concentrations. Cu(I) and Cu(II) had similar effects both alone and in the presence of ascorbate, a Cu(II) reductant, indicating that reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) by Fe(II) is not sufficient to explain the growth inhibition. Addition of Cu(II) increased the toxicity of Co(II) and Ni(II); in contrast, Ni(II) toxicity was diminished in the presence of Fe(II). The synergistic anaerobic toxicity of Fe(II) and Cu(II) was also observed for Escherichia coli MG1655, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, and Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003. Gene expression analyses for R. palustris identified three regulatory genes that respond to Cu(II) and not to Fe(II): homologs of cueR and cusR, two known proteobacterial copper homeostasis regulators, and csoR, a copper regulator recently identified in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Two P-type ATPase efflux pumps, along with an FoF1 ATP synthase, were also upregulated by Cu(II) but not by Fe(II). An Escherichia coli mutant deficient in copA, cus, and cueO showed a smaller synergistic effect, indicating that iron might interfere with one or more of the copper homeostasis systems. Our results suggest that interactive effects of transition metals on microbial physiology may be widespread under anoxic conditions, although the molecular mechanisms remain to be more fully elucidated. PMID:23563938

  7. [Non-sporulating anaerobic bacteria and anastomosis failure in patients with gastric carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Levanov, A V; Benevski?, A I; Dmitrieva, N V; Klimenkov, A A; Nered, S N; Gubina, G I

    2000-01-01

    Cases of anastomosis suture failure within the period from 1977 to 1987 and from 1988 to 1998 in 139 patients after various surgical operations for gastric carcinoma were analyzed. Infection in the cases of the anastomosis sUture failure at the early terms was mainly due to representatives of Enterobacteriaceae and at the later terms the failure was mainly due to non-sporulating anaerobes belonging to Bacteroidaceae. The data are indicative of the fact that the use of antimicrobials requires a differential approach. PMID:11210305

  8. Nitrate-dependent anaerobic ferrous oxidation (NAFO) by denitrifying bacteria: a perspective autotrophic nitrogen pollution control technology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Zheng, Ping; Wang, Ru; Li, Wei; Lu, Huifeng; Zhang, Jiqiang

    2014-12-01

    The nitrate-dependent anaerobic ferrous oxidation (NAFO) is an important discovery in the fields of microbiology and geology, which is a valuable biological reaction since it can convert nitrate into nitrogen gas, removing nitrogen from wastewater. The research on NAFO can promote the development of novel autotrophic biotechnologies for nitrogen pollution control and get a deep insight into the biogeochemical cycles. In this work, batch experiments were conducted with denitrifying bacteria as biocatalyst to investigate the performance of nitrogen removal by NAFO. The results showed that the denitrifying bacteria were capable of chemolithotrophic denitrification with ferrous salt as electron donor, namely NAFO. And the maximum nitrate conversion rates (qmax) reached 57.89 mg (g VSS d)?1, which was the rate-limiting step in NAFO. Fe/N ratio, temperature and initial pH had significant influences on nitrogen removal by NAFO process, and their optimal values were 2.0 °C, 30.15 °C and 8.0 °C, respectively. PMID:25461924

  9. Effects of different quinoid redox mediators on the anaerobic reduction of azo dyes by bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rau, Jorg; Knackmuss, Hans-Joachim; Stolz, Andreas

    2002-04-01

    The addition of quinoid redox mediators to anaerobically incubated cultures of various taxonomically different bacterial species resulted in significantly increased reduction rates for the azo dye amaranth. From different quinones tested, generally anthraquinone-2-sulfonate (AQS) and lawsone (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) caused the highest increase in the azoreductase activities. The effects of AQS and lawsone were studied in greater detail with Sphingomonas xenophaga BN6 and Escherichia coli K12. Both strains reduced the quinones under anaerobic conditions with significantly different relative activities. The chemically reduced forms of AQS, lawsone, and different other quinones were assayed for their ability to decolorize amaranth, and a good correlation between the redox potentials of the quinones and the reduction rates of the azo dyes was observed. The addition of AQS or lawsone also increased the ability of unacclimated sewage sludge to reduce azo dyes. Chemically pure lawsone could be replaced by the powdered leaves of the henna plant which contain significant amounts of lawsone. PMID:11999057

  10. Influence of hydrogen-consuming bacteria on cellulose degradation by anaerobic fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Marvin-Sikkema, F D; Richardson, A J; Stewart, C S; Gottschal, J C; Prins, R A

    1990-01-01

    The presence of methanogens Methanobacterium arboriphilus, Methanobacterium bryantii, or Methanobrevibacter smithii increased the level of cellulose fermentation by 5 to 10% in cultures of several genera of anaerobic fungi. When Neocallimastix sp. strain L2 was grown in coculture with methanogens the rate of cellulose fermentation also increased relative to that for pure cultures of the fungus. Methanogens caused a shift in the fermentation products to more acetate and less lactate, succinate, and ethanol. Formate transfer in cocultures of anaerobic fungi and M. smithii did not result in further stimulation of cellulolysis above the level caused by H2 transfer. When Selenomonas ruminatium was used as a H2-consuming organism in coculture with Neocallimastix sp. strain L2, both the rate and level of cellulolysis increased. The observed influence of the presence of methanogens is interpreted to indicate a shift of electrons from the formation of electron sink carbon products to H2 via reduced pyridine nucleotides, favoring the production of additional acetate and probably ATP. It is not known how S. ruminantium exerts its influence. It might result from a lowered production of electron sink products by the fungus, from consumption of electron sink products or H2 by S. ruminantium, or from competition for free sugars which in pure culture could exert an inhibiting effect on cellulolysis. PMID:2082826

  11. Taxonomic composition and physiological and biochemical properties of bacteria in the digestive tracts of earthworms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byzov, B. A.; Tikhonov, V. V.; Nechitailo, T. Yu.; Demin, V. V.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2015-03-01

    Several hundred bacterial strains belonging to different taxa were isolated and identified from the digestive tracts of soil and compost earthworms. Some physiological and biochemical properties of the bacteria were characterized. The majority of intestinal bacteria in the earthworms were found to be facultative anaerobes. The intestinal isolates as compared to the soil ones had elevated activity of proteases and dehydrogenases. In addition, bacteria associated with earthworms' intestines are capable of growth on humic acids as a sole carbon source. Humic acid stimulated the growth of the intestinal bacteria to a greater extent than those of the soil ones. In the digestive tracts, polyphenol oxidase activity was found. Along with the data on the taxonomic separation of the intestinal bacteria, the features described testified to the presence of a group of bacteria in the earthworms intestines that is functionally characteristic and is different from the soil bacteria.

  12. The intracellular proton gradient enables anaerobic ammonia oxidizing (anammox) bacteria to tolerate NO2 - inhibition.

    PubMed

    Carvajal-Arroyo, José M; Puyol, Daniel; Li, Guangbin; Sierra-Álvarez, Reyes; Field, Jim A

    2014-12-20

    Anammox bacteria are inhibited by nitrite, which is one of their substrates. By utilizing 2,4 dinitrophenol and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone, two uncouplers of respiration, we demonstrate that nitrite tolerance of anammox cells is strongly dependent on their ability to maintain a proton gradient, which may be the driving force for active nitrite transport system. PMID:25449017

  13. Use of Nucleic-Acid Homologies in the Taxonomy of Anaerobic Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN L. JOHNSON

    1973-01-01

    Nucleic acid homology studies are providing a common base for establishing bacterial groups. Few phenotypic characteristics have consistently correlated with homology data among the various groups of organisms that we have investigated. However, there are correlations that are specific for a given group of bacteria such that nucleic-acid homology data can be used to select those phenotypic properties that will

  14. Growth of anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria in a high-pressure membrane capsule bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Timmers, Peer H A; Gieteling, Jarno; Widjaja-Greefkes, H C Aura; Plugge, Caroline M; Stams, Alfons J M; Lens, Piet N L; Meulepas, Roel J W

    2015-02-01

    Communities of anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) grow slowly, which limits the ability to perform physiological studies. High methane partial pressure was previously successfully applied to stimulate growth, but it is not clear how different ANME subtypes and associated SRB are affected by it. Here, we report on the growth of ANME-SRB in a membrane capsule bioreactor inoculated with Eckernförde Bay sediment that combines high-pressure incubation (10.1 MPa methane) and thorough mixing (100 rpm) with complete cell retention by a 0.2-m-pore-size membrane. The results were compared to previously obtained data from an ambient-pressure (0.101 MPa methane) bioreactor inoculated with the same sediment. The rates of oxidation of labeled methane were not higher at 10.1 MPa, likely because measurements were done at ambient pressure. The subtype ANME-2a/b was abundant in both reactors, but subtype ANME-2c was enriched only at 10.1 MPa. SRB at 10.1 MPa mainly belonged to the SEEP-SRB2 and Eel-1 groups and the Desulfuromonadales and not to the typically found SEEP-SRB1 group. The increase of ANME-2a/b occurred in parallel with the increase of SEEP-SRB2, which was previously found to be associated only with ANME-2c. Our results imply that the syntrophic association is flexible and that methane pressure and sulfide concentration influence the growth of different ANME-SRB consortia. We also studied the effect of elevated methane pressure on methane production and oxidation by a mixture of methanogenic and sulfate-reducing sludge. Here, methane oxidation rates decreased and were not coupled to sulfide production, indicating trace methane oxidation during net methanogenesis and not anaerobic methane oxidation, even at a high methane partial pressure. PMID:25501484

  15. Presence and activity of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria at deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Nathalie; Strous, Marc; Crépeau, Valentin; Kartal, Boran; Birrien, Jean-Louis; Schmid, Markus; Lesongeur, Françoise; Schouten, Stefan; Jaeschke, Andrea; Jetten, Mike; Prieur, Daniel; Godfroy, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that ammonia is an important electron donor for the oxidation of fixed nitrogen, both in the marine water column and sediments. This process, known as anammox, has so far only been observed in a large range of temperature habitats. The present study investigated the role of anammox in hydrothermal settings. During three oceanographic expeditions to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, hydrothermal samples were collected from five vent sites, at depths ranging from 750 to 3650 m from cold to hot habitats. Evidence for the occurrence of anammox in these particular habitats was demonstrated by concurrent surveys, including the amplification of 16S rRNA gene sequences related to known anammox bacteria, ladderanes lipids analysis and measurement of a (14)N(15)N dinitrogen production in isotope-pairing experiments at 60 and 85 degrees C. Together these results indicate that new deep-branching anammox bacteria may be active in these hot habitats. PMID:18670398

  16. Characterization of plant polysaccharide- and mucin-fermenting anaerobic bacteria from human feces.

    PubMed Central

    Bayliss, C E; Houston, A P

    1984-01-01

    Organisms able to grow on arabinogalactan, pectin, xylan, wheat bran, guar, apple cell walls, and mucin were isolated by enrichment from human feces. The number of polysaccharide fermenters and the properties of the predominant bacteria varied between subjects. The ability to use one polysaccharide was not related to the ability to use others. Some organisms (e.g., Bacteroides spp.) isolated on other substrates also utilized mucin, but were not isolated in the mucin enrichment. The mucin fermenters isolated by enrichment had a very restricted ability to utilize complex polysaccharides and their constituent monosaccharides, suggesting that the presence of plant polysaccharides in the human colon is unlikely to prevent the use of colonic mucin as an energy source by bacteria. Characterization with a range of biochemical tests showed that many of the isolates, but especially the mucin fermenters, did not resemble organisms described previously. PMID:6093693

  17. [Enrichment of anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria by expanded-granular sludge bed reactor].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoli; Gao, Dawen; Cong, Yan; Wang, Xiaolong

    2014-12-01

    An expanded-granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor was set-up with artificial water by seeding a 60 d stored ANAMMOX sludge. The nitrogen removal efficiency of ANAMMOX enrichment culture in the reactor was determined. In addition, the main microbial populations and the relative abundance of ANAMMOX bacteria were investigated by molecular approaches. Results show that the maximum nitrogen removal rate was 3.0 kg-N·m(-3)·d(-1) after 185 d, and the ammonium and nitrite removal efficiencies were all over 85%. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene-cloning indicates that the main microbial population in the ANAMMOX enrichment culture was changed from Candidatus Brocadiafulgid and Candidatus Brocadia brasiliensis (0 day) to Candidatus Jettenia asiatica (185 day). Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis shows that the relative abundance of ANAMMOX bacteria was increased from (57.69 ± 4.79)% to (83.32 ± 4.40)%. The results of qPCR further indicate that the gene copies of ANAMMOX bacteria in the granules were increased from 1.14 x 10(11) copies/g wet weight to 3.69 x 10(11) copies/g wet weight. PMID:26016374

  18. Potential Application of Anaerobic Extremophiles for Hydrogen Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-01-01

    During substrate fermentation many anaerobes produce the hydrogen as a waste product, which often regulates the growth of the cultures as an inhibitor. In nature the hydrogen is usually removed from the ecosystem due to its physical properties or by consumption of hydrogen by secondary anaerobes, which sometimes behave as competitors for electron donors as is seen in the classical example in anaerobic microbial communities via the interaction between methanogens and sulfate- or sulfur- reducers. It was demonstrated previously on mixed cultures of anaerobes at neutral pH that bacterial hydrogen production could provide an alternative energy source. But at neutral pH the original cultures can easily be contaminated by methanogens, a most unpleasant side effect of these conditions is the development of pathogenic bacteria. In both cases the rate of hydrogen production was dramatically decreased since some part of the hydrogen was transformed to methane, and the cultivation of human pathogens on a global scale is very dangerous. In our laboratory, experiments with obligately alkaliphilic bacteria that excrete hydrogen as the end metabolic product were performed at different temperature regimes. Mesophilic and moderately thermophilic bacterial cultures have been studied and compared for the most effective hydrogen production. For high-mineralized media with pH 9.5-10.0 not many methanogens are known to exist. Furthermore, the development of pathogenic contaminant microorganisms is virtually impossible: carbonate-saturated solutions are used as antiseptics in medicine. Therefore the cultivation of alkaliphilic hydrogen producing bacteria could be considered as most safe process for global Scale industry in future. Here we present experimental data on the rates of hydrogen productivity for mesophilic, alkaliphilic, obligately anaerobic bacterium Spirocheta americana ASpG1 and moderately thermophilic, alkaliphilic, facultative anaerobe Anoxybacillus pushchinoensis K1 and discuss the potential implications for alternative energy sources.

  19. Study of the In Vitro Activities of Rifaximin and Comparator Agents against 536 Anaerobic Intestinal Bacteria from the Perspective of Potential Utility in Pathology Involving Bowel Flora?

    PubMed Central

    Finegold, S. M.; Molitoris, D.; Väisänen, M.-L.

    2009-01-01

    Rifaximin, ampicillin-sulbactam, neomycin, nitazoxanide, teicoplanin, and vancomycin were tested against 536 strains of anaerobic bacteria. The overall MIC of rifaximin at which 50% of strains were inhibited was 0.25 ?g/ml. Ninety percent of the strains tested were inhibited by 256 ?g/ml of rifaximin or less, an activity equivalent to those of teicoplanin and vancomycin but less than those of nitazoxanide and ampicillin-sulbactam. PMID:18955526

  20. Presence and detection of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria and appraisal of anammox process for high-strength nitrogenous wastewater treatment: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akihiko Terada; Sheng Zhou; Masaaki Hosomi

    Until now, anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) has been widely applied as an alternative method to the conventional nitrification–denitrification\\u000a pathway for biological nitrogen removal from wastewater. Since their discovery in a denitrifying fluidized bed reactor in\\u000a the Netherlands in the early 1990s, anammox bacteria have also been detected in natural environments. Anammox is one of the\\u000a newly found drivers known to

  1. Bioaugmentation of an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (AnSBBR) with immobilized sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) for the treatment of sulphate bearing chemical wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Venkata Mohan; N. Chandrasekhara Rao; K. Krishna Prasad; P. N. Sarma

    2005-01-01

    A bioaugmentation strategy was applied to an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (AnSBBR) by inoculating with enriched sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) in alginate-immobilized matrix for the enhanced treatment of sulphate bearing chemical wastewater. Non-augmented AnSBBR showed 35% of COD removal efficiency and 27% of sulphate reduction. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation was evidently observed during reactor operation indicating non-functioning of

  2. Vertical profiles of community abundance and diversity of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and bacteria in a simple waste landfill in north China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jun; Ding, Linjie; Wang, Xu; Chi, Zifang; Lei, Jiansen

    2015-03-01

    Anaerobic methane oxidation (AMO) is considered to be an important sink of CH4 in habitats as marine sediments. But, few studies focused on AMO in landfills which may be an important sink of CH4 derived from waste fermentation. To show evidence of AMO and to uncover function anaerobic methanotroph (ANME) community in landfill, different age waste samples were collected in Jinqianpu landfill located in north China. Through high-throughput sequencing, Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales archaea associated with ANME and reverse methanogenic archaea of Methanosarcina and Methanobacterium were detected. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) (Desulfobulbus and Desulfococcus) which could couple with ANME-conducting AMO were also found. But, the community structure of ANME had no significant difference with depths. From the results of investigation, we can come to a conclusion that sulfate-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (SR-DAMO) would be the dominant AMO process in the landfill, while iron-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (M/IR-DAMO) process was weak though concentration of ferric iron was large in the landfill. Denitrification-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (NR-DAMO) was negative because of lack of nitrate and relevant function microorganisms in the landfill. Results also indicate that CH4 mitigation would have higher potential by increasing electron acceptor contents and promoting the growth of relevant function microorganisms. PMID:25561057

  3. Genes for Uranium Bioremediation in the Anaerobic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Judy D.

    1999-06-01

    Objective A: Electron transfer components necessary for uranium reduction. Objective B: Possible FNR-analog in the sulfate-reducing bacteria. Attempts to isolate FNR or FIKJ analogs from Desuflovibrio through the design of degenerate primers for amplification of portions of the genes has not been successful. In contrast, several amplicons have been generated for the genes encoding the regulators of two-component signal sequences. Since several global regulators fall into this class, we are attempting to obtain sufficient sequence information to indicate what metabolic pathways are affected by the regulators. Cloning and sequencing of two such amplicons has revealed that bona fide two-component regulators are present in Desulfovibrio.

  4. Genes for Uranium Bioremediation in the Anaerobic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Judy D.

    2001-06-01

    The objectives of the previous grant period were designed to explore the electron transport pathway employed by the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) for the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV). More specifically experiments were designed to determine whether U(VI) reduction by members of the genus Desulfovibrio was mediated by a unique, dedicated reductase or occurred as a fortuitous reaction with a reductase naturally involved in alternative reduction processes. In addition, the regulation of the hierarchical expression of terminal electron acceptors (reductases) in the SRB was to be examined.

  5. Influence of four antimicrobials on methane-producing archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria in anaerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Du, Jingru; Hu, Yong; Qi, Weikang; Zhang, Yanlong; Jing, Zhaoqian; Norton, Michael; Li, Yu-You

    2015-12-01

    The influence of Cephalexin (CLX), Tetracycline (TC), Erythromycin (ERY) and Sulfathiazole (ST) on methane-producing archaea (MPA) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in anaerobic sludge was investigated using acetate or ethanol as substrate. With antimicrobial concentrations below 400mgL(-1), the relative specific methanogenic activity (SMA) was above 50%, so that the antimicrobials exerted slight effects on archaea. However ERY and ST at 400mgL(-1) caused a 74.5% and 57.6% inhibition to specific sulfidogenic activity (SSA) when the sludge granules were disrupted and ethanol used as substrate. After disruption, microbial tolerance to antimicrobials decreased, but the rate at which MPA utilized acetate and ethanol increased from 0.95gCOD·(gVSS?d)(-1) to 1.45gCOD·(gVSS?d)(-1) and 0.90gCOD·(gVSS?d)(-1) to 1.15gCOD·(gVSS?d)(-1) respectively. The ethanol utilization rate for SRB also increased after disruption from 0.35gCOD·(gVSS?d)(-1) to 0.46gCOD·(gVSS?d)(-1). Removal rates for CLX approaching 20.0% and 25.0% were obtained used acetate and ethanol respectively. The disintegration of granules improved the CLX removal rate to 65% and 78%, but ST was not removed during this process. PMID:25228232

  6. Treatment of agro-industrial wastewater using microalgae-bacteria consortium combined with anaerobic digestion of the produced biomass.

    PubMed

    Hernández, D; Riaño, B; Coca, M; García-González, M C

    2013-05-01

    Two combined processes were studied in order to produce second generation biofuels: microalgae biomass production and its further use to produce biogas. Two 5 L photobioreactors for treating wastewater from a potato processing industry (from now on RPP) and from a treated liquid fraction of pig manure (from now on RTE) were inoculated with Chlorella sorokiniana and aerobic bacteria at 24±2.7 °C and 6000 lux for 12 h per day of light supply. The maximum biomass growth was obtained for RTE wastewater, with 26.30 mg dry weight L(-1) d(-1). Regarding macromolecular composition of collected biomass, lipid concentration reached 30.20% in RPP and 4.30% in RTE. Anaerobic digestion results showed that methane yield was highly influenced by substrate/inoculum ratio and by lipids concentration of the biomass, with a maximum methane yield of 518 mL CH4 g COD(-1)added using biomass with a lipid content of 30% and a substrate/inoculum ratio of 0.5. PMID:23069610

  7. Transformation of vivianite by anaerobic nitrate-reducing iron-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Miot, J; Benzerara, K; Morin, G; Bernard, S; Beyssac, O; Larquet, E; Kappler, A; Guyot, F

    2009-06-01

    In phosphate-rich environments, vivianite (Fe(II)(3)(PO(4))(2), 8H(2)O) is an important sink for dissolved Fe(II) and is considered as a very stable mineral due to its low solubility at neutral pH. In the present study, we report the mineralogical transformation of vivianite in cultures of the nitrate-reducing iron-oxidizing bacterial strain BoFeN1 in the presence of dissolved Fe(II). Vivianite was first transformed into a greenish phase consisting mostly of an amorphous mixed valence Fe-phosphate. This precipitate became progressively orange and the final product of iron oxidation consisted of an amorphous Fe(III)-phosphate. The sub-micrometer analysis by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy of the iron redox state in samples collected at different stages of the culture indicated that iron was progressively oxidized at the contact of the bacteria and at a distance from the cells in extracellular minerals. Iron oxidation in the extracellular minerals was delayed by a few days compared with cell-associated Fe-minerals. This led to strong differences of Fe redox in between these two types of minerals and finally to local heterogeneities of redox within the sample. In the absence of dissolved Fe(II), vivianite was not significantly transformed by BoFeN1. Whereas Fe(II) oxidation at the cell contact is most probably directly catalyzed by the bacteria, vivianite transformation at a distance from the cells might result from oxidation by nitrite. In addition, processes leading to the export of Fe(III) from bacterial oxidation sites to extracellular minerals are discussed including some involving colloids observed by cryo-transmission electron microscopy in the culture medium. PMID:19573166

  8. Competition and coexistence of sulfate-reducing bacteria, acetogens and methanogens in a lab-scale anaerobic bioreactor as affected by changing substrate to sulfate ratio

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Shabir A.; Kleerebezem, Robbert; Stams, Alfons J. M.; Kuenen, J. Gijs

    2008-01-01

    The microbial population structure and function of natural anaerobic communities maintained in lab-scale continuously stirred tank reactors at different lactate to sulfate ratios and in the absence of sulfate were analyzed using an integrated approach of molecular techniques and chemical analysis. The population structure, determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and by the use of oligonucleotide probes, was linked to the functional changes in the reactors. At the influent lactate to sulfate molar ratio of 0.35 mol mol?1, i.e., electron donor limitation, lactate oxidation was mainly carried out by incompletely oxidizing sulfate-reducing bacteria, which formed 80–85% of the total bacterial population. Desulfomicrobium- and Desulfovibrio-like species were the most abundant sulfate-reducing bacteria. Acetogens and methanogenic Archaea were mostly outcompeted, although less than 2% of an acetogenic population could still be observed at this limiting concentration of lactate. In the near absence of sulfate (i.e., at very high lactate/sulfate ratio), acetogens and methanogenic Archaea were the dominant microbial communities. Acetogenic bacteria represented by Dendrosporobacter quercicolus-like species formed more than 70% of the population, while methanogenic bacteria related to uncultured Archaea comprising about 10–15% of the microbial community. At an influent lactate to sulfate molar ratio of 2 mol mol?1, i.e., under sulfate-limiting conditions, a different metabolic route was followed by the mixed anaerobic community. Apparently, lactate was fermented to acetate and propionate, while the majority of sulfidogenesis and methanogenesis were dependent on these fermentation products. This was consistent with the presence of significant levels (40–45% of total bacteria) of D. quercicolus-like heteroacetogens and a corresponding increase of propionate-oxidizing Desulfobulbus-like sulfate-reducing bacteria (20% of the total bacteria). Methanogenic Archaea accounted for 10% of the total microbial community. PMID:18305937

  9. Anaerobic degradation of cyclohexane by sulfate-reducing bacteria from hydrocarbon-contaminated marine sediments

    PubMed Central

    Jaekel, Ulrike; Zedelius, Johannes; Wilkes, Heinz; Musat, Florin

    2015-01-01

    The fate of cyclohexane, often used as a model compound for the biodegradation of cyclic alkanes due to its abundance in crude oils, in anoxic marine sediments has been poorly investigated. In the present study, we obtained an enrichment culture of cyclohexane-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria from hydrocarbon-contaminated intertidal marine sediments. Microscopic analyses showed an apparent dominance by oval cells of 1.5 × 0.8 ?m. Analysis of a 16S rRNA gene library, followed by whole-cell hybridization with group- and sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes showed that these cells belonged to a single phylotype, and were accounting for more than 80% of the total cell number. The dominant phylotype, affiliated with the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus cluster of the Deltaproteobacteria, is proposed to be responsible for the degradation of cyclohexane. Quantitative growth experiments showed that cyclohexane degradation was coupled with the stoichiometric reduction of sulfate to sulfide. Substrate response tests corroborated with hybridization with a sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe suggested that the dominant phylotype apparently was able to degrade other cyclic and n-alkanes, including the gaseous alkane n-butane. Based on GC-MS analyses of culture extracts cyclohexylsuccinate was identified as a metabolite, indicating an activation of cyclohexane by addition to fumarate. Other metabolites detected were 3-cyclohexylpropionate and cyclohexanecarboxylate providing evidence that the overall degradation pathway of cyclohexane under anoxic conditions is analogous to that of n-alkanes. PMID:25806023

  10. Mercury Methylation and Demethylation in Anoxic Lake Sediments and by Strictly Anaerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Pak, K.-R.; Bartha, R.

    1998-01-01

    After spiking anoxic sediment slurries of three acidic oligotrophic lakes with either HgCl2 at 1.0 ?g/ml or CH3HgI at 0.1 ?g/ml, both mercury methylation and demethylation rates were measured. High mercury methylation potentials were accompanied by high demethylation potentials in the same sediment. These high potentials correlated positively with the concentrations of organic matter and dissolved sulfate in the sediment and with mercury levels in fish. Adjustment of the acidic sediment pH to neutrality failed to influence either the methylation or the demethylation rate of mercury. The opposing methylation and demethylation processes converged to establish similar Hg2+-CH3Hg+ equilibria in all three sediments. Because of their metabolic dominance in anoxic sediments, mercury methylation and demethylation in pure cultures of sulfidogenic, methanogenic, and acetogenic bacteria were also measured. Sulfidogens both methylated and demethylated mercury, but the methanogen tested only catalyzed demethylation and the acetogen neither methylated nor demethylated mercury. PMID:16349509

  11. Anaerobic degradation of cyclohexane by sulfate-reducing bacteria from hydrocarbon-contaminated marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Jaekel, Ulrike; Zedelius, Johannes; Wilkes, Heinz; Musat, Florin

    2015-01-01

    The fate of cyclohexane, often used as a model compound for the biodegradation of cyclic alkanes due to its abundance in crude oils, in anoxic marine sediments has been poorly investigated. In the present study, we obtained an enrichment culture of cyclohexane-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria from hydrocarbon-contaminated intertidal marine sediments. Microscopic analyses showed an apparent dominance by oval cells of 1.5 × 0.8 ?m. Analysis of a 16S rRNA gene library, followed by whole-cell hybridization with group- and sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes showed that these cells belonged to a single phylotype, and were accounting for more than 80% of the total cell number. The dominant phylotype, affiliated with the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus cluster of the Deltaproteobacteria, is proposed to be responsible for the degradation of cyclohexane. Quantitative growth experiments showed that cyclohexane degradation was coupled with the stoichiometric reduction of sulfate to sulfide. Substrate response tests corroborated with hybridization with a sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe suggested that the dominant phylotype apparently was able to degrade other cyclic and n-alkanes, including the gaseous alkane n-butane. Based on GC-MS analyses of culture extracts cyclohexylsuccinate was identified as a metabolite, indicating an activation of cyclohexane by addition to fumarate. Other metabolites detected were 3-cyclohexylpropionate and cyclohexanecarboxylate providing evidence that the overall degradation pathway of cyclohexane under anoxic conditions is analogous to that of n-alkanes. PMID:25806023

  12. Bioelectricity generation in microbial fuel cell using natural microflora and isolated pure culture bacteria from anaerobic palm oil mill effluent sludge.

    PubMed

    Nor, Muhamad Hanif Md; Mubarak, Mohd Fahmi Muhammad; Elmi, Hassan Sh Abdirahman; Ibrahim, Norahim; Wahab, Mohd Firdaus Abdul; Ibrahim, Zaharah

    2015-08-01

    A double-chambered membrane microbial fuel cell (MFC) was constructed to investigate the potential use of natural microflora anaerobic palm oil mill effluent (POME) sludge and pure culture bacteria isolated from anaerobic POME sludge as inoculum for electricity generation. Sterilized final discharge POME was used as the substrate with no addition of nutrients. MFC operation using natural microflora anaerobic POME sludge showed a maximum power density and current density of 85.11mW/m(2) and 91.12mA/m(2) respectively. Bacterial identification using 16S rRNA analysis of the pure culture isolated from the biofilm on the anode MFC was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain ZH1. The electricity generated in MFC using P. aeruginosa strain ZH1 showed maximum power density and current density of 451.26mW/m(2) and 654.90mA/m(2) respectively which were five times higher in power density and seven times higher in current density compared to that of MFC using anaerobic POME sludge. PMID:25799955

  13. A new model for the anaerobic fermentation of glycerol in enteric bacteria: trunk and auxiliary pathways in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Ramon; Murarka, Abhishek; Dharmadi, Yandi; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2008-09-01

    Anaerobic fermentation of glycerol in the Enterobacteriaceae family has long been considered a unique property of species that synthesize 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO). However, we have discovered that Escherichia coli can ferment glycerol in a 1,3-PDO-independent manner. We identified 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PDO) as a fermentation product and established the pathway that mediates its synthesis as well as its role in the metabolism of glycerol. We also showed that the trunk pathway responsible for the conversion of glycerol into glycolytic intermediates is composed of two enzymes: a type II glycerol dehydrogenase (glyDH-II) and a dihydroxyacetone kinase (DHAK), the former of previously unknown physiological role. Based on our findings, we propose a new model for glycerol fermentation in enteric bacteria in which: (i) the production of 1,2-PDO provides a means to consume reducing equivalents generated in the synthesis of cell mass, thus facilitating redox balance, and (ii) the conversion of glycerol to ethanol, through a redox-balanced pathway, fulfills energy requirements by generating ATP via substrate-level phosphorylation. The activity of the formate hydrogen-lyase and F(0)F(1)-ATPase systems were also found to facilitate the fermentative metabolism of glycerol, and along with the ethanol and 1,2-PDO pathways, were considered auxiliary or enabling. We demonstrated that glycerol fermentation in E. coli was not previously observed due to the use of medium formulations and culture conditions that impair the aforementioned pathways. These include high concentrations of potassium and phosphate, low concentrations of glycerol, alkaline pH, and closed cultivation systems that promote the accumulation of hydrogen gas. PMID:18632294

  14. Biomarker Evidence for Widespread Anaerobic Methane Oxidation in Mediterranean Sediments by a Consortium of Methanogenic Archaea and Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard D. Pancost; Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté; Saskia de Lint; Marc J. E. C. van der Maarel; Jan C. Gottschal; G. Aloisi de Larderel; J. L. Charlou; G. de Lange; J. P. Donval; A. Fiala-Medioni; J.-P. Foucher; R. Haese; P. Henry; J. Mascle; G. Nobbe; H. Pelle; C. Pierre; M. Sibuet; J. M. Woodside

    2000-01-01

    Although abundant geochemical data indicate that anaerobic methane oxidation occurs in marine sediments, the linkage to specific microorganisms remains unclear. In order to examine processes of methane consumption and oxidation, sediment samples from mud volcanoes at two distinct sites on the Mediterranean Ridge were collected via the submersible Nautile. Geochemical data strongly indicate that methane is oxidized under anaerobic conditions,

  15. Anaerobic treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Witt, E.R.; Humphrey, W.J.; Cave, J.P.

    1982-12-28

    This invention provides for the anaerobic treatment of acidic petrochemical wastes in an anaerobic filter at high loadings and high recycle rates. The effluent from the top of the filter passes into a gas-disengaging/solids-settling zone containing a quiescent body of the effluent liquid. The settled solids are withdrawn and recycled to the base of the filter together with fresh acidic waste and an inorganic alkaline material (preferably magnesium oxide or carbonate) to maintain a neutral pH. The liquid portion of the effluent is sent to an aerobic digester to remove the rest of the organic material, which is used to support the growth of bacteria and fed back to the anaerobic system.

  16. Ecophysiological adaptations of anaerobic bacteria to low pH: analysis of anaerobic digestion in acidic bog sediments. [Lactobacillus; Clostridium; Sarcina ventriculi

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, S.; Zeikus, G.J.

    1987-01-01

    The dynamics of anaerobic digestion were examined in the low-pH sediments of Crystal Bog in Wisconsin. The sediments (pH 4.9) contained 71% organic matter and the following concentrations of dissolved gases (micromoles per liter):CO/sub 2/, 1140; CH/sub 4/, 490; and H/sub 2/, 0.01. The rate of methane production was 6.2 ..mu..mol/liter of sediment per h, which is slower than eutrophic, neutral sediments. Microbial metabolic processes displayed the following pH optima: hydrolysis reactions, between 4.2 and 5.6; aceticlastic methanogenesis, 5.2; and hydrogen-consuming reactions, 5.6. The turnover rate constants for key intermediary metabolites were (h/sup -1/): glucose, 1.10; lactate, 0.277; acetate, 0.118; and ethanol, 0.089. The populations of anaerobes were low, with hydrolytic groups (10/sup 6//ml) several orders of magnitude higher than methanogens (10/sup 2//ml). The addition of carbon electron donors to the sediment resulted in the accumulation of hydrogen, whereas the addition of hydrogen resulted in the accumulation of fatty acids and the inhibition of hydrogen-producing acetogenic reactions. Strains of Lactobacillus, Clostridium, and Sarcina ventriculi were isolated from the bog, and their physiological attributes were characterized in relation to hydrolytic process functions in the sediments. The present studies provide evidence that the pH present in the bog sediments alter anaerobic digestion processes s, that total biocatalytic activity is lower bu the general carbon and electron flow pathways are similar to those of neutral anoxic sediments.

  17. Indigenous cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacteria enhanced rapid co-composting of lignocellulose oil palm empty fruit bunch with palm oil mill effluent anaerobic sludge.

    PubMed

    Zainudin, Mohd Huzairi Mohd; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Tokura, Mitsunori; Shirai, Yoshihito

    2013-11-01

    The composting of lignocellulosic oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) with continuous addition of palm oil mill (POME) anaerobic sludge which contained nutrients and indigenous microbes was studied. In comparison to the conventional OPEFB composting which took 60-90 days, the rapid composting in this study can be completed in 40 days with final C/N ratio of 12.4 and nitrogen (2.5%), phosphorus (1.4%), and potassium (2.8%), respectively. Twenty-seven cellulolytic bacterial strains of which 23 strains were closely related to Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus firmus, Thermobifida fusca, Thermomonospora spp., Cellulomonas sp., Ureibacillus thermosphaericus, Paenibacillus barengoltzii, Paenibacillus campinasensis, Geobacillus thermodenitrificans, Pseudoxanthomonas byssovorax which were known as lignocellulose degrading bacteria and commonly involved in lignocellulose degradation. Four isolated strains related to Exiguobacterium acetylicum and Rhizobium sp., with cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic activities. The rapid composting period achieved in this study can thus be attributed to the naturally occurring cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic strains identified. PMID:24012093

  18. Interactions between methanogenic and nitrate reducing bacteria during the anaerobic digestion of an industrial sulfate rich wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilles Percheron; Nicolas Bernet; René Moletta

    1999-01-01

    The effect of nitrate addition on the anaerobic digestion of an industrial sulfate rich wastewater was investigated using batch cultures. A high chemical oxygen demand\\/NO3-N ratio did not favor the dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia. Denitrification was the main nitrate reduction pathway at all chemical oxygen demand\\/NO3-N ratios tested. A lag phase, presumably caused by a high initial sulfide content,

  19. Formation of Cell-Iron-Mineral Aggregates by Phototrophic and Nitrate-Reducing Anaerobic Fe(II)Oxidizing Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Schädler; C. Burkhardt; F. Hegler; K. L. Straub; J. Miot; K. Benzerara; A. Kappler

    2009-01-01

    Microbial anaerobic Fe(II) oxidation at neutral pH produces poorly soluble Fe(III) which is expected to bind to cell surfaces causing cell encrustation and potentially impeding cell metabolism. The challenge for Fe(II)-oxidizing prokaryotes therefore is to avoid encrustation with Fe(III). Using different microscopic techniques we tracked Fe(III) minerals at the cell surface and within cells of phylogenetically distinct phototrophic and nitrate-reducing

  20. Degradative capacities and 16S rRNA-targeted whole-cell hybridization of sulfate-reducing bacteria in an anaerobic enrichment culture utilizing alkylbenzenes from crude oil.

    PubMed Central

    Rabus, R; Fukui, M; Wilkes, H; Widdle, F

    1996-01-01

    A mesophilic sulfate-reducing enrichment culture growing anaerobically on crude oil was used as a model system to study which nutritional types of sulfate-reducing bacteria may develop on original petroleum constituents in oil wells, tanks, and pipelines. Chemical analysis of oil hydrocarbons during growth revealed depletion of toluene and o-xylene within 1 month and of m-xylene, o-ethyltoluene, m-ethyltoluene, m-propyltoluene, and m-isopropyltoluene within approximately 2 months. In anaerobic counting series, the highest numbers of CFU (6 x 10(6) to 8 x 10(6) CFU ml-1) were obtained with toluene and benzoate. Almost the same numbers were obtained with lactate, a substrate often used for detection of the vibrio-shaped, incompletely oxidizing Desulfovibrio sp. In the present study, however, lactate yielded mostly colonies of oval to rod-shaped, completely oxidizing, sulfate-reducing bacteria which were able to grow slowly on toluene or crude oil. Desulfovibrio species were detected only at low numbers (3 x 10(5) CFU ml-1). In agreement with this finding, a fluorescently labeled, 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probe described in the literature as specific for members of the Desulfovibrionaceae (suggested family) hybridized only with a small portion (< 5%) of the cells in the enrichment culture. These results are consistent with the observation that known Desulfovibrio species do not utilize aromatic hydrocarbons, the predominant substrates in the enrichment culture. All known sulfate-reducing bacteria which utilize aromatic compounds belong to a separate branch, the Desulfobacteriaceae (suggested family). Most members of this family are complete oxidizers. For specific hybridization with members of this branch, the probe had to be modified by a nucleotide exchange. Indeed, this modified probe hybridized with more than 95% of the cells in the enrichment culture. The results show that completely oxidizing, alkylbenzene-utilizing sulfate-reducing bacteria rather than Desulfovibrio species have to be considered in attempts to understand the microbiology of sulfide production in oil wells, tanks, and pipelines when no electron donors other than the indigenous oil constituents are available. PMID:8837415

  1. Evaluation of the BBL Crystal Anaerobe Identification System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOSEPH J. CAVALLARO; LOIS S. WIGGS; J. MICHAEL MILLER

    1997-01-01

    The BBL Crystal Anaerobe (ANR) identification system was evaluated, and the results were compared with those from conventional anaerobic methods. We tested 322 clinically significant anaerobic bacteria according to the manufacturer's instructions. The system identified correctly 286 of 322 (88.8%) of the anaerobic bacteria tested. Of these, 263 of 322 (81.7%) were identified correctly on initial testing and 49 were

  2. Host-Bacteria Crosstalk at the Dentogingival Junction

    PubMed Central

    Pöllänen, M. T.; Laine, M. A.; Ihalin, R.; Uitto, V.-J.

    2012-01-01

    The dentogingival junction is of crucial importance in periodontal host defense both structurally and functionally. Oral bacteria exert a constant challenge to the host cells and tissues at the dentogingival junction. The host response is set up to eliminate the pathogens by the innate and adaptive defense mechanisms. In health, the commensal bacteria and the host defense mechanisms are in a dynamic steady state. During periodontal disease progression, the dental bacterial plaque, junctional epithelium (JE), inflammatory cells, connective tissue, and bone all go through a series of changes. The tissue homeostasis is turned into tissue destruction and progression of periodontitis. The classical study of Slots showed that in the bacterial plaque, the most remarkable change is the shift from gram-positive aerobic and facultatively anaerobic flora to a predominantly gram-negative and anaerobic flora. This has been later confirmed by several other studies. Furthermore, not only the shift of the bacterial flora to a more pathogenic one, but also bacterial growth as a biofilm on the tooth surface, allows the bacteria to communicate with each other and exert their virulence aimed at favoring their growth. This paper focuses on host-bacteria crosstalk at the dentogingival junction and the models studying it in vitro. PMID:22899931

  3. In Vitro Activity of Levofloxacin against a Selected Group of Anaerobic Bacteria Isolated from Skin and Soft Tissue Infections

    PubMed Central

    Wexler, Hannah M.; Molitoris, Eric; Molitoris, Denise; Finegold, Sydney M.

    1998-01-01

    The in vitro activity of levofloxacin was compared to the activities of ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin-sulbactam (2:1), cefoxitin, and metronidazole for a selected group of anaerobes (n = 175) isolated from skin and soft tissue infections by using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards-approved Wadsworth method. Ampicillin-sulbactam and cefoxitin inhibited 99% of the strains of this select group, levofloxacin and ofloxacin inhibited 73 and 50%, respectively, at 2 ?g/ml, and ciprofloxacin inhibited 51% at 1 ?g/ml. The geometric mean MIC of levofloxacin was lower than those of ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin for every group except Veillonella. PMID:9559829

  4. Identification of Enterobacter bacteria as saxitoxin producers in cattle's rumen and surface water from Venezuelan Savannahs.

    PubMed

    Sevcik, C; Noriega, J; D'Suze, G

    2003-09-15

    We have previously shown that a paralytic toxin able to block sodium channels in nerve is associated with a cattle disease known as bovine paraplegic syndrome (BPS) [Toxicon. 31 (1993) 1581]. We have now identified this as saxitoxin (STX) using HPLC by either the methods of [Toxicon. 31 (1993) 1581], or [Toxicon. 25 (1987) 1105]. In recent experiments we were able to collect and cultivate facultative anaerobic bacteria growing on rumen, grass and ponds of corrals with high incidence of BPS; the cultured bacteria produce compounds indistinguishable from STX under both HPLC procedures described above. Two species of the Enterobacter genus (E. asburiae and E. cloacae) and a strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae, were identified using standard biochemical criteria as well as gas chromatography of bacterial lipids. All these bacteria produced STX in aerobic cultures. PMID:14505935

  5. The predominant bacteria isolated from radicular cysts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To detect predominant bacteria associated with radicular cysts and discuss in light of the literature. Material and methods Clinical materials were obtained from 35 radicular cysts by aspiration. Cultures were made from clinical materials by modern laboratory techniques, they underwent microbiologic analysis. Results The following are microorganisms isolated from cultures: Streptococcus milleri Group (SMG) (23.8%) [Streptococcus constellatus (19.1%) and Streptococcus anginosus (4.7%)], Streptococcus sanguis (14.3%), Streptococcus mitis (4.7%), Streptococcus cremoris (4.7%), Peptostreptococcus pevotii (4.7%), Prevotella buccae (4.7%), Prevotella intermedia (4.7%), Actinomyces meyeri (4.7%), Actinomyces viscosus (4.7%), Propionibacterium propionicum (4.7%), Bacteroides capillosus (4.7%), Staphylococcus hominis (4.7%), Rothia denticariosa (4.7%), Gemella haemolysans (4.7%), and Fusobacterium nucleatum (4.7%). Conclusions Results of this study demonstrated that radicular cysts show a great variety of anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacterial flora. It was observed that all isolated microorganisms were the types commonly found in oral flora. Although no specific microorganism was found, Streptococcus spp. bacteria (47.5%) – especially SMG (23.8%) – were predominantly found in the microorganisms isolated. Furthermore, radicular cysts might be polymicrobial originated. Although radicular cyst is an inflammatory cyst, some radicular cyst fluids might be sterile. PMID:24011184

  6. Faculative Anaerobic Bacteria in the Digestive Tract of Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) Maintained in Fresh Water Under Defined Culture Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Trust, T. J.

    1975-01-01

    The bacterial flora in the digestive tract of chum salmon growing in fresh water under defined and controlled culture conditions was examined both qualitatively and quantitatively. The predominant species present in the digestive tract were identified as Aeromonas, with Aeromonas hydrophila being the most common isolate. These aeromonads were not isolated from the diet. Other bacterial species commonly isolated included Bacillus, Enterobacter, nonpigmented pseudomonads, Micrococcus, and Acinetobacter. These species were also isolated from the diet or tank water. As many as 108 viable bacteria per g (wet weight) of digestive tract plus contents were counted. After 75 days of starvation, 106 viable bacteria were counted, whereas fish fed a sterile feed contained 105 viable bacteria per g (wet weight) of digestive tract plus contents. PMID:1147605

  7. Properties of Desulfovibrio carbinolicus sp. nov. and Other Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Isolated from an Anaerobic-Purification Plant

    PubMed Central

    Nanninga, Henk J.; Gottschal, Jan C.

    1987-01-01

    Several sulfate-reducing microorganisms were isolated from an anaerobic-purification plant. Four strains were classified as Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfovibrio sapovorans, Desulfobulbus propionicus, and Desulfovibrio sp. The D. sapovorans strain contained poly-?-hydroxybutyrate granules and seemed to form extracellular vesicles. A fifth isolate, Desulfovibrio sp. strain EDK82, was a gram-negative, non-spore-forming, nonmotile, curved organism. It was able to oxidize several substrates, including methanol. Sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate, and sulfur were utilized as electron acceptors. Pyruvate, fumarate, malate, and glycerol could be fermented. Because strain EDK82 could not be ascribed to any of the existing species, a new species, Desulfovibrio carbinolicus, is proposed. The doubling times of the isolates were determined on several substrates. Molecular hydrogen, lactate, propionate, and ethanol yielded the shortest doubling times (3.0 to 6.3 h). Due to the presence of support material in an anaerobic filter system, these species were able to convert sulfate to sulfide very effectively at a hydraulic retention time as short as 0.5 h. Images PMID:16347324

  8. Modeling ammonia removal in aerated facultative lagoons.

    PubMed

    Houweling, C D; Kharoune, L; Escalas, A; Comeau, Y

    2005-01-01

    A mechanistic model has been developed to model ammonia removal in aerated facultative lagoons. Flow is modeled through the water column by a continuously stirred tank reactor and exchanges between the sludge layer and the water column are simulated by a solids separator. The biological model is based on an activated sludge model with reactions added for anaerobic bacterial growth and degradation of inert organic material. Results show that the model is able to predict seasonal variation in ammonia removal as well as sludge accumulation in the lagoons. PMID:16114676

  9. The influence of different preservation methods on spoilage bacteria populations inoculated in morcilla de Burgos during anaerobic cold storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana M. Diez; Isabel Jaime; Jordi Rovira

    2009-01-01

    Blood sausage is a widely consumed traditional product that would benefit from an extended shelf life. The two main spoilage bacteria in vacuum-packaged morcilla de Burgos are Weissella viridescens and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. This study examines the way in which three preservation treatments — organic acid salts (OAS), high-pressure processing (HPP) and pasteurization — influence these bacterial populations and their spoilage

  10. Overview of Mercury Methylation Capacities among Anaerobic Bacteria Including Representatives of the Sulphate-Reducers: Implications for Environmental Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ranchou-Peyruse; M. Monperrus; R. Bridou; R. Duran; D. Amouroux; J. C. Salvado; R. Guyoneaud

    2009-01-01

    Mercury methylation has been extensively reported in the literature among “Firmicutes” and “Proteobacteria.” Nevertheless, results are hardly comparable because of differences in initial inorganic mercury concentrations used. The use of stable isotopic tracers now permits to study mercury transformations at concentrations close to environmental levels. Here, several strains, including strict fermentative and sulphate-reducing bacteria, were tested for their mercury methylation

  11. Anaerobic and Aerobic Degradation of Cyanophycin by the Denitrifying Bacterium Pseudomonas alcaligenes Strain DIP1 and Role of Three Other Coisolates in a Mixed Bacterial Consortium?

    PubMed Central

    Sallam, Ahmed; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Four bacterial strains were isolated from a cyanophycin granule polypeptide (CGP)-degrading anaerobic consortium, identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and assigned to species of the genera Pseudomonas, Enterococcus, Clostridium, and Paenibacillus. The consortium member responsible for CGP degradation was assigned as Pseudomonas alcaligenes strain DIP1. The growth of and CGP degradation by strain DIP1 under anaerobic conditions were enhanced but not dependent on the presence of nitrate as an electron acceptor. CGP was hydrolyzed to its constituting ?-Asp-Arg dipeptides, which were then completely utilized within 25 and 4 days under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. The end products of CGP degradation by strain DIP1 were alanine, succinate, and ornithine as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The facultative anaerobic Enterococcus casseliflavus strain ELS3 and the strictly anaerobic Clostridium sulfidogenes strain SGB2 were coisolates and utilized the ?-linked isodipeptides from the common pool available to the mixed consortium, while the fourth isolate, Paenibacillus odorifer strain PNF4, did not play a direct role in the biodegradation of CGP. Several syntrophic interactions affecting CGP degradation, such as substrate utilization, the reduction of electron acceptors, and aeration, were elucidated. This study demonstrates the first investigation of CGP degradation under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions by one bacterial strain, with regard to the physiological role of other bacteria in a mixed consortium. PMID:18424548

  12. Evaluation of substrates for radiometric detection of bacteria in blood cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Bopp, H.; Ellner, P.D.

    1988-05-01

    Various /sup 14/C-labeled substrates were evaluated for their potential use in blood culture media. These uniformly labeled compounds were added to hypertonic and anaerobic formulations of modified Columbia broth and compared with analogous BACTEC media with the BACTEC 460. Different bacterial species gave significant growth indices when 2.0 microCi of labeled glucose, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, arginine, or formate was used alone or in combinations in the experimental media. The combination of glucose, glutamic acid, and sodium formate was selected, and simulated blood cultures with representative aerobic, facultative, and anaerobic bacteria and a yeast were compared with BACTEC vials. Under these conditions, the experimental media often became positive several hours earlier than the BACTEC vials and usually produced higher growth indices.

  13. Methylobacterium nodulans sp. nov., for a group of aerobic, facultatively methylotrophic, legume root-nodule-forming and nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Jourand, Philippe; Giraud, Eric; Béna, Gilles; Sy, Abdoulaye; Willems, Anne; Gillis, Monique; Dreyfus, Bernard; de Lajudie, Philippe

    2004-11-01

    Data on 72 non-pigmented bacterial strains that specifically induce nitrogen-fixing root nodules on the legume species Crotalaria glaucoides, Crotalaria perrottetii and Crotalaria podocarpa are reviewed. By SDS-PAGE analysis of total protein patterns and by 16S rRNA PCR-RFLP, these strains form a homogeneous group that is separate from other legume root-nodule-forming bacteria. The 16S rRNA gene-based phylogeny indicates that these bacteria belong to the genus Methylobacterium. They can grow on C(1) compounds such as methanol, formate and formaldehyde but not methylamine as sole carbon source, and carry an mxaF gene, encoding methanol dehydrogenase, which supports their methylotrophic metabolism. Presence of a nodA nodulation gene, and ability to nodulate plants of Crotalaria species and to fix nitrogen are features that separate the strains currently included in this group from other members of the genus Methylobacterium. The present study includes additional genotypic and phenotypic characterization of this novel Methylobacterium species, i.e. nifH gene sequence, morphology, physiology, enzymic and carbon source assimilation tests and antibiotic resistance. The name Methylobacterium nodulans sp. nov. (type strain, ORS 2060(T)=CNCM I 2342(T)=LMG 21967(T)) is proposed for this group of root-nodule-forming bacteria. PMID:15545469

  14. Volatile Fatty Acids andHydrogen asSubstrates forSulfate- Reducing Bacteria inAnaerobic Marine Sediment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAN S; DORTE CHRISTENSEN

    1981-01-01

    Theaddition of20mM MoO2-(molybdate) toareduced marinesediment completely inhibited theSO-reduction activity byabout50nmolg-1h-'(wet sediment). Acetate accumulated ataconstant rateofabout25nmolg-1h-1 immediately afterMoO4- addition andgaveameasure ofthepreceding utilization rate ofacetate bytheSO4--reducing bacteria. Similarly, propionate andbutyrate (including isobutyrate) accumulated atconstant rates of3to7and2to4nmol g'h-1, respectively. TherateofH2accumulation wasvariable, andarange of0 to16nmolg-1h-'wasrecorded. Animmediate increase ofthemethanogenic activity by2to3nmolg-1h-1 wasapparently duetoarelease ofthecompetition forH2bytheabsence ofSO4-reduction. Ifpropionate andbutyrate were completely oxidized bytheSO4-reducing bacteria, thestoichiometry ofthe

  15. Anaerobic respiration of Bacillus macerans with fumarate, TMAO, nitrate and nitrite and regulation of the pathways by oxygen and nitrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Schirawski; Gottfried Unden

    1995-01-01

    In Bacillus macerans, anaerobic respiratory pathways and the regulation of facultatively anaerobic catabolism by electron acceptors were analysed. In addition to fermentative growth, B. macerans was able to grow anaerobically by fumarate, trimethylamine N-oxide, nitrate, and nitrite respiration with glycerol as donor. During growth by fumarate respiration, a membrane-bound fumarate reductase was present that was different from succinate dehydrogenase. The

  16. Carbon conversion efficiency and population dynamics of a marine algae-bacteria consortium growing on simplified synthetic digestate: first step in a bioprocess coupling algal production and anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Vasseur, Christophe; Bougaran, Gaël; Garnier, Matthieu; Hamelin, Jérôme; Leboulanger, Christophe; Le Chevanton, Myriam; Mostajir, Behzad; Sialve, Bruno; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Fouilland, Eric

    2012-09-01

    Association of microalgae culture and anaerobic digestion seems a promising technology for sustainable algal biomass and biogas production. The use of digestates for sustaining the growth of microalgae reduces the costs and the environmental impacts associated with the substantial algal nutrient requirements. A natural marine algae-bacteria consortium was selected by growing on a medium containing macro nutrients (ammonia, phosphate and acetate) specific of a digestate, and was submitted to a factorial experimental design with different levels of temperature, light and pH. The microalgal consortium reached a maximum C conversion efficiency (i.e. ratio between carbon content produced and carbon supplied through light photosynthetic C conversion and acetate) of 3.6%. The presence of bacteria increased this maximum C conversion efficiency up to 6.3%. The associated bacterial community was considered beneficial to the total biomass production by recycling the carbon lost during photosynthesis and assimilating organic by-products from anaerobic digestion. PMID:22728186

  17. In Vitro Activity of Biapenem plus RPX7009, a Carbapenem Combined with a Serine ?-Lactamase Inhibitor, against Anaerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Citron, Diane M.; Tyrrell, Kerin L.; Merriam, C. Vreni

    2013-01-01

    Biapenem is a carbapenem being developed in combination with RPX7009, a new inhibitor of serine ?-lactamases. Biapenem was tested alone and in combination with fixed concentrations of RPX7009 by agar dilution against 377 recent isolates of anaerobes. A separate panel of 27 isolates of Bacteroides spp. with decreased susceptibility or resistance to imipenem was also tested. Comparator drugs included meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, ampicillin-sulbactam, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, metronidazole, clindamycin, and tigecycline plus imipenem, doripenem, and ertapenem for the 27 selected strains. For recent consecutive strains of Bacteroides species, the MIC90 for biapenem-RPX7009 was 1 ?g/ml, with a MIC90 of 4 ?g/ml for meropenem. Other Bacteroides fragilis group species showed a MIC90 of 0.5 ?g/ml for both agents. The MIC90s for biapenem-RPX7009 were 0.25 ?g/ml for Prevotella spp., 0.125 ?g/ml for Fusobacterium nucleatum and Fusobacterium necrophorum, 2 ?g/ml for Fusobacterium mortiferum, 0.5 ?g/ml for Fusobacterium varium, ?0.5 ?g/ml for Gram-positive cocci and rods, and 0.03 to 8 ?g/ml for clostridia. Against 5 B. fragilis strains harboring a known metallo-beta-lactamase, biapenem-RPX7009 MICs were comparable to those of other carbapenems (?32 ?g/ml). Against Bacteroides strains with an imipenem MIC of 2 ?g/ml, biapenem-RPX7009 had MICs of 0.5 to 2 ?g/ml, with MICs of 0.5 to 32 ?g/ml for meropenem, doripenem, and ertapenem. For strains with an imipenem MIC of 4 ?g/ml, the MICs for biapenem-RPX7009 were 4 to 16 ?g/ml, with MICs of 8 to >32 ?g/ml for meropenem, doripenem, and ertapenem. The inhibitor RPX7009 had no antimicrobial activity when tested alone, and it showed little or no potentiation of biapenem versus anaerobes. Biapenem-RPX7009 showed activity comparable to that of imipenem and was superior to meropenem, doripenem, and ertapenem against imipenem-nonsusceptible Bacteroides spp. PMID:23529731

  18. Evaluation of the use of PCR and reverse transcriptase PCR for detection of pathogenic bacteria in biosolids from anaerobic digestors and aerobic composters.

    PubMed

    Burtscher, Carola; Wuertz, Stefan

    2003-08-01

    A PCR-based method and a reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR)-based method were developed for the detection of pathogenic bacteria in organic waste, using Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Staphylococcus aureus as model organisms. In seeded organic waste samples, detection limits of less than 10 cells per g of organic waste were achieved after one-step enrichment of bacteria, isolation, and purification of DNA or RNA before PCR or RT-PCR amplification. To test the reproducibility and reliability of the newly developed methods, 46 unseeded samples were collected from diverse aerobic (composting) facilities and anaerobic digestors and analyzed by both culture-based classical and newly developed PCR-based procedures. No false-positive but some false-negative results were generated by the PCR- or RT-PCR-based methods after one-step enrichment when compared to the classical detection methods. The results indicated that the level of activity of the tested bacteria in unseeded samples was very low compared to that of freshly inoculated cells, preventing samples from reaching the cell density required for PCR-based detection after one-step enrichment. However, for Salmonella spp., a distinct PCR product could be obtained for all 22 nonamended samples that tested positive for Salmonella spp. by the classical detection procedure when a selective two-step enrichment (20 h in peptone water at 37 degrees C and 24 h in Rappaport Vassiliadis medium at 43 degrees C) was performed prior to nucleic acid extraction and PCR. Hence, the classical procedure was shortened, since cell plating and further differentiation of isolated colonies can be omitted, substituted for by highly sensitive and reliable detection based on nucleic acid extraction and PCR. Similarly, 2 of the 22 samples in which Salmonella spp. were detected also tested positive for Listeria monocytogenes according to a two-step enrichment procedure followed by PCR, compared to 3 samples that tested positive when classical isolation procedures were followed. The study shows that selective two-step enrichment is useful when very low numbers of bacterial pathogens must be detected in organic waste materials, such as biosolids. There were no false-positive results derived from DNA of dead cells in the waste sample, suggesting that it is not necessary to perform RT-PCR analyses when PCR is combined with selective enrichment. Large numbers of added nontarget bacteria did not affect detection of Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes, and Y. enterocolitica but increased the detection limit of Staphylococcus aureus from <10 to 10(4) CFU/g of organic waste. Overall, the detection methods developed using seeded organic waste samples from one waste treatment facility (WTF) needed to be modified for satisfactory detection of pathogens in samples from other WTFs, emphasizing the need for extensive field testing of laboratory-derived PCR protocols. A survey of 13 WTFs in Germany revealed that all facilities complied with the German Biowaste Ordinance, which mandates that the end product after anaerobic digestion or aerobic composting be free of Salmonella In addition, all biosolids were free of L. monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Y. enterocolitica, as evidenced by both classical and PCR-based detection methods. PMID:12902250

  19. Low-spin sulfite reductases: a new homologous group of non-heme iron-siroheme proteins in anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Moura, I; Lino, A R; Moura, J J; Xavier, A V; Fauque, G; Peck, H D; LeGall, J

    1986-12-30

    Two new low molecular weight proteins with sulfite reductase activity, isolated from Methanosarcina barkeri (DSM 800) and Desulfuromonas acetoxidans (strain 5071), were studied by EPR and optical spectroscopic techniques. Both proteins have visible spectra similar to that of the low-spin sulfite reductase of Desulfovibrio vulgaris strain Hildenborough and no band at 715 nm, characteristic of high-spin Fe3+ complexes in isobacteriochlorins is observed. EPR shows that as isolated the siroheme is in a low-spin ferric state (S = 1/2) with g-values at 2.40, 2.30 and 1.88 for the Methanosarcina barkeri enzyme and g-values at 2.44, 2.33 and 1.81 for the Desulfuromonas acetoxidans enzyme. Chemical analysis shows that both proteins contain one siroheme and one [Fe4S4] center per polypeptidic chain. These results suggest that the low molecular weight, low-spin non-heme iron siroheme proteins represent a new homologous class of sulfite reductases common to anaerobic microorganisms. PMID:3028382

  20. Oral Gram-negative anaerobic bacilli as a reservoir of ?-lactam resistance genes facilitating infections with multiresistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dupin, Clarisse; Tamanai-Shacoori, Zohreh; Ehrmann, Elodie; Dupont, Anais; Barloy-Hubler, Frédérique; Bousarghin, Latifa; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne

    2015-02-01

    Many ?-lactamases have been described in various Gram-negative bacilli (Capnocytophaga, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, etc.) of the oral cavity, belonging to class A of the Ambler classification (CepA, CblA, CfxA, CSP-1 and TEM), class B (CfiA) or class D in Fusobacterium nucleatum (FUS-1). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of ?-lactams are variable and this variation is often related to the presence of plasmids or other mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that modulate the expression of resistance genes. DNA persistence and bacterial promiscuity in oral biofilms also contribute to genetic transformation and conjugation in this particular microcosm. Overexpression of efflux pumps is facilitated because the encoding genes are located on MGEs, in some multidrug-resistant clinical isolates, similar to conjugative transposons harbouring genes encoding ?-lactamases. All these facts lead us to consider the oral cavity as an important reservoir of ?-lactam resistance genes and a privileged place for genetic exchange, especially in commensal strictly anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli. PMID:25465519

  1. Predatory prokaryotes: Predation and primary consumption evolved in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Ricardo; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Esteve, Isabel; Mas, Jordi; Chase, David; Margulis, Lynn

    1986-01-01

    Two kinds of predatory bacteria have been observed and characterized by light and electron microscopy in samples from freshwater sulfurous lakes in northeastern Spain. The first bacterium, named Vampirococcus, is Gram-negative and ovoidal (0.6 ?m wide). An anaerobic epibiont, it adheres to the surface of phototrophic bacteria (Chromatium spp.) by specific attachment structures and, as it grows and divides by fission, destroys its prey. An important in situ predatory role can be inferred for Vampirococcus from direct counts in natural samples. The second bacterium, named Daptobacter, is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic straight rod (0.5 × 1.5 ?m) with a single polar flagellum, which collides, penetrates, and grows inside the cytoplasm of its prey (several genera of Chromatiaceae). Considering also the well-known case of Bdellovibrio, a Gram-negative, aerobic curved rod that penetrates and divides in the periplasmic space of many chemotrophic Gram-negative bacteria, there are three types of predatory prokaryotes presently known (epibiotic, cytoplasmic, and periplasmic). Thus, we conclude that antagonistic relationships such as primary consumption, predation, and scavenging had already evolved in microbial ecosystems prior to the appearance of eukaryotes. Furthermore, because they represent methods by which prokaryotes can penetrate other prokaryotes in the absence of phagocytosis, these associations can be considered preadaptations for the origin of intracellular organelles. Images PMID:11542073

  2. Predatory prokaryotes: predation and primary consumption evolved in bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerrero, R.; Pedros-Alio, C.; Esteve, I.; Mas, J.; Chase, D.; Margulis, L.

    1986-01-01

    Two kinds of predatory bacteria have been observed and characterized by light and electron microscopy in samples from freshwater sulfurous lakes in northeastern Spain. The first bacterium, named Vampirococcus, is Gram-negative and ovoidal (0.6 micrometer wide). An anaerobic epibiont, it adheres to the surface of phototrophic bacteria (Chromatium spp.) by specific attachment structures and, as it grows and divides by fission, destroys its prey. An important in situ predatory role can be inferred for Vampirococcus from direct counts in natural samples. The second bacterium, named Daptobacter, is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic straight rod (0.5 x 1.5 micrometers) with a single polar flagellum, which collides, penetrates, and grows inside the cytoplasm of its prey (several genera of Chromatiaceae). Considering also the well-known case of Bdellovibrio, a Gram-negative, aerobic curved rod that penetrates and divides in the periplasmic space of many chemotrophic Gram-negative bacteria, there are three types of predatory prokaryotes presently known (epibiotic, cytoplasmic, and periplasmic). Thus, we conclude that antagonistic relationships such as primary consumption, predation, and scavenging had already evolved in microbial ecosystems prior to the appearance of eukaryotes. Furthermore, because they represent methods by which prokaryotes can penetrate other prokaryotes in the absence of phagocytosis, these associations can be considered preadaptation for the origin of intracellular organelles.

  3. Mono- and Dialkyl Glycerol Ether Lipids in Anaerobic Bacteria: Biosynthetic Insights from the Mesophilic Sulfate Reducer Desulfatibacillum alkenivorans PF2803T.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Vincent; Mollex, Damien; Vinçon-Laugier, Arnauld; Hakil, Florence; Pacton, Muriel; Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial glycerol ether lipids (alkylglycerols) have received increasing attention during the last decades, notably due to their potential role in cell resistance or adaptation to adverse environmental conditions. Major uncertainties remain, however, regarding the origin, biosynthesis, and modes of formation of these uncommon bacterial lipids. We report here the preponderance of monoalkyl- and dialkylglycerols (1-O-alkyl-, 2-O-alkyl-, and 1,2-O-dialkylglycerols) among the hydrolyzed lipids of the marine mesophilic sulfate-reducing proteobacterium Desulfatibacillum alkenivorans PF2803(T) grown on n-alkenes (pentadec-1-ene or hexadec-1-ene) as the sole carbon and energy source. Alkylglycerols account for one-third to two-thirds of the total cellular lipids (alkylglycerols plus acylglycerols), depending on the growth substrate, with dialkylglycerols contributing to one-fifth to two-fifths of the total ether lipids. The carbon chain distribution of the lipids of D. alkenivorans also depends on that of the substrate, but the chain length and methyl-branching patterns of fatty acids and monoalkyl- and dialkylglycerols are systematically congruent, supporting the idea of a biosynthetic link between the three classes of compounds. Vinyl ethers (1-alken-1'-yl-glycerols, known as plasmalogens) are not detected among the lipids of strain PF2803(T). Cultures grown on different (per)deuterated n-alkene, n-alkanol, and n-fatty acid substrates further demonstrate that saturated alkylglycerols are not formed via the reduction of hypothetic alken-1'-yl intermediates. Our results support an unprecedented biosynthetic pathway to monoalkyl/monoacyl- and dialkylglycerols in anaerobic bacteria and suggest that n-alkyl compounds present in the environment can serve as the substrates for supplying the building blocks of ether phospholipids of heterotrophic bacteria. PMID:25724965

  4. Species-specific stable isotope fractionation of mercury during Hg(II) methylation by an anaerobic bacteria (Desulfobulbus propionicus) under dark conditions.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-González, Pablo; Epov, Vladimir N; Bridou, Romain; Tessier, Emmanuel; Guyoneaud, Remy; Monperrus, Mathilde; Amouroux, David

    2009-12-15

    This work reports the first results on the stable isotope fractionation of Hg during methylation by anaerobic bacteria under dark conditions. The GC-MC-ICPMS methodology employed is capable of simultaneously measuring the species-specific isotopic composition of different Hg species within the same sample. We have studied Hg isotopic fractionation caused by methylation of Hg(II) standard reference material NIST-3133 in the presence of the pure bacterial strain Desulfobulbus propionicus MUD10 (DSM 6523) under fermentative conditions. We have measured the isotopic composition of Hg(II) and monomethyl mercury (MMHg) in these cultures as a function of time and calculated delta-values for both species versus the starting material (NIST-3133) as a delta-zero standard. Two different strategies for the incubation were applied: single sampling cultures and a continuous sampling culture. The results obtained have shown that under the conditions employed in this work the methylation of Hg(II) causes mass-dependent fractionation of the Hg isotopes for both Hg(II) substrate and produced MMHg. Such a process occurred under the exponential growth of the bacteria which preferentially methylate the lighter isotopes of Hg. After 96 h for the continuous culture and 140 h for the single sampling cultures, we observed a change in the fractionation trend in the samples at a similar cell density value (ca. 6.0 x 10(7) cells mL(-1)) which suggests the increasing contribution of a simultaneous process balancing methylation extent such as demethylation. Assuming that Rayleigh type fractionation conditions are met before such suppression, we have obtained a alpha(202/198) fractionation factor of 1.0026 +/- 0.0004 for the single sampling cultures. PMID:19924895

  5. Trimethylamine metabolism in obligate and facultative methylotrophs

    PubMed Central

    Colby, J.; Zatman, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    1. Twelve bacterial isolates that grow with trimethylamine as sole source of carbon and energy were obtained in pure culture. All the isolates grow on methylamine, dimethylamine and trimethylamine. One isolate, bacterium 4B6, grows only on these methylamines whereas another isolate, bacterium C2A1, also grows on methanol but neither grows on methane; these two organisms are obligate methylotrophs. The other ten isolates grow on a variety of Ci and other organic compounds and are therefore facultative methylotrophs. 2. Washed suspensions of the obligate methylotrophs bacteria 4B6 and C2A1, and of the facultative methylotrophs bacterium 5B1 and Pseudomonas 3A2, all grown on trimethylamine, oxidize trimethylamine, dimethylamine, formaldehyde and formate; only bacterium 5B1 and Ps. 3A2 oxidize trimethylamine N-oxide; only bacterium 4B6 does not oxidize methylamine. 3. Cell-free extracts of trimethylamine-grown bacteria 4B6 and C2A1 contain a trimethylamine dehydrogenase that requires phenazine methosulphate as primary hydrogen acceptor, and evidence is presented that this enzyme is important for the growth of bacterium 4B6 on trimethylamine. 4. Cell-free extracts of eight facultative methylotrophs, including bacterium 5B1 and Ps. 3A2, do not contain trimethylamine dehydrogenase but contain instead a trimethylamine monooxygenase and trimethylamine N-oxide demethylase. It is concluded that two different pathways for the oxidation of trimethylamine occur amongst the isolates. PMID:4722893

  6. Formation of Tellurium Nanocrystals during Anaerobic Growth of Bacteria That Use Te Oxyanions as Respiratory Electron Acceptors?

    PubMed Central

    Baesman, Shaun M.; Bullen, Thomas D.; Dewald, James; Zhang, Donghui; Curran, Seamus; Islam, Farhana S.; Beveridge, Terry J.; Oremland, Ronald S.

    2007-01-01

    Certain toxic elements support the metabolism of diverse prokaryotes by serving as respiratory electron acceptors for growth. Here, we demonstrate that two anaerobes previously shown to be capable of respiring oxyanions of selenium also achieve growth by reduction of either tellurate [Te(VI)] or tellurite [Te(IV)] to elemental tellurium [Te(0)]. This reduction achieves a sizeable stable-Te-isotopic fractionation (isotopic enrichment factor [?] = ?0.4 to ?1.0 per ml per atomic mass unit) and results in the formation of unique crystalline Te(0) nanoarchitectures as end products. The Te(0) crystals occur internally within but mainly externally from the cells, and each microorganism forms a distinctly different structure. Those formed by Bacillus selenitireducens initially are nanorods (?10-nm diameter by 200-nm length), which cluster together, forming larger (?1,000-nm) rosettes composed of numerous individual shards (?100-nm width by 1,000-nm length). In contrast, Sulfurospirillum barnesii forms extremely small, irregularly shaped nanospheres (diameter < 50 nm) that coalesce into larger composite aggregates. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and selected area electron diffraction indicate that both biominerals are composed entirely of Te and are crystalline, while Raman spectroscopy confirms that they are in the elemental state. These Te biominerals have specific spectral signatures (UV-visible light, Raman) that also provide clues to their internal structures. The use of microorganisms to generate Te nanomaterials may be an alternative for bench-scale syntheses. Additionally, they may also generate products with unique properties unattainable by conventional physical/chemical methods. PMID:17277198

  7. Formation of tellurium nanocrystals during anaerobic growth of bacteria that use Te oxyanions as respiratory electron acceptors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baesman, S.M.; Bullen, T.D.; Dewald, J.; Zhang, Dongxiao; Curran, S.; Islam, F.S.; Beveridge, T.J.; Oremland, R.S.

    2007-01-01

    Certain toxic elements support the metabolism of diverse prokaryotes by serving as respiratory electron acceptors for growth. Here, we demonstrate that two anaerobes previously shown to be capable of respiring oxyanions of selenium also achieve growth by reduction of either tellurate [Te(VI)] or tellurite [Te(IV)] to elemental tellurium [Te(0)]. This reduction achieves a sizeable stable-Te-isotopic fractionation (isotopic enrichment factor [??] = -0.4 to -1.0 per ml per atomic mass unit) and results in the formation of unique crystalline Te(0) nanoarchitectures as end products. The Te(0) crystals occur internally within but mainly externally from the cells, and each microorganism forms a distinctly different structure. Those formed by Bacillus selenitireducens initially are nanorods (???10-nm diameter by 200-nm length), which cluster together, forming larger (???1,000-nm) rosettes composed of numerous individual shards (???100-nm width by 1,000-nm length). In contrast, Sulfurospirillium barnesii forms extremely small, irregularly shaped nanospheres (diameter < 50 nm) that coalesce into larger composite aggregates. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and selected area electron diffraction indicate that both biominerals are composed entirely of Te and are crystalline, while Raman spectroscopy confirms that they are in the elemental state. These Te biominerals have specific spectral signatures (UV-visible light, Raman) that also provide clues to their internal structures. The use of microorganisms to generate Te nanomaterials may be an alternative for bench-scale syntheses. Additionally, they may also generate products with unique properties unattainable by conventional physical/chemical methods. Copyright ?? 2007, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Facultative symbionts in aphids and the horizontal transfer of ecologically important traits.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Kerry M; Degnan, Patrick H; Burke, Gaelen R; Moran, Nancy A

    2010-01-01

    Aphids engage in symbiotic associations with a diverse assemblage of heritable bacteria. In addition to their obligate nutrient-provisioning symbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, aphids may also carry one or more facultative symbionts. Unlike obligate symbionts, facultative symbionts are not generally required for survival or reproduction and can invade novel hosts, based on both phylogenetic analyses and transfection experiments. Facultative symbionts are mutualistic in the context of various ecological interactions. Experiments on pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) have demonstrated that facultative symbionts protect against entomopathogenic fungi and parasitoid wasps, ameliorate the detrimental effects of heat, and influence host plant suitability. The protective symbiont, Hamiltonella defensa, has a dynamic genome, exhibiting evidence of recombination, phage-mediated gene uptake, and horizontal gene transfer and containing virulence and toxin-encoding genes. Although transmitted maternally with high fidelity, facultative symbionts occasionally move horizontally within and between species, resulting in the instantaneous acquisition of ecologically important traits, such as parasitoid defense. PMID:19728837

  9. Thermophilic anaerobic degradation of butyrate by a butyrate-utilizing bacterium in coculture and triculture with methanogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ahring, B K; Westermann, P

    1987-02-01

    We studied syntrophic butyrate degradation in thermophilic mixed cultures containing a butyrate-degrading bacterium isolated in coculture with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum or in triculture with M. thermoautotrophicum and the TAM organism, a thermophilic acetate-utilizing methanogenic bacterium. Butyrate was beta-oxidized to acetate with protons as the electron acceptors. Acetate was used concurrently with its production in the triculture. We found a higher butyrate degradation rate in the triculture, in which both hydrogen and acetate were utilized, than in the coculture, in which acetate accumulated. Yeast extract, rumen fluid, and clarified digestor fluid stimulated butyrate degradation, while the effect of Trypticase was less pronounced. Penicillin G, d-cycloserine, and vancomycin caused complete inhibition of butyrate utilization by the cultures. No growth or degradation of butyrate occurred when 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid or chloroform, specific inhibitors of methanogenic bacteria, was added to the cultures and common electron acceptors such as sulfate, nitrate, and fumarate were not used with butyrate as the electron donor. Addition of hydrogen or oxygen to the gas phase immediately stopped growth and butyrate degradation by the cultures. Butyrate was, however, metabolized at approximately the same rate when hydrogen was removed from the cultures and was metabolized at a reduced rate in the cultures previously exposed to hydrogen. PMID:16347292

  10. The anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Visser

    1995-01-01

    In the anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) will compete with methanogenic- (MB) and acetogenic bacteria (AB) for the available substrates such as hydrogen, acetate, propionate and butyrate. The outcome of this competition will determine the endproduct of the anaerobic mineralisation proces: methane or sulfide.The occurrence of the sulfate reduction proces is often considered unwanted due

  11. Quantitative Survival of Aerobic and Anaerobic Microorganisms in Port-A-Cul and Copan Transport Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin A. Stoner; Lorna K. Rabe; Michele N. Austin; Leslie A. Meyn; Sharon L. Hillier

    Transport media should preserve the viability and stability of microorganisms in clinical specimens. In this study, the Port-A-Cul transport system and the Copan transport system without charcoal, both designed to preserve anaerobes, were evaluated. Dacron swabs were inoculated with two combinations of facultative and anaerobic organisms typically found in vaginal swab samples. Combination I contained Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus

  12. A survey of the fecal bacteria of bison (Bison bison) for potential pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility of bison-origin E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Woodbury, Murray R.; Chirino-Trejo, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    An observational study determined the normal fecal bacterial flora of clinically healthy bison, detected the presence of common potential zoonotic pathogens, and determined the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated E. coli strains. Ninety-six fecal samples from 10 captive herds were cultured for aerobic, anaerobic, facultative, and microaerophillic bacteria. Nineteen major genera of gram-positive and 8 genera of gram-negative bacteria were identified. Salmonella spp. were not detected but some of the isolated bacteria are potential gastrointestinal pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 24 antimicrobials were determined for the E. coli isolated. Nearly all were susceptible to 23 of the 24 antimicrobials but there was a reduced susceptibility to sulphonamide. There were fewer resistant strains than were reported in recent studies of generic E. coli from cattle living in the same area. PMID:21731097

  13. Anaerobic Metabolism 1 ANAEROBIC METABOLISM

    E-print Network

    Prestwich, Ken

    to aerobic metabolsm. This said, it is not uncommon to hear microbiologists talk about anaerobic respiration it for respiration. However, in many animals anaerobic metabolism may occur even when there are large amounts of O2Anaerobic Metabolism 1 ANAEROBIC METABOLISM 1 Introduction About the Next Three Sets of Class Notes

  14. Could petroleum biodegradation be a joint achievement of aerobic and anaerobic microrganisms in deep sea reservoirs?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Several studies suggest that petroleum biodegradation can be achieved by either aerobic or anaerobic microorganisms, depending on oxygen input or other electron acceptors and appropriate nutrients. Evidence from in vitro experiments with samples of petroleum formation water and oils from Pampo Field indicate that petroleum biodegradation is more likely to be a joint achievement of both aerobic and anaerobic bacterial consortium, refining our previous observations of aerobic degradation. The aerobic consortium depleted, in decreasing order, hydrocarbons > hopanes > steranes > tricyclic terpanes while the anaerobic consortium depleted hydrocarbons > steranes > hopanes > tricyclic terpanes. The oxygen content of the mixed consortia was measured from time to time revealing alternating periods of microaerobicity (O2 ~0.8 mg.L-1) and of aerobicity (O2~6.0 mg.L-1). In this experiment, the petroleum biodegradation changed from time to time, alternating periods of biodegradation similar to the aerobic process and periods of biodegradation similar to the anaerobic process. The consortia showed preferences for metabolizing hydrocarbons > hopanes > steranes > tricyclic terpanes during a 90-day period, after which this trend changed and steranes were more biodegraded than hopanes. The analysis of aerobic oil degrading microbiota by the 16S rRNA gene clone library detected the presence of Bacillus, Brevibacterium, Mesorhizobium and Achromobacter, and the analysis of the anaerobic oil degrading microbiota using the same technique detected the presence of Bacillus and Acinetobacter (facultative strains). In the mixed consortia Stenotrophomonas, Brevibacterium, Bacillus, Rhizobium, Achromobacter and 5% uncultured bacteria were detected. This is certainly a new contribution to the study of reservoir biodegradation processes, combining two of the more important accepted hypotheses. PMID:22196374

  15. Bacteria associated with false-positive most-probable-number coliform test results for shellfish and estuaries.

    PubMed Central

    Hussong, D; Damaré, J M; Weiner, R M; Colwell, R R

    1981-01-01

    Aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria isolated from false-positive, presumptive, total coliform, most-probable-number tests of Chesapeake Bay oyster, water, and sediment samples were characterized and then classified by numerical taxonomy. A total of 538 bacterial strains clustered into 17 phena, the predominant groups of which were Enterobacteriaceae (including Escherichia coli), Aeromonas spp., and Bacillus spp. Bacillus spp. were recovered most frequently from sediment samples. Gas-producing strains which were not members of the Enterobacteriaceae were not isolated during this study. However, disproportionately large numbers of atypical and anaerogenic lactose-fermenting strains were encountered. We concluded that no single, specific bacterial group can be identified as being responsible for the false-positive reaction in the presumptive coliform test. Instead, the false-positive reaction is a result of complex interactions among various genera, representing predominantly bacteria other than coliforms. PMID:7013700

  16. Engineering an anaerobic metabolic regime in Pseudomonas putida KT2440 for the anoxic biodegradation of 1,3-dichloroprop-1-ene.

    PubMed

    Nikel, Pablo I; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida KT2440, a microbial cell factory of reference for industrial whole-cell biocatalysis, is unable to support biochemical reactions that occur under anoxic conditions, limiting its utility for a large number of relevant biotransformations. Unlike (facultative) anaerobes, P. putida resorts to NADH oxidation via an oxic respiratory chain and completely lacks a true fermentation metabolism. Therefore, it cannot achieve the correct balances of energy and redox couples (i.e., ATP/ADP and NADH/NAD(+)) that are required to sustain an O(2)-free lifestyle. To overcome this state of affairs, the acetate kinase (ackA) gene of the facultative anaerobe Escherichia coli and the pyruvate decarboxylase (pdc) and alcohol dehydrogenase II (adhB) genes of the aerotolerant Zymomonas mobilis were knocked-in to a wild-type P. putida strain. Biochemical and genetic assays showed that conditional expression of the entire enzyme set allowed the engineered bacteria to adopt an anoxic regime that maintained considerable metabolic activity. The resulting strain was exploited as a host for the heterologous expression of a 1,3-dichloroprop-1-ene degradation pathway recruited from Pseudomonas pavonaceae 170, enabling the recombinants to degrade this recalcitrant chlorinated compound anoxically. These results underscore the value of P. putida as a versatile agent for biotransformations able to function at progressively lower redox statuses. PMID:23149123

  17. Bacteria, toxins, and the peritoneum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toni Hau

    1990-01-01

    Intraperitoneal infections are caused by members of the gastrointestinal flora, mainlyEscherichia coli, enterococci, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Proteus, Bacteroides, anaerobic cocci, Clostridia, and Fusobacteria. The Gram-negative aerobic bacteria exert their pathogenic potential mainly through endotoxin which acts by way of mediators, causing systemic septic response and, initially, the local response of the peritoneal cavity. The main virulence factors of anaerobic bacteria are

  18. Anaerobic Thermophiles

    PubMed Central

    Canganella, Francesco; Wiegel, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    The term “extremophile” was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of “extreme” environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally “hot environments” on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong to the Archaea has definitely made this area of investigation more exciting. Particularly fascinating are their structural and physiological features allowing them to withstand extremely selective environmental conditions. These properties are often due to specific biomolecules (DNA, lipids, enzymes, osmolites, etc.) that have been studied for years as novel sources for biotechnological applications. In some cases (DNA-polymerase, thermostable enzymes), the search and applications successful exceeded preliminary expectations, but certainly further exploitations are still needed. PMID:25370030

  19. Reductive dehalogenation by anaerobic bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Holliger

    1992-01-01

    The understanding of the fate of synthetic halogenated hydrocarbons became a matter of major interest over the last two decades. Halogenated compounds may threaten ecosystems due to their biocide properties. The degradability of halocompounds determines whether they will accumulate in a certain environment or whether they will be transformed to harmless products. A whole range of anthropogenic organohalogen compounds was

  20. Ultrastructure of bacteria and the proportion of Gram-negative bacteria in marine sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. W. Moriarty; A. C. Hayward

    1982-01-01

    Bacteria in sediments from the surface aerobic layer (0–1 cm) and a deeper anaerobic layer (20–21 cm) of a seagrass bed were examined in section by transmission electron microscopy. Bacteria with a Gram-negative ultrastructure made up 90% of bacteria in the surface layer, and Gram-positive bacteria comprised 10%. In the anaerobic zone, Gram-negative bacteria comprised 70% and Gram-positive bacteria 30%

  1. Reduction and immobilization of radionuclides and toxic metal ions using combined zero valent iron and anaerobic bacteria. Year one technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Weathers, L.J.; Katz, L.E.

    1997-10-01

    'The objective of this project is to design a combined abiotic/microbial, reactive, permeable, in-situ barrier with sufficient reductive potential to prevent downgradient migration of toxic metal ions. The field-scale application of this technology would utilize anaerobic digester sludge, Fe(O) particles for supporting anaerobic biofilms, and suitable aquifer material for construction of the barrier. The major goals for Year 1 were to establish the sulfate reducing mixed culture, to obtain sources of iron metal, and to conduct background experiments which will establish baseline rates for abiotic chromium reduction rates. Research completed to date is described.'

  2. The anaerobic digestion process

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Boone, D.R. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  3. Aerobic Mesophilic Bacteria in Composts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Webley

    1948-01-01

    IN a previous communication1, an account was given of the activity of the thermophilic flora which develops in composts made from grass cuttings (lawn mowings). This thermophilic flora can be seen as a white coating on the cuttings, particularly in the upper layers during the high-temperature phase. From it true and facultative thermophilic bacteria were isolated. Recently, in addition, evidence

  4. In vitro anaerobic incubation of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and laying hen cecal bacteria in poultry feed substrates and a fructooligosaccharide prebiotic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Donalson; Woo-Kyun Kim; V. I. Chalova; P. Herrera; C. L. Woodward; J. L. McReynolds; L. F. Kubena; D. J. Nisbet; S. C. Ricke

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of combining a prebiotic with poultry feeds on the growth of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (ST) in an in vitro cecal fermentation system. Cecal contents from three laying hens were pooled and diluted to a 1:3000 concentration in an anaerobic dilution solution. The cecal dilution was added to sterile test

  5. (Per)Chlorate-Reducing Bacteria Can Utilize Aerobic and Anaerobic Pathways of Aromatic Degradation with (Per)Chlorate as an Electron Acceptor

    PubMed Central

    Carlström, Charlotte I.; Loutey, Dana; Bauer, Stefan; Clark, Iain C.; Rohde, Robert A.; Iavarone, Anthony T.; Lucas, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The pathways involved in aromatic compound oxidation under perchlorate and chlorate [collectively known as (per)chlorate]-reducing conditions are poorly understood. Previous studies suggest that these are oxygenase-dependent pathways involving O2 biogenically produced during (per)chlorate respiration. Recently, we described Sedimenticola selenatireducens CUZ and Dechloromarinus chlorophilus NSS, which oxidized phenylacetate and benzoate, two key intermediates in aromatic compound catabolism, coupled to the reduction of perchlorate or chlorate, respectively, and nitrate. While strain CUZ also oxidized benzoate and phenylacetate with oxygen as an electron acceptor, strain NSS oxidized only the latter, even at a very low oxygen concentration (1%, vol/vol). Strains CUZ and NSS contain similar genes for both the anaerobic and aerobic-hybrid pathways of benzoate and phenylacetate degradation; however, the key genes (paaABCD) encoding the epoxidase of the aerobic-hybrid phenylacetate pathway were not found in either genome. By using transcriptomics and proteomics, as well as by monitoring metabolic intermediates, we investigated the utilization of the anaerobic and aerobic-hybrid pathways on different electron acceptors. For strain CUZ, the results indicated utilization of the anaerobic pathways with perchlorate and nitrate as electron acceptors and of the aerobic-hybrid pathways in the presence of oxygen. In contrast, proteomic results suggest that strain NSS may use a combination of the anaerobic and aerobic-hybrid pathways when growing on phenylacetate with chlorate. Though microbial (per)chlorate reduction produces molecular oxygen through the dismutation of chlorite (ClO2?), this study demonstrates that anaerobic pathways for the degradation of aromatics can still be utilized by these novel organisms. PMID:25805732

  6. Iron and manganese in anaerobic respiration: environmental significance, physiology, and regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nealson, K. H.; Saffarini, D.

    1994-01-01

    Dissimilatory iron and/or manganese reduction is known to occur in several organisms, including anaerobic sulfur-reducing organisms such as Geobacter metallireducens or Desulfuromonas acetoxidans, and facultative aerobes such as Shewanella putrefaciens. These bacteria couple both carbon oxidation and growth to the reduction of these metals, and inhibitor and competition experiments suggest that Mn(IV) and Fe(III) are efficient electron acceptors similar to nitrate in redox abilities and capable of out-competing electron acceptors of lower potential, such as sulfate (sulfate reduction) or CO2 (methanogenesis). Field studies of iron and/or manganese reduction suggest that organisms with such metabolic abilities play important roles in coupling the oxidation of organic carbon to metal reduction under anaerobic conditions. Because both iron and manganese oxides are solids or colloids, they tend to settle downward in aquatic environments, providing a physical mechanism for the movement of oxidizing potential into anoxic zones. The resulting biogeochemical metal cycles have a strong impact on many other elements including carbon, sulfur, phosphorous, and trace metals.

  7. Iron and manganese in anaerobic respiration: environmental significance, physiology, and regulation.

    PubMed

    Nealson, K H; Saffarini, D

    1994-01-01

    Dissimilatory iron and/or manganese reduction is known to occur in several organisms, including anaerobic sulfur-reducing organisms such as Geobacter metallireducens or Desulfuromonas acetoxidans, and facultative aerobes such as Shewanella putrefaciens. These bacteria couple both carbon oxidation and growth to the reduction of these metals, and inhibitor and competition experiments suggest that Mn(IV) and Fe(III) are efficient electron acceptors similar to nitrate in redox abilities and capable of out-competing electron acceptors of lower potential, such as sulfate (sulfate reduction) or CO2 (methanogenesis). Field studies of iron and/or manganese reduction suggest that organisms with such metabolic abilities play important roles in coupling the oxidation of organic carbon to metal reduction under anaerobic conditions. Because both iron and manganese oxides are solids or colloids, they tend to settle downward in aquatic environments, providing a physical mechanism for the movement of oxidizing potential into anoxic zones. The resulting biogeochemical metal cycles have a strong impact on many other elements including carbon, sulfur, phosphorous, and trace metals. PMID:7826009

  8. Anaerobic digestion of olive mill wastewaters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hamdi; K. Stamatelatou; M. Kornaros; G. Lyberatos

    1996-01-01

    Anaerobic digestions for the treatment of olive mill wastewaters (OMW) are reviewed. A major limitation of anaerobic digestion of OMW is inhibition of methanogenic bacteria by simple phenolic compounds, certain organic acids and polyphenols. Pretreatment methods that modify or remove these natural inhibitors improve digestion of OMW.

  9. Anaerobic Infections in Children with Neurological Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Itzhak

    1995-01-01

    Children with neurological impairments are prone to develop serious infection with anaerobic bacteria. The most common anaerobic infections are decubitus ulcers; gastrostomy site wound infections; pulmonary infections (aspiration pneumonia, lung abscesses, and tracheitis); and chronic suppurative otitis media. The unique microbiology of each of…

  10. IN SITU\\/EX SITU ACCELERATED ANAEROBIC REDUCTION OF PERCHLORATE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Smith; Kevin A. Morris; Christopher Underwood

    The anaerobic reduction of perchlorate via indigenous subsurface bacteria is fast becoming a widely accepted tool for the remediation of perchlorate-impacted soil and groundwater. Pilot tests were initiated in 2001 to determine the applicability and effectiveness of stimulating the anaerobic biological treatment of soils and groundwater. Anaerobic composting was demonstrated as an effective ex situ method for treating heavily perchlorate-impacted

  11. Enhanced hydrolysis and methane yield by applying microaeration pretreatment to the anaerobic co-digestion of brown water and food waste

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Jun Wei [Residues and Resource Reclamation Centre, Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, 06-08 CleanTech One, 1 Cleantech Loop, Singapore 637141 (Singapore); School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Wang, Jing-Yuan, E-mail: jywang@ntu.edu.sg [Residues and Resource Reclamation Centre, Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, 06-08 CleanTech One, 1 Cleantech Loop, Singapore 637141 (Singapore); School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ? Microaeration pretreatment was effective for brown water and food waste mixture. ? The added oxygen was consumed fully by facultative microorganisms. ? Enhanced solubilization, acidification and breakdown of SCFAs to acetate. ? Microaeration pretreatment improved methane yield by 10–21%. ? Nature of inoculum influenced the effects of microaeration. - Abstract: Microaeration has been used conventionally for the desulphurization of biogas, and recently it was shown to be an alternative pretreatment to enhance hydrolysis of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process. Previous studies on microaeration pretreatment were limited to the study of substrates with complex organic matter, while little has been reported on its effect on substrates with higher biodegradability such as brown water and food waste. Due to the lack of consistent microaeration intensities, previous studies were not comparable and thus inconclusive in proving the effectiveness of microaeration to the overall AD process. In this study, the role of microaeration pretreatment in the anaerobic co-digestion of brown water and food waste was evaluated in batch-tests. After a 4-day pretreatment with 37.5 mL-O{sub 2}/L{sub R}-d added to the liquid phase of the reactor, the methane production of substrates were monitored in anaerobic conditions over the next 40 days. The added oxygen was consumed fully by facultative microorganisms and a reducing environment for organic matter degradation was maintained. Other than higher COD solubilization, microaeration pretreatment led to greater VFA accumulation and the conversion of other short chain fatty acids to acetate. This could be due to enhanced activities of hydrolytic and acidogenic bacteria and the degradation of slowly biodegradable compounds under microaerobic conditions. This study also found that the nature of inoculum influenced the effects of microaeration as a 21% and 10% increase in methane yield was observed when pretreatment was applied to inoculated substrates, and substrates without inoculum, respectively.

  12. Application of molecular techniques to evaluate the methanogenic archaea and anaerobic bacteria in the presence of oxygen with different COD:Sulfate ratios in a UASB reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Sumiko Hirasawa; Arnaldo Sarti; Nora Katia Saavedra Del Aguila; Maria Bernadete A. Varesche

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the microbial characteristics of the granular sludge in the presence of oxygen (3.0±0.7mgO2l?1) were analyzed using molecular biology techniques. The granules were provided by an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) operated over 469 days and fed with synthetic substrate. Ethanol and sulfate were added to obtain different COD\\/SO42? ratios (3.0, 2.0, and 1.6). The results of fluorescent

  13. Anaerobic treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. R. Witt; W. J. Humphrey; J. P. Cave

    1982-01-01

    This invention provides for the anaerobic treatment of acidic petrochemical wastes in an anaerobic filter at high loadings and high recycle rates. The effluent from the top of the filter passes into a gas-disengaging\\/solids-settling zone containing a quiescent body of the effluent liquid. The settled solids are withdrawn and recycled to the base of the filter together with fresh acidic

  14. Abundance and diversity of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)-metabolizing bacteria in UXO-contaminated marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian-Shen; Manno, Dominic; Hawari, Jalal

    2007-03-01

    Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) is a toxic explosive known to be resistant to biodegradation. In this study, we found that sediment collected from two unexploded ordnance (UXO) disposal sites (UXO-3, UXO-5) and one nearby reference site (midref) in Hawaii contained anaerobic bacteria capable of removing HMX. Two groups of HMX-removing bacteria were found in UXO-5: group I contained aerotolerant anaerobes and microaerophiles, and group II contained facultative anaerobes. In UXO-3 and midref sediments, HMX-metabolizing bacteria were strictly anaerobic (group III and group IV). Using 16S rRNA sequencing, group I was assigned to a novel phylogenetic cluster of Clostridiales, and groups II and III were related to Paenibacillus and Tepidibacter of Firmicutes, respectively. Group IV bacteria were identified as Desulfovibrio of Deltaproteobacteria. Using [UL-(14)C]-HMX, group IV isolates were found to mineralize HMX (26.8% in 308 d) as determined by liberated (14)CO(2), but negligible mineralization was observed in groups I-III. Resting cells of isolates metabolized HMX to N(2)O and HCHO via the intermediary formation of 1-nitroso-octahydro-3,5,7-trinitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine together with methylenedinitramine. These experimental findings suggest that HMX biotransformation occurred either via initial denitration followed by ring cleavage or via reduction of one or more of the N-NO(2) group(s) to the corresponding N-NO bond(s) prior to ring cleavage. PMID:17381523

  15. Contamination pathways of spore-forming bacteria in a vegetable cannery.

    PubMed

    Durand, Loïc; Planchon, Stella; Guinebretiere, Marie-Hélène; André, Stéphane; Carlin, Frédéric; Remize, Fabienne

    2015-06-01

    Spoilage of low-acid canned food during prolonged storage at high temperatures is caused by heat resistant thermophilic spores of strict or facultative bacteria. Here, we performed a bacterial survey over two consecutive years on the processing line of a French company manufacturing canned mixed green peas and carrots. In total, 341 samples were collected, including raw vegetables, green peas and carrots at different steps of processing, cover brine, and process environment samples. Thermophilic and highly-heat-resistant thermophilic spores growing anaerobically were counted. During vegetable preparation, anaerobic spore counts were significantly decreased, and tended to remain unchanged further downstream in the process. Large variation of spore levels in products immediately before the sterilization process could be explained by occasionally high spore levels on surfaces and in debris of vegetable combined with long residence times in conditions suitable for growth and sporulation. Vegetable processing was also associated with an increase in the prevalence of highly-heat-resistant species, probably due to cross-contamination of peas via blanching water. Geobacillus stearothermophilus M13-PCR genotypic profiling on 112 isolates determined 23 profile-types and confirmed process-driven cross-contamination. Taken together, these findings clarify the scheme of contamination pathway by thermophilic spore-forming bacteria in a vegetable cannery. PMID:25755080

  16. Evaluation of the Use of PCR and Reverse Transcriptase PCR for Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria in Biosolids from Anaerobic Digestors and Aerobic Composters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carola Burtscher; Stefan Wuertz

    2003-01-01

    A PCR-based method and a reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR)-based method were developed for the detection of pathogenic bacteria in organic waste, using Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Staphylococcus aureus as model organisms. In seeded organic waste samples, detection limits of less than 10 cells per g of organic waste were achieved after one-step enrichment of bacteria, isolation, and

  17. Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria and Their Activities in Cyanobacterial Mats of Solar Lake (Sinai, Egypt)

    PubMed Central

    Teske, Andreas; Ramsing, Niels B.; Habicht, Kirsten; Fukui, Manabu; Küver, Jan; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Cohen, Yehuda

    1998-01-01

    The sulfate-reducing bacteria within the surface layer of the hypersaline cyanobacterial mat of Solar Lake (Sinai, Egypt) were investigated with combined microbiological, molecular, and biogeochemical approaches. The diurnally oxic surface layer contained between 106 and 107 cultivable sulfate-reducing bacteria ml?1 and showed sulfate reduction rates between 1,000 and 2,200 nmol ml?1 day?1, both in the same range as and sometimes higher than those in anaerobic deeper mat layers. In the oxic surface layer and in the mat layers below, filamentous sulfate-reducing Desulfonema bacteria were found in variable densities of 104 to 106 cells ml?1. A Desulfonema-related, diurnally migrating bacterium was detected with PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis within and below the oxic surface layer. Facultative aerobic respiration, filamentous morphology, motility, diurnal migration, and aggregate formation were the most conspicuous adaptations of Solar Lake sulfate-reducing bacteria to the mat matrix and to diurnal oxygen stress. A comparison of sulfate reduction rates within the mat and previously published photosynthesis rates showed that CO2 from sulfate reduction in the upper 5 mm accounted for 7 to 8% of the total photosynthetic CO2 demand of the mat. PMID:9687455

  18. A comparison of primer sets for detecting 16S rRNA and hydrazine oxidoreductase genes of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Hong, Yiguo; Klotz, Martin Gunter; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2010-03-01

    Published polymerase chain reaction primer sets for detecting the genes encoding 16S rRNA gene and hydrazine oxidoreductase (hzo) in anammox bacteria were compared by using the same coastal marine sediment samples. While four previously reported primer sets developed to detect the 16S rRNA gene showed varying specificities between 12% and 77%, an optimized primer combination resulted in up to 98% specificity, and the recovered anammox 16S rRNA gene sequences were >95% sequence identical to published sequences from anammox bacteria in the Candidatus "Scalindua" group. Furthermore, four primer sets used in detecting the hzo gene of anammox bacteria were highly specific (up to 92%) and efficient, and the newly designed primer set in this study amplified longer hzo gene segments suitable for phylogenetic analysis. The optimized primer set for the 16S rRNA gene and the newly designed primer set for the hzo gene were successfully applied to identify anammox bacteria from marine sediments of aquaculture zone, coastal wetland, and deep ocean where the three ecosystems form a gradient of anthropogenic impact. Results indicated a broad distribution of anammox bacteria with high niche-specific community structure within each marine ecosystem. PMID:20107988

  19. Anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Georg

    2008-03-01

    Aromatic compounds comprise a wide variety of natural and synthetic compounds that can serve as substrates for bacterial growth. So far, four types of aromatic metabolism are known. (1) The aerobic aromatic metabolism is characterized by the extensive use of molecular oxygen as cosubstrate for oxygenases that introduce hydroxyl groups and cleave the aromatic ring. (2) In the presence of oxygen, facultative aerobes use another so-called hybrid type of aerobic metabolism of benzoate, phenylacetate, and anthranilate (2-aminobenzoate). These pathways use coenzyme A thioesters of the substrates and do not require oxygen for ring cleavage; rather they use an oxygenase/reductase to dearomatize the ring. (3) In the absence of oxygen, facultative aerobes and phototrophs use a reductive aromatic metabolism. Reduction of the aromatic ring of benzoyl-coenzyme A is catalyzed by benzoyl-coenzyme A reductase. This Birch-like reduction is driven by the hydrolysis of 2 ATP molecules. (4) A completely different, still little characterized benzoyl-coenzyme A reductase operates in strict anaerobes, which cannot afford the costly ATP-dependent ring reduction. PMID:18378589

  20. Complete genome sequences for the anaerobic, extremely thermophilic plant biomass-degrading bacteria Caldicellulosiruptor hydrothermalis, Caldicellulosiruptor kristjanssonii, Caldicellulosiruptor kronotskyensis, Caldicellulosiruptor owensenis, and Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara E. Blumer-Schuette; Inci Ozdemir; Dhaval Mistry; Susan Lucas; Alla L. Lapidus; Jan-Fang Cheng; Lynne A. Goodwin; Sam Pitluck; Miriam L Land; Loren John Hauser; Tanja Woyke; Natalia Mikhailova; Amrita Pati; Nikos C Kyrpides; N Ivanova; J. Chris Detter; Karen Walston Davenport; Cliff Han; Michael W. W. Adams; Robert M Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The genus Caldicellulosiruptor contains the most thermophilic, plant biomass-degrading bacteria isolated to date. Previously, genome sequences from three cellulolytic members of this genus were reported (C. saccharolyticus, C. bescii, and C. obsidiansis). To further explore the physiological and biochemical basis for polysaccharide degradation within this genus, five additional genomes were sequenced: C. hydrothermalis, C. kristjanssonii, C. kronotskyensis, C. lactoaceticus, and

  1. NADH-linked aldose reductase: the key to anaerobic alcoholic fermentation of xylose by yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter M. Bruinenberg; Peter H. M. Bot; Johannes P. Dijken; W. Alexander Scheffers

    1984-01-01

    The kinetics and enzymology of d-xylose utilization were studied in aerobic and anaerobic batch cultures of the facultatively fermentative yeasts Candida utilis, Pachysolen tannophilus, and Pichia stipitis. These yeasts did not produce ethanol under aerobic conditions. When shifted to anaerobiosis cultures of C. utilis did not show fermentation of xylose; in Pa. tannophilus a very low rate of ethanol formation

  2. Hydrogenosomes: convergent adaptations of mitochondria to anaerobic environments.

    PubMed

    Hackstein, J H; Akhmanova, A; Voncken, F; van Hoek, A; van Alen, T; Boxma, B; Moon-van der Staay, S Y; van der Staay, G; Leunissen, J; Huynen, M; Rosenberg, J; Veenhuis, M

    2001-01-01

    Hydrogenosomes are membrane-bound organelles that compartmentalise the final steps of energy metabolism in a number of anaerobic eukaryotes. They produce hydrogen and ATP. Here we will review the data, which are relevant for the questions: how did the hydrogenosomes originate, and what was their ancestor? Notably, there is strong evidence that hydrogenosomes evolved several times as adaptations to anaerobic environments. Most likely, hydrogenosomes and mitochondria share a common ancestor, but an unequivocal proof for this hypothesis is difficult because hydrogenosomes lack an organelle genome - with one remarkable exception (Nyctotherus ovalis). In particular, the diversity of extant hydrogenosomes hampers a straightforward analysis of their origins. Nevertheless, it is conceivable to postulate that the common ancestor of mitochondria and hydrogenosomes was a facultative anaerobic organelle that participated in the early radiation of unicellular eukaryotes. Consequently, it is reasonable to assume that both, hydrogenosomes and mitochondria are evolutionary adaptations to anaerobic or aerobic environments, respectively. PMID:16351844

  3. Siderophore Production by Pseudomonas stutzeri under Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions?

    PubMed Central

    Essén, Sofia A.; Johnsson, Anna; Bylund, Dan; Pedersen, Karsten; Lundström, Ulla S.

    2007-01-01

    The siderophore production of the facultative anaerobe Pseudomonas stutzeri, strain CCUG 36651, grown under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, was investigated by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The bacterial strain has been isolated at a 626-m depth at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory, where experiments concerning the geological disposal of nuclear waste are performed. In bacterial culture extracts, the iron in the siderophore complexes was replaced by gallium to facilitate siderophore identification by mass spectrometry. P. stutzeri was shown to produce ferrioxamine E (nocardamine) as the main siderophore together with ferrioxamine G and two cyclic ferrioxamines having molecular masses 14 and 28 atomic mass units lower than that of ferrioxamine E, suggested to be ferrioxamine D2 and ferrioxamine X1, respectively. In contrast, no siderophores were observed from anaerobically grown P. stutzeri. None of the siderophores produced by aerobically grown P. stutzeri were found in anaerobic natural water samples from the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory. PMID:17675442

  4. Investigation of aerobic and anaerobic ammonium-oxidising bacteria presence in a small full-scale wastewater treatment system comprised by UASB reactor and three polishing ponds.

    PubMed

    Araujo, J C; Correa, M M S; Silva, E C; Campos, A P; Godinho, V M; Von Sperling, M; Chernicharo, C A L

    2010-01-01

    This work applied PCR amplification method and Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with primers and probes specific for the anammox organisms and aerobic ammonia-oxidising beta-Proteobacteria in order to detect these groups in different samples from a wastewater treatment system comprised by UASB reactor and three polishing (maturation) ponds in series. Seven primer pairs were used in order to detect Anammox bacteria. Positive results were obtained with three of them, suggesting that Anammox could be present in polishing pond sediments. However, Anammox bacteria were not detected by FISH, indicating that they were not present in sediment samples, or they could be present but below FISH detection limit. Aerobic ammonia- and nitrite-oxidising bacteria were verified in water column samples through Most Probable Number (MPN) analysis, but they were not detected in sediment samples by FISH. Ammonia removal efficiencies occurred systematically along the ponds (24, 32, and 34% for polishing pond 1, 2, and 3, respectively) but the major reaction responsible for this removal is still unclear. Some nitrification might have occurred in water samples because some nitrifying bacteria were present. Also Anammox reaction might have occurred because Anammox genes were detected in the sediments, but probably this reaction was too low to be noticed. It is important also to consider that some of the ammonia removal observed might be related to NH(3) stripping, associated with the pH increase resulting from the intensive photosynthetic activity in the ponds (mechanism under investigation). Therefore, it can be concluded that more than one mechanism (or reaction) might be involved in the ammonia removal in the polishing ponds investigated in this study. PMID:20150711

  5. 46 CFR 308.544 - Facultative binder, Form MA-315.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Facultative binder, Form MA-315. 308.544 Section...Insurance § 308.544 Facultative binder, Form MA-315. The standard form of War Risk Facultative Cargo Binder, which may be obtained from the...

  6. 46 CFR 308.544 - Facultative binder, Form MA-315.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Facultative binder, Form MA-315. 308.544 Section...Insurance § 308.544 Facultative binder, Form MA-315. The standard form of War Risk Facultative Cargo Binder, which may be obtained from the...

  7. 16S rRNA gene and lipid biomarker evidence for anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (anammox) in California and Nevada hot springs.

    PubMed

    Jaeschke, Andrea; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Harhangi, Harry; Klimiuk, Adam; Hopmans, Ellen C; Jetten, Mike S M; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S

    2009-03-01

    Anammox, the oxidation of ammonium with nitrite to dinitrogen gas under anoxic conditions, is an important process in mesophilic environments such as wastewaters, oceans and freshwater systems, but little is known of this process at elevated temperatures. In this study, we investigated anammox in microbial mats and sediments obtained from several hot springs in California and Nevada, using geochemical and molecular microbiological methods. Anammox bacteria-specific ladderane core lipids with concentrations ranging between 0.3 and 52 ng g(-1) sediment were detected in five hot springs analyzed with temperatures up to 65 degrees C. In addition, 16S rRNA gene analysis showed the presence of genes phylogenetically related to the known anammox bacteria Candidatus Brocadia fulgida, Candidatus Brocadia anammoxidans and Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis (96.5-99.8% sequence identity) in three hot springs with temperatures up to 52 degrees C. Our data indicate that anammox bacteria may be able to thrive at thermophilic temperatures and thus may play a significant role in the nitrogen cycle of hot spring environments. PMID:19220858

  8. Time-Resolved DNA Stable Isotope Probing Links Desulfobacterales- and Coriobacteriaceae-Related Bacteria to Anaerobic Degradation of Benzene under Methanogenic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Mana; Kurisu, Futoshi; Kasuga, Ikuro; Furumai, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    To identify the microorganisms involved in benzene degradation, DNA-stable isotope probing (SIP) with 13C-benzene was applied to a methanogenic benzene-degrading enrichment culture. Pyrosequencing of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences revealed that the community structure was highly complex in spite of a 3-year incubation only with benzene. The culture degraded 98% of approximately 1 mM 13C-benzene and mineralized 72% of that within 63 d. The terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) profiles of the buoyant density fractions revealed the incorporation of 13C into two phylotypes after 64 d. These two phylotypes were determined to be Desulfobacterales- and Coriobacteriaceae-related bacteria by cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene in the 13C-labeled DNA abundant fraction. Comparative pyrosequencing analysis of the buoyant density fractions of 12C- and 13C-labeled samples indicated the incorporation of 13C into three bacterial and one archaeal OTUs related to Desulfobacterales, Coriobacteriales, Rhodocyclaceae, and Methanosarcinales. The first two OTUs included the bacteria detected by T-RFLP-cloning-sequencing analysis. Furthermore, time-resolved SIP analysis confirmed that the activity of all these microbes appeared at the earliest stage of degradation. In this methanogenic culture, Desulfobacterales- and Coriobacteriaceae-related bacteria were most likely to be the major benzene degraders. PMID:24909708

  9. Comparison of nitroethane, 2-nitro-1-propanol, lauric acid, Lauricidin® and the Hawaiian marine algae, Chaetoceros, for potential broad-spectrum control of anaerobically grown lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Božic, Aleksandar K; Anderson, Robin C; Ricke, Steven C; Crandall, Philip G; O'Bryan, Corliss A

    2012-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of bovines often contains bacteria that contribute to disorders of the rumen, and may also contain foodborne or opportunistic human pathogens as well as bacteria capable of causing mastitis in cows. Thus there is a need to develop broad-spectrum therapies that are effective while not leading to unacceptably long antibiotic withdrawal times. The effects of the CH(4)-inhibitors nitroethane (2 mg/mL), 2-nitro-1-propanol (2 mg/mL), lauric acid (5 mg/mL), the commercial product Lauricidin® (5 mg/mL), and a finely ground product of the Hawaiian marine algae, Chaetoceros (10 mg/mL), were compared in pure cultures of Streptococcus agalactia, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus bovis, and in a mixed lactic acid rumen bacterial culture. Lauricidin® and lauric acid exhibited the most bactericidal acidity against all bacteria. These results suggest potential animal health benefits from supplementing cattle diets with lauric acid or Lauricidin® to improve the health of the rumen and help prevent shedding of human pathogens. PMID:22428888

  10. [Anaerobic microbes in perimandibular inflammation].

    PubMed

    Danielewiczowa, K; Dzierzanowska, D; Kryst, L; Jaworska, L; Juszczyk-Popowska, B

    1984-01-01

    Studies conducted in 16 patients with perimandibular inflammation included bacteriological examinations and tests of the resistance of the bacterial flora to 6 antibiotics:davercin, erythromycine, penicillin, ampicillin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol. A total of 73 strains (47 anaerobic and 26 aerobic) were isolated, including 47 Gram - and 26 Gram's strain +. Anaerobic Gram - ve bacteria appear to be the principal cause of perimandibular inflammatory lesions, streptococcus viridans being identified more frequently in these cases than in the normal buccal cavity. Bacterial flora of dental origin was more sensitive to davercin than to the other 5 antibiotics tested. PMID:6596693

  11. Isolation and Identification of Cellulolytic Bacteria from the Gut of Holotrichia parallela Larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shengwei; Sheng, Ping; Zhang, Hongyu

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 207 strains of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria were isolated from the gut of Holotrichia parallela larvae. These bacterial isolates were assigned to 21 genotypes by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). A partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis and standard biochemical and physiological tests were used for the assignment of the 21 representative isolates. Our results show that the cellulolytic bacterial community is dominated by the Proteobacteria (70.05%), followed by the Actinobacteria (24.15%), the Firmicutes (4.35%), and the Bacteroidetes (1.45%). At the genus level, Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas, Ochrobactrum, Rhizobium, Cellulosimicrobium, and Microbacterium were the predominant groups, but members of Bacillus, Dyadobacter, Siphonobacter, Paracoccus, Kaistia, Devosia, Labrys, Ensifer, Variovorax, Shinella, Citrobacter, and Stenotrophomonas were also found. Furthermore, our results suggest that a significant amount of bacterial diversity exists among the cellulolytic bacteria, and that Siphonobacter aquaeclarae, Cellulosimicrobium funkei, Paracoccus sulfuroxidans, Ochrobactrum cytisi, Ochrobactrum haematophilum, Kaistia adipata, Devosia riboflavina, Labrys neptuniae, Ensifer adhaerens, Shinella zoogloeoides, Citrobacter freundii, and Pseudomonas nitroreducens are reported to be cellulolytic for the first time in this study. Our results indicate that the scarab gut is an attractive source for the study of novel cellulolytic microorganisms and enzymes useful for cellulose degradation. PMID:22489111

  12. Complete genome sequences for the anaerobic, extremely thermophilic plant biomass-degrading bacteria Caldicellulosiruptor hydrothermalis, Caldicellulosiruptor kristjanssonii, Caldicellulosiruptor kronotskyensis, Caldicellulosiruptor owensensis, and Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus.

    PubMed

    Blumer-Schuette, Sara E; Ozdemir, Inci; Mistry, Dhaval; Lucas, Susan; Lapidus, Alla; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Goodwin, Lynne A; Pitluck, Samuel; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren J; Woyke, Tanja; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Ivanova, Natalia; Detter, John C; Walston-Davenport, Karen; Han, Shunsheng; Adams, Michael W W; Kelly, Robert M

    2011-03-01

    The genus Caldicellulosiruptor contains the most thermophilic, plant biomass-degrading bacteria isolated to date. Previously, genome sequences from three cellulolytic members of this genus were reported (C. saccharolyticus, C. bescii, and C. obsidiansis). To further explore the physiological and biochemical basis for polysaccharide degradation within this genus, five additional genomes were sequenced: C. hydrothermalis, C. kristjanssonii, C. kronotskyensis, C. lactoaceticus, and C. owensensis. Taken together, the seven completed and one draft-phase Caldicellulosiruptor genomes suggest that, while central metabolism is highly conserved, significant differences in glycoside hydrolase inventories and numbers of carbohydrate transporters exist, a finding which likely relates to variability observed in plant biomass degradation capacity. PMID:21216991

  13. Complete genome sequences for the anaerobic, extremely thermophilic plant biomass-degrading bacteria Caldicellulosiruptor hydrothermalis, Caldicellulosiruptor kristjanssonii, Caldicellulosiruptor kronotskyensis, Caldicellulosiruptor owensenis, and Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus

    SciTech Connect

    Blumer-Schuette, Sara E. [North Carolina State University; Ozdemir, Inci [North Carolina State University; Mistry, Dhaval [North Carolina State University; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Walston Davenport, Karen [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Adams, Michael W. W. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Kelly, Robert M [North Carolina State University

    2011-01-01

    The genus Caldicellulosiruptor contains the most thermophilic, plant biomass-degrading bacteria isolated to date. Previously, genome sequences from three cellulolytic members of this genus were reported (C. saccharolyticus, C. bescii, and C. obsidiansis). To further explore the physiological and biochemical basis for polysaccharide degradation within this genus, five additional genomes were sequenced: C. hydrothermalis, C. kristjanssonii, C. kronotskyensis, C. lactoaceticus, and C. owensensis. Taken together, the seven completed and one draft-phase Caldicellulosiruptor genomes suggest that, while central metabolism is highly conserved, significant differences in glycoside hydrolase inventories and numbers of carbohydrate transporters exist, a finding which likely relates to variability observed in plant biomass degradation capacity.

  14. Complete Genome Sequences for the Anaerobic, Extremely Thermophilic Plant Biomass-Degrading Bacteria Caldicellulosiruptor hydrothermalis, Caldicellulosiruptor kristjanssonii, Caldicellulosiruptor kronotskyensis, Caldicellulosiruptor owensensis, and Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus?

    PubMed Central

    Blumer-Schuette, Sara E.; Ozdemir, Inci; Mistry, Dhaval; Lucas, Susan; Lapidus, Alla; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Samuel; Land, Miriam L.; Hauser, Loren J.; Woyke, Tanja; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Ivanova, Natalia; Detter, John C.; Walston-Davenport, Karen; Han, Shunsheng; Adams, Michael W. W.; Kelly, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    The genus Caldicellulosiruptor contains the most thermophilic, plant biomass-degrading bacteria isolated to date. Previously, genome sequences from three cellulolytic members of this genus were reported (C. saccharolyticus, C. bescii, and C. obsidiansis). To further explore the physiological and biochemical basis for polysaccharide degradation within this genus, five additional genomes were sequenced: C. hydrothermalis, C. kristjanssonii, C. kronotskyensis, C. lactoaceticus, and C. owensensis. Taken together, the seven completed and one draft-phase Caldicellulosiruptor genomes suggest that, while central metabolism is highly conserved, significant differences in glycoside hydrolase inventories and numbers of carbohydrate transporters exist, a finding which likely relates to variability observed in plant biomass degradation capacity. PMID:21216991

  15. Ribonucleotide Reduction in Pseudomonas Species: Simultaneous Presence of Active Enzymes from Different Classes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALBERT JORDAN; EDUARD TORRENTS; IRMA SALA; ULF HELLMAN; ISIDRE GIBERT

    1999-01-01

    Three separate classes of ribonucleotide reductases exist in nature. They differ widely in protein structure. Class I enzymes are found in aerobic bacteria and eukaryotes; class II enzymes are found in aerobic and anaerobic bacteria; class III enzymes are found in strict and facultative anaerobic bacteria. Usually, but not always, one organism contains only one or two (in facultative anaerobes)

  16. Rhodoferax ferrireducens sp. nov., a psychrotolerant, facultatively anaerobic bacterium

    E-print Network

    Lovley, Derek

    enriched and isolated from subsurface sediments collected in Oyster Bay, VA, USA. A novel isolate previously studied Fe(III)-reducing micro-organisms have an optimal growth temperature of 20­30 uC, but ther

  17. Methanotrophic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, R S; Hanson, T E

    1996-01-01

    Methane-utilizing bacteria (methanotrophs) are a diverse group of gram-negative bacteria that are related to other members of the Proteobacteria. These bacteria are classified into three groups based on the pathways used for assimilation of formaldehyde, the major source of cell carbon, and other physiological and morphological features. The type I and type X methanotrophs are found within the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria and employ the ribulose monophosphate pathway for formaldehyde assimilation, whereas type II methanotrophs, which employ the serine pathway for formaldehyde assimilation, form a coherent cluster within the beta subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Methanotrophic bacteria are ubiquitous. The growth of type II bacteria appears to be favored in environments that contain relatively high levels of methane, low levels of dissolved oxygen, and limiting concentrations of combined nitrogen and/or copper. Type I methanotrophs appear to be dominant in environments in which methane is limiting and combined nitrogen and copper levels are relatively high. These bacteria serve as biofilters for the oxidation of methane produced in anaerobic environments, and when oxygen is present in soils, atmospheric methane is oxidized. Their activities in nature are greatly influenced by agricultural practices and other human activities. Recent evidence indicates that naturally occurring, uncultured methanotrophs represent new genera. Methanotrophs that are capable of oxidizing methane at atmospheric levels exhibit methane oxidation kinetics different from those of methanotrophs available in pure cultures. A limited number of methanotrophs have the genetic capacity to synthesize a soluble methane monooxygenase which catalyzes the rapid oxidation of environmental pollutants including trichloroethylene. PMID:8801441

  18. Use of CAH-degrading bacteria as test-organisms for evaluating the impact of fine zerovalent iron particles on the anaerobic subsurface environment.

    PubMed

    Velimirovic, Milica; Simons, Queenie; Bastiaens, Leen

    2015-09-01

    The release of fine zerovalent iron (ZVI) particles in the environment after being introduced for in-situ treatment of compounds like chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) may raise questions toward environmental safety, especially for nanoscale materials. Classical single-species ecotoxicity tests do focus on aerobic conditions and are only relevant for the scenario when ZVI-particles reach surface water. Herein, we present an alternative approach where a CAH-degrading mixed bacterial culture was used as test-organisms relevant for the anaerobic subsurface. The impact of different ZVI particles on the bacterial culture was evaluated mainly by quantifying ATP, a reporter molecule giving a general indication of the microbial activity. These lab-scale batch tests were performed in liquid medium, without protecting and buffering aquifer material, as such representing worst-case scenario. The activity of the bacterial culture was negatively influenced by nanoscale zerovalent iron at doses as low as 0.05gL(-1). On the other hand, concentrations up to 2gL(-1) of several different types of microscale zerovalent iron (mZVI) particles stimulated the activity. However, very high doses of 15-30gL(-1) of mZVI showed an inhibiting effect on the bacterial community. Negative effects of ZVIs were confirmed by H2 accumulation in the batch reactors and the absence of lactate consumption. Observed inhibition also corresponded to a pH increase above 7.5, explicable by ZVI corrosion that was found to be dose-dependent. The obtained results suggest that low doses of mZVIs will not show severe inhibition effects on the microbial community once used for in-situ treatment of CAHs. PMID:25973858

  19. Succinyl-CoA:(R)-Benzylsuccinate CoA-Transferase: an Enzyme of the Anaerobic Toluene Catabolic Pathway in Denitrifying Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Leutwein, Christina; Heider, Johann

    2001-01-01

    Anaerobic microbial toluene catabolism is initiated by addition of fumarate to the methyl group of toluene, yielding (R)-benzylsuccinate as first intermediate, which is further metabolized via ?-oxidation to benzoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and succinyl-CoA. A specific succinyl-CoA:(R)-benzylsuccinate CoA-transferase activating (R)-benzylsuccinate to the CoA-thioester was purified and characterized from Thauera aromatica. The enzyme is fully reversible and forms exclusively the 2-(R)-benzylsuccinyl-CoA isomer. Only some close chemical analogs of the substrates are accepted by the enzyme: succinate was partially replaced by maleate or methylsuccinate, and (R)-benzylsuccinate was replaced by methylsuccinate, benzylmalonate, or phenylsuccinate. In contrast to all other known CoA-transferases, the enzyme consists of two subunits of similar amino acid sequences and similar sizes (44 and 45 kDa) in an ?2?2 conformation. Identity of the subunits with the products of the previously identified toluene-induced bbsEF genes was confirmed by determination of the exact masses via electrospray-mass spectrometry. The deduced amino acid sequences resemble those of only two other characterized CoA-transferases, oxalyl-CoA:formate CoA-transferase and (E)-cinnamoyl-CoA:(R)-phenyllactate CoA-transferase, which represent a new family of CoA-transferases. As suggested by kinetic analysis, the reaction mechanism of enzymes of this family apparently involves formation of a ternary complex between the enzyme and the two substrates. PMID:11418570

  20. Anammoxosomes of Anaerobic Ammonium-oxidizing Planctomycetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Fuerst; Richard Webb; Laura van Niftrik; Mike S. M. Jetten; Marc Strous

    2006-01-01

    Anammoxosomes are unique metabolically significant compartments of planctomycetes performing the anammox process. These bacteria carry out Anaerobic\\u000a Ammonium Oxidation, a chemolithotrophic\\u000a and autotrophic metabolism. They comprise Candidatus genera “Brocadia”,\\u000a “Kuenenia” and “Scalindua”, mostly from wastewater treatment bioreactors or marine\\u000a anaerobic habitats and none of which are yet in pure culture. Like cells of other planctomycetes, anammox\\u000a species possess a shared planctomycete cell

  1. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation improvement via a novel capsule bioreactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. P. Chou; S. K. Tseng; C. M. Ho

    2012-01-01

    This study developed a capsule bioreactor made from polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to entrap anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) bacteria for the removal of nitrogen from synthetic wastewater. Experimental results demonstrate that the ANAMMOX bacteria were entrapped inside the capsule and not washed out from the bioreactor. This method also avoids damaging the ANAMMOX bacteria during immobilization. The proposed bioreactor also has

  2. Antibacterial activity of medicinal plant extracts against periodontopathic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Iauk, L; Lo Bue, A M; Milazzo, I; Rapisarda, A; Blandino, G

    2003-06-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Althaea officinalis L. roots, Arnica montana L. flowers, Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hamamelis virginiana L. leaves, Illicium verum Hook. fruits and Melissa officinalis L. leaves, against anaerobic and facultative aerobic periodontal bacteria: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella spp., Fusobacterium nucleatum, Capnocytophaga gingivalis, Veilonella parvula, Eikenella corrodens, Peptostreptococcus micros and Actinomyces odontolyticus. The methanol extracts of H. virginiana and A. montana and, to a lesser extent, A. officinalis were shown to possess an inhibiting activity (MIC < or = 2048 mg/L) against many of the species tested. In comparison, M. officinalis and C. officinalis extracts had a lower inhibiting activity (MIC > or = 2048 mg/L) against all the tested species with the exception of Prevotella sp. Illicium verum methanol extract was not very active though it had a particular good activity against E. corrodens. The results suggest the use of the alcohol extracts of H. virginiana, A. montana and A. officinalis for topical medications in periodontal prophylactics. PMID:12820224

  3. Conversion of unsaturated fatty acids by bacteria isolated from compost.

    PubMed

    Kaneshiro, T; Kuo, T M; Nakamura, L K

    1999-04-01

    A compost mixture amended with soybean oil was enriched in microorganisms that transformed unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs). When oleic acid or 10-ketostearic acid was the selective fatty acid, Sphingobacterium thalpophilum (NRRL B-23206, NRRL B-23208, NRRL B-23209, NRRL B-23210, NRRL B-23211, NRRL B-23212), Acinetobacter spp. (NRRL B-23207, NRRL B-23213), and Enterobacter cloacae (NRRL B-23264, NRRL B-23265, NRRL B-23266) represented isolates that produced either hydroxystearic acid, ketostearic acid, or incomplete decarboxylations. When ricinoleic (12-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic) acid was the selective UFA, Enterobacter cloacae (NRRL B-23257, NRRL B-23267) and Escherichia sp. (NRRL B-23259) produced 12-C and 14-C homologous compounds, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NRRL B-23256, NRRL B-23260) converted ricinoleate to a trihydroxyoctadecenoate product. Also, various Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, and Serratia spp. appeared to decarboxylate linoleate substrate incompletely. These saprophytic, compost bacteria were aerobic or facultative anaerobic Gram-negative and decomposed UFAs through decarboxylation, hydroxylation, and hydroperoxidation mechanisms. PMID:10069863

  4. Recent investigations and updated criteria for the assessment of antibiotic resistance in food lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Clementi, Francesca; Aquilanti, Lucia

    2011-12-01

    The worldwide use, and misuse, of antibiotics for about sixty years in the so-called antibiotic era, has been estimated in some one to ten million tons, a relevant part of which destined for non-therapeutic purposes such as growth promoting treatments for livestock or crop protection. As highly adaptable organisms, bacteria have reacted to this dramatic change in their environment by developing several well-known mechanisms of antibiotic resistance and are becoming increasingly resistant to conventional antibiotics. In recent years, commensal bacteria have become a cause of concern since they may act as reservoirs for the antibiotic resistance genes found in human pathogens. In particular, the food chain has been considered the main route for the introduction of animal and environment associated antibiotic resistant bacteria into the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) where these genes may be transferred to pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria. As fundamental microbial communities in a large variety of fermented foods and feed, the anaerobe facultative, aerotolerant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are likely to play a pivotal role in the resistance gene exchange occurring in the environment, food, feed and animal and human GIT. Therefore their antibiotic resistance features and their genetic basis have recently received increasing attention. The present article summarises the results of the latest studies on the most typical genera belonging to the low G + C branch of LAB. The evolution of the criteria established by European regulatory bodies to ensure a safe use of microorganisms in food and feed, including the assessment of their antibiotic resistance is also reviewed. PMID:21515393

  5. FACULTE DES SCIENCES & TECHNIQUES CENTRE DE RECHERCHE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    'Universit´e Henri Poincar´e, Nancy 1 en Sciences, sp´ecialit´e Automatique, Traitement du Signal et G Thierry Divoux Universit´e Henri Poincar´e Nancy 1, CRAN Professeur Eric Rondeau Universit´e Henri Poincar´e Nancy 1, CRAN Universit´e Henri Poincar´e, Centre de Recherche en Automatique de Nancy Facult´e des

  6. Colony formation by Helicobacter pylori after long-term incubation under anaerobic conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Yamaguchi; Takako Osaki; Motomichi Takahashi; Haruhiko Taguchi; Shigeru Kamiya

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the viability of Helicobacter pylori cultured under anaerobic conditions, H. pylori strain TK1029 was grown on blood agar in a microaerophilic environment at 37°C for 4 days, and subsequently cultured under anaerobic conditions for 1 to 35 days. Colony formation by bacteria on blood agar plates cultured under anaerobic conditions was observed only for up to 4 days

  7. Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, P.F.

    1989-08-25

    A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols in anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion of organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input. 8 figs.

  8. Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, P.F.

    1990-04-24

    This patent describes a process for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols in anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion or organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input.

  9. Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Weaver, Paul F. (Golden, CO)

    1990-01-01

    A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion or organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input.

  10. Fluorimetric monitoring of methanogenesis in anaerobic digestors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Delafontaine; H. P. Naveau; E. J. Nyns

    1979-01-01

    A new parameter, QCH4(F420), is proposed to determine the potential methanogenic activity in the mixed microbial communities of anaerobic digestors. It is based on the particular fluorimetric properties of F420, a coenzyme common to and specific for methanogenic bacteria.

  11. Isolation and Characterization of Gram-Positive Piezophilic Bacteria from Deep Marine Subsurface Sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runko, G. M.; Fang, J.; Kato, C.

    2014-12-01

    The marine deep biosphere remains as the least studied of all of Earth's habitats and is inadequately understood, but is extremely important to understand the impacts that microbes have on global biogeochemical cycles. Sediment samples were obtained during IODP Expedition 337 in the western Pacific Ocean, from 1,498 meters below the seafloor (mbsf; samples 6R3), 1,951-1,999 mbsf (19R1), and 2,406 mbsf (29R7). These samples were initially mixed with marine broth and cultivated under anaerobic conditions at pressure of 35 MPa (megapascal) and temperatures of 35° C, 45° C, and 55° C for 3 months on board the Chikyu. Single colonies were isolated via plating on marine broth. Then, six strains of bacteria were identified, 6R3-1, 6R3-15, 19R1-5, 29R7-12B, 29R7-12M, and 29R7-12S. The six strains were then examined for optimal growth temperature and pressure. These organisms are Gram-positive, spore-forming, facultative anaerobic piezophilic bacteria. Major fatty acids are anteiso-15:0, anteiso-17:0 and iso-15:0. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolates are closely related to Virgibacillus pantothenticus, Robinsoniella peoriensis, and Bacillus subtilis. Because of their abundance in the deep marine subsurface, these microorganisms likely play an important role in sustaining the deep microbial ecosystem and influencing biogeochemical cycles in the deep biosphere.

  12. Culturable heterotrophic bacteria associated with healthy and bleached scleractinian Madracis decactis and the fireworm Hermodice carunculata from the remote St. Peter and St. Paul Archipelago, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Ana Paula B; Tonon, Luciane A Chimetto; Pereira, Cecilia do Valle P; Alves, Nelson; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo Bastos; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2014-01-01

    We report on the first characterization of the culturable heterotrophic bacteria of the scleractinian Madracis decactis. In addition, we characterized the culturable bacteria associated with the fireworm Hermodice carunculata, observed predating partially bleached coral colonies. Our study was carried out in the remote St. Peter and St. Paul Archipelago (SPSPA), Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Brazil. We constituted a 403 isolates collection and subsequently characterized it by means of pyrH and 16S rRNA partial sequences. We identified Photobacterium, Bacillus, and Vibrio species as members of the culturable microbiota of healthy M. decactis. V. campbellii, V. harveyi, V. communis, and V. maritimus were the most commonly found Vibrio species in healthy corals, representing more than 60 % of all vibrio isolates. Most of the vibrios isolated from the fireworm's tissues (n = 143; >90 %) were identified as V. shiloi. However, we did not recover V. shiloi from bleached M. decactis. Instead, we isolated V. communis, a novel Photobacterium species, Bacillus, Kocuria, and Pseudovibrio, suggesting a possible role of other facultative anaerobic bacteria and/or environmental features (such as water quality) in the onset of bleaching in SPSPA's M. decactis. PMID:23979060

  13. Integration of Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation, Methanogensis and Denitrification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zu Bo; Shiqiang Wei

    2011-01-01

    If EGSB reactor was inoculated with the aerobic activated sludge, then after the reactor start-up operation of 120 d, Granular sludge can be formed. Denitrification bacteria and anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria were cultured and enriched for 270 d in EGSB reactor with nitrite and ammonium. The removal efficiency of COD was 85%, ammonium nitrogen 35%, nitrite nitrogen 99.9%, and total

  14. Significance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation in the Bess B. Ward

    E-print Network

    Ward, Bess

    Significance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation in the ocean Bess B. Ward Department of Geosciences: bacteria capable of oxidizing ammonium to nitrogen gas (N2). This new source of N2 has now been detected the existence of bacteria capable of coupling the oxidation of ammonium directly to the reduction of nitrate [6

  15. Thioredoxin is Essential for Rhodobacter Sphaeroides Growth by Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cede Pasternak; K. Assemat; J. D. Clement-Metral; G. Klug

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the biological role of thioredoxin in the facultative photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacfer sphaeroides, attempts were made to construct a thioredoxin-def icient mutant by site-specif ic mutagenesis, using the Tn903 kanamycin resistance gene for selection. In situ and Southern hybridization analyses have demonstrated that the TmA- mutation is lethal for R. sphaeroides growth under anaerobic conditions with DMSO as terminal

  16. Analysis of Transcription of the Staphylococcus aureus Aerobic Class Ib and Anaerobic Class III Ribonucleotide Reductase Genes in Response to Oxygen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MAHMUD MASALHA; ILYA BOROVOK; RACHEL SCHREIBER; YAIR AHARONOWITZ; GERALD COHEN

    2001-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive facultative aerobe that can grow in the absence of oxygen by fermentation or by using an alternative electron acceptor. To investigate the mechanism by which S. aureus is able to adapt to changes in oxygen concentration, we analyzed the transcriptional regulation of genes that encode the aerobic class Ib and anaerobic class III ribonucleotide reductase

  17. LOW PATHOGENIC POTENTIAL IN HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA FROM POTABLE WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forty-five isolates of HPC bacteria, most of which express virulence-related characteristics are being tested for pathogenicity in immunocompromised mice. All forty-five were negative for facultative intracellular pathogenicity. All twenty-three isolates tested thus far were a...

  18. Anaerobic electron acceptor chemotaxis in Shewanella putrefaciens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nealson, K. H.; Moser, D. P.; Saffarini, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    Shewanella putrefaciens MR-1 can grow either aerobically or anaerobically at the expense of many different electron acceptors and is often found in abundance at redox interfaces in nature. Such redox interfaces are often characterized by very strong gradients of electron acceptors resulting from rapid microbial metabolism. The coincidence of S. putrefaciens abundance with environmental gradients prompted an examination of the ability of MR-1 to sense and respond to electron acceptor gradients in the laboratory. In these experiments, taxis to the majority of the electron acceptors that S. putrefaciens utilizes for anaerobic growth was seen. All anaerobic electron acceptor taxis was eliminated by the presence of oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, elemental sulfur, or dimethyl sulfoxide, even though taxis to the latter was very weak and nitrate and nitrite respiration was normal in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide. Studies with respiratory mutants of MR-1 revealed that several electron acceptors that could not be used for anaerobic growth nevertheless elicited normal anaerobic taxis. Mutant M56, which was unable to respire nitrite, showed normal taxis to nitrite, as well as the inhibition of taxis to other electron acceptors by nitrite. These results indicate that electron acceptor taxis in S. putrefaciens does not conform to the paradigm established for Escherichia coli and several other bacteria. Carbon chemo-taxis was also unusual in this organism: of all carbon compounds tested, the only positive response observed was to formate under anaerobic conditions.

  19. Spore-Forming Bacteria that Resist Sterilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaDuc, Myron; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2003-01-01

    A report presents a phenotypic and genotypic characterization of a bacterial species that has been found to be of the genus Bacillus and has been tentatively named B. odysseensis because it was isolated from surfaces of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft as part of continuing research on techniques for sterilizing spacecraft to prevent contamination of remote planets by terrestrial species. B. odysseensis is a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that forms round spores. The exosporium has been conjectured to play a role in the elevated resistance to sterilization. Research on the exosporium is proposed as a path toward improved means of sterilization, medical treatment, and prevention of biofouling.

  20. Symbiosis of methanogenic bacteria and sapropelic protozoa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan J. A. van Bruggen; Claudius K. Stumm; Godfried D. Vogels

    1983-01-01

    Fluorescent bacteria were demonstrated to be abundantly spread as single cells throughout the cytoplasm of the giant amoeba Pelomyxa palustris, the sapropelic ciliate Metopus striatus and six other anaerobic protozoa examined. The endosymbionts of P. palustris and M. striatus were identified as methanogenic bacteria on the basis of the presence of the deazaflavin coenzyme F420 and the pterin compound F342.

  1. Limits of anaerobic biodegradation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Field

    2002-01-01

    The main factors responsible for anaerobic recalcitrance are reviewed. Anaerobic recalcitrance is associated with hydrocarbons lacking functional groups, branched molecules (gasoline oxygenates), aromatic amines and aromatic sulfonates. The most recalcitrant compounds are high molecular weight non- hydrolyzable polymers such as plastic, lignin and humus, which cannot be taken up by cells. Recently new capabilities of anaerobic microorganisms have been discovered

  2. [Evaluation for anaerobic culture system: Anoxomat Mart II].

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Yuji; Sasaki, Hiromi; Furuhata, Yukie; Tazawa, Yoko; Horiuchi, Hajime; Okada, Jun

    2007-01-01

    Anoxomat Mart II (Mart Microbiology BV, Lichtenvooorde, Netherlands, Central Scientific Commerce Inc., Tokyo, Japan) is an anaerobic jar apparatus which uses a vacuum pump in combination with catalyst as gas replacement procedure to remove all traces of oxygen. As we had a chance to use Anoxomat Mart II, we compared it with other two anaerobic culture methods; namely AnaeroPack anaero (Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Co., Tokyo, Japan) which employs anaerobic jar method, and Concept400 (RUSKINN TECHNOLOGY LTD, England; Central Scientific Commerce INc., Tokyo, Japan) which uses anaerobic chamber method. We used 10 different species of anaerobic bacteria obtained from ATCC. One strain each of 10 species was cultured and examined for measurement of the sensitibity of an anaerobic indicator, th number of bacteria after 48 hour culture, the diameter of colonies, and MIC value. As a result, the time to reach the anaerobic condition was around 30 minutes by the Mart II against around 60 minutes by the AnaeroPack anaero. There was no difference concerning the number of bacteria after 48 hour culture among three methods. But anaerobic bacteria cultured by Mart II tended to make bigger colonies compared to other two methods in the 5 strains out of 9, except for one strain in which the diameter of colonies could not be measured. On the other hand, the comparison of MIC value showed good correlation in 11 antibiotics out of 12 among three methods. The MIC value of 11 antibiotics fitted within 1-fold difference, and 2-fold difference was observed in only one antibiotic. Mart II is so small that it does cheep consumables. From these reasons, we concluded that Mart II can be one of the useful anerobic culture methods. PMID:17803362

  3. Molecular tools to track bacteria responsible for fuel deterioration and microbiologically influenced corrosion.

    PubMed

    Suflita, Joseph M; Aktas, Deniz F; Oldham, Athenia L; Perez-Ibarra, Beatriz Monica; Duncan, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Investigating the susceptibility of various fuels to anaerobic biodegradation has become complicated with the recognition that the fuels themselves are not sterile. Bacterial DNA could be obtained when various fuels were filtered through a hydrophobic teflon (0.22 ?m) membrane filter. Bacterial 16S rRNA genes from these preparations were PCR amplified, cloned, and the resulting libraries sequenced to identify the fuel-borne bacterial communities. The most common sequence, found in algal- and camelina-based biofuels as well as in ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and F76 diesel, was similar to that of a Tumebacillus. The next most common sequence was similar to Methylobacterium and was found in the biofuels and ULSD. Higher level phylogenetic groups included representatives of the Firmicutes (Bacillus, Lactobacillus and Streptococcus), several Actinobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Alphaproteobacteria (Methylobacterium and Sphingomonadales), Betaproteobacteria (Oxalobacteraceae and Burkholderiales) and Deltaproteobacteria. All of the fuel-associated bacterial sequences, except those obtained from a few facultative microorganisms, were from aerobes and only remotely affiliated with sequences that resulted from anaerobic successional events evident when ULSD was incubated with a coastal seawater and sediment inoculum. Thus, both traditional and alternate fuel formulations harbor a characteristic microflora, but these microorganisms contributed little to the successional patterns that ultimately resulted in fuel decomposition, sulfide formation and metal biocorrosion. The findings illustrate the value of molecular approaches to track the fate of bacteria that might come in contact with fuels and potentially contribute to corrosion problems throughout the energy value chain. PMID:22978494

  4. Glycogen accumulating population and its anaerobic substrate uptake in anaerobic-aerobic activated sludge without biological phosphorus removal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Tso Liu; Takashi Mino; Kazunori Nakamura; Tomonori Matsuo

    1996-01-01

    The presence of a glycogen accumulating population and its abilities of substrate uptake and storage in anaerobic-aerobic activated sludge fed with mainly acetate were investigated. Because a low phosphorus\\/carbon feeding ratio (2\\/100, wt\\/wt) was used to suppress the growth of polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria, the sludge exhibited no biological phosphorus removal activity. Still, under anaerobic conditions, acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, pyruvate, lactate,

  5. Treatment of Anaerobic Bacterial Infections with Clindamycin-2-Phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Levison, Matthew E.; Bran, Jose L.; Ries, Kristen

    1974-01-01

    Thirty-five patients with a variety of serious infections caused by anaerobic bacteria responded to clindamycin. Cure was achieved in 27 of the 32 patients with pleuropulmonary and intra-abdominal infections. Mean serum concentrations of clindamycin for the 8 h after intramuscular administration of clindamycin in these patients were at least 2.5 times the minimal inhibitory concentration of clindamycin for more than 90% of anaerobes. This experience suggests that clindamycin is an excellent and relatively safe antibiotic for treatment of infection caused by anaerobes when combined with surgery (when indicated) or other antibiotics active against aerobic gram-negative bacilli, if present. PMID:4600161

  6. BOGUS BACTERIA...

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Deaton

    2007-01-24

    Here are some websites to get you started... Just click on the links and start searching! microbe world- bacteria Bacteria Rule Quiz! Bacteria.... Harmful Bacteria Bacteria Museum Bacteria! Microbes- all sorts of info... When you are finished looking at the sites or when you have enough information concerning bacteria, ask Mrs. Deaton for some books that can give you even more DETAIL!!! *Don\\'t forget to keep track of your information on your I-CHARTS... ...

  7. Diversity Profile of Microbes Associated with Anaerobic Sulfur Oxidation in an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor Treating Municipal Sewage

    PubMed Central

    Aida, Azrina A.; Kuroda, Kyohei; Yamamoto, Masamitsu; Nakamura, Akinobu; Hatamoto, Masashi; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    We herein analyzed the diversity of microbes involved in anaerobic sulfur oxidation in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor used for treating municipal sewage under low-temperature conditions. Anaerobic sulfur oxidation occurred in the absence of oxygen, with nitrite and nitrate as electron acceptors; however, reactor performance parameters demonstrated that anaerobic conditions were maintained. In order to gain insights into the underlying basis of anaerobic sulfur oxidation, the microbial diversity that exists in the UASB sludge was analyzed comprehensively to determine their identities and contribution to sulfur oxidation. Sludge samples were collected from the UASB reactor over a period of 2 years and used for bacterial 16S rRNA gene-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and next-generation sequencing analyses. T-RFLP and sequencing results both showed that microbial community patterns changed markedly from day 537 onwards. Bacteria belonging to the genus Desulforhabdus within the phylum Proteobacteria and uncultured bacteria within the phylum Fusobacteria were the main groups observed during the period of anaerobic sulfur oxidation. Their abundance correlated with temperature, suggesting that these bacterial groups played roles in anaerobic sulfur oxidation in UASB reactors. PMID:25817585

  8. Diversity Profile of Microbes Associated with Anaerobic Sulfur Oxidation in an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor Treating Municipal Sewage.

    PubMed

    Aida, Azrina A; Kuroda, Kyohei; Yamamoto, Masamitsu; Nakamura, Akinobu; Hatamoto, Masashi; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2015-06-19

    We herein analyzed the diversity of microbes involved in anaerobic sulfur oxidation in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor used for treating municipal sewage under low-temperature conditions. Anaerobic sulfur oxidation occurred in the absence of oxygen, with nitrite and nitrate as electron acceptors; however, reactor performance parameters demonstrated that anaerobic conditions were maintained. In order to gain insights into the underlying basis of anaerobic sulfur oxidation, the microbial diversity that exists in the UASB sludge was analyzed comprehensively to determine their identities and contribution to sulfur oxidation. Sludge samples were collected from the UASB reactor over a period of 2 years and used for bacterial 16S rRNA gene-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and next-generation sequencing analyses. T-RFLP and sequencing results both showed that microbial community patterns changed markedly from day 537 onwards. Bacteria belonging to the genus Desulforhabdus within the phylum Proteobacteria and uncultured bacteria within the phylum Fusobacteria were the main groups observed during the period of anaerobic sulfur oxidation. Their abundance correlated with temperature, suggesting that these bacterial groups played roles in anaerobic sulfur oxidation in UASB reactors. PMID:25817585

  9. Genome characteristics of facultatively symbiotic Frankia sp. strains reflect host range and host plant biogeography

    PubMed Central

    Normand, Philippe; Lapierre, Pascal; Tisa, Louis S.; Gogarten, Johann Peter; Alloisio, Nicole; Bagnarol, Emilie; Bassi, Carla A.; Berry, Alison M.; Bickhart, Derek M.; Choisne, Nathalie; Couloux, Arnaud; Cournoyer, Benoit; Cruveiller, Stephane; Daubin, Vincent; Demange, Nadia; Francino, Maria Pilar; Goltsman, Eugene; Huang, Ying; Kopp, Olga R.; Labarre, Laurent; Lapidus, Alla; Lavire, Celine; Marechal, Joelle; Martinez, Michele; Mastronunzio, Juliana E.; Mullin, Beth C.; Niemann, James; Pujic, Pierre; Rawnsley, Tania; Rouy, Zoe; Schenowitz, Chantal; Sellstedt, Anita; Tavares, Fernando; Tomkins, Jeffrey P.; Vallenet, David; Valverde, Claudio; Wall, Luis G.; Wang, Ying; Medigue, Claudine; Benson, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Soil bacteria that also form mutualistic symbioses in plants encounter two major levels of selection. One occurs during adaptation to and survival in soil, and the other occurs in concert with host plant speciation and adaptation. Actinobacteria from the genus Frankia are facultative symbionts that form N2-fixing root nodules on diverse and globally distributed angiosperms in the “actinorhizal” symbioses. Three closely related clades of Frankia sp. strains are recognized; members of each clade infect a subset of plants from among eight angiosperm families. We sequenced the genomes from three strains; their sizes varied from 5.43 Mbp for a narrow host range strain (Frankia sp. strain HFPCcI3) to 7.50 Mbp for a medium host range strain (Frankia alni strain ACN14a) to 9.04 Mbp for a broad host range strain (Frankia sp. strain EAN1pec.) This size divergence is the largest yet reported for such closely related soil bacteria (97.8%–98.9% identity of 16S rRNA genes). The extent of gene deletion, duplication, and acquisition is in concert with the biogeographic history of the symbioses and host plant speciation. Host plant isolation favored genome contraction, whereas host plant diversification favored genome expansion. The results support the idea that major genome expansions as well as reductions can occur in facultative symbiotic soil bacteria as they respond to new environments in the context of their symbioses. PMID:17151343

  10. Effect of inorganic carbon on anaerobic ammonium oxidation enriched in sequencing batch reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dexiang LIAO; Xiaoming LI; Qi YANG; Guangming ZENG; Liang GUO; Xiu YUE

    2008-01-01

    The present lab-scale research reveals the enrichment of anaerobic ammonium oxidation microorganism from methanogenic anaerobic granular sludge and the effect of inorganic carbon (sodium bicarbonate) on anaerobic ammonium oxidation. The enrichment of anammox bacteria was carried out in a 7.0-L sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and the effect of bicarbonate on anammox was conducted in a 3.0-L SBR. Research results, especially

  11. Improved chamber for the isolation of anaerobic microorganisms.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, M E; Mangels, J I

    1976-01-01

    A small portable chamber for the recovery of anaerobic bacteria is described. This rigid chamber is constructed of clear acrylic with dimensions of 30 inches (ca. 76.2 cm) wide, 18 inches (ca. 44.7 cm) deep, and 18 inches (ca. 44.7 cm) high. Conventional bacteriological techniques can be used inside the chamber to efficiently isolate strict anaerobic organisms. An adapter allows the attachment of a standard anaerobic jar to the outside of the chamber. The jar can be used to store reduced media. Once the jar is attached to the chamber and the media is removed to the interior of the chamber, the jar is available to receive inoculated media. The anaerobic jar can then be removed from the chamber, without contaminating the jar or chamber with oxygen, and be placed in a conventional 37degreesC incubator. This chamber also allows the microbiologist to process cultures without wearing gloves as was necessary with previous anaerobic chambers. Air-tight latex rubber sleeves seal around the microbiologists arms and to the armport flange of the chamber to prevent the introduction of oxygen into the chamber. Anaerobic conditions are maintained by circulating a 80% N2, 10% H2, 10% CO2 gas mixture through alumina pellets coated with palladium. This study indicates that anaerobic conditions obtained in this chamber are sufficient for recovery of obligate anaerobes. PMID:783188

  12. Contribution of Anaerobic Digesters to Emissions Mitigation and Electricity Generation Under U.S. Climate Policy

    E-print Network

    Zaks, David P. M.

    Livestock husbandry in the U.S. significantly contributes to many environmental problems, including the release of methane, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG). Anaerobic digesters (ADs) break down organic wastes using bacteria ...

  13. Saccharomyces cerevisiae live cells stimulate degradation and fermentation of cellulose by the rumen anaerobic

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae live cells stimulate degradation and fermentation of cellulose fermentation patterns and to increase numbers of rumen bacteria, especially cellulolytic species (Wallace and fermentation of cellulose by an anaerobic fungus, Neocallimastix frontalis MCH3, which is particularly

  14. Sulfate reduction, nutrient limitation, and reactor design considerations in anaerobic digesters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1991-01-01

    Three areas of improvement in anaerobic digestion were investigated: inhibition of sulfate reduction, nutrient limitation, and reactor design. In the anaerobic treatment of wastewaters containing high concentrations of sulfate, hydrogen sulfide, an undesirable end product, is produced by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). Research was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of adding SRB-specific biochemical inhibitors to a waste stream as a

  15. A novel combination of methane fermentation and MBR — Kubota Submerged Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kanai; V. Ferre; S. Wakahara; T. Yamamoto; M. Moro

    2010-01-01

    Methane fermentation is considered one of the best placed biological processes to reduce volume of organic waste while keeping small sludge production and recovering energy. One of the disadvantages of early anaerobic digestion technologies was the long hydraulic retention time thus large capacity tanks were required to hold slow growing methanogenic bacteria. New technological attempts such as upflow anaerobic sludge

  16. ANAEROBIC SOIL DISINFESTATION IN MICROCOSMS OF TWO SANDY SOILS.

    PubMed

    Stremi?ska, M A; Runia, W T; Termorshuizen, A J; Feil, H; Van Der Wurff, A W G

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) has been proposed as an alternative control method of soil-borne plant pathogens. It involves adding a labile carbon source, irrigating the soil to stimulate decomposition of organic material and then covering the soil with air-tight plastic to limit gas exchange. During the ASD process, soil microorganisms switch from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. As a result, by-products of anaerobic metabolism are released into the soil environment such as various organic acids and gases. These by-products are reported to have a negative effect on survival of soil-borne plant pathogens. However, the efficacy of ASD to reduce soil-borne pathogens in practice may vary significantly. Therefore, we studied the efficacy of the ASD process in two different soils. In addition, it was investigated whether a pre-treatment with an anaerobic bacterial inoculum prior to ASD affected the efficacy of the process. Two sandy soils (dune sand and glacial sand) were inoculated in 2 L soil microcosms. We tested the efficacy of ASD treatment against the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida. For each soil, three treatments were used: control treatment (no Herbie addition, aerobic incubation), ASD 1 (organic substrate addition, anaerobic incubation) and ASD 2 (organic substrate and anaerobic bacterial inoculum addition, anaerobic incubation). Soil microcosms were incubated in the dark at 20°C for two weeks. We observed that anaerobic soil disinfestation treatments were highly effective against Potato Cyst Nematode (PCN), with pathogen being eradicated totally in all but one ASD treatment (glacial sand ASD2) within two weeks. The relative abundance of Firmicutes (spore-forming bacteria, often fermentative) in total bacteria increased significantly in ASD treated soils. Numbers of these bacteria correlated positively with increased concentrations of acetic and butyric acids in soil water phase in ASD treatments. PMID:26084078

  17. Facultative hyperaccumulation of heavy metals and metalloids.

    PubMed

    Pollard, A Joseph; Reeves, Roger D; Baker, Alan J M

    2014-03-01

    Approximately 500 species of plants are known to hyperaccumulate heavy metals and metalloids. The majority are obligate metallophytes, species that are restricted to metalliferous soils. However, a smaller but increasing list of plants are "facultative hyperaccumulators" that hyperaccumulate heavy metals when occurring on metalliferous soils, yet also occur commonly on normal, non-metalliferous soils. This paper reviews the biology of facultative hyperaccumulators and the opportunities they provide for ecological and evolutionary research. The existence of facultative hyperaccumulator populations across a wide edaphic range allows intraspecific comparisons of tolerance and uptake physiology. This approach has been used to study zinc and cadmium hyperaccumulation by Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri, and it will be instructive to make similar comparisons on species that are distributed even more abundantly on normal soil. Over 90% of known hyperaccumulators occur on serpentine (ultramafic) soil and accumulate nickel, yet there have paradoxically been few experimental studies of facultative nickel hyperaccumulation. Several hypotheses suggested to explain the evolution of hyperaccumulation seem unlikely when most populations of a species occur on normal soil, where plants cannot hyperaccumulate due to low metal availability. In such species, it may be that hyperaccumulation is an ancestral phylogenetic trait or an anomalous manifestation of physiological mechanisms evolved on normal soils, and may or may not have direct adaptive benefits. PMID:24467891

  18. Equations and calculations for fermentations of butyric acid bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eleftherios Terry Papoutsakis

    1984-01-01

    Saccharolytic clostridia grow anaerobically on a variety of substrates, can produce a large number of useful prod- uct~,~-~ and thus appear to be very promising bacteria for production of organic chemicals from mono-, oligo-, and polysaccharides. Butyric acid bacteria (clostridia) in par- ticular, can anaerobically ferment a variety of sugars (hex- oses, pentoses, and oligosac~harides )~~~~~ to produce a variety

  19. Modelling simultaneous anaerobic methane and ammonium removal in a granular sludge reactor.

    PubMed

    Winkler, M-K H; Ettwig, K F; Vannecke, T P W; Stultiens, K; Bogdan, A; Kartal, B; Volcke, E I P

    2015-04-15

    Anaerobic nitrogen removal technologies offer advantages in terms of energy and cost savings over conventional nitrification-denitrification systems. A mathematical model was constructed to evaluate the influence of process operation on the coexistence of nitrite dependent anaerobic methane oxidizing bacteria (n-damo) and anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (anammox) in a single granule. The nitrite and methane affinity constants of n-damo bacteria were measured experimentally. The biomass yield of n-damo bacteria was derived from experimental data and a thermodynamic state analysis. Through simulations, it was found that the possible survival of n-damo besides anammox bacteria was sensitive to the nitrite/ammonium influent ratio. If ammonium was supplied in excess, n-damo bacteria were outcompeted. At low biomass concentration, n-damo bacteria lost the competition against anammox bacteria. When the biomass loading closely matched the biomass concentration needed for full nutrient removal, strong substrate competition occurred resulting in oscillating removal rates. The simulation results further reveal that smaller granules enabled higher simultaneous ammonium and methane removal efficiencies. The implementation of simultaneous anaerobic methane and ammonium removal will decrease greenhouse gas emissions, but an economic analysis showed that adding anaerobic methane removal to a partial nitritation/anammox process may increase the aeration costs with over 20%. Finally, some considerations were given regarding the practical implementation of the process. PMID:25697694

  20. Complex community of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation bacteria in coastal sediments of the Mai Po wetland by PCR amplification of both 16S rRNA and pmoA genes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Zhou, Zhichao; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2015-02-01

    In the present work, both 16S rRNA and pmoA gene-based PCR primers were employed successfully to study the diversity and distribution of n-damo bacteria in the surface and lower layer sediments at the coastal Mai Po wetland. The occurrence of n-damo bacteria in both the surface and subsurface sediments with high diversity was confirmed in this study. Unlike the two other known n-damo communities from coastal areas, the pmoA gene-amplified sequences in the present work clustered not only with some freshwater subclusters but also within three newly erected marine subclusters mostly, indicating the unique niche specificity of n-damo bacteria in this wetland. Results suggested vegetation affected the distribution and community structures of n-damo bacteria in the sediments and n-damo could coexist with sulfate-reducing methanotrophs in the coastal ecosystem. Community structures of the Mai Po n-damo bacteria based on 16S rRNA gene were different from those of either the freshwater or the marine. In contrast, structures of the Mai Po n-damo communities based on pmoA gene grouped with the marine ones and were clearly distinguished from the freshwater ones. The abundance of n-damo bacteria at this wetland was quantified using 16S rRNA gene PCR primers to be 2.65-6.71?×?10(5) copies/g dry sediment. Ammonium and nitrite strongly affected the community structures and distribution of n-damo bacteria in the coastal Mai Po wetland sediments. PMID:25219532

  1. Anaerobic Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent in Pilot-Scale Anaerobic EGSB Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Large volumes of untreated palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose threat to aquatic environment due to the presence of very high organic content. The present investigation involved two pilot-scale anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors, continuously operated for 1 year to treat POME. Setting HRT at 9.8?d, the anaerobic EGSB reactors reduced COD from 71179?mg/L to 12341?mg/L and recycled half of sludge by a dissolved air flotation (DAF). The average effluent COD was 3587?mg/L with the consistent COD removal efficiency of 94.89%. Adding cationic polymer (PAM) dose of 30?mg/L to DAF unit and recycling its half of sludge caused granulation of anaerobic sludge. Bacilli and small coccid bacteria were the dominant microbial species of the reactor. The reactor produced 27.65?m3 of biogas per m3 of POME which was utilized for electricity generation. PMID:26167485

  2. Solar heated anaerobic digestor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rhoades

    1980-01-01

    A solar heated anaerobic digestor is provided, adapted to utilize organic material capable of decomposing to produce methane gas and a liquid fertilizer. The sealed anaerobic digestor is wrapped with a layer of heat absorptive material followed by a series of abutting removable panels of insulative material. Insulative panels may be temporarily removed to expose the heat absorptive material to

  3. Diversity of anaerobic microbes in spacecraft assembly clean rooms.

    PubMed

    Probst, Alexander; Vaishampayan, Parag; Osman, Shariff; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Andersen, Gary L; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2010-05-01

    Although the cultivable and noncultivable microbial diversity of spacecraft assembly clean rooms has been previously documented using conventional and state-of-the-art molecular techniques, the occurrence of obligate anaerobes within these clean rooms is still uncertain. Therefore, anaerobic bacterial communities of three clean-room facilities were analyzed during assembly of the Mars Science Laboratory rover. Anaerobic bacteria were cultured on several media, and DNA was extracted from suitable anaerobic enrichments and examined with conventional 16S rRNA gene clone library, as well as high-density phylogenetic 16S rRNA gene microarray (PhyloChip) technologies. The culture-dependent analyses predominantly showed the presence of clostridial and propionibacterial strains. The 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from clone libraries revealed distinct microbial populations associated with each clean-room facility, clustered exclusively within gram-positive organisms. PhyloChip analysis detected a greater microbial diversity, spanning many phyla of bacteria, and provided a deeper insight into the microbial community structure of the clean-room facilities. This study presents an integrated approach for assessing the anaerobic microbial population within clean-room facilities, using both molecular and cultivation-based analyses. The results reveal that highly diverse anaerobic bacterial populations persist in the clean rooms even after the imposition of rigorous maintenance programs and will pose a challenge to planetary protection implementation activities. PMID:20228115

  4. Interactions of microbes in aquatic systems Uncultured populations of bacteria were analyzed in aquatic systems and populations related

    E-print Network

    Upchurch, Gary - Department of Biology, Texas State University

    Interactions of microbes in aquatic systems Uncultured populations of bacteria and quantitative analysis of Archaea in anaerobic sediments of Lake Rotsee (Lucerne of aggregate-forming phototrophic sulfur and sulfate-reducing bacteria in the chemocline

  5. Mechanisms of resistance in anaerobes and new developments in testing.

    PubMed

    Finegold, S M

    1989-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria currently demonstrate increased resistance to antimicrobial agents, primarily by the production of beta-lactamase. A number of species of Bacteroides, most notably those in the Bacteroides fragilis group, produce these enzymes. A few species of Fusobacterium and Clostridium produce beta-lactamase as well. Fortunately, this mechanism of resistance is readily overcome by administering beta-lactamase inhibitors coupled with a beta-lactam antibiotic that would otherwise be inactivated. Other types of resistance encountered in anaerobic bacteria include inactivating enzymes such as chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, plasmid-mediated transferable multiple-drug resistance, changes in porin molecules in the outer membrane of the bacterial cell, decreased uptake of drug by other mechanisms, changes in the target organs such as penicillin-binding proteins, and decreased reduction of the antibiotic to an active intermediate product. In many institutions, certain drugs such as cefoxitin, clindamycin, and piperacillin, which were previously active against almost all strains of B. fragilis, are now effective against only 70 to 85% of this group of anaerobes. Drugs with essentially 100% activity against most anaerobic bacteria include chloramphenicol, imipenem, metronidazole, and the combinations of a beta-lactam antibiotic plus a beta-lactamase inhibitor such as ampicillin plus sulbactam and amoxicillin or ticarcillin combined with sodium clavulanate. This paper also discusses the indications for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobes as well as problems encountered with testing techniques that are currently being used. PMID:2686914

  6. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a facultative pathogen of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, A; Dangar, T K

    1995-11-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa was identified as a facultative pathogen of red palm weevil. Intra-haemocoelic injection of the pathogen within larvae and pre-pupae was more effective at killing the insects [with a median lethal dose (LD50) of 9×10(2) to 2×10(3) bacteria/insect] than inoculation by force feeding (LD50 of 10(5) to 4×10(5) bacteria/insect) or by wading the insects in a suspension of the pathogen (LD50 of 10(5) to 2×10(5) bacteria/insect). Injection of 3×10(3) bacteria/insect killed 69% of larvae; small larvae were more susceptible (LD50 of 9×10(5) bacteria/larva) than either larger larvae (LD50 of 10(3) bacteria/larva) or pre-pupa. The median time to death of the small larvae following injection of P. aeruginosa was about 6 days but that following force feeding or wading was about 8 days. A secondary invader, Serratia marcescens, had no effect on the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa but hastened death of larvae by about 3 days. PMID:24415007

  7. Some unique features of alkaliphilic anaerobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roof, Erin; Pikuta, Elena; Otto, Christopher; Williams, George; Hoover, Richard

    2013-09-01

    This article explores two topics involving the examination of four strains of alkaliphilic anaerobes. The first topic was dedicated to detection of the ability of microorganisms to metabolize alternative chirality substrates. Two saccharolytic anaerobic bacteria were chosen for the first experiment: Anaerovirgula multivorans strain SCAT, which is gram positive and spore-forming; and Spirochaeta dissipatitropha, strain ASpC2T, which is gram negative. It was found that both checked sugarlytics were able to use L-ribose and L-arabinose, as growth substrates. The second part was concerned of study a chemolithotrophy in two halo-alkaliphilic sulfate reducing bacteria: Desulfonatornum thiodismutans strain MLF1T and Desulfonatronum lacustre strain Z-7951T. The experiments with lithotrophs had demonstrated that strain MLF1T was capable to grow without any organic source of carbon, while strain Z-7951T had required at least 2 mM sodium acetate for growth. Anaerobic technique was used for preparation of the growth media and maintenance of these bacterial cultures. Standard methods for Gram, spore, and flagella staining were applied for characterization of cytomorphology. In this article, the results of the experiments performed on cytological, physiological, and biochemical levels are presented and discussed.

  8. Characteristics, Process Parameters, and Inner Components of Anaerobic Bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Abdelgadir, Awad; Chen, Xiaoguang; Liu, Jianshe; Xie, Xuehui; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Heng; Liu, Na

    2014-01-01

    The anaerobic bioreactor applies the principles of biotechnology and microbiology, and nowadays it has been used widely in the wastewater treatment plants due to their high efficiency, low energy use, and green energy generation. Advantages and disadvantages of anaerobic process were shown, and three main characteristics of anaerobic bioreactor (AB), namely, inhomogeneous system, time instability, and space instability were also discussed in this work. For high efficiency of wastewater treatment, the process parameters of anaerobic digestion, such as temperature, pH, Hydraulic retention time (HRT), Organic Loading Rate (OLR), and sludge retention time (SRT) were introduced to take into account the optimum conditions for living, growth, and multiplication of bacteria. The inner components, which can improve SRT, and even enhance mass transfer, were also explained and have been divided into transverse inner components, longitudinal inner components, and biofilm-packing material. At last, the newly developed special inner components were discussed and found more efficient and productive. PMID:24672798

  9. Anaerobic respiration with elemental sulfur and with disulfides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reiner Hedderich; Oliver Klimmek; Achim Kröger; Reinhard Dirmeier; Martin Keller; Karl O. Stetter

    1998-01-01

    Anaerobic respiration with elemental sulfur\\/polysulfide or organic disulfides is performed by several bacteria and archaea, but has only been investigated in a few organisms in detail. The electron transport chain that catalyzes polysulfide reduction in the Gram-negative bacterium Wolinella succinogenes consists of a dehydrogenase (formate dehydrogenase or hydrogenase) and polysulfide reductase. The enzymes are integrated in the cytoplasmic membrane with

  10. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) in the marine environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tage Dalsgaard; Bo Thamdrup; Donald E. Canfield

    2005-01-01

    Anammox, anaerobic ammonium oxidation with nitrite, is now recognized as an important process in the marine nitrogen cycle. The bacteria conducting anammox are highly specialized and appear to belong to the Planctomycetales. The process has now been found in a range of environments including marine sediments, sea ice and anoxic water columns, and it may be responsible for up to

  11. Comparative Genomics of Insect-Symbiotic Bacteria: Influence of Host Environment on Microbial Genome Composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rita V. M. Rio; Cedric Lefevre; Abdelaziz Heddi; Serap Aksoy

    2003-01-01

    Commensal symbionts, thought to be intermediary amid obligate mutualists and facultative parasites, offer insight into forces driving the evolutionary transition into mutualism. Using macroarrays developed for a close relative, Escherichia coli, we utilized a heterologous array hybridization approach to infer the genomic com- positions of a clade of bacteria that have recently established symbiotic associations: Sodalis glossinidius with the tsetse

  12. Bacteria Museum

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Who knew that bacteria had their own virtual museum? Here, visitors will "learn that not all bacteria are harmful, how they are used in industry, that they belong to the oldest living creatures on Earth", and many more interesting facts to discover about the diverse world of bacteria. The "Bacterial Species Files" tab at the top of the page, allows visitors to look up information on 40 different specific bacteria, from Anthrax to Yersinia enterocolitica. The information provided for each bacterium includes photographs, consumer guides, fact sheets, and scientific links. Visitors will find that the "Main Exhibits" tab addresses the basics about bacteria, as well as "Pathogenic Bacteria", "Evolution", "How We Fight Bacteria", and "Food and Water Safety". Visitors will surely enjoy the "Good Bacteria in Food" link found in the Food and Water Safety section, as it explains how some foods benefit from good bacteria, such as Swiss cheese, sausage, sauerkraut, chocolate, and coffee.

  13. FACULTE DES ARTS ET DES SCIENCES DEPARTEMENT DE PHYSIQUE

    E-print Network

    Parrott, Lael

    FACULT´E DES ARTS ET DES SCIENCES D´EPARTEMENT DE PHYSIQUE AUTOMNE 2013 PLAN DE COURS Sigle du cours: PHY 1234 Titre du cours: Introduction `a la physique num´erique Nombre de cr´edits: 3 Professeur est offert principalement aux ´etudiant(e)s inscrit(e)s au premier cycle en physique et au programme

  14. Impact of fertilizing with raw or anaerobically digested sewage sludge on the abundance of antibiotic-resistant coliforms, antibiotic resistance genes, and pathogenic bacteria in soil and on vegetables at harvest.

    PubMed

    Rahube, Teddie O; Marti, Romain; Scott, Andrew; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Murray, Roger; Sabourin, Lyne; Zhang, Yun; Duenk, Peter; Lapen, David R; Topp, Edward

    2014-11-01

    The consumption of crops fertilized with human waste represents a potential route of exposure to antibiotic-resistant fecal bacteria. The present study evaluated the abundance of bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes by using both culture-dependent and molecular methods. Various vegetables (lettuce, carrots, radish, and tomatoes) were sown into field plots fertilized inorganically or with class B biosolids or untreated municipal sewage sludge and harvested when of marketable quality. Analysis of viable pathogenic bacteria or antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria by plate counts did not reveal significant treatment effects of fertilization with class B biosolids or untreated sewage sludge on the vegetables. Numerous targeted genes associated with antibiotic resistance and mobile genetic elements were detected by PCR in soil and on vegetables at harvest from plots that received no organic amendment. However, in the season of application, vegetables harvested from plots treated with either material carried gene targets not detected in the absence of amendment. Several gene targets evaluated by using quantitative PCR (qPCR) were considerably more abundant on vegetables harvested from sewage sludge-treated plots than on vegetables from control plots in the season of application, whereas vegetables harvested the following year revealed no treatment effect. Overall, the results of the present study suggest that producing vegetable crops in ground fertilized with human waste without appropriate delay or pretreatment will result in an additional burden of antibiotic resistance genes on harvested crops. Managing human exposure to antibiotic resistance genes carried in human waste must be undertaken through judicious agricultural practice. PMID:25172864

  15. Membrane controlled anaerobic digestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omstead, D. R.

    In response to general shortages of energy, examination of the anaerboic digestion process as a potential source of a combustible, methane-rich fuel has intensified in recent years. It has been suggested that orgaic intermediates (such as fatty acids), produced during digestion, might also be recovered for use as chemical feedstocks. This investigation has been concerned with combining ultrafiltration separation techniques with anaerobic digestion for the development of a process in which the total production of acetic acid (the most valuable intermediate in anaerobic digestion) and methane are optimized. Enrichment cultures, able to utilize glucose as a sole carbon source, were adapted from sewage digesting cultures using conventional techniques. An ultrafiltration system was constructed and coupled to an anaerobic digester culture vessel which contained the glucose enrichment. The membrane controlled anaerobic digester appears to show promise as a means of producing high rates of both methane gas and acetic acid.

  16. The anammoxosome: an intracytoplasmic compartment in anammox bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura A. van Niftrik; John A. Fuerst; J. Gijs Kuenen; Mike S. M. Jetten; Marc Strous

    2004-01-01

    Anammox bacteria belong to the phylum Planctomycetes and perform anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox); they oxidize ammonium with nitrite as the electron acceptor to yield dinitrogen gas. The anammox reaction takes place inside the anammoxosome: an intracytoplasmic compartment bounded by a single ladderane lipid-containing membrane. The anammox bacteria, first found in a wastewater treatment plant in The Netherlands, have the potential

  17. Molecular diversity of thermophilic cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter L Bergquist; Moreland D Gibbs; Daniel D Morris; V. S. Junior Te'o; David J Saul; Hugh W Morgan

    1999-01-01

    Many thermophilic bacteria belong to groups with deep phylogenetic lineages and ancestral forms were established before the occurrence of eucaryotes that produced cellulose and hemicellulose. Thus they may have acquired their ?-glycanase genes from more recent mesophilic bacteria. Most research has focussed on extremely thermophilic eubacteria growing above 65°C under anaerobic conditions. Only recently have aerobic cellulolytic thermophiles been described

  18. Analysis of Facultative Lithotroph Distribution and Diversity on Volcanic Deposits by Use of the Large Subunit of Ribulose 1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase\\/Oxygenase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Nanba; G. M. King; K. Dunfield

    2004-01-01

    A 492- to 495-bp fragment of the gene coding for the large subunit of the form I ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase\\/oxygenase (RubisCO) (rbcL) was amplified by PCR from facultatively lithotrophic aerobic CO- oxidizing bacteria, colorless and purple sulfide-oxidizing microbial mats, and genomic DNA extracts from tephra and ash deposits from Kilauea volcano, for which atmospheric CO and hydrogen have been previously

  19. Anammox bacteria: from discovery to application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Gijs Kuenen

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria, which were discovered in waste-water sludge in the early 1990s, have the unique metabolic ability to combine ammonium and nitrite or nitrate to form nitrogen gas. This discovery led to the realization that a substantial part of the enormous nitrogen losses that are observed in the marine environment — up to 50% of the total

  20. ACETOGENIC BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH SEAGRASS ROOTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seagrasses are adapted to being rooted in reduced, anoxic sediments with high rates of sulfate reduction. During the day, an oxygen gradient is generated around the roots, becoming anoxic at night. Thus, obligate anaerobic bacteria in the rhizosphere have to tolerate elevated oxy...

  1. Bioaugmentation and functional partitioning in a zero valent iron-anaerobic reactor for sulfate-containing wastewater treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingxin Zhang; Yaobin Zhang; Xie Quan; Yiwen Liu; Xinlei An; Shuo Chen; Huimin Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Sulfate inhibits anaerobic digestion because it stimulates sulfate reduction bacteria (SRB) to compete with methanogens for electron utilization and sulfide produced has toxicity to microorganism. Considering that zero-valent iron (ZVI) is expected to abbreviate the above negative effects due to its reductibility, a ZVI bed was packed into an anaerobic (ZVI-anaerobic) reactor (R1) for improvement of sulfate-containing wastewater treatment. The

  2. Facult des sciences sociales et politiques FacultY oF social and political sciences

    E-print Network

    Cerf, Nicolas

    Faculté des sciences sociales et politiques FacultY oF social and political sciences Vous êtesUxelles (Ulb) Faculté des Sciences sociales et politiques (FSP) Faculty of Social and Political Sciences INFORMATION Avec près de 3000 étudiants, la Faculté des Sciences sociales et politiques (FSP) est l'une des

  3. In vitro degradation of [14C]lignocellulose by polycentric and monocentric ruminal anaerobic fungi is inhibited

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    In vitro degradation of [14C]lignocellulose by polycentric and monocentric ruminal anaerobic fungi Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Lignocellulose-derived phenolic monomers inhibit fibrolytic ruminal bacteria degradation by mixed anaerobic fungi (AF) selected from ruminal fluid with antibiotics (Akin and Rigsby, 1985

  4. Sensitivity analysis and parameter estimation in a model of anaerobic waste water treatment processes with substrate inhibition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. A. Noykova; M. Gyllenberg

    2000-01-01

    Anaerobic waste water treatment processes are commonly presented by the fifth order Hill and Barth non-linear model, describing three main stages of anaerobic digestion. The model investigated in the present work is a modified version of the Hill and Barth model, which includes substrate inhibition of growth of methanogenic bacteria. Parameter estimation of this model is a difficult problem because

  5. Diagnostic lipid biomarker and stable carbon isotope signatures of microbial communities mediating the anaerobic oxidation of methane with sulphate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helge Niemann; Marcus Elvert

    2008-01-01

    The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) with sulphate is the most important sink for methane in marine environments. This process is mediated by a consortium of methanotrophic archaea and sulphate reducing bacteria. So far, three groups of anaerobic methane oxidisers (ANME-1, -2 and -3) related to the methanogenic Methanosarcinales and Methanomicrobiales were discovered. The sulphate reducing partner of ANME-1 and

  6. Two host clades, two bacterial arsenals: evolution through gene losses in facultative endosymbionts.

    PubMed

    Rollat-Farnier, Pierre-Antoine; Santos-Garcia, Diego; Rao, Qiong; Sagot, Marie-France; Silva, Francisco J; Henri, Hélène; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés; Barbe, Valérie; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Vavre, Fabrice; Mouton, Laurence

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial endosymbiosis is an important evolutionary process in insects, which can harbor both obligate and facultative symbionts. The evolution of these symbionts is driven by evolutionary convergence, and they exhibit among the tiniest genomes in prokaryotes. The large host spectrum of facultative symbionts and the high diversity of strategies they use to infect new hosts probably impact the evolution of their genome and explain why they undergo less severe genomic erosion than obligate symbionts. Candidatus Hamiltonella defensa is suitable for the investigation of the genomic evolution of facultative symbionts because the bacteria are engaged in specific relationships in two clades of insects. In aphids, H. defensa is found in several species with an intermediate prevalence and confers protection against parasitoids. In whiteflies, H. defensa is almost fixed in some species of Bemisia tabaci, which suggests an important role of and a transition toward obligate symbiosis. In this study, comparisons of the genome of H. defensa present in two B. tabaci species (Middle East Asia Minor 1 and Mediterranean) and in the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum revealed that they belong to two distinct clades and underwent specific gene losses. In aphids, it contains highly virulent factors that could allow protection and horizontal transfers. In whiteflies, the genome lost these factors and seems to have a limited ability to acquire genes. However it contains genes that could be involved in the production of essential nutrients, which is consistent with a primordial role for this symbiont. In conclusion, although both lineages of H. defensa have mutualistic interactions with their hosts, their genomes follow distinct evolutionary trajectories that reflect their phenotype and could have important consequences on their evolvability. PMID:25714744

  7. Anaerobic propane oxidation in marine hydrocarbon seep sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quistad, Steven D.; Valentine, David L.

    2011-04-01

    Propane (C 3H 8) is an abundant hydrocarbon in subsurface reservoirs with significance to atmospheric chemistry and to marine biogeochemistry. The anaerobic oxidation of propane coupled to sulfate reduction may prevent sub-seafloor accumulations of propane from entering the ocean and atmosphere. Anaerobic oxidation of propane has recently been demonstrated in cultures of novel sulfate-reducing bacteria, but has not been directly demonstrated or quantified in nature. In this work we describe a method involving incubation with 13C-propane to quantify rates of anaerobic oxidation of propane in anoxic sediment, and we conclusively demonstrate the oxidation of propane under sulfidic conditions in fresh sediments of a marine hydrocarbon seep. Observed rates of anaerobic oxidation of propane adhere to first-order kinetic behavior, enabling the modification of this method for whole core rate determinations. Whole core rates in nine cores from two hydrocarbon seeps measured 0.04-2100 nmoles C 3H 8 cm -3 day -1 by this method. The seep persistently supplied with more propane displayed substantially higher rates of anaerobic oxidation of propane, by 1-2 orders of magnitude when averaged over the top 10-cm, suggesting the development of the microbial community is strongly modulated by the availability of propane. This work is the first to estimate rates for anaerobic oxidation of propane in any environment, and demonstrates the potential importance of the process as a filter for preventing propane from entering the ocean and atmosphere.

  8. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of some antimicrobial drugs against bacteria causing uterine infections in cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. M. Sheldon; M. Bushnell; J. Montgomery; A. N. Rycroft

    2004-01-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of oxytetracycline, cephapirin, cephapirin\\/mecillinam, cefquinome, ceftiofur and enrofloxacin, candidate antibiotics for the principal bacteria associated with uterine infections: Escherichia coli, Arcanobacterium pyogenes and the anaerobic bacteria Fusobacterium necrophorum and Prevotella melaninogenicus, were determined by the agar dilution method. The bacteria were isolated from animals with clinical metritis and\\/or endometritis. For E coli, cefquinome and enrofloxacin

  9. Anaerobic Biotransformation of Trichlorofluoroethene in

    E-print Network

    Semprini, Lewis

    Anaerobic Biotransformation of Trichlorofluoroethene in Groundwater Microcosms S A N J A Y V A N C, and other macrocycles. Anaerobic biotransformation is now recognized as an important if not dominant factor

  10. Enterobacteriaceae facilitate the anaerobic degradation of glucose by a forest soil.

    PubMed

    Degelmann, Daniela M; Kolb, Steffen; Dumont, Marc; Murrell, J Colin; Drake, Harold L

    2009-06-01

    Anoxic micro zones that occur in soil aggregates of oxic soils may be temporarily extended after rainfall and thus facilitate the anaerobic degradation of organic compounds in soils. The microbial degradation of glucose by anoxic slurries of a forest soil yielded acetate, CO2, H2, succinate, and ethanol, products indicative of mixed acid fermentation. Prokaryotes involved in this process were identified by time-resolved 16S rRNA gene-targeted stable isotope probing with [13C-U]-glucose. All labeled phylotypes from the 13C-enriched 16S rRNA gene were most closely related to Rahnella and Ewingella, enterobacterial genera known to catalyze mixed acid fermentation. These results indicate that facultative aerobes, in particular Enterobacteriaceae, (1) can outcompete obligate anaerobes when conditions become anoxic in forest soils and (2) may be involved in the initial decomposition of monosaccharides in anoxic micro zones of aerated forest soils. PMID:19453494

  11. Anaerobic taurine oxidation: a novel reaction by a nitrate-reducing Alcaligenes sp.

    PubMed

    Denger, K; Laue, H; Cook, A M

    1997-06-01

    Enrichment cultures were prepared under strictly anoxic conditions in medium representing fresh water and containing an organosulfonate as electron donor and carbon source, and nitrate as electron acceptor. The inoculum was from the anaerobic digestor of two communal sewage works. The natural organosulfonates 2-aminoethanesulfonate (taurine), DL-2-amino-3-sulfopropionate (cysteate) and 2-hydroxyethanesulfonate (isethionate) all gave positive enrichments, whereas unsubstituted alkanesulfonates, such as methanesulfonate and arenesulfonates, gave no enrichment. Two representative enrichments were used to obtain pure cultures, and strains NKNTAU (utilizing taurine) and NKNIS (utilizing isethionate) were isolated. Strain NKNTAU was examined in detail. Out of 18 tested organosulfonates, it utilized only one, taurine, and was identified as a novel Alcaligenes sp., a facultatively anaerobic bacterium. Carbon from taurine was converted to cell material and carbon dioxide. The amino group was released as ammonium ion and the sulfonate moiety was recovered as sulfate. Nitrate was reduced to nitrogen gas. PMID:9202468

  12. Nitrifying Bacteria in Wastewater Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Abeliovich, Aharon

    1987-01-01

    Deep wastewater reservoirs are used throughout Israel to store domestic wastewater effluents for summer irrigation. These effluents contain high concentrations of ammonia (?5 mM) that are frequently toxic to photosynthetic microorganisms and that lead to development of anoxic conditions. Population dynamics of nitrifying bacteria and rates of nitrification were studied in two wastewater reservoirs that differed in organic load and degree of oxygenation and in the laboratory under controlled conditions, both by serial dilutions in mineral medium and microscopically with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated antibodies prepared against local isolates. The difference in counts by the two methods was within 1 order of magnitude. In the laboratory, an O2 concentration of 0.2 mg liter?1 was close to optimal with respect to growth of NH3 oxidizers on domestic wastewater, while O2 concentrations of 0.05 mg liter?1 supported significant rates of nitrification. It was found that even hypertrophic anaerobic environments such as the anaerobic hypolimnion of the wastewater reservoir or the anaerobic settling ponds are capable of sustaining a viable, although not actively nitrifying, population of Nitrosomonas spp. and Nitrobacter spp., in contrast to their rapid decline when maintained anaerobically in mineral medium in the laboratory. Nitrification rates of NH3 in effluents during storage in the reservoirs were slower by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude compared with corresponding rates in water samples brought to the laboratory. The factors causing this inhibition were not identified. PMID:16347319

  13. Degradation of methyl bromide in anaerobic sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, R.S.; Miller, L.G.; Strohmaler, F.E.

    1994-01-01

    Methyl bromide (MeBr) was anaerobically degraded in saltmarsh sediments after reaction with sulfide. The product of this nucleophilic substitution reaction was methanethiol, which underwent further chemical and bacterial reactions to form dimethyl sulfide. These two gases appeared transiently during sediment incubations because they were metabolized by methanogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria. A second, less significant reaction of MeBr was the exchange with chloride, forming methyl chloride, which was also susceptible to attack by sulfide. Incubation of 14C-labeled methyl iodide as an analogue of MeBr resulted in the formation of 14CH4 and 14CO2 and also indicated that sulfate-reducing bacteria as well as methanogens metabolized the methylated sulfur intermediates. These results suggest that exposed sediments with abundant free sulfide, such as coastal salt-marshes, may constitute a sink for atmospheric MeBr.

  14. Polynucleobacter acidiphobus sp. nov., a representative of an abundant group of planktonic freshwater bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Martin W.; Lang, Elke; Brandt, Ulrike; Spröer, Cathrin

    2014-01-01

    The heterotrophic, aerobic, facultatively anaerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive, non-motile strain MWH-PoolGreenA3T, isolated from a rock pool filled with freshwater, was characterized. The strain grew on NSY medium over a NaCl range of 0.0–0.3 % (w/v). Whole-cell fatty acids were dominated by C16: 1?7c (feature 3), C18: 1?7c and straight-chain C16: 0; furthermore, the components C12: 0 and C14: 0 2-OH were present. The DNA G+C content was 48.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis as well as strong similarities in phenotypic and chemotaxonomic traits indicated the affiliation with the genus Polynucleobacter. 16S rRNA gene similarity values with the three described species of the genus Polynucleobacter ranged from 96.7 to 97.8 %. DNA–DNA hybridization experiments did not reveal that the strain belongs to a previously described species of the genus Polynucleobacter. The strain can be discriminated from previously established species of the genus Polynucleobacter by chemotaxonomic and phenotypic traits. The bacterium possesses a free-living lifestyle and represents a group of planktonic freshwater bacteria occurring with high cell numbers in many freshwater lakes. Based on the phylogeny revealed and the chemotaxonomic and phenotypic differences from previously described species of the genus Polynucleobacter, we propose to establish the novel species Polynucleobacter acidiphobus sp. nov. with the type strain MWH-PoolGreenA3T (=DSM 21994T =CIP 110079T). PMID:20435747

  15. Effects of ferric iron on the anaerobic treatment and microbial biodiversity in a coupled microbial electrolysis cell (MEC)--anaerobic reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingxin; Zhang, Yaobin; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo

    2013-10-01

    Adding Fe(III) into a MEC - anaerobic reactor enhanced the degradation of organic matters. To clarify the respective effects of combining Fe(III) dosage and a MEC and Fe(III) dosage only on strengthening anaerobic digestion, three anaerobic reactors were operated in parallel: a MEC - anaerobic reactor with dosing Fe(OH)3 (R1), an anaerobic reactor with dosing Fe(OH)3 (R2) and a common anaerobic reactor (R3). With increasing influent COD from 1500 to 4000 mg/L, the COD removal in R1 was maintained at 88.3% under a voltage of 0.8 V, which was higher than that in reactor R2 and R3. When the power was cut off, the COD removal in R1 decreased by 5.9%. The addition of Fe(OH)3 enhanced both anaerobic digestion and anodic oxidation, resulting in the effective mineralization of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). The reduced Fe(II) combined with electric field resulted more extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production. Quantitative real - time PCR showed a higher abundance of bacteria in the anodic biofilm and R1. Pyrosequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis revealed that the dominant bacteria and archaea communities were richer and more abundant in the anode biofilm and R1. PMID:23886545

  16. The Anaerobic Digestion of Organic

    E-print Network

    Iglesia, Enrique

    The Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Municipal Solid Waste in California. Anaerobic Digestion Technology 2.1. Feedstock Characterization 2.2. Collection & Sorting 2.2.1. Waste of Anaerobic Digestion 3.1. Municipal Waste Management 3.2. Climate Change Mitigation 3.2.1. Untreated

  17. Anaerobic digestion of ozonized biosolids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Weemaes; H Grootaerd; F Simoens; W Verstraete

    2000-01-01

    The effect of an oxidative pretreatment on the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge was investigated. Sewage sludge from a domestic wastewater treatment plant was partially oxidized by ozone. The pretreatment could alter up to 67% of the organic matter: 29±3% was solubilized, 38±9% was removed. Anaerobic degradability tests indicated that the pretreatment step enhanced the subsequent anaerobic sludge digestion. The

  18. Solar heated anaerobic digestor

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoades, D.

    1980-09-09

    A solar heated anaerobic digestor is provided, adapted to utilize organic material capable of decomposing to produce methane gas and a liquid fertilizer. The sealed anaerobic digestor is wrapped with a layer of heat absorptive material followed by a series of abutting removable panels of insulative material. Insulative panels may be temporarily removed to expose the heat absorptive material to solar radiation and may be replaced when the solar radiation diminishes. A layer of transparent material wrapped in outwardly spaced relation around the insulatng panels is capable of transmitting solar radiation while providing protection against environmental elements. Additional heating means extending into the digestor provide auxiliary heat as required.

  19. Anaerobic biotransformation of nitrocellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, M.; Speece, R.E. (Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Environmental and Water Resources Engineering Dept.); Kim, B.J. (Army Corps of Engineers, Champaign, IL (United States). Construction Engineering Research Lab.)

    1994-01-01

    In this investigation, first the toxic effect of nitrocellulose (NC) on anaerobic microorganisms with and without the presence of a supplementary carbon source was evaluated. Then it was observed that with the addition of a supplementary carbon source, such as cellulose or acetate, biotransformation of NC was enhanced. The biodegradation rate of NC in a staged-feed and in a two-phase reactor under anaerobic conditions was evaluated. The results showed that providing cellulose as the supplementary carbon source, NC was degraded at a higher rate in a staged-feed reactor than in a two-phase reactor or in a batch reactor.

  20. The Facultative Symbiont Rickettsia Protects an Invasive Whitefly against Entomopathogenic Pseudomonas syringae Strains.

    PubMed

    Hendry, Tory A; Hunter, Martha S; Baltrus, David A

    2014-12-01

    Facultative endosymbionts can benefit insect hosts in a variety of ways, including context-dependent roles, such as providing defense against pathogens. The role of some symbionts in defense may be overlooked, however, when pathogen infection is transient, sporadic, or asymptomatic. The facultative endosymbiont Rickettsia increases the fitness of the sweet potato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) in some populations through mechanisms that are not yet understood. In this study, we investigated the role of Rickettsia in mediating the interaction between the sweet potato whitefly and Pseudomonas syringae, a common environmental bacterium, some strains of which are pathogenic to aphids. Our results show that P. syringae multiplies within whiteflies, leading to host death, and that whiteflies infected with Rickettsia show a decreased rate of death due to P. syringae. Experiments using plants coated with P. syringae confirmed that whiteflies can acquire the bacteria at a low rate while feeding, leading to increased mortality, particularly when the whiteflies are not infected with Rickettsia. These results suggest that P. syringae may affect whitefly populations in nature and that Rickettsia can ameliorate this effect. This study highlights the possible importance of interactions among opportunistic environmental pathogens and endosymbionts of insects. PMID:25217020

  1. The Facultative Symbiont Rickettsia Protects an Invasive Whitefly against Entomopathogenic Pseudomonas syringae Strains

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Martha S.; Baltrus, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Facultative endosymbionts can benefit insect hosts in a variety of ways, including context-dependent roles, such as providing defense against pathogens. The role of some symbionts in defense may be overlooked, however, when pathogen infection is transient, sporadic, or asymptomatic. The facultative endosymbiont Rickettsia increases the fitness of the sweet potato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) in some populations through mechanisms that are not yet understood. In this study, we investigated the role of Rickettsia in mediating the interaction between the sweet potato whitefly and Pseudomonas syringae, a common environmental bacterium, some strains of which are pathogenic to aphids. Our results show that P. syringae multiplies within whiteflies, leading to host death, and that whiteflies infected with Rickettsia show a decreased rate of death due to P. syringae. Experiments using plants coated with P. syringae confirmed that whiteflies can acquire the bacteria at a low rate while feeding, leading to increased mortality, particularly when the whiteflies are not infected with Rickettsia. These results suggest that P. syringae may affect whitefly populations in nature and that Rickettsia can ameliorate this effect. This study highlights the possible importance of interactions among opportunistic environmental pathogens and endosymbionts of insects. PMID:25217020

  2. Anaerobic phenol degradation by microorganisms of swine manure.

    SciTech Connect

    Boopathy, R.; Environmental Research

    1997-01-01

    Swine manure contains diverse groups of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. An anaerobic bacterial consortium containing sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and acetate-utilizing methanogenic bacteria was isolated from swine manure. This consortium used phenol as its sole source of carbon and converted it to methane and CO{sub 2}. The sulfate-reducing bacterial members of the consortium are the incomplete oxidizers, unable to carry out the terminal oxidation of organic substrates, leaving acetic acid as the end product. The methanogenic bacteria of the consortium converted the acetic acid to methane. When a methanogen inhibitor was used in the culture medium, phenol was converted to acetic acid by the SRB, but the acetic acid did not undergo further metabolism. On the other hand, when the growth of SRB in the consortium was suppressed with a specific SRB inhibitor, namely, molybdenum tetroxide, the phenol was not degraded. Thus, the metabolic activities of both the sulfate-reducing bacteria and the methanogenic bacteria were essential for complete degradation of phenol.

  3. Anaerobic phenol degradation by microorganisms of swine manure.

    PubMed

    Boopathy, R

    1997-07-01

    Swine manure contains diverse groups of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. An anaerobic bacterial consortium containing sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and acetate-utilizing methanogenic bacteria was isolated from swine manure. This consortium used phenol as its sole source of carbon and converted it to methane and CO2. The sulfate-reducing bacterial members of the consortium are the incomplete oxidizers, unable to carry out the terminal oxidation of organic substrates, leaving acetic acid as the end product. The methanogenic bacteria of the consortium converted the acetic acid to methane. When a methanogen inhibitor was used in the culture medium, phenol was converted to acetic acid by the SRB, but the acetic acid did not undergo further metabolism. On the other hand, when the growth of SRB in the consortium was suppressed with a specific SRB inhibitor, namely, molybdenum tetroxide, the phenol was not degraded. Thus, the metabolic activities of both the sulfate-reducing bacteria and the methanogenic bacteria were essential for complete degradation of phenol. PMID:9175563

  4. Anaerobic Amino Acid Metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Reggiani; A. Bertani

    2003-01-01

    Anoxic stress induces a strong change in sugar, protein, and amino acid metabolism in higher plants. Sugars are rapidly consumed through the anaerobic glycolysis to sustain energy production. Protein degradation under anoxia is a mechanism to release free amino acids contributing in this way to maintaining the osmotic potential of the tissue under stress. Among free amino acids, a particular

  5. Solar heated anaerobic digester

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rhoades

    1980-01-01

    The title digester is adapted to utilize organic waste material capable of decomposing to produce CHâ and a liquid fertilizer. The sealed anaerobic digester is wrapped with a layer of heat-absorptive material followed by a series of abutting removable panels of insulative material. Insulative panels may be temporarily removed to expose the heat-absorptive material to solar radiation and may be

  6. Anaerobic digestion of microalgal biomass after ultrasound pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Passos, Fabiana; Astals, Sergi; Ferrer, Ivet

    2014-11-01

    High rate algal ponds are an economic and sustainable alternative for wastewater treatment, where microalgae and bacteria grow in symbiosis removing organic matter and nutrients. Microalgal biomass produced in these systems can be valorised through anaerobic digestion. However, microalgae anaerobic biodegradability is limited by the complex cell wall structure and therefore a pretreatment step may be required to improve the methane yield. In this study, ultrasound pretreatment at a range of applied specific energy (16-67 MJ/kg TS) was investigated prior to microalgae anaerobic digestion. Experiments showed how organic matter solubilisation (16-100%), hydrolysis rate (25-56%) and methane yield (6-33%) were improved as the pretreatment intensity increased. Mathematical modelling revealed that ultrasonication had a higher effect on the methane yield than on the hydrolysis rate. A preliminary energy assessment indicated that the methane yield increase was not high enough as to compensate the electricity requirement of ultrasonication without biomass dewatering (8% VS). PMID:25002372

  7. Full-scale anaerobic bioremediation of trinitrotoluene (TNT) contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, S.B.; Crawford, D.L.; Crawford, R.L. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    An anaerobic bioremediation process for the degradation of nitroaromatic compounds in soil was demonstrated. This ex situ process was demonstrated full-scale at a 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)-contaminated site near Weldon Spring, MO. A bioreactor was loaded with approx 23 m{sup 3} of TNT-contaminated soil in the form of a 50:50 soil: water slurry. This slurry was augmented with a starchy carbon source (1-2% w/v) and buffered with phosphate to near-neutral pH. Indigenous soil bacteria utilized the oxygen, making the slurry anaerobic within 1-2 d. Anaerobes then degraded the TNT (3000 mg/kg) in approx 11 wk. A relatively long treatment time for the bioremediation of the TNT-contaminated soil was necessary, possibly because of the cool ambient temperatures, high clay content of the soil, high level of contamination, and high level of recalcitrance of TNT in soils.

  8. Acetate Metabolism in Anaerobes from the Domain Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Ferry, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Acetate and acetyl-CoA play fundamental roles in all of biology, including anaerobic prokaryotes from the domains Bacteria and Archaea, which compose an estimated quarter of all living protoplasm in Earth’s biosphere. Anaerobes from the domain Archaea contribute to the global carbon cycle by metabolizing acetate as a growth substrate or product. They are components of anaerobic microbial food chains converting complex organic matter to methane, and many fix CO2 into cell material via synthesis of acetyl-CoA. They are found in a diversity of ecological habitats ranging from the digestive tracts of insects to deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and synthesize a plethora of novel enzymes with biotechnological potential. Ecological investigations suggest that still more acetate-metabolizing species with novel properties await discovery. PMID:26068860

  9. Acetate Metabolism in Anaerobes from the Domain Archaea.

    PubMed

    Ferry, James G

    2015-01-01

    Acetate and acetyl-CoA play fundamental roles in all of biology, including anaerobic prokaryotes from the domains Bacteria and Archaea, which compose an estimated quarter of all living protoplasm in Earth's biosphere. Anaerobes from the domain Archaea contribute to the global carbon cycle by metabolizing acetate as a growth substrate or product. They are components of anaerobic microbial food chains converting complex organic matter to methane, and many fix CO2 into cell material via synthesis of acetyl-CoA. They are found in a diversity of ecological habitats ranging from the digestive tracts of insects to deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and synthesize a plethora of novel enzymes with biotechnological potential. Ecological investigations suggest that still more acetate-metabolizing species with novel properties await discovery. PMID:26068860

  10. Anaerobic Nitrogen Fixers on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, B. G.

    2000-07-01

    The conversion of atmospheric nitrogen gas to the protein of living systems is an amazing process of nature. The first step in the process is biological nitrogen fixation, the transformation of N2 to NH3. The phenomenon is crucial for feeding the billions of our species on Earth. On Mars, the same process may allow us to discover how life can adapt to a hostile environment, and render it habitable. Hostile environments also exist on Earth. For example, nothing grows in coal refuse piles due to the oxidation of pyrite and marcasite to sulfuric acid. Yet, when the acidity is neutralized, alfalfa and soybean plants develop root nodules typical of symbiotic nitrogen fixation with Rhizobium species possibly living in the pyritic material. When split open, these nodules exhibited the pinkish color of leghemoglobin, a protein in the nodule protecting the active nitrogen-fixing enzyme nitrogenase against the toxic effects of oxygen. Although we have not yet obtained direct evidence of nitrogenase activity in these nodules (reduction of acetylene to ethylene, for example), these findings suggested the possibility that nitrogen fixation was taking place in this hostile, non-soil material. This immediately raises the possibility that freeliving anaerobic bacteria which fix atmospheric nitrogen on Earth, could do the same on Mars.

  11. ROLE OF INITIAL SUCROSE AND PH LEVELS ON NATURAL, HYDROGEN-PRODUCING, ANAEROBE GERMINATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Van Ginkel; ShihWu Sung; Ling Li

    2001-01-01

    Anaerobic batch cultures were established to assess natural anaerobic sporulation, germination, and hydrogen production. Heat-shocked soil inocula obtained from a potato field was cultured using sucrose as the substrate. Eleven batch experimental results suggested that baking was an excellent heat-shock treatment to select for spore forming hydrogen-producing bacteria i.e. clostridia from the soil. Sucrose could induce clostridial spore germination and

  12. Bacteria Transformation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

    Students construct paper recombinant plasmids to simulate the methods genetic engineers use to create modified bacteria. They learn what role enzymes, DNA and genes play in the modification of organisms. For the particular model they work on, they isolate a mammal insulin gene and combine it with a bacteria's gene sequence (plasmid DNA) for production of the protein insulin.

  13. 46 CFR 308.545 - Facultative cargo policy, Form MA-316.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Iii-Facultative War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.545 Facultative cargo policy, Form MA-316. The...

  14. [Participation of gram-negative anaerobes in infections in hospitalized patients].

    PubMed

    Kierzkowska, Marta; Majewska, Anna; Kqdzielska, Joanna; Rozpara, Agnieszka; Sawicka-Grzelak, Anna; M?ynarczyk, Grazyna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of strictly anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria isolated from clinical samples taken from hospitalized patients from 01.01.2007 to 31.12.2008. The specimens were cultured using media, incubated at 37 degrees C under anaerobic conditions. Biochemical identification and antibiotic susceptibility were done in an automated system ATB Expression (bioMerieux S.A, France). For selected strains of Bacteroides sp. sensitivity was determined using E-test (AB BIODISK, Sweden). Overall 1274 strains of obligate anaerobes were isolated. Gram-negative bacteria were cultured in number of 333 strains. Most frequently isolated was Bacteroides sp. (46,9%) and Prevotella sp. (29,7%). Isolated bacteria are still susceptible to imipenem (100%), metronidazole (100%) and beta-lactam antibiotics with beta-lactamase inhibitors: amoxicillin/clavulanate (97,8%) piperacillin/tazobactam (99,1%), ticarcillin/clavulanate (99,1%). PMID:22184918

  15. Applications of a simulation model to description of anaerobic conversion of complex organic matter into methane

    SciTech Connect

    Vavilin, V.A.; Rytow, S.V. [Water Problems Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lokshina, L.Ya. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    Three years passed since the generalized model of anaerobic degradation of complex organic matter has been developed. Now the new modifications were created. Anaerobic degradation was described as a multistep process of series and parallel reactions in which several groups of bacteria take part. Hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis were considered in the model with the various kinetic functions. A two-phase equation describing a particulate substrate degradation as a heterogeneous reaction has been developed. Acetic, butyric, and propionic groups of acidogenic bacteria producing the particular products were considered. The additional group of homoacetogenic bacteria producing acetate from hydrogen and carbon dioxide was involved into new version of the model. Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide inhibition were described previously. In that paper, it was shown by simulation of several case-studies that unionized volatile fatty acids (VFA) are the inhibitors of key stages of anaerobic conversion of complex organic matter: hydrolysis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis.

  16. Anaerobic/aerobic conditions and biostimulation for enhanced chlorophenols degradation in biocathode microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liping; Shi, Yinghong; Wang, Ning; Dong, Yuesheng

    2014-07-01

    Anaerobic/aerobic conditions affected bacterial community composition and the subsequent chlorophenols (CPs) degradation in biocathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Bacterial communities acclimated with either 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) or 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) under anaerobiosis can degrade the respective substrates more efficiently than the facultative aerobic bacterial communities. The anaerobic bacterial communities well developed with 2,4-DCP were then adapted to 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) and successfully stimulated for enhanced 2,4,6-TCP degradation and power generation. A 2,4,6-TCP degradation rate of 0.10 mol/m(3)/d and a maximum power density of 2.6 W/m(3) (11.7 A/m(3)) were achieved, 138 and 13 % improvements, respectively compared to the controls with no stimulation. Bacterial communities developed with the specific CPs under anaerobic/aerobic conditions as well as the stimulated biofilm shared some dominant genera and also exhibited great differences. These results provide the most convincing evidence to date that anaerobic/aerobic conditions affected CPs degradation with power generation from the biocathode systems, and using deliberate substrates can stimulate the microbial consortia and be potentially feasible for the selection of an appropriate microbial community for the target substrate (e.g. 2,4,6-TCP) degradation in the biocathode MFCs. PMID:24902896

  17. Eukaryotic diversity in an anaerobic aquifer polluted with landfill leachate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Traian Brad; Martin Braster; Breukelen van B. M; Straalen van N. M; Wilfred F. M. Roling

    2008-01-01

    Eukaryotes may influence pollutant degradation processes in groundwater ecosystems by activities such as predation on bacteria and recycling of nutrients. Culture-independent community profiling and phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA gene fragments, as well as culturing, were employed to obtain insight into the sediment- associated eukaryotic community composition in an anaerobic sandy aquifer polluted with landfill leachate (Ban- isveld, The Netherlands).

  18. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation for treatment of ammonium-rich wastewaters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei Zhang; Ping Zheng; Chong-jian Tang; Jin Ren-cun

    2008-01-01

    The concept of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) is presently of great interest. The functional bacteria belonging to\\u000a the Planctomycete phylum and their metabolism are investigated by microbiologists. Meanwhile, the ANAMMOX is equally valuable\\u000a in treatment of ammonium-rich wastewaters. Related processes including partial nitritation-ANAMMOX and completely autotrophic\\u000a nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) have been developed, and lab-scale experiments proved that both

  19. Effects of nitrite inhibition on anaerobic ammonium oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuya Kimura; Kazuichi Isaka; Futaba Kazama; Tatsuo Sumino

    2010-01-01

    In order to assess the stability of nitrogen removal systems utilizing anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), it is necessary\\u000a to study the toxic effects of nitrite on these biochemical reactions. In this study, the effects of nitrite on anammox bacteria\\u000a entrapped in gel carriers were investigated using batch and continuous feeding tests. The results showed that the nitrite\\u000a concentration in a

  20. Production of Methane Biogas as Fuel Through Anaerobic Digestion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhongtang Yu; Floyd L. Schanbacher

    \\u000a Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a biotechnology by which biomass is converted by microbes to methane (CH4) biogas, which can then be utilized as a renewable fuel to generate heat and electricity. A genetically and metabolically\\u000a diverse community of microbes (mainly bacteria and methanogens) drives the AD process through a series of complex microbiological\\u000a processes in the absence of oxygen. During

  1. Anaerobic bacterial degradation for the effective utilization of biomass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kunio Ohmiya; Kazuo Sakka; Tetsuya Kimura

    2005-01-01

    Biomass is originally photosynthesized from inorgainic compounds such as CO2, minerals, water and solar energy. Recent studies have shown that anaerobic bacteria have the ability to convert recalcitrant\\u000a biomass such as cellulosic or chitinoic materials to useful compounds. The biomass containing agricultural waste, unutilized\\u000a wood and other garbage is expected to utilize as feed, food and fuel by microbial degradation

  2. Genotypic Diversity of Anaerobic Isolates from Bloodstream Infections?

    PubMed Central

    Simmon, Keith E.; Mirrett, Stanley; Reller, L. Barth; Petti, Cathy A.

    2008-01-01

    Accurate species determination for anaerobes from blood culture bottles has become increasingly important with the reemergence of anaerobic bacteremia and prevalence of multiple-drug-resistant microorganisms. Our knowledge of the taxonomical diversity of anaerobes that cause bloodstream infections is extremely limited, because identification historically has relied on conventional methods. Over a 5-year period, we profiled anaerobic bacteremia at a large tertiary care hospital with 16S rRNA gene sequencing to gain a better understanding of the taxonomical diversity of the bacteria. Of 316 isolates, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis identified 316 (100%) to the genus or taxonomical group level and 289 (91%) to the species level. Conventional methods identified 279 (88%) to the genus level and 208 (66%) to the species level; 75 (24%) were misidentified at the species level, and 33 (10%) results were inconclusive. High intragenus variability was observed for Bacteroides and Clostridium species, and high intraspecies variability was observed for Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Sequence-based identification has potential benefits in comparison to conventional methods, because it more accurately characterizes anaerobes within taxonomically related clusters and thereby may enable better correlation with specific clinical syndromes and antibiotic resistance patterns. PMID:18322067

  3. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Samson, R.; LeDuy, A.

    1982-08-01

    The photosynthetic spectrum of solar energy could be exploited for the production of chemical energy of methane through the combined algal-bacterial process. In this process, the algae are mass produced from light and from carbon in the first step. The algal biomass is then used as a nutrient for feeding the anaerobic digester, in the second step, for the production of methane by anaerobic bacteria. The carbon source for the production of algal biomass could be either organic carbon from wastewaters (for eucaryotic algae), or carbon dioxide from the atmosphere or from the combustion exhaust gases (for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae). The technical feasibility data on the anaerobic digestion of algal biomass have been reported for many species of algae including macroscopic algae and microscopic algae. Research being conducted in the authors' laboratory consists of using the semimicroscopic blue-green alga Spirulina maxima as the sole substrate for this combined algal-bacterial process. This species of alga is very attractive for the process because of its capability of using the atmospheric carbon dioxide as carbon source and its simple harvesting methods. Furthermore, it appeared that the fermentability of S. maxima is significantly higher than other microscopic algae. This communication presents the results on the anaerobic inoculum development by the adaptation technique. This inoculum was then used for the semicontinuous anaerobic digestion of S. maxima algal biomass. The evolutions of biogas production and composition, biogas yield, total volatile fatty acids, alkalinity, ammonia nitrogen, pH, and electrode potential were followed.

  4. Enhanced biotransformation of DDTs by an iron- and humic-reducing bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila HS01 upon addition of goethite and anthraquinone-2,6-disulphonic disodium salt (AQDS).

    PubMed

    Cao, Fang; Liu, Tong Xu; Wu, Chun Yuan; Li, Fang Bai; Li, Xiao Min; Yu, Huan Yun; Tong, Hui; Chen, Man Jia

    2012-11-14

    A fermentative facultative anaerobe, strain HS01 isolated from subterranean sediment, was identified as Aeromonas hydrophila by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The biotransformation of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDD), and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDE) by HS01 was investigated in the presence of goethite and anthraquinone-2,6-disulphonic disodium salt (AQDS). The results demonstrated that HS01 was capable of reducing DDTs, goethite and AQDS. And goethite can significantly enhance the reduction of DDT, DDD and DDE to some extent, while the addition of AQDS can further accelerate the reduction of Fe(III) and DDTs. The products of DDT transformation were identified as a large amount of dominant DDD, and small amounts of 1-chloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDMU), unsym-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (DDNU), and 4,4'-dichlorobenzophenone (DBP). The results of cyclic voltammetry suggested that AQDS could increase the amounts of reactive biogenic Fe(II), resulting in the enhanced transformation of DDTs. This investigation gives some new insight in the fate of DDTs related to iron- and humic-reducing bacteria. PMID:23095105

  5. [Postoperative anaerobic sepsis].

    PubMed

    Fichev, G; Poromanski, I; Marina, M

    1997-01-01

    As shown by clinical practice, postoperative anaerobic sepsis is a complication more common than usually thought of or microbiologically verified. The exceptionally difficult microbiological verification, regardless of the fact that original registered transport media are employed, is the underlying cause of obligate non-spore forming microorganisms from hemoculture being demonstrated in four patients only. In all of them Bacteroides fragilis is isolated and identified. Also, in all patients a fully developed clinical picture of sepsis is present along with the characteristic laboratory septic syndrome constellation as well. After pointing out the difficulties in diagnosing "post-operative anaerobic sepsis", and more particularly its verification, emphasis is laid on the clinical and laboratory symptoms presented by the patients, and on the important role played by the SIRS system, contributing greatly to an adequately oriented clinical thinking. PMID:9739848

  6. A marine microbial consortium apparently mediating anaerobic oxidation of methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boetius, Antje; Ravenschlag, Katrin; Schubert, Carsten J.; Rickert, Dirk; Widdel, Friedrich; Gieseke, Armin; Amann, Rudolf; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Witte, Ursula; Pfannkuche, Olaf

    2000-10-01

    A large fraction of globally produced methane is converted to CO2 by anaerobic oxidation in marine sediments. Strong geochemical evidence for net methane consumption in anoxic sediments is based on methane profiles, radiotracer experiments and stable carbon isotope data. But the elusive microorganisms mediating this reaction have not yet been isolated, and the pathway of anaerobic oxidation of methane is insufficiently understood. Recent data suggest that certain archaea reverse the process of methanogenesis by interaction with sulphate-reducing bacteria. Here we provide microscopic evidence for a structured consortium of archaea and sulphate-reducing bacteria, which we identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization using specific 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. In this example of a structured archaeal-bacterial symbiosis, the archaea grow in dense aggregates of about 100 cells and are surrounded by sulphate-reducing bacteria. These aggregates were abundant in gas-hydrate-rich sediments with extremely high rates of methane-based sulphate reduction, and apparently mediate anaerobic oxidation of methane.

  7. Microbial Ecology of Anaerobic Digesters: The Key Players of Anaerobiosis

    PubMed Central

    Ali Shah, Fayyaz; Mahmood, Qaisar; Maroof Shah, Mohammad; Pervez, Arshid; Ahmad Asad, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is the method of wastes treatment aimed at a reduction of their hazardous effects on the biosphere. The mutualistic behavior of various anaerobic microorganisms results in the decomposition of complex organic substances into simple, chemically stabilized compounds, mainly methane and CO2. The conversions of complex organic compounds to CH4 and CO2 are possible due to the cooperation of four different groups of microorganisms, that is, fermentative, syntrophic, acetogenic, and methanogenic bacteria. Microbes adopt various pathways to evade from the unfavorable conditions in the anaerobic digester like competition between sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and methane forming bacteria for the same substrate. Methanosarcina are able to use both acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic pathways for methane production. This review highlights the cellulosic microorganisms, structure of cellulose, inoculum to substrate ratio, and source of inoculum and its effect on methanogenesis. The molecular techniques such as DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) utilized for dynamic changes in microbial communities and FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) that deal with taxonomy and interaction and distribution of tropic groups used are also discussed. PMID:24701142

  8. Characterization of bacteria from a swine manure digester

    SciTech Connect

    Iannotti, E.L. (Univ. of Missouri, Columbia); Fischer, J.R.; Sievers, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    One-hundred thirty bacteria isolated from a swine manure digester were predominately gram-positive anaerobes which were tentatively classified into the following genera: Peptostreptococcus, Eubacterium, Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, Peptococcus, Clostridiu, and Streptococcus plus two unidentified groups. The major fermentation products formed by these organisms included acetate, propionate, succinate, lactate, and ethanol, singly or in various combinations. Acetate was the sole end product of several groups. Few of the isolates (14%) reduced the pH below 6.0. The predominate bacteria appear to differ from the predominate organisms isolated from other anaerobic ecosystems.

  9. Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Ryan Penton

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is a recently discovered nitrogen removal pathway in natural systems. First found to\\u000a be a significant nitrogen sink in the Black Sea anoxic water column in 2003, anammox has shown to be responsible for as much\\u000a as 79% of N2 production in marine sediments. Little is known concerning the significance of anammox in freshwater systems and

  10. Universit d'Ottawa Facult de gnie

    E-print Network

    Petriu, Emil M.

    technologies * Kinetics of cell growth and recombinant protein expression of lactic acid bacteria, the most and purification of phytochemicals from plant biomass * Microalgae cultivation system development for combined

  11. Interactions between Periodontal Bacteria and Human Oral Epithelial Cells: Fusobacterium nucleatum Adheres to and Invades Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YIPING W. HAN; WENYUAN SHI; GEORGE T.-J. HUANG; SUSAN KINDER HAAKE; NO-HEE PARK; HOWARD KURAMITSU; ROBERT J. GENCO

    2000-01-01

    Bacteria are causative agents of periodontal diseases. Interactions between oral bacteria and gingival epi- thelial cells are essential aspects of periodontal infections. Using an in vitro tissue culture model, a selected group of gram-negative anaerobic bacteria frequently associated with periodontal diseases, including Bacte- roides forsythus, Campylobacter curvus, Eikenella corrodens, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia, were examined for their

  12. A comparison of Api 20A vs MALDI-TOF MS for routine identification of clinically significant anaerobic bacterial strains to the species level.

    PubMed

    Kierzkowska, Marta; Majewska, Anna; Kuthan, Robert T; Sawicka-Grzelak, Anna; M?ynarczyk, Gra?yna

    2013-02-15

    Adequate identification of anaerobic bacteria still presents a challenge for laboratories conducting microbiological diagnostics. The aim of this study was to compare the use of Api 20A and MALDI-TOF MS techniques for identification of obligate anaerobes. The results indicate that MALDI-TOF MS ensures a rapid and accurate identification of the species isolated from patients. PMID:23262031

  13. Use of thermophilic bacteria for bioremediation of petroleum contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Maghrabi, I.M.A.; Bin Aqil, A.O.; Chaalal, O. [United Arab Emirates Univ., Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates); Islam, M.R. [Univ. of Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-01-01

    Several strains of thermophilic bacteria were isolated from the environment of the United Arab Emirates. These bacteria show extraordinary resistance to heat and have their maximum growth rate around 60--80 C. This article investigates the potential of using these facultative bacteria for both in situ and ex situ bioremediation of petroleum contaminants. In a series of batch experiments, bacterial growth was observed using a computer image analyzer following a recently developed technique. These experiments showed clearly that the growth rate is enhanced in the presence of crude oil. This is coupled with a rapid degradation of the crude oil. These bacteria were found to be ideal for breaking down long-chain organic molecules at a temperature of 40 C, which is the typical ambient temperature of the Persian Gulf region. The same strains of bacteria are also capable of surviving in the presence of the saline environment that can prevail in both sea water and reservoir connate water. This observation prompted further investigation into the applicability of the bacteria in microbial enhanced oil recovery. In the United Arab Emirates, the reservoirs are typically at a temperature of around 85 C. Finally, the performance of the bacteria is tested in a newly developed bioreactor that uses continuous aeration through a transverse slotted pipe. This reactor also uses mixing without damaging the filamentous bacteria. In this process, the mechanisms of bioremediation are identified.

  14. Oxygen Sensing and Signal Transduction in Metabolic Defense Against Hypoxia: Lessons from Vertebrate Facultative Anaerobes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. W. Hochachka; S. C. Land; L. T. Buck

    1997-01-01

    Earlier studies identified two main defense strategies against hypoxia in hypoxia tolerant animals: (1) reduction in energy turnover, and (2) improved energetic efficiency of those metabolic processes that remain. We used two model systems from the highly anoxia-tolerant aquatic turtle: (1) tissue slices of brain cortex (to probe cell level electrophysiological responses to oxygen limitation), and (2) isolated liver hepatocytes

  15. Magnetotactic Bacteria and Their Potential for Terraformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ioan I. Ardelean; Cristina Moisescu; Dan Razvan Popoviciu

    This paper is focused on magnetotactic bacteria and their possible contributions to the terraformation of Mars or other planets.\\u000a The potential for terraformation is mainly based on their ability to carry out aerobic or anaerobic respiration with either\\u000a nitrate or ferric iron, to fix carbon dioxide in the dark using the energy released through the oxidation of inorganic chemicals\\u000a such

  16. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber. (a) Identification. An anaerobic chamber is a...

  17. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber. (a) Identification. An anaerobic chamber is a...

  18. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber. (a) Identification. An anaerobic chamber is a...

  19. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber. (a) Identification. An anaerobic chamber is a...

  20. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber. (a) Identification. An anaerobic chamber is a...

  1. Bacterial drug tolerance under clinical conditions is governed by anaerobic adaptation but not anaerobic respiration.

    PubMed

    Hemsley, Claudia M; Luo, Jamie X; Andreae, Clio A; Butler, Clive S; Soyer, Orkun S; Titball, Richard W

    2014-10-01

    Noninherited antibiotic resistance is a phenomenon whereby a subpopulation of genetically identical bacteria displays phenotypic tolerance to antibiotics. We show here that compared to Escherichia coli, the clinically relevant genus Burkholderia displays much higher levels of cells that tolerate ceftazidime. By measuring the dynamics of the formation of drug-tolerant cells under conditions that mimic in vivo infections, we show that in Burkholderia bacteria, oxygen levels affect the formation of these cells. The drug-tolerant cells are characterized by an anaerobic metabolic signature and can be eliminated by oxygenating the system or adding nitrate. The transcriptome profile suggests that these cells are not dormant persister cells and are likely to be drug tolerant as a consequence of the upregulation of anaerobic nitrate respiration, efflux pumps, ?-lactamases, and stress response proteins. These findings have important implications for the treatment of chronic bacterial infections and the methodologies and conditions that are used to study drug-tolerant and persister cells in vitro. PMID:25049258

  2. Bacterial Drug Tolerance under Clinical Conditions Is Governed by Anaerobic Adaptation but not Anaerobic Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Hemsley, Claudia M.; Luo, Jamie X.; Andreae, Clio A.; Butler, Clive S.; Soyer, Orkun S.

    2014-01-01

    Noninherited antibiotic resistance is a phenomenon whereby a subpopulation of genetically identical bacteria displays phenotypic tolerance to antibiotics. We show here that compared to Escherichia coli, the clinically relevant genus Burkholderia displays much higher levels of cells that tolerate ceftazidime. By measuring the dynamics of the formation of drug-tolerant cells under conditions that mimic in vivo infections, we show that in Burkholderia bacteria, oxygen levels affect the formation of these cells. The drug-tolerant cells are characterized by an anaerobic metabolic signature and can be eliminated by oxygenating the system or adding nitrate. The transcriptome profile suggests that these cells are not dormant persister cells and are likely to be drug tolerant as a consequence of the upregulation of anaerobic nitrate respiration, efflux pumps, ?-lactamases, and stress response proteins. These findings have important implications for the treatment of chronic bacterial infections and the methodologies and conditions that are used to study drug-tolerant and persister cells in vitro. PMID:25049258

  3. Anaerobic biotransformation of chlorinated alkenes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, P.

    1994-01-01

    Chlorinated alkenes are widely found in contaminated subsurface soil and groundwater. The highly chlorinated alkene (i.e., PCE) is not subject to aerobic biotransformation. The aim of this research was to explore the potential of using anaerobic processes (i.e., denitrification, sulfate-reduction and methanogenesis) for chlorinated alkenes biotransformation. Contaminated soil samples were used throughout this study. Soil microcosms simulating field anoxic conditions with various nutrients amendment, liquid microcosms as well as enrichment liquid cultures were developed to delineate the dechlorination process. The effect of biomass, chlorinated alkenes concentration and site specific conditions (e.g., temperature and pH) on the dechlorination and the primary metabolic process was investigated. The role of sorption and nutritional needs (i.e., electron donor) were also studied. A preliminary study revealed that denitrification was the least affected by low temperatures as compared to sulfate-reduction and methanogenesis. Although dechlorination took place under sequential denitrifying and methanogenic conditions and under sulfate-reducing conditions, further studies concluded that fermentative and methanogenic bacteria were responsible for the observed dechlorination. In most cases, dechlorination of PCE or TCE resulted in the accumulation of cDCE. However, a VC-producing culture was developed from the PCE-contaminated soil. In general, the dechlorination process could be enhanced by increasing electron donor and biomass concentration. At relatively low concentrations, the dechlorination rate was also increased with increasing chlorinated alkene concentration. Dechlorination even proceeded at high chlorinated alkene concentrations when methane production was inhibited. However, as the concentration of the chlorinated alkenes increased, severe toxicity eventually halted the dechlorination process.

  4. Distribution of epiphytic bacteria on olive leaves and the influence of leaf age and sampling time.

    PubMed

    Ercolani, G L

    1991-12-01

    Mesophilic heterotrophic, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacteria that grow on yeast tryptone glucose extract agar were isolated from the surface of olive leaves of 3 or 4 different ages in January, April, July, and October from 1984 to 1989. Unweighted average linkage cluster analysis on either the Jaccard coefficient or the simple matching coefficient recovered 1,701 representative strains in 32 phena defined at the 70% and 80% similarity level, respectively. Of these, 25 were identified to genus or lower level. From the identity of the representative strains, the frequency of occurrence among the phylloplane bacteria over the 6-year period was estimated at 51% forPseudomonas syringae, followed byXanthomonas campestris (6.7%),Erwinia herbicola (6%),Acetobacter aceti (4.7%),Gluconobacter oxydans (4.3%),Pseudomonas fluorescens (3.9%),Bacillus megaterium (3.8%),Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp.dextranicum (3.1%),Lactobacillus plantarum (2.8%),Curtobacterium plantarum (2.2%),Micrococcus luteus (2.2%),Arthrobacter globiformis (1.4%),Klebsiella planticola (1.2%),Streptococcus faecium (1.2%),Clavibacter sp. (0.98%),Micrococcus sp. (0.82%),Serratia marcescens (0.81%),Bacillus subtilis (0.57%),Cellulomonas flavigena (0.4%),Erwinia sp. (0.37%),Zymomonas mobilis (0.3%),Bacillus sp. (0.29%),Alcaligenes faecalis (0.27%),Erwinia carotovora (0.08%), andPseudomonas aeruginosa (0.04%). Bacterial communities on leaves of a given age at a given time during any one year displayed a very similar structure but differed significantly from those on the leaves of the same age at a different time or on the leaves of a different age at any time during any one year. Communities on the leaves of a given age at a given time of the year were invariably dominated by one or another of only 9 taxa, which accounted for 22 to 98.5% of the isolates from those leaves. The communities on 10- and 13-month-old leaves were invariably made up of fewer taxa than those on younger leaves at the same time of the year. PMID:24194200

  5. A Chemically Competent Thiosulfuranyl Radical on the Escherichia coli Class III Ribonucleotide Reductase

    E-print Network

    Wei, Yifeng

    The class III ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) are glycyl radical (G•) enzymes that provide the balanced pool of deoxynucleotides required for DNA synthesis and repair in many facultative and obligate anaerobic bacteria ...

  6. Inducible aluminum resistance of Acidiphilium cryptum and aluminum tolerance of other acidophilic bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jörg Fischer; Armin Quentmeier; Sven Gansel; Vera Sabados; Cornelius G. Friedrich

    2002-01-01

    Aluminum ions are highly soluble in acidic environments. Toxicity of aluminum ions for heterotrophic, facultatively and obligately chemolithoautotrophic acidophilic bacteria was examined. Acidiphilium cryptum grew in glucose-mineral medium, pH 3, containing 300 mM aluminum sulfate [Al2(SO4)3] after a lag phase of about 120 h with a doubling time of 7.6 h, as compared to 5.2 h of growth without aluminum.

  7. The anaerobic oxidation of ammonium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike S. M Jetten; Marc Strous; Katinka T van de Pas-Schoonen; Jos Schalk; Udo G. J. M van Dongen; Astrid A van de Graaf; Susanne Logemann; Gerard Muyzer; Mark C. M van Loosdrecht; J. Gijs Kuenen

    1998-01-01

    From recent research it has become clear that at least two different possibilities for anaerobic ammonium oxidation exist in nature. `Aerobic' ammonium oxidizers like Nitrosomonas eutropha were observed to reduce nitrite or nitrogen dioxide with hydroxylamine or ammonium as electron donor under anoxic conditions. The maximum rate for anaerobic ammonium oxidation was about 2 nmol NH+4 min?1 (mg protein)?1 using

  8. Anaerobic Granular Sludge Bioreactor Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon McHugh; Caroline O'Reilly; Thérèse Mahony; Emer Colleran; Vincent O'Flaherty

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a mature wastewater treatment technology, with worldwide application. The predominantly applied bioreactor designs, such as the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket and expanded granular sludge bed, are based on the spontaneous formation of granular sludge. Despite the exploitation of granular reactors at full-scale for more than two decades, the mechanisms of granulation are not completely understood and numerous

  9. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  10. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1995-11-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters-type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates-define the investment and operating costs of anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters in somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 11/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  11. Solar heated anaerobic digester

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoades, D.

    1980-09-09

    The title digester is adapted to utilize organic waste material capable of decomposing to produce CH/sub 4/ and a liquid fertilizer. The sealed anaerobic digester is wrapped with a layer of heat-absorptive material followed by a series of abutting removable panels of insulative material. Insulative panels may be temporarily removed to expose the heat-absorptive material to solar radiation and may be replaced when the solar radiation diminishes. A layer of transparent material wrapped in outwardly spaced relation around the insulating panels is capable of transmitting solar radiation while providing protection against environmental elements. Additional heating means extending into the digester provide auxiliary heat as required.

  12. Anaerobic biodegradation of nitroglycerin by digester sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Christodoulatos, C.; Pal, N.; Bhaumik, S. [Stevens Inst. of Technology, Hoboken, NJ (United States). Center for Environmental Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Nitroglycerin (NG) is an energetic compound primarily present in gun and rocket propellants as a primary explosive. It was also abundantly found in spent wastes from several chemical or pharmaceutical industries and in the wastewater of munitions manufacturing facilities causing significant environmental pollution. Incineration, other thermal processes, and chemical treatment such as acid or alkaline hydrolysis can effectively destroy these high energy compounds but they are associated with high treatment costs. Moreover, chemical processes may generate waste streams which require further treatment prior to their discharge in the environment. There is therefore, a pressing need for the development of new technologies that can economically and effectively deal with the disposal of energetic compounds. Biological treatment of energetic compounds amenable to microbial degradation provides an alternative to costly thermal and chemical methods. NG can be aerobically biodegraded by several fungal and bacterial consortia in the presence of co-substrates. The decomposition proceeds through a number of intermediate products whose formation is catalyzed by extra-cellular enzymes. The anaerobic biodegradation of NG by a mixed bacterial culture from digester sludge was investigated in this study. the study focused on the ability of anaerobic bacteria to degrade NG and utilize it as sole carbon source, the identification of possible intermediates,and the effect of co-substrates on the rates of transformation.

  13. Ladderane lipid distribution in four genera of anammox bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jayne E. Rattray; J. L. C. M. van de Vossenberg; Ellen C. Hopmans; Boran Kartal; Laura van Niftrik; W. Irene C. Rijpstra; Marc Strous; Mike S. M. Jetten; Stefan Schouten; Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté

    2008-01-01

    Intact ladderane phospholipids and core lipids were studied in four species of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria,\\u000a each representing one of the four known genera. Each species of anammox bacteria contained C18 and C20 ladderane fatty acids with either 3 or 5 linearly condensed cyclobutane rings and a ladderane monoether containing a C20 alkyl moiety with 3 cyclobutane rings. The

  14. [Advenella kashmirensis subsp. methylica PK1, a facultative methylotroph from carex rhizosphere].

    PubMed

    Poroshina, M N; Doronina, N V; Kaparullina, E N; Trotsenko, Iu A

    2015-01-01

    A strain (PK1) of facultative methylobacteria growing on methanol as a carbon and energy source was isolated from carex rhizosphere (Pamukkale National Park, Turkey). The cells were nonmotile gram-negative rods propagating by binary fission. The organism was a strict anaerobe, oxidase- and catalase-positive. Optimal growth occurred at 29°C, pH 8.0-8.5, and 0.5% NaCl; no growth occurred at 2% NaCl. The organism used the ribulose bisphosphate pathway of C1 assimilation. Predominant fatty acids were 11-octodecenoic (18:1?7) and cis-hexadecenoic (16:1?7c). Phosphatidylethanolamine and diphosphatidylglycerol were the dominant phospholipids. Q8 was the main ubiquinone. DNA G+C content was 55.4 mol % (mp). Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that strain PK1 belonged to the genus Advenella with 98.8 and 99.2% similarity to the type strains A. incenata CCUG 45225T and A. kashmirensis WT001T, respectively. DNA-DNA homology of strain PK1 and A. kashmirensis WT001T was 70%. While MALDI analysis confirmed their close clusterization, RAPD analysis revealed the differences between strain PKI and other Advenella strains. Based on its geno- and phenotypic properties, the isolate PK1 was classified as A. kashmirensis subsp. methylica PK1 (VKM-B 2850 = DSM 27514), the first known methylotroph of the genus Advenella. PMID:25916151

  15. Microbial degradation of lignin-derived compounds under anaerobic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Colberg, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    Lignin is the second most abundant form of organic carbon in the biosphere. Recent laboratory studies indicate that a large fraction of polymeric lignin is incompletely degraded by aerobic lignolytic microorganisms and is subsequently released as lignin fragments of reduced molecular size. If such lignin-derived compounds become available in the anaerobic environment, they may serve as potential sources of organic carbon for organisms which release methane precursors. The methanogenic bacteria, in turn, serve as terminal members of the anaerobic food chain, and thus, limit the accumulation of organic carbon in anaerobic sinks. This thesis presents evidence to suggest that lignin-derived compounds which have molecular sizes greater than those of single-ring aromatic compounds (MW > 200) are anaerobically biodegradable to methane. This research involved development of selective enrichment cultures capable of utilizing oligolignols as sole carbon sources. Radiolabeled water-soluble catabolites, released during aerobic lignin degradation by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, were subjected to anaerobic degradation. The second phase of work involved capillary gas chromatographic analyses of enrichment cultures fed a /sup 14/C-labeled, lignin-derived substrate of average molecular weight 600. 2-Bromoethanesulfonic acid was used to inhibit methane formation and enhance buildup of metabolic intermediates, resulting in the accumulation of volatile fatty acids, phenylacetate, benzoate, catechol, 3-phenyl-propionate, vanillin, syringic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, and caffeic acid. A conceptual model for the anaerobic degradation of two- and three-ring lignin fragments is proposed which overlaps both the ferulate and benzoate degradation pathways at the level of single-ring aromatic compounds.

  16. Development of high-rate anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) biofilm reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ikuo Tsushima; Yuji Ogasawara; Tomonori Kindaichi; Hisashi Satoh; Satoshi Okabe

    2007-01-01

    To promptly establish anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) reactors, appropriate seeding sludge with high abundance and activity of anammox bacteria was selected by quantifying 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of anammox bacteria by real-time quantitative PCR (RTQ-PCR) and batch culture experiments. The selected sludge was then inoculated into up-flow fixed-bed biofilm column reactors with nonwoven fabric sheets as biomass carrier and

  17. Decolorization Screening of Synthetic Dyes by Anaerobic Methanogenic Sludge Using a Batch Decolorization Assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haresh Keharia; Hardik Patel; Datta Madamwar

    2004-01-01

    The nonspecific ability of anaerobic sludge bacteria obtained from cattle dung slurry was investigated for 17 different dyes\\u000a in a batch assay system using sealed serum vials. Experiments using Reactive Violet 5 (RV 5) showed that sludge bacteria could\\u000a effectively decolorize solutions having dye concentrations up to 1000 mg l?1 with a decolorization efficiency of above 75% during 48 h

  18. Magnetotactic Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Blakemore

    1975-01-01

    Bacteria with motility directed by the local geomagnetic field have been observed in marine sediments. These magnetotactic microorganisms possess flagella and contain novel structured particles, rich in iron, within intracytoplasmic membrane vesicles. Conceivably these particles impart to cells a magnetic moment. This could explain the observed migration of these organisms in fields as weak as 0.5 gauss.

  19. Chlortetracycline-resistant intestinal bacteria in organically raised and feral Swine.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Thad B; Humphrey, Samuel B; Stoffregen, William C

    2011-10-01

    Organically raised swine had high fecal populations of chlortetracycline (CTC)-resistant (growing at 64 ?g CTC/ml) Escherichia coli, Megasphaera elsdenii, and anaerobic bacteria. By comparison, CTC-resistant bacteria in feral swine feces were over 1,000-fold fewer and exhibited lower taxonomic diversity. PMID:21821750

  20. Chlortetracycline-Resistant Intestinal Bacteria in Organically Raised and Feral Swine ?

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Thad B.; Humphrey, Samuel B.; Stoffregen, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Organically raised swine had high fecal populations of chlortetracycline (CTC)-resistant (growing at 64 ?g CTC/ml) Escherichia coli, Megasphaera elsdenii, and anaerobic bacteria. By comparison, CTC-resistant bacteria in feral swine feces were over 1,000-fold fewer and exhibited lower taxonomic diversity. PMID:21821750

  1. Capnocytophaga : New genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria I. General characteristics, taxonomic considerations and significance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. R. Leadbetter; S. C. Holt; S. S. Socransky

    1979-01-01

    The characteristics of gliding bacteria isolated from both healthy and diseased sites in the oral cavity are, summarized and the taxonomic position of the bacteria discussed. Uniform attributes of the fusiform isolates include gliding motility, strictly fermentative metabolism dependent on the presence of CO2 (or HCO3-), under either anaerobic or aerobic conditions, presence of benzidine-reactive components, and the production of

  2. BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM LONG-TERM FERMENTATIONS OF SWINE FECES FED XYLAN AND PECTIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to study pure cultures of anaerobic bacteria found in gastrointestinal environments is important to understanding their role in degradation of food and production of fermentation products. Long-term in vitro fermentations were designed to selectively enrich for bacteria found in swine f...

  3. The role of anaerobic bacteria in acute and chronic mastoiditis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Itzhak Brook

    2005-01-01

    Mastoiditis (M) is the most common intratemporal complication of otitis media. The incidence of M has decreased since the advent of antimicrobial agents. In the last decade, however, there has been a marked increased in the incidence of acute M in several communities, sometimes in association with the growing resistance of pneumococci. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophillus

  4. Cellulose- and Xylan-Degrading Thermophilic Anaerobic Bacteria from Biocompost ? †

    PubMed Central

    Sizova, M. V.; Izquierdo, J. A.; Panikov, N. S.; Lynd, L. R.

    2011-01-01

    Nine thermophilic cellulolytic clostridial isolates and four other noncellulolytic bacterial isolates were isolated from self-heated biocompost via preliminary enrichment culture on microcrystalline cellulose. All cellulolytic isolates grew vigorously on cellulose, with the formation of either ethanol and acetate or acetate and formate as principal fermentation products as well as lactate and glycerol as minor products. In addition, two out of nine cellulolytic strains were able to utilize xylan and pretreated wood with roughly the same efficiency as for cellulose. The major products of xylan fermentation were acetate and formate, with minor contributions of lactate and ethanol. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA and glycosyl hydrolase family 48 (GH48) gene sequences revealed that two xylan-utilizing isolates were related to a Clostridium clariflavum strain and represent a distinct novel branch within the GH48 family. Both isolates possessed high cellulase and xylanase activity induced independently by either cellulose or xylan. Enzymatic activity decayed after growth cessation, with more-rapid disappearance of cellulase activity than of xylanase activity. A mixture of xylan and cellulose was utilized simultaneously, with a significant synergistic effect observed as a reduction of lag phase in cellulose degradation. PMID:21317267

  5. Reduction of Malachite Green to Leucomalachite Green by Intestinal Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALLISON L. HENDERSON; THOMAS C. SCHMITT; THOMAS M. HEINZE; CARL E. CERNIGLIA

    1997-01-01

    Intestinal microfloras from human, rat, mouse, and monkey fecal samples and 14 pure cultures of anaerobic bacteria representative of those found in the human gastrointestinal tract metabolized the triphenylmethane dye malachite green to leucomalachite green. The reduction of malachite green to the leuco derivative suggests that intestinal microflora could play an important role in the metabolic activation of the triphenylmethane

  6. The phenomenon of granulation of anaerobic sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. W. Hulshoff Pol

    1989-01-01

    Successful high-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment can only be accomplished when the slowgrowing anaerobic biomass is efficiently held back in the anaerobic treatment system. This biomass retention can be achieved in various ways including immobilization of the organisms on fixed materials and immobilization on mobile support materials: in the latter case, combined with settling of the anaerobic sludge aggregates.This dissertation focuses

  7. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Anaerobic Respiration in Biofilms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang Sun Yoon; Robert F. Hennigan; George M. Hilliard; Urs A. Ochsner; Kislay Parvatiyar; Moneesha C. Kamani; Holly L. Allen; Teresa R. DeKievit; Paul R. Gardner; Ute Schwab; John J. Rowe; Barbara H. Iglewski; Timothy R. McDermott; Ronald P. Mason; Daniel J. Wozniak; Robert E. W. Hancock; Matthew R. Parsek; Terry L. Noah; Richard C. Boucher; Daniel J. Hassett

    2002-01-01

    Recent data indicate that cystic fibrosis (CF) airway mucus is anaerobic. This suggests that Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in CF reflects biofilm formation and persistence in an anaerobic environment. P. aeruginosa formed robust anaerobic biofilms, the viability of which requires rhl quorum sensing and nitric oxide (NO) reductase to modulate or prevent accumulation of toxic NO, a byproduct of anaerobic respiration.

  8. Anaerobic granulation technology for wastewater treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Liu; Hai-Lou Xu; Kuan-Yeow Show; Joo-Hwa Tay

    2002-01-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment using granular sludge reactors is a developing technology, in which granular sludge is the core component. So far, around 900 anaerobic granular sludge units have been operated worldwide. Although intensive research attention has been given to anaerobic granules in the past 20 years, the mechanisms responsible for anaerobic granulation and the strategy of how to expedite substantially

  9. Metabolism of aniline under different anaerobic electron-accepting and nutritional conditions

    SciTech Connect

    De, M.A.; O'Connor, O.A.; Kosson, D.S. (Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering)

    1994-02-01

    The biodegradability of aniline was evaluated under two different anaerobic conditions, denitrifying and methanogenic. In addition, under denitrifying conditions, the influence of bicarbonate was studied. Anaerobic sewage digester sludge and estuarine sediment were used as heterogeneous sources of bacteria. Under anaerobic denitrifying conditions amended with bicarbonate, aniline was completely mineralized to CO[sub 2] and N[sub 2]. After an initial lag period, N[sub 2] recoveries of 74 and 100% were obtained for sludge and sediment cultures, respectively. Under anaerobic denitrifying conditions with no bicarbonate, aniline depletion was observed; however, stoichiometric quantities of N[sub 2] were not produced from mineralization and were in fact inhibited below background controls. Under methanogenic conditions, aniline concentration remained unchanged for > 31 weeks. A metabolite of aniline, 4-hydroxybenzoate, was detected in bicarbonate-amended denitrifying cultures.

  10. Succinate synthesis and excretion by Penicillium simplicissimum under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Gallmetzer, Martin; Meraner, Joachim; Burgstaller, Wolfgang

    2002-05-01

    Succinate is an interesting chemical for industries producing food and pharmaceutical products, surfactants, detergents and biodegradable plastics. Succinate is produced mainly by a mixed-acid fermentation process using anaerobically growing bacteria. However, succinate excretion is also widespread among fungi. In this article we report results on the intracellular concentration and the excretion of succinate by Penicillium simplicissimum under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The intracellular concentration of succinate increased slightly with the specific growth rate and strongly if the respiratory chain was inhibited by sodium azide or anaerobic conditions (N(2)). A strong increase of succinate excretion was observed if the respiratory chain was inhibited. It is suggested that succinate synthesis under functional (sodium azide) or environmental (N(2)) anaerobic conditions occurs via the reductive part of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Succinate is then excreted because the oxidative part of the tricarboxylic acid cycle is inactive. A possible role of succinate synthesis in the regeneration of NAD ('fumarate respiration') is discussed. PMID:12044678

  11. Anaerobic biofilm reactors for dark fermentative hydrogen production from wastewater: A review.

    PubMed

    Barca, Cristian; Soric, Audrey; Ranava, David; Giudici-Orticoni, Marie-Thérèse; Ferrasse, Jean-Henry

    2015-06-01

    Dark fermentation is a bioprocess driven by anaerobic bacteria that can produce hydrogen (H2) from organic waste and wastewater. This review analyses a relevant number of recent studies that have investigated dark fermentative H2 production from wastewater using two different types of anaerobic biofilm reactors: anaerobic packed bed reactor (APBR) and anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR). The effect of various parameters, including temperature, pH, carrier material, inoculum pretreatment, hydraulic retention time, substrate type and concentration, on reactor performances was investigated by a critical discussion of the results published in the literature. Also, this review presents an in-depth study on the influence of the main operating parameters on the metabolic pathways. The aim of this review is to provide to researchers and practitioners in the field of H2 production key elements for the best operation of the reactors. Finally, some perspectives and technical challenges to improve H2 production were proposed. PMID:25746594

  12. Pulse power enhancement of the anaerobic digester process

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, H.W. [Scientific Utilization, Inc., Huntsville, AL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A pilot study of the effects of Pulse Power Processing on an anaerobic digester system was completed at the Decatur Utilities Dry Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant, in Decatur Alabama, in September, 1995. This patented method generates several significant effects when all biosolids material is treated as it enters the anaerobic system. Intense, high peak-power plasma arcs are created, one at each end of the parabolic processing chamber, to produce an amplified synergy of alterations to the digester sludge flowing between them. The millisecond electric discharges generate localized temperatures as high as 30,000 K{degrees}, followed by a rapid cooling of the flowing liquid, which produces acoustic shock waves with pressures approaching 5,000 atmospheres. This destructive force: ruptures many of the cell walls of the bacteria and other single-cell organisms, releasing their vacuole fluids; breaks carbon bonds to form smaller organic compounds; and pulverizes large particle conglomerates, increasing the overall surface area of the solids. These beneficial results serve to boost the nutrient source for the anaerobes in the digester. In conjunction with LTV radiation, the formation of excited chemical radicals (including OH{sup -}), and the changes in ionic charge through alteration of the zeta potential, the bioreactor system is turbocharged to enhance the conversion of volatile biosolids to methane gas, which is the natural respiratory by-product of anaerobic digestion.

  13. Anaerobic Biotransformation and Mobility of Pu and PuEDTA

    SciTech Connect

    Xun, Luying

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this report is to isolate anaerobic EDTA-degrading bacteria. Although our goal is to isolate anaerobic EDTA degraders, we initiated the experiments to include nitrilotriacetate (NTA), which is a structure homologue of EDTA. All the aerobic EDTA degraders can degrade NTA, but the isolated NTA degraders cannot degrade EDTA. Since NTA is a simpler structure homologue, it is likely that EDTA-degrading ability is evolved from NTA degradation. This hypothesis is further supported from our characterization of EDTA and NTA-degrading enzymes and genes (J. Bact. 179:1112-1116; and Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:688-695). The EDTA monooxygenase and NTA monooxygenase are highly homologous. EDTA monooxygenase can use both EDTA and NTA as substrates, but NTA monooxygenase can only use NTA as a substrate. Thus, we put our effort to isolate both NTA and EDTA degraders. In case, an anaerobic EDTA degrader is not immediately enriched, we will try to evolve the NTA degraders to use EDTA. Both aerobic and anaerobic enrichment cultures were set.

  14. ANAEROBIC CODIGESTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE AND BIOSOLIDS UNDER VARIOUS MIXINGCONDITIONS } II: MICROBIAL POPULATION DYNAMICS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KATHERINE D. McMAHON; PETER G. STROOT; RODERICK I. MACKIE; LUTGARDE RASKIN

    2001-01-01

    Microbial population dynamics were evaluated in anaerobic codigesters treating municipal solid waste and sewage sludge. Ribosomal RNA based oligonucleotide probes were used to characterize changes in population abundance of syntrophic volatile fatty acid degrading bacteria and methanogens. Changes in community structure were linked to traditional performance parameters during the recovery of previously unstable codigesters induced by a reduction in mixing

  15. Anaerobic methane oxidation in metalliferous hydrothermal sediments: influence on carbon flux and

    E-print Network

    Girguis, Peter R.

    in these metalliferous sediments. While SR bacteria were only observed in cooler temperature sediments, ANMEs alliedAnaerobic methane oxidation in metalliferous hydrothermal sediments: influence on carbon flux significant sink that regulates methane flux from sediments into the oceans and atmosphere. Here we examine

  16. Anaerobic halo- alkaliphilic bacterial community of athalassic, hypersaline Mono lake and Owens Lake in California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena V. Pikuta; Ekaterina N. Detkova; Asim K. Bej; Damien Marsic; Richard B. Hoover

    2003-01-01

    The bacterial diversity of microbial extremophiles from the meromictic, hypersaline Mono Lake and a small evaporite pool in Owens Lake of California was studied. In spite of these regions had differing mineral background and different concentrations of NaCl in water they contain the same halo- alkaliphiles anaerobic bacterial community. Three new species of bacteria were detected in this community: primary

  17. Molecular fossil evidence for anaerobic ammonium oxidation in the Arabian Sea over the last glacial cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Jaeschke; Martin Ziegler; Ellen C. Hopmans; Gert-Jan Reichart; Lucas J. Lourens; Stefan Schouten; Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) has been recognized as an important process converting fixed nitrogen to N2 in many marine environments, thereby having a major impact on the present-day marine nitrogen cycle. However, essentially nothing is known about the importance of anammox in past marine nitrogen cycles. In this study, we analyzed the distribution of fossil ladderane lipids, derived from bacteria

  18. Mercury methylation in oxygen deficient zones of the oceans: No evidence for the predominance of anaerobes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth G. Malcolm; Jeffra K. Schaefer; Eileen B. Ekstrom; Caroline B. Tuit; Amal Jayakumar; Haewon Park; Bess B. Ward; François M. M. Morel

    2010-01-01

    The source of the methylmercury (MeHg) that accumulates in pelagic fish is unknown. Since it is known that methylmercury is produced by anaerobic bacteria in freshwaters, we examined if this might also be the case in the open ocean and if oxygen deficient zones (ODZ) might be important sources of MeHg. Incubations carried out in the ODZs of the Equatorial

  19. Microbial sulfate reduction under sequentially acidic conditions in an upflow anaerobic packed bed bioreactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony Jong; David L. Parry

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to operate an upflow anaerobic packed bed reactor (UAPB) containing sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) under acidic conditions similar to those found in acid mine drainage (AMD). The UAPB was filled with sand and operated under continuous flow at progressively lower pH and was shown to be capable of supporting sulfate reduction at pH values

  20. Influence of different aerobic pretreatments on the kinetics of anaerobic digestion of olive mill wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Borja; A. Martín; V. Alonso; I. García; C. J. Banks

    1995-01-01

    A kinetic study was carried out on the anaerobic digestion of Olive Mill Wastewater (OMW) and OMW that was previously fermented with Geotrichum candidum, Azotobacter chroococcum and Aspergillus terreus. The bioreactor used was batch fed and contained sepiolite as support for the mediating bacteria. Experimental data observed for methane production (G) against time (t) are described by the following equation:

  1. Lactate and ethanol as intermediates in two-phase anaerobic digestion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Pipyn; W. Verstraete

    1981-01-01

    The thermodynamics of the various anaerobic digestion patterns of hexose to methane are compared. It appears that by directing the hexose-hydrolysis phase towards ethanol and lactic acid production, methanogenesis can be enhanced because the synthrophic bacteria are allocated more potentially available energy. This hypothesis was confirmed in a series of laboratory tests runs. They revealed that lactic acid and ethanol

  2. Cadmium removal by Euglena gracilis is enhanced under anaerobic growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Martínez, M Geovanni; Lira-Silva, Elizabeth; Encalada, Rusely; Pineda, Erika; Gallardo-Pérez, Juan Carlos; Zepeda-Rodriguez, Armando; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Saavedra, Emma; Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo

    2015-05-15

    The facultative protist Euglena gracilis, a heavy metal hyper-accumulator, was grown under photo-heterotrophic and extreme conditions (acidic pH, anaerobiosis and with Cd(2+)) and biochemically characterized. High biomass (8.5×10(6)cellsmL(-1)) was reached after 10 days of culture. Under anaerobiosis, photosynthetic activity built up a microaerophilic environment of 0.7% O?, which was sufficient to allow mitochondrial respiratory activity: glutamate and malate were fully consumed, whereas 25-33% of the added glucose was consumed. In anaerobic cells, photosynthesis but not respiration was activated by Cd(2+) which induced higher oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were 20 times lower in control cells under anaerobiosis than in aerobiosis, although Cd(2+) induced a higher MDA production. Cd(2+) stress induced increased contents of chelating thiols (cysteine, glutathione and phytochelatins) and polyphosphate. Biosorption (90%) and intracellular accumulation (30%) were the mechanisms by which anaerobic cells removed Cd(2+) from medium, which was 36% higher versus aerobic cells. The present study indicated that E. gracilis has the ability to remove Cd(2+) under anaerobic conditions, which might be advantageous for metal removal in sediments from polluted water bodies or bioreactors, where the O? concentration is particularly low. PMID:25698571

  3. Hybrid treatment systems--anaerobic ponds and trickling filters in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Broome, J M; Morris, P M; Nanthambwe, J G

    2003-01-01

    The most economic combination of unit treatment processes for a new sewage treatment works in Zimbabwe was found to be anaerobic ponds followed by trickling filters. The regulations governing irrigation with treated effluent permitted the omission of humus tanks or further treatment. Two stage anaerobic ponds are desludged by gravity through fixed sludge outlet pipework. Sludge is disposed of by irrigation of a Eucalyptus plantation. Novel features of the inlet works and pond outlets are also described. The works has functioned for eight years without major problems, but the assumption that humus tanks or settling ponds were not required may have been mistaken. The sludge removal system has worked well. Without the sludge pipework, it is estimated that desludging of the primary ponds would have been required after two years of operation, but they have now operated successfully for eight years. The combination of anaerobic ponds and trickling filters should be considered where land availability or site conditions make facultative ponds difficult or expensive to construct. PMID:14510230

  4. Anaerobic metabolism of indoleacetate.

    PubMed

    Ebenau-Jehle, Christa; Thomas, Markus; Scharf, Gernot; Kockelkorn, Daniel; Knapp, Bettina; Schühle, Karola; Heider, Johann; Fuchs, Georg

    2012-06-01

    The anaerobic metabolism of indoleacetate (indole-3-acetic acid [IAA]) in the denitrifying betaproteobacterium Azoarcus evansii was studied. The strain oxidized IAA completely and grew with a generation time of 10 h. Enzyme activities that transformed IAA were present in the soluble cell fraction of IAA-grown cells but were 10-fold downregulated in cells grown on 2-aminobenzoate or benzoate. The transformation of IAA did not require molecular oxygen but required electron acceptors like NAD(+) or artificial dyes. The first products identified were the enol and keto forms of 2-oxo-IAA. Later, polar products were observed, which could not yet be identified. The first steps likely consist of the anaerobic hydroxylation of the N-heterocyclic pyrrole ring to the enol form of 2-oxo-IAA, which is catalyzed by a molybdenum cofactor-containing dehydrogenase. This step is probably followed by the hydrolytic ring opening of the keto form, which is catalyzed by a hydantoinase-like enzyme. A comparison of the proteome of IAA- and benzoate-grown cells identified IAA-induced proteins. Owing to the high similarity of A. evansii with strain EbN1, whose genome is known, we identified a cluster of 14 genes that code for IAA-induced proteins involved in the early steps of IAA metabolism. These genes include a molybdenum cofactor-dependent dehydrogenase of the xanthine oxidase/aldehyde dehydrogenase family, a hydantoinase, a coenzyme A (CoA) ligase, a CoA transferase, a coenzyme B(12)-dependent mutase, an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, a fusion protein of an enoyl-CoA hydratase and a 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, a beta-ketothiolase, and a periplasmic substrate binding protein for ABC transport as well as a transcriptional regulator of the GntR family. Five predicted enzymes form or act on CoA thioesters, indicating that soon after the initial oxidation of IAA and possibly ring opening, CoA thioesters are formed, and the carbon skeleton is rearranged, followed by a CoA-dependent thiolytic release of another CoA thioester. We propose a scheme of an anaerobic IAA metabolic pathway that ultimately leads to 2-aminobenzoyl-CoA or benzoyl-CoA. PMID:22447903

  5. Anaerobic Metabolism of Indoleacetate

    PubMed Central

    Ebenau-Jehle, Christa; Thomas, Markus; Scharf, Gernot; Kockelkorn, Daniel; Knapp, Bettina; Schühle, Karola; Heider, Johann

    2012-01-01

    The anaerobic metabolism of indoleacetate (indole-3-acetic acid [IAA]) in the denitrifying betaproteobacterium Azoarcus evansii was studied. The strain oxidized IAA completely and grew with a generation time of 10 h. Enzyme activities that transformed IAA were present in the soluble cell fraction of IAA-grown cells but were 10-fold downregulated in cells grown on 2-aminobenzoate or benzoate. The transformation of IAA did not require molecular oxygen but required electron acceptors like NAD+ or artificial dyes. The first products identified were the enol and keto forms of 2-oxo-IAA. Later, polar products were observed, which could not yet be identified. The first steps likely consist of the anaerobic hydroxylation of the N-heterocyclic pyrrole ring to the enol form of 2-oxo-IAA, which is catalyzed by a molybdenum cofactor-containing dehydrogenase. This step is probably followed by the hydrolytic ring opening of the keto form, which is catalyzed by a hydantoinase-like enzyme. A comparison of the proteome of IAA- and benzoate-grown cells identified IAA-induced proteins. Owing to the high similarity of A. evansii with strain EbN1, whose genome is known, we identified a cluster of 14 genes that code for IAA-induced proteins involved in the early steps of IAA metabolism. These genes include a molybdenum cofactor-dependent dehydrogenase of the xanthine oxidase/aldehyde dehydrogenase family, a hydantoinase, a coenzyme A (CoA) ligase, a CoA transferase, a coenzyme B12-dependent mutase, an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, a fusion protein of an enoyl-CoA hydratase and a 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, a beta-ketothiolase, and a periplasmic substrate binding protein for ABC transport as well as a transcriptional regulator of the GntR family. Five predicted enzymes form or act on CoA thioesters, indicating that soon after the initial oxidation of IAA and possibly ring opening, CoA thioesters are formed, and the carbon skeleton is rearranged, followed by a CoA-dependent thiolytic release of another CoA thioester. We propose a scheme of an anaerobic IAA metabolic pathway that ultimately leads to 2-aminobenzoyl-CoA or benzoyl-CoA. PMID:22447903

  6. Response of anaerobic granular sludge to single-wall carbon nanotube exposure.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling-Li; Tong, Zhong-Hua; Fang, Cai-Yun; Chu, Jian; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-03-01

    Rapid development and application of nanotechnology have introduced various nanopaticles, such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), whose negative effects on aquatic organisms and cultured cells have been reported, into anaerobic wastewater treatment systems. In this study, the response of methanogenic sludge exposed to SWCNTs in anaerobic digestion process was investigated. Results show that SWCNTs, at a concentration up to 1000 mg/L, had no significant impact on the maximum methane yield. In contrast, they induced much faster substrate utilization and methane production rates. Scanning electron microscopy examination shows that more extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were excreted from the anaerobic sludge and closely interacted with SWCNTs. Such an interaction prevented nanoparticles from piercing into cells, and thus reduced their cytotoxicity. In the compact anaerobic granule structure, SWCNTs exposure enhanced the electrical conductance of the sludge, which might promote direct interspecies electron transfer among anaerobic fermentative bacteria and methanogens in the anaerobic digestion process. Our results provide useful information to understand the response of anaerobic microorganisms to CNTs in complex environmental matrix. PMID:25499894

  7. Simultaneous enrichment of denitrifying methanotrophs and anammox bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhao-Wei; Ding, Jing; Fu, Liang; Zhang, Fang; Zeng, Raymond J

    2014-12-01

    Interaction between denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) processes may play an important role in global carbon and nitrogen cycles. In this study, a coculture of denitrifying methanotrophs (DAMO archaea and DAMO bacteria) and anammox bacteria, initially sourced from the environment, was enriched with a supply of methane, nitrate, and ammonium. After a 4.5-month enrichment, simultaneous oxidation of methane and ammonium and reduction of nitrate were observed. The highest rate of nitrate reduction in the suspended DAMO culture was 4.84 mmol/L/day, and simultaneously, the highest ammonium removal rate was 4.07 mmol/L/day. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed the coexistence of DAMO archaea, DAMO bacteria, and anammox bacteria. The development of anammox bacteria might reduce the enrichment time of DAMO microorganisms and promote the activity of DAMO archaea. The activity of the reactor fluctuated during the long-term operation, which might be caused by the formation of microbial clusters whereby DAMO archaea grew in aggregates that were surrounded by anammox and DAMO bacteria. This study is the first to demonstrate that it is feasible to establish a coculture of DAMO archaea, DAMO bacteria, and anammox bacteria from environmental inocula. PMID:25056292

  8. UNIVERSITE HENRI POINCARE-NANCY I FACULTE DE MEDECINE

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    UNIVERSITE HENRI POINCARE-NANCY I FACULTE DE MEDECINE THESE pour obtenir le grade de DOCTEUR DE L'UNIVERSITE HENRI POINCARE-NANCY I Discipline : Bio ingénierie Présentée et soutenue publiquement par Siarhei. Thermodynamics of sensitizers redistribution between plasma proteins. Eyring theory

  9. UNIVERSITE HASSAN I Settat Maroc FACULTE DES SCIENCES ET TECHNIQUES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    UNIVERSITE HASSAN I ­ Settat ­ Maroc FACULTE DES SCIENCES ET TECHNIQUES ECOLE DOCTORALE DES Hassan I, Settat, Maroc Président du jury et Rapporteur M'hammed Said EL KEBBAJ Université Hassan II, Ben M'Sick, Casablanca, Maroc Examinateur Abdelaziz SOUKRI Université Hassan II, Ain Chock, Casablanca

  10. UNIVERSITE HENRI POINCARE-NANCY I FACULTE DE MEDECINE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    UNIVERSITE HENRI POINCARE-NANCY I FACULTE DE MEDECINE THESE pour obtenir le grade de DOCTEUR DE L'UNIVERSITE HENRI POINCARE-NANCY I LABEL EUROPEEN Discipline : Bio ingénierie Présentée et soutenue publiquement par Henri-Pierre LASSALLE Le 07 juillet 2005 Etude des mécanismes du photoblanchiment de la 5

  11. UNIVERSITE DE LILLE II FACULTE DE MEDECINE LILLE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    0 UNIVERSITE DE LILLE II FACULTE DE MEDECINE LILLE ECOLE DOCTORALE BIOLOGIE SANTE DE LILLE Hôpital Jeanne de Flandre CHRU de Lille Vous me faites l'honneur de présider le jury de ma recherche Hôpital Jeanne de Flandre et U703 INSERM CHRU de Lille Je te remercie d'avoir accepté de

  12. UNIVERSITE PARIS XI FACULTE DE MEDECINE PARIS-SUD

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Felipe Andreiuolo Le 13 juin 2012 TARGET IN CONTEXT: MOLECULAR PATHOLOGY OF PEDIATRIC EPENDYMOMA AND HIGH GRADE GLIOMA JURY : Pr Leila Chimelli Président Pr Dominique Figarella-Branger Rapporteur Pr RichardUNIVERSITE PARIS XI FACULTE DE MEDECINE PARIS-SUD THESE Pour obtenir le grade de DOCTEUR DE L

  13. Reproductive strategy of a facultatively paedomorphic salamander Ambystoma talpoideum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond D. Semlitsch; Drawer E

    1985-01-01

    The reproductive strategy of the salamander Ambystoma talpoideum was studied on an age-specific basis in five breeding populations using ponds subjected to different annual probabilities of drying. Ambystoma talpoideum is facultatively paedomorphic in semi-permanent ponds but sexually mature individuals occur only as terrestrial morphs in temporary ponds. Larvae of paedomorphs and terrestrial morphs mature at the same age but different

  14. On the facultative requirement of the bacterial RNA chaperone, Hfq

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of the Hfq protein and RNA duplexes that might account for the dispensability or requirement of the chaperoneOn the facultative requirement of the bacterial RNA chaperone, Hfq Ambre Jousselin, Laurent is an RNA chaperone that facilitates pairing interactions be- tween small regulatory RNAs (s

  15. FACULTE DES ARTS ET SCIENCES DEPARTEMENT DE PHYSIQUE

    E-print Network

    Parrott, Lael

    FACULTE DES ARTS ET SCIENCES DEPARTEMENT DE PHYSIQUE PLAN DE COURS Sigle du cours: PHY 2345 (automne 2014) Titre du cours: Outils théoriques de la physique Nombre de crédits: 3 Professeur: Yves'on présente des concepts mathématiques importants pour maîtriser les théories physiques en mécanique classique

  16. FACULTE DES ARTS ET SCIENCES DEPARTEMENT DE PHYSIQUE

    E-print Network

    Parrott, Lael

    FACULTE DES ARTS ET SCIENCES DEPARTEMENT DE PHYSIQUE PLAN DE COURS ­ PHY1111 Sigle du cours: PHY1111-A14 (Automne 2014) Titre du cours: Introduction aux disciplines de la physique Nombre de crédits cours, destiné aux nouveaux étudiants de physique, vise à introduire les différents domaines de la

  17. FACULTE DES ARTS ET SCIENCES DEPARTEMENT DE PHYSIQUE

    E-print Network

    Parrott, Lael

    FACULTE DES ARTS ET SCIENCES DEPARTEMENT DE PHYSIQUE PLAN DE COURS Sigle du cours: PHY 2345 (hiver 2015) Titre du cours: Outils théoriques de la physique Nombre de crédits: 3 Professeur: Yves Lépine (A mathématiques importants pour maîtriser les théories physiques en mécanique classique et statistique, en

  18. Capnophilic and anaerobic bacteremia in neutropenic patients: an oral source.

    PubMed

    Baquero, F; Fernández, J; Dronda, F; Erice, A; Pérez de Oteiza, J; Reguera, J A; Reig, M

    1990-01-01

    The currently accepted empiric antibiotic therapy for bacterial infections in neutropenic patients may not cover the possibility of capnophilic and anaerobic bacteremia. Many of these infections develop in patients with severe mucositis or periodontitis, and the type of organisms recovered also suggests an oral source of infection. We present two cases of bacteremia in neutropenic patients who had been empirically treated with ceftazidime and piperacillin plus amikacin. In the first case a beta-lactamase-producing strain of Capnocytophaga ochracea was isolated; in the second case bacteremia was due to a mixture of Leptotrichia buccalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum. These observations emphasize the necessity for a reevaluation of the possible use of antimicrobial agents active against beta-lactamase-producing capnophilic organisms and anaerobic bacteria during empiric therapy in neutropenic patients with an oral source of infection. PMID:2305182

  19. Polysaccharide degradation and synthesis by extremely thermophilic anaerobes.

    PubMed

    Vanfossen, Amy L; Lewis, Derrick L; Nichols, Jason D; Kelly, Robert M

    2008-03-01

    Extremely thermophilic fermentative anaerobes (growth T(opt) > or = 70 degrees C) have the capacity to use a variety of carbohydrates as carbon and energy sources. As such, a wide variety of glycoside hydrolases and transferases have been identified in these microorganisms. The genomes of three model extreme thermophiles-an archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus (T(opt) = 98 degrees C), and two bacteria, Thermotoga maritima (T(opt) = 80 degrees C) and Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus (T(opt) = 70 degrees C)-encode numerous carbohydrate-active enzymes, many of which have been characterized biochemically in their native or recombinant forms. In addition to their voracious appetite for polysaccharide degradation, polysaccharide production has also been noted for extremely thermophilic fermentative anaerobes; T. maritima generates exopolysaccharides that aid in biofilm formation, a process that appears to be driven by intraspecies and interspecies interactions. PMID:18378602

  20. Photocatalytic and combined anaerobic-photocatalytic treatment of textile dyes.

    PubMed

    Harrelkas, F; Paulo, A; Alves, M M; El Khadir, L; Zahraa, O; Pons, M N; van der Zee, F P

    2008-08-01

    A photocatalytic process based on immobilized titanium dioxide was used to treat crude solutions of azo, anthraquinone and phthalocyanine textile dyes. In addition, the process was applied to the treat autoxidized chemically reduced azo dyes, i.e. representatives of recalcitrant dye residues after biological sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment. Photocatalysis was able to remove more than 90% color from crude as well as autoxidized chemically reduced dye solutions. UV-absorbance and COD were also removed but to a lower extent (50% in average). The end products of photocatalytic treatment were not toxic toward methanogenic bacteria. The results demonstrate that photocatalysis can be used as a pre- or post-treatment method to biological anaerobic treatment of dye-containing textile wastewater. PMID:18585754